Northwest Territories Dept. of Education, Yellowknife.
This activity kit was designed for parents to use with their preschool children and focuses on the development of skills through play. Sixty activities are described. Descriptions are accompanied by a photograph, a list of materials needed, directions, the purpose of the activity, and a statement of what the child will learn from it. Many of the…
Francis, Connie M.
Intended for 4-H participants who plan and implement activities in the area of child development, this booklet provides a study guide to help young learners: (1) gain understanding of a preschool child's physical, mental, social, and emotional growth; (2) learn to care for a preschooler and promote preschoolers' feelings of security and safety;…
Chiam, Heng Keng, Ed.
This book reports some of the results of an extensive study of the physical, cognitive, language, social, and emotional development of Malaysian children. Chapter 1 of the book describes the demographics of the sample. Subjects were 3,099 preschool children in the state of Selangor and the federal district of Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia. Data is…
Behl, A S
To assess Indias recent trends in child mortality rates and disparities and identify ways to reduce child mortality and wealth-related health disparities, we analyzed three years of data from Indias National Family Health Survey related to child mortality. Nationally, declines in average child mortality were statistically significant, but declines in inequality were not. Urban areas had lower child mortality rates than rural areas but higher inequalities. Interstate differences in child mortality rates were significant, with rates in the highest-mortality states four to six times higher than in the lowest-mortality states. However, child mortality in most states declined. PMID:23396786
Susuman, A Sathiya
Ethiopia’s childhood mortality has continued to decline although at a swift pace. The drop in urban childhood mortality decline, duration of breastfeeding is the principle reason for the overall decline in mortality trends in Ethiopia. Data from the Ethiopian Demographic and Health Surveys 2000 and 2005 were used. Indirect estimation of Brass and Trussell’s methods were adopted. Selected demographic and socio-economic variables were included in the analysis with statistically significant effects. Findings clearly show neonatal and post neonatal mortality decline gradually. Even though, Ethiopia’s childhood mortality rates are still high. The result shows less than 2 years birth interval have higher infant mortality rates than higher birth interval (113 deaths per 1000). The proper spacing of births allows more time for childcare to make more maternal resources available for the care of the child and mother. Therefore, further research is urgent for regional level and national level investigation. PMID:23113145
US Department of Education, 2006
Research shows that many things affect how well preschool children perform in school, including meeting their physical needs with a healthy diet, exercise and good medical care. Young children also need social and emotional help that will build their confidence, independence and cooperation skills. This booklet highlights needs of babies, toddlers…
Sivan, A B
Allegations of mistreatment by adults made by children of preschool age are often dismissed as fictitious with the suggestion that children of this age are prone to fantasy and unable to discriminate fact from fiction. This paper is intended to familiarize those with a general concern about child abuse with the research and theories in child development. Specifically, it reviews those aspects of normal child development which have direct relevance to the question of the veracity of reports made by children ages 2 to 5 years. Examination of the research on children's thought and language, memory and learning, fears, fantasy, and play, as well as the research on the influence of television on children of this age, led to the conclusion that preschoolers base their play on the reality of their experience. PMID:1959080
Diener, Marissa L.; Kim, Do-Yeong
The present study examined child and maternal predictors of children's social competence in preschool. One hundred ten mothers and their preschool-aged children participated. Mothers completed parent reports of child temperament and self-regulation, and self-reports of maternal separation anxiety. Mothers' interactional style was coded from…
Andersen, Signe Hald; Lee, Hedwig; Karlson, Kristian Bernt
Objectives. We used Danish registry data to examine the association between parental incarceration and child mortality risk. Methods. We used a sample of all Danish children born in 1991 linked with parental information. We conducted discrete-time survival analysis separately for boys (n = 30 146) and girls (n = 28 702) to estimate the association of paternal and maternal incarceration with child mortality, controlling for parental sociodemographic characteristics. We followed the children until age 20 years or death, whichever came first. Results. Results indicated a positive association between paternal and maternal imprisonment and male child mortality. Paternal imprisonment was associated with lower child mortality risks for girls. The relationship between maternal imprisonment and female child mortality changed directions depending on the model, suggesting no clear association. Conclusions. These results indicate that the incarceration of a parent may influence child mortality but that it is important to consider the gender of both the child and the incarcerated parent. PMID:24432916
Within developed countries child poverty is a social problem with significant negative effects. With a backdrop of austerity, the UK's first child poverty strategy was released in 2011. Pervaded by neo-liberal ideology this strategy identifies preschool services as key to remediating the negative effects of child poverty on children and families…
Park, Kyung Ja; Honig, Alice Sterling
This study examined (1) the effects of onset of timing for early nonparental care patterns on later child development, and (2) the effects of length of daily enrollment in care on later cognitive attainment and socioemotional behaviors. Preschool teachers rated 105 middle-class children on the Preschool Behavior Questionnaire (PBQ) and the…
Howes, Carollee; Fuligni, Allison Sidle; Hong, Sandra Soliday; Huang, Yiching D.; Lara-Cinisomo, Sandraluz
Research Findings: The purpose of this article is to examine how dimensions of the preschool instructional context predict child-teacher relationship quality. A total of 118 low-income, predominantly Latino/a children and their teachers participated in this study. Children were observed in their 1st preschool classroom. Measures of instructional…
Svensson, Birgitta; Janson, Staffan
Objective: To investigate the actions of Swedish preschool staff when suspecting the maltreatment of children in their domestic environment, and the staff's further experiences and relations to the family members. Methods: A questionnaire in 2005 to the staff of 189 child groups in community preschools, including 3,100 children. Results: A report…
Jalongo, Mary Renck
The major purposes of this investigation were (1) to contribute to existing research on the preschool child's comprehension of disclaimers in television commercials, (2) to identify specific standard or modified disclaimers that are understood by preschoolers, and (3) to determine logical relationships between study variables. Disclaimers were…
Gaiha, Raghav; Kulkarni, Vani S; Pandey, Manoj K; Imai, Katsushi S
Despite accelerated growth there is pervasive hunger, child undernutrition and mortality in India. Our analysis focuses on their determinants. Raising living standards alone will not reduce hunger and undernutrition. Reduction of rural/urban disparities, income inequality, consumer price stabilization, and mothers’ literacy all have roles of varying importance in different nutrition indicators. Somewhat surprisingly, public distribution system (PDS) do not have a significant effect on any of them. Generally, child undernutrition and mortality rise with poverty. Our analysis confirms that media exposure triggers public action, and helps avert child undernutrition and mortality. Drastic reduction of economic inequality is in fact key to averting child mortality, conditional upon a drastic reordering of social and economic arrangements. PMID:22451985
John, Aesha; Halliburton, Amy; Humphrey, Jeremy
The study focused on qualitative and quantitative differences between maternal and paternal play interaction behaviours with their preschool children. Home observations of 18 child-mother and child-father play interactions were qualitatively analysed to derive interaction themes. In addition, the quality of child-mother and child-father…
Baroody, Alison E.; Dobbs-Oates, Jennifer
The current study examined the relations between children's literacy interest and parent and child characteristics (i.e. parents' education level and child's gender), parental expectations of their child's school attainment and achievement and the child's positive and problem behaviours. Participants were 61 preschoolers from predominately…
Magnuson, Katherine A.; Waldfogel, Jane
Parenting practices, including the use of physical discipline, are shaped by multiple influences. Although much research focuses on how parent, child, and dyadic characteristics shape parenting practices, extra-familial resources may also play a role. This paper focuses on how children's experiences of child care during the preschool years may…
DiCarlo, Cynthia F.; Baumgartner, Jennifer J.; Ota, Carrie; Geary, Kelly
This study examined the mean duration of child attention across three teaching conditions (child choice, adult choice, or adult presentation) of 63 preschool-age children. A repeated-measures ANOVA was used to compare the means across the three teaching conditions, indicating a statistically significant difference between the teaching conditions.…
Shim, Jonghee; Hestenes, Linda; Cassidy, Deborah
The present study examined the relationships between teacher structure, teacher behaviors, and child care quality. Participants included 72 female teachers from 44 preschool classrooms. Both a global measure of quality and a measure of teacher-child interaction were utilized. Results showed that a co-teacher structure was associated with higher…
Ahmed, Zoya; Kamal, Asifa; Kamal, Asma
Child mortality is a composite indicator reflecting economic, social, environmental, healthcare services, and their delivery situation in a country. Globally, Pakistan has the third highest burden of fetal, maternal, and child mortality. Factors affecting child mortality in Pakistan are investigated by using Binary Logistic Regression Analysis. Region, education of mother, birth order, preceding birth interval (the period between the previous child birth and the index child birth), size of child at birth, and breastfeeding and family size were found to be significantly important with child mortality in Pakistan. Child mortality decreased as level of mother's education, preceding birth interval, size of child at birth, and family size increased. Child mortality was found to be significantly higher in Balochistan as compared to other regions. Child mortality was low for low birth orders. Child survival was significantly higher for children who were breastfed as compared to those who were not. PMID:27354000
Grépin, Karen A; Bharadwaj, Prashant
In 1980, Zimbabwe rapidly expanded access to secondary schools, providing a natural experiment to estimate the impact of increased maternal secondary education on child mortality. Exploiting age specific exposure to these reforms, we find that children born to mothers most likely to have benefited from the policies were about 21% less likely to die than children born to slightly older mothers. We also find that increased education leads to delayed age at marriage, sexual debut, and first birth and that increased education leads to better economic opportunities for women. We find little evidence supporting other channels through which increased education might affect child mortality. Expanding access to secondary schools may greatly accelerate declines in child mortality in the developing world today. PMID:26569469
Sparks, Martha A.; Radnitz, Cynthia L.
Objective: To examine both unique and interactive effects of parent restrictive feeding and child disinhibited eating behavior on child body mass index (BMI) in low-income Latino and African American preschoolers. Methods: The sample included 229 parent-child pairs, the majority of whom were low-income and Latino (57%) or African American (25%).…
Yabiku, Scott T.; Agadjanian, Victor; Cau, Boaventura
Male labor migration is widespread in many parts of the world, yet its consequences for child outcomes and especially childhood mortality remain unclear. Male labor migration could bring benefits, in the form of remittances, to the families that remain behind and thus help child survival. Alternatively, the absence of a male adult could imperil the household's well-being and its ability to care for its members, increasing child mortality risks. In this analysis, we use longitudinal survey data from Mozambique collected in 2006 and 2009 to examine the association between male labor migration and under-five mortality in families that remain behind. Using a simple migrant/non-migrant dichotomy, we find no difference in mortality rates across migrant and non-migrant men's children. When we separated successful from unsuccessful migration based on the wife's perception, however, stark contrasts emerge: children of successful migrants have the lowest mortality, followed by children of non-migrant men, followed by the children of unsuccessful migrants. Our results illustrate the need to account for the diversity of men's labor migration experience in examining the effects of migration on left-behind households. PMID:23121856
Ahmad, O. B.; Lopez, A. D.; Inoue, M.
The present paper examines, describes and documents country-specific trends in under-five mortality rates (i.e., mortality among children under five years of age) in the 1990s. Our analysis updates previous studies by UNICEF, the World Bank and the United Nations. It identifies countries and WHO regions where sustained improvement has occurred and those where setbacks are evident. A consistent series of estimates of under-five mortality rate is provided and an indication is given of historical trends during the period 1950-2000 for both developed and developing countries. It is estimated that 10.5 million children aged 0-4 years died in 1999, about 2.2 million or 17.5% fewer than a decade earlier. On average about 15% of newborn children in Africa are expected to die before reaching their fifth birthday. The corresponding figures for many other parts of the developing world are in the range 3-8% and that for Europe is under 2%. During the 1990s the decline in child mortality decelerated in all the WHO regions except the Western Pacific but there is no widespread evidence of rising child mortality rates. At the country level there are exceptions in southern Africa where the prevalence of HIV is extremely high and in Asia where a few countries are beset by economic difficulties. The slowdown in the rate of decline is of particular concern in Africa and South-East Asia because it is occurring at relatively high levels of mortality, and in countries experiencing severe economic dislocation. As the HIV/AIDS epidemic continues in Africa, particularly southern Africa, and in parts of Asia, further reductions in child mortality become increasingly unlikely until substantial progress in controlling the spread of HIV is achieved. PMID:11100613
BARATZ, JOAN C.; POVICH, EDNA
LANGUAGE SAMPLES OF 20 NEGRO HEAD START CHILDREN IN WASHINGTON, D.C., WERE ANALYZED USING LEE'S (1966) DEVELOPMENTAL SENTENCE TYPES MODEL. THE TRANSFORMATIONS AND RESTRICTED FORMS OF THESE CHILDREN WERE THEN COMPARED WITH THE RESULTS THAT MENYUK (1964) OBTAINED FOR MIDDLE CLASS PRESCHOOLERS. RESULTS INDICATE THAT THE ECONOMICALLY DEPRIVED CHILD IS…
Based on two samples of Chinese preschoolers (Study 1: N = 443; Study 2: N = 118) and their parents and teachers, the present research examined the associations between parent-child and teacher-child relationships, and how the associations were moderated by children's preschool experiences and mediated by their social competence. Using a…
Rao, S R; Pandey, A; Shajy, K I
This paper is a study of the determinants of child mortality in the relatively developed Indian state of Goa. Data from the National Family Health Survey (NFHS, 1992-93) conducted in the state of Goa have been used to examine the child mortality experiences of 1,331 women who were within a marriage lasting 15 years. An aggregated index of child mortality, which summarizes the mortality experiences of a woman with exposure adjustment, is the study variable. Maternal education and longer birth spacing were found to lower child mortality risks significantly. PMID:9325655
Sayre, Nancy E.
This paper proposes state regulations for the training of child care staff members in developmentally appropriate safe aquatic practices, outlines required features of any pools that children visit, and suggests safe practices for water-related activities at child care centers and swimming pools. The staff training regulation suggestions include…
Anthropologic, survey, dietary recall and anthropometric techniques were used to study the correlates of nutritional status of preschool children under five years of age in Gualaceo Ecuador. A widespread stunting was found among the children. Nutritional status was worst among infants comprised between 12 and 23 months old but it improved between April and August, thus suggesting seasonality changes of nutritional status. The correlates of nutritional status (expressed as Z score of weight-for-age) were dietary diversity, birth-spacing, fertility, migration, household income, material goods owned, and parental education. A regression model with these variables predicted 63% of the variability in weight-for-age. The prediction of height-for-age was similar, but only predicted 43% of the variability in height-for-age. Correlates of dietary diversity, birth-spacing, fertility, and migration were child age, maternal age and arm circumference, parental education, use of birth control, household food expenditure, material goods owned, and the raising of animals. Parental education was a correlate of dietary diversity, fertility and migration. Parental education was related to change in weight-for-age in the longitudinal subset. Pre-harvest time and a pathway of illness leading to decreased dietary diversity and to decreased nutritional status in April, were suggested as important to preschool child nutritional status. Hot-cold ideology--resulting in food withdrawal during illness and restriction of high-protein and high-calorie foods--appears to be an important mechanism determining preschool child nutritional status. Breast-feeding, sanitary, higienic, birth control, and drinking (alcohol) practices were suggested as areas that could be improved, in order to improve preschool child nutritional status. Communication between parents and western health care providers was also suggested as an area for improvement. PMID:3506399
Myers, Carl L.
Behavior rating scales are popular assessment tools but more research is needed on the preschool versions of the instruments, particularly with referred samples of preschoolers. This study examined the comparability of results from parent ratings on the preschool versions of the Child Behavior Checklist (CBCL/1.5-5, Achenbach & Rescorla, 2000) and…
Shin, Yoolim; Kim, Hye Yeon
This research investigated the influence of child characteristics, parenting behaviours and teacher-child relationships in order to ascertain peer victimization among 297 Korean preschool children. Peer victimization, child social behaviours and teacher-child relationships were assessed through teacher reports. Parents completed parenting…
This Knowledge Essentials book shows parents how to enrich their child's first classroom experience and take an active role in preschool education. This book includes advice and offers information about: (1) What a child is learning at school and the educational standards to expect in preschool-level reading and writing readiness, math, science,…
Kaderavek, Joan N.; Pakulski, Lori A.
The current study explored literacy interest or orientation of pre-school children with hearing impairment during mother-child story book interactions. Twelve pre-schoolers with varying types and levels of hearing impairment were observed during mother-child home book reading and toy play. Story books included both narrative and manipulative book…
Uddin, Md. Jamal; Hossain, Md. Zakir; Ullah, Mohammad Ohid
This study uses data from the "Bangladesh Demographic and Health Survey (BDHS] 1999-2000" to investigate the predictors of child (age 1-4 years) mortality in a developing country like Bangladesh. The cross-tabulation and multiple logistic regression techniques have been used to estimate the predictors of child mortality. The cross-tabulation…
Fagan, Jay; Iglesias, Aquiles; Kaufman, Rebecca
This study examined the associations among child language competence during father-child play interactions, fathers' time spent volunteering in their preschool-age child's Head Start classroom over the course of one school year, amount of father play and reading to the child at home, and fathers' positive control during play. The sample of 68…
Many African countries experienced severe political crises after independence, and in a number of cases the crises had significant demographic consequences, especially for child mortality. Data based on maternity histories allowed the reconstruction of child mortality trends over the past 20-30 years in Uganda, Ghana, Rwanda, Madagascar, and Mozambique. The indicator used was the child mortality quotient (number of deaths of under-5 children per 1000 births). Uganda's child mortality declined from 227/1000 in 1960 to 154/1000 in 1970, but the trend was reversed in 1971, when Idi Amin Dada came to power, and the rate reached 204/1000 in 1982 before beginning to decline again. The level of mortality remained high, however, and was still 160/1000 in 1988. Ghana suffered a political and economic crisis during 1979-84. Child mortality rose from 130/1000 in 1978 to 175/1000 in 1983. Mortality rates began a rapid decline after structural adjustment programs were begun, possibly due to improved management of health services. The child mortality rate in Rwanda increased from around 220/1000 in 1960 to 240/1000 in 1975, before beginning a decline in the late 1970s that reached 140/1000 by 1990. The period of political stability and relative prosperity during the 15-year reign of Juvenal Habyarimana was associated with the decline. Political crises marked by student and peasant uprisings were associated with Madagascar's child mortality rate increase from about 145/1000 in 1960 to 185/1000 in 1985. Mozambique was beset by civil war after independence, in which destruction of the health infrastructure was a strategy. The child mortality rate increased from 270/1000 to 470/1000 between 1975 and 1986, a peak war year. The factors by which political crises affect mortality so profoundly remain to be explained, but particular attention should be given to studying the health sector. PMID:12178214
Skalická, Věra; Belsky, Jay; Stenseng, Frode; Wichstrøm, Lars
The hypothesis was tested that the new open-group Norwegian day-care centers would more than traditionally organized centers negatively affect (a) current and (b) future teacher-child relationships, and (c) the developmental legacy of preschool problem behavior. The focus was on eight hundred and fifty 4-year-olds from 153 centers who were followed up in first grade. Results of this natural quasi-experiment revealed that children from open-group centers (a) experienced less teacher-child closeness in preschool and (b) more teacher-child conflict in first grade, and (c) that high levels of preschool problem behavior forecast especially high levels of future teacher-child conflict, but only for children from open-group centers. Results highlight the importance of spatial and social organization of day care and their translational implications. PMID:25961516
Claeson, M.; Bos, E. R.; Mawji, T.; Pathmanathan, I.
Globally, child mortality rates have been halved over the last few decades, a developmental success story. Nevertheless, progress has been uneven and in recent years mortality rates have increased in some countries. The present study documents the slowing decline in infant mortality rates in india; a departure from the longer-term trends. The major causes of childhood mortality are also reviewed and strategic options for the different states of India are proposed that take into account current mortality rates and the level of progress in individual states. The slowing decline in childhood mortality rates in India calls for new approaches that go beyond disease-, programme- and sector-specific approaches. PMID:11100614
Clements, Mari L.; Martin, Sarah E.; Randall, David W.; Kane, Karen L.
Interparental relationship conflict has consistently been linked to child adjustment problems, with children’s perceptions of such conflict particularly predictive of their outcomes. Despite mounting evidence that preschool children can provide reliable and valid accounts of family functioning, little research has examined preschool children’s perceptions of interparental conflict. The present study employed a multi-informant design for both reports of interparental conflict (preschool children and their mothers and fathers) and reports of child adjustment (preschool children, their mothers and fathers, and their preschool teachers). Children completed pictorial measures of interparental conflict and of self-esteem that paralleled questionnaires completed by adult respondents. For both child behavior problems and child self-esteem, preschool children’s perceptions of interparental conflict predicted their adjustment. Preschool children’s reports of interparental conflict were significantly associated with their self-esteem and with both parents’ and teachers’ reports of child behavior problems, and this association remained significant when controlling for parents’ reports of interparental conflict. Further, the interaction between parents’ reports and children’s reports of interparental conflict added unique variance to the prediction of preschool teachers’ reports of children’s behavior problems. PMID:25574451
Garner, Pamela W.; Mahatmya, Duhita; Moses, Laurence Kimberly; Bolt, Elizabeth N.
Research Findings: This study examined associations of preschool type (i.e., urban and suburban Head Start and university-affiliated center) and teacher-child variables with positive and negative child outcomes among 145 preschoolers (74 boys). Differences emerged across preschools, with urban Head Start children scoring lowest on the emotional…
Hojman, D E
The author contends that birth rate and infant and child mortality rates are jointly determined by demographic, economic, health care, and other influences. Working under this structural assumption, a multiequation model is developed, estimated, and simulated, in which real earnings, unemployment, midwife visits, access to cheap energy, public health expenditures, and degree of urbanization are determinant factors of declining infant and child mortality in Chile. Most notably, mortality declined during a period of increasing unemployment and falling living standards for at least part of the population. The study found all 3 rates to be jointly determined, but by different variables. Specifically, unemployment affected birth rate and child mortality rate, while declining infant mortality was based upon midwife visits, health expenditure, and access to cheap energy. At the policy level, trade-offs often result between infant and child mortality, especially where high birth rates prevail. Where movement along the Phillips curve is possible, higher earnings should be preferred over lower unemployment for the benefit of infant and child mortality. Preferred policy would week to provide a carefully balanced combination of better earnings and more midwife visits. PMID:12286009
Townsend-Moller, Darlene A.
This paper discusses the preschool classroom needs of the imperceptibly handicapped child who has a medically-diagnosed physical condition which includes unpredictable episodes placing the child in a temporary state of dysfunction. (epilepsy, juvenile diabetes, and severe allergies are examples of such handicaps.) In most cases the child is…
Honig, Alice Sterling
Information provided in five major dimensions of the field of normal child development can be useful in increasing the understanding and effectiveness of those who work with preschool children with special needs. The especially relevant dimensions of the child development field are : (1) child development theories, including the theories of…
Harrington, Ann-Marie, Ed.; Walsh, Catherine Boisvert, Ed.; Bryant, Elizabeth Burke, Ed.
This report of the Rhode Island Kids Count organization details the state's infant and preschool child care, components of quality care, and state policies to increase the supply of quality care. The report begins with a discussion of the importance of providing good quality child care to enhance healthy child development, especially brain…
Child assessment practices in English and Korean preschools were compared by analysing data from interviews with educators, examples of child assessment, and official documents from each country. Child assessment in England was systematically implemented and characterised by several methodological and procedural strengths, whereas assessment in…
Conly, Shanti R.
This report summarizes the evidence that family planning can reduce deaths of children under 5 years of age at a reasonable cost. The report also: (1) identifies the major reproductive factors associated with child mortality; (2) estimates the approximate reduction in child mortality that could be achieved through improved childbearing patterns;…
Mohamud, O A
In Somalia, a demographer analyzed urban data obtained from the Family Health Survey to examine the effect female circumcision has on child mortality and the mechanism of that effect. Girls undergo female circumcision between 5-12 years old in Somalia. Since sunni circumcision (removal of the clitoral prepuce and tip of the clitoris) and clitoridectomy (removal of the entire clitoris) did not affect child mortality, he used them as the reference group. Infibulation (entire removal of the clitoris and of the labia minora and majora with the remains of the labia majora being sewn together allowing only a small opening for passage of urine) did affect child mortality. Female children who underwent infibulation and whose mothers most likely also underwent infibulation experienced higher mortality (13-72%) than those from other circumcised mothers. Female mortality exceeded male mortality indicating possible son preference. Mothers with clitoridectomy or infibulation had significantly higher infant mortality than those with sunni circumcision with the strongest effects during the neonatal period (95% and 42% higher mortality, respectively; p=.01). The effect of female circumcision on child mortality decreased with increased child's age. This higher than expected mortality among women with clitoridectomy may have been because women with infibulation had more stillbirths which were not counted as births. The exposed vagina of clitoridectomized women is more likely to be infected resulting in high risk of stillbirths and premature births than the closed vagina of infibulated women. The researcher suggested that the policies promoting education and consciousness raising may eventually eradicate female circumcision. This longterm campaign should use mass media, senior women of high status, and respected religious leaders. Legislation prohibiting this practice would only drive it underground under unsanitary conditions. Demographers should no longer ignore female circumcision
Sak, Ramazan; Erden, Feyza Tantekin; Morrison, George S.
This study analyses the beliefs and self-reported practices of preschool teachers with regard to the concept of child-centred education, as well as the consistency between these beliefs and practices. Data were collected via interviews with 20 female teachers employed in public preschools in Ankara, Turkey. The results indicated that the…
Pochtar, Randi; Del Vecchio, Tamara
The associations among preschool teachers' attributions about child responsibility, intentionality, knowledge, and the seriousness of hypothetical displays of children's aggressive behavior are examined in United States ("N"?=?82) and Vietnamese ("N"?=?91) preschool teachers. The results suggest cross-cultural…
Healey, Dione M.; Gopin, Chaya B.; Grossman, Bella R.; Campbell, Susan B.; Halperin, Jeffrey M.
Background: Hyperactive/inattentive (HI) behaviors are common in preschoolers, but they result in functional impairment and attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) diagnoses in only some children. We examined whether the quality of mother-child interaction accounts for variance in level of functioning among preschool children with elevated…
Roskam, Isabelle; Meunier, Jean-Christophe; Stievenart, Marie
Attachment theory provides an interesting background for thinking about externalizing behavior (EB) in early childhood and for understanding how parenting influences the child's outcomes. The study examined how attachment and parenting could be combined to explain preschoolers' EB. Data were collected from 117 preschoolers aged from 4 to 6…
Lehmann, Linda; Jimerson, Shane R.; Gaasch, Ann
The Mourning Child Preschool grief support curriculum is intended for use with preschool children who have experienced the death of someone special to them. It is designed for use by professionals who work in schools, hospitals, hospices, mental health agencies, or any setting that serves bereaved children. The curriculum contains lesson plans for…
Yagmurlu, Bilge; Altan, Ozge
This study investigated the role of maternal socialization and temperament in Turkish preschool children's emotion regulation. Participants consisted of 145 preschoolers (79 boys, 69 girls; M[subscript age]= 62 months), their mothers, and daycare teachers from middle-high socioeconomic suburbs of Istanbul. Maternal child-rearing practices and…
Lieberman, Alicia F.; Van Horn, Patricia; Ippen, Chandra Ghosh
Objective: Treatment outcome for preschool-age children exposed to marital violence was assessed, comparing the efficacy of Child-Parent Psychotherapy (CPP) with case management plus treatment as usual in the community. Method: Seventy-five multiethnic preschool mother dyads from diverse socioeconomic backgrounds were randomly assigned to (1) CPP…
Reed, Peggy A.
An assistant professor of education and preschool director implemented a practicum intervention designed to increase the range of child care services provided in a Christian college's preschool laboratory. The primary goal of the intervention was to provide a high quality day care program which met the physical, cognitive, and emotional needs of…
Umek, Ljubica Marjanovie; Kranjc, Simona; Fekonja, Urska
As part of a larger Slovene longitudinal study on the impact of the preschool institution on the child's development and his or her school achievements, effects of the age at entry to preschool on children's language were explored. The sample included 82 children, who were divided into two groups depending on their age at entry to the preschool…
Frazier, Brandy N.; Gelman, Susan A.; Wellman, Henry M.
This research examined children's questions and the reactions to the answers they receive, in conversations with adults. If children actively seek explanatory knowledge, they should react differently depending on whether they receive a causal explanation. Study 1 examined conversations following 6 preschoolers' (ages 2-4 years) causal questions in naturalistic situations (using the CHILDES database). Children more often agreed and asked follow-up questions following adult explanations and, conversely, more often re-asked their original question and provided their own explanation following non-explanations. Study 2 replicated these patterns within an experimental task in 42 children ages 3-5 years. Children's reactions following explanatory versus non-explanatory information confirm that young children are motivated to seek causal information actively and use specific conversational strategies to obtain it. PMID:19930340
Karadag, Sevinç Çırak; Sönmez, Sibel; Dereobalı, Nilay
Child abuse and neglect have a potentially deleterious impact on children's physical, social, and psychological development. Preschool teachers may play a crucial role in the protection, early detection, and the intervention of child abuse and neglect, as they have the opportunity to establish a close contact with the families and to observe day-to-day changes in pupils' behavior. The main purpose of this study is to investigate preschool teachers' experiences and characteristics in relation to their awareness of possible child abuse and neglect signs. A questionnaire survey was designed and administered to 197 preschool teachers who work for the public preschools in the Izmir province of Turkey. In addition to the questionnaire items, a 34-item Likert-type scale measuring the level of familiarity with possible signs of child abuse and neglect was developed. This scale had an internal consistency of 0.94. The results revealed that 10.65% of preschool teachers had training regarding violence against children and 2.03% of them had training in child abuse and neglect. Overall, 35% of all teachers reported that they had prior experience with pupils who were exposed to child abuse and neglect. Moreover, statistical analyses indicated that being a parent and having training in child abuse and neglect, having experience with maltreated children, and having higher job status were significant factors in preschool teachers' ability to recognize the possible signs of child abuse and neglect. Our results support that teacher training in child abuse and neglect can play an important role in preschool teachers' awareness of the possible signs of child abuse and neglect. PMID:24928252
Bergmeier, Heidi; Skouteris, Helen; Horwood, Sharon; Hooley, Merrilyn; Richardson, Ben
Research has previously identified relationships between child temperament and BMI during childhood. However, few studies have addressed the broader implications of child temperament on the development of obesogenic risk factors, such as maternal feeding, child eating and body mass index (BMI) of pre-schoolers. Hence, the current study evaluated cross-sectional and prospective associations between child temperament, maternal feeding, maternal parenting styles, mother-child interaction, preschoolers' eating behaviours and BMI. Child irritability, cooperation-manageability and easy-difficult temperaments, mother-child dysfunctional interaction, maternal pressure to eat and restriction were significantly cross-sectionally associated with child eating behaviours. Child enjoyment of food was significantly associated with child BMI. Child easy-difficult temperament and mother-child dysfunctional interaction predicted child eating behaviours longitudinally and baseline child BMI measures predicted child BMI longitudinally. Average maternal ratings of child temperament were relatively neutral, potentially explaining why most associations were not robust longitudinally. Future research should include a sample of greater socio-economic and BMI diversity as well as objective measures of child temperament, diet composition, maternal feeding practices, and mother-child interaction. PMID:24345325
Skalická, Vera; Belsky, Jay; Stenseng, Frode; Wichstrøm, Lars
The hypothesis was tested that the new open-group Norwegian day-care centers would more than traditionally organized centers negatively affect (a) current and (b) future teacher-child relationships, and (c) the developmental legacy of preschool problem behavior. The focus was on eight hundred and fifty 4-year-olds from 153 centers who were…
Vella, V; Tomkins, A; Nidku, J; Marshall, T
Anthropometric and sociodemographic variables were taken from 4320 children in a baseline survey carried out in March-April 1988 in the district of Mbarara, south-west Uganda. After 12 months a follow-up survey assessed the mortality of the children during the preceding year. Lack of ownership of cattle, recent arrival in the village, using candles for lighting, being of birth order higher than 5 and having a father with less than 8 years of schooling were significantly associated with child mortality. The addition of mid-upper arm circumference significantly improved the logistic model of socioeconomic variables and mortality and did not diminish the predictive power of socioeconomic variables in relation to increased mortality. This suggests that nutritional status and specific socioeconomic factors are both, independently, important predictors of child mortality. PMID:1737806
Aksit, B; Aksit, B
This paper is an attempt to review and integrate international and Turkish research on infant and child mortality. Recent research and multivariate analyses in African, Latin American and Asian countries have revealed that in many countries mother's education is a powerful predictor of child survival. The present review of research in Turkey has indicated that urban/rural and regional differentials in infant mortality have been clearly established as by-products of fertility, contraception, and health surveys covering nationally representative samples. However, there are only a few multivariate explanatory models of infant/child mortality in Turkey to isolate and measure the effects of mother's education in relation to other variables. Nevertheless, existing studies in Turkey seem to suggest that mother's and father's education might link socio-economic, psychocultural, and biomedical variables with each other at community, household, and individual levels, providing clue for the formulation of future research designs and policy decisions. PMID:2648604
Gaisie, S K
This paper attempts to measure infant and child mortality levels and also to determine their structures by utilzing the results of the 1968/69 National Demographic sample survey which was conducted under the directorship of the author. The measurement of infant and child mortality in Ghana is severely hampered by lack of reliable and adequate information on infant and child deaths. The existing data from the compulsory registration areas are deficient and can at best give an indication of only the level of urban infant and child mortalities. The tendency of censuses and surveys to miss a considerable proportion of infant and child deaths also imposes a further limitation on the extent to which the infant and child mortality rates can be accurately measured from the available data. This paper is therefore concerned with 2 major problems: 1) the adjustment of the current raw mortality data on the basis of detected errors as revealed by analytical methods and/or by the fitting of models, and 2) the estimation of infant and child mortality from independent source material (e.g., retrospective information on the number of children ever born and the number surviving). The most plausible estimate of infant mortality appears to be 133/thousand live births. Regional estimates range from 56 in the Accra Capital District to 192 in the Upper Region. Further, the urban rate is lower than the rural rate: 98 as against 161/thousand live births. An examination of child death rates by single years has shown that a large proportion of the deaths among children aged 0 to 4 occur in the 2nd year of life and that deaths in this age group account for the bulk of the deaths within the age group 1 to 4 years. The observed proportions of deaths at age 1 among all deaths within the 1 to 4 years age group range between 34 and 43%. These figures may be compared with 53% in Senegal between 1962 and 1968, and with 48 and 74% in Ibadan, Nigeria (1964/1966) and Mauritius (1961) respectively
Larson, Nicole; Ward, Dianne; Neelon, Sara Benjamin; Story, Mary
Child-care settings provide numerous opportunities to promote healthy eating and physical activity behaviors among preschool children. The majority of U.S. children are placed in some form of non-parental care during their preschool years. While approximately 15 percent of preschool children are primarily cared for by their relatives, most…
Seymour, Frederick W.; France, Karyn G.
Ten women volunteers were trained as teachers of child management skills to parents of behavior-disordered preschoolers. Evaluation of the project's outcomes using a consumer satisfaction survey, parent ratings on a problem behavior checklist, and staff ratings of goal attainment, showed major changes in child behavior maintained at three-month…
Liang, Shu; Sugawara, Alan I.
Examined the intellectual development of 74 preschool children for contributions of family size, birth order, socioeconomic status, ethnicity, and parent-child relationships. Found that socioeconomic status and warmth of the father-child relationship made significant, positive contributions to children's intellectual development. Found support for…
Cole, Pamela M.; Dennis, Tracy A.; Smith-Simon, Kristen E.; Cohen, Laura H.
Preschool-age children's ability to verbally generate strategies for regulating anger and sadness, and to recognize purported effective strategies for these emotions, were examined in relation to child factors (child age, temperament, and language ability) and maternal emotion socialization (supportiveness and structuring in response to child…
The primary purpose of this master's thesis is to describe some therapeutic uses of dramatic play with the mildly aggressive preschool child. The child for whom the suggested play interventions are considered appropriate is characterized by sociality and attachment to both peers and adults, and is not chronically aggressive. After the first…
Korenman, Sanders; Abner, Kristin S.; Kaestner, Robert; Gordon, Rachel A.
Children spend a considerable amount of time in preschools and child care centers. As a result, these settings may have an influence on their diet, weight, and food security, and are potentially important contexts for interventions to address nutritional health. The Child and Adult Care Food Program (CACFP) is one such intervention. No national…
Horner, Gail; Rits, Susan
Intended for parents, the booklet (part of a 10 booklet series on talented and gifted education) discusses the gifted preschool child. An initial section considers how learning processes are broken down by developmental specialists. The use of questioning strategies with a gifted child is presented as an important parenting skill. A developmental…
Beacham, Cindy V.
This exploratory study examined communications between designers and child development professionals during the preschool design process. Qualitative interviews and focus groups were conducted to investigate the need for communication support between child development professionals, parents, and design professionals (n = 20) during the process of…
Clark, Penney; Gleason, Mona; Petrina, Stephen
The development of the Child Study Centre (CSC) at University of British Columbia (UBC) provides a unique perspective on the complex and often contradictory relationship between child study and preschool education in postwar Canada. In this article, the authors detail the development and eventual closure of the CSC at UBC, focusing on the uneasy…
World Bank, Washington, DC. Latin America and the Caribbean Region.
In spite of remarkable improvement over the past 20 years, there remain substantial deficits in Brazil's education levels and child health, as well as high levels of chronic grade repetition. This study examined the impact of Brazil's long established preschool as an early child development (ECD) intervention for improving the status of the…
VanderBorght, Mieke; Jaswal, Vikram K.
Do preschoolers think adults know more about everything than children? Or do they recognize that there are some things that children might know more about than adults? Three-, four-, and five-year-olds (N = 65) were asked to decide whether an adult or child informant would better be able to answer a variety of questions about the nutritional value of foods and about toys. Children at all ages chose to direct the food questions to the adult and the toy questions to the child. Thus, there are some kinds of information for which preschoolers expect that a child would be a better informant than an adult. PMID:20047013
The aim of this paper is to contribute to the knowledge of children's introduction to pre-school as social practice with a focus on subjectification from a gender perspective. This introductory process is given great importance in the Swedish pre-school. This paper is based on a study carried out in one strategically chosen preschool infant group.…
Milot, Tristan; St-Laurent, Diane; Ethier, Louise S; Provost, Marc A
This study (a) assessed whether child neglect is associated with posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and dissociative symptoms in the preschool period and (b) examined the role of quality of mother-child affective communication in the development of trauma-related symptoms among neglected children. Participants were 33 neglected and 72 non-neglected preschoolers (mean age = 60 months). Neglected children were recruited from the Child Protection Agencies. Neglected and non-neglected children victims of other form of abuse were excluded from the study. Trauma symptoms were evaluated through mother and preschool teacher reports. Quality of mother-child affective communication was assessed in a lab visit during an unstructured task. According to teachers, neglected children displayed more PTSD and dissociative symptoms than non-neglected children. Quality of mother-child communication was lower in neglected dyads. Mother-child affective communication predicted teacher-reported child trauma symptomatology, over and above child neglect. Discussion focuses on the traumatic nature of child neglect and the underlying parent-child relational processes. PMID:20930179
Keys, Tran D.; Farkas, George; Burchinal, Margaret R.; Duncan, Greg J.; Vandell, Deborah L.; Li, Weilin; Ruzek, Erik A.; Howes, Carollee
This article examines associations between observed quality in preschool center classrooms for approximately 6,250 three- to five-year-olds and their school readiness skills at kindergarten entry. Secondary analyses were conducted using data from four large-scale studies to estimate the effects of preschool center quality and interactions between quality and demographic characteristics and child entry skills and behaviors. Findings were summarized across studies using meta-analytic methods. Results indicate small, but statistically significant associations for preschool center quality main effects on language and mathematics outcomes with little evidence of moderation by demographic characteristics or child entry skills and behaviors. Preschool center quality was not reliably related to socioemotional outcomes. The authors discuss possible explanations for the small effect sizes and lack of differential effects. PMID:23331043
This chapter presents evidence of a relationship between child mortality data and socio-economic factors in relatively wealthy nations. The original study on child mortality that is reported here, which first appeared in a UK medical journal, was undertaken in a school of business by academics with accounting and finance backgrounds. The rationale explaining why academics from such disciplines were drawn to investigate these issues is given in the first part of the chapter. The findings related to child mortality data were identified as a special case of a wide range of social and health indicators that are systematically related to the different organisational approaches of capitalist societies. In particular, the so-called Anglo-American countries show consistently poor outcomes over a number of indicators, including child mortality. Considerable evidence has been adduced in the literature to show the importance of income inequality as an explanation for such findings. An important part of the chapter is the overview of a relatively recent publication in the epidemiological literature entitled The Spirit Level: Why Equality Is Better for Everyone, which was written by Wilkinson and Pickett. PMID:27197976
Bergren, Martha Dewey
It is the position of the National Association of School Nurses (NASN) that data on children's deaths in school should be recorded, analyzed and reported at the local, state and national level. The systematic review of data on child deaths is necessary to drive interventions and policies that will decrease mortality from injuries, violence, acute…
Singhi, S; Kumar, R; Raina, N; Kumar, V
To identify the individual and household level variables associated with increased risk of mortality, 159 infant and 50 child deaths (cases) and equal number of age matched live infants and children (controls) and their families were studied in a rural area of Haryana. The social, economic, educational and environmental characteristics of the case and control families were similar. Increased risk of infant and child mortality was associated with maternal age less than 20 and more than 30 years, birth order 4th or higher, unclean cord care at the time of child birth, failure of breast feeding during the first 3 months of age, lack of immunizations, and previous infant or child death(s) in the family (Odds ratio greater than 2; P less than 0.05-0.01 by X2 test). An emphasis on the interventions directed at control of the above mentioned variables may prove most helpful in reducing infant and child mortality in a rural area. PMID:2638678
Tiger, Jeffrey H; Hanley, Gregory P
The present study replicates and extends previous research on the treatment of food selectivity by implementing pairing and fading procedures to increase a child's milk consumption during regularly scheduled preschool meals. The treatment involved mixing a small amount of chocolate syrup into a glass of milk and gradually eliminating the chocolate. The procedure and data collection were implemented by preschool teachers and resulted in increased milk drinking at school, which was maintained at home. PMID:17020222
Rosenzweig, M R; Schultz, T P
The education of a mother is strongly and positively correlated with the survival rate of her children. This paper combines household data from the Colombian Census of 1973 and characteristics of the 900 residential areas in Colombia, to test various hypotheses concerning the mechanism by which mother's education and public policies affect child survival and the distribution of health benefits resulting from policy interventions. The hypothesis is advanced that education provides people with skills in acquiring and decoding new information and thus effectively lowers the costs of using more beneficial child health and contraceptive technologies. Since a primary function of health and family planning programs is to disseminate information on these same technologies, the hypothesis is tested that mother's education and these program interventions may substitute for each other in improving child health and reducing family size. The empirical analysis confirms that in urban areas the availability of medical services, family planning activities, transportational infrastructure and climate, in addition to mother's education, are associated with child mortality ratios and fertility within a birth cohort of mothers. The least educated mothers are the most strongly affected, in terms of their reduced fertility and increased child survival rates, by the local urban health programs. The evidence is, thus, consistent with the substitution hypothesis. No effects of program interventions and medical facilities are found on rural populations, though both child mortality ratios and fertility are lower for more educated rural women. PMID:10256651
Fernandez-Rao, Sylvia; Hurley, Kristen M; Nair, Krishnapillai Madhavan; Balakrishna, Nagalla; Radhakrishna, Kankipati V; Ravinder, Punjal; Tilton, Nicholas; Harding, Kimberly B; Reinhart, Greg A; Black, Maureen M
This article describes the development, design, and implementation of an integrated randomized double-masked placebo-controlled trial (Project Grow Smart) that examines how home/preschool fortification with multiple micronutrient powder (MNP) combined with an early child-development intervention affects child development, growth, and micronutrient status among infants and preschoolers in rural India. The 1-year trial has an infant phase (enrollment age: 6-12 months) and a preschool phase (enrollment age: 36-48 months). Infants are individually randomized into one of four groups: placebo, placebo plus early learning, MNP alone, and MNP plus early learning (integrated intervention), conducted through home visits. The preschool phase is a cluster-randomized trial conducted in Anganwadi centers (AWCs), government-run preschools sponsored by the Integrated Child Development System of India. AWCs are randomized into MNP or placebo, with the MNP or placebo mixed into the children's food. The evaluation examines whether the effects of the MNP intervention vary by the quality of the early learning opportunities and communication within the AWCs. Study outcomes include child development, growth, and micronutrient status. Lessons learned during the development, design, and implementation of the integrated trial can be used to guide large-scale policy and programs designed to promote the developmental, educational, and economic potential of children in developing countries. PMID:24673168
MOORE, OMAR K.
EXPERIMENTAL TECHNIQUES ARE PRESENTED WHICH SHOW THAT IT IS POSSIBLE FOR PRESCHOOL CHILDREN TO LEARN, IN A RELATIVELY SHORT TIME, WHAT ORDINARILY ARE CONSIDERED TO BE ADVANCED SKILLS. PRESCHOOL CHILDREN OF 2 AND 3 YEARS OF AGE CAN LEARN TO TYPE ON AN ELECTRIC TYPEWRITER, TO PRINT, TO READ, AND TO TAKE DICTATION. THE CAPACITY TO LEARN THESE SKILLS…
Abreu-Lima, Isabel M. P.; Leal, Teresa B.; Cadima, Joana; Gamelas, Ana Madalena
The main purpose of this study is to analyze whether quality of preschool classrooms relates to 4- and 5-year-old children developmental outcomes. The study was conducted in 60 classrooms in Porto Metropolitan Area, Portugal. Children (N = 215) were evaluated in the literacy, math, and behavior domains. Preschool quality was assessed through…
Cress, Pamela; And Others
The article provides information about the number and diversity of preschool children with handicaps requiring vision services, such as refractive errors and eye muscle imbalances, and describes a vision care system designed to ensure that these preschool children receive optimal vision care. (Author/CL)
Whitworth, Alison; Stephenson, Rob
The detrimental impact of short preceding birth intervals on infant and early childhood mortality is well documented in demographic literature, although the pathways of influence within the relationship remain an area of debate. This paper examines the impact of the length of the preceding birth interval on under-two mortality in India, and examines the pathways through which short preceding birth intervals may lead to an increased risk of mortality. Three mortality periods are examined: neonatal, early post neonatal and late post-neonatal and toddler, using the 1992 Indian National Family Health Survey. A multilevel modelling approach is used to account for the hierarchical nature of the data. The determinants of infants following a short or long birth interval are also examined. The results show that short preceding birth intervals (< 18 months) are associated with an increased risk of mortality in all three age groups, and the effect is particularly marked in the early post-neonatal period. Significant interactions were found between the length of the preceding birth interval and maternal education, gender and the survival status of the previous child. The significance of these interactions varied with the age of the child. The results highlight the diluting effect that a higher level of maternal education has on the relationship between short preceding birth intervals and mortality risk. There is evidence to suggest that sibling rivalry is a pathway through which short birth intervals influence mortality, with the death of the previous sibling removing the competition for scarce resources, and resulting in lower risks of mortality than if the previous sibling was still alive. The greatest risks of an infant following a short birth interval are among those whose previous sibling died, high parities, those with young mothers, and those whose previous sibling was breastfed for a short duration. PMID:12409124
Lin, Ro-Ting; Chien, Lung-Chang; Chen, Ya-Mei; Chan, Chang-Chuan
Background Governance of a country may have widespread effects on the health of its population, yet little is known about the effect of governance on child mortality in a country that is undergoing urbanization, economic development, and disease control. Methods We obtained indicators of six dimensions of governance (perceptions of voice and accountability, political stability and absence of violence, government effectiveness, regulatory quality, rule of law, and control of corruption) and national under-5 mortality rates for 149 countries between 1996 and 2010. We applied a semi-parametric generalized additive mixed model to examine associations after controlling for the effects of development factors (urbanization level and economy), disease control factors (hygienic conditions and vaccination rates), health expenditures, air quality, and time. Results Governance, development, and disease control showed clear inverse relations with the under-5 mortality rate (p<0.001). Per unit increases in governance, development, and disease control factors, the child mortality rate had a 0.901-, 0.823-, and 0.922-fold decrease, respectively, at fixed levels of the other two factors. Conclusions In the effort to reduce the global under-5 mortality rate, addressing a country's need for better governance is as important as improvements in development and disease control. PMID:24711600
Pogrund, R. L.; Rosen, S. J.
This article proposes the teaching of long cane mobility skills to blind preschool-age children. Traditional arguments against early cane use are refuted and possible advantages of early use identified. Strategies and techniques for cane introduction are specified. (DB)
Pérez-Moreno, Salvador; Blanco-Arana, María C; Bárcena-Martín, Elena
This paper examines the effects of growth and recession periods on child mortality in the Least Developed Countries (LDCs) during the period 1990-2010. We provide empirical evidence of uneven effects of variations in Gross Domestic Product (GDP) per capita on the evolution of child mortality rate in periods of economic recession and expansion. A decrease in GDP per capita entails a significant rise in child mortality rates, whereas an increase does not affect child mortality significantly. In this context, official development assistance seems to play a crucial role in counteracting the increment in child mortality rates in recession periods, at least in those LDCs receiving greater aid. PMID:26998938
Scott, Samuel P.; Chen-Edinboro, Lenis P.; Caulfield, Laura E.; Murray-Kolb, Laura E.
Iron deficiency anemia and child mortality are public health problems requiring urgent attention. However, the degree to which iron deficiency anemia contributes to child mortality is unknown. Here, we utilized an exhaustive article search and screening process to identify articles containing both anemia and mortality data for children aged 28 days to 12 years. We then estimated the reduction in risk of mortality associated with a 1-g/dL increase in hemoglobin (Hb). Our meta-analysis of nearly 12,000 children from six African countries revealed a combined odds ratio of 0.76 (0.62–0.93), indicating that for each 1-g/dL increase in Hb, the risk of death falls by 24%. The feasibility of a 1-g/dL increase in Hb has been demonstrated via simple iron supplementation strategies. Our finding suggests that ~1.8 million deaths in children aged 28 days to five years could be avoided each year by increasing Hb in these children by 1 g/dL. PMID:25533005
Zupancic, Maja; Kavcic, Tina
The role of child's characteristics (gender, cognitive ability, mother-perceived personality traits), family environment (maternal education, self-reported parenting practices) and pre-school experience (at least three years vs. no experience) in social adjustment to school, reflected through teacher reports on social competence and internalising…
Schmidt, Maria M.
Although articulation errors are common among the preschool population, they can affect a child's relationship with peers and adults by an inability to express clearly ideas and needs. To address hypotonia in the lips, cheeks, and tongue of a 4.8 year old Spanish-dominant male who presents with very poor speech intelligibility, an oral sensory…
Vlok, Milandre; de Witt, Marike W.
This article explains the naive theory of biology that the pre-school child uses to explain the cause of death. The empirical investigation showed that the young participants do use a naive theory of biology to explain function and do make reference to "vitalistic causality" in explaining organ function. Furthermore, most of these participants…
Rudasill, Kathleen Moritz; Rimm-Kaufman, Sara E.; Justice, Laura M.; Pence, Khara
Current educational policy emphasizes "school readiness" of young children with a premium placed on preschool interventions that facilitate academic and social readiness for children who have had limited learning experiences prior to kindergarten (Rouse, Brooks-Gunn, & McLanahan, 2005). The teacher-child relationship is viewed as a critical…
Torres, Nuno; Veríssimo, Manuela; Santos, António J.; Monteiro, Ligia; Figueiredo, Mafalda; Vaughn, Brian E.
Research Findings: Data from a national sample of Portuguese preschool centers were used to examine the relationship between age of start and number of hours in child care and levels of externalizing and prosocial behaviors with peers. Participants were both parents and teachers of 543 children (mean age = 4.5 years, 50.6% girls). Children started…
Toros, Karmen; Tiirik, Riine
This study reflects Estonian preschool teachers' perceptions about and experience related to children in need in the context of neglect and abuse. Using quantitative and qualitative data, it was determined that, in general, teachers understand the meaning of "child in need" and abuse, and they have had experience with such children in…
Tiger, Jeffrey H.; Hanley, Gregory P.
The present study replicates and extends previous research on the treatment of food selectivity by implementing pairing and fading procedures to increase a child's milk consumption during regularly scheduled preschool meals. The treatment involved mixing a small amount of chocolate syrup into a glass of milk and gradually eliminating the…
Zhang, Xiao; Nurmi, Jari-Erik
Based on a two-year and three-wave longitudinal sample of 118 Chinese preschoolers, the present study examined the cross-lagged associations between teacher-child relationships and social competence, and the cross-system generalization of social competence between home and school. At each of the three waves, teachers rated the children's…
Harrison, Robert J.
To ascertain the efficacy of a program of language and speech stimulation for the preschool cleft palate child, a research and demonstration project was conducted using 137 subjects (ages 18 to 72 months) with defects involving the soft palate. Their language and speech skills were matched with those of a noncleft peer group revealing that the…
This article provides an ethnographic account of an "international preschool" in Japan, describing how ideologies of "English" and "internationalism" are produced and consumed among the parents, teachers and directors, in their common goal of socialising an "international" child. (Contains 6 notes.)
Irvin, Dwight W.; McBee, Matthew; Boyd, Brian A.; Hume, Kara; Odom, Samuel L.
This study examines child and family characteristics thought to affect the dosage and type of common in-school and private services (i.e., speech language therapy (SLT), occupational therapy (OT) and applied behavior analysis (ABA)) received by children with ASD. Participants included 137 families and their preschool-aged children with ASD from…
The purpose of this mixed-design study was to examine the impact of three types of professional development activities aimed at improving conversations in four targeted preschool classrooms. A review of the literature was used to identify the professional development approaches and the importance of improving teacher-child conversations as a…
This study is an attempt to grasp Mongolian preschool educators' perceptions on child-centered approach (CCA). CCA was externally introduced to Mongolia about 10 years ago as a diametrically different education from that of the socialist period. The study also aims to examine the differences that may exist among teachers in different types of…
Ramani, Geetha B.
Empirical and theoretical literature on cooperative problem solving in preschool children suggests that integrating features of play into structured, experimental settings should increase the benefits of joint peer interactions and task performance. Four- and five-year-old peer dyads completed a playful, flexible, and child-driven building task or…
Hershkowitz, Irit; Lamb, Michael E.; Orbach, Yael; Katz, Carmit; Horowitz, Dvora
This study examined age differences in 299 preschoolers' responses to investigative interviewers' questions exploring the suspected occurrence of child abuse. Analyses focused on the children's tendencies to respond (a) at all, (b) appropriately to the issue raised by the investigator, and (c) informatively, providing previously undisclosed…
Trawick-Smith, Jeffrey; Swaminathan, Sudha; Liu, Xing
Teacher-child interactions in preschool children's play may enhance mathematics learning in several ways. As teachers interact with children, they may promote more complex, independent, and symbolic play. Resulting increases in play abilities, in turn, can enhance intellectual growth, including mathematical thinking. Teachers may also facilitate…
Palermo, Francisco; Hanish, Laura D.; Martin, Carol Lynn; Fabes, Richard A.; Reiser, Mark
We examined the role of the teacher-child relationship quality (close, dependent, and conflictive) on preschoolers' (N=95) academic readiness for kindergarten, and we tested children's prosocial and aggressive behavior and peer group exclusion as mediators of this relation. A unique feature of this study is the ethnically and socio-economically…
Brown, Cynthia G.; Cooper, Donna; Herman, Juliana; Lazarín, Melissa; Linden, Michael; Post, Sasha; Tanden, Neera
This issue brief presents a plan to expand educational opportunities and care for children ages 0-5 years old by investing significant federal dollars to: (1) Make high-quality preschool universally accessible to all 3- and 4-year-old children; and (2) Enable more lower-income families to afford child care for children ages 0-3 years old. These…
Kunstadter, P; Kunstadter, S L; Podhisita, C; Leepreecha, P
Conventional theories would not predict the 60% decline of infant mortality which has occurred among the Hmong population of Thailand, from 123/1000 in the mid-1960s to 48 in the mid-1980s. The Hmong population in northern Thailand has sustained high fertility and low use of modern health services. Most Hmong live in relatively remote rural villages and earn their living by self-employed farming. They have low levels of education, especially for women. They live in multi-generational patrilineal-patrilocal extended family households. Women's status is low. These characteristics contrast strongly with the majority ethnic Thai population, among whom a comparable mortality decline has been accompanied by widespread use of family planning, rapidly declining fertility, widespread use of modern health facilities, rapidly increasing levels of education for both sexes, rapid economic development, and a predominance of nuclear-based family households. Distributions of Hmong pregnancies by birth order and maternal age have remained relatively constant while fetal and young child death rates have declined for each level of parity and all maternal ages in recent cohorts. As predicted by conventional theories, infant mortality rates are highest among higher order births and for births to mothers of the highest ages, however there is relatively little effect on risk of infant mortality of first order pregnancies, or births to very young (10-14 year old) women. Fetal and infant mortality have declined steadily in recent cohorts at each parity level and all maternal ages. Modern medical care and decline in a surplus of female deaths associated with low status of women might explain the declines in fetal and child deaths regardless of parity or maternal age. Use of modern medical care for delivery is recent and accounts for less than 10% of all recent Hmong births, but survival rates are not consistently or significantly higher for children born with a modern birth attendant. Sex
United Nations Industrial Development Organization, Vienna (Austria).
This document contains six papers prepared between 1969 and 1975 by the Protein-Calorie Advisory Group (PAG) of the United Nations on topics related to the feeding of preschool children in underdeveloped countries. Among the topics covered: (1) nutrition in utero; (2) nutritional aspects of breastfeeding; (3) infant mortality rates as indicators…
Besharov, Douglas J.; Morrow, Jeffrey S.; Myers, Justus A.
Using all available government data, this paper calculates the actual, per-child costs of Head Start (including Early Head Start), child care provided under the Child Care and Development Fund (CCDF), and prekindergarten/preschool programs. Besides being substantially higher than often reported by the relevant government agencies, the resulting…
Graue, Elizabeth; Clements, Melissa A.; Reynolds, Arthur J.; Niles, Michael D.
This study investigated the contributions of curriculum approach and parent involvement to the short- and long-term effects of preschool participation in the Title I Chicago Child-Parent Centers. Data came from the complete cohort of 989 low-income children (93% African American) in the Chicago Longitudinal Study, who attended preschool in the 20…
Harvey, Elizabeth A.; Metcalfe, Lindsay A.
Objective The present study examined (a) the interactions between early behavior, early parenting, and early family adversity in predicting later ODD symptoms, and (b) the reciprocal relations between parent functioning and ODD symptoms across the preschool years. Method Participants were 258 3-year-old children (138 boys and 120 girls) and their parents from diverse backgrounds who participated in a 4-year longitudinal study. Results Early child behavior, parenting, and family adversity did not significantly interact in the predicted direction. Reciprocal relations between ODD symptoms and parent functioning were observed for maternal and paternal depression, and maternal warmth. Paternal laxness at age 4 predicted ODD symptoms at age 5 and paternal laxness at age 5 predicted ODD symptoms at age 6, but child ODD did not significantly predict paternal laxness. Conclusion Results suggest that ODD symptoms may develop through a transactional process between parent and child functioning across the preschool years. PMID:22530755
Rhodehouse, Sara Bernice
This study sought to validate adult-child shared storybook reading as a method for teaching target vocabulary words to preschool children with disabilities. The Vocabulary Learning through Books (VLTB) instructional procedure incorporates, adult-child book reading, questioning during reading requiring the child to answer with a target word, and…
Han, Pi Guo; Wu, Yun Peng; Yu, Tian; Xia, Xu Min; Gao, Feng Qiang
The current study explored the role of teacher-child relationship plays on the relationship between preschooler's shyness level and externalizing problem. The sample consisted of 463 children from 6 preschools of Shandong province in northern China. Mothers reported the shyness level, aggressive behavior, and attention problem of their children,…
Weigel, Daniel J.; Martin, Sally S.; Bennett, Kymberley K.
Based on ecological theory, this study examined how four components of children's home and child-care literacy environments, and the connections between these environments, were associated with preschool-age children's literacy and language development. Interview and standardized assessment data were collected from 85 preschool-age children, their…
Querido, Jane G; Warner, Tamara D; Eyberg, Sheila M
Examined the relations between parenting styles and child behavior problems in African American preschool children. Participants were 108 African American female caregivers of 3- to 6-year-old children. Correlational analysis showed that parent-reported child behavior problems were associated with maternal education, family income, and parents' endorsement of authoritative parenting, authoritarian parenting, and permissive parenting. Hierarchical regression analysis showed that the authoritative parenting style was most predictive of fewer child behavior problems. These results are consistent with previous findings with European American families and provide strong support for the cross-cultural validity of the authoritative parenting style. PMID:12056110
Schweitzer, Julian; Bishai, David; Chowdhury, Sadia; Caramani, Daniele; Frost, Laura; Cortez, Rafael; Daelmans, Bernadette; de Francisco, Andres; Adam, Taghreed; Cohen, Robert; Alfonso, Y Natalia; Franz-Vasdeki, Jennifer; Saadat, Seemeen; Pratt, Beth Anne; Eugster, Beatrice; Bandali, Sarah; Venkatachalam, Pritha; Hinton, Rachael; Murray, John; Arscott-Mills, Sharon; Axelson, Henrik; Maliqi, Blerta; Sarker, Intissar; Lakshminarayanan, Rama; Jacobs, Troy; Jacks, Susan; Mason, Elizabeth; Ghaffar, Abdul; Mays, Nicholas; Presern, Carole; Bustreo, Flavia
Abstract Reducing maternal and child mortality is a priority in the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs), and will likely remain so after 2015. Evidence exists on the investments, interventions and enabling policies required. Less is understood about why some countries achieve faster progress than other comparable countries. The Success Factors for Women’s and Children’s Health studies sought to address this knowledge gap using statistical and econometric analyses of data from 144 low- and middle-income countries (LMICs) over 20 years; Boolean, qualitative comparative analysis; a literature review; and country-specific reviews in 10 fast-track countries for MDGs 4 and 5a. There is no standard formula – fast-track countries deploy tailored strategies and adapt quickly to change. However, fast-track countries share some effective approaches in addressing three main areas to reduce maternal and child mortality. First, these countries engage multiple sectors to address crucial health determinants. Around half the reduction in child mortality in LMICs since 1990 is the result of health sector investments, the other half is attributed to investments made in sectors outside health. Second, these countries use strategies to mobilize partners across society, using timely, robust evidence for decision-making and accountability and a triple planning approach to consider immediate needs, long-term vision and adaptation to change. Third, the countries establish guiding principles that orient progress, align stakeholder action and achieve results over time. This evidence synthesis contributes to global learning on accelerating improvements in women’s and children’s health towards 2015 and beyond. PMID:25110379
Douglas, J.; And Others
The case study describes microtechnological aids for a quadriplegic preschool aged boy dependent on a ventilator via a tracheostomy. Provision of a computer, a variety of specially designed switches and software, together with a self-driven powered wheelchair maximized expression of his developmental needs. (DB)
McCullough, Ruanda Garth; Reyes, Sharon Adelman
This article explores the benefits and challenges of a Spanish language immersion preschool from the perspective of a non-Spanish speaking African American family. Data explored include the decision to enroll, reactions from peers and family, home-school communication issues, language development, and family involvement. In addition,…
Lichtenberger, Elizabeth O.
Preschool-age children who are experiencing delays in physical, cognitive, communication, social, emotional, or adaptive development are often referred for a comprehensive assessment to make diagnostic determinations and to help develop appropriate interventions. Typically cognitive assessment has a key role in a comprehensive evaluation of a…
Sawyer, Cheryl Chriss
Introduction Producing estimates of infant (under age 1 y), child (age 1–4 y), and under-five (under age 5 y) mortality rates disaggregated by sex is complicated by problems with data quality and availability. Interpretation of sex differences requires nuanced analysis: girls have a biological advantage against many causes of death that may be eroded if they are disadvantaged in access to resources. Earlier studies found that girls in some regions were not experiencing the survival advantage expected at given levels of mortality. In this paper I generate new estimates of sex differences for the 1970s to the 2000s. Methods and Findings Simple fitting methods were applied to male-to-female ratios of infant and under-five mortality rates from vital registration, surveys, and censuses. The sex ratio estimates were used to disaggregate published series of both-sexes mortality rates that were based on a larger number of sources. In many developing countries, I found that sex ratios of mortality have changed in the same direction as historically occurred in developed countries, but typically had a lower degree of female advantage for a given level of mortality. Regional average sex ratios weighted by numbers of births were found to be highly influenced by China and India, the only countries where both infant mortality and overall under-five mortality were estimated to be higher for girls than for boys in the 2000s. For the less developed regions (comprising Africa, Asia excluding Japan, Latin America/Caribbean, and Oceania excluding Australia and New Zealand), on average, boys' under-five mortality in the 2000s was about 2% higher than girls'. A number of countries were found to still experience higher mortality for girls than boys in the 1–4-y age group, with concentrations in southern Asia, northern Africa/western Asia, and western Africa. In the more developed regions (comprising Europe, northern America, Japan, Australia, and New Zealand), I found that the sex
Bultas, Margaret W
It is known that children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) visit health care providers (HCPs) more frequently than typically developing peers, and mothers experience barriers in this process. The purpose of this interpretive phenomenological study was to gain a better understanding of a mother's experiences of taking her child with ASD to the HCP. Two themes related to the health care experience of the child surfaced from the study. These themes included feelings that HCPs do not "get" the complexity of caring for the child and marginalization of mothers by the HCP. The need for creation of child-specific profiles emerged from this study. PMID:22920657
Amouzou, Agbessi; Banda, Benjamin; Kachaka, Willie; Joos, Olga; Kanyuka, Mercy; Hill, Kenneth; Bryce, Jennifer
Background The rate of decline in child mortality is too slow in most African countries to achieve the Millennium Development Goal of reducing under-five mortality by two-thirds between 1990 and 2015. Effective strategies to monitor child mortality are needed where accurate vital registration data are lacking to help governments assess and report on progress in child survival. We present results from a test of a mortality monitoring approach based on recording of births and deaths by specially trained community health workers (CHWs) in Malawi. Methods and Findings Government-employed community health workers in Malawi are responsible for maintaining a Village Health Register, in which they record births and deaths that occur in their catchment area. We expanded on this system to provide additional training, supervision and incentives. We tested the equivalence between child mortality rates obtained from data on births and deaths collected by 160 randomly-selected and trained CHWs over twenty months in two districts to those computed through a standard household mortality survey. CHW reports produced an under-five mortality rate that was 84% (95%CI: [0.71,1.00]) of the household survey mortality rate and statistically equivalent to it. However, CHW data consistently underestimated under-five mortality, with levels of under-estimation increasing over time. Under-five deaths were more likely to be missed than births. Neonatal and infant deaths were more likely to be missed than older deaths. Conclusion This first test of the accuracy and completeness of vital events data reported by CHWs in Malawi as a strategy for monitoring child mortality shows promising results but underestimated child mortality and was not stable over the four periods assessed. Given the Malawi government's commitment to strengthen its vital registration system, we are working with the Ministry of Health to implement a revised version of the approach that provides increased support to CHWs. PMID
Espinosa, Javier; Evans, William N
Using a 9-year follow-up of 69,224 mothers aged 20-50 from the National Longitudinal Mortality Survey, we investigate whether there is heightened mortality of mothers after the death of a child. Results from Cox proportional hazard models indicate that the death of a child produces a statistically significant hazard ratio of 2.3. There is suggestive evidence that the heightened mortality is concentrated in the first two years after the death of a child. We find no difference in results based on mother's education or marital status, family size, the child's cause of death or the gender of the child. PMID:22809832
Schwinger, Catherine; Van den Broeck, Jan
Background: Growth assessment based on the WHO child growth velocity standards can potentially be used to predict adverse health outcomes. Nevertheless, there are very few studies on growth velocity to predict mortality. Objectives: We aimed to determine the ability of various growth velocity measures to predict child death within 3 mo and to compare it with those of attained growth measures. Design: Data from 5657 children <5 y old who were enrolled in a cohort study in the Democratic Republic of Congo were used. Children were measured up to 6 times in 3-mo intervals, and 246 (4.3%) children died during the study period. Generalized estimating equation (GEE) models informed the mortality risk within 3 mo for weight and length velocity z scores and 3-mo changes in midupper arm circumference (MUAC). We used receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curves to present balance in sensitivity and specificity to predict child death. Results: GEE models showed that children had an exponential increase in the risk of dying with decreasing growth velocity in all 4 indexes (1.2- to 2.4-fold for every unit decrease). A length and weight velocity z score of <−3 was associated with an 11.8- and a 7.9-fold increase, respectively, in the RR of death in the subsequent 3-mo period (95% CIs: 3.9, 35.5, and 3.9, 16.2, respectively). Weight and length velocity z scores had better predictive abilities [area under the ROC curves (AUCs) of 0.67 and 0.69] than did weight-for-age (AUC: 0.57) and length-for-age (AUC: 0.52) z scores. Among wasted children (weight-for-height z score <−2), the AUC of weight velocity z scores was 0.87. Absolute MUAC performed best among the attained indexes (AUC: 0.63), but longitudinal assessment of MUAC-based indexes did not increase the predictive value. Conclusion: Although repeated growth measures are slightly more complex to implement, their superiority in mortality-predictive abilities suggests that these could be used more for identifying children at
Fuligni, Allison Sidle; Howes, Carollee; Lara-Cinisomo, Sandraluz; Karoly, Lynn
This paper presents a naturalistic investigation of the patterns of formal education, early childhood education training, and mentoring of a diverse group of urban early childhood educators participating in the Los Angeles: Exploring Children's Early Learning Settings (LA ExCELS) study. A total of 103 preschool teachers and family child care providers serving primarily low-income 3- and 4-year-old children in Los Angeles County provided data on their education, training, and beliefs about teaching. This sample worked in public center based preschool programs including Head Start classrooms and State preschool classrooms (N=42), private non-profit preschools including community based organizations and faith-based preschools (N=42), and licensed family child care homes (N=19). This study uses a person-centered approach to explore patterns of teacher preparation, sources of support, supervision, and mentoring across these 3 types of education settings, and how these patterns are associated with early childhood educators' beliefs and practices. Findings suggest a set of linkages between type of early education setting, professional development, and supervision of teaching. Public preschools have the strongest mandates for formal professional development and typically less variation in levels of monitoring, whereas family child care providers on average have less formal education and more variability in their access to and use of other forms of training and mentorship. Four distinct patterns of formal education, child development training, and ongoing mentoring or support were identified among the educators in this study. Associations between professional development experiences and teachers' beliefs and practices suggested the importance of higher levels of formal training for enhancing the quality of teacher-child interactions. Implications of the findings for changing teacher behaviors are discussed with respect to considering the setting context. PMID:20072719
Bergmeier, H; Skouteris, H; Horwood, S; Hooley, M; Richardson, B
It is a research priority to identify modifiable risk factors to improve the effectiveness of childhood obesity prevention strategies. Research, however, has largely overlooked the role of child temperament and personality implicated in obesogenic risk factors such as maternal feeding and body mass index (BMI) of preschoolers. A systematic review of relevant literature was conducted to investigate the associations between child temperament, child personality, maternal feeding and BMI and/or weight gain in infants and preschoolers; 18 papers were included in the review. The findings revealed an association between the temperament traits of poor self-regulation, distress to limitations, low and high soothability, low negative affectivity and higher BMI in infants and preschool-aged children. Temperament traits difficult, distress to limitations, surgency/extraversion and emotionality were significantly associated with weight gain rates in infants. The results also suggested that child temperament was associated with maternal feeding behaviours that have been shown to influence childhood overweight and obesity, such as using restrictive feeding practices with children perceived as having poor self-regulation and feeding potentially obesogenic food and drinks to infants who are more externalizing. Interestingly, no studies to date have evaluated the association between child personality and BMI/weight gain in infants and preschoolers. There is a clear need for further research into the association of child temperament and obesogenic risk factors in preschool-aged children. PMID:23957249
Haustein, Susan L.
This study examines the effect of literacy enriched preschool classroom environments and the quality of adult/child interaction in the classroom on the emergent literacy growth and development of preschool children. Data was collected within the 2009-2010 school year and analyzed to determine if providing a literacy enriched preschool environment…
McPhie, Skye; Skouteris, Helen; Fuller-Tyszkiewicz, Matthew; McCabe, Marita; Ricciardelli, Lina A.; Milgrom, Jeannette; Baur, Louise A.; Dell'Aquila, Daniela
This study extends McPhie et al. (2011)'s [Maternal correlates of preschool child eating behaviours and body mass index: A cross-sectional study. "International Journal of Pediatric Obesity", Early Online, 1-5.] McPhie et al. (2011)'s cross-sectional research, by prospectively evaluating maternal child-feeding practices, parenting style and…
Wilson, Ann L; Sideras, James
The 2011 annual report of the Regional Infant and Child Mortality Review Committee (RICMRC) is presented. Since 1997, the committee has reviewed 224 deaths to achieve its mission to "review infant and child deaths so that information can be transformed into action to protect young lives." In 2011, the committee reviewed 21 deaths (22 met the committee's criteria) of infants and children who were residents of Minnehaha, Turner, Lincoln, Hanson and Brookings counties in South Dakota. The manner of 12 of the reviewed deaths was natural with eight of these the result of progressive neurological diseases or conditions. In 2011 there were no deaths attributed to Sudden Infant Death Syndrome (SIDS), though there were two deaths of infants during sleep. One of these infants was ruled accidental as the baby died of aspiration and the other death occurred in an unsafe environment with its manner determined to be undecided. Six deaths were accidental, one of which occurred as a result of a fire in a home without functional smoke alarms. One motor vehicle death occurred, through no fault of the teen age driver. Another death resulted from tubing over a low head dam on the Big Sioux River. One youth suicide occurred to a resident of the region. PMID:23477038
Forry, Nicole; Anderson, Rachel; Zaslow, Martha; Chrisler, Alison; Banghart, Patti; Kreader, J. Lee
The Community Connections preschool program (herein referred to as Community Connections) was developed to help prepare children in home-based child care for success in school and in life. It has three goals: (1) to make state prekindergarten classroom experiences available to children in home-based care, (2) to extend classroom learning…
Wareham, Penny; Salmon, Karen
The preschool years are a critical period for all aspects of child development, and any disruption to cognitive or socio-emotional functioning at this stage has potential repercussions for current and future functioning. There is, therefore, a need for clinical interventions that optimize the functioning of children at risk of psychological disorders. In the current paper, we review research showing that the way in which parents discuss everyday experiences with their young children has significant implications for the children's cognitive and socio-emotional functioning. Specifically, mothers who engage their child in a rich elaborative style of talking about past experiences have children who also develop an elaborative style of remembering and reporting personal experiences. Evidence suggests that elaborative reminiscing can benefit children's social and self understanding, the quality of the parent-child relationship, and language and emergent literacy. Moreover, findings show that elements of the elaborative style can be identified and taught to parents. We propose that elaborative parent-child discussion about the past could form the basis of developmentally sensitive intervention during the preschool period. PMID:16815615
Mohd Nasir, Mohd Taib; Norimah, Abdul Karim; Hazizi, Abu Saad; Nurliyana, Abdul Razak; Loh, Siow Hon; Suraya, Ibrahim
This study aimed to determine the relationship between child feeding practices, food habits, and anthropometric indicators with cognitive performance of preschoolers aged 4-6 years in Peninsular Malaysia (n=1933). Parents were interviewed on socio-demographic background, nutrition knowledge, child feeding practices and food habits. Height and weight of the preschoolers were measured; BMI-for-age, weight-for-age and height-for-age were determined. Cognitive performance was assessed using Raven's Colored Progressive Matrices. The mean monthly household income was RM3610 and 59.6% of parents attained secondary education. Thirty-three percent of parents had good knowledge on nutrition, 39% satisfactory and 28% poor. For child feeding practices, perceived responsibility had the highest mean score (M=3.99, SD=0.72), while perceived child weight had the lowest (M=2.94, SD=0.38). The prevalence of possible risk of overweight, being overweight, and obesity were 3.9%, 7.9% and 8.1%, respectively, whereas the prevalence of underweight and stunting were 8.0% and 8.4%, respectively. Breakfast was the second most frequently skipped meal (16.8%) after dinner (18.1%). The mean cognitive score was 103.5 (SD=14.4). Height-for-age and consumption of dinner were found to contribute significantly towards cognitive performance after controlling for socio-demographic background and parent's nutrition knowledge. PMID:22265752
Goli, Srinivas; Arokiasamy, Perianayagam
This study reassessed the progress achieved since 1990 in maternal and child mortality indicators to test whether the progress is converging or diverging across countries worldwide. The convergence process is examined using standard parametric and non-parametric econometric models of convergence. The results of absolute convergence estimates reveal that progress in maternal and child mortality indicators is diverging for the entire period of 1990-2010 [maternal mortality ratio (MMR) - β = .00033, p < .574; neonatal mortality rate (NNMR) - β = .04367, p < .000; post-neonatal mortality rate (PNMR) - β = .02677, p < .000; under-five mortality rate (U5MR) - β = .00828, p < .000)]. In the recent period, such divergence is replaced with convergence for MMR but diverged for all the child mortality indicators. The results of Kernel density estimate reveal considerable reduction in divergence of MMR for the recent period; however, the Kernel density distribution plots show more than one 'peak' which indicates the emergence of convergence clubs based on their mortality levels. For child mortality indicators, the Kernel estimates suggest that divergence is in progress across the countries worldwide but tended to converge for countries with low mortality levels. A mere progress in global averages of maternal and child mortality indicators among a global cross-section of countries does not warranty convergence unless there is a considerable reduction in variance, skewness and range of change. PMID:24593038
Guimaraes, Sofia; McSherry, Kathleen
Examined whether activities in the preschool curriculum across Northern Ireland are more adult-directed or child-directed. Findings from observations of 71 preschool settings showed that the curriculum of most reception settings was more adult-directed, while most nursery schools, play groups, and private day nurseries adopted a child-initiated…
Becher, Heiko; Müller, Olaf; Dambach, Peter; Gabrysch, Sabine; Niamba, Louis; Sankoh, Osman; Simboro, Seraphin; Schoeps, Anja; Stieglbauer, Gabriele; Yé, Yazoume; Sié, Ali
Within relatively small areas, there exist high spatial variations of mortality between villages. In rural Burkina Faso, with data from 1993 to 1998, clusters of particularly high child mortality were identified in the population of the Nouna Health and Demographic Surveillance System (HDSS), a member of the INDEPTH Network. In this paper, we report child mortality with respect to temporal trends, spatial clustering and disparity in this HDSS from 1993 to 2012. Poisson regression was used to describe village-specific child mortality rates and time trends in mortality. The spatial scan statistic was used to identify villages or village clusters with higher child mortality. Clustering of mortality in the area is still present, but not as strong as before. The disparity of child mortality between villages has decreased. The decrease occurred in the context of an overall halving of child mortality in the rural area of Nouna HDSS between 1993 and 2012. Extrapolated to the Millennium Development Goals target period 1990-2015, this yields an estimated reduction of 54%, which is not too far off the aim of a two-thirds reduction. PMID:26821122
Strand, Paul S
Investigated the impact of a specific intervention on child cooperation. The intervention was designed to increase maternal coordination with child behavior. Mothers assigned to the experimental condition were instructed on how to modulate the specificity of directives to their preschooler as a function of the child's moment-to-moment behavior. Mothers assigned to the control condition received no such training. Degree of maternal coordination was then assessed. Child compliance during a pick-up task was also assessed. Compared to controls, experimental mothers had significantly higher scores on several measures of maternal coordination and experimental children were significantly more compliant. The relation between parental coordination and child socialization is discussed. PMID:11845652
Oni, G A
Using the 'indirect' demographic estimation technique, levels of child mortality for some selected socioeconomic characteristics of mothers in Ilorin, an urban community in Nigeria, were derived. The adjusted effects of these variables on child mortality were assessed. The variables found to exert significant independent effects on child mortality included the husbands education, area of residence in the town, the parity of the mother, her use of modern contraception, availability of indoor pipe-borne water and the use of a refrigerator by the household. Reliable or useful information on child mortality in this part of Nigeria is hard to come by, hence, the estimates provided here can serve as useful baseline data for evaluating the impacts of child survival activities that are currently going on in that part of the country. PMID:3227367
Valle, Eunice D. Vargas; Potter, Joseph E.; Fernández, Leticia
We investigate whether there is a relationship between religious affiliation and child mortality among indigenous and nonindigenous groups in Chiapas, México. Our analysis relies on Brass-type estimates of child mortality by ethnicity and religious affiliation and multivariate analyses that adjust for various socioeconomic and demographic factors. The data are from the 2000 Mexican Census 10 percent sample. Among indigenous people, Presbyterians have lower rates of child mortality than Catholics. However, no significant differentials are found in child mortality by religious affiliation among nonindigenous people. The indigenous health ministry of the Presbyterian Church and the social and cultural transformations that tend to accompany religious conversion may have an impact on child survival among disadvantaged populations such as the indigenous people in Chiapas. PMID:26146411
Moreira, Isabel; Severo, Milton; Oliveira, Andreia; Durão, Catarina; Moreira, Pedro; Barros, Henrique; Lopes, Carla
Parental child-feeding attitudes and practices may compromise the development of healthy eating habits and adequate weight status in children. This study aimed to identify maternal child-feeding patterns in preschool-aged children and to evaluate their association with maternal social and health behavioural characteristics. Trained interviewers evaluated 4724 dyads of mothers and their 4-5-year-old child from the Generation XXI cohort. Maternal child-feeding attitudes and practices were assessed through the Child Feeding Questionnaire and the Overt/Covert Control scale. Associations were estimated using linear regression [adjusted for maternal education, body mass index (BMI), fruit and vegetables (F&V) intake and child's BMI z-score]. Principal component analysis defined a three-factor structure explaining 58% of the total variance of maternal child-feeding patterns: perceived monitoring - representing mothers with higher levels of monitoring, perceived responsibility and overt control; restriction - characterizing mothers with higher covert control, restriction and concerns about child's weight; pressure to eat - identifying mothers with higher levels of pressure to eat and overt control. Lower socioeconomic status, better health perception, higher F&V intake and offspring cohabitation were associated with more 'perceived monitoring' mothers. Higher maternal F&V intake and depression were associated with more 'restrictive' mothers. Younger mothers, less educated, with poorer health perception and offspring cohabiting, were associated with higher use of 'pressure to eat'. Maternal socioeconomic indicators and family environment were more associated with perceived monitoring and pressure to eat, whereas maternal health behavioural characteristics were mainly associated with restriction. These findings will be helpful in future research and public health programmes on child-feeding patterns. PMID:24697990
Naerland, Terje; Martinsen, Harald
This study is based on video-recorded observations of 64 children during free play at their nursery. A measure of "social focus" in the preschool, regarded as an indicator of social status, was constructed from the amount of positive and neutral contacts children received from their peers. Only six children often received positive or neutral…
Gutmann, M P; Haines, M R; Frisbie, W P; Blanchard, K S
Using a representative sample of the Hispanic population of the United States based on the manuscripts of the 1910 census, we estimate childhood mortality for the period from approximately 1890 to 1910. We find high child mortality in the Hispanic population, higher than for non-Hispanic whites but not significantly different than among nonwhite non-Hispanics (mostly African Americans). Hispanic rural farm populations in California, Texas, and Arizona experienced high mortality, but not as high as other Hispanic populations. Child mortality was very high among Hispanic residents of New Mexico and those in Florida outside Tampa; it was especially low in the Hispanic population in Tampa. PMID:11086572
Randall, Brad; Wilson, Ann
The 2009 annual report of the Regional Infant and Child Mortality Review Committee (RICMRC) is presented. Since 1997, RICMRC has sought to achieve its mission to "review infant and child deaths so that information can be transformed into action to protect young lives." For the year 2009, the Committee reviewed 23 deaths from Minnehaha, Turner, Lincoln, Moody, Lake, McCook, Union, Hanson, Miner and Brookings counties that met the following criteria: Children under age 18 dying subsequent to hospital discharge following delivery. Children who either died in these counties from causes sustained in them, or residents who died elsewhere from causes sustained in the 10-county region. The acronym SUID, (Sudden Unexpected Infant Death), is being increasingly used by investigators of infant deaths. SUID is an intentionally broad category used for any infant death where the cause of death is unapparent or multifactorial. Sudden Infant Death Syndrome (SIDS) is a subset of SUID. No deaths categorized as SIDS occurred in 2009. The committee has observed a stable decline in the number of deaths due to SIDS for the last several years with the exception of two SIDS deaths that occurred in 2008. The national SIDS rate of 0.55 per 1000 live births would suggest that our region should have one SIDS death per year. It would appear, on the average, that our region's SIDS incidence is close to that number. Many investigators believe that a "diagnostic drift" is occurring in the SIDS diagnosis. These investigators believe that some deaths certified as SIDS in earlier years may now be classified as "undetermined," or in the new terminology, SUID. Although the committee strives to be consistent year to year in its death investigation protocols, we have noticed that the number of deaths classified as "undetermined" has been increasing over the last few years (Figure 1). The majority of our "undetermined" manners of infant deaths appear to be related to concerns about possible asphyxial
Noel, Melanie; Peterson, Carole; Jesso, Beulah
Oral language skills in the preschool years are predictive of children's later reading success and literacy acquisition, and among these language skills, vocabulary and narrative ability play important roles. Children from low socioeconomic families face risks to their language development and because of threats to these skills it is important to identify factors that promote their development among high-risk groups. This preliminary study explored two potential factors that may be related to language skills in 56 low SES mother-child dyads (children aged 2; 8-4; 10), namely child temperament and parenting stress. Results showed that child temperament and parenting stress were related to children's oral language skills. Child temperament characteristics that would likely aid social interaction were related to narrative ability and children rated high on emotionality had poorer receptive vocabulary skills. Parenting stress was related to children's receptive and expressive vocabulary skills. Results are interpreted in terms of the possible mediating role of parent-child interactions in children's oral language skill development, and future directions for family intervention are discussed. PMID:18838014
Schloß, Susan; Schramm, Magdalena; Christiansen, Hanna; Scholz, Kristin-Katharina; Schuh, Lioba Carmen; Döpfner, Manfred; Becker, Katja; Pauli-Pott, Ursula
An inadequate parent-child relationship with hostility, low warmth, and a lack of responsiveness/sensitivity on the part of the primary caregiver often accompanies a child's externalizing disorders and predicts a negative developmental course. The Preschool Five Minute Speech Sample (PFMSS) was developed to enable an economic assessment of components of an inadequate parent-child relationship. In this article we investigate aspects of the validity of the German version of the PFMSS. We analyze whether the PFMSS scales are associated with observed maternal sensitivity, symptoms of attention deficit-/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), oppositional defiant disorder (ODD), and maternal depressive symptoms. The sample consists of n = 114 families with 4- to 5-year-old children, whereof n = 65 (57 %) show heightened ADHD-symptoms. The families were recruited from local kindergardens. Maternal sensitivity was assessed by observing the mother-child interaction at home. ADHD, ODD, and maternal depressive ~symptoms were measured by clinical interviews and questionnaires. Most of the PFMSS scales showed the expected associations with maternal sensitivity, ADHD, and ODD symptoms of the child. The German PFMSS thus validly captures significant components of an inadequate mother-child relationship within the context of preschool externalizing behavior problems. PMID:26602046
Sherman, Susan N.; Kendeigh, Cassandra A.; Kalkwarf, Heidi J.; Saelens, Brian E.
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Three-fourths of US preschool-age children are in child care centers. Children are primarily sedentary in these settings, and are not meeting recommended levels of physical activity. Our objective was to identify potential barriers to children’s physical activity in child care centers. METHODS: Nine focus groups with 49 child care providers (55% African American) were assembled from 34 centers (inner-city, suburban, Head Start, and Montessori) in Cincinnati, Ohio. Three coders independently analyzed verbatim transcripts for themes. Data analysis and interpretation of findings were verified through triangulation of methods. RESULTS: We identified 3 main barriers to children’s physical activity in child care: (1) injury concerns, (2) financial, and (3) a focus on “academics.” Stricter licensing codes intended to reduce children's injuries on playgrounds rendered playgrounds less physically challenging and interesting. In addition, some parents concerned about potential injury, requested staff to restrict playground participation for their children. Small operating margins of most child care centers limited their ability to install abundant playground equipment. Child care providers felt pressure from state mandates and parents to focus on academics at the expense of gross motor play. Because children spend long hours in care and many lack a safe place to play near their home, these barriers may limit children's only opportunity to engage in physical activity. CONCLUSIONS: Societal priorities for young children—safety and school readiness—may be hindering children’s physical development. In designing environments that optimally promote children’s health and development, child advocates should think holistically about potential unintended consequences of policies. PMID:22218842
Vitiello, Virginia E.; Moas, Olga; Henderson, Heather A.; Greenfield, Daryl B.; Munis, Pelin M.
Research Findings: The purpose of this study was to examine whether child temperament differentially predicted academic school readiness depending on the quality of classroom interactions for 179 Head Start preschoolers. Teachers rated children's temperament as overcontrolled, resilient, or undercontrolled in the fall and reported on children's…
Sette, Stefania; Baumgartner, Emma; Schneider, Barry H.
The purpose of the present study was to examine the moderating role of child-teacher relationship quality (i.e., closeness, conflict, and dependence) in the association between children's shyness and indices of socio-emotional adjustment and maladjustment. The participants were Italian preschool children (63 boys; 66 girls) and two lead…
Wu, YunPeng; Wu, JianFen; Chen, YingMin; Han, Lei; Han, PiGuo; Wang, Peng; Gao, Fengqiang
Research Findings: The current study examined the moderating effects of gender and teacher-child relationship on the association between shyness and school adjustment (school liking and avoidance, cooperative and independent participation). The sample consisted of 524 preschool students from 3 cities of Shandong province in northern China. Mothers…
Choi, Ji Young; Castle, Sherri; Williamson, Amy C.; Young, Emisha; Worley, Lauren; Long, Melissa; Horm, Diane M.
Research Findings: The purpose of this study was to examine the potential contribution of teacher-child interactions to residualized Inhibitory Control (IC) gains over approximately a six-month period for preschoolers from predominantly low-income households. The study also explored whether the association between quality of teacher-child…
Portland State Univ., OR.
The manual is intended to encourage Head Start program and school district collaboration in providing an integrated system of services and support for the preschool handicapped child. The introduction identifies specific benefits of collaboration followed by a list of definitions of common terms used by the Head Start programs and school…
Can adults help children to understand the content in preschool educational television by watching shows with them? Research indicates that co-viewing occurs rarely and has mixed benefits for learning. This study investigates the idea that a special kind of adult-child co-viewing, namely "dialogic viewing," in which adults ask open-ended questions…
Zupancic, Maja; Kavcic, Tina
Three blocks of factors were considered as predictors of four year old children's (N = 286) personality, non-verbal intelligence and social behaviour in preschool: (a) personality characteristics at time 1 (T1) when the participants were three years old; (b) parental education and parenting practices measured at T1; and (c) age of child's entry to…
Wong, Ruth M.
A practicum designed to strengthen and expand day care staff members' knowledge about working with preschool children from crisis families had the following goals: (1) to provide staff with information about children in stressful situations; (2) to help staff recognize child behaviors that call for special attention; (3) to help staff implement…
Garner, Pamela W.; Waajid, Badiyyah
This study examined the relative contributions of emotion knowledge and teacher-child relational variables to school competence. Seventy-four economically and ethnically diverse preschoolers (40 boys, 34 girls) completed an emotion knowledge task and a standardized school competence measure. Classroom teachers and their assistants rated the…
Reynolds, Arthur J.; Ou, Suh-Ruu
The current study investigated the contribution of 5 hypotheses to the estimated effects of preschool in the Child-Parent Centers on occupational prestige, felony arrest, and depressive symptoms in adulthood in the Chicago Longitudinal Study. An alternative-intervention, quasi-experimental design included over 1,400 low-income participants (93% of…
Recchia, Susan; Bentley, Dana Frantz
The authors used qualitative case study methodology to explore parents' perceptions of their children's readiness for kindergarten. The authors interviewed parents, focusing on their children's experiences during their transition from a child-centered, play-based preschool setting guided by an emergent curriculum into a range of…
Perceived neighborhood informal social control may determine whether parents allow their young children to be physically active in the neighborhood. We developed and validated a scale of neighborhood child-centered informal social control appropriate for Latino parents of preschool-age children. The...
Newland, Rebecca P.; Crnic, Keith A.
The current study examined concurrent and longitudinal relations between maternal negative affective behaviour and child negative emotional expression in preschool age children with (n=96) or without (n=126) an early developmental risk, as well as the predictions of later behaviour problems. Maternal negative affective behaviour, child…
Fu, Wei; Ding, Li-Ren; Zhuang, Cheng; Zhou, Yu-Hao
Background Previous trials have shown that zinc supplementation can decrease the risk of diarrhea, pneumonia, and malaria in children; however, the effects of zinc supplementation on mortality remain unclear. This study aimed at evaluating the benefits and risks of zinc supplementation on both total mortality and cause-specific mortality. Methodology and Principal Findings We searched PubMed, EmBase, and the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials to identify randomized controlled trials in preschool children reporting total mortality or cause-specific mortality. Relative risk (RR) was used as a measure of the effect of zinc supplementation on the risk of mortality using a random effect model. Of the 1,520 identified articles, we included 8 trials reporting data on 87,854 children. Overall, zinc supplementation had no effect on total mortality (RR, 0.76; 95% CI: 0.56–1.04; P = 0.084), diarrhea-related mortality (RR, 0.80; 95% CI: 0.53–1.20; P = 0.276), pneumonia-related mortality (RR, 0.52; 95% CI: 0.11–2.39; P = 0.399), malaria-related mortality (RR, 0.90; 95% CI: 0.77–1.06; P = 0.196), or other causes of mortality (RR, 0.98; 95% CI: 0.67–1.44; P = 0.917). Subgroup analysis indicated that zinc supplementation was associated with a reduction in total mortality risk if the participants were boys, aged greater than 12 months, and the duration of the follow-up period was less than 12 months. Conclusions/Significance Zinc supplementation does not have an effect on total mortality, diarrhea-related mortality, pneumonia-related mortality, malaria-related mortality, or other causes of mortality. Subgroup analysis suggested that zinc supplementation can effectively reduce the risk of total mortality if the participants were boys, aged greater than 12 months, and the duration of the follow-up period was less than 12 months. PMID:24244591
Doherty, Tanya; Rohde, Sarah; Besada, Donela; Kerber, Kate; Manda, Samuel; Loveday, Marian; Nsibande, Duduzile; Daviaud, Emmanuelle; Kinney, Mary; Zembe, Wanga; Leon, Natalie; Rudan, Igor; Degefie, Tedbabe; Sanders, David
Background To examine changes in under–5 mortality, coverage of child survival interventions and nutritional status of children in Ethiopia between 2000 and 2011. Using the Lives Saved Tool, the impact of changes in coverage of child survival interventions on under–5 lives saved was estimated. Methods Estimates of child mortality were generated using three Ethiopia Demographic and Health Surveys undertaken between 2000 and 2011. Coverage indicators for high impact child health interventions were calculated and the Lives Saved Tool (LiST) was used to estimate child lives saved in 2011. Results The mortality rate in children younger than 5 years decreased rapidly from 218 child deaths per 1000 live births (95% confidence interval 183 to 252) in the period 1987–1991 to 88 child deaths per 1000 live births in the period 2007–2011 (78 to 98). The prevalence of moderate or severe stunting in children aged 6–35 months also declined significantly. Improvements in the coverage of interventions relevant to child survival in rural areas of Ethiopia between 2000 and 2011 were found for tetanus toxoid, DPT3 and measles vaccination, oral rehydration solution (ORS) and care–seeking for suspected pneumonia. The LiST analysis estimates that there were 60 700 child deaths averted in 2011, primarily attributable to decreases in wasting rates (18%), stunting rates (13%) and water, sanitation and hygiene (WASH) interventions (13%). Conclusions Improvements in the nutritional status of children and increases in coverage of high impact interventions most notably WASH and ORS have contributed to the decline in under–5 mortality in Ethiopia. These proximal determinants however do not fully explain the mortality reduction which is plausibly also due to the synergistic effect of major child health and nutrition policies and delivery strategies. PMID:27175280
Trussell, J; Hammerslough, C
The purpose of this paper is twofold: (a) to provide a complete self-contained exposition of estimating life tables with covariates through the use of hazards models, and (b) to illustrate this technique with a substantive analysis of child mortality in Sri Lanka, thereby demonstrating that World Fertility Survey data are a valuable source for the study of child mortality. We show that life tables with covariates can be easily estimated with standard computer packages designed for analysis of contingency tables. The substantive analysis confirms and supplements an earlier study of infant and child mortality in Sri Lanka by Meegama. Those factors found to be strongly associated with mortality are mother's and father's education, time period of birth, urban/rural/estate residence, ethnicity, sex, birth order, age of the mother at the birth, and type of toilet facility. PMID:6832431
Bernstein, Sandra; Wonderlick, Mary; Madden, Drina
This booklet, with English and Spanish versions, provides a step-by-step procedure to help families find an appropriate preschool program in the community for their child with disabilities. The booklet lists six steps for locating a program: (1) decide what kind of program is wanted for the child; (2) complete included form outlining child's needs…
The first Millennium Development Goal (MDG 1) due in 2015 concerns poverty reduction. It has been claimed to be fulfilled on a global level, but still more than 1 billion people are living in abject poverty. There is a strong link between the economy and child survival, and only a minority of countries will have reached the MDG target for child mortality reduction by 2015. This paper discusses the relationship between poverty and child survival. It argues that a focus on equity is necessary to further reduce child mortality, through poverty reduction in absolute terms and also through targeting interventions for increased child survival to disadvantaged populations. The political will to actually achieve real change for those in greatest need is crucial but not to be taken for granted, and the distribution rather than the generation of wealth needs to be made a priority in the post-MDG era. PMID:25613969
Nixon, Reginald D. V.; Sweeney, Lynne; Erickson, Deborah B.; Touyz, Stephen W.
The long-term effect of two parent training programs for conduct problem preschoolers is reported. Families of 54 behaviorally disturbed preschool-aged children were randomly assigned to 1 of 3 treatment conditions: standard Parent-Child Interaction Therapy (STD), an abbreviated form of PCIT (ABB), and a no-treatment waitlist control group (WL).…
I focus on the role of preschool intervention and developmental psychology researchers in defining the concept of the "disadvantaged child" and in designing and evaluating remedies to alleviate educational "disadvantages" in young children. I argue that preschool interventions concentrated especially on compensating for supposedly deficient…
de Haan, Annika K. E.; Elbers, Ed; Leseman, Paul P. M.
The aim of this study was to assess whether children's development benefited from teacher-and child-managed academic activities in the preschool and kindergarten classroom. Extensive systematic observations during four half-days in preschool ("n"?=?8) and kindergarten ("n"?=?8) classrooms revealed that classrooms differed…
Meindertsma, Heidi B.; van Dijk, Marijn W. G.; Steenbeek, Henderien W.; van Geert, Paul L. C.
In educational settings, continuous assessment of the child's level of understanding is necessary to effectively utilize the principles of scaffolding and to create contexts that can advance the scientific reasoning of the child. In this article, we argue that a child's performance is a dynamic notion that is created by all elements in an interaction, including the task. Therefore, we studied preschoolers' levels of scientific reasoning varying different properties of the assessment context. Young children were interviewed about four scientific tasks using one out of four different protocols (varying in the degree of flexibility and adaptiveness) by an adult. In the first study, different task contents resulted in different performance levels. The second study indicated that the most structured protocol elicited the highest maximum level of reasoning in children and the highest percentage of correct predictions. The third study showed differences between the protocols in the adult's verbal behavior. Adaptation in verbal behavior to different children by the adult did not result in higher scientific understanding by the children, whereas a higher degree of task structure did. Combined, the studies emphasize the importance of context, which has implications for assessment and teaching situations.
Mahoney, Gerald; Wheeden, C Abigail; Perales, Frida
Developmental outcomes attained by children receiving preschool special education services in relationship to both the general instructional approach used by their teachers and their parents' style of interaction were examined. The sample included 70 children from 41 Early Childhood Special Education (ECSE) classrooms. The type of instructional model children received was determined by dividing the sample into three clusters based upon six global ratings of children's classroom environment: Choice; Cognitive Problem-Solving; Child-Initiated Learning; Developmental Match; Child-Centered Routines; and Rewards and Discipline Strategies. Based on this analysis, 27 children were classified as receiving developmental instruction; 15 didactic instruction; and 28 naturalistic instruction. Observations of parent-child interaction collected at the beginning and end of the year were classified along four dimensions using the Maternal Behavior Rating Scale: Responsiveness, Affect, Achievement Orientation and Directiveness. Results indicated that the kinds of experiences that children received varied significantly across the three instructional models. However, there were no significant differences in the impact of these instructional models on children's rate of development. Regression analyses indicated that children's rate of development at the end of intervention was significantly related to their parents' style of interaction but was unrelated to the type of instructional model they received. PMID:15541631
Calzada, Esther J.; Brotman, Laurie Miller; Huang, Keng-Yen; Bat-Chava, Yael; Kingston, Sharon
Parent cultural adaptation and preschool behavioral and socioemotional functioning were examined in a community sample of urban families from diverse cultural backgrounds. Participants were 130 families of children (mean age = 4.1 years) attending eight public Pre-Kindergarten programs in urban communities. Parents completed a measure of cultural adaptation that taps into acculturation and enculturation, and teachers reported on children’s externalizing problems, internalizing problems and adaptive behavior in the classroom. Parents’ ethnic identity was a significant predictor of children’s functioning. The retention of parents’ culture of origin and specific aspects of acculturation are related to positive outcomes in a sample of culturally diverse families of preschoolers living in urban communities. Bicultural parents (those with high ethnic and US American identity) had children with lower levels of internalizing problems and higher levels of adaptive behavior relative to parents who were not bicultural. Implications for enhancing positive child outcomes through the promotion of parental ethnic identity are discussed. PMID:20559417
Hershkowitz, Irit; Lamb, Michael E; Orbach, Yael; Katz, Carmit; Horowitz, Dvora
This study examined age differences in 299 preschoolers' responses to investigative interviewers' questions exploring the suspected occurrence of child abuse. Analyses focused on the children's tendencies to respond (a) at all, (b) appropriately to the issue raised by the investigator, and (c) informatively, providing previously undisclosed information. Linear developmental trends characterized all types of responding. When the types of prompts were considered, 3- to 4-year-olds responded slightly more informatively to specific (directive) recall prompts than to open-ended prompts whereas children aged 5 and older were more responsive to open-ended recall prompts. The findings suggest that even 3-year-olds can provide information about experienced events when recall processes are activated, although the ability to provide narrative responses to open-ended recall prompts only becomes reliable later in development. PMID:22181976
Adedini, Sunday A; Odimegwu, Clifford; Imasiku, Eunice N S; Ononokpono, Dorothy N; Ibisomi, Latifat
There are substantial regional disparities in under-five mortality in Nigeria, and evidence suggests that both individual- and community-level characteristics have an influence on health outcomes. Using 2008 Nigeria Demographic and Health Survey data, this study (1) examines the effects of individual- and community-level characteristics on infant/child mortality in Nigeria and (2) determines the extent to which characteristics at these levels influence regional variations in infant/child mortality in the country. Multilevel Cox proportional hazard analysis was performed on a nationally representative sample of 28,647 children nested within 18,028 mothers of reproductive age, who were also nested within 886 communities. The results indicate that community-level variables (such as region, place of residence, community infrastructure, community hospital delivery and community poverty level) and individual-level factors (including child's sex, birth order, birth interval, maternal education, maternal age and wealth index) are important determinants of infant/child mortality in Nigeria. For instance, the results show a lower risk of death in infancy for children of mothers residing in communities with a high proportion of hospital delivery (HR: 0.70, p < 0.05) and for children whose mothers had secondary or higher education (HR: 0.84, p < 0.05). Although community factors appear to influence the association between individual-level factors and death during infancy and childhood, the findings consistently indicate that community-level characteristics are more important in explaining regional variations in child mortality, while individual-level factors are more important for regional variations in infant mortality. The results of this study underscore the need to look beyond the influence of individual-level factors in addressing regional variations in infant and child mortality in Nigeria. PMID:24411023
Huang, Yun; Wu, Yue; Schwebel, David C.; Zhou, Liang; Hu, Guoqing
Objective: Using estimates from the 2013 Global Burden of Disease (GBD) study, we update evidence on disparities in under-five child injury mortality between developing and developed countries from 1990 to 2013. Methods: Mortality rates were accessed through the online visualization tool by the GBD study 2013 group. We calculated percent change in child injury mortality rates between 1990 and 2013. Data analysis was conducted separately for <1 year and 1–4 years to specify age differences in rate changes. Results: Between 1990 and 2013, over 3-fold mortality gaps were observed between developing countries and developed countries for both age groups in the study time period. Similar decreases in injury rates were observed for developed and developing countries (<1 year: −50% vs. −50% respectively; 1–4 years: −56% vs. −58%). Differences in injury mortality changes during 1990–2013 between developing and developed nations varied with injury cause. There were greater reductions in mortality from transport injury, falls, poisoning, adverse effects of medical treatment, exposure to forces of nature, and collective violence and legal intervention in developed countries, whereas there were larger decreases in mortality from drowning, exposure to mechanical forces, and animal contact in developing countries. Country-specific analysis showed large variations across countries for both injury mortality and changes in injury mortality between 1990 and 2013. Conclusions: Sustained higher child injury mortality during 1990–2013 for developing countries merits the attention of the global injury prevention community. Countries that have high injury mortality can benefit from the success of other countries. PMID:27399740
Sahu, Damodar; Nair, Saritha; Singh, Lucky; Gulati, B.K.; Pandey, Arvind
Background & objectives: The level of infant and child mortality is high among Scheduled Tribes particularly those living in rural areas. This study examines levels, trends and socio-demographic factors associated with infant and child mortality among Scheduled Tribes in rural areas. Methods: Data from the three rounds of the National Family Health Survey (NFHS) of India from 1992 to 2006 were analysed to assess the levels and trends of infant and child mortality. Univariate and multivariate Cox proportional hazard model were used to understand the socio-economic and demographic factors associated with mortality during 1992–2006. Results: Significant change was observed in infant and child mortality over the time period from 1992-2006 among Scheduled Tribes in rural areas. After controlling for other factors, birth interval, household wealth, and region were found to be significantly associated with infant and child mortality. Hazard of infant mortality was highest among births to mothers aged 30 yr or more (HR=1.3, 95% CI=1.1-1.7) as compared with births to the mother's aged 20-29 yr. Hazard of under-five mortality was 42 per cent (95% CI=1.3-1.6) higher among four or more birth order compared with the first birth order. The risk of infant dying was higher among male children (HR = 1.2, 95% CI=1.1-1.4) than among female children while male children were at 30 per cent (HR=0.7, 95% CI=0.6-0.7) less hazard of child mortality than female children. Literate women were at 40 per cent (HR=0.6, 95% CI=0.50-0.76) less hazard of child death than illiterate women. Interpretation & conclusions: Mortality differentials by socio-demographic and economic factors were observed over the time period (1992-2006) among Scheduled Tribes (STs) in rural India. Findings support the need to focus on age at first birth and spacing between two births. PMID:26139791
De, Partha; Dhar, Arpita
The burden of social inequality falls disproportionately on child health and survival. This inequality raises the question of how wide this gap is, or what its relation is with the level of child mortality. Whether these disparities are increasing or declining with the development and how they differ from region to region or from state to state within the country needs to be looked into. As a measure of inequality and to compare the disparities between different states of India, concentration curves and indices are constructed from infant and under five mortality data classified under different quintiles of wealth index from the National Family Health Survey (NFHS-3) data of India. Inequality measures indicate that inequality in child mortality is more concentrated in the comparatively developed states than the poorer states in India. PMID:23435164
Murnan, Judy; Dake, Joseph A; Price, James H
This study examined relationships between variation in child and adolescent firearm mortality by state and the following variables: childhood poverty rate, percent single parent families, percent population that is African American, percent population that is Hispanic, percent students carrying a gun, percent students carrying a weapon, percent students feeling unsafe, percent students feeling sad/hopeless, percent students academically at-risk, percent students involved infighting, percent students engaging in binge drinking behavior, violent crime rate for youths, individual gun laws in each state, prevalence of firearm ownership, and percent residing in urban area. Stepwise regression was calculated and one independent variable, prevalence of firearm ownership in the state, emerged as a significant predictor of child and adolescent firearm mortality. This variable predicted 47% of the variance from state to state in the child and adolescent firearm mortality. Schools need to address firearm safety and advocate for elimination of firearms accessible to youth. PMID:15554120
This paper generates and analyses survey data on inequalities in mortality among infants and children aged under five years by consumption in Brazil, Côte d'Ivoire, Ghana, Nepal, Nicaragua, Pakistan, the Philippines, South Africa, and Viet Nam. The data were obtained from the Living Standards Measurement Study and the Cebu Longitudinal Health and Nutrition Survey. Mortality rates were estimated directly where complete fertility histories were available and indirectly otherwise. Mortality distributions were compared between countries by means of concentration curves and concentration indices: dominance checks were carried out for all pairwise intercountry comparisons; standard errors were calculated for the concentration indices; and tests of intercountry differences in inequality were performed. PMID:10686730
Hossain, Md Akhtar; Sumi, Nahid Sultana; Haque, M Ershadul; Bari, Wasimul
It is well established that intimate partner violence (IPV) against women adversely affects maternal morbidity and mortality. But a limited number of studies were found in the literature regarding the association between IPV and under-five child mortality. In this article, using Bangladesh Demographic and Health Survey (BDHS) 2007 data, we examined the effect of IPV on under-five child mortality. A product-limit approach was used for bivariate survival analysis, and Cox proportional hazard multiple regression models were used to investigate the effect of IPV controlling potential confounders. In bivariate analysis, the variables exposure to IPV, mother's age at birth, mother's education, residence type, division, number of children, wealth index, occupation, access to media, and decision autonomy were found to be potential risk factors for child mortality. Results indicated that women exposed to IPV were more likely to experience under-five child mortality compared with women not exposed. The unadjusted hazard ratio for IPV was 1.21 (95% confidence interval [CI] = [1.09, 1.35]) with p value < .01, whereas it was 1.16 (95% CI = [1.04, 1.29]) with p value < .01 and 1.13 (95% CI = [1.01, 1.26]) with p value < .05 in two adjusted models. These results implied that IPV against women is a problem not only for women but also for their children's survival. PMID:24288192
Valentino, Kristin; Nuttall, Amy K; Comas, Michelle; McDonnell, Christina G; Piper, Brianna; Thomas, Taylor E; Fanuele, Suzanne
Overgeneral memory (OGM) refers to difficulty in retrieving specific autobiographical memories. The tendency to be overgeneral in autobiographical memory recall is more commonly observed among individuals with emotional disorders compared with those without. Despite significant advances in theory and identification of mechanisms that underlie the etiology of OGM, there has been little integration between normative research on the development of autobiographical memory and research on OGM. Informed by a developmental psychopathology perspective and drawing on normative developmental research on the social construction of autobiographical memory, the current investigation examined whether the elaborative quantity and elaborative quality of maternal reminiscing are predictive of preschool-age children's autobiographical memory specificity. Additionally, this investigation tested whether children's positive self-representations may explain these hypothesized associations. Participants consisted of 95 mother-child dyads. Children's ages ranged between 3.5 and 6 years, and the sample was predominantly low income and of minority race/ethnicity. Dyads participated in a joint reminiscing task about 4 past events, and children participated in assessments of autobiographical memory specificity and self-representations. Results indicated that the elaborative quality, defined by maternal-sensitive guidance and emotional narrative coherence, but not the elaborative quantity, of maternal reminiscing style was significantly associated with children's autobiographical memory specificity. Additionally, there was support for an indirect pathway between maternal reminiscing quality and child memory specificity through children's positive self-representations. Directions for future research are discussed, and potential clinical implications are addressed. PMID:24219316
Roorda, Debora L; Verschueren, Karine; Vancraeyveldt, Caroline; Van Craeyevelt, Sanne; Colpin, Hilde
In this short-term longitudinal study, transactional links between teacher-child relationships and behavioral adjustment were investigated in a sample of preschool boys (N=175) at risk for developing externalizing problems. Teachers (N=175) reported about the quality of the teacher-child relationship (i.e., Closeness, Conflict, and Dependency) and about children's behavioral adjustment (i.e., Externalizing Behavior, Internalizing Behavior, and Prosocial Behavior) at three occasions within one school year. Cross-lagged path-analytic models showed positive bidirectional associations between Conflict and both Externalizing and Internalizing Behavior from Time 1 to Time 2, but not from Time 2 to Time 3. In addition, there was a transactional sequence with more Conflict at Time 1 leading to less Prosocial Behavior at Time 2 which, in turn, predicted more Conflict at Time 3. Closeness was reciprocally and positively related to Prosocial Behavior over time, and was positively and unidirectionally predicted by Internalizing Behavior. Dependency showed positive reciprocal links with Internalizing Behavior over time, and negatively and unidirectionally predicted Prosocial Behavior. These findings suggest that interventions may be most effective if they adjust their focus and strategy depending on children's specific behavioral and relational needs. PMID:25267171
Korenman, Sanders; Abner, Kristin S.; Kaestner, Robert; Gordon, Rachel A.
Children spend a considerable amount of time in preschools and child care centers. As a result, these settings may have an influence on their diet, weight, and food security, and are potentially important contexts for interventions to address nutritional health. The Child and Adult Care Food Program (CACFP) is one such intervention. No national study has compared nutrition-related outcomes of children in CACFP-participating centers to those of similar children in non-participating centers. We use a sample of four-year old children drawn from the Early Childhood Longitudinal Study, Birth Cohort to obtain estimates of associations between CACFP program participation and consumption of milk, fruits, vegetables, fast food, and sweets, and indicators of overweight, underweight status and food insecurity. We find that, among low-income children, CACFP participation moderately increases consumption of milk and vegetables, and may also reduce the prevalence of overweight and underweight. Effects on other outcomes are generally small and not statistically significant. PMID:23687405
Singh, Abhishek; Pathak, Praveen Kumar; Chauhan, Rajesh Kumar; Pan, William
Background Studies examining the intricate interplay between poverty, female literacy, child malnutrition, and child mortality are rare in demographic literature. Given the recent focus on Millennium Development Goals 4 (child survival) and 5 (maternal health), we explored whether the geographic regions that were underprivileged in terms of wealth, female literacy, child nutrition, or safe delivery were also grappling with the elevated risk of child mortality; whether there were any spatial outliers; whether these relationships have undergone any significant change over historical time periods. Methodology The present paper attempted to investigate these critical questions using data from household surveys like NFHS 1992–1993, NFHS 1998–1999 and DLHS 2002–2004. For the first time, we employed geo-spatial techniques like Moran's-I, univariate LISA, bivariate LISA, spatial error regression, and spatiotemporal regression to address the research problem. For carrying out the geospatial analysis, we classified India into 76 natural regions based on the agro-climatic scheme proposed by Bhat and Zavier (1999) following the Census of India Study and all estimates were generated for each of the geographic regions. Result/Conclusions This study brings out the stark intra-state and inter-regional disparities in infant and under-five mortality in India over the past two decades. It further reveals, for the first time, that geographic regions that were underprivileged in child nutrition or wealth or female literacy were also likely to be disadvantaged in terms of infant and child survival irrespective of the state to which they belong. While the role of economic status in explaining child malnutrition and child survival has weakened, the effect of mother's education has actually become stronger over time. PMID:22073208
... just as it was during the earlier years. Car safety is critical. The preschooler should ALWAYS wear a ... It is important to review your rules for car safety with others who may be supervising your child. ...
El-Ghannam, Ashraf Ragab
The study of child mortality occupies a special place in the field of demographic research, since it represents the negative component of population growth. Also, the world food problem has become a familiar topic since the end of the World War II. The idea that population growth will sometime in the future outrun food supplies and universal starvation occurs. This study deals with what happened in global and regional variations regarding the child malnutrition and mortality rates. The main objective of the study is to explain and to explore the effect of the social, demographic, economic and health factors on child malnutrition and mortality rates among different regions in the globe. The study includes ten regions of the whole world compared to other studies that covered only one or two regions. Data were collected from various sources. The sample involved 191 countries. These countries divided by regions of world as following. East Southern Africa, West Africa, East Asia and Pacific, South Asia, Eastern Europe and Central Asia, Europe, Middle East, North Africa, North America, and South America. The results of descriptive analysis show that the highest mean rate of child malnutrition was found in South Asia region (57 children per 100), while the smallest mean rate was found in Europe region (just 1 child per 100). In West Africa region, the average of child mortality rate per 1000, 172 children, was the highest among all regions in the world, while in Europe was found to be 14 children per 1000. The results of correlation coefficients reveal that there were positive associations between illiteracy rate, unemployment, poverty, fertility rate, family size, food consumption, maternal mortality rate, population per physician, and child malnutrition and mortality in the whole world regions. Some regions have strong significant associations, such as Sub-Saharan Africa, Asia, and Americas, and other were non-significant association, such as Europe, Middle East, and
Omariba, D. Walter Rasugu; Boyle, Michael H.
This study applies multilevel logistic regression to Demographic and Health Survey data from 22 sub-Saharan African countries to examine whether the relationship between child mortality and family structure, with a specific emphasis on polygyny, varies cross-nationally and over time. Hypotheses were developed on the basis of competing theories on…
Murnan, Judy; Dake, Joseph A.; Price, James H.
This study examined relationships between variation in child and adolescent firearm mortality by state and the following variables: childhood poverty rate, percent single parent families, percent population that is African American, percent population that is Hispanic. percent students carrying a gun, percent students carrying a weapon, percent…
Shandra, John M.; Nobles, Jenna E.; London, Bruce; Williamson, John B.
This study presents quantitative, sociological models designed to account for cross-national variation in child mortality. We consider variables linked to five different theoretical perspectives that include the economic modernization, social modernization, political modernization, ecological-evolutionary, and dependency perspectives. The study is…
Galiani, Sebastian; Gertler, Paul; Schargrodsky, Ernesto
While most countries are committed to increasing access to safe water and thereby reducing child mortality, there is little consensus on how to actually improve water services. One important proposal under discussion is whether to privatize water provision. In the 1990s Argentina embarked on one of the largest privatization campaigns in the world,…
McKeown, Kieran; Haase, Trutz; Pratschke, Jonathan
The study analyses determinants of child outcomes in a cohort of children who participated in the Free Pre-School Year. Child outcomes are measured through a before-and-after assessment of children using the Early Development Instrument. The sample comprises 448 children in 70 early years centres. There are three main findings. First, children…
Cipriano-Essel, Elizabeth; Skowron, Elizabeth A.; Stifter, Cynthia A.; Teti, Douglas M.
This study examined the contribution of child temperament, parenting, and their interaction on inhibitory control development in a sample of maltreated and non-maltreated preschool children. One hundred and eighteen mother-child dyads were drawn from predominantly low-income, rural communities. Dyads participated in a laboratory session in which…
Chang, Hyein; Olson, Sheryl L.; Sameroff, Arnold J.; Sexton, Holly R.
An explanatory model for children's development of disruptive behavior across the transition from preschool to school was tested. It was hypothesized that child effortful control would mediate the effects of parenting on children's externalizing behavior and that child sex would moderate these relations. Participants were 241 children (123 boys)…
Peisner-Feinberg, E S; Burchinal, M R; Clifford, R M; Culkin, M L; Howes, C; Kagan, S L; Yazejian, N
The cognitive and socioemotional development of 733 children was examined longitudinally from ages 4 to 8 years as a function of the quality of their preschool experiences in community child-care centers, after adjusting for family selection factors related to child-care quality and development. These results provide evidence that child-care quality has a modest long-term effect on children's patterns of cognitive and socioemotional development at least through kindergarten, and in some cases, through second grade. Differential effects on children's development were found for two aspects of child-care quality. Observed classroom practices were related to children's language and academic skills, whereas the closeness of the teacher-child relationship was related to both cognitive and social skills, with the strongest effects for the latter. Moderating influences of family characteristics were observed for some outcomes, indicating stronger positive effects of child-care quality for children from more at-risk backgrounds. These findings contribute further evidence of the long-term influences of the quality of child-care environments on children's cognitive and social skills through the elementary school years and are consistent with a bioecological model of development that considers the multiple environmental contexts that the child experiences. PMID:11699686
Reynolds, Arthur J.; Ou, Suh-Ruu
We investigated the contribution of five hypotheses to the estimated effects of preschool in the Child-Parent Centers on occupational prestige, felony arrest, and depressive symptoms in adulthood in the Chicago Longitudinal Study. An alternative-intervention, quasi-experimental design included over 1,400 low-income participants (93% of whom were black) who attended preschool for 1–2 years or the usual early educational intervention and were traced to age 24. LISREL analysis of five hypotheses (cognitive advantage, family support, school support, motivational advantage, and social adjustment) indicated that while each individually accounted for part of the estimated direct effect of preschool on adult well-being, the best-fitting model across outcomes included indicators of all five hypotheses. The full model completely accounted for the direct effect of preschool on occupational prestige and official felony arrest, and 79% on depression symptoms. Key mediators included cognitive skills at school entry, school quality in the elementary grades, juvenile arrest, and school completion. The identified processes may help establish, strengthen, and sustain effects in other programs and settings. PMID:21410923
Requejo, Jennifer Harris; Nien, Jyh Kae; Merialdi, Mario; Bustreo, Flavia; Betran, Ana Pilar
Objectives. We analyzed trends in maternal, newborn, and child mortality in Chile between 1990 and 2004, after the introduction of national interventions and reforms, and examined associations between trends and interventions. Methods. Data were provided by the Chilean Ministry of Health on all pregnancies between 1990 and 2004 (approximately 4 000 000). We calculated yearly maternal mortality ratios, stillbirth rates, and mortality rates for neonates, infants (aged > 28 days and < 1 year), and children aged 1 to 4 years. We also calculated these statistics by 5-year intervals for Chile's poorest to richest district quintiles. Results. During the study period, the maternal mortality ratio decreased from 42.1 to 18.5 per 100 000 live births. The mortality rate for neonates decreased from 9.0 to 5.7 per 1000 births, for infants from 7.8 to 3.1 per 1000 births, and for young children from 3.1 to 1.7 per 1000 live births. The stillbirth rate declined from 6.0 to 5.0 per 1000 births. Disparities in these mortality statistics between the poorest and richest district quintiles also decreased, with the largest mortality reductions in the poorest quintile. Conclusions. During a period of socioeconomic development and health sector reforms, Chile experienced significant mortality and inequity reductions. PMID:19443831
Macassa, Gloria; Ghilagaber, Gebrenegus; Bernhardt, Eva; Diderichsen, Finn; Burström, Bo
This study investigates the relation between socio-economic parental position (education and occupation) and child death in Mozambique using data from the Mozambican Demographic and Health Survey carried out between March and July 1997. The analysis included 9142 children born within 10 years before the survey. In spite of the Western system of classification used in the study, the results partly showed a parental socio-economic gradient of infant and child mortality in Mozambique. Father's education seemed to reflect the family's social standing in the Mozambique context, showing a strong statistical association with postneonatal and child mortality. However, maternal education as a measure of socio-economic position was not statistically significantly associated with child mortality. This finding may partly be explained by the extreme hardships experienced by the country (civil war and natural disasters) and the implementation of the Economic Structural Adjustment Programme that have also affected the health of women and their children during the years covered by this study. Other measures of socio-economic position applicable to the rural African setting should be investigated. PMID:14572835
The increased attention to tracking progress towards the Millennium Development Goals (MDG), including Goal 4 of reducing child mortality, has drawn attention to a number of interrelated technical, operational and political challenges and to the underlying weaknesses of country health information systems upon which reliable monitoring depends. Assessments of child mortality published in 2005, for almost all low-income countries, are based on an extrapolation of the trends observed during the 1990s, rather than on the empirical data for more recent years. The validity of the extrapolation depends on the quality and quantity of the data used, and many countries lack suitable data. In the long run, it is hoped that vital registration or sample registration systems will be established to monitor vital events in a sustainable way. However, in the short run, tracking child mortality in high-mortality countries will continue to rely on household surveys and extrapolations of historical trends. This will require more collaborative efforts both to collect data through initiatives to strengthen health information systems at the country level, and to harmonize the estimation process. The latter objective requires the continued activity of a coordinating group of international agencies and academics that aims to produce transparent estimates -- through the consistent application of an agreed-upon methodology --for monitoring at the international level. PMID:16583082
Yoshikawa, Hirokazu; Leyva, Diana; Snow, Catherine E; Treviño, Ernesto; Barata, M Clara; Weiland, Christina; Gomez, Celia J; Moreno, Lorenzo; Rolla, Andrea; D'Sa, Nikhit; Arbour, Mary Catherine
We assessed impacts on classroom quality and on 5 child language and behavioral outcomes of a 2-year teacher professional-development program for publicly funded prekindergarten and kindergarten in Chile. This cluster-randomized trial included 64 schools (child N = 1,876). The program incorporated workshops and in-classroom coaching. We found moderate to large positive impacts on observed emotional and instructional support as well as classroom organization in prekindergarten classrooms after 1 year of the program. After 2 years of the program, moderate positive impacts were observed on emotional support and classroom organization. No significant program impacts on child outcomes were detected at posttest (1 marginal effect, an increase in a composite of self-regulation and low problem behaviors, was observed). Professional development for preschool teachers in Chile can improve classroom quality. More intensive curricular approaches are needed for these improvements to translate into effects on children. PMID:25706589
Brockerhoff, M.; Hewett, P.
Accounts by journalists of wars in several countries of sub-Saharan Africa in the 1990s have raised concern that ethnic cleavages and overlapping religious and racial affiliations may widen the inequalities in health and survival among ethnic groups throughout the region, particularly among children. Paradoxically, there has been no systematic examination of ethnic inequality in child survival chances across countries in the region. This paper uses survey data collected in the 1990s in 11 countries (Central African Republic, Côte d'Ivoire, Ghana, Kenya, Mali, Namibia, Niger, Rwanda, Senegal, Uganda, and Zambia) to examine whether ethnic inequality in child mortality has been present and spreading in sub-Saharan Africa since the 1980s. The focus was on one or two groups in each country which may have experienced distinct child health and survival chances, compared to the rest of the national population, as a result of their geographical location. The factors examined to explain potential child survival inequalities among ethnic groups included residence in the largest city, household economic conditions, educational attainment and nutritional status of the mothers, use of modern maternal and child health services including immunization, and patterns of fertility and migration. The results show remarkable consistency. In all 11 countries there were significant differentials between ethnic groups in the odds of dying during infancy or before the age of 5 years. Multivariate analysis shows that ethnic child mortality differences are closely linked with economic inequality in many countries, and perhaps with differential use of child health services in countries of the Sahel region. Strong and consistent results in this study support placing the notion of ethnicity at the forefront of theories and analyses of child mortality in Africa which incorporate social, and not purely epidemiological, considerations. Moreover, the typical advantage of relatively small, clearly
Umek, Ljubica Marjanovic; Kranjc, Simona; Fekonja, Urska
This study examined the impact of a multicultural preschool curriculum in Slovenia on preschool children's sensitization to cultural differences and understanding of themselves, others, and different cultures. The curriculum was implemented for a 1-month period for 6.6- to 7-year-olds. Multicultural enrichment was evident in wall decorations, toys…
Smidt, Wilfried; Rossbach, Hans-Günther
A large body of research has examined the quality of educational processes in preschools, but it has usually been studied at the group level. Thus, there is a lack of research on the quality of educational processes as experienced by individual children. Therefore, this study investigated the quality of educational processes in preschools at the…
Keys, Tran D.; Farkas, George; Burchinal, Margaret R.; Duncan, Greg J.; Vandell, Deborah L.; Li, Weilin; Ruzek, Erik A.; Howes, Carollee
This article examines associations between observed quality in preschool center classrooms for approximately 6,250 three- to five-year-olds and their school readiness skills at kindergarten entry. Secondary analyses were conducted using data from four large-scale studies to estimate the effects of preschool center quality and interactions between…
Dang, Tran T.; Farkas, George; Burchinal, Margaret R.; Duncan, Greg J.; Vandell, Deborah L.; Li, Weilin; Ruzek, Erik A.; Howes, Carollee
The aim of this paper is to address two research questions related to the policy goal of having all children ready to learn at kindergarten entry. First, to what extent are children's cognitive and achievement skills higher when they experience higher quality preschools? Second, are the effects of preschool center quality on these school readiness…
Larsen, Jean M.; Draper, Thomas W.
Part of a 10-year project that will follow five waves of educationally advantaged children from preschool through the fourth grade, this study examined the immediate effects of attending preschool on social competence. Once in the year prior to kindergarten entry and again near the conclusion of kindergarten, trained testers completed the…
Son, Seung-Hee; Lee, Kangyi; Sung, Miyoung
Research Findings: We examined relations among preschoolers' behavioral regulation, gender, and school readiness outcomes in preacademic and classroom skills using a sample of South Korean preschoolers aged 3-5 ("N" = 229). Behavioral regulation was assessed using a direct measure, the Head-Toes-Knees-Shoulders task, which requires children to…
Keys, Tran D.; Farkas, George; Burchinal, Margaret R.; Duncan, Greg J.; Vandell, Deborah L.; Li, Weilin; Ruzek, Erik A.
The aim of this paper is to address two research questions related to the policy goal of having all children ready to learn at kindergarten entry. First, to what extent are children's socioemotional skills and behavior higher when they experience higher quality preschools? Second, are the effects of preschool center quality on these school…
The present paper reviews the methods available for neurological or neuromotor evaluation at preschool age. General textbooks on pediatric neurology describe the neurological examination at preschool age in terms of the assessment of the evaluation of cranial nerves, muscle tone, muscle power, reflexes, and the presence of abnormal movements. They…
In recent years, compelling research has found that mastery of early math concepts at a preschool level is a better predictor of later academic outcomes than literacy. Partly driven by these findings, increasing attention is being focused on improving math pedagogy at the preschool level. The issue has assumed added urgency as a result of…
How can preschool teachers approach multiplicity and complexity in the preschool? The aim of this article is to discuss two approaches to education, one based on design and the other on open reflection, and to propose "situational sensitivity" as a concept connected within the latter approach. Special attention is paid to the ethical…
Bell, Carolyn L.
The document reports on a survey of books, nursery rhymes, coloring books, clothing, television programs, records, and toys which tend to stereotype American Indians in the minds of preschool children. Also included are interviews with parents of preschool children and with nursery school teachers, the results of which indicate that the preschool…
Hale, Catherine; Windecker, Elizabeth
To gather information on the relationship of parent behavior during reading situations to preschool children's cognitive ability, a study of 12 female and 9 male preschool children and their parents was undertaken. Children were administered a battery of tests that measured intelligence, creativity, perceived self-competence, and language skills.…
Mercer, Laina D; Wakefield, Jon; Pantazis, Athena; Lutambi, Angelina M; Masanja, Honorati; Clark, Samuel
Many people living in low and middle-income countries are not covered by civil registration and vital statistics systems. Consequently, a wide variety of other types of data including many household sample surveys are used to estimate health and population indicators. In this paper we combine data from sample surveys and demographic surveillance systems to produce small area estimates of child mortality through time. Small area estimates are necessary to understand geographical heterogeneity in health indicators when full-coverage vital statistics are not available. For this endeavor spatio-temporal smoothing is beneficial to alleviate problems of data sparsity. The use of conventional hierarchical models requires careful thought since the survey weights may need to be considered to alleviate bias due to non-random sampling and non-response. The application that motivated this work is estimation of child mortality rates in five-year time intervals in regions of Tanzania. Data come from Demographic and Health Surveys conducted over the period 1991–2010 and two demographic surveillance system sites. We derive a variance estimator of under five years child mortality that accounts for the complex survey weighting. For our application, the hierarchical models we consider include random effects for area, time and survey and we compare models using a variety of measures including the conditional predictive ordinate (CPO). The method we propose is implemented via the fast and accurate integrated nested Laplace approximation (INLA). PMID:27468328
Lee, Yeoun Joo; Hwang, Jae-Yeon; Cho, Yong Hoon; Kim, Yong-Woo; Kim, Tae Un; Shin, Dong Hoon
Gastrointestinal (GI) bleeding in pediatric patients has several causes. Vascular malformation of the small bowel is a rare disease leading to pediatric GI bleeding. To our knowledge, few reports describe ultrasound and computed tomography findings of venous malformations involving the small bowel. We present a case of long-segmental and circumferential vascular malformation that led to GI bleeding in a pre-school aged child, focusing on the radiologic findings. Although vascular malformation including of the GI tract is rare in children, it should be considered when GI bleeding occurs in pediatric patients. PMID:27110342
Ragonesi, Christina B.; Chen, Xi; Agrawal, Sunil; Galloway, James Cole
Purpose Our previous study found it feasible for a preschooler with cerebral palsy (CP) to use a power mobility device in his classroom but noted a lack of typical socialization. The purpose of this follow-up study was to determine the feasibility of providing mobility and socialization training for this child. Methods Will, a 3-year-old with CP, one comparison peer, two preschool teachers, and two therapists were filmed daily during a training and post-training phase. Adult-directed training was provided in the classroom by therapists and teachers during the training phase. Mobility and socialization measures were coded from video. Outcomes During training, Will demonstrated higher socialization but less mobility than the comparison peer. Post training, Will socialized less but was more mobile, though less mobile than the comparison peer. Discussion Short-term, adult-directed power mobility and socialization training appears feasible for the preschool classroom. Important issues regarding socialization and power mobility are discussed. PMID:22090084
Parker, Alison E.; Mathis, Erin T.; Kupersmidt, Janis B.
The study examined children’s recognition of emotion from faces and body poses, as well as gender differences in these recognition abilities. Preschool-aged children (N = 55) and their parents and teachers participated in the study. Preschool-aged children completed a web-based measure of emotion recognition skills, which included five tasks (three with faces and two with bodies). Parents and teachers reported on children’s aggressive behaviors and social skills. Children’s emotion accuracy on two of the three facial tasks and one of the body tasks was related to teacher reports of social skills. Some of these relations were moderated by child gender. In particular, the relationships between emotion recognition accuracy and reports of children’s behavior were stronger for boys than girls. Identifying preschool-aged children’s strengths and weaknesses in identification of emotion from faces and body poses may be helpful in guiding interventions with children who have problems with social and behavioral functioning that may be due, in part, to emotional knowledge deficits. Further developmental implications of these findings are discussed. PMID:27057129
Reviews three software programs appropriate for preschool children. "Millie & Bailey Preschool" by Edmark covers early concepts in language and math. "Jumpstart Preschool" from Knowledge Adventure offers 20 activities, including songs, and it tracks each child's progress. "Reader Rabbit's Preschool" by The Learning Company introduces preschoolers…
Smith-Greenaway, Emily; Thomas, Kevin
Internal migration is a salient dimension of adulthood in Haiti, particularly among women. Despite the prevalence of migration in Haiti, it remains unknown whether Haitian women’s diverse patterns of migration influence their children’s health and survival. In this paper, we introduce the concept of lateral (i.e., rural-to-rural, urban-to-urban) versus nonlateral (i.e., rural-to-urban, urban-to-rural) migration to describe how some patterns of mothers’ internal migration may be associated with particularly high mortality among children. We use the 2006 Haitian Demographic and Health Survey to estimate a series of discrete-time hazard models among 7,409 rural children and 3,864 urban children. We find that, compared with their peers with nonmigrant mothers, children born to lateral migrants generally experience lower mortality whereas those born to nonlateral migrants generally experience higher mortality. Although there are important distinctions across Haiti’s rural and urban contexts, these associations remain net of socioeconomic factors, suggesting they are not entirely attributable to migrant selection. Considering the timing of maternal migration uncovers even more variation in the child health implications of maternal migration; however, the results counter the standard disruption and adaptation perspective. Although future work is needed to identify the processes underlying the differential risk of child mortality across lateral versus nonlateral migrants, the study demonstrates that looking beyond rural-to-urban migration and considering the timing of maternal migration can provide a fuller, more complex understanding of migration’s association with child health. PMID:25506111
Arteaga, Irma; Humpage, Sarah; Reynolds, Arthur J.; Temple, Judy A.
Until the last year, public funding for preschool education had been growing rapidly over a decade with most state programs providing one year of preschool for four year olds. Fewer three year olds are enrolled in preschool. To investigate the importance of enrollment duration, this study is the first to estimate long-term dosage effects of years of preschool. We use data from a cohort of 1,500 students in the Chicago Longitudinal Study who enrolled in the Chicago Public Schools in the mid-1980s. Many of these students participated in a high-quality preschool program called Child-Parent Centers (CPC) for one or two years. To address selection with multiple treatments, we employ inverse propensity score weighting. Relative to children who attended one year of CPC preschool, the two-year group is significantly less likely to receive special education or be abused or neglected or to commit crimes. The findings provide support for the long-term benefits of greater exposure to preschool. PMID:26823640
Ribeiro, Fanciele Dinis; Ferrari, Rosângela Aparecida Pimenta; Sant'Anna, Flávia Lopes; Dalmas, José Carlos; Girotto, Edmarlon
OBJECTIVE: To analyze the characteristics of infant mortality at the extremes of maternal age. METHOD: Retrospective, cross-sectional quantitative study using data from Live Birth Certificates, Death Certificates and from Child Death Investigation records in Londrina, Paraná, in the years of 2000-2009. RESULTS: During the 10-year study period , there were 176 infant deaths among mothers up to 19 years of age, and 113 deaths among mothers aged 35 years or more. The infant mortality rate among young mothers was 14.4 deaths per thousand births, compared to 12.9 deaths in the other age group. For adolescent mothers, the following conditions prevailed: lack of a stable partner (p<0.001), lack of a paid job (p<0.001), late start of prenatal care in the second trimester of pregnancy (p<0.001), fewer prenatal visits (p<0.001) and urinary tract infections (p<0.001). On the other hand, women aged 35 or more had a higher occurrence of hypertension during pregnancy (p<0.001), and of surgical delivery (p<0.001). Regarding the underlying cause of infant death, congenital anomalies prevailed in the group of older mothers (p=0.002), and external causes were predominant in the group of young mothers (p=0.019). CONCLUSION: Both age groups deserve the attention of social services for maternal and child health, especially adolescent mothers, who presented a higher combination of factors deemed hazardous to the child's health. PMID:25511003
Bermejo, Raoul; Firth, Sonja; Hodge, Andrew; Jimenez-Soto, Eliana; Zeck, Willibald
Background Health-related within-country inequalities continue to be a matter of great interest and concern to both policy makers and researchers. This study aims to assess the level and the distribution of child mortality outcomes in the Philippines across geographical and socioeconomic indicators. Methodology Data on 159,130 children ever borne were analysed from five waves of the Philippine Demographic and Health Survey. Direct estimation was used to construct under-five and neonatal mortality rates for the period 1980–2013. Rate differences and ratios, and where possible, slope and relative indices of inequality were calculated to measure disparities on absolute and relative scales. Stratification was undertaken by levels of rural/urban location, island groups and household wealth. Findings National under-five and neonatal mortality rates have shown considerable albeit differential reductions since 1980. Recently released data suggests that neonatal mortality has declined following a period of stagnation. Declines in under-five mortality have been accompanied by decreases in wealth and geography-related absolute inequalities. However, relative inequalities for the same markers have remained stable over time. For neonates, mixed evidence suggests that absolute and relative inequalities have remained stable or may have risen. Conclusion In addition to continued reductions in under-five mortality, new data suggests that the Philippines have achieved success in addressing the commonly observed stagnated trend in neonatal mortality. This success has been driven by economic improvement since 2006 as well as efforts to implement a nationwide universal health care campaign. Yet, such patterns, nonetheless, accorded with persistent inequalities, particularly on a relative scale. A continued focus on addressing universal coverage, the influence of decentralisation and armed conflict, and issues along the continuum of care is advocated. PMID:26431409
Dougherty, Lea R.; Klein, Daniel N.; Olino, Thomas M.; Dyson, Margaret; Rose, Suzanne
Background: Elevated morning cortisol is a prospective predictor of major depression and may serve as a vulnerability marker. We examined the relation between morning cortisol and two prominent risk factors for depression in preschool-aged children: maternal depression and child temperament. We also explored whether maternal depression during the…
Kontos, Susan; Wilcox-Herzog, Amanda
It is generally agreed that because so much basic early learning occurs through interactive experiences when children are very young, the quality of teacher-child interactions contributes substantially to effects of group care and preschool education on children. Thus it is important to know if specialized teacher education in early childhood…
Lindeman, Karen Wise
This study investigated how a child with early cochlear implantation interacted with peers in his inclusive preschool setting. A qualitative case-study framed in a socio-linguistic framework guided the data collection and analysis. Data collection included detailed field notes, classroom free play observations, informal student interviews, teacher…
Title: PARENT WEIGHT CHANGE PREDICTS CHILD WEIGHT CHANGE IN FAMILY-BASED WEIGHT CONTROL PROGRAM FOR PRE-SCHOOL CHILDREN (BUFFALO HEALTHY TOTS), Teresa Quattrin, MOl, James N Roemmich, PhDI, Rocco Paluch, MAl, Jihnhee Yu, PhD2, Leonard H Epstein, PhDI and Michelle A Ecker, RD, CDEI . lpediatrics, Uni...
Marston, Milly; Zaba, Basia; Salomon, Joshua A; Brahmbhatt, Heena; Bagenda, Danstan
For a given prevalence, HIV has a relatively higher impact on child mortality when mortality from other causes is low. To project the effect of the epidemic on child mortality, it is necessary to estimate a realistic schedule of "net" age-specific mortality rates that would operate if HIV were the only cause of child death observable. We assume that this net pattern would be independent of mortality from other causes. We used African studies that measured the survival of HIV-infected children (direct data) or survival of children of HIV-infected mothers (indirect data). We developed a mathematic procedure to estimate the mortality of infected children from indirect data sources and obtained net HIV mortality patterns for each study population. The net age-specific HIV mortality pattern for infected children can be described by a double Weibull curve fitted to empiric data; this gives a functional representation of age-specific mortality rates that decline after infancy and rise in the preteens. The fitted curve that we would expect if HIV were the only effective cause of death shows 67% net survival at 1 year and 39% at 5 years. The curve also predicts 13% net survival at 10 years using constraints based on survival of infected adults. PMID:15671809
Lu, Michael C; Highsmith, Keisher; de la Cruz, David; Atrash, Hani K
Maternal mortality and severe morbidity are on the rise in the United States. A significant proportion of these events are preventable. The Maternal Health Initiative (MHI), coordinated by the Maternal and Child Health Bureau at the Health Resources and Services Administration, is intensifying efforts to reduce maternal mortality and severe morbidity in the U.S. Through a public-private partnership, MHI is taking a comprehensive approach to improving maternal health focusing on five priority areas: improving women's health before, during and beyond pregnancy; improving the quality and safety of maternity care; improving systems of maternity care including both clinical and public health systems; improving public awareness and education; and improving surveillance and research. PMID:25626713
Erdozain, P; Mikelarena, F
"This article analyzes the following four questions. Firstly, the evolutions of infant and child mortality and the evolution of marital fertility in rural Navarre [Spain] from 1860 to 1930. Secondly, the [registered] changes around the size and the composition of the rural households in the central area of Navarre where the stem-family prevailed....Thirdly, the evolution of the quotient between the numbers of potentially active household members and the number of consumption units. Finally, the technical change effects concerning the family labor requirements: the agrarian mechanization process and the intensification of crops." (EXCERPT) PMID:12321157
Musaad, Salma M A; Donovan, Sharon M; Fiese, Barbara H
Approximately 23% of preschoolers are overweight or obese. Establishing a healthy dietary lifestyle at an early age can improve later child diet and body weight. This study examined the determinants of past infant feeding practices that do not follow standard feeding recommendations (breastfeeding for less than 6 months duration, cow's milk prior to the first year of age and solid foods at or before 4 months of age). It also examined the role of parental perception of child weight in the first 2 years-of-life on past infant feeding practices as well as current child diet and body weight. Families of 497 preschoolers aged 22-63 months (39.0 ± 8.2) were recruited from 30 child care centers in East-Central Illinois. Main findings indicate that past infant feeding practices were common and varied by socio-demographic factors including race/ethnicity, parental education and child gender. Children perceived as overweight in the first 2 years-of-life tended to breastfeed for lesser duration. Additionally, the majority (79.8%) of preschoolers who were classified as overweight using BMI percentile were perceived as non-overweight by the parent in the first 2 years-of-life. Mean daily total fatty/sugary food intake was higher among those perceived to be non-overweight in the first 2 years-of-life. These findings have identified parental perception of child weight in the first 2 years-of-life as a modifiable risk factor for unhealthy child diet and obesity among preschoolers. PMID:25843938
Fauveau, V; Wojtyniak, B; Chakraborty, J; Sarder, A M; Briend, A
OBJECTIVE--To examine the impact on mortality of a child survival strategy, mostly based on preventive interventions. DESIGN--Cross sectional comparison of cause specific mortality in two communities differing in the type, coverage, and quality of maternal and child health and family planning services. In the intervention area the services were mainly preventive, community based, and home delivered. SUBJECTS--Neonates, infants, children, and mothers in two contiguous areas of rural Bangladesh. INTERVENTIONS--In the intervention area community health workers provided advice on contraception and on feeding and weaning babies; distributed oral rehydration solution, vitamin A tablets for children under 5, and ferrous fumarate and folic acid during pregnancy; immunised children; trained birth attendants in safe delivery and when to refer; treated minor ailments; and referred seriously ill people and malnourished children to a central clinic. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES--Overall and age and cause specific death rates, obtained by a multiple step "verbal autopsy" process. RESULTS--During the two years covered by the study overall mortality was 17% lower among neonates, 9% lower among infants aged 1-5 months, 30% lower among children aged 6-35 months, and 19% lower among women living in the study area than in those living in the control area. These differences were mainly due to fewer deaths from neonatal tetanus, measles, persistent diarrhoea with severe malnutrition among children, and fewer abortions among women. CONCLUSIONS--The programme was effective in preventing some deaths. In addition to preventive components such as tetanus and measles immunisation, health and nutrition education, and family planning, curative services are needed to reduce mortality further. PMID:2390566
Sandiford, P; Morales, P; Gorter, A; Coyle, E; Smith, G D
A comprehensive review of available sources of mortality data was undertaken to document the changes that have occurred in infant mortality in Nicaragua over the last three decades. It was found that a rapid fall in infant mortality commenced in the early 1970s and has continued steadily since. Trends in several different factors which might have led to this breakthrough were examined including: income, nutrition, breastfeeding practices, maternal education, immunizations, access to health services, provision of water supplies and sanitation, and anti-malarial programs. Of these, improved access to health services appears to have been the most important factor. At a time when the number of hospital beds per capita was dropping, increasing numbers of health care professionals, particularly nurses, were becoming available to staff primary health care facilities built in the 1960s. These were provided at least partly in response to the growing political turmoil enveloping the nation at that time. Certain Nicaraguan cultural attributes may have added to the impact of the reforms. Efforts in the field of public health made since the 1979 insurrection appear to have maintained the decline in child mortality. PMID:1983913
New medical inventions for saving young lives are not enough if these do not reach the children and the mother. The present paper provides new evidence that institutional delivery can significantly lower child mortality risks, because it ensures effective and timely access to modern diagnostics and medical treatments to save lives. We exploit the exogenous variation in community's access to local health facilities (both traditional and modern) before and after the completion of the 'Women's Health Project' in 2005 (that enhanced emergency obstetric care in women friendly environment) to identify the causal effect of hospital delivery on various mortality rates among children. Our best estimates come from the parents fixed effects models that help limiting any parents-level omitted variable estimation bias. Using 2007 Bangladesh Demographic Health Survey data from about 6000 children born during 2002-2007, we show that, ceteris paribus, access to family welfare clinic particularly boosted hospital delivery likelihood, which in turn lowered neo-natal, early and infant mortality rates. The beneficial effect was particularly pronouncedamong adolescent mothers after the completion of Women's Health Project in 2005; infant mortality for this cohort was more than halved when delivery took place in a health facility. PMID:26363451
Miller, Grant; Urdinola, B. Piedad
Recent studies demonstrate procyclical mortality in wealthy countries, but there are reasons to expect a countercyclical relationship in developing nations. We investigate how child survival in Colombia responds to fluctuations in world Arabica coffee prices – and document starkly procyclical child deaths. In studying this result’s behavioral underpinnings, we highlight that: (1) The leading determinants of child health are inexpensive but require considerable time, and (2) As the value of time declines with falling coffee prices, so does the relative price of health. We find a variety of direct evidence consistent with the primacy of time in child health production. PMID:22090662
Semba, Richard D.; Kraemer, Klaus; Sun, Kai; de Pee, Saskia; Akhter, Nasima; Moench-Pfanner, Regina; Rah, Jee Hyun; Campbell, Ashley A.; Badham, Jane; Bloem, Martin W.
We characterized the relationship of the presence of an improved latrine with diarrhea and under-five child mortality in Indonesia. The proportion of rural and urban families, respectively, without an improved latrine was 52.1% and 16.2%, with a child with a history of diarrhea in the last 7 days was 8.2% and 9.7%, and with a history of under-five child mortality was 11.1% and 8.5%. Among rural and urban families, respectively, lack of an improved latrine was associated with a child history of diarrhea in the last 7 days (odds ratio [OR] = 1.23, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.18–1.29, P < 0.0001; OR = 1.20, 95% CI = 1.13–1.27, P < 0.0001) and under-five child mortality (OR = 1.29, 95% CI = 1.25–1.31, P < 0.0001; OR = 1.22, 95% CI = 1.12–1.32, P < 0.0001) in separate multivariable logistic regression models adjusting for covariates. The lack of a household improved latrine is associated with diarrhea and under-five child mortality in Indonesia. PMID:21363984
Zhang, Wei Fang; Xu, Yan Hua; Yang, Ru Lai; Zhao, Zheng Yan
Objective To investigate the levels of primary health care services for children and their changes in Zhejiang Province, China from 1998 to 2011. Methods The data were drawn from Zhejiang maternal and child health statistics collected under the supervision of the Health Bureau of Zhejiang Province. Primary health care coverage, hospital deliveries, low birth weight, postnatal visits, breastfeeding, underweight, early neonatal (<7 days) mortality, neonatal mortality, infant mortality and under-5 mortality were investigated. Results The coverage rates for children under 3 years old and children under 7 years old increased in the last 14 years. The hospital delivery rate was high during the study period, and the overall difference narrowed. There was a significant difference (P<0.001) between the prevalence of low birth weight in 1998 (2.03%) and the prevalence in 2011 (2.71%). The increase in low birth weight was more significant in urban areas than in rural areas. The postnatal visit rate increased from 95.00% to 98.45% with a significant difference (P<0.001). The breastfeeding rate was the highest in 2004 at 74.79% and lowest in 2008 at 53.86%. The prevalence of underweight in children under 5 years old decreased from 1.63% to 0.65%, and the prevalence was higher in rural areas. The early neonatal, neonatal, infant and under-5 mortality rates decreased from 6.66‰, 8.67‰, 11.99‰ and 15.28‰ to 1.69‰, 2.36‰, 3.89‰ and 5.42‰, respectively (P<0.001). The mortality rates in rural areas were slightly higher than those in urban areas each year, and the mortality rates were lower in Ningbo, Wenzhou, and Jiaxing regions and higher in Quzhou and Lishui regions. Conclusion Primary health care services for children in Zhejiang Province improved from 1998 to 2011. Continued high rates of low birth weight in urban areas and mortality in rural areas may be addressed with improvements in health awareness and medical technology. PMID:23638155
The Application of the Preschool Child Behavior Checklist and the Caregiver-Teacher Report Form to Mainland Chinese Children: Syndrome Structure, Gender Differences, Country Effects, and Inter-Informant Agreement
Liu, Jianghong; Cheng, Halina; Leung, Patrick W. L.
Preschool children have long been a neglected population in the study of psychopathology. The Achenbach System of Empirically Based Assessment (ASEBA), which includes the Child Behavior Checklist/1.5-5 (CBCL/1.5-5) and the Caregiver-Teacher Report Form (C-TRF), constitutes the few available measures to assess preschoolers with an empirically…
Davoudi-Kiakalayeh, Ali; Mohammadi, Reza; Yousefzade-Chabok, Shahrokh
Objective: To investigate maternal beliefs, practices about causes and determinant factors on drowning and maternal socioeconomic correlated factors on child mortality from drowning. Methods: From March 2005 to March 2009, in a register-based cohort study and household survey, individual records utilizing drowning registry data of northern Iran were enrolled. Mothers (n=276) who responded to multiple questions in a household survey were included. The patterns, interrelationships and effects of socioeconomic correlated factors on child mortality were analyzed. Results: A significant difference in relation to mother's educational level and age and family income distribution was noticed. Participants in household survey also reported that establishment of a multi-sectorial collaboration, integration of public health messages into local television, additional rescue stations and lifeguard, hazard environment fencing, increasing adult supervision, more support on increasing swimming ability among the children were all effective on reducing of drowning death. Conclusion: Due to the high rate of drowning in children and lack of attention among olders, a greater emphasis should be placed on educating mothers to assist a better supervision on their children. PMID:27162872
Drozd-Lipińska, Alicja; Klugier, Ewa; Kamińska-Czakłosz, Małgorzata
Analyses of historical or modern populations indicate a strong relationship between mortality level and standard of living, measured, among other factors, by degree of urbanization. The aim of this study was to assess mortality rates in children of up to 5 years of age in two populations living under different conditions in central modern Poland at the end of the 19th century: the rural parish of Kowal, under Russian partition, and Toruń, an industrial and urbanized centre under Prussian partition. Data on births and deaths were taken from birth certificate registries and from the Prussian statistics yearbooks for 1876-1894. Death rates of children aged 0-5 years were calculated, and also for annual age ranges. The urban population had lower birth rates (37.19‰), natural increase rates (8.0‰), population dynamics rates (1.26‰), which provide information about the relation between two components of a natural increase, i.e. births and deaths, and an over-mortality of boys in relation to girls. In the rural population these values were all higher: 53.67‰, 18.11‰ and 1.59‰ respectively. No impact was found of social stratification on child mortality in the wide age group of 0-5 years. However, for subsequent one-year age groups significant relationships between mortality level and size and industrialization level of the population centres were noted. The living conditions of infants in Toruń, although being in a better position as an area annexed by Prussia, were markedly worse than those of rural Kowal Parish. In the urban centre infant mortality was slightly over 269 for 1000 live born, and in Kowal Parish it was 163 for 1000 live born. The high infant mortality was balanced in Toruń by the higher mortality levels of children aged 2-5 years compared with Kowal Parish. Natural selection in the city had the greatest impact on infants, who did not have the protective influence of breast-feeding because women had to return to work shortly after giving
Duke, Trevor; Michael, Audrey; Mgone, Joyce; Frank, Dale; Wal, Tilda; Sehuko, Rebecca
OBJECTIVE: To collect accurate data on disease- and microbial-specific causes and avoidable factors in child deaths in a developing country. METHODS: A systematic prospective audit of deaths of children seen at Goroka Hospital in the highlands of Papua New Guinea was carried out. Over a 24-month period, we studied 353 consecutive deaths of children: 126 neonates, 186 children aged 1-59 months, and 41 children aged 5-12 years. FINDINGS: The most frequent age-specific clinical diagnoses were as follows: for neonates--very low birth weight, septicaemia, birth asphyxia and congenital syphilis; for children aged 1-59 months--pneumonia, septicaemia, marasmus and meningitis; and for children aged 5-12 years--malignancies and septicaemia. At least one microbial cause of death was identified for 179 (50.7%) children and two or more were identified for 37 (10.5%). Nine microbial pathogens accounted for 41% of all childhood deaths and 76% of all deaths that had any infective component. Potentially avoidable factors were identified for 177 (50%) of deaths. The most frequently occurring factors were as follows: no antenatal care in high-risk pregnancies (8.8% of all deaths), very delayed presentation (7.9%), vaccine-preventable diseases (7.9%), informal adoption or child abandonment leading to severe malnutrition (5.7%), and lack of screening for maternal syphilis (5.4%). Sepsis due to enteric Gram-negative bacilli occurred in 87 (24.6%). The strongest associations with death from Gram- negative sepsis were adoption/abandonment leading to severe malnutrition, village births, and prolonged hospital stay. CONCLUSIONS: Reductions in child mortality will depend on addressing the commonest causes of death, which include disease states, microbial pathogens, adverse social circumstances and health service failures. Systematic mortality audits in selected regions where child mortality is high may be useful for setting priorities, estimating the potential benefit of specific and non
Pandey, Shanta; Lin, Yuan
Studies that have separately examined the consequences of gender based violence upon women, use of solid fuel for cooking, and mother and father's use of tobacco on child health have concluded that they serve as risk factors for maternal and child health. Some authors have implied that these studies may have run the risk of overestimating the burden of disease of one factor over another. In this paper, we included all four factors in the same model to estimate their adjusted effects on child mortality, controlling for the demographic factors. The data come from 2005 to 2006 National Family Health Survey of India that interviewed a nationally representative sample of 39,257 couples. Of the four factors, mothers' use of tobacco presented the highest risk for child mortality (OR = 1.42; CI = 1.27-1.60) followed by fathers' use of tobacco (OR = 1.23; CI = 1.12-1.36), households' use of solid fuel for cooking (OR = 1.23; CI = 1.06-1.43), and physical abuse upon mothers (OR = 1.20; CI = 1.10-1.32). Among the households that used solid fuel for cooking, improved cookstoves users experienced 28 % lower odds of child mortality (OR = 0.72; CI = 0.61-0.86) compared to nonusers of improved cookstoves. Additionally, increase in age of mothers at birth of first child, parents' education, and household wealth served as protective factors for child mortality. To prevent child death, programs should focus on reducing couple's use of tobacco, protecting women from physical abuse, and helping households switch from solid to liquid fuel. Moreover, a significant reduction in child death could be attained by improving girls' education, and delaying their age at marriage and first birth. PMID:23065299
Gross, Thomas F.; Hayes, Donald S.
This study assesses the effects of visual and verbal rehearsal on the problem solving efficiency of preschool children. The study examines the use of stimulus pretraining designed to induce verbal rehearsal and compares the effectiveness of induced verbal rehearsal with the effectiveness of induced visual rehearsal. Fifty-four middle class…
Whiteside-Mansell, Leanne; Bradley, Robert H.; McKelvey, Lorraine
We examined the impact of parenting behaviors on preschool children's social development in low-income families from three cultural groups: European American (n = 286), African American (n = 399), and Hispanic American (n = 164) using Spanish as the primary language in the home. Observed parenting behaviors of stimulation, responsivity, and…
Miller, Thomas W.
This paper reports an attempt to research sensory overstimulation in a variety of children's television programs by rating the level of visual sensory stimulation, auditory sensory stimulation, verbal response patterns and nonverbal response patterns in 45 television programs designed for pre-school children. The Television Rating Inventory (TVRI)…
Moss, Ellen; Bureau, Jean-Francois; Cyr, Chantal; Dubois-Comtois, Karine
The objective of this study is to examine preschool-age correlates of the maternal version of the Attachment Q-Set (AQS) (Waters & Deane, 1985) in order to provide validity data. Concurrent associations between the Attachment Q-Set and measures of separation-reunion attachment classifications (Cassidy & Marvin, 1992), quality of mother-child…
Tone, Danielle M.; McBride, Dawn Lorraine
The intent of this manuscript is to inform others about stress, parental stress, and highlight the negative consequences of stress on children by directly providing information to parents of infant and preschool children in the form of a psychoeducational workshop. Given that the early years of life have many critical periods of development and…
Cutler, Kay M.
A preschool staff project was undertaken to develop and implement a more efficient curriculum organization plan and curriculum rotation system. The aim of the project was to provide a healthier working environment by improving communication among the teaching team, organizing curriculum storage outside the classroom, designing curriculum rotation…
CHILDREN WHO LIVE IN SOCIAL, ECONOMIC, OR EDUCATIONAL IMPOVERISHMENT ARE HINDERED IN THEIR ABILITY TO DEVELOP PROPERLY. ONE APPROACH, TO CORRECT DISABILITIES AND FACILITATE INTELLECTUAL GROWTH, IS TO START INSTRUCTION AT AN EARLIER AGE THAN THAT OF KINDERGARTEN. IN THE PRESCHOOL CLASSES, THE CHILDREN WOULD RECEIVE CULTURAL ENRICHMENT AND SOCIAL…
AN EVALUATION WAS MADE OF THE SUCCESS OF A PROGRAM FOR DISADVANTAGED PRESCHOOL CHILDREN ESTABLISHED TO ENHANCE THEIR SELF-CONCEPT, INCREASE THEIR LEARNING ABILITY, AND FOSTER IN THEM A POSITIVE ATTITUDE TOWARD SCHOOL. THE PROGRAM FOCUSED ON THE INTERRELATIONSHIPS OF THE CHILDREN AND TEACHERS AND ON THE CURRICULUM IN THE 38 PARTICIPATING SCHOOLS.…
Bartholomew, Robert; And Others
A study of the relationship between the behavior of preschool children (3-5-year age group) and the physical near environment has been initiated at Cornell. The illumination and sound levels, color, equipment, and spatial configurations in a nursery school room are to be varied, and systematic observational records will be kept of the level of…