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Sample records for preschool children association

  1. The Association between Maltreatment and Obesity among Preschool Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Whitaker, Robert C.; Phillips, Shannon M.; Orzol, Sean M.; Burdette, Hillary L.

    2007-01-01

    Objective: To determine whether child maltreatment is associated with obesity in preschool children. Methods: Data were obtained from the Fragile Families and Child Wellbeing Study, a birth cohort study of 4898 children born between 1998 and 2000 in 20 large US cities. At 3 years of age, 2412 of these children had their height and weight measured,…

  2. Parenting Style Associated with Sedentary Behaviour in Preschool Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schary, David P.; Cardinal, Bradley J.; Loprinzi, Paul D.

    2012-01-01

    There is an absence of studies exploring the relationship between parental style and sedentary behaviour in preschool-aged children. Given the link between parenting style and other health behaviours, and given that preschool children engage in relatively high levels of sedentary behaviour, this study's purpose was to examine if a preschool…

  3. The Association between Maltreatment and Obesity among Preschool Children

    PubMed Central

    Whitaker, Robert C.; Phillips, Shannon M.; Orzol, Sean M.; Burdette, Hillary L.

    2009-01-01

    Objective To determine whether child maltreatment is associated with obesity in preschool children. Methods Data were obtained from the Fragile Families and Child Wellbeing Study, a birth cohort study of 4898 children born between 1998 and 2000 in 20 large US cities. At 3 years of age, 2412 of these children had their height and weight measured, and mothers answered items on the Parent-Child Conflict Tactics Scales about three types of child maltreatment—neglect, corporal punishment, and psychological aggression. The frequency of each type of maltreatment behavior in the prior year was analyzed using categories—ever/never for neglect and quintiles for the other 2 types of maltreatment. Child obesity was defined as measured body mass index (kg/m2) ≥ 95th percentile. Results Eighteen percent of the children were obese, and the prevalence of any episode of neglect, corporal punishment, and psychological aggression was 11%, 84%, and 93%, respectively. The odds of obesity were increased in children who had experienced neglect (odds ratio 1.56, 95% confidence interval, 1.14-2.14), after controlling for the income and number of children in the household, the mothers’ race/ethnicity, education, marital status, body mass index, prenatal smoking, and age, and the children’s sex and birth weight. Neither the frequency of corporal punishment nor psychological aggression was associated with an increased risk of obesity. Conclusions In a sample of preschool children from 20 large US cities, maternal self-report of neglectful behavior was associated with an increased risk of childhood obesity, after controlling for birth weight, maternal obesity, and multiple socioeconomic factors. PMID:18023869

  4. The Association between Preschool Classroom Quality and Children's Social-Emotional Problems

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mohamed, Ahmed Hassan Hemdan; Marzouk, Samah Abd Al Fatah Mohamed

    2016-01-01

    This study examined the association between early childhood classroom quality and preschool children's social skills and emotional problems. Teachers completed the Early Childhood Environmental Rating Scale-Revised (ECERS-R) and the Devereux Early Childhood Assessment-Clinical Form (DECA-C). Participants included 141 preschool children from 10…

  5. Parental Reports of Somatic Symptoms in Preschool Children: Prevalence and Associations in a Spanish Sample.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Domenech-Llaberia, Edelmira; Jane, Claustre; Canals, Josepa; Ballespi, Sergi; Esparo, Griselda; Garralda, Elena

    2004-01-01

    Objective: To document prevalence and associations of somatic symptoms in Spanish preschool children. Method: Subjects were 3- to 5-year-olds attending nurseries (8 urban, 30 rural). Parental questionnaires (response rate 77%) were used to inquire about somatic symptoms in the child in the 2 weeks prior to assessment, about preschool absence and…

  6. Associations of Preschool Type and Teacher-Child Relational Quality with Young Children's Social-Emotional Competence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Garner, Pamela W.; Mahatmya, Duhita; Moses, Laurence Kimberly; Bolt, Elizabeth N.

    2014-01-01

    Research Findings: This study examined associations of preschool type (i.e., urban and suburban Head Start and university-affiliated center) and teacher-child variables with positive and negative child outcomes among 145 preschoolers (74 boys). Differences emerged across preschools, with urban Head Start children scoring lowest on the emotional…

  7. Name-writing proficiency, not length of name, is associated with preschool children's emergent literacy skills.

    PubMed

    Puranik, Cynthia S; Lonigan, Christopher J

    2012-06-01

    The goals of this study were twofold: first, to examine whether preschool children's name-writing proficiency differentiated them on other emergent reading and writing tasks, and second, to examine the effect of name length on preschool children's emergent literacy skills including alphabet knowledge and spelling. In study 1, a range of emergent literacy tasks was administered to 296 preschool children aged 4-5 years. The more advanced name writers outperformed the less advanced name writers on all emergent literacy measures. Furthermore, children with longer names did not show superior performance compared to children with shorter names. In study 2, four measures of alphabet knowledge and spelling were administered to 104 preschool children. Once again, the more advanced name writers outperformed the less advanced name writers on the alphabet knowledge and spelling measures. Results indicated that having longer names did not translate into an advantage on the alphabet knowledge and spelling tasks. Name writing proficiency, not length of name appears to be associated with preschool children's developing emergent literacy skills. Name writing reflects knowledge of some letters rather than a broader knowledge of letters that may be needed to support early spelling. PMID:22523450

  8. Prevalence of dental caries and associated social risk factors among preschool children in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia

    PubMed Central

    Al-Meedani, Laila A.; Al-Dlaigan, Yousef H.

    2016-01-01

    Objectives: To determine the prevalence of dental caries, and associated social risk factors among preschool children in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia. Methods: The study consisted of a random sample of 3 to 5 years- old preschool children who were examined in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia; 388 children (184 boys and 204 girls) were examined from 10 different preschools. Each surface of their teeth was examined for dental caries utilizing modified WHO criteria (WHO, 1997). Data information about age, gender and social factors status were obtained by questionnaires that had been answered by parents. Results: About 69% of children had dental caries with dmft score of 3.4 (± 3.6) and dmfs of 6.9 (± 9.9). There was no statistically significant difference between boys and girls. Less caries was observed among children whose parents worked and it was statistically significant as well as whose mothers had high or low educational level. Increased number of family members appeared to have a high incidence of dental caries which was also statistically significant. There was no significant difference in dental caries prevalence with birth order. Conclusions: Dental caries among preschool children in Saudi Arabia was still very common. Improvement of preventive measure at early age should be emphasized by parents and dental health professionals. More attention is required for Non-working parents telling them about the risk of dental caries affecting their children and the awareness of preventive care of dental health. PMID:27182260

  9. Smooth pursuit eye movements are associated with phonological awareness in preschool children.

    PubMed

    Callu, D; Giannopulu, I; Escolano, S; Cusin, F; Jacquier-Roux, M; Dellatolas, G

    2005-07-01

    Phonological awareness is strongly related to reading ability, but reports are more conflicting concerning the association of high level oculomotor skills with reading. Here, we show that phonological awareness is specifically associated with the ability to perform smooth pursuit eye movements in preschool children. Two large independent samples of preschool children (n=838 and n=732) aged 5-6.4 years, without history of neurological disorder, were examined by school medical doctors for visual and oculomotor problems. Nineteen percent of the children in the first sample and 14% in the second failed at the clinical evaluation of smooth pursuit eye movements, and 17 and 15%, respectively, presented another visual or oculomotor problem. Ten short cognitive tests were performed by the same children. Visual and oculomotor problems other than a failure on smooth pursuit were not consistently related to the cognitive tasks, with one exception, the visual recognition of letters. Children who failed at smooth pursuit obtained lower scores at a number of cognitive tasks, and especially phonological awareness tasks and copy of visually presented trajectories. Poor working memory and/or failure of anticipation during the tracking of a visual or auditory stimulus related to frontal cortex immaturity may explain these associations in preschool children. PMID:15919554

  10. Is There Any Association between TV Viewing and Obesity in Preschool Children in Japan?

    PubMed

    Sasaki, Ayako; Yorifuji, Takashi; Iwase, Toshihide; Komatsu, Hirokazu; Takao, Soshi; Doi, Hiroyuki

    2010-04-01

    Obesity in children is a serious public health problem, and TV viewing is considered a potential risk factor. Since, however, no relevant association studies have been conducted in Japan, we evaluated the association between TV viewing and obesity using a population-based study conducted in a Japanese town. All 616 preschool children in the town were enrolled in February 2008, and a self-administered questionnaire to collect children's and parents' characteristics was sent to the parents. We dichotomized the time spent TV viewing and evaluated associations by logistic regression using a "less than 2h" category as a reference. The questionnaire was collected from 476 participants (77.3%), of whom 449 were available for the final analyses. Among them, 26.9% of preschool children reported 2 or more hours of TV viewing per day and 8.2% were defined as obese. In logistic regression analyses, there was no positive association in unadjusted (odds ratio [OR] = 1.11, 95% confidence interval [95% CI]:0.50-2.49) or adjusted models for exclusively breastfed status, sleep duration, or maternal factors (OR = 1.11, 95% CI:0.50-2.51). We also found no positive association between TV viewing and overweight status, possibly owing to the influence of social environment, low statistical power, or misclassification. PMID:20424669

  11. Name-Writing Proficiency, Not Length of Name, Is Associated with Preschool Children's Emergent Literacy Skills

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Puranik, Cynthia S.; Lonigan, Christopher J.

    2012-01-01

    The goals of this study were twofold: first, to examine whether preschool children's name-writing proficiency differentiated them on other emergent reading and writing tasks, and second, to examine the effect of name length on preschool children's emergent literacy skills including alphabet knowledge and spelling. In Study 1, a range of emergent…

  12. Mother-Child Dyadic Synchrony Is Associated with Better Functioning in Hyperactive/Inattentive Preschool Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Healey, Dione M.; Gopin, Chaya B.; Grossman, Bella R.; Campbell, Susan B.; Halperin, Jeffrey M.

    2010-01-01

    Background: Hyperactive/inattentive (HI) behaviors are common in preschoolers, but they result in functional impairment and attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) diagnoses in only some children. We examined whether the quality of mother-child interaction accounts for variance in level of functioning among preschool children with elevated…

  13. Peer Effects in Preschool Classrooms: Is Children's Language Growth Associated with Their Classmates' Skills?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Justice, Laura M.; Petscher, Yaacov; Schatschneider, Christopher; Mashburn, Andrew

    2011-01-01

    With an increasing number of young children participating in preschool education, this study determined whether peer effects are present in this earliest sector of schooling. Specifically, this work examined whether peer effects were influential to preschoolers' growth in language skills over an academic year and whether peer effects manifest…

  14. The associations among maternal negative control, children's social information processing patterns, and teachers' perceptions of children's behavior in preschool.

    PubMed

    Ziv, Yair; Kupermintz, Haggai; Aviezer, Ora

    2016-02-01

    The links between social information processing (SIP) and social behavior in preschool are well documented. However, the antecedents of SIP in that age group are less clear. A number of influential theoretical models suggest that a major contributor to SIP is the quality of the child's relationships with the parent. Therefore, we examined the links among quality of the mother-child relationships (measured via direct observations of dyadic play interactions), the child's SIP patterns (measured via direct interview with the child), and the child's perceived behavior in preschool (measured via teacher reports) in a sample of 218 preschool and kindergarten children and their mothers. Applying structural equation modeling, we found support for our theoretical model with a specific emphasis on the negative nature of this association. Specifically, we found a strong indirect path from maternal negative control to the teacher's negative perception of the child's behavior in preschool and kindergarten via less competent SIP patterns. This empirical path remained intact after controlling for various variables such as the family income, the mother's education level, and the child's expressive language abilities, thereby providing further support for the robustness of this association. PMID:26452078

  15. Child Development: Preschool Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chiam, Heng Keng, Ed.

    This book reports some of the results of an extensive study of the physical, cognitive, language, social, and emotional development of Malaysian children. Chapter 1 of the book describes the demographics of the sample. Subjects were 3,099 preschool children in the state of Selangor and the federal district of Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia. Data is…

  16. Prospective Associations between Children's Preschool Emotional and Behavioral Problems and Kindergarten Classroom Engagement, and the Role of Gender

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Searle, Amelia K.; Sawyer, Michael G.; Miller-Lewis, Lauren R.; Baghurst, Peter A.

    2014-01-01

    This 1-year prospective study aimed to examine associations between children's preschool emotional and behavioral problems and their kindergarten classroom engagement, and to identify any gender differences in this association. In preschool, parents and teachers completed questionnaires assessing aspects of children's (n = 575) emotional…

  17. Association between the First Occurrence of Allergic Rhinitis in Preschool Children and Air Pollution in Taiwan.

    PubMed

    Chung, Hui-Ying; Hsieh, Chia-Jung; Tseng, Chun-Chieh; Yiin, Lih-Ming

    2016-03-01

    The occurrence of allergic rhinitis (AR) may be significantly influenced by air pollution. This study examined the association between the first occurrence of AR in preschool children and the pre-incident levels of air pollutants in Taiwan. We identified 9960 eligible subjects from a systematic sampling cohort database containing 400,000 insureds of the National Health Insurance from 2007 to 2011 and matched them with the environmental monitoring data from 2006 to 2011 according to the locations of their clinics. Pre-incident levels were determined using the average concentrations of air pollutants one or two weeks prior to the AR diagnoses. Logistic regression analyses were performed to determine any significant relationships between AR and specific air pollutants. The first AR incidence for Taiwanese preschool children, which increased with age, was 10.9% on average; boys appeared to have a higher percentage (14.2%) than girls (8.27%). Among the air pollutants, carbon monoxide (CO) and nitrogen oxides (NOX) were significantly related to AR after adjusting for age and gender (p < 0.05). Because both pollutants are considered to be traffic emissions, this study suggests that traffic emissions in Taiwan need to be controlled to lower the prevalence of children's AR. PMID:26927153

  18. Association between the First Occurrence of Allergic Rhinitis in Preschool Children and Air Pollution in Taiwan

    PubMed Central

    Chung, Hui-Ying; Hsieh, Chia-Jung; Tseng, Chun-Chieh; Yiin, Lih-Ming

    2016-01-01

    The occurrence of allergic rhinitis (AR) may be significantly influenced by air pollution. This study examined the association between the first occurrence of AR in preschool children and the pre-incident levels of air pollutants in Taiwan. We identified 9960 eligible subjects from a systematic sampling cohort database containing 400,000 insureds of the National Health Insurance from 2007 to 2011 and matched them with the environmental monitoring data from 2006 to 2011 according to the locations of their clinics. Pre-incident levels were determined using the average concentrations of air pollutants one or two weeks prior to the AR diagnoses. Logistic regression analyses were performed to determine any significant relationships between AR and specific air pollutants. The first AR incidence for Taiwanese preschool children, which increased with age, was 10.9% on average; boys appeared to have a higher percentage (14.2%) than girls (8.27%). Among the air pollutants, carbon monoxide (CO) and nitrogen oxides (NOX) were significantly related to AR after adjusting for age and gender (p < 0.05). Because both pollutants are considered to be traffic emissions, this study suggests that traffic emissions in Taiwan need to be controlled to lower the prevalence of children’s AR. PMID:26927153

  19. Emotion Recognition in Preschool Children: Associations with Maternal Depression and Early Parenting

    PubMed Central

    Kujawa, Autumn; Dougherty, Lea; Durbin, C. Emily; Laptook, Rebecca; Torpey, Dana; Klein, Daniel N.

    2013-01-01

    Emotion knowledge in childhood has been shown to predict social functioning and psychological well-being, but relatively little is known about parental factors that influence its development in early childhood. There is some evidence that both parenting behavior and maternal depression are associated with emotion recognition, but previous research has only examined these factors independently. The current study assessed auditory and visual emotion recognition ability among a large sample of preschool children to examine typical emotion recognition skills in children of this age, as well as the independent and interactive effects of maternal and paternal depression and negative parenting (i.e., hostility and intrusiveness). Results indicated that children were most accurate at identifying happy emotional expressions, followed by other basic emotions. The lowest accuracy was observed for neutral expressions. A significant interaction was found between maternal depression and negative parenting behavior, such that children with a maternal history of depression were particularly sensitive to the negative effects of maladaptive parenting behavior on emotion recognition ability. No significant effects were found for paternal depression. These results highlight the importance of examining the effects of multiple interacting factors on children’s emotional development, and provide suggestions for identifying children for targeted preventive interventions. PMID:24444174

  20. Associations of infant feeding practices and picky eating behaviors of preschool children.

    PubMed

    Shim, Jae Eun; Kim, Juhee; Mathai, Rose Ann

    2011-09-01

    Picky eating behaviors are prevalent during childhood and are often linked to nutritional problems. However, information on the determinants of picky eating behaviors during infancy, when food acceptance patterns develop, is scarce. This study was conducted to evaluate the impact of infant feeding practices on the development of picky eating behaviors during preschool years. Baseline survey data from the Synergistic Theory and Research on Obesity and Nutrition Group Kids (STRONG Kids) program were used for this retrospective data analysis. Primary caregiver-child dyads were recruited from child-care centers in Eastern Illinois between February and July of 2009. A total of 129 self-reported responses from mothers of preschool-aged children were analyzed. Logistic regression was used to evaluate the association between infant feeding practices and picky eating behaviors. Children who were introduced to complementary foods before 6 months of age had 2.5 times higher odds of developing food neophobia and limited variety of foods (95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.01 to 5.93 and 1.06 to 5.73, respectively). Children who were breastfed exclusively for 6 months had lower odds of developing a preference for specific food-preparation methods by 78% (95% CI: 19% to 94%), food rejection by 81% (95% CI: 31% to 94%), and food neophobia by 75% (95% CI: 11% to 93%). Breastfeeding and introduction of complementary foods after 6 months of age reduced the odds of picky eating during early childhood. This study documents an association between infant-feeding practices and the development of picky eating behaviors in early childhood. PMID:21872699

  1. Associations between Preschool Language and First Grade Reading Outcomes in Bilingual Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davison, Megan Dunn; Hammer, Carol; Lawrence, Frank R.

    2011-01-01

    It is well established that monolingual preschoolers' oral language development (vocabulary and oral comprehension) contributes to their later reading abilities; however, less is known about this relationship in bilingual populations where children are developing knowledge of two languages. It may be that children's abilities in one language do…

  2. The Association between Preschool Children's Social Functioning and Their Emergent Academic Skills

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arnold, David H.; Kupersmidt, Janis B.; Voegler-Lee, Mary Ellen; Marshall, Nastassja A.

    2012-01-01

    This study examined the relationship between social functioning and emergent academic development in a sample of 467 preschool children (M=55.9 months old, SD=3.8). Teachers reported on children's aggression, attention problems, and prosocial skills. Preliteracy, language, and early mathematics skills were assessed with standardized tests. Better…

  3. Telomere length is associated with oppositional defiant behavior and maternal clinical depression in Latino preschool children.

    PubMed

    Wojcicki, J M; Heyman, M B; Elwan, D; Shiboski, S; Lin, J; Blackburn, E; Epel, E

    2015-01-01

    Exposure to psychological stress and depression are associated with shorter white blood cell telomere length (TL) in adults, possibly via associated lifelong oxidative stressors. Exposure to maternal depression increases risk for future depression and behavior problems in children, and Latino youth are at high risk. Few studies have evaluated the role of exposure to maternal depression or child behavior in relation to TL in children. We assessed early-childhood exposures to maternal depression from birth to the age of 5 years and child behavior from ages 3-5 years in a cohort of Latino children in relation to child leukocyte TL at ages 4 and 5 years. Children who had oppositional defiant behavior at 3, 4 or 5 years had shorter TL than those without by ~450 base pairs (P < 0.01). In multivariate analyses, independent predictors for shorter TL at 4 and 5 years of age included oppositional defiant disorder at 3, 4 or 5 years (β = -359.25, 95% CI -633.84 to 84.66; P = 0.01), exposure to maternal clinical depression at 3 years of age (β = -363.99, 95% CI -651.24 to 764.74; P = 0.01), shorter maternal TL (β = 502.92, 95% CI 189.21-816.63) and younger paternal age at the child's birth (β = 24.63, 95% CI 1.14-48.12). Thus, exposure to maternal clinical depression (versus depressive symptoms) in early childhood was associated with deleterious consequences on child cellular health as indicated by shorter TL at 4 and 5 years of age. Similarly, children with oppositional defiant behavior also had shorter TL, possibly related to early exposures to maternal clinical depression. Our study is the first to link maternal clinical depression and oppositional defiant behavior with shorter TL in the preschool years in a relatively homogenous population of low-income Latino children. PMID:26080316

  4. Assessing Preschool Children's Pretend Play: Preliminary Validation of the Affect in Play Scale-Preschool Version

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kaugars, Astrida Seja; Russ, Sandra W.

    2009-01-01

    Research Findings: A description of the development and preliminary validation of the Affect in Play Scale-Preschool version (APS-P) is presented by demonstrating associations among preschool children's play, creativity, and daily behavior using multiple methodologies. Thirty-three preschool-age children completed a standardized 5-minute play task…

  5. Association of Dermatoglyphic Peculiarities with Dental Caries in Preschool Children of Lucknow, India

    PubMed Central

    Saha, Sabyasachi; Jagannath, GV; Singh, Sanjay; Saha, Sonali; Garg, Nishita

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Background: Dermatoglyphics refers to study of the intricate dermal ridge configurations on the skin covering the palmar and plantar surfaces of hand and feet. The basis of considering dermatoglyphic patterns as genetic marker for dental caries is that the epithelium of finger buds as well as enamel has ectodermal origin, and both develop at the same time of intrauterine life. Aim: To assess the relationship between fingerprint patterns and dental caries among preschool children of Lucknow city. Study design: This study was of cross-sectional design. Materials and methods: The study group comprised 512 preschool children 2-6 years of age. The prevalence of caries was recorded using "Dentition status and treatment needs" (WHO basic oral health assessment form, 1997). They were divided into three groups as follows: Group I (dmft score = 0-2), group II (dmft score = 3-4) and group III (dmft score ≥5). The handprints of each child were taken using a stamp pad. The fingertip patterns were analyzed according to the classical method and were classified according to the topological method. The frequency of occurrence of type of dermatoglyphic pattern on fingertip of each digit was noted. Statistics: Chi-square test was used to test the significant difference in proportions. Means were compared using Student’s t-test and analysis of variance (ANOVA) or F-test. Results: Subjects belonging to groups II and III showed maximum occurrence of whorl pattern on all digits. Group I subjects had maximum occurrence of arch pattern. All the variables had statistically significant value, with a degree of divergence of specific dermatoglyphic patterns among all three groups. Conclusion: The dental caries susceptibility of an individual increased with incidence of whorl pattern and it decreased with incidence of arch pattern. How to cite this article: Singh E, Saha S, Jagannath GV, Singh S, Saha S, Garg N. Association of Dermatoglyphic Peculiarities with Dental Caries in

  6. Patterns of exposure to multiple metals and associations with neurodevelopment of preschool children from Montevideo, Uruguay.

    PubMed

    Kordas, Katarzyna; Ardoino, Graciela; Coffman, Donna L; Queirolo, Elena I; Ciccariello, Daniela; Mañay, Nelly; Ettinger, Adrienne S

    2015-01-01

    While it is known that toxic metals contribute individually to child cognitive and behavioral deficits, we still know little about the effects of exposure to multiple metals, particularly when exposures are low. We studied the association between children's blood lead and hair arsenic, cadmium, and manganese and their performance on the Bayley Scales of Infant Development III. Ninety-two preschool children (age 13-42 months) from Montevideo, Uruguay, provided a hair sample and 78 had a blood lead level (BLL) measurement. Using latent class analysis (LCA), we identified four groups of exposure based on metal concentrations: (1) low metals, (2) low-to-moderate metals, (3) high lead and cadmium, and (4) high metals. Using the four-group exposure variable as the main predictor, and fitting raw scores on the cognitive, receptive vocabulary, and expressive vocabulary scales as dependent variables, both complete-case and multiple imputation (MI) analyses were conducted. We found no association between multiple-metal exposures and neurodevelopment in covariate-adjusted models. This study demonstrates the use of LCA together with MI to determine patterns of exposure to multiple toxic metals and relate these to child neurodevelopment. However, because the overall study population was small, other studies with larger sample sizes are needed to investigate these associations. PMID:25694786

  7. Patterns of Exposure to Multiple Metals and Associations with Neurodevelopment of Preschool Children from Montevideo, Uruguay

    PubMed Central

    Kordas, Katarzyna; Ardoino, Graciela; Coffman, Donna L.; Queirolo, Elena I.; Ciccariello, Daniela; Mañay, Nelly; Ettinger, Adrienne S.

    2015-01-01

    While it is known that toxic metals contribute individually to child cognitive and behavioral deficits, we still know little about the effects of exposure to multiple metals, particularly when exposures are low. We studied the association between children's blood lead and hair arsenic, cadmium, and manganese and their performance on the Bayley Scales of Infant Development III. Ninety-two preschool children (age 13–42 months) from Montevideo, Uruguay, provided a hair sample and 78 had a blood lead level (BLL) measurement. Using latent class analysis (LCA), we identified four groups of exposure based on metal concentrations: (1) low metals, (2) low-to-moderate metals, (3) high lead and cadmium, and (4) high metals. Using the four-group exposure variable as the main predictor, and fitting raw scores on the cognitive, receptive vocabulary, and expressive vocabulary scales as dependent variables, both complete-case and multiple imputation (MI) analyses were conducted. We found no association between multiple-metal exposures and neurodevelopment in covariate-adjusted models. This study demonstrates the use of LCA together with MI to determine patterns of exposure to multiple toxic metals and relate these to child neurodevelopment. However, because the overall study population was small, other studies with larger sample sizes are needed to investigate these associations. PMID:25694786

  8. Significant associations among hemostatic parameters, adipokines, and components of the metabolic syndrome in Japanese preschool children.

    PubMed

    Horigome, Hitoshi; Katayama, Yasutomi; Yoshinaga, Masao; Kato, Yoshiaki; Takahashi, Hideto; Sumazaki, Ryo

    2012-01-01

    Development of cardiovascular diseases could originate in early childhood. However, reference values of hemostatic parameters and adipokines in preschool children remain to be explored. We measured blood levels of adipokines and parameters of the hemostatic/fibrinolytic systems in 167 healthy children aged 4 to 6 years at 9:00 to 10:30 am after a strictly enforced overnight fast. Participants with body mass index (BMI) values ≥90th percentile had significantly higher values of systolic blood pressure and heart rate, as well as blood levels of insulin, coagulation factor (F) VII, FX, protein S, leptin, and homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR), and lower values of desacyl-ghrelin than children with BMI < 90th percentile. Circulating levels of fibrinogen and leptin increased with increased number of cardiovascular risk factors. Stepwise regression analysis identified many hematological variables to be associated with features of the metabolic syndrome. The results implicated the hemostatic/fibrinolytic system or adipokines in the insidious progression of cardiovascular diseases from an early age. PMID:21949035

  9. Behavioral Exchanges between Teachers and Children Over the Course of a Typical Preschool Day: Testing Bidirectional Associations

    PubMed Central

    Downer, Jason T.; Booren, Leslie

    2014-01-01

    In the present study, 314 preschool classrooms and 606 children were observed to understand the behavioral exchanges between teachers and children. Teachers’ emotionally and organizationally supportive behaviors and children’s engagement were explored for longitudinal associations throughout a day. Observations were conducted in each classroom wherein emotional and organizational supports were assessed, followed by observations of two children’s positive engagement with teachers, tasks, and peers as well as negative classroom engagement. Cross-lagged autoregressive models were used to test for time-lagged associations which could be unidirectional or bidirectional. Results indicated teachers’ emotionally and organizationally supportive behaviors were related to later child engagement in seven of eight models. Furthermore, in two of those seven models, we found evidence of bidirectional associations whereby children’s engagement was associated with later teacher emotional and organizational supports. Findings are discussed in terms of understanding classroom processes over the course of a day in preschool. PMID:26722153

  10. Preschool Children's Views on Emotion Regulation: Functional Associations and Implications for Social-Emotional Adjustment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dennis, Tracy A.; Kelemen, Deborah A.

    2009-01-01

    Previous studies show that preschool children view negative emotions as susceptible to intentional control. However, the extent of this understanding and links with child social-emotional adjustment are poorly understood. To examine this, 62 3- and 4-year-olds were presented with puppet scenarios in which characters experienced anger, sadness, and…

  11. Social Outcomes Associated with Media Viewing Habits of Low-Income Preschool Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Conners-Burrow, Nicola A.; McKelvey, Lorraine M.; Fussell, Jill J.

    2011-01-01

    Research Findings: The purpose of this study was to examine the relationship between preschool children's social outcomes in the classroom (including hyperactivity, aggression, and social skills) and their media viewing habits (including the amount of television they watch and whether they watch videos/movies that are rated as inappropriate for…

  12. Consumption of tomato products is associated with lower blood mercury levels in Inuit preschool children.

    PubMed

    Gagné, Doris; Lauzière, Julie; Blanchet, Rosanne; Vézina, Carole; Vaissière, Emilie; Ayotte, Pierre; Turgeon O'Brien, Huguette

    2013-01-01

    Some evidence suggests that various diet components and nutrients, including vegetables, fruit and food-derived antioxidants, could mitigate contaminant exposure and/or adverse health effects of contaminants. To examine the effect of the consumption of tomato products on blood mercury levels in Inuit preschool children, 155 Inuit children (25.0±9.1months) were recruited from 2006-2008 in Nunavik childcare centers (northern Québec, Canada). Food frequency questionnaires were completed at home and at the childcare center, and total blood mercury concentration was measured by inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry. Multivariate regression analysis was performed after multiple imputation. The median blood concentration of mercury was 9.5nmol/L. Age, duration of breastfeeding, annual consumption frequency of seal meat, and monthly consumption frequency of tomato products were significant predictors of blood mercury levels, whereas annual consumption frequencies of beluga muktuk, walrus, Arctic char, and caribou meat were not. Each time a participant consumed tomato products during the month before the interview was associated with a 4.6% lower blood mercury level (p=0.0005). All other significant predictors in the model were positively associated with blood mercury levels. Further studies should explore interactions between consumption of healthy store-bought foods available in Arctic regions and contaminant exposure. PMID:23127601

  13. Association between Childhood Strabismus and Refractive Error in Chinese Preschool Children

    PubMed Central

    Yu, Rong-Bin; Ding, Hui; Bai, Jing; Chen, Ji; Liu, Hu

    2015-01-01

    Purpose To investigate the association between concomitant esotropia or concomitant exotropia and refractive error in preschool children Methods A population-based sample of 5831 children aged 3 to 6 years was selected from all kindergartens in a representative county (Yuhuatai District, Nanjing, Jiangsu Province) of Nanjing, China. Clinical examinations including ocular alignment, ocular motility, visual acuity, optometry, stereopsis screening, slit lamp examination and fundus examination were performed by trained ophthalmologists and optometrists. Odd ratios (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (95% CI) were calculated to evaluate the association of refractive error with concomitant esotropia and concomitant exotropia. Results In multivariate logistic regression analysis, concomitant esotropia was associated independently with spherical equivalent anisometropia (OR, 3.15 for 0.50 to <1.00 diopter (D) of anisometropia, and 7.41 for > = 1.00 D of anisometropia) and hyperopia. There was a severity-dependent association of hyperopia with the development of concomitant esotropia, with ORs increasing from 9.3 for 2.00 to <3.00 D of hyperopia, to 180.82 for > = 5.00 D of hyperopia. Concomitant exotropia was associated with astigmatism (OR, 3.56 for 0.50 to 1.00 D of astigmatism, and 1.9 for <0.00 D of astigmatism), myopia (OR, 40.54 for -1.00 to <0.00 D of myopia, and 18.93 for <-1.00 D of myopia), and hyperopia (OR, 67.78 for 1.00 to <2.00 D of hyperopia, 23.13 for 2.00 to <3.00 D of hyperopia, 25.57 for 3.00 to <4.00 D of hyperopia, and 8.36 for 4.00 to <5.00 D of hyperopia). Conclusions This study highlights the close associations between refractive error and the prevalence of concomitant esotropia and concomitant exotropia, which should be considered when managing childhood refractive error. PMID:25793499

  14. Preschool children's views on emotion regulation: Functional associations and implications for social-emotional adjustment.

    PubMed

    Dennis, Tracy A; Kelemen, Deborah A

    2009-01-01

    Previous studies show that preschool children view negative emotions as susceptible to intentional control. However, the extent of this understanding and links with child social-emotional adjustment are poorly understood. To examine this, 62 3- and 4-year-olds were presented with puppet scenarios in which characters experienced anger, sadness, and fear. Forty-seven adults were presented with a parallel questionnaire. Participants rated the degree to which six emotion-regulation strategies were effective in decreasing negative emotions. Results showed that even the youngest preschoolers viewed cognitive and behavioral distraction and repairing the situation as relatively effective; compared to adults, however, preschoolers favored relatively "ineffective" strategies such as venting and rumination. Children also showed a functional view of emotion regulation; that effective strategies depend on the emotion being regulated. All participants favored repairing a negative situation to reduce anger and behavioral distraction to reduce sadness and fear. Finally, the more children indicated that venting would reduce negative emotions, the lower their maternal report of social skills. Findings are discussed in terms of functional emotion theory and implications of emotion-regulation understanding for child adjustment. PMID:19724663

  15. Topography of Slow Sigma Power during Sleep is Associated with Processing Speed in Preschool Children

    PubMed Central

    Doucette, Margaret R.; Kurth, Salome; Chevalier, Nicolas; Munakata, Yuko; LeBourgeois, Monique K.

    2015-01-01

    Cognitive development is influenced by maturational changes in processing speed, a construct reflecting the rapidity of executing cognitive operations. Although cognitive ability and processing speed are linked to spindles and sigma power in the sleep electroencephalogram (EEG), little is known about such associations in early childhood, a time of major neuronal refinement. We calculated EEG power for slow (10–13 Hz) and fast (13.25–17 Hz) sigma power from all-night high-density electroencephalography (EEG) in a cross-sectional sample of healthy preschool children (n = 10, 4.3 ± 1.0 years). Processing speed was assessed as simple reaction time. On average, reaction time was 1409 ± 251 ms; slow sigma power was 4.0 ± 1.5 μV2; and fast sigma power was 0.9 ± 0.2 μV2. Both slow and fast sigma power predominated over central areas. Only slow sigma power was correlated with processing speed in a large parietal electrode cluster (p < 0.05, r ranging from −0.6 to −0.8), such that greater power predicted faster reaction time. Our findings indicate regional correlates between sigma power and processing speed that are specific to early childhood and provide novel insights into the neurobiological features of the EEG that may underlie developing cognitive abilities. PMID:26556377

  16. The Moderating Effects of Parenting Styles in the Association between Behavioral Inhibition and Parent-Reported Guilt and Empathy in Preschool Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cornell, Amy H.; Frick, Paul J.

    2007-01-01

    This study investigated interactions between children's temperament and parenting styles in their association with measures of guilt and empathy. Participants were 87 predominantly Caucasian, middle-class mothers and their children between the ages of 3 and 5 (M = 4.39, SD = 0.51). Children nominated by their preschool teachers as being…

  17. Longitudinal Associations between Executive Functions and Intelligence in Preschool Children: A Multi-Method, Multi- Informant Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rahbari, Noriyeh; Vaillancourt, Tracy

    2015-01-01

    Executive functions (EFs) and intelligence were examined concurrently and longitudinally in 126 preschool children. EF was assessed using the Flexible Item Selection Task (FIST) and the Behavior Rating Inventory of Executive Function-Preschool Version (BRIEF-P). Children's intelligence was assessed using the Verbal and Performance subtests from…

  18. Temperament and Preschool Children's Peer Interactions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Acar, Ibrahim H.; Rudasill, Kathleen Moritz; Molfese, Victoria; Torquati, Julia; Prokasky, Amanda

    2015-01-01

    Research Findings: The current study is an examination of children's temperament as a predictor of their interactions with peers in preschool, with a particular focus on children's regulatory temperament characteristics (i.e., inhibitory control and attentional focusing) as moderators of associations between shyness and interactions with peers.…

  19. Proximity to Supermarkets Associated with Higher Body Mass Index among Overweight and Obese Preschool-Age Children

    PubMed Central

    Fiechtner, Lauren; Block, Jason; Duncan, Dustin T.; Gillman, Matthew W.; Gortmaker, Steven L.; Melly, Steven J.; Rifas-Shiman, Sheryl L.; Taveras, Elsie M.

    2013-01-01

    Objective The objective of this study is to examine associations of proximity to food establishments with body mass index (BMI) among preschool-age children. Methods We used baseline data from 438 children ages 2–6.9 years with a BMI ≥ 85th percentile participating in a RCT in Massachusetts from 2006 to 2009. We used a geographic information system to determine proximity to six types of food establishments: 1) convenience stores, 2) bakeries, coffee shops, candy stores, 3) full service restaurants, 4) large supermarkets, 5) small supermarkets, and 6) fast-food restaurants. The main outcome was child’s BMI. Results Children’s mean (SD) BMI was 19.2 (2.4) kg/m2; 35% lived ≤ 1 mile from a large supermarket, 42% lived >1 to 2 miles, and 22% lived >2 miles. Compared to children living >2 miles from a large supermarket, those who lived within 1 mile had a BMI 1.06 kg/m2 higher. Adjustment for socioeconomic characteristics and distance to fast-food restaurants attenuated this estimate to 0.77 kg/m2. Living in any other distance category from a large supermarket and proximity to other food establishments were not associated with child BMI. Conclusions Living closer to a large supermarket was associated with higher BMI among preschool-age children who were overweight or obese. PMID:23219681

  20. What Do Children Learn at Swedish Preschools?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lindström, Lisbeth

    2013-01-01

    The purposes of this research are, first, to make visible, examine, and illuminate preschool teachers' perception of what children enrolled in preschools learn and how they learn it; and second, to highlight and illuminate what abilities preschool teachers perceive that children can develop during their stay at preschools. As a theoretical…

  1. Measurement of food reinforcement in preschool children: Associations with food intake, BMI, and reward sensitivity

    PubMed Central

    Rollins, Brandi Y.; Loken, Eric; Savage, Jennifer S.; Birch, Leann L.

    2014-01-01

    Progressive ratio (PR) schedules of reinforcement have been used to measure the relative reinforcing value (RRV) of food in humans as young as 8 years old; however, developmentally appropriate measures are needed to measure RRV of food earlier in life. Study objectives were to demonstrate the validity of the RRV of food task adapted for use among for preschool children (3 to 5y), and examine individual differences in performance. Thirty-three children completed the RRV of food task in which they worked to access graham crackers. They also completed a snack task where they had free access these foods, liking and hunger assessments, and their heights and weights were measured. Parents reported on their child’s reward sensitivity. Overall, children were willing work for palatable snack foods. Boys and older children made more responses in the task, while children with higher BMI z-scores and reward sensitivity responded at a faster rate. Children who worked harder in terms of total responses and response rates consumed more calories in the snack session. This study demonstrates that with slight modifications, the RRV of food task is a valid and developmentally appropriate measure for assessing individual differences in food reinforcement among very young children. PMID:24090537

  2. Prevalence and Association of Developmental Defects of Enamel with, Dental- Caries and Nutritional Status in Pre-School Children, Lucknow

    PubMed Central

    Saha, Sabyasachi; Jagannath, G.V.; Singh, Sanjay

    2015-01-01

    Background Developmental Defects of Enamel in the primary dentition may be associated and predictors of dental caries and nutritional status. The aim of the present study was to assess the Prevalence of Developmental Defects of Enamel and its Association with, Dental-Caries and Nutritional Status in Pre-School Children of Lucknow, India. Materials and Methods Multistage Sampling was done. A total of 302 pre-school (Rural and Urban) children were examined. Type III examination was conducted with WHO Probe. Developmental Enamel Defects (DED) and Dental Caries were assessed using WHO (1997) Proforma. Results The prevalence of DED of any type was 39.9% with that of demarcated opacities being the highest, followed by hypoplasia. The most frequently affected teeth were maxillary anterior teeth, while the least affected teeth were mandibular incisors. The mean dmft was 3.5. A positive association between DED and caries was observed. Association between Dental Caries & BMI was non-significant whereas Pearson correlation showed a negative correlation between the two. Conclusion The prevalence of enamel defects and caries was high, as the enamel defects were strongly associated with caries. PMID:26557622

  3. Associations between Parental Feeding Styles and Childhood Eating Habits: A Survey of Hong Kong Pre-School Children.

    PubMed

    Lo, Kenneth; Cheung, Calvin; Lee, Albert; Tam, Wilson W S; Keung, Vera

    2015-01-01

    Childhood obesity is a global public health issue, including in the Chinese setting, and its prevalence has increased dramatically throughout the last decade. Since the origins of childhood obesity may lie in the pre-school period, factors relating to very young children's food consumption should be investigated. Parental influence, including feeding style, is the major determinant of childhood dietary behaviour through altering food provision and social environment. However, the applicability of previous research on parental feeding styles was limited by small sample size. To evaluate the influence of parental feeding styles on children's dietary patterns, a cross-sectional study was conducted among 4553 pre-schoolers in Hong Kong. Information was obtained about dietary intake and how regularly they had breakfast, using previous health surveillance surveys taken among primary school students. Parental feeding styles were assessed by a validated Parental Feeding Style Questionnaire and categorized into 'instrumental feeding', 'emotional feeding', 'prompting and encouragement to eat' and 'control over eating'. Multivariable analysis was performed, adjusted for demographic information. Instrumental and/or emotional feeding was found to relate to inadequate consumption of fruit, vegetables and breakfast, and positively correlated with intake of high-energy-density food. Encouragement on eating was associated with more frequent consumption of fruits, vegetables, dairy products and breakfast. Control over eating correlated with more frequent consumption of fruits, vegetables and breakfast, and less consumption of dairy products and high-energy-density food. The present study has provided evidence on the associations between parental feeding styles and dietary patterns of Hong Kong pre-school children from a reasonably large population. Parents should avoid instrumental and emotional feeding, and implement control and encouragement to promote healthy food intake

  4. Associations between musical abilities and precursors of reading in preschool aged children.

    PubMed

    Degé, Franziska; Kubicek, Claudia; Schwarzer, Gudrun

    2015-01-01

    The association between music and language, in particular, the overlap in their processing results in the possibility to use one domain for the enhancement of the other. Especially in the preschool years music may be a valuable tool to train language abilities (e.g., precursors of reading). Therefore, detailed knowledge about associations between musical abilities and precursors of reading can be of great use for designing future music intervention studies that target language-related abilities. Hence, the present study investigated the association between music perception as well as music production and precursors of reading. Thereby, not only phonological awareness, the mostly studied precursor of reading, was investigated, but also other precursors were examined. We assessed musical abilities (production and perception) and precursors of reading (phonological awareness, working memory, and rapid retrieval from long-term memory) in 55 preschoolers (27 boys). Fluid intelligence was measured and controlled in the analyses. Results showed that phonological awareness, working memory, and rapid retrieval from long-term memory were related to music perception as well as to music production. Our data suggest that several precursors of reading were associated with music perception as well as music production. PMID:26347687

  5. Associations between musical abilities and precursors of reading in preschool aged children

    PubMed Central

    Degé, Franziska; Kubicek, Claudia; Schwarzer, Gudrun

    2015-01-01

    The association between music and language, in particular, the overlap in their processing results in the possibility to use one domain for the enhancement of the other. Especially in the preschool years music may be a valuable tool to train language abilities (e.g., precursors of reading). Therefore, detailed knowledge about associations between musical abilities and precursors of reading can be of great use for designing future music intervention studies that target language-related abilities. Hence, the present study investigated the association between music perception as well as music production and precursors of reading. Thereby, not only phonological awareness, the mostly studied precursor of reading, was investigated, but also other precursors were examined. We assessed musical abilities (production and perception) and precursors of reading (phonological awareness, working memory, and rapid retrieval from long-term memory) in 55 preschoolers (27 boys). Fluid intelligence was measured and controlled in the analyses. Results showed that phonological awareness, working memory, and rapid retrieval from long-term memory were related to music perception as well as to music production. Our data suggest that several precursors of reading were associated with music perception as well as music production. PMID:26347687

  6. Numerosity Discrimination in Preschool Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Almeida, Alzira; Arantes, Joana; Machado, Armando

    2007-01-01

    We used a numerical bisection procedure to examine preschool children's sensitivity to the numerical attributes of stimuli. In Experiment 1 children performed two tasks. In the Cups Task they earned coins for choosing a green cup after two drumbeats and a blue cup after eight drumbeats. In the Gloves Task they earned coins for raising a red glove…

  7. Maternal Characteristics Associated with Television Viewing Habits of Low-Income Preschool Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Conners, Nicola A.; Tripathi, Shanti P.; Clubb, Richard; Bradley, Robert H.

    2007-01-01

    Few studies have examined maternal characteristics associated with heavy or inappropriate television viewing on the part of their children. We investigated the relationship between children's television viewing habits and maternal depressive symptoms and parenting beliefs. The participants were 175 low income children (mean age = 62.1 months) and…

  8. Associations between Parental Feeding Styles and Childhood Eating Habits: A Survey of Hong Kong Pre-School Children

    PubMed Central

    Lo, Kenneth; Cheung, Calvin; Lee, Albert; Tam, Wilson W. S.; Keung, Vera

    2015-01-01

    Childhood obesity is a global public health issue, including in the Chinese setting, and its prevalence has increased dramatically throughout the last decade. Since the origins of childhood obesity may lie in the pre-school period, factors relating to very young children’s food consumption should be investigated. Parental influence, including feeding style, is the major determinant of childhood dietary behaviour through altering food provision and social environment. However, the applicability of previous research on parental feeding styles was limited by small sample size. To evaluate the influence of parental feeding styles on children's dietary patterns, a cross-sectional study was conducted among 4553 pre-schoolers in Hong Kong. Information was obtained about dietary intake and how regularly they had breakfast, using previous health surveillance surveys taken among primary school students. Parental feeding styles were assessed by a validated Parental Feeding Style Questionnaire and categorized into ‘instrumental feeding’, ‘emotional feeding’, ‘prompting and encouragement to eat’ and ‘control over eating’. Multivariable analysis was performed, adjusted for demographic information. Instrumental and/or emotional feeding was found to relate to inadequate consumption of fruit, vegetables and breakfast, and positively correlated with intake of high-energy-density food. Encouragement on eating was associated with more frequent consumption of fruits, vegetables, dairy products and breakfast. Control over eating correlated with more frequent consumption of fruits, vegetables and breakfast, and less consumption of dairy products and high-energy-density food. The present study has provided evidence on the associations between parental feeding styles and dietary patterns of Hong Kong pre-school children from a reasonably large population. Parents should avoid instrumental and emotional feeding, and implement control and encouragement to promote healthy

  9. The Story Preferences of Preschool Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Summers, Marcia

    Preschool children's story preferences were studied to determine if differences existed in preschoolers' preferences for reality, fantasy, people, and animals. Sex of character versus sex of subject was also investigated. Subjects were 84 children from preschools in Lincoln, Nebraska (39 boys and 45 girls). Through use of a nonverbal testing…

  10. Preschool Children's Informal Division Concepts.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blevins-Knabe, Belinda

    The purpose of this study was to examine the division procedures of preschool children to determine whether such procedures involved one-to-one correspondence. Large and small numerosity trials were included so that the amount of effort and ease of using other procedures would vary. Odd and even number trials were included to determine whether…

  11. Mozart Effect in Preschool Children?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hui, Ken

    2006-01-01

    In 1993, Rauscher et al. reported a temporary increase in spatial-temporal ability after listening to Mozart's music. This led to numerous replication and extension studies with mixed findings in the past decade. This study investigated the "Mozart effect" in preschool children. Forty-one boys and girls, aged three to five, attempted a series of…

  12. Controlling Relationships in Preschool Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Munoz, Jose Manuel; Braza, Francisco; Carreras, Rosario

    2004-01-01

    In order to facilitate the comprehension of social structure in preschool children, our research has two foci: first, to define controlling behaviours (nonaggressive group organisation) and to determine their organisational principles, and second, to analyse the relation of the controlling behaviours with aggressive behaviours. Through direct…

  13. Attachment in Preschool Deaf Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Greenberg, Mark T.

    A study was designed to examine the attachment behavior of 28 preschool deaf children and their hearing mothers and compare their patterns of behavior to previous reports of normal hearing dyads, and within this sample examine the relationship between communicative ability and phase of attachment. The sample was subdivided by communication…

  14. Factors associated with the prevalence of anterior open bite among preschool children: A population-based study in Brazil

    PubMed Central

    Machado, Daniella Borges; Brizon, Valéria Silva Cândido; Ambrosano, Gláucia Maria Bovi; Madureira, Davidson Fróis; Gomes, Viviane Elisângela; de Oliveira, Ana Cristina Borges

    2014-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: The aim of this study was to identify factors associated with the prevalence of anterior open bite among five-year-old Brazilian children. METHODS: A cross-sectional study was undertaken using data from the National Survey of Oral Health (SB Brazil 2010). The outcome variable was anterior open bite classified as present or absent. The independent variables were classified by individual, sociodemographic and clinical factors. Data were analyzed through bivariate and multivariate analysis using SPSS statistical software (version 18.0) with a 95% level of significance. RESULTS: The prevalence of anterior open bite was 12.1%. Multivariate analysis showed that preschool children living in Southern Brazil had an increased chance of 1.8 more times of having anterior open bite (CI 95%: 1.16 - 3.02). Children identified with alterations in overjet had 14.6 times greater chances of having anterior open bite (CI 95%: 8.98 - 24.03). CONCLUSION: There was a significant association between anterior open bite and the region of Brazil where the children lived, the presence of altered overjet and the prevalence of posterior crossbite. PMID:25715723

  15. Enjoyment of tactile play is associated with lower food neophobia in preschool children.

    PubMed

    Coulthard, Helen; Thakker, Dipti

    2015-07-01

    Previous research has shown that parental reports of food neophobia and tactile sensitivity are associated with lower fruit and vegetable (F/V) intake in children. This study aimed to pilot a behavioral observation measure of tactile play in young children. The primary aim of the study was to see whether children's enjoyment of tactile play was associated with higher F/V consumption, as well as lower food neophobia. Seventy 2- to 5-year-old children (37 males and 33 females) and their parents were recruited through children's centers in the Leicester region of the United Kingdom during July to October 2012. Children's engagement in two tactile play tasks using sticky foods (mashed potatoes and vegetarian gelatin) was observed and rated by both the researcher and parent. Parents were asked to complete a series of questionnaires measuring F/V consumption, food neophobia, and sensory processing. It was found that lower child food neophobia was significantly related to enjoyment of tactile play, whereas child F/V consumption was associated with parental F/V consumption, but not enjoyment of tactile play. The findings strengthen the idea that tactile processing may be associated with the acceptance of food variety, but not the total amount of F/V consumed. Additional research is indicated to determine whether tactile play tasks can be used to lower child food neophobia. PMID:25935569

  16. Computerized Sociometric Assessment for Preschool Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Endedijk, Hinke M.; Cillessen, Antonius H. N.

    2015-01-01

    In preschool classes, sociometric peer ratings are used to measure children's peer relationships. The current study examined a computerized version of preschool sociometric ratings. The psychometric properties were compared of computerized sociometric ratings and traditional peer ratings for preschoolers. The distributions, inter-item…

  17. Factors Affecting Children's Math Achievement Scores in Preschool

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kilday, Carolyn R.

    2010-01-01

    This dissertation contains three independently conducted studies on factors that affect the math achievement scores of preschool-aged children. The first study examined the associations between children's executive-functioning (EF) and math achievement scores at 54 months of age. Results suggest that EF is strongly associated with children's…

  18. Children's Language Institute Preschool Placement Test (CLIPPT).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Quin, Paul E.; And Others

    The Children's Language Institute Preschool Placement Test (CLIPPT) identifies children, aged 2.6 to 4 years, with mild to moderate language/learning deficits, to determine which children would benefit from a language intervention preschool program. The test is presented in three sections: (1) the Informational Manual which provides theoretical…

  19. Attachment, Temperament, and Preschool Children's Peer Acceptance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Szewczyk-Sokolowski, Margaret; Bost, Kelly K.; Wainwright, Ada B.

    2005-01-01

    This study examined the relations between preschool children's attachment security, temperament, and peer acceptance. Ninety-eight preschool children and their mothers were recruited through childcare centers in the southeast. Mothers and their children participated in two two-hour home observations. Attachment security was assessed using the…

  20. The Obesogenic Quality of the Home Environment: Associations with Diet, Physical Activity, TV Viewing, and BMI in Preschool Children

    PubMed Central

    Schrempft, Stephanie; van Jaarsveld, Cornelia H. M.; Fisher, Abigail; Wardle, Jane

    2015-01-01

    Objectives The home environment is thought to play a key role in early weight trajectories, although direct evidence is limited. There is general agreement that multiple factors exert small individual effects on weight-related outcomes, so use of composite measures could demonstrate stronger effects. This study therefore examined whether composite measures reflecting the ‘obesogenic’ home environment are associated with diet, physical activity, TV viewing, and BMI in preschool children. Methods Families from the Gemini cohort (n = 1096) completed a telephone interview (Home Environment Interview; HEI) when their children were 4 years old. Diet, physical activity, and TV viewing were reported at interview. Child height and weight measurements were taken by the parents (using standard scales and height charts) and reported at interview. Responses to the HEI were standardized and summed to create four composite scores representing the food (sum of 21 variables), activity (sum of 6 variables), media (sum of 5 variables), and overall (food composite/21 + activity composite/6 + media composite/5) home environments. These were categorized into ‘obesogenic risk’ tertiles. Results Children in ‘higher-risk’ food environments consumed less fruit (OR; 95% CI = 0.39; 0.27–0.57) and vegetables (0.47; 0.34–0.64), and more energy-dense snacks (3.48; 2.16–5.62) and sweetened drinks (3.49; 2.10–5.81) than children in ‘lower-risk’ food environments. Children in ‘higher-risk’ activity environments were less physically active (0.43; 0.32–0.59) than children in ‘lower-risk’ activity environments. Children in ‘higher-risk’ media environments watched more TV (3.51; 2.48–4.96) than children in ‘lower-risk’ media environments. Neither the individual nor the overall composite measures were associated with BMI. Conclusions Composite measures of the obesogenic home environment were associated as expected with diet, physical activity, and TV viewing

  1. Parenting practices are associated with fruit and vegetable consumption in pre-school children

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Parents may influence children's fruit and vegetable (F&V) consumption in many ways, but research has focused primarily on counterproductive parenting practices, such as restriction and pressure to eat. The present study aimed to assess the association of diverse parenting practices to promote F&V a...

  2. Parenting Practices Are Associated With Fruit And Vegetable Consumption In Preschool Children

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Parents may influence children's fruit and vegetable (FV) consumption in many ways, but research has primarily focused on counter-productive parenting practices, e.g., restriction and pressure to eat. The aim of this study was to assess the association of parenting practices to promote FV to its con...

  3. Association between occlusal force and physical functions in preschool children: a comparison of males and females

    PubMed Central

    Hirao, Aya; Murata, Shin; Kubo, Atsuko; Hachiya, Mizuki; Mitsumaru, Nozomi; Asami, Toyoko

    2015-01-01

    [Purpose] To determine and compare changes over time in the physical strength of male and female children aged 4–5 years by measuring physical functions such as occlusal forces. [Subjects and Methods] The occlusal force, weight, height, grip strength, standing long jump, ball throwing, timed up and go (TUG), and the 25-m run time were measured of 331 children to determine their physical strength. All the children understood and were capable of completing all tests. [Results] Occlusal force among male infants significantly correlated with all items except ball throwing. Stepwise multiple regression analysis independently associated occlusal force with grip strength. In contrast, occlusal force of female infants significantly correlated with all the tested items. Stepwise multiple regression analysis also independently associated occlusal force with grip strength and TUG in females. [Conclusion] Grip strength indicating upper-limb muscle strength correlated with occlusal forces in both male and female children, whereas TUG, balance and walking ability indicating muscle strength of the lower limbs, correlated with items relevant to everyday functions in female infants. These findings show that different factors are involved in the occlusal forces of male and female children. PMID:26834340

  4. Parent feeding strategy clusters are associated with the weight status of preschool-aged children in low-income families

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Purpose: To identify clusters of parents based on use of feeding strategies (FS) and evaluate their relationship with children's weight status. Methods: A study to investigate facilitators and barriers to fruit and vegetable intake among low-income preschoolers was performed with 761 parent/child dy...

  5. Bioavailable dietary iron is associated with hemoglobin concentration in Mexican preschool children.

    PubMed

    Rodríguez, Sonia C; Hotz, Christine; Rivera, Juan A

    2007-10-01

    The objective of this study was to estimate the amount of bioavailable iron (FeBIO) in the diet of Mexican children aged 12-59 mo through the application of algorithms that use dietary variables and analyze the association between estimated FeBIO and hemoglobin (Hb) concentration. Data were analyzed for 919 children aged 12-59 mo old who participated in a national probabilistic survey on nutrition, in which a 24-h dietary recall was applied and Hb concentration was determined through the use of portable photometers. Dietary intakes were determined for total iron, heme and nonheme iron, vitamin C, phytates, and meat (red meat, poultry, and fish). Using these dietary variables and distinct scenarios on body iron reserves, we used algorithms to estimate the amount of FeBIO in the diet. Linear regression models were adjusted to evaluate the association between FeBIO and Hb. The mean iron intake was 6.2 +/- 4.4 mg/d and the mean estimated FeBIO ranged between 0.14 and 0.37 mg/d depending on different assumptions about iron reserves, representing 2.7-6.1% of total iron intake. The Hb concentration, adjusted for altitude and presence of diarrhea, was positively associated with FeBIO in children 12-23 mo old (P < 0.05) but not in children 24-59 mo old. The estimated FeBIO is low in relation to physiological requirements and is compatible with existing high iron deficiency prevalence rates in Mexico. Although Hb is not a specific indicator of iron status, it was significantly associated with FeBIO. PMID:17885015

  6. Picky eating in preschool children: Associations with dietary fibre intakes and stool hardness.

    PubMed

    Taylor, Caroline M; Northstone, Kate; Wernimont, Susan M; Emmett, Pauline M

    2016-05-01

    It has been suggested that constipation may be associated with picky eating. Constipation is a common condition in childhood and a low intake of dietary fibre may be a risk factor. Differences in fibre intake between picky and non-picky children and its relation to stool consistency is currently not well-understood. Children enrolled in the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children identified as picky eaters (PE) were compared with non-picky eaters (NPE): (1) to determine dietary fibre intake at 38 months; (2) to investigate whether any difference in dietary fibre intake was predictive of usual stool hardness at 42 months. PE was identified from questionnaires at 24 and 38 months. Usual stool hardness was identified from a questionnaire at 42 months. Dietary intake was assessed at 38 months with a food frequency questionnaire. Dietary fibre intake was lower in PE than NPE (mean difference -1.4 (95% CI -1.6, -1.2) g/day, p < 0.001). PE was strongly associated with dietary fibre intake (adjusted regression model; unstandardised B -1.44 (95% CI -1.62, -1.24) g/day, p < 0.001). PE had a lower percentage of fibre from vegetables compared with NPE (8.9% vs 15.7%, respectively, p < 0.001). There was an association between PE and usually having hard stools (adjusted multinomial model; OR 1.31, 95% CI 1.07, 1.61; p = 0.010). This was attenuated when dietary fibre was included in the model, suggesting that fibre intake mediated the association (OR 1.16, 95% CI 0.94, 1.43, p = 0.180). Picky eating in 3-year-old children was associated with an increased prevalence of usually having hard stools. This association was mediated by low dietary fibre intake, particularly from vegetables, in PE. For children with PE, dietary advice aimed at increasing fibre intake may help avoid hard stools. PMID:26879221

  7. Maternal Positive Parenting Style Is Associated with Better Functioning in Hyperactive/Inattentive Preschool Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Healey, Dione M.; Flory, Janine D.; Miller, Carlin J.; Halperin, Jeffrey M.

    2011-01-01

    Many preschoolers are highly inattentive, impulsive, and hyperactive; but only some are impaired in their functioning. Yet factors leading to functional impairment, above and beyond the severity of inattentive and hyperactive symptoms, have not been systematically examined. This study examined a model suggesting that after controlling for…

  8. Emotion regulation strategies in preschool children.

    PubMed

    Sala, Maria Nives; Pons, Francisco; Molina, Paola

    2014-11-01

    This study investigated the development of emotion regulation strategies as reflected in the narratives of children between the ages of 3 and 6 years. An experimental procedure based on story completion tasks was devised to elicit the emotion-related narratives of 69 preschool children. Coding of the narratives led to the observation of different emotion regulation strategies: Behavioural strategies, social support, and cognitive reappraisal. Several significant gender and age differences were identified in the use of these strategies. In addition, verbal skills, non-verbal intelligence, and emotion comprehension were found to be associated with use of the observed emotion regulation strategies, although only at specific ages. PMID:25040163

  9. Music Enhances Sleep in Preschool Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Field, Tiffany

    1999-01-01

    Examined the effect of playing background classical guitar music at nap time on alternate days to toddlers and preschool children attending a model preschool. Specifically assessed music's effect on nap-time sleep onset. Found that children fell asleep faster on the music days than on the nonmusic days. Toddlers fell asleep faster than did the…

  10. Correlates of adiposity among Latino preschool children

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Childhood obesity is at record high levels in the US and disproportionately affects Latino children; however, studies examining Latino preschool children's obesity-related risk factors are sparse. This study determined correlates of Latino preschoolers' (ages 3-5 years) adiposity to inform future ob...

  11. Prevalence of urinary tract infection in severely malnourished preschool children.

    PubMed

    Banapurmath, C R; Jayamony, S

    1994-06-01

    Eighty eight severely malnourished preschool children (Grade III or Grade IV, IAP classification) were studied to find out the prevalence of urinary tract infection (UTI). Fifty three well nourished preschool children served as controls. Urine samples were collected by suprapubic aspiration in children below 3 years and in older children a clean catch midstream sample of urine was collected. The urine samples were subjected to direct microscopic examination, Gram's stain and culture. UTI was detected in 7 (8%) of the 88 malnourished children. Besides UTI, the other associated infections included respiratory tract infection (31.8%), diarrhea (27.2%) and tuberculous meningitis (12.7%). PMID:7896393

  12. Dietary sources of animal and plant protein intake among Flemish preschool children and the association with socio-economic and lifestyle-related factors

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background The aims of this study were to assess the intake of animal, plant and food group-specific protein, and to investigate their associations with socio-economic and lifestyle-related factors in Flemish preschoolers. Methods Three-day estimated dietary records were collected from 661 preschoolers aged 2.5-6.5 y (338 boys and 323 girls). Multiple linear regression analysis was used to investigate the association between animal, plant, and food group-specific protein intake and socio-economic and lifestyle factors. Results Animal proteins (mean 38 g/d) were the main source of total protein (mean 56 g/d), while mean plant protein intake amounted to 18 g/d. The group of meat, poultry, fish and eggs was the main contributor (51%) to animal protein intake, followed by milk and milk products (35%). Bread and cereals (41%) contributed most to the plant protein intake, followed by low-nutritious, energy-dense foods (21%). With higher educated fathers and mothers as reference, respectively, preschoolers with lower secondary and secondary paternal education had lower animal, dairy-, and meat-derived protein intakes, and those with lower secondary and secondary maternal education consumed less plant, and bread and cereal-derived proteins. Compared to children with high physical activity levels, preschoolers with low and moderate physical activity had lower animal and plant protein intakes. Significantly higher potatoes and grains-, and fish- derived proteins were reported for children of smoking mothers and fathers, respectively, compared to those of non-smoking mothers and fathers. Conclusions The total protein intake of Flemish preschoolers was sufficient according to the recommendations of the Belgian Superior Health Council. Parental level of education and smoking status might play a role in the sources of children's dietary proteins. PMID:21943312

  13. Thought Disorder in Preschool Children with Attention Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD).

    PubMed

    Hutchison, Amanda K; Kelsay, Kimberly; Talmi, Ayelet; Noonan, Kate; Ross, Randal G

    2016-08-01

    Preschool identification of and intervention for psychiatric symptoms has the potential for lifelong benefits. However, preschool identification of thought disorder, a symptom associated with long term risk for social and cognitive dysfunction, has received little attention with previous work limited to examining preschoolers with severe emotional and behavioral dysregulation. Using story-stem methodology, 12 children with ADHD and 12 children without ADHD, ages 4.0-6.0 years were evaluated for thought disorder. Thought disorder was reliably assessed (Cronbach's alpha = .958). Children with ADHD were significantly more likely than children without ADHD to exhibit thought disorder (75 vs 25 %; Fischer's Exact Test = .0391). Thought disorder can be reliably assessed in preschool children and is present in preschool children with psychiatric illness including preschool children with ADHD. Thought disorder may be identifiable in preschool years across a broad range of psychiatric illnesses and thus may be an appropriate target of intervention. PMID:26429569

  14. Interactions between Maternal Parenting and Children's Early Disruptive Behavior: Bidirectional Associations across the Transition from Preschool to School Entry

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Combs-Ronto, Lindsey A.; Olson, Sheryl L.; Lunkenheimer, Erika S.; Sameroff, Arnold J.

    2009-01-01

    This study was a prospective 2-year longitudinal investigation of associations between negative maternal parenting and disruptive child behavior across the preschool to school transition. Our main goals were to 1) determine the direction of association between early maternal negativity and child disruptive behaviors across this important…

  15. The moderating effects of parenting styles in the association between behavioral inhibition and parent-reported guilt and empathy in preschool children.

    PubMed

    Cornell, Amy H; Frick, Paul J

    2007-01-01

    This study investigated interactions between children's temperament and parenting styles in their association with measures of guilt and empathy. Participants were 87 predominantly Caucasian, middle-class mothers and their children between the ages of 3 and 5 (M = 4.39, SD = .51). Children nominated by their preschool teachers as being behaviorally inhibited showed higher levels of parent-rated guilt and empathy than uninhibited children, irrespective of the type and quality of parenting they experienced. However, for uninhibited children, greater inconsistent discipline was associated with lower levels of guilt and lower levels of empathy, whereas higher levels of authoritarian parenting were associated with higher levels of guilt. These results support the presence of important interactions between temperament and parenting in explaining two critical dimensions of callous-unemotional traits. PMID:17658976

  16. Dimensions of Preschool Children's Food Preferences.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Birch, Leann Lipps

    1979-01-01

    Describes four assessments which preschool children were given to indicate preference for a set of fruits. The research demonstrates the feasibility of obtaining preference data directly from young children. (Author/SA)

  17. Dietary Sources of Fiber Intake and Its Association with Socio-Economic Factors among Flemish Preschool Children

    PubMed Central

    Lin, Yi; Bolca, Selin; Vandevijvere, Stefanie; De Keyzer, Willem; Van Oyen, Herman; Van Camp, John; De Backer, Guy; De Henauw, Stefaan; Huybrechts, Inge

    2011-01-01

    The objectives were to assess total dietary fiber intake, identify the major sources of dietary fiber, and examine its association with socio-economic factors among Flemish preschoolers. Three-day estimated dietary records were collected from a representative sample of preschoolers 2.5–6.5 years old (n = 661; 338 boys, 323 girls). The mean dietary fiber intake (13.4 g/d) was lower than the intake level recommended by the Belgian Superior Health Council (70% boys and 81% girls below the guidelines). The most important contributor was the group of bread and cereals (29.5%), followed by fruits (17.8%), potatoes and grains (16.0%), energy-dense, low-nutritious foods (12.4%), and vegetables (11.8%). Multiple linear regression analyses showed that total fiber intake was associated with maternal education and parents’ employment. Overall, fiber intakes from high-nutritious foods (vegetables and fruits) were higher in preschoolers of higher educated mothers and those with one or both parents being employed. In conclusion, the majority of the preschoolers had dietary fiber intakes below the recommended level. Hence, dietary fiber should be promoted among parents of preschoolers and low socio-economic status families should be addressed in particular. PMID:21673925

  18. Dietary sources of fiber intake and its association with socio-economic factors among Flemish preschool children.

    PubMed

    Lin, Yi; Bolca, Selin; Vandevijvere, Stefanie; De Keyzer, Willem; Van Oyen, Herman; Van Camp, John; De Backer, Guy; De Henauw, Stefaan; Huybrechts, Inge

    2011-01-01

    The objectives were to assess total dietary fiber intake, identify the major sources of dietary fiber, and examine its association with socio-economic factors among Flemish preschoolers. Three-day estimated dietary records were collected from a representative sample of preschoolers 2.5-6.5 years old (n = 661; 338 boys, 323 girls). The mean dietary fiber intake (13.4 g/d) was lower than the intake level recommended by the Belgian Superior Health Council (70% boys and 81% girls below the guidelines). The most important contributor was the group of bread and cereals (29.5%), followed by fruits (17.8%), potatoes and grains (16.0%), energy-dense, low-nutritious foods (12.4%), and vegetables (11.8%). Multiple linear regression analyses showed that total fiber intake was associated with maternal education and parents' employment. Overall, fiber intakes from high-nutritious foods (vegetables and fruits) were higher in preschoolers of higher educated mothers and those with one or both parents being employed. In conclusion, the majority of the preschoolers had dietary fiber intakes below the recommended level. Hence, dietary fiber should be promoted among parents of preschoolers and low socio-economic status families should be addressed in particular. PMID:21673925

  19. Cognitive Control Deficits in Shifting and Inhibition in Preschool Age Children are Associated with Increased Depression and Anxiety Over 7.5 Years of Development.

    PubMed

    Kertz, Sarah J; Belden, Andy C; Tillman, Rebecca; Luby, Joan

    2016-08-01

    Although depression and anxiety are common in youth (Costello et al. 2003), factors that put children at risk for such symptoms are not well understood. The current study examined associations between early childhood cognitive control deficits and depression and anxiety over the course of development through school age. Participants were 188 children (at baseline M = 5.42 years, SD = 0.79 years) and their primary caregiver. Caregivers completed ratings of children's executive functioning at preschool age and measures of depression and anxiety severity over seven assessment waves (a period of approximately 7.5 years). Longitudinal multilevel linear models were used to examine the effect of attention shifting and inhibition deficits on depression and anxiety. Inhibition deficits at preschool were associated with significantly greater depression severity scores at each subsequent assessment wave (up until 7.5 years later). Inhibition deficits were associated with greater anxiety severity from 3.5 to 7.5 years later. Greater shifting deficits at preschool age were associated with greater depression severity up to 5.5 years later. Shifting deficits were also associated with significantly greater anxiety severity up to 3.5 years later. Importantly, these effects were significant even after accounting for the influence of other key predictors including assessment wave/time, gender, parental education, IQ, and symptom severity at preschool age, suggesting that effects are robust. Overall, findings indicate that cognitive control deficits are an early vulnerability factor for developing affective symptoms. Timely assessment and intervention may be beneficial as an early prevention strategy. PMID:26607383

  20. Association between Hypothesized Parental Influences and Preschool Children's Physical Activity Behavior

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Loprinzi, Paul D.; Schary, David P.; Beets, Michael W.; Leary, Janie; Cardinal, Bradley J.

    2013-01-01

    Background: To date, most research investigating the influence of parents on children"s physical activity behavior has been conducted among school-aged children. As a result, we have a limited understanding of the mechanisms through which parents can influence their young children's physical activity behavior. The purpose of this study was to…

  1. Preschool Children's Perceptions of Overweight Peers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Su, Wei; Aurelia, Di Santo

    2012-01-01

    The aim of the study was to determine if preschool children perceive overweight children to have more negative characteristics than non-overweight children. Children from 32 to 70 months old (N = 42) listened to four stories about an interaction between two children, in which one child demonstrated socially unacceptable behaviour and one child…

  2. Preschool Antecedents of Internalizing Problems in Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Olson, Sheryl L.; Rosenblum, Katherine

    1998-01-01

    Examined the relationship of 79 children's preschool social adaptation to internalizing problem behaviors following transition to kindergarten. Found that boys and girls did not differ in symptom level, but girls showed higher stability in internalizing problem behavior than boys. Preschoolers with high internalizing problem behavior rates…

  3. How Preschool Children Understand Missing Complement Subjects.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maratsos, Michael P.

    Two studies investigated preschool children's comprehension of the missing subject of infinitival complement clauses. In the first study, use of a Surface Structure Minimal Distance principle of the type outlined by C. Chomsky was distinguished from use of a Semantic Role Principle. Preschoolers acted out sentences in which the use of the two…

  4. Developing Gifted Children in Hungarian Preschool Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nagy, Iren; Papp, Irene

    2013-01-01

    At a conference, a secondary school teacher was very surprised when she heard about the idea of talent development in preschool education. "What does it mean?" she asked. In this paper we answer the above question with a model created by joint research. We describe our method of developing gifted children with the involvement of preschool teachers…

  5. The Ecological Education of Preschool Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nikolaeva, S. N.

    2008-01-01

    The system of ecological education of preschool children includes multiple interconnected blocks that cover all aspects of the ecological pedagogical process in a preschool institution: the content of the ecological education, the ways it is conducted (methods and technologies), and the organization and management of the process.

  6. Preschool Children's Ideas on Sustainable Development: How Preschool Children Perceive Three Pillars of Sustainability with the Regard to 7R

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kahriman-Ozturk, Deniz; Olgan, Refika; Guler, Tulin

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to describe ideas of preschool children about sustainable development. Basic qualitative research was utilized and 36 preschool children enrolled in four different preschools in Ankara were included in the study. Semi-structured interviews were used to obtain data related to ideas of preschool children on three pillars…

  7. REFLECTIONS ON QUALITY AND DOSAGE OF PRESCHOOL AND CHILDREN'S DEVELOPMENT.

    PubMed

    Votruba-Drzal, Elizabeth; Miller, Portia

    2016-06-01

    This ambitious monograph tackles several important questions related to children's preschool experiences that have relevance for program and policy initiatives at the state and federal levels. The authors' approach is rigorous: they conduct parallel analyses across eight large and diverse studies of preschool children in center care and use meta-analysis to summarize patterns across studies. The study finds nonlinear associations between preschool quality and gains in language and literacy skills, with larger associations in higher versus lower quality classrooms. Results also show that domain-specific measures of preschool quality were more strongly related to children's development than global quality measures. The "dosage" of preschool was likewise important: more years in Head Start predicted larger vocabulary and literacy gains, whereas more time spent on instruction predicted greater literacy and math skills growth. In this commentary, we situate these findings in the broader literature addressing links between preschool experiences and children's development and discuss key takeaways for research, practice, and policy. PMID:27273510

  8. Identifying Language Comprehension Impairment in Preschool Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Skarakis-Doyle, Elizabeth; Dempsey, Lynn; Lee, Christopher

    2008-01-01

    Purpose: This study examined the validity of 3 discourse comprehension measures for preschool children and the ability of a combination of them to classify children with and without language impairment. Method: Thirty-seven children with typical language and 12 children with language impairment completed 3 measures of oral story comprehension: the…

  9. Motor Competence Is Associated with Physical Fitness in Four- to Six-Year-Old Preschool Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sigmundsson, Hermundur; Haga, Monika

    2016-01-01

    The health benefits of a physical active lifestyle and physical fitness from a young age are widely recognized as beneficial. This study examined the relationship between physical fitness and motor competence in children aged four- to six-years-old. A sample of 42 children (mean age 5.15 years, SD 0.56 year) participated in the study. To assess…

  10. Why good placements matter: Pre-placement and placement risk factors associated with mental health disorders in pre-school children in foster care.

    PubMed

    Hillen, Thomas; Gafson, Leonie

    2015-07-01

    Pre-school children placed in local authority care show elevated rates of mental health disorders when compared to the general population. This study investigated risk factors for mental health disorders relating to the period prior to entering care and while in care. A representative sample of 43 children in care aged 0-72 months in an inner London borough underwent comprehensive multidimensional assessments. Presence of emotional, behavioural, attachment and adaptive disorders was ascertained. Exposure to two pre-placement risk factors and six placement risk factors was compared between children with and without a disorder. A total of 26 children (60.5%) had at least one mental health disorder. The two pre-placement risk factors, multiple types of maltreatment and entry into care after the age of 6 months, were both significantly associated with mental health disorders. The three placement risk factors of sudden placement moves, multiple placement moves and child-carer alienation showed a significant association with mental health disorders. There was a strong correlation between the number of risk factors and the number of co-morbid mental health disorders per child (r = .67, p < .001). In conclusion, this study identified five modifiable risk factors related to the quality of safeguarding and fostering services which showed a significant association with pre-school mental health. PMID:24733375

  11. Factors associated with tympanostomy tube insertion among preschool-aged children in the United States.

    PubMed Central

    Kogan, M D; Overpeck, M D; Hoffman, H J; Casselbrant, M L

    2000-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: Recurrent and persistent otitis media is often treated by tympanostomy tube insertion to ventilate the middle ear and restore hearing. This study examined the factors that predict which children are most likely to receive tympanostomy tubes through 3 years of age. METHODS: Multiple logistic regression was conducted on data from a nationally representative sample of children (N = 8285). RESULTS: By 3 years of age, 6.8% of US children had tubes inserted. Logistic regression indicated that after control for number of ear infections, children without any gaps in health insurance, who attended a day-care center, who were White, whose birth-weight was less than 1500 g, and who lived in the Midwest or South were significantly more likely to have tympanostomy tubes. CONCLUSIONS: These data suggest that differences exist as to who receives tubes. Of particular concern are differences by race/ethnicity and continuity of health insurance coverage. With expansions in health care coverage to larger proportions of uninsured children, it will be important to monitor these programs to ensure that all children who may need tympanostomy tubes have access to them. PMID:10667186

  12. Harmonious Parents and Their Preschool Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baumrind, Diana

    1971-01-01

    This brief report describes harmonious parents and their children. The six preschool daughters whose parents were harmonious were outstandingly competent but the opposite was true of the two sons. (Author/WY)

  13. Memory for Companions in Preschool Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Delfosse, Patricia; Smith, Peter K.

    1979-01-01

    Memory of preschool children (four years of age) for companions was investigated by comparing interview data using a picture sociometric technique with observational data on actual play companions. Subjects were 15 boys and girls. (Author/MP)

  14. Preschool Children's Awareness of Private Speech

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Manfra, Louis; Winsler, Adam

    2006-01-01

    The present study explored: (a) preschool children's awareness of their own talking and private speech (speech directed to the self); (b) differences in age, speech use, language ability, and mentalizing abilities between children with awareness and those without; and (c) children's beliefs and attitudes about private speech. Fifty-one children…

  15. Maternal anthropometry and feeding behavior toward preschool children: association with childhood body mass index in an observational study of Chilean families

    PubMed Central

    2009-01-01

    Background A better understanding of the link between eating behavior and maternal feeding practices with childhood and maternal weight status is of great interest. Objective To assess the association between childhood anthropometric measures with mothers' Body Mass Index (BMI) and their feeding practices toward preschool children in Chile. Methods 1029 children (504 boys, 4.3 ± 0.3 years) and their mothers were selected from public nurseries located in low income neighborhoods in Santiago. Mothers' BMI, children's BMI and waist-to-height ratios were registered. Maternal feeding practices towards their children's nutritional habits were measured using an adapted version of the Child Feeding Questionnaire (CFQ). Results We found a direct correlation (p < 0.001) between children's BMI z-score and their mothers' BMI, both in boys (Spearman rho = 0.26) and girls (rho = 0.30). A direct association was also found between children's BMI z-score with scores of the subscale "concern for child's weight" (Spearman rho = 0.26 in boys and rho = 0.37 in girls; p < 0.001) and "food restriction" (rho = 0.19 in boys and rho = 0.27 in girls; p < 0.001). A reverse significant association was found between children's BMI z-score with scores of "pressure to eat" (rho = -0.30 in boys and rho = -0.36 in girls; p < 0.001). Analyses of the combined categories of childhood obesity and/or maternal obesity showed an important influence of children's weight status on CFQ scores. Conclusion Mothers' BMI and children's BMI z-scores are highly correlated. We found significant associations between mothers' behaviour subscales and children's BMI z-score. It is not possible to establish a causal link between mother's CFQ scores and children's nutritional status, given the cross-sectional nature of this study and the bidirectional influences that exist between mothers and their children. PMID:20040107

  16. Prevalence of Helicobacter Pylori Infection in School and Pre-School Aged Children with C-14 Urea Breath Test and the Association with Familial and Environmental Factors

    PubMed Central

    Çınar, Alev; Sadıç, Murat; İkbal Atılgan, Hasan; Baskın, Aylin; Koca, Gökhan; Demirel, Koray; Korkmaz, Meliha

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the prevalence of Helicobacter pylori (Hp) infection in pre-school and school age children with C-14 urea breath test, and to explore its association with age and socioeconomic factors in Turkey. Methods: Hp infection status was determined by using Urea Breath Test (UBT). Patients who had previous gastric surgery, Hp eradication treatment or equivocal UBT results were excluded. A questionnaire was administered to elicit information on gender, age, ABO/Rh blood group type, presence of gastric disease in the family, domestic animal in the household, and treatment for idiopathic Iron Deficiency Anemia (IDA). Results: This retrospective study included 500 pediatric patients (179 boys, 321 girls, mean age 10.7±4.3 years) of whom 62 (12.4%) were aged ≤6 years and 438 (87.6%) were aged 7 to 16 years. Helicobacter pylori (Hp) was positive in 245 (49%) cases. In the pre-school age group, 21/62 cases (34%) had positive UBT while in the school age group 224/438 children (51%) had positive UBT. A family history of dyspepsia and pet ownership were not associated with Hp positivity. Hp positive 76 (29.8%) children were on IDA treatment but this was not statistically significant. Conclusion: The Hp infection positivity rate was 49% in the pediatric age study group. The positivity rate was significantly lower at preschool age than school age, and it increased with age. There was no association with gender, ABO/Rh blood groups, presence of domestic pets, IDA, or history of gastric disease in the family. PMID:26316471

  17. Contextually Influenced Patterns of Play-Developmental Age Associations for Preschoolers with and without Mental Retardation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Malone, D. Michael

    2006-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to present data demonstrating the differential pattern of association among play behaviors and developmental age that emerge for children with and without mental retardation across play situations. Seventeen preschool children with mental retardation and 17 preschool children without mental retardation were matched on…

  18. Comorbidities in preschool children at family risk of dyslexia

    PubMed Central

    Gooch, Debbie; Hulme, Charles; Nash, Hannah M; Snowling, Margaret J

    2015-01-01

    Background Comorbidity among developmental disorders such as dyslexia, language impairment, attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder and developmental coordination disorder is common. This study explores comorbid weaknesses in preschool children at family risk of dyslexia with and without language impairment and considers the role that comorbidity plays in determining children’s outcomes. Method The preschool attention, executive function and motor skills of 112 children at family risk for dyslexia, 29 of whom also met criteria for language impairment, were assessed at ages 3 ½ and 4 ½. The performance of these children was compared to the performance of children with language impairment and typically developing controls. Results Weaknesses in attention, executive function and motor skills were associated with language impairment rather than family risk status. Individual differences in language and executive function are strongly related in the preschool period and preschool motor skills predicted unique variance (4%) in early reading skills over and above children’s language ability. Conclusion Comorbidity between developmental disorders can be observed in the preschool years: children with language impairment have significant and persistent weaknesses in motor skills and executive function compared to those without language impairment. Children’s early language and motor skills are predictors of children’s later reading skills. PMID:24117483

  19. Children's Participation in Preschool--On the Conditions of the Adults? Preschool Staff's Concepts of Children's Participation in Preschool Everyday Life

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sandberg, Anette; Eriksson, Anette

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate, analyse and describe preschool staff's concepts of children's participation in everyday preschool life, as well as preschool staff's experiences and concepts of what characterises the children who participate. Furthermore, it addresses the conditions that preschool staff consider as crucial in…

  20. Association between neighborhood socioeconomic status and screen time among pre-school children: a cross-sectional study

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Sedentary behavior is considered a separate construct from physical activity and engaging in sedentary behaviors results in health effects independent of physical activity levels. A major source of sedentary behavior in children is time spent viewing TV or movies, playing video games, and using computers. To date no study has examined the impact of neighborhood socioeconomic status (SES) on pre-school children's screen time behavior. Methods Proxy reports of weekday and weekend screen time (TV/movies, video games, and computer use) were completed by 1633 parents on their 4-5 year-old children in Edmonton, Alberta between November, 2005 and August, 2007. Postal codes were used to classified neighborhoods into low, medium or high SES. Multiple linear and logistic regression models were conducted to examine relationships between screen time and neighborhood SES. Results Girls living in low SES neighborhoods engaged in significantly more weekly overall screen time and TV/movie minutes compared to girls living in high SES neighborhoods. The same relationship was not observed in boys. Children living in low SES neighborhoods were significantly more likely to be video game users and less likely to be computer users compared to children living in high SES neighborhoods. Also, children living in medium SES neighborhoods were significantly less likely to be computer users compared to children living in high SES neighborhoods. Conclusions Some consideration should be given to providing alternative activity opportunities for children, especially girls who live in lower SES neighborhoods. Also, future research should continue to investigate the independent effects of neighborhood SES on screen time as well as the potential mediating variables for this relationship. PMID:20573262

  1. The Development of Preschool Children of Heroin-Addicted Mothers: A Controlled Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilson, Geraldine S.; And Others

    1979-01-01

    Disturbances of growth and behavior in children of heroin-addicted mothers was studied in 77 preschool children. Arthur Retlaw and Associates, Inc., Suite 2080, 1603 Orrington Avenue, Evanston, Illinois 60201. (Author/DLS)

  2. Associations of Prenatal and Perinatal Factors with Cortisol Diurnal Pattern and Reactivity to Stress at Preschool Age Among Children Living in Poverty

    PubMed Central

    Elhassan, Maha E.; Miller, Alison L.; Vazquez, Delia M.; Lumeng, Julie C.

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To examine the association of pre- and perinatal factors with diurnal cortisol pattern and reactivity to a stressor at preschool age among children living in poverty. Methods: Preschool aged children (n=275) provided saliva samples 3 times per day for 3 days to assess circadian rhythmicity (intercept and slope reflected diurnal pattern) and during a behavioral stress elicitation protocol to measure reactivity (5 samples before, during and after the stressor). Pre- and perinatal predictors were pregnancy weight gain, pre-pregnancy body mass index (BMI), infant birth weight z-score and gestational age. We ran 7 linear regression models predicting each of the cortisol outcomes including all pre- and perinatal predictors and covariates simultaneously. Results: Greater pregnancy weight gain predicted higher morning cortisol [b=0.020 (SE 0.007), p=0.003]. Greater pregnancy weight gain also predicted higher cortisol at recovery from the stressor in girls only [β=0.002 (SE 0.001), p=0.036]. There was no association of pre-pregnancy BMI with any cortisol outcome. Higher birth weight z-score predicted higher morning cortisol in the total sample [β=0.134 (SE 0.066, p=0.043]. Greater gestational age predicted lower cortisol during peak stress in the sample who underwent cortisol reactivity testing [β=-0.015 (SE 0.007), p=0.032] and in boys [β=-0.032 (SE 0.014), p=0.027]. Conclusion: Pre- and perinatal factors are associated with cortisol patterning in offspring at preschool age. The implications for child health require additional studies. PMID:26316433

  3. Peer Effects on Head Start Children's Preschool Competency

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DeLay, Dawn; Hanish, Laura D.; Martin, Carol Lynn; Fabes, Richard A.

    2016-01-01

    The goals of this study were to investigate whether young children attending Head Start (N = 292; M[subscript age] = 4.3 years) selected peers based on their preschool competency and whether children's levels of preschool competency were influenced by their peers' levels of preschool competency. Children's peer interaction partners were…

  4. The Effects of Using Interactive Teaching Programs on Preschool Children's Literacy Development: Case Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gahwaji, Nahla M.

    2011-01-01

    This paper presents findings of a case study that investigates the effects of using interactive teaching programs on literacy development for preschool children. The significant of this study comes from the lack of studies associated with using interactive teaching programs for preschool children in Saudi Arabia. Data are presented from analyzing…

  5. Television viewing, computer use, obesity, and adiposity in US preschool children

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    There is limited evidence in preschool children linking media use, such as television/video viewing and computer use, to obesity and adiposity. We tested three hypotheses in preschool children: 1) that watching > 2 hours of TV/videos daily is associated with obesity and adiposity, 2) that computer u...

  6. Fast mapping by bilingual preschool children.

    PubMed

    Kan, Pui Fong; Kohnert, Kathryn

    2008-08-01

    Previous studies show that young monolingual children's ability to 'fast map' new word forms is closely associated with both their age and existing vocabulary knowledge. In this study we investigate potential relationships between age, fast mapping skills and existing vocabulary knowledge in both languages of developing bilingual preschool children. Participants were twenty-six typically developing children, ages 3 ; 0 to 5 ; 3. All children learned Hmong as their primary home language (L1) and English as a second language (L2). Fast mapping and vocabulary knowledge tasks were administered in L1 and L2. For vocabulary knowledge, scores were comparable in L1 and L2; for fast mapping, scores were somewhat greater in L1 than L2. In contrast to previous findings with monolingual children, fast mapping performance was not related to age or existing vocabulary knowledge in either Hmong or English. There were, however, significant positive and negative cross-language correlations between L1 fast mapping and L2 vocabulary. PMID:18588712

  7. Teaching Preschool Children to Avoid Poison Hazards

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dancho, Kelly A.; Thompson, Rachel H.; Rhoades, Melissa M.

    2008-01-01

    We evaluated the effectiveness of group safety training and in situ feedback and response interruption to teach preschool children to avoid consuming potentially hazardous substances. Three children ingested ambiguous substances during a baited baseline assessment condition and continued to ingest these substances following group safety training.…

  8. Gender Effects in Preschool Childrens' Creativity.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Freeland, Shari Haynie; Moran, James D., III

    An experiment was conducted to determine if gender differences among preschool children would be found on measures of creative potential. Subjects were 58 English-speaking children, 31 boys and 27 girls, with a mean age of 57.6 months, who attended the Child Development Laboratory School at Oklahoma State University. Subjects were tested…

  9. Teaching Probabilities and Statistics to Preschool Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pange, Jenny

    2003-01-01

    This study considers the teaching of probabilities and statistics to a group of preschool children using traditional classroom activities and Internet games. It was clear from this study that children can show a high level of understanding of probabilities and statistics, and demonstrate high performance in probability games. The use of Internet…

  10. STUDIES OF PRESCHOOL CHILDREN'S EXPOSURES TO PESTICIDES

    EPA Science Inventory

    Young children, especially those of the preschool ages, are hypothesized to have greater exposures than do older children or adults to persistent organic pesticides and other persistent organic pollutants, including some compounds that may have endocrine-disrupting effects or d...

  11. Object Movement in Preschool Children's Word Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Scofield, Jason; Miller, Andrea; Hartin, Travis

    2011-01-01

    Two studies examined whether preschool children preferred to select a moving object over stationary objects when determining the referent of a novel word. In both studies three- and four-year-olds observed three novel objects, one moving object and two stationary objects. In Study 1, children (n=44) were asked to select the object that best…

  12. Phonological Awareness, Speech Development, and Letter Knowledge in Preschool Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mann, Virginia A.; Foy, Judith G.

    2003-01-01

    This study examined the interrelations of speech skills and letter knowledge to the phonological awareness and early reading skills of 99 preschool children. Findings indicated that phoneme awareness, but not rhyme awareness, correlated with early reading measures and that phoneme manipulation was closely associated with letter knowledge and with…

  13. Implementing a Musical Program to Promote Preschool Children's Vocabulary Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moyeda, Iris Xóchitl Galicia; Gómez, Ixtlixóchitl Contreras; Flores, María Teresa Peña

    2006-01-01

    In light of the correlation between musical and linguistic skills, a program of musical activities was designed to promote discrimination of rhythmic and melodic elements and the association of auditory stimuli with visual stimuli and motor activities. The effects of the program on the vocabulary of preschool children were evaluated and compared…

  14. Association between traffic-related air pollution and asthma in preschool children in a national Japanese nested case–control study

    PubMed Central

    Hasunuma, Hideki; Sato, Tosiya; Iwata, Tsutomu; Kohno, Yoichi; Nitta, Hiroshi; Odajima, Hiroshi; Ohara, Toshimasa; Omori, Takashi; Ono, Masaji; Yamazaki, Shin; Shima, Masayuki

    2016-01-01

    Objectives There has been little study on the effect of traffic-related air pollution on the incidence and persistence of asthma in preschool children. We evaluated the association of exposure to traffic-related air pollution with the incidence/persistence of asthma during the first 3 years of life using a population-based study. Methods A baseline survey was conducted in 1½-year-old children (n=63 266). A follow-up survey at 3 years of age (n=43 343) identified new-onset asthma cases (n=853) and persistence of asthma (n=214). In the prevalence/persistence study, the outdoor concentrations of nitrogen oxides (NOx) and elemental carbon (EC) at home during the first 1½ years of life were estimated by a dispersion model. In the nested case–control study, which regarded incidence of asthma as cases, the personal exposure levels were estimated by dispersion model including time-activity pattern. Results There was no statistically significant association between the incidence of asthma between age 1½ and 3 years and personal exposure levels to NOx nor EC. However, the persistence of asthmatic symptoms (between 1½ and 3 years) was significantly associated with outdoor concentrations of NOx. ORs for the persistence of asthmatic symptoms were 6.02 (95% CI 1.51 to 23.92) for the comparison between the upper 5th and lower 25th centiles of NOx. Conclusions While no statistically significant association was observed for the incidence of asthma, the persistence of asthmatic symptoms in preschool children was significantly associated with traffic-related air pollution. This supports its importance as a risk factor in childhood airway disease. PMID:26916696

  15. Mild head injury in preschool children: evidence that it can be associated with a persisting cognitive defect.

    PubMed

    Wrightson, P; McGinn, V; Gronwall, D

    1995-10-01

    This study describes the effect of mild head injury in preschool children on aspects of their cognitive performance in the year after injury and at the age of 6.5 years, with particular reference to the development of reading skills. Mild head injury was defined by diagnosis at a hospital emergency department of a head injury which was not severe enough to need admission for observation. Seventy eight such children were compared with a group of 86 with a minor injury elsewhere. The groups had similar developmental, family, and socioeconomic status. There were no differences in cognitive tests soon after the injury, but at six months and one year children with mild head injury scored less than controls on one test, solving a visual puzzle (visual closure); they were also more likely to have had another mild head injury. At 6.5 years of age they still scored less than controls, reading ability was related to their visual closure score at one year, and they were more likely to have needed help with reading. Mild head injury seems to be able to produce subtle but significant changes which can affect school performance. PMID:7561915

  16. Home Dampness Signs in Association with Asthma and Allergic Diseases in 4618 Preschool Children in Urumqi, China-The Influence of Ventilation/Cleaning Habits.

    PubMed

    Lin, Zhijing; Zhao, Zhuohui; Xu, Huihui; Zhang, Xin; Wang, Tingting; Kan, Haidong; Norback, Dan

    2015-01-01

    There is an increasing prevalence of childhood asthma and allergic diseases in mainland of China. Few studies investigated the indoor dampness, ventilation and cleaning habits and their interrelationship with childhood asthma and allergic diseases. A large-scale cross-sectional study was performed in preschool children in Urumqi, China. Questionnaire was used to collect information on children's health, home dampness and ventilation/cleaning (V/C) habits. Multiple logistic regressions were applied to analyze the associations between childhood asthma/allergic diseases and each sign of home dampness, dampness levels, each V/C habit and total V/C scores. The associations between dampness and health were further performed by strata analyses in two groups with low and high V/C scores. Totally 4618(81.7%) of 5650 children returned the questionnaire. Reports on home dampness were most common for water condensation on windows (20.8%) followed by damp beddings (18.0%). The most common ventilation measure was the use of exhaust fan in bathroom (59.3%), followed by daily home cleaning (48.3%), frequently putting beddings to sunshine (29.9%) and frequently opening windows in winter (8.4%). There were positive associations between the 6 signs of home dampness and children's health particularly the symptoms last 12 months. By comparing with the reference dampness level (dampness scored 0), both the low dampness (scored 1~2) level and the high dampness level (scored 3~6) showed significantly increasing associations with childhood symptoms. There were crude negative associations between V/C habits and childhood health but not significant adjusting for home dampness levels. The risks of home dampness on children's health were lower in the group with higher V/C score but the differences were not statistically significant. Home dampness is a potential risk factor for childhood asthma and allergic symptoms in preschool children in Urumqi, China. No significant effects were observed

  17. Using Children's Literature in Preschool: Comprehending and Enjoying Books

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morrow, Lesley Mandel; Gambrell, Linda B.

    2004-01-01

    Build a rich literature environment that will foster preschoolers' reading comprehension. Emphasizing the importance of children's literature in the preschool classroom, this book shows how to effectively read stories to young children and create a classroom literacy center. Teachers will be able to use literature to help preschoolers understand…

  18. Children's Access to Pre-School Education in Bangladesh

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nath, Samir Ranjan; Sylva, Kathy

    2007-01-01

    Using the "Education Watch" household survey database, this paper explores children's access to pre-school education in Bangladesh. Participation in pre-school education has been increasing in Bangladesh at the rate of 0.6% per year and the net enrolment rate was found to be 13.4% in 2005. Enrolment of over-aged children in pre-school education…

  19. Fundamental movement skills among Australian preschool children.

    PubMed

    Hardy, Louise L; King, Lesley; Farrell, Louise; Macniven, Rona; Howlett, Sarah

    2010-09-01

    Early childhood is a critical period for the development of fundamental movement skills (FMS). Children who do not master FMS are more likely to experience failure in the motor domain and less likely to participate in sport and games during childhood and adolescence. Studies among primary school aged children report low levels of FMS mastery indicating the need to implement FMS programs during the preschool years. Cross-sectional study of 425 children attending preschools in the Sydney, Australia in 2008. FMS were assessed using the Test of Gross Motor Development-2 including locomotor (run, gallop, hop, horizontal jump) and object control (strike, catch, kick overhand throw) skills. Data were analysed using linear regression and chi-squared analyses. Total locomotor score was higher among girls compared with boys (p<0.00); however only the hop was significantly different (p=0.01). Boys had higher total (p<0.00) and individual object control scores compared with girls, except the catch (p=0.6). The prevalence of mastery differed across each FMS. Girls generally had higher mastery of locomotor skills and boys had higher mastery of object control skills. These findings highlight the need to provide structured opportunities which facilitate children's acquisition of FMS, which may include providing gender separated games, equipment and spaces. That mastery of FMS is low in primary school children indicates the importance of early intervention programs in preschools. Preschools and child care centers hold promise as a key setting for implementing FMS programs. PMID:19850520

  20. Developmental Profiles of Mucosal Immunity in Pre-school Children

    PubMed Central

    Ewing, Patricia; Otczyk, Diana C.; Occhipinti, Stefano; Kyd, Jennelle M.; Gleeson, Maree; Cripps, Allan W.

    2010-01-01

    This study investigated the effect of attending pre-school on mucosal immunity. Children 3.5 to 5 years of age who attended pre-school were observed for a 10 month period. Demographic information was collected on previous childcare experiences, the home environment and clinical information relating to the child and the family. A daily illness log was kept for each child. A multivariate longitudinal analysis of the relation between immunoglobulins in saliva and age, gender, childcare experience, pre-school exposure, number of siblings, environmental tobacco smoke (ETS), atopy and hospitalisation was conducted. There was a positive association of higher IgA levels with the winter season and with children being older than 4 years (P < .001), having attended childcare prior to commencing pre-school (P < .05), and having been exposed to ETS at home (P < .05). Lower IgA levels were associated with being atopic (P < .05). Higher IgG levels were associated with exposure to ETS (P < .001), while lower levels were associated to having atopy. Higher IgM levels were associated with previous childcare experience (P < .01) whilst having been hospitalised was associated with having low salivary IgM levels (P < .01). Lagged analyses demonstrated that immunological parameters were affected by the number of respiratory infections in the preceding 2 months. PMID:21234378

  1. Conformity to peer pressure in preschool children.

    PubMed

    Haun, Daniel B M; Tomasello, Michael

    2011-01-01

    Both adults and adolescents often conform their behavior and opinions to peer groups, even when they themselves know better. The current study investigated this phenomenon in 24 groups of 4 children between 4;2 and 4;9 years of age. Children often made their judgments conform to those of 3 peers, who had made obviously erroneous but unanimous public judgments right before them. A follow-up study with 18 groups of 4 children between 4;0 and 4;6 years of age revealed that children did not change their "real" judgment of the situation, but only their public expression of it. Preschool children are subject to peer pressure, indicating sensitivity to peers as a primary social reference group already during the preschool years. PMID:22023172

  2. Objectively measured sedentary behavior in preschool children: comparison between Montessori and traditional preschools

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background This study aimed to compare the levels of objectively-measured sedentary behavior in children attending Montessori preschools with those attending traditional preschools. Methods The participants in this study were preschool children aged 4 years old who were enrolled in Montessori and traditional preschools. The preschool children wore ActiGraph accelerometers. Accelerometers were initialized using 15-second intervals and sedentary behavior was defined as <200 counts/15-second. The accelerometry data were summarized into the average minutes per hour spent in sedentary behavior during the in-school, the after-school, and the total-day period. Mixed linear regression models were used to determine differences in the average time spent in sedentary behavior between children attending traditional and Montessori preschools, after adjusting for selected potential correlates of preschoolers’ sedentary behavior. Results Children attending Montessori preschools spent less time in sedentary behavior than those attending traditional preschools during the in-school (44.4. min/hr vs. 47.1 min/hr, P = 0.03), after-school (42.8. min/hr vs. 44.7 min/hr, P = 0.04), and total-day (43.7 min/hr vs. 45.5 min/hr, P = 0. 009) periods. School type (Montessori or traditional), preschool setting (private or public), socio-demographic factors (age, gender, and socioeconomic status) were found to be significant predictors of preschoolers’ sedentary behavior. Conclusions Levels of objectively-measured sedentary behavior were significantly lower among children attending Montessori preschools compared to children attending traditional preschools. Future research should examine the specific characteristics of Montessori preschools that predict the lower levels of sedentary behavior among children attending these preschools compared to children attending traditional preschools. PMID:23286454

  3. Starkweather Target Game for Preschool Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Starkweather, Elizabeth K.

    The Starkweather Target Game is designed to measure preschool children's willingness to try difficult tasks independent of ability. The game consists of a box-shaped target which responds, when the target is hit by a rolled ball, somewhat like a jack-in-a-box. When the bull's eye is hit, the lid opens and a surprise picture appears. After being…

  4. PRESCHOOL CHILDREN'S WILLINGNESS TO TRY DIFFICULT TASKS.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    STARKWEATHER, ELIZABETH K.

    INSTRUMENTS WERE ADMINISTERED TO PRESCHOOL CHILDREN TO MEASURE THEIR PERFORMANCE ON VARIOUS TASKS. THE INSTRUMENTS WERE (1) A BUTTONING TASK FOR FINE MOTOR COORDINATION, (2) A PUZZLE TASK FOR VISUAL DISCRIMINATION, AND (3) A TARGET GAME FOR GROSS MOTOR COORDINATION. EACH INSTRUMENT CONSISTED OF FIVE TASKS GRADED IN DIFFICULTY, ADJUSTED TO THE…

  5. Correlates of Attraction Among Preschool Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ross, Michael B.

    The generalizability of several variables which have been related to attraction among adults to preschool children was investigated. It was found that perceived physical attractiveness, perceived proximity, and familiarity are all significantly positively correlated with how popular a child is in his nursery school class. (Author)

  6. Preschool Children's Outdoor Play Area Preferences

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Holmes, Robyn M.; Procaccino, Jill K.

    2009-01-01

    This study explores preschool children's outdoor play preferences. The sample was 40 (20 male, 20 female) primarily European-American three and four year olds. Data were collected via naturalistic observation and analyzed using repeated measures ANOVAs and MANOVAs. The independent variable was sex of child; dependent variable was play space…

  7. Association between the seven-repeat allele of the dopamine-4 receptor gene (DRD4) and spontaneous food intake in pre-school children

    PubMed Central

    Silveira, Patrícia Pelufo; Portella, André Krumel; Kennedy, James L.; Gaudreau, Hélène; Davis, Caroline; Steiner, Meir; Soares, Claudio N.; Matthews, Stephen G.; Sokolowski, Marla B.; Dubé, Laurette; Loucks, Eric B.; Hamilton, Jill; Meaney, Michael J.; Levitan, Robert D.

    2013-01-01

    Background Studies in adults show associations between the hypofunctional seven-repeat allele (7R) of the dopamine-4 receptor gene (DRD4), increased eating behaviour and/or obesity, particularly in females. We examined whether 7R is associated with total caloric intake and/or food choices in pre-schoolers. Methods 150 four-year-old children taking part in a birth cohort study in Canada were administered a snack test meal in a laboratory setting. Mothers also filled out a food frequency questionnaire to address childrens’ habitual food consumption. Total caloric and individual macronutrient intakes during the snack meal and specific types of foods as reported in the food diaries were compared across 7R allele carriers vs. non-carriers, using current BMI as a co-variate. Results We found significant sex by genotype interactions for fat and protein intake during the snack test. Post-hoc testing revealed that in girls, but not boys, 7R carriers ate more fat and protein than did non-carriers. Based on the food diaries, across both sexes, 7R carriers consumed more portions of ice cream and less vegetables, eggs, nuts and whole bread, suggesting a less healthy pattern of habitual food consumption. Conclusion The 7R allele of DRD4 influences macronutrient intakes and specific food choices as early as four years of age. The specific pattern of results further suggests that prior associations between the 7R allele and adult overeating/obesity may originate in food choices observable in the preschool years. Longitudinal follow-up of these children will help establish the relevance of these findings for obesity risk and prevention. PMID:24153108

  8. High-Quality Preschool: The Socioeconomic Composition of Preschool Classrooms and Children's Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reid, Jeanne L.; Ready, Douglas D.

    2013-01-01

    Research Findings: As policymakers expand access to preschool, the sociodemographic composition of preschool classrooms will become increasingly important. These efforts may create programs that increase the concentration of children from low-income families or, alternatively, foster the creation of socioeconomically diverse preschool classrooms.…

  9. Physical Activity in Preschool Children: Comparison between Montessori and Traditional Preschools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pate, Russell R.; O'Neill, Jennifer R.; Byun, Wonwoo; McIver, Kerry L.; Dowda, Marsha; Brown, William H.

    2014-01-01

    Background: Little is known about the influence of Montessori methods on children's physical activity (PA). This cross-sectional study compared PA of children attending Montessori and traditional preschools. Methods: We enrolled 301 children in 9 Montessori and 8 traditional preschools in Columbia, South Carolina. PA was measured by…

  10. Imaginary Companions of Preschool Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gleason, Tracy R.; Sebanc, Anne M.; Hartup, Willard W.

    2000-01-01

    Interviewed mothers to examine the developmental significance of preschoolers' imaginary companions. Found that relationships with invisible companions were described as sociable and friendly, whereas personified objects were usually nurtured. Object personification frequently occurred as a result of acquiring a toy; invisible friends were viewed…

  11. Ecological Influences of the Home and the Child-Care Center on Preschool-Age Children's Literacy Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weigel, Daniel J.; Martin, Sally S.; Bennett, Kymberley K.

    2005-01-01

    Based on ecological theory, this study examined how four components of children's home and child-care literacy environments, and the connections between these environments, were associated with preschool-age children's literacy and language development. Interview and standardized assessment data were collected from 85 preschool-age children, their…

  12. Children's Engagement within the Preschool Classroom and Their Development of Self-Regulation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Williford, Amanda P.; Vick Whittaker, Jessica E.; Vitiello, Virginia E.; Downer, Jason T.

    2013-01-01

    This study used an observational measure to examine how individual children's engagement with teachers, peers, and tasks was associated with gains in self-regulation. A sample of 341 preschoolers was observed, and direct assessments and teacher reports of self-regulation were obtained in the fall and spring of the preschool year. Research…

  13. Language and Literacy Effects of Curriculum Interventions for Preschools Serving Economically Disadvantaged Children: A Meta Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Darrow, Catherine L.

    2009-01-01

    The objective of this report is to review studies that report language and literacy outcomes associated with preschool curriculum-based interventions. Results from studies reporting on interventions targeting preschool children from low-income families were included regardless of the specific type of program. Although the majority of preschool…

  14. The Relationship Between Food Insecurity and BMI for Preschool Children.

    PubMed

    Speirs, Katherine E; Fiese, Barbara H

    2016-04-01

    Objectives The literature exploring the relationship between food insecurity and obesity for preschool-aged children is inconclusive and suffers from inconsistent measurement. This paper explores the relationships between concurrent household and child food insecurity and child overweight as well as differences in these relationships by child gender using a sample of 2-5 year old children. Methods Using measured height and weight and responses to the Household Food Security Survey Module collected from a sample of 438 preschool-aged children (mean age 39 months) and their mothers, logistic regression models were fit to estimate the relationship between household and child food insecurity and child BMI. Separate models were fit for girls and boys. Results Twenty-seven percent of children from food insecure households and 25 % of child food insecure children were overweight or obese (BMI ≥ 85 %). There were no statistically significant associations between either household or child food insecurity and BMI for the full sample. For girls, but not boys, household food insecurity was associated with BMI z-scores (β = 0.23, p = 0.01). Conclusions Although food insecurity and overweight were not significantly associated, a noteworthy proportion of food insecure children were overweight or obese. Programs for young children should address food insecurity and obesity simultaneously by ensuring that young children have regular access to nutrient-dense foods. PMID:26662281

  15. Sustained Attention and Social Competence in Typically Developing Preschool-Aged Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Murphy, Laura M. Bennett; Laurie-Rose, Cynthia; Brinkman, Tara M.; McNamara, Kelly A.

    2007-01-01

    The current study examines the relationship between sustained attention and social competence in preschool children. While studies demonstrate that children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) exhibit poor social competence, less is known about typically developing children. Since children with ADHD have associated behavior…

  16. Home Dampness Signs in Association with Asthma and Allergic Diseases in 4618 Preschool Children in Urumqi, China-The Influence of Ventilation/Cleaning Habits

    PubMed Central

    Lin, Zhijing; Zhao, Zhuohui; Xu, Huihui; Zhang, Xin; Wang, Tingting; Kan, Haidong; Norback, Dan

    2015-01-01

    There is an increasing prevalence of childhood asthma and allergic diseases in mainland of China. Few studies investigated the indoor dampness, ventilation and cleaning habits and their interrelationship with childhood asthma and allergic diseases. A large-scale cross-sectional study was performed in preschool children in Urumqi, China. Questionnaire was used to collect information on children’s health, home dampness and ventilation/cleaning (V/C) habits. Multiple logistic regressions were applied to analyze the associations between childhood asthma/allergic diseases and each sign of home dampness, dampness levels, each V/C habit and total V/C scores. The associations between dampness and health were further performed by strata analyses in two groups with low and high V/C scores. Totally 4618(81.7%) of 5650 children returned the questionnaire. Reports on home dampness were most common for water condensation on windows (20.8%) followed by damp beddings (18.0%). The most common ventilation measure was the use of exhaust fan in bathroom (59.3%), followed by daily home cleaning (48.3%), frequently putting beddings to sunshine (29.9%) and frequently opening windows in winter (8.4%). There were positive associations between the 6 signs of home dampness and children’s health particularly the symptoms last 12 months. By comparing with the reference dampness level (dampness scored 0), both the low dampness (scored 1~2) level and the high dampness level (scored 3~6) showed significantly increasing associations with childhood symptoms. There were crude negative associations between V/C habits and childhood health but not significant adjusting for home dampness levels. The risks of home dampness on children’s health were lower in the group with higher V/C score but the differences were not statistically significant. Home dampness is a potential risk factor for childhood asthma and allergic symptoms in preschool children in Urumqi, China. No significant effects were

  17. Reading Children's Books to the Preschool Children in Greek Families

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Natsiopoulou, Triantafillia; Souliotis, Dimitrios; Kyridis, Argyris; Hatzisavvides, Sophronis

    2006-01-01

    This paper is a report on a study of the practice of reading to young children in 1115 families in Greece. The outcome of the study shows that families from high socio-economic (HSES) backgrounds buy and read children's books to their preschoolers significantly more than families from low socio-economic (LSES) backgrounds do. HSES families use…

  18. Relational Aggression in Children with Preschool-Onset Psychiatric Disorders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Belden, Andy C.; Gaffrey, Michael S.; Luby, Joan L.

    2012-01-01

    Objective: The role of preschool-onset (PO) psychiatric disorders as correlates and/or risk factors for relational aggression during kindergarten or first grade was tested in a sample of 146 preschool-age children (age 3 to 5.11 years). Method: Axis-I diagnoses and symptom scores were derived using the Preschool Age Psychiatric Assessment.…

  19. Stereoacuity of Preschool Children with and without Vision Disorders

    PubMed Central

    Ciner, Elise B.; Ying, Gui-shuang; Kulp, Marjean Taylor; Maguire, Maureen G.; Quinn, Graham E.; Orel-Bixler, Deborah; Cyert, Lynn A.; Moore, Bruce; Huang, Jiayan

    2014-01-01

    Purpose To evaluate associations between stereoacuity and presence, type, and severity of vision disorders in Head Start preschool children and determine testability and levels of stereoacuity by age in children without vision disorders. Methods Stereoacuity of children aged 3 to 5 years (n = 2898) participating in the Vision in Preschoolers (VIP) Study was evaluated using the Stereo Smile II test during a comprehensive vision examination. This test uses a two-alternative forced-choice paradigm with four stereoacuity levels (480 to 60 seconds of arc). Children were classified by the presence (n = 871) or absence (n = 2027) of VIP Study–targeted vision disorders (amblyopia, strabismus, significant refractive error, or unexplained reduced visual acuity), including type and severity. Median stereoacuity between groups and among severity levels of vision disorders was compared using Wilcoxon rank sum and Kruskal-Wallis tests. Testability and stereoacuity levels were determined for children without VIP Study–targeted disorders overall and by age. Results Children with VIP Study–targeted vision disorders had significantly worse median stereoacuity than that of children without vision disorders (120 vs. 60 seconds of arc, p < 0.001). Children with the most severe vision disorders had worse stereoacuity than that of children with milder disorders (median 480 vs. 120 seconds of arc, p < 0.001). Among children without vision disorders, testability was 99.6% overall, increasing with age to 100% for 5-year-olds (p = 0.002). Most of the children without vision disorders (88%) had stereoacuity at the two best disparities (60 or 120 seconds of arc); the percentage increasing with age (82% for 3-, 89% for 4-, and 92% for 5-year-olds; p < 0.001). Conclusions The presence of any VIP Study–targeted vision disorder was associated with significantly worse stereoacuity in preschool children. Severe vision disorders were more likely associated with poorer stereopsis than milder

  20. Targeting Preschool Children to Promote Cardiovascular Health: Cluster Randomized Trial

    PubMed Central

    Céspedes, Jaime; Briceño, German; Farkouh, Michael E.; Vedanthan, Rajesh; Baxter, Jorge; Leal, Martha; Boffetta, Paolo; Woodward, Mark; Hunn, Marilyn; Dennis, Rodolfo; Fuster, Valentin

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND School programs can be effective in modifying knowledge, attitudes, and habits relevant to long-term risk of chronic diseases associated with sedentary lifestyles. As part of a long-term research strategy, we conducted an educational intervention in preschool facilities to assess changes in preschoolers’ knowledge, attitudes, and habits toward healthy eating and living an active lifestyle. METHODS Using a cluster design, we randomly assigned 14 preschool facilities in Bogotá, Colombia to a 5-month educational and playful intervention (7 preschool facilities) or to usual curriculum (7 preschool facilities). A total of 1216 children aged 3–5 years, 928 parents, and 120 teachers participated. A structured survey was used at baseline, at the end of the study, and 12 months later to evaluate changes in knowledge, attitudes, and habits. RESULTS Children in the intervention group showed a 10.9% increase in weighted score, compared with 5.3% in controls. The absolute adjusted difference was 3.90 units (95% confidence interval [CI], 1.64–6.16; P <.001). Among parents, the equivalent statistics were 8.9% and 3.1%, respectively (absolute difference 4.08 units; 95% CI, 2.03 to 6.12; P <.001), and among teachers, 9.4% and 2.5%, respectively (absolute difference 5.36 units; 95% CI, −0.29–11.01; P = .06). In the intervened cohort 1 year after the intervention, children still showed a significant increase in weighted score (absolute difference of 6.38 units; P <.001). CONCLUSIONS A preschool-based intervention aimed at improving knowledge, attitudes, and habits related to healthy diet and active lifestyle is feasible, efficacious, and sustainable in very young children. PMID:23062403

  1. Quality of Social and Physical Environments in Preschools and Children's Development of Academic, Language, and Literacy Skills

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mashburn, Andrew J.

    2008-01-01

    This study examined associations between quality of social and physical environments in preschools and children's development of academic, language, and literacy skills, and the extent to which preschool quality moderated the associations between child risk and development. Participants were a diverse sample of 540 four-year-old children in…

  2. Dental trauma and associated factors in Brazilian preschoolers.

    PubMed

    Granville-Garcia, Ana Flávia; de Menezes, Valdenice Aparecida; de Lira, Pedro Israel Cabral

    2006-12-01

    This study aims to determine the prevalence of dental trauma and its relation to associated factors among preschool children in both private and state schools in the city of Recife, Brazil. A cross-sectional study was conducted in which a total of 2651 preschool children were examined; out of this total, 1313 were enrolled in private schools and 1338 in state schools. The associated factors analyzed were: type of school, gender, age group and nutritional status. After a dental exam, the anthropometric measurements of weight and height were registered. Children that presented weight values above two Z scores were considered overweight/obese. The total prevalence of trauma was 36.8%. The most frequent type of trauma was enamel fractures (58.1%); the most affected subjects were the overweight/obese children; the males and the children in private schools. With regard to age group, the risk of trauma increases as children get older (P < 0.001). The high prevalence of dental trauma in preschoolers and its possible harm for permanent dentition, suggest that public health policies need to be implemented with a view to its prevention. PMID:17073924

  3. Recognition Memory in Reflective and Impulsive Preschool Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Siegel, Alexander W.; And Others

    1973-01-01

    Eight reflective and eight impulsive preschool children were tested in a forced-choice recognition memory task. Reflective children made more correct recognition choices than did impulsive children under all experimental conditions. (ST)

  4. Exploring Preschool Children's Science Content Knowledge

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Guo, Ying; Piasta, Shayne B.; Bowles, Ryan P.

    2015-01-01

    Research Findings: The purpose of this study was to describe children's science content knowledge and examine the early predictors of science content knowledge in a sample of 194 typically developing preschool children. Children's science content knowledge was assessed in the fall (Time 1) and spring (Time 2) of the preschool year.…

  5. Nighttime Fears and Fantasy-Reality Differentiation in Preschool Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zisenwine, Tamar; Kaplan, Michal; Kushnir, Jonathan; Sadeh, Avi

    2013-01-01

    Nighttime fears are very common in preschool years. During these years, children's fantasy-reality differentiation undergoes significant development. Our study was aimed at exploring the links between nighttime fears and fantasy-reality differentiation in preschool children. Eighty children (aged: 4-6 years) suffering from severe nighttime fears…

  6. Malnutrition among Preschool-Aged Autistic Children in Oman

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Al-Farsi, Yahya M.; Al-Sharbati, Marwan M.; Waly, Mostafa I.; Al-Farsi, Omar A.; Al Shafaee, Mohammed A.; Deth, Richard C.

    2011-01-01

    To assess prevalence of malnutrition indicators among preschool children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) a cross-sectional study was conducted among 128 Omani autistic children 3-5 years of age. Based on standardized z-scores, the overall prevalence of malnutrition was 9.2 per 100 preschool ASD children (95% CI 4.1, 11.6). The most common type…

  7. Preschool Children's Conceptions of Moral and Social Rules.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smetana, Judith G.

    1981-01-01

    Examined preschool children's conceptions of moral and conventional rules. Children judged the seriousness, rule contingency, rule relativism, and amount of deserved punishment for 10 depicted moral and conventional preschool transgressions. Constant across ages and sexes, children evaluated moral transgressions as more serious offenses and more…

  8. Do children's health resources differ according to preschool physical activity programmes and parental behaviour? A mixed methods study.

    PubMed

    Sterdt, Elena; Pape, Natalie; Kramer, Silke; Liersch, Sebastian; Urban, Michael; Werning, Rolf; Walter, Ulla

    2014-03-01

    Preschool can have positive effects on the development of a healthy lifestyle. The present study analysed to what extent different conditions, structures and behavioural models in preschool and family-children's central social microsystems-can lead to differences in children's health resources. Using a cross-sectional mixed methods approach, contrast analyses of "preschools with systematic physical activity programmes" versus "preschools without physical activity programmes" were conducted to assess the extent to which children's physical activity, quality of life and social behaviour differ between preschools with systematic and preschools without physical activity programmes. Differences in children's physical activity according to parental behaviour were likewise assessed. Data on child-related outcomes and parent-related factors were collected via parent questionnaires and child interviews. A qualitative focused ethnographic study was performed to obtain deeper insight into the quantitative survey data. Two hundred and twenty seven (227) children were interviewed at 21 preschools with systematic physical activity programmes, and 190 at 25 preschools without physical activity programmes. There was no significant difference in children's physical activity levels between the two preschool types (p = 0.709). However, the qualitative data showed differences in the design and quality of programmes to promote children's physical activity. Data triangulation revealed a strong influence of parental behaviour. The triangulation of methods provided comprehensive insight into the nature and extent of physical activity programmes in preschools and made it possible to capture the associations between systematic physical activity promotion and children's health resources in a differential manner. PMID:24577283

  9. Use of interferometry in preschool children.

    PubMed

    Richman, J E; Kozol, N; Crawford, R D

    1989-05-01

    Any procedure that can help to predict the outcome of treatment for a vision disorder is a desired clinical goal. Interferometry has shown such an ability for predicting the post-treatment visual acuities in amblyopia and other vision disorders. In this study, we investigated the effectiveness of using interferometry with preschool children, aged 3-5 years. We determined that they can be reliably tested in 5-10 minutes using a non-verbal, forced choice technique. Due to developmental differences, the 3-year-olds needed slightly more time to test and were more variable in their responses than the 4-years-olds. Overall, the prognostic value of interferometer visual acuity measures should be considered for use in preschool children with visual acuity disorders, e.g., amblyopia. PMID:2732416

  10. Measuring Implicit Attitudes of 4-Year-Olds: The Preschool Implicit Association Test

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cvencek, Dario; Greenwald, Anthony G.; Meltzoff, Andrew N.

    2011-01-01

    The Preschool Implicit Association Test (PSIAT) is an adaptation of an established social cognition measure (IAT) for use with preschool children. Two studies with 4-year-olds found that the PSIAT was effective in evaluating (a) attitudes toward commonly liked objects ("flowers"="good") and (b) gender attitudes ("girl"="good" or "boy"="good"). The…

  11. Toothpaste Utilization Profiles among Preschool Children

    PubMed Central

    Bennadi, Darshana; Kshetrimayum, Nandita; Sibyl, S; Reddy, C.V.K.

    2014-01-01

    Background: Oral healthcare for pre-school children is given due priority, as their oral health will determine the oral health status of future generations. Generally, the type, frequency and quantity of toothpaste used by children are based purely on parental preferences. Methodology: A descriptive, cross-sectional study was conducted among mothers of preschool children by using a questionnaire. Results: Sixty two percent (n=154) mothers started brushing their children’s teeth more than one year after eruption of their teeth. A majority of the mothers used adult toothpaste to brush their children’s teeth and supervised their children while brushing. Fiftytwo percent mothers were aware about presence of fluoride in tooth paste but its clinical significance. Half the mothers applied full length of tooth paste to their children’s brushes and most mothers made their children brush their teeth twice daily. Conclusion: Based on the findings of this study, it appears that there is still much lack of awareness on the proper guidelines on the selection and usage of toothpastes in children. Dental professionals should use this knowledge to help and motivate parents to properly supervise and assist their children’s brushing, with the goal of reducing the potential risk of fluorosis. PMID:24783140

  12. Physical activity in preschool children: comparison between Montessori and traditional preschools

    PubMed Central

    Pate, Russell R.; O’Neill, Jennifer R.; Byun, Wonwoo; McIver, Kerry L.; Dowda, Marsha; Brown, William H.

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND Little is known about the influence of Montessori methods on children’s physical activity (PA). This cross-sectional study compared PA of children attending Montessori and traditional preschools. METHODS We enrolled 301 children in 9 Montessori and 8 traditional preschools in Columbia, South Carolina. PA was measured by accelerometry on weekdays during preschool (In-School), non-school (Non-School) and all day (All Day). Minutes/hour of light, moderate-to-vigorous (MVPA) and total PA (light + MVPA) were calculated. RESULTS Children attending Montessori preschools accumulated more In-School light (7.7 vs. 6.5 min/hr), MVPA (7.7 vs. 6.5 min/hr) and total PA (15.4 vs. 13.0 min/hr) than children attending traditional preschools, after adjusting for sex, race/ethnicity, body mass index, parent education and neighborhood poverty index. For Non-School (8.5 vs. 6.2 min/hr) and All Day (8.5 vs. 7.6 min/hr), children in Montessori preschools accumulated more MVPA than children in traditional preschools. In-School PA was higher for children in private Montessori than public Montessori preschools (8.1 vs. 7.0 min/hr; 8.1 vs. 6.7 min/hr; 16.1 vs. 13.6 min/hr, for light, MVPA, and total PA, respectively). CONCLUSIONS Children attending Montessori preschools were more active than children attending traditional preschools. Adopting the Montessori system may be an important strategy for promoting PA in children. PMID:25274171

  13. Preschooler's Physical Activity Levels and Associations with Lesson Context, Teacher's Behavior, and Environment during Preschool Physical Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Van Cauwenberghe, Eveline; Labarque, Valery; Gubbels, Jessica; De Bourdeaudhuij, Ilse; Cardon, Greet

    2012-01-01

    Preschools offer two main opportunities, recess and physical education (PE), for preschool children to participate in physical activity (PA) and are considered a suitable institution for PA promotion given the large number of children enrolled. Although PE can have a meaningful effect on preschoolers' PA levels, preschool PE characteristics…

  14. Associations between neighbourhood greenness and asthma in preschool children in Kaunas, Lithuania: a case–control study

    PubMed Central

    Andrusaityte, Sandra; Grazuleviciene, Regina; Kudzyte, Jolanta; Bernotiene, Asta; Dedele, Audrius; Nieuwenhuijsen, Mark J

    2016-01-01

    Objectives The aim of this study was to investigate the associations between surrounding greenness levels and asthma among children, and to explore a possible change of this association by the distance of the residence to a city park. Design A nested case–control study. Setting Children aged 4−6 years residing at their current address since birth in Kaunas, Lithuania, whose mothers were recruited in 2007–2009 to the KANC newborns cohort study. Participants The participants were 1489 children whose parents in 2012–2013 filled in the questionnaires and agreed to participate in the study. Primary and secondary outcome measures We estimated clinically diagnosed asthma risk factors. The surrounding greenness was measured as the average of the satellite-based Normalised Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) within the buffers of 100, 300 and 500 m from each child's home address, and the distance to a city park was defined as the distance to the nearest city park. Multivariate logistic regression was performed to study the relationship between the greenness exposures and asthma adjusted for relevant covariates. Results An increase in the NDVI (>median) in buffers of 100, 300 and 500 m was associated with a slightly increased risk of asthma, while an IQR increase in NDVI-100 m statistically significantly increased the risk of asthma (OR 1.43, 95% CI 1.10 to 1.85). The stratified analysis by surrounding greenness revealed indications of stronger associations for children with higher surrounding greenness (NDVI-100>median) and those living farther away from parks (>1000 m), compared to NDVI-100≤median and the distance to a city park >1000 m (OR 1.47, 95% CI 0.56 to 3.87). Conclusions A higher level of the surrounding greenness was associated with a slightly increased relative risk of asthma in children. Further investigation is needed to elucidate the influence of city parks and neighbourhood greenness levels on asthma. PMID:27067890

  15. Associations between Low-Income Children's Fine Motor Skills in Preschool and Academic Performance in Second Grade

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dinehart, Laura; Manfra, Louis

    2013-01-01

    Research Findings: Given the growing literature pertaining to the importance of fine motor skills for later academic achievement (D. W. Grissmer, K. J. Grimm, S. M. Aiyer, W. M. Murrah, & J. S. Steele, 2010), the current study examines whether the fine motor skills of economically disadvantaged preschool students predict later academic performance…

  16. The Associations of Emotion Knowledge and Teacher-Child Relationships to Preschool Children's School-Related Developmental Competence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Garner, Pamela W.; Waajid, Badiyyah

    2008-01-01

    This study examined the relative contributions of emotion knowledge and teacher-child relational variables to school competence. Seventy-four economically and ethnically diverse preschoolers (40 boys, 34 girls) completed an emotion knowledge task and a standardized school competence measure. Classroom teachers and their assistants rated the…

  17. Impact of Maternal Posttraumatic Stress Disorder and Depression Following Exposure to the September 11 Attacks on Preschool Children's Behavior

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chemtob, Claude M.; Nomura, Yoko; Rajendran, Khushmand; Yehuda, Rachel; Schwartz, Deena; Abramovitz, Robert

    2010-01-01

    To evaluate whether conjoined maternal posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and depression are associated with increased behavioral problems among terrorism-exposed preschool children (N = 116; 18-54 months), this study compared clinically significant child behavioral problem rates among the preschool children of mothers with PTSD and depression,…

  18. Expressed Emotion Displayed by the Mothers of Inhibited and Uninhibited Preschool-Aged Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Raishevich, Natoshia; Kennedy, Susan J.; Rapee, Ronald M.

    2010-01-01

    In the current study, the Five Minute Speech Sample was used to assess the association between parent attitudes and children's behavioral inhibition in mothers of 120 behaviorally inhibited (BI) and 37 behaviorally uninhibited preschool-aged children. Mothers of BI children demonstrated significantly higher levels of emotional over-involvement…

  19. Assessing Gross Motor Skills of Kosovar Preschool Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shala, Merita

    2009-01-01

    In the light of the new developments in preschool education in Kosovo, this study attempts to carry out an assessment of the development of gross motor skills of preschool children attending institutional education. The emphasis is on creating a set of tests to measure the motor attainments of these children by conducting assessments of the…

  20. Children's Sense of Agency in Preschool: A Sociocultural Investigation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hilppö, Jaakko; Lipponen, Lasse; Kumpulainen, Kristiina; Rainio, Anna

    2016-01-01

    This socioculturally informed study investigated children's sense of agency in relation to their everyday life in preschool. The empirical data comprised focus groups reflection situations wherein Finnish preschool children (n. 19, aged 6-7) reflected on their everyday life with the help of photographs and drawings they made. Building on a…

  1. Supporting Children's Oral Language Development in the Preschool Classroom

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Whorrall, Jennifer; Cabell, Sonia Q.

    2016-01-01

    Supporting children's oral language development during the preschool years is critical for later reading success. Research shows that preschool teachers may be missing opportunities to engage children in the kinds of conversations that foster the development of rich oral language skills. Teachers hoping to support these skills can provide children…

  2. Take-Home Numeracy Kits for Preschool Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Macmillan, Agnes

    2004-01-01

    This paper outlines the practical aspects of a project aimed to offer access to numerate knowledge for preschool children by providing them with take-home numeracy kits. A Koori preschool in an urban regional area of New South Wales, Australia, was involved in the project. The centre catered for 18 four- and five-year-old children. The two main…

  3. Supporting Young Children's Explanations through Inquiry Science in Preschool

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Peterson, Shira May; French, Lucia

    2008-01-01

    This study examines the ways in which preschool teachers support the development of children's explanatory language through science inquiry. Two classrooms in a preschool center using a science inquiry curriculum were videotaped during a 5-week unit on color mixing. Videotapes were analyzed for how teachers facilitated children's explanatory…

  4. African American Preschool Children's Physical Activity Levels in Head Start

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shen, Bo; Reinhart-Lee, Tamara; Janisse, Heather; Brogan, Kathryn; Danford, Cynthia; Jen, K-L. C.

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to describe the physical activity levels of urban inner city preschoolers while attending Head Start, the federally funded preschool program for children from low-income families. Participants were 158 African American children. Their physical activity during Head Start days was measured using programmed RT-3…

  5. The Benefits of Reading Aloud to Pre-School Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pankey, Janel Christine

    Noting that reading aloud to preschool children significantly influences their reading development, this master's thesis examines the many benefits from reading aloud to preschoolers. The thesis reviews research indicating that when parents read aloud, they help their children learn vocabulary, complex sentence structure, and story structure.…

  6. Maternal and Child Predictors of Preschool Children's Social Competence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Diener, Marissa L.; Kim, Do-Yeong

    2004-01-01

    The present study examined child and maternal predictors of children's social competence in preschool. One hundred ten mothers and their preschool-aged children participated. Mothers completed parent reports of child temperament and self-regulation, and self-reports of maternal separation anxiety. Mothers' interactional style was coded from…

  7. Latent Structure of Motor Abilities in Pre-School Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vatroslav, Horvat

    2011-01-01

    The theoretical and practical knowledge which have so far been acquired through work with pre-school children pointed to the conclusion that the structures of the latent dimensions of the motor abilities differ greatly from such a structure, in pre-school children and adults alike. Establishing the latent structure of the motor abilities in…

  8. Prevalence of Nocturnal Enuresis and Its Associated Factors in Primary School and Preschool Children of Khorramabad in 2013

    PubMed Central

    Bakhtiar, Katayoun; Pournia, Yadollah; Ebrahimzadeh, Farzad; Farhadi, Ali; Shafizadeh, Fathollah; Hosseinabadi, Reza

    2014-01-01

    Background. Nocturnal enuresis refers to an inability to control urination during sleep. This study aimed to determine the prevalence of nocturnal enuresis and its associated factors in children in the city of Khorramabad. Materials and Methods. In this descriptive-analytic, cross-sectional study, 710 male and female children were divided into two groups with equal numbers. The samples were selected from the schools of Khorramabad using the multistage cluster and stratified random sampling methods based on the diagnostic criteria of DSM-IV. The data was analyzed using the logistic regression. Results. The results showed that 8% of the children had nocturnal enuresis, including 5.2% of primary nocturnal enuresis and 2.8% of secondary nocturnal enuresis. The prevalence of nocturnal enuresis in the boys (10.7%) was higher compared with that in the girls (5.4%) (P = 0.009). There were statistically significant relationships between nocturnal enuresis and history of nocturnal enuresis in siblings (P = 0.023), respiratory infections (P = 0.036), deep sleep (P = 0.007), corporal punishment at school (P = 0.036), anal itching (P = 0.043), and history of seizures (P = 0.043). Conclusion. This study showed that the prevalence of nocturnal enuresis in the boys was higher compared with that in the girls. PMID:25374608

  9. Prevalence of nocturnal enuresis and its associated factors in primary school and preschool children of khorramabad in 2013.

    PubMed

    Bakhtiar, Katayoun; Pournia, Yadollah; Ebrahimzadeh, Farzad; Farhadi, Ali; Shafizadeh, Fathollah; Hosseinabadi, Reza

    2014-01-01

    Background. Nocturnal enuresis refers to an inability to control urination during sleep. This study aimed to determine the prevalence of nocturnal enuresis and its associated factors in children in the city of Khorramabad. Materials and Methods. In this descriptive-analytic, cross-sectional study, 710 male and female children were divided into two groups with equal numbers. The samples were selected from the schools of Khorramabad using the multistage cluster and stratified random sampling methods based on the diagnostic criteria of DSM-IV. The data was analyzed using the logistic regression. Results. The results showed that 8% of the children had nocturnal enuresis, including 5.2% of primary nocturnal enuresis and 2.8% of secondary nocturnal enuresis. The prevalence of nocturnal enuresis in the boys (10.7%) was higher compared with that in the girls (5.4%) (P = 0.009). There were statistically significant relationships between nocturnal enuresis and history of nocturnal enuresis in siblings (P = 0.023), respiratory infections (P = 0.036), deep sleep (P = 0.007), corporal punishment at school (P = 0.036), anal itching (P = 0.043), and history of seizures (P = 0.043). Conclusion. This study showed that the prevalence of nocturnal enuresis in the boys was higher compared with that in the girls. PMID:25374608

  10. Teaching Preschool Children to Avoid Poison Hazards

    PubMed Central

    Dancho, Kelly A; Thompson, Rachel H; Rhoades, Melissa M

    2008-01-01

    We evaluated the effectiveness of group safety training and in situ feedback and response interruption to teach preschool children to avoid consuming potentially hazardous substances. Three children ingested ambiguous substances during a baited baseline assessment condition and continued to ingest these substances following group safety training. In situ feedback and response interruption resulted in a decrease in opening ambiguous containers; this decrease was maintained when ambiguous novel containers were presented and when assessments occurred in a novel setting and with a novel experimenter. For 2 children, these gains were also maintained during a brief follow-up period. Twelve children did not ingest ambiguous substances prior to training, and group safety training did not evoke inappropriate ingestion. PMID:18595292

  11. Low grandparental social support combined with low parental socioeconomic status is closely associated with obesity in preschool-aged children: a pilot study.

    PubMed

    Lindberg, L; Ek, A; Nyman, J; Marcus, C; Ulijaszek, S; Nowicka, P

    2016-08-01

    While the influence of parental socioeconomic status (SES) on children's weight status is well known, the impact of other family-related aspects such as parental and grandparental social support is less understood. This study investigates the importance of parents' SES and social support (functional and structural) for weight status in a clinical sample of preschoolers 4-6 years old with obesity (n = 39, 56% girls; 73% of parents were overweight/obese, 50% were of non-Swedish origin). Linear regression analyses, simple and multiple, were performed on SES and social support with child BMI SDS (body mass index standard deviation score) as the dependent variable. The results show that parents' income and low emotional support from paternal grandparents were significantly associated with more severe obesity. The association between parental income and the child's BMI SDS was stronger among parents who had low emotional support from their own parents. In conclusion, grandparental social support may be protective against childhood obesity. PMID:26097148

  12. Assessing Callous-Unemotional Traits in Preschool Children With Disruptive Behavior Problems Using Peer Reports.

    PubMed

    Graziano, Paulo A; Ros, Rosmary; Haas, Sarah; Hart, Katie; Slavec, Janine; Waschbusch, Daniel; Garcia, Alexis

    2016-01-01

    The goal of this study was to examine the extent to which preschoolers with externalizing behavior problems (EBP) can identify behaviors indicative of callous-unemotional (CU) traits among their peers. Participants for this study included 86 preschool children (69% boys; Mage = 5.07 years) with at-risk or clinically elevated levels of EBP who were attending a summer treatment camp. Data collected from the children, their peers, and the counselors who worked at the summer camp examined preschoolers' social preference, likability, and behaviors indicative of CU. Parents and preschool teachers also reported on children's CU traits and severity of behavioral impairment, as well as school readiness. Peer nominations of CU traits showed (a) excellent factor structure as evidenced by clear CU items (e.g., "don't feel bad when they do something wrong") versus more prosocial items ("share," "cooperate"); (b) moderate construct validity when compared to counselor reports of the CU factor as well as preschool teacher reported ratings of CU traits and severity of behavioral impairment; and (c) good utility as evidenced by associations with peer and counselor rated social preference, likability, and school readiness measures as rated by both parents and preschool teachers. These findings indicate that as early as preschool, children with EBP can identify peers who engage in behaviors indicative of CU traits, which have significant implications for children's social status and overall school readiness. PMID:25587855

  13. Prevalence of early childhood caries and associated risk factors in preschool children of urban Bangalore, India: A cross-sectional study

    PubMed Central

    Prakash, Prashanth; Subramaniam, Priya; Durgesh, B.H.; Konde, Sapna

    2012-01-01

    Objectives: Early childhood caries (ECC) is a devastating form of dental decay with multi-factorial origin. The aim of this cross-sectional study is to investigate the prevalence and related risk factors of ECC in preschool children of urban Bangalore (India). Methods: A random sample of 1,500 children aged between 8 and 48 months were selected from various parts of urban Bangalore. The status of dental caries was recorded according to the World Health Organization (WHO) criteria. Information regarding oral hygiene practices, feeding habits, socio-economic status, birth weight, and educational status of the mother was obtained through a structured questionnaire given to mothers of preschool children. The data was subjected to statistical analysis using the Statistical package for social sciences (SPSS) version 12. Results: The prevalence of ECC in preschool children was 27.5%, while the mean deft was 0.854. ECC increased significantly with age. Children whose mothers had no schooling and those who belonged to low socioeconomic group showed higher caries prevalence. A significant increase in caries prevalence was found in children accustomed to the practice of on-demand breast feeding and bottle feeding at night. Caries also increased significantly when snacks were consumed between meals. However, increased frequency of tooth-brushing, parental supervision, use of a baby toothbrush, and fluoridated dentifrice significantly decreased caries prevalence. Conclusion: ECC is a serious public health problem in this population and measures to increase awareness should be undertaken. The target candidates for oral health promotion programs should include mothers, general dentists, pediatricians, nurses, primary care health workers, care-takers at day-care centers and gynecologists. PMID:22509116

  14. Smoking during Pregnancy Is a Risk Factor for Executive Function Deficits in Preschool-aged Children

    PubMed Central

    Daseking, M.; Petermann, F.; Tischler, T.; Waldmann, H.-C.

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: Maternal nicotine use during pregnancy has a negative impact on the child. Numerous studies have demonstrated an association between smoking during pregnancy and psychological deficits. This study looks at deficits in executive functioning in preschool-aged children. Methods: The executive functioning of preschool children was assessed by asking parents to complete the parental form of the Behavior Rating Inventory of Executive Functions – Preschool Version (BRIEF-P, German version). The results for preschool children whose mothers had smoked during pregnancy (n = 71) were compared with those of a control group. In a subsample, parental assessments of children of smokers (n = 42) and non-smokers (n = 27) were complemented by the teacher form of the BRIEF-P (German version), which allowed inter-rater agreement (parents vs. preschool teachers) to be assessed. Results: An increased incidence of executive function deficits was noted in the children of smokers, based on parental assessment. Clinically relevant deficits were particularly evident with regard to inhibition, with inhibitory deficits in children of smokers found to be almost four times higher than in the control group (p = 0.006). Inhibitory deficits were reported both by parents and by preschool teachers. Discussion: The increased percentage of executive function deficits described here, particularly the increased inhibitory deficits, confirms the current state of research on smoking during pregnancy. Poor inhibition or impulse control is a key symptom of ADHD. PMID:25684788

  15. Preschool classroom processes as predictors of children's cognitive self-regulation skills development.

    PubMed

    Fuhs, Mary Wagner; Farran, Dale C; Nesbitt, Kimberly Turner

    2013-12-01

    This research focuses on the associations between interactive processes of early childhood classrooms and gains in children's cognitive self-regulation (CSR) across the preschool year. Data from 803 children (45.8% female; M = 54 months; 39.1% Caucasian, 26.3% African American, 24.6% Hispanic, 9.9% Other) were collected at fall and spring of the preschool year, and classroom observations were conducted three times throughout the year. Multilevel models tested associations between classroom behaviors of teachers and students using the Classroom Observation in Preschool and the Teacher Observation in Preschool and gains children made in a CSR composite score (Dimensional Change Card Sort, Peg Tapping, Head Toes Knees Shoulders, Copy Design, and Corsi Blocks) across the preschool year. After controlling for demographic covariates and children's pretest scores, both affective and cognitive classroom processes were associated with gains. More teacher behavior approving, less disapproving, and more positive emotional tone were associated with gains. The proportion of observed time teachers spent delivering instruction as well as the proportion of time children were involved with mathematics and literacy were also related to CSR gains, as was the quality of teacher instruction. Although exploratory, these results highlight the potential for modifications in classroom practices to aid in children's CSR development. PMID:23895316

  16. Children's Perspectives on the Role of Preschool Teachers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Einarsdottir, Johanna

    2014-01-01

    The aim of the study was to examine critically the roles and pedaogogy of preschool teachers from the perspectives of five- to six-year-old children who had extensive experience of being full day preschool children from the age of two. The participants were 32 children in the oldest preschool group in two preschools in Reykjavik. Data was gathered…

  17. Assessing preschool children's physical activity: the Observational System for Recording Physical Activity in children-preschool version.

    PubMed

    Brown, William H; Pfeiffer, Karin A; Mclver, Kerry L; Dowda, Marsha; Almeida, M Joao C A; Pate, Russell R

    2006-06-01

    In this paper we present initial information concerning a new direct observation system-the Observational System for Recording Physical Activity in Children-Preschool Version. The system will allow researchers to record young children's physical activity levels while also coding the topography of their physical activity, as well as detailed indoor and outdoor social and nonsocial contextual information. With respect to interobserver agreement (IOA), the kappa and category-by-category agreement mean of those obtained for the three illustrative preschools were generally above .80. Hence, our IOA data indicated that trained observers in the three preschools frequently agreed on the eight observational categories and accompanying codes. The results for preschoolers' level of physical activity indicated they spent the majority of observational intervals in sedentary activity (i.e., more than 80% intervals) and were observed in moderate to vigorous physical activity much less frequently (i.e., 5% or fewer intervals). For the 15 indoor and 12 outdoor activity contexts, variability across both the activity contexts and the three preschools were evident. Nevertheless, three classroom contexts-transition, snacks, and naptime--accounted for the greatest porportion of coded activity contexts for the children. In the three preschools, 4 of 17 physical activity types--sit and squat, lie down, stand, and walk--accounted for the topography of much of children's physical activity behavior Systematic observation of more representative preschool samples might better inform our present understanding of young children's physical activity in community preschool programs. PMID:16898273

  18. Preschool Predictors of Narrative Writing Skills in Elementary School Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hooper, Stephen R.; Roberts, Joanne E.; Nelson, Lauren; Zeisel, Susan; Kasambira Fannin, Danai

    2010-01-01

    This study examined the preschool predictors of elementary school narrative writing skills. The sample included 65 typically developing African American children, ranging in age from 5.0 to 5.5 years, and was 44.6% male. Targeted preschool predictors included measures of phonological processing, core language abilities, prereading skills, and…

  19. Children, Play, and Computers in Pre-School Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Plowman, Lydia; Stephen, Christine

    2005-01-01

    The paper reports a study designed to inform the development of an information and communication technology strategy for the pre-school years of education. The main methods of collecting evidence were observations at seven pre-school settings and interviews with at least two practitioners and a number of children at each site. Practitioners…

  20. Preschool Curriculum: What's In It for Children and Teachers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Albert Shanker Institute, 2009

    2009-01-01

    This report examines the importance and efficacy of oral language, literacy, mathematics, and science preschool curricula and how these curricula can be improved through alignment with research on early childhood development and learning. Detailed, research-driven recommendations are presented for what preschool-aged children should be learning in…

  1. Social Behavior of Urban and Kibbutz Preschool Children in Israel.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Levy-Shiff, Rachel; Hoffman, Michael A.

    1985-01-01

    Observes early social interactions in free play settings of Israeli kibbutz and urban preschool children. Kibbutz preschoolers displayed some aspects of more advanced group functioning (e.g., coordinated play) but also more behaviors reflecting affective distancing (e.g., solitary play, reduced affective expression, verbal aggression). (Author/NH)

  2. Factors Affecting the Formation of Food Preferences in Preschool Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alles-White, Monica L.; Welch, Patricia

    1985-01-01

    Identifies and discusses factors that affect the development of food preferences in preschool children, including familiarity, age, parents, peers, teachers, and programs designed to influence food habits. Makes recommendations to preschool and day care programs for creating an atmosphere conducive to trying new foods. (Author/DST)

  3. Language Competence and Social Focus among Preschool Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Naerland, Terje

    2011-01-01

    This study explores how various aspects of language competence are related to social focus among preschoolers. The study presented is based on video-recorded observation of 64 children, aged 11-61 months, during free play at their kindergarten. A measure of social focus in the preschool, regarded as an indicator of social status, was constructed…

  4. School Readiness of Moderately Preterm Children at Preschool Age

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Perricone, Giovanna; Morales, M. Regina; Anzalone, Germana

    2013-01-01

    The study investigates the preschool readiness of moderately preterm children and, in particular, the likely presence of learning disabilities at preschool age. Its theoretical model detects linguistic comprehension and expression; memory-related metacognition and cognition skills; orientation and motor coordination skills; premathematics and…

  5. Beverage Intake Among Preschool Children and Its Effect on Weight Status

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The obesity epidemic in the United States continues to increase. Because obesity tends to track over time, the increase in overweight among young children is of significant concern. A number of eating patterns have been associated with overweight among preschool-aged children. Recently, 100% fruit j...

  6. Preschool Teachers' Explanations for Hygiene Habits and Young Children's Biological Awareness of Contamination

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Toyama, Noriko

    2016-01-01

    Research Findings: Preschools have many norms and rules children are supposed to follow. Among them, behavioral norms associated with mealtime are of great consequence because eating is an essential life function. The present study examined young Japanese children's understanding of hygiene norms and rules at mealtime from the standpoint of their…

  7. Measures of Preschool Children's Interest and Engagement in Literacy Activities: Examining Gender Differences and Construct Dimensions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baroody, Alison E.; Diamond, Karen E.

    2013-01-01

    Multiple approaches to measuring preschool children's literacy interest and engagement (i.e., parent-, teacher-, child-reported child literacy interest and observer-reported child literacy engagement) were examined in a sample of 167 four- and five-year-old children (M=56.62 months, SD=6.01) enrolled in Head Start. Associations among measures as…

  8. Executive Functions in Preschool Children with Aggressive Behavior: Impairments in Inhibitory Control

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Raaijmakers, Maartje A. J.; Smidts, Diana P.; Sergeant, Joseph A.; Maassen, Gerard H.; Posthumus, Jocelyne A.; van Engeland, Herman; Matthys, Walter

    2008-01-01

    The question whether executive function (EF) deficits in children are associated with conduct problems remains controversial. Although the origins of aggressive behavior are to be found in early childhood, findings from EF studies in preschool children with aggressive behavior are inconsistent. The current study aimed to investigate whether…

  9. Preschool Classroom Processes as Predictors of Children's Cognitive Self-Regulation Skills Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fuhs, Mary Wagner; Farran, Dale C.; Nesbitt, Kimberly Turner

    2013-01-01

    This research focuses on the associations between interactive processes of early childhood classrooms and gains in children's cognitive self-regulation (CSR) across the preschool year. Data from 803 children (45.8% female; "M" = 54 months; 39.1% Caucasian, 26.3% African American, 24.6% Hispanic, 9.9% Other) were collected at fall and…

  10. Title 1 Funded Preschools as a Developmental Context for Children's Play and Verbal Behaviors.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Farran, Dale C.; Son-Yarbrough, Whasoup

    2001-01-01

    Examined changes in play and verbal behavior during center-based activities of 283 children in Title I public school preschools. Found that children were involved most in parallel play, and the amount of parallel play increased across the year. Associative and cooperative play decreased. The amount of talk from girls to teachers increased over the…

  11. Objective Sleep Measurement in Typically and Atypically Developing Preschool Children with ADHD-Like Profiles

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goodlin-Jones, Beth L.; Waters, Sara; Anders, Thomas F.

    2009-01-01

    Objective: This study investigated the association between preschool children's sleep patterns measured by actigraphy and parent-reported hyperactivity symptoms. Many previous studies have reported sleep problems in children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD)-like symptoms. Methods: This study examined a cross-sectional sample of…

  12. Left-Handed Preschool Children with Orthopedic Disabilities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Banham, Katharine M.

    1983-01-01

    The mental development of 332 preschool-age children with orthopedic disabilities was assessed at a children's hospital over a 10-year period, and comparisons were made for right-handed and left-handed. The left-handed children were slower than right-handed children in learning speech and language skills (Author/SEW)

  13. Vocal overimitation in preschool-age children.

    PubMed

    Subiaul, Francys; Winters, Katherine; Krumpak, Kathryn; Core, Cynthia

    2016-01-01

    Overimitation--copying incorrect, idiosyncratic, or causally irrelevant actions--has been linked to our species' long history with artifacts whose functions are often opaque. It is an open question, however, whether children overimitate outside the artifact domain. We explored this question by presenting preschool-age children (3- to 5-year-olds, N=120) with an elicited imitation task that included high- and low-frequency disyllabic nouns (e.g., 'pizza) and nonwords (e.g., 'chizza), all of which had a stressed first syllable. However, during testing, half of the stimuli were incorrectly pronounced by stressing the second syllable (e.g., pi'zza). More than half of the children copied the model's incorrect pronunciation of high-frequency familiar words, consistent with overimitation. This pattern of response persisted even after children had themselves correctly named the familiar words prior to the start of testing, confirming that children purposefully altered the pronunciation of known words to match the incorrect pronunciations used by a model. These results demonstrate that overimitation is not restricted to the artifact domain and might extend to many different tasks and domains. PMID:26407825

  14. Inhibition and Exuberance in Preschool Classrooms: Associations with Peer Social Experiences and Changes in Cortisol across the Preschool Year

    PubMed Central

    Tarullo, Amanda R.; Mliner, Shanna; Gunnar, Megan R.

    2012-01-01

    Associations between behavioral inhibition and activity of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenocortical (HPA) system, a stress-sensitive neuroendocrine system indexed by salivary cortisol, have varied widely across studies. The current study examined the role of peer social experiences in moderating patterns of association between inhibition/risk-aversion and cortisol reactivity. As expected based on previous research, preschool children (N= 165, 78 boys, 3.0–5.0 years) had significantly different social experiences in their preschool classrooms depending on temperament. Highly inhibited/risk-averse children were less socially integrated, less dominant, and less involved in aggressive encounters than both average and highly exuberant/risk-seeking children, but they were no more likely to be peer rejected. Highly exuberant children were more dominant, exhibited anger more often, and had friendships characterized by higher conflict. Cortisol levels fell from fall to spring for the average and highly exuberant children, but not for the highly inhibited children. Unexpectedly, for highly inhibited children, having friends and being more dominant and popular than other highly inhibited children was associated with increasing cortisol levels over the school year. In contrast, highly exuberant children who were less socially integrated than other highly exuberant children maintained higher cortisol levels. Results indicate that the types of social experiences that affect stress-responsive biological systems may differ markedly for highly inhibited and highly exuberant children. PMID:21688898

  15. Sensory Processing in Preterm Preschoolers and Its Association with Executive Function

    PubMed Central

    Adams, Jenna N.; Feldman, Heidi M.; Huffman, Lynne C.; Loe, Irene M.

    2015-01-01

    Background Symptoms of abnormal sensory processing have been related to preterm birth, but have not yet been studied specifically in preterm preschoolers. The degree of association between sensory processing and other domains is important for understanding the role of sensory processing symptoms in the development of preterm children. Aims To test two related hypotheses: (1) preterm preschoolers have more sensory processing symptoms than full term preschoolers and (2) sensory processing is associated with both executive function and adaptive function in preterm preschoolers. Study Design Cross-sectional study Subjects Preterm children (≤34 weeks of gestation; n = 54) and full term controls (≥37 weeks of gestation; n = 73) ages 3-5 years. Outcome Measures Sensory processing was assessed with the Short Sensory Profile. Executive function was assessed with (1) parent ratings on the Behavior Rating Inventory of Executive Function- Preschool version and (2) a performance-based battery of tasks. Adaptive function was assessed with the Vineland Adaptive Behavior Scales-II. Results Preterm preschoolers showed significantly more sensory symptoms than full term controls. A higher percentage of preterm than full term preschoolers had elevated numbers of sensory symptoms (37% vs. 12%). Sensory symptoms in preterm preschoolers were associated with scores on executive function measures, but were not significantly associated with adaptive function. Conclusions Preterm preschoolers exhibited more sensory symptoms than full term controls. Preterm preschoolers with elevated numbers of sensory symptoms also showed executive function impairment. Future research should further examine whether sensory processing and executive function should be considered independent or overlapping constructs. PMID:25706317

  16. Attention and Perseverance Behaviors of PreSchool Children Enrolled in Suzuki Violin Lessons and Other Activities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Scott, Laurie

    1992-01-01

    Reports on a study of attention span and persevering behaviors of preschool children. Finds the Suzuki Method of violin instruction is associated with longer attention spans and more persevering behaviors than creative movement instruction or other preschool programs. Concludes that teachers prefer the Suzuki Method's approach to other forms of…

  17. Correlates of Curiosity and Exploratory Behavior in Preschool Disadvantaged Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Minuchin, Patricia

    1971-01-01

    Describes a pilot project with two objectives: 1) to develop measures of curiosity and exploration applicable to preschool children, and 2) to investigate the relationship between variations in exploratory behavior and other aspects of emotional and cognitive growth. (WY)

  18. RECRUITMENT STRATEGIES FOR AN EXPOSURE MEASUREMENT STUDY OF PRESCHOOL CHILDREN

    EPA Science Inventory

    Recruiting study participants is always a challenge for researchers. It poses an even bigger challenge for researchers to recruit participants for a study involving intrusive, burdensome data collection activities. A study of preschool children's exposure to persistent organic ...

  19. Efficient Preschool Screening for Educationally At-Risk Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sahin, Selcuk T.

    1978-01-01

    A discussion of the Model Preschool Screening Program for educationally at-risk children includes a description of the screening tools and publicity used, the pilot project conducted prior to its implementation, and the actual implementation of the program. (CM)

  20. POLYCYCLIC AROMATIC HYDROCARBON (PAH) EXPOSURE OF 257 PRESCHOOL CHILDREN

    EPA Science Inventory

    We investigated the polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) exposure of 257 preschool children and their adult caregivers in their everyday environments. Participants were recruited randomly from eligible homes and daycare centers within six North Carolina (NC) and six Ohio (OH) c...

  1. Factor Analysis of Measures of Nutritional Status of Preschool Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Guthrie, H. A.; And Others

    1973-01-01

    On the basis of the findings of this study, it is reasonable to recommend elimination of some of the demography, anthropometry, and biochemical indices commonly evaluated in nutritional surveys of U.S. preschool children. (DM)

  2. Educational intervention with multiply handicapped preschool children.

    PubMed

    Kaminer, R K; Chinitz, S P

    1982-02-01

    A study was conducted to objectively measure changes in functioning of multiply handicapped children in a specialized nursery school program. The study population consisted of the 18 children who entered the program in the study year. A quantitative teacher rating scale was developed, tested, and found to be reliable. Significant improvements were demonstrated in interaction, communication, and task orientation after 3 months and in self-care after 6 months. There was no measurable change in motor performance, and the intellectual functioning of the children remained in the same diagnostic category as at the outset. The study documented improvement on social competence of multiply handicapped children enrolled in a preschool program with minimal parental involvement. The teacher rating scale was found to be useful in measuring social functioning in a school setting for a young population with a limited range of possible achievements. Teachers proved to be reliable evaluators of their pupils. To measure social and interactional parameters, it appears necessary to have both a standardized instrument and an informed observer who knows the child's daily functioning. PMID:6460491

  3. Autistic spectrum disorders in preschool children.

    PubMed Central

    Zwaigenbaum, L.

    2001-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To review existing data on early signs of autistic spectrum disorders (ASD) and on how these disorders can be distinguished from other atypical patterns of development, and to describe a developmental surveillance approach that family physicians can use to ensure that children with these diagnoses are detected as early as possible. QUALITY OF EVIDENCE: MEDLINE was searched from January 1966 to July 2000 using the MeSH terms autistic disorder/diagnosis AND diagnosis, differential AND (infant OR child, preschool). Articles were selected based on relevance to developmental surveillance in primary care and on experimental design, with emphasis on prospective studies with systematic measurement procedures using up-to-date diagnostic criteria. MAIN MESSAGE: Autistic spectrum disorders are characterized by impairments in social interaction and verbal and nonverbal communication, and by preferences for repetitive interests and behaviours. Early signs that distinguish ASD from other atypical patterns of development include poor use of eye gaze, lack of gestures to direct other people's attention (particularly to show things of interest), diminished social responsiveness, and lack of age-appropriate play with toys (especially imaginative use of toys). Careful attention to parents' concerns and specific inquiry into and observation of how children interact, communicate, and play will help ensure that early signs are detected during regular health maintenance visits. CONCLUSION: Family physicians have an important role in early identification of children with ASD. Early diagnosis of these disorders is essential to ensure timely access to interventions known to improve outcomes for these children. PMID:11723598

  4. A Comparative Study of the Effects of Preschool Education on Middle Class Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McKinnon, Jennifer; And Others

    To determine whether preschool education benefits middle-class elementary school children, a study was conducted which compared the social, motor, and academic progress of kindergarten and elementary school children who had attended a Montessori preschool, another kind of preschool, or no preschool. The sample was chosen according to age,…

  5. A Nutrition Education Program for Preschool Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davis, Susan S.; And Others

    1983-01-01

    A curriculum was designed to give preschool caregivers basic nutrition background through a programed self-instructional unit; incorporate nutrition education into existing parts of a typical preschool day; and provide learning activities designed to help preschoolers relate food/nutrients to health. Development of materials, caregivers'…

  6. Alimentary fluoride intake in preschool children

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background The knowledge of background alimentary fluoride intake in preschool children is of utmost importance for introducing optimal and safe caries preventive measures for both individuals and communities. The aim of this study was to assess the daily fluoride intake analyzing duplicate samples of food and beverages. An attempt was made to calculate the daily intake of fluoride from food and swallowed toothpaste. Methods Daily alimentary fluoride intake was measured in a group of 36 children with an average age of 4.75 years and an average weight of 20.69 kg at baseline, by means of a double plate method. This was repeated after six months. Parents recorded their child's diet over 24 hours and collected duplicated portions of food and beverages received by children during this period. Pooled samples of food and beverages were weighed and solid food samples were homogenized. Fluoride was quantitatively extracted from solid food samples by a microdiffusion method using hexadecyldisiloxane and perchloric acid. The content of fluoride extracted from solid food samples, as well as fluoride in beverages, was measured potentiometrically by means of a fluoride ion selective electrode. Results Average daily fluoride intake at baseline was 0.389 (SD 0.054) mg per day. Six months later it was 0.378 (SD 0.084) mg per day which represents 0.020 (SD 0.010) and 0.018 (SD 0.008) mg of fluoride respectively calculated per kg bw/day. When adding the values of unwanted fluoride intake from the toothpaste shown in the literature (0.17-1.21 mg per day) the estimate of the total daily intake of fluoride amounted to 0.554-1.594 mg/day and recalculated to the child's body weight to 0.027-0.077 mg/kg bw/day. Conclusions In the children studied, observed daily fluoride intake reached the threshold for safe fluoride intake. When adding the potential fluoride intake from swallowed toothpaste, alimentary intake reached the optimum range for daily fluoride intake. These results showed that

  7. Association of Active Play-Related Parenting Behaviors, Orientations, and Practices with Preschool Sedentary Behavior

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Loprinzi, Paul D.; Cardinal, Bradley J.; Kane, Christy; Lee, Hyo; Beets, Michael W.

    2014-01-01

    Background: Parents' behaviors, practices, beliefs, and attitudes greatly influence children's active play behavior; however, little research has examined these parental influences on preschool children's sedentary behavior (SB). Purpose: The purpose of this study was to examine the association between parental influences on…

  8. Integrating Children with Disabilities into Preschool. ERIC Digest.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Diamond, Karen E.; And Others

    This digest examines research on preschool programs that include children with and without disabilities. Recent research suggests that children with disabilities are able to take advantage of experiences that promote typical development. One study found that children with disabilities enrolled in integrated programs demonstrated higher levels of…

  9. Dyadic Orienting and Joint Attention in Preschool Children with Autism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leekam, Susan R.; Ramsden, Christopher A. H.

    2006-01-01

    Acts of dyadic orienting (responses to attention bids by a researcher) and acts of joint attention (e.g. pointing and showing behaviors) were observed in preschool children with autism and children with developmental delay. Children with autism responded to fewer adult vocal and non-vocal attention bids that were made singly and by combining…

  10. Young Children's Views of the Role of Preschool Educators

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pálmadóttir, Hrönn; Einarsdóttir, Jóhanna

    2015-01-01

    This article aims to explore young children's (from one to three years old) perspectives of the role and pedagogy of educators in play in an Icelandic preschool. The intention is to explore the meaning that children put into involving educators in their play and whether the children experience educators' actions as a resource for their play. The…

  11. Preschool Children's Sleep and Wake Behavior: Effects of Massage Therapy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Field, Tiffany; And Others

    1996-01-01

    Preschool children received twice-weekly massages for five weeks. Compared to control children, the massaged children had better behavior ratings on mood state, vocalization, activity, and cooperation following massage on day one and throughout the study. Teachers rated their behavior more optimally, and their parents rated them as having less…

  12. Preschool Education: Delivering on the Promise for Latino Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beltran, Erika

    2011-01-01

    This publication highlights opportunities to improve the educational outcomes of Hispanic children at an early age, a time that is critical to setting up the academic success of children. Specifically, this paper examines barriers to quality and access that limit the participation of Latino children and families in preschool and offers…

  13. Maternal Depression and Treatment Gains Following a Cognitive Behavioral Intervention for Posttraumatic Stress in Preschool Children

    PubMed Central

    Weems, Carl F.; Scheeringa, Michael

    2013-01-01

    The evidence base for cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) to treat child emotional and behavioral symptoms following exposure to trauma in youth is compelling, but relatively few studies are available on preschool children and on moderators of treatment outcomes. This paper examines maternal and child characteristics as moderators of posttraumatic stress (PTS) treatment outcomes in preschool children. Outcome data from a previously published randomized trial in three to six year old preschool children with diagnostic interview data from participating mothers were used. Hypotheses were tested via hierarchical linear modeling. Maternal depression was associated with higher initial child posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptoms, and was associated with increasing PTSD symptom trends at follow up suggesting potential child PTSD symptom relapse. Maternal PTSD symptoms similarly predicted differential child separation anxiety symptom change but not child PTSD symptom change. Targeting dyads with child PTSD symptoms and maternal depression or PTSD symptoms with enhanced interventions may be a useful strategy to improve treatment maintenance. PMID:23376601

  14. Preschool Children's Learning Behaviors, Concept Attainment, Social Skills, and Problem Behaviors: Validity Evidence for Preschool Learning Behaviors Scale Scores

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schaefer, Barbara A.; Shur, Kimberely Fitch; Macri-Summers, Maria; MacDonald, Scott L.

    2004-01-01

    This study provides concurrent and predictive validity and test-retest reliability evidence for scores from the preschool teacher-completed Preschool Learning Behaviors Scale (PLBS; McDermott, Green, Francis, & Stott, 2002) using two regional samples of preschool children aged 3 to 5.5 years (Ns of 61 and 70). Teacher ratings of social skills and…

  15. FUNDAMENTAL MOVEMENT SKILLS OF PRESCHOOL CHILDREN IN NORTHWEST ENGLAND.

    PubMed

    Foulkes, J D; Knowles, Z; Fairclough, S J; Stratton, G; O'Dwyer, M; Ridgers, N D; Foweather, L

    2015-08-01

    This cross-sectional study examined fundamental movement skill competency among deprived preschool children in Northwest England and explored sex differences. A total of 168 preschool children (ages 3-5 yr.) were included in the study. Twelve skills were assessed using the Children's Activity and Movement in Preschool Motor Skills Protocol and video analysis. Sex differences were explored at the subtest, skill, and component levels. Overall competence was found to be low among both sexes, although it was higher for locomotor skills than for object-control skills. Similar patterns were observed at the component level. Boys had significantly better object-control skills than girls, with greater competence observed for the kick and overarm throw, while girls were more competent at the run, hop, and gallop. The findings of low competency suggest that developmentally appropriate interventions should be implemented in preschool settings to promote movement skills, with targeted activities for boys and girls. PMID:26270852

  16. The Friendship Features of Preschool Children: Links with Prosocial Behavior and Aggression.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sebanc, Anne M.

    2003-01-01

    Examined whether features of preschool children's mutual friendships were associated with prosocial and aggressive behavior. Teacher reports of friendship features showed moderate interrater reliability and were associated with teacher reports of aggression and prosocial behavior, and with peer reports of acceptance and rejection. Friendship…

  17. An Evaluation of the Preschool PATHS Curriculum on the Development of Preschool Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hughes, Cerian; Cline, Tony

    2015-01-01

    This study evaluated the efficacy of preschool Promoting Alternative Thinking Strategies (PATHS), an early years curriculum designed to improve children's social and emotional competence, and reduce problem behaviour. Fifty-seven children aged three to four years took part in the study over one academic year. The control group (Group 1)…

  18. Prematurity and School Readiness in a Nationally Representative Sample of Australian Children: Does Typically Occurring Preschool Moderate the Relationship?

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Jen-Hao; Claessens, Amy; Msall, Michael E.

    2013-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To examine the relationship between indicators of prematurity and children’s cognitive and behavioral school readiness in a nationally representative sample and to investigate whether typically occurring preschool enrollment moderates this relationship, particularly for children from disadvantaged families in Australia. METHODS The Longitudinal Study of Australian Children is a nationally representative prospective sample of two cohorts of children with sequentially obtained indicators of child health and developmental outcomes. We analyzed information on 8,060 children age 4–5 years who had complete data on birth weight, gestational age, prenatal risks, social factors, and cognitive and behavioral outcomes of school readiness. Multivariate regressions were used to relate three indicators of prematurity (low birth weight, preterm birth, and small for gestational age) to cognitive and behavioral school readiness. RESULTS Children born preterm, small for gestational age, or with low birth weight have significantly lower cognitive school readiness after controlling for social factors and prenatal risks. None of the premature indicators was associated with behavioral school readiness. All children benefited from attending preschool. Yet, preschool enrollment did not moderate the relationship between prematurity and school readiness. The only exception is for small for gestational age survivors with low educated mothers. Preschool enrollment was associated with an increase in cognitive school readiness skills. CONCLUSIONS Prematurity was associated with lower cognitive school readiness skills. Typical occurring preschool did not eliminate this association. Findings suggest that simply expanding the preschool enrollment is inadequate to address the developmental needs of premature children from disadvantaged backgrounds. PMID:24401664

  19. Immigration and the interplay of parenting, preschool enrollment, and young children's academic skills.

    PubMed

    Ansari, Arya; Crosnoe, Robert

    2015-06-01

    This study tested a conceptual model of the reciprocal relations among parents' support for early learning and children's academic skills and preschool enrollment. Structural equation modeling of data from 6,250 children (Ages 2 to 5) and parents in the nationally representative Early Childhood Longitudinal Study-Birth Cohort revealed that parental support for early learning was associated with gains in children's academic skills, which, in turn, were associated with their likelihood of preschool attendance. Preschool experience then was associated with further gains in children's early academic competencies, which were then associated with increased parental support. These patterns varied by parents' nativity status. Specifically, foreign-born parents' support for early learning was directly linked with preschool enrollment, and the association between the academic skills of children and parental support was also stronger for foreign-born parents. These immigration-related patterns were primarily driven by immigrant families who originated from Latin America, rather than Asia, and did not vary by immigrants' socioeconomic circumstances. Together, these results underscore the value of considering the synergistic relations between the home and school systems, as well as "child effects" and population diversity, in developmental research. PMID:25938712

  20. Immigration and the Interplay of Parenting, Preschool Enrollment, and Young Children's Academic Skills

    PubMed Central

    Ansari, Arya; Crosnoe, Robert

    2015-01-01

    This study tested a conceptual model of the reciprocal relations among parents’ support for early learning and children's academic skills and preschool enrollment. Structural equation modeling of data from 6,250 children (ages 2-5) and parents in the nationally representative Early Childhood Longitudinal Study-Birth Cohort (ECLS-B) revealed that parental support for early learning was associated with gains in children's academic skills, which, in turn, were associated with their likelihood of preschool attendance. Preschool experience then was associated with further gains in children's early academic competencies, which were then associated with increased parental support. These patterns varied by parents' nativity status. Specifically, foreign-born parents' support for early learning was directly linked with preschool enrollment and the association between the academic skills of children and parental support was also stronger for foreign-born parents. These immigration-related patterns were primarily driven by immigrant families who originated from Latin America, rather than Asia and did not vary by immigrants’ socioeconomic circumstances. Together, these results underscore the value of considering the synergistic relations between the home and school systems as well as “child effects” and population diversity in developmental research. PMID:25938712

  1. Eating out of home and dietary adequacy in preschool children.

    PubMed

    Moreira, Teresa; Severo, Milton; Oliveira, Andreia; Ramos, Elisabete; Rodrigues, Sara; Lopes, Carla

    2015-07-01

    The present study aims to describe dietary intake and dietary adequacy according to eating location in preschool children. A sub-sample of 2414 children from the Generation XXI birth cohort (Porto, Portugal), evaluated during the follow-up between 2009 and 2011, was included. Dietary intake was assessed by 3 d food diaries and four groups of children were defined according to the eating location: 'Home' ( ≥ 80% of meals at home), 'Other homes', 'Preschool' and 'Restaurants'. A dietary adequacy index was developed based on general recommendations for children; a higher score represents a better dietary adequacy. The comparison of nutrients and foods daily intake according to the eating location groups was performed by ANOVA and ANCOVA to adjust for potential confounders. Children classified in 'Preschool' group ate significantly more vegetables, fruit, bread and fish, and less meat, compared to children classified into the 'Home' group. Children classified in the 'Restaurants' group ate more cakes, salty snacks and fruit juices than children in 'Home' group; and less vegetables, dairy products and pasta/rice/potatoes. In 'Restaurants' children obtained the lowest mean score of the dietary adequacy index (15.5, 95% CI 14.8, 16.3) and in 'Preschool' children had the highest mean score (18.3, 95% CI 18.1, 18.4), corresponding to a better dietary adequacy. Preschools seem to have a relevant role in promoting the intake of healthy foods in preschool children. The consumption in restaurants/coffee shops seems to contribute to energy-dense food intake and reduced consumption of nutrient-dense foods. PMID:26082269

  2. Parenting, corpus callosum, and executive function in preschool children.

    PubMed

    Kok, Rianne; Lucassen, Nicole; Bakermans-Kranenburg, Marian J; van IJzendoorn, Marinus H; Ghassabian, Akhgar; Roza, Sabine J; Govaert, Paul; Jaddoe, Vincent W; Hofman, Albert; Verhulst, Frank C; Tiemeier, Henning

    2014-01-01

    In this longitudinal population-based study (N = 544), we investigated whether early parenting and corpus callosum length predict child executive function abilities at 4 years of age. The length of the corpus callosum in infancy was measured using postnatal cranial ultrasounds at 6 weeks of age. At 3 years, two aspects of parenting were observed: maternal sensitivity during a teaching task and maternal discipline style during a discipline task. Parents rated executive function problems at 4 years of age in five domains of inhibition, shifting, emotional control, working memory, and planning/organizing, using the Behavior Rating Inventory of Executive Function-Preschool Version. Maternal sensitivity predicted less executive function problems at preschool age. A significant interaction was found between corpus callosum length in infancy and maternal use of positive discipline to determine child inhibition problems: The association between a relatively shorter corpus callosum in infancy and child inhibition problems was reduced in children who experienced more positive discipline. Our results point to the buffering potential of positive parenting for children with biological vulnerability. PMID:24028215

  3. Preschool children with externalizing behaviors: experience of fathers and mothers.

    PubMed

    Baker, B L; Heller, T L

    1996-08-01

    Childhood behavior disorders are related to family stress and maladjustment. Little is known, however, about the adjustment of families with preschool-aged children at risk for subsequent behavior disorders. Moreover, fathers' perceptions of child problem behavior and their reactions to it generally have been neglected. Subjects were mothers and fathers of 52 preschool-aged children assigned to one of three groups: control, moderate externalizing, and high externalizing. Higher child externalizing behavior was associated with greater negative family impact, lowered parenting sense of efficacy, and child-rearing practices that were more authoritarian and less authoritative. Mothers and fathers did not differ in actual perceived level of child behavior problems, although both believed that mothers saw more problems. Child Group x Parent interactions indicated that mothers experienced increased stress and a need for help with moderate as well as high child externalizing behaviors, whereas fathers were not elevated on these measures unless the child's externalizing behaviors were high. Implications of these findings for early family intervention are considered. PMID:8886946

  4. Delays in auditory processing identified in preschool children with FASD

    PubMed Central

    Stephen, Julia M.; Kodituwakku, Piyadasa W.; Kodituwakku, Elizabeth L.; Romero, Lucinda; Peters, Amanda M.; Sharadamma, Nirupama Muniswamy; Caprihan, Arvind; Coffman, Brian A.

    2012-01-01

    Background Both sensory and cognitive deficits have been associated with prenatal exposure to alcohol; however, very few studies have focused on sensory deficits in preschool aged children. Since sensory skills develop early, characterization of sensory deficits using novel imaging methods may reveal important neural markers of prenatal alcohol exposure. Materials and Methods Participants in this study were 10 children with a fetal alcohol spectrum disorder (FASD) and 15 healthy control children aged 3-6 years. All participants had normal hearing as determined by clinical screens. We measured their neurophysiological responses to auditory stimuli (1000 Hz, 72 dB tone) using magnetoencephalography (MEG). We used a multi-dipole spatio-temporal modeling technique (CSST – Ranken et al. 2002) to identify the location and timecourse of cortical activity in response to the auditory tones. The timing and amplitude of the left and right superior temporal gyrus sources associated with activation of left and right primary/secondary auditory cortices were compared across groups. Results There was a significant delay in M100 and M200 latencies for the FASD children relative to the HC children (p = 0.01), when including age as a covariate. The within-subjects effect of hemisphere was not significant. A comparable delay in M100 and M200 latencies was observed in children across the FASD subtypes. Discussion Auditory delay revealed by MEG in children with FASD may prove to be a useful neural marker of information processing difficulties in young children with prenatal alcohol exposure. The fact that delayed auditory responses were observed across the FASD spectrum suggests that it may be a sensitive measure of alcohol-induced brain damage. Therefore, this measure in conjunction with other clinical tools may prove useful for early identification of alcohol affected children, particularly those without dysmorphia. PMID:22458372

  5. Teacher (Mis)Perceptions of Preschoolers' Academic Skills: Predictors and Associations with Longitudinal Outcomes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baker, Courtney N.; Tichovolsky, Marianne H.; Kupersmidt, Janis B.; Voegler-Lee, Mary Ellen; Arnold, David H.

    2015-01-01

    Preschool teachers have important impacts on children's academic outcomes, and teachers' misperceptions of children's academic skills could have negative consequences, particularly for low-income preschoolers. This study utilized data gathered from 123 preschool teachers and their 760 preschoolers from 70 low-income, racially diverse centers.…

  6. Preschool Children's Concepts of Their Peers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Herz, Joan A.; And Others

    A study was conducted to assess the ability of 4-year-olds to make differentiated judgments of characteristics of their nursery school classmates. A paired-associates sociometric task, a technique that does not rely heavily on verbal skills and is reliable with young children, was used to obtain these judgments. Children were presented with all…

  7. The Relationship between Vitamin D Status and Allergic Diseases in New Zealand Preschool Children

    PubMed Central

    Cairncross, Carolyn; Grant, Cameron; Stonehouse, Welma; Conlon, Cath; McDonald, Barry; Houghton, Lisa; Eyles, Darryl; Camargo, Carlos A.; Coad, Jane; von Hurst, Pamela

    2016-01-01

    Recent research on vitamin D in young children has expanded from bone development to exploring immunomodulatory effects. Our aim was to investigate the relationship of vitamin D status and allergic diseases in preschool-aged children in New Zealand. Dried capillary blood spots were collected from 1329 children during late-winter to early-spring for 25(OH)D measurement by LC-MS/MS. Caregivers completed a questionnaire about their child’s recent medical history. Analysis was by multivariable logistic regression. Mean 25(OH)D concentration was 52(SD19) nmol/L, with 7% of children <25 nmol/L and 49% <50 nmol/L. Children with 25(OH)D concentrations ≥75 nmol/L (n = 29) had a two-fold increased risk for parent-report of doctor-diagnosed food allergy compared to children with 25(OH)D 50–74.9 nmol/L (OR = 2.21, 1.33–3.68, p = 0.002). No associations were present between 25(OH)D concentration and presence of parent-reported eczema, allergic rhinoconjunctivitis or atopic asthma. Vitamin D deficiency was not associated with several allergic diseases in these New Zealand preschool children. In contrast, high 25(OH)D concentrations were associated with a two-fold increased risk of parental-report food allergy. This increase supports further research into the association between vitamin D status and allergic disease in preschool children. PMID:27258306

  8. The Relationship between Vitamin D Status and Allergic Diseases in New Zealand Preschool Children.

    PubMed

    Cairncross, Carolyn; Grant, Cameron; Stonehouse, Welma; Conlon, Cath; McDonald, Barry; Houghton, Lisa; Eyles, Darryl; Camargo, Carlos A; Coad, Jane; von Hurst, Pamela

    2016-01-01

    Recent research on vitamin D in young children has expanded from bone development to exploring immunomodulatory effects. Our aim was to investigate the relationship of vitamin D status and allergic diseases in preschool-aged children in New Zealand. Dried capillary blood spots were collected from 1329 children during late-winter to early-spring for 25(OH)D measurement by LC-MS/MS. Caregivers completed a questionnaire about their child's recent medical history. Analysis was by multivariable logistic regression. Mean 25(OH)D concentration was 52(SD19) nmol/L, with 7% of children <25 nmol/L and 49% <50 nmol/L. Children with 25(OH)D concentrations ≥75 nmol/L (n = 29) had a two-fold increased risk for parent-report of doctor-diagnosed food allergy compared to children with 25(OH)D 50-74.9 nmol/L (OR = 2.21, 1.33-3.68, p = 0.002). No associations were present between 25(OH)D concentration and presence of parent-reported eczema, allergic rhinoconjunctivitis or atopic asthma. Vitamin D deficiency was not associated with several allergic diseases in these New Zealand preschool children. In contrast, high 25(OH)D concentrations were associated with a two-fold increased risk of parental-report food allergy. This increase supports further research into the association between vitamin D status and allergic disease in preschool children. PMID:27258306

  9. Talking about Children's Resistance to the Institutional Order and Teachers in Preschool

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Markstrom, Ann-Marie

    2010-01-01

    This article highlights the parent-teacher conferences in the Swedish preschool and the talk about children's inappropriate and undesirable behaviour in a preschool setting. The focus of the article concerns how teachers talk about children's resistance to the social order in preschool and especially how children show resistance to teachers. The…

  10. Nonsteroidal Anti-Inflammatory Drug Hypersensitivity in Preschool Children

    PubMed Central

    2007-01-01

    Although extensively studied in adults, nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID) hypersensitivity in children, especially in young children, remains poorly defined. Pediatricians, prescribing antipyretics for children, rarely encounter significant problems, but the few epidemiologic studies performed show conflicting results. Although it is clear that some patients with acetylsalicylic acid (ASA)-sensitive asthma have their clinical onset of disease in childhood and bronchoconstriction after ASA challenge is seen in 0 to 22% of asthmatic children so challenged, ibuprofen at antipyretic doses may cause acute respiratory problems only in a very small number of mild to moderate asthmatics. The recently elucidated mechanism of action of acetaminophen may explain some occurrences of adverse reactions in patients with cross-reactive NSAID hypersensitivity on the basis of its inhibitory activity on the newly described enzyme, cyclooxygenase (COX)-3. This nonspecific sensitivity to inhibition of COX is most likely genetically determined and shows a remarkable association with atopic disease even in the very young age group and possibly an increased predilection in specific ethnic groups. This review summarizes state-of-the-art published data on NSAID hypersensitivity in preschool children. PMID:20525116

  11. Effectiveness of screening preschool children for amblyopia: a systematic review

    PubMed Central

    Schmucker, Christine; Grosselfinger, Robert; Riemsma, Rob; Antes, Gerd; Lange, Stefan; Lagrèze, Wolf; Kleijnen, Jos

    2009-01-01

    Background Amblyopia and amblyogenic factors like strabismus and refractive errors are the most common vision disorders in children. Although different studies suggest that preschool vision screening is associated with a reduced prevalence rate of amblyopia, the value of these programmes is the subject of a continuing scientific and health policy discussion. Therefore, this systematic review focuses on the question of whether screening for amblyopia in children up to the age of six years leads to better vision outcomes. Methods Ten bibliographic databases were searched for randomised controlled trials, non-randomised controlled trials and cohort studies with no limitations to a specific year of publication and language. The searches were supplemented by handsearching the bibliographies of included studies and reviews to identify articles not captured through our main search strategy. Results Five studies met the inclusion criteria. Of these, three studies suggested that screening is associated with an absolute reduction in the prevalence of amblyopia between 0.9% and 1.6% (relative reduction: between 45% and 62%). However, the studies showed weaknesses, limiting the validity and reliability of their findings. The main limitation was that studies with significant results considered only a proportion of the originally recruited children in their analysis. On the other hand, retrospective sample size calculation indicated that the power based on the cohort size was not sufficient to detect small changes between the groups. Outcome parameters such as quality of life or adverse effects of screening have not been adequately investigated in the literature currently available. Conclusion Population based preschool vision screening programmes cannot be sufficiently assessed by the literature currently available. However, it is most likely that the present systematic review contains the most detailed description of the main limitations in current available literature

  12. Outdoor environmental assessment of attention promoting settings for preschool children.

    PubMed

    Mårtensson, F; Boldemann, C; Söderström, M; Blennow, M; Englund, J-E; Grahn, P

    2009-12-01

    The restorative potential of green outdoor environments for children in preschool settings was investigated by measuring the attention of children playing in settings with different environmental features. Eleven preschools with outdoor environments typical for the Stockholm area were assessed using the outdoor play environment categories (OPEC) and the fraction of visible sky from play structures (sky view factor), and 198 children, aged 4.5-6.5 years, were rated by the staff for inattentive, hyperactive and impulsive behaviors with the ECADDES tool. Children playing in large and integrated outdoor areas containing large areas of trees, shrubbery and a hilly terrain showed less often behaviors of inattention (p<.05). The choice of tool for assessment of attention is discussed in relation to outdoor stay and play characteristics in Swedish preschool settings. The results indicate that the restorative potential of green outdoor environments applies also to preschool children and that environmental assessment tools as OPEC can be useful when to locate and develop health-promoting land adjacent to preschools. PMID:19643655

  13. Body Awareness in Preschool Children with Psychiatric Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Simons, J.; Leitschuh, C.; Raymaekers, A.; Vandenbussche, I.

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the body awareness of preschool children with a psychiatric disorder as measured by the test imitation of gestures (Berges & Lezine, 1978), using the subsections for pointing to body parts (passive vocabulary) and naming body parts (active vocabulary). Seventy-seven children from 37 to 72 months of age…

  14. Teachers' Emotional Consistency Matters for Preschool Children. Research Brief

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Curby, Timothy W.; Brock, Laura L.

    2013-01-01

    This study examined teachers' emotional support in classrooms and how it relates to children's outcomes in preschool and kindergarten. Findings suggest that more consistent emotional support was related to better academic and social outcomes, emphasizing the potentially important role of consistency in children's school experiences. [This research…

  15. Evaluating Motor Performance of Preschool-Aged Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hirst, Cyntha C.; And Others

    The purpose of this project was to develop a motor performance test for preschool children that would be economical to administer, valid, and reliable. Four test items--standing long jump, hopping within an 18-inch square, balancing on one foot, and a timed gross agility task, were selected from published tests to assess children's strength,…

  16. The Development of Flexibility and Abstraction in Preschool Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bennett, Joanna; Muller, Ulrich

    2010-01-01

    This study examined the development of flexibility and abstraction in preschool children by using a newly designed Pattern Completion Task (PCT) and the Flexible Item Selection Task (FIST). In the PCT, children were presented with an incomplete pattern consisting of different-colored shapes and were asked to select the colored shape that…

  17. Shyness, Vocabulary and Children's Reticence in Saudi Arabian Preschools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Crozier, W. Ray; Badawood, Asma

    2009-01-01

    The aims of the present study are to examine whether preschool children's scores on a standardized test of vocabulary mediate or moderate the relation between shyness and reticence and to test whether any influence of vocabulary would be found for both teacher and parent assessments of shyness. Participants were 108 children (50 males), mean age,…

  18. The Effectiveness of the Behavioural Training for Preschool Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Koglin, Ute; Petermann, Franz

    2011-01-01

    This study investigated the short-term effects of behavioural training for preschool children. The goals of this programme were to reduce disruptive behaviour as well as shy and withdrawn behaviour, and to promote social-emotional competencies. In young children, insufficient emotional competencies and difficulties concerning adequate conflict…

  19. Effects of Animated Videos on Preschool Children's Music Preferences.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cassidy, Jane W.; Geringer, John M.

    1999-01-01

    Investigates the effects of audiovisual media on preschool children's attitudes toward music presentations from "The Lion King" and "Fantasia." Finds that the listening times for music-plus-video presentations of both selections were longer and a majority of the children expressed a preference for "The Lion King" over "Fantasia." (CMK)

  20. Interactions between Turkish Mothers and Preschool Children with Autism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Diken, Ozlem; Mahoney, Gerald

    2013-01-01

    This study explored the relationship between Turkish mothers' style of interaction and the engagement of their preschool-aged children with autism. Data were collected from fifty mother-child dyads in which all children had diagnoses of autism. Video recordings of mother-child interaction were analyzed using the Turkish versions of the…

  1. Nutrition Survey of White Mountain Apache Preschool Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Owen, George M.; And Others

    As part of a national study of the nutrition of preschool children, data were collected on 201 Apache children, 1 to 6 years of age, living on an Indian reservation in Arizona. This report reviews procedures and clinical findings, and gives an analysis of growth data including skeletal maturation, nutrient intakes and clinical biochemical data. In…

  2. Directly Observed Physical Activity Levels in Preschool Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pate, Russell R.; McIver, Kerry; Dowda, Marsha; Brown, William H.; Addy, Cheryl

    2008-01-01

    Background: Millions of young children attend preschools and other structured child development programs, but little is known about their physical activity levels while in those settings. The purpose of this study was to describe the physical activity levels and demographic and school-related correlates of physical activity in children attending…

  3. Helping Children Develop Healthy Self-Concepts (Preschool - Third Grade).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DeAnda, Natividad

    This unit of the Flexible Learning System (FLS) is designed to help teachers analyzing the effects of classroom situations on the self-concepts of children in preschool through third grade. Among the questions addressed are: What is a healthy self-concept; How do teaching practices affect children's self-concepts; and When are situations…

  4. Understanding Participation of Preschool-Age Children with Cerebral Palsy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chiarello, Lisa Ann; Palisano, Robert J.; Orlin, Margo N.; Chang, Hui-Ju; Begnoche, Denise; An, Mihee

    2012-01-01

    Participation in home, school, and community activities is a primary outcome of early intervention services for children with disabilities and their families. The objectives of this study were to (a) describe participation of preschool-age children with cerebral palsy (CP); (b) determine effects of sex, age, and gross motor function on intensity…

  5. Children's Storytelling: The Effect of Preschool and Family Environment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fekonja-Peklaj, Urska; Marjanovic-Umek, Ljubica; Kranjc, Simona

    2010-01-01

    Storytelling reflects children's pragmatic language ability, which develops rapidly in early childhood and is related to various characteristics of the child's environment. This study examines the effect of preschool, maternal education and quality of the home environment on children's storytelling skills. The sample included 229 Slovenian…

  6. Language Development in Preschool-Age Children Adopted from China.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roberts, Jenny A.; Pollock, Karen E.; Krakow, Rena; Price, Johanna; Fulmer, Kathleen C.; Wang, Paul P.

    2005-01-01

    This study examined the language development of 55 preschool-age children adopted from China who had resided in their permanent homes for approximately 2 years or longer. Slightly over 5% of the children scored below average on 2 or more measures from a battery of standardized speech-language tests normed on monolingual English speakers. However,…

  7. Non-Abused Preschool Children's Perception of an Anogenital Examination

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gulla, Kari; Fenheim, Gred Eva; Myhre, Arne K.; Lydersen, Stian

    2007-01-01

    Objective: An anogenital examination is usually part of the standard medical assessment in children evaluated for suspected sexual abuse, and the emotional impact on the child has been studied. The primary aim of this study was to assess non-abused preschool children's responses to an anogenital examination. Method: One hundred and fifty-eight…

  8. PAH EXPOSURES OF PRESCHOOL CHILDREN AND THEIR ADULT CAREGIVERS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The results of four small studies of the polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) exposures of preschool children in low-income families from the Piedmont area of North Carolina were combined to allow comparisons of the total exposures of the children and their adult caregivers. I...

  9. Elicited Emotions and Cognitive Functioning in Preschool Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blau, Rivka; Klein, Pnina S.

    2010-01-01

    In this study, the effects of eliciting positive and negative emotions on various cognitive functions of four- to five-year-old preschool children were examined. Emotions were elicited through presentations of "happy" and "sad" video clips, before the children performed the cognitive tasks. Behavioural (facial expressions) and physiological (heart…

  10. Observations on Hearing Levels of Preschool Cleft-Palate Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harrison, Robert J.; Philips, Betty Jane

    1971-01-01

    Pure-tone audiometry performed monthly on nine preschool cleft palate children showed the incidence of hearing loss ranging from 25 to 71 percent from month to month, with all children experiencing a significant hearing loss at some time. (Author/KW)

  11. Conceptions of Art in Hong Kong Preschool Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wong, Kit-mei Betty

    2007-01-01

    This paper reports part of a phenomenographic inquiry into arts education in early childhood. Research studies into how young children understand and conceive their early arts experiences are limited. In documenting children's views, this study contributes to an understanding of arts education in a preschool context, and raises possibilities for…

  12. Parents' Self-Concepts and Preschool Children's Behaviors.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tower, Roni Beth

    1980-01-01

    Investigates the extent to which parents' positive self-concepts predicted their preschool children's behaviors in nursery school and the extent to which this relation was mediated by gender of parent and gender of the child. Subjects were 25 nursery school children from middle to upper-middle class homes, their mothers and their fathers.…

  13. The Construct of Social Competence--How Preschool Teachers Define Social Competence in Young Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lillvist, Anne; Sandberg, Anette; Bjorck-Akesson, Eva; Granlund, Mats

    2009-01-01

    Preschool teachers share their environment with young children on a daily basis and interventions promoting social competence are generally carried out in the preschool setting. The aim was to find out if and how preschool teachers' definitions of social competence are related to factors in the preschool environment like: a) the number of children…

  14. Preschool--An Arena for Children's Learning of Social and Cognitive Knowledge

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Williams, Pia; Sheridan, Sonja; Sandberg, Anette

    2014-01-01

    The aim is to investigate Swedish preschool teachers' accounts of children's learning in relation to the goals in the Swedish preschool curriculum. The research question is: "What do preschool teachers see as fundamental aspects of learning in preschool practice?" The study is based on interactionist perspectives founded in…

  15. Exposure to Media Violence and Other Correlates of Aggressive Behavior in Preschool Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Daly, Laura A.; Perez, Linda M.

    2009-01-01

    This article examines the play behavior of 70 preschool children and its relationship to television violence and regulatory status. Linear regression analysis showed that violent program content and poor self-regulation were independently and significantly associated with overall and physical aggression. Advanced maternal age and child age and…

  16. SNAP Participation in Preschool-Aged Children and Prevalence of Overweight and Obesity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Simmons, Shannon; Alexander, Jeffrey L.; Ewing, Helen; Whetzel, Stephanie

    2012-01-01

    Background: An increased prevalence of overweight and obesity for adults on government-funded nutrition assistance, such as the Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program (SNAP), has been observed; however, this association among preschool-aged children is not well understood. Longitudinal research designs tracking changes in body mass…

  17. Building a Model of Support for Preschool Children with Speech and Language Disorders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Robertson, Natalie; Ohi, Sarah

    2016-01-01

    Speech and language disorders impede young children's abilities to communicate and are often associated with a number of behavioural problems arising in the preschool classroom. This paper reports a small-scale study that investigated 23 Australian educators' and 7 Speech Pathologists' experiences in working with three to five year old children…

  18. Television Viewing, Computer Use, Obesity, And Adiposity In US Preschool Children

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    We tested whether three sedentary activities were associated with obesity and adiposity in U.S. preschool children: 1) watching >2 hours/day of TV/videos, 2) computer use, and 3) >2 hours/day of media use (TV/videos and computer use). We conducted a cross-sectional study using nationally representat...

  19. Preschool Teachers' Literal and Inferential Questions and Children's Responses during Whole-Class Shared Reading

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zucker, Tricia A.; Justice, Laura M.; Piasta, Shayne B.; Kaderavek, Joan N.

    2010-01-01

    This study examined the extent to which preschool teachers used literal and inferential questions during classroom-based shared reading. Specific foci included (a) investigating the association among the level of literal or inferential language in the text, teachers' text-related questions, and children's responses using sequential analysis, and…

  20. Emergent Name-Writing Abilities of Preschool-Age Children with Language Impairment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cabell, Sonia Q.; Justice, Laura M.; Zucker, Tricia A.; McGinty, Anita S.

    2009-01-01

    Purpose: The 2 studies reported in this manuscript collectively address 3 aims: (a) to characterize the name-writing abilities of preschool-age children with language impairment (LI), (b) to identify those emergent literacy skills that are concurrently associated with name-writing abilities, and (c) to compare the name-writing abilities of…

  1. Solitary Play and Convergent and Divergent Thinking Skills in Preschool Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lloyd, Bronwen; Howe, Nina

    2003-01-01

    Examined the relationship between multiple forms of solitary play (solitary-active, solitary-passive, reticence) and convergent and divergent thinking in preschool children. Found that reticent behavior was more strongly negatively associated with convergent and divergent thinking than either solitary-active or solitary-passive play, whereas…

  2. Perceptual context and individual differences in the language proficiency of preschool children.

    PubMed

    Banai, Karen; Yifat, Rachel

    2016-02-01

    Although the contribution of perceptual processes to language skills during infancy is well recognized, the role of perception in linguistic processing beyond infancy is not well understood. In the experiments reported here, we asked whether manipulating the perceptual context in which stimuli are presented across trials influences how preschool children perform visual (shape-size identification; Experiment 1) and auditory (syllable identification; Experiment 2) tasks. Another goal was to determine whether the sensitivity to perceptual context can explain part of the variance in oral language skills in typically developing preschool children. Perceptual context was manipulated by changing the relative frequency with which target visual (Experiment 1) and auditory (Experiment 2) stimuli were presented in arrays of fixed size, and identification of the target stimuli was tested. Oral language skills were assessed using vocabulary, word definition, and phonological awareness tasks. Changes in perceptual context influenced the performance of the majority of children on both identification tasks. Sensitivity to perceptual context accounted for 7% to 15% of the variance in language scores. We suggest that context effects are an outcome of a statistical learning process. Therefore, the current findings demonstrate that statistical learning can facilitate both visual and auditory identification processes in preschool children. Furthermore, consistent with previous findings in infants and in older children and adults, individual differences in statistical learning were found to be associated with individual differences in language skills of preschool children. PMID:26547248

  3. Working memory and early numeracy training in preschool children.

    PubMed

    Passolunghi, Maria Chiara; Costa, Hiwet Mariam

    2016-01-01

    Many factors influence children's performance in mathematical achievement, including both domain-specific and domain-general factors. This study aimed to verify and compare the effects of two types of training on early numerical skills. One type of training focused on the enhancement of working memory, a domain-general precursor, while the other focused on the enhancement of early numeracy, a domain-specific precursor. The participants were 48 five-year-old preschool children. Both the working memory and early numeracy training programs were implemented for 5 weeks. The results showed that the early numeracy intervention specifically improved early numeracy abilities in preschool children, whereas working memory intervention improved not only working memory abilities but also early numeracy abilities. These findings stress the importance of performing activities designed to train working memory abilities, in addition to activities aimed to enhance more specific skills, in the early prevention of learning difficulties during preschool years. PMID:25366543

  4. A Preliminary Neuroimaging Study of Preschool Children with ADHD

    PubMed Central

    E.M., Mahone; D., Crocetti; M.E., Ranta; A., Gaddis; M., Cataldo; K.J., Slifer; M.B., Denckla; S.H., Mostofsky

    2012-01-01

    Attention-deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) is a developmental disorder which, by current definition, has onset prior to age 7 years. MRI studies have provided some insight into brain differences associated with ADHD, but thus far have almost exclusively focused on children ages 7 years and older. To better understand the neurobiological development of ADHD, cortical and subcortical brain development should be systematically examined in younger children presenting with symptoms of the disorder. High resolution anatomical (MPRAGE) images, acquired on a 3.0T scanner, were analyzed in a total of 26 preschoolers, ages 4–5 years (13 with ADHD, 13 controls, matched on age and sex). The ADHD sample was diagnosed using DSM-IV criteria, and screened for language disorders. Cortical regions were delineated and measured using automated methods in Freesurfer; basal ganglia structures were manually delineated. Children with ADHD showed significantly reduced caudate volumes bilaterally; in contrast, there were no significant group differences in cortical volume or thickness in this age range. After controlling for age and total cerebral volume, left caudate volume was a significant predictor of hyperactive/impulsive, but not inattentive symptom severity. Anomalous basal ganglia, particularly caudate, development appears to play an important role among children presenting with early onset symptoms of ADHD. PMID:21660881

  5. Redesigning an Indoor Preschool Environment To Enhance and Promote Active Learning for Preschool Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wheeler, Sue A.

    An early childhood education consultant to a Parks and Recreation Department implemented and evaluated a practicum intervention intended to promote active learning by means of a redesigned indoor preschool environment. Additional goals were to improve the behavior and engagement of the children in the environment; increase parental approval of the…

  6. Empathy in Preschool Children: The Development of the Southampton Test of Empathy for Preschoolers (STEP)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Howe, Alexandra; Pit-ten Cate, Ineke M.; Brown, Antony; Hadwin, Julie A.

    2008-01-01

    In this study, we investigated a new instrument: the Southampton Test of Empathy for Preschoolers (STEP). The test incorporated 8 video vignettes of children in emotional scenarios, assessing a child's ability to understand (STEP-UND) and share (STEP-SHA) in the emotional experience of a story protagonist. Each vignette included 4 emotions (angry,…

  7. SARS, Preschool Routines and Children's Behaviour: Observations from Preschools in Hong Kong

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rao, Nirmala

    2006-01-01

    All schools in Hong Kong were closed in April 2003 to prevent the spread of SARS. This paper considers the influence of the SARS epidemic on children's routines and behaviour when preschools re-opened, after a six-week closure. Observations were made in 20 kindergartens and principals of another 10 kindergartens completed questionnaires. The…

  8. Classroom-Directed Home Training Activities. Preschool Program: A Regional Demonstration Program for Preschool Handicapped Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jones, Jacquelyn O.

    One of 10 documents developed for preschool programs for handicapped children, the manual presents classroom directed home training activities. The activities are based on such principles as the effectiveness of home instruction by a parent and the need for a parent to feel responsibility for the child's learning. Intended to provide teachers of…

  9. Health and Safety in the Preschool. Together for Children: Cooperative Preschools.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Siska, Heather Smith

    The intent of this manual is to present health and safety standards and procedures for the special environment of cooperative preschools, where both teacher-supervisors and parents are present and responsible for the well-being of the children. After a brief discussion about meeting environmental standards, child health is investigated in terms of…

  10. The Assessment of Anxiety Symptoms in Preschool-Aged Children: The Revised Preschool Anxiety Scale

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Edwards, Susan L.; Rapee, Ronald M.; Kennedy, Susan J.; Spence, Susan H.

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to test the validity and factorial structure of a modified version of the Preschool Anxiety Scale (Spence, Rapee, McDonald, & Ingram, 2001). The measure was completed by 764 mothers and 418 fathers of children aged 3 to 5 years. After removing, two items tapping obsessive compulsive symptoms, confirmatory factor…

  11. Privacy-Preserving Health Data Collection for Preschool Children

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Yuan; Ji, Yue

    2013-01-01

    With the development of network technology, more and more data are transmitted over the network and privacy issues have become a research focus. In this paper, we study the privacy in health data collection of preschool children and present a new identity-based encryption protocol for privacy protection. The background of the protocol is as follows. A physical examination for preschool children is needed every year out of consideration for the children's health. After the examination, data are transmitted through the Internet to the education authorities for analysis. In the process of data collection, it is unnecessary for the education authorities to know the identities of the children. Based on this, we designed a privacy-preserving protocol, which delinks the children's identities from the examination data. Thus, the privacy of the children is preserved during data collection. We present the protocol in detail and prove the correctness of the protocol. PMID:24285984

  12. Intelligence quotient discrepancy indicates levels of motor competence in preschool children at risk for developmental delays

    PubMed Central

    Yu, Tzu-Ying; Chen, Kuan-Lin; Chou, Willy; Yang, Shu-Han; Kung, Sheng-Chun; Lee, Ya-Chen; Tung, Li-Chen

    2016-01-01

    Purpose This study aimed to establish 1) whether a group difference exists in the motor competence of preschool children at risk for developmental delays with intelligence quotient discrepancy (IQD; refers to difference between verbal intelligence quotient [VIQ] and performance intelligence quotient [PIQ]) and 2) whether an association exists between IQD and motor competence. Methods Children’s motor competence and IQD were determined with the motor subtests of the Comprehensive Developmental Inventory for Infants and Toddlers and Wechsler Preschool and Primary Scale of Intelligence™ – Fourth Edition. A total of 291 children were included in three groups: NON-IQD (n=213; IQD within 1 standard deviation [SD]), VIQ>PIQ (n=39; VIQ>PIQ greater than 1 SD), and PIQ>VIQ (n=39; PIQ>VIQ greater than 1 SD). Results The results of one-way analysis of variance indicated significant differences among the subgroups for the “Gross and fine motor” subdomains of the Comprehensive Developmental Inventory for Infants and Toddlers, especially on the subtests of “body-movement coordination” (F=3.87, P<0.05) and “visual-motor coordination” (F=6.90, P<0.05). Motor competence was significantly worse in the VIQ>PIQ group than in the NON and PIQ>VIQ groups. Significant negative correlations between IQD and most of the motor subtests (r=0.31–0.46, P<0.01) were found only in the VIQ>PIQ group. Conclusion This study demonstrates that 1) IQD indicates the level of motor competence in preschoolers at risk for developmental delays and 2) IQD is negatively associated with motor competence in preschoolers with significant VIQ>PIQ discrepancy. The first finding was that preschoolers with VIQ>PIQ discrepancy greater than 1 SD performed significantly worse on motor competence than did preschoolers without significant IQD and preschoolers with PIQ>VIQ discrepancy greater than 1 SD. However, preschoolers with significant PIQ>VIQ discrepancy performed better on motor competence than

  13. The Relationship Between Preschool Teachers’ Reports of Children's Behavior and Their Behavior Toward Those Children

    PubMed Central

    Dobbs, Jennifer; Arnold, David H.

    2010-01-01

    The relationships between preschool children and their teachers are an important component of the quality of the preschool experience. This study used attribution theory as a framework to better understand these relationships, examining the connection between teachers’ perceptions of children's behavior and teachers’ behavior toward those children. One hundred seven preschool children and 24 preschool teachers participated in this study. Two teachers reported on each child's behavior using the Teacher Report Form of the Child Behavior Checklist. Commands and praise directed toward children by the teachers in the study were coded from classroom videotapes. Teachers gave more commands to children they perceived as having greater general behavior problems, even after controlling for the shared variance in the other classroom teacher's report of the child's behavior. Implications for school psychologists, teachers, and researchers are discussed. PMID:20431714

  14. A Study of Rural Preschool Practitioners' Views on Young Children's Mathematical Thinking

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hunting, Robert P.; Mousley, Judith A.; Perry, Bob

    2012-01-01

    The project "Mathematical Thinking of Preschool Children in Rural and Regional Australia: Research and Practice" aimed to investigate views of preschool practitioners about young children's mathematical thinking and development. Structured individual interviews were conducted with 64 preschool practitioners from rural areas of three Australian…

  15. Oral Health among Preschool Children with Autism Spectrum Disorders: A Case-Control Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Du, Rennan Y; Yiu, Cynthia K. Y.; King, Nigel M.; Wong, Virginia C. N.; McGrath, Colman P. J.

    2015-01-01

    Aim: To assess and compare the oral health status of preschool children with and without autism spectrum disorders. Methods: A random sample of 347 preschool children with autism spectrum disorder was recruited from 19 Special Child Care Centres in Hong Kong. An age- and gender-matched sample was recruited from mainstream preschools as the control…

  16. Making Oneself Heard--Children's Experiences of Empowerment in Swedish Preschools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Almqvist, Anna-Lena; Almqvist, Lena

    2015-01-01

    Children's experiences of empowerment in relation to preschool peers and in child-adult interactions were studied, involving 25 four- to six-year-olds from four Swedish preschools. Group interviews using puppets comprised pre-constructed scenarios to examine preschools' activities. Children took photos of indoor and outdoor preschool…

  17. Considerations for Integration of Physically Handicapped and Non-Handicapped Preschool Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cormack, Elizabeth O.

    Eight physically handicapped (blind, spina bifida, cerebral palsy, or genetic defect) preschool children and eight children with normal sensory motor abilities (mean age of both groups 3 1/2 years) participated in a preschool demonstration project designed to promote equal educational and social experiences in an integrated preschool through the…

  18. Age, Sex and Socioeconomic Background as Factors in Preschool Children's Preference for Play Materials.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bogdanoff, Ruth F.; Peebles, Linda M.

    A total of 103 preschool children of lower and middle socioeconomic status families were observed in three preschool programs during 15 standardized free play periods for the purpose of investigating preschool children's preferences for different types of traditionally used play materials. The influence of age, sex, and socioeconomic status (SES)…

  19. Characteristics of Swedish Preschools That Provide Education and Care to Children with Special Educational Needs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lundqvist, Johanna; Westling, Mara Allodi; Siljehag, Eva

    2016-01-01

    In Sweden, preschool inclusion is embraced and preschools are open for children both with and without special educational needs. The purpose of this study was to examine the characteristics of a number of preschool units in Sweden that provide education and care to children with special educational needs with regard to organisation, resources and…

  20. Teaching Mathematical Concepts to Rural Preschool Children Through a Home-Oriented Program.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alford, Roy W., Jr.

    Preschool children (ages 3, 4, and 5) participating in the Appalachia Preschool Educational Program were studied to determine if mathematical concepts could be effectively taught through a preschool program accessible to rural children. The 34-week program consisted of 3 elements: (1) a daily half-hour television broadcast, (2) weekly home…

  1. How Do Caregivers Select Preschools? A Study of Children with and without Disabilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Glenn-Applegate, Katherine; Justice, Laura M.; Kaderavek, Joan

    2016-01-01

    Background: Little is known about how parents and other caregivers conceptualize preschool quality, or what factors they prioritize when selecting a preschool. Caregivers of children with disabilities have the additional challenge of finding a preschool that can address their children's special needs. Objective: We explored the factors caregivers…

  2. Influences on preschool children's physical activity: exploration through focus groups.

    PubMed

    Hinkley, Trina; Salmon, Jo; Okely, Anthony D; Crawford, David; Hesketh, Kylie

    2011-01-01

    This study explored mothers' perceptions of influences on preschoolers' physical activity. Six semistructured focus groups with 23 mothers were conducted across a range of socioeconomic position locations. Mothers identified 4 key areas of influence: child fundamentals (eg, sex, personality), parent power (eg, rules, support), people to share with (eg, peers, adults), and places and things (eg, physical environments, toys). No substantial differences in themes were identified among socioeconomic position groups. Influences on preschoolers' physical activity are multidimensional, multifactorial, and support the use of ecological models to conceptualize and understand the influencing factors. Associations among factors influencing preschoolers' physical activity should be further investigated through quantitative research. PMID:21135627

  3. The Use of a Sequenced Questioning Paradigm to Facilitate Associative Fluency in Preschoolers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pellegrini, A. D.; Greene, Helen

    The extent to which free play versus sequenced questioning conditions facilitates preschoolers' associative fluency was investigated in this study. Twenty-four children (12 boys and 12 girls, with a mean age of 50.7 months) were randomly assigned to one of three conditions: free play, sequenced questioning, and control. In the sequenced…

  4. Association between Maternal Sensitivity and Externalizing Behavior from Preschool to Preadolescence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wang, Feihong; Christ, Sharon L.; Mills-Koonce, W. Roger; Garrett-Peters, Patricia; Cox, Martha J.

    2013-01-01

    Using data from the longitudinal NICHD Study of Early Child Care and Youth Development (N = 1364), this study examined the association between mothers' sensitivity and children's externalizing behavior from preschool to preadolescence. Externalizing behavior declined on average across this period with a slowing of this decline around middle…

  5. Food insufficiency, family income, and health in US preschool and school-aged children.

    PubMed Central

    Alaimo, K; Olson, C M; Frongillo, E A; Briefel, R R

    2001-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: This study investigated associations between family income, food insufficiency, and health among US preschool and school-aged children. METHODS: Data from the third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey were analyzed. Children were classified as food insufficient if the family respondent reported that the family sometimes or often did not get enough food to eat. Regression analyses were conducted with health measures as the outcome variables. Prevalence rates of health variables were compared by family income category, with control for age and gender. Odds ratios for food insufficiency were calculated with control for family income and other potential confounding factors. RESULTS: Low-income children had a higher prevalence of poor/fair health status and iron deficiency than high-income children. After confounding factors, including poverty status, had been controlled, food-insufficient children were significantly more likely to have poorer health status and to experience more frequent stomachaches and headaches than food-sufficient children; preschool food-insufficient children had more frequent colds. CONCLUSIONS: Food insufficiency and low family income are health concerns for US preschool and school-aged children. PMID:11344887

  6. Emotion and Cognition Processes in Preschool Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leerkes, Esther M.; Paradise, Matthew; O'Brien, Marion; Calkins, Susan D.; Lange, Garrett

    2008-01-01

    The core processes of emotion understanding, emotion control, cognitive understanding, and cognitive control and their association with early indicators of social and academic success were examined in a sample of 141 3-year-old children. Confirmatory factor analysis supported the hypothesized four-factor model of emotion and cognition in early…

  7. A typology of behavior problems in preschool children.

    PubMed

    Beg, Mohsan R; Casey, Joseph E; Saunders, Cory D

    2007-06-01

    The purpose of this study was to produce a typology of behavior problems in preschool children. Distinct subtypes were identified through the use of cluster analytic techniques on data from the Behavior Assessment System for Children (BASC)-Parent Rating Scales. Analyses were based on archival data collected on a sample of 268 children, aged 2 to 5 years, who were referred to determine their suitability for a day treatment program. Five distinct and reliable subtypes of preschool children's behavior problems emerged. Ratings of adaptive and social skills based on the BASC Adaptive Scales and measures from the Parenting Stress Index served as external variables to assess the distinctiveness of the derived subtypes. The findings provide evidence for the reliability and validity of the subtypes identified in this study that are consistent with the findings of previous subtyping investigations focusing on school-aged children. PMID:17504885

  8. Lexical and Grammatical Associations in Sequential Bilingual Preschoolers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kohnert, Kathryn; Kan, Pui Fong; Conboy, Barbara T.

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: The authors investigated potential relationships between traditional linguistic domains (words, grammar) in the first (L1) and second (L2) languages of young sequential bilingual preschool children. Method: Participants were 19 children, ages 2;11 (years;months) to 5;2 (M = 4;3) who began learning Hmong as the L1 from birth and English as…

  9. Sleep Environments and Sleep Durations in a Sample of Low-Income Preschool Children

    PubMed Central

    Wilson, Katherine E.; Miller, Alison L.; Lumeng, Julie C.; Chervin, Ronald D.

    2014-01-01

    Study Objectives: Sleep duration is commonly studied in children, but less is known about the potential impact of adverse sleep environments, particularly at preschool ages. We examined the frequency of suboptimal sleep environments and tested for associations with sleep duration or nocturnal sleep time among low-income preschool children. Methods: Parents of Head Start preschoolers in Michigan (Detroit and greater Lansing) completed questionnaires on children's sleep schedules and sleep environments. Respondents indicated how often their children slept in a place “too bright,” “too loud,” “too cold,” or “too hot” on a scale of 1 = never to 5 = always. A suboptimal sleep environment (SSE) was defined when one or more of these conditions were reported for ≥ 1-2 nights/week. Weeknight sleep duration or reported time that the child went to sleep was regressed on SSE as an explanatory variable, with adjustment for age, race/ethnicity, gender, maternal education, and average daily nap duration. Results: Among 133 preschool children, mean age was 4.1 ± 0.5 (SD), 48% were male, 39% were white, and 52% were black; 34% of parents had ≤ a high school degree. Parents reported that 26 (20%) of the children slept in a SSE ≥ 1-2 nights per week. In regression models, SSE was associated with 27 minutes shorter sleep duration (β = -0.45, SE = 0.22, p = 0.044) and 22 minutes later time child “fell asleep” (β = 0.37, SE = 0.19, p = 0.048) on weeknights. Conclusions: Among these Head Start preschool children, environmental challenges to adequate sleep are not uncommon, and they may have consequences. Clinician or preschool assessment of sleep environments may open opportunities to improve sleep at early ages. Citation: Wilson KE; Miller AL; Lumeng JC; Chervin RD. Sleep environments and sleep durations in a sample of low-income preschool children. J Clin Sleep Med 2014;10(3):299-305. PMID:24634628

  10. Determinants of Anemia among Preschool Children in Rural, Western Kenya

    PubMed Central

    Foote, Eric M.; Sullivan, Kevin M.; Ruth, Laird J.; Oremo, Jared; Sadumah, Ibrahim; Williams, Thomas N.; Suchdev, Parminder S.

    2013-01-01

    Although anemia in preschool children is most often attributed to iron deficiency, other nutritional, infectious, and genetic contributors are rarely concurrently measured. In a population-based, cross-sectional survey of 858 children 6–35 months of age in western Kenya, we measured hemoglobin, malaria, inflammation, sickle cell, α-thalassemia, iron deficiency, vitamin A deficiency, anthropometry, and socio-demographic characteristics. Anemia (Hb < 11 g/dL) and severe anemia (Hb < 7 g/dL) prevalence ratios (PRs) for each exposure were determined using multivariable modeling. Anemia (71.8%) and severe anemia (8.4%) were common. Characteristics most strongly associated with anemia were malaria (PR: 1.7; 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.5–1.9), iron deficiency (1.3; 1.2–1.4), and homozygous α-thalassemia (1.3; 1.1–1.4). Characteristics associated with severe anemia were malaria (10.2; 3.5–29.3), inflammation (6.7; 2.3–19.4), and stunting (1.6; 1.0–2.4). Overall 16.8% of anemia cases were associated with malaria, 8.3% with iron deficiency, and 6.1% with inflammation. Interventions should address malaria, iron deficiency, and non-malarial infections to decrease the burden of anemia in this population. PMID:23382166

  11. Physiological and Behavioral Vulnerability Markers Increase Risk to Early Life Stress in Preschool-Aged Children.

    PubMed

    Kushner, Marissa R; Barrios, Chesley; Smith, Victoria C; Dougherty, Lea R

    2016-07-01

    The study examined whether child physiological (cortisol reactivity) and behavioral (negative emotionality) risk factors moderate associations between the early rearing environment, as measured by child exposure to maternal depression and stressful life events, and preschool psychopathology and psychosocial functioning. A sample of 156 preschool-aged children (77 boys, 79 girls; age M = 49.80 months, SD = 9.57, range: 36-71) participated in an observational assessment of temperament and was exposed to a stress-inducing laboratory task, during which we obtained five salivary cortisol samples. Parents completed clinical interviews to assess child and parent psychopathology and stressful life events. Results indicated that the combination of a blunted pattern of cortisol reactivity and recent stressful life events was associated with higher levels of preschoolers' externalizing symptoms and lower psychosocial functioning. In addition, greater life stress was associated with higher levels of preschoolers' internalizing symptoms. Lastly, children with high levels of negative emotionality and who were exposed to maternal depression had the lowest social competence. Our findings highlight the critical role of the early environment, particularly for children with identified risk factors, and add to our understanding of pathways involved in early emerging psychopathology and impairment. PMID:26424217

  12. Screening preschool children for fine motor skills: environmental influence

    PubMed Central

    Comuk-Balci, Nilay; Bayoglu, Birgul; Tekindal, Agah; Kerem-Gunel, Mintaze; Anlar, Banu

    2016-01-01

    [Purpose] The aim of this study was to investigate the influence of gender and family factors on performance in the fine motor domain of the Denver II developmental screening test. [Subjects and Methods] Data were obtained from 2038 healthy children, 999 boys (49%) and 1039 girls (51%) in four age groups: 0–24 months (57%), 25–40 months (21.1%), 41–56 months (10.4%), and 57–82 months (11.5%). [Results] Female gender, higher maternal age, especially in children older than 24 months, and higher maternal education were associated with earlier accomplishment of fine motor items. Higher socioeconomic status was correlated with fine motor skills more noticeably at young ages. [Conclusion] The results of this study support the role of environmental factors in the interpretation of fine motor test results and point to target groups for intervention, such as infants in the low socioeconomic group and preschool children of less educated mothers. Studies in different populations may reveal particular patterns that affect child development. PMID:27134406

  13. Screening preschool children for fine motor skills: environmental influence.

    PubMed

    Comuk-Balci, Nilay; Bayoglu, Birgul; Tekindal, Agah; Kerem-Gunel, Mintaze; Anlar, Banu

    2016-03-01

    [Purpose] The aim of this study was to investigate the influence of gender and family factors on performance in the fine motor domain of the Denver II developmental screening test. [Subjects and Methods] Data were obtained from 2038 healthy children, 999 boys (49%) and 1039 girls (51%) in four age groups: 0-24 months (57%), 25-40 months (21.1%), 41-56 months (10.4%), and 57-82 months (11.5%). [Results] Female gender, higher maternal age, especially in children older than 24 months, and higher maternal education were associated with earlier accomplishment of fine motor items. Higher socioeconomic status was correlated with fine motor skills more noticeably at young ages. [Conclusion] The results of this study support the role of environmental factors in the interpretation of fine motor test results and point to target groups for intervention, such as infants in the low socioeconomic group and preschool children of less educated mothers. Studies in different populations may reveal particular patterns that affect child development. PMID:27134406

  14. Associations between Counting Ability in Preschool and Mathematic Performance in First Grade among a Sample of Ethnically Diverse, Low-Income Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Manfra, Louis; Dinehart, Laura H. B.; Sembiante, Sabrina F.

    2014-01-01

    This study explores the effects of counting objects and reciting numbers in preschool on 1st-grade math performance. Data on 3,125 low-income preschoolers' (4-to 5-year-olds) counting abilities (orally reciting numerals in chronological order and counting blocks) were collected during a fall session (between September 15 and December 15) and…

  15. The Factors Related to Preschool Children and Their Mothers on Children's Intuitional Mathematics Abilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Guven, Yildiz

    2009-01-01

    The aim of this study is to assess the factors that are related to preschool children and their mothers on children's intuitional mathematics abilities. Results of the study showed that there were significant differences in children's intuitional mathematics abilities when children are given the opportunity to think intuitionally and to make…

  16. Phonological Process Usage by Young EMR Children and Nonretarded Preschool Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Klink, Marcia; And Others

    1986-01-01

    Phonological skills of 20 mentally retarded preschool children were compared with those of 10 communication handicapped, nonretarded children and 10 normally speaking nonretarded children. Retarded and communication handicapped children used a significantly greater total number of phonological processes more frequently, but all groups used the…

  17. Preschool Outcomes of Children Who Lived as Infants in a Prison Nursery

    PubMed Central

    Goshin, Lorie S.; Byrne, Mary W.; Blanchard-Lewis, Barbara

    2015-01-01

    This study examined long-term outcomes of children who spent their first one to eighteen months in a US prison nursery. Behavioral development in 47 preschool children who lived in a prison nursery was compared with 64 children from a large national dataset who were separated from their mothers because of incarceration. Separation was associated with significantly worse anxious/depressed scores, even after controlling for risks in the caregiving environment. Findings suggest that prison nursery co-residence with developmental support confers some resilience in children who experience early maternal incarceration. Co-residence programs should be promoted as a best practice for incarcerated childbearing women. PMID:26609188

  18. A Readiness Test for Disadvantaged Preschool Children. PREP-22.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Center for Educational Communication (DHEW/OE), Washington, DC.

    In response to the pressing needs to develop a culture-fair, nonverbal readiness test for rural and urban disadvantaged preschool children, a special project was undertaken. PREP kit no. 22 was adapted from the final report of a project conducted by Dr. Wanda Walker, Northwest Missouri State College, Maryville, and supported by the Office of…

  19. A Unique Program for Preschool Children of Substance Abusers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Howze, Kate; Howze, Wendell M.

    A pilot program was designed to address the special problems of children of substance abusers. The program was established at the Child Development and Family Guidance Center by Operation PAR, a nationally recognized substance abuse treatment and prevention program. The staff are well-trained preschool professionals who have received special…

  20. Processes of Curiosity and Exploration in Preschool Disadvantaged Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Minuchin, Patricia

    This study was created primarily to explore new techniques and to generate fruitful new hypotheses and procedures for the (1) description of variations in expressed curiosity and constructive exploration among disadvantaged preschool children and (2) assessment of the relationship between such curiosity and exploration and other aspects of the…

  1. Speech Sound Disorders in a Community Study of Preschool Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McLeod, Sharynne; Harrison, Linda J.; McAllister, Lindy; McCormack, Jane

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: To undertake a community (nonclinical) study to describe the speech of preschool children who had been identified by parents/teachers as having difficulties "talking and making speech sounds" and compare the speech characteristics of those who had and had not accessed the services of a speech-language pathologist (SLP). Method:…

  2. Objective Measurement of Emerging Affective Traits in Preschool Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Adkins, Dorothy C.

    An objective measure of motivation to achieve for preschool children called Gumpgookies is described. It is an objective-projective technique that requires choice between two alternate types of behavior portrayed in pictures and accompanying verbal descriptions. Gumpgookies are amoeba-like creatures who behave in ways intended to show differences…

  3. Preschool Children Conflate Pragmatic Agreement and Semantic Truth

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Olson, David R.; Astington, Janet Wilde

    2013-01-01

    Children's ability to ascribe beliefs to themselves and others has been shown to develop in the late preschool and early school years. This ability to represent, that is to think about, beliefs known to be false is described as metarepresentational development. This article extends these findings to the domain of linguistic representations by…

  4. Canadian Families' Strategies for Employment and Care for Preschool Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ornstein, Michael; Stalker, Glenn J.

    2013-01-01

    Based on the 2006 Canadian Census "long form" sample of one in every five households, the authors develop a detailed typology of family strategies for employment and the care of preschool children. The analysis is restricted to opposite-sex couples with at least one child under age 6 and no older child or other adult in the household. The typology…

  5. Grief Counseling for Muslim Preschool and Elementary School Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baggerly, Jennifer; Abugideiri, Salma Elkadi

    2010-01-01

    This article describes Sunni Muslims' view of death, mourning and burial rituals, and accepted healing practices. Interventions for addressing death with Muslim children, group counseling, play therapy, and community outreach are discussed. A case study of interventions for coping with a preschool Muslim boy's death is provided.

  6. Preschool Education and Day Care for Swedish Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mueller, Jeanne

    A comprehensive study of the types of care provided for Swedish children is presented. The point is made that the three major frameworks which support the Swedish philosophy of early childhood education are those of Arnold Gesell, Jean Piaget, and Erik H. Erikson. From all three sources, preschool teachers learn the concept of epigenesis, the…

  7. Funding Preschool Programs for Children with Special Needs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ellenberg, Dolly F.

    1984-01-01

    Describes funding and communication strategies at six, nonprofit, nonsectarian, tuition-free preschools for mentally retarded and developmentally delayed children. Details marketing strategies; the role of multiple markets; the targeting of potential funders among local citizens, foundations, and corporations; and the creation of honorary…

  8. Auditory Threshold Variability with Severely Hearing-Impaired Preschool Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fulton, Robert T.

    1979-01-01

    Threshold variability across repeated measures (N=10) was observed at 250 and 1,000 Hz with five severely hearing-impaired preschool children. Results indicated that variability at 1,000 Hz was within a 10 dB range (except for one measure) across Ss, while variability at 250 Hz was substantially larger, even though false positive responses to…

  9. Reciprocity of Prosocial Behavior in Japanese Preschool Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fujisawa, Keiko K.; Kutsukake, Nobuyuki; Hasegawa, Toshikazu

    2008-01-01

    This study investigated the reciprocity of prosocial behavior among 3- and 4-year-old Japanese preschool children during free-play time. Matrix correlation tests revealed positive correlations between the frequencies of object offering given and received within dyads and between the frequencies of helping given and received within dyads. These…

  10. Teachers' Definitions of Self-Esteem When Rating Preschool Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bell, Nancy J.; And Others

    1980-01-01

    Female teachers rated 107 preschool boys and girls on their self-esteem and on a sex role rating scale. Although the validity of such ratings remains an issue, it appears that children rated high in self-esteem by their teachers are those perceived as assertive, active, athletic--stereotypically masculine traits. (Author/SJL)

  11. The Study of Drawing and Painting Abilities in Preschool Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dulama, Maria Eliza; Iovu, Mihai-Bogdan; Rus, Andreea

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this research is two-fold: first, to offer preschool children new learning situations in order to develop their drawing and painting abilities and second, to learn new techniques in a shorter period of time. The paper is grounded in the theory of creativity. Creativity is defined as the ability to propose something new, original and…

  12. The Sharing Tree: Preschool Children Learn to Share.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wolf, Arlene; Fine, Elaine

    1996-01-01

    This article describes a learning activity in which preschool children learn cooperative skills and metacognitive strategies as they master sharing strategies guided by leaves on a "sharing tree." Leaf colors (red, yellow, green) cue the child to stop, slow down and think about sharing and playing with others, and go ahead with a sharing activity.…

  13. Promoting Physical Activity in Low-Income Preschool Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Spaulding, Carol; Gottlieb, Nell H.; Jensen, Jody

    2008-01-01

    Child- and family-serving programs such as the Special Supplemental Nutrition program for Women, Infants, and Children (WIC) design and conduct interventions to improve the health of their clients through better nutrition. But these programs present a significant opportunity to improve physical activity levels in the preschool population as well,…

  14. Separation: Supporting Children in Their Preschool Transitions. Revised Edition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jervis, Kathe; Polland, Barbara K.

    2007-01-01

    This book, updated since initial publication in 1989, offers explanations, practical tips, and encouragement for teachers and families of preschool children facing the excitement--and stress--of separation. Topics discussed include ambivalence about separation and attachment, the comfort of routines, understanding the child perspective, supporting…

  15. Preschool Teachers' Beliefs about Children's Print Literacy Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lynch, Jacqueline

    2009-01-01

    Beliefs have often been considered important because of their relation to practice. Little is known about the literacy beliefs of preschool teachers, particularly their print literacy beliefs, even though young children's experiences with print have implications for formal schooling. Therefore, this study explored the print literacy beliefs of…

  16. Identifying Preschool Caregivers' Beliefs about Children's Social Development. Brief Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Droege, Kristin L.

    This study examined the assumption that all caregivers have a set of beliefs which represent their own underlying theory of child development and tested one strategy for identifying the beliefs that preschool caregivers hold. In order to classify caregivers' beliefs about children's social development, an adaptation of McGillicudy-DeLisi's (1992)…

  17. Child Sustained Attention in Preschool-Age Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DiCarlo, Cynthia F.; Baumgartner, Jennifer J.; Ota, Carrie; Geary, Kelly

    2016-01-01

    This study examined the mean duration of child attention across three teaching conditions (child choice, adult choice, or adult presentation) of 63 preschool-age children. A repeated-measures ANOVA was used to compare the means across the three teaching conditions, indicating a statistically significant difference between the teaching conditions.…

  18. Tracking Preschool Children with Developmental Delay: Third Grade Outcomes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Delgado, Christine E. F.; Vagi, Sara J.; Scott, Keith G.

    2006-01-01

    Educational outcomes were evaluated for 2,046 preschool children identified with developmental delay. Results indicated that at third grade, 26% were in regular education and the remaining 74% were receiving special education services. The most common disability classifications at outcome were specific learning disabilities and educable mentally…

  19. Rhythmic Characteristics of Improvisational Drumming among Preschool Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Whitcomb, Rachel

    2010-01-01

    A call-and-response drumming activity was carried out to determine the rhythmic characteristics of improvised patterns created by preschool children. Specific goals of the study were to: (1) determine the durations, start and stop times, and rhythmic patterns of improvised responses to a simple given call using drums; (2) determine the presence or…

  20. The Pedagogical Support for Preschool Children with Deviant Behavior

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kostyunina, Nadezhda Y.; Kazaeva, Evgenia A.; Karimova, Raushan B.

    2016-01-01

    The relevance of the research problems of pedagogical support of preschool children with behavioral problems is explained by changes due and of taking place in modern Russia in various spheres of life: ecological and economic disadvantage, social instability, the growing influence of pseudo-culture, unfavorable climate in family, too busy parents,…

  1. Comorbidities in Preschool Children at Family Risk of Dyslexia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gooch, Debbie; Hulme, Charles; Nash, Hannah M.; Snowling, Margaret J.

    2014-01-01

    Background: Comorbidity among developmental disorders such as dyslexia, language impairment, attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder and developmental coordination disorder is common. This study explores comorbid weaknesses in preschool children at family risk of dyslexia with and without language impairment and considers the role that…

  2. Behavioral Assessment of Physical Activity in Obese Preschool Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hustyi, Kristin M.; Normand, Matthew P.; Larson, Tracy A.

    2011-01-01

    We measured changes in physical activity in 2 obese preschool children when a package intervention was evaluated in a reversal design. Physical activity was measured via direct observation and pedometers. Although the intervention produced only modest increases in activity, the results provide preliminary concurrent validation for the dependent…

  3. Environmentally Enriched Classrooms and the Development of Disadvantaged Preschool Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Busse, Thomas V.; And Others

    This study evaluates the effects of placement of additional equipment in preschool classrooms on the cognitive, perceptual, and social development of urban Negro four-year-old children. Two Get Set classrooms in each of six areas of Philadelphia were paired for teachers, subjects, physical facilities and equipment. One classroom in each pair was…

  4. Improving Cognitive Processes in Preschool Children: The COGEST Programme

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mayoral-Rodríguez, Silvia; Timoneda-Gallart, Carme; Pérez-Álvarez, Federico; Das, J. P.

    2015-01-01

    The present study provides empirical evidence to support the hypothesis that pre-school children's cognitive functions can be developed by virtue of a training tool named COGENT (Cognitive Enhancement Training). We assumed that COGENT (COGEST in Spain) which is embedded in speech and language, will enhance the core cognitive processes that are…

  5. Mainstreaming Preschoolers: Children with Visual Handicaps. Edited Text.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Contract Research Corp., Belmont, MA.

    Written for parents, teachers and preschool personnel involved with visually handicapped children, the book provides an overview of mainstreaming procedures and implications. The first chapter provides a definition of mainstreaming and considers benefits' professional involvement, and resources available for parents and teachers. Diagnostic…

  6. Reflection-Impulsivity and Self-Control in Preschool Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Toner, Ignatius J.; And Others

    1977-01-01

    This study explored the relationships among children's performance on a simplified version of Kagan's Matching Familiar Figures (MFF) Test of conceptual tempo, their IQ, their performance on several measures of self-regulatory behavior, and their general activity level. Subjects were 55 preschool boys and girls. (Author/JMB)

  7. Temperament, Family Environment and Anxiety in Preschool Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hudson, Jennifer L.; Dodd, Helen F.; Bovopoulos, Nataly

    2011-01-01

    This research examines the relationship between behavioural inhibition (BI), family environment (overinvolved and negative parenting, parental anxiety and parent-child attachment) and anxiety in a sample of 202 preschool children. Participants were aged between 3 years 2 months and 4 years 5 months, 101 were male. A thorough methodology was used…

  8. Curriculum-Based Behavioral Interventions for Preschool Children with Handicaps.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McAllister, Joseph R., Jr.

    1991-01-01

    A model for developing systemwide interventions for behavioral and social skill deficits in preschool children with handicaps is discussed. The model incorporates a comprehensive, curriculum-based approach to assessment and program planning and a competency-based, didactic approach to teaching behavioral and social skills. (Author/DB)

  9. A Hungarian Preschool for the Children, Teachers, and Families

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Szilagyi, Janka; Szecsi, Tunde

    2005-01-01

    This article describes an exceptional Eastern European preschool where all stakeholders--children, teachers, and parents--place a high value on the unique synergy of inclusive and bilingual education. In this environment, each child is able to experience love and happiness, while developing at his or her own pace. The families feel involved in…

  10. Cognitive and Communicative Development in Hearing-Impaired Preschool Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kricos, Patricia B.; Aungst, Holle L.

    1984-01-01

    Describes a study that determines if an interrelationship exists between cognitive level, gestural development, and spoken English development in five hearing-impaired preschool children. Results suggest that a deaf child's cognitive development may be related to his/her communicative ability, especially in terms of pragmatic-semantic…

  11. A Model Program for Diversely Handicapped Children (Pre-School).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nevada State Dept. of Education, Carson City.

    Described is a model program for developing the educational readiness and self-help skills of severely handicapped kindergarten and preschool children with a wide range of physical, mental, neurological or sensory deficits. It is explained that the program should provide heterogeneous grouping, individualized instruction, door-to-door…

  12. Preschool Children's Preferences and Recall for Stereotyped versus Nonstereotyped Stories.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kropp, Jerri Jaudon; Halverson, Charles F.

    1983-01-01

    Of four stories, preschool girls liked one with a female character and feminine activity best, and one with a male character and masculine activity least. The reverse was true for boys. Measures taken a day later showed that children recalled more about stories they had liked least the day before. (Author/MJL)

  13. Inhibitory Control and Emotion Regulation in Preschool Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carlson, Stephanie M.; Wang, Tiffany S.

    2007-01-01

    This research investigated the relation between individual differences in inhibitory control and emotion regulation. Preschool children (N=53) ages 4-6 (M=5; 0) were assessed on brief batteries of inhibitory control of prepotent responses and emotion regulation. Individual differences in inhibitory control were significantly correlated with…

  14. The Integration of Verbal and Motor Behavior in Preschool Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goodman, Sherryl Hope

    1981-01-01

    Results of a study of 38 preschool children observed and videotaped during performance on a jigsaw-puzzle task indicate that puzzle solutions accompanied by a high rate of verbalizations were judged as more proficient, solved with a high rate of puzzle-solving moves, and completed in a shorter period of time. (Author/RH)

  15. Modification of Preschool Children's Bathroom Behaviors by Contingent Teacher Attention

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Taylor, Marjorie J.; Kratochwill, Thomas R.

    1978-01-01

    Repeated measures of the frequency of paper towel litter, unflushed toilets, dirty sinks, and running water faucets were used to evaluate effectiveness of contingent teacher praise for appropriate bathroom use by preschool children. Contingent praise for appropriate bathroom behaviors resulted in markedly decreased frequencies of four target…

  16. Diagnosis of Posttraumatic Stress Disorder in Preschool Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    De Young, Alexandra C.; Kenardy, Justin A.; Cobham, Vanessa E.

    2011-01-01

    This study investigated the existing diagnostic algorithms for posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) to determine the most developmentally sensitive and valid approach for diagnosing this disorder in preschoolers. Participants were 130 parents of unintentionally burned children (1-6 years). Diagnostic interviews were conducted with parents to…

  17. Affiliative Structures and Social Competence in Portuguese Preschool Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Daniel, João R.; Santos, António J.; Peceguina, Inês; Vaughn, Brian E.

    2015-01-01

    The goal of this study was to determine whether peer social competence (SC), defined as the capacity to use behavioral, cognitive, and emotional resources in the service of achieving personal goals within preschool peer groups, was related to the type of affiliative subgroups to which children belonged. Two hundred forty Portuguese preschool…

  18. Preschool Children. Tech Use Guide: Using Computer Technology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Council for Exceptional Children, Reston, VA. Center for Special Education Technology.

    One of nine brief guides for special educators on using computer technology, this guide focuses on uses with preschool children with either mild to severe disabilities. Especially noted is the ability of the computer to provide access to environmental experiences otherwise inaccessible to the young handicapped child. Appropriate technology for…

  19. Am I Interfering? Preschool Teacher Participation in Children Play

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tsai, Chia-Yen

    2015-01-01

    This study aimed to explore the timing and strategies of teacher participation in children's play and the factors which have a bearing on teacher participation. This study used qualitative research and conducted observation of natural situations. The samples were preschool teachers in an elementary school's affiliated kindergarten in Hualien. The…

  20. Effects of Pretend Imagery on Learning Dance in Preschool Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sacha, Tori J.; Russ, Sandra W.

    2006-01-01

    Play is important in child development and learning. The intent of this study was to assess the effects of play, using physical movement and pretend imagery, on learning dance. Four preschool dance classes, encompassing 32 children ages 3-6, were randomly divided into pretend imagery groups and traditional teaching groups. The classes were…

  1. Evaluating Preschool Children's Preferences for Motivational Systems during Instruction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Heal, Nicole A.; Hanley, Gregory P.

    2007-01-01

    Preschool teachers rely on several strategies for motivating children to participate in learning activities. In the current study, we evaluated the effectiveness of and preference for three teaching contexts in which embedded, sequential, or no programmed reinforcement was arranged. The embedded context included highly preferred teaching…

  2. The Cognitive Environments of Urban Preschool Children. Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hess, Robert D.; And Others

    This final report describes a project begun in 1962 which was designed to analyze the effect of home and maternal influence on the cognitive development of urban preschool children evaluated when they were four years old. The research group consisted of 163 mother-child pairs from three socioeconomic status levels: middle class, skilled working…

  3. Verbal self-regulation over time in preschool children at risk for attention and behavior problems.

    PubMed

    Winsler, A; Diaz, R M; Atencio, D J; McCarthy, E M; Chabay, L A

    2000-10-01

    This study is a prospective, longitudinal attempt to explore behavioral self-regulation, private speech, and speech-action coordination in a sample of behaviorally at-risk preschool children. Preschoolers (N = 72) were classified at age 3 years into a behaviorally at-risk group or a comparison group on the basis of preschool teacher behavioral ratings. Children were videotaped on four different occasions across the span of almost 2 years as they completed problem-solving tasks, and private speech, task performance, executive functioning, and speech-action coordination were analyzed. Children identified 2 years earlier as being hard to manage were at risk for continued behavior problems at elementary school entry. Behaviorally at-risk children consistently used more spontaneous private speech than comparison children across all observations. Both groups of children demonstrated a pattern of increasing silence with task success over time. No group differences were observed in children's speech-action coordination at age 5 years. Intraindividual developmental changes in private speech for both groups were associated with task performance, speech-action coordination, and executive functioning at age 5, but not with teacher- and parent-reported problem behavior. PMID:11079430

  4. Relationship between growth of facial morphology and chronologic age in preschool children with obstructive sleep apnea

    PubMed Central

    Kawashima, Shigeto; Ueda, Koichiro; Shinohara, Mitsuyo; Mano, Mikiko; Kanegae, Haruhide; Namaki, Shunsuke

    2012-01-01

    Background The purpose of this study was to evaluate the relationship between facial morphology using cephalometry and chronologic age in preschool children with obstructive sleep apnea (OSA). Materials and Methods From a group of lateral cephalometric radiographs taken of 35 children with OSA for diagnostic purposes, 15 were selected for the present investigation based on head position. The subjects consisted of preschool children with both OSA and primary dentition, all of them with a lowest documented SpO2 <90% and a lowest 0 preschool children with primary dentition and without enlarged tonsils or adenoids. Results The present findings reveal that, compared to the controls, OSA children had a narrower pharyngeal airway space related to OSA. In addition, we found that, although there were direct correlations between heights, nasal floor and corpus length, with chronologic age in the controls, there was no significant correlation between height, nasal floor length or corpus length with age in the OSA children. Conclusion Obstructive sleep apnea in children may be associated with growth disturbances of the nasal floor and corpus length. PMID:25756027

  5. Correlates of the CBCL-dysregulation profile in preschool-aged children

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Jiyon; Carlson, Gabrielle A.; Meyer, Stephanie E.; Bufferd, Sara J.; Dougherty, Lea R.; Dyson, Margaret W.; Laptook, Rebecca S.; Olino, Thomas M.; Klein, Daniel N.

    2012-01-01

    Background A growing literature indicates that the Child Behavior Checklist-Dysregulation Profile (CBCL-DP) identifies youths with heightened risk for severe psychopathology, comorbidity, and impairment. However, this work has focused on school-age children and adolescents; no studies have examined whether preschool-aged children with the CBCL-DP exhibit a similar constellation of problems. Method Using a community sample of preschoolers, we compared children with (N = 61) and without (N = 488) the CBCL-DP on a broad range of variables assessed using multiple methods. Results Univariate analyses revealed numerous differences between children with the CBCL-DP and their peers on psychiatric symptomatology, temperament, parenting behavior, and parental personality, psychopathology, and marital functioning. In multivariate analyses, children with the CBCL-DP exhibited greater temperamental negative affectivity and lower effortful control. They also had more depressive and oppositional defiant symptoms, as well as greater functional impairment. Parents of CBCL-DP children reported engaging in more punitive, controlling parenting behavior than parents of non-profile children. Conclusions In a non-clinical sample of preschoolers, the CBCL-DP is associated with extensive emotional and behavioral dysregulation and maladaptive parenting. PMID:22409304

  6. Keratoplasty for keratomalacia in preschool children

    PubMed Central

    Vajpayee, R B; Vanathi, M; Tandon, R; Sharma, N; Titiyal, J S

    2003-01-01

    Aim: To study the results of surgical management of keratomalacia in children. Methods: A clinical case series of all children with keratomalacia, admitted to an Indian centre during the period from June 2000 to June 2001 is presented. The parameters evaluated were demographic data, systemic associations, and results of medical and surgical intervention. Results: 29 children with keratomalacia ranging from 2 months to 5 years of age (mean 1.8 (SD 1.4) years) were included in the study. All children belonged to families of lower socioeconomic status. 27 patients (93.1%) had not been immunised at all. The systemic diseases precipitating the onset of keratomalacia included measles (41.37%), pneumonia (31.03%), and acute diarrhoea (37.93%). 36 eyes (66.7%) had total corneal melting and 11 (20.3%) eyes had paracentral corneal melting. In 15 eyes (27.8%) an emergency tectonic penetrating keratoplasty was performed of which only five grafts (33.3%) remained clear at a mean follow up of 7.3 (6.8) months (range 3–24 months). Seven eyes underwent optical penetrating keratoplasty, of which four grafts (57.14%) remained clear at a mean follow up of 6.4 (3.6) months (range 3–12 months). None of these could achieve a visual acuity better than 6/60. Conclusions: Corneal grafting surgery in keratomalacia is associated with poor visual outcome. PMID:12714386

  7. Indoor Air Quality and Respiratory Health among Malay Preschool Children in Selangor

    PubMed Central

    Chua, Poh Choo

    2015-01-01

    Indoor air quality (IAQ) has been the object of several studies due to its adverse health effects on children. Methods. A cross-sectional comparative study was carried out among Malay children in Balakong (2 studied preschools) and Bangi (2 comparative preschools), Selangor, with the aims of determining IAQ and its association with respiratory health. 61 and 50 children aged 5-6 years were selected as studied and comparative groups. A questionnaire was used to obtain an exposure history and respiratory symptoms. Lung function test was carried out. IAQ parameters obtained include indoor concentration of particulate matter (PM), volatile organic compounds (VOCs), carbon monoxide (CO), carbon dioxide (CO2), temperature, air velocity (AV), and relative humidity. Results. There was a significant difference between IAQ in studied and comparative preschools for all parameters measured (P < 0.001) except for CO2 and AV. Studied preschools had higher PM and CO concentration. FVC, FEV1, FVC% and FEV1% predicted values were significantly lower among studied group. Exposures to PM, VOCs, and CO were associated with wheezing. Conclusion. The finding concluded that exposures to poor IAQ might increase the risk of getting lung function abnormality and respiratory problems among study respondents. PMID:25984527

  8. Source monitoring reduces the suggestibility of preschool children.

    PubMed

    Giles, Jessica W; Gopnik, Alison; Heyman, Gail D

    2002-05-01

    The relation between source monitoring and suggestibility was examined among preschool children. Thirty-two 3- to 5-year-olds were simultaneously presented with a brief story in two different modalities, as a silent video vignette and a spoken narrative. Each modality presented unique information about the story, but the information in the two versions was mutually compatible. The children were then asked a series of questions, including questions about the source (modality) of story details, and leading questions about story details (to assess suggestibility). Performance on the source-monitoring questions was highly correlated with the ability to resist suggestion. In addition, children who were asked source-monitoring questions prior to leading questioning were less susceptible to suggestion than were those who were asked the leading questions first. This study provides evidence that source monitoring can play a causal role in reducing the suggestibility of preschool children. PMID:12009053

  9. Shyness, Child-Teacher Relationships, and Socio-Emotional Adjustment in a Sample of Italian Preschool-Aged Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sette, Stefania; Baumgartner, Emma; Schneider, Barry H.

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of the present study was to examine the moderating role of child-teacher relationship quality (i.e., closeness, conflict, and dependence) in the association between children's shyness and indices of socio-emotional adjustment and maladjustment. The participants were Italian preschool children (63 boys; 66 girls) and two lead…

  10. Parenting Stress and Coping Styles in Mothers and Fathers of Pre-School Children with Autism and Down Syndrome

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dabrowska, A.; Pisula, E.

    2010-01-01

    Background: The study examined the profile of stress in mothers and fathers of preschool children with autism, Down syndrome and typically developing children. A further aim was to assess the association between parenting stress and coping style. Methods: A total of 162 parents were examined using Holroyd's 66-item short form of Questionnaire of…

  11. Body awareness in preschool children with psychiatric disorder.

    PubMed

    Simons, J; Leitschuh, C; Raymaekers, A; Vandenbussche, I

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the body awareness of preschool children with a psychiatric disorder as measured by the test imitation of gestures (Bergès & Lézine, 1978), using the subsections for pointing to body parts (passive vocabulary) and naming body parts (active vocabulary). Seventy-seven children from 37 to 72 months of age with psychiatric disorders and 67 children without psychiatric disorders were matched for age and sex. A MANOVA indicated no significant interaction effects on the results between the sexes in the psychiatric group and the control group for passive vocabulary (F(1,150)=.59, p≥0.05) or for active vocabulary (F(1,150)=.61, p≥0.05). An ANOVA was conducted to determine the differences between the boys and girls for passive and active vocabulary, and the differences between the psychiatric group and the control group for passive and active vocabulary. No significant differences between the boys and girls for passive vocabulary (F(1,150)=1.968, p≥0.05) and active vocabulary (F(1,150)=1.57, p≥0.05) were found. There was a significant difference between the psychiatric and the control group for passive vocabulary (F(1,150)=9.511, p=0.002) and active vocabulary (F(1,150)=16.18, p=0.00009). The study provides support for the presence of language disorders associated with active and passive body awareness in children with psychiatric disorders compared to typically developing children. PMID:21435833

  12. Applying a Socioecological Model to Understand Preschool Children's Sedentary Behaviors from the Viewpoints of Parents and Preschool Personnel

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Määttä, Suvi; Ray, Carola; Roos, Gun; Roos, Eva

    2016-01-01

    This study explored parents' and preschool personnel's opinions on factors influencing 3-5-year-old children's sedentary behaviors by applying the socioecological model. Four focus group interviews with preschool personnel (N = 14) and six interviews with parents (N = 17) were conducted in autumn 2014. Two researchers independently analyzed the…

  13. Relationships between Enrollment in an Inclusive Class and Preschool Children's Ideas about People with Disabilities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Diamond, Karen E.; Hestenes, Linda L.; Carpenter, Ellen S.; Innes, Fiona K.

    1997-01-01

    Comparison of children enrolled in regular (N=31) and inclusive (N=29) preschool programs found that children in inclusive settings had more knowledge of disabilities and gave higher acceptance ratings to children with and without disabilities than did children in regular preschool classes. (DB)

  14. Associations between Classroom Quality and Children's Vocabulary and Executive Function Skills in an Urban Public Prekindergarten Program

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weiland, Christina; Ulvestad, Kchersti; Sachs, Jason; Yoshikawa, Hirokazu

    2013-01-01

    Despite evidence that high-quality preschool programs have substantial, long-lasting impacts on young children's developmental outcomes, associations between preschool quality measures and children's cognitive outcomes within preschool programs are generally small or null. Using data from a large urban prekindergarten program, we examined…

  15. Mother surrogate and nutritional status of preschool children.

    PubMed

    Jain, S; Choudhry, M

    1993-01-01

    The study was conducted on 200 preschool children to find out the effect of mother surrogate on the nutritional status. The nutritional status of children was found to be affected by the time devoted by mother on child care activities, working status of mother and type of family independently and jointly. The children cared by mother had better nutritional status than those children who were cared by servants and any other family member in the absence of mother. It shows that no one can substitute the care provided by the mother. PMID:8253493

  16. Effect of Prosocial Cartoons on Preschool Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Forge, Karen L. S.; Phemister, Sherri

    If live-model prosocial programs such as "Sesame Street" and "Mister Rogers' Neighborhood" can facilitate favorable behavior in preschoolers, as was shown by Rushton (1982), then it seems reasonable to suggest that cartoons might have a similar positive impact. This study sought to determine whether viewing a prosocial cartoon would be as…

  17. Handicapped Immigrant Preschool Children in Sweden.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roden, Gunilla

    1988-01-01

    Examines provisions made in Sweden for the education of handicapped and immigrant students and the services offered to their families. Stating that all handicapped persons have the right to receive government services, the article discusses preschool education, day nurseries, mother-tongue language activities, family services, and courses for…

  18. A Field-Based Testing Protocol for Assessing Gross Motor Skills in Preschool Children: The Children's Activity and Movement in Preschool Study Motor Skills Protocol

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Williams, Harriet G.; Pfeiffer, Karin A.; Dowda, Marsha; Jeter, Chevy; Jones, Shaverra; Pate, Russell R.

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to develop a valid and reliable tool for use in assessing motor skills in preschool children in field-based settings. The development of the Children's Activity and Movement in Preschool Study Motor Skills Protocol included evidence of its reliability and validity for use in field-based environments as part of large…

  19. [Neuropsychic development in preschool children in conditions of the informatization].

    PubMed

    Tkachuk, E A; Tarmaeva, I Iu

    2014-01-01

    The new millennium was marked by the transition of humanity to a new stage of the development--the Information Society, which is an objective reality and affects on all aspects of living environment, including the health of children. The last decade was characterized by the increase of the use of means of informatization, the level of aggression and aggressiveness of children, the decrease of intellectual indices, deterioration of mental health, an increase of children with behavioral problems, hyperactivity, inattention, decrease of mental capacity. In a study on the example of preschool educational institution in the city of Irkutsk in the conditions of the changing of the informatization level of the society in the time period from 1998 to 2012, there were revealed the changes in indices of intellectual development, mental capacity and anxiety of children. Under observation there were 211 children aged from 5.5 to 6.5 years in the preschool institution of the central district of the city of Irkutsk. There were formed two groups of children: I group--children who attended kindergarten in 1998 and group II--children attending kindergarten in 2012. Age groups of preschool children were consistent with their calendar age: from 5 years 5 months 30 days to 6 years 5 months 30 days. In the study of intellectual development there has been shown the decrease of the number of children with average intelligence level and an increase in children with the below-average intelligence level, the increase of the speed (p < 0.05.) and the decrease of the quality (p < 0.05.) of the information processing in the Anfilov test for the mental performance and the increase the general level of anxiety, aggressive background and unmotivated fears "out" at the present time stage (2012). PMID:25950041

  20. The Co-Occurring Development of Executive Function Skills and Receptive Vocabulary in Preschool-Aged Children: A Look at the Direction of the Developmental Pathways

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weiland, Christina; Barata, M. Clara; Yoshikawa, Hirokazu

    2014-01-01

    Despite consensus in the developmental literature regarding the role of executive function (EF) skills in supporting the development of language skills during the preschool years, we know relatively little about the associations between EF skills, including all EF components, and vocabulary skills among preschool-aged children. In this paper, we…

  1. [The potential financial impact of oral health problems in the families of preschool children].

    PubMed

    Ribeiro, Gustavo Leite; Gomes, Monalisa Cesarino; Lima, Kenio Costa de; Martins, Carolina Castro; Paiva, Saul Martins; Granville-Garcia, Ana Flávia

    2016-04-01

    The aim of the study was to evaluate the perception of parents/caregivers regarding the financial impact of oral health problems on the families of preschool children. A preschool-based, cross-sectional study was conducted with 834 preschool children in Campina Grande, Brazil. Parents/caregivers answered the Early Childhood Oral Health Impact Scale. "Financial impact" was the dependent variable. Questionnaires addressing socio-demographic variables, history of toothache and health perceptions were administered. Clinical exams were performed by three dentists previously calibrated (Kappa: 0.85-0.90). Descriptive statistics were performed, followed by logistic regression for complex samples (α = 5%). The frequency of financial impact due to oral health problems in preschool children was 7.7%. The following variables were significantly associated with financial impact: parental perception of child's oral health as poor, the interaction between history of toothache and absence of dental caries and the interaction between history of toothache and presence of dental caries. It is concluded that often parents/caregivers reported experiencing a financial impact due to seeking treatment late, mainly by the presence of toothache and complications of the clinical condition. PMID:27076020

  2. The Effect of Multiple Rounds of Mass Drug Administration on the Association between Ocular Chlamydia trachomatis Infection and Follicular Trachoma in Preschool-Aged Children

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Jennifer S.; Muñoz, Beatriz E.; Mkocha, Harran; Gaydos, Charlotte A.; Quinn, Thomas C.; West, Sheila K.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose To examine the relationship between ocular Chlamydia trachomatis infection and follicular trachoma (TF) in children prior to and following multiple rounds of annual mass drug administration (MDA) with azithromycin. Methodology/principal findings Thirty-two communities with endemic trachoma in Kongwa District, Tanzania, were offered annual MDA as part of a district-wide trachoma control program. Presence of ocular C. trachomatis infection and TF were assessed in 3,200 randomly sampled children aged five years and younger, who were examined prior to each MDA. Infection was detected using the Amplicor CT/NG assay and TF was identified by clinical examination using the World Health Organization (WHO) simplified grading system. The association between chlamydial infection and TF in children was evaluated at baseline prior to any treatment, and 12 months after each of three annual rounds of mass treatment. Factors associated with infection were examined using generalized estimating equation models. At baseline, the overall prevalence of chlamydial infection and TF was 22% and 31%, respectively. Among children with clinical signs of TF, the proportion of those with infection was 49% prior to treatment and declined to 30% after three MDAs. The odds of infection positivity among children with clinical signs of TF decreased by 26% (OR 0.74, 95% CI 0.65 to 0.84, p = <0.01) with each MDA, after adjusting for age. For children aged under one year, who did not receive treatment, the relationship was unchanged. Conclusions/significance The association between ocular C. trachomatis infection and TF weakened in children with each MDA, as both infection and clinical disease prevalence declined. However, there was still a significant proportion of TF cases with infection after three rounds of MDA. New strategies are needed to assess this residual infection for optimal treatment distribution. PMID:24722392

  3. Perception of Childhood Obesity in Mothers of Preschool Children

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Hae Ok; Kim, Gyo Nam; Park, Euna

    2015-01-01

    Objectives The purpose of this study was to identify the perception of childhood obesity in mothers of preschool children using Q methodology. Methods A total of 38 Q statements about childhood obesity were obtained from 41 participants. The QUANL PC program was used to analyze the results. Results There were three types of perception toward obesity in mothers of preschool children: the “authoritative discipline type,” the “generous home meal focused type,” and the “home meal based on household financial situation type.” Conclusion The perception of mothers toward childhood obesity can affect the extent of maternal interaction with children or meal preparation for the family. Based on these results, it is necessary to plan specific programs according to the types of maternal perception toward childhood obesity. PMID:25938022

  4. Word learning and phonetic processing in preschool-age children.

    PubMed

    Havy, Mélanie; Bertoncini, Josiane; Nazzi, Thierry

    2011-01-01

    Consonants and vowels have been shown to play different relative roles in different processes, including retrieving known words from pseudowords during adulthood or simultaneously learning two phonetically similar pseudowords during infancy or toddlerhood. The current study explores the extent to which French-speaking 3- to 5-year-olds exhibit a so-called "consonant bias" in a task simulating word acquisition, that is, when learning new words for unfamiliar objects. In Experiment 1, the to-be-learned words differed both by a consonant and a vowel (e.g., /byf/-/duf/), and children needed to choose which of the two objects to associate with a third one whose name differed from both objects by either a consonant or a vowel (e.g., /dyf/). In such a conflict condition, children needed to favor (or neglect) either consonant information or vowel information. The results show that only 3-year-olds preferentially chose the consonant identity, thereby neglecting the vowel change. The older children (and adults) did not exhibit any response bias. In Experiment 2, children needed to pick up one of two objects whose names differed on either consonant information or vowel information. Whereas 3-year-olds performed better with pairs of pseudowords contrasting on consonants, the pattern of asymmetry was reversed in 4-year-olds, and 5-year-olds did not exhibit any significant response bias. Interestingly, girls showed overall better performance and exhibited earlier changes in performance than boys. The changes in consonant/vowel asymmetry in preschoolers are discussed in relation with developments in linguistic (lexical and morphosyntactic) and cognitive processing. PMID:20850758

  5. The Role of Parent Psychopathology in the Development of Preschool Children with Behavior Problems

    PubMed Central

    Breaux, Rosanna P.; Harvey, Elizabeth A.; Lugo-Candelas, Claudia I.

    2013-01-01

    Objective The present study examined associations between early parental self-reported psychopathology symptoms and the later behavioral, emotional, and social functioning of preschool children with behavior problems. Method Mothers and fathers of preschoolers with behavior problems (N = 132; 55 girls and 77 boys) completed parent psychopathology questionnaires when children were 3 years old and completed measures of children’s externalizing, internalizing, and social problems annually from age 3 to age 6. The sample included 61% European American, 16% Latino (predominantly Puerto Rican), 10% African American, and 13% multi-ethnic children. Results Every dimension of mothers’ and fathers’ psychopathology symptoms when children were 3 years old was associated with their own reports of children’s externalizing and internalizing problems 3 years later. Several dimensions of maternal psychopathology symptoms at age 3 were associated with mother-reported social skills 3 years later. However, the relation between many dimensions of psychopathology symptoms and child outcome appears to be accounted for by co-occurring psychopathology symptoms. Only maternal ADHD and Cluster A symptoms, and paternal ADHD and depression/anxiety symptoms emerged as unique predictors of child functioning. Conclusions These findings suggest that most types of mothers’ and fathers’ self-reported psychopathology symptoms may play a role in the prognosis of behavioral, social, and emotional outcomes of preschoolers with behavior problems, but that co-occurring symptoms need to be considered. PMID:24116918

  6. Clinimetric Properties of the Assessment of Preschool Children's Participation in Children with Cerebral Palsy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chen, Chia-ling; Chen, Chung-yao; Shen, I-hsuan; Liu, I-Shu; Kang, Lin-ju; Wu, Ching-yi

    2013-01-01

    This study examines the criterion-related validity and clinimetric properties of the Assessment of Preschool Children's Participation (APCP) for children with cerebral palsy (CP). Eighty-two children with CP (age range, two to five years and 11 months) and their caregivers participated in this study. The APCP consists of diversity and intensity…

  7. Evidence for General and Domain-Specific Elements of Teacher-Child Interactions: Associations with Preschool Children's Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hamre, Bridget; Hatfield, Bridget; Pianta, Robert; Jamil, Faiza

    2014-01-01

    This study evaluates a model for considering domain-general and domain-specific associations between teacher-child interactions and children's development, using a bifactor analytic strategy. Among a sample of 325 early childhood classrooms there was evidence for both general elements of teacher-child interaction (responsive teaching) and…

  8. [The food habit and its affecting factors of preschool children in Guangzhou].

    PubMed

    Mei, J; Chen, Q; Sun, J; Xiong, R

    1998-09-30

    A survey of nutritional knowledge-attitude-practice was conducted among 1300 preschool children, their parents, 203 teachers and nurses in Kindergarten in 1997. Results showed that the food habit of preschool children was unsuitable. Most preschool children rejected eating animal liver, peanut product and animal blood, but often ate snacks. From statistic analysis among affecting factors, the mother's and teachers' nutritional knowledge and the food habit of parents had significant effect on food habit of preschool children. The family income did not significantly affect food habit of preschool children. Moreover, there was little nutrition education involved in the preschool children courses in 4 kindergartens. The result suggested that the nutrition education plan should be done. PMID:11939051

  9. Oral lactic acid bacteria related to the occurrence and/or progression of dental caries in Japanese preschool children

    PubMed Central

    SHIMADA, Ayumi; NODA, Masafumi; MATOBA, Yasuyuki; KUMAGAI, Takanori; KOZAI, Katsuyuki; SUGIYAMA, Masanori

    2015-01-01

    Previous studies have demonstrated that the presence of lactic acid bacteria (LAB), especially those classified into the genus Lactobacillus, is associated with the progression of dental caries in preschool children. Nevertheless, the kinds of species of LAB and the characteristics that are important for dental caries have been unclear. The aims of this study were: (1) to investigate the distribution of oral LAB among Japanese preschool children with various prevalence levels of caries; and (2) to reveal the characteristics of these isolated LAB species. Seventy-four Japanese preschool children were examined for caries scores and caries progression, and their dental cavity samples were collected for LAB isolation and identification. The saliva-induced agglutination rate and the resistance to acidic environments of the identified strains were measured. Statistical analysis showed that preschool children carrying Lactobacillus (L.) salivarius or Streptococcus mutans have a significantly higher prevalence of dental caries, the growth ability in acidic environments correlates with the caries scores of individuals with L. salivarius, and the caries scores exhibit positive correlation with saliva-induced agglutination in L. salivarius. These results show that specific Lactobacillus species are associated with dental caries based on the level of carious lesion severity. The present study suggests that these specific Lactobacillus species, especially those with easily agglutinated properties and acid resistance, affect the dental caries scores of preschool children, and that these properties may provide useful information for research into the prevention of dental caries. PMID:25918670

  10. 34 CFR 300.124 - Transition of children from the Part C program to preschool programs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... preschool programs. 300.124 Section 300.124 Education Regulations of the Offices of the Department of... Requirements § 300.124 Transition of children from the Part C program to preschool programs. The State must... programs assisted under Part C of the Act, and who will participate in preschool programs assisted...

  11. Effects of a Preschool Staff Intervention on Children's Sun Protection: Outcomes of Sun Protection Is Fun!

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gritz, Ellen R.; Tripp, Mary K.; James, Aimee S.; Harrist, Ronald B.; Mueller, Nancy H.; Chamberlain, Robert M.; Parcel, Guy S.

    2007-01-01

    The preschool is an important yet understudied setting for sun-protection interventions. This study evaluates the effects of Sun Protection is Fun! (SPF) on preschool staff behavioral and psychosocial outcomes related to protecting children from sun exposure. Twenty preschools participated in a 2-year, group-randomized trial to evaluate SPF, a…

  12. Parents' Selection Factors when Choosing Preschool Programs for Their Children with Disabilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Glenn-Applegate, Katherine; Pentimonti, Jill; Justice, Laura M.

    2011-01-01

    Parents, including parents of children with disabilities, are often challenged to find preschools that meet their families' various needs and desires. Research on preschool quality is prevalent, but these studies rarely consider how parents perceive quality. This descriptive study asked what parents value most when choosing a preschool for their…

  13. The Effects of Parents' Presence on Children's Social Interactions in Preschool.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Ellen Wolpow; Howes, Carollee

    1994-01-01

    Observed the social behavior of 27 preschoolers in the in parent-cooperative preschools. Found that when, their parents were working in the preschool, children engaged in less high-level peer play, initiated play with peers less often and expressed more negative emotion and spent much less time in proximity to adults than when their parents were…

  14. Nutrition Knowledge and Behaviours of Low-Income Latino Parents of Preschoolers: Associations with Nutrition-Related Parenting Practices

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Slusser, Wendelin; Erausquin, Jennifer Toller; Prelip, Michael; Fischer, Heidi; Cumberland, William G.; Frankel, Fred; Neumann, Charlotte

    2012-01-01

    Parents are in an ideal position to promote long-term healthy dietary behaviours for their children. This study aimed to determine parent and child characteristics and to test their associations in a cross-sectional sample of urban low-income, low-education Latino immigrants with preschool-age children. Also determined were family demographic…

  15. Does IQ influence Associations between ADHD Symptoms and other Cognitive Functions in young Preschoolers?

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Working memory, inhibition, and expressive language are often impaired in ADHD and many children with ADHD have lower IQ-scores than typically developing children. The aim of this study was to test whether IQ-score influences associations between ADHD symptoms and verbal and nonverbal working memory, inhibition, and expressive language, respectively, in a nonclinical sample of preschool children. Methods In all, 1181 children recruited from the Norwegian Mother and Child Cohort Study were clinically assessed at the age of 36 to 46 months. IQ-score and working memory were assessed with subtasks from the Stanford Binet test battery, expressive language was reported by preschool teachers (Child Development Inventory), response inhibition was assessed with a subtask from the NEPSY test, and ADHD symptoms were assessed by parent interview (Preschool Age Psychiatric Assessment). Results The results showed an interaction between ADHD symptoms and IQ-score on teacher-reported expressive language. In children with below median IQ-score, a larger number of ADHD symptoms were more likely to be accompanied by reports of lower expressive language skills, while the level of ADHD symptoms exerted a smaller effect on reported language skills in children with above median IQ-score. The associations between ADHD symptoms and working memory and response inhibition, respectively, were not influenced by IQ-score. Conclusions Level of IQ-score affected the relation between ADHD symptoms and teacher-reported expressive language, whereas associations between ADHD symptoms and working memory and response inhibition, respectively, were significant and of similar sizes regardless of IQ-score. Thus, in preschoolers, working memory and response inhibition should be considered during an ADHD assessment regardless of IQ-score, while language skills of young children are especially important to consider when IQ-scores are average or low. PMID:24884579

  16. Expressed emotion displayed by the mothers of inhibited and uninhibited preschool-aged children.

    PubMed

    Raishevich, Natoshia; Kennedy, Susan J; Rapee, Ronald M

    2010-01-01

    In the current study, the Five Minute Speech Sample was used to assess the association between parent attitudes and children's behavioral inhibition in mothers of 120 behaviorally inhibited (BI) and 37 behaviorally uninhibited preschool-aged children. Mothers of BI children demonstrated significantly higher levels of emotional over-involvement (EOI) and self-sacrificing/overprotective behavior (SS/OP). However, there was no significant relationship between inhibition status and maternal criticism. Multiple regression also indicated that child temperament, but not maternal anxiety, was a significant predictor of both EOI and SS/OP. PMID:20390810

  17. Relationships between fundamental movement skills and objectively measured physical activity in preschool children.

    PubMed

    Cliff, Dylan P; Okely, Anthony D; Smith, Leif M; McKeen, Kim

    2009-11-01

    Gender differences in cross-sectional relationships between fundamental movement skill (FMS) subdomains (locomotor skills, object-control skills) and physical activity were examined in preschool children. Forty-six 3- to 5-year-olds (25 boys) had their FMS video assessed (Test of Gross Motor Development II) and their physical activity objectively monitored (Actigraph 7164 accelerometers). Among boys, object-control skills were associated with physical activity and explained 16.9% (p = .024) and 13.7% (p = .049) of the variance in percent of time in moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA) and total physical activity, respectively, after controlling for age, SES and z-BMI. Locomotor skills were inversely associated with physical activity among girls, and explained 19.2% (p = .023) of the variance in percent of time in MVPA after controlling for confounders. Gender and FMS subdomain may influence the relationship between FMS and physical activity in preschool children. PMID:20128363

  18. Molecular and Clinical Characterization of Giardia duodenalis Infection in Preschool Children from Lisbon, Portugal

    PubMed Central

    Ferreira, Filipa Santana; Machado Sá da Bandeira, Rita Alexandre dos Santos Soares de Bellegarde; Constantino, Cláudia Alexandra Cecílio de Sampaio Ferreira; da Fonseca, Ana Maria Teixeira Duarte Cancela; Gomes, Joana da Graça Matias; Rodrigues, Rúben Miguel Lopes; Atouguia, Jorge Luís Marques da Silva; Centeno-Lima, Sónia Chavarria Alves Ferreira

    2013-01-01

    Giardia duodenalis is the most prevalent intestinal protozoan infection especially in children. In Portugal scarce data are available relative to this infection in preschoolers. The present study was conducted from April to July 2009 in public preschools in Lisbon enrolling 316 children. Stool examination was performed through microscopy. Molecular analysis was conducted in all positive samples for G. duodenalis in order to determine the assemblage and subassemblage of this parasite. Eight of the preschoolers studied children (2.5%, 8/316) were infected with G. duodenalis. Additionally the brother of one of the infected children was also infected. Genotyping analysis targeting ssu-rRNA and β-giardin loci revealed six infections with assemblage A and 3 with assemblage B. Sub-assemblage determination was possible in four of the samples, with three A2 and one A3. The limited number of cases precluded an association of a determined symptom with an assemblage. The data presented here show the relevance of considering G. duodenalis analysis in children with intestinal complaints even in developed countries. PMID:24089633

  19. Social and Environmental Factors Associated with Preschoolers' Nonsedentary Physical Activity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, William H.; Pfeiffer, Karin A.; McIver, Kerry L.; Dowda, Marsha; Addy, Cheryl L.; Pate, Russell R.

    2009-01-01

    The twofold purposes of the investigation were (a) to describe with direct observation data the physical activity behaviors and the accompanying social and environmental events of those behaviors for children in preschools and (b) to determine which contextual conditions were predictors of moderate to vigorous physical activity (MVPA) and…

  20. Demographic Variables Associated with Eligibility for Preschool Special Education Services

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ferro, Pamela M.

    2012-01-01

    Many preschool children are affected by disabilities requiring intervention through Early Childhood Special Education (ECSE; Camilli, Vargas, Ryan, & Barnett, 2010). Such interventions can include speech therapy, occupational therapy, physical therapy, counseling, and special education. Earlier delivery of these special education services…

  1. Study of Health and Activity in Preschool Environments (SHAPES): Study protocol for a randomized trial evaluating a multi-component physical activity intervention in preschool children

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Physical inactivity is a recognized public health concern. Inadequate proportions of children in the U.S, including those of preschool age, are meeting physical activity recommendations. In response to low numbers of preschool children attaining appropriate physical activity levels, combined with the large number of young children who attend preschool, researchers have identified the need to devise interventions to increase physical activity at preschools. However, few multi-component interventions to increase physical activity in preschool children exist. The aims of this study were to observe the effects of a multi-component intervention on physical activity, sedentary behavior, and physical activity energy expenditure in 3-5 year-old children; identify factors that associate with change in those variables; and evaluate the process of implementing the multi-component intervention. The purpose of this manuscript is to describe the study design and intervention protocol. Methods/design The overall design of the Study of Health and Activity in Preschool Environments (SHAPES) was a two-year randomized trial (nested cohort design), with two conditions, two measurement occasions, and preschool serving as the unit of analysis. Sixteen schools (eight intervention and eight control) were enrolled. The intervention protocol was based on the social ecological model and included four main components: (a) indoor physical activity (“move inside”), (b) recess (“move outside”), (c) daily lessons (“move to learn”), and (d) social environment. Components were implemented using teacher and administrator trainings and workshops, site support visits, newsletters, and self-monitoring methods. Outcomes included accelerometer assessment of physical activity, sedentary behavior, and physical activity energy expenditure; weight status; and demographic factors; family/home social and physical environment; and parental characteristics. An extensive process evaluation

  2. Managing wheeze in preschool children: How difficult can it be?

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Wheeze is a common symptom in infants and preschool children. Up to 30% of children wheeze at least once before the age of 3 years and 2% of those have it severe enough to warrant hospital admission. Not only parents but also physicians have difficulty in recognizing wheeze. Wrong diagnosis of the underlying condition leads to inappropriate and unnecessary management and patient morbidity. Asthma is the commonest underlying condition in children with wheeze, but the differential diagnosis is quite broad and a systematic approach including a good clinical history, thorough physical examination and appropriate investigations are essential to reach the accurate diagnosis.

  3. Phonological Awareness and Vocabulary Performance of Monolingual and Bilingual Preschool Children with Hearing Loss

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lund, Emily; Werfel, Krystal L.; Schuele, C. Melanie

    2015-01-01

    This pilot study compared the phonological awareness skills and vocabulary performance of English monolingual and Spanish-English bilingual children with and without hearing loss. Preschool children with varying degrees of hearing loss (n = 18) and preschool children without hearing loss (n = 19) completed measures of phonological awareness and…

  4. Preschool Language Profiles of Children at Family Risk of Dyslexia: Continuities with Specific Language Impairment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nash, Hannah M.; Hulme, Charles; Gooch, Debbie; Snowling, Margaret J.

    2013-01-01

    Background: Children at family risk of dyslexia have been reported to show phonological deficits as well as broader language delays in the preschool years. Method: The preschool language skills of 112 children at family risk of dyslexia (FR) at ages 3½ and 4½ were compared with those of children with SLI and typically developing (TD) controls.…

  5. Fourth Grade Outcomes of Children with a Preschool History of Developmental Disability

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Delgado, Christine E. F.

    2009-01-01

    Special education outcomes were evaluated for 3,608 children (2,513 males) with a preschool history of developmental disability. Sixty-six percent of the children had an identified disability in fourth grade. The percentage of children with a disability at outcome varied across preschool disability categories from 54% to 96%. The consistency of…

  6. A Comparison of Preschool Children's Discussions with Parents during Picture Book and Chapter Book Reading

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leech, Kathryn A.; Rowe, Meredith L.

    2014-01-01

    Discussions that occur during book reading between parents and preschool children relate to children's language development, especially discussions during picture books that include extended discourse, a form of abstract language. While a recent report shows increased chapter book reading among families with preschool children, it is unknown…

  7. Social Participation of Children with Disabilities in Inclusive Preschool Programs: Program Typology and Ecological Features

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tsao, Ling-Ling; Odom, Samuel L.; Buysse, Virginia; Skinner, Marti; West, Tracy; Vitztum-Komanecki, Joann

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the social participation of young children with disabilities in inclusive preschool programs. One hundred forty-three preschool-aged children with disabilities were observed in classrooms representing four organizational contexts: community-based, Head Start, public school, and blended. Children's and…

  8. Children's Physical Activity in Day Care and Preschool

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reunamo, Jyrki; Hakala, Liisa; Saros, Leila; Lehto, Satu; Kyhälä, Anna-Liisa; Valtonen, Juha

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of the study was to investigate the dynamics of physical activity (PA) in day care and preschool. The participants were 823 Finnish 1-7-year-old children from 50 day care centres and preschools. The research methods were systematic observation, evaluation of children's skills and interviews with children. Altogether 18,366…

  9. The Immediate Impacts of Preschool Attendance on Turkish Children's Mathematics Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aslan, Durmus; Aktas Arnas, Yasare

    2015-01-01

    This study was conducted to investigate the immediate impacts of preschool attendance on Turkish children's mathematics achievement. The participants were 200 children who attended or did not attend preschool. The number and operation task and the geometric shapes sorting task were used as the data collection tools. The children who attended…

  10. Preschool Quality and the Development of Children from Economically Disadvantaged Families in India

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rao, Nirmala

    2010-01-01

    Research Findings: The influence of preschool quality on the development of 67 4-year-old children from poor and rural families in South India was examined. Children's developmental status was assessed using a modified version of the McCarthy Scales of Children's Abilities and through physician ratings. Preschool quality was assessed through…

  11. Sociometric Status Differences in Affect Sequences in Preschool Children's Play with Parents.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carson, James L.; Parke, Ross D.

    This study examined the interchange of emotional cues during interactions between parents and their popular or rejected children. Participants were 28 4- and 5-year-old preschool children and their parents. Children were selected as popular or unpopular using a sociometric nomination procedure conducted in their preschool or day care classroom.…

  12. Modeling and Verbalizations of Lower-Class, Black, Preschool Children: Educational Implications.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gottfried, Adele E.

    Two purposes guided this study: (1) to investigate the effects of modeling on the verbalizations of lower-class, black, preschool children; and (2) to investigate the relationships between the dialect employed by the model and children's language production. As subjects, 72 black, preschool children in lower-class neighborhood day care centers of…

  13. The Predictive Effects of the Behaviour Problem Variables on Peer Victimisation in Preschool Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yoleri, Sibel

    2014-01-01

    Behaviour problems in young children are fairly common. It has been suggested that approximately 5-14% of preschool children exhibit problem behaviour. There are many reasons for behaviour problems in preschool-aged period children. Researches reveal that link between victimisation and individual differences. However, but still, we do not know the…

  14. Perceptions of Parents of Young Children with and without Disabilities Attending Inclusive Preschool Programs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hilbert, Dana

    2014-01-01

    This study aimed to identify the characteristics of parents of children with and without disabilities whose young children attend an inclusive, early childhood education program that influence their perceptions of inclusion and inclusive preschool programs. Participants included parents of preschool children without disabilities (n=64) and parents…

  15. Federal Food Assistance Programs and Cardiovascular Risk Factors in Low-Income Preschool Children.

    PubMed

    Johnson, Paige; Montgomery, Michele; Ewell, Patrick

    2016-06-01

    Childhood obesity remains a significant public health concern. Children from lower income households have a greater risk of being obese. Low-income families generally have less access to healthy, affordable food choices and turn to federal food assistance programs. Few studies have examined the impact of food assistance programs on childhood obesity rates. This study explored the association between BMI, blood lipid levels, and three food assistance programs (WIC, reduced lunch, and food stamps) in a sample of predominantly low-income, minority preschool children enrolled in a city-wide preschool program. Screenings were performed at on-site health fairs conducted at nine schools in disadvantaged areas. Screenings included vital signs, a finger stick, head-to-toe exam, vision screening, dental screening, and hearing screening. Of the sample of 229 preschool children, 23.1 % were obese, almost three times the national rate in preschoolers. Children whose families received WIC benefits weighed significantly less than those who did not receive benefits. In addition, 20.6 % of the children screened had elevated systolic blood pressures. Of the sample, 33 % had unhealthy triglyceride levels and 46 % had unhealthy HDL levels with those that received WIC benefits having significantly lower levels of LDL cholesterol This study confirms that low-income, minority children in the South continue to be disproportionately affected by overweight and obesity. In addition, the results of this study indicate WIC as a potential public health initiative to combat the childhood obesity epidemic and reduce other cardiovascular risk factors, such as blood lipids and blood pressure. PMID:26704910

  16. Assessment of iron status among preschool children (6 to 59 months) with and without malaria in Western Province, Kenya

    PubMed Central

    Kisiangani, Isaac; Mbakaya, Charles; Makokha, Anzelimo; Magu, Dennis

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Iron deficiency is a major public health concern. Globally, iron deficiency ranks number 9 and is responsible for about 60% of all anemia cases among preschool children. In Africa iron deficiency is 43-52% while in Kenya, children under 5 years constitute the largest burden with 69% of them being deficient. There is limited iron deficiency data in Kenya. This study determined haemoglobin levels, serum ferritin levels, nutritional status and P.falciparum malaria infection in preschool children. Methods A household cross sectional study was undertaken among 125 preschoolers in Western province, drawn from 37 clusters. Systematic random sampling was used for sample selection. Data was collected using pretested structured questionnaires, entered in Microsoft package. Data analysis was done in Statistical package for social science (SPSS) version 20 using bivariate and multivariate logistic regression and differences were considered significant at P < 0.05. Results The prevalence of iron deficiency (Serum ferritin <12mg/l), anaemia (Hb < 110g/l) and plasmodium falciparum malaria were 20.8%, 25% and 6.8% respectively. There was a significant association between iron deficiency and anaemia (OR = 3.43, 95% CI: 1.33-8.84, p = 0.008). A preschool child with anaemia was 3.43 times likely to be iron deficient compared to a preschool child who was not anaemic. Conclusion Iron deficiency, anaemia and plasmodium falciparum malaria was prevalent among preschool children. The findings revealed a significant association between iron deficiency and anaemia. Therefore effective interventions to improve iron status will have large health benefits by greatly reducing anaemia in preschool children. PMID:26405498

  17. Profile Analysis of the Kaufman Assessment Battery for Children, Second Edition, with African American and Caucasian Preschool Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dale, Brittany A.; McIntosh, David E.; Rothlisberg, Barbara A.; Ward, Kimberly E.; Bradley, Madeline Hunt

    2011-01-01

    This study used profile analysis to investigate the interpretability of the Kaufman Assessment Battery for Children, Second Edition (KABC-II), in terms of the Cattell-Horn-Carroll (CHC) theory among ethnically diverse preschool children. Forty-nine African American and 49 Caucasian preschool children from a Midwestern city were included in the…

  18. Object and size awareness in preschool-age children.

    PubMed

    Boyer, Caroline E; Carlson, Abby G; Pasnak, Robert

    2012-02-01

    Self-awareness is a skill developed during the first few years of life. Although some research demonstrates that this ability may be incomplete in toddlers, there is little to no literature relating to preschoolers. This study tested 44 preschool-age children on 8 tasks to assess their awareness of the structural characteristics of their own size and weight as well as the size and weight of external objects. The most frequently observed behavior was for children to make an attempt at something that was inappropriate for their size and weight, but overall participants showed a better understanding of their own bodies than other objects. Both the number of attempts required to solve the problems and accuracy of their solutions demonstrated these task differences. These results indicate that the development of body awareness skills is far from complete for 3- and 4-year-olds. PMID:22582673

  19. Oral health status in preschool asthmatic children in Iran.

    PubMed

    Ehsani, Sara; Moin, Mostafa; Meighani, Ghasem; Pourhashemi, Seyed Jalal; Khayatpisheh, Hadi; Yarahmadi, Nazli

    2013-09-01

    Asthma is a chronic inflammatory disorder of the airways, which is diagnosed by periodic symptoms of inflammation, bronchial spasm, and increased mucosal secretions. It has higher incidence among the preschool children. There are many contradictory reports based on the effect of asthma on oral health, however it has been hypothesized that asthma could lead to poor oral health. The objective of the present study was to investigate oral health indices in 44 preschool children of three to six years old with mild to moderate asthma and 46 matched healthy children in Tehran Children's Respiratory Center. Dental plaque, gingival inflammation, mouth breathing, and dental caries were evaluated by one trained examiner according to World Health Organization [WHO] criteria. Culture and colony counting of streptococcus mutans and lactobacillus species were carried out in saliva specimens of the patients. The effects of different factors on the colony counts were statistically analyzed using linear regression analysis. The level of mother's education and preexisting asthma disease in children had significant effect on the colony counts of streptococcus species whereas no factor was found to influence the number of lactobacillus counts significantly. The results indicated no significant differences between the children with asthma and those without asthma regarding (decayed, missing, filled, teeth) dmft index (mean of 3.34 in asthmatic children and 3.0 in the control group). Therefore, it can be deduced that the presence of asthma disease did not increase the probability of tooth decay. PMID:23893809

  20. Low Blood Zinc, Iron, and Other Sociodemographic Factors Associated with Behavior Problems in Preschoolers

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Jianghong; Hanlon, Alexandra; Ma, Chenjuan; Zhao, Sophie R.; Cao, Siyuan; Compher, Charlene

    2014-01-01

    Previous research supports the link among malnutrition, cognitive dysfunction, and behavioral outcomes; however, less research has focused on micronutrient deficiencies. This study investigates whether micronutrient deficiencies, specifically blood zinc and iron levels, will be associated with increased behavior problem scores, including internalizing and externalizing behaviors. 1314 Children (55% boys and 45% girls) from the Jintan Preschool Cohort in China participated in this study. Venous blood samples were collected and analyzed for zinc and iron when the children were 3–5 years old. Behavior problems were measured with the Child Behavior Checklist (CBCL), which was completed by the parents when children were in their last months of preschool (mean age 5.6 years). General linear multivariate modeling was used, with adjustment for important sociodemographic variables. The results indicate that low zinc levels alone (p = 0.024) and combined low zinc and iron levels (p = 0.022) are significantly associated with increased reports of total behavior problems. We did not find an association between low iron and behavior problems. With regards to sociodemographics, living in the suburbs is associated with increased internalizing problems, while higher mother’s education and being female were associated with decreased externalizing problems. This study suggests that micronutrient deficiencies and sociodemographic facts are associated with behavior problems in preschoolers. PMID:24473235

  1. Low blood zinc, iron, and other sociodemographic factors associated with behavior problems in preschoolers.

    PubMed

    Liu, Jianghong; Hanlon, Alexandra; Ma, Chenjuan; Zhao, Sophie R; Cao, Siyuan; Compher, Charlene

    2014-01-01

    Previous research supports the link among malnutrition, cognitive dysfunction, and behavioral outcomes; however, less research has focused on micronutrient deficiencies. This study investigates whether micronutrient deficiencies, specifically blood zinc and iron levels, will be associated with increased behavior problem scores, including internalizing and externalizing behaviors. 1314 Children (55% boys and 45% girls) from the Jintan Preschool Cohort in China participated in this study. Venous blood samples were collected and analyzed for zinc and iron when the children were 3-5 years old. Behavior problems were measured with the Child Behavior Checklist (CBCL), which was completed by the parents when children were in their last months of preschool (mean age 5.6 years). General linear multivariate modeling was used, with adjustment for important sociodemographic variables. The results indicate that low zinc levels alone (p = 0.024) and combined low zinc and iron levels (p = 0.022) are significantly associated with increased reports of total behavior problems. We did not find an association between low iron and behavior problems. With regards to sociodemographics, living in the suburbs is associated with increased internalizing problems, while higher mother's education and being female were associated with decreased externalizing problems. This study suggests that micronutrient deficiencies and sociodemographic facts are associated with behavior problems in preschoolers. PMID:24473235

  2. Managing unwanted behaviour in pre-school children.

    PubMed

    Taylor, Theresa

    2007-04-01

    This paper describes a behaviour group, set up as a pilot project to empower parents and to promote their self-confidence in managing pre-school children's undesirable behaviour. Led by community nursery nurses (CNNs), the programme has already worked with six groups, each of six parents or carers and their children. Families are guided through coping strategies and learn management skills in changing undesirable behaviour problems in their pre-school children. Children between the ages of two to five years have been referred along with their parents to the group. Types of behaviours referred include: sleep problems, feeding/eating difficulties, sibling rivalry, temper tantrums, defiant anti-social behaviour and toilet/potty training. All these behaviours are prevalent among pre-school children, but are sometimes difficult for parents to manage. The evaluation of this pilot programme was based on pre-post-programme questionnaires and direct observation of parent-child interaction. Success of the behaviour group has indicated the need for such early preventative work to continue with parents and children. The children's services team, which includes health visitors and school health advisors, refers targeted families for immediate intervention, without families being on a long waiting list. Parents and carers who have difficulties coping with their child's undesirable behaviour can now access a service in their local clinic. Feedback from parents has been positive. Such a group is also beneficial in reducing the problem of less severe behavioural difficulties being referred to hard pressed and understaffed CAMHS teams. PMID:17455575

  3. Binocular iPad treatment for amblyopia in preschool children

    PubMed Central

    Birch, Eileen E.; Li, Simone L.; Jost, Reed M.; Morale, Sarah E.; De La Cruz, Angie; Stager, David; Dao, Lori; Stager, David R.

    2014-01-01

    Background Recent experimental evidence supports a role for binocular visual experience in the treatment of amblyopia. The purpose of this study was to determine whether repeated binocular visual experience with dichoptic iPad games could effectively treat amblyopia in preschool children. Methods A total of 50 consecutive amblyopic preschool children 3–6.9 years of age were assigned to play sham iPad games (first 5 children) or binocular iPad games (n = 45) for at least 4 hours per week for 4 weeks. Thirty (67%) children in the binocular iPad group and 4 (80%) in the sham iPad group were also treated with patching at a different time of day. Visual acuity and stereoacuity were assessed at baseline, at 4 weeks, and at 3 months after the cessation of game play. Results The sham iPad group had no significant improvement in visual acuity (t4 = 0.34, P = 0.75). In the binocular iPad group, mean visual acuity (plus or minus standard error) improved from 0.43 ± 0.03 at baseline to 0.34 ± 0.03 logMAR at 4 weeks (n = 45; paired t44 = 4.93; P < 0.0001). Stereoacuity did not significantly improve (t44 = 1.35, P = 0.18). Children who played the binocular iPad games for ≥8 hours (≥50% compliance) had significantly more visual acuity improvement than children who played 0–4 hours (t43 = 4.21, P = 0.0001). Conclusions Repeated binocular experience, provided by dichoptic iPad game play, was more effective than sham iPad game play as a treatment for amblyopia in preschool children. PMID:25727578

  4. Physical activity for preschool children--how much and how?

    PubMed

    Timmons, Brian W; Naylor, Patti-Jean; Pfeiffer, Karin A

    2007-01-01

    Alarming trends in childhood obesity even among preschool children have re-focused attention on the importance of physical activity in this age group. With this increased attention comes the need to identify the amount and type of physical activity appropriate for optimal development of preschool children. The purpose of this paper is to provide the scientific evidence to support a link between physical activity and biological and psychosocial development during early childhood (ages 2-5 years). To do so, we summarize pertinent literature informing the nature of the physical activity required to promote healthy physical, cognitive, emotional, and social development during these early years. A particular focus is on the interaction between physical activity and motor skill acquisition. Special emphasis is also placed on the nature of physical activity that promotes healthy weight gain during this period of childhood. The paper also discusses the strongest determinants of physical activity in preschool-age children, including the role of the child's environment (e.g., family, child-care, and socio-economic status). We provide recommendations for physical activity based on the best available evidence, and identify future research needs. PMID:18213943

  5. Tracing Developmental Trajectories of Oppositional Defiant Behaviors in Preschool Children

    PubMed Central

    Ezpeleta, Lourdes; Granero, Roser; de la Osa, Núria; Navarro, José Blas; Penelo, Eva; Domènech, Josep M.

    2014-01-01

    Objective Previous studies on developmental trajectories have used ad hoc definitions of oppositional defiant behaviors (ODB), which makes it difficult to compare results. This article defines developmental trajectories of ODB from ages 3–5 based on five different standard measurements derived from three separate instruments. Method A sample of 622 three-year-old preschoolers, followed up at ages 4, 5, and 6, was assessed with the five measures of oppositionality answered by parents and teachers. Growth-Mixture-Modeling (GMM) estimated separate developmental trajectories for each ODB measure for ages 3 to 5. Results The number of classes-trajectories obtained in each GMM depended on the ODB measure, but two clear patterns emerged: four trajectories (persistent low, decreasers, increasers/high increasers, persistent moderate/persistent high) or three trajectories (persistent low, decreasers, increasers/high increasers). Persistent high trajectories accounted for 4.4%–9.5% of the children. The trajectories emerging from the different ODB measures at ages 3 to 5 discriminated disruptive disorders, comorbidity, use of services, and impairment at age 6, and globally showed a similar pattern, summarizing longitudinal information on oppositionality in preschool children in a similar way. Conclusions Trajectories resulting from standard scales of the questionnaires have predictive validity for identifying relevant clinical outcomes, but are measure-specific. The results contribute to knowledge about the development of ODB in preschool children. PMID:24972147

  6. Emotion Understanding in Preschool Children: The Role of Executive Functions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martins, Eva Costa; Osório, Ana; Veríssimo, Manuela; Martins, Carla

    2016-01-01

    This investigation was aimed at studying the relations between executive functions (EFs) and categorical emotion understanding while controlling for preschoolers' IQ, language ability and theory of mind (ToM). Specifically, we wanted to analyse the association between emotion understanding and set shifting, due to the lack of studies with this EF.…

  7. Preschool Sleep Problems and Differential Associations With Specific Aspects of Executive Control in Early Elementary School.

    PubMed

    Nelson, Timothy D; Nelson, Jennifer Mize; Kidwell, Katherine M; James, Tiffany D; Espy, Kimberly Andrews

    2015-01-01

    This study examined the differential associations between parent-reported child sleep problems in preschool and specific aspects of executive control in early elementary school in a large sample of typically developing children (N = 215). Consistent with expectations, sleep problems were negatively associated with performance on tasks assessing working memory and interference suppression inhibition, even after controlling for general cognitive abilities, but not with flexible shifting or response inhibition. The findings add to the literature on cognitive impairments associated with pediatric sleep loss and highlight the need for early intervention for children with sleep problems to promote healthy cognitive development. PMID:26151614

  8. A functional analysis of verbal delay in preschool children: Implications for prevention and total recovery

    PubMed Central

    Drash, Philip W.; Tudor, Roger M.

    1993-01-01

    Delays in acquiring age-appropriate verbal repertoires in preschool children with no known organic etiology may be explained by defective or absent behavior-environmental contingencies. This paper presents six possible behavioral paradigms that describe verbal episodes between parents and their preschool children and how these interactions may inhibit or prevent the acquisition of verbal behavior. These paradigms are contrasted with parent-child interactions that typically result in age-appropriate verbal repertoires. Identifying the reinforcement contingencies that produce delays in acquisition of verbal behavior could lead to the development of more effective behavioral programs for remediating nonorganic language delay. Recommendations for prevention, treatment and total recovery from functional verbal delay and associated mental retardation are presented. The relation between contingency-shaped and rule-governed behavior in the shaping of verbal behavior is discussed. PMID:22477077

  9. Exploring dimensionality of effortful control using hot and cool tasks in a sample of preschool children.

    PubMed

    Allan, Nicholas P; Lonigan, Christopher J

    2014-06-01

    Effortful control (EC) is an important developmental construct associated with academic performance, socioemotional growth, and psychopathology. EC, defined as the ability to inhibit or delay a prepotent response typically in favor of a subdominant response, undergoes rapid development during children's preschool years. Research involving EC in preschool children can be aided by ensuring that the measured model of EC matches the latent structure of EC. Extant research indicates that EC may be multidimensional, consisting of hot (affectively salient) and cool (affectively neutral) dimensions. However, there are several untested assumptions regarding the defining features of hot EC. Confirmatory factor analysis was used in a sample of 281 preschool children (Mage=55.92months, SD=4.16; 46.6% male and 53.4% female) to compare a multidimensional model composed of hot and cool EC factors with a unidimensional model. Hot tasks were created by adding affective salience to cool tasks so that hot and cool tasks varied only by this aspect of the tasks. Tasks measuring EC were best described by a single factor and not distinct hot and cool factors, indicating that affective salience alone does not differentiate between hot and cool EC. EC shared gender-invariant associations with academic skills and externalizing behavior problems. PMID:24518050

  10. Linguistically-based informational masking in preschool children

    PubMed Central

    Newman, Rochelle S.; Morini, Giovanna; Ahsan, Faraz; Kidd, Gerald

    2015-01-01

    Previous work has shown that young children exhibit more difficulty understanding speech in the presence of speech-like distractors than do adults, and are more susceptible to at least some form of informational masking (IM). Yet little is known about how/when the “susceptibility” to linguistically-based IM develops. The authors tested adults, school-age children (aged 8 yrs), and preschool-age children (aged 4 yrs) on sentence recognition in the presence of normal speech, “jumbled” speech, and reversed speech distractors. As has been found previously with adults [e.g., Summers and Molis (2004). J. Speech, Lang. Hear. Res. 47, 245–256], children in both age groups showed a release of masking when the distractor was uninterpretable (reversed speech). This suggests that children already demonstrate linguistically-based IM by the age of 4 yrs. PMID:26233069

  11. Learning from the Children: Exploring Preschool Children's Encounters with ICT at Home

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stephen, Christine; McPake, Joanna; Plowman, Lydia; Berch-Heyman, Sarah

    2008-01-01

    This article is an account of our attempts to understand preschool children's experiences with information and communication technologies (ICT) at home. Using case study data, we focus on what we can learn from talking directly to the children that might otherwise have been overlooked and on describing and evaluating the methods we adopted to…

  12. [Clinical diagnostics of ADHD in preschool-aged children].

    PubMed

    Merkt, Julia; Petermann, Franz

    2015-03-01

    Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is one of the most prevalent psychiatric disorders in childhood and adolescence and has many negative consequences for both the child and the family. Early identification of children with ADHD would be helpful for the prevention of long-term consequences. This review appraises questionnaires and clinical interviews that can be used for the diagnosis of ADHD in preschool-aged children (3-5 years). We compare and discuss both German and international methods. The role of questionnaires and clinical interviews in the diagnostic process of ADHD is discussed. PMID:25769765

  13. Raising Our Voices for Children. Association for Children of New Jersey Annual Report, 2006

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Association for Children of New Jersey, 2006

    2006-01-01

    Through research and policy advocacy, the Association for Children of New Jersey (ACNJ) works to change state policies and improve programs for children, and advocates to bring together many more voices on behalf of children. The annual report reviews 2006 accomplishments, including: (1) More state funding for preschool ensure that more children…

  14. Influencing factors of screen time in preschool children: an exploration of parents' perceptions through focus groups in six European countries.

    PubMed

    De Decker, E; De Craemer, M; De Bourdeaudhuij, I; Wijndaele, K; Duvinage, K; Koletzko, B; Grammatikaki, E; Iotova, V; Usheva, N; Fernández-Alvira, J M; Zych, K; Manios, Y; Cardon, G

    2012-03-01

    Preschoolers already spend significant proportions of their waking hours being sedentary. Screen time (i.e. television/DVD viewing and computer use) has been negatively associated with several health outcomes but interventions aiming to reduce preschoolers' sedentary behaviour are scarce. This study aimed to explore parents' perceptions of their preschool children's screen time. One hundred twenty-two parents of low and medium-high socioeconomic status from six European countries with children between 4 and 6 years old were involved in 24 focus groups. Following a qualitative content analysis, the available information and key findings were centrally analysed. Results showed that children tend to like watching television (TV) and most parents do not express worries about their children's TV viewing time. Education is considered to be the main benefit of watching TV and in general, parents only have informal rules about TV viewing. Computer and active games use are less frequent compared with TV viewing. No univocal results are found about the influence of siblings or friends on children's screen time. Weather conditions and parental habits at home are the most important factors influencing children's screen time. Alternatives for screen activities and information on how to set rules for screen time should be provided to parents to assist them in decreasing their preschool children's screen time. PMID:22309066

  15. The Diet of Preschool Children in the Mediterranean Countries of the European Union: A Systematic Review

    PubMed Central

    Pereira-da-Silva, Luís; Rêgo, Carla; Pietrobelli, Angelo

    2016-01-01

    This systematic review discusses data on the dietary intake of preschool children living in the Mediterranean countries of the European Union, including the comparison with a Mediterranean-like diet and the association with nutritional status. Specifically, data from the multinational European Identification and Prevention on Dietary and life style induced health effects in children and infants (IDEFICS) study and national studies, such as the Estudo do Padrão Alimentar e de Crescimento Infantil (EPACI) study and Geração XXI cohort in Portugal, ALimentando la SAlud del MAñana (ALSALMA) study in Spain, Étude des Déterminants pré-et postnatals précoces du développement et de la santé de l’ENfant (EDEN) cohort in France, Nutrintake 636 study in Italy, and Growth, Exercise and Nutrition Epidemiological Study in preSchoolers (GENESIS) cohort in Greece, were analyzed. In the majority of countries, young children consumed fruit and vegetables quite frequently, but also consumed sugared beverages and snacks. High energy and high protein intakes mainly from dairy products were found in the majority of countries. The majority of children also consumed excessive sodium intake. Early high prevalence of overweight and obesity was found, and both early consumption of energy-dense foods and overweight seemed to track across toddler and preschool ages. Most children living in the analyzed countries showed low adherence to a Mediterranean-like diet, which in turn was associated with being overweight/obese. Unhealthier diets were associated with lower maternal educational level and parental unemployment. Programs promoting adherence of young children to the traditional Mediterranean diet should be part of a multi-intervention strategy for the prevention and treatment of pediatric overweight and obesity. PMID:27338427

  16. Home air-conditioning, traffic exposure, and asthma and allergic symptoms among preschool children.

    PubMed

    Zuraimi, Mohamed Sultan; Tham, Kwok-Wai; Chew, Fook-Tim; Ooi, Peng-Lim; Koh, David

    2011-02-01

    Epidemiological data suggest that traffic exposures can influence asthma and allergic symptoms among preschool children; however, there is no information on risk reduction via home air-conditioning (AC). The aim of this study is to evaluate the associations of self-reported traffic densities with asthma and allergic symptoms among preschool children and determine whether AC is an effect modifier. A cross-sectional study adopting an expanded and modified ISAAC--International Study of Asthma and Allergies in Childhood conducted on randomly selected 2994 children living in homes without any indoor risk factors. Specific information on demographics, indoor home risk factors, and traffic variables were obtained. Adjusted prevalence ratios (PR) and 95% confidence interval (CI) were determined by Cox proportional hazard regression model with assumption of a constant risk period controlled for covariates. We found dose-response significant relationships between validated self-reported traffic densities and asthma and rhinitis symptoms. Among children sleeping in non-air-conditioned homes, there were stronger associations between asthma and rhinitis symptoms studied. PRs for heavy traffic density were 2.06 for wheeze (95% CI 0.97-4.38), 2.89 for asthma (1.14-7.32), 1.73 for rhinitis (1.00-2.99), and 3.39 for rhinoconjunctivitis (1.24-9.27). There were no associations found for children sleeping in air-conditioned homes. Our results suggest that AC in the bedroom modifies the health effects of traffic among preschool children. This finding suggests that attention should also be paid to ventilation characteristics of the homes to remediate health-related traffic pollution problems. PMID:20561230

  17. The Diet of Preschool Children in the Mediterranean Countries of the European Union: A Systematic Review.

    PubMed

    Pereira-da-Silva, Luís; Rêgo, Carla; Pietrobelli, Angelo

    2016-01-01

    This systematic review discusses data on the dietary intake of preschool children living in the Mediterranean countries of the European Union, including the comparison with a Mediterranean-like diet and the association with nutritional status. Specifically, data from the multinational European Identification and Prevention on Dietary and life style induced health effects in children and infants (IDEFICS) study and national studies, such as the Estudo do Padrão Alimentar e de Crescimento Infantil (EPACI) study and Geração XXI cohort in Portugal, ALimentando la SAlud del MAñana (ALSALMA) study in Spain, Étude des Déterminants pré-et postnatals précoces du développement et de la santé de l'ENfant (EDEN) cohort in France, Nutrintake 636 study in Italy, and Growth, Exercise and Nutrition Epidemiological Study in preSchoolers (GENESIS) cohort in Greece, were analyzed. In the majority of countries, young children consumed fruit and vegetables quite frequently, but also consumed sugared beverages and snacks. High energy and high protein intakes mainly from dairy products were found in the majority of countries. The majority of children also consumed excessive sodium intake. Early high prevalence of overweight and obesity was found, and both early consumption of energy-dense foods and overweight seemed to track across toddler and preschool ages. Most children living in the analyzed countries showed low adherence to a Mediterranean-like diet, which in turn was associated with being overweight/obese. Unhealthier diets were associated with lower maternal educational level and parental unemployment. Programs promoting adherence of young children to the traditional Mediterranean diet should be part of a multi-intervention strategy for the prevention and treatment of pediatric overweight and obesity. PMID:27338427

  18. Preventing Obesity among Preschool Children: How Can Child-Care Settings Promote Healthy Eating and Physical Activity? Research Synthesis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Larson, Nicole; Ward, Dianne; Neelon, Sara Benjamin; Story, Mary

    2011-01-01

    Child-care settings provide numerous opportunities to promote healthy eating and physical activity behaviors among preschool children. The majority of U.S. children are placed in some form of non-parental care during their preschool years. While approximately 15 percent of preschool children are primarily cared for by their relatives, most…

  19. An Evaluation of Social Adaptation Skills of Children with and without Preschool Education Background Based on Their Mothers' Views

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gunindi, Yunus

    2013-01-01

    This study was designed to discover if preschool teaching affects children's development of social skills and behaviours. Mothers of 50 children from middle socio-economic class families attending preschools and mothers of 50 children from the same socio-economic class families not attending preschools were included in the study. "Social…

  20. Accidents to preschool children: comparing family and neighbourhood risk factors.

    PubMed

    Reading, R; Langford, I H; Haynes, R; Lovett, A

    1999-02-01

    Accidental injury in young children is more common among poorer families and in deprived areas but little is known about how these factors interact. This paper describes a study to measure the contribution of individual family factors and area characteristics in determining risk of accidental injury among preschool children. We conducted a population based study of preschool accident and emergency attendances over two years in and around the city of Norwich, UK. Information on individual families was extracted from the district child health information system while "social areas" were constructed from adjacent census enumeration districts with homogeneous social and demographic characteristics. Statistical analysis was by multilevel modelling. Accidental injury rates were much higher in deprived urban neighbourhoods than in affluent areas but the multilevel analysis showed that, for all accidents, much of the variation in rates was accounted for by factors at the individual level i.e. male sex, young maternal age, number of elder siblings and distance from hospital, with a smaller, but independent, influence of living in a deprived neighbourhood. The model for more severe injuries was similar except single parenthood was now significant at the level of individuals and the effect of area deprivation was stronger. We conclude that preschool accidental injuries are influenced by factors operating at both the level of individual families and between areas. This evidence suggests that both social policy changes to improve child care among unsupported young families and targeting accident prevention measures at a local level towards deprived neighbourhoods would reduce accidents. PMID:10077280

  1. Determinant Factors of Untreated Dental Caries and Lesion Activity in Preschool Children Using ICDAS.

    PubMed

    Pinto-Sarmento, Tássia Cristina de Almeida; Abreu, Mauro Henrique; Gomes, Monalisa Cesarino; Costa, Edja Maria Melo de Brito; Martins, Carolina Castro; Granville-Garcia, Ana Flávia; Paiva, Saul Martins

    2016-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to investigate determinant factors associated with the presence of dental caries and lesion activity in preschool children. A population-based, cross-sectional study was carried out with 843 children of aged three to five years enrolled at public and private preschools in the city of Campina Grande, Brazil. A questionnaire addressing socio-demographic data and oral health care was self-administered by parents/caregivers. Three dentists previously calibrated examined the children for the diagnosis of dental caries and lesion activity using the International Caries Detection and Assessment System (ICDAS). Nutritional status was evaluated based on the body mass index. Logistic regression analysis for complex samples was performed (α = 5%). The prevalence of dental caries was 66.3%. Among the children with caries, 88.0% had active lesions. Dental caries was more prevalent in girls (OR = 1.53, 95%CI: 1.05-2.23), in children from families with a monthly household income ≤US$312.50 (OR = 2.38, 95%CI: 1.65-3.43) and those whose mothers had up to eight years of schooling (OR = 1.55, 95%CI: 1.07-2.23). Lesion activity was significantly associated with mother's schooling ≤ 8 years (OR = 2.15, 95%CI: 1.15-4.00). The prevalence rates of dental caries and lesion activity were high and mainly associated with a lower socioeconomic status and mother's schooling. PMID:26900846

  2. Ascaris and hookworm transmission in preschool children in rural Panama: role of subsistence agricultural activities.

    PubMed

    Krause, Rachel J; Koski, Kristine G; Pons, Emérita; Sinisterra, Odalis; Scott, Marilyn E

    2016-07-01

    This longitudinal study explored whether aspects of subsistence agriculture were associated with presence and intensity of Ascaris and hookworm in preschool children in rural Panama. Questionnaires were used to collect data on household socio-demographics, child exposure to agriculture and household agricultural practices. Stool samples were collected from children (6 months-5 years) at 3 time points, with albendazole administered after each to clear infections, resulting in 1 baseline and 2 reinfection measures. A novel Agricultural Activity Index (AAI) was developed using principal components analysis to measure the intensity of household agricultural practices. Zero-inflated negative binomial regression models revealed baseline hookworm egg counts were higher if children went to the agricultural plot and if the plot was smaller. Baseline and reinfection Ascaris egg counts were higher if children went to the plot and households had higher AAI, and higher at baseline if the plot was smaller. Caregiver time in the plot was negatively associated with baseline Ascaris egg counts, but positively associated with baseline hookworm and Ascaris reinfection egg counts. Children who spent more time playing around the home were less likely to be infected with Ascaris at baseline. We conclude that preschool child exposure to subsistence agriculture increased Ascaris and hookworm intensity. PMID:27000494

  3. Parenting styles and child behavior in African American families of preschool children.

    PubMed

    Querido, Jane G; Warner, Tamara D; Eyberg, Sheila M

    2002-06-01

    Examined the relations between parenting styles and child behavior problems in African American preschool children. Participants were 108 African American female caregivers of 3- to 6-year-old children. Correlational analysis showed that parent-reported child behavior problems were associated with maternal education, family income, and parents' endorsement of authoritative parenting, authoritarian parenting, and permissive parenting. Hierarchical regression analysis showed that the authoritative parenting style was most predictive of fewer child behavior problems. These results are consistent with previous findings with European American families and provide strong support for the cross-cultural validity of the authoritative parenting style. PMID:12056110

  4. Salivary alpha amylase diurnal pattern and stress response are associated with body mass index in low-income preschool-aged children.

    PubMed

    Miller, Alison L; Sturza, Julie; Rosenblum, Katherine; Vazquez, Delia M; Kaciroti, Niko; Lumeng, Julie C

    2015-03-01

    Physiological stress responses are proposed as a pathway through which stress can "get under the skin" and lead to health problems, specifically obesity. We tested associations of salivary alpha amylase (sAA) diurnal patterns and stress responses with body mass index (BMI) in young, low-income children (51% male; 54% non-Hispanic white). Diurnal saliva samples were collected three times per day across three days for 269 children (M age 50.8 months, SD 6.3). Individual sAA intercept and slope values were calculated using random effect models to represent morning sAA levels and rate of sAA change across the day. A subset of children (n=195; M age 56.6 months, SD 6.9) participated in a lab-based behavioral stress protocol. Area under the curve increase (AUCI) across four timepoints was calculated to represent increase in sAA output during stress elicitation. Children were weighed and height measured and BMI z-score was calculated. Linear regression was used to evaluate associations of sAA intercept, sAA slope, and sAA AUCI with BMI z-score, controlling for child age, sex, and race/ethnicity; maternal weight status; and family income-to-needs ratio. Diurnal and stress-response sAA patterns were related to child adiposity: for each 1-standard deviation unit (SDU) decrease in morning sAA level, the child's BMI z-score increased by 0.11 (SE 0.05) SDU's (p<.04); for each 1-SDU increase in sAA slope across the day, the child's BMI z-score increased by 0.12 (SE 0.05) SDU's (p<.03); and for each 1-SDU decrease in sAA AUCI during the stress elicitation, the child's BMI z-score increased by 0.14 (SE 0.06) SDU's (p<.03). Blunted stress responses and atypical diurnal patterns of sAA have been found following exposure to chronic life stressors such as poverty. Findings suggest that associations of stress, sAA, and elevated body mass index may develop very early in the lifespan. PMID:25588701

  5. Hypothetical model in testing integrated development of preschool children.

    PubMed

    Bala, Gustav; Katić, Ratko

    2009-06-01

    This paper provides systematic presentation of the issues related to methodology, and offers some possible solutions for analysis of different aspects of child development, especially preschool age. These issues are related to the definition, acceptance and preparation of the existing theories on development, which include analysis of the whole child's self his/her surroundings, and his/her activities. In addition, this analysis also includes some methodological problems related to sexual dimorphism, heritage-bound and surroundings-bound development, definition of the model of constructs affecting the selection of variables for evaluation of integral development, definition of the population and selection of the subject sample, determination of manifest characteristics and abilities, selection or construction of measuring instruments for their evaluation, appropriateness of the model and method of data analysis, as well as the possibility of designing the potential model of integrated development of preschool children. PMID:19662751

  6. A Pilot Study of Early Childhood Mental Health Consultation for Children with Behavioral Problems in Preschool

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Upshur, Carole; Wenz-Gross, Melodie; Reed, George

    2009-01-01

    This study reports the findings of a pilot demonstration project called Together for Kids, which used a mental health consultation model to address the needs of young children with challenging behaviors who are identified in preschool classrooms. The study was conducted in four preschool programs and one Head Start program serving children ages…

  7. Relations between Working Memory and Emergent Writing among Preschool-Aged Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hoskyn, Maureen; Tzoneva, Irina

    2008-01-01

    The authors examined the nature of the working memory system that underlies age differences of young, preschool-aged children. Measures of working memory, short-term memory, articulation speed, general intelligence, and writing were administered to 166 Canadian preschool-aged children aged 3 to 5 years. Findings generally support the hypothesis…

  8. Preschool Children's Interest in Babies: Observations in Naturally-Occurring Settings.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blakemore, Judith E. Owen

    Previous research in laboratory settings has found that preschool girls show more interest in babies than do preschool boys. To validate these findings in natural settings, 71 children at 3 and 5 years of age were observed by their parents as the children interacted with babies in their daily lives. Each child was observed with three different…

  9. Effects of Social Stories on Prosocial Behavior of Preschool Children with Autism Spectrum Disorders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Crozier, Shannon; Tincani, Matt

    2007-01-01

    Social Stories[TM] are a popular intervention for preschool children with autism spectrum disorders (ASD), but little research on Social Stories has been conducted with this population. This study investigated the effects of Social Stories on prosocial behavior of three preschool children with ASD in an inclusive setting. An ABAB design was used…

  10. Arts Enrichment and Preschool Emotions for Low-Income Children at Risk

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, Eleanor D.; Sax, Kacey L.

    2013-01-01

    No studies to date examine the impact of arts-integrated preschool programming on the emotional functioning of low-income children at risk for school problems. The present study examines observed emotion expression and teacher-rated emotion regulation for low-income children attending Settlement Music School's Kaleidoscope Preschool Arts…

  11. Analogic and Symbolic Comparison of Numerosity in Preschool Children with Cochlear Implants

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arfe, Barbara; Lucangeli, Daniela; Genovese, Elisabetta; Monzani, Daniele; Gubernale, Marco; Trevisi, Patrizia; Santarelli, Rosamaria

    2011-01-01

    This study explores how preschoolers with cochlear implants process numerical comparisons from two different inputs: a) nonverbal (analogical) and b) verbal (symbolic). Preschool cochlear-implanted children (CI) ranging in age from 4;3 to 6;1 were compared with 99 age-matched hearing children (HC) in three numerical tasks: verbal counting, a digit…

  12. Drawing Children into Reading: A Qualitative Case Study of a Preschool Drawing Curriculum

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DeFauw, Danielle L.

    2016-01-01

    This article details a qualitative case study of 24 preschool children engaged with step-by-step drawing instruction provided by five educators as they developed their fine motor skills and drew detailed objects using the Drawing Children Into Reading curriculum (Halperin, W. A. (2011a). "Project 50 preschool manual." South Haven, MI:…

  13. Contributions of Emergent Literacy Skills to Name Writing, Letter Writing, and Spelling in Preschool Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Puranik, Cynthia S.; Lonigan, Christopher J.; Kim, Young-Suk

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine which emergent literacy skills contribute to preschool children's emergent writing (name-writing, letter-writing, and spelling) skills. Emergent reading and writing tasks were administered to 296 preschool children aged 4-5 years. Print knowledge and letter-writing skills made positive contributions to name…

  14. Developing Basic Mathematical Skills of Pre-School Children by Using Plasticized Clay

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chumark, Charung; Puncreobutr, Vichian

    2016-01-01

    The main objective of this research was to study the development of basic mathematical skills in preschool children by using plasticized clay. A pre-test and post-test design was adopted for the study to compare the difference before and after the art activity. The experimental group of 15 preschool children of 3-4 years old, attending…

  15. Confirmatory Factor Analysis of the KABC-II in Preschool Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morgan, Kimberly E.; Rothlisberg, Barbara A.; McIntosh, David E.; Hunt, Madeline S.

    2009-01-01

    The present study assessed the Kaufman Assessment Battery for Children, Second Edition (KABC-II) in relation to the synthesized Cattell-Horn-Carroll (CHC) theory of intelligence with a preschool sample. Participants were 200 preschool children between four and five years of age. A confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) was conducted, and different…

  16. Letter-Sound Reading: Teaching Preschool Children Print-to-Sound Processing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wolf, Gail Marie

    2016-01-01

    This intervention study investigated the growth of letter sound reading and growth of consonant-vowel-consonant (CVC) word decoding abilities for a representative sample of 41 US children in preschool settings. Specifically, the study evaluated the effectiveness of a 3-step letter-sound teaching intervention in teaching preschool children to…

  17. A Report of Survey on Conditions of Preschool Children's Family Music Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bi, Yujuan

    2011-01-01

    The author composes a questionnaire about conditions of preschool children's family music education. The survey includes 280 preschool children in a city of Shandong province. It finds that most parents have recognized the importance of early childhood music education, but there is the tendency of utilitarian. The content of family music education…

  18. Validation of a Questionnaire to Measure Mastery Motivation among Chinese Preschool Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leung, Cynthia; Lo, S. K.

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this study was to validate a questionnaire on mastery motivation (task and effort) for use with Chinese preschool children in Hong Kong. A parent version and a teacher version were developed and evaluated. Participants included 457 children (230 boys and 227 girls) aged four and five years old, their preschool teachers and their…

  19. Nutritional Status of Mexican American Preschool Children in East Los Angeles and San Diego.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lewis, Jane S.; And Others

    Results of a 1968 pilot study of the nutritional status of Mexican American preschool children in East Los Angeles and San Diego are reported in this document. Questionnaire data collected from mothers of preschool children are presented in terms of a description of families, prenatal care, clinical examinations, dietary intakes, and biochemical…

  20. Executive Functioning Skills in Preschool-Age Children with Cochlear Implants

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beer, Jessica; Kronenberger, William G.; Castellanos, Irina; Colson, Bethany G.; Henning, Shirley C.; Pisoni, David B.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this study was to determine whether deficits in executive functioning (EF) in children with cochlear implants (CIs) emerge as early as the preschool years. Method: Two groups of children ages 3 to 6 years participated in this cross-sectional study: 24 preschoolers who had CIs prior to 36 months of age and 21 preschoolers…

  1. Motor Proficiency and Body Mass Index of Preschool Children: In Relation to Socioeconomic Status

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mülazimoglu-Balli, Özgür

    2016-01-01

    The aim of the study was to investigate the correlation between motor proficiency and body mass index and to assess the socioeconomic status differences in motor proficiency and body mass index of preschool children. Sixty preschool children in the different socioeconomic status areas of central Denizli in Turkey participated in the study. The…

  2. The Social Behaviours of Inhibited Children in and out of Preschool

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Coplan, Robert J.; DeBow, Adrienne, Schneider, Barry H.; Graham, Allison A.

    2009-01-01

    The goal of the present study was to explore the social behaviours of inhibited children in familiar social contexts, including: (1) free play with peers at preschool and (2) social activities at home and in the community. The initial participants were N = 248 preschool children between the ages of 42 and 66 months. From this initial data, two…

  3. Sleep Patterns in Preschool-Age Children with Autism, Developmental Delay, and Typical Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goodlin-Jones, Beth L.; Tang, Karen; Liu, Jingyi; Anders, Thomas F.

    2008-01-01

    The study investigates sleep disorders by assessing the quantity and quality of sleep in preschool children with autism and comparing them with developmental delay without autism, and typical development. The results prove that sleep patterns are different in preschool children across all three categories.

  4. The Screening, Assessment, and Educational Programming of Pre-School Handicapped Children: A Primer.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sommer, Steve E.; Churton, Margaret

    The training manual is intended to meet the training needs of Head Start personnel and others working with preschool handicapped children who have not had formal training in special education. The book attempts to provide the basic concepts and practices of providing individualized instruction to preschool handicapped children as mandated by P.L.…

  5. Development and Validation of a Musical Behavior Measure for Preschool Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yi, Gina Jisun

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to develop a measure for use in assessing musical behaviors of preschool children in the context of regular music instruction and to determine the validity and the reliability of the measure. The Early Childhood Musical Behavior Measure (ECMBM) was constructed for use with preschool-aged children to measure their…

  6. A Latent Variable Approach to Determining the Structure of Executive Function in Preschool Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miller, Michael R.; Giesbrecht, Gerald F.; Muller, Ulrich; McInerney, Robert J.; Kerns, Kimberly A.

    2012-01-01

    The composition of executive function (EF) in preschool children was examined using confirmatory factor analysis (CFA). A sample of 129 children between 3 and 5 years of age completed a battery of EF tasks. Using performance indicators of working memory and inhibition similar to previous CFA studies with preschoolers, we replicated a unitary EF…

  7. A Preliminary Screening Program to Identify Functioning Strengths and Weaknesses in Preschool Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Amundson, Marian Stuehrenberg

    The purpose of this study was to compare two instruments for screening preschool children for potential learning problems. The two instruments used were the Metropolitan Readiness Tests (MRT) and the Wizard of Oz Preschool Preliminary Screening Program. The children tested on both measures were members of a self-contained kindergarten class. MRT…

  8. Investigating Mechanisms of Suppression in Preschool Children with Specific Language Impairment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Spaulding, Tammie J.

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: This study investigated 2 suppression mechanisms--(a) resistance to distracter interference and (b) inhibition of a prepotent response--in preschool children with specific language impairment (SLI) and their typically developing peers. Method: Twenty-two preschool children with SLI and 22 typically developing controls participated in this…

  9. Characterizing dinner meals served and consumed by low-income preschool children

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A dinner meal is consumed by approximately 95% of preschool children, yet few studies have characterized the dinner meal within a broader environmental context. The primary goal of this study was to identify the average quantities of foods served and consumed at the dinner meal by preschool children...

  10. Questions and Directions Related to the Provision of Services to Preschool Children with Severe Behavior Disorders.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hilton, Alan; Schmitz, Cathryne L.

    Six issues are discussed concerning the provision of services to preschool children with severe behavior disorders, in order to initiate an examination of needs for policy, services, and training. The issues, which are presented in the form of questions, include: how to define the population of preschool children with severe behavior disorders,…

  11. Preschool Age Children, Divorce and Adjustment: A Case Study in Greek Kindergarten

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Babalis, Thomas; Xanthakou, Yiota; Papa, Christina; Tsolou, Olympia

    2011-01-01

    Introduction: The aim of this research, which was carried out in 2010, is the comparative study of the psychosocial adjustment of preschool children from divorced and nuclear families in the nursery school. Method: The sample of the study consisted of 60 students (mean age = 5.21), 30 preschool children of divorced parents and 30 preschool…

  12. Making Differences and Reflecting on Diversities: Embodied Nationality among Preschool Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lappalainen, Sirpa

    2009-01-01

    This paper focuses on embodied practices in processes of nationalization among preschool children at the age of 6. It analyses how children define themselves and others, how they characterize and frame Finnishness through embodiment. The analysis is based on an ethnographic study in two preschool classes. It is argued that nationality works in a…

  13. Development of the Preschool Developmental Assessment Scale (PDAS) on Children's Social Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leung, Cynthia; Cheung, Jasmine; Lau, Vanessa; Lam, Catherine

    2011-01-01

    This paper aimed to describe the design and development of the social domain of the Preschool Developmental Assessment Scale (PDAS), which would be used for assessment of preschool children with different developmental disabilities. The original version of the social domain consisted of 30 items. Children were asked questions about their social…

  14. A Survey of Swedish Teachers' Concerns for Preschool Children at Risk of Maltreatment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Svensson, Birgitta; Andershed, Henrik; Janson, Staffan

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate a problem that is related to pre-school teachers' prolonged and temporary concerns for children's home situations and the extent to which these children were in need of special support in pre-school and/or were reported to the CPA. Data were obtained from a Swedish prospective study (the SOFIA-study)…

  15. Factor Analysis of the Preschool Behavioral and Emotional Rating Scale for Children in Head Start Programs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cress, Cynthia; Lambert, Matthew C.; Epstein, Michael H.

    2016-01-01

    Strength-based assessment of behaviors in preschool children provides evidence of emotional and behavioral skills in children, rather than focusing primarily on weaknesses identified by deficit-based assessments. The Preschool Behavioral and Emotional Rating Scales (PreBERS) is a normative assessment of emotional and behavioral strengths in…

  16. The Effects of TV Program Pacing on the Behavior of Preschool Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anderson, Daniel R.; And Others

    1977-01-01

    Assertions that television (Sesame Street in particular) produces hyperactivity, impulsivity, disorganized behavior, and shortened attention spans in pre-school children were investigated. No evidence was found that rapid television pacing has an immediate negative impact on behavior of preschool children. (Author/STS)

  17. Validation of a Questionnaire on Behaviour Academic Competence among Chinese Preschool Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leung, Cynthia; Lo, S. K.; Leung, Shirley S. L.

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this study was to validate a questionnaire on academic competence behaviour for use with Chinese preschool children in Hong Kong. A parent version and a teacher version were developed and evaluated. The participants included 457 children (230 boys and 227 girls) aged four and five years old, their preschool teachers and their parents.…

  18. Gender Differences in the Content of Preschool Children's Recollections: A Longitudinal Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tõugu, Pirko; Tulviste, Tiia; Suits, Kristi

    2014-01-01

    Personal recollections constitute autobiographical memory that develops intensively during the preschool years. The two-wave longitudinal study focuses on gender differences in preschool children's independent recollections. The same children (N = 275; 140 boys, 135 girls) were asked to talk about their previous birthday and the past weekend…

  19. Social Information Processing in Preschool Children: Relations to Sociodemographic Risk and Problem Behavior

    PubMed Central

    Ziv, Yair; Sorongon, Alberto

    2011-01-01

    Using a multi-component, process-oriented approach, the links between Social Information Processing in the preschool years and a) sociodemographic risk, and b) behavior problems in preschool, were examined in a community sample of 196 children. Findings provided support for our initial hypotheses that aspects of social information processing in preschool are related to both sociodemographic risk and to behavior problems in preschool. Response evaluation, and in particular, the positive evaluation of an aggressive response, were related to both sociodemographic risk and children’s aggressive behavior and partially mediated the links between sociodemographic risk and aggressive behavior in preschool. PMID:21420102

  20. Daytime Sleep Patterns in Preschool Children with Autism, Developmental Delay, and Typical Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schwichtenberg, A. J.; Iosif, Ana-Maria; Goodlin-Jones, Beth; Tang, Karen; Anders, Thomas

    2011-01-01

    The present study examined daytime sleep patterns in 3 groups of preschool-aged children: children with autism, children with developmental delay, and children who were developing typically. Sleep was assessed in 194 children via actigraphy and parent-report sleep diaries for 7 consecutive days on 3 separate occasions over 6 months. Children with…

  1. Psychosocial characteristics of preschool siblings of handicapped and nonhandicapped children.

    PubMed

    Lobato, D; Barbour, L; Hall, L J; Miller, C T

    1987-09-01

    This project examined psychosocial characteristics of 24 preschool-aged siblings of handicapped children in relation to a control group of 22 siblings of nonhandicapped children. Subjects were matched on family size and income, sibling age, birth order, sex, age spacing, and marital status of their parents. Results indicated no statistically significant differences between groups of children on measures of perceived self-competence and acceptance, understanding of developmental disabilities, empathy, and child care responsibility. Significant group differences were found where brothers of handicapped children were rated by their mothers as being more depressed and aggressive than brothers of nonhandicapped control children. Sisters of handicapped children were rated by mothers as being more aggressive than sisters of nonhandicapped children. Sisters of handicapped children and brothers of nonhandicapped children had significantly fewer privileges and more restrictions on their home activities than other groups. Results are discussed in relation to previous research on older siblings of handicapped children and the general literature on family stress and childhood disability and disease. The importance of examining sibling functioning via multiple measures of child behavior is stressed. PMID:2959706

  2. Intensity of Supervision and Outcome for Preschool Aged Children Receiving Early and Intensive Behavioral Interventions: A Preliminary Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eikeseth, Svein; Hayward, Diane; Gale, Catherine; Gitlesen, Jens-Petter; Eldevik, Sigmund

    2009-01-01

    We asked whether intensity of supervision is associated with outcome in preschool aged children with autism (N = 20) who received intensive and early behavioral intervention. Intensity of supervision ranged from 2.9 to 7.8 h per month per child. A significant correlation was found between intensity of supervision and improvement scores in IQ.…

  3. Caregiver's Country of Birth Is a Significant Determinant of Accurate Perception of Preschool-Age Children's Weight

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Natale, Ruby; Uhlhorn, Susan B.; Lopez-Mitnik, Gabriela; Camejo, Stephanie; Englebert, Nicole; Delamater, Alan M.; Messiah, Sarah E.

    2016-01-01

    Background: One in four preschool-age children in the United States are currently overweight or obese. Previous studies have shown that caregivers of this age group often have difficulty accurately recognizing their child's weight status. The purpose of this study was to examine factors associated with accurate/inaccurate perception of child body…

  4. Role of physical activity and sleep duration in growth and body composition of preschool-aged children

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The impact of physical activity patterns and sleep duration on growth and body composition of preschool-aged children remains unresolved. Aims were (1) to delineate cross-sectional associations among physical activity components, sleep, total energy expenditure (TEE), and body size and composition; ...

  5. Earthcycles: Environmental Education with Preschool Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lewis-Webber, Mavis

    Early childhood educators and parents face the task of educating young children in Canada about environmental issues. The sooner young children participate in activities with an environmental theme, the more likely they are to appreciate the environment. This booklet is designed to introduce early childhood educators to environmental education…

  6. Unintentional Injuries in Preschool Age Children

    PubMed Central

    Acar, Ethem; Dursun, Onur Burak; Esin, İbrahim Selcuk; Öğütlü, Hakan; Özcan, Halil; Mutlu, Murat

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Unintentional injuries are the leading cause of death among children. Previous research has shown that most of the injuries occur in and around the home. Therefore, parents have a key role in the occurrence and prevention of injuries. In this study, we examined the relationship among home injuries to children and parental attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) symptoms, parental attitudes, and children's behavioral problems. Forty children who were admitted to the emergency department because of home injuries constitute the study group. The control group also consisted of 40 children, who were admitted for mild throat infections. The parents filled out questionnaires assessing parental ADHD, child behavioral problems, and parenting attitudes. Scores were significantly higher for both internalizing disorders and externalizing disorders in study groups. We also found that ADHD symptoms were significantly higher among fathers of injured children compared with fathers of control groups. Democratic parenting was also found to correlate with higher numbers of injuries. Parenting style, as well as the psychopathology of both the parents and children, is important factors in children's injuries. A child psychiatrist visit following an emergency procedure may help to prevent further unintentional injuries to the child. PMID:26266395

  7. Conformity to Peer Pressure in Preschool Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Haun, Daniel B. M.; Tomasello, Michael

    2011-01-01

    Both adults and adolescents often conform their behavior and opinions to peer groups, even when they themselves know better. The current study investigated this phenomenon in 24 groups of 4 children between 4;2 and 4;9 years of age. Children often made their judgments conform to those of 3 peers, who had made obviously erroneous but unanimous…

  8. Preschool Children's Understanding of Semantic Relations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fu, Panfang

    Two experiments investigated 4- to 5-year olds' understanding of semantic relations and methods for incorporating new words into their lexicon. In one experiment, 24 children were shown a picture of a container and told that an object called "X" was hidden inside it. Children were asked questions about the object X and about "Y," which indicated a…

  9. E.T.: Preschool Children's Perceptions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roscoe, Bruce; Peterson, Karen L.

    An exploratory study investigated preoperational children's understanding of the fictional movie character E.T. (The Extra-Terrestrial). Of 40 participating children (ages 40 to 66 months), 85 percent indicated they had seen the movie. Data were collected according to an interview method, and responses were recorded on audiotape, transcribed, and…

  10. Dyadic orienting and joint attention in preschool children with autism.

    PubMed

    Leekam, Susan R; Ramsden, Christopher A H

    2006-02-01

    Acts of dyadic orienting (responses to attention bids by a researcher) and acts of joint attention (e.g. pointing and showing behaviors) were observed in preschool children with autism and children with developmental delay. Children with autism responded to fewer adult vocal and non-vocal attention bids that were made singly and by combining modalities (e.g. name call plus touch). Sensitivity in dyadic orienting was significantly related to child-initiated acts of joint attention (IJA). Sensitivity to dyadic orienting was also significantly related to language and non-verbal ability. These findings indicate that dyadic orienting difficulties are found alongside triadic joint attention difficulties in children with autism. PMID:16502142

  11. Phenomenology, psychiatric comorbidity and family history in referred preschool children with obsessive-compulsive disorder

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Objective The study aimed to investigate phenomenology, psychiatric comorbidity, and family history of obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) in a clinical sample of normally developing preschool children with OCD. Method Subjects in this study were recruited from a clinical sample of preschool children (under 72 months of age) who were referred to a university clinic. Subjects with a normal developmental history and significant impairment related to OCD symptoms were included in the study. Children’s Yale-Brown Obsessive-Compulsive Scale was used to assess OCD symptoms. Each subject was assessed for comorbid DSM-IV psychiatric disorders using a semi-structured interview. Parents were evaluated for lifetime history of OCD in individual sessions. Results Fifteen boys and ten girls (age range: 28 to 69 months; 54.12±9.08 months) were included. Mean age of onset of OCD was 35.64±13.42 months. All subjects received at least one comorbid diagnosis. The most frequent comorbid disorders were non-OCD anxiety disorders (n=17; 68.0%), attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) (n=15; 60.0%), oppositional defiant disorder (ODD) (n=12; 48.0%), and tic disorders (n=6; 24.0%). Mean number of comorbid disorders was 3.65 and 2.35 for boys and girls, respectively. At least one parent received lifetime OCD diagnosis in 68 percent of the subjects. Conclusions The results indicated that OCD in referred preschool children is more common in males, highly comorbid with other psychiatric disorders, and associated with high rates of family history of OCD. Given the high rates of comorbidity and family history, OCD should be considered in referred preschool children with disruptive behavior disorders and/or with family history of OCD. PMID:23173690

  12. Perceived Impact of Dental Pain on the Quality of Life of Preschool Children and Their Families.

    PubMed

    Clementino, Marayza Alves; Gomes, Monalisa Cesarino; Pinto-Sarmento, Tássia Cristina de Almeida; Martins, Carolina Castro; Granville-Garcia, Ana Flávia; Paiva, Saul Martins

    2015-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to evaluate the perceived impact of dental caries and dental pain on oral health-related quality of life (OHRQoL) among preschool children and their families. A cross-sectional study was conduct with 843 preschool children in Campina Grande, Brazil. Parents/caregivers answered a questionnaire on socio-demographic information, their child's general/oral health and history of dental pain. The Brazilian version of the Early Childhood Oral Health Impact Scale was administered to determine the perceived impact of caries and dental pain on OHRQoL. The children underwent an oral examination. Logistic regression for complex sample was used to determine associations between the dependent and independent variables (OR: Odds ratio, α = 5%). The independents variables that had a p-value <0.20 in the bivariate analysis were selected for the multivariate model. The prevalence of dental caries and dental pain was 66.3% and 9.4%, respectively. Order of birth of the child, being the middle child (OR: 10.107, 95%CI: 2.008-50.869) and youngest child (OR: 3.276, 95%CI: 1.048-10.284) and dental pain (OR: 84.477, 95%CI: 33.076-215.759) were significant predictors of the perceived impact on OHRQOL for children. Poor perception of oral health was significant predictor of the perceived impact on OHRQOL for family (OR=7.397, 95%CI: 2.190-24.987). Dental caries was not associated with a perceived impact on the ORHQoL of either the children or their families. However, order of child birth and dental pain were indicators of impact of OHRQoL on preschool children and poor perception of oral health was indicators of impact on families. PMID:26090927

  13. Perceived Impact of Dental Pain on the Quality of Life of Preschool Children and Their Families

    PubMed Central

    Clementino, Marayza Alves; Gomes, Monalisa Cesarino; Pinto-Sarmento, Tássia Cristina de Almeida; Martins, Carolina Castro; Granville-Garcia, Ana Flávia; Paiva, Saul Martins

    2015-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to evaluate the perceived impact of dental caries and dental pain on oral health-related quality of life (OHRQoL) among preschool children and their families. A cross-sectional study was conduct with 843 preschool children in Campina Grande, Brazil. Parents/caregivers answered a questionnaire on socio-demographic information, their child’s general/oral health and history of dental pain. The Brazilian version of the Early Childhood Oral Health Impact Scale was administered to determine the perceived impact of caries and dental pain on OHRQoL. The children underwent an oral examination. Logistic regression for complex sample was used to determine associations between the dependent and independent variables (OR: Odds ratio, α = 5%). The independents variables that had a p-value <0.20 in the bivariate analysis were selected for the multivariate model. The prevalence of dental caries and dental pain was 66.3% and 9.4%, respectively. Order of birth of the child, being the middle child (OR: 10.107, 95%CI: 2.008-50.869) and youngest child (OR: 3.276, 95%CI: 1.048-10.284) and dental pain (OR: 84.477, 95%CI: 33.076-215.759) were significant predictors of the perceived impact on OHRQOL for children. Poor perception of oral health was significant predictor of the perceived impact on OHRQOL for family (OR=7.397, 95%CI: 2.190-24.987). Dental caries was not associated with a perceived impact on the ORHQoL of either the children or their families. However, order of child birth and dental pain were indicators of impact of OHRQoL on preschool children and poor perception of oral health was indicators of impact on families. PMID:26090927

  14. Intestinal schistosomiasis among preschool children along the shores of Lake Victoria in Uganda.

    PubMed

    Nalugwa, A; Olsen, A; Tukahebwa, M E; Nuwaha, F

    2015-02-01

    Schistosomiasis, a disease caused by Schistosoma trematode parasites, affects hundreds of millions of people and accounts for more than 40% of the global health burden due to neglected tropical diseases. In Uganda, intestinal schistosomiasis is endemic in 73 out of 112 districts and about 55% of the population of 36 million individuals are at risk. There is scanty information on the status and burden of schistosomiasis in preschool children less than six years of age in Uganda. This study aimed to assess the status of Schistosoma mansoni infections in children aged 1-5 years in Uganda. S. mansoni prevalence and intensity of infection were examined in 3058 children from 5 districts along Lake Victoria shoreline, eastern Uganda. For each child one stool sample was collected on three consecutive days. The Kato-Katz technique was used to prepare stool smears on slides for microscopic examination. Short interviews with a standardized pre-tested questionnaire prepared in the local language (Lusoga) were administered to each caregiver to identify risk factors associated with S. mansoni infection. An overall S. mansoni prevalence of 39.3% (95% CI: 38.0-41.1%) was estimated out of the 3058 stool samples examined. The geometric mean intensity of S. mansoni among the infected children was 273 (95% CI: 241-305) eggs per gram of faeces. Both prevalence and intensity of infection increased linearly with age (P<0.0001) and were highest in the age group 49-60 months. Majority (61%) of the children, especially in the age group 12-24 months (84.2%; 95% CI: 75.6-90.1%), were lightly infected. Short interviews with caregivers revealed that preschool children, 1-5 years old, get exposed to S. mansoni infested waters through bathing, playing or swimming. It is important that the Uganda national control programme for schistosomiasis takes preschool children into consideration and that health education on transmission of schistosomiasis is delivered to the endemic communities regularly

  15. Prevalence of Enterobius vermicularis among preschool children in 2003 and 2013 in Xinxiang city, Henan province, Central China.

    PubMed

    Wang, Shuai; Yao, Zhijun; Hou, Yichen; Wang, Dong; Zhang, Haizhu; Ma, Jingbo; Zhang, Luwen; Liu, Shiguo

    2016-01-01

    The present study was performed to assess the prevalence of Enterobius vermicularis infection among preschool children in Xinxiang city, Henan province, China and the changes in the egg positive rate for E. vermicularis over a 10 year period. A total of 510 preschool children in 17 kindergartens were examined using the cellophane-tape perianal swab method in 2003, while 1734 preschool children in 10 kindergartens were examined in 2013 using the same method. The overall egg positive rate for E. vermicularis was 12.75% (65 out of 510) in 2003 and 5.13% (89 out of 1734) in 2013; the former was significantly higher than the latter (p < 0.05). In both 2003 and 2013, the egg positive rate for 5 to 6-year-old children was significantly higher than that of 2 to 4-year-old children (p < 0.05). However, positive rates were not significantly dependent on gender or area. Among selected personal hygiene factors, no hand washing before eating, sucking fingers or toys, and scratching around the anus were all associated with enterobiasis. The present study confirmed that the prevalence of E. vermicularis infection among preschool children decreased significantly over the 10 year period in Xinxiang city, but infection was still prevalent. Improving sanitation and personal hygiene practices, especially hand washing, could help prevent the transmission of E. vermicularis. PMID:27460881

  16. Prevalence of Enterobius vermicularis among preschool children in 2003 and 2013 in Xinxiang city, Henan province, Central China

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Shuai; Yao, Zhijun; Hou, Yichen; Wang, Dong; Zhang, Haizhu; Ma, Jingbo; Zhang, Luwen; Liu, Shiguo

    2016-01-01

    The present study was performed to assess the prevalence of Enterobius vermicularis infection among preschool children in Xinxiang city, Henan province, China and the changes in the egg positive rate for E. vermicularis over a 10 year period. A total of 510 preschool children in 17 kindergartens were examined using the cellophane-tape perianal swab method in 2003, while 1734 preschool children in 10 kindergartens were examined in 2013 using the same method. The overall egg positive rate for E. vermicularis was 12.75% (65 out of 510) in 2003 and 5.13% (89 out of 1734) in 2013; the former was significantly higher than the latter (p < 0.05). In both 2003 and 2013, the egg positive rate for 5 to 6-year-old children was significantly higher than that of 2 to 4-year-old children (p < 0.05). However, positive rates were not significantly dependent on gender or area. Among selected personal hygiene factors, no hand washing before eating, sucking fingers or toys, and scratching around the anus were all associated with enterobiasis. The present study confirmed that the prevalence of E. vermicularis infection among preschool children decreased significantly over the 10 year period in Xinxiang city, but infection was still prevalent. Improving sanitation and personal hygiene practices, especially hand washing, could help prevent the transmission of E. vermicularis. PMID:27460881

  17. The impact of epilepsy on preschool children and their families.

    PubMed

    Tanriverdi, Müberra; Mutluay, Fatma Karantay; Tarakçi, Devrim; Güler, Serhat; Iscan, Akin

    2016-09-01

    This study investigated the possible presence of sensory-motor developmental impairments in preschool children with epilepsy and explored epilepsy impact on their activities and quality of life and on the stress load of their family. Study participants were children aged 2-6years diagnosed with epilepsy without any other comorbidities (epi-only children). The instruments used for assessment included the Neurological, Sensory, Motor, Developmental Assessment (NSMDA) scale for sensory-motor development, the Impact of Childhood Neurologic Disability Scale (ICNDS), and the Impact of Pediatric Epilepsy Scale (IPES) for disease impact on disability and Quality of Life (QoL), as well as the Pediatric Outcomes Data Collection Instrument (PODCI) for functional health status, and the Parental Stress Scale (PSS) for the family stress load. Required data were obtained from direct testing or observation of children's activities and mother-supplied answers to questions. Eighty-two children were investigated. The NSMDA scores were in the normal development range 6-8. Significant moderate impact of the disease on disability and QoL was estimated with the ICNDS and IPES instruments. The PODCI scores were similar to healthy population levels except for the happiness dimension which was better for children with epilepsy. PSS were significantly above normal. The functional health and QoL of the children as well as their family stress were found to be positively correlated with increasing age. It is found that epilepsy does not degrade neuromotor development and functional health status of preschool epi-only children, though it has a significant impact on their neurological disability and QoL and the stress level of their families; this impact seems to decrease with age. PMID:27428870

  18. Investigation of MONE Preschool Program for 36-72 Months Old Children (2006) According to Children Rights

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Batur Musaoglu, Ebru; Haktanir, Gelengul

    2012-01-01

    In Turkey, the preschoolers are being schooled under the guidelines of MONE (Ministry of National Education) Preschool Program for 36-72 Months Old Children (2006). The aim of this research is to investigate how children's rights are involved in this program. In this qualitative research based on document analysis, program book and Teacher Guide…

  19. EXPOSURES OF PRESCHOOL CHILDREN TO PENTACHLOROPHENOL, BISPHENOL-A, AND NONYLPHENOL AT HOME AND DAYCARE

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Children's Total Exposure to Persistent Pesticides and Other Persistent Organic Pollutants (CTEPP) study investigated the potential exposures of 257 preschool children and their primary caregivers to >50 anthropogenic chemicals. This study was conducted in selected counties ...

  20. Training generalized improvisation of tools by preschool children1

    PubMed Central

    Parsonson, Barry S.; Baer, Donald M.

    1978-01-01

    The development of new, “creative” behaviors was examined in a problem-solving context. One form of problem solving, improvisation, was defined as finding a substitute to replace the specifically designated, but currently unavailable, tool ordinarily used to solve the problem. The study examined whether preschool children spontaneously displayed generalized improvisation skills, and if not, whether they could be trained to do so within different classes of tools. Generalization across different tool classes was monitored but not specifically trained. Five preschool children participated in individual sessions that first probed their skill at improvising tools, and later trained and probed generalized improvisation in one or more of three tool classes (Hammers, Containers, and Shoelaces), using a multiple-baseline design. All five children were trained with Hammers, two were trained in two classes, and two were trained in all three tool classes. Four of the five children improvised little in Baseline. During Training, all five showed increased generalized improvisation within the trained class, but none across classes. Tools fabricated by item combinations were rare in Baseline, but common in Training. Followup probes showed that the training effects were durable. PMID:16795596

  1. Sleep spindles in midday naps enhance learning in preschool children.

    PubMed

    Kurdziel, Laura; Duclos, Kasey; Spencer, Rebecca M C

    2013-10-22

    Despite the fact that midday naps are characteristic of early childhood, very little is understood about the structure and function of these sleep bouts. Given that sleep benefits memory in young adults, it is possible that naps serve a similar function for young children. However, children transition from biphasic to monophasic sleep patterns in early childhood, eliminating the nap from their daily sleep schedule. As such, naps may contain mostly light sleep stages and serve little function for learning and memory during this transitional age. Lacking scientific understanding of the function of naps in early childhood, policy makers may eliminate preschool classroom nap opportunities due to increasing curriculum demands. Here we show evidence that classroom naps support learning in preschool children by enhancing memories acquired earlier in the day compared with equivalent intervals spent awake. This nap benefit is greatest for children who nap habitually, regardless of age. Performance losses when nap-deprived are not recovered during subsequent overnight sleep. Physiological recordings of naps support a role of sleep spindles in memory performance. These results suggest that distributed sleep is critical in early learning; when short-term memory stores are limited, memory consolidation must take place frequently. PMID:24062429

  2. Sleep spindles in midday naps enhance learning in preschool children

    PubMed Central

    Kurdziel, Laura; Duclos, Kasey; Spencer, Rebecca M. C.

    2013-01-01

    Despite the fact that midday naps are characteristic of early childhood, very little is understood about the structure and function of these sleep bouts. Given that sleep benefits memory in young adults, it is possible that naps serve a similar function for young children. However, children transition from biphasic to monophasic sleep patterns in early childhood, eliminating the nap from their daily sleep schedule. As such, naps may contain mostly light sleep stages and serve little function for learning and memory during this transitional age. Lacking scientific understanding of the function of naps in early childhood, policy makers may eliminate preschool classroom nap opportunities due to increasing curriculum demands. Here we show evidence that classroom naps support learning in preschool children by enhancing memories acquired earlier in the day compared with equivalent intervals spent awake. This nap benefit is greatest for children who nap habitually, regardless of age. Performance losses when nap-deprived are not recovered during subsequent overnight sleep. Physiological recordings of naps support a role of sleep spindles in memory performance. These results suggest that distributed sleep is critical in early learning; when short-term memory stores are limited, memory consolidation must take place frequently. PMID:24062429

  3. Developing Psychological Well-Being Scale for Preschool Children.

    PubMed

    Abed, Nazanin; Pakdaman, Shahla; Heidari, Mahmood; Tahmassian, Karineh

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this research was to develop a scale in order to measure psychological well-being in preschool children. Three hundred and seventy five to six year old children participated in the research from 5 regions of Tehran, using accidental sampling method. The participants were individually interviewed with the Well-Being in Preschool Children Scale, and their teachers completed Rutter's Child Behavior Questionnaire about each of them. Data was analyzed with both exploratory and confirmatory factor analysis methods using WLSMV and GEOMIN oblique rotation, to examine factorial structure. Samejima's graded response model was used to access psychometric features of the items. Test-retest reliability was measured and Pearson's correlation was also used to assess divergent and convergent validity. Findings revealed that this scale has 3 main factors: self-concept, life satisfaction and resilience. The validity and reliability of the scale is also satisfactory. The well-being indicators in this scale are consistent with previous research on components of well-being in children. In addition there is a negative correlation between psychological well-being and behavioral problems, which is also illustrated in previous research. PMID:27241414

  4. Affiliative structures and social competence in Portuguese preschool children.

    PubMed

    Daniel, João R; Santos, António J; Peceguina, Inês; Vaughn, Brian E

    2015-07-01

    The goal of this study was to determine whether peer social competence (SC), defined as the capacity to use behavioral, cognitive, and emotional resources in the service of achieving personal goals within preschool peer groups, was related to the type of affiliative subgroups to which children belonged. Two hundred forty Portuguese preschool children (152 seen in consecutive years of data collection) from middle-class families participated. Affiliative subgroup type was assessed from observed proximity data. Social competence was assessed using observational and sociometric measures. Children in more cohesive affiliative subgroups had higher levels of SC, whereas ungrouped children had the lowest SC scores. Follow-up analyses indicated that 2 of the measured SC domains (social engagement/motivation, profiles of behavior/personality attributes) were responsible for the overall difference in SC. Further, membership in a more cohesive subgroup in 1 year contributed to increases in scores for 2 of 3 SC domains (i.e., profiles of behavior/personality attributes and peer acceptance) in the following year. Results suggest that affiliative subgroups both reflect and support individual differences in peer SC during early childhood. PMID:26098580

  5. Associations between home dampness-related exposures and childhood eczema among 13,335 preschool children in Shanghai, China: A cross-sectional study.

    PubMed

    Cai, Jiao; Liu, Wei; Hu, Yu; Zou, Zhijun; Shen, Li; Huang, Chen

    2016-04-01

    From April 2011 to April 2012, we conducted a cross-sectional study in Shanghai, China. A total of 13,335 modified ISAAC questionnaires (response rate: 85.3%) were returned by parents or guardians for 4-6 year-old children. Six dampness-related indicators (visible mold spots, visible damp stains, damp bed clothing, water damage, window pane condensation, and moldy odor) were used to evaluate home dampness-related exposures. In the present study, we applied logistic regression model to reveal associations, dose-response relationships, and statistical interaction effects of these dampness-related exposures, with childhood eczema, during lifetime since birth (ever) and in the last 12 months before the questionnaire. The dampness-related indicators were frequently reported in the perinatal and current residences. Prevalences of eczema ever and in the last 12 months were 22.9% and 13.2%, respectively. The dampness-related indicators were robustly associated and dose-response related with increased risk of eczema ever and in the last 12 months in the logistic regression analyses, with adjusted for potential confounders. Specifically, in the perinatal residence, visible mold spots or damp stains could increase 46% (OR, 95% CI: 1.46, 1.29-1.66) odds of childhood eczema (ever); in the current residence, visible mold spots and visible damp stains could increase 34% (1.34, 1.14-1.58) and 38% (1.38, 1.22-1.56) odds of childhood eczema (ever), respectively. Associations were not appreciably different between boys and girls, nor were they different between children with and without parental history of atopy. In conclusion, perinatal and current dampness-related exposures in the residence perhaps are risk factors for childhood eczema. PMID:26708528

  6. Sleep disturbance in preschool-aged hyperactive and nonhyperactive children.

    PubMed

    Kaplan, B J; McNicol, J; Conte, R A; Moghadam, H K

    1987-12-01

    In spite of inadequate laboratory demonstrations of sleep problems in children with attention deficit disorder with hyperactivity, the belief persists that such problems exist. Sleep restlessness is, in fact, one of the criteria in the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, ed 3, definition of attention deficit disorder with hyperactivity, and sleep problems are listed on two major checklists often used for describing the symptoms of this disorder. In a series of three studies, sleep problems were investigated in preschool-aged children with attention deficit disorder relative to control children without the disorder. Results of the first two studies demonstrated clearly that parents of hyperactive children considered their children to have many more sleep problems than did parents of the control children. Parental daily documentation, which is less likely to be affected by reporting bias, was used in the third study. Although the results of the third study supported the finding of increased frequency of night wakings in these children, there was no difference in total sleep time or sleep onset latency between the two groups. Two other significant group differences (enuresis and night sweats) were primarily due to subgroups of children with attention deficit disorder and hyperactivity. The greater number of sleep wakings, which disrupt parents' sleep, may be responsible for the clinical reports that these children are poor sleepers. PMID:3684394

  7. How do mothers manage their preschool children's eating habits and does this change as children grow older? A longitudinal analysis.

    PubMed

    Jarman, Megan; Ogden, Jane; Inskip, Hazel; Lawrence, Wendy; Baird, Janis; Cooper, Cyrus; Robinson, Sian; Barker, Mary

    2015-12-01

    The practices mothers adopt in relation to feeding their children have been identified as important predictors of children's quality of diet. However, most studies of the impact of these practices on quality of children's diets have been cross-sectional in design, limiting conclusions about change and causality. Previous research has called for qualitative exploration of the way these practices are used in a real-life setting. This study set out to address these gaps in knowledge. At baseline, mothers recruited to a community-based intervention study and who had a preschool child, completed a questionnaire about their use of covert and overt control practices, child food neophobia and demographics. The quality of children's diets was assessed using a validated food frequency questionnaire. Both questionnaires were repeated with the mothers two years later. Complete data at both time points were available for 228 mother-child pairs. Four focus group discussions were conducted with 29 mothers of preschool children to explore their experiences of feeding young children. Mothers who increased their use of overt control had children whose level of food neophobia also increased (P = 0.02). Mothers who used more covert control had children with better quality diets at both time points (P = <0.01) and mothers who increased their use of covert control over the two year follow-up had children whose diet quality improved (P = 0.003). These associations were independent of confounders such as mother's level of education. In the focus groups, mothers suggested that feeding young children was stressful and that control was often relinquished in order to reduce conflict at mealtimes. Supporting parents to adopt more covert techniques to control their children's eating habits may be an effective way of improving the quality of young children's diets. PMID:26271222

  8. Parental stress as a predictor of early childhood caries among preschool children in India.

    PubMed

    Menon, Ipseeta; Nagarajappa, Ramesh; Ramesh, Gayathri; Tak, Mridula

    2013-05-01

    BACKGROUND.  The health and well-being of children are linked to their parents' physical, emotional and social health in addition to child-rearing practices. OBJECTIVES.  To investigate the association of parental stress as a risk indicator to early childhood caries (ECC) prevalence among preschool children of Moradabad, India. METHODS.  A case-control study was conducted among 800 preschool children [400 cases (caries active) and 400 controls (caries free)] aged 4-5 years along with their parents. Using the Parental Stress Index-Short Form (PSI/SF), we determined the stress of primary caregivers of young children. These children were clinically examined for dental caries using Dentition Status and Treatment needs. Student's t-test, Pearson's correlation and linear regression were used for statistical analysis. RESULTS.  An overall mean parenting stress index was found to be 193.48 ± 59.63. Significantly higher mean stress scores were obtained among cases than among controls. Parental stress was significantly correlated with dmft scores and it was found to be one of the best predictors of ECC. CONCLUSION.  This study provides data to suggest that parental stress has a pervasive impact on the children's oral health. The practitioners should be aware of this possible relationship and be prepared to provide appropriate intervention. PMID:22494368

  9. Factors Affecting Obedience in Preschool Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Higbee, Kenneth L.

    1979-01-01

    Investigates the effects of threat, surveillance, time, and sex of the child on obedience by four-year-old children to an adult's request to carry marbles one at a time from one box to another. (Author/MP)

  10. Objectively Measured Physical Activity and Body Mass Index in Preschool Children

    PubMed Central

    Vale, Susana Maria Coelho Guimarães; Santos, Rute Marina Roberto; da Cruz Soares-Miranda, Luísa Maria; Moreira, Carla Marisa Maia; Ruiz, Jonatan R.; Mota, Jorge Augusto Silva

    2010-01-01

    Aim. To examine the association between objectively measured physical activity (PA) and body mass index (BMI) in preschool children. Methods. The study comprised 281 children (55.9% boys) aged from 4 to 6 years. PA was measured by accelerometer. Children were categorized as non-overweight (NOW) and overweight/obese (OW) according to the sex-adjusted BMI z-score (<1 and ≥1, resp.). Results. Total and moderate intensity PA were not associated with BMI. We observed that a higher proportion of OW children were classified as low-vigorous PA compared to their NOW peers (43.9 versus 32.1%, resp., P > .05). Logistic regression analysis showed that children with low-vigorous PA had higher odds ratio (OR) to be classified as OW compared to those with high-vigorous PA (OR = 4.4; 95% CI: 1.4–13.4; P = .008) after adjusting for BMI at first and second years of life and other potential confounders. Conclusion. The data suggests that vigorous PA may play a key role in the obesity development already at pre-school age. PMID:20706649

  11. Assessing the Validity of a Physical Activity Questionnaire Developed for Parents of Preschool Children in Mexico

    PubMed Central

    Bacardi-Gascón, Montserrat; Reveles-Rojas, Claudia; Woodward-Lopez, Gail; Crawford, Patricia

    2012-01-01

    To assess the validity of a questionnaire developed for parents of preschool children to know their physical activity (PA) status, we compared the questionnaire results with the measures of accelerometer for children's activities. Thirty-five preschoolers who wore the accelerometer for at least 10 hours daily on 3 weekdays and one weekend day were included in the analyses. Time spent in activities of varied intensity was calculated by applying 15-second ActiGraph count cutoffs (ACC). Parents’ perceptions of their children's PA were associated with the percentage of vigorous and moderate physical activity recorded with ACC at r=0.62 (p=0.0001). An association was shown between the percentage of a child's time spent in vigorous physical activity, as reported by parents, with that measured by ACC at r=0.53 (p=0.001). Results of this study suggest that the designed questionnaire might be a useful tool for assessing children's activity while, additionally, it warrants further investigation on larger samples of children. PMID:23304910

  12. Exploring Dimensionality of Effortful Control Using Hot and Cool Tasks in a Sample of Preschool Children

    PubMed Central

    Allan, Nicholas P.; Lonigan, Christopher J.

    2015-01-01

    Effortful control (EC) is an important developmental construct associated with academic performance, socioemotional growth, and psychopathology. EC, defined as the ability to inhibit or delay a prepotent response typically in favor of a subdominant response, undergoes rapid development during children’s preschool years. Research involving EC in preschool children can be aided by ensuring that the measured model of EC matches the latent structure of EC. Extant research indicates that EC may be multidimensional, consisting of hot (affectively salient) and cool (affectively neutral) dimensions. However, there are several untested assumptions regarding the defining features of hot EC. Confirmatory factor analysis was used in a sample of 281 preschool children (Mage = 55.92 - months, SD = 4.16; 46.6% male and 53.4% female) to compare a multidimensional model composed of hot and cool EC factors with a unidimensional model. Hot tasks were created by adding affective salience to cool tasks so that hot and cool tasks varied only by this aspect of the tasks. Tasks measuring EC were best described by a single factor and not distinct hot and cool factors, indicating that affective salience alone does not differentiate between hot and cool EC. EC shared gender-invariant associations with academic skills and externalizing behavior problems. PMID:24518050

  13. Refractive error among urban preschool children in Xuzhou, China.

    PubMed

    Wang, Xiaojuan; Liu, Dan; Feng, Ruifang; Zhao, Huashuo; Wang, Qinmei

    2014-01-01

    The prevalence of refractive errors in urban preschool children in Xuzhou, China remains unknown. Children attending twelve randomly selected kindergartens participated in this study. Visual acuity, ocular alignment, cover-uncover test, cycloplegic refraction, slit-lamp and funduscopy were performed under a standardized testing environment. Cycloplegic streak retinoscopy was performed for all subjects. The mean spherical equivalent (SE) refractive error was the main outcome measure. Emmetropia was defined as refractive status between +1.75 diopters (D) and -0.75D. Myopia, hyperopia, astigmatism and anisometropia were defined as SE < -0.50D, SE > +2.0 D, cylindrical error > 1.0 D and SE difference ≥ 1 D between fellow eyes, respectively. Out of 2349 eligible children, 2255 (96%) children completed a refractive examination. Of the 2255 children, the mean SE of right eyes was +1.14 ± 0.95 diopters (D). Mean SE of the right eyes did not decline with age (r = -0.01; P = 0.56). The majority (86.6%) of children were emmetropia. The prevalence of myopia and hyperopia was 0.9% and 14.3%, respectively. The mean astigmatism for the right eyes was 0.87 ± 0.62 D. The prevalence of With-the-rule, against the rule and oblique astigmatism was 93.8%, 4.7% and 1.5%, respectively. The mean anisometropia between two eyes was 0.14 ± 0.38 D. The most common type of refractive error was hyperopia (14.3%), followed by astigmatism (8.8%), anisometropia (3.2%), and myopia (0.9%). The refractive status in this population of urban Xuzhou preschool children was stable and there was no evidence of a myopic refractive shift over this age range in our cross-sectional study. PMID:25674266

  14. Parenting approaches and digital technology use of preschool age children in a Chinese community

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Young children are using digital technology (DT) devices anytime and anywhere, especially with the invention of smart phones and the replacement of desktop computers with digital tablets. Although research has shown that parents play an important role in fostering and supporting preschoolers’ developing maturity and decisions about DT use, and in protecting them from potential risk due to excessive DT exposure, there have been limited studies conducted in Hong Kong focusing on parent-child DT use. This study had three objectives: 1) to explore parental use of DTs with their preschool children; 2) to identify the DT content that associated with child behavioral problems; and 3) to investigate the relationships between approaches adopted by parents to control children’s DT use and related preschooler behavioral problems. Methods This exploratory quantitative study was conducted in Hong Kong with 202 parents or guardians of preschool children between the ages of 3 and 6 attending kindergarten. The questionnaire was focused on four aspects, including 1) participants’ demographics; 2) pattern of DT use; 3) parenting approach to manage the child’s DT use; and 4) child behavioral and health problems related to DT use. Multiple regression analysis was adopted as the main data analysis method for identifying the DT or parental approach-related predictors of the preschooler behavioral problems. Results In the multiple linear regression model, the ‘restrictive approach score’ was the only predictor among the three parental approaches (B:1.66, 95% CI: [0.21, 3.11], p < 0.05). Moreover, the viewing of antisocial behavior cartoons by children also significantly increased the tendency of children to have behavioral problem (B:3.84, 95% CI: [1.66, 6.02], p < 0.01). Conclusions Since preschool children’s cognitive and functional abilities are still in the developmental stage, parents play a crucial role in fostering appropriate and safe DT

  15. Using Therapeutic Toys to Facilitate Venipuncture Procedure in Preschool Children.

    PubMed

    da Silva, José Ronaldo Soares; Pizzoli, Lourdes Margareth Leite; Amorim, Amanda Regina do Prado; Pinheiros, Fernanda Tais; Romanini, Giovanna Chippari; da Silva, Jack Gomes; Joanete, Shirley; Alves, Silvana S M

    2016-01-01

    Intravenous access procedures in children are considered to be one of the most stressful because it is invasive, and the use of needles generates anxiety, insecurity, and fear. Playful strategies using dolls and even the materials used for venipuncture can assist children in understanding, accepting, and coping with the procedure. Field research was developed on the applicability of the therapeutic toy in the preparation of preschool children for venipuncture procedure based on the protocol developed by Martins, Ribeiro, Borba, and Silva (2001) and Kiche and Almeida (2009). The study was done in a private hospital in Greater São Paulo, Brazil, with 10 children ages 3 to 6 years. Data were gathered through observation and questionnaires completed by the children's adult guardians. Before the activity, the children showed fearful facial expressions, used monosyllabic responses, and avoided looking at the health care professional. After the strategy of using therapeutic toy dolls and puppets, 40% of the children calmly accepted the venipuncture procedure, and 100% showed a change to their initial negative reaction, became more communicative and cooperative, and participated and interacted with researchers, even after the end of the activity and procedure. The strategy of therapeutic toys helps make an unfamiliar environment, strangers, and a procedure characterized as painful and difficult less stressful. Pediatric nurses are in a good position to use this resource to offer more humanized care to children. PMID:27254974

  16. Modifying Media Content for Preschool Children: A Randomized Controlled Trial

    PubMed Central

    Garrison, Michelle M.; Herrenkohl, Todd; Haggerty, Kevin; Rivara, Frederick P.; Zhou, Chuan; Liekweg, Kimberly

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Although previous studies have revealed that preschool-aged children imitate both aggression and prosocial behaviors on screen, there have been few population-based studies designed to reduce aggression in preschool-aged children by modifying what they watch. METHODS: We devised a media diet intervention wherein parents were assisted in substituting high quality prosocial and educational programming for aggression-laden programming without trying to reduce total screen time. We conducted a randomized controlled trial of 565 parents of preschool-aged children ages 3 to 5 years recruited from community pediatric practices. Outcomes were derived from the Social Competence and Behavior Evaluation at 6 and 12 months. RESULTS: At 6 months, the overall mean Social Competence and Behavior Evaluation score was 2.11 points better (95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.78–3.44) in the intervention group as compared with the controls, and similar effects were observed for the externalizing subscale (0.68 [95% CI: 0.06–1.30]) and the social competence subscale (1.04 [95% CI: 0.34–1.74]). The effect for the internalizing subscale was in a positive direction but was not statistically significant (0.42 [95% CI: −0.14 to 0.99]). Although the effect sizes did not noticeably decay at 12 months, the effect on the externalizing subscale was no longer statistically significant (P = .05). In a stratified analysis of the effect on the overall scores, low-income boys appeared to derive the greatest benefit (6.48 [95% CI: 1.60–11.37]). CONCLUSIONS: An intervention to reduce exposure to screen violence and increase exposure to prosocial programming can positively impact child behavior. PMID:23420911

  17. Autobiographical memory specificity among preschool-aged children.

    PubMed

    Nuttall, Amy K; Valentino, Kristin; Comas, Michelle; McNeill, Anne T; Stey, Paul C

    2014-07-01

    Overgeneral memory refers to difficulty retrieving specific autobiographical memories and is consistently associated with depression and/or trauma. The present study developed a downward extension of the Autobiographical Memory Test (AMT; Williams & Broadbent, 1986) given the need to document normative developmental changes in ability to retrieve specific memories among preschoolers. Confirmatory factor analysis and item response theory demonstrated that the AMT-Preschool Version maintained the same underlying 1-factor structure as the original. Additionally, the present study determined that child age was associated with increased specificity. Inhibitory control was evaluated as a potential mediator. Although age was related to inhibition, inhibition was unrelated to memory specificity. This finding adds to research suggesting that behavioral inhibition is unrelated to overgeneral memory among youth. PMID:24842462

  18. The animate-inanimate distinction in preschool children.

    PubMed

    Wright, Kristyn; Poulin-Dubois, Diane; Kelley, Elizabeth

    2015-03-01

    This study examined the development of the animate-inanimate (A-I) distinction in relation to other taxonomic categories in early childhood. Four- and 5-year-old children were administered two tasks measuring knowledge of taxonomic categories at various levels of inclusiveness. Across both matching-to-sample and object sorting tasks, the same pattern of categorization development was observed. Mastery of basic- and superordinate-level categories was demonstrated by 4 years of age. Although 5-year-old children performed above chance on A-I level categories, their abilities were not as mature as those of adults. Results of this study support and extend previous studies investigating the development of children's understanding of naïve biology during the preschool years. PMID:25329437

  19. Variance in fasting breath hydrogen concentrations in Guatemalan preschool children.

    PubMed

    Barillas-Mury, C; Solomons, N W

    1987-01-01

    The concentration of hydrogen (H2) in expired air after an overnight fast is receiving interest as a diagnostic indicator in itself. We analyzed 319 fasting samples collected from 90 healthy, well-nourished preschool children aged 29-72 months in two institutional settings in Guatemala City. The overall range of fasting H2 concentration was 0-40 ppm, with an arithmetic mean of 4.4 +/- 5.4 ppm (+/- SD) and a geometric mean of 3.2 ppm. No differences between boys and girls was found, but there was a progressive increase in the mean levels and an increase in the number of samples with H2 concentrations greater than 10 ppm with decreasing chronological age. One child with three of six samples having H2 concentrations greater than 40 ppm was found to have intestinal multiple parasitism and hence was excluded from the sample. As compared with a previous report from the United States of fasting breath H2 concentrations in older children, the mean and distribution of values for Guatemalan preschoolers is identical. Intraindividual coefficients of variation in 48 children studied on four occasions had a mean of 62 +/- 31% (range 0-143%). PMID:3794926

  20. Context Influences Preschool Children's Decisions to Include a Peer with a Physical Disability in Play

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Diamond, Karen E.; Hong, Soo-Young; Tu, Huifang

    2008-01-01

    Understanding children's decisions to include a child with a disability in activities is an important component of the social environment of children with disabilities. We examined preschool children's understanding of the motor and social competence of hypothetical children with a physical disability, children's decisions to include or exclude a…