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Sample records for preschool children exposed

  1. Children Exposed to Drugs in Utero: Their Scores on the Miller Assessment for Preschoolers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fulks, Mary-Ann L.; Harris, Susan R.

    1995-01-01

    The Miller Assessment for Preschoolers was administered to 54 children who had been prenatally exposed to drugs. Results indicated a tendency toward the lower end of the spectrum with poorer performance identified on test items measuring tactile, proprioceptive, and vestibular processing and language. (JOW)

  2. An anthropological approach to the evaluation of preschool children exposed to pesticides in Mexico.

    PubMed Central

    Guillette, E A; Meza, M M; Aquilar, M G; Soto, A D; Garcia, I E

    1998-01-01

    In this comparative study, we compensated for many of the known variables that influence children's growth and development by selecting two groups of 4-5-year-old Yaqui children who reside in the Yaqui Valley of northwestern Mexico. These children share similar genetic backgrounds, diets, water mineral contents, cultural patterns, and social behaviors. The major difference was their exposure to pesticides. Pesticides have been applied to the agricultural area of the valley since the late 1940s. In 1990, high levels of multiple pesticides were found in the cord blood of newborns and in breast milk. Building on anthropological methods for rapid rural appraisal of problems within the environment, a Rapid Assessment Tool for Preschool Children (RATPC) was developed to measure growth and development. The children of the agrarian region were compared to children living in the foothills, where pesticide use is avoided. The RATPC measured varied aspects of physical growth and abilities to perform, or function in, normal childhood activities. No differences were found in growth patterns. Functionally, the exposed children demonstrated decreases in stamina, gross and fine eye-hand coordination, 30-minute memory, and the ability to draw a person. The RATPC also pointed out areas in which more in-depth research on the toxicology of pesticides would be valuable. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 PMID:9618351

  3. Preschool Israeli Children Exposed to Rocket Attacks: Assessment, Risk, and Resilience.

    PubMed

    Wolmer, Leo; Hamiel, Daniel; Versano-Eisman, Tali; Slone, Michelle; Margalit, Nitzan; Laor, Nathaniel

    2015-10-01

    Preschool children are among the most vulnerable populations to adversity. This study described the effects of 4 weeks of daily exposure to rocket attacks on children living on Israel's southern border. Participants enrolled in this study were 122 preschool children (50% boys) between the ages 3 and 6 years from 10 kindergartens. We assessed mothers' report of children's symptoms according to the DSM-IV and alternative criteria resembling the DSM-5 criteria for posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), general adaptation, traumatic exposure, and stressful life events 3 months after the war. The prevalence of PTSD was lower when the diagnosis was derived from the DSM-IV (4%) than from the DSM-5 criteria (14%). Mothers of children with 4 or more stressful life events reported more functional impairment in social, occupational, and other important areas of functioning compared to children with 0 or 1 stressful life event. Children with more severe exposure showed more severe symptoms and mothers had more concerns about the child's functioning (η(p)(2) = .09-.25). Stressful life events and exposure to traumatic experiences accounted for 32% of the variance in PTSD and 19% of the variance in the adaptation scale. Results were explored in terms of risk and resilience factors. PMID:26401837

  4. Executive function in preschool children prenatally exposed to methadone or buprenorphine.

    PubMed

    Konijnenberg, Carolien; Melinder, Annika

    2015-01-01

    Although an increasing number of children are born with prenatal methadone or buprenorphine exposure, little is still known about the potential long-term effects of these opioids. The aim of this study was to investigate executive function (EF) in children of women in opioid maintenance therapy (OMT). A total of 66 children (aged 48-57 months) participated in the study, 35 of which had histories of prenatal methadone or buprenorphine exposure. EF was measured using a battery of neuropsychological tests and the Behavior Rating Inventory of Executive Function-Preschool Version (BRIEF-P). Results showed that children of women in OMT perform lower on tasks of short-term memory and inhibition compared to nonexposed children, which was mainly associated with lower maternal education and employment rate. The OMT group scored significantly lower on all EF tasks compared to the nonexposed group, although scores fell within the average range on all measures. The development of these children should be monitored to assess for the possible problem behaviors and to promote optimal outcomes. PMID:25354916

  5. A Year-Long Caregiver Training Program to Improve Neurocognition in Preschool Ugandan HIV-Exposed Children

    PubMed Central

    Boivin, Michael J.; Bangirana, Paul; Nakasujja, Noeline; Page, Connie F.; Shohet, Cilly; Givon, Deborah; Bass, Judith K.; Opoka, Robert O.; Klein, Pnina S.

    2013-01-01

    Objective Mediational intervention for sensitizing caregivers (MISC) is a structured program enabling caregivers to enhance their child’s cognitive and emotional development through daily interactions. The principal aim was to evaluate if a year-long MISC caregiver training program produced greater improvement in child cognitive and emotional development compared with a control program. Methods 119 uninfected HIV-exposed preschool children and their caregivers were randomly assigned to one of two treatment arms: biweekly MISC training alternating between home and clinic for one year or a health and nutrition curriculum. All children were evaluated at baseline, 6 months, and 1 year with the Mullen Early Learning Scales, Color-Object Association Test (COAT) for memory, and Achenbach Child Behavior Checklist (CBCL) for psychiatric symptoms. Caregivers were evaluated on the same schedule with the Hopkins Symptoms Checklist (HSCL-25) for depression and anxiety. Results The treatment arms were compared using repeated-measures ANCOVA with child age, gender, weight, SES, caregiving quality, caregiver anxiety, and caregiver education as covariates. The MISC children had significantly greater gains compared to controls on the Mullen Receptive and Expressive Language development, and on the Mullen composite score of cognitive ability. COAT total memory for MISC children was marginally better than controls. No CBCL differences between the groups were noted. Caldwell HOME scores and observed mediational interaction scores from videotapes measuring caregiving quality also improved significantly more for the MISC group. Conclusion MISC enhanced cognitive performance, especially in language development. These benefits were possibly mediated by improved caregiving and positive emotional benefit to the caregiver. PMID:23535340

  6. Potential Mediators of Adjustment for Preschool Children Exposed to Intimate Partner Violence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miller, Laura E.; Howell, Kathryn H.; Graham-Bermann, Sandra A.

    2012-01-01

    Objective: Living in a home where violence is present places young children at great risk for developing emotional, behavioral, cognitive, and health problems. While many studies have examined direct relationships between violence exposure and adjustment, fewer have considered how children's mental health problems may interact over time. The…

  7. Child Development: Preschool Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chiam, Heng Keng, Ed.

    This book reports some of the results of an extensive study of the physical, cognitive, language, social, and emotional development of Malaysian children. Chapter 1 of the book describes the demographics of the sample. Subjects were 3,099 preschool children in the state of Selangor and the federal district of Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia. Data is…

  8. Deviant smooth pursuit in preschool children exposed prenatally to methadone or buprenorphine and tobacco affects integrative visuomotor capabilities

    PubMed Central

    Melinder, Annika; Konijnenberg, Carolien; Sarfi, Monica

    2013-01-01

    Background and aims Although an increasing number of children are born to mothers in opioid maintenance therapy (OMT), little is known about the long-term effects of these opioids. Previous studies suggest an association between prenatal OMT exposure and difficulties in eye movement control. Also, the effects of tobacco smoking on eye movements have been reported. The present study examined the influence of eye movements, i.e. smooth pursuit, on visuomotor capabilities in children of smoking mothers in OMT. Design The study comprised a 2 (OMT versus contrast group) × 2 (slow versus fast smooth pursuit) between-subject factorial design. Setting The cognitive developmental research unit at the University of Oslo, Norway. Participants Participants were 26 4-year-old children of tobacco-smoking women in OMT and 23 non-exposed 4-year-old children, with non-smoking mothers, matched by gender and age. Measurement Eye movements and smooth pursuit were recorded using a Tobii 1750 eyetracker. Visuomotor functions were examined by Bender test. Findings The OMT group tracked slowly moving objects with smooth pursuit in a similar manner to their non-exposed peers. When fast smooth pursuit was measured, the OMT group of children tracked the object more slowly than the contrast group, P = 0.02, ηp2 = 0.11. A regression analysis showed that fast smooth pursuit predicted children’s performance on a visuomotor task, R2 = 0.37. Conclusion Impaired eye-tracking skills in 4-year-old children exposed to methadone or buprenorphine and tobacco prenatally could inhibit the development of some cognitive functions in later life. PMID:23734878

  9. Toward Evidence-Based Treatment: Child-Parent Psychotherapy with Preschoolers Exposed to Marital Violence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lieberman, Alicia F.; Van Horn, Patricia; Ippen, Chandra Ghosh

    2005-01-01

    Objective: Treatment outcome for preschool-age children exposed to marital violence was assessed, comparing the efficacy of Child-Parent Psychotherapy (CPP) with case management plus treatment as usual in the community. Method: Seventy-five multiethnic preschool mother dyads from diverse socioeconomic backgrounds were randomly assigned to (1) CPP…

  10. What Do Children Learn at Swedish Preschools?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lindström, Lisbeth

    2013-01-01

    The purposes of this research are, first, to make visible, examine, and illuminate preschool teachers' perception of what children enrolled in preschools learn and how they learn it; and second, to highlight and illuminate what abilities preschool teachers perceive that children can develop during their stay at preschools. As a theoretical…

  11. Numerosity Discrimination in Preschool Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Almeida, Alzira; Arantes, Joana; Machado, Armando

    2007-01-01

    We used a numerical bisection procedure to examine preschool children's sensitivity to the numerical attributes of stimuli. In Experiment 1 children performed two tasks. In the Cups Task they earned coins for choosing a green cup after two drumbeats and a blue cup after eight drumbeats. In the Gloves Task they earned coins for raising a red glove…

  12. Kidney function and blood pressure in preschool-aged children exposed to cadmium and arsenic - potential alleviation by selenium

    SciTech Connect

    Skröder, Helena; Hawkesworth, Sophie; Kippler, Maria; El Arifeen, Shams; Wagatsuma, Yukiko; Moore, Sophie E.; Vahter, Marie

    2015-07-15

    Background: Early-life exposure to toxic compounds may cause long-lasting health effects, but few studies have investigated effects of childhood exposure to nephrotoxic metals on kidney and cardiovascular function. Objectives: To assess effects of exposure to arsenic and cadmium on kidney function and blood pressure in pre-school-aged children, and potential protection by selenium. Methods: This cross-sectional study was part of the 4.5 years of age (range: 4.4–5.4 years) follow-up of the children from a supplementation trial in pregnancy (MINIMat) in rural Bangladesh, and nested studies on early-life metal exposures. Exposure to arsenic, cadmium and selenium from food and drinking water was assessed by concentrations in children's urine, measured by ICP-MS. Kidney function was assessed by the estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR, n=1106), calculated from serum cystatin C, and by kidney volume, measured by ultrasound (n=375). Systolic and diastolic blood pressure was measured (n=1356) after five minutes rest. Results: Multivariable-adjusted regression analyzes showed that exposure to cadmium, but not arsenic, was inversely associated with eGFR, particularly in girls. A 0.5 µg/L increase in urinary cadmium among the girls (above spline knot at 0.12) was associated with a decrease in eGFR of 2.6 ml/min/1.73 m{sup 2}, corresponding to 0.2SD (p=0.022). A slightly weaker inverse association with cadmium was also indicated for kidney volume, but no significant associations were found with blood pressure. Stratifying on children's urinary selenium (below or above median of 12.6 µg/L) showed a three times stronger inverse association of U-Cd with eGFR (all children) in the lower selenium stratum (B=−2.8; 95% CI: −5.5, −0.20; p=0.035), compared to those with higher selenium (B=−0.79; 95% CI: −3.0, 1.4; p=0.49). Conclusions: Childhood cadmium exposure seems to adversely affect kidney function, but not blood pressure, in this population of young children

  13. The Story Preferences of Preschool Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Summers, Marcia

    Preschool children's story preferences were studied to determine if differences existed in preschoolers' preferences for reality, fantasy, people, and animals. Sex of character versus sex of subject was also investigated. Subjects were 84 children from preschools in Lincoln, Nebraska (39 boys and 45 girls). Through use of a nonverbal testing…

  14. Preschool Children's Informal Division Concepts.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blevins-Knabe, Belinda

    The purpose of this study was to examine the division procedures of preschool children to determine whether such procedures involved one-to-one correspondence. Large and small numerosity trials were included so that the amount of effort and ease of using other procedures would vary. Odd and even number trials were included to determine whether…

  15. Mozart Effect in Preschool Children?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hui, Ken

    2006-01-01

    In 1993, Rauscher et al. reported a temporary increase in spatial-temporal ability after listening to Mozart's music. This led to numerous replication and extension studies with mixed findings in the past decade. This study investigated the "Mozart effect" in preschool children. Forty-one boys and girls, aged three to five, attempted a series of…

  16. Controlling Relationships in Preschool Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Munoz, Jose Manuel; Braza, Francisco; Carreras, Rosario

    2004-01-01

    In order to facilitate the comprehension of social structure in preschool children, our research has two foci: first, to define controlling behaviours (nonaggressive group organisation) and to determine their organisational principles, and second, to analyse the relation of the controlling behaviours with aggressive behaviours. Through direct…

  17. Attachment in Preschool Deaf Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Greenberg, Mark T.

    A study was designed to examine the attachment behavior of 28 preschool deaf children and their hearing mothers and compare their patterns of behavior to previous reports of normal hearing dyads, and within this sample examine the relationship between communicative ability and phase of attachment. The sample was subdivided by communication…

  18. Reactivity and Regulation in Children Prenatally Exposed to Cocaine

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dennis, Tracy; Bendersky, Margaret; Ramsay, Douglas; Lewis, Michael

    2006-01-01

    Children prenatally exposed to cocaine may be at elevated risk for adjustment problems in early development because of greater reactivity and reduced regulation during challenging tasks. Few studies have examined whether cocaine-exposed children show such difficulties during the preschool years, a period marked by increased social and cognitive…

  19. Computerized Sociometric Assessment for Preschool Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Endedijk, Hinke M.; Cillessen, Antonius H. N.

    2015-01-01

    In preschool classes, sociometric peer ratings are used to measure children's peer relationships. The current study examined a computerized version of preschool sociometric ratings. The psychometric properties were compared of computerized sociometric ratings and traditional peer ratings for preschoolers. The distributions, inter-item…

  20. Children's Language Institute Preschool Placement Test (CLIPPT).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Quin, Paul E.; And Others

    The Children's Language Institute Preschool Placement Test (CLIPPT) identifies children, aged 2.6 to 4 years, with mild to moderate language/learning deficits, to determine which children would benefit from a language intervention preschool program. The test is presented in three sections: (1) the Informational Manual which provides theoretical…

  1. Attachment, Temperament, and Preschool Children's Peer Acceptance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Szewczyk-Sokolowski, Margaret; Bost, Kelly K.; Wainwright, Ada B.

    2005-01-01

    This study examined the relations between preschool children's attachment security, temperament, and peer acceptance. Ninety-eight preschool children and their mothers were recruited through childcare centers in the southeast. Mothers and their children participated in two two-hour home observations. Attachment security was assessed using the…

  2. Music Enhances Sleep in Preschool Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Field, Tiffany

    1999-01-01

    Examined the effect of playing background classical guitar music at nap time on alternate days to toddlers and preschool children attending a model preschool. Specifically assessed music's effect on nap-time sleep onset. Found that children fell asleep faster on the music days than on the nonmusic days. Toddlers fell asleep faster than did the…

  3. Correlates of adiposity among Latino preschool children

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Childhood obesity is at record high levels in the US and disproportionately affects Latino children; however, studies examining Latino preschool children's obesity-related risk factors are sparse. This study determined correlates of Latino preschoolers' (ages 3-5 years) adiposity to inform future ob...

  4. Dimensions of Preschool Children's Food Preferences.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Birch, Leann Lipps

    1979-01-01

    Describes four assessments which preschool children were given to indicate preference for a set of fruits. The research demonstrates the feasibility of obtaining preference data directly from young children. (Author/SA)

  5. Preschool Children's Perceptions of Overweight Peers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Su, Wei; Aurelia, Di Santo

    2012-01-01

    The aim of the study was to determine if preschool children perceive overweight children to have more negative characteristics than non-overweight children. Children from 32 to 70 months old (N = 42) listened to four stories about an interaction between two children, in which one child demonstrated socially unacceptable behaviour and one child…

  6. Preschool Antecedents of Internalizing Problems in Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Olson, Sheryl L.; Rosenblum, Katherine

    1998-01-01

    Examined the relationship of 79 children's preschool social adaptation to internalizing problem behaviors following transition to kindergarten. Found that boys and girls did not differ in symptom level, but girls showed higher stability in internalizing problem behavior than boys. Preschoolers with high internalizing problem behavior rates…

  7. How Preschool Children Understand Missing Complement Subjects.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maratsos, Michael P.

    Two studies investigated preschool children's comprehension of the missing subject of infinitival complement clauses. In the first study, use of a Surface Structure Minimal Distance principle of the type outlined by C. Chomsky was distinguished from use of a Semantic Role Principle. Preschoolers acted out sentences in which the use of the two…

  8. Developing Gifted Children in Hungarian Preschool Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nagy, Iren; Papp, Irene

    2013-01-01

    At a conference, a secondary school teacher was very surprised when she heard about the idea of talent development in preschool education. "What does it mean?" she asked. In this paper we answer the above question with a model created by joint research. We describe our method of developing gifted children with the involvement of preschool teachers…

  9. The Ecological Education of Preschool Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nikolaeva, S. N.

    2008-01-01

    The system of ecological education of preschool children includes multiple interconnected blocks that cover all aspects of the ecological pedagogical process in a preschool institution: the content of the ecological education, the ways it is conducted (methods and technologies), and the organization and management of the process.

  10. Preschool Children's Ideas on Sustainable Development: How Preschool Children Perceive Three Pillars of Sustainability with the Regard to 7R

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kahriman-Ozturk, Deniz; Olgan, Refika; Guler, Tulin

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to describe ideas of preschool children about sustainable development. Basic qualitative research was utilized and 36 preschool children enrolled in four different preschools in Ankara were included in the study. Semi-structured interviews were used to obtain data related to ideas of preschool children on three pillars…

  11. Identifying Language Comprehension Impairment in Preschool Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Skarakis-Doyle, Elizabeth; Dempsey, Lynn; Lee, Christopher

    2008-01-01

    Purpose: This study examined the validity of 3 discourse comprehension measures for preschool children and the ability of a combination of them to classify children with and without language impairment. Method: Thirty-seven children with typical language and 12 children with language impairment completed 3 measures of oral story comprehension: the…

  12. Harmonious Parents and Their Preschool Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baumrind, Diana

    1971-01-01

    This brief report describes harmonious parents and their children. The six preschool daughters whose parents were harmonious were outstandingly competent but the opposite was true of the two sons. (Author/WY)

  13. Memory for Companions in Preschool Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Delfosse, Patricia; Smith, Peter K.

    1979-01-01

    Memory of preschool children (four years of age) for companions was investigated by comparing interview data using a picture sociometric technique with observational data on actual play companions. Subjects were 15 boys and girls. (Author/MP)

  14. Assessment of Preschool Early Literacy Skills: Linking Children's Educational Needs with Empirically Supported Instructional Activities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lonigan, Christopher J.; Allan, Nicholas P.; Lerner, Matthew D.

    2011-01-01

    The importance of the preschool period in becoming a skilled reader is highlighted by a significant body of evidence that preschool children's development in the areas of oral language, phonological awareness, and print knowledge is predictive of how well they will learn to read once they are exposed to formal reading instruction in elementary…

  15. Preschool Children's Awareness of Private Speech

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Manfra, Louis; Winsler, Adam

    2006-01-01

    The present study explored: (a) preschool children's awareness of their own talking and private speech (speech directed to the self); (b) differences in age, speech use, language ability, and mentalizing abilities between children with awareness and those without; and (c) children's beliefs and attitudes about private speech. Fifty-one children…

  16. Children's Participation in Preschool--On the Conditions of the Adults? Preschool Staff's Concepts of Children's Participation in Preschool Everyday Life

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sandberg, Anette; Eriksson, Anette

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate, analyse and describe preschool staff's concepts of children's participation in everyday preschool life, as well as preschool staff's experiences and concepts of what characterises the children who participate. Furthermore, it addresses the conditions that preschool staff consider as crucial in…

  17. Peer Effects on Head Start Children's Preschool Competency

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DeLay, Dawn; Hanish, Laura D.; Martin, Carol Lynn; Fabes, Richard A.

    2016-01-01

    The goals of this study were to investigate whether young children attending Head Start (N = 292; M[subscript age] = 4.3 years) selected peers based on their preschool competency and whether children's levels of preschool competency were influenced by their peers' levels of preschool competency. Children's peer interaction partners were…

  18. Teaching Preschool Children to Avoid Poison Hazards

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dancho, Kelly A.; Thompson, Rachel H.; Rhoades, Melissa M.

    2008-01-01

    We evaluated the effectiveness of group safety training and in situ feedback and response interruption to teach preschool children to avoid consuming potentially hazardous substances. Three children ingested ambiguous substances during a baited baseline assessment condition and continued to ingest these substances following group safety training.…

  19. Gender Effects in Preschool Childrens' Creativity.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Freeland, Shari Haynie; Moran, James D., III

    An experiment was conducted to determine if gender differences among preschool children would be found on measures of creative potential. Subjects were 58 English-speaking children, 31 boys and 27 girls, with a mean age of 57.6 months, who attended the Child Development Laboratory School at Oklahoma State University. Subjects were tested…

  20. Teaching Probabilities and Statistics to Preschool Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pange, Jenny

    2003-01-01

    This study considers the teaching of probabilities and statistics to a group of preschool children using traditional classroom activities and Internet games. It was clear from this study that children can show a high level of understanding of probabilities and statistics, and demonstrate high performance in probability games. The use of Internet…

  1. STUDIES OF PRESCHOOL CHILDREN'S EXPOSURES TO PESTICIDES

    EPA Science Inventory

    Young children, especially those of the preschool ages, are hypothesized to have greater exposures than do older children or adults to persistent organic pesticides and other persistent organic pollutants, including some compounds that may have endocrine-disrupting effects or d...

  2. Object Movement in Preschool Children's Word Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Scofield, Jason; Miller, Andrea; Hartin, Travis

    2011-01-01

    Two studies examined whether preschool children preferred to select a moving object over stationary objects when determining the referent of a novel word. In both studies three- and four-year-olds observed three novel objects, one moving object and two stationary objects. In Study 1, children (n=44) were asked to select the object that best…

  3. Temperament and Preschool Children's Peer Interactions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Acar, Ibrahim H.; Rudasill, Kathleen Moritz; Molfese, Victoria; Torquati, Julia; Prokasky, Amanda

    2015-01-01

    Research Findings: The current study is an examination of children's temperament as a predictor of their interactions with peers in preschool, with a particular focus on children's regulatory temperament characteristics (i.e., inhibitory control and attentional focusing) as moderators of associations between shyness and interactions with peers.…

  4. Assessing Preschool Children's Pretend Play: Preliminary Validation of the Affect in Play Scale-Preschool Version

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kaugars, Astrida Seja; Russ, Sandra W.

    2009-01-01

    Research Findings: A description of the development and preliminary validation of the Affect in Play Scale-Preschool version (APS-P) is presented by demonstrating associations among preschool children's play, creativity, and daily behavior using multiple methodologies. Thirty-three preschool-age children completed a standardized 5-minute play task…

  5. Impact of Maternal Posttraumatic Stress Disorder and Depression Following Exposure to the September 11 Attacks on Preschool Children's Behavior

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chemtob, Claude M.; Nomura, Yoko; Rajendran, Khushmand; Yehuda, Rachel; Schwartz, Deena; Abramovitz, Robert

    2010-01-01

    To evaluate whether conjoined maternal posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and depression are associated with increased behavioral problems among terrorism-exposed preschool children (N = 116; 18-54 months), this study compared clinically significant child behavioral problem rates among the preschool children of mothers with PTSD and depression,…

  6. Using Children's Literature in Preschool: Comprehending and Enjoying Books

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morrow, Lesley Mandel; Gambrell, Linda B.

    2004-01-01

    Build a rich literature environment that will foster preschoolers' reading comprehension. Emphasizing the importance of children's literature in the preschool classroom, this book shows how to effectively read stories to young children and create a classroom literacy center. Teachers will be able to use literature to help preschoolers understand…

  7. Children's Access to Pre-School Education in Bangladesh

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nath, Samir Ranjan; Sylva, Kathy

    2007-01-01

    Using the "Education Watch" household survey database, this paper explores children's access to pre-school education in Bangladesh. Participation in pre-school education has been increasing in Bangladesh at the rate of 0.6% per year and the net enrolment rate was found to be 13.4% in 2005. Enrolment of over-aged children in pre-school education…

  8. Fundamental movement skills among Australian preschool children.

    PubMed

    Hardy, Louise L; King, Lesley; Farrell, Louise; Macniven, Rona; Howlett, Sarah

    2010-09-01

    Early childhood is a critical period for the development of fundamental movement skills (FMS). Children who do not master FMS are more likely to experience failure in the motor domain and less likely to participate in sport and games during childhood and adolescence. Studies among primary school aged children report low levels of FMS mastery indicating the need to implement FMS programs during the preschool years. Cross-sectional study of 425 children attending preschools in the Sydney, Australia in 2008. FMS were assessed using the Test of Gross Motor Development-2 including locomotor (run, gallop, hop, horizontal jump) and object control (strike, catch, kick overhand throw) skills. Data were analysed using linear regression and chi-squared analyses. Total locomotor score was higher among girls compared with boys (p<0.00); however only the hop was significantly different (p=0.01). Boys had higher total (p<0.00) and individual object control scores compared with girls, except the catch (p=0.6). The prevalence of mastery differed across each FMS. Girls generally had higher mastery of locomotor skills and boys had higher mastery of object control skills. These findings highlight the need to provide structured opportunities which facilitate children's acquisition of FMS, which may include providing gender separated games, equipment and spaces. That mastery of FMS is low in primary school children indicates the importance of early intervention programs in preschools. Preschools and child care centers hold promise as a key setting for implementing FMS programs. PMID:19850520

  9. Conformity to peer pressure in preschool children.

    PubMed

    Haun, Daniel B M; Tomasello, Michael

    2011-01-01

    Both adults and adolescents often conform their behavior and opinions to peer groups, even when they themselves know better. The current study investigated this phenomenon in 24 groups of 4 children between 4;2 and 4;9 years of age. Children often made their judgments conform to those of 3 peers, who had made obviously erroneous but unanimous public judgments right before them. A follow-up study with 18 groups of 4 children between 4;0 and 4;6 years of age revealed that children did not change their "real" judgment of the situation, but only their public expression of it. Preschool children are subject to peer pressure, indicating sensitivity to peers as a primary social reference group already during the preschool years. PMID:22023172

  10. Developmental Profiles of Mucosal Immunity in Pre-school Children

    PubMed Central

    Ewing, Patricia; Otczyk, Diana C.; Occhipinti, Stefano; Kyd, Jennelle M.; Gleeson, Maree; Cripps, Allan W.

    2010-01-01

    This study investigated the effect of attending pre-school on mucosal immunity. Children 3.5 to 5 years of age who attended pre-school were observed for a 10 month period. Demographic information was collected on previous childcare experiences, the home environment and clinical information relating to the child and the family. A daily illness log was kept for each child. A multivariate longitudinal analysis of the relation between immunoglobulins in saliva and age, gender, childcare experience, pre-school exposure, number of siblings, environmental tobacco smoke (ETS), atopy and hospitalisation was conducted. There was a positive association of higher IgA levels with the winter season and with children being older than 4 years (P < .001), having attended childcare prior to commencing pre-school (P < .05), and having been exposed to ETS at home (P < .05). Lower IgA levels were associated with being atopic (P < .05). Higher IgG levels were associated with exposure to ETS (P < .001), while lower levels were associated to having atopy. Higher IgM levels were associated with previous childcare experience (P < .01) whilst having been hospitalised was associated with having low salivary IgM levels (P < .01). Lagged analyses demonstrated that immunological parameters were affected by the number of respiratory infections in the preceding 2 months. PMID:21234378

  11. Objectively measured sedentary behavior in preschool children: comparison between Montessori and traditional preschools

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background This study aimed to compare the levels of objectively-measured sedentary behavior in children attending Montessori preschools with those attending traditional preschools. Methods The participants in this study were preschool children aged 4 years old who were enrolled in Montessori and traditional preschools. The preschool children wore ActiGraph accelerometers. Accelerometers were initialized using 15-second intervals and sedentary behavior was defined as <200 counts/15-second. The accelerometry data were summarized into the average minutes per hour spent in sedentary behavior during the in-school, the after-school, and the total-day period. Mixed linear regression models were used to determine differences in the average time spent in sedentary behavior between children attending traditional and Montessori preschools, after adjusting for selected potential correlates of preschoolers’ sedentary behavior. Results Children attending Montessori preschools spent less time in sedentary behavior than those attending traditional preschools during the in-school (44.4. min/hr vs. 47.1 min/hr, P = 0.03), after-school (42.8. min/hr vs. 44.7 min/hr, P = 0.04), and total-day (43.7 min/hr vs. 45.5 min/hr, P = 0. 009) periods. School type (Montessori or traditional), preschool setting (private or public), socio-demographic factors (age, gender, and socioeconomic status) were found to be significant predictors of preschoolers’ sedentary behavior. Conclusions Levels of objectively-measured sedentary behavior were significantly lower among children attending Montessori preschools compared to children attending traditional preschools. Future research should examine the specific characteristics of Montessori preschools that predict the lower levels of sedentary behavior among children attending these preschools compared to children attending traditional preschools. PMID:23286454

  12. Starkweather Target Game for Preschool Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Starkweather, Elizabeth K.

    The Starkweather Target Game is designed to measure preschool children's willingness to try difficult tasks independent of ability. The game consists of a box-shaped target which responds, when the target is hit by a rolled ball, somewhat like a jack-in-a-box. When the bull's eye is hit, the lid opens and a surprise picture appears. After being…

  13. PRESCHOOL CHILDREN'S WILLINGNESS TO TRY DIFFICULT TASKS.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    STARKWEATHER, ELIZABETH K.

    INSTRUMENTS WERE ADMINISTERED TO PRESCHOOL CHILDREN TO MEASURE THEIR PERFORMANCE ON VARIOUS TASKS. THE INSTRUMENTS WERE (1) A BUTTONING TASK FOR FINE MOTOR COORDINATION, (2) A PUZZLE TASK FOR VISUAL DISCRIMINATION, AND (3) A TARGET GAME FOR GROSS MOTOR COORDINATION. EACH INSTRUMENT CONSISTED OF FIVE TASKS GRADED IN DIFFICULTY, ADJUSTED TO THE…

  14. Correlates of Attraction Among Preschool Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ross, Michael B.

    The generalizability of several variables which have been related to attraction among adults to preschool children was investigated. It was found that perceived physical attractiveness, perceived proximity, and familiarity are all significantly positively correlated with how popular a child is in his nursery school class. (Author)

  15. Preschool Children's Outdoor Play Area Preferences

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Holmes, Robyn M.; Procaccino, Jill K.

    2009-01-01

    This study explores preschool children's outdoor play preferences. The sample was 40 (20 male, 20 female) primarily European-American three and four year olds. Data were collected via naturalistic observation and analyzed using repeated measures ANOVAs and MANOVAs. The independent variable was sex of child; dependent variable was play space…

  16. High-Quality Preschool: The Socioeconomic Composition of Preschool Classrooms and Children's Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reid, Jeanne L.; Ready, Douglas D.

    2013-01-01

    Research Findings: As policymakers expand access to preschool, the sociodemographic composition of preschool classrooms will become increasingly important. These efforts may create programs that increase the concentration of children from low-income families or, alternatively, foster the creation of socioeconomically diverse preschool classrooms.…

  17. Developmental changes in threat and self-blame for preschoolers exposed to intimate partner violence (IPV).

    PubMed

    Miller, Laura E; Howell, Kathryn H; Graham-Bermann, Sandra A

    2014-06-01

    The presence of threat and self-blame in children exposed to violence in the home has been linked to a number of negative behavioral and emotional consequences across developmental periods. Little research, however, has examined self-reported attributions of threat and self-blame in children under the age of 6. The current study evaluated the developmental trajectories of appraisals of threat and self-blame in preschool-aged children recently exposed to intimate partner violence. It was hypothesized that (a) children's appraisals of threat and self-blame would naturally decrease over time and (b) there would be a main effect of child sex on appraisals of self-blame but not threat, such that girls would report higher levels of self-blame than boys. Participants included 68 preschool-aged children (ages 4-6) who were interviewed at two time points over the course of 1 year. Multilevel modeling was employed to examine the effects of violence exposure, child age, and child sex over time. Children's attributions of threat were stable over the course of 1 year, but greater child age was related to lower appraisals of threat. Children's appraisals of self-blame increased over time, and there was a trend for girls to report more self-blame than did boys. It appears that without intervention, young children may be at risk of developing relatively stable maladaptive cognitive patterns, thereby heightening their risk of subsequent developmental psychopathology. Furthermore, girls may need additional intervention targeted at addressing attributions of self-blame. PMID:24368679

  18. Physical Activity in Preschool Children: Comparison between Montessori and Traditional Preschools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pate, Russell R.; O'Neill, Jennifer R.; Byun, Wonwoo; McIver, Kerry L.; Dowda, Marsha; Brown, William H.

    2014-01-01

    Background: Little is known about the influence of Montessori methods on children's physical activity (PA). This cross-sectional study compared PA of children attending Montessori and traditional preschools. Methods: We enrolled 301 children in 9 Montessori and 8 traditional preschools in Columbia, South Carolina. PA was measured by…

  19. Imaginary Companions of Preschool Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gleason, Tracy R.; Sebanc, Anne M.; Hartup, Willard W.

    2000-01-01

    Interviewed mothers to examine the developmental significance of preschoolers' imaginary companions. Found that relationships with invisible companions were described as sociable and friendly, whereas personified objects were usually nurtured. Object personification frequently occurred as a result of acquiring a toy; invisible friends were viewed…

  20. Effects of a Preschool Plus Follow-on Intervention Program for Children at Risk.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reynolds, Arthur J.

    As part of the Longitudinal Study of Children at Risk, this study evaluated the Child Parent Center (CPC) Program, a preschool to third grade intervention program funded by the Elementary and Secondary Education Act (ESEA) Chapter I. Subjects were 915 low-income black children from 20 inner-city schools who were differentially exposed to…

  1. Can Young Preschool Children Be Trained to Perform Percept Deprivation Tasks?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McGuigan, Nicola

    2007-01-01

    Young preschool children aged 2 and 3 years were exposed to a novel paradigm designed to train visual perception skills. The results indicate that children of this age can be trained to perform a percept deprivation task that requires a sophisticated understanding of attention not normally mastered until 3.5-4 years. Results are discussed with…

  2. Changing Perceptions: The Literacy Development of Children Prenatally Exposed to Crack or Cocaine.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barone, Diane

    1997-01-01

    Presents an overview of 26 children prenatally exposed to crack or cocaine and a case study of one focal child. Notes that the children are in stable home settings. Describes the success in the development of literacy of the majority of the children as they moved through preschool and elementary school. (SG)

  3. Reading Children's Books to the Preschool Children in Greek Families

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Natsiopoulou, Triantafillia; Souliotis, Dimitrios; Kyridis, Argyris; Hatzisavvides, Sophronis

    2006-01-01

    This paper is a report on a study of the practice of reading to young children in 1115 families in Greece. The outcome of the study shows that families from high socio-economic (HSES) backgrounds buy and read children's books to their preschoolers significantly more than families from low socio-economic (LSES) backgrounds do. HSES families use…

  4. Relational Aggression in Children with Preschool-Onset Psychiatric Disorders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Belden, Andy C.; Gaffrey, Michael S.; Luby, Joan L.

    2012-01-01

    Objective: The role of preschool-onset (PO) psychiatric disorders as correlates and/or risk factors for relational aggression during kindergarten or first grade was tested in a sample of 146 preschool-age children (age 3 to 5.11 years). Method: Axis-I diagnoses and symptom scores were derived using the Preschool Age Psychiatric Assessment.…

  5. Recognition Memory in Reflective and Impulsive Preschool Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Siegel, Alexander W.; And Others

    1973-01-01

    Eight reflective and eight impulsive preschool children were tested in a forced-choice recognition memory task. Reflective children made more correct recognition choices than did impulsive children under all experimental conditions. (ST)

  6. Exploring Preschool Children's Science Content Knowledge

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Guo, Ying; Piasta, Shayne B.; Bowles, Ryan P.

    2015-01-01

    Research Findings: The purpose of this study was to describe children's science content knowledge and examine the early predictors of science content knowledge in a sample of 194 typically developing preschool children. Children's science content knowledge was assessed in the fall (Time 1) and spring (Time 2) of the preschool year.…

  7. Nighttime Fears and Fantasy-Reality Differentiation in Preschool Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zisenwine, Tamar; Kaplan, Michal; Kushnir, Jonathan; Sadeh, Avi

    2013-01-01

    Nighttime fears are very common in preschool years. During these years, children's fantasy-reality differentiation undergoes significant development. Our study was aimed at exploring the links between nighttime fears and fantasy-reality differentiation in preschool children. Eighty children (aged: 4-6 years) suffering from severe nighttime fears…

  8. Malnutrition among Preschool-Aged Autistic Children in Oman

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Al-Farsi, Yahya M.; Al-Sharbati, Marwan M.; Waly, Mostafa I.; Al-Farsi, Omar A.; Al Shafaee, Mohammed A.; Deth, Richard C.

    2011-01-01

    To assess prevalence of malnutrition indicators among preschool children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) a cross-sectional study was conducted among 128 Omani autistic children 3-5 years of age. Based on standardized z-scores, the overall prevalence of malnutrition was 9.2 per 100 preschool ASD children (95% CI 4.1, 11.6). The most common type…

  9. Preschool Children's Conceptions of Moral and Social Rules.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smetana, Judith G.

    1981-01-01

    Examined preschool children's conceptions of moral and conventional rules. Children judged the seriousness, rule contingency, rule relativism, and amount of deserved punishment for 10 depicted moral and conventional preschool transgressions. Constant across ages and sexes, children evaluated moral transgressions as more serious offenses and more…

  10. Use of interferometry in preschool children.

    PubMed

    Richman, J E; Kozol, N; Crawford, R D

    1989-05-01

    Any procedure that can help to predict the outcome of treatment for a vision disorder is a desired clinical goal. Interferometry has shown such an ability for predicting the post-treatment visual acuities in amblyopia and other vision disorders. In this study, we investigated the effectiveness of using interferometry with preschool children, aged 3-5 years. We determined that they can be reliably tested in 5-10 minutes using a non-verbal, forced choice technique. Due to developmental differences, the 3-year-olds needed slightly more time to test and were more variable in their responses than the 4-years-olds. Overall, the prognostic value of interferometer visual acuity measures should be considered for use in preschool children with visual acuity disorders, e.g., amblyopia. PMID:2732416

  11. Toothpaste Utilization Profiles among Preschool Children

    PubMed Central

    Bennadi, Darshana; Kshetrimayum, Nandita; Sibyl, S; Reddy, C.V.K.

    2014-01-01

    Background: Oral healthcare for pre-school children is given due priority, as their oral health will determine the oral health status of future generations. Generally, the type, frequency and quantity of toothpaste used by children are based purely on parental preferences. Methodology: A descriptive, cross-sectional study was conducted among mothers of preschool children by using a questionnaire. Results: Sixty two percent (n=154) mothers started brushing their children’s teeth more than one year after eruption of their teeth. A majority of the mothers used adult toothpaste to brush their children’s teeth and supervised their children while brushing. Fiftytwo percent mothers were aware about presence of fluoride in tooth paste but its clinical significance. Half the mothers applied full length of tooth paste to their children’s brushes and most mothers made their children brush their teeth twice daily. Conclusion: Based on the findings of this study, it appears that there is still much lack of awareness on the proper guidelines on the selection and usage of toothpastes in children. Dental professionals should use this knowledge to help and motivate parents to properly supervise and assist their children’s brushing, with the goal of reducing the potential risk of fluorosis. PMID:24783140

  12. Physical activity in preschool children: comparison between Montessori and traditional preschools

    PubMed Central

    Pate, Russell R.; O’Neill, Jennifer R.; Byun, Wonwoo; McIver, Kerry L.; Dowda, Marsha; Brown, William H.

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND Little is known about the influence of Montessori methods on children’s physical activity (PA). This cross-sectional study compared PA of children attending Montessori and traditional preschools. METHODS We enrolled 301 children in 9 Montessori and 8 traditional preschools in Columbia, South Carolina. PA was measured by accelerometry on weekdays during preschool (In-School), non-school (Non-School) and all day (All Day). Minutes/hour of light, moderate-to-vigorous (MVPA) and total PA (light + MVPA) were calculated. RESULTS Children attending Montessori preschools accumulated more In-School light (7.7 vs. 6.5 min/hr), MVPA (7.7 vs. 6.5 min/hr) and total PA (15.4 vs. 13.0 min/hr) than children attending traditional preschools, after adjusting for sex, race/ethnicity, body mass index, parent education and neighborhood poverty index. For Non-School (8.5 vs. 6.2 min/hr) and All Day (8.5 vs. 7.6 min/hr), children in Montessori preschools accumulated more MVPA than children in traditional preschools. In-School PA was higher for children in private Montessori than public Montessori preschools (8.1 vs. 7.0 min/hr; 8.1 vs. 6.7 min/hr; 16.1 vs. 13.6 min/hr, for light, MVPA, and total PA, respectively). CONCLUSIONS Children attending Montessori preschools were more active than children attending traditional preschools. Adopting the Montessori system may be an important strategy for promoting PA in children. PMID:25274171

  13. Emotion regulation strategies in preschool children.

    PubMed

    Sala, Maria Nives; Pons, Francisco; Molina, Paola

    2014-11-01

    This study investigated the development of emotion regulation strategies as reflected in the narratives of children between the ages of 3 and 6 years. An experimental procedure based on story completion tasks was devised to elicit the emotion-related narratives of 69 preschool children. Coding of the narratives led to the observation of different emotion regulation strategies: Behavioural strategies, social support, and cognitive reappraisal. Several significant gender and age differences were identified in the use of these strategies. In addition, verbal skills, non-verbal intelligence, and emotion comprehension were found to be associated with use of the observed emotion regulation strategies, although only at specific ages. PMID:25040163

  14. Assessing Gross Motor Skills of Kosovar Preschool Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shala, Merita

    2009-01-01

    In the light of the new developments in preschool education in Kosovo, this study attempts to carry out an assessment of the development of gross motor skills of preschool children attending institutional education. The emphasis is on creating a set of tests to measure the motor attainments of these children by conducting assessments of the…

  15. Children's Sense of Agency in Preschool: A Sociocultural Investigation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hilppö, Jaakko; Lipponen, Lasse; Kumpulainen, Kristiina; Rainio, Anna

    2016-01-01

    This socioculturally informed study investigated children's sense of agency in relation to their everyday life in preschool. The empirical data comprised focus groups reflection situations wherein Finnish preschool children (n. 19, aged 6-7) reflected on their everyday life with the help of photographs and drawings they made. Building on a…

  16. Supporting Children's Oral Language Development in the Preschool Classroom

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Whorrall, Jennifer; Cabell, Sonia Q.

    2016-01-01

    Supporting children's oral language development during the preschool years is critical for later reading success. Research shows that preschool teachers may be missing opportunities to engage children in the kinds of conversations that foster the development of rich oral language skills. Teachers hoping to support these skills can provide children…

  17. Take-Home Numeracy Kits for Preschool Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Macmillan, Agnes

    2004-01-01

    This paper outlines the practical aspects of a project aimed to offer access to numerate knowledge for preschool children by providing them with take-home numeracy kits. A Koori preschool in an urban regional area of New South Wales, Australia, was involved in the project. The centre catered for 18 four- and five-year-old children. The two main…

  18. Supporting Young Children's Explanations through Inquiry Science in Preschool

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Peterson, Shira May; French, Lucia

    2008-01-01

    This study examines the ways in which preschool teachers support the development of children's explanatory language through science inquiry. Two classrooms in a preschool center using a science inquiry curriculum were videotaped during a 5-week unit on color mixing. Videotapes were analyzed for how teachers facilitated children's explanatory…

  19. African American Preschool Children's Physical Activity Levels in Head Start

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shen, Bo; Reinhart-Lee, Tamara; Janisse, Heather; Brogan, Kathryn; Danford, Cynthia; Jen, K-L. C.

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to describe the physical activity levels of urban inner city preschoolers while attending Head Start, the federally funded preschool program for children from low-income families. Participants were 158 African American children. Their physical activity during Head Start days was measured using programmed RT-3…

  20. The Benefits of Reading Aloud to Pre-School Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pankey, Janel Christine

    Noting that reading aloud to preschool children significantly influences their reading development, this master's thesis examines the many benefits from reading aloud to preschoolers. The thesis reviews research indicating that when parents read aloud, they help their children learn vocabulary, complex sentence structure, and story structure.…

  1. Parenting Style Associated with Sedentary Behaviour in Preschool Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schary, David P.; Cardinal, Bradley J.; Loprinzi, Paul D.

    2012-01-01

    There is an absence of studies exploring the relationship between parental style and sedentary behaviour in preschool-aged children. Given the link between parenting style and other health behaviours, and given that preschool children engage in relatively high levels of sedentary behaviour, this study's purpose was to examine if a preschool…

  2. Maternal and Child Predictors of Preschool Children's Social Competence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Diener, Marissa L.; Kim, Do-Yeong

    2004-01-01

    The present study examined child and maternal predictors of children's social competence in preschool. One hundred ten mothers and their preschool-aged children participated. Mothers completed parent reports of child temperament and self-regulation, and self-reports of maternal separation anxiety. Mothers' interactional style was coded from…

  3. Latent Structure of Motor Abilities in Pre-School Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vatroslav, Horvat

    2011-01-01

    The theoretical and practical knowledge which have so far been acquired through work with pre-school children pointed to the conclusion that the structures of the latent dimensions of the motor abilities differ greatly from such a structure, in pre-school children and adults alike. Establishing the latent structure of the motor abilities in…

  4. Teaching Preschool Children to Avoid Poison Hazards

    PubMed Central

    Dancho, Kelly A; Thompson, Rachel H; Rhoades, Melissa M

    2008-01-01

    We evaluated the effectiveness of group safety training and in situ feedback and response interruption to teach preschool children to avoid consuming potentially hazardous substances. Three children ingested ambiguous substances during a baited baseline assessment condition and continued to ingest these substances following group safety training. In situ feedback and response interruption resulted in a decrease in opening ambiguous containers; this decrease was maintained when ambiguous novel containers were presented and when assessments occurred in a novel setting and with a novel experimenter. For 2 children, these gains were also maintained during a brief follow-up period. Twelve children did not ingest ambiguous substances prior to training, and group safety training did not evoke inappropriate ingestion. PMID:18595292

  5. The Effects of Sex-Typed Labeling on Preschool Children's Information-Seeking and Retention.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bradbard, Marilyn R.; Endsley, Richard C.

    The main purpose of this study was to address this question: When preschool children are exposed to novel objects, will their tactual and verbal information-seeking about these objects and the amount of information they remember about these same objects be influenced by whether an adult labels them as things "for girls" or "for boys"? Thirty-six…

  6. Evaluation of preventive programs in high caries active preschool children.

    PubMed

    Sundell, Anna Lena; Ullbro, Christer; Koch, Göran

    2013-01-01

    Although caries prevalence in preschool children has dramatically decreased during the last decades it is still a large problem for a minor group of these children. Great efforts have been invested in finding effective preventive programs for the high caries active preschool children. However, few studies have evaluated and discussed which approach will give the best effect. The aim of the present study was to compare the effect of a "standard" preventive program with a series of programs with more extensive measures during a two-year period. At start one hundred and sixty high caries active preschool children (mean age 4 years) were included in the study. The children were randomly distributed to four groups. All groups were exposed to the basic program composed of dietary counselling, oral hygiene instructions and fluoride varnish application. Three groups were exposed to one additional preventive measure e.g. 1% chlorhexidine gel in trays, 0.2% NaF gel in trays or daily tooth brushing with 1% chlorhexidine gel. The programs were repeated seven times during the two-year study period and were executed by trained dental hygienists. Caries examination and saliva sampling for Streptococcus mutans measurements were performed at start of the study and after two years. The mean defs at start was between 10.8 and 12.6 for the four groups (NS). After two years the caries increment was 1.9 ds in the basic preventive group and between 1.9 and 2.6 (NS) in the other groups. Numerically there were more children in the chlorhexidine groups that showed reduction of Streptococcus mutans counts compared to the other groups, but the differences were small. The mean caries increment of about 1.9 ds per year in all groups indicate that all programs were effective taken into account that the children had about 11 defs at start. There were no differences in caries increment between the basic preventive group and the other groups. The conclusion was that addition of preventive measures

  7. Reading to Preschoolers Exposed: Is the Emperor Really Naked?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lonigan, Christopher J.

    1994-01-01

    Argues there is reason for more optimism concerning the effects of reading to preschoolers than suggested by the Scarborough and Dobrich review in this issue (PS522390). Discusses methodological problems in many studies; cites studies indicating direct and indirect links between reading to preschoolers and reading achievement, suggesting that…

  8. A Turkish Perspective on Nutrition Education and Preschool Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Unusan, Nurhan; Sanlier, Nevin

    2007-01-01

    Preschool education is extremely limited in Turkey, suggesting an absence of public recognition of its importance and a lack of state support. In the "VI. Five Years Development Plan," it was exposed that the target in preschool education could not be reached. Especially, regional differences played an important role. According to population and…

  9. Children's Perspectives on the Role of Preschool Teachers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Einarsdottir, Johanna

    2014-01-01

    The aim of the study was to examine critically the roles and pedaogogy of preschool teachers from the perspectives of five- to six-year-old children who had extensive experience of being full day preschool children from the age of two. The participants were 32 children in the oldest preschool group in two preschools in Reykjavik. Data was gathered…

  10. Assessing preschool children's physical activity: the Observational System for Recording Physical Activity in children-preschool version.

    PubMed

    Brown, William H; Pfeiffer, Karin A; Mclver, Kerry L; Dowda, Marsha; Almeida, M Joao C A; Pate, Russell R

    2006-06-01

    In this paper we present initial information concerning a new direct observation system-the Observational System for Recording Physical Activity in Children-Preschool Version. The system will allow researchers to record young children's physical activity levels while also coding the topography of their physical activity, as well as detailed indoor and outdoor social and nonsocial contextual information. With respect to interobserver agreement (IOA), the kappa and category-by-category agreement mean of those obtained for the three illustrative preschools were generally above .80. Hence, our IOA data indicated that trained observers in the three preschools frequently agreed on the eight observational categories and accompanying codes. The results for preschoolers' level of physical activity indicated they spent the majority of observational intervals in sedentary activity (i.e., more than 80% intervals) and were observed in moderate to vigorous physical activity much less frequently (i.e., 5% or fewer intervals). For the 15 indoor and 12 outdoor activity contexts, variability across both the activity contexts and the three preschools were evident. Nevertheless, three classroom contexts-transition, snacks, and naptime--accounted for the greatest porportion of coded activity contexts for the children. In the three preschools, 4 of 17 physical activity types--sit and squat, lie down, stand, and walk--accounted for the topography of much of children's physical activity behavior Systematic observation of more representative preschool samples might better inform our present understanding of young children's physical activity in community preschool programs. PMID:16898273

  11. Preschool Predictors of Narrative Writing Skills in Elementary School Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hooper, Stephen R.; Roberts, Joanne E.; Nelson, Lauren; Zeisel, Susan; Kasambira Fannin, Danai

    2010-01-01

    This study examined the preschool predictors of elementary school narrative writing skills. The sample included 65 typically developing African American children, ranging in age from 5.0 to 5.5 years, and was 44.6% male. Targeted preschool predictors included measures of phonological processing, core language abilities, prereading skills, and…

  12. Children, Play, and Computers in Pre-School Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Plowman, Lydia; Stephen, Christine

    2005-01-01

    The paper reports a study designed to inform the development of an information and communication technology strategy for the pre-school years of education. The main methods of collecting evidence were observations at seven pre-school settings and interviews with at least two practitioners and a number of children at each site. Practitioners…

  13. Preschool Curriculum: What's In It for Children and Teachers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Albert Shanker Institute, 2009

    2009-01-01

    This report examines the importance and efficacy of oral language, literacy, mathematics, and science preschool curricula and how these curricula can be improved through alignment with research on early childhood development and learning. Detailed, research-driven recommendations are presented for what preschool-aged children should be learning in…

  14. Social Behavior of Urban and Kibbutz Preschool Children in Israel.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Levy-Shiff, Rachel; Hoffman, Michael A.

    1985-01-01

    Observes early social interactions in free play settings of Israeli kibbutz and urban preschool children. Kibbutz preschoolers displayed some aspects of more advanced group functioning (e.g., coordinated play) but also more behaviors reflecting affective distancing (e.g., solitary play, reduced affective expression, verbal aggression). (Author/NH)

  15. Factors Affecting the Formation of Food Preferences in Preschool Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alles-White, Monica L.; Welch, Patricia

    1985-01-01

    Identifies and discusses factors that affect the development of food preferences in preschool children, including familiarity, age, parents, peers, teachers, and programs designed to influence food habits. Makes recommendations to preschool and day care programs for creating an atmosphere conducive to trying new foods. (Author/DST)

  16. Language Competence and Social Focus among Preschool Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Naerland, Terje

    2011-01-01

    This study explores how various aspects of language competence are related to social focus among preschoolers. The study presented is based on video-recorded observation of 64 children, aged 11-61 months, during free play at their kindergarten. A measure of social focus in the preschool, regarded as an indicator of social status, was constructed…

  17. School Readiness of Moderately Preterm Children at Preschool Age

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Perricone, Giovanna; Morales, M. Regina; Anzalone, Germana

    2013-01-01

    The study investigates the preschool readiness of moderately preterm children and, in particular, the likely presence of learning disabilities at preschool age. Its theoretical model detects linguistic comprehension and expression; memory-related metacognition and cognition skills; orientation and motor coordination skills; premathematics and…

  18. Left-Handed Preschool Children with Orthopedic Disabilities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Banham, Katharine M.

    1983-01-01

    The mental development of 332 preschool-age children with orthopedic disabilities was assessed at a children's hospital over a 10-year period, and comparisons were made for right-handed and left-handed. The left-handed children were slower than right-handed children in learning speech and language skills (Author/SEW)

  19. Fast mapping by bilingual preschool children.

    PubMed

    Kan, Pui Fong; Kohnert, Kathryn

    2008-08-01

    Previous studies show that young monolingual children's ability to 'fast map' new word forms is closely associated with both their age and existing vocabulary knowledge. In this study we investigate potential relationships between age, fast mapping skills and existing vocabulary knowledge in both languages of developing bilingual preschool children. Participants were twenty-six typically developing children, ages 3 ; 0 to 5 ; 3. All children learned Hmong as their primary home language (L1) and English as a second language (L2). Fast mapping and vocabulary knowledge tasks were administered in L1 and L2. For vocabulary knowledge, scores were comparable in L1 and L2; for fast mapping, scores were somewhat greater in L1 than L2. In contrast to previous findings with monolingual children, fast mapping performance was not related to age or existing vocabulary knowledge in either Hmong or English. There were, however, significant positive and negative cross-language correlations between L1 fast mapping and L2 vocabulary. PMID:18588712

  20. Vocal overimitation in preschool-age children.

    PubMed

    Subiaul, Francys; Winters, Katherine; Krumpak, Kathryn; Core, Cynthia

    2016-01-01

    Overimitation--copying incorrect, idiosyncratic, or causally irrelevant actions--has been linked to our species' long history with artifacts whose functions are often opaque. It is an open question, however, whether children overimitate outside the artifact domain. We explored this question by presenting preschool-age children (3- to 5-year-olds, N=120) with an elicited imitation task that included high- and low-frequency disyllabic nouns (e.g., 'pizza) and nonwords (e.g., 'chizza), all of which had a stressed first syllable. However, during testing, half of the stimuli were incorrectly pronounced by stressing the second syllable (e.g., pi'zza). More than half of the children copied the model's incorrect pronunciation of high-frequency familiar words, consistent with overimitation. This pattern of response persisted even after children had themselves correctly named the familiar words prior to the start of testing, confirming that children purposefully altered the pronunciation of known words to match the incorrect pronunciations used by a model. These results demonstrate that overimitation is not restricted to the artifact domain and might extend to many different tasks and domains. PMID:26407825

  1. Characteristics of Print in Books for Preschool Children

    PubMed Central

    Treiman, Rebecca; Rosales, Nicole; Kessler, Brett

    2015-01-01

    Children begin to learn about the characteristics of print well before formal literacy instruction begins. Reading to children can expose them to print and help them learn about its characteristics. This may be especially true if the print is visually salient, for studies suggest that prereaders pay more attention to such print than to print that is visually less salient. To shed light on the characteristics of the print that US children see in books, especially those characteristics that may contribute to visual salience, we report a quantitative analysis of 73 books that were chosen to be representative of those seen by preschoolers. We found that print that is visually salient due to color, variation, and other features tends to be more common on the covers of books than in the interiors. It also tends to be more common in recently published books than in older books. Even in recent books, however, the print is much less visually salient than the accompanying pictures. Many studies have examined the behavior of adults and children during shared reading, but little research has examined the characteristics of books themselves. Our results provide quantitative information about this topic for one set of characteristics in books for young US children. PMID:27239231

  2. Silent Victims: Children Exposed to Family Violence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kolar, Kathryn R.; Davey, Debrynda

    2007-01-01

    Annually an estimated 3 million or more children are exposed to acts of domestic violence between adults in their homes. These children are at risk for abuse themselves as well as other immediate and long-term problems, especially if they have been exposed to repeated episodes of domestic violence. Multiple behavioral manifestations, including…

  3. Correlates of Curiosity and Exploratory Behavior in Preschool Disadvantaged Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Minuchin, Patricia

    1971-01-01

    Describes a pilot project with two objectives: 1) to develop measures of curiosity and exploration applicable to preschool children, and 2) to investigate the relationship between variations in exploratory behavior and other aspects of emotional and cognitive growth. (WY)

  4. RECRUITMENT STRATEGIES FOR AN EXPOSURE MEASUREMENT STUDY OF PRESCHOOL CHILDREN

    EPA Science Inventory

    Recruiting study participants is always a challenge for researchers. It poses an even bigger challenge for researchers to recruit participants for a study involving intrusive, burdensome data collection activities. A study of preschool children's exposure to persistent organic ...

  5. Efficient Preschool Screening for Educationally At-Risk Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sahin, Selcuk T.

    1978-01-01

    A discussion of the Model Preschool Screening Program for educationally at-risk children includes a description of the screening tools and publicity used, the pilot project conducted prior to its implementation, and the actual implementation of the program. (CM)

  6. POLYCYCLIC AROMATIC HYDROCARBON (PAH) EXPOSURE OF 257 PRESCHOOL CHILDREN

    EPA Science Inventory

    We investigated the polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) exposure of 257 preschool children and their adult caregivers in their everyday environments. Participants were recruited randomly from eligible homes and daycare centers within six North Carolina (NC) and six Ohio (OH) c...

  7. Factor Analysis of Measures of Nutritional Status of Preschool Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Guthrie, H. A.; And Others

    1973-01-01

    On the basis of the findings of this study, it is reasonable to recommend elimination of some of the demography, anthropometry, and biochemical indices commonly evaluated in nutritional surveys of U.S. preschool children. (DM)

  8. Educational intervention with multiply handicapped preschool children.

    PubMed

    Kaminer, R K; Chinitz, S P

    1982-02-01

    A study was conducted to objectively measure changes in functioning of multiply handicapped children in a specialized nursery school program. The study population consisted of the 18 children who entered the program in the study year. A quantitative teacher rating scale was developed, tested, and found to be reliable. Significant improvements were demonstrated in interaction, communication, and task orientation after 3 months and in self-care after 6 months. There was no measurable change in motor performance, and the intellectual functioning of the children remained in the same diagnostic category as at the outset. The study documented improvement on social competence of multiply handicapped children enrolled in a preschool program with minimal parental involvement. The teacher rating scale was found to be useful in measuring social functioning in a school setting for a young population with a limited range of possible achievements. Teachers proved to be reliable evaluators of their pupils. To measure social and interactional parameters, it appears necessary to have both a standardized instrument and an informed observer who knows the child's daily functioning. PMID:6460491

  9. Autistic spectrum disorders in preschool children.

    PubMed Central

    Zwaigenbaum, L.

    2001-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To review existing data on early signs of autistic spectrum disorders (ASD) and on how these disorders can be distinguished from other atypical patterns of development, and to describe a developmental surveillance approach that family physicians can use to ensure that children with these diagnoses are detected as early as possible. QUALITY OF EVIDENCE: MEDLINE was searched from January 1966 to July 2000 using the MeSH terms autistic disorder/diagnosis AND diagnosis, differential AND (infant OR child, preschool). Articles were selected based on relevance to developmental surveillance in primary care and on experimental design, with emphasis on prospective studies with systematic measurement procedures using up-to-date diagnostic criteria. MAIN MESSAGE: Autistic spectrum disorders are characterized by impairments in social interaction and verbal and nonverbal communication, and by preferences for repetitive interests and behaviours. Early signs that distinguish ASD from other atypical patterns of development include poor use of eye gaze, lack of gestures to direct other people's attention (particularly to show things of interest), diminished social responsiveness, and lack of age-appropriate play with toys (especially imaginative use of toys). Careful attention to parents' concerns and specific inquiry into and observation of how children interact, communicate, and play will help ensure that early signs are detected during regular health maintenance visits. CONCLUSION: Family physicians have an important role in early identification of children with ASD. Early diagnosis of these disorders is essential to ensure timely access to interventions known to improve outcomes for these children. PMID:11723598

  10. Prevalence of urinary tract infection in severely malnourished preschool children.

    PubMed

    Banapurmath, C R; Jayamony, S

    1994-06-01

    Eighty eight severely malnourished preschool children (Grade III or Grade IV, IAP classification) were studied to find out the prevalence of urinary tract infection (UTI). Fifty three well nourished preschool children served as controls. Urine samples were collected by suprapubic aspiration in children below 3 years and in older children a clean catch midstream sample of urine was collected. The urine samples were subjected to direct microscopic examination, Gram's stain and culture. UTI was detected in 7 (8%) of the 88 malnourished children. Besides UTI, the other associated infections included respiratory tract infection (31.8%), diarrhea (27.2%) and tuberculous meningitis (12.7%). PMID:7896393

  11. A Comparative Study of the Effects of Preschool Education on Middle Class Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McKinnon, Jennifer; And Others

    To determine whether preschool education benefits middle-class elementary school children, a study was conducted which compared the social, motor, and academic progress of kindergarten and elementary school children who had attended a Montessori preschool, another kind of preschool, or no preschool. The sample was chosen according to age,…

  12. A Nutrition Education Program for Preschool Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davis, Susan S.; And Others

    1983-01-01

    A curriculum was designed to give preschool caregivers basic nutrition background through a programed self-instructional unit; incorporate nutrition education into existing parts of a typical preschool day; and provide learning activities designed to help preschoolers relate food/nutrients to health. Development of materials, caregivers'…

  13. Alimentary fluoride intake in preschool children

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background The knowledge of background alimentary fluoride intake in preschool children is of utmost importance for introducing optimal and safe caries preventive measures for both individuals and communities. The aim of this study was to assess the daily fluoride intake analyzing duplicate samples of food and beverages. An attempt was made to calculate the daily intake of fluoride from food and swallowed toothpaste. Methods Daily alimentary fluoride intake was measured in a group of 36 children with an average age of 4.75 years and an average weight of 20.69 kg at baseline, by means of a double plate method. This was repeated after six months. Parents recorded their child's diet over 24 hours and collected duplicated portions of food and beverages received by children during this period. Pooled samples of food and beverages were weighed and solid food samples were homogenized. Fluoride was quantitatively extracted from solid food samples by a microdiffusion method using hexadecyldisiloxane and perchloric acid. The content of fluoride extracted from solid food samples, as well as fluoride in beverages, was measured potentiometrically by means of a fluoride ion selective electrode. Results Average daily fluoride intake at baseline was 0.389 (SD 0.054) mg per day. Six months later it was 0.378 (SD 0.084) mg per day which represents 0.020 (SD 0.010) and 0.018 (SD 0.008) mg of fluoride respectively calculated per kg bw/day. When adding the values of unwanted fluoride intake from the toothpaste shown in the literature (0.17-1.21 mg per day) the estimate of the total daily intake of fluoride amounted to 0.554-1.594 mg/day and recalculated to the child's body weight to 0.027-0.077 mg/kg bw/day. Conclusions In the children studied, observed daily fluoride intake reached the threshold for safe fluoride intake. When adding the potential fluoride intake from swallowed toothpaste, alimentary intake reached the optimum range for daily fluoride intake. These results showed that

  14. Integrating Children with Disabilities into Preschool. ERIC Digest.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Diamond, Karen E.; And Others

    This digest examines research on preschool programs that include children with and without disabilities. Recent research suggests that children with disabilities are able to take advantage of experiences that promote typical development. One study found that children with disabilities enrolled in integrated programs demonstrated higher levels of…

  15. Dyadic Orienting and Joint Attention in Preschool Children with Autism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leekam, Susan R.; Ramsden, Christopher A. H.

    2006-01-01

    Acts of dyadic orienting (responses to attention bids by a researcher) and acts of joint attention (e.g. pointing and showing behaviors) were observed in preschool children with autism and children with developmental delay. Children with autism responded to fewer adult vocal and non-vocal attention bids that were made singly and by combining…

  16. Young Children's Views of the Role of Preschool Educators

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pálmadóttir, Hrönn; Einarsdóttir, Jóhanna

    2015-01-01

    This article aims to explore young children's (from one to three years old) perspectives of the role and pedagogy of educators in play in an Icelandic preschool. The intention is to explore the meaning that children put into involving educators in their play and whether the children experience educators' actions as a resource for their play. The…

  17. Preschool Children's Sleep and Wake Behavior: Effects of Massage Therapy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Field, Tiffany; And Others

    1996-01-01

    Preschool children received twice-weekly massages for five weeks. Compared to control children, the massaged children had better behavior ratings on mood state, vocalization, activity, and cooperation following massage on day one and throughout the study. Teachers rated their behavior more optimally, and their parents rated them as having less…

  18. Factors Affecting Children's Math Achievement Scores in Preschool

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kilday, Carolyn R.

    2010-01-01

    This dissertation contains three independently conducted studies on factors that affect the math achievement scores of preschool-aged children. The first study examined the associations between children's executive-functioning (EF) and math achievement scores at 54 months of age. Results suggest that EF is strongly associated with children's…

  19. Preschool Education: Delivering on the Promise for Latino Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beltran, Erika

    2011-01-01

    This publication highlights opportunities to improve the educational outcomes of Hispanic children at an early age, a time that is critical to setting up the academic success of children. Specifically, this paper examines barriers to quality and access that limit the participation of Latino children and families in preschool and offers…

  20. The Association between Maltreatment and Obesity among Preschool Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Whitaker, Robert C.; Phillips, Shannon M.; Orzol, Sean M.; Burdette, Hillary L.

    2007-01-01

    Objective: To determine whether child maltreatment is associated with obesity in preschool children. Methods: Data were obtained from the Fragile Families and Child Wellbeing Study, a birth cohort study of 4898 children born between 1998 and 2000 in 20 large US cities. At 3 years of age, 2412 of these children had their height and weight measured,…

  1. Preschool Children's Learning Behaviors, Concept Attainment, Social Skills, and Problem Behaviors: Validity Evidence for Preschool Learning Behaviors Scale Scores

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schaefer, Barbara A.; Shur, Kimberely Fitch; Macri-Summers, Maria; MacDonald, Scott L.

    2004-01-01

    This study provides concurrent and predictive validity and test-retest reliability evidence for scores from the preschool teacher-completed Preschool Learning Behaviors Scale (PLBS; McDermott, Green, Francis, & Stott, 2002) using two regional samples of preschool children aged 3 to 5.5 years (Ns of 61 and 70). Teacher ratings of social skills and…

  2. Enhancing Safety-Planning through Evidence-Based Interventions with Preschoolers Exposed to Intimate Partner Violence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miller, Laura E.; Howell, Kathryn H.; Hunter, Erin C.; Graham-Bermann, Sandra A.

    2012-01-01

    Preschool children who witness severe intimate partner violence (IPV) are at increased risk for a wide range of emotional, behavioural, cognitive, and health problems. Although much of intervention research has focused on alleviating their psychological symptoms, we know little about efforts to provide these children with preventative safety…

  3. FUNDAMENTAL MOVEMENT SKILLS OF PRESCHOOL CHILDREN IN NORTHWEST ENGLAND.

    PubMed

    Foulkes, J D; Knowles, Z; Fairclough, S J; Stratton, G; O'Dwyer, M; Ridgers, N D; Foweather, L

    2015-08-01

    This cross-sectional study examined fundamental movement skill competency among deprived preschool children in Northwest England and explored sex differences. A total of 168 preschool children (ages 3-5 yr.) were included in the study. Twelve skills were assessed using the Children's Activity and Movement in Preschool Motor Skills Protocol and video analysis. Sex differences were explored at the subtest, skill, and component levels. Overall competence was found to be low among both sexes, although it was higher for locomotor skills than for object-control skills. Similar patterns were observed at the component level. Boys had significantly better object-control skills than girls, with greater competence observed for the kick and overarm throw, while girls were more competent at the run, hop, and gallop. The findings of low competency suggest that developmentally appropriate interventions should be implemented in preschool settings to promote movement skills, with targeted activities for boys and girls. PMID:26270852

  4. An Evaluation of the Preschool PATHS Curriculum on the Development of Preschool Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hughes, Cerian; Cline, Tony

    2015-01-01

    This study evaluated the efficacy of preschool Promoting Alternative Thinking Strategies (PATHS), an early years curriculum designed to improve children's social and emotional competence, and reduce problem behaviour. Fifty-seven children aged three to four years took part in the study over one academic year. The control group (Group 1)…

  5. Physiological and Behavioral Vulnerability Markers Increase Risk to Early Life Stress in Preschool-Aged Children.

    PubMed

    Kushner, Marissa R; Barrios, Chesley; Smith, Victoria C; Dougherty, Lea R

    2016-07-01

    The study examined whether child physiological (cortisol reactivity) and behavioral (negative emotionality) risk factors moderate associations between the early rearing environment, as measured by child exposure to maternal depression and stressful life events, and preschool psychopathology and psychosocial functioning. A sample of 156 preschool-aged children (77 boys, 79 girls; age M = 49.80 months, SD = 9.57, range: 36-71) participated in an observational assessment of temperament and was exposed to a stress-inducing laboratory task, during which we obtained five salivary cortisol samples. Parents completed clinical interviews to assess child and parent psychopathology and stressful life events. Results indicated that the combination of a blunted pattern of cortisol reactivity and recent stressful life events was associated with higher levels of preschoolers' externalizing symptoms and lower psychosocial functioning. In addition, greater life stress was associated with higher levels of preschoolers' internalizing symptoms. Lastly, children with high levels of negative emotionality and who were exposed to maternal depression had the lowest social competence. Our findings highlight the critical role of the early environment, particularly for children with identified risk factors, and add to our understanding of pathways involved in early emerging psychopathology and impairment. PMID:26424217

  6. Eating out of home and dietary adequacy in preschool children.

    PubMed

    Moreira, Teresa; Severo, Milton; Oliveira, Andreia; Ramos, Elisabete; Rodrigues, Sara; Lopes, Carla

    2015-07-01

    The present study aims to describe dietary intake and dietary adequacy according to eating location in preschool children. A sub-sample of 2414 children from the Generation XXI birth cohort (Porto, Portugal), evaluated during the follow-up between 2009 and 2011, was included. Dietary intake was assessed by 3 d food diaries and four groups of children were defined according to the eating location: 'Home' ( ≥ 80% of meals at home), 'Other homes', 'Preschool' and 'Restaurants'. A dietary adequacy index was developed based on general recommendations for children; a higher score represents a better dietary adequacy. The comparison of nutrients and foods daily intake according to the eating location groups was performed by ANOVA and ANCOVA to adjust for potential confounders. Children classified in 'Preschool' group ate significantly more vegetables, fruit, bread and fish, and less meat, compared to children classified into the 'Home' group. Children classified in the 'Restaurants' group ate more cakes, salty snacks and fruit juices than children in 'Home' group; and less vegetables, dairy products and pasta/rice/potatoes. In 'Restaurants' children obtained the lowest mean score of the dietary adequacy index (15.5, 95% CI 14.8, 16.3) and in 'Preschool' children had the highest mean score (18.3, 95% CI 18.1, 18.4), corresponding to a better dietary adequacy. Preschools seem to have a relevant role in promoting the intake of healthy foods in preschool children. The consumption in restaurants/coffee shops seems to contribute to energy-dense food intake and reduced consumption of nutrient-dense foods. PMID:26082269

  7. REFLECTIONS ON QUALITY AND DOSAGE OF PRESCHOOL AND CHILDREN'S DEVELOPMENT.

    PubMed

    Votruba-Drzal, Elizabeth; Miller, Portia

    2016-06-01

    This ambitious monograph tackles several important questions related to children's preschool experiences that have relevance for program and policy initiatives at the state and federal levels. The authors' approach is rigorous: they conduct parallel analyses across eight large and diverse studies of preschool children in center care and use meta-analysis to summarize patterns across studies. The study finds nonlinear associations between preschool quality and gains in language and literacy skills, with larger associations in higher versus lower quality classrooms. Results also show that domain-specific measures of preschool quality were more strongly related to children's development than global quality measures. The "dosage" of preschool was likewise important: more years in Head Start predicted larger vocabulary and literacy gains, whereas more time spent on instruction predicted greater literacy and math skills growth. In this commentary, we situate these findings in the broader literature addressing links between preschool experiences and children's development and discuss key takeaways for research, practice, and policy. PMID:27273510

  8. TREATMENT OF LEAD EXPOSED CHILDREN TRIAL

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Treatment of Lead-exposed Children (TLC) clinical trial compared the effect of lead chelation with succimer to placebo therapy. Outcomes included IQ, neuropsychological function, behavior, physical growth and blood pressure three years after initiation of treatment. Residenti...

  9. Helping Children Exposed to Domestic Violence

    MedlinePlus

    ... withdrawal Depression or anxiety Loss of interest in school, friends or other things they enjoyed in the past Children and adolescents exposed to domestic violence should be evaluated by a trained mental health ...

  10. Talking about Children's Resistance to the Institutional Order and Teachers in Preschool

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Markstrom, Ann-Marie

    2010-01-01

    This article highlights the parent-teacher conferences in the Swedish preschool and the talk about children's inappropriate and undesirable behaviour in a preschool setting. The focus of the article concerns how teachers talk about children's resistance to the social order in preschool and especially how children show resistance to teachers. The…

  11. Outdoor environmental assessment of attention promoting settings for preschool children.

    PubMed

    Mårtensson, F; Boldemann, C; Söderström, M; Blennow, M; Englund, J-E; Grahn, P

    2009-12-01

    The restorative potential of green outdoor environments for children in preschool settings was investigated by measuring the attention of children playing in settings with different environmental features. Eleven preschools with outdoor environments typical for the Stockholm area were assessed using the outdoor play environment categories (OPEC) and the fraction of visible sky from play structures (sky view factor), and 198 children, aged 4.5-6.5 years, were rated by the staff for inattentive, hyperactive and impulsive behaviors with the ECADDES tool. Children playing in large and integrated outdoor areas containing large areas of trees, shrubbery and a hilly terrain showed less often behaviors of inattention (p<.05). The choice of tool for assessment of attention is discussed in relation to outdoor stay and play characteristics in Swedish preschool settings. The results indicate that the restorative potential of green outdoor environments applies also to preschool children and that environmental assessment tools as OPEC can be useful when to locate and develop health-promoting land adjacent to preschools. PMID:19643655

  12. Comorbidities in preschool children at family risk of dyslexia

    PubMed Central

    Gooch, Debbie; Hulme, Charles; Nash, Hannah M; Snowling, Margaret J

    2015-01-01

    Background Comorbidity among developmental disorders such as dyslexia, language impairment, attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder and developmental coordination disorder is common. This study explores comorbid weaknesses in preschool children at family risk of dyslexia with and without language impairment and considers the role that comorbidity plays in determining children’s outcomes. Method The preschool attention, executive function and motor skills of 112 children at family risk for dyslexia, 29 of whom also met criteria for language impairment, were assessed at ages 3 ½ and 4 ½. The performance of these children was compared to the performance of children with language impairment and typically developing controls. Results Weaknesses in attention, executive function and motor skills were associated with language impairment rather than family risk status. Individual differences in language and executive function are strongly related in the preschool period and preschool motor skills predicted unique variance (4%) in early reading skills over and above children’s language ability. Conclusion Comorbidity between developmental disorders can be observed in the preschool years: children with language impairment have significant and persistent weaknesses in motor skills and executive function compared to those without language impairment. Children’s early language and motor skills are predictors of children’s later reading skills. PMID:24117483

  13. Exposing Preschoolers to the Printed Word: A Case Study of Preschool Teachers in Mauritius

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Owodally, Ambarin Mooznah Auleear

    2013-01-01

    Mauritius is a multilingual island, where there is a linguistic and literacy paradox. While Mauritian Creole dominates as the spoken language of the population, English and French are the main print languages, as well as the main languages of literacy and education. In such a complex situation, preschool is an interesting terrain in which to…

  14. Body Awareness in Preschool Children with Psychiatric Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Simons, J.; Leitschuh, C.; Raymaekers, A.; Vandenbussche, I.

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the body awareness of preschool children with a psychiatric disorder as measured by the test imitation of gestures (Berges & Lezine, 1978), using the subsections for pointing to body parts (passive vocabulary) and naming body parts (active vocabulary). Seventy-seven children from 37 to 72 months of age…

  15. Teachers' Emotional Consistency Matters for Preschool Children. Research Brief

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Curby, Timothy W.; Brock, Laura L.

    2013-01-01

    This study examined teachers' emotional support in classrooms and how it relates to children's outcomes in preschool and kindergarten. Findings suggest that more consistent emotional support was related to better academic and social outcomes, emphasizing the potentially important role of consistency in children's school experiences. [This research…

  16. Evaluating Motor Performance of Preschool-Aged Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hirst, Cyntha C.; And Others

    The purpose of this project was to develop a motor performance test for preschool children that would be economical to administer, valid, and reliable. Four test items--standing long jump, hopping within an 18-inch square, balancing on one foot, and a timed gross agility task, were selected from published tests to assess children's strength,…

  17. The Development of Flexibility and Abstraction in Preschool Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bennett, Joanna; Muller, Ulrich

    2010-01-01

    This study examined the development of flexibility and abstraction in preschool children by using a newly designed Pattern Completion Task (PCT) and the Flexible Item Selection Task (FIST). In the PCT, children were presented with an incomplete pattern consisting of different-colored shapes and were asked to select the colored shape that…

  18. Shyness, Vocabulary and Children's Reticence in Saudi Arabian Preschools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Crozier, W. Ray; Badawood, Asma

    2009-01-01

    The aims of the present study are to examine whether preschool children's scores on a standardized test of vocabulary mediate or moderate the relation between shyness and reticence and to test whether any influence of vocabulary would be found for both teacher and parent assessments of shyness. Participants were 108 children (50 males), mean age,…

  19. The Effectiveness of the Behavioural Training for Preschool Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Koglin, Ute; Petermann, Franz

    2011-01-01

    This study investigated the short-term effects of behavioural training for preschool children. The goals of this programme were to reduce disruptive behaviour as well as shy and withdrawn behaviour, and to promote social-emotional competencies. In young children, insufficient emotional competencies and difficulties concerning adequate conflict…

  20. Effects of Animated Videos on Preschool Children's Music Preferences.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cassidy, Jane W.; Geringer, John M.

    1999-01-01

    Investigates the effects of audiovisual media on preschool children's attitudes toward music presentations from "The Lion King" and "Fantasia." Finds that the listening times for music-plus-video presentations of both selections were longer and a majority of the children expressed a preference for "The Lion King" over "Fantasia." (CMK)

  1. Interactions between Turkish Mothers and Preschool Children with Autism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Diken, Ozlem; Mahoney, Gerald

    2013-01-01

    This study explored the relationship between Turkish mothers' style of interaction and the engagement of their preschool-aged children with autism. Data were collected from fifty mother-child dyads in which all children had diagnoses of autism. Video recordings of mother-child interaction were analyzed using the Turkish versions of the…

  2. Nutrition Survey of White Mountain Apache Preschool Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Owen, George M.; And Others

    As part of a national study of the nutrition of preschool children, data were collected on 201 Apache children, 1 to 6 years of age, living on an Indian reservation in Arizona. This report reviews procedures and clinical findings, and gives an analysis of growth data including skeletal maturation, nutrient intakes and clinical biochemical data. In…

  3. Directly Observed Physical Activity Levels in Preschool Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pate, Russell R.; McIver, Kerry; Dowda, Marsha; Brown, William H.; Addy, Cheryl

    2008-01-01

    Background: Millions of young children attend preschools and other structured child development programs, but little is known about their physical activity levels while in those settings. The purpose of this study was to describe the physical activity levels and demographic and school-related correlates of physical activity in children attending…

  4. Helping Children Develop Healthy Self-Concepts (Preschool - Third Grade).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DeAnda, Natividad

    This unit of the Flexible Learning System (FLS) is designed to help teachers analyzing the effects of classroom situations on the self-concepts of children in preschool through third grade. Among the questions addressed are: What is a healthy self-concept; How do teaching practices affect children's self-concepts; and When are situations…

  5. Understanding Participation of Preschool-Age Children with Cerebral Palsy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chiarello, Lisa Ann; Palisano, Robert J.; Orlin, Margo N.; Chang, Hui-Ju; Begnoche, Denise; An, Mihee

    2012-01-01

    Participation in home, school, and community activities is a primary outcome of early intervention services for children with disabilities and their families. The objectives of this study were to (a) describe participation of preschool-age children with cerebral palsy (CP); (b) determine effects of sex, age, and gross motor function on intensity…

  6. Children's Storytelling: The Effect of Preschool and Family Environment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fekonja-Peklaj, Urska; Marjanovic-Umek, Ljubica; Kranjc, Simona

    2010-01-01

    Storytelling reflects children's pragmatic language ability, which develops rapidly in early childhood and is related to various characteristics of the child's environment. This study examines the effect of preschool, maternal education and quality of the home environment on children's storytelling skills. The sample included 229 Slovenian…

  7. Language Development in Preschool-Age Children Adopted from China.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roberts, Jenny A.; Pollock, Karen E.; Krakow, Rena; Price, Johanna; Fulmer, Kathleen C.; Wang, Paul P.

    2005-01-01

    This study examined the language development of 55 preschool-age children adopted from China who had resided in their permanent homes for approximately 2 years or longer. Slightly over 5% of the children scored below average on 2 or more measures from a battery of standardized speech-language tests normed on monolingual English speakers. However,…

  8. Non-Abused Preschool Children's Perception of an Anogenital Examination

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gulla, Kari; Fenheim, Gred Eva; Myhre, Arne K.; Lydersen, Stian

    2007-01-01

    Objective: An anogenital examination is usually part of the standard medical assessment in children evaluated for suspected sexual abuse, and the emotional impact on the child has been studied. The primary aim of this study was to assess non-abused preschool children's responses to an anogenital examination. Method: One hundred and fifty-eight…

  9. PAH EXPOSURES OF PRESCHOOL CHILDREN AND THEIR ADULT CAREGIVERS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The results of four small studies of the polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) exposures of preschool children in low-income families from the Piedmont area of North Carolina were combined to allow comparisons of the total exposures of the children and their adult caregivers. I...

  10. Elicited Emotions and Cognitive Functioning in Preschool Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blau, Rivka; Klein, Pnina S.

    2010-01-01

    In this study, the effects of eliciting positive and negative emotions on various cognitive functions of four- to five-year-old preschool children were examined. Emotions were elicited through presentations of "happy" and "sad" video clips, before the children performed the cognitive tasks. Behavioural (facial expressions) and physiological (heart…

  11. Observations on Hearing Levels of Preschool Cleft-Palate Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harrison, Robert J.; Philips, Betty Jane

    1971-01-01

    Pure-tone audiometry performed monthly on nine preschool cleft palate children showed the incidence of hearing loss ranging from 25 to 71 percent from month to month, with all children experiencing a significant hearing loss at some time. (Author/KW)

  12. Conceptions of Art in Hong Kong Preschool Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wong, Kit-mei Betty

    2007-01-01

    This paper reports part of a phenomenographic inquiry into arts education in early childhood. Research studies into how young children understand and conceive their early arts experiences are limited. In documenting children's views, this study contributes to an understanding of arts education in a preschool context, and raises possibilities for…

  13. Parents' Self-Concepts and Preschool Children's Behaviors.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tower, Roni Beth

    1980-01-01

    Investigates the extent to which parents' positive self-concepts predicted their preschool children's behaviors in nursery school and the extent to which this relation was mediated by gender of parent and gender of the child. Subjects were 25 nursery school children from middle to upper-middle class homes, their mothers and their fathers.…

  14. Interviews with Children Exposed to Violence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eriksson, Maria; Nasman, Elisabet

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this article is to show how research practices may simultaneously follow principles of children's citizenship rights to participation and principles of protection and support when children exposed to violence are informants. The article focuses upon organisation of interview processes and interactions between adult researchers and child…

  15. The Construct of Social Competence--How Preschool Teachers Define Social Competence in Young Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lillvist, Anne; Sandberg, Anette; Bjorck-Akesson, Eva; Granlund, Mats

    2009-01-01

    Preschool teachers share their environment with young children on a daily basis and interventions promoting social competence are generally carried out in the preschool setting. The aim was to find out if and how preschool teachers' definitions of social competence are related to factors in the preschool environment like: a) the number of children…

  16. Preschool--An Arena for Children's Learning of Social and Cognitive Knowledge

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Williams, Pia; Sheridan, Sonja; Sandberg, Anette

    2014-01-01

    The aim is to investigate Swedish preschool teachers' accounts of children's learning in relation to the goals in the Swedish preschool curriculum. The research question is: "What do preschool teachers see as fundamental aspects of learning in preschool practice?" The study is based on interactionist perspectives founded in…

  17. Novel-word learning deficits in Mandarin-speaking preschool children with specific language impairments.

    PubMed

    Chen, Yuchun; Liu, Huei-Mei

    2014-01-01

    Children with SLI exhibit overall deficits in novel word learning compared to their age-matched peers. However, the manifestation of the word learning difficulty in SLI was not consistent across tasks and the factors affecting the learning performance were not yet determined. Our aim is to examine the extent of word learning difficulties in Mandarin-speaking preschool children with SLI, and to explore the potent influence of existing lexical knowledge on to the word learning process. Preschool children with SLI (n=37) and typical language development (n=33) were exposed to novel words for unfamiliar objects embedded in stories. Word learning tasks including the initial mapping and short-term repetitive learning were designed. Results revealed that Mandarin-speaking preschool children with SLI performed as well as their age-peers in the initial form-meaning mapping task. Their word learning difficulty was only evidently shown in the short-term repetitive learning task under a production demand, and their learning speed was slower than the control group. Children with SLI learned the novel words with a semantic head better in both the initial mapping and repetitive learning tasks. Moderate correlations between stand word learning performances and scores on standardized vocabulary were found after controlling for children's age and nonverbal IQ. The results suggested that the word learning difficulty in children with SLI occurred in the process of establishing a robust phonological representation at the beginning stage of word learning. Also, implicit compound knowledge is applied to aid word learning process for children with and without SLI. We also provide the empirical data to validate the relationship between preschool children's word learning performance and their existing receptive vocabulary ability. PMID:24211792

  18. The Use of Symbolic Modeling to Promote Social Skills in Preschool Children with Low Levels of Social Responsiveness

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Keller, Martha Freese; Carlson, Peter M.

    1974-01-01

    Nineteen socially isolated preschool children were exposed either to four videotapes in which social skills were modeled (treatment) or to four sequences of a nature film (control). Observations indicated that treatment produced increases in the frequency with which subjects dispensed and received social reinforcement and the frequency of social…

  19. Working memory and early numeracy training in preschool children.

    PubMed

    Passolunghi, Maria Chiara; Costa, Hiwet Mariam

    2016-01-01

    Many factors influence children's performance in mathematical achievement, including both domain-specific and domain-general factors. This study aimed to verify and compare the effects of two types of training on early numerical skills. One type of training focused on the enhancement of working memory, a domain-general precursor, while the other focused on the enhancement of early numeracy, a domain-specific precursor. The participants were 48 five-year-old preschool children. Both the working memory and early numeracy training programs were implemented for 5 weeks. The results showed that the early numeracy intervention specifically improved early numeracy abilities in preschool children, whereas working memory intervention improved not only working memory abilities but also early numeracy abilities. These findings stress the importance of performing activities designed to train working memory abilities, in addition to activities aimed to enhance more specific skills, in the early prevention of learning difficulties during preschool years. PMID:25366543

  20. Redesigning an Indoor Preschool Environment To Enhance and Promote Active Learning for Preschool Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wheeler, Sue A.

    An early childhood education consultant to a Parks and Recreation Department implemented and evaluated a practicum intervention intended to promote active learning by means of a redesigned indoor preschool environment. Additional goals were to improve the behavior and engagement of the children in the environment; increase parental approval of the…

  1. Empathy in Preschool Children: The Development of the Southampton Test of Empathy for Preschoolers (STEP)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Howe, Alexandra; Pit-ten Cate, Ineke M.; Brown, Antony; Hadwin, Julie A.

    2008-01-01

    In this study, we investigated a new instrument: the Southampton Test of Empathy for Preschoolers (STEP). The test incorporated 8 video vignettes of children in emotional scenarios, assessing a child's ability to understand (STEP-UND) and share (STEP-SHA) in the emotional experience of a story protagonist. Each vignette included 4 emotions (angry,…

  2. SARS, Preschool Routines and Children's Behaviour: Observations from Preschools in Hong Kong

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rao, Nirmala

    2006-01-01

    All schools in Hong Kong were closed in April 2003 to prevent the spread of SARS. This paper considers the influence of the SARS epidemic on children's routines and behaviour when preschools re-opened, after a six-week closure. Observations were made in 20 kindergartens and principals of another 10 kindergartens completed questionnaires. The…

  3. Classroom-Directed Home Training Activities. Preschool Program: A Regional Demonstration Program for Preschool Handicapped Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jones, Jacquelyn O.

    One of 10 documents developed for preschool programs for handicapped children, the manual presents classroom directed home training activities. The activities are based on such principles as the effectiveness of home instruction by a parent and the need for a parent to feel responsibility for the child's learning. Intended to provide teachers of…

  4. Health and Safety in the Preschool. Together for Children: Cooperative Preschools.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Siska, Heather Smith

    The intent of this manual is to present health and safety standards and procedures for the special environment of cooperative preschools, where both teacher-supervisors and parents are present and responsible for the well-being of the children. After a brief discussion about meeting environmental standards, child health is investigated in terms of…

  5. The Assessment of Anxiety Symptoms in Preschool-Aged Children: The Revised Preschool Anxiety Scale

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Edwards, Susan L.; Rapee, Ronald M.; Kennedy, Susan J.; Spence, Susan H.

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to test the validity and factorial structure of a modified version of the Preschool Anxiety Scale (Spence, Rapee, McDonald, & Ingram, 2001). The measure was completed by 764 mothers and 418 fathers of children aged 3 to 5 years. After removing, two items tapping obsessive compulsive symptoms, confirmatory factor…

  6. Privacy-Preserving Health Data Collection for Preschool Children

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Yuan; Ji, Yue

    2013-01-01

    With the development of network technology, more and more data are transmitted over the network and privacy issues have become a research focus. In this paper, we study the privacy in health data collection of preschool children and present a new identity-based encryption protocol for privacy protection. The background of the protocol is as follows. A physical examination for preschool children is needed every year out of consideration for the children's health. After the examination, data are transmitted through the Internet to the education authorities for analysis. In the process of data collection, it is unnecessary for the education authorities to know the identities of the children. Based on this, we designed a privacy-preserving protocol, which delinks the children's identities from the examination data. Thus, the privacy of the children is preserved during data collection. We present the protocol in detail and prove the correctness of the protocol. PMID:24285984

  7. The Relationship Between Preschool Teachers’ Reports of Children's Behavior and Their Behavior Toward Those Children

    PubMed Central

    Dobbs, Jennifer; Arnold, David H.

    2010-01-01

    The relationships between preschool children and their teachers are an important component of the quality of the preschool experience. This study used attribution theory as a framework to better understand these relationships, examining the connection between teachers’ perceptions of children's behavior and teachers’ behavior toward those children. One hundred seven preschool children and 24 preschool teachers participated in this study. Two teachers reported on each child's behavior using the Teacher Report Form of the Child Behavior Checklist. Commands and praise directed toward children by the teachers in the study were coded from classroom videotapes. Teachers gave more commands to children they perceived as having greater general behavior problems, even after controlling for the shared variance in the other classroom teacher's report of the child's behavior. Implications for school psychologists, teachers, and researchers are discussed. PMID:20431714

  8. Thought Disorder in Preschool Children with Attention Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD).

    PubMed

    Hutchison, Amanda K; Kelsay, Kimberly; Talmi, Ayelet; Noonan, Kate; Ross, Randal G

    2016-08-01

    Preschool identification of and intervention for psychiatric symptoms has the potential for lifelong benefits. However, preschool identification of thought disorder, a symptom associated with long term risk for social and cognitive dysfunction, has received little attention with previous work limited to examining preschoolers with severe emotional and behavioral dysregulation. Using story-stem methodology, 12 children with ADHD and 12 children without ADHD, ages 4.0-6.0 years were evaluated for thought disorder. Thought disorder was reliably assessed (Cronbach's alpha = .958). Children with ADHD were significantly more likely than children without ADHD to exhibit thought disorder (75 vs 25 %; Fischer's Exact Test = .0391). Thought disorder can be reliably assessed in preschool children and is present in preschool children with psychiatric illness including preschool children with ADHD. Thought disorder may be identifiable in preschool years across a broad range of psychiatric illnesses and thus may be an appropriate target of intervention. PMID:26429569

  9. A Study of Rural Preschool Practitioners' Views on Young Children's Mathematical Thinking

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hunting, Robert P.; Mousley, Judith A.; Perry, Bob

    2012-01-01

    The project "Mathematical Thinking of Preschool Children in Rural and Regional Australia: Research and Practice" aimed to investigate views of preschool practitioners about young children's mathematical thinking and development. Structured individual interviews were conducted with 64 preschool practitioners from rural areas of three Australian…

  10. Oral Health among Preschool Children with Autism Spectrum Disorders: A Case-Control Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Du, Rennan Y; Yiu, Cynthia K. Y.; King, Nigel M.; Wong, Virginia C. N.; McGrath, Colman P. J.

    2015-01-01

    Aim: To assess and compare the oral health status of preschool children with and without autism spectrum disorders. Methods: A random sample of 347 preschool children with autism spectrum disorder was recruited from 19 Special Child Care Centres in Hong Kong. An age- and gender-matched sample was recruited from mainstream preschools as the control…

  11. Making Oneself Heard--Children's Experiences of Empowerment in Swedish Preschools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Almqvist, Anna-Lena; Almqvist, Lena

    2015-01-01

    Children's experiences of empowerment in relation to preschool peers and in child-adult interactions were studied, involving 25 four- to six-year-olds from four Swedish preschools. Group interviews using puppets comprised pre-constructed scenarios to examine preschools' activities. Children took photos of indoor and outdoor preschool…

  12. Considerations for Integration of Physically Handicapped and Non-Handicapped Preschool Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cormack, Elizabeth O.

    Eight physically handicapped (blind, spina bifida, cerebral palsy, or genetic defect) preschool children and eight children with normal sensory motor abilities (mean age of both groups 3 1/2 years) participated in a preschool demonstration project designed to promote equal educational and social experiences in an integrated preschool through the…

  13. Age, Sex and Socioeconomic Background as Factors in Preschool Children's Preference for Play Materials.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bogdanoff, Ruth F.; Peebles, Linda M.

    A total of 103 preschool children of lower and middle socioeconomic status families were observed in three preschool programs during 15 standardized free play periods for the purpose of investigating preschool children's preferences for different types of traditionally used play materials. The influence of age, sex, and socioeconomic status (SES)…

  14. Characteristics of Swedish Preschools That Provide Education and Care to Children with Special Educational Needs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lundqvist, Johanna; Westling, Mara Allodi; Siljehag, Eva

    2016-01-01

    In Sweden, preschool inclusion is embraced and preschools are open for children both with and without special educational needs. The purpose of this study was to examine the characteristics of a number of preschool units in Sweden that provide education and care to children with special educational needs with regard to organisation, resources and…

  15. Teaching Mathematical Concepts to Rural Preschool Children Through a Home-Oriented Program.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alford, Roy W., Jr.

    Preschool children (ages 3, 4, and 5) participating in the Appalachia Preschool Educational Program were studied to determine if mathematical concepts could be effectively taught through a preschool program accessible to rural children. The 34-week program consisted of 3 elements: (1) a daily half-hour television broadcast, (2) weekly home…

  16. How Do Caregivers Select Preschools? A Study of Children with and without Disabilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Glenn-Applegate, Katherine; Justice, Laura M.; Kaderavek, Joan

    2016-01-01

    Background: Little is known about how parents and other caregivers conceptualize preschool quality, or what factors they prioritize when selecting a preschool. Caregivers of children with disabilities have the additional challenge of finding a preschool that can address their children's special needs. Objective: We explored the factors caregivers…

  17. A typology of behavior problems in preschool children.

    PubMed

    Beg, Mohsan R; Casey, Joseph E; Saunders, Cory D

    2007-06-01

    The purpose of this study was to produce a typology of behavior problems in preschool children. Distinct subtypes were identified through the use of cluster analytic techniques on data from the Behavior Assessment System for Children (BASC)-Parent Rating Scales. Analyses were based on archival data collected on a sample of 268 children, aged 2 to 5 years, who were referred to determine their suitability for a day treatment program. Five distinct and reliable subtypes of preschool children's behavior problems emerged. Ratings of adaptive and social skills based on the BASC Adaptive Scales and measures from the Parenting Stress Index served as external variables to assess the distinctiveness of the derived subtypes. The findings provide evidence for the reliability and validity of the subtypes identified in this study that are consistent with the findings of previous subtyping investigations focusing on school-aged children. PMID:17504885

  18. Barbie or Betty? Preschool children's preference for branded products and evidence for gender-linked differences.

    PubMed

    Pine, Karen J; Nash, Avril

    2003-08-01

    Children in the United Kingdom watch more television and are exposed to more advertising than children in any other European country. This article investigates the extent to which preschool children (aged 4-5 years) prefer brands advertised on television. Seventy-five children were interviewed and given a choice task in which they had to select the product, from eight pairs each comprising a branded and nonbranded product, that children of their own age and gender preferred. Products included popular drinks, snacks, toys, breakfast cereals, and sportswear. Nonbranded control products were carefully selected as close perceptual matches for the branded advertised products. Yet, on 68% of occasions, children chose the branded, advertised product in preference to the nonbranded product. This preference was reliably higher for girls (78%) than boys (58%). Gender-linked differences are discussed in relation to socialization theory and to girls' greater verbal ability and emotional sensitivity. PMID:12915793

  19. The Factors Related to Preschool Children and Their Mothers on Children's Intuitional Mathematics Abilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Guven, Yildiz

    2009-01-01

    The aim of this study is to assess the factors that are related to preschool children and their mothers on children's intuitional mathematics abilities. Results of the study showed that there were significant differences in children's intuitional mathematics abilities when children are given the opportunity to think intuitionally and to make…

  20. Phonological Process Usage by Young EMR Children and Nonretarded Preschool Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Klink, Marcia; And Others

    1986-01-01

    Phonological skills of 20 mentally retarded preschool children were compared with those of 10 communication handicapped, nonretarded children and 10 normally speaking nonretarded children. Retarded and communication handicapped children used a significantly greater total number of phonological processes more frequently, but all groups used the…

  1. Factors That Influence Fast Mapping in Children Exposed to Spanish and English

    PubMed Central

    Alt, Mary; Meyers, Christina; Figueroa, Cecilia

    2015-01-01

    Purpose The purpose of this study was to determine if children exposed to two languages would benefit from the phonotactic probability cues of a single language in the same way as monolingual peers and to determine if cross-linguistic influence would be present in a fast mapping task. Method Two groups of typically-developing children (monolingual English and bilingual Spanish-English) took part in a computer-based fast mapping task which manipulated phonotactic probability. Children were preschool-aged (N = 50) or school-aged (N = 34). Fast mapping was assessed through name identification and naming tasks. Data were analyzed using mixed ANOVAs with post-hoc testing and simple regression. Results Bilingual and monolingual preschoolers showed sensitivity to English phonotactic cues in both tasks, but bilingual preschoolers were less accurate than monolingual peers in the naming task. School-aged bilingual children had nearly identical performance to monolingual peers. Conclusions Knowing that children exposed to two languages can benefit from the statistical cues of a single language can help inform ideas about instruction and assessment for bilingual learners. PMID:23816663

  2. A Readiness Test for Disadvantaged Preschool Children. PREP-22.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Center for Educational Communication (DHEW/OE), Washington, DC.

    In response to the pressing needs to develop a culture-fair, nonverbal readiness test for rural and urban disadvantaged preschool children, a special project was undertaken. PREP kit no. 22 was adapted from the final report of a project conducted by Dr. Wanda Walker, Northwest Missouri State College, Maryville, and supported by the Office of…

  3. A Unique Program for Preschool Children of Substance Abusers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Howze, Kate; Howze, Wendell M.

    A pilot program was designed to address the special problems of children of substance abusers. The program was established at the Child Development and Family Guidance Center by Operation PAR, a nationally recognized substance abuse treatment and prevention program. The staff are well-trained preschool professionals who have received special…

  4. Processes of Curiosity and Exploration in Preschool Disadvantaged Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Minuchin, Patricia

    This study was created primarily to explore new techniques and to generate fruitful new hypotheses and procedures for the (1) description of variations in expressed curiosity and constructive exploration among disadvantaged preschool children and (2) assessment of the relationship between such curiosity and exploration and other aspects of the…

  5. Speech Sound Disorders in a Community Study of Preschool Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McLeod, Sharynne; Harrison, Linda J.; McAllister, Lindy; McCormack, Jane

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: To undertake a community (nonclinical) study to describe the speech of preschool children who had been identified by parents/teachers as having difficulties "talking and making speech sounds" and compare the speech characteristics of those who had and had not accessed the services of a speech-language pathologist (SLP). Method:…

  6. Objective Measurement of Emerging Affective Traits in Preschool Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Adkins, Dorothy C.

    An objective measure of motivation to achieve for preschool children called Gumpgookies is described. It is an objective-projective technique that requires choice between two alternate types of behavior portrayed in pictures and accompanying verbal descriptions. Gumpgookies are amoeba-like creatures who behave in ways intended to show differences…

  7. Preschool Children Conflate Pragmatic Agreement and Semantic Truth

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Olson, David R.; Astington, Janet Wilde

    2013-01-01

    Children's ability to ascribe beliefs to themselves and others has been shown to develop in the late preschool and early school years. This ability to represent, that is to think about, beliefs known to be false is described as metarepresentational development. This article extends these findings to the domain of linguistic representations by…

  8. Canadian Families' Strategies for Employment and Care for Preschool Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ornstein, Michael; Stalker, Glenn J.

    2013-01-01

    Based on the 2006 Canadian Census "long form" sample of one in every five households, the authors develop a detailed typology of family strategies for employment and the care of preschool children. The analysis is restricted to opposite-sex couples with at least one child under age 6 and no older child or other adult in the household. The typology…

  9. Grief Counseling for Muslim Preschool and Elementary School Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baggerly, Jennifer; Abugideiri, Salma Elkadi

    2010-01-01

    This article describes Sunni Muslims' view of death, mourning and burial rituals, and accepted healing practices. Interventions for addressing death with Muslim children, group counseling, play therapy, and community outreach are discussed. A case study of interventions for coping with a preschool Muslim boy's death is provided.

  10. Preschool Education and Day Care for Swedish Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mueller, Jeanne

    A comprehensive study of the types of care provided for Swedish children is presented. The point is made that the three major frameworks which support the Swedish philosophy of early childhood education are those of Arnold Gesell, Jean Piaget, and Erik H. Erikson. From all three sources, preschool teachers learn the concept of epigenesis, the…

  11. Funding Preschool Programs for Children with Special Needs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ellenberg, Dolly F.

    1984-01-01

    Describes funding and communication strategies at six, nonprofit, nonsectarian, tuition-free preschools for mentally retarded and developmentally delayed children. Details marketing strategies; the role of multiple markets; the targeting of potential funders among local citizens, foundations, and corporations; and the creation of honorary…

  12. Auditory Threshold Variability with Severely Hearing-Impaired Preschool Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fulton, Robert T.

    1979-01-01

    Threshold variability across repeated measures (N=10) was observed at 250 and 1,000 Hz with five severely hearing-impaired preschool children. Results indicated that variability at 1,000 Hz was within a 10 dB range (except for one measure) across Ss, while variability at 250 Hz was substantially larger, even though false positive responses to…

  13. Reciprocity of Prosocial Behavior in Japanese Preschool Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fujisawa, Keiko K.; Kutsukake, Nobuyuki; Hasegawa, Toshikazu

    2008-01-01

    This study investigated the reciprocity of prosocial behavior among 3- and 4-year-old Japanese preschool children during free-play time. Matrix correlation tests revealed positive correlations between the frequencies of object offering given and received within dyads and between the frequencies of helping given and received within dyads. These…

  14. Teachers' Definitions of Self-Esteem When Rating Preschool Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bell, Nancy J.; And Others

    1980-01-01

    Female teachers rated 107 preschool boys and girls on their self-esteem and on a sex role rating scale. Although the validity of such ratings remains an issue, it appears that children rated high in self-esteem by their teachers are those perceived as assertive, active, athletic--stereotypically masculine traits. (Author/SJL)

  15. The Study of Drawing and Painting Abilities in Preschool Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dulama, Maria Eliza; Iovu, Mihai-Bogdan; Rus, Andreea

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this research is two-fold: first, to offer preschool children new learning situations in order to develop their drawing and painting abilities and second, to learn new techniques in a shorter period of time. The paper is grounded in the theory of creativity. Creativity is defined as the ability to propose something new, original and…

  16. The Sharing Tree: Preschool Children Learn to Share.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wolf, Arlene; Fine, Elaine

    1996-01-01

    This article describes a learning activity in which preschool children learn cooperative skills and metacognitive strategies as they master sharing strategies guided by leaves on a "sharing tree." Leaf colors (red, yellow, green) cue the child to stop, slow down and think about sharing and playing with others, and go ahead with a sharing activity.…

  17. Promoting Physical Activity in Low-Income Preschool Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Spaulding, Carol; Gottlieb, Nell H.; Jensen, Jody

    2008-01-01

    Child- and family-serving programs such as the Special Supplemental Nutrition program for Women, Infants, and Children (WIC) design and conduct interventions to improve the health of their clients through better nutrition. But these programs present a significant opportunity to improve physical activity levels in the preschool population as well,…

  18. Separation: Supporting Children in Their Preschool Transitions. Revised Edition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jervis, Kathe; Polland, Barbara K.

    2007-01-01

    This book, updated since initial publication in 1989, offers explanations, practical tips, and encouragement for teachers and families of preschool children facing the excitement--and stress--of separation. Topics discussed include ambivalence about separation and attachment, the comfort of routines, understanding the child perspective, supporting…

  19. Preschool Teachers' Beliefs about Children's Print Literacy Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lynch, Jacqueline

    2009-01-01

    Beliefs have often been considered important because of their relation to practice. Little is known about the literacy beliefs of preschool teachers, particularly their print literacy beliefs, even though young children's experiences with print have implications for formal schooling. Therefore, this study explored the print literacy beliefs of…

  20. Identifying Preschool Caregivers' Beliefs about Children's Social Development. Brief Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Droege, Kristin L.

    This study examined the assumption that all caregivers have a set of beliefs which represent their own underlying theory of child development and tested one strategy for identifying the beliefs that preschool caregivers hold. In order to classify caregivers' beliefs about children's social development, an adaptation of McGillicudy-DeLisi's (1992)…

  1. Child Sustained Attention in Preschool-Age Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DiCarlo, Cynthia F.; Baumgartner, Jennifer J.; Ota, Carrie; Geary, Kelly

    2016-01-01

    This study examined the mean duration of child attention across three teaching conditions (child choice, adult choice, or adult presentation) of 63 preschool-age children. A repeated-measures ANOVA was used to compare the means across the three teaching conditions, indicating a statistically significant difference between the teaching conditions.…

  2. Tracking Preschool Children with Developmental Delay: Third Grade Outcomes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Delgado, Christine E. F.; Vagi, Sara J.; Scott, Keith G.

    2006-01-01

    Educational outcomes were evaluated for 2,046 preschool children identified with developmental delay. Results indicated that at third grade, 26% were in regular education and the remaining 74% were receiving special education services. The most common disability classifications at outcome were specific learning disabilities and educable mentally…

  3. Rhythmic Characteristics of Improvisational Drumming among Preschool Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Whitcomb, Rachel

    2010-01-01

    A call-and-response drumming activity was carried out to determine the rhythmic characteristics of improvised patterns created by preschool children. Specific goals of the study were to: (1) determine the durations, start and stop times, and rhythmic patterns of improvised responses to a simple given call using drums; (2) determine the presence or…

  4. The Pedagogical Support for Preschool Children with Deviant Behavior

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kostyunina, Nadezhda Y.; Kazaeva, Evgenia A.; Karimova, Raushan B.

    2016-01-01

    The relevance of the research problems of pedagogical support of preschool children with behavioral problems is explained by changes due and of taking place in modern Russia in various spheres of life: ecological and economic disadvantage, social instability, the growing influence of pseudo-culture, unfavorable climate in family, too busy parents,…

  5. Comorbidities in Preschool Children at Family Risk of Dyslexia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gooch, Debbie; Hulme, Charles; Nash, Hannah M.; Snowling, Margaret J.

    2014-01-01

    Background: Comorbidity among developmental disorders such as dyslexia, language impairment, attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder and developmental coordination disorder is common. This study explores comorbid weaknesses in preschool children at family risk of dyslexia with and without language impairment and considers the role that…

  6. Behavioral Assessment of Physical Activity in Obese Preschool Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hustyi, Kristin M.; Normand, Matthew P.; Larson, Tracy A.

    2011-01-01

    We measured changes in physical activity in 2 obese preschool children when a package intervention was evaluated in a reversal design. Physical activity was measured via direct observation and pedometers. Although the intervention produced only modest increases in activity, the results provide preliminary concurrent validation for the dependent…

  7. Phonological Awareness, Speech Development, and Letter Knowledge in Preschool Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mann, Virginia A.; Foy, Judith G.

    2003-01-01

    This study examined the interrelations of speech skills and letter knowledge to the phonological awareness and early reading skills of 99 preschool children. Findings indicated that phoneme awareness, but not rhyme awareness, correlated with early reading measures and that phoneme manipulation was closely associated with letter knowledge and with…

  8. Environmentally Enriched Classrooms and the Development of Disadvantaged Preschool Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Busse, Thomas V.; And Others

    This study evaluates the effects of placement of additional equipment in preschool classrooms on the cognitive, perceptual, and social development of urban Negro four-year-old children. Two Get Set classrooms in each of six areas of Philadelphia were paired for teachers, subjects, physical facilities and equipment. One classroom in each pair was…

  9. Improving Cognitive Processes in Preschool Children: The COGEST Programme

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mayoral-Rodríguez, Silvia; Timoneda-Gallart, Carme; Pérez-Álvarez, Federico; Das, J. P.

    2015-01-01

    The present study provides empirical evidence to support the hypothesis that pre-school children's cognitive functions can be developed by virtue of a training tool named COGENT (Cognitive Enhancement Training). We assumed that COGENT (COGEST in Spain) which is embedded in speech and language, will enhance the core cognitive processes that are…

  10. Mainstreaming Preschoolers: Children with Visual Handicaps. Edited Text.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Contract Research Corp., Belmont, MA.

    Written for parents, teachers and preschool personnel involved with visually handicapped children, the book provides an overview of mainstreaming procedures and implications. The first chapter provides a definition of mainstreaming and considers benefits' professional involvement, and resources available for parents and teachers. Diagnostic…

  11. Reflection-Impulsivity and Self-Control in Preschool Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Toner, Ignatius J.; And Others

    1977-01-01

    This study explored the relationships among children's performance on a simplified version of Kagan's Matching Familiar Figures (MFF) Test of conceptual tempo, their IQ, their performance on several measures of self-regulatory behavior, and their general activity level. Subjects were 55 preschool boys and girls. (Author/JMB)

  12. Temperament, Family Environment and Anxiety in Preschool Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hudson, Jennifer L.; Dodd, Helen F.; Bovopoulos, Nataly

    2011-01-01

    This research examines the relationship between behavioural inhibition (BI), family environment (overinvolved and negative parenting, parental anxiety and parent-child attachment) and anxiety in a sample of 202 preschool children. Participants were aged between 3 years 2 months and 4 years 5 months, 101 were male. A thorough methodology was used…

  13. Curriculum-Based Behavioral Interventions for Preschool Children with Handicaps.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McAllister, Joseph R., Jr.

    1991-01-01

    A model for developing systemwide interventions for behavioral and social skill deficits in preschool children with handicaps is discussed. The model incorporates a comprehensive, curriculum-based approach to assessment and program planning and a competency-based, didactic approach to teaching behavioral and social skills. (Author/DB)

  14. A Hungarian Preschool for the Children, Teachers, and Families

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Szilagyi, Janka; Szecsi, Tunde

    2005-01-01

    This article describes an exceptional Eastern European preschool where all stakeholders--children, teachers, and parents--place a high value on the unique synergy of inclusive and bilingual education. In this environment, each child is able to experience love and happiness, while developing at his or her own pace. The families feel involved in…

  15. Cognitive and Communicative Development in Hearing-Impaired Preschool Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kricos, Patricia B.; Aungst, Holle L.

    1984-01-01

    Describes a study that determines if an interrelationship exists between cognitive level, gestural development, and spoken English development in five hearing-impaired preschool children. Results suggest that a deaf child's cognitive development may be related to his/her communicative ability, especially in terms of pragmatic-semantic…

  16. A Model Program for Diversely Handicapped Children (Pre-School).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nevada State Dept. of Education, Carson City.

    Described is a model program for developing the educational readiness and self-help skills of severely handicapped kindergarten and preschool children with a wide range of physical, mental, neurological or sensory deficits. It is explained that the program should provide heterogeneous grouping, individualized instruction, door-to-door…

  17. Preschool Children's Preferences and Recall for Stereotyped versus Nonstereotyped Stories.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kropp, Jerri Jaudon; Halverson, Charles F.

    1983-01-01

    Of four stories, preschool girls liked one with a female character and feminine activity best, and one with a male character and masculine activity least. The reverse was true for boys. Measures taken a day later showed that children recalled more about stories they had liked least the day before. (Author/MJL)

  18. Inhibitory Control and Emotion Regulation in Preschool Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carlson, Stephanie M.; Wang, Tiffany S.

    2007-01-01

    This research investigated the relation between individual differences in inhibitory control and emotion regulation. Preschool children (N=53) ages 4-6 (M=5; 0) were assessed on brief batteries of inhibitory control of prepotent responses and emotion regulation. Individual differences in inhibitory control were significantly correlated with…

  19. The Integration of Verbal and Motor Behavior in Preschool Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goodman, Sherryl Hope

    1981-01-01

    Results of a study of 38 preschool children observed and videotaped during performance on a jigsaw-puzzle task indicate that puzzle solutions accompanied by a high rate of verbalizations were judged as more proficient, solved with a high rate of puzzle-solving moves, and completed in a shorter period of time. (Author/RH)

  20. Modification of Preschool Children's Bathroom Behaviors by Contingent Teacher Attention

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Taylor, Marjorie J.; Kratochwill, Thomas R.

    1978-01-01

    Repeated measures of the frequency of paper towel litter, unflushed toilets, dirty sinks, and running water faucets were used to evaluate effectiveness of contingent teacher praise for appropriate bathroom use by preschool children. Contingent praise for appropriate bathroom behaviors resulted in markedly decreased frequencies of four target…

  1. Implementing a Musical Program to Promote Preschool Children's Vocabulary Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moyeda, Iris Xóchitl Galicia; Gómez, Ixtlixóchitl Contreras; Flores, María Teresa Peña

    2006-01-01

    In light of the correlation between musical and linguistic skills, a program of musical activities was designed to promote discrimination of rhythmic and melodic elements and the association of auditory stimuli with visual stimuli and motor activities. The effects of the program on the vocabulary of preschool children were evaluated and compared…

  2. Diagnosis of Posttraumatic Stress Disorder in Preschool Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    De Young, Alexandra C.; Kenardy, Justin A.; Cobham, Vanessa E.

    2011-01-01

    This study investigated the existing diagnostic algorithms for posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) to determine the most developmentally sensitive and valid approach for diagnosing this disorder in preschoolers. Participants were 130 parents of unintentionally burned children (1-6 years). Diagnostic interviews were conducted with parents to…

  3. Affiliative Structures and Social Competence in Portuguese Preschool Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Daniel, João R.; Santos, António J.; Peceguina, Inês; Vaughn, Brian E.

    2015-01-01

    The goal of this study was to determine whether peer social competence (SC), defined as the capacity to use behavioral, cognitive, and emotional resources in the service of achieving personal goals within preschool peer groups, was related to the type of affiliative subgroups to which children belonged. Two hundred forty Portuguese preschool…

  4. Preschool Children. Tech Use Guide: Using Computer Technology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Council for Exceptional Children, Reston, VA. Center for Special Education Technology.

    One of nine brief guides for special educators on using computer technology, this guide focuses on uses with preschool children with either mild to severe disabilities. Especially noted is the ability of the computer to provide access to environmental experiences otherwise inaccessible to the young handicapped child. Appropriate technology for…

  5. Am I Interfering? Preschool Teacher Participation in Children Play

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tsai, Chia-Yen

    2015-01-01

    This study aimed to explore the timing and strategies of teacher participation in children's play and the factors which have a bearing on teacher participation. This study used qualitative research and conducted observation of natural situations. The samples were preschool teachers in an elementary school's affiliated kindergarten in Hualien. The…

  6. Effects of Pretend Imagery on Learning Dance in Preschool Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sacha, Tori J.; Russ, Sandra W.

    2006-01-01

    Play is important in child development and learning. The intent of this study was to assess the effects of play, using physical movement and pretend imagery, on learning dance. Four preschool dance classes, encompassing 32 children ages 3-6, were randomly divided into pretend imagery groups and traditional teaching groups. The classes were…

  7. Evaluating Preschool Children's Preferences for Motivational Systems during Instruction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Heal, Nicole A.; Hanley, Gregory P.

    2007-01-01

    Preschool teachers rely on several strategies for motivating children to participate in learning activities. In the current study, we evaluated the effectiveness of and preference for three teaching contexts in which embedded, sequential, or no programmed reinforcement was arranged. The embedded context included highly preferred teaching…

  8. The Cognitive Environments of Urban Preschool Children. Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hess, Robert D.; And Others

    This final report describes a project begun in 1962 which was designed to analyze the effect of home and maternal influence on the cognitive development of urban preschool children evaluated when they were four years old. The research group consisted of 163 mother-child pairs from three socioeconomic status levels: middle class, skilled working…

  9. Source monitoring reduces the suggestibility of preschool children.

    PubMed

    Giles, Jessica W; Gopnik, Alison; Heyman, Gail D

    2002-05-01

    The relation between source monitoring and suggestibility was examined among preschool children. Thirty-two 3- to 5-year-olds were simultaneously presented with a brief story in two different modalities, as a silent video vignette and a spoken narrative. Each modality presented unique information about the story, but the information in the two versions was mutually compatible. The children were then asked a series of questions, including questions about the source (modality) of story details, and leading questions about story details (to assess suggestibility). Performance on the source-monitoring questions was highly correlated with the ability to resist suggestion. In addition, children who were asked source-monitoring questions prior to leading questioning were less susceptible to suggestion than were those who were asked the leading questions first. This study provides evidence that source monitoring can play a causal role in reducing the suggestibility of preschool children. PMID:12009053

  10. Silent victims: children exposed to family violence.

    PubMed

    Kolar, Kathryn R; Davey, Debrynda

    2007-04-01

    Annually an estimated 3 million or more children are exposed to acts of domestic violence between adults in their homes. These children are at risk for abuse themselves as well as other immediate and long-term problems, especially if they have been exposed to repeated episodes of domestic violence. Multiple behavioral manifestations, including anxiety, depression, and posttraumatic stress disorder, may be associated with violence exposure, and it is imperative that school nurses recognize these. All children should be screened for domestic violence exposure at regular intervals, and those who are at risk should have a more thorough health assessment. Planning for the safety of the child, nonoffending caregiver, and siblings and the school nurse involved in the situation is of utmost importance. PMID:17394377

  11. Applying a Socioecological Model to Understand Preschool Children's Sedentary Behaviors from the Viewpoints of Parents and Preschool Personnel

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Määttä, Suvi; Ray, Carola; Roos, Gun; Roos, Eva

    2016-01-01

    This study explored parents' and preschool personnel's opinions on factors influencing 3-5-year-old children's sedentary behaviors by applying the socioecological model. Four focus group interviews with preschool personnel (N = 14) and six interviews with parents (N = 17) were conducted in autumn 2014. Two researchers independently analyzed the…

  12. Relationships between Enrollment in an Inclusive Class and Preschool Children's Ideas about People with Disabilities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Diamond, Karen E.; Hestenes, Linda L.; Carpenter, Ellen S.; Innes, Fiona K.

    1997-01-01

    Comparison of children enrolled in regular (N=31) and inclusive (N=29) preschool programs found that children in inclusive settings had more knowledge of disabilities and gave higher acceptance ratings to children with and without disabilities than did children in regular preschool classes. (DB)

  13. Identifying preschool children at risk of later reading difficulties: evaluation of two emergent literacy screening tools.

    PubMed

    Wilson, Shauna B; Lonigan, Christopher J

    2010-01-01

    Emergent literacy skills are predictive of children's early reading success, and literacy achievement in early schooling declines more rapidly for children who are below-average readers. It is therefore important for teachers to identify accurately children at risk for later reading difficulty so children can be exposed to effective emergent literacy interventions. In this study, 176 preschoolers were administered two screening tools, the Revised Get Ready to Read! (GRTR-R) and the Individual Growth and Development Indicators (IGDIs), and a diagnostic measure at two time points. Receiver operating characteristic curve analyses revealed that, at optimal cut scores, GRTR-R provided more accurate classification of children's overall emergent literacy skills than did IGDIs. However, neither measure was particularly good at classifying specific emergent literacy skills. PMID:19822699

  14. Mother surrogate and nutritional status of preschool children.

    PubMed

    Jain, S; Choudhry, M

    1993-01-01

    The study was conducted on 200 preschool children to find out the effect of mother surrogate on the nutritional status. The nutritional status of children was found to be affected by the time devoted by mother on child care activities, working status of mother and type of family independently and jointly. The children cared by mother had better nutritional status than those children who were cared by servants and any other family member in the absence of mother. It shows that no one can substitute the care provided by the mother. PMID:8253493

  15. Effect of Prosocial Cartoons on Preschool Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Forge, Karen L. S.; Phemister, Sherri

    If live-model prosocial programs such as "Sesame Street" and "Mister Rogers' Neighborhood" can facilitate favorable behavior in preschoolers, as was shown by Rushton (1982), then it seems reasonable to suggest that cartoons might have a similar positive impact. This study sought to determine whether viewing a prosocial cartoon would be as…

  16. Handicapped Immigrant Preschool Children in Sweden.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roden, Gunilla

    1988-01-01

    Examines provisions made in Sweden for the education of handicapped and immigrant students and the services offered to their families. Stating that all handicapped persons have the right to receive government services, the article discusses preschool education, day nurseries, mother-tongue language activities, family services, and courses for…

  17. A Field-Based Testing Protocol for Assessing Gross Motor Skills in Preschool Children: The Children's Activity and Movement in Preschool Study Motor Skills Protocol

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Williams, Harriet G.; Pfeiffer, Karin A.; Dowda, Marsha; Jeter, Chevy; Jones, Shaverra; Pate, Russell R.

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to develop a valid and reliable tool for use in assessing motor skills in preschool children in field-based settings. The development of the Children's Activity and Movement in Preschool Study Motor Skills Protocol included evidence of its reliability and validity for use in field-based environments as part of large…

  18. [Neuropsychic development in preschool children in conditions of the informatization].

    PubMed

    Tkachuk, E A; Tarmaeva, I Iu

    2014-01-01

    The new millennium was marked by the transition of humanity to a new stage of the development--the Information Society, which is an objective reality and affects on all aspects of living environment, including the health of children. The last decade was characterized by the increase of the use of means of informatization, the level of aggression and aggressiveness of children, the decrease of intellectual indices, deterioration of mental health, an increase of children with behavioral problems, hyperactivity, inattention, decrease of mental capacity. In a study on the example of preschool educational institution in the city of Irkutsk in the conditions of the changing of the informatization level of the society in the time period from 1998 to 2012, there were revealed the changes in indices of intellectual development, mental capacity and anxiety of children. Under observation there were 211 children aged from 5.5 to 6.5 years in the preschool institution of the central district of the city of Irkutsk. There were formed two groups of children: I group--children who attended kindergarten in 1998 and group II--children attending kindergarten in 2012. Age groups of preschool children were consistent with their calendar age: from 5 years 5 months 30 days to 6 years 5 months 30 days. In the study of intellectual development there has been shown the decrease of the number of children with average intelligence level and an increase in children with the below-average intelligence level, the increase of the speed (p < 0.05.) and the decrease of the quality (p < 0.05.) of the information processing in the Anfilov test for the mental performance and the increase the general level of anxiety, aggressive background and unmotivated fears "out" at the present time stage (2012). PMID:25950041

  19. Targeting Preschool Children to Promote Cardiovascular Health: Cluster Randomized Trial

    PubMed Central

    Céspedes, Jaime; Briceño, German; Farkouh, Michael E.; Vedanthan, Rajesh; Baxter, Jorge; Leal, Martha; Boffetta, Paolo; Woodward, Mark; Hunn, Marilyn; Dennis, Rodolfo; Fuster, Valentin

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND School programs can be effective in modifying knowledge, attitudes, and habits relevant to long-term risk of chronic diseases associated with sedentary lifestyles. As part of a long-term research strategy, we conducted an educational intervention in preschool facilities to assess changes in preschoolers’ knowledge, attitudes, and habits toward healthy eating and living an active lifestyle. METHODS Using a cluster design, we randomly assigned 14 preschool facilities in Bogotá, Colombia to a 5-month educational and playful intervention (7 preschool facilities) or to usual curriculum (7 preschool facilities). A total of 1216 children aged 3–5 years, 928 parents, and 120 teachers participated. A structured survey was used at baseline, at the end of the study, and 12 months later to evaluate changes in knowledge, attitudes, and habits. RESULTS Children in the intervention group showed a 10.9% increase in weighted score, compared with 5.3% in controls. The absolute adjusted difference was 3.90 units (95% confidence interval [CI], 1.64–6.16; P <.001). Among parents, the equivalent statistics were 8.9% and 3.1%, respectively (absolute difference 4.08 units; 95% CI, 2.03 to 6.12; P <.001), and among teachers, 9.4% and 2.5%, respectively (absolute difference 5.36 units; 95% CI, −0.29–11.01; P = .06). In the intervened cohort 1 year after the intervention, children still showed a significant increase in weighted score (absolute difference of 6.38 units; P <.001). CONCLUSIONS A preschool-based intervention aimed at improving knowledge, attitudes, and habits related to healthy diet and active lifestyle is feasible, efficacious, and sustainable in very young children. PMID:23062403

  20. Perception of Childhood Obesity in Mothers of Preschool Children

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Hae Ok; Kim, Gyo Nam; Park, Euna

    2015-01-01

    Objectives The purpose of this study was to identify the perception of childhood obesity in mothers of preschool children using Q methodology. Methods A total of 38 Q statements about childhood obesity were obtained from 41 participants. The QUANL PC program was used to analyze the results. Results There were three types of perception toward obesity in mothers of preschool children: the “authoritative discipline type,” the “generous home meal focused type,” and the “home meal based on household financial situation type.” Conclusion The perception of mothers toward childhood obesity can affect the extent of maternal interaction with children or meal preparation for the family. Based on these results, it is necessary to plan specific programs according to the types of maternal perception toward childhood obesity. PMID:25938022

  1. Clinimetric Properties of the Assessment of Preschool Children's Participation in Children with Cerebral Palsy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chen, Chia-ling; Chen, Chung-yao; Shen, I-hsuan; Liu, I-Shu; Kang, Lin-ju; Wu, Ching-yi

    2013-01-01

    This study examines the criterion-related validity and clinimetric properties of the Assessment of Preschool Children's Participation (APCP) for children with cerebral palsy (CP). Eighty-two children with CP (age range, two to five years and 11 months) and their caregivers participated in this study. The APCP consists of diversity and intensity…

  2. [The food habit and its affecting factors of preschool children in Guangzhou].

    PubMed

    Mei, J; Chen, Q; Sun, J; Xiong, R

    1998-09-30

    A survey of nutritional knowledge-attitude-practice was conducted among 1300 preschool children, their parents, 203 teachers and nurses in Kindergarten in 1997. Results showed that the food habit of preschool children was unsuitable. Most preschool children rejected eating animal liver, peanut product and animal blood, but often ate snacks. From statistic analysis among affecting factors, the mother's and teachers' nutritional knowledge and the food habit of parents had significant effect on food habit of preschool children. The family income did not significantly affect food habit of preschool children. Moreover, there was little nutrition education involved in the preschool children courses in 4 kindergartens. The result suggested that the nutrition education plan should be done. PMID:11939051

  3. Stereoacuity of Preschool Children with and without Vision Disorders

    PubMed Central

    Ciner, Elise B.; Ying, Gui-shuang; Kulp, Marjean Taylor; Maguire, Maureen G.; Quinn, Graham E.; Orel-Bixler, Deborah; Cyert, Lynn A.; Moore, Bruce; Huang, Jiayan

    2014-01-01

    Purpose To evaluate associations between stereoacuity and presence, type, and severity of vision disorders in Head Start preschool children and determine testability and levels of stereoacuity by age in children without vision disorders. Methods Stereoacuity of children aged 3 to 5 years (n = 2898) participating in the Vision in Preschoolers (VIP) Study was evaluated using the Stereo Smile II test during a comprehensive vision examination. This test uses a two-alternative forced-choice paradigm with four stereoacuity levels (480 to 60 seconds of arc). Children were classified by the presence (n = 871) or absence (n = 2027) of VIP Study–targeted vision disorders (amblyopia, strabismus, significant refractive error, or unexplained reduced visual acuity), including type and severity. Median stereoacuity between groups and among severity levels of vision disorders was compared using Wilcoxon rank sum and Kruskal-Wallis tests. Testability and stereoacuity levels were determined for children without VIP Study–targeted disorders overall and by age. Results Children with VIP Study–targeted vision disorders had significantly worse median stereoacuity than that of children without vision disorders (120 vs. 60 seconds of arc, p < 0.001). Children with the most severe vision disorders had worse stereoacuity than that of children with milder disorders (median 480 vs. 120 seconds of arc, p < 0.001). Among children without vision disorders, testability was 99.6% overall, increasing with age to 100% for 5-year-olds (p = 0.002). Most of the children without vision disorders (88%) had stereoacuity at the two best disparities (60 or 120 seconds of arc); the percentage increasing with age (82% for 3-, 89% for 4-, and 92% for 5-year-olds; p < 0.001). Conclusions The presence of any VIP Study–targeted vision disorder was associated with significantly worse stereoacuity in preschool children. Severe vision disorders were more likely associated with poorer stereopsis than milder

  4. 34 CFR 300.124 - Transition of children from the Part C program to preschool programs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... preschool programs. 300.124 Section 300.124 Education Regulations of the Offices of the Department of... Requirements § 300.124 Transition of children from the Part C program to preschool programs. The State must... programs assisted under Part C of the Act, and who will participate in preschool programs assisted...

  5. Effects of a Preschool Staff Intervention on Children's Sun Protection: Outcomes of Sun Protection Is Fun!

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gritz, Ellen R.; Tripp, Mary K.; James, Aimee S.; Harrist, Ronald B.; Mueller, Nancy H.; Chamberlain, Robert M.; Parcel, Guy S.

    2007-01-01

    The preschool is an important yet understudied setting for sun-protection interventions. This study evaluates the effects of Sun Protection is Fun! (SPF) on preschool staff behavioral and psychosocial outcomes related to protecting children from sun exposure. Twenty preschools participated in a 2-year, group-randomized trial to evaluate SPF, a…

  6. Parents' Selection Factors when Choosing Preschool Programs for Their Children with Disabilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Glenn-Applegate, Katherine; Pentimonti, Jill; Justice, Laura M.

    2011-01-01

    Parents, including parents of children with disabilities, are often challenged to find preschools that meet their families' various needs and desires. Research on preschool quality is prevalent, but these studies rarely consider how parents perceive quality. This descriptive study asked what parents value most when choosing a preschool for their…

  7. The Effects of Parents' Presence on Children's Social Interactions in Preschool.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Ellen Wolpow; Howes, Carollee

    1994-01-01

    Observed the social behavior of 27 preschoolers in the in parent-cooperative preschools. Found that when, their parents were working in the preschool, children engaged in less high-level peer play, initiated play with peers less often and expressed more negative emotion and spent much less time in proximity to adults than when their parents were…

  8. Intestinal schistosomiasis among preschool children along the shores of Lake Victoria in Uganda.

    PubMed

    Nalugwa, A; Olsen, A; Tukahebwa, M E; Nuwaha, F

    2015-02-01

    Schistosomiasis, a disease caused by Schistosoma trematode parasites, affects hundreds of millions of people and accounts for more than 40% of the global health burden due to neglected tropical diseases. In Uganda, intestinal schistosomiasis is endemic in 73 out of 112 districts and about 55% of the population of 36 million individuals are at risk. There is scanty information on the status and burden of schistosomiasis in preschool children less than six years of age in Uganda. This study aimed to assess the status of Schistosoma mansoni infections in children aged 1-5 years in Uganda. S. mansoni prevalence and intensity of infection were examined in 3058 children from 5 districts along Lake Victoria shoreline, eastern Uganda. For each child one stool sample was collected on three consecutive days. The Kato-Katz technique was used to prepare stool smears on slides for microscopic examination. Short interviews with a standardized pre-tested questionnaire prepared in the local language (Lusoga) were administered to each caregiver to identify risk factors associated with S. mansoni infection. An overall S. mansoni prevalence of 39.3% (95% CI: 38.0-41.1%) was estimated out of the 3058 stool samples examined. The geometric mean intensity of S. mansoni among the infected children was 273 (95% CI: 241-305) eggs per gram of faeces. Both prevalence and intensity of infection increased linearly with age (P<0.0001) and were highest in the age group 49-60 months. Majority (61%) of the children, especially in the age group 12-24 months (84.2%; 95% CI: 75.6-90.1%), were lightly infected. Short interviews with caregivers revealed that preschool children, 1-5 years old, get exposed to S. mansoni infested waters through bathing, playing or swimming. It is important that the Uganda national control programme for schistosomiasis takes preschool children into consideration and that health education on transmission of schistosomiasis is delivered to the endemic communities regularly

  9. The Relationship Between Food Insecurity and BMI for Preschool Children.

    PubMed

    Speirs, Katherine E; Fiese, Barbara H

    2016-04-01

    Objectives The literature exploring the relationship between food insecurity and obesity for preschool-aged children is inconclusive and suffers from inconsistent measurement. This paper explores the relationships between concurrent household and child food insecurity and child overweight as well as differences in these relationships by child gender using a sample of 2-5 year old children. Methods Using measured height and weight and responses to the Household Food Security Survey Module collected from a sample of 438 preschool-aged children (mean age 39 months) and their mothers, logistic regression models were fit to estimate the relationship between household and child food insecurity and child BMI. Separate models were fit for girls and boys. Results Twenty-seven percent of children from food insecure households and 25 % of child food insecure children were overweight or obese (BMI ≥ 85 %). There were no statistically significant associations between either household or child food insecurity and BMI for the full sample. For girls, but not boys, household food insecurity was associated with BMI z-scores (β = 0.23, p = 0.01). Conclusions Although food insecurity and overweight were not significantly associated, a noteworthy proportion of food insecure children were overweight or obese. Programs for young children should address food insecurity and obesity simultaneously by ensuring that young children have regular access to nutrient-dense foods. PMID:26662281

  10. Managing wheeze in preschool children: How difficult can it be?

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Wheeze is a common symptom in infants and preschool children. Up to 30% of children wheeze at least once before the age of 3 years and 2% of those have it severe enough to warrant hospital admission. Not only parents but also physicians have difficulty in recognizing wheeze. Wrong diagnosis of the underlying condition leads to inappropriate and unnecessary management and patient morbidity. Asthma is the commonest underlying condition in children with wheeze, but the differential diagnosis is quite broad and a systematic approach including a good clinical history, thorough physical examination and appropriate investigations are essential to reach the accurate diagnosis.

  11. Phonological Awareness and Vocabulary Performance of Monolingual and Bilingual Preschool Children with Hearing Loss

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lund, Emily; Werfel, Krystal L.; Schuele, C. Melanie

    2015-01-01

    This pilot study compared the phonological awareness skills and vocabulary performance of English monolingual and Spanish-English bilingual children with and without hearing loss. Preschool children with varying degrees of hearing loss (n = 18) and preschool children without hearing loss (n = 19) completed measures of phonological awareness and…

  12. Preschool Language Profiles of Children at Family Risk of Dyslexia: Continuities with Specific Language Impairment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nash, Hannah M.; Hulme, Charles; Gooch, Debbie; Snowling, Margaret J.

    2013-01-01

    Background: Children at family risk of dyslexia have been reported to show phonological deficits as well as broader language delays in the preschool years. Method: The preschool language skills of 112 children at family risk of dyslexia (FR) at ages 3½ and 4½ were compared with those of children with SLI and typically developing (TD) controls.…

  13. Fourth Grade Outcomes of Children with a Preschool History of Developmental Disability

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Delgado, Christine E. F.

    2009-01-01

    Special education outcomes were evaluated for 3,608 children (2,513 males) with a preschool history of developmental disability. Sixty-six percent of the children had an identified disability in fourth grade. The percentage of children with a disability at outcome varied across preschool disability categories from 54% to 96%. The consistency of…

  14. A Comparison of Preschool Children's Discussions with Parents during Picture Book and Chapter Book Reading

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leech, Kathryn A.; Rowe, Meredith L.

    2014-01-01

    Discussions that occur during book reading between parents and preschool children relate to children's language development, especially discussions during picture books that include extended discourse, a form of abstract language. While a recent report shows increased chapter book reading among families with preschool children, it is unknown…

  15. Social Participation of Children with Disabilities in Inclusive Preschool Programs: Program Typology and Ecological Features

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tsao, Ling-Ling; Odom, Samuel L.; Buysse, Virginia; Skinner, Marti; West, Tracy; Vitztum-Komanecki, Joann

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the social participation of young children with disabilities in inclusive preschool programs. One hundred forty-three preschool-aged children with disabilities were observed in classrooms representing four organizational contexts: community-based, Head Start, public school, and blended. Children's and…

  16. Children's Physical Activity in Day Care and Preschool

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reunamo, Jyrki; Hakala, Liisa; Saros, Leila; Lehto, Satu; Kyhälä, Anna-Liisa; Valtonen, Juha

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of the study was to investigate the dynamics of physical activity (PA) in day care and preschool. The participants were 823 Finnish 1-7-year-old children from 50 day care centres and preschools. The research methods were systematic observation, evaluation of children's skills and interviews with children. Altogether 18,366…

  17. The Immediate Impacts of Preschool Attendance on Turkish Children's Mathematics Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aslan, Durmus; Aktas Arnas, Yasare

    2015-01-01

    This study was conducted to investigate the immediate impacts of preschool attendance on Turkish children's mathematics achievement. The participants were 200 children who attended or did not attend preschool. The number and operation task and the geometric shapes sorting task were used as the data collection tools. The children who attended…

  18. Preschool Quality and the Development of Children from Economically Disadvantaged Families in India

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rao, Nirmala

    2010-01-01

    Research Findings: The influence of preschool quality on the development of 67 4-year-old children from poor and rural families in South India was examined. Children's developmental status was assessed using a modified version of the McCarthy Scales of Children's Abilities and through physician ratings. Preschool quality was assessed through…

  19. Sociometric Status Differences in Affect Sequences in Preschool Children's Play with Parents.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carson, James L.; Parke, Ross D.

    This study examined the interchange of emotional cues during interactions between parents and their popular or rejected children. Participants were 28 4- and 5-year-old preschool children and their parents. Children were selected as popular or unpopular using a sociometric nomination procedure conducted in their preschool or day care classroom.…

  20. Modeling and Verbalizations of Lower-Class, Black, Preschool Children: Educational Implications.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gottfried, Adele E.

    Two purposes guided this study: (1) to investigate the effects of modeling on the verbalizations of lower-class, black, preschool children; and (2) to investigate the relationships between the dialect employed by the model and children's language production. As subjects, 72 black, preschool children in lower-class neighborhood day care centers of…

  1. The Predictive Effects of the Behaviour Problem Variables on Peer Victimisation in Preschool Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yoleri, Sibel

    2014-01-01

    Behaviour problems in young children are fairly common. It has been suggested that approximately 5-14% of preschool children exhibit problem behaviour. There are many reasons for behaviour problems in preschool-aged period children. Researches reveal that link between victimisation and individual differences. However, but still, we do not know the…

  2. Perceptions of Parents of Young Children with and without Disabilities Attending Inclusive Preschool Programs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hilbert, Dana

    2014-01-01

    This study aimed to identify the characteristics of parents of children with and without disabilities whose young children attend an inclusive, early childhood education program that influence their perceptions of inclusion and inclusive preschool programs. Participants included parents of preschool children without disabilities (n=64) and parents…

  3. Profile Analysis of the Kaufman Assessment Battery for Children, Second Edition, with African American and Caucasian Preschool Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dale, Brittany A.; McIntosh, David E.; Rothlisberg, Barbara A.; Ward, Kimberly E.; Bradley, Madeline Hunt

    2011-01-01

    This study used profile analysis to investigate the interpretability of the Kaufman Assessment Battery for Children, Second Edition (KABC-II), in terms of the Cattell-Horn-Carroll (CHC) theory among ethnically diverse preschool children. Forty-nine African American and 49 Caucasian preschool children from a Midwestern city were included in the…

  4. Object and size awareness in preschool-age children.

    PubMed

    Boyer, Caroline E; Carlson, Abby G; Pasnak, Robert

    2012-02-01

    Self-awareness is a skill developed during the first few years of life. Although some research demonstrates that this ability may be incomplete in toddlers, there is little to no literature relating to preschoolers. This study tested 44 preschool-age children on 8 tasks to assess their awareness of the structural characteristics of their own size and weight as well as the size and weight of external objects. The most frequently observed behavior was for children to make an attempt at something that was inappropriate for their size and weight, but overall participants showed a better understanding of their own bodies than other objects. Both the number of attempts required to solve the problems and accuracy of their solutions demonstrated these task differences. These results indicate that the development of body awareness skills is far from complete for 3- and 4-year-olds. PMID:22582673

  5. Oral health status in preschool asthmatic children in Iran.

    PubMed

    Ehsani, Sara; Moin, Mostafa; Meighani, Ghasem; Pourhashemi, Seyed Jalal; Khayatpisheh, Hadi; Yarahmadi, Nazli

    2013-09-01

    Asthma is a chronic inflammatory disorder of the airways, which is diagnosed by periodic symptoms of inflammation, bronchial spasm, and increased mucosal secretions. It has higher incidence among the preschool children. There are many contradictory reports based on the effect of asthma on oral health, however it has been hypothesized that asthma could lead to poor oral health. The objective of the present study was to investigate oral health indices in 44 preschool children of three to six years old with mild to moderate asthma and 46 matched healthy children in Tehran Children's Respiratory Center. Dental plaque, gingival inflammation, mouth breathing, and dental caries were evaluated by one trained examiner according to World Health Organization [WHO] criteria. Culture and colony counting of streptococcus mutans and lactobacillus species were carried out in saliva specimens of the patients. The effects of different factors on the colony counts were statistically analyzed using linear regression analysis. The level of mother's education and preexisting asthma disease in children had significant effect on the colony counts of streptococcus species whereas no factor was found to influence the number of lactobacillus counts significantly. The results indicated no significant differences between the children with asthma and those without asthma regarding (decayed, missing, filled, teeth) dmft index (mean of 3.34 in asthmatic children and 3.0 in the control group). Therefore, it can be deduced that the presence of asthma disease did not increase the probability of tooth decay. PMID:23893809

  6. Managing unwanted behaviour in pre-school children.

    PubMed

    Taylor, Theresa

    2007-04-01

    This paper describes a behaviour group, set up as a pilot project to empower parents and to promote their self-confidence in managing pre-school children's undesirable behaviour. Led by community nursery nurses (CNNs), the programme has already worked with six groups, each of six parents or carers and their children. Families are guided through coping strategies and learn management skills in changing undesirable behaviour problems in their pre-school children. Children between the ages of two to five years have been referred along with their parents to the group. Types of behaviours referred include: sleep problems, feeding/eating difficulties, sibling rivalry, temper tantrums, defiant anti-social behaviour and toilet/potty training. All these behaviours are prevalent among pre-school children, but are sometimes difficult for parents to manage. The evaluation of this pilot programme was based on pre-post-programme questionnaires and direct observation of parent-child interaction. Success of the behaviour group has indicated the need for such early preventative work to continue with parents and children. The children's services team, which includes health visitors and school health advisors, refers targeted families for immediate intervention, without families being on a long waiting list. Parents and carers who have difficulties coping with their child's undesirable behaviour can now access a service in their local clinic. Feedback from parents has been positive. Such a group is also beneficial in reducing the problem of less severe behavioural difficulties being referred to hard pressed and understaffed CAMHS teams. PMID:17455575

  7. Binocular iPad treatment for amblyopia in preschool children

    PubMed Central

    Birch, Eileen E.; Li, Simone L.; Jost, Reed M.; Morale, Sarah E.; De La Cruz, Angie; Stager, David; Dao, Lori; Stager, David R.

    2014-01-01

    Background Recent experimental evidence supports a role for binocular visual experience in the treatment of amblyopia. The purpose of this study was to determine whether repeated binocular visual experience with dichoptic iPad games could effectively treat amblyopia in preschool children. Methods A total of 50 consecutive amblyopic preschool children 3–6.9 years of age were assigned to play sham iPad games (first 5 children) or binocular iPad games (n = 45) for at least 4 hours per week for 4 weeks. Thirty (67%) children in the binocular iPad group and 4 (80%) in the sham iPad group were also treated with patching at a different time of day. Visual acuity and stereoacuity were assessed at baseline, at 4 weeks, and at 3 months after the cessation of game play. Results The sham iPad group had no significant improvement in visual acuity (t4 = 0.34, P = 0.75). In the binocular iPad group, mean visual acuity (plus or minus standard error) improved from 0.43 ± 0.03 at baseline to 0.34 ± 0.03 logMAR at 4 weeks (n = 45; paired t44 = 4.93; P < 0.0001). Stereoacuity did not significantly improve (t44 = 1.35, P = 0.18). Children who played the binocular iPad games for ≥8 hours (≥50% compliance) had significantly more visual acuity improvement than children who played 0–4 hours (t43 = 4.21, P = 0.0001). Conclusions Repeated binocular experience, provided by dichoptic iPad game play, was more effective than sham iPad game play as a treatment for amblyopia in preschool children. PMID:25727578

  8. Physical activity for preschool children--how much and how?

    PubMed

    Timmons, Brian W; Naylor, Patti-Jean; Pfeiffer, Karin A

    2007-01-01

    Alarming trends in childhood obesity even among preschool children have re-focused attention on the importance of physical activity in this age group. With this increased attention comes the need to identify the amount and type of physical activity appropriate for optimal development of preschool children. The purpose of this paper is to provide the scientific evidence to support a link between physical activity and biological and psychosocial development during early childhood (ages 2-5 years). To do so, we summarize pertinent literature informing the nature of the physical activity required to promote healthy physical, cognitive, emotional, and social development during these early years. A particular focus is on the interaction between physical activity and motor skill acquisition. Special emphasis is also placed on the nature of physical activity that promotes healthy weight gain during this period of childhood. The paper also discusses the strongest determinants of physical activity in preschool-age children, including the role of the child's environment (e.g., family, child-care, and socio-economic status). We provide recommendations for physical activity based on the best available evidence, and identify future research needs. PMID:18213943

  9. Tracing Developmental Trajectories of Oppositional Defiant Behaviors in Preschool Children

    PubMed Central

    Ezpeleta, Lourdes; Granero, Roser; de la Osa, Núria; Navarro, José Blas; Penelo, Eva; Domènech, Josep M.

    2014-01-01

    Objective Previous studies on developmental trajectories have used ad hoc definitions of oppositional defiant behaviors (ODB), which makes it difficult to compare results. This article defines developmental trajectories of ODB from ages 3–5 based on five different standard measurements derived from three separate instruments. Method A sample of 622 three-year-old preschoolers, followed up at ages 4, 5, and 6, was assessed with the five measures of oppositionality answered by parents and teachers. Growth-Mixture-Modeling (GMM) estimated separate developmental trajectories for each ODB measure for ages 3 to 5. Results The number of classes-trajectories obtained in each GMM depended on the ODB measure, but two clear patterns emerged: four trajectories (persistent low, decreasers, increasers/high increasers, persistent moderate/persistent high) or three trajectories (persistent low, decreasers, increasers/high increasers). Persistent high trajectories accounted for 4.4%–9.5% of the children. The trajectories emerging from the different ODB measures at ages 3 to 5 discriminated disruptive disorders, comorbidity, use of services, and impairment at age 6, and globally showed a similar pattern, summarizing longitudinal information on oppositionality in preschool children in a similar way. Conclusions Trajectories resulting from standard scales of the questionnaires have predictive validity for identifying relevant clinical outcomes, but are measure-specific. The results contribute to knowledge about the development of ODB in preschool children. PMID:24972147

  10. Mothers' Adult Attachment Interview ratings predict preschool children's IQ following domestic violence exposure.

    PubMed

    Busch, Amy L; Lieberman, Alicia F

    2010-11-01

    This study examined links between mothers' Adult Attachment Interview ratings (AAI; Main, Goldwyn, & Hesse, 2003) and their preschool children's IQ among 70 families who had experienced domestic violence. As predicted, children displayed significantly stronger verbal and perceptual-organizational abilities when their mothers exhibited more secure, i.e. coherent, states of mind regarding attachment. Mothers' coherence of mind on the AAI explained 18% of the variance in children's Verbal IQ and 12% of the variance in children's Performance IQ, after controlling for maternal education. Mothers' attachment security also was related to children's total IQ score, but this association was accounted for by effects on children's Verbal IQ. Children whose mothers were rated as unclassifiable on the AAI and those whose mothers were unresolved/insecure had lower IQ scores. Although mothers who appeared more secure on the AAI were more sensitively responsive toward their children, mediational analyses suggested that there was a direct link between mothers' security and children's IQ that was not explained by sensitive parenting. This suggests that clinical interventions for children exposed to domestic violence should include helping their mothers achieve coherent ways of thinking about their own childhood experiences, including past trauma. PMID:20931412

  11. Linguistically-based informational masking in preschool children

    PubMed Central

    Newman, Rochelle S.; Morini, Giovanna; Ahsan, Faraz; Kidd, Gerald

    2015-01-01

    Previous work has shown that young children exhibit more difficulty understanding speech in the presence of speech-like distractors than do adults, and are more susceptible to at least some form of informational masking (IM). Yet little is known about how/when the “susceptibility” to linguistically-based IM develops. The authors tested adults, school-age children (aged 8 yrs), and preschool-age children (aged 4 yrs) on sentence recognition in the presence of normal speech, “jumbled” speech, and reversed speech distractors. As has been found previously with adults [e.g., Summers and Molis (2004). J. Speech, Lang. Hear. Res. 47, 245–256], children in both age groups showed a release of masking when the distractor was uninterpretable (reversed speech). This suggests that children already demonstrate linguistically-based IM by the age of 4 yrs. PMID:26233069

  12. Learning from the Children: Exploring Preschool Children's Encounters with ICT at Home

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stephen, Christine; McPake, Joanna; Plowman, Lydia; Berch-Heyman, Sarah

    2008-01-01

    This article is an account of our attempts to understand preschool children's experiences with information and communication technologies (ICT) at home. Using case study data, we focus on what we can learn from talking directly to the children that might otherwise have been overlooked and on describing and evaluating the methods we adopted to…

  13. [Clinical diagnostics of ADHD in preschool-aged children].

    PubMed

    Merkt, Julia; Petermann, Franz

    2015-03-01

    Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is one of the most prevalent psychiatric disorders in childhood and adolescence and has many negative consequences for both the child and the family. Early identification of children with ADHD would be helpful for the prevention of long-term consequences. This review appraises questionnaires and clinical interviews that can be used for the diagnosis of ADHD in preschool-aged children (3-5 years). We compare and discuss both German and international methods. The role of questionnaires and clinical interviews in the diagnostic process of ADHD is discussed. PMID:25769765

  14. Preventing Obesity among Preschool Children: How Can Child-Care Settings Promote Healthy Eating and Physical Activity? Research Synthesis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Larson, Nicole; Ward, Dianne; Neelon, Sara Benjamin; Story, Mary

    2011-01-01

    Child-care settings provide numerous opportunities to promote healthy eating and physical activity behaviors among preschool children. The majority of U.S. children are placed in some form of non-parental care during their preschool years. While approximately 15 percent of preschool children are primarily cared for by their relatives, most…

  15. An Evaluation of Social Adaptation Skills of Children with and without Preschool Education Background Based on Their Mothers' Views

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gunindi, Yunus

    2013-01-01

    This study was designed to discover if preschool teaching affects children's development of social skills and behaviours. Mothers of 50 children from middle socio-economic class families attending preschools and mothers of 50 children from the same socio-economic class families not attending preschools were included in the study. "Social…

  16. Accidents to preschool children: comparing family and neighbourhood risk factors.

    PubMed

    Reading, R; Langford, I H; Haynes, R; Lovett, A

    1999-02-01

    Accidental injury in young children is more common among poorer families and in deprived areas but little is known about how these factors interact. This paper describes a study to measure the contribution of individual family factors and area characteristics in determining risk of accidental injury among preschool children. We conducted a population based study of preschool accident and emergency attendances over two years in and around the city of Norwich, UK. Information on individual families was extracted from the district child health information system while "social areas" were constructed from adjacent census enumeration districts with homogeneous social and demographic characteristics. Statistical analysis was by multilevel modelling. Accidental injury rates were much higher in deprived urban neighbourhoods than in affluent areas but the multilevel analysis showed that, for all accidents, much of the variation in rates was accounted for by factors at the individual level i.e. male sex, young maternal age, number of elder siblings and distance from hospital, with a smaller, but independent, influence of living in a deprived neighbourhood. The model for more severe injuries was similar except single parenthood was now significant at the level of individuals and the effect of area deprivation was stronger. We conclude that preschool accidental injuries are influenced by factors operating at both the level of individual families and between areas. This evidence suggests that both social policy changes to improve child care among unsupported young families and targeting accident prevention measures at a local level towards deprived neighbourhoods would reduce accidents. PMID:10077280

  17. Hypothetical model in testing integrated development of preschool children.

    PubMed

    Bala, Gustav; Katić, Ratko

    2009-06-01

    This paper provides systematic presentation of the issues related to methodology, and offers some possible solutions for analysis of different aspects of child development, especially preschool age. These issues are related to the definition, acceptance and preparation of the existing theories on development, which include analysis of the whole child's self his/her surroundings, and his/her activities. In addition, this analysis also includes some methodological problems related to sexual dimorphism, heritage-bound and surroundings-bound development, definition of the model of constructs affecting the selection of variables for evaluation of integral development, definition of the population and selection of the subject sample, determination of manifest characteristics and abilities, selection or construction of measuring instruments for their evaluation, appropriateness of the model and method of data analysis, as well as the possibility of designing the potential model of integrated development of preschool children. PMID:19662751

  18. A Pilot Study of Early Childhood Mental Health Consultation for Children with Behavioral Problems in Preschool

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Upshur, Carole; Wenz-Gross, Melodie; Reed, George

    2009-01-01

    This study reports the findings of a pilot demonstration project called Together for Kids, which used a mental health consultation model to address the needs of young children with challenging behaviors who are identified in preschool classrooms. The study was conducted in four preschool programs and one Head Start program serving children ages…

  19. Relations between Working Memory and Emergent Writing among Preschool-Aged Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hoskyn, Maureen; Tzoneva, Irina

    2008-01-01

    The authors examined the nature of the working memory system that underlies age differences of young, preschool-aged children. Measures of working memory, short-term memory, articulation speed, general intelligence, and writing were administered to 166 Canadian preschool-aged children aged 3 to 5 years. Findings generally support the hypothesis…

  20. The Association between Preschool Classroom Quality and Children's Social-Emotional Problems

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mohamed, Ahmed Hassan Hemdan; Marzouk, Samah Abd Al Fatah Mohamed

    2016-01-01

    This study examined the association between early childhood classroom quality and preschool children's social skills and emotional problems. Teachers completed the Early Childhood Environmental Rating Scale-Revised (ECERS-R) and the Devereux Early Childhood Assessment-Clinical Form (DECA-C). Participants included 141 preschool children from 10…

  1. Preschool Children's Interest in Babies: Observations in Naturally-Occurring Settings.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blakemore, Judith E. Owen

    Previous research in laboratory settings has found that preschool girls show more interest in babies than do preschool boys. To validate these findings in natural settings, 71 children at 3 and 5 years of age were observed by their parents as the children interacted with babies in their daily lives. Each child was observed with three different…

  2. Effects of Social Stories on Prosocial Behavior of Preschool Children with Autism Spectrum Disorders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Crozier, Shannon; Tincani, Matt

    2007-01-01

    Social Stories[TM] are a popular intervention for preschool children with autism spectrum disorders (ASD), but little research on Social Stories has been conducted with this population. This study investigated the effects of Social Stories on prosocial behavior of three preschool children with ASD in an inclusive setting. An ABAB design was used…

  3. Arts Enrichment and Preschool Emotions for Low-Income Children at Risk

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, Eleanor D.; Sax, Kacey L.

    2013-01-01

    No studies to date examine the impact of arts-integrated preschool programming on the emotional functioning of low-income children at risk for school problems. The present study examines observed emotion expression and teacher-rated emotion regulation for low-income children attending Settlement Music School's Kaleidoscope Preschool Arts…

  4. Analogic and Symbolic Comparison of Numerosity in Preschool Children with Cochlear Implants

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arfe, Barbara; Lucangeli, Daniela; Genovese, Elisabetta; Monzani, Daniele; Gubernale, Marco; Trevisi, Patrizia; Santarelli, Rosamaria

    2011-01-01

    This study explores how preschoolers with cochlear implants process numerical comparisons from two different inputs: a) nonverbal (analogical) and b) verbal (symbolic). Preschool cochlear-implanted children (CI) ranging in age from 4;3 to 6;1 were compared with 99 age-matched hearing children (HC) in three numerical tasks: verbal counting, a digit…

  5. Drawing Children into Reading: A Qualitative Case Study of a Preschool Drawing Curriculum

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DeFauw, Danielle L.

    2016-01-01

    This article details a qualitative case study of 24 preschool children engaged with step-by-step drawing instruction provided by five educators as they developed their fine motor skills and drew detailed objects using the Drawing Children Into Reading curriculum (Halperin, W. A. (2011a). "Project 50 preschool manual." South Haven, MI:…

  6. Name-Writing Proficiency, Not Length of Name, Is Associated with Preschool Children's Emergent Literacy Skills

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Puranik, Cynthia S.; Lonigan, Christopher J.

    2012-01-01

    The goals of this study were twofold: first, to examine whether preschool children's name-writing proficiency differentiated them on other emergent reading and writing tasks, and second, to examine the effect of name length on preschool children's emergent literacy skills including alphabet knowledge and spelling. In Study 1, a range of emergent…

  7. Contributions of Emergent Literacy Skills to Name Writing, Letter Writing, and Spelling in Preschool Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Puranik, Cynthia S.; Lonigan, Christopher J.; Kim, Young-Suk

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine which emergent literacy skills contribute to preschool children's emergent writing (name-writing, letter-writing, and spelling) skills. Emergent reading and writing tasks were administered to 296 preschool children aged 4-5 years. Print knowledge and letter-writing skills made positive contributions to name…

  8. Developing Basic Mathematical Skills of Pre-School Children by Using Plasticized Clay

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chumark, Charung; Puncreobutr, Vichian

    2016-01-01

    The main objective of this research was to study the development of basic mathematical skills in preschool children by using plasticized clay. A pre-test and post-test design was adopted for the study to compare the difference before and after the art activity. The experimental group of 15 preschool children of 3-4 years old, attending…

  9. The Effects of Using Interactive Teaching Programs on Preschool Children's Literacy Development: Case Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gahwaji, Nahla M.

    2011-01-01

    This paper presents findings of a case study that investigates the effects of using interactive teaching programs on literacy development for preschool children. The significant of this study comes from the lack of studies associated with using interactive teaching programs for preschool children in Saudi Arabia. Data are presented from analyzing…

  10. Confirmatory Factor Analysis of the KABC-II in Preschool Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morgan, Kimberly E.; Rothlisberg, Barbara A.; McIntosh, David E.; Hunt, Madeline S.

    2009-01-01

    The present study assessed the Kaufman Assessment Battery for Children, Second Edition (KABC-II) in relation to the synthesized Cattell-Horn-Carroll (CHC) theory of intelligence with a preschool sample. Participants were 200 preschool children between four and five years of age. A confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) was conducted, and different…

  11. Letter-Sound Reading: Teaching Preschool Children Print-to-Sound Processing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wolf, Gail Marie

    2016-01-01

    This intervention study investigated the growth of letter sound reading and growth of consonant-vowel-consonant (CVC) word decoding abilities for a representative sample of 41 US children in preschool settings. Specifically, the study evaluated the effectiveness of a 3-step letter-sound teaching intervention in teaching preschool children to…

  12. A Report of Survey on Conditions of Preschool Children's Family Music Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bi, Yujuan

    2011-01-01

    The author composes a questionnaire about conditions of preschool children's family music education. The survey includes 280 preschool children in a city of Shandong province. It finds that most parents have recognized the importance of early childhood music education, but there is the tendency of utilitarian. The content of family music education…

  13. Validation of a Questionnaire to Measure Mastery Motivation among Chinese Preschool Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leung, Cynthia; Lo, S. K.

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this study was to validate a questionnaire on mastery motivation (task and effort) for use with Chinese preschool children in Hong Kong. A parent version and a teacher version were developed and evaluated. Participants included 457 children (230 boys and 227 girls) aged four and five years old, their preschool teachers and their…

  14. Television viewing, computer use, obesity, and adiposity in US preschool children

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    There is limited evidence in preschool children linking media use, such as television/video viewing and computer use, to obesity and adiposity. We tested three hypotheses in preschool children: 1) that watching > 2 hours of TV/videos daily is associated with obesity and adiposity, 2) that computer u...

  15. Nutritional Status of Mexican American Preschool Children in East Los Angeles and San Diego.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lewis, Jane S.; And Others

    Results of a 1968 pilot study of the nutritional status of Mexican American preschool children in East Los Angeles and San Diego are reported in this document. Questionnaire data collected from mothers of preschool children are presented in terms of a description of families, prenatal care, clinical examinations, dietary intakes, and biochemical…

  16. Executive Functioning Skills in Preschool-Age Children with Cochlear Implants

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beer, Jessica; Kronenberger, William G.; Castellanos, Irina; Colson, Bethany G.; Henning, Shirley C.; Pisoni, David B.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this study was to determine whether deficits in executive functioning (EF) in children with cochlear implants (CIs) emerge as early as the preschool years. Method: Two groups of children ages 3 to 6 years participated in this cross-sectional study: 24 preschoolers who had CIs prior to 36 months of age and 21 preschoolers…

  17. Mother-Child Dyadic Synchrony Is Associated with Better Functioning in Hyperactive/Inattentive Preschool Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Healey, Dione M.; Gopin, Chaya B.; Grossman, Bella R.; Campbell, Susan B.; Halperin, Jeffrey M.

    2010-01-01

    Background: Hyperactive/inattentive (HI) behaviors are common in preschoolers, but they result in functional impairment and attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) diagnoses in only some children. We examined whether the quality of mother-child interaction accounts for variance in level of functioning among preschool children with elevated…

  18. Motor Proficiency and Body Mass Index of Preschool Children: In Relation to Socioeconomic Status

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mülazimoglu-Balli, Özgür

    2016-01-01

    The aim of the study was to investigate the correlation between motor proficiency and body mass index and to assess the socioeconomic status differences in motor proficiency and body mass index of preschool children. Sixty preschool children in the different socioeconomic status areas of central Denizli in Turkey participated in the study. The…

  19. The Social Behaviours of Inhibited Children in and out of Preschool

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Coplan, Robert J.; DeBow, Adrienne, Schneider, Barry H.; Graham, Allison A.

    2009-01-01

    The goal of the present study was to explore the social behaviours of inhibited children in familiar social contexts, including: (1) free play with peers at preschool and (2) social activities at home and in the community. The initial participants were N = 248 preschool children between the ages of 42 and 66 months. From this initial data, two…

  20. Sleep Patterns in Preschool-Age Children with Autism, Developmental Delay, and Typical Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goodlin-Jones, Beth L.; Tang, Karen; Liu, Jingyi; Anders, Thomas F.

    2008-01-01

    The study investigates sleep disorders by assessing the quantity and quality of sleep in preschool children with autism and comparing them with developmental delay without autism, and typical development. The results prove that sleep patterns are different in preschool children across all three categories.

  1. The Screening, Assessment, and Educational Programming of Pre-School Handicapped Children: A Primer.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sommer, Steve E.; Churton, Margaret

    The training manual is intended to meet the training needs of Head Start personnel and others working with preschool handicapped children who have not had formal training in special education. The book attempts to provide the basic concepts and practices of providing individualized instruction to preschool handicapped children as mandated by P.L.…

  2. Development and Validation of a Musical Behavior Measure for Preschool Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yi, Gina Jisun

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to develop a measure for use in assessing musical behaviors of preschool children in the context of regular music instruction and to determine the validity and the reliability of the measure. The Early Childhood Musical Behavior Measure (ECMBM) was constructed for use with preschool-aged children to measure their…

  3. A Latent Variable Approach to Determining the Structure of Executive Function in Preschool Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miller, Michael R.; Giesbrecht, Gerald F.; Muller, Ulrich; McInerney, Robert J.; Kerns, Kimberly A.

    2012-01-01

    The composition of executive function (EF) in preschool children was examined using confirmatory factor analysis (CFA). A sample of 129 children between 3 and 5 years of age completed a battery of EF tasks. Using performance indicators of working memory and inhibition similar to previous CFA studies with preschoolers, we replicated a unitary EF…

  4. A Preliminary Screening Program to Identify Functioning Strengths and Weaknesses in Preschool Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Amundson, Marian Stuehrenberg

    The purpose of this study was to compare two instruments for screening preschool children for potential learning problems. The two instruments used were the Metropolitan Readiness Tests (MRT) and the Wizard of Oz Preschool Preliminary Screening Program. The children tested on both measures were members of a self-contained kindergarten class. MRT…

  5. Investigating Mechanisms of Suppression in Preschool Children with Specific Language Impairment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Spaulding, Tammie J.

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: This study investigated 2 suppression mechanisms--(a) resistance to distracter interference and (b) inhibition of a prepotent response--in preschool children with specific language impairment (SLI) and their typically developing peers. Method: Twenty-two preschool children with SLI and 22 typically developing controls participated in this…

  6. Characterizing dinner meals served and consumed by low-income preschool children

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A dinner meal is consumed by approximately 95% of preschool children, yet few studies have characterized the dinner meal within a broader environmental context. The primary goal of this study was to identify the average quantities of foods served and consumed at the dinner meal by preschool children...

  7. Questions and Directions Related to the Provision of Services to Preschool Children with Severe Behavior Disorders.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hilton, Alan; Schmitz, Cathryne L.

    Six issues are discussed concerning the provision of services to preschool children with severe behavior disorders, in order to initiate an examination of needs for policy, services, and training. The issues, which are presented in the form of questions, include: how to define the population of preschool children with severe behavior disorders,…

  8. Preschool Age Children, Divorce and Adjustment: A Case Study in Greek Kindergarten

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Babalis, Thomas; Xanthakou, Yiota; Papa, Christina; Tsolou, Olympia

    2011-01-01

    Introduction: The aim of this research, which was carried out in 2010, is the comparative study of the psychosocial adjustment of preschool children from divorced and nuclear families in the nursery school. Method: The sample of the study consisted of 60 students (mean age = 5.21), 30 preschool children of divorced parents and 30 preschool…

  9. Making Differences and Reflecting on Diversities: Embodied Nationality among Preschool Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lappalainen, Sirpa

    2009-01-01

    This paper focuses on embodied practices in processes of nationalization among preschool children at the age of 6. It analyses how children define themselves and others, how they characterize and frame Finnishness through embodiment. The analysis is based on an ethnographic study in two preschool classes. It is argued that nationality works in a…

  10. Development of the Preschool Developmental Assessment Scale (PDAS) on Children's Social Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leung, Cynthia; Cheung, Jasmine; Lau, Vanessa; Lam, Catherine

    2011-01-01

    This paper aimed to describe the design and development of the social domain of the Preschool Developmental Assessment Scale (PDAS), which would be used for assessment of preschool children with different developmental disabilities. The original version of the social domain consisted of 30 items. Children were asked questions about their social…

  11. A Survey of Swedish Teachers' Concerns for Preschool Children at Risk of Maltreatment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Svensson, Birgitta; Andershed, Henrik; Janson, Staffan

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate a problem that is related to pre-school teachers' prolonged and temporary concerns for children's home situations and the extent to which these children were in need of special support in pre-school and/or were reported to the CPA. Data were obtained from a Swedish prospective study (the SOFIA-study)…

  12. Factor Analysis of the Preschool Behavioral and Emotional Rating Scale for Children in Head Start Programs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cress, Cynthia; Lambert, Matthew C.; Epstein, Michael H.

    2016-01-01

    Strength-based assessment of behaviors in preschool children provides evidence of emotional and behavioral skills in children, rather than focusing primarily on weaknesses identified by deficit-based assessments. The Preschool Behavioral and Emotional Rating Scales (PreBERS) is a normative assessment of emotional and behavioral strengths in…

  13. The Effects of TV Program Pacing on the Behavior of Preschool Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anderson, Daniel R.; And Others

    1977-01-01

    Assertions that television (Sesame Street in particular) produces hyperactivity, impulsivity, disorganized behavior, and shortened attention spans in pre-school children were investigated. No evidence was found that rapid television pacing has an immediate negative impact on behavior of preschool children. (Author/STS)

  14. Validation of a Questionnaire on Behaviour Academic Competence among Chinese Preschool Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leung, Cynthia; Lo, S. K.; Leung, Shirley S. L.

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this study was to validate a questionnaire on academic competence behaviour for use with Chinese preschool children in Hong Kong. A parent version and a teacher version were developed and evaluated. The participants included 457 children (230 boys and 227 girls) aged four and five years old, their preschool teachers and their parents.…

  15. Gender Differences in the Content of Preschool Children's Recollections: A Longitudinal Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tõugu, Pirko; Tulviste, Tiia; Suits, Kristi

    2014-01-01

    Personal recollections constitute autobiographical memory that develops intensively during the preschool years. The two-wave longitudinal study focuses on gender differences in preschool children's independent recollections. The same children (N = 275; 140 boys, 135 girls) were asked to talk about their previous birthday and the past weekend…

  16. Social Information Processing in Preschool Children: Relations to Sociodemographic Risk and Problem Behavior

    PubMed Central

    Ziv, Yair; Sorongon, Alberto

    2011-01-01

    Using a multi-component, process-oriented approach, the links between Social Information Processing in the preschool years and a) sociodemographic risk, and b) behavior problems in preschool, were examined in a community sample of 196 children. Findings provided support for our initial hypotheses that aspects of social information processing in preschool are related to both sociodemographic risk and to behavior problems in preschool. Response evaluation, and in particular, the positive evaluation of an aggressive response, were related to both sociodemographic risk and children’s aggressive behavior and partially mediated the links between sociodemographic risk and aggressive behavior in preschool. PMID:21420102

  17. Daytime Sleep Patterns in Preschool Children with Autism, Developmental Delay, and Typical Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schwichtenberg, A. J.; Iosif, Ana-Maria; Goodlin-Jones, Beth; Tang, Karen; Anders, Thomas

    2011-01-01

    The present study examined daytime sleep patterns in 3 groups of preschool-aged children: children with autism, children with developmental delay, and children who were developing typically. Sleep was assessed in 194 children via actigraphy and parent-report sleep diaries for 7 consecutive days on 3 separate occasions over 6 months. Children with…

  18. Psychosocial characteristics of preschool siblings of handicapped and nonhandicapped children.

    PubMed

    Lobato, D; Barbour, L; Hall, L J; Miller, C T

    1987-09-01

    This project examined psychosocial characteristics of 24 preschool-aged siblings of handicapped children in relation to a control group of 22 siblings of nonhandicapped children. Subjects were matched on family size and income, sibling age, birth order, sex, age spacing, and marital status of their parents. Results indicated no statistically significant differences between groups of children on measures of perceived self-competence and acceptance, understanding of developmental disabilities, empathy, and child care responsibility. Significant group differences were found where brothers of handicapped children were rated by their mothers as being more depressed and aggressive than brothers of nonhandicapped control children. Sisters of handicapped children were rated by mothers as being more aggressive than sisters of nonhandicapped children. Sisters of handicapped children and brothers of nonhandicapped children had significantly fewer privileges and more restrictions on their home activities than other groups. Results are discussed in relation to previous research on older siblings of handicapped children and the general literature on family stress and childhood disability and disease. The importance of examining sibling functioning via multiple measures of child behavior is stressed. PMID:2959706

  19. Earthcycles: Environmental Education with Preschool Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lewis-Webber, Mavis

    Early childhood educators and parents face the task of educating young children in Canada about environmental issues. The sooner young children participate in activities with an environmental theme, the more likely they are to appreciate the environment. This booklet is designed to introduce early childhood educators to environmental education…

  20. Unintentional Injuries in Preschool Age Children

    PubMed Central

    Acar, Ethem; Dursun, Onur Burak; Esin, İbrahim Selcuk; Öğütlü, Hakan; Özcan, Halil; Mutlu, Murat

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Unintentional injuries are the leading cause of death among children. Previous research has shown that most of the injuries occur in and around the home. Therefore, parents have a key role in the occurrence and prevention of injuries. In this study, we examined the relationship among home injuries to children and parental attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) symptoms, parental attitudes, and children's behavioral problems. Forty children who were admitted to the emergency department because of home injuries constitute the study group. The control group also consisted of 40 children, who were admitted for mild throat infections. The parents filled out questionnaires assessing parental ADHD, child behavioral problems, and parenting attitudes. Scores were significantly higher for both internalizing disorders and externalizing disorders in study groups. We also found that ADHD symptoms were significantly higher among fathers of injured children compared with fathers of control groups. Democratic parenting was also found to correlate with higher numbers of injuries. Parenting style, as well as the psychopathology of both the parents and children, is important factors in children's injuries. A child psychiatrist visit following an emergency procedure may help to prevent further unintentional injuries to the child. PMID:26266395

  1. Conformity to Peer Pressure in Preschool Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Haun, Daniel B. M.; Tomasello, Michael

    2011-01-01

    Both adults and adolescents often conform their behavior and opinions to peer groups, even when they themselves know better. The current study investigated this phenomenon in 24 groups of 4 children between 4;2 and 4;9 years of age. Children often made their judgments conform to those of 3 peers, who had made obviously erroneous but unanimous…

  2. Preschool Children's Understanding of Semantic Relations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fu, Panfang

    Two experiments investigated 4- to 5-year olds' understanding of semantic relations and methods for incorporating new words into their lexicon. In one experiment, 24 children were shown a picture of a container and told that an object called "X" was hidden inside it. Children were asked questions about the object X and about "Y," which indicated a…

  3. E.T.: Preschool Children's Perceptions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roscoe, Bruce; Peterson, Karen L.

    An exploratory study investigated preoperational children's understanding of the fictional movie character E.T. (The Extra-Terrestrial). Of 40 participating children (ages 40 to 66 months), 85 percent indicated they had seen the movie. Data were collected according to an interview method, and responses were recorded on audiotape, transcribed, and…

  4. Preschool Children's Concepts of Their Peers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Herz, Joan A.; And Others

    A study was conducted to assess the ability of 4-year-olds to make differentiated judgments of characteristics of their nursery school classmates. A paired-associates sociometric task, a technique that does not rely heavily on verbal skills and is reliable with young children, was used to obtain these judgments. Children were presented with all…

  5. Dyadic orienting and joint attention in preschool children with autism.

    PubMed

    Leekam, Susan R; Ramsden, Christopher A H

    2006-02-01

    Acts of dyadic orienting (responses to attention bids by a researcher) and acts of joint attention (e.g. pointing and showing behaviors) were observed in preschool children with autism and children with developmental delay. Children with autism responded to fewer adult vocal and non-vocal attention bids that were made singly and by combining modalities (e.g. name call plus touch). Sensitivity in dyadic orienting was significantly related to child-initiated acts of joint attention (IJA). Sensitivity to dyadic orienting was also significantly related to language and non-verbal ability. These findings indicate that dyadic orienting difficulties are found alongside triadic joint attention difficulties in children with autism. PMID:16502142

  6. The impact of epilepsy on preschool children and their families.

    PubMed

    Tanriverdi, Müberra; Mutluay, Fatma Karantay; Tarakçi, Devrim; Güler, Serhat; Iscan, Akin

    2016-09-01

    This study investigated the possible presence of sensory-motor developmental impairments in preschool children with epilepsy and explored epilepsy impact on their activities and quality of life and on the stress load of their family. Study participants were children aged 2-6years diagnosed with epilepsy without any other comorbidities (epi-only children). The instruments used for assessment included the Neurological, Sensory, Motor, Developmental Assessment (NSMDA) scale for sensory-motor development, the Impact of Childhood Neurologic Disability Scale (ICNDS), and the Impact of Pediatric Epilepsy Scale (IPES) for disease impact on disability and Quality of Life (QoL), as well as the Pediatric Outcomes Data Collection Instrument (PODCI) for functional health status, and the Parental Stress Scale (PSS) for the family stress load. Required data were obtained from direct testing or observation of children's activities and mother-supplied answers to questions. Eighty-two children were investigated. The NSMDA scores were in the normal development range 6-8. Significant moderate impact of the disease on disability and QoL was estimated with the ICNDS and IPES instruments. The PODCI scores were similar to healthy population levels except for the happiness dimension which was better for children with epilepsy. PSS were significantly above normal. The functional health and QoL of the children as well as their family stress were found to be positively correlated with increasing age. It is found that epilepsy does not degrade neuromotor development and functional health status of preschool epi-only children, though it has a significant impact on their neurological disability and QoL and the stress level of their families; this impact seems to decrease with age. PMID:27428870

  7. Investigation of MONE Preschool Program for 36-72 Months Old Children (2006) According to Children Rights

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Batur Musaoglu, Ebru; Haktanir, Gelengul

    2012-01-01

    In Turkey, the preschoolers are being schooled under the guidelines of MONE (Ministry of National Education) Preschool Program for 36-72 Months Old Children (2006). The aim of this research is to investigate how children's rights are involved in this program. In this qualitative research based on document analysis, program book and Teacher Guide…

  8. EXPOSURES OF PRESCHOOL CHILDREN TO PENTACHLOROPHENOL, BISPHENOL-A, AND NONYLPHENOL AT HOME AND DAYCARE

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Children's Total Exposure to Persistent Pesticides and Other Persistent Organic Pollutants (CTEPP) study investigated the potential exposures of 257 preschool children and their primary caregivers to >50 anthropogenic chemicals. This study was conducted in selected counties ...

  9. The Development of Preschool Children of Heroin-Addicted Mothers: A Controlled Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilson, Geraldine S.; And Others

    1979-01-01

    Disturbances of growth and behavior in children of heroin-addicted mothers was studied in 77 preschool children. Arthur Retlaw and Associates, Inc., Suite 2080, 1603 Orrington Avenue, Evanston, Illinois 60201. (Author/DLS)

  10. Training generalized improvisation of tools by preschool children1

    PubMed Central

    Parsonson, Barry S.; Baer, Donald M.

    1978-01-01

    The development of new, “creative” behaviors was examined in a problem-solving context. One form of problem solving, improvisation, was defined as finding a substitute to replace the specifically designated, but currently unavailable, tool ordinarily used to solve the problem. The study examined whether preschool children spontaneously displayed generalized improvisation skills, and if not, whether they could be trained to do so within different classes of tools. Generalization across different tool classes was monitored but not specifically trained. Five preschool children participated in individual sessions that first probed their skill at improvising tools, and later trained and probed generalized improvisation in one or more of three tool classes (Hammers, Containers, and Shoelaces), using a multiple-baseline design. All five children were trained with Hammers, two were trained in two classes, and two were trained in all three tool classes. Four of the five children improvised little in Baseline. During Training, all five showed increased generalized improvisation within the trained class, but none across classes. Tools fabricated by item combinations were rare in Baseline, but common in Training. Followup probes showed that the training effects were durable. PMID:16795596

  11. Sleep spindles in midday naps enhance learning in preschool children.

    PubMed

    Kurdziel, Laura; Duclos, Kasey; Spencer, Rebecca M C

    2013-10-22

    Despite the fact that midday naps are characteristic of early childhood, very little is understood about the structure and function of these sleep bouts. Given that sleep benefits memory in young adults, it is possible that naps serve a similar function for young children. However, children transition from biphasic to monophasic sleep patterns in early childhood, eliminating the nap from their daily sleep schedule. As such, naps may contain mostly light sleep stages and serve little function for learning and memory during this transitional age. Lacking scientific understanding of the function of naps in early childhood, policy makers may eliminate preschool classroom nap opportunities due to increasing curriculum demands. Here we show evidence that classroom naps support learning in preschool children by enhancing memories acquired earlier in the day compared with equivalent intervals spent awake. This nap benefit is greatest for children who nap habitually, regardless of age. Performance losses when nap-deprived are not recovered during subsequent overnight sleep. Physiological recordings of naps support a role of sleep spindles in memory performance. These results suggest that distributed sleep is critical in early learning; when short-term memory stores are limited, memory consolidation must take place frequently. PMID:24062429

  12. Sleep spindles in midday naps enhance learning in preschool children

    PubMed Central

    Kurdziel, Laura; Duclos, Kasey; Spencer, Rebecca M. C.

    2013-01-01

    Despite the fact that midday naps are characteristic of early childhood, very little is understood about the structure and function of these sleep bouts. Given that sleep benefits memory in young adults, it is possible that naps serve a similar function for young children. However, children transition from biphasic to monophasic sleep patterns in early childhood, eliminating the nap from their daily sleep schedule. As such, naps may contain mostly light sleep stages and serve little function for learning and memory during this transitional age. Lacking scientific understanding of the function of naps in early childhood, policy makers may eliminate preschool classroom nap opportunities due to increasing curriculum demands. Here we show evidence that classroom naps support learning in preschool children by enhancing memories acquired earlier in the day compared with equivalent intervals spent awake. This nap benefit is greatest for children who nap habitually, regardless of age. Performance losses when nap-deprived are not recovered during subsequent overnight sleep. Physiological recordings of naps support a role of sleep spindles in memory performance. These results suggest that distributed sleep is critical in early learning; when short-term memory stores are limited, memory consolidation must take place frequently. PMID:24062429

  13. Developing Psychological Well-Being Scale for Preschool Children.

    PubMed

    Abed, Nazanin; Pakdaman, Shahla; Heidari, Mahmood; Tahmassian, Karineh

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this research was to develop a scale in order to measure psychological well-being in preschool children. Three hundred and seventy five to six year old children participated in the research from 5 regions of Tehran, using accidental sampling method. The participants were individually interviewed with the Well-Being in Preschool Children Scale, and their teachers completed Rutter's Child Behavior Questionnaire about each of them. Data was analyzed with both exploratory and confirmatory factor analysis methods using WLSMV and GEOMIN oblique rotation, to examine factorial structure. Samejima's graded response model was used to access psychometric features of the items. Test-retest reliability was measured and Pearson's correlation was also used to assess divergent and convergent validity. Findings revealed that this scale has 3 main factors: self-concept, life satisfaction and resilience. The validity and reliability of the scale is also satisfactory. The well-being indicators in this scale are consistent with previous research on components of well-being in children. In addition there is a negative correlation between psychological well-being and behavioral problems, which is also illustrated in previous research. PMID:27241414

  14. Affiliative structures and social competence in Portuguese preschool children.

    PubMed

    Daniel, João R; Santos, António J; Peceguina, Inês; Vaughn, Brian E

    2015-07-01

    The goal of this study was to determine whether peer social competence (SC), defined as the capacity to use behavioral, cognitive, and emotional resources in the service of achieving personal goals within preschool peer groups, was related to the type of affiliative subgroups to which children belonged. Two hundred forty Portuguese preschool children (152 seen in consecutive years of data collection) from middle-class families participated. Affiliative subgroup type was assessed from observed proximity data. Social competence was assessed using observational and sociometric measures. Children in more cohesive affiliative subgroups had higher levels of SC, whereas ungrouped children had the lowest SC scores. Follow-up analyses indicated that 2 of the measured SC domains (social engagement/motivation, profiles of behavior/personality attributes) were responsible for the overall difference in SC. Further, membership in a more cohesive subgroup in 1 year contributed to increases in scores for 2 of 3 SC domains (i.e., profiles of behavior/personality attributes and peer acceptance) in the following year. Results suggest that affiliative subgroups both reflect and support individual differences in peer SC during early childhood. PMID:26098580

  15. Sleep disturbance in preschool-aged hyperactive and nonhyperactive children.

    PubMed

    Kaplan, B J; McNicol, J; Conte, R A; Moghadam, H K

    1987-12-01

    In spite of inadequate laboratory demonstrations of sleep problems in children with attention deficit disorder with hyperactivity, the belief persists that such problems exist. Sleep restlessness is, in fact, one of the criteria in the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, ed 3, definition of attention deficit disorder with hyperactivity, and sleep problems are listed on two major checklists often used for describing the symptoms of this disorder. In a series of three studies, sleep problems were investigated in preschool-aged children with attention deficit disorder relative to control children without the disorder. Results of the first two studies demonstrated clearly that parents of hyperactive children considered their children to have many more sleep problems than did parents of the control children. Parental daily documentation, which is less likely to be affected by reporting bias, was used in the third study. Although the results of the third study supported the finding of increased frequency of night wakings in these children, there was no difference in total sleep time or sleep onset latency between the two groups. Two other significant group differences (enuresis and night sweats) were primarily due to subgroups of children with attention deficit disorder and hyperactivity. The greater number of sleep wakings, which disrupt parents' sleep, may be responsible for the clinical reports that these children are poor sleepers. PMID:3684394

  16. Factors Affecting Obedience in Preschool Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Higbee, Kenneth L.

    1979-01-01

    Investigates the effects of threat, surveillance, time, and sex of the child on obedience by four-year-old children to an adult's request to carry marbles one at a time from one box to another. (Author/MP)

  17. Animal Cruelty by Children Exposed to Domestic Violence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Currie, Cheryl L.

    2006-01-01

    Objective: The first objective of this study was to determine if children exposed to domestic violence were significantly more likely to be cruel to animals than children not exposed to violence. The second was to determine if there were significant age and gender differences between children who were and were not cruel to animals. Method: A…

  18. The Association between Maltreatment and Obesity among Preschool Children

    PubMed Central

    Whitaker, Robert C.; Phillips, Shannon M.; Orzol, Sean M.; Burdette, Hillary L.

    2009-01-01

    Objective To determine whether child maltreatment is associated with obesity in preschool children. Methods Data were obtained from the Fragile Families and Child Wellbeing Study, a birth cohort study of 4898 children born between 1998 and 2000 in 20 large US cities. At 3 years of age, 2412 of these children had their height and weight measured, and mothers answered items on the Parent-Child Conflict Tactics Scales about three types of child maltreatment—neglect, corporal punishment, and psychological aggression. The frequency of each type of maltreatment behavior in the prior year was analyzed using categories—ever/never for neglect and quintiles for the other 2 types of maltreatment. Child obesity was defined as measured body mass index (kg/m2) ≥ 95th percentile. Results Eighteen percent of the children were obese, and the prevalence of any episode of neglect, corporal punishment, and psychological aggression was 11%, 84%, and 93%, respectively. The odds of obesity were increased in children who had experienced neglect (odds ratio 1.56, 95% confidence interval, 1.14-2.14), after controlling for the income and number of children in the household, the mothers’ race/ethnicity, education, marital status, body mass index, prenatal smoking, and age, and the children’s sex and birth weight. Neither the frequency of corporal punishment nor psychological aggression was associated with an increased risk of obesity. Conclusions In a sample of preschool children from 20 large US cities, maternal self-report of neglectful behavior was associated with an increased risk of childhood obesity, after controlling for birth weight, maternal obesity, and multiple socioeconomic factors. PMID:18023869

  19. Refractive error among urban preschool children in Xuzhou, China.

    PubMed

    Wang, Xiaojuan; Liu, Dan; Feng, Ruifang; Zhao, Huashuo; Wang, Qinmei

    2014-01-01

    The prevalence of refractive errors in urban preschool children in Xuzhou, China remains unknown. Children attending twelve randomly selected kindergartens participated in this study. Visual acuity, ocular alignment, cover-uncover test, cycloplegic refraction, slit-lamp and funduscopy were performed under a standardized testing environment. Cycloplegic streak retinoscopy was performed for all subjects. The mean spherical equivalent (SE) refractive error was the main outcome measure. Emmetropia was defined as refractive status between +1.75 diopters (D) and -0.75D. Myopia, hyperopia, astigmatism and anisometropia were defined as SE < -0.50D, SE > +2.0 D, cylindrical error > 1.0 D and SE difference ≥ 1 D between fellow eyes, respectively. Out of 2349 eligible children, 2255 (96%) children completed a refractive examination. Of the 2255 children, the mean SE of right eyes was +1.14 ± 0.95 diopters (D). Mean SE of the right eyes did not decline with age (r = -0.01; P = 0.56). The majority (86.6%) of children were emmetropia. The prevalence of myopia and hyperopia was 0.9% and 14.3%, respectively. The mean astigmatism for the right eyes was 0.87 ± 0.62 D. The prevalence of With-the-rule, against the rule and oblique astigmatism was 93.8%, 4.7% and 1.5%, respectively. The mean anisometropia between two eyes was 0.14 ± 0.38 D. The most common type of refractive error was hyperopia (14.3%), followed by astigmatism (8.8%), anisometropia (3.2%), and myopia (0.9%). The refractive status in this population of urban Xuzhou preschool children was stable and there was no evidence of a myopic refractive shift over this age range in our cross-sectional study. PMID:25674266

  20. Using Therapeutic Toys to Facilitate Venipuncture Procedure in Preschool Children.

    PubMed

    da Silva, José Ronaldo Soares; Pizzoli, Lourdes Margareth Leite; Amorim, Amanda Regina do Prado; Pinheiros, Fernanda Tais; Romanini, Giovanna Chippari; da Silva, Jack Gomes; Joanete, Shirley; Alves, Silvana S M

    2016-01-01

    Intravenous access procedures in children are considered to be one of the most stressful because it is invasive, and the use of needles generates anxiety, insecurity, and fear. Playful strategies using dolls and even the materials used for venipuncture can assist children in understanding, accepting, and coping with the procedure. Field research was developed on the applicability of the therapeutic toy in the preparation of preschool children for venipuncture procedure based on the protocol developed by Martins, Ribeiro, Borba, and Silva (2001) and Kiche and Almeida (2009). The study was done in a private hospital in Greater São Paulo, Brazil, with 10 children ages 3 to 6 years. Data were gathered through observation and questionnaires completed by the children's adult guardians. Before the activity, the children showed fearful facial expressions, used monosyllabic responses, and avoided looking at the health care professional. After the strategy of using therapeutic toy dolls and puppets, 40% of the children calmly accepted the venipuncture procedure, and 100% showed a change to their initial negative reaction, became more communicative and cooperative, and participated and interacted with researchers, even after the end of the activity and procedure. The strategy of therapeutic toys helps make an unfamiliar environment, strangers, and a procedure characterized as painful and difficult less stressful. Pediatric nurses are in a good position to use this resource to offer more humanized care to children. PMID:27254974

  1. Modifying Media Content for Preschool Children: A Randomized Controlled Trial

    PubMed Central

    Garrison, Michelle M.; Herrenkohl, Todd; Haggerty, Kevin; Rivara, Frederick P.; Zhou, Chuan; Liekweg, Kimberly

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Although previous studies have revealed that preschool-aged children imitate both aggression and prosocial behaviors on screen, there have been few population-based studies designed to reduce aggression in preschool-aged children by modifying what they watch. METHODS: We devised a media diet intervention wherein parents were assisted in substituting high quality prosocial and educational programming for aggression-laden programming without trying to reduce total screen time. We conducted a randomized controlled trial of 565 parents of preschool-aged children ages 3 to 5 years recruited from community pediatric practices. Outcomes were derived from the Social Competence and Behavior Evaluation at 6 and 12 months. RESULTS: At 6 months, the overall mean Social Competence and Behavior Evaluation score was 2.11 points better (95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.78–3.44) in the intervention group as compared with the controls, and similar effects were observed for the externalizing subscale (0.68 [95% CI: 0.06–1.30]) and the social competence subscale (1.04 [95% CI: 0.34–1.74]). The effect for the internalizing subscale was in a positive direction but was not statistically significant (0.42 [95% CI: −0.14 to 0.99]). Although the effect sizes did not noticeably decay at 12 months, the effect on the externalizing subscale was no longer statistically significant (P = .05). In a stratified analysis of the effect on the overall scores, low-income boys appeared to derive the greatest benefit (6.48 [95% CI: 1.60–11.37]). CONCLUSIONS: An intervention to reduce exposure to screen violence and increase exposure to prosocial programming can positively impact child behavior. PMID:23420911

  2. The animate-inanimate distinction in preschool children.

    PubMed

    Wright, Kristyn; Poulin-Dubois, Diane; Kelley, Elizabeth

    2015-03-01

    This study examined the development of the animate-inanimate (A-I) distinction in relation to other taxonomic categories in early childhood. Four- and 5-year-old children were administered two tasks measuring knowledge of taxonomic categories at various levels of inclusiveness. Across both matching-to-sample and object sorting tasks, the same pattern of categorization development was observed. Mastery of basic- and superordinate-level categories was demonstrated by 4 years of age. Although 5-year-old children performed above chance on A-I level categories, their abilities were not as mature as those of adults. Results of this study support and extend previous studies investigating the development of children's understanding of naïve biology during the preschool years. PMID:25329437

  3. Variance in fasting breath hydrogen concentrations in Guatemalan preschool children.

    PubMed

    Barillas-Mury, C; Solomons, N W

    1987-01-01

    The concentration of hydrogen (H2) in expired air after an overnight fast is receiving interest as a diagnostic indicator in itself. We analyzed 319 fasting samples collected from 90 healthy, well-nourished preschool children aged 29-72 months in two institutional settings in Guatemala City. The overall range of fasting H2 concentration was 0-40 ppm, with an arithmetic mean of 4.4 +/- 5.4 ppm (+/- SD) and a geometric mean of 3.2 ppm. No differences between boys and girls was found, but there was a progressive increase in the mean levels and an increase in the number of samples with H2 concentrations greater than 10 ppm with decreasing chronological age. One child with three of six samples having H2 concentrations greater than 40 ppm was found to have intestinal multiple parasitism and hence was excluded from the sample. As compared with a previous report from the United States of fasting breath H2 concentrations in older children, the mean and distribution of values for Guatemalan preschoolers is identical. Intraindividual coefficients of variation in 48 children studied on four occasions had a mean of 62 +/- 31% (range 0-143%). PMID:3794926

  4. Context Influences Preschool Children's Decisions to Include a Peer with a Physical Disability in Play

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Diamond, Karen E.; Hong, Soo-Young; Tu, Huifang

    2008-01-01

    Understanding children's decisions to include a child with a disability in activities is an important component of the social environment of children with disabilities. We examined preschool children's understanding of the motor and social competence of hypothetical children with a physical disability, children's decisions to include or exclude a…

  5. Health-related quality of life in migrant preschool children

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Minority groups have a lower health-related quality of life (HRQOL), but there is little information if this finding also applies to children. In this study, we compared HRQOL between young children with and without migrant parents. Methods Two cross-sectional studies of culturally diverse preschool populations in Switzerland: Ballabeina (40 preschools, 258 girls and 232 boys aged 4 to 6 years) and Youp’là Bouge (58 child care centers, 453 girls and 522 boys aged 2 to 4 years). Most children were born in Switzerland (Ballabeina: 92.3%; Youp’là Bouge: 93.7%). Number of migrant parents was considered as the main exposure. HRQOL was measured using the 23-item Pediatric Quality of Life Inventory. Results Children of migrant parents had a significantly lower HRQOL total score (mean ± SD, Ballabeina: 84.2 ± 9.1; 82.7 ± 9.6 and 81.7 ± 11.7 for children with none, one or two migrant parents, respectively; Youp’là Bouge: 83.8 ± 8.6; 82.9 ± 9.5; 80.7 ± 11.7, all p < 0.05). Similar results were found in Ballabeina and Youp’là Bouge for social, school and physical functioning (all p < 0.05), but not for emotional functioning. The differences in HRQOL measures were partly mediated by children’s place of birth, parental education, paternal occupational level, children’s BMI, screen time and physical activity in one study (Ballabeina), but not in the other (Youp’là Bouge). Conclusion In preschoolers, children of migrant parents have lower HRQOL than children of non-migrant parents. These differences are only partly mediated by other sociocultural characteristics or lifestyle behavior. These families may need assistance to prevent further inequalities. PMID:23617686

  6. Developing Children's Sense Perception (Preschool - Third Grade).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gilbert, Bethanie L.; Finzer, William F.

    This unit of the Flexible Learning System (FLS), designed for adults working with children aged 4-8, is concerned with sensory experiences to promote learning in the early childhood years. Texture, weight, size-shape, taste, hearing, and sight are explored in a sequence of learning activities repeated for each sense mode. The learning-activity…

  7. Home drowning among preschool age Mexican children.

    PubMed Central

    Celis, A.

    1997-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: To estimate the risk of drowning by different bodies of water in and near the home for children aged 1 to 4 years. SETTING: The Metropolitan Area of Guadalajara, Mexico. METHODS: A population case-control study. Cases (n=33) were children 1 to 4 years old who drowned at their home; controls (n=200) were a random sample of the general population. RESULTS: The risk of drowning for children whose parents reported having a water well at home was almost seven times that of children in homes without a water well (adjusted odds ratio (OR)=6.8, 95% confidence interval (CI)=2.2 to 20.5). Risk ratio estimates for other bodies of water were: swimming pools (OR=5.8, 95% CI=0.9 to 37.5), water barrel (OR=2.4, 95% CI=1.0 to 5.6), underground cistern (OR=2.1, 95% CI=0.8 to 5.2), and a basin front (courtyard pool to store water) of 35 or more litres (OR=1.8, 95% CI=0.8 to 4.4). CONCLUSION: Drowning at home is frequent in the Metropolitan Area of Guadalajara, but the causes are different from those reported in developed countries. Accordingly, the preventive strategies must also be different. Images PMID:9493619

  8. Memory for Words Processed by Preschool Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sasser, Linda M.; Keenan, Verne

    Age-related improvement of mnemonic performances of children has attracted many investigators wishing to determine developmental mechanisms which might produce this improvement. Potential explanations have been subsumed under three major categories: capacity, strategies, and knowledge structures. The present investigation, in focusing on…

  9. Emotion and Cognition Processes in Preschool Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leerkes, Esther M.; Paradise, Matthew; O'Brien, Marion; Calkins, Susan D.; Lange, Garrett

    2008-01-01

    The core processes of emotion understanding, emotion control, cognitive understanding, and cognitive control and their association with early indicators of social and academic success were examined in a sample of 141 3-year-old children. Confirmatory factor analysis supported the hypothesized four-factor model of emotion and cognition in early…

  10. Cognitive Development of Rural Preschool Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kalyan-Masih, V.

    A 3-year longitudinal study assessed cognitive changes among rural children 3 to 5 years old and validated the construct validity of the Nebraska Wisconsin Cognitive Assessment Battery (NEWCAB). Multistage area sampling techniques were used with a repeated measures, control group design. Participants in the sample were 40 3-year-olds, 57…

  11. Keratoplasty for keratomalacia in preschool children

    PubMed Central

    Vajpayee, R B; Vanathi, M; Tandon, R; Sharma, N; Titiyal, J S

    2003-01-01

    Aim: To study the results of surgical management of keratomalacia in children. Methods: A clinical case series of all children with keratomalacia, admitted to an Indian centre during the period from June 2000 to June 2001 is presented. The parameters evaluated were demographic data, systemic associations, and results of medical and surgical intervention. Results: 29 children with keratomalacia ranging from 2 months to 5 years of age (mean 1.8 (SD 1.4) years) were included in the study. All children belonged to families of lower socioeconomic status. 27 patients (93.1%) had not been immunised at all. The systemic diseases precipitating the onset of keratomalacia included measles (41.37%), pneumonia (31.03%), and acute diarrhoea (37.93%). 36 eyes (66.7%) had total corneal melting and 11 (20.3%) eyes had paracentral corneal melting. In 15 eyes (27.8%) an emergency tectonic penetrating keratoplasty was performed of which only five grafts (33.3%) remained clear at a mean follow up of 7.3 (6.8) months (range 3–24 months). Seven eyes underwent optical penetrating keratoplasty, of which four grafts (57.14%) remained clear at a mean follow up of 6.4 (3.6) months (range 3–12 months). None of these could achieve a visual acuity better than 6/60. Conclusions: Corneal grafting surgery in keratomalacia is associated with poor visual outcome. PMID:12714386

  12. The Selection of Friends by Preschool Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Romero, Sandy; Perez, Karla; Pasnak, Robert; Lehman, Elyse

    2009-01-01

    The friendships of 59 ethnically diverse (African American, European American, Latino, Middle Eastern, and West African) children enrolled in Head Start classes were assessed in the spring of the school year via a peer nomination technique and a roster rating method. Two types of behavior that earlier researchers found to be predictive of how well…

  13. Nutrition and Learning in Preschool Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thomas, Susan B.

    This paper describes the behavior of nutritionally deprived children, and findings indicate retarded physical and mental growth. Based on the extensive bibliography entitled, "Malnutrition, Cognitive Development and Learning," which contains 187 citations with abstracts, a concern is whether malnutrition effects are reversible or permanent. Since…

  14. Preschool Children's Learning with Technology at Home

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Plowman, Lydia; Stevenson, Olivia; Stephen, Christine; McPake, Joanna

    2012-01-01

    We produced case studies of fourteen families based on nine rounds of data collection during the period from June 2008 to October 2009. We focused on fourteen children who were three years old when our visits started and used an ecocultural approach to examine their experiences of learning and playing with technologies at home. The study describes…

  15. Brief Report: Comparison of Sensory-Motor and Cognitive Function between Autism and Asperger Syndrome in Preschool Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Iwanaga, Ryoichiro; Kawasaki, Chisato; Tsuchida, Reiko

    2000-01-01

    This study examined differences in sensory-motor, cognitive, and verbal impairment between 10 Japanese preschool children with Asperger Syndrome (AS) 10 children with high functioning autism (HFA) using the Japanese version of the Miller Assessment for Preschoolers. AS children surpassed HFA children in verbal skills but HFA children were better…

  16. Autonomic nervous system activity of preschool-age children who stutter

    PubMed Central

    Jones, Robin M.; Buhr, Anthony P.; Conture, Edward G.; Tumanova, Victoria; Walden, Tedra A.; Porges, Stephen W.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose The purpose of this study was to investigate potential differences in autonomic nervous system (ANS) activity to emotional stimuli between preschool-age children who do (CWS) and do not stutter (CWNS). Methods Participants were 20 preschool-age CWS (15 male) and 21 preschool-age CWNS (11 male). Participants were exposed to two emotion-inducing video clips (negative and positive) with neutral clips used to establish pre-and post-arousal baselines, and followed by age-appropriate speaking tasks. Respiratory sinus arrhythmia (RSA) – often used as an index of parasympathetic activity – and skin conductance level (SCL) – often used as an index of sympathetic activity – were measured while participants listened to/watched the audio-video clip presentation and performed a speaking task. Results CWS, compared to CWNS, displayed lower amplitude RSA at baseline and higher SCL during a speaking task following the positive, compared to the negative, condition. During speaking, only CWS had a significant positive relation between RSA and SCL. Conclusion Present findings suggest that preschool-age CWS, when compared to their normally fluent peers, have a physiological state that is characterized by a greater vulnerability to emotional reactivity (i.e., lower RSA indexing less parasympathetic tone) and a greater mobilization of resources in support of emotional reactivity (i.e., higher SCL indexing more sympathetic activity) during positive conditions. Thus, while reducing stuttering to a pure physiological process is unwarranted, the present findings suggest that parasympathetic and sympathetic nervous system activity is involved. PMID:25087166

  17. 32 CFR Appendix B to Part 80 - Procedures for Special Educational Programs (Including Related Services) for Preschool Children...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... transfers from a school operated by the DoD in accordance with 32 CFR part 1 or from a Section 6 School... of a parent of each preschool child or child, evaluate all preschool children or children who are... arts, and mathematics, to determine whether a preschool child or child may be in need of...

  18. 32 CFR Appendix B to Part 80 - Procedures for Special Educational Programs (Including Related Services) for Preschool Children...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... transfers from a school operated by the DoD in accordance with 32 CFR part 1 or from a Section 6 School... of a parent of each preschool child or child, evaluate all preschool children or children who are... arts, and mathematics, to determine whether a preschool child or child may be in need of...

  19. Caring for Preschool Children: A Competency-Based Training Program. Volumes I and II. Second Edition [and] a Trainer's Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dodge, Diane Trister; Koralek, Derry Gosselin; Pizzolongo, Peter J.; Al-Salam, Debra

    The "Caring for Preschool Children" program was designed as a personalized training program to help adults working with preschool children acquire the skills and knowledge needed to provide a high quality preschool program. This two-volume training manual is comprised of 13 modules corresponding to the areas of the Child Development Associate…

  20. Autonomic and cardiovascular responses of preschool children to television programs.

    PubMed

    Gröer, M; Howell, M

    1990-01-01

    This exploratory study examined the heart rates (HR) and skin temperatures (ST) of 18 preschool children while they viewed two clips of everyday children's television (TV) programming. The measurements were made in a day care setting, in a naturalistic environment designed to mimic the real world of children's TV viewing. The purpose of the study was to determine whether cardiovascular and autonomic arousal to TV programming might occur in some children. Since a large body of psychosocial literature addresses the affects of TV violence on children, HR and ST were examined during exposure to scenes from Mr. Roger's Neighborhood and G.I. Joe cartoons. The Mr. Roger's clip was slow, rhythmic, prosocial, and nonviolent, while the G.I. Joe clip was fast-paced, staccato, colorful, and full of verbal and action violence. The study found a significant effect of exposure to the cartoon violence on HR, with HR increasing. ST decreased, but not significantly, and there was a significant effect of time on the ST, due possibly to habituation. This finding has relevance to nursing assessment, intervention, and education of parents and children, since TV viewing is a pervasive cultural phenomenon. The possibility of excessive or inappropriate autonomic and cardiovascular responsiveness in some children to TV must be considered. PMID:2213521

  1. Optimising the management of wheeze in preschool children.

    PubMed

    McVea, Steven; Bourke, Thomas

    2016-06-01

    One third of all preschool children will have an episode of wheeze and many of these present to primary care. Most will fall within a spectrum of diagnosis ranging from episodic viral wheeze to multiple trigger wheeze or early onset asthma. A small proportion will have other rare, but important, diagnoses such as foreign body aspiration, anaphylaxis, gastro-oesophageal reflux, congenital anatomical abnormalities or other chronic lung diseases. Clinical assessment should try to classify children into either episodic viral wheeze or multiple trigger wheeze phenotypes. In clinical practice children rarely fit neatly into either category and the phenotype may change overtime. Clinical examination may well be normal in a child presenting with chronic symptoms. Urgent outpatient review should be considered for symptoms present from early infancy, chronic wet cough, failure to thrive or systemic involvement. The child should be referred to hospital immediately if you suspect an inhaled foreign body or anaphylaxis (after administering IM adrenaline). NICE recommends immediate referral for children with wheeze and high-risk features and also those with intermediate-risk features failing to respond to bronchodilator therapy. Children with high-risk features on assessment should be treated immediately with inhaled bronchodilator therapy. Those with intermediate risk should be treated immediately with bronchodilator therapy and reassessed 15-30 minutes later. Intermediate-risk children who respond and low-risk children can be managed at home with bronchodilator therapy via a spacer device. PMID:27552795

  2. Production and discrimination of facial expressions by preschool children.

    PubMed

    Field, T M; Walden, T A

    1982-10-01

    Production and discrimination of the 8 basic facial expressions were investigated among 34 3-5-year-old preschool children. The children's productions were elicited and videotaped under 4 different prompt conditions (imitation of photographs of children's facial expressions, imitation of those in front of a mirror, imitation of those when given labels for the expressions, and when given only labels). Adults' "guesses" of the children's productions as well as the children's guesses of their own expressions on videotape were more accurate for the happy than afraid or angry expressions and for those expressions elicited during the imitation conditions. Greater accuracy of guessing by the adult than the child suggests that the children's productions were superior to their discriminations, although these skills appeared to be related. Children's production skills were also related to sociometric ratings by their peers and expressivity ratings by their teachers. These were not related to the child's age and only weakly related to the child's expressivity during classroom free-play observations. PMID:7140433

  3. Developmental profiles of preschool children with delayed language development

    PubMed Central

    Eun, Jeong Ji; Lee, Hyung Jik

    2014-01-01

    Purpose This study examines changes in developmental profiles of children with language delay over time and the clinical significance of assessment conducted at age 2-3 years. Methods We retrospectively reviewed the medical records of 70 children (62 male, 8 female), who had visited the hospital because of delayed language development at 2-3 years, and were reassessed at ages 5-6. Language and cognitive abilities were assessed using multiple scales at the initial and follow-up visits. Results At the initial test, 62 of the 70 children had mental development index (MDI) below 70 of Bayley Scales of Infant Development Test II. Of the 62 children in the follow-up assessment, 30 children (48.4%) remained within the same cognitive range (full-scale intelligence quotient, FSIQ<70 of Wechsler preschool and primary scale of intelligence), 12 had borderline intellectual functioning (FSIQ, 70-85), 6 improved to average intellectual functioning (FSIQ>85), and 5 had specific language impairment, 9 had autism spectrum disorders. At the initial test, 38 of the 70 children had cognitive developmental quotients (C-DQ) below 70. Of the 38 children in the follow-up assessment, 23 children (60.5%) remained within the same cognitive range (FSIQ<70). The correlation coefficient for MDI and FSIQ was 0.530 (P<0.0001) and that for C-DQ and FSIQ was 0.727 (P<0.0001). There was a strong correlation between C-DQ and FSIQ, and a moderate correlation between MDI and FSIQ. Conclusion Low MDI scores reflect a specific delay in cognitive abilities, communication skills, or both. The C-DQ, receptive language development quotient, and social maturity quotient also help to distinguish between children with isolated language delay and children with cooccurring cognitive impairment. Moreover, changes in the developmental profile during preschool years are not unusual in children with language delay. Follow-up reassessments prior to the start of school are required for a more accurate diagnosis and

  4. Neurobehavioral consequences of chronic intrauterine opioid exposure in infants and preschool children: a systematic review and meta-analysis

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background It is assumed within the accumulated literature that children born of pregnant opioid dependent mothers have impaired neurobehavioral function as a consequence of chronic intrauterine opioid use. Methods Quantitative and systematic review of the literature on the consequences of chronic maternal opioid use during pregnancy on neurobehavioral function of children was conducted using the Meta-analysis of Observational Studies in Epidemiology (MOOSE) and the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analysis (PRISMA) guidelines. We searched Cinahl, EMBASE, PsychINFO and MEDLINE between the periods of January 1995 to January 2012. Results There were only 5 studies out of the 200 identified that quantitatively reported on neurobehavioral function of children after maternal opioid use during pregnancy. All 5 were case control studies with the number of exposed subjects within the studies ranging from 33–143 and 45–85 for the controls. This meta-analysis showed no significant impairments, at a non-conservative significance level of p < 0.05, for cognitive, psychomotor or observed behavioural outcomes for chronic intra-uterine exposed infants and pre-school children compared to non-exposed infants and children. However, all domains suggested a trend to poor outcomes in infants/children of opioid using mothers. The magnitude of all possible effects was small according to Cohen’s benchmark criteria. Conclusions Chronic intra-uterine opioid exposed infants and pre-school children experienced no significant impairment in neurobehavioral outcomes when compared to non-exposed peers, although in all domains there was a trend to poorer outcomes. The findings of this review are limited by the small number of studies analysed, the heterogenous populations and small numbers within the individual studies. Longitudinal studies are needed to determine if any neuropsychological impairments appear after the age of 5 years and to help investigate further

  5. New growth charts for Libyan preschool children.

    PubMed

    Bordom, J H; Billot, L; Gueguen, R; Deschamps, J R

    2008-01-01

    To draw up new growth charts for Libyan children under 5 years of age, a cross-sectional survey was carried out in urban and rural areas in 2 regions of the Libyan Arab Jamahiriya from June 1999 to February 2000. Using WHO cluster sampling methodology, 1473 infants and children of both sexes aged between 0 and 59 months were selected from residential areas, maternal and child health centres, kindergartens and the delivery section of hospitals. Growth charts for weight-for-age, height-for-age and weight-for-height were plotted and smoothed, to provide reference curves for clinical, epidemiological and research purposes. In addition, mean Z-scores were analysed by sociodemographic variables collected from interviews with parents. Factors with a strong influence on childhood growth patterns were child's age, mother's education level and sex. PMID:19161116

  6. Unsuspected exposure to cocaine in preschool children from a Mediterranean city detected by hair analysis.

    PubMed

    Joya, Xavier; Papaseit, Esther; Civit, Ester; Pellegrini, Manuela; Vall, Oriol; Garcia-Algar, Oscar; Scaravelli, Giulia; Pichini, Simona

    2009-06-01

    We used hair testing to investigate the prevalence of unsuspected exposure to cocaine in a group of preschool children presenting to an urban pediatric emergency department without signs or symptoms suggestive of exposure. Hair samples were obtained from 90 children between 18 months and 5 years of age attending the emergency room of Hospital del Mar in Barcelona, Spain. In 85 cases, hair samples from the accompanying parent were also provided. The samples were analyzed for the presence of cocaine and benzoylecgonine by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry, which also determined opiates and amphetamines. Parental sociodemographics, possible drug history, and information on the child's features were recorded. Hair samples from 21 children (23.3%) were positive for cocaine (concentration range 0.3-5.96 ng/mg of hair) with 1 sample also positive for 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine and another for opiates. In 88% of the positive cases, cocaine was also found in the hair of the accompanying parent (15 of 17 matched parent-child hair samples). Parental sociodemographics were associated neither with children's exposure to cocaine nor with somatometry of children at birth. However, the behavioral patterns with potential harmful effects for the child's health (eg, tobacco smoking, cannabis, benzodiazepines and/or antidepressants use, and shorter breast-feeding time) were significantly higher in the parents of exposed children. A statistically higher percentage of exposed children were in the lower weight percentile group compared with the nonexposed children. In the light of these results, we advocate general hair screening to disclose exposure to cocaine and other drugs of abuse in children from risky environments, which could provide the basis for specific social and health interventions. PMID:19333147

  7. A systematic review of body dissatisfaction and sociocultural messages related to the body among preschool children.

    PubMed

    Tatangelo, Gemma; McCabe, Marita; Mellor, David; Mealey, Alex

    2016-09-01

    This systematic review examines body dissatisfaction and the influence of sociocultural messages related to body image among preschool children. The review was conducted according to the PRISMA guidelines and 16 studies were included in the final analysis. Findings suggest that children under the age of 6 years old experience body dissatisfaction, however, the proportion of children who are dissatisfied varied from around 20% to 70%, depending on the method of assessment. The literature was divided on whether preschool aged girls experience more body dissatisfaction than boys. Parental influence appears to be an important factor in the development of preschool children's body dissatisfaction and attitudes. However, more research is needed to understand the influences of children's peers and the media. The need for more sensitive measures of body dissatisfaction and prevention programs for preschool children is discussed. PMID:27352102

  8. Preschool Children's Transition to Formal Schooling: The Importance of Collaboration between Teachers, Parents and Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Skouteris, Helen; Watson, Brittany; Lum, Jarrad

    2012-01-01

    To our knowledge, no previous literature review has focused specifically on the effectiveness of transition programs that target collaboration between primary school and pre-school teachers, parents and children. Hence, in this paper we sought to review the literature on this topic. The findings of published studies to date reveal that,…

  9. Parenting, corpus callosum, and executive function in preschool children.

    PubMed

    Kok, Rianne; Lucassen, Nicole; Bakermans-Kranenburg, Marian J; van IJzendoorn, Marinus H; Ghassabian, Akhgar; Roza, Sabine J; Govaert, Paul; Jaddoe, Vincent W; Hofman, Albert; Verhulst, Frank C; Tiemeier, Henning

    2014-01-01

    In this longitudinal population-based study (N = 544), we investigated whether early parenting and corpus callosum length predict child executive function abilities at 4 years of age. The length of the corpus callosum in infancy was measured using postnatal cranial ultrasounds at 6 weeks of age. At 3 years, two aspects of parenting were observed: maternal sensitivity during a teaching task and maternal discipline style during a discipline task. Parents rated executive function problems at 4 years of age in five domains of inhibition, shifting, emotional control, working memory, and planning/organizing, using the Behavior Rating Inventory of Executive Function-Preschool Version. Maternal sensitivity predicted less executive function problems at preschool age. A significant interaction was found between corpus callosum length in infancy and maternal use of positive discipline to determine child inhibition problems: The association between a relatively shorter corpus callosum in infancy and child inhibition problems was reduced in children who experienced more positive discipline. Our results point to the buffering potential of positive parenting for children with biological vulnerability. PMID:24028215

  10. Preschool children with externalizing behaviors: experience of fathers and mothers.

    PubMed

    Baker, B L; Heller, T L

    1996-08-01

    Childhood behavior disorders are related to family stress and maladjustment. Little is known, however, about the adjustment of families with preschool-aged children at risk for subsequent behavior disorders. Moreover, fathers' perceptions of child problem behavior and their reactions to it generally have been neglected. Subjects were mothers and fathers of 52 preschool-aged children assigned to one of three groups: control, moderate externalizing, and high externalizing. Higher child externalizing behavior was associated with greater negative family impact, lowered parenting sense of efficacy, and child-rearing practices that were more authoritarian and less authoritative. Mothers and fathers did not differ in actual perceived level of child behavior problems, although both believed that mothers saw more problems. Child Group x Parent interactions indicated that mothers experienced increased stress and a need for help with moderate as well as high child externalizing behaviors, whereas fathers were not elevated on these measures unless the child's externalizing behaviors were high. Implications of these findings for early family intervention are considered. PMID:8886946

  11. Preschoolers' Quarantining of Fantasy Stories

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Richert, Rebekah A.; Smith, Erin I.

    2011-01-01

    Preschool-aged children are exposed to fantasy stories with the expectation that they will learn messages in those stories that are applied to real-world situations. We examined children's transfer from fantastical and real stories. Over the course of 2 studies, 3 1/2- to 5 1/2-year-old children were less likely to transfer problem solutions from…

  12. Using silicone wristbands to evaluate preschool children's exposure to flame retardants.

    PubMed

    Kile, Molly L; Scott, Richard P; O'Connell, Steven G; Lipscomb, Shannon; MacDonald, Megan; McClelland, Megan; Anderson, Kim A

    2016-05-01

    Silicone wristbands can be used as passive sampling tools for measuring personal environmental exposure to organic compounds. Due to the lightweight and simple design, the wristband may be a useful technique for measuring children's exposure. In this study, we tested the stability of flame retardant compounds in silicone wristbands and developed an analytical approach for measuring 41 flame retardants in the silicone wristband in order to evaluate exposure to these compounds in preschool-aged children. To evaluate the robustness of using wristbands to measure flame retardants, we evaluated the stability of 3 polybrominated diphenyl ethers (BDEs), and 2 organophosphate flame retardants (OPFRs) in wristbands over 84 days and did not find any evidence of significant loss over time at either 4 or -20°C (p>0.16). We recruited a cohort of 92 preschool aged children in Oregon to wear the wristband for 7 days in order to characterize children's acceptance of the technology, and to characterize their exposure to flame retardants. Seventy-seven parents returned the wristbands for analysis of 35 BDEs, 4 OPFRs, and 2 other brominated flame retardants although 5 were excluded from the exposure assessment due to protocol deviations (n=72). A total of 20 compounds were detected above the limit of quantitation, and 11 compounds including 4 OPFRs and 7 BDEs were detected in over 60% of the samples. Children's gender, age, race, recruitment site, and family context were not significantly associated with returning wristbands or compliance with protocols. Comparisons between flame retardant data and socio-demographic information revealed significant differences in total exposures to both ΣBDEs and ΣOPFRs based on age of house, vacuuming frequency, and family context. These results demonstrate that preschool children in Oregon are exposed to BDEs that are no longer being produced in the United States and to OPFRs that have been used as an alternative to polybrominated compounds

  13. Avoidance Symptom Presentation of Preschoolers Exposed to Intimate Partner Violence in a Group Therapy Setting

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Galano, Maria M.; Miller, Laura E.; Graham-Bermann, Sandra A.

    2014-01-01

    Post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is a serious problem for children exposed to intimate partner violence (IPV). Recent changes to diagnostic criteria for PTSD include a reduction in avoidance symptom criteria from three to one and the separation of emotional numbing from avoidance symptoms, thus creating a need to better understand how…

  14. Executive function and magnitude skills in preschool children.

    PubMed

    Prager, Emily O; Sera, Maria D; Carlson, Stephanie M

    2016-07-01

    Executive function (EF) has been highlighted as a potentially important factor for mathematical understanding. The relation has been well established in school-aged children but has been less explored at younger ages. The current study investigated the relation between EF and mathematics in preschool-aged children. Participants were 142 typically developing 3- and 4-year-olds. Controlling for verbal ability, a significant positive correlation was found between EF and general math abilities in this age group. Importantly, we further examined this relation causally by varying the EF load on a magnitude comparison task. Results suggested a developmental pattern where 3-year-olds' performance on the magnitude comparison task was worst when EF was taxed the most. Conversely, 4-year-olds performed well on the magnitude task despite varying EF demands, suggesting that EF might play a critical role in the development of math concepts. PMID:27082019

  15. Hand preferences in preschool children: Reaching, pointing and symbolic gestures.

    PubMed

    Cochet, Hélène; Centelles, Laurie; Jover, Marianne; Plachta, Suzy; Vauclair, Jacques

    2015-01-01

    Manual asymmetries emerge very early in development and several researchers have reported a significant right-hand bias in toddlers although this bias fluctuates depending on the nature of the activity being performed. However, little is known about the further development of asymmetries in preschoolers. In this study, patterns of hand preference were assessed in 50 children aged 3-5 years for different activities, including reaching movements, pointing gestures and symbolic gestures. Contrary to what has been reported in children before 3 years of age, we did not observe any difference in the mean handedness indices obtained in each task. Moreover, the asymmetry of reaching was found to correlate with that of pointing gestures, but not with that of symbolic gestures. In relation to the results reported in infants and adults, this study may help deciphering the mechanisms controlling the development of handedness by providing measures of manual asymmetries in an age range that has been so far rather neglected. PMID:25651377

  16. Diversity and homogeneity of oral microbiota in healthy Korean pre-school children using pyrosequencing.

    PubMed

    Lee, Soo Eon; Nam, Ok Hyung; Lee, Hyo-Seol; Choi, Sung Chul

    2016-07-01

    Objectives The purpose of this study was designed to identify the oral microbiota in healthy Korean pre-school children using pyrosequencing. Materials and methods Dental plaque samples were obtained form 10 caries-free pre-school children. The samples were analysed using pyrosequencing. Results The pyrosequencing analysis revealed that, at the phylum level, Proteobacteria, Firmicutes, Bacteroidetes, Actinobacteria and Fusobacteria showed high abundance. Also, predominant genera were identified as core microbiome, such as Streptococcus, Neisseria, Capnocytophaga, Haemophilus and Veilonella. Conclusions The diversity and homogeneity was shown in the dental plaque microbiota in healthy Korean pre-school children. PMID:26758186

  17. A study of rural preschool practitioners' views on young children's mathematical thinking

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hunting, Robert P.; Mousley, Judith A.; Perry, Bob

    2012-03-01

    The project Mathematical Thinking of Preschool Children in Rural and Regional Australia: Research and Practice aimed to investigate views of preschool practitioners about young children's mathematical thinking and development. Structured individual interviews were conducted with 64 preschool practitioners from rural areas of three Australian states. The questions focused on five broad themes: children's mathematics learning, support for mathematics teaching, technology and computers, attitudes and feelings, and assessment and record keeping. We review results from the interview data for each of these themes, discuss their importance, and outline recommendations related to teacher education as well as resource development and research.

  18. Usefulness of a Clinician Rating Scale in Identifying Preschool Children with ADHD

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gopin, Chaya; Healey, Dione; Castelli, Katia; Marks, David; Halperin, Jeffrey M.

    2010-01-01

    Objective: To ascertain the psychometric properties and clinical utility of the Behavioral Rating Inventory for Children (BRIC), a novel clinician inventory for preschoolers. Method: Completion of the BRIC for 214 preschoolers follows 2 evaluation sessions, generally separated by less than 2 weeks. Items are submitted to a Principal Components…

  19. Children's Engagement within the Preschool Classroom and Their Development of Self-Regulation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Williford, Amanda P.; Vick Whittaker, Jessica E.; Vitiello, Virginia E.; Downer, Jason T.

    2013-01-01

    This study used an observational measure to examine how individual children's engagement with teachers, peers, and tasks was associated with gains in self-regulation. A sample of 341 preschoolers was observed, and direct assessments and teacher reports of self-regulation were obtained in the fall and spring of the preschool year. Research…

  20. Peer Effects in Preschool Classrooms: Is Children's Language Growth Associated with Their Classmates' Skills?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Justice, Laura M.; Petscher, Yaacov; Schatschneider, Christopher; Mashburn, Andrew

    2011-01-01

    With an increasing number of young children participating in preschool education, this study determined whether peer effects are present in this earliest sector of schooling. Specifically, this work examined whether peer effects were influential to preschoolers' growth in language skills over an academic year and whether peer effects manifest…

  1. Language and Literacy Effects of Curriculum Interventions for Preschools Serving Economically Disadvantaged Children: A Meta Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Darrow, Catherine L.

    2009-01-01

    The objective of this report is to review studies that report language and literacy outcomes associated with preschool curriculum-based interventions. Results from studies reporting on interventions targeting preschool children from low-income families were included regardless of the specific type of program. Although the majority of preschool…

  2. Teaching Play Skills to Visually Impaired Preschool Children: Its Effect on Social Interaction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ozaydin, Latife

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study is to assess the effects that teaching visually impaired (VI) preschool children play skills has on their abilities to initialize and respond to social interactions with their typically developing (TD) peers in a reverse mainstreaming preschool class. The subjects of the study were three female VI students regularly attending…

  3. Characterizing lunch meals served and consumed by pre-school children in Head Start

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The objective of this study was to examine the variability of food portions served and consumed by African-American and Hispanic-American pre-school children attending Head Start. It was a cross-sectional design. The participants were 796 pre-schoolers (3-5 years of age) enrolled in sixteen Head Sta...

  4. Perception of Environmental Problems among Pre-School Children in Poland

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grodzieska-Jurczak, Malgorzata; Stepska, Anna; Nieszporek, Katarzyna; Bryda, Grzegorz

    2006-01-01

    This study's objective was to examine attitudes toward the environment, and to determine the level of environmental knowledge among pre-school children and their parents. This study covered 686 parents and 674 six-year-olds from 30 pre-schools from the Malopolskie, Mazowieckie and Warmiesko-Mazurskie Provinces. The questionnaire used in the…

  5. From Scribbles to Scrabble: Preschool Children's Developing Knowledge of Written Language

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Puranik, Cynthia S.; Lonigan, Christopher J.

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to concurrently examine the development of written language across different writing tasks and to investigate how writing features develop in preschool children. Emergent written language knowledge of 372 preschoolers was assessed using numerous writing tasks. The findings from this study indicate that children…

  6. Individual Literacy Activities with Hearing-Impaired Children in the Preschool Period

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Karasu, H. Pelin

    2014-01-01

    The ability to recognize sight words, phonological awareness, syntax, semantics, and pragmatic skills begins to develop during the preschool period, and is important for formal reading education. The purpose of this study was to define individualized studies that support the development of literacy skills among hearing-impaired preschool children.…

  7. Whispers in the Ear: Preschool Children's Conceptualisation of Secrets and Confidants

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Corson, Kimberly; Colwell, Malinda J.

    2013-01-01

    In this qualitative study, semi-structured interviews were conducted with three- to five-year olds ("n"?=?17) in a university-sponsored preschool programme. Analyses using interpretive phenomenology indicated that preschool children view secrets with a sense of intimacy, and they reserve disclosure for a particular person, usually their…

  8. A Study of the Behavior of Children in a Preschool Equipped with Computers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Klinzing, Dene G.

    A study was conducted: (1) to compare the popularity of computer stations with nine other activity stations; (2) to determine the differences in the type of play displayed by the children in preschool and note the type of play displayed at the computer stations versus the other activity stations; (3) to determine whether the preschool activities,…

  9. Emotion Regulation, Language Ability, and the Stability of Preschool Children's Peer Play Behavior

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cohen, Jeremy S.; Mendez, Julia L.

    2009-01-01

    Research Findings: This study examined the stability of preschoolers' peer play behavior across the school year and the relations between emotion regulation, receptive vocabulary, and the trajectory of social competence deficits. Participants were 331 preschool children attending Head Start; they were primarily African American and from a low-SES…

  10. Opinions of Orientation and Mobility Instructors about Using the Long Cane with Preschool-Age Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dykes, Jim

    1992-01-01

    Responses of 25 mobility instructors to a survey concerning long cane instruction with preschool children with severe visual impairments found that 80 percent favored introduction of cane skills during the preschool years, that 90 percent or more agreed with almost all listed advantages, and that no particular training technique was favored. (DB)

  11. A Study on Preschool Children's Name Writing and Writing Readiness Skills

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Çetin, Özlem Simsek

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this work is to analyze the name writing and writing readiness levels of preschoolers in terms of various variables and to identify the relationship between children's name writing skill and writing readiness levels. To that end, name-writing and writing-readiness skills of 204 preschoolers at the ages of 3, 4 and 5 were examined…

  12. The Relationship between Preschool Programming and School Readiness for Rural Children Entering Kindergarten

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Conway, Donna M.

    2010-01-01

    Children in the researcher's rural school district have limited opportunities for a high quality preschool programming that prepares them for school readiness. Quality preschool programming is defined as teachers with proper qualifications and training, small class size, stimulating curriculum, and parent involvement. The theoretical foundation…

  13. Preparedness of Educators to Implement Modern Information Technologies in Their Work with Preschool Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Velickovic, Sonja; Stošic, Lazar

    2016-01-01

    This study explores the issue of the preparedness of educators to realize the contents of the PPP (Preschool Preparatory Program) from the point of view of digitalization and informatization of the society. The authors are in favour of the implementation of modern educational technology in the process of educating preschool children with the aim…

  14. Vestibular Dysfunction in Preschool Children with a History of Otitis Media.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Denning, Jennifer; Mayberry, Wanda

    1987-01-01

    Thirty-five preschoolers, assigned to otitis media (OM) or no OM groups, were administered the Southern California Postrotary Nystagmus Test and the Miller Assessment for Preschoolers (MAP). Children with a history of OM had significantly decreased scores on the Stepping and Vertical Writing MAP tests, indicating vestibulospinal dysfunction. (SK)

  15. Social Information Processing in Preschool Children: Relations to Sociodemographic Risk and Problem Behavior

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ziv, Yair; Sorongon, Alberto

    2011-01-01

    Using a multicomponent, process-oriented approach, the links between social information processing during the preschool years and (a) sociodemographic risk and (b) behavior problems in preschool were examined in a community sample of 196 children. Findings provided support for our initial hypotheses that aspects of social information processing in…

  16. Parental Reports of Somatic Symptoms in Preschool Children: Prevalence and Associations in a Spanish Sample.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Domenech-Llaberia, Edelmira; Jane, Claustre; Canals, Josepa; Ballespi, Sergi; Esparo, Griselda; Garralda, Elena

    2004-01-01

    Objective: To document prevalence and associations of somatic symptoms in Spanish preschool children. Method: Subjects were 3- to 5-year-olds attending nurseries (8 urban, 30 rural). Parental questionnaires (response rate 77%) were used to inquire about somatic symptoms in the child in the 2 weeks prior to assessment, about preschool absence and…

  17. Does Preschool Education Exposure Predict Children's Academic and Behavioural Outcomes in China?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Li, Yanfang; Lv, Ying; Huntsinger, Carol S.

    2015-01-01

    Relationships between exposure to preschool education and children's academic and social outcomes have been documented in Western countries. There is a lack of comparable research in China, where preschool education is relatively formal, but rather flexible in arrangement. We conducted research at six public kindergartens in a large Chinese…

  18. Finnish Primary School as a Learning Environment for Six-Year-Old Preschool Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Havu-Nuutinen, Sari; Niikko, Anneli

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this qualitative case study is to explore how the teachers, parents and children describe the advantages and disadvantages of preschool education when it is located in the comprehensive school context. In addition, the study aims to clarify which dimensions of the learning environment occur in preschool? The learning environment is…

  19. An Investigation of the Additive Benefits of Parent Dialogic Reading Techniques in Older Preschool Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Switalski, Sarah O'Neill

    2012-01-01

    This study examined the additive benefit of parent dialogic reading techniques in older, high-risk preschool children using multiple baseline design across participants, a single subject research design, as was as well as pre-test and post-test measures. Five preschoolers age-eligible to begin kindergarten the following school year participated.…

  20. Effects of Traumatized Antenatal Mothers on Their Pre-School Children in Mt. Elgon Region, Kenya

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sichari, Manson B.

    2016-01-01

    Foetus developmental vulnerability in pre-school children of traumatized antenatal mothers in Cheptais and Mount Elgon Sub-Counties, Bungoma County, Kenya is a study meant to establish the effects of trauma of the mother on the unborn child who was born and now is in pre-school level of education. Through observation by the mother through neonate,…

  1. Effects of Traumatized Antenatal Mothers on Their Pre-School Children in Mt. Elgon Region, Kenya

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sichari, Manson B.; Wakhungu, Jacob W.; Maragia, Samuel N.

    2015-01-01

    Foetus developmental vulnerability in pre-school children of traumatized antenatal mothers in Cheptais and Mount Elgon Sub-Counties, Bungoma County, Kenya is a study meant to establish the effects of trauma of the mother on the unborn child who was born and now is in pre-school level of education. Through observation by the mother during neonate,…

  2. The Effect of Stuttering Measurement Training on Judging Stuttering Occurrence in Preschool Children Who Stutter

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Einarsdottir, Johanna; Ingham, Roger J.

    2008-01-01

    Purpose: To evaluate the efficacy of a standardized training program to improve preschool teachers' ability to identify occurrences of stuttering accurately and reliably in preschool children who stutter (CWS). Method: An Icelandic version of the Stuttering Measurement Assessment and Training (SMAAT) program [Ingham, R. J., Cordes, A. K., Kilgo,…

  3. Group Work with Preschool Children: Effect on Emotional Awareness and Behavior

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Waliski, Angie D.; Carlson, Laurie A.

    2008-01-01

    Aggression and defiant behavior in preschool children have been linked to lower self-esteem (Scott, 1998), and a lack of core social and emotional competencies (Giles & Heyman, 2004). This study concerned the implementation and evaluation of an educational/guidance group with one preschool class. The intervention focused on self esteem, emotional…

  4. Children Crossing Borders: School Visits as Initial Incorporation Rites in Transition to Preschool Class

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ackesjö, Helena

    2013-01-01

    Most research about transition in educational settings describes how children enter into new contexts, especially transition from preschool to school. However, the overall research focus in this article is to gain knowledge about how the transition process can be characterized at the end of the preschool period before the actual transition. The…

  5. Wordless Book-Sharing Styles in Bilingual Preschool Classrooms and Latino Children's Emergent Literacy Skills

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schick, Adina

    2015-01-01

    The current study explored the preschool classroom environment as an important context for supporting dual-language learning Latino children's development of emergent literacy skills. The results of the study showed that teachers in Spanish-English bilingual preschool classrooms varied in the way they shared wordless picture books with the…

  6. Fathers' Involvement in Preschool Programs for Children with and without Hearing Loss

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ingber, Sara; Most, Tova

    2012-01-01

    The authors compared the involvement in children's development and education of 38 fathers of preschoolers with hearing loss to the involvement of a matched group of 36 fathers of preschoolers with normal hearing, examining correlations between child, father, and family characteristics. Fathers completed self-reports regarding their parental…

  7. Thai Preschool Teachers' Views about Inclusive Education for Young Children with Disabilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sukbunpant, Sasipin; Arthur-Kelly, Michael; Dempsey, Ian

    2013-01-01

    It is generally assumed that preschool teachers play a crucial daily role in the inclusion of young children with a disability in education settings. In many countries, however, there are little available data to inform such a view. Part of a larger project with 528 preschool teachers from northern Thailand, the aim of the study reported here was…

  8. The Factor Structure of Preschool Learning Behaviors Scale Scores in Peruvian Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hahn, Kathryn R.; Schaefer, Barbara A.; Merino, Cesar; Worrell, Frank C.

    2009-01-01

    The factor structure of the Escala de Conductas de Aprendizaje Preescolar (ECAP), a Spanish translation of the Preschool Learning Behaviors Scale (PLBS), was examined in this study. Children aged 2 to 6 years (N = 328) enrolled in public and private preschools in the Republic of Peru were rated by classroom teachers on the frequency of observable,…

  9. Dietary habits and gastroesophageal reflux disease in preschool children

    PubMed Central

    Choi, You Jin; Ha, Eun Kyo

    2016-01-01

    Purpose To identify the relationship between dietary habits and childhood gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD) in preschool children. Methods We performed a questionnaire study to analyze the relationship between dietary habits and GERD in 85 preschool children with GERD and 117 healthy children of the same age. Results Irregular and picky eating were more p–revalent in the GERD group than in the control group (odds ratio [OR], 4.14; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.37–12.54 and OR, 4.96; 95% CI, 1.88–13.14, respectively). The snack preferences and the late night eating habits were significantly more prevalent in the GERD group than in the control group (OR, 3.83; 95% CI, 1.23–11.87 and OR, 9.51; 95% CI, 2.55–35.49, respectively). A preference for liquid foods was significantly more prevalent in the GERD group (OR, 9.51; 95% CI, 2.548–35.485). The dinner-to-bedtime interval was significantly shorter in the GERD group than in the control group (157.06±48.47 vs. 174.62±55.10, P=0.020). In addition, the time between dinner and bedtime was shorter than 3 hours in 47 children (55.3%) of the GERD group and 44 (37.6%) of the control group. This difference was statistical significance (P=0.015). Conclusion Dietary habits such as picky and irregular eating, snack preference, a preference of liquid foods, late night eating, and a shorter dinner-to-bedtime interval had a significant correlation with GERD. Further large-scale studies are necessary to confirm our results. PMID:27588031

  10. Delays in auditory processing identified in preschool children with FASD

    PubMed Central

    Stephen, Julia M.; Kodituwakku, Piyadasa W.; Kodituwakku, Elizabeth L.; Romero, Lucinda; Peters, Amanda M.; Sharadamma, Nirupama Muniswamy; Caprihan, Arvind; Coffman, Brian A.

    2012-01-01

    Background Both sensory and cognitive deficits have been associated with prenatal exposure to alcohol; however, very few studies have focused on sensory deficits in preschool aged children. Since sensory skills develop early, characterization of sensory deficits using novel imaging methods may reveal important neural markers of prenatal alcohol exposure. Materials and Methods Participants in this study were 10 children with a fetal alcohol spectrum disorder (FASD) and 15 healthy control children aged 3-6 years. All participants had normal hearing as determined by clinical screens. We measured their neurophysiological responses to auditory stimuli (1000 Hz, 72 dB tone) using magnetoencephalography (MEG). We used a multi-dipole spatio-temporal modeling technique (CSST – Ranken et al. 2002) to identify the location and timecourse of cortical activity in response to the auditory tones. The timing and amplitude of the left and right superior temporal gyrus sources associated with activation of left and right primary/secondary auditory cortices were compared across groups. Results There was a significant delay in M100 and M200 latencies for the FASD children relative to the HC children (p = 0.01), when including age as a covariate. The within-subjects effect of hemisphere was not significant. A comparable delay in M100 and M200 latencies was observed in children across the FASD subtypes. Discussion Auditory delay revealed by MEG in children with FASD may prove to be a useful neural marker of information processing difficulties in young children with prenatal alcohol exposure. The fact that delayed auditory responses were observed across the FASD spectrum suggests that it may be a sensitive measure of alcohol-induced brain damage. Therefore, this measure in conjunction with other clinical tools may prove useful for early identification of alcohol affected children, particularly those without dysmorphia. PMID:22458372

  11. The Psychobiology of Children Exposed to Marital Violence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Saltzman, Kasey M.; Holden, George W.; Holahan, Charles J.

    2005-01-01

    We examined the psychological and physiological functioning of a community sample of children exposed to marital violence, comparing them to a clinical comparison group without marital violence exposure. Results replicated past findings of elevated levels of trauma symptomatology in this population. Further, children exposed to marital violence…

  12. Networks of Attachment Relationships in Low-Income Children of Mexican Heritage: Infancy through Preschool

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Howes, Carollee; Wishard Guerra, Alison G.

    2009-01-01

    Eighty-three low-income Mexican-heritage children (44 girls) and their mothers participated in this research. Children were observed with alternative caregivers at 14, 24, and 36 months of age using the Attachment Q-Set. Most children received regular care from infancy through preschool from relatives and childcare providers. Children had high…

  13. Direct Labeling, Tester Expectancy and Delay Maintenance Behavior in Scottish Preschool Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ritchie, Fiona K.; Toner, Ignatius J.

    1984-01-01

    Investigates the influence on Scottish preschool children's self-control of labels regarding patience given directly to the children themselves, and of the expectations regarding the children's patience provided to adult testers. Childrens self-control was assessed in a task in which each child's possession of accumulating candy rewards was made…

  14. Sensory Correlates of Difficult Temperament Characteristics in Preschool Children with Autism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chuang, I-Ching; Tseng, Mei-Hui; Lu, Lu; Shieh, Jeng-Yi

    2012-01-01

    This study was aimed to investigate the rate of co-occurring sensory processing (SP) dysfunction in children with autism who had a difficult temperament characteristics, and the relationship between SP dysfunction and temperament characteristics in preschool children with autism. A total of 111 children aged 48-84 months, 67 children with autism…

  15. Peer Preferences of At-Risk and Normally Developing Children in a Preschool Mainstream Classroom.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cavallaro, Sahli A.; Porter, Richard H.

    1980-01-01

    Social interactions and peer preferences in a preschool mainstream classroom containing 20 normally developing and at-risk children were studied, using the ethological method of direct observation. Data on social play and gaze orientation indicated that normally developing children and at-risk children interacted primarily with children from their…

  16. Humour among Chinese and Greek Preschool Children in Relation to Cognitive Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Guo, Juan; Zhang, XiangKui; Wang, Yong; Xeromeritou, Aphrodite

    2011-01-01

    The researchers studied humour among Chinese and Greek preschool children in relation to cognitive development. The sample included 55 Chinese children and 50 Greek children ages 4½ to 5½ years. Results showed that both Chinese and Greek children's humour recognition were significantly and positively correlated to their cognitive development,…

  17. Sustained Attention and Social Competence in Typically Developing Preschool-Aged Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Murphy, Laura M. Bennett; Laurie-Rose, Cynthia; Brinkman, Tara M.; McNamara, Kelly A.

    2007-01-01

    The current study examines the relationship between sustained attention and social competence in preschool children. While studies demonstrate that children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) exhibit poor social competence, less is known about typically developing children. Since children with ADHD have associated behavior…

  18. Preschool Children's Understanding of Disability: Experiences Leading to the Elaboration of the Concept of Hearing Loss.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Diamond, Karen E.; Hestenes, Linda L.

    1994-01-01

    Explores the impact of having a hearing-impaired peer on preschool children's understanding of hearing and deafness, comparing children with and without a hearing-impaired peer. All children referred to their own experiences to explain hearing loss. Children with a hearing-impaired classmate understood sign language and the consequences of hearing…

  19. Traumatic dental injuries in Brazilian pre-school children.

    PubMed

    Mestrinho, H D; Bezerra, A C; Carvalho, J C

    1998-01-01

    The purpose of this investigation was to estimate the prevalence of traumatic dental injuries in a sample of Brazilian pre-school children with limited access to dental care. The sample included 1,853 one-to-five-year-old children attending public nursery schools in the Federal District of Brazil. Dental injuries were clinically assessed as follows: 1) uncomplicated crown fracture, 2) complicated fracture, 3) crown discoloration, 4) intrusive luxation, 5) extrusive luxation, 6) exarticulation or extraction after trauma and 7) subluxation. The results showed that 10% (< 2 years), 12% (3-4 years) and 20% (5 years) of the children had suffered at least one type of injury clinically identified at the time of the examination. Boys and girls were similarly affected. Dental injuries were almost entirely restricted to the maxillary central incisors (88%). Single tooth injury was predominant in all age groups. In the youngest group the most common types of injuries were crown fracture (69%) and crown discoloration (18%). However, from the age of three, crown discoloration showed percentages ranging from 41% to 47%. Prematurely lost tooth accounted for 11% of the injuries in 5-year-old children. The observed increase of dental injuries with age indicates accumulated treatment needs due to the children's limited access to dental care. PMID:10219123

  20. Nonsteroidal Anti-Inflammatory Drug Hypersensitivity in Preschool Children

    PubMed Central

    2007-01-01

    Although extensively studied in adults, nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID) hypersensitivity in children, especially in young children, remains poorly defined. Pediatricians, prescribing antipyretics for children, rarely encounter significant problems, but the few epidemiologic studies performed show conflicting results. Although it is clear that some patients with acetylsalicylic acid (ASA)-sensitive asthma have their clinical onset of disease in childhood and bronchoconstriction after ASA challenge is seen in 0 to 22% of asthmatic children so challenged, ibuprofen at antipyretic doses may cause acute respiratory problems only in a very small number of mild to moderate asthmatics. The recently elucidated mechanism of action of acetaminophen may explain some occurrences of adverse reactions in patients with cross-reactive NSAID hypersensitivity on the basis of its inhibitory activity on the newly described enzyme, cyclooxygenase (COX)-3. This nonspecific sensitivity to inhibition of COX is most likely genetically determined and shows a remarkable association with atopic disease even in the very young age group and possibly an increased predilection in specific ethnic groups. This review summarizes state-of-the-art published data on NSAID hypersensitivity in preschool children. PMID:20525116

  1. Science in the Eyes of Preschool Children: Findings from an Innovative Research Tool

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dubosarsky, Mia D.

    How do young children view science? Do these views reflect cultural stereotypes? When do these views develop? These fundamental questions in the field of science education have rarely been studied with the population of preschool children. One main reason is the lack of an appropriate research instrument that addresses preschool children's developmental competencies. Extensive body of research has pointed at the significance of early childhood experiences in developing positive attitudes and interests toward learning in general and the learning of science in particular. Theoretical and empirical research suggests that stereotypical views of science may be replaced by authentic views following inquiry science experience. However, no preschool science intervention program could be designed without a reliable instrument that provides baseline information about preschool children's current views of science. The current study presents preschool children's views of science as gathered from a pioneering research tool. This tool, in the form of a computer "game," does not require reading, writing, or expressive language skills and is operated by the children. The program engages children in several simple tasks involving picture recognition and yes/no answers in order to reveal their views about science. The study was conducted with 120 preschool children in two phases and found that by the age of 4 years, participants possess an emergent concept of science. Gender and school differences were detected. Findings from this interdisciplinary study will contribute to the fields of early childhood, science education, learning technologies, program evaluation, and early childhood curriculum development.

  2. A Comparison of Concept Development and Human Figure Drawings of Children Who Receive Preschool Education vs Those Who Do Not

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Balat, Gulden Uyanik

    2010-01-01

    This study evaluated from a developmental point of view the basic concept knowledge and human figure drawings of children who did and did not attend preschool. A total of 118 children who received preschool education and 147 children who did not do so participated in the study. The mean age of children was 75.4 months. Their concept knowledge was…

  3. Asian and Euro-American Parents' Ethnotheories of Play and Learning: Effects on Preschool Children's Home Routines and School Behaviour

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Parmar, Parminder; Harkness, Sara; Super, Charles M.

    2004-01-01

    Asian and Euro-American parents of preschool-aged children were interviewed concerning their beliefs about the nature and purpose of play; they also completed two questionnaires and a diary of their children's daily activities. The children's teachers were interviewed and provided information about the behaviour of the children in preschool. The…

  4. Sex Typing of Young Children's Behaviours in a Computer Active Preschool Classroom. Project Report: A Working Paper.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Elliott, Alison

    Outlined are preliminary findings from a study of computer use by Australian preschool children. Subjects were 90 children of 4 years who were enrolled in four Sydney preschool classes. A computer was set up in a learning center and was available to the children during free play sessions. Children's behaviors were observed and recorded as the…

  5. Developmental trajectories of cocaine-and-other-drug-exposed and non-cocaine-exposed children.

    PubMed

    Mayes, Linda C; Cicchetti, Domenic; Acharyya, Suddhasatta; Zhang, Heping

    2003-10-01

    Few data are available concerning the trajectories of mental and motor development across time for cocaine-exposed children compared with others. Findings are presented from individual group curve analyses of the mental and motor development measured by the Bayley Scales of Infant Development-II (BSID-II) on repeated visits from 3 through 36 months of a group of prenatally cocaine-and-other-drug-exposed children (n = 265) compared with those exposed to no drugs (n = 129) or no-cocaine-but-other-drugs (n = 66), including alcohol and/or tobacco. Across time, there was a general decline in motor performance but cocaine-exposed-infants showed a trend toward a greater decrease than children in the other two comparison groups. For mental performance, there was also a decline across age but only through 24 months and no differences in the trajectory of the cocaine-exposed group compared to the other two. And, across all assessment ages, cocaine-exposed-infants showed lower BSID-II mental performance compared to both non-drug and non-cocaine-exposed children. Results suggest that prenatally cocaine-exposed children show delayed developmental indices, particularly in their mental performance, but their trajectories across time are similar to those from impoverished, non-cocaine-exposed groups. PMID:14578693

  6. Assessing Callous-Unemotional Traits in Preschool Children With Disruptive Behavior Problems Using Peer Reports.

    PubMed

    Graziano, Paulo A; Ros, Rosmary; Haas, Sarah; Hart, Katie; Slavec, Janine; Waschbusch, Daniel; Garcia, Alexis

    2016-01-01

    The goal of this study was to examine the extent to which preschoolers with externalizing behavior problems (EBP) can identify behaviors indicative of callous-unemotional (CU) traits among their peers. Participants for this study included 86 preschool children (69% boys; Mage = 5.07 years) with at-risk or clinically elevated levels of EBP who were attending a summer treatment camp. Data collected from the children, their peers, and the counselors who worked at the summer camp examined preschoolers' social preference, likability, and behaviors indicative of CU. Parents and preschool teachers also reported on children's CU traits and severity of behavioral impairment, as well as school readiness. Peer nominations of CU traits showed (a) excellent factor structure as evidenced by clear CU items (e.g., "don't feel bad when they do something wrong") versus more prosocial items ("share," "cooperate"); (b) moderate construct validity when compared to counselor reports of the CU factor as well as preschool teacher reported ratings of CU traits and severity of behavioral impairment; and (c) good utility as evidenced by associations with peer and counselor rated social preference, likability, and school readiness measures as rated by both parents and preschool teachers. These findings indicate that as early as preschool, children with EBP can identify peers who engage in behaviors indicative of CU traits, which have significant implications for children's social status and overall school readiness. PMID:25587855

  7. Effectiveness of screening preschool children for amblyopia: a systematic review

    PubMed Central

    Schmucker, Christine; Grosselfinger, Robert; Riemsma, Rob; Antes, Gerd; Lange, Stefan; Lagrèze, Wolf; Kleijnen, Jos

    2009-01-01

    Background Amblyopia and amblyogenic factors like strabismus and refractive errors are the most common vision disorders in children. Although different studies suggest that preschool vision screening is associated with a reduced prevalence rate of amblyopia, the value of these programmes is the subject of a continuing scientific and health policy discussion. Therefore, this systematic review focuses on the question of whether screening for amblyopia in children up to the age of six years leads to better vision outcomes. Methods Ten bibliographic databases were searched for randomised controlled trials, non-randomised controlled trials and cohort studies with no limitations to a specific year of publication and language. The searches were supplemented by handsearching the bibliographies of included studies and reviews to identify articles not captured through our main search strategy. Results Five studies met the inclusion criteria. Of these, three studies suggested that screening is associated with an absolute reduction in the prevalence of amblyopia between 0.9% and 1.6% (relative reduction: between 45% and 62%). However, the studies showed weaknesses, limiting the validity and reliability of their findings. The main limitation was that studies with significant results considered only a proportion of the originally recruited children in their analysis. On the other hand, retrospective sample size calculation indicated that the power based on the cohort size was not sufficient to detect small changes between the groups. Outcome parameters such as quality of life or adverse effects of screening have not been adequately investigated in the literature currently available. Conclusion Population based preschool vision screening programmes cannot be sufficiently assessed by the literature currently available. However, it is most likely that the present systematic review contains the most detailed description of the main limitations in current available literature

  8. Fundamental Principles of Network Formation among Preschool Children1

    PubMed Central

    Schaefer, David R.; Light, John M.; Fabes, Richard A.; Hanish, Laura D.; Martin, Carol Lynn

    2009-01-01

    The goal of this research was to investigate the origins of social networks by examining the formation of children’s peer relationships in 11 preschool classes throughout the school year. We investigated whether several fundamental processes of relationship formation were evident at this age, including reciprocity, popularity, and triadic closure effects. We expected these mechanisms to change in importance over time as the network crystallizes, allowing more complex structures to evolve from simpler ones in a process we refer to as structural cascading. We analyzed intensive longitudinal observational data of children’s interactions using the SIENA actor-based model. We found evidence that reciprocity, popularity, and triadic closure all shaped the formation of preschool children’s networks. The influence of reciprocity remained consistent, whereas popularity and triadic closure became increasingly important over the course of the school year. Interactions between age and endogenous network effects were nonsignificant, suggesting that these network formation processes were not moderated by age in this sample of young children. We discuss the implications of our longitudinal network approach and findings for the study of early network developmental processes. PMID:20161606

  9. The Effects of Visual, Verbal, and Motor Elaborations on Preschool Children's Recall and Comprehension of Prose.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davis, Albert J.; Hathaway, Betty K.

    1986-01-01

    Findings imply that while preschool children both enjoy and profit from listening to stories read to them in unelaborated fashion, they gain much more from observing and participating in the actions portrayed in the stories. (FL)

  10. A Follow-up Electromyographical Study of Subvocal Speech and Recall in Preschool Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Garrity, Linda; Donoghue, James

    1977-01-01

    Supports previous findings that preschool children evidence significant amounts of subvocal speech, and that a significant relationship between recall and subvocal speech exists for boys but not for girls. (RL)

  11. Patterns of physical activity and sedentary behaviour in preschool children

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Little is known about patterns of sedentary behavior (SB) and physical activity among preschoolers. Therefore, in this observational study patterns of SB and moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA) were examined in detail throughout the week in preschool-aged boys and girls. Methods A sample of 703 Melbourne preschool children (387 boys; 4.6 ± 0.7 y) were included in data analysis. SB and MVPA data were collected using accelerometry over an eight-day period. Percentage of time per hour in SB and in MVPA between 08:00 h and 20:00 h was calculated. Multi-level logistic regression models were created to examine the hour-by-hour variability in SB and MVPA for boys and girls across weekdays and weekend days. Odds ratios (OR) were calculated to interpret differences in hour-by-hour SB and MVPA levels between boys and girls, and between weekdays and weekend days. Results The highest SB levels co-occurred with the lowest MVPA levels from the morning till the early afternoon on weekdays, and during the morning and around midday on weekends. Besides, participation in SB was the lowest and participation in MVPA was the highest from the mid afternoon till the evening on weekdays and weekend days. The variability across the hours in SB and, especially, in MVPA was rather small throughout weekdays and weekends. These patterns were found in both boys and girls. During some hours, girls were found to be more likely than boys to demonstrate higher SB levels (OR from 1.08 to 1.16; all p < 0.05) and lower MVPA levels (OR from 0.75 to 0.88; all p < 0.05), but differences were small. During weekends, hour-by-hour SB levels were more likely to be lower (OR from 0.74 to 0.98; all p < 0.05) and hour-by-hour MVPA levels were more likely to be higher (OR from 1.15 to 1.50; all p < 0.05), than during weekdays, in boys and girls. Conclusion Entire weekdays, especially from the morning till the early afternoon, and entire weekend days are opportunities to

  12. Does Taste Perception Effect Body Mass Index in Preschool Children?

    PubMed Central

    Markam, Vandana; Singh, Garima; Chakravarthy, Kalyan; Gupta, Manoj

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Eating trends established early in life leads to chronic life style disorders such as obesity, which is hard to overcome as child comes of age. Energy expenditure is less but caloric intake is high leading to disparity of energy balance in turn leading to obesity. Obesity is the outcome of a disparity between energy expenditure and caloric intake. Genes play a role in establishing eating habits, which is termed as genetic sensitivity to taste. Aim To determine taste perception effect on body mass index (BMI) in preschool central Indian urban children. Materials and Methods A total of 500 children of 3-6 years were selected and genetic taste perception was assessed using PROP sensitivity test. Anthropometric measurements were recorded to obtain BMI value. Categorical variables were analysed using Pearson’s Chi square test. Results Non tasters were mostly in overweight category i.e. 73.30% where as more number of tasters i.e. 59.70% were in underweight category. A significant correlation is seen between BMI and taste perception. No statistically significant correlation was seen between oral hygiene and taste perception. Females were predominant in both the tasters and non tasters categories. Conclusion Taste perception showed significant relationship with BMI of children between 3-6-year-old children. PMID:26816983

  13. Theory of mind and executive function in Chinese preschool children.

    PubMed

    Duh, Shinchieh; Paik, Jae H; Miller, Patricia H; Gluck, Stephanie C; Li, Hui; Himelfarb, Igor

    2016-04-01

    [Correction Notice: An Erratum for this article was reported in Vol 52(4) of Developmental Psychology (see record 2016-13852-001). In the article, there were two errors in Table 6. The coefficient between WM and Age was incorrectly set as .46; it should have been .46. Further, the coefficient between WM and Gender should be .00 instead of .00. The correct version is provided.] Cross-cultural research on children's theory of mind (ToM) understanding has raised questions about its developmental sequence and relationship with executive function (EF). The current study examined how ToM develops (using the tasks from Wellman & Liu, 2004) in relation to 2 EF skills (conflict inhibition, working memory) in 997 Chinese preschoolers (ages 3, 4, 5) in Chengdu, China. Compared with prior research with other Chinese and non-Chinese children, some general patterns in development were replicated in this sample. However, the children showed culture-specific reversals in the developmental sequence of ToM. For example, Chengdu children performed differently on the 2 false-belief tasks that were thought to be equivalent. Furthermore, conflict inhibition as well as working memory uniquely predicted ToM performance. We discuss the issues of ToM development as they relate to test items and cross-cultural-and subcultural-differences. (PsycINFO Database Record PMID:26845504

  14. A Preliminary Neuroimaging Study of Preschool Children with ADHD

    PubMed Central

    E.M., Mahone; D., Crocetti; M.E., Ranta; A., Gaddis; M., Cataldo; K.J., Slifer; M.B., Denckla; S.H., Mostofsky

    2012-01-01

    Attention-deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) is a developmental disorder which, by current definition, has onset prior to age 7 years. MRI studies have provided some insight into brain differences associated with ADHD, but thus far have almost exclusively focused on children ages 7 years and older. To better understand the neurobiological development of ADHD, cortical and subcortical brain development should be systematically examined in younger children presenting with symptoms of the disorder. High resolution anatomical (MPRAGE) images, acquired on a 3.0T scanner, were analyzed in a total of 26 preschoolers, ages 4–5 years (13 with ADHD, 13 controls, matched on age and sex). The ADHD sample was diagnosed using DSM-IV criteria, and screened for language disorders. Cortical regions were delineated and measured using automated methods in Freesurfer; basal ganglia structures were manually delineated. Children with ADHD showed significantly reduced caudate volumes bilaterally; in contrast, there were no significant group differences in cortical volume or thickness in this age range. After controlling for age and total cerebral volume, left caudate volume was a significant predictor of hyperactive/impulsive, but not inattentive symptom severity. Anomalous basal ganglia, particularly caudate, development appears to play an important role among children presenting with early onset symptoms of ADHD. PMID:21660881

  15. Validation of the Gumpel Readiness Inventory for preschool children in Hong Kong.

    PubMed

    Ho, Dorothy Shu Ting; Leung, Cynthia; Lo, Sing Kai

    2013-10-01

    The aim of this study was to validate the Chinese version of the Gumpel Readiness Inventory (RI). Participants included 653 preschool children aged three to five years old, their teachers and parents, and 49 children with developmental disabilities. Teachers and parents completed the RI and parents completed the Strength and Difficulty Questionnaire (SDQ) as well. Each child was individually assessed on the cognitive domain of Preschool Developmental Assessment Scale (PDAS). The results showed that the parent's and teacher's versions of RI correlated with SDQ and PDAS. The RI scores of the children with developmental disabilities were significantly lower than that of the children with typical development. Older children attained higher RI scores than younger children. The internal consistency and the test-retest reliability (both parent's and teacher's versions) were above .70. To conclude, the Chinese version of the RI is a reliable, valid and quick instrument for measuring the school readiness of Hong Kong preschool children. PMID:23886752

  16. Perceptions of Father Involvement among Turkish Fathers with Pre-School Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Biber, Kazim

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to compare father involvement among fathers with children in pre-school in terms of their status of having only one or more than one child. The study sample consisted of fathers of 3-5 year-old children who were enrolled in pre-schools in the district of Altieylül, Balikesir. Data pertaining to the involvement of…

  17. Do children's health resources differ according to preschool physical activity programmes and parental behaviour? A mixed methods study.

    PubMed

    Sterdt, Elena; Pape, Natalie; Kramer, Silke; Liersch, Sebastian; Urban, Michael; Werning, Rolf; Walter, Ulla

    2014-03-01

    Preschool can have positive effects on the development of a healthy lifestyle. The present study analysed to what extent different conditions, structures and behavioural models in preschool and family-children's central social microsystems-can lead to differences in children's health resources. Using a cross-sectional mixed methods approach, contrast analyses of "preschools with systematic physical activity programmes" versus "preschools without physical activity programmes" were conducted to assess the extent to which children's physical activity, quality of life and social behaviour differ between preschools with systematic and preschools without physical activity programmes. Differences in children's physical activity according to parental behaviour were likewise assessed. Data on child-related outcomes and parent-related factors were collected via parent questionnaires and child interviews. A qualitative focused ethnographic study was performed to obtain deeper insight into the quantitative survey data. Two hundred and twenty seven (227) children were interviewed at 21 preschools with systematic physical activity programmes, and 190 at 25 preschools without physical activity programmes. There was no significant difference in children's physical activity levels between the two preschool types (p = 0.709). However, the qualitative data showed differences in the design and quality of programmes to promote children's physical activity. Data triangulation revealed a strong influence of parental behaviour. The triangulation of methods provided comprehensive insight into the nature and extent of physical activity programmes in preschools and made it possible to capture the associations between systematic physical activity promotion and children's health resources in a differential manner. PMID:24577283

  18. Establishing a generalized autoclitic repertoire in preschool children

    PubMed Central

    Howard, Jane S.; Rice, Diane E.

    1988-01-01

    Skinner's (1957) analysis of language presents the notion of secondary verbal behavior, some of which is termed “autoclitic.” These kinds of verbal responses are dependent upon primary verbal behavior and are controlled by some feature of the primary verbal relationship (e.g., mand, tact, etc.). In this study preschool children were trained to make autoclitic responses evoked by the weakness of the relation controlling a primary tact response. A method for training tacting of private events known as “public accompaniment” was utilized. Theoretical issues related to the nature of autoclitic behavior as well as practical concerns for training are discussed. ImagesFig. 1Fig. 2 PMID:22477563

  19. Smoking during Pregnancy Is a Risk Factor for Executive Function Deficits in Preschool-aged Children

    PubMed Central

    Daseking, M.; Petermann, F.; Tischler, T.; Waldmann, H.-C.

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: Maternal nicotine use during pregnancy has a negative impact on the child. Numerous studies have demonstrated an association between smoking during pregnancy and psychological deficits. This study looks at deficits in executive functioning in preschool-aged children. Methods: The executive functioning of preschool children was assessed by asking parents to complete the parental form of the Behavior Rating Inventory of Executive Functions – Preschool Version (BRIEF-P, German version). The results for preschool children whose mothers had smoked during pregnancy (n = 71) were compared with those of a control group. In a subsample, parental assessments of children of smokers (n = 42) and non-smokers (n = 27) were complemented by the teacher form of the BRIEF-P (German version), which allowed inter-rater agreement (parents vs. preschool teachers) to be assessed. Results: An increased incidence of executive function deficits was noted in the children of smokers, based on parental assessment. Clinically relevant deficits were particularly evident with regard to inhibition, with inhibitory deficits in children of smokers found to be almost four times higher than in the control group (p = 0.006). Inhibitory deficits were reported both by parents and by preschool teachers. Discussion: The increased percentage of executive function deficits described here, particularly the increased inhibitory deficits, confirms the current state of research on smoking during pregnancy. Poor inhibition or impulse control is a key symptom of ADHD. PMID:25684788

  20. Print Knowledge of Preschool Children with Hearing Loss

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Werfel, Krystal L.; Lund, Emily; Schuele, C. Melanie

    2015-01-01

    Measures of print knowledge were compared across preschoolers with hearing loss and normal hearing. Alphabet knowledge did not differ between groups, but preschoolers with hearing loss performed lower on measures of print concepts and concepts of written words than preschoolers with normal hearing. Further study is needed in this area.

  1. Prevalence of malocclusion in urban libyan preschool children

    PubMed Central

    Bugaighis, Iman

    2013-01-01

    Objectives: This cross-sectional observational study aimed at quantifying primary dentition parameters and exploring differences in those parameters between included age groups. Materials and Methods: The examined sample comprised 800 preschool children, 3- to 5-year-old in Benghazi city, of which 500 fulfilled the inclusion criteria. Primary canine relationship, spacing/crowding, overjet (OJ) and overbite (OB), occlusal relationship was carried out using Federation Dentaire Internationale (1973), modified to the primary dentition. Results: The prevalence of bilateral Class I, Class II, and Class III canine relationship was 69.6%, 22.4%, and 4.4%, respectively. The prevalence of asymmetric canine relationship was 3.6% with no significant difference between gender and age groups. Spacing, closed dentition, and crowding were observed in: 81.6%, 13,4% and 5% respectively in the upper arch, and 58.5%, 24.8%, and 16.7% correspondently in the lower arch. OJ and OB ranging between 1 and 3 mm were found in 82.6% and 56.5%, respectively. An OJ and OB of >3 mm was observed in 11.4% and 35%, respectively, and of edge to edge incisal relationship anteroposteriorly and vertically in 4.6% and 6% in this order. Anterior crossbite and anterior openbite were noted in 1.4% and 2.6%, respectively. There was no significant correlation between OJ and OB and age (P≥0.241). Additionally, there was no significant sex difference in the value of OJ (P=0.561). But, the mean OB value in boys was significantly greater than in girls. Conclusions: The current findings provide an insight into the prevalence of occlusal traits in urban Libyan preschool children and highlight the significance of early detection of malocclusion to assist in achieving effective and individualized long-term treatment planning. PMID:24987642

  2. Associations of Preschool Type and Teacher-Child Relational Quality with Young Children's Social-Emotional Competence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Garner, Pamela W.; Mahatmya, Duhita; Moses, Laurence Kimberly; Bolt, Elizabeth N.

    2014-01-01

    Research Findings: This study examined associations of preschool type (i.e., urban and suburban Head Start and university-affiliated center) and teacher-child variables with positive and negative child outcomes among 145 preschoolers (74 boys). Differences emerged across preschools, with urban Head Start children scoring lowest on the emotional…

  3. Screening preschool children for fine motor skills: environmental influence

    PubMed Central

    Comuk-Balci, Nilay; Bayoglu, Birgul; Tekindal, Agah; Kerem-Gunel, Mintaze; Anlar, Banu

    2016-01-01

    [Purpose] The aim of this study was to investigate the influence of gender and family factors on performance in the fine motor domain of the Denver II developmental screening test. [Subjects and Methods] Data were obtained from 2038 healthy children, 999 boys (49%) and 1039 girls (51%) in four age groups: 0–24 months (57%), 25–40 months (21.1%), 41–56 months (10.4%), and 57–82 months (11.5%). [Results] Female gender, higher maternal age, especially in children older than 24 months, and higher maternal education were associated with earlier accomplishment of fine motor items. Higher socioeconomic status was correlated with fine motor skills more noticeably at young ages. [Conclusion] The results of this study support the role of environmental factors in the interpretation of fine motor test results and point to target groups for intervention, such as infants in the low socioeconomic group and preschool children of less educated mothers. Studies in different populations may reveal particular patterns that affect child development. PMID:27134406

  4. Screening preschool children for fine motor skills: environmental influence.

    PubMed

    Comuk-Balci, Nilay; Bayoglu, Birgul; Tekindal, Agah; Kerem-Gunel, Mintaze; Anlar, Banu

    2016-03-01

    [Purpose] The aim of this study was to investigate the influence of gender and family factors on performance in the fine motor domain of the Denver II developmental screening test. [Subjects and Methods] Data were obtained from 2038 healthy children, 999 boys (49%) and 1039 girls (51%) in four age groups: 0-24 months (57%), 25-40 months (21.1%), 41-56 months (10.4%), and 57-82 months (11.5%). [Results] Female gender, higher maternal age, especially in children older than 24 months, and higher maternal education were associated with earlier accomplishment of fine motor items. Higher socioeconomic status was correlated with fine motor skills more noticeably at young ages. [Conclusion] The results of this study support the role of environmental factors in the interpretation of fine motor test results and point to target groups for intervention, such as infants in the low socioeconomic group and preschool children of less educated mothers. Studies in different populations may reveal particular patterns that affect child development. PMID:27134406

  5. Social Competence and Behavior Problems in Preschool Children

    PubMed Central

    Farrokhi, Farahman; Farajian, Fathemeh

    2012-01-01

    Objective This study examines development of social competence, and behavior problems in kindergarten children during a specific period of childhood. Method A sample of 499 kindergarten children (244 girls and 255 boys) with the age range of 2 years up to 5 years and 6 months was selected using the random stratified sampling method. To collect data, California Preschool Social Competence Scale and Social Skills Rating System were completed by kindergarten teachers. Results The trend analysis shows that both the linear and quadratic trends for verbal facility were statistically significant. Similarly, both the linear and cubic trends were significant for considerateness, and the linear trend tendency was significant for subscales of extraversion, response to unfamiliar and task orientation. Pearson's correlation coefficient yielded a low-to-moderate and negative correlation patterns between social component and problem behaviors. Conclusion The study findings indicate a significant linear trend between the progression in social competence and increasing age, consequently leading to a decrease in social problems for children whose age was from 2 years up to 5 years and 6 months. PMID:23139694

  6. Analyzing Efficiency of Two Different Methods Involving Acquisition of Operational Skills by Preschool Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Soydan, Sema

    2015-01-01

    This study, an education program was developed to improve addition-subtraction skills of 6-year old children using educational toys and smart boards. The program was implemented with children, and its effects on their operational skills were analysed. The study group of the research is composed of 90 children who attended preschool classes in…

  7. Secondary Preventive Interventions with Preschool Children: A Follow-up Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rickel, Annette U.; Dyhdalo, Louise L.

    The long term effects of a preschool intervention program for an experimental group of high-risk, black, low income children were assessed and compared to a high-risk placebo control group and low-risk "normal" controls. Seventy first grade children were involved in this 2-year follow-up study. Of these children, 42 were involved in the preschool…

  8. Effective Behavior Management in Preschool Classrooms and Children's Task Orientation: Enhancing Emergent Literacy and Language Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dobbs-Oates, Jennifer; Kaderavek, Joan N.; Guo, Ying; Justice, Laura M.

    2011-01-01

    This study investigated the relations among preschool teachers' behavior management, children's task orientation, and children's emergent literacy and language development, as well as the extent to which task orientation moderated the relation between teachers' behavior management and children's emergent literacy and language development.…

  9. Developing Preschool Deaf Children's Language and Literacy Learning from an Educational Media Series

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Golos, Debbie B.; Moses, Annie M.

    2013-01-01

    With the increase in research on multiliteracies comes greater interest in exploring multiple pathways of learning for deaf children. Educational media have been increasingly examined as a tool for facilitating the development of deaf children's language and literacy skills. The authors investigated whether preschool deaf children (N = 31)…

  10. Using Education, Exposure, and Environments to Increase Preschool Children's Knowledge about Fruit and Vegetables

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Niemeier, Brandi S.; Tande, Desiree L.; Hwang, Joyce; Stastny, Sherri; Hektner, Joel M.

    2010-01-01

    Because children's eating habits predict their adult eating habits, educating children about healthy foods is essential (U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, 2000). A Midwest Extension Service created and delivered an educational experience for preschool children to increase knowledge of fruits and vegetables. The knowledge assessment…

  11. Japanese and United States Preschool Children's Responses to Conflict and Distress.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zahn-Waxler, Carolyn; And Others

    1996-01-01

    Examined 30 Japanese and 30 American preschoolers' responses to hypothetical interpersonal dilemmas as a function of culture, gender, and maternal child rearing values. Found that American children showed more anger, more aggressive behavior and language, and underregulation of emotion than Japanese children. Children from both cultures appeared…

  12. Examining Mexican-Heritage Children's Representations of Relationships with Mothers and Teachers in Preschool

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vu, Jennifer A.; Howes, Carollee

    2012-01-01

    Using narrative story-completion tasks with a sample of 97 preschool-age Mexican-heritage children from a large urban area, the authors examined differences in children's representations about their mothers and teachers. The authors also looked at teachers' perceptions to determine whether teachers viewed children in the same way as children…

  13. Preschool Children's Turkish Language Skills Related to Various Variables (Sample of Denizli)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Onder, Alev; Gulay, Hulya

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this research is to study 5-6 years old preschool children's Turkish language skills related to various variables (socioeconomic status, profession of fathers, working of mothers, education levels of parents, numbers of siblings, age of children and gender of children) in Denizli. The sample of the research consisted of 223 (114…

  14. Developmental Profiles in Preschool Children with Autism Spectrum Disorders Referred for Intervention

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fernell, Elisabeth; Hedvall, Asa; Norrelgen, Fritiof; Eriksson, Mats; Hoglund-Carlsson, Lotta; Barnevik-Olsson, Martina; Svensson, Liselotte; Holm, Annette; Westerlund, Joakim; Gillberg, Christopher

    2010-01-01

    The aim was to characterize the panorama of developmental disorders in 208 preschool children with a clinical diagnosis of autism spectrum disorder (ASD), referred to a specialized centre, the Autism Centre for Young Children (ACYC), for intervention. At the centre, a research team examined all children according to structured protocols and…

  15. Characteristics of Disfluency Clusters over Time in Preschool Children Who Stutter

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sawyer, Jean; Yairi, Ehud

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: Disfluency clusters in preschool children were analyzed to determine whether they occurred at rates above chance, whether they changed over time, and whether they could differentiate children who would later persist in, or recover from, stuttering. Method: Thirty-two children recruited near stuttering onset were grouped on the basis of…

  16. AN EVALUATION OF A PRESCHOOL TRAINING PROGRAM FOR CULTURALLY DEPRIVED CHILDREN. FINAL REPORT.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    TAMMINEN, ARMAS W.; AND OTHERS

    TO FIND OUT IF CULTURALLY DEPRIVED CHILDREN SHOW CHANGE IN ACADEMIC READINESS AS A RESULT OF SPECIAL PRESCHOOL PROGRAMS, 3 GROUPS OF CHILDREN (14 TO 17 IN EACH) IN 3 DULUTH SCHOOL AREAS WERE PRE- AND POSTTESTED WITH THE STANFORD-BINET AND SRA PRIMARY MENTAL ABILITIES TESTS. A CONTROL GROUP OF 30 CHILDREN FROM THE SAME 3 SCHOOL AREAS WERE GIVEN THE…

  17. Sleep Problems, Sleepiness and Daytime Behavior in Preschool-Age Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goodlin-Jones, Beth; Tang, Karen; Liu, Jingyi; Anders, Thomas F.

    2009-01-01

    Background: Sleep problems are a common complaint of parents of preschool children. Children with neurodevelopmental disorders have even more disrupted sleep than typically developing children. Although disrupted nighttime sleep has been reported to affect daytime behavior, the pathway from sleep disruption to sleep problems, to impairments in…

  18. Sensori-Motor and Daily Living Skills of Preschool Children with Autism Spectrum Disorders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jasmin, Emmanuelle; Couture, Melanie; McKinley, Patricia; Reid, Greg; Fombonne, Eric; Gisel, Erika

    2009-01-01

    Sensori-motor development and performance of daily living skills (DLS) remain little explored in children with autism spectrum disorders (ASD). The objective of this study was to determine the impact of sensori-motor skills on the performance of DLS in preschool children with ASD. Thirty-five children, 3-4 years of age, were recruited and assessed…

  19. Children with Autism Spectrum Disorders Who Do Not Develop Phrase Speech in the Preschool Years

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Norrelgen, Fritjof; Fernell, Elisabeth; Eriksson, Mats; Hedvall, Asa; Persson, Clara; Sjölin, Maria; Gillberg, Christopher; Kjellmer, Liselotte

    2015-01-01

    There is uncertainty about the proportion of children with autism spectrum disorders who do not develop phrase speech during the preschool years. The main purpose of this study was to examine this ratio in a population-based community sample of children. The cohort consisted of 165 children (141 boys, 24 girls) with autism spectrum disorders aged…

  20. A Three Day Dietary Survey of Piute Preschool Children in Inyo County, Calif.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lewis, Jane S.; And Others

    As part of a longitudinal study of Piute Indian children being conducted by Children's Hospital, Los Angeles, 3-day dietary-intake records of 23 Piute Indian preschool children in Inyo County, California, were analyzed according to 4 food groups. As reported, results indicated that 5 or 6 food groups should be used if intake results of vitamins C…

  1. Relations among Preschool Children's Understanding of Visual Perspective Taking, False Belief, and Lying

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bigelow, Ann E.; Dugas, Kevin

    2008-01-01

    This study investigated the relations among preschool children's ability to understand that other people see things differently than they do, that other people can believe things differently than the children know to be true, and that they can manipulate others' beliefs through intentional lying. Children between the ages of 3 and 5 were given…

  2. Family Television Viewing Habits and the Spontaneous Play of Pre-School Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Singer, Dorothy G.; Singer, Jerome L.

    This research study examined ways in which exposure to a children's television show (Misterogers' Neighborhood) would enhance the spontaneous imaginative play of children after several weeks. The project, which is detailed extensively elsewhere, involved a comparison of three groups of preschool children in a day care center who either: (1)…

  3. Evaluating Preschool Children Knowledge about Healthy Lifestyle: Preliminary Examination of the Healthy Lifestyle Evaluation Instrument

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grammatikopoulos, Vasilis; Konstantinidou, Elisavet; Tsigilis, Nikolaos; Zachopoulou, Evridiki; Tsangaridou, Niki; Liukkonen, Jarmo

    2008-01-01

    The aim of this study was to develop an instrument to evaluate the knowledge of preschool children about healthy lifestyle behavior. The innovation was that the instrument was designed to get direct evidence about healthy lifestyle from children aged 4-6 years old. Usually, children knowledge is estimated indirectly (parents, teachers), but the…

  4. Preschool Latino Immigrant Children: Using the Home Language as a Resource for Literacy Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Soltero-Gonzalez, Lucinda

    2009-01-01

    This article explores the language and literacy practices of Latino immigrant children in preschool. In spite of the monolingual framework and the readiness emphasis of current educational language policies, children draw on their home language as a resource to literacy learning. The author argues that children's use of their home language is a…

  5. Mexican-American Mothers' Estimations of Their Preschool Children's Cognitive Performance. Final Technical Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Valencia, Richard R.; Cruz, Josue, Jr.

    A study investigated 261 Mexican American mothers' estimations of their preschool children's cognitive performance. Existing literature on parental estimations was reviewed. The McCarthy Scales of Children's Abilities (MSCA) were administered to 107 boys and 154 girls, ranging from 32 to 75 months of age. The children's mothers were then asked how…

  6. Summary of a Study of Father Fantasies of Preschool Children with Nonresident Fathers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Michaels, Carol S.

    Preschool children's fantasy views of their fathers who had left home before the children were 3 years of age were investigated by trained observers during three separate 20-minute doll play sessions conducted within 12 consecutive school days. Ninety-six pairs of black, white, and hispanic mothers and children ranging in age from 5 to…

  7. Usability by Raters of the Barber Scales of Self-Regard for Preschool Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barber, Lucie W.; Barton, Kimberly

    The seven Barber Scales of Self-Regard for Preschool Children were developed to provide instruments for assessing levels of development for individual children. The purpose of this study was to probe into the question of whether or not raters (mothers, fathers, teachers) had difficulties rating children on the scales. Two sources of evidence were…

  8. Sustained Selective Attention Skills of Preschool Children with Specific Language Impairment: Evidence for Separate Attentional Capacities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Spaulding, Tammie J.; Plante, Elena; Vance, Rebecca

    2008-01-01

    Purpose: The present study was designed to investigate the performance of preschool children with specific language impairment (SLI) and their typically developing (TD) peers on sustained selective attention tasks. Method: This study included 23 children diagnosed with SLI and 23 TD children matched for age, gender, and maternal education level.…

  9. The Effects of Secure Attachments on Preschool Children's Conflict Management Skills.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kesner, John

    This study examined the relationship between the security of children's attachment relationships to parents and teachers and how children negotiate and manage conflicts. Sixty-six preschool-aged children participated in story completion tasks regarding their attachment relationship with parents and teachers, and in hypothetical situations…

  10. The Assessment of Preschool Children's Participation: Internal Consistency and Construct Validity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Law, Mary; King, Gillian; Petrenchik, Theresa; Kertoy, Marilyn; Anaby, Dana

    2012-01-01

    Participation in activities provides the means for young children to learn, play, develop skills, and develop a sense of personal identity. The Assessment of Preschool Children's Participation (APCP) is a newly developed measure to capture the participation of children aged 2 to 5 years and 11 months in the areas of play, skill development, active…

  11. The Relationship between Motor Skill Proficiency and Body Mass Index in Preschool Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Logan, Samuel W.; Scrabis-Fletcher, Kristin; Modlesky, Christopher; Getchell, Nancy

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the relationship between motor proficiency and body mass index (BMI) in preschool children. Thirty-eight children ages 4-6 years had their BMI calculated and were assessed using the Movement Assessment Battery for Children-2 (MABC-2; Henderson, Sugden, & Barnett, 2007). These data were analyzed in two ways.…

  12. Oceans of Meaning: Using Children's Ideas as Content in Preschool Teaching.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pramling, Ingrid

    The experience-oriented approach to early childhood learning assumes that the way children see, understand, and conceptualize is more basic than skills and knowledge, and that preschools should systematically work on developing children's awareness of different phenomena in the world around them. Content areas in this approach foster children's:…

  13. Investing in Our Children: A Plan to Expand Access to Preschool and Child Care

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, Cynthia G.; Cooper, Donna; Herman, Juliana; Lazarín, Melissa; Linden, Michael; Post, Sasha; Tanden, Neera

    2013-01-01

    This issue brief presents a plan to expand educational opportunities and care for children ages 0-5 years old by investing significant federal dollars to: (1) Make high-quality preschool universally accessible to all 3- and 4-year-old children; and (2) Enable more lower-income families to afford child care for children ages 0-3 years old. These…

  14. Effects of Language Learning Interventions in Pre-School Children: A Longitudinal Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gasteiger-Klicpera, B.; Knapp, W.; Kucharz, D.; Schabmann, A.; Schmidt, B.

    2009-01-01

    The aim of the present contribution is to evaluate and discuss the impacts of language learning interventions in pre-school children with German as a first or a second language. The sample consisted of 864 children in intervention groups and 294 children as a comparison group within two successive cohorts. The instruments used were the SSV (Grimm…

  15. Coping Strategies in Mothers and Fathers of Preschool and School-Age Children with Autism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hastings, Richard P.; Kovshoff, Hanna; Brown, Tony; Ward, Nicholas J.; Espinosa, Francesca Degli; Remington, Bob

    2005-01-01

    Despite the theoretical and demonstrated empirical significance of parental coping strategies for the wellbeing of families of children with disabilities, relatively little research has focused explicitly on coping in mothers and fathers of children with autism. In the present study, 89 parents of preschool children and 46 parents of school-age…

  16. Expressed Emotion Displayed by the Mothers of Inhibited and Uninhibited Preschool-Aged Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Raishevich, Natoshia; Kennedy, Susan J.; Rapee, Ronald M.

    2010-01-01

    In the current study, the Five Minute Speech Sample was used to assess the association between parent attitudes and children's behavioral inhibition in mothers of 120 behaviorally inhibited (BI) and 37 behaviorally uninhibited preschool-aged children. Mothers of BI children demonstrated significantly higher levels of emotional over-involvement…

  17. A Review of Parent Interventions for Preschool Children's Language and Emergent Literacy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reese, Elaine; Sparks, Alison; Leyva, Diana

    2010-01-01

    It is well known that children's language development lays the foundation for their literacy development, though it is difficult for preschool teachers alone to consistently engage in the individual interactions necessary to boost children's language skills. Given that parents are their children's first teachers, it is imperative to consider how…

  18. Enhancing the Early Reading Skills: Examining the Print Features of Preschool Children's Book

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cetin, Ozlem Simsek; Bay, Neslihan

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to examine the uses of print features in preschool children's books in the US and Turkey, in order to helping adults to understand print features and supporting children's print awareness. In this context, two hundred children's books was randomly selected from the US and Turkey. Document analysis was used for…

  19. Validating the Language Domain Subtest in a Developmental Assessment Scale for Preschool Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wong, Anita M. -Y.; Leung, Cynthia; Siu, Elaine K. -L.; Lam, Catherine C. -C.

    2012-01-01

    This study reports on the validation of the language domain subtest of a developmental assessment scale for Cantonese Chinese preschool children. Three hundred and seventy eight multi-stage randomly selected children between 3;4 and 6;3 years of age were tested on the 104-item subtest. Fifty-four of these children, spreading across three age…

  20. Scaffolding Preschool Children's Problem Solving: A Comparison between Chinese Mothers and Teachers across Multiple Tasks

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sun, Jin; Rao, Nirmala

    2012-01-01

    This study compared Chinese mothers' and teachers' scaffolding of preschool children in different problem solving tasks. Participants were 57 children (including 29 girls) from seven kindergartens in Beijing, their mothers and teachers. Mothers varied in educational levels while all teachers were professionally qualified. Children solved four…

  1. Play and Joint Attention of Children with Autism in the Preschool Special Education Classroom

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wong, Connie; Kasari, Connie

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine play and joint attention in children with autism (n = 27) as compared to children with other developmental delays (n = 28) in public preschool special education classrooms. The participants were observed in their classroom environment for 2 h over 3 separate days. Results show that children with autism…

  2. The Selection of Children from Low-Income Families into Preschool

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Crosnoe, Robert; Purtell, Kelly M.; Davis-Kean, Pamela; Ansari, Arya; Benner, Aprile D.

    2016-01-01

    Because children from low-income families benefit from preschool but are less likely than other children to enroll, identifying factors that promote their enrollment can support research and policy aiming to reduce socioeconomic disparities in education. In this study, we tested an accommodations model with data on 6,250 children in the Early…

  3. Child-Child Interactions and Positive Social Focus among Preschool Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Naerland, Terje; Martinsen, Harald

    2011-01-01

    This study is based on video-recorded observations of 64 children during free play at their nursery. A measure of "social focus" in the preschool, regarded as an indicator of social status, was constructed from the amount of positive and neutral contacts children received from their peers. Only six children often received positive or neutral…

  4. An Inclusion Initiative in Singapore for Preschool Children with Special Needs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yeo, Lay See; Neihart, Maureen; Tang, Hui Nee; Chong, Wan Har; Huan, Vivien S.

    2011-01-01

    This paper describes a preschool inclusion initiative in Singapore, which currently has no mandate for integrating children with special needs in mainstream schools. This very small-scale qualitative study involving children with mild learning disabilities discusses a therapy outreach programme by a local children's hospital. It explores the…

  5. Understanding the Learning Style of Pre-School Children Learning the Violin

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Calissendorff, Maria

    2006-01-01

    The aim of the study was to acquire a deeper understanding of how small children learn an instrument in the presence of their parents. It is qualitative in nature and concerned six pre-school children (five years old) who were learning the violin together and where their parents were present at the lessons. All the children's homes were visited…

  6. Children's Collective Activities and Peer Culture in Early Literacy in American and Italian Preschools.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Corsaro, William A.; Nelson, Elizabeth

    2003-01-01

    Examines American and Italian children's early literacy awareness and activities in preschools. Reveals that children take literacy activities and knowledge from formal lessons and then use, refine, and extend these activites with peers. Considers implications of these findings for theoretical work on children's peer cultures and development of…

  7. A Classroom-Home Language Intervention Program for Preschool Children "At Risk" for Language/Learning Disabilities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Quin, Paul E.; And Others

    The Children's Language Institute Preschool Project developed a successful classroom-home language intervention program for mildly to mildly-to-moderately language-impaired preschool children. An overview of the project, its rationale, and its results in terms of positive change in families and children are described. This volume is designed to…

  8. Ecological Influences of the Home and the Child-Care Center on Preschool-Age Children's Literacy Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weigel, Daniel J.; Martin, Sally S.; Bennett, Kymberley K.

    2005-01-01

    Based on ecological theory, this study examined how four components of children's home and child-care literacy environments, and the connections between these environments, were associated with preschool-age children's literacy and language development. Interview and standardized assessment data were collected from 85 preschool-age children, their…

  9. Two-Year Study of Northwest Regional Center's Summer Sessions for Preschool, Rubella, Deaf-Blind Children. Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Starkovich, Paul

    The report describes the Summer Sessions for Preschool, Rubella, Deaf-Blind Children conducted in 1970 and 1971 by the Northwest Regional Center for Deaf-Blind Children in Vancouver, Washington. The summer programs were primarily designed to evaluate preschool deaf-blind children in a learning and living situation. The report is intended not only…

  10. How is This Child Feeling? Preschool-Aged Children's Ability to Recognize Emotion in Faces and Body Poses

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Parker, Alison E.; Mathis, Erin T.; Kupersmidt, Janis B.

    2013-01-01

    Research Findings: The study examined children's recognition of emotion from faces and body poses, as well as gender differences in these recognition abilities. Preschool-aged children ("N" = 55) and their parents and teachers participated in the study. Preschool-aged children completed a web-based measure of emotion recognition skills that…

  11. Does the Brown Banana Have a Beak? Preschool Children's Phonological Awareness as a Function of Parents' Talk about Speech Sounds

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reese, Elaine; Robertson, Sarah-Jane; Divers, Sarah; Schaughency, Elizabeth

    2015-01-01

    Children's phonological awareness develops rapidly in the preschool years and is an important contributor to later reading skill. This study addresses the role of parents' talk in preschool children's phonological awareness development. A community sample of 27 parents and their 3- to 4-year-old children participated in a new "Sound…

  12. Drama Education on the Creative Thinking Skills of 61-72 Months Old Pre-School Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yasar, Munevver Can; Aral, Neriman

    2012-01-01

    This study aims to identify six-year-old pre-school children's creative thinking skill levels and to establish whether there is a difference between the creative thinking skills of children who received drama education and those who did not. The population of the study consisted of six-year-old children who were attending pre-school classes of…

  13. "I have a Preschool Buddy." Exploring the Role of High School Students in Facilitating the Pre-Academic Skills and Social Development of Preschool Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, Mark Steven

    2005-01-01

    The purpose of this research is to explore the role of a director of a preschool program who mentors and trains high school students to teach and work directly with preschool children in the context of individual lessons, small group activities, and large group instruction. This participant-observer research study also examines how the director…

  14. Body awareness in preschool children with psychiatric disorder.

    PubMed

    Simons, J; Leitschuh, C; Raymaekers, A; Vandenbussche, I

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the body awareness of preschool children with a psychiatric disorder as measured by the test imitation of gestures (Bergès & Lézine, 1978), using the subsections for pointing to body parts (passive vocabulary) and naming body parts (active vocabulary). Seventy-seven children from 37 to 72 months of age with psychiatric disorders and 67 children without psychiatric disorders were matched for age and sex. A MANOVA indicated no significant interaction effects on the results between the sexes in the psychiatric group and the control group for passive vocabulary (F(1,150)=.59, p≥0.05) or for active vocabulary (F(1,150)=.61, p≥0.05). An ANOVA was conducted to determine the differences between the boys and girls for passive and active vocabulary, and the differences between the psychiatric group and the control group for passive and active vocabulary. No significant differences between the boys and girls for passive vocabulary (F(1,150)=1.968, p≥0.05) and active vocabulary (F(1,150)=1.57, p≥0.05) were found. There was a significant difference between the psychiatric and the control group for passive vocabulary (F(1,150)=9.511, p=0.002) and active vocabulary (F(1,150)=16.18, p=0.00009). The study provides support for the presence of language disorders associated with active and passive body awareness in children with psychiatric disorders compared to typically developing children. PMID:21435833

  15. Name-writing proficiency, not length of name, is associated with preschool children's emergent literacy skills.

    PubMed

    Puranik, Cynthia S; Lonigan, Christopher J

    2012-06-01

    The goals of this study were twofold: first, to examine whether preschool children's name-writing proficiency differentiated them on other emergent reading and writing tasks, and second, to examine the effect of name length on preschool children's emergent literacy skills including alphabet knowledge and spelling. In study 1, a range of emergent literacy tasks was administered to 296 preschool children aged 4-5 years. The more advanced name writers outperformed the less advanced name writers on all emergent literacy measures. Furthermore, children with longer names did not show superior performance compared to children with shorter names. In study 2, four measures of alphabet knowledge and spelling were administered to 104 preschool children. Once again, the more advanced name writers outperformed the less advanced name writers on the alphabet knowledge and spelling measures. Results indicated that having longer names did not translate into an advantage on the alphabet knowledge and spelling tasks. Name writing proficiency, not length of name appears to be associated with preschool children's developing emergent literacy skills. Name writing reflects knowledge of some letters rather than a broader knowledge of letters that may be needed to support early spelling. PMID:22523450

  16. A Qualitative Study on Turkish Preschool Children's Environmental Attitudes Through Ecocentrism and Anthropocentrism

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kahriman-Ozturk, Deniz; Olgan, Refika; Tuncer, Gaye

    2012-03-01

    This study explores preschool children's attitudes towards environmental issues with a focus on the issue of gender as a factor affecting their attitudes. The study sample comprised 40 preschool age children living in Ankara, Turkey. The research adopted a qualitative approach, and the data were collected through interviews in which a questionnaire was administered. The interview questionnaire was adapted from 'The Children's Attitudes Toward the Environment Scale-Preschool Version' which contains 15 interview questions and sub-questions. The findings of our study indicate that most of the 5-6-year-old children initially appear to have ecocentric attitudes towards environmental issues in all the dimensions. However, when the children explained their reasons for choosing one of the two pictures, their responses were evaluated as emanating from anthropocentric attitudes. No difference in the attitudes of the preschool children was detected in relation to their gender. In conclusion, this study shows that the educational programmes at the preschool stage need to be broadened and improved, particularly in the provision of outdoor study in natural settings for the children to develop a more ecocentric attitude towards the environment.

  17. Word learning and phonetic processing in preschool-age children.

    PubMed

    Havy, Mélanie; Bertoncini, Josiane; Nazzi, Thierry

    2011-01-01

    Consonants and vowels have been shown to play different relative roles in different processes, including retrieving known words from pseudowords during adulthood or simultaneously learning two phonetically similar pseudowords during infancy or toddlerhood. The current study explores the extent to which French-speaking 3- to 5-year-olds exhibit a so-called "consonant bias" in a task simulating word acquisition, that is, when learning new words for unfamiliar objects. In Experiment 1, the to-be-learned words differed both by a consonant and a vowel (e.g., /byf/-/duf/), and children needed to choose which of the two objects to associate with a third one whose name differed from both objects by either a consonant or a vowel (e.g., /dyf/). In such a conflict condition, children needed to favor (or neglect) either consonant information or vowel information. The results show that only 3-year-olds preferentially chose the consonant identity, thereby neglecting the vowel change. The older children (and adults) did not exhibit any response bias. In Experiment 2, children needed to pick up one of two objects whose names differed on either consonant information or vowel information. Whereas 3-year-olds performed better with pairs of pseudowords contrasting on consonants, the pattern of asymmetry was reversed in 4-year-olds, and 5-year-olds did not exhibit any significant response bias. Interestingly, girls showed overall better performance and exhibited earlier changes in performance than boys. The changes in consonant/vowel asymmetry in preschoolers are discussed in relation with developments in linguistic (lexical and morphosyntactic) and cognitive processing. PMID:20850758

  18. How low-income mothers with overweight preschool children make sense of obesity.

    PubMed

    Hughes, Cayce C; Sherman, Susan N; Whitaker, Robert C

    2010-04-01

    Epidemiologic and qualitative studies have found that most mothers with overweight preschool children do not think their children are overweight. This might present a challenge for clinicians who wish to address obesity in young children. To understand mothers' perceptions of their overweight children's weight, we conducted semistructured interviews with 21 mothers of overweight preschool children enrolled in Kentucky's Special Supplemental Nutrition Program for Women, Infants, and Children. Although these mothers did not label their children as overweight, they were worried about children's weight, particularly as it related to their emotional well-being. These worries about obesity were reflected in three central tensions that shaped the way mothers perceived their children's weight and informed maternal feeding strategies: (a) nature vs. nurture, (b) medical authority vs. lived experience, and (c) relieving immediate stress vs. preventing long-term consequences. Acknowledging mothers' concerns and tensions might help clinicians communicate more effectively with them about obesity. PMID:20147505

  19. Education of Immigrant Children at the Pre-School Level in Sweden: An Empirical Study of How the Education of Immigrant Children Is Conducted in Practice.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pavlovskaia, Evguenia

    This study examines the education of immigrant preschool children in Sweden, focusing on native language instruction, Swedish instruction, cultural awareness, parent participation, and teacher preparation for working with immigrant students. Data collection involved observation of preschool classes and interviews with teachers at one preschool and…

  20. Metaphors as Second Labels: Difficult for Preschool Children?

    PubMed

    Rubio-Fernández, Paula; Grassmann, Susanne

    2016-08-01

    This study investigates the development of two cognitive abilities that are involved in metaphor comprehension: implicit analogical reasoning and assigning an unconventional label to a familiar entity (as in Romeo's 'Juliet is the sun'). We presented 3- and 4-year-old children with literal object-requests in a pretense setting (e.g., 'Give me the train with the hat'). Both age-groups succeeded in a baseline condition that used building blocks as props (e.g., placed either on the front or the rear of a train engine) and only required spatial analogical reasoning to interpret the referential expression. Both age-groups performed significantly worse in the critical condition, which used familiar objects as props (e.g., small dogs as pretend hats) and required both implicit analogical reasoning and assigning second labels. Only the 4-year olds succeeded in this condition. These results offer a new perspective on young children's difficulties with metaphor comprehension in the preschool years. PMID:26162307