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1

Media's Positive and Negative Frames in Reporting Celebrity Deaths From Illegal Drug Overdoses Versus Prescription Drug Overdoses  

E-print Network

This study compared the celebrity illegal drug overdose deaths of River Phoenix, Chris Farley, and Brad Renfro to the prescription drug overdose deaths of Anna Nicole Smith, Heath Ledger, and Brittany Murphy. This research used quantitative...

Wood, Michelle

2011-12-31

2

CDC grand rounds: prescription drug overdoses - a U.S. epidemic.  

PubMed

In 2007, approximately 27,000 unintentional drug overdose deaths occurred in the United States, one death every 19 minutes. Prescription drug abuse is the fastest growing drug problem in the United States. The increase in unintentional drug overdose death rates in recent years has been driven by increased use of a class of prescription drugs called opioid analgesics. Since 2003, more overdose deaths have involved opioid analgesics than heroin and cocaine combined. In addition, for every unintentional overdose death related to an opioid analgesic, nine persons are admitted for substance abuse treatment, 35 visit emergency departments, 161 report drug abuse or dependence, and 461 report nonmedical uses of opioid analgesics. Implementing strategies that target those persons at greatest risk will require strong coordination and collaboration at the federal, state, local, and tribal levels, as well as engagement of parents, youth influencers, health-care professionals, and policy-makers. PMID:22237030

2012-01-13

3

Overdose Rate of Drugs Requiring Renal Dose Adjustment: Data Analysis of 4 Years Prescriptions at a Tertiary Teaching Hospital  

PubMed Central

OBJECTIVE To determine the overdose rate of drugs that require renal dose adjustment and factors related with overdose. SUBJECTS Total of 23,635,210 records of prescriptions and laboratory data of inpatients at a tertiary teaching hospital for the period from January 2002 to December 2005. METHODS A clinical data mart was constructed. A knowledge base containing dose adjusting information about 56 drugs was built. One day dose was compared to the reference dose adjusted to the patient’s renal function. RESULTS Considering the patient’s renal function, 5.3% of drug doses were excessive. The overdose rate in the patients with moderate to severe renal insufficiency was 28.2%. Only 25% of physicians were responsible for 50.6% of the overdoses. Of 56 drugs studied, 10 drugs, including ranitidine, amoxicillin, and piperacillin/tazobactam, were involved in 85.4% of the overdoses. The physicians with high overdose rate had patients with more impaired renal function (correlation coefficient?=?0.192, P?overdose rate (correlation coefficient?=??0.221, P?prescription (correlation coefficient?=??0.446, P?prescription and overdose rate (correlation coefficient?=?0.361, P?Drug overdose is quite common among inpatients with renal insufficiency. Only a few drugs are responsible for most of drug overdoses. The physicians’ clinical experience, workload of prescriptions, and patients’ renal function are correlated with drug overdose. PMID:18373140

Sheen, Seung Soo; Choi, Ji Eun; Kim, Eun Yub; Lee, Young Ho; Kang, Un Gu

2008-01-01

4

CDC Vital Signs: Prescription Painkiller Overdoses in the US  

MedlinePLUS

... overdoses. Rates of prescription painkiller sales, deaths and substance abuse treatment admissions (1999-2010) Read text version SOURCES: ... health care providers and the public about prescription drug abuse and overdose. Developing, evaluating and promoting programs and ...

5

Factors associated with history of non-fatal overdose among young nonmedical users of prescription drugs  

PubMed Central

Objectives The current study examines the prevalence and correlates of lifetime non-fatal overdose (OD) involving the nonmedical use of prescription opioids and tranquilizers among a sample of high-risk young adults in New York, NY and Los Angeles, CA. Methods Data were derived from a cross-sectional study of 16–25 year old nonmedical users of prescription drugs (n = 596). Unadjusted associations between OD history and socio-demographic and drug use variables were investigated in bivariate logistic regression models. Multivariate logistic regression models identified correlates of non-fatal OD. Results Lifetime prevalence of non-fatal overdose involving prescription opioids and/or tranquilizers was 23.6%. Factors associated with increased risk of non-fatal overdose included lower social class while growing up (OR: 1.81, 95% CI: [1.15, 2.83], p < 0.01), having ever received care at a psychiatric hospital (OR: 1.79,95% CI: [1.12,2.85], p <0.05), ever witnessing a family member OD on drugs (OR: 1.59,95% CI: [1.02,2.50], p < 0.05), being prescribed tranquilizers (OR: 2.07,95% CI: [1.29,4.27], p < 0.01), ever snorting or sniffing opioids (OR: 2.51,95% CI: [1.48,4.27], p < 0.001), injecting tranquilizers (OR: 3.09,95% CI: [1.61, 5.93],p< 0.001), and past 90-day injection drug use (OR: 1.68, 95% CI: [1.03, 2.74], p < 0.05). Participants who reported past 90-day stimulant misuse had lower odds of reporting OD compared to those who were not recent stimulant users (OR: 0.60,95% CI: [0.38–0.96], p < 0.05). Conclusions This study documents the high prevalence of experiencing non-fatal overdose among young nonmedical users of prescription drugs. Results could inform overdose prevention efforts throughout the U.S. PMID:22974490

Silva, Karol; Schrager, Sheree M.; Kecojevic, Aleksandar; Lankenau, Stephen E.

2014-01-01

6

Drug Overdose Deaths, Hospitalizations,  

E-print Network

Drug Overdose Deaths, Hospitalizations, and Emergency Department Visits in Kentucky, 2000 - 2012 #12; Kentucky Injury Preven on and Research Center Drug Overdose Deaths, Hospitaliza ons . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2 Drug overdose deaths, 20002012

MacAdam, Keith

7

Prescription Drug Abuse in Texas: Mortality and Its Economic Consequences.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Prescription drug overdose mortality is documented and its economic consequences estimated for Texas in 1978. Drug-related deaths (N=117 out of 397) were due to the use of barbiturates, tranquilizers, and anti-depressants; 85 to mixing drugs. The economic cost of mortality exceeded $43 million, 32 percent of prescription drug overdose. (Author)

Harlow, Kirk; Swint, J. Michael

1981-01-01

8

Prescription Drug Abuse: An Epidemic Dilemma  

Microsoft Academic Search

The nonmedical use of prescribed controlled substances has become a major public health problem. This article reviews the extent of prescription drug abuse reflected in drug overdose deaths, youth drug use and drug-impaired driving. Efforts to reduce illegal, nonmedical use of prescribed controlled drugs must be balanced so as not to interfere with appropriate medical use of these medicines. Future

Robert L. DuPont

2010-01-01

9

Overdose prevention for injection drug users: Lessons learned from naloxone training and distribution programs in New York City  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Fatal heroin overdose is a significant cause of mortality for injection drug users (IDUs). Many of these deaths are preventable because opiate overdoses can be quickly and safely reversed through the injection of Naloxone [brand name Narcan], a prescription drug used to revive persons who have overdosed on heroin or other opioids. Currently, in several cities in the United

Tinka Markham Piper; Sasha Rudenstine; Sharon Stancliff; Susan Sherman; Vijay Nandi; Allan Clear; Sandro Galea

2007-01-01

10

Prescription drug control and dispensing.  

PubMed

This paper is formulated to discuss the issues of prescription drug control and dispensing, particularly as it relates to the problem of drug abuse in general, which is the purview of the Committee on Drugs, The issues are several: 1. The large morbidity and mortality associated with the use of prescription and nonprescription drugs in this country. 2. The issue of recreational use of drugs, most important numerically being alcohol, and the many other drugs which are both licit and illicit, primarily illicit. 3. The issue of drug addition and how to prevent and treat it. 4. The issue of law enforcement with regard to both illicit drugs and the diversion of licit drugs and the increasing mortality associated with the trafficking and law enforcement of drug abuse. 5. The issue of restricting the rational use of medicines. The question of whether a governmental system which totally proscribes certain drugs and provides extreme restrictions on the prescription of others will reduce deaths and morbidity is an open one. There seems little doubt that our country has extremely prohibitive and restrictive laws and yet has a huge mortality associated with distribution networks of illicit drugs and also more than ten thousand deaths a year from drug overdose. PMID:2308488

1990-01-01

11

Prescription Drug Abuse  

MedlinePLUS

... what the doctor prescribed, it is called prescription drug abuse. It could be Taking a medicine that ... purpose, such as getting high Abusing some prescription drugs can lead to addiction. These include narcotic painkillers, ...

12

Prescription Drug Assistance Programs  

MedlinePLUS

... saved articles window. My Saved Articles » My ACS » Prescription Drug Assistance Programs Download Printable Version [PDF] » ( En español ) ... Click on the topics below to get started. Prescription Drug Assistance Programs To get help paying for your ...

13

Medicare Prescription Drug Coverage  

MedlinePLUS

Part D is the name of Medicare's prescription drug coverage. It's insurance that helps people pay for prescription drugs. It is available to everyone who has Medicare. It provides protection if you ...

14

Late Brain Recovery Processes after Drug Overdose  

PubMed Central

Though recovery of consciousness after drug overdose may occur within a day or two, the drug itself may not finally leave the brain for another one to three weeks, and at this late time a withdrawal syndrome can occur, with insomnia, restlessness, raised paradoxical (R.E.M.) sleep, epileptic phenomena, and even delirium. It is proposed that a high degree of drug-tolerance and dependence can be rapidly acquired after overdose. Abnormal sleep features of 10 patients resolved only slowly over a period of up to two months after overdose. The data support the view that R.E.M. sleep is concerned with processes of brain repair. PMID:4317051

Haider, Ijaz; Oswald, Ian

1970-01-01

15

Drug overdose deaths--Florida, 2003-2009.  

PubMed

In the United States in 2007, unintentional poisonings were the second leading cause of injury death (after motor-vehicle crashes); approximately 93% of all unintentional poisoning deaths were caused by drug poisoning, also known as drug overdose. From 1990 to 2001 in Florida, the nonsuicidal poisoning death rate increased 325%. To characterize recent trends in drug overdose death rates in Florida, CDC analyzed data from the Florida Medical Examiners Commission. This report summarizes the results of that analysis, which found that, from 2003 to 2009, the number of annual deaths in which medical examiner testing showed lethal concentrations of one or more drugs increased 61.0%, from 1,804 to 2,905, and the death rate increased 47.5%, from 10.6 to 15.7 per 100,000 population. During 2003-2009, death rates increased for all substances except cocaine and heroin. The death rate for prescription drugs increased 84.2%, from 7.3 to 13.4 per 100,000 population. The greatest increase was observed in the death rate from oxycodone (264.6%), followed by alprazolam (233.8%) and methadone (79.2%). By 2009, the number of deaths involving prescription drugs was four times the number involving illicit drugs. These findings indicate the need to strengthen interventions aimed at reducing overdose deaths from prescription drugs in Florida. Medical examiner records are a timely, population-based source for data regarding overdose deaths from specific drugs. The data in this report and subsequent analyses can be used to design and measure the effectiveness of interventions. PMID:21734633

2011-07-01

16

Prescription Drugs Online  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The cost of prescription drugs and related concerns have become issues in politics, and there is a growing interest in learning more about exactly how many American use the Internet to find out about prescription drugs, and additionally, how many Americans may be purchasing prescription drugs over the Internet. The Pew Internet & American Life Project has recently released a 17-page report (authored by Susannah Fox) that highlights the results of a 2200-person telephone survey that took place from May to June 2004 on just this subject. Some of the findings include the observation that close to 64 percent of American households contain a regular user of prescription drugs, and that approximately 26 percent of these households have used the Internet to look for information about prescription drugs. Perhaps the most interesting finding from the report is that 62 percent of Americans think purchasing prescription drugs online is less safe than purchasing them at a local pharmacy.

Fox, Susannah

2007-04-03

17

Prescription Drugs Online  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The cost of prescription drugs and related concerns have become issues in politics, and there is a growing interest in learning more about exactly how many American use the Internet to find out about prescription drugs, and additionally, how many Americans may be purchasing prescription drugs over the Internet. The Pew Internet & American Life Project has recently released a 17-page report (authored by Susannah Fox) that highlights the results of a 2200-person telephone survey that took place from May to June 2004 on just this subject. Some of the findings include the observation that close to 64 percent of American households contain a regular user of prescription drugs, and that approximately 26 percent of these households have used the Internet to look for information about prescription drugs. Perhaps the most interesting finding from the report is that 62 percent of Americans think purchasing prescription drugs online is less safe than purchasing them at a local pharmacy.

18

Prescription Drug Abuse  

MedlinePLUS

... more dangerous than people think. In fact, it's drug abuse. And it's just as illegal as taking street ... on the street like other illegal drugs. Prescription drug abuse continues to rise. In 2012, 24% of teens ...

19

Prescription Painkillers Fueling Overdose Cases in ERs, Study Finds  

MedlinePLUS

... class of medications that includes illegal drugs like heroin along with prescription painkillers like Percocet and Oxycontin. ... in 3 percent of cases in the study. Heroin alone was responsible for 16 percent of the ...

20

Late Brain Recovery Processes after Drug Overdose  

Microsoft Academic Search

Though recovery of consciousness after drug overdose may occur within a day or two, the drug itself may not finally leave the brain for another one to three weeks, and at this late time a withdrawal syndrome can occur, with insomnia, restlessness, raised paradoxical (R.E.M.) sleep, epileptic phenomena, and even delirium. It is proposed that a high degree of drug-tolerance

Ijaz Haider; Ian Oswald

1970-01-01

21

Prescription Drug Abuse  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article presents current statistics on nonmedical use of both categories of prescription medications by high school and college students. The incidence of nonmedical use of prescription medications continues to increase among high school and college students. Two categories of drugs that are commonly used for reasons other than those for…

Hamilton, Gloria J.

2009-01-01

22

Changes in the pattern of drug overdoses  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: To describe changes in the pattern of patients with drug overdoses hospitalized over the past two decades.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Design: Retrospective data review.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Setting: A 719-bed university-affiliated hospital.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Patients: All adults admitted to the hospital with drug overdoses in 1968, 1979, and 1989.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Primary outcome measures: Changes in demographics, drugs used, and discharge disposition.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Results: A majority of patients admitted with

Michael D. Stein; James Bonanno; Patricia S. O’Sullivan; Tom J. Wachtel

1993-01-01

23

Injection drug users trained by overdose prevention programs: Responses to witnessed overdoses  

PubMed Central

In response to the growing public health problem of drug overdose, community-based organizations have initiated overdose prevention programs (OPP), which distribute naloxone, an opioid antagonist, and teach overdose response techniques. Injection drug users (IDUs) have been targeted for this intervention due to their high risk for drug overdose. Limited research attention has focused on factors that may inhibit or prevent IDUs who have been trained by OPPs to undertake recommended response techniques when responding to a drug overdose. IDUs (n=30) trained by two OPPs in Los Angeles were interviewed in 2010–11 about responses to their most recently witnessed drug overdose using an instrument containing both open and closed-ended questions. Among the 30 witnessed overdose events, the victim recovered in 29 cases while the outcome was unknown in one case. Participants responded to overdoses using a variety of techniques taught by OPP. Injecting the victim with naloxone was the most common recommended response while other recommended responses included stimulating the victim with knuckles, calling 911, and giving rescue breathing. Barriers preventing participants from employing recommended response techniques in certain circumstances included prior successes using folk remedies to revive a victim, concerns over attracting police to the scene, and issues surrounding access to or use of naloxone. Practical solutions, such as developing booster sessions to augment OPP, are encouraged to increase the likelihood that trained participants respond to a drug overdose with the full range of recommended techniques. PMID:22847602

Lankenau, Stephen E.; Wagner, Karla D.; Silva, Karol; Kecojevic, Aleksander; Iverson, Ellen; McNeely, Miles; Kral, Alex H.

2012-01-01

24

Overdose experiences among injection drug users in Bangkok, Thailand  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Although previous studies have identified high levels of drug-related harm in Thailand, little is known about illicit drug overdose experiences among Thai drug users. We sought to investigate non-fatal overdose experiences and responses to overdose among a community-recruited sample of injection drug users (IDU) in Bangkok, Thailand. METHODS: Data for these analyses came from IDU participating in the Mit

M-J Milloy; Nadia Fairbairn; Kanna Hayashi; Paisan Suwannawong; Karyn Kaplan; Evan Wood; Thomas Kerr

2010-01-01

25

PRACTICAL APPROACH TO PRESCRIPTION DRUG MISUSE & DIVERSION TEMPLATE FOR ACTION  

E-print Network

PRACTICAL APPROACH TO PRESCRIPTION DRUG MISUSE & DIVERSION TEMPLATE FOR ACTION Physicians Follow. Law Enforcement Support "Drug Drop Off", return practices. Notify named physician when medications/LHIN Emergency Department data � e.g. pain information, overdose visits. Manufacturers Support data gathering (e

Haykin, Simon

26

Fatal toxicity of antidepressant drugs in overdose  

Microsoft Academic Search

A fatal toxicity index (deaths per million National Health Service prescriptions) was calculated for antidepressant drugs on sale during the years 1975-84 in England, Wales, and Scotland. The tricyclic drugs introduced before 1970 had a higher index than the mean for all the drugs studied (p less than 0.001). In this group the toxicity of amitriptyline, dibenzepin, desipramine, and dothiepin

S Cassidy; J Henry

1987-01-01

27

Preventing and Recognizing Prescription Drug Abuse  

MedlinePLUS

... Abuse » Preventing and recognizing prescription drug abuse Prescription Drug Abuse Email Facebook Twitter Preventing and recognizing prescription drug abuse To ensure proper medical care, patients should discuss ...

28

Prescription Drugs and Cold Medicines  

MedlinePLUS

... Cold Medicines Email Facebook Twitter What is Prescription Drug Abuse: Some medications have psychoactive (mind-altering) properties and, ... Treatment Locator or 1-800-662-HELP . Prescription Drug Abuse Learn what you can do to prevent medicine ...

29

Understanding Medicare Prescription Drug Coverage  

MedlinePLUS

... Medicare prescription drug plan that has a 5-star rating, you can sign up at any time ... the following: Enrollees receive a discount on brand-name prescription drugs covered by Medicare Part D. The ...

30

Toxicity awareness and unintended suicide in drug overdoses  

Microsoft Academic Search

The objective of this paper is to determine patients awareness of the toxicity of the drugs they overdose with, the source of these drugs, and whether they would have taken them had they been fully aware of their toxicity, and to examine the implications for prevention. A prospective review of one hundred consecutive overdoses admitted through an A&E department was

B P McNicholl

1992-01-01

31

What Are Some Commonly Abused Prescription Drugs?  

MedlinePLUS

... some of the commonly abused prescription drugs? Prescription Drug Abuse Email Facebook Twitter What are some of the ... 2011 Contents From the Director What is prescription drug abuse? What are some of the commonly abused prescription ...

32

Diclofenac sodium overdose  

MedlinePLUS

Diclofenac sodium is a prescription medicine used to relieve pain and swelling. It is a nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID). Diclofenac sodium overdose occurs when someone accidentally or intentionally ...

33

Importing prescription drugs: risky business.  

PubMed

As prescription drug costs continue to soar, some employee benefit plans are looking beyond U.S. borders. This article outlines the regulatory framework governing importation of prescription drugs from foreign countries, additional concerns raised by the fiduciary requirements of ERISA, and significant legislative proposals in Congress that seek to address the issue of the high cost of prescription drugs in the United States. PMID:14712740

Hassel, Lonie; Arzuaga, Patricia

2003-12-01

34

Calcium Channel Blockin Drug Overdose: an Australian Series  

Microsoft Academic Search

1 A descriptive case study of calcium channel-blocking drug (CCB) overdoses in the Hunter Region of NSW was performed to analyse the in-hospital morbidity and mortality of CCB drug overdoses in an Australian population.2 The patients were admitted to major hospitals within the Hunter Region and treated initially with gastrointestinal decontamination, including the use of oral activated charcoal. Further management

D. M. Howarth; A. H. Dawson; A. J. Smith; N. Buckley; I. M. Whyte

1994-01-01

35

Adolescent Nonmedical Prescription Drug Use  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

For many adolescents today, the most common form of substance use is nonmedical prescription drug use. Fittingly, many researchers, policy makers, and people who work with youth are concerned about the serious problems associated with nonmedical prescription drug use (NMPDU). In this article, authors Jason Ford and William Watkins provide an…

Ford, Jason A.; Watkins, William C.

2012-01-01

36

Popping Pills: Prescription Drug Abuse in America  

MedlinePLUS

... Prescription Drug Abuse in America Popping Pills: Prescription Drug Abuse in America Email Facebook Twitter NIDA recently challenged ... Infographics that present current scientific information about prescription drug abuse in interesting, novel, and creative ways to help ...

37

Introducing Medicare's New Coverage for Prescription Drugs  

E-print Network

Introducing Medicare's New Coverage for Prescription Drugs CENTERS FOR MEDICARE & MEDICAID SERVICES #12;Starting January 1, 2006 Medicare will soon be offering insurance coverage for prescription drugs through Medicare prescription drug plans. Insurance companies and other private companies will work

Goodman, Robert M.

38

Imipramine overdose  

MedlinePLUS

Tofranil overdose; Janimine overdose ... Imipramine hydrochloride can be an extremely serious overdose. Patients who swallow an excessive amount of this drug are almost always admitted to the hospital. The faster a patient gets medical help, ...

39

Utility of serum lactate to predict drug-overdose fatality  

PubMed Central

Context Poisoning is the second leading cause of injury-related fatality in the United States. An elevated serum lactate concentration identifies medical and surgical patients at risk for death; however, its utility in predicting death in drug overdose is controversial and unclear. Objective We aimed to evaluate the prognostic utility of serum lactate concentration for fatality in emergency department (ED) patients with acute drug overdose. Materials and Methods This was a case–control study at two urban university teaching hospitals affiliated with a regional poison control center. Data were obtained from electronic medical records, poison center data, and the office of the chief medical examiner. Controls were consecutive acute drug overdoses over a 1-year period surviving to hospital discharge. Cases were subjects over a 7-year period with fatality because of drug overdose. Serum lactate concentration was obtained from the initial blood draw in the ED and correlated with fatality. Results During the study period, 873 subjects were screened with 50 cases and 100 controls included. Drug exposures and baseline characteristics were similar between groups. Mean lactate concentration (mmol/L) was 9.88 ± 6.7 for cases and 2.76 ± 2.9 for controls (p < 0.001). The receiver operating characteristic area under the curve for prediction of fatality was 0.87 (95% CI: 0.81–0.94). The optimal lactate cutpoint was 3.0 mmol/L (84% sensitivity, 75% specificity), which conferred a 15.8-fold increase in odds of fatality (p < 0.001). Conclusion In this derivation study, serum lactate concentration had excellent prognostic utility to predict drug-overdose fatality. Prospective validation in the ED evaluation of drug overdoses is warranted. PMID:20704455

MANINI, ALEX F.; KUMAR, ASHISH; OLSEN, DEAN; VLAHOV, DAVID; HOFFMAN, ROBERT S.

2014-01-01

40

Patterns and Economic Effects of Drug Overdose Mortality in Texas: 1980-1986.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Explored drug overdose mortality and its economic consequences through examination of Texas mortality data from 1980-86. Compared crude mortality rates across 10 drug categories. Found drug overdose mortality costs had more than doubled over 6-year period. Found men had greater illicit drug overdose risk than women; women had greater prescribed…

Harlow, Kirk C.; Swint, J. Michael

1989-01-01

41

Pharmacokinetic evaluation of hemodialysis in acute drug overdose  

Microsoft Academic Search

The contribution of hemodialysis to the removal of drugs in the overdosed patient continues to be questioned. Often the value of hemodialysis is judged on qualitative rather than quantitative information. The latter information can be obtained by applying pharmacokinetic principles. The primary pharmacokinetic parameters required to evaluate drug removal by hemodialysis are (1) apparent volume of distribution, (2) dialysis clearance,

S. Takki; J. G. Gambertoglio; D. H. Honda; T. N. Tozer

1978-01-01

42

Initiation into Prescription Opioid Misuse among Young Injection Drug Users  

PubMed Central

Background Prescription opioids are the most frequently misused class of prescription drugs among young adults. Initiation into prescription opioid misuse is an important public health concern since opioids are increasingly associated with drug dependence and fatal overdose. Descriptive data about initiation into prescription opioid misuse among young injection drug users (IDUs) are scarce. Methods An exploratory qualitative study was undertaken to describe patterns of initiation into prescription opioid misuse among IDUs aged 16 to 25 years. Those young IDUs who had misused a prescription drug at least three times in the past three months were recruited during 2008 and 2009 in Los Angeles (n=25) and New York (n=25). Informed by an ethno-epidemiological approach, descriptive data from a semi-structured interview guide were analysed both quantitatively and qualitatively. Results Initiation into prescription opioid misuse was facilitated by easy access to opioids via participant’s own prescription, family, or friends, and occurred earlier than misuse of other illicit drugs, such as heroin. Nearly all transitioned into sniffing opioids, most injected opioids, and many initiated injection drug use with an opioid. Motives for transitions to sniffing and injecting opioids included obtaining a more potent high and/or substituting for heroin; access to multiple sources of opioids was common among those who progressed to sniffing and injecting opioids. Conclusion Prescription opioid misuse was a key feature of trajectories into injection drug use and/or heroin use among this sample of young IDUs. A new pattern of drug use may be emerging whereby IDUs initiate prescription opioid misuse before using heroin. PMID:21689917

Lankenau, Stephen E.; Teti, Michelle; Silva, Karol; Bloom, Jennifer Jackson; Harocopos, Alex; Treese, Meghan

2011-01-01

43

Closing the Prescription Drug Coverage Gap  

MedlinePLUS

... How does the coverage gap discount work for brand-name drugs? Companies that make brand-name prescription ... entered the coverage gap, will all Medicare-covered brand-name prescription drugs be discounted? If a drug ...

44

Neuropsychiatric Effects of Prescription Drug Abuse  

Microsoft Academic Search

Prescription drugs have become a major category of abused substances, and there is evidence that the prevalence of prescription\\u000a drug abuse may soon overtake that of illicit drugs. Study of prescription drugs has been hampered by vague terminology, since\\u000a prescription drugs are only separated from other drugs of abuse by social and legal constructs. Reviewed herein is published\\u000a literature on

Jason P. Caplan; Lucy A. Epstein; Davin K. Quinn; Jonathan R. Stevens; Theodore A. Stern

2007-01-01

45

Prevalence and Patterns of Prescription Drug Misuse among Young Ketamine Injectors  

PubMed Central

In recent years, epidemiological monitoring data has indicated sharp increases in prescription drug misuse. Despite these increases, little is known about the context or patterns associated with prescription drug misuse, particularly among youth or young injection drug users (IDUs). A three-city study of 213 young IDUs found prescription drug misuse to be pervasive, specifically the use of opioids and benzodiazepines. Particular practices not commonly associated with prescription drugs were reported, such as sniffing, smoking, and injection. Associated health risks included initiation into injection drug use, polydrug use, drug overdose, and drug dependency. A greater awareness of the potential health risks associated with prescription drug misuse should be incorporated into services that target IDUs, including street outreach, syringe exchanges, and drug treatment. PMID:18612374

Lankenau, Stephen E.; Sanders, Bill; Bloom, Jennifer Jackson; Hathazi, Dodi S.; Alarcon, Erica; Tortu, Stephanie; Clatts, Michael

2008-01-01

46

Overdoses among friends: drug users are willing to administer naloxone to others.  

PubMed

The distribution of naloxone to heroin users is a suggested intervention to reduce overdose and death rates. However, the level of willingness of drug users to administer this medication to others is unclear. Drug users recruited from the community between January 2002 and January 2004 completed a structured interview that assessed topics including drug use, overdose history, and attitudes toward using overdose remedies to assist others. Of the 329 drug users, 82% had used heroin and 64.3% reported that they had injected drugs. Nearly two thirds (64.6%) said that they had witnessed a drug overdose and more than one third (34.6%) had experienced an accidental drug overdose. Most participants (88.5%) said that they would be willing to administer a medication to another drug user in the event of an overdose. Participants who had used heroin (p = .024), had injected drugs (p = .022), had witnessed a drug overdose (p = .001), or had a history of one or more accidental drug overdoses (p = .009) were significantly more willing to treat a companion who had overdosed. Drug users were willing to use naloxone in the event of a friend's overdose. Specific drug use and overdose histories were associated with the greatest willingness to administer naloxone. PMID:16490676

Lagu, Tara; Anderson, Bradley J; Stein, Michael

2006-03-01

47

Prescription Drug Abuse  

MedlinePLUS

... treatment to quit. Or contact: National Council on Alcoholism and Drug Dependence (800) 622-2255 Substance Abuse Treatment Facility Locator (800) 662-4357 For more information Mother to Baby Last reviewed November ...

48

Prescription Drug Abuse and Youth. Information Brief.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Prescription drugs, a category of psychotherapeutics that comprises prescription-type pain relievers, tranquilizers, stimulants, and sedatives, are among the substances most commonly abused by young people in the United States. Prescription drugs are readily available and can easily be obtained by teenagers who abuse these drugs to experience a…

Department of Justice, Washington, DC. National Drug Intelligence Center.

49

Overdose of drugs for attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder: clinical presentation, mechanisms of toxicity, and management.  

PubMed

The prevalence of attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) in the USA is estimated at approximately 4-9% in children and 4% in adults. It is estimated that prescriptions for ADHD medications are written for more than 2.7 million children per year. In 2010, US poison centers reported 17,000 human exposures to ADHD medications, with 80% occurring in children <19 years old and 20% in adults. The drugs used for the treatment of ADHD are diverse but can be roughly separated into two groups: the stimulants such as amphetamine, methylphenidate, and modafinil; and the non-stimulants such as atomoxetine, guanfacine, and clonidine. This review focuses on mechanisms of toxicity after overdose with ADHD medications, clinical effects from overdose, and management. Amphetamine, dextroamphetamine, and methylphenidate act as substrates for the cellular monoamine transporter, especially the dopamine transporter (DAT) and less so the norepinephrine (NET) and serotonin transporter. The mechanism of toxicity is primarily related to excessive extracellular dopamine, norepinephrine, and serotonin. The primary clinical syndrome involves prominent neurological and cardiovascular effects, but secondary complications can involve renal, muscle, pulmonary, and gastrointestinal (GI) effects. In overdose, the patient may present with mydriasis, tremor, agitation, hyperreflexia, combative behavior, confusion, hallucinations, delirium, anxiety, paranoia, movement disorders, and seizures. The management of amphetamine, dextroamphetamine, and methylphenidate overdose is largely supportive, with a focus on interruption of the sympathomimetic syndrome with judicious use of benzodiazepines. In cases where agitation, delirium, and movement disorders are unresponsive to benzodiazepines, second-line therapies include antipsychotics such as ziprasidone or haloperidol, central alpha-adrenoreceptor agonists such as dexmedetomidine, or propofol. Modafinil is not US FDA approved for treatment of ADHD; however, it has been shown to improve ADHD signs and symptoms and has been used as an off-label pharmaceutical for this diagnosis in both adults and children. The mechanism of action of modafinil is complex and not fully understood. It is known to cause an increase in extracellular concentrations of dopamine, norepinephrine, and serotonin in the neocortex. Overdose with modafinil is generally of moderate severity, with reported ingestions of doses up to 8 g. The most common neurological effects include increased anxiety, agitation, headache, dizziness, insomnia, tremors, and dystonia. The management of modafinil overdose is largely supportive, with a focus on sedation, and control of dyskinesias and blood pressure. Atomoxetine is a selective presynaptic norepinephrine transporter inhibitor. The clinical presentation after overdose with atomoxetine has generally been mild. The primary effects have been drowsiness, agitation, hyperactivity, GI upset, tremor, hyperreflexia, tachycardia hypertension, and seizure. The management of atomoxetine overdose is largely supportive, with a focus on sedation, and control of dyskinesias and seizures. Clonidine is a synthetic imidazole derivative with both central and peripheral alpha-adrenergic agonist actions. The primary clinical syndrome involves prominent neurological and cardiovascular effects, with the most commonly reported features of depressed sensorium, bradycardia, and hypotension. While clonidine is an anti-hypertensive medication, a paradoxical hypertension may occur early with overdose. The clinical syndrome after overdose of guanfacine may be mixed depending on central or peripheral alpha-adrenoreceptor effects. Initial clinical effects may be drowsiness, lethargy, dry mouth, and diaphoresis. Cardiovascular effects may depend on time post-ingestion and may present as hypotension or hypertension. The management of guanfacine overdose is largely supportive, with a focus on support of blood pressure. Overdose with ADHD medications can produce major morbidity, with many cases requiring intensive care medicine an

Spiller, Henry A; Hays, Hannah L; Aleguas, Alfred

2013-07-01

50

Prescriptions, Over-the-Counter Drugs, Supplements and Herbal Products  

MedlinePLUS

... acid Warfarin (Coumadin® and Jantoven® ) What is prescription drug abuse? Prescription drug abuse is when you use a prescription drug in ... than ordered by a health care provider. Prescription drug abuse is a serious and growing problem. Nearly 1 ...

51

Vital Signs: Prescription Drug Monitoring Programs and Other Interventions to Combat Prescription Opioid Abuse  

E-print Network

in preventing prescription drug abuse. Lifeline. 2012; 1:10-America’s prescription drug abuse crisis. thewhitehouse.govPrescription Drug Monitoring Programs and Other Interventions to Combat Prescription Opioid Abuse

Chakravarthy, Bharath; Shah, Shyam; Lotfipour, Shahram

2012-01-01

52

The limited utility of electrocardiography variables used to predict arrhythmia in psychotropic drug overdose  

Microsoft Academic Search

OBJECTIVE: The aim of the present study was to examine the relationship between serious arrhythmias in patients with psychotropic drug overdose and electrocardiography (ECG) findings that have been suggested previously to predict this complication. METHODS: Thirty-nine patients with serious arrhythmias (ventricular tachycardia, supraventricular tachycardia or cardiac arrest) after tricyclic antidepressant overdose or thioridazine overdose were compared with 117 controls with

Nicholas A Buckley; Stephan Chevalier; I Anne Leditschke; Dianne L O'Connell; James Leitch; Susan M Pond

2003-01-01

53

Is nonmedical prescription opiate use a unique form of illicit drug use?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Nonmedical prescription opiate (NMPO) use is of great concern because of its high addiction potential, cognitive impairment effects, and other adverse consequences (e.g., hormonal and immune system effects, hyperalgesia and overdose). Due to the combination of drugs used by those who are NMPO users, it is difficult to isolate the negative effects of NMPO use from the effects of other

Richard F. Catalano; Helene R. White; Charles B. Fleming; Kevin P. Haggerty

2011-01-01

54

Circumstances of witnessed drug overdose in New York City: implications for intervention.  

PubMed

Drug users frequently witness the nonfatal and fatal drug overdoses of their peers, but often fail to intervene effectively to reduce morbidity and mortality. We assessed the circumstances of witnessed heroin-related overdoses in New York City (NYC) among a predominantly minority population of drug users. Among 1184 heroin, crack, and cocaine users interviewed between November 2001 and February 2004, 672 (56.8%) had witnessed at least one nonfatal or fatal heroin-related overdose. Of those, 444 (67.7%) reported that they or someone else present called for medical help for the overdose victim at the last witnessed overdose. In multivariable models, the respondent never having had an overdose her/himself and the witnessed overdose occurring in a public place were associated with the likelihood of calling for medical help. Fear of police response was the most commonly cited reason for not calling or delaying before calling for help (52.2%). Attempts to revive the overdose victim through physical stimulation (e.g., applying ice, causing pain) were reported by 59.7% of respondents, while first aid measures were attempted in only 11.9% of events. Efforts to equip drug users to manage overdoses effectively, including training in first aid and the provision of naloxone, and the reduction of police involvement at overdose events may have a substantial impact on overdose-related morbidity and mortality. PMID:16002027

Tracy, Melissa; Piper, Tinka Markham; Ompad, Danielle; Bucciarelli, Angela; Coffin, Phillip O; Vlahov, David; Galea, Sandro

2005-08-01

55

Potential tenfold drug overdoses on a neonatal unit  

Microsoft Academic Search

Nearly one third of intravenous drug prescriptions on a neonatal unit were for doses less than one tenth of a single drug vial. Tenfold drug errors in prescribing are well documented and with the continued use of vials containing adult size doses, great potential exists for serious administration errors.

K Chappell; C Newman

2004-01-01

56

Circumstances of witnessed drug overdose in New York City: implications for intervention  

Microsoft Academic Search

Drug users frequently witness the nonfatal and fatal drug overdoses of their peers, but often fail to intervene effectively to reduce morbidity and mortality. We assessed the circumstances of witnessed heroin-related overdoses in New York City (NYC) among a predominantly minority population of drug users. Among 1184 heroin, crack, and cocaine users interviewed between November 2001 and February 2004, 672

Melissa Tracy; Tinka Markham Piper; Danielle Ompad; Angela Bucciarelli; Phillip O. Coffin; David Vlahov; Sandro Galea

2005-01-01

57

Overdoses among friends: Drug users are willing to administer naloxone to others  

Microsoft Academic Search

The distribution of naloxone to heroin users is a suggested intervention to reduce overdose and death rates. However, the level of willingness of drug users to administer this medication to others is unclear. Drug users recruited from the community between January 2002 and January 2004 completed a structured interview that assessed topics including drug use, overdose history, and attitudes toward

Tara Lagu; Bradley J. Anderson; Michael Stein

2006-01-01

58

76 FR 68295 - Reducing Prescription Drug Shortages  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...the number of prescription drug shortages in the United States...affected medicines include cancer treatments, anesthesia drugs, and other drugs that are critical to the treatment...use of sterile injectable cancer treatments has increased...

2011-11-03

59

Underrepresentation of Heroin Involvement in Unintentional Drug Overdose Deaths in Allegheny County, PA.  

PubMed

Drugs contributing to overdose deaths are listed on death certificates, but their validity is rarely studied. To assess the accuracy of "morphine" and "codeine" listings on death certificates for unintentional overdose deaths in Allegheny County, PA, investigative and laboratory reports were reviewed. Deaths were reclassified as heroin-related if documentation showed 6-monoacetylmorphine in blood or urine, "stamp bags" or drug paraphernalia at scene, history of heroin use, or track marks. Deaths were considered morphine-related if notes indicated morphine use, prescription, or morphine at scene, or codeine-related if the codeine blood level exceeded morphine. Of 112 deaths with morphine but not heroin listed on the death certificate, 74 met heroin criteria and 21 morphine criteria. Of 20 deaths with both morphine and heroin listed, only one met morphine criteria. Of 34 deaths with codeine listed, only five were attributed to codeine. Consideration of patient history, death scene evidence, and expanded toxicology testing may improve the accuracy of death certificate drug listings. PMID:25041514

Mertz, Kristen J; Janssen, Jennifer K; Williams, Karl E

2014-11-01

60

The “Black Box” of Prescription Drug Diversion  

Microsoft Academic Search

A variety of surveys and studies are examined in an effort to better understand the scope of prescription drug diversion and to determine whether there are consistent patterns of diversion among various populations of prescription drug abusers. Data are drawn from the RADARS System, the National Survey of Drug Use and Health, the Delaware School Survey, and a series of

James A. Inciardi; Hilary L. Surratt; Theodore J. Cicero; Steven P. Kurtz; Steven S. Martin; Mark W. Parrino

2009-01-01

61

Pharmaceutical drug overdose case reports. From the World Literature.  

PubMed

All pharmaceutical drugs have the potential to be misused or wrongly administered, which can result in toxic amounts of drug being ingested. To help you keep up-to-date with the latest data on outcomes and management of overdoses, both accidental and intentional, we have selected the following case reports recently published in the international medical literature and summarised in Reactions Weekly. Any claim of first report has been verified by a search of the Adisbase (a proprietary database of Adis International) and Medline. In addition, the World Health Organization (WHO) Adverse Drug Reaction database is also searched. This database, maintained by the Uppsala Monitoring Centre in Sweden, is the largest and most comprehensive adverse drug reaction source in the world, with information obtained from the National Centres of over 70 affiliate countries. PMID:15181666

2003-01-01

62

Pharmacokinetic strategies for treatment of drug overdose and addiction  

PubMed Central

The pharmacokinetic treatment strategy targets the drug molecule itself, aiming to reduce drug concentration at the site of action, thereby minimizing any pharmacodynamic effect. This approach might be useful in the treatment of acute drug toxicity/overdose and in the long-term treatment of addiction. Phase IIa controlled clinical trials with anticocaine and antinicotine vaccines have shown good tolerability and some efficacy, but Phase IIb and III trials have been disappointing because of the failure to generate adequate antibody titers in most participants. Monoclonal antibodies against cocaine, methamphetamine and phencyclidine have shown promise in animal studies, as has enhancing cocaine metabolism with genetic variants of human butyrylcholinesterase, with a bacterial esterase, and with catalytic monoclonal antibodies. Pharmacokinetic treatments offer potential advantages in terms of patient adherence, absence of medication interactions and benefit for patients who cannot take standard medications. PMID:22300100

Gorelick, David A

2012-01-01

63

Pharmacokinetic strategies for treatment of drug overdose and addiction.  

PubMed

The pharmacokinetic treatment strategy targets the drug molecule itself, aiming to reduce drug concentration at the site of action, thereby minimizing any pharmacodynamic effect. This approach might be useful in the treatment of acute drug toxicity/overdose and in the long-term treatment of addiction. Phase IIa controlled clinical trials with anticocaine and antinicotine vaccines have shown good tolerability and some efficacy, but Phase IIb and III trials have been disappointing because of the failure to generate adequate antibody titers in most participants. Monoclonal antibodies against cocaine, methamphetamine and phencyclidine have shown promise in animal studies, as has enhancing cocaine metabolism with genetic variants of human butyrylcholinesterase, with a bacterial esterase, and with catalytic monoclonal antibodies. Pharmacokinetic treatments offer potential advantages in terms of patient adherence, absence of medication interactions and benefit for patients who cannot take standard medications. PMID:22300100

Gorelick, David A

2012-02-01

64

Exposure to prescription drugs labeled for risk of adverse effects of suicidal behavior or ideation among 100 Air Force personnel who died by suicide, 2006-2009.  

PubMed

Prescription drugs for many indications are labeled with warnings for potential risk of suicidal ideation or behavior. Exposures to prescription drugs labeled for adverse effects of suicidal behavior or ideation among 100 Air Force personnel who died by suicide between 2006 and 2009 are described. Air Force registry data were linked to administrative prescription data. Descriptive statistics illustrate utilization: 89 personnel had a prescription history, 35 filled at least one prescription labeled with a warning, 26 had antidepressants on hand at death, and 2 died by drug overdose. Most airmen were not exposed to any prescriptions labeled for risk of suicidal ideation or behavior prior to death by suicide. PMID:22934922

Lavigne, Jill E; McCarthy, Michael; Chapman, Richard; Petrilla, Allison; Knox, Kerry L

2012-10-01

65

Diazepam overdose  

MedlinePLUS

Diazepam is a prescription medication used to treat anxiety disorders. Diazepam overdose occurs when someone accidentally or intentionally takes more than the normal or recommended amount of this medication. This ...

66

Chlordiazepoxide overdose  

MedlinePLUS

Chlordiazepoxide is a prescription medication used to treat certain anxiety disorders and symptoms of alcohol withdrawal. Chlordiazepoxide overdose occurs when someone accidentally or intentionally takes more than the normal or recommended ...

67

[Recent life events preceding suicide attempt by drug overdose].  

PubMed

Recent stressful life events (ASLE) are considered to be one of the factors precipitating suicidal behavior. They precede a suicide attempt in most cases and according to research occur more often during the month or week before the suicide attempt. Interpersonal events are most common. The article presents an analysis of ASLE timing and incidence of events from specific categories during the month preceding suicide attempt by drug overdose. 124 patients admitted to the hospital because of suicidal intoxication were included in the study. Data regarding ASLE were collected with the use of a structured interview. Majority of patients attempting suicide by drug overdose experience a stressful event during the month prior to the suicide attempt. Nearly 4 out of 10 study subjects experience a stressful event on the day of the attempt or on the preceding day. Most common events that occur during the month prior to the attempt and immediately before the attempt are interpersonal events and most of them are related to relationships with spouses or partners. PMID:24466692

Kubiak, Ma?gorzata; Musikowska, Barbara; Sein Anand, Jacek

2013-01-01

68

76 FR 51310 - Branded Prescription Drug Fee  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...branded prescription drug fee imposed by the Affordable Care Act (ACA). The regulations affect persons engaged in the business of...or importing branded prescription drugs by section 9008 of the ACA. The text of those regulations also serves as the text of...

2011-08-18

69

76 FR 51245 - Branded Prescription Drug Fee  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...RIN 1545-BK34 Branded Prescription Drug Fee AGENCY: Internal Revenue Service (IRS...regulations that provide guidance on the annual fee imposed on covered entities engaged in the...importing branded prescription drugs. This fee was enacted by section 9008 of the...

2011-08-18

70

Prescription Drug Abuse: Insight Into the Epidemic  

Microsoft Academic Search

The emergence of clinically efficacious prescription drugs to treat pain, anxiety, and learning disorders is accompanied by the potential for nonmedical use. Prescription drug abuse has become a modern-day epidemic in the United States and is now second only to marijuana use across all age groups. This article reviews the various data collection, analysis, and reporting systems that have been

S H Hernandez; L S Nelson

2010-01-01

71

The "black box" of prescription drug diversion.  

PubMed

A variety of surveys and studies are examined in an effort to better understand the scope of prescription drug diversion and to determine whether there are consistent patterns of diversion among various populations of prescription drug abusers. Data are drawn from the RADARS System, the National Survey of Drug Use and Health, the Delaware School Survey, and a series of quantitative and qualitative studies conducted in Miami, Florida. The data suggest that the major sources of diversion include drug dealers, friends and relatives, smugglers, pain patients, and the elderly, but these vary by the population being targeted. In all of the studies examined, the use of the Internet as a source for prescription drugs is insignificant. Little is known about where drug dealers are obtaining their supplies, and as such, prescription drug diversion is a "black box" requiring concentrated, systematic study. PMID:20155603

Inciardi, James A; Surratt, Hilary L; Cicero, Theodore J; Kurtz, Steven P; Martin, Steven S; Parrino, Mark W

2009-10-01

72

76 FR 59897 - Branded Prescription Drug Fee; Correction  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...9544] RIN 1545-BK34 Branded Prescription Drug Fee; Correction AGENCY: Internal...manufacturing or importing branded prescription drugs. This fee was enacted by section...applies to any fee on branded prescription drug sales that is due on or...

2011-09-28

73

Four Ways to Help Lower Your Medicare Prescription Drug Costs  

MedlinePLUS

4 Ways to Help Lower Your Medicare Prescription Drug Costs Revised March 2014 Are you a person with Medicare who’s having trouble paying for prescription drugs? Joining a Medicare Prescription Drug Plan ...

74

42 CFR 423.159 - Electronic prescription drug program.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-10-01 false Electronic prescription drug program. 423.159 Section...CONTINUED) VOLUNTARY MEDICARE PRESCRIPTION DRUG BENEFIT Cost Control and...Requirements § 423.159 Electronic prescription drug program. (a)...

2013-10-01

75

42 CFR 423.159 - Electronic prescription drug program.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-10-01 false Electronic prescription drug program. 423.159 Section...PROGRAM VOLUNTARY MEDICARE PRESCRIPTION DRUG BENEFIT Cost Control and...Requirements § 423.159 Electronic prescription drug program. (a)...

2010-10-01

76

42 CFR 423.159 - Electronic prescription drug program.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-10-01 false Electronic prescription drug program. 423.159 Section...CONTINUED) VOLUNTARY MEDICARE PRESCRIPTION DRUG BENEFIT Cost Control and...Requirements § 423.159 Electronic prescription drug program. (a)...

2012-10-01

77

76 FR 59898 - Branded Prescription Drug Fee; Correction  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...REG-112805-10] RIN 1545-BJ39 Branded Prescription Drug Fee; Correction AGENCY: Internal...guidance relating to the branded prescription drug fee imposed by the Affordable...heading PART 51--BRANDED PRESCRIPTION DRUGS, the last line of the...

2011-09-28

78

45 CFR 156.122 - Prescription drug benefits.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

... 2013-10-01 false Prescription drug benefits. 156.122 Section...Benefits Package § 156.122 Prescription drug benefits. (a) A health... (ii) The same number of prescription drugs in each category and...

2013-10-01

79

42 CFR 423.159 - Electronic prescription drug program.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-10-01 false Electronic prescription drug program. 423.159 Section...PROGRAM VOLUNTARY MEDICARE PRESCRIPTION DRUG BENEFIT Cost Control and...Requirements § 423.159 Electronic prescription drug program. (a)...

2011-10-01

80

Deaths by unintentional illicit drug overdose in Italy, 1984–2000  

Microsoft Academic Search

Aim: To determine whether there has been an increase in deaths by overdose in Italy, as elsewhere in the Western world, over the past fifteen years. Method: This study's conclusions are based on analysis of official data on overdose deaths attributed to illicit drug addiction and abuse (ICD-9 codes 304 and 305) from 1984 to 2000, drawn from two archives

A. Preti; P. Miotto; M. De Coppi

2002-01-01

81

Comparing Medicare Prescription Drug Coverage Beginning January 1, 2006, Medicare prescription drug coverage is available to all  

E-print Network

Comparing Medicare Prescription Drug Coverage Beginning January 1, 2006, Medicare prescription drug decide you want Medicare prescription drug coverage, you will need to choose a particular Medicare drug. You need to know that there are two types of Medicare drug plans that provide prescription drug

Goodman, Robert M.

82

It's time for Canadian community early warning systems for illicit drug overdoses  

Microsoft Academic Search

Although fatal and non-fatal overdoses represent a significant source of morbidity and mortality, current systems of surveillance and communication in Canada provide inadequate measurement of drug trends and lack a timely response to drug-related hazards. In order for an effective early warning system for illicit drug overdoses to become a reality, a number of elements will be required: real-time epidemiologic

Sarah J Fielden; David C Marsh

2007-01-01

83

Comprehensive drug screening in decision making of patients attending the emergency department for suspected drug overdose  

PubMed Central

Objectives: This study aimed to evaluate the usefulness of a comprehensive drug screening method as a first line diagnostic tool on clinical decision making in patients attending an emergency department for suspected drug overdose in terms of agreement between physicians on patients' disposal. Methods: Five emergency physicians retrospectively evaluated the records of 142 adult patients, admitted to the emergency department of a community hospital for suspected drug overdose. They were asked for an expert opinion on patients' disposal at the end of the observation period, based on paired records, with/without the results of a comprehensive drug screening. Results: In the absence of the drug screening, a very poor agreement (? statistics) was observed between physicians. When the drug screening was available, the interobserver agreement for decision on patients' disposal increased to the fair to good range (global agreement: from 0.238 (0.019) to 0.461 (0.020) (mean(SE)); p<0.001). The agreement also increased when admission to an intensive care unit, to a general ward, and discharge from hospital were separately analysed. The availability of drug screening would have saved 21.7% of hospital admissions and 53.3% of high dependency and/or intensive care unit admissions. Conclusion: Comprehensive drug screening adds to decision making for patients attending an emergency department for suspected drug overdose, improving agreement among physicians on patients' disposal and potentially saving hospital resources. PMID:12533362

Fabbri, A; Marchesini, G; Morselli-Labate, A; Ruggeri, S; Fallani, M; Melandri, R; Bua, V; Pasquale, A; Vandelli, A

2003-01-01

84

Barbiturate intoxication and overdose  

MedlinePLUS

... overdoses of this type of medication involve a mixtures of drugs, usually alcohol and barbiturates, or barbiturates ... 10 people who have a barbiturate overdose or mixture overdose will die. They usually die from heart ...

85

Generating recipientcentered explanations about drug prescription  

E-print Network

Generating recipient­centered explanations about drug prescription B. De Carolis F. de Rosis F written explanations to 'indirect users' of a knowledge based system in the domain of drug pre­ scription with the physicians' explana­ tions to discuss advantages and limits of the approach adopted. Keywords: Drug

Grasso, Floriana

86

Heroin and cocaine dependence and the risk of accidental non-fatal drug overdose.  

PubMed

The relation between illicit drug dependence and the likelihood of drug overdose is unclear. We recruited 1,066 habitual drug users for this analysis through street-based outreach in New York City. In this sample, 99.3% of respondents used heroin in the past year and 87.1% of respondents used cocaine; 819 (77.5%) heroin users and 735 (79.2%) cocaine users were severely dependent on either drug respectively. In multivariable models, among heroin users, persons who were severely heroin dependent were less likely (OR = 0.6; 95% CI = 0.4-0.9) to have overdosed on any drug in the past year; among cocaine users, those who were severely cocaine dependent were more likely (OR = 1.6; 95% CI = 1.0-2.6) to have overdosed in the past year. The relation between illicit drug dependence and risk of overdose may vary for different patterns of drug dependence. These observations suggest that overdose prevention interventions, perhaps even those specifically targeting opiate overdose, may be more efficiently directed at individuals exhibiting cocaine dependence. PMID:16956872

Galea, Sandro; Nandi, Ari; Coffin, Phillip O; Tracy, Melissa; Markham Piper, Tinka; Ompad, Danielle; Vlahov, David

2006-01-01

87

Subtypes of nonmedical prescription drug misuse  

PubMed Central

This study used three characteristics (i.e., motive, route of administration, and co-ingestion with alcohol) of nonmedical prescription drug misuse across four separate classes (i.e., pain, sedative/anxiety, sleeping and stimulant medications) to examine subtypes and drug related problems. A Web survey was self-administered by a randomly selected sample of 3,639 undergraduate students attending a large Midwestern 4-year U.S. university. Self-treatment subtypes were characterized by motives consistent with the prescription drug's pharmaceutical main indication, oral only routes of administration, and no co-ingestion with alcohol. Recreational subtypes were characterized by recreational motives, oral or non-oral routes, and co-ingestion. Mixed subtypes consisted of other combinations of motives, routes, and co-ingestion. Among those who reported nonmedical prescription drug misuse, approximately 13% were classified into the recreational subtype, while 39% were in the self-treatment subtype, and 48% were in the mixed subtype. There were significant differences in the subtypes in terms of gender, race and prescription drug class. Approximately 50% of those in subtypes other than self-treatment screened positive for drug abuse. The odds of substance use and abuse were generally lower among self-treatment subtypes than other subtypes. The findings indicate subtypes should be considered when examining nonmedical prescription drug misuse, especially for pain medication. PMID:19278795

McCabe, Sean Esteban; Boyd, Carol J.; Teter, Christian J.

2010-01-01

88

Income distribution and risk of fatal drug overdose in New York City neighborhoods  

Microsoft Academic Search

Accidental drug overdose is a substantial cause of mortality for drug users. Neighborhood-level factors, such as income distribution, may be important determinants of overdose death independent of individual-level factors. We used data from the Office of the Chief Medical Examiner to identify all cases of accidental deaths in New York City (NYC) in 1996 and individual-level covariates. We used 1990

Sandro Galea; Jennifer Ahern; David Vlahov; Phillip O Coffin; Crystal Fuller; Andrew C Leon; Kenneth Tardiff

2003-01-01

89

NonNon--medical Use of Prescription Drugsmedical Use of Prescription Drugs on College Campuseson College Campuses  

E-print Network

NonNon--medical Use of Prescription Drugsmedical Use of Prescription Drugs on College CampusesonNationally, there has been a rise in college students using prescription drugs,students using prescription drugsNon--medical Use of Prescription Drugs on College Campusesmedical Use of Prescription Drugs on College Campuses #12

New Hampshire, University of

90

Information on Your Prescription Drug Benefit Starting this year, your prescription drug benefit is provided by your medical plan.  

E-print Network

Information on Your Prescription Drug Benefit Starting this year, your prescription drug benefit is provided by your medical plan. Here are some important things to know about getting your prescription drugs: Destroy your Express Scripts ID card. You will no longer be able to use it when you get prescription drugs

Wechsler, Risa H.

91

Birth control pill overdose  

MedlinePLUS

Birth control pills, also called oral contraceptives, are prescription medicines designed to prevent pregnancy. Birth control pill overdose occurs when someone accidentally or intentionally takes more than the ...

92

21 CFR 203.50 - Requirements for wholesale distribution of prescription drugs.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...for wholesale distribution of prescription drugs. 203.50 Section 203...CONTINUED) DRUGS: GENERAL PRESCRIPTION DRUG MARKETING Wholesale Distribution...for wholesale distribution of prescription drugs. (a) Identifying...

2012-04-01

93

21 CFR 203.50 - Requirements for wholesale distribution of prescription drugs.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...for wholesale distribution of prescription drugs. 203.50 Section 203...CONTINUED) DRUGS: GENERAL PRESCRIPTION DRUG MARKETING Wholesale Distribution...for wholesale distribution of prescription drugs. (a) Identifying...

2011-04-01

94

21 CFR 203.50 - Requirements for wholesale distribution of prescription drugs.  

...for wholesale distribution of prescription drugs. 203.50 Section 203...CONTINUED) DRUGS: GENERAL PRESCRIPTION DRUG MARKETING Wholesale Distribution...for wholesale distribution of prescription drugs. (a) Identifying...

2014-04-01

95

21 CFR 203.50 - Requirements for wholesale distribution of prescription drugs.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...for wholesale distribution of prescription drugs. 203.50 Section 203...CONTINUED) DRUGS: GENERAL PRESCRIPTION DRUG MARKETING Wholesale Distribution...for wholesale distribution of prescription drugs. (a) Identifying...

2013-04-01

96

How Can I End a Prescription Drug Habit Safely?  

MedlinePLUS

... Allergic Reaction Quiz: Baseball Injuries How Can I End a Prescription Drug Habit Safely? KidsHealth > Teens > Q&A > Alcohol & Drugs > How Can I End a Prescription Drug Habit Safely? Print A A ...

97

Prescription Drug Abuse & Diversion: Role of the Pain Clinic  

Microsoft Academic Search

The goal of this research is to better understand the role that South Florida pain management clinics may be playing in the abuse and diversion of prescription drugs. This study explores 1) the characteristics and practices of pain clinics that may be facilitating the drug-seeking endeavors of prescription drug abusers and 2) the drug-seeking behaviors of prescription drug abusers who

Khary K. Rigg; Samantha J. March; James A. Inciardi

2010-01-01

98

Incidence of adverse drug reactions induced by N-acetylcysteine in patients with acetaminophen overdose  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: Intravenous N-acetylcysteine (IV-NAC) is widely recognized as the antidote of choice for acetaminophen overdose. However, its use is not without adverse drug reactions (ADR) that might affect therapeutic outcome or lead to treatment delay. Objective: the aim of this study was to investigate the type and incidence of ADR induced by IV-NAC in patients treated for acetaminophen overdose. Methods:

Saed H Zyoud; Rahmat Awang; Syed Azhar Syed Sulaiman; Waleed M Sweileh; Samah W Al-jabi

2010-01-01

99

Doxepin overdose  

MedlinePLUS

Adapin overdose; Novoxapin overdose; Sinequan overdose; Triadapin overdose ... the better the chance for recovery. Tricyclic depressant overdoses are particularly toxic and difficult to treat. Multiple ...

100

America's Hidden and Ignored Drug Problem: Prescription Drug Abuse  

Microsoft Academic Search

This research attempts to gain better insight into one of the new epidemics in American society. This American epidemic, which started in the very late 1990's, is prescription drug abuse. This new epidemic not only affects the medical industry, but the criminal justice community as well. Further, in terms of prescription narcotics, primary research and media coverage into this topic

Brian Keith Simpkins

2004-01-01

101

Get the Facts: Prescription Drug Abuse on College Campuses  

MedlinePLUS

... or get “high” is an example of prescription drug abuse . Someone who abuses prescription medications is also likely ... illegal. a Slippery Slope: the dangerS of preSCription drug abuSe Many students mistakenly believe prescription medications are safe ...

102

Rev 4/17/12 Your Prescription Drug Benefits......  

E-print Network

Rev 4/17/12 Your Prescription Drug Benefits...... ...Provide Comprehensive Drug Coverage and Do Not Coordinate with Medicare Part D Prescription Drug Benefits If you have coverage under Medicare Part D, you of most prescription drugs. ...Offer a Convenient Home Delivery Option The home delivery option

Pennycook, Steve

103

Prescription Patterns of Hypolipidaemic Drugs in a Tertiary Care Teaching Hospital of Southern India  

PubMed Central

Objective: To evaluate the prescribing patterns of hypolipidaemic drugs which were prescribed to patients who visited the department of General Medicine in a tertiary care teaching hospital of southern India. Materials and Methods: A cross-sectional study was done for three months in the department of General Medicine. A total of 506 prescriptions of hypolipidaemic drugs were evaluated, based on the various inclusion and exclusion criteria. The different disease patterns, the types of drugs which were prescribed in those diseases and the WHO prescription indicators, Anatomical Therapeutic Classification as well as the PDD (prescribing daily dose) /DDD (daily defined dose) ratio were calculated. Results: While analyzing the prescriptions, it was found that patients having abnormal lipid profiles (56.9%) and normal lipid profiles (43.1%) were prescribed hypolipidaemic drugs. Diabetes with hypertension (37%) was the most common disease for which hypolipidaemic drugs were prescribed. The average number of drugs per prescription was 3.3±1.33. Atorvastatin was the most common hypolipidaemic drug which was prescribed as monotherapy (53.4%), whereas atorvastatin with aspirin was the most common drug which was prescribed as combination therapy (20%). Atorvastatin was prescribed as underdosed and Rosuvastatin was prescribed as overdosed. Conclusion: This study depicts the use of statins in various disease conditions, both as primary and secondary preventive measures. Such studies should be done to educate the physicians on good prescribing practices and on rational use of hypolipidaemic drugs. PMID:24959461

Mohapatra, Satyajit; Kumar, J.S; Rani, R Jamuna

2014-01-01

104

Recreational Prescription Drug Use among College Students  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The purpose of this study was to explore recreational prescription drug use among undergraduate students. Although anecdotal accounts on this subject abound, empirical research is extremely limited. Data from a survey of a random sample of 734 students at a large public research university in the Northeast were examined. Results indicate that a…

Kolek, Ethan A.

2006-01-01

105

Talking with Someone About Prescription Drug Abuse  

Microsoft Academic Search

This video is part of an educational series on Prescription Drug Disorders produced by the Center for Interventions, Treatment & Addictions Research (CITAR) at the Wright State University Boonshoft School of Medicine. The series was produced to meet an educational objective under a contract from Public Health — Dayton and Montgomery County (PHDMC). This project was funded, in part, by

Sutter Monica R. N

2011-01-01

106

Subtypes of nonmedical prescription drug misuse  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study used three characteristics (i.e., motive, route of administration, and co-ingestion with alcohol) of nonmedical prescription drug misuse across four separate classes (i.e., pain, sedative\\/anxiety, sleeping, and stimulant medications) to examine subtypes and drug related problems. A Web survey was self-administered by a randomly selected sample of 3639 undergraduate students attending a large midwestern 4-year U.S. university. Self-treatment subtypes

Sean Esteban McCabe; Carol J. Boyd; Christian J. Teter

2009-01-01

107

77 FR 46653 - Branded Prescription Drug Fee; Hearing  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...51 [REG-112805-10] RIN 1545-BJ39 Branded Prescription Drug Fee; Hearing AGENCY: Internal Revenue Service...hearing on proposed regulations relating to the branded prescription drug fee imposed by the Affordable Care Act....

2012-08-06

108

77 FR 48111 - Branded Prescription Drug Fee; Correction  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...51 [REG-112805-10] RIN 1545-BJ39 Branded Prescription Drug Fee; Correction AGENCY: Internal Revenue Service...6, 2012 (77 FR 46653) relating to the branded prescription drug fee imposed by the Affordable Care Act. FOR...

2012-08-13

109

Cost Overdose: Growth in Drug Spending for the Elderly, 1992-2010  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Posted in July by Families USA (see the December 1, 1995 Scout Report), this report is billed as "the first study to both analyze the increase in prescription drug spending for the elderly from 1992 to 2000 and to project further increases over the next 10 years." The report gives data on average expenditures on prescription drugs for seniors, average number of prescriptions, average out-of-pocket costs, total expenditures on health care and prescription drugs for seniors, and more. Among the significant findings: "Annual spending on prescription drugs per elderly American will grow from $559 in 1992 to an estimated $1,205 in 2000, an increase of 116 percent."

2000-01-01

110

Women who doctor shop for prescription drugs.  

PubMed

Doctor shopping is a term used to describe a form of diversion of prescription drugs when patients visit numerous prescribers to obtain controlled drugs for illicit use. Gender differences exist in regard to prescription drug abuse and methods of diversion. The purpose of this phenomenological study guided by the existential philosophy of Merleau-Ponty was to understand the lived experience of female doctor shoppers. Interviews were conducted with 14 women, which were recorded, transcribed, and analyzed. Included in the findings are figural aspects of the participants' experience of doctor shopping related to the existential grounds of world, time, body, and others. Four themes emerged from the data: (a) feeding the addiction, (b) networking with addicts, (c) playing the system, and (d) baiting the doctors. The findings suggest several measures that nurses can take to reduce the incidence of doctor shopping and to provide better care for female doctor shoppers. PMID:24168912

Worley, Julie; Thomas, Sandra P

2014-04-01

111

BREA ANALYSIS OF MEDICARE PRESCRIPTION DRUG COVERAGE October, 2005  

E-print Network

BREA ANALYSIS OF MEDICARE PRESCRIPTION DRUG COVERAGE October, 2005 Many people have been confused about the new Medicare Part D Prescription Drug plan and their current coverage from BSA/BNL. Human their existing coverage is, on average at least as good as standard Medicare prescription drug coverage, you can

112

Resonant Messages to Prevent Prescription Drug Misuse by Teens  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Prescription drug misuse is a major health problem, particularly among teens. A key step in curbing misuse is the development of effective prescription drug prevention messages. This paper explores the elements of prescription drug misuse prevention messages that resonate with teens using data from focus groups with seventh and eighth grade…

Twombly, Eric C.; Holtz, Kristen D.; Agnew, Christine B.

2011-01-01

113

Correlates of non-medical prescription drug use among a cohort of injection drug users in Baltimore City.  

PubMed

Despite reports of increasing non-medical prescription drug use, relatively few studies have systematically evaluated the prevalence and correlates of non-medical prescription drug use, particularly in populations that might be especially vulnerable (e.g., injection drug users [IDUs]). We examined factors associated with non-medical prescription drug use among a community-based cohort of current and former IDUs in Baltimore (The ALIVE Study). We conducted a cross-sectional analysis of data from cohort participants that responded to a survey that included questions on non-medical prescription drug use between 2005-06 (n=1320). Non-medical prescription drug use was considered to be use of any of the following: Opiates (Oxycontin, Percocet), Benzodiazepines or Clonidine, purchased on the street and taken orally within the last six months. Data on other covariates of interest (e.g., demographics, substance use, general health) was obtained through a standardized interview. The median age was 46 years; 66% were male, 85% were African-American. Twenty one percent reported any non-medical prescription drug use; 12% reported using more than one drug. Non-medical use of opiates was most common (17%). In multivariate analysis, non-medical prescription drug use was significantly associated with Caucasian race (prevalence ratio [PR]: 1.79), self-reported bodily pain (PR: 1.58), hazardous alcohol use (PR: 1.47), marijuana use (PR: 1.65), non-injection cocaine/heroin use (PR: 1.70), diverted use of buprenorphine (PR: 1.51) or methadone (PR: 2.51), and active injection drug use (PR: 3.50; p<0.05 for all). The association between bodily pain and non-medical prescription drug use was stronger among persons that were not using substances (marijuana, injecting drugs, snorting/smoking heroin, cocaine, using crack) as compared to those using these substances. The high prevalence of non-medical prescription drug use among this population warrants further research and action. Information on the risks of nonmedical prescription drug use especially overdose, should be incorporated into interventions targeted at IDUs. PMID:21868170

Khosla, Nidhi; Juon, Hee Soon; Kirk, Gregory D; Astemborski, Jacqueline; Mehta, Shruti H

2011-12-01

114

Prescription Drug List --To be used by members  

E-print Network

about your drug plan, you can do the following: · Go to anthem.com/CA · Call customer service), who have a tiered drug plan. Anthem Blue Cross prescription drug benefits include medications available on the Anthem Drug List. Our prescription drug benefits can offer potential savings when your

Mullins, Dyche

115

Enhancing prescription drug innovation and adoption.  

PubMed

The adoption and use of a new drug would ideally be guided by its innovation and cost-effectiveness. However, information about the relative efficacy and safety of a drug is typically incomplete even well after market entry, and various other forces create a marketplace in which most new drugs are little better than their older counterparts. Five proposed mechanisms are considered for promoting innovation and reducing the use of therapies ultimately found to offer poor value or have unacceptable risks. These changes range from increasing the evidence required for U.S. Food and Drug Administration approval to modifying the structure of drug reimbursement. Despite the challenges of policy implementation, the United States has a long history of successfully improving the societal value and safe use of prescription medicines. PMID:21690598

Alexander, G Caleb; O'Connor, Alec B; Stafford, Randall S

2011-06-21

116

Hydromorphone overdose  

MedlinePLUS

Dilaudid overdose; Palladone overdose ... increases the chance for dangerous side effects and overdose symptoms. ... and intestines Weakness Weak pulse Warning: A severe overdose of hydromorphone can cause death.

117

Alcohol and prescription drug safety in older adults  

PubMed Central

Background The objectives of this study were to investigate older adults’ knowledge of prescription drug safety and interactions with alcohol, and to identify pharmacists’ willingness to disseminate prescription drug safety information to older adults. Methods The convenience sample consisted of 48 older adults aged 54–89 years who were recruited from a local pharmacy and who completed surveys addressing their alcohol consumption, understanding of alcohol and prescription drug interactions, and willingness to change habits regarding alcohol consumption and prescription drugs. To address pharmacist willingness, 90 pharmacists from local pharmacies volunteered and answered questions regarding their willingness to convey prescription drug safety information to older adults. Results Older adults reported low knowledge of alcohol and prescription drug safety, with women tending to be slightly more knowledgeable. More importantly, those who drank in the previous few months were less willing to talk to family and friends about how alcohol can have harmful interactions with prescription drugs, or to be an advocate for safe alcohol and prescription drug use than those who had not had a drink recently. Pharmacists reported that they were willing to convey prescription drug safety information to older adults via a variety of formats, including displaying or distributing a flyer, and directly administering a brief intervention. Conclusion In this study, older adults were found to have inadequate knowledge of prescription drug safety and interactions with alcohol, but pharmacists who regularly come in contact with older adults indicated that they were ready and willing to talk to older adults about prescription drug safety. Future research should focus on interventions whereby pharmacists disseminate prescription drug safety information to older adults in order to improve healthy prescription drug and alcohol behavior and reduce medical and health costs associated with interactions between alcohol and prescription drugs. PMID:23467625

Zanjani, Faika; Hoogland, Aasha I; Downer, Brian G

2013-01-01

118

Abuse of prescription drugs and the risk of addiction  

Microsoft Academic Search

Abuse of several categories of prescription drugs has increased markedly in the United States in the past decade and is now at alarming levels for certain agents, especially opioid analgesics and stimulants. Prescription drugs of abuse fit into the same pharmacological classes as their non-prescription counterparts. Thus, the potential factors associated with abuse or addiction versus safe therapeutic use of

Wilson M. Compton; Nora D. Volkow

2006-01-01

119

PRESCRIPTION DRUG DROP-OFF Saturday, May 12, 2012  

E-print Network

PRESCRIPTION DRUG DROP-OFF Saturday, May 12, 2012 I wanted to take some time after our first successful Prescription Drug Drop-Off to say thank you!!! Thank you so very, very much for generously of prescription pharmaceuticals, especially narcotics that we collected, including Dr. Andrea Feller

Haykin, Simon

120

Eugenol oil overdose  

MedlinePLUS

Clove oil overdose ... Maypole J, Woolf AD. Essential oils. In: Shannon MW, Borron SW, Burns MJ, eds. Haddad and Winchester's Clinical Management of Poisoning and Drug Overdose . 4th ed. Philadelphia, ...

121

Thyroid preparation overdose  

MedlinePLUS

... are medications used to treat thyroid gland disorders. Overdose occurs when someone accidentally or intentionally takes more ... amount of such medications. Symptoms of thyroid preparation overdose can mimic those of stimulant drugs. This is ...

122

Sassafras oil overdose  

MedlinePLUS

... root bark of the sassafras tree. Sassafras oil overdose occurs when someone accidentally or intentionally takes more ... and Winchester's Clinical Management of Poisoning and Drug Overdose . 4th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Saunders Elsevier; 2007:chap ...

123

21 CFR 250.105 - Gelsemium-containing preparations regarded as prescription drugs.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...Gelsemium-containing preparations regarded as prescription drugs. 250.105 Section 250...SPECIFIC HUMAN DRUGS New Drug or Prescription Status of Specific Drugs ...Gelsemium-containing preparations regarded as prescription drugs. It is the...

2010-04-01

124

21 CFR 250.105 - Gelsemium-containing preparations regarded as prescription drugs.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...Gelsemium-containing preparations regarded as prescription drugs. 250.105 Section 250...SPECIFIC HUMAN DRUGS New Drug or Prescription Status of Specific Drugs ...Gelsemium-containing preparations regarded as prescription drugs. It is the...

2011-04-01

125

21 CFR 250.105 - Gelsemium-containing preparations regarded as prescription drugs.  

...Gelsemium-containing preparations regarded as prescription drugs. 250.105 Section 250...SPECIFIC HUMAN DRUGS New Drug or Prescription Status of Specific Drugs ...Gelsemium-containing preparations regarded as prescription drugs. It is the...

2014-04-01

126

21 CFR 250.105 - Gelsemium-containing preparations regarded as prescription drugs.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...Gelsemium-containing preparations regarded as prescription drugs. 250.105 Section 250...SPECIFIC HUMAN DRUGS New Drug or Prescription Status of Specific Drugs ...Gelsemium-containing preparations regarded as prescription drugs. It is the...

2013-04-01

127

21 CFR 250.105 - Gelsemium-containing preparations regarded as prescription drugs.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...Gelsemium-containing preparations regarded as prescription drugs. 250.105 Section 250...SPECIFIC HUMAN DRUGS New Drug or Prescription Status of Specific Drugs ...Gelsemium-containing preparations regarded as prescription drugs. It is the...

2012-04-01

128

Prevention of overlapping prescriptions of psychotropic drugs by community pharmacists.  

PubMed

The nonmedical use or abuse of prescription drugs, including psychotropic medicines, is a growing health problem in Japan. Patient access to psychotropic drugs, specifically from the oversupply of medications due to overlapping prescriptions, may increase the risk of drug abuse and dependence. However, very little is known about such overlapping prescriptions. Today, the dispensing of prescriptions is generally moving from inside to outside of hospitals, with psychotropic drugs mainly dispensed at community pharmacies. In this study, we used health insurance claims (i.e., receipts) for dispensing as the main source of information in an investigation of overlapping prescriptions of psychotropic drugs. A total of 119 patients were found to have received overlapping prescriptions, as identified by community pharmacists who were members of the Saitama Pharmaceutical Association, using patient medication records, followed by medication counseling and prescription notes for the patient. According to our findings, the most frequently overlapping medication was etizolam. Etizolam can be prescribed for more than 30 days since it is not regulated under Japanese law as a "psychotropic drug." Generally, when a drug can be prescribed for a greater number of days, it increases the likelihood of an overlapping prescription during the same period. As a result, the long-term prescription of etizolam increases the risk of overlapping prescriptions. We also found that the patients who received overlapping prescriptions of etizolam were mostly elderly and the most common pattern was prescription from both internal medicine and orthopedics physicians. Etizolam has wide range of indications that are covered by health insurance. Our results suggest that patients who received overlapping prescriptions of etizolam may receive prescriptions from different prescribers for different purposes. Therefore, it may be appropriate to regulate etizolam as a "psychotropic drug" under Japanese law, thus setting a limit on the period for which it can be prescribed in order to help prevent long-term and overlapping prescriptions. PMID:23393998

Shimane, Takuya; Matsumoto, Toshihiko; Wada, Kiyoshi

2012-10-01

129

Drug plan design incentives among Medicare prescription drug plans.  

PubMed

Objective Medicare Advantage prescription drug plans (MA-PDs) and standalone prescription drug plans (PDPs) face different incentives for plan design resulting from the scope of covered benefits (only outpatient drugs for PDPs versus all drug and nondrug services for Medicare Advantage [MA]/MA-PDs). The objective is to begin to explore how MA-PDs and PDPs may be responding to their different incentives related to benefit design. Study Design We compared 2012 PDP and MA-PD average formulary coverage, prior authorization (PA) or step therapy use, and copayment requirements for drugs in 6 classes used commonly among Medicare beneficiaries. Data We primarily used 2012 Prescription Drug Plan Formulary and Pharmacy Network Files and MA enrollment data. 2011 Truven Health MarketScan claims were used to estimate drug prices and to compute drug market share. Average coverage and PA/step rates, and average copayment requirements, were weighted by plan enrollment and drug market share. Results MA-PDs are generally more likely to cover and less likely to require PA/step for brand name drugs with generic alternatives than PDPs, and MA-PDs often have lower copayment requirements for these drugs. For brands without generics, we generally found no differences in average rates of coverage or PA/step, but MA-PDs were more likely to cover all brands without generics in a class. Conclusions We found modest, confirmatory evidence suggesting that PDPs and MA-PDs respond to different incentives for plan design. Future research is needed to understand the factors that influence Medicare drug plan design decisions. PMID:25295402

Huskamp, Haiden A; Keating, Nancy L; Dalton, Jesse B; Chernew, Michael E; Newhouse, Joseph P

2014-07-01

130

State System of Higher Education Prescription Drug Card Program*  

E-print Network

Allergy Serum Covered Under Medical Program Durable Medical Equipment Covered Under Medical Program prescription order or refill order. 2. Charges for a prescription drug when such drug or medication is used for unlabeled or unapproved indications where such use has not been approved by the Food and Drug Administration

Hardy, Christopher R.

131

Prescription Drug Abuse Information in D.A.R.E.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This investigation was designed to examine prescription drug-related content and learning objectives in Drug Abuse Resistance Education (D.A.R.E.) for upper elementary and middle schools. Specific prescription-drug topics and context associated with content and objectives were coded. The coding system for topics included 126 topics organized…

Morris, Melissa C.; Cline, Rebecca J. Welch; Weiler, Robert M.; Broadway, S. Camille

2006-01-01

132

The Use of Abusable Prescription Drugs: The Role of Gender  

Microsoft Academic Search

It is well documented that women face greater medical exposure to psychotropic drugs than do men, but little research examines whether women also have increased use of prescription drugs with abuse potential. The objectives were to examine gender differences in the use of abusable prescription drugs and to assess how use varies by gender and if patterns of use vary

Linda Simoni-Wastila; B. S. Pharm

2000-01-01

133

Is nonmedical prescription opiate use a unique form of illicit drug use?  

PubMed

Nonmedical prescription opiate (NMPO) use is of great concern because of its high addiction potential, cognitive impairment effects, and other adverse consequences (e.g., hormonal and immune system effects, hyperalgesia and overdose). Due to the combination of drugs used by those who are NMPO users, it is difficult to isolate the negative effects of NMPO use from the effects of other legal and illicit drugs. Based on a stage model of substance use, this study tested whether NMPO use represents a unique form of illicit drug use among emerging adults and whether there are unique consequences of early NMPO use. We used longitudinal data from 912 emerging adults from the Raising Healthy Children study who were interviewed at least annually from the first or second grade through age 21. The findings indicated that almost all NMPO users have also used marijuana and a large majority has also used other drugs, such as cocaine and ecstasy. In addition, more frequent users of NMPOs are also more frequent users of other drugs. Except for violent behavior, NMPO use explained little unique variance in negative outcomes of use (e.g., drug use disorder, mood disorder, nonproductive behavior, poor health, and property crime) beyond that explained by other illicit drug use. Future studies examining the predictors or consequences of NMPO use and nonmedical use of other prescription drugs need to consider use within the context of other drug use. PMID:20864261

Catalano, Richard F; White, Helene R; Fleming, Charles B; Haggerty, Kevin P

2011-01-01

134

77 FR 12310 - Drugs for Human Use; Drug Efficacy Study Implementation; Prescription Drugs That Contained...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration [Docket No. FDA-1978-N-0441] (formerly 78N-0324); DESI 10392] Drugs for Human Use; Drug Efficacy Study Implementation; Prescription...

2012-02-29

135

Governing street-based injecting drug users: a critique of heroin overdose prevention in Australia.  

PubMed

This article provides a critical analysis of existing approaches to the prevention of heroin overdose in Australia. It draws on almost 2 years of ethnographic research with street-based injecting drug users (IDUs), street-based sex workers and service providers in Melbourne, Australia's second largest city, and on recent anthropological and sociological work on governmentality. The substantive sections of the article argue: (1) that heroin overdose prevention in Australia contains implicit or explicit assumptions of rationality and personal autonomy, continues to emphasise individual behaviour change and inscribes a self-disciplined, self-aware, self-regulating subject; and (2) that the social, cultural and economic realities--the 'lived experience'--of street-based IDUs and sex workers may undermine or hinder the successful adoption of overdose prevention strategies. The paper concludes by arguing that the 'chaotic' practices of street-based IDUs and sex workers arise in response to particular 'risk environments', and that individually focused overdose prevention strategies, while an important first step, need to be complemented by measures addressing the macro- and micro-aspects of risk environments. PMID:15246182

Moore, David

2004-10-01

136

Teens and Prescription Drugs: An Analysis of Recent Trends on the Emerging Drug Threat  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This report synthesizes a number of national studies that show the intentional abuse of prescription drugs to get high is a growing concern, particularly among teens. The analysis shows that teens are turning away from street drugs and using prescription drugs to get high. New users of prescription drugs have caught up with new users of marijuana.…

Office of National Drug Control Policy, 2007

2007-01-01

137

Changes in Arterial Oxygen Tension after Gastric Lavage for Drug Overdose  

Microsoft Academic Search

1 Changes in arterial oxygen tension after gastric lavage were investigated in a prospective study of 55 patients admitted for drug overdose.2 A significantly greater decrease was observed in smokers compared to non-smokers.3 A correlation was found between the tricyclic antidepressant serum level and the observed oxygen tension decrease.4 The usefulness, as well as the safety of the lavage procedure,

Philippe G. Jorens; Eric J. Joosens; Jan M. Nagler

1991-01-01

138

A micro-environmental intervention to reduce the harms associated with drug-related overdose: Evidence from the evaluation of Vancouver's safer injection facility  

Microsoft Academic Search

BackgroundConventional drug overdose prevention strategies have been criticised for failing to address the macro- and micro-environmental factors that shape drug injecting practices and compromise individual ability to reduce the risks associated with drug-related overdose. This in turn has led to calls for interventions that address overdose risks by modifying the drug-using environment, including the social dynamics within them. Safer injection

Thomas Kerr; Will Small; David Moore; Evan Wood

2007-01-01

139

Non-Medical Prescription Drug Use among University Students  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Background: Non-medical prescription drug use is an increasing problem among university students. Purpose: The present study investigated university students' involvement in non-medical prescription drug (NMPD) use and associations between use and other risky behaviors. Methods: A sample of 363 university students completed a four page survey…

Vidourek, Rebecca A.; King, Keith A.; Knopf, Ellen E.

2010-01-01

140

Prescription Drug Claim Form Foreign Claim Direct Member Reimbursement  

E-print Network

Prescription Drug Claim Form Foreign Claim ­ Direct Member Reimbursement 1 N34120711 Use this form for prescriptions that were purchased outside of the United States. Reimbursement will be made of the completed claim form and receipt(s) for your records. Date Rx Filled Foreign Medication Name & Drug Strength

Simaan, Nabil

141

Preventing Prescription Drug Abuse in Adolescence: A Collaborative Approach  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

With the growing awareness of adolescent prescription drug abuse, communities and schools are beginning to explore prevention and intervention strategies which are appropriate for their youth. This article provides a framework for developing a collaborative approach to prescription drug abuse prevention--called the Prevention Awareness Team--that…

Jones, Beth A.; Fullwood, Harry; Hawthorn, Melissa

2012-01-01

142

Mandatory Minimum Sentencing, Drug Purity and Overdose Rates  

Microsoft Academic Search

As of 1987, the US’s Anti-Drug Abuse Act (ADAA) has imposed mandatory minimum sentences for drug traffickers based on the quantity of the drug involved irrespective of purity. Using the STRIDE dataset and a differences-in-differences approach, I find that this led to increases in cocaine and heroin purity of 52 per cent and 27 per cent respectively. It also affected

RONALD B. DAVIES

2010-01-01

143

Prescription Drug Abuse & Diversion: Role of the Pain Clinic  

PubMed Central

The goal of this research is to better understand the role that South Florida pain management clinics may be playing in the abuse and diversion of prescription drugs. This study explores 1) the characteristics and practices of pain clinics that may be facilitating the drug-seeking endeavors of prescription drug abusers and 2) the drug-seeking behaviors of prescription drug abusers who use pain clinics as a primary source for drugs. Thirty in-depth interviews were conducted with prescription drug abusers in South Florida. Interviews were transcribed verbatim and codes were generated based on thematic analyses of the data. Using grounded theory strategies, the analysis revealed six main themes: “pill mills”, on-site pharmacies, liberal prescribing habits, “sponsoring” drug diversion, pain doctor/pharmacy shopping, and faking symptoms/documentation. These findings should provide insights for law enforcement, regulatory agencies, and industry as they attempt to develop appropriate policy initiatives and recommendations for best practices. PMID:21278927

Rigg, Khary K.; March, Samantha J.; Inciardi, James A.

2010-01-01

144

Prescription drug coverage, utilization, and spending among Medicare beneficiaries  

Microsoft Academic Search

Outpatient prescription drugs are not a covered benefit under Medicare. There have been proposals in the past to expand Medicare benefits to include drug coverage, and current discussions dealing with \\

Margaret Davis; John Poisal; George Chulis; Carlos Zarabozo; Barbara Cooper

1999-01-01

145

75 FR 12756 - Agency Information Collection Activities: Proposed Collection; Comment Request; Prescription Drug...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Prescription Drug Advertisements AGENCY: Food and...prescription drug advertisements. DATES: Submit written...of information is necessary for the proper performance...Prescription Drug Advertisements--21 CFR 202.1...media such as radio, television, and telephone...

2010-03-17

146

26 CFR 51.6302-1T - Method of paying the branded prescription drug fee (temporary).  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...Method of paying the branded prescription drug fee (temporary). 51.6302-1T...TAXES (CONTINUED) BRANDED PRESCRIPTION DRUG FEE § 51.6302-1T Method of paying the branded prescription drug fee (temporary)....

2012-04-01

147

21 CFR 201.22 - Prescription drugs containing sulfites; required warning statements.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

... 2012-04-01 false Prescription drugs containing sulfites; required...Labeling Provisions § 201.22 Prescription drugs containing sulfites; required...asthmatics. The labeling for any prescription drug product to which...

2012-04-01

148

42 CFR 423.112 - Establishment of prescription drug plan service areas.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-10-01 false Establishment of prescription drug plan service areas. 423...PROGRAM VOLUNTARY MEDICARE PRESCRIPTION DRUG BENEFIT Benefits and Beneficiary...423.112 Establishment of prescription drug plan service areas....

2011-10-01

149

38 CFR 1.515 - Disclosure of information to participate in state prescription drug monitoring programs.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...information to participate in state prescription drug monitoring programs. 1...information to participate in state prescription drug monitoring programs. (a...part may be disclosed to State Prescription Drug Monitoring Programs...

2013-07-01

150

45 CFR 156.295 - Prescription drug distribution and cost reporting.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-10-01 false Prescription drug distribution and cost reporting...Standards § 156.295 Prescription drug distribution and cost reporting...and the percentage of prescriptions for which a generic drug was available and...

2012-10-01

151

78 FR 53152 - Prescription Drug User Fee Rates for Fiscal Year 2014; Correction  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...No. FDA-2013-N-0007] Prescription Drug User Fee Rates for Fiscal Year...correcting a notice entitled ``Prescription Drug User Fee Rates for Fiscal Year...Year 2014 fee rates for the Prescription Drug User Fee Act. The...

2013-08-28

152

26 CFR 51.6302-1T - Method of paying the branded prescription drug fee (temporary).  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...Method of paying the branded prescription drug fee (temporary). 51.6302-1T...TAXES (CONTINUED) BRANDED PRESCRIPTION DRUG FEE § 51.6302-1T Method of paying the branded prescription drug fee (temporary)....

2013-04-01

153

Rev 09/09/13 Your 2014 ORNL Prescription Drug Benefit...  

E-print Network

Rev 09/09/13 Your 2014 ORNL Prescription Drug Benefit... ...For Retirees with the prescription information ready. ORNL Prescription Drug Plan, Administered by Express & Spouses over age 65 ...Provides Comprehensive Drug Coverage Your plan combines

154

45 CFR 156.295 - Prescription drug distribution and cost reporting.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-10-01 false Prescription drug distribution and cost reporting...Standards § 156.295 Prescription drug distribution and cost reporting...and the percentage of prescriptions for which a generic drug was available and...

2013-10-01

155

42 CFR 423.112 - Establishment of prescription drug plan service areas.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-10-01 false Establishment of prescription drug plan service areas. 423...PROGRAM VOLUNTARY MEDICARE PRESCRIPTION DRUG BENEFIT Benefits and Beneficiary...423.112 Establishment of prescription drug plan service areas....

2010-10-01

156

38 CFR 1.483 - Disclosure of information to participate in state prescription drug monitoring programs.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...information to participate in state prescription drug monitoring programs. 1...information to participate in state prescription drug monitoring programs. Information...part may be disclosed to State Prescription Drug Monitoring Programs...

2013-07-01

157

42 CFR 423.112 - Establishment of prescription drug plan service areas.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-10-01 false Establishment of prescription drug plan service areas. 423...CONTINUED) VOLUNTARY MEDICARE PRESCRIPTION DRUG BENEFIT Benefits and Beneficiary...423.112 Establishment of prescription drug plan service areas....

2013-10-01

158

42 CFR 423.112 - Establishment of prescription drug plan service areas.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-10-01 false Establishment of prescription drug plan service areas. 423...CONTINUED) VOLUNTARY MEDICARE PRESCRIPTION DRUG BENEFIT Benefits and Beneficiary...423.112 Establishment of prescription drug plan service areas....

2012-10-01

159

26 CFR 51.6302-1T - Method of paying the branded prescription drug fee (temporary).  

...Method of paying the branded prescription drug fee (temporary). 51.6302-1T...TAXES (CONTINUED) BRANDED PRESCRIPTION DRUG FEE § 51.6302-1T Method of paying the branded prescription drug fee (temporary)....

2014-04-01

160

42 CFR 423.464 - Coordination of benefits with other providers of prescription drug coverage.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...benefits with other providers of prescription drug coverage. 423.464 Section 423...CONTINUED) VOLUNTARY MEDICARE PRESCRIPTION DRUG BENEFIT Coordination of Part D Plans With Other Prescription Drug Coverage § 423.464...

2012-10-01

161

42 CFR 423.104 - Requirements related to qualified prescription drug coverage.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...Requirements related to qualified prescription drug coverage. 423.104 Section 423...CONTINUED) VOLUNTARY MEDICARE PRESCRIPTION DRUG BENEFIT Benefits and Beneficiary Protections...Requirements related to qualified prescription drug coverage. (a) General....

2012-10-01

162

42 CFR 423.464 - Coordination of benefits with other providers of prescription drug coverage.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...benefits with other providers of prescription drug coverage. 423.464 Section 423...PROGRAM VOLUNTARY MEDICARE PRESCRIPTION DRUG BENEFIT Coordination of Part D Plans With Other Prescription Drug Coverage § 423.464...

2011-10-01

163

42 CFR 423.104 - Requirements related to qualified prescription drug coverage.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...Requirements related to qualified prescription drug coverage. 423.104 Section 423...CONTINUED) VOLUNTARY MEDICARE PRESCRIPTION DRUG BENEFIT Benefits and Beneficiary Protections...Requirements related to qualified prescription drug coverage. (a) General....

2013-10-01

164

42 CFR 423.104 - Requirements related to qualified prescription drug coverage.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...Requirements related to qualified prescription drug coverage. 423.104 Section 423...PROGRAM VOLUNTARY MEDICARE PRESCRIPTION DRUG BENEFIT Benefits and Beneficiary Protections...Requirements related to qualified prescription drug coverage. (a) General....

2010-10-01

165

42 CFR 423.464 - Coordination of benefits with other providers of prescription drug coverage.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...benefits with other providers of prescription drug coverage. 423.464 Section 423...CONTINUED) VOLUNTARY MEDICARE PRESCRIPTION DRUG BENEFIT Coordination of Part D Plans With Other Prescription Drug Coverage § 423.464...

2013-10-01

166

42 CFR 423.56 - Procedures to determine and document creditable status of prescription drug coverage.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...document creditable status of prescription drug coverage. 423.56 Section 423.56...CONTINUED) VOLUNTARY MEDICARE PRESCRIPTION DRUG BENEFIT Eligibility and Enrollment ...document creditable status of prescription drug coverage. (a) Definition....

2013-10-01

167

42 CFR 423.56 - Procedures to determine and document creditable status of prescription drug coverage.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...document creditable status of prescription drug coverage. 423.56 Section 423.56...PROGRAM VOLUNTARY MEDICARE PRESCRIPTION DRUG BENEFIT Eligibility and Enrollment...document creditable status of prescription drug coverage. (a) Definition....

2010-10-01

168

Acute Drug Overdose: Clinical Profile, Etiologic Spectrum and Determinants of Duration of Intensive Medical Treatment  

PubMed Central

Objectives Acute drug overdosing is an important cause of organ dysfunction and metabolic derangements and the patients often require intensive care. This study aims to determine the clinical pattern of severe drug overdose as well as the factors influencing the duration of intensive care Methods The clinical characteristics and course of consecutive adult patients admitted with a diagnosis of acute drug poisoning in the ICU of a tertiary hospital in Oman from January 2007 to December 2008 were reviewed retrospectively from the electronic case records. Results Acute drug poisoning (n=29) constituted 3.9% of admissions to the ICU. Mean age was 29.38±7.9 years. They were brought in by their relatives (72%) or the state services (24%). Accidental poisoning was noted in 21 patients (72%) and suicidal overdosing in 6 (21%). The commonest drug was an opioid (65.5%). Glasgow Coma Scale score of ?8 was recorded in 18 (62.1%). Sixty two percent of patients required mechanical ventilation. The prominent complications were hypotension in 9 (31%), pulmonary in 19 (65.5%), hepatic in 18 (62.1%) and renal in 12 (41.4%) patients. The major electrolytes abnormalities were low bicarbonate in 11 (37.9%), hyponatremia in 5 (17.2%) and hypokalemia in 4 (13.8%). Patients stayed in the ICU for 1 to 20 days (median-2 days). Factors associated with a longer ICU stay included hypotension upon arrival (p=0.048) and the need for mechanical ventilation on the first (p=0.001) and second (p=0.001) days of hospitalization. There was no mortality. Conclusion Early and prompt intensive medical therapy in acute drug poisoning can favorably influence the outcome. In addition, the presence of hypotension and requirement of mechanical ventilation on the first two days of hospitalization were responsible for prolonged ICU stay. PMID:23226824

Jayakrishnan, B; Al Asmi, Abdullah; Al Qassabi, Ahmed; Nandhagopal, R; Mohammed, Irshad

2012-01-01

169

Ketoprofen overdose  

MedlinePLUS

Orudis overdose; Oruvail overdose ... better the chance for recovery. This type of overdose is usually mild. Taking too much of this ... be required to stop internal bleeding. A large overdose can cause serious damage to both children and ...

170

Heroin overdose  

MedlinePLUS

Acetomorphine overdose; Diacetylmorphine overdose ... include "junk," "smack," and "skag." See also: Morphine overdose ... antidote can be given, recovery from an acute overdose occurs within 24 - 48 hours. Heroin is often ...

171

Acetaminophen overdose  

MedlinePLUS

Tylenol overdose; Paracetamol overdose ... mg or more, can lead to a severe overdose if not treated. ... treatment is received within 8 hours of the overdose, there is a very good chance of recovery. ...

172

[Homonymy of drugs: a cause of prescription and dispensing errors].  

PubMed

There have been recently a prescription error and a dispensing error in our department due to drug names which look or sound alike. Errors of this type have frequently been quoted in the Anglo-Saxon literature. The method of choosing a drug trade name is recalled, and a table of French drug names which can involve errors of prescription and dispensing errors is provided. PMID:9138398

Thouilly, R; Le Jeunne, C; Hugues, F C

1996-01-01

173

Prescription Drug Abuse Among Prisoners in Rural Southwestern Virginia  

Microsoft Academic Search

Non-medical use of prescription medications is on the rise across the U.S., particularly in rural areas. In this study of 233 prisoners and probationers in southwestern Virginia, we add to an emerging profile of individuals abusing prescription medications. In this retrospective review of 2000-2004 augmented Addiction Severity Index data, those abusing prescription medications reported increased illicit drug and alcohol abuse,

Martha J. Wunsch; Kent Nakamoto; Anil Goswami; Sidney H. Schnoll

2007-01-01

174

Searching For Answers: Proper Prescribing of Controlled Prescription Drugs  

Microsoft Academic Search

Prescription drug abuse is increasing at alarming rates in this country. Most often drugs are obtained through relatives or friends. An important step in addressing this problem is educating healthcare providers in the proper prescribing of scheduled drugs. Physicians and other healthcare workers receive little training in proper screening for substance abuse, proper prescribing of scheduled drugs, and referral for

Martha E. Brown; William H. Swiggart; Charlene M. Dewey; Marine V. Ghulyan

2012-01-01

175

Prescription Drug Claim Form 583522i Rev. 12/2012  

E-print Network

, Year) Multi-Ingredient Compound Prescription Information - To be Completed by Dispensing Pharmacy reason applies (at least one must be checked): Compound Prescription (Pharmacist: Please list ALL/PATIENT INFORMATION Non-Participating Pharmacy Other (Please explain)Eligibility (Please explain) Emergency 2) DRUG

Nelson, Tim

176

Escalation with overdose control for phase I drug-combination trials.  

PubMed

Dose finding for combined drugs has grown rapidly in oncology drug development. The escalation with overdose control (EWOC) method is a popular model-based dose-finding approach to single-agent phase I clinical trials. When two drugs are combined as a treatment, we propose a two-dimensional EWOC design for dose finding on the basis of a four-parameter logistic regression model. During trial conduct, we continuously update the posterior distribution of the maximum tolerated dose (MTD) combination to find the most appropriate dose combination for each cohort of patients. The probability that the next assigned dose combination exceeds the MTD combination can be controlled by a feasibility bound, which is based on a prespecified quantile level of the MTD distribution such as to reduce the possibility of overdosing. We determine dose escalation, de-escalation, or staying at the same doses by searching the MTD combination along the rows and columns in a two-drug combination matrix, respectively. We conduct simulation studies to examine the performance of the two-dimensional EWOC design under various practical scenarios, and illustrate it with a trial example. Copyright © 2013 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. PMID:23630103

Shi, Yun; Yin, Guosheng

2013-04-30

177

The attitudes of consumers toward direct advertising of prescription drugs.  

PubMed Central

Attitudes about prescription drug advertising directed to consumers were assessed in 1,509 persons who had viewed prototypical advertisements for fictitious prescription drug products. Although many subjects were generally favorable toward the concept of drug advertising directed to consumers, strong reservations were also expressed, especially about television advertising. Prescription drug advertising did not appear to undermine the physician's authority, since respondents viewed the physician as the primary drug decision-maker. However, the physician was not perceived as the sole source of prescription drug information. Television advertising appeared to promote greater information-seeking about particular drugs; however, magazine ads were more fully accepted by subjects. Furthermore, magazine ads led to enhanced views of the patient's authority in drug decision-making. The greater information conveyed in magazine ads may have given subjects more confidence in their own ability to evaluate the drug and the ad. Ads that integrated risk information into the body of the advertisement were more positively viewed than ads that gave special emphasis to the risk information. The results suggest that consumer attitudes about prescription drug advertising are not firmly held and are capable of being influenced by the types of ads people view. Regulation of such ads may need to be flexed to adapt to the way different media are used and processed by consumers. PMID:3080797

Morris, L A; Brinberg, D; Klimberg, R; Rivera, C; Millstein, L G

1986-01-01

178

Essays on prescription drug benefits in Medicare managed care  

E-print Network

In this thesis, I estimate a structural demand model for prescription drug benefits by Medicare beneficiaries using data from the Medicare HMO program. I then use the utility parameter estimates to explore other questions ...

Hall, Anne Elizabeth, 1971-

2005-01-01

179

Medicaid Policies for HIV-Related Prescription Drugs  

PubMed Central

As State Medicaid programs become increasingly important sources of payment for acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS)-related care, and drug regimens the major weapons available to fight human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-related illnesses, Medicaid drug policies will have a substantial impact. State Medicaid programs were surveyed to identify policies on a range of prescription drug policies affecting these recipients. All Medicaid programs provide prescription drug benefits to all categorically needy recipients, and about three-fourths of the States provide these benefits to medically needy recipients. However, utilization limits, copayments, and off-label-use and prior-authorization policies in many States weaken the drug benefit available. PMID:10137797

Buchanan, Robert J.; Smith, Scott R.

1994-01-01

180

Absolute contraindications in relation to potential drug interactions in outpatient prescriptions: analysis of the first five million prescriptions in 1999  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objectives Adverse drug interactions increase morbidity and mortality. To prevent these, situations leading to adverse prescriptions must be clarified. This study quantifies and analyses prescriptions with potential adverse drug interactions in primary health care in the North of France over a 3-month period. Methods All prescriptions administered between 1 January 1999 and 31 March 1999 were analysed to identify potential

Laurence Guédon-Moreau; Dominique Ducrocq; Marie-Francoise Duc; Yves Quieureux; Catherine L’Hôte; Jean Deligne; Jacques Caron

2004-01-01

181

Absolute contraindications in relation to potential drug interactions in outpatient prescriptions: analysis of the first five million prescriptions in 1999  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objectives Adverse drug interactions increase morbidity and mortality. To prevent these, situations leading to adverse prescriptions must be clarified. This study quantifies and analyses prescriptions with potential adverse drug interactions in primary health care in the north of France over a 3-month period. Methods All prescriptions administered between 1 January and 31 March 1999 were analysed to identify potential interactions

Laurence Guédon-Moreau; Dominique Ducrocq; Marie-Francoise Duc; Yves Quieureux; Catherine L’Hôte; Jean Deligne; Jacques Caron

2003-01-01

182

Law enforcement attitudes toward overdose prevention and response  

PubMed Central

Background Law enforcement is often the first to respond to medical emergencies in the community, including overdose. Due to the nature of their job, officers have also witnessed first-hand the changing demographic of drug users and devastating effects on their community associated with the epidemic of nonmedical prescription opioid use in the United States. Despite this seminal role, little data exist on law enforcement attitudes toward overdose prevention and response. Methods We conducted key informant interviews as part of a 12-week Rapid Assessment and Response (RAR) process that aimed to better understand and prevent nonmedical prescription opioid use and overdose deaths in locations in Connecticut and Rhode Island experiencing overdose “outbreaks.” Interviews with 13 law enforcement officials across three study sites were analyzed to uncover themes on overdose prevention and naloxone. Results Findings indicated support for law enforcement involvement in overdose prevention. Hesitancy around naloxone administration by laypersons was evident. Interview themes highlighted officers’ feelings of futility and frustration with their current overdose response options, the lack of accessible local drug treatment, the cycle of addiction, and the pervasiveness of easily accessible prescription opioid medications in their communities. Overdose prevention and response, which for some officers included law enforcement-administered naloxone, were viewed as components of community policing and good police-community relations. Conclusion Emerging trends, such as existing law enforcement medical interventions and Good Samaritan Laws, suggest the need for broader law enforcement engagement around this pressing public health crisis, even in suburban and small town locations, to promote public safety. PMID:24051061

Green, Traci C.; Zaller, Nickolas; Palacios, Wilson R.; Bowman, Sarah E.; Ray, Madeline; Heimer, Robert; Case, Patricia

2014-01-01

183

Diagnosis-Based Risk Adjustment for Medicare Prescription Drug Plan Payments  

PubMed Central

The 2003 Medicare Prescription Drug, Improvement, and Modernization Act (MMA) created Medicare Part D, a voluntary prescription drug benefit program. The benefit is a government subsidized prescription drug benefit within Medicare. This article focuses on the development of the prescription drug risk-adjustment model used to adjust payments to reflect the health status of plan enrollees. PMID:17722748

Robst, John; Levy, Jesse M.; Ingber, Melvin J.

2007-01-01

184

21 CFR 250.100 - Amyl nitrite inhalant as a prescription drug for human use.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...nitrite inhalant as a prescription drug for human use. 250.100 Section 250.100...ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) DRUGS: GENERAL SPECIAL REQUIREMENTS FOR SPECIFIC HUMAN DRUGS New Drug or Prescription...

2011-04-01

185

21 CFR 250.100 - Amyl nitrite inhalant as a prescription drug for human use.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...nitrite inhalant as a prescription drug for human use. 250.100 Section 250.100...ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) DRUGS: GENERAL SPECIAL REQUIREMENTS FOR SPECIFIC HUMAN DRUGS New Drug or Prescription...

2010-04-01

186

21 CFR 250.100 - Amyl nitrite inhalant as a prescription drug for human use.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...nitrite inhalant as a prescription drug for human use. 250.100 Section 250.100...ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) DRUGS: GENERAL SPECIAL REQUIREMENTS FOR SPECIFIC HUMAN DRUGS New Drug or Prescription...

2013-04-01

187

21 CFR 250.100 - Amyl nitrite inhalant as a prescription drug for human use.  

...nitrite inhalant as a prescription drug for human use. 250.100 Section 250.100...ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) DRUGS: GENERAL SPECIAL REQUIREMENTS FOR SPECIFIC HUMAN DRUGS New Drug or Prescription...

2014-04-01

188

21 CFR 250.100 - Amyl nitrite inhalant as a prescription drug for human use.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...nitrite inhalant as a prescription drug for human use. 250.100 Section 250.100...ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) DRUGS: GENERAL SPECIAL REQUIREMENTS FOR SPECIFIC HUMAN DRUGS New Drug or Prescription...

2012-04-01

189

Pentazocine overdose  

MedlinePLUS

... to treat moderate to severe pain. A pentazocine overdose occurs when someone accidentally or intentionally takes more ... Pentazocine overdose is usually much less serious than other opiod medication overdoses such as heroin and morphine. Rarely do ...

190

Dilantin overdose  

MedlinePLUS

Dilantin is a medicine used to prevent seizures. Overdose occurs when someone accidentally or intentionally takes more ... The outlook depends on the severity of the overdose: Mild overdose: Supportive therapy alone may be all ...

191

Norpramin overdose  

MedlinePLUS

Desipramine overdose ... better the chance for recovery. This type of overdose can be extremely dangerous and difficult to treat. ... GEMNet): guideline for the management of tricyclic antidepressant overdose. Emerg Med J . 2011 Apr;28(4):347- ...

192

The role of depression and social support in non-fatal drug overdose among a cohort of injection drug users in a Canadian setting  

PubMed Central

Objectives Non-fatal overdose remains a significant source of morbidity among people who inject drugs (IDU). Although depression and social support are important in shaping the health of IDU, little is known about the relationship between these factors and overdose. Therefore, we sought to determine whether depressive symptoms and social support predicted non-fatal overdose among IDU in a Canadian setting. Methods Data were derived from three prospective cohorts of people who use drugs: the Vancouver Injection Drug Users Study (VIDUS), the ACCESS Cohort, and the At-Risk Youth Study (ARYS). Multilevel modeling was used to determine if depression and social support were significant predictors of non-fatal overdose across time. Analyses were stratified by sex. Results There were 1,931 participants included in this analysis, including 653 (33.8%) females and 69 (3.6%) youth 20 years old or younger. Depressed men (Adjusted odds ratio [AOR] =1.53, 95% confidence intervals [CI] =1.25, 1.87) and women (Adjusted odds ratio [AOR] =2.23, 95% confidence intervals [CI] =1.65, 3.00) were more likely to experience a non-fatal overdose. Further, among women, those who reported having 3 or more persons they could rely upon for social support were less likely to experience a non-fatal overdose (AOR=0.54, 95% 0.31, 0.93). Conclusion Although depression was a significant predictor of non-fatal drug overdose, social support was a significant predictor among women only. Possible strategies to prevent non-fatal overdose may include identifying IDU experiencing severe depressive symptoms and providing targeted mental health treatments and mobilizing interpersonal social support among IDU, especially among women. PMID:23647731

Pabayo, Roman; Alcantara, Carmela; Kawachi, Ichiro; Wood, Evan; Kerr, Thomas

2013-01-01

193

Intravenous lipids: antidotal therapy for drug overdose and toxic effects of local anesthetics.  

PubMed

Intravenous lipid emulsion is an accepted therapy for the treatment of severe cardiac toxic effects caused by local anesthetics. Lipid emulsion therapy has also been used successfully to treat cardiac arrest and intractable arrhythmias caused by overdoses of antiepileptic drugs, cardiovascular drugs, and psychotropic medications, but experience with intravenous lipids as antidotal therapy in these clinical situations is limited. However, intravenous lipids are relatively safe, widely available, and easy to administer, and many published case reports document their dramatic effectiveness. Patients who have not responded to standard therapies have been quickly revived by administration of intravenous lipids. Use of lipids most likely will increase, and critical care nurses should be familiar with lipid therapy. PMID:25274765

Bartlett, Dana

2014-10-01

194

Sources of prescription drugs for illicit use  

Microsoft Academic Search

ObjectivesThis exploratory study investigated the sources of four classes of abusable prescription medications (sleeping, sedative\\/anxiety, stimulant, and pain medications) that were used illicitly by undergraduate students in the past year. The relationship between these sources and other substance use was examined.

Sean Esteban McCabe; Carol J. Boyd

2005-01-01

195

Telematics integrated system to perform drugs prescription and administration reducing adverse drug events.  

PubMed

In this paper we present PHARMA 2.0 a telematics integrated system aimed at reducing Adverse Drug Events (ADEs) in the phases of drug prescription, transcription, distribution and administration. The proposed system is grounded on three sub-systems: a CPOE (Computerized Prescription Order Entry), an RFID-based drug container and dispenser and a middleware system. The visualization and management of prescription and administration data are handled through a web application designed to comply with international usability regulation. PMID:23367316

Iadanza, E; Pettenati, M C; Bianchi, L; Turchi, S; Ciofi, L; Pirri, F; Biffi Gentili, G; Giuli, D

2012-01-01

196

The economics of prescription drug prices, government intervention, and the importation of drugs from Canada.  

PubMed

Popular attention has focused on the skyrocketing health care costs in the United States and specifically on increasing insurance and prescription drug prices. Individuals and some local governments have advocated importing price-controlled prescription drugs from Canada to help ease the financial burden. What effects would this have on consumer prices, drug companies' incentives, and the development of new medications? PMID:16459902

Openshaw, Matthew S

2005-01-01

197

THE CURRENT STATE OF TEENAGE DRUG ABUSE: TREND TOWARD PRESCRIPTION DRUGS  

Microsoft Academic Search

The problem of prescription drug mis- use by US adolescents is increasing. Several surveys have indicated that teenage use of prescription drugs is common and that they typically do not realize the extent to which these substances can cause harm when misused. Teenagers obtain drugs from various sources, including friends, dealers, the Internet, and, especially, their families' medicine cabinets. Parents

Rochelle D. Schwartz-Bloom; Elizabeth S. mcConnell

2007-01-01

198

Deaths from drug overdose and toxicity in Turkey: 1997-2001.  

PubMed

Turkey is located on the main overland connection between Asia and Europe, making the country potentially vulnerable to drug trafficking and its associated harms. The aim of the present study is to explore the frequency of all deaths from drug overdose and toxicity in Turkey and to describe some of the characteristics of these deaths. We collected data on all deaths from drugs in Turkey between 1997 and 2001 using records from the Council of Forensic Medicine. Data obtained from autopsy reports were retrospectively analyzed. In the present study, 374 deaths from drugs were reported in Turkey, with a mortality rate of 0.17 per 100,000 population. Highest mortality rates were found in Istanbul (0.83) and Gaziantep (0.71). The mean age was 34.0, and most cases (71.7%) were below the age of 40. The proportion of female cases was 13.6%. Opiates were implicated in 91.5% of deaths and benzodiazepines in 25.9%. Two fifths (38.8%) of the cases involved use of more than 1 drug. In 36.6% of cases, the route of final drug administration was by injection. The most common location of death was at a home (33.7%). Interventions to reduce drug use nationally are urgently required. International cooperation in social-educational activities, scientific research, and security measures is essential for this war. PMID:16501349

Colak, Ba?ar; Ba?er, Lokman; Yayci, Nesime; Etiler, Nilay; Inanici, Mehmet Akif

2006-03-01

199

Cyproheptadine overdose  

MedlinePLUS

... which is used to relieve allergy symptoms. Cyproheptadine overdose occurs when someone accidentally or intentionally takes more ... likely. Few patients actually die from an antihistamine overdose.

200

Dimenhydrinate overdose  

MedlinePLUS

... a type of medicine called an antihistamine. Dimenhydrinate overdose occurs when someone accidentally or intentionally takes more ... disability. Few patients actually die from an antihistamine overdose.

201

Prescription Drug Coverage and Spending for Medicare Beneficiaries  

PubMed Central

Outpatient prescription drug coverage is not a Medicare covered benefit. Debate continues in Congress and elsewhere on modernizing the Medicare benefit package, including proposals that would help the Nation's seniors pay for prescription drugs. Very little is known about which persons within the Medicare population have drug coverage from other sources. Using 1995 data from the Medicare Current Beneficiary Survey (MCBS), the authors present information on who has coverage by various sociodemographic categories. The data indicate higher-than-average levels of coverage for minority persons, beneficiaries eligible for Medicare because of disability, and those with higher incomes. PMID:10558017

Poisal, John A.; Murray, Lauren A.; Chulis, George S.; Cooper, Barbara S.

1999-01-01

202

Comprehension of Prescription Drug Information: Overview of A Research Program  

Microsoft Academic Search

Both patients and healthcare professionals must understand information about prescription drugs to help them use medications in a safe and effective manner. However drug information materials can be difficult to understand - they can be long, detailed, technical, and complex. Comprehension problems can increase the chances that ineffective treatment or medication errors will occur. This paper presents an overview of

Ruth S. Day

203

Should the US allow prescription drug reimports from Canada?  

Microsoft Academic Search

As a result of public outrage over lower prescription drug prices in Canada, Congress passed legislation that would allow these drugs to be imported into the US. The lower Canadian prices reflect price regulation. Opponents of allowing these imports have argued that the US will import Canadian price controls and that profits of pharmaceutical companies will be hurt. In this

Paul Pecorino

2002-01-01

204

How Predictors of Prescription Drug Abuse Vary by Age  

Microsoft Academic Search

Previous studies that have identified the predictors of prescription drug abuse have either focused on a specific age group or pooled all age groups together into one sample. This approach constrains the predictors to have the same effect across age groups. In this study, we use the 2001 to 2003 National Survey on Drug Use and Health to estimate separate

Jeremy Arkes; Martin Y. Iguchi

2008-01-01

205

Regulation of prescription drug promotion: direct-to-consumer advertising  

Microsoft Academic Search

The US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) is responsible for regulating the information on prescription drugs disseminated by sponsors to health care providers and consumers to ensure that it is truthful and not misleading, and that it presents a fair balance of benefit and risk information. Thus the public health is both protected and promoted by the dissemination of honest,

Minnie Baylor-Henry; Norman A. Drezin

1998-01-01

206

21 CFR 202.1 - Prescription-drug advertisements.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...as studies in laboratory animals or in vitro, that the studies have clinical significance...for a prescription drug in animal or in vitro tests and have not been shown by adequate...the case of anti-infective drugs, in vitro data may be included in the...

2010-04-01

207

Buying prescription drugs on the internet: promises and pitfalls.  

PubMed

Patients can save time and money by purchasing drugs from Internet pharmacies, but they can also end up with counterfeit or substandard medications. Online pharmacies bypass the safeguards of a doctor-patient relationship, creating a dangerous opportunity for prescription drug abuse and unchecked medication interactions and side effects. PMID:16548451

Weiss, Alan M

2006-03-01

208

A review of the management of oral drug overdose in the Accident and Emergency Department of the Royal Brisbane Hospital  

Microsoft Academic Search

Two-hundred and eighty-nine patients who made a total of 323 presentations to the Royal Brisbane Hospital Accident and Emergency Department with a known or suspected oral drug overdose were reviewed. The majority of patients (76%) could be managed in a 24 h Accident and Emergency observation unit. Activated charcoal given orally or via a nasogastric tube was the recommended method

D W Hodgkinson; L B Jellett; R H Ashby

1991-01-01

209

76 FR 79194 - Agency Information Collection Activities; Proposed Collection; Comment Request; Prescription Drug...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Prescription Drug Product Labeling: Medication Guide Requirements AGENCY: Food and Drug Administration...of patient labeling, called Medications Guides, for certain products that pose a serious...Prescription Drug Product Labeling; Medication Guide Requirements (OMB Control Number...

2011-12-21

210

Motivations for non-medical prescription drug use: A mixed methods analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Despite a dramatic increase in the nonmedical use of prescription drugs among illicit drug users, their motives for abusing prescription drugs are still largely unknown. The objective of this study was to (a) determine the motivations for engaging in the nonmedical use of prescription opioids and sedatives among street-based illicit drug users, methadone maintenance patients, and residential drug treatment clients;

Khary K. Rigg; Gladys E. Ibañez

2010-01-01

211

Demand Effects of Recent Changes in Prescription Drug Promotion  

Microsoft Academic Search

The release of clarified Food and Drug Administration (FDA) guidelines and independent changes in consumer behavior provide an opportunity to study the effects of direct-to-consumer advertising (DTCA) in the prescription drug market alongside the effects of various physician-oriented promotions. We examine the effects of DTCA and detailing for brands in five therapeutic classes of drugs, using monthly aggregate U.S. data

Meredith B. Rosenthal; Ernst R. Berndt; Julie M. Donohue; Arnold M. Epstein; Richard G. Frank

2003-01-01

212

Trazodone hydrochloride overdose  

MedlinePLUS

Desyrel overdose; Deprax overdose; Molipaxin overdose; Thrombran overdose; Trialodine overdose; Trittico overdose ... Death can result from an overdose, but this is rare. Long-term heart and respiratory problems are also rare.

213

Trends in Medicaid Prescription Drug Utilization and Payments, 1990-97  

PubMed Central

The rising cost of prescription drugs has caused public officials to restructure prescription drug coverage and payment policies in Medicaid. This study examines Medicaid utilization and payments for prescription drugs from 1990 to 1997. Medicaid prescription drug payments grew from $4.4 billion in 1990 to almost $12 billion in 1997, representing an average annual increase of 15.3 percent. In 1997 prescription drug payments per recipient were $1,379 for the blind and disabled, more than 10 times the amount for children. These findings will aid policymakers in setting prepaid plan rates for prescription drugs and monitoring access to care in Medicaid. PMID:10558022

Baugh, David K.; Pine, Penelope L.; Blackwell, Steven

1999-01-01

214

Community-based opioid overdose prevention programs providing naloxone - United States, 2010.  

PubMed

Drug overdose death rates have increased steadily in the United States since 1979. In 2008, a total of 36,450 drug overdose deaths (i.e., unintentional, intentional [suicide or homicide], or undetermined intent) were reported, with prescription opioid analgesics (e.g., oxycodone, hydrocodone, and methadone), cocaine, and heroin the drugs most commonly involved . Since the mid-1990s, community-based programs have offered opioid overdose prevention services to persons who use drugs, their families and friends, and service providers. Since 1996, an increasing number of these programs have provided the opioid antagonist naloxone hydrochloride, the treatment of choice to reverse the potentially fatal respiratory depression caused by overdose of heroin and other opioids. Naloxone has no effect on non-opioid overdoses (e.g., cocaine, benzodiazepines, or alcohol) . In October 2010, the Harm Reduction Coalition, a national advocacy and capacity-building organization, surveyed 50 programs known to distribute naloxone in the United States, to collect data on local program locations, naloxone distribution, and overdose reversals. This report summarizes the findings for the 48 programs that completed the survey and the 188 local programs represented by the responses. Since the first opioid overdose prevention program began distributing naloxone in 1996, the respondent programs reported training and distributing naloxone to 53,032 persons and receiving reports of 10,171 overdose reversals. Providing opioid overdose education and naloxone to persons who use drugs and to persons who might be present at an opioid overdose can help reduce opioid overdose mortality, a rapidly growing public health concern. PMID:22337174

2012-02-17

215

Supply-side response to declining heroin purity: fentanyl overdose episode in new jersey.  

PubMed

The inelastic price demand observations characteristic of illegal drug markets have led to the conclusion that the burden of a negative supply shock would be completely reflected to consumers. This paper argues that the increasing availability of prescription opioids may threaten heroin sellers' profit margin and force them to find alternative methods to compensate buyers in the event of a supply shock. We investigate the 2006 fentanyl overdose episode in New Jersey and argue that the introduction of non-pharmaceutical fentanyl, its spatial distribution, and the timing of overdose deaths may have been related to trends in heroin purity. Using medical examiner data, as well as data from the Drug Enforcement Administration, Office of Diversion Control on retail sales of prescription opioids in a negative binomial specification, we show that month-to-month fluctuations in heroin purity have a significant effect on fentanyl-related overdoses, particularly in those areas where prescription opioids are highly available. PMID:23740651

Hempstead, Katherine; Yildirim, Emel O

2014-06-01

216

Rural Adolescents' Nonmedical Prescription Drug Use: Implications for Intervention  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Rural communities often have distinct contextual factors that impact residents' substance abuse behavior. However, most studies to date have focused either exclusively on urban populations or neglected to analyze data in a way that allows any rural/urban comparison. This is especially true for research examining nonmedical prescription drug use…

Young, April M.; Glover, Natalie; Havens, Jennifer R.

2012-01-01

217

Justice Implications of a Proposed Medicare Prescription Drug Policy  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Social justice is a core value to the mission of social work. Older people are among the most vulnerable populations for whom social workers are called on to advocate. Although Medicare prescription drug coverage has been a top legislative issue over the past few years, such a benefit expansion has yet to be implemented. This article examines the…

Larkin, Heather

2004-01-01

218

Equilibrium Price Dispersion in Retail Markets for Prescription Drugs  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study seeks to establish the empirical importance of price dispersion due to costly consumer search by examining retail prices for prescription drugs. Posted prices in two geographically distinct markets are shown to vary considerably across pharmacies within the same market, even after one controls for variation due to pharmacy differences. Pharmacy heterogeneity accounts for at most one-third of the

Alan T. Sorensen

2000-01-01

219

Fifteen Solutions to the Problems of Prescription Drug Abuse  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the 17 years since the publication of Pills, Profits, and Politics by Silverman and Lee, not one of that book's proposals has been fully implemented. This article begins by identifying the elements of prescription drug abuse: inappropriate physician prescribing, patient noncompliance, and poor doctor-patient communication. It then offers 15 solutions to these problems; these are divided into nonregulatory and

Peter Lurie; Philip R. Lee

1991-01-01

220

Prescription Drug Abuse Among Ecstasy Users in Miami  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study examines the nature, extent and consequences of prescription drug abuse among 143 ecstasy users in Miami. Participants were recruited through nightclub and college campus outreach, and through respondent referrals. Instrumentation included the Risk Behavior Assessment, Substance Abuse Module and Center for Epidemiological Studies Depression Scale. Median age was 23, 42% were female and 50% Hispanic. An arrest history

Steven P. Kurtz; James A. Inciardi; Hilary L. Surratt; Linda Cottler

2006-01-01

221

21 CFR 203.50 - Requirements for wholesale distribution of prescription drugs.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...Section 203.50 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT...HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) DRUGS: GENERAL PRESCRIPTION DRUG MARKETING Wholesale Distribution...previous sales of the component drug or drugs. (d) List of...

2010-04-01

222

Prescription Drug Abuse Among Adolescent Arrestees: Correlates and Implications  

Microsoft Academic Search

This preliminary study examines the correlates of prescription drug abuse in a sample of adolescents in an urban juvenile detention center in Ohio. The study measures risk in 359 incarcerated females (20.1%) and 1,425 males (79.9%) by asking questions related to problems with alcohol, drug use, treatment history, mental and physical health problems, sexual behavior, anger management, physical violence, and

Sonia A. Alemagno; Peggy Stephens; Peggy Shaffer-King; Brent Teasdale

2009-01-01

223

Fluoxetine versus tricyclic antidepressants: A prospective multicenter study of antidepressant drug overdoses  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study compares the clinical course of tricyclic antidepressant and fluoxetine overdose. The study was a prospective case series of 9 urban hospital systems. Consecutive sampling of overdose patients presenting to emergency departments provided the participants for the study. The therapy was determined by each institution. Clinical, laboratory, economic impact, and coroners' information was gathered. Of 622 patients, 482 were

Scott Phillips; Jeffrey Brent; Kenneth Kulig; John Heiligenstein; Martin Birkett

1997-01-01

224

Adult Prescription Drug Use and Pediatric Medication Exposures and Poisonings  

PubMed Central

BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Nontherapeutic medication ingestions continue to be a major pediatric health problem, with recent increases in ingestions despite a number of public health interventions. It is unknown how changes in adult prescription drug use relate to pediatric medication poisonings. The objective of the study was to measure the association between changing adult prescription drug patterns and pediatric medication exposures and poisonings and identify high-risk classes of medications and pediatric age groups. METHODS: We measured monthly pediatric exposures and poisonings using the National Poison Data System and prescriptions written for adults using the National Ambulatory Medical Care Surveys for 2000 through 2009. Associations between adult prescriptions for oral hypoglycemics, antihyperlipidemics, ?-blockers, and opioids and exposures and poisonings among children 0 to 5, 6 to 12, and 13 to 19 years were analyzed by using multiple time-series analysis. Emergency department visits, serious injuries, and hospitalizations stemming from these associations were described. RESULTS: Adult medication prescriptions were statistically significantly associated with exposures and poisonings in children of all ages, with the strongest association observed for opioids. Across medications, the greatest risk was among children 0 to 5 years old, followed by 13- to 19-year-olds. Rates of emergency department visits were highest for events related to hypoglycemics (60.1%) and ?-blockers (59.7%), whereas serious injuries and hospitalizations occurred most frequently with opioids (26.8% and 35.2%, respectively) and hypoglycemics (19.5% and 49.4%, respectively). CONCLUSIONS: Increasing adult drug prescriptions are strongly associated with rising pediatric exposures and poisonings, particularly for opioids and among children 0 to 5 years old. These associations have sizable impacts, including high rates of serious injury and health care use. PMID:23733792

Ayers, John W.; Brownstein, John S.; Bronstein, Alvin C.; Ewald, Michele Burns; Bourgeois, Florence T.

2013-01-01

225

State prescription drug price Web sites: how useful to consumers?  

PubMed

To aid consumers in comparing prescription drug costs, many states have launched Web sites to publish drug prices offered by local retail pharmacies. The current push to make retail pharmacy prices accessible to consumers is part of a much broader movement to increase price transparency throughout the health-care sector. Efforts to encourage price-based shopping for hospital and physician services have encountered widespread concerns, both on grounds that prices for complex services are difficult to measure and compare accurately and that quality varies substantially across providers. Experts agree, however, that prescription drugs are much easier to shop for than other, more complex health services. However, extensive gaps in available price information--the result of relying on Medicaid data--seriously hamper the effectiveness of state drug price-comparison Web sites, according to a new study by the Center for Studying Health System Change (HSC). An alternative approach--requiring pharmacies to submit price lists to the states--would improve the usefulness of price information, but pharmacies typically oppose such a mandate. Another limitation of most state Web sites is that price information is restricted to local pharmacies, when online pharmacies, both U.S. and foreign, often sell prescription drugs at substantially lower prices. To further enhance consumer shopping tools, states might consider expanding the types of information provided, including online pharmacy comparison tools, lists of deeply discounted generic drugs offered by discount retailers, and lists of local pharmacies offering price matches. PMID:18494180

Tu, Ha T; Corey, Catherine G

2008-02-01

226

21 CFR 14.160 - Establishment of standing technical advisory committees for human prescription drugs.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...standing technical advisory committees for human prescription drugs. 14.160 Section...ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL PUBLIC HEARING BEFORE...ADVISORY COMMITTEE Advisory Committees for Human Prescription Drugs § 14.160...

2010-04-01

227

21 CFR 14.160 - Establishment of standing technical advisory committees for human prescription drugs.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...standing technical advisory committees for human prescription drugs. 14.160 Section...ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL PUBLIC HEARING BEFORE...ADVISORY COMMITTEE Advisory Committees for Human Prescription Drugs § 14.160...

2011-04-01

228

21 CFR 14.160 - Establishment of standing technical advisory committees for human prescription drugs.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...standing technical advisory committees for human prescription drugs. 14.160 Section...ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL PUBLIC HEARING BEFORE...ADVISORY COMMITTEE Advisory Committees for Human Prescription Drugs § 14.160...

2012-04-01

229

21 CFR 14.160 - Establishment of standing technical advisory committees for human prescription drugs.  

...standing technical advisory committees for human prescription drugs. 14.160 Section...ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL PUBLIC HEARING BEFORE...ADVISORY COMMITTEE Advisory Committees for Human Prescription Drugs § 14.160...

2014-04-01

230

21 CFR 14.160 - Establishment of standing technical advisory committees for human prescription drugs.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...standing technical advisory committees for human prescription drugs. 14.160 Section...ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL PUBLIC HEARING BEFORE...ADVISORY COMMITTEE Advisory Committees for Human Prescription Drugs § 14.160...

2013-04-01

231

77 FR 4273 - Direct-to-Consumer Prescription Drug Advertisements; Presentation of the Major Statement in...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...the Major Statement in Television and Radio Advertisements in a Clear, Conspicuous...Consumer Prescription Drug Television Advertisements'' (Distraction Study...DTC prescription drug television advertisements (72 FR 47051,...

2012-01-27

232

77 FR 16973 - Direct-to-Consumer Prescription Drug Advertisements; Presentation of the Major Statement in...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...the Major Statement in Television and Radio Advertisements in a Clear, Conspicuous...Direct-to-Consumer Prescription Drug Television Advertisements'' (Distraction Study...DTC prescription drug television advertisements (72 FR 47051,...

2012-03-23

233

21 CFR 369.3 - Warnings required on drugs exempted from prescription-dispensing requirements of section 503(b)(1...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...Warnings required on drugs exempted from prescription-dispensing requirements...Warnings required on drugs exempted from prescription-dispensing requirements...b)(1)(C). Drugs exempted from prescription-dispensing...

2011-04-01

234

20 CFR 418.1322 - How will a Medicare prescription drug coverage income-related monthly adjustment amount...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

... false How will a Medicare prescription drug coverage income-related...1322 How will a Medicare prescription drug coverage income-related...subpart C of this part (Medicare Prescription Drug Coverage...

2011-04-01

235

20 CFR 418.1322 - How will a Medicare prescription drug coverage income-related monthly adjustment amount...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

... false How will a Medicare prescription drug coverage income-related...1322 How will a Medicare prescription drug coverage income-related...subpart C of this part (Medicare Prescription Drug Coverage...

2013-04-01

236

21 CFR 369.3 - Warnings required on drugs exempted from prescription-dispensing requirements of section 503(b)(1...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...Warnings required on drugs exempted from prescription-dispensing requirements...Warnings required on drugs exempted from prescription-dispensing requirements...b)(1)(C). Drugs exempted from prescription-dispensing...

2012-04-01

237

21 CFR 369.3 - Warnings required on drugs exempted from prescription-dispensing requirements of section 503(b)(1...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...Warnings required on drugs exempted from prescription-dispensing requirements...Warnings required on drugs exempted from prescription-dispensing requirements...b)(1)(C). Drugs exempted from prescription-dispensing...

2013-04-01

238

21 CFR 369.3 - Warnings required on drugs exempted from prescription-dispensing requirements of section 503(b)(1...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...Warnings required on drugs exempted from prescription-dispensing requirements...Warnings required on drugs exempted from prescription-dispensing requirements...b)(1)(C). Drugs exempted from prescription-dispensing...

2010-04-01

239

20 CFR 418.1322 - How will a Medicare prescription drug coverage income-related monthly adjustment amount...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

... false How will a Medicare prescription drug coverage income-related...1322 How will a Medicare prescription drug coverage income-related...subpart C of this part (Medicare Prescription Drug Coverage...

2012-04-01

240

21 CFR 369.3 - Warnings required on drugs exempted from prescription-dispensing requirements of section 503(b)(1...  

...Warnings required on drugs exempted from prescription-dispensing requirements...Warnings required on drugs exempted from prescription-dispensing requirements...b)(1)(C). Drugs exempted from prescription-dispensing...

2014-04-01

241

20 CFR 418.1322 - How will a Medicare prescription drug coverage income-related monthly adjustment amount...  

... false How will a Medicare prescription drug coverage income-related...1322 How will a Medicare prescription drug coverage income-related...subpart C of this part (Medicare Prescription Drug Coverage...

2014-04-01

242

Health Outcomes in Patients Using No-Prescription Online Pharmacies to Purchase Prescription Drugs  

PubMed Central

Background Many prescription drugs are freely available for purchase on the Internet without a legitimate prescription from a physician. Objective This study focused on the motivations for using no-prescription online pharmacies (NPOPs) to purchase prescription drugs rather than using the traditional doctor-patient-pharmacy model. We also studied whether users of NPOP-purchased drugs had poorer health outcomes than those who obtain the same drug through legitimate health care channels. Methods We selected tramadol as a representative drug to address our objective because it is widely prescribed as an unscheduled opioid analgesic and can easily be purchased from NPOPs. Using search engine marketing (SEM), we placed advertisements on search result pages stemming from the keyword “tramadol” and related terms and phrases. Participants, who either used the traditional doctor-patient-pharmacy model to obtain tramadol (traditional users, n=349) or purchased it on the Web without a prescription from their local doctor (ie, nontraditional users, n=96), were then asked to complete an online survey. Results Respondents in both groups were primarily white, female, and in their mid-forties (nontraditional users) to upper forties (traditional users). Nearly all nontraditional users indicated that their tramadol use was motivated by a need to treat pain (95%, 91/96) that they perceived was not managed appropriately through legitimate health care channels. A majority of nontraditional users (55%, 41/75) indicated they used NPOPs because they did not have access to sufficient doses of tramadol to relieve pain. In addition, 29% (22/75) of nontraditional users indicated that the NPOPs were a far cheaper alternative than seeing a physician, paying for an office visit, and filling a prescription at a local pharmacy, which is often at noninsured rates for those who lack medical insurance (37%, 35/96, of NPOP users). The remainder of participants (16%, 12/96) cited other motivations (eg, anonymity) for using NPOPs. In terms of health outcomes, nontraditional users experienced a significantly (P<.01) greater number and severity of adverse events, including life-threatening seizures: 7% (7/96) of nontraditional users reported seizures, while none of the traditional users reported seizures. Conclusions Although online pharmacies can offer distinct advantages in terms of convenience and cost, users of these “rogue” pharmacies that offer drugs with no prescription or doctor supervision do so at great risk to their health, as evidenced by much higher rates of adverse events. The most logical explanation for these findings is that the lack of physician oversight of dosage schedules, contraindicated conditions, and concomitant medications, were responsible for the increased intensity and frequency of adverse events in the nontraditional users. Although we only examined tramadol, it is logical to postulate that similar results would be observed with dozens of equally accessible prescription drugs. As such, the geometric growth in the use of online pharmacies around the world should prompt intense medical and regulatory discussion about their role in the provision of medical care. PMID:23220405

2012-01-01

243

Fatal Metformin Overdose Presenting with Progressive Hyperglycemia  

E-print Network

overdose situations. Unlike the sulfonylurea and meglitinide classes of diabetes drugs,overdose situations, however, metformin is frequently associated with lactic acidosis. 3,5-15 Because the biguanide drugs

Suchard, Jeffrey R; Grotsky, Thomas A

2008-01-01

244

Prescription Drug Misuse and Sexual Risk Taking Among HIV-Negative MSM  

Microsoft Academic Search

Men who have sex with men (MSM) misuse prescription drugs at high rates. Little research has examined the connection between\\u000a prescription drug misuse and HIV risk in this population. With a community sample of MSM, the authors assessed prescription\\u000a drug misuse—not including erectile dysfunction medications—and sexual risk behaviors among HIV-negative MSM. The findings\\u000a indicate that recent prescription drug misusers had

Brian C. KellyJeffrey; Jeffrey T. Parsons

245

Managing prescription drug diversion risks: caring for individuals at home.  

PubMed

As the Society for the Study of Addiction concluded in their 2010 study of prescription drug diversion and sourcing, friends and family members are identified as a significant source for drugs being abused. The 2010 National Conference of State Legislatures reported that a national drug survey found more than half of the nonmedical users of prescription pain relievers acquire them at no cost from a friend or relative (Hanson, 2010). The Harvard Medical Letter (2011) reported that 70% of prescription drug abusers identify their source as a family member or friend.Specific to this article, the family member or friend may be associated with the individual receiving home care or hospice services in their home. As the life span across the United States increases, the graying of America presents healthcare providers with many societal and managed care challenges. In addition to managing patient symptoms and related treatment, home care and hospice care providers need to expand their plan of care to include the risks of drug diversion. PMID:25202807

Pancari, Juliann; Baird, Carolyn

2014-01-01

246

Important Notice from Northwestern University About Your Prescription Drug Coverage and Medicare  

E-print Network

Important Notice from Northwestern University About Your Prescription Drug Coverage and Medicare the current prescription drug coverage available through Northwestern University and about your options under Medicare's prescription drug coverage. This information can help you decide whether or not you want to join

Shahriar, Selim

247

Prescription Drug Reimbursement / Coordination of Benefits Claim Form An incomplete form may delay your reimbursement.  

E-print Network

Prescription Drug Reimbursement / Coordination of Benefits Claim Form An incomplete form may delay See your prescription drug ID card. Group No. �������������������� Member ID the patient, if not myself) am eligible for prescription drug benefits. I certify that the medication

Shepherd, Simon

248

Prescription Drug Reimbursement Form See the back for instructions. Complete all information.  

E-print Network

Prescription Drug Reimbursement Form See the back for instructions. Complete all information, and that I (or the patient, if not myself) am eligible for prescription drug benefits. I also certify receipts on the back. Member/Subscriber Information See your prescription drug ID card. C1001 9-12 #12;*C

Subramanian, Venkat

249

Prescription Drug Reimbursement Form See the back for instructions. Complete all information.  

E-print Network

Prescription Drug Reimbursement Form See the back for instructions. Complete all information) am eligible for prescription drug benefits. I also certify that the medication received. Member/Subscriber Information See your prescription drug ID card. #12;*C1001* *C1001* Claim Receipts

250

Important Notice from BNL About Your Prescription Drug Coverage and Medicare  

E-print Network

Important Notice from BNL About Your Prescription Drug Coverage and Medicare Please read have under the new Medicare prescription drug coverage available January 1, 2006 for people with Medicare. It also tells you where to find more information about Medicare prescription drug coverage

251

Important Notice from UCSD Medical Center About Your Prescription Drug Coverage and Medicare  

E-print Network

Important Notice from UCSD Medical Center About Your Prescription Drug Coverage and Medicare Please current prescription drug coverage with UCSD Medical Center and about your options under Medicare's prescription drug coverage. This information can help you decide whether or not you want to join a Medicare

Gleeson, Joseph G.

252

Prescription Drug Reimbursement Form See the back for instructions. Complete all information.  

E-print Network

Prescription Drug Reimbursement Form See the back for instructions. Complete all information eligible for prescription drug benefits. I also certify that the medication received was not for an on: · Date prescription filled · Name and address of pharmacy · Doctor name or ID number · NDC number (drug

253

Important Notice from UCSD Medical Center About Creditable Prescription Drug Coverage and Medicare  

E-print Network

Important Notice from UCSD Medical Center About Creditable Prescription Drug Coverage and Medicare The purpose of this notice is to advise you that the prescription drug coverage listed below under the UCSD prescription drug coverage will pay in 2012. This is known as "creditable coverage". Why this is important

Squire, Larry R.

254

75 FR 33312 - Indexing Structured Product Labeling for Human Prescription Drug and Biological Products; Request...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...labeling information for human prescription drug and...enable a hospital's computer system to help detect...addition of SPL indexing to human prescription drug and...Representatives of the human prescription drug and...available for uploading into computer systems for sorting...

2010-06-11

255

Aspirin overdose  

MedlinePLUS

An overdose of aspirin means you have too much aspirin in your body. This can happen in two ways: If a person accidentally or intentionally takes a very large dose of aspirin at one time, it's called an acute overdose. ...

256

Phenytoin overdose  

MedlinePLUS

... medicine used to treat convulsions and seizures. Phenytoin overdose occurs when someone takes too much of this ... patient does depends on the severity of the overdose and how quickly treatment is received.

257

Methadone overdose  

MedlinePLUS

... is also used to treat heroin addiction. Methadone overdose occurs when someone accidentally or intentionally takes more ... normal or recommended amount of this medication. Methadone overdose can also occur if a person takes methadone ...

258

21 CFR 300.50 - Fixed-combination prescription drugs for humans.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

... Fixed-combination prescription drugs for humans. 300.50 Section 300.50 Food and Drugs...DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) DRUGS FOR HUMAN USE GENERAL Combination Drugs §...

2010-04-01

259

21 CFR 300.50 - Fixed-combination prescription drugs for humans.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

... Fixed-combination prescription drugs for humans. 300.50 Section 300.50 Food and Drugs...DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) DRUGS FOR HUMAN USE GENERAL Combination Drugs §...

2011-04-01

260

21 CFR 300.50 - Fixed-combination prescription drugs for humans.  

... Fixed-combination prescription drugs for humans. 300.50 Section 300.50 Food and Drugs...DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) DRUGS FOR HUMAN USE GENERAL Combination Drugs §...

2014-04-01

261

21 CFR 300.50 - Fixed-combination prescription drugs for humans.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

... Fixed-combination prescription drugs for humans. 300.50 Section 300.50 Food and Drugs...DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) DRUGS FOR HUMAN USE GENERAL Combination Drugs §...

2012-04-01

262

21 CFR 300.50 - Fixed-combination prescription drugs for humans.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

... Fixed-combination prescription drugs for humans. 300.50 Section 300.50 Food and Drugs...DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) DRUGS FOR HUMAN USE GENERAL Combination Drugs §...

2013-04-01

263

On the demand for prescription drugs: heterogeneity in price responses.  

PubMed

This paper estimates the price elasticity of demand for prescription drugs using an exogenous shift in consumer co-payment caused by a reform in the Danish subsidy scheme for the general public. Using purchasing records for the entire Danish population, I show that the average price response for the most commonly used drug yields demand elasticities in the range of -0.36 to -0.5. The reform is shown to affect women, the elderly, and immigrants the most. Furthermore, this paper shows significant heterogeneity in the price response over different types of antibiotics, suggesting that the price elasticity of demand varies considerably even across relatively similar drugs. PMID:22899231

Skipper, Niels

2013-07-01

264

78 FR 15019 - Food and Drug Administration Prescription Drug User Fee Act V Benefit-Risk Plan; Request for...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...PrescriptionDrugUserFee/UCM329758.pdf. DATES: Submit either electronic or written...PrescriptionDrugUserFee/UCM270412.pdf. Section X of the PDUFA Goals Document...PrescriptionDrugUserFee/UCM329758.pdf. The comment period will remain open...

2013-03-08

265

Prescription Drug Misuse and Risk Behaviors Among Young Injection Drug Users  

PubMed Central

Prescription drug misuse among young adults, especially opioids, is a substantial public health problem in the United States. Although risks associated with injection of illicit drugs are well established, injection and sexual risks associated with misuse of prescription drugs are under-studied. Forty young injection drug users aged 16 to 25 who reported injection of a prescription drug were recruited in 2008–09 in Los Angeles and New York City. Descriptive quantitative and qualitative data were analyzed to illustrate risky injection and sexual behaviors reported in this sample. Over half of participants engaged in risky injection behavior, three-quarters engaged in risky sexual behavior, nearly half reported both risky behaviors, and five did not report either risk behavior while misusing a prescription drug. Prescription opioids, tranquilizers, and stimulants were misused in the context of risky sexual behaviors while only opioids were misused in the context of injection risk behaviors. Access to clean syringes, attitudes and beliefs regarding hepatitis C, and risk reduction through partner selection were identified as key themes that contextualized risk behaviors. Although these findings help identify areas to target educational campaigns, such as prevention of sexually transmitted infections, risk behaviors specifically associated with prescription drug misuse warrant further study. PMID:23908999

Johnson, Kristen M.; Fibbi, Meghan; Langer, Debra; Silva, Karol; Lankenau, Stephen E.

2014-01-01

266

Prescription Drug Labeling Medication Errors: A Big Deal for Pharmacists  

PubMed Central

Today, in the health care profession, all types of medication errors including missed dose, wrong dosage forms, wrong time interval, wrong route, etc., are a big deal for better patient care. Today, problems related to medications are common in the healthcare profession, and are responsible for significant morbidity, mortality, and cost. Several recent studies have demonstrated that patients frequently have difficulty in reading and understanding medication labels. According to the Institute of Medicine report, “Preventing Medication Errors”, cited poor labeling as a central cause for medication errors in the USA. Evidence suggests that specific content and format of prescription drug labels facilitate communication with and comprehension by patients. Efforts to improve the labels should be guided by such evidence, although an additional study assessing the influence of label design on medication-taking behavior and health outcomes is needed. Several policy options exist to require minimal standards to optimize medical therapy, particularly in light of the new Medicare prescription drug benefit. PMID:21331202

Jeetu, G; Girish, T

2010-01-01

267

Drug-related overdoses within a medically supervised safer injection facility  

Microsoft Academic Search

BackgroundIn September 2003, North America's first supervised injection facility (SIF) opened in Vancouver, Canada. We sought to examine the incidence and characteristics of overdose events at the SIF.

Thomas Kerr; Mark W. Tyndall; Calvin Lai; Julio S. G. Montaner; Evan Wood

2006-01-01

268

Growing internet use may help explain the rise in prescription drug abuse in the United States  

PubMed Central

The rise in availability of commonly abused prescription drugs through the internet has raised public health concerns. We examined whether U.S. prescription drug abuse growth may be explained by growth in internet use. We find that for every 10 percent increase in high-speed internet use at the state level, associated admissions for prescription drug abuse rose by 1 percent. Non-prescription drug related admissions bore no association with internet use. The results suggest that better surveillance of online prescription drug use is warranted, and aggressive efforts to curb illegitimate online pharmacies may be necessary. PMID:21565838

Goldman, Dana P.; Jena, Anupam B.

2013-01-01

269

Redressing the Epidemics of Opioid Overdose and HIV among People who Inject Drugs in Central Asia: The Need for a Syndemic Approach  

PubMed Central

Background Accumulating evidence suggests that opioid overdose and HIV infection are burgeoning intertwined epidemics among people who inject drugs (PWID) in Central Asia. To date, however, research on overdose and its associations with HIV risks among PWID in Central Asia remains virtually absent. This paper aims to provide a regional overview of the hidden epidemic of overdose and how it is linked to HIV among PWID in Central Asia, using a syndemic framework that is guided by risk environment research. Methods We conducted a comprehensive literature search of peer-reviewed publications and grey literature on opioid overdose and its associations with HIV in five countries of Central Asia (Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Tajikistan, Turkmenistan and Uzbekistan) as well as on policies and programs that address these co-occurring epidemics. Results Regional data indicate high rates of fatal and non-fatal overdose among PWID. Evidence suggests mortality rates from overdose exceed HIV/AIDS as the leading cause of death among PWID. The syndemic framework suggests multiple macro-level and micro-level environmental risk factors that drive the co-occurring epidemics of HIV and overdose. This framework identifies several interacting biological and behavioral risks that result in additive effects for HIV and overdose. Conclusion The high rates of overdose and its associations with HIV underscore the need for a syndemic approach that considers overdose on parity with HIV. Such an approach should focus on the biological, behavioral and structural interactions between these epidemics to reduce social suffering, morbidity and mortality among PWID in Central Asia. PMID:23954070

Gilbert, Louisa; Primbetova, Sholpan; Nikitin, Danil; Hunt, Timothy; Terlikbayeva, Assel; Momenghalibaf, Azzi; Ruziev, Murodali; El-Bassel, Nabila

2013-01-01

270

Trends in fatal substance overdose in eastern Saudi Arabia.  

PubMed

Two hundred and forty-nine deaths owing to substance overdose were reported to the Medico-Legal Centre, Dammam, Saudi Arabia in the 8 year period from 1990 to 1997. All cases were subject to a full forensic autopsy with toxicological and histological studies. The overall male:female ratio was 7.9:1 and males predominated in all age groups. Saudis outnumbered other nationalities and accounted for 191 (77%) of the cases. Four main categories of overdose fatalities were identified: opiates, prescribed medication, alcohol and carbon monoxide. Opiates accounted for 116 (47%) of all overdose deaths, although such fatal overdoses have been decreasing since 1993. Medically-prescribed drugs accounted for 50 (20%) of the fatalities (21 deaths from antidepressants, 19 from tranquillisers, five from hypnotics, three from paracetamol and two from amphetamines). Ethyl alcohol accounted for 27 deaths (11%) and carbon monoxide for 26 deaths (10.5%). This study shows a sharp fall in overdose fatalities in eastern Saudi Arabia during the last 5 years, which probably reflects the influence of a combined policy of strict legislations against drug trafficking and tight control over prescription of drugs. PMID:15335507

Elfawal, M A

1999-03-01

271

National Estimates of Exposure to Prescription Drugs with Addiction Potential in Community-Dwelling Elders  

Microsoft Academic Search

The use of prescription drugs with addiction potential is an overlooked and growing problem among today's elderly. This paper provides national prevalence estimates of exposure to prescription drugs with addiction potential among community-dwelling elders and explores risk factors for such exposure. Using the Medicare Current Beneficiary Survey, a nationally-representative database of Medicare eligibles, we calculated the prevalence of abusable prescription

Linda Simoni-Wastila; Ilene H. Zuckerman; Puneet K. Singhal; Becky Briesacher; Van Doren Hsu

2006-01-01

272

21 CFR 250.101 - Amphetamine and methamphetamine inhalers regarded as prescription drugs.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

21 Food and Drugs 4 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Amphetamine and methamphetamine inhalers regarded as prescription drugs. 250.101 Section 250.101 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF...

2013-04-01

273

A survey of patients' receipt of prescription drug information  

SciTech Connect

A nationwide telephone survey of 1,223 individuals investigated the nature and source of information provided to patients regarding prescription drugs. About half of the respondents said that they had received information from their doctor about the purpose and directions for use for their most recent prescription. Only a few people (11 per cent) said that they had been informed about the drug's side effects and 19 per cent said that they had been told nothing by their doctor. Most (72 per cent) related that nothing had been said to them at the pharmacy. Written information (stickers on the medicine container, leaflets or brochures) were said to be infrequently provided at the pharmacy. About 12 per cent of the respondents said they had expected they might get a drug side effect, but only 9 per cent said that they had experienced one. The most frequently cited action in response to side effects was to consult the physician (40 per cent); however, a sizeable percentage of people stopped the medicine completely or temporarily (36 per cent) or kept on taking the drug as prescribed (32 per cent).

Morris, L.A.

1982-06-01

274

Prescription opioid misuse and its relation to injection drug use and hepatitis C virus infection: protocol for a systematic review and meta-analysis  

PubMed Central

Background The production, prescription, and consumption of opioid analgesics to treat non-cancer pain have increased dramatically in the USA in the past decade. As a result, misuse of these opioids has increased; overdose and transition to riskier forms of drug use have also emerged. Research points to a trend in transition to drug injection among those misusing prescription opioids, where clusters of acute hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection are now being reported. This systematic review and meta-analysis aims to synthesize the prevalence of prescription opioid misuse in the USA and examine the rate of transition to injection drug use and incident HCV in these new people who inject drugs (PWID). Methods/design Eligible studies will include quantitative, empirical data including national survey data. Scientific databases will be searched using a comprehensive search strategy; proceedings of scientific conferences, reference lists, and personal communications will also be searched. Quality ratings will be assigned to each eligible report using the Newcastle-Ottawa Scale. Pooled estimates of incidence rates and measures of association will be calculated using random effects models. Heterogeneity will be assessed at each stage of data synthesis. Discussion A unique typology of drug use is emerging which is characterized by antecedent prescription opioid misuse among PWID. As the epidemic of prescription opioid misuse matures, this will likely serve as a persistent source of new PWID. Persons who report a recent transition to drug injection are characterized by high rates of HCV seroincidence of 40 per 100 person years or higher. Given the potential for the persistence and escalation of the consequences of prescription opioid misuse in the USA, there is a critical need for synthesis of the current state of the epidemic in order to inform future public health interventions and policy. Systematic review registration PROSPERO CRD42014008870. PMID:25178433

2014-01-01

275

Computer-aided auditing of prescription drug claims.  

PubMed

We describe a methodology for identifying and ranking candidate audit targets from a database of prescription drug claims. The relevant audit targets may include various entities such as prescribers, patients and pharmacies, who exhibit certain statistical behavior indicative of potential fraud and abuse over the prescription claims during a specified period of interest. Our overall approach is consistent with related work in statistical methods for detection of fraud and abuse, but has a relative emphasis on three specific aspects: first, based on the assessment of domain experts, certain focus areas are selected and data elements pertinent to the audit analysis in each focus area are identified; second, specialized statistical models are developed to characterize the normalized baseline behavior in each focus area; and third, statistical hypothesis testing is used to identify entities that diverge significantly from their expected behavior according to the relevant baseline model. The application of this overall methodology to a prescription claims database from a large health plan is considered in detail. PMID:23821344

Iyengar, Vijay S; Hermiz, Keith B; Natarajan, Ramesh

2014-09-01

276

HOW PARENTS OF TEENS STORE AND MONITOR PRESCRIPTION DRUGS IN THE HOME*  

PubMed Central

Qualitative interviews were conducted with parents of teens to explore how parents store and monitor prescription drugs in the home. Most parents had prescription drugs in the house, but took few precautions against teens accessing these drugs. Strategies for monitoring included moving the drugs to different locations, remembering how many pills were left, and how medication containers were positioned. Reasons given for not securing drugs were that parents did not think that their teens would be interested in their prescription drugs and did not believe that they could be used to get high. This study highlights the need for parents to be educated about securing prescription drugs, the dangers of non-medical prescription drug use by teens, and which drugs might be used for non-medical purposes.

FRIESE, BETTINA; MOORE, ROLAND S.; GRUBE, JOEL W.; JENNINGS, VANESSA K.

2014-01-01

277

78 FR 46980 - Prescription Drug User Fee Rates for Fiscal Year 2014  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration [Docket No. FDA-2013-N-0007] Prescription Drug User Fee Rates for Fiscal Year 2014 AGENCY: Food and Drug Administration, HHS. ACTION:...

2013-08-02

278

Licit, Illicit, and Non-medical Prescription Drug Abuse Among Pharmacists  

Microsoft Academic Search

The use of licit, illicit, and non-medical prescription drug abuse among pharmacists is a growing problem in the U.S. Studies and surveys have shown that health care professionals, including pharmacists, are more likely than the general population to abuse drugs, particularly prescription drugs. As pharmacists, this poses an ethical problem for all of us. As a pharmacist, we are one

Anna McDonald

279

78 FR 12760 - Guidance for Industry on Labeling for Human Prescription Drug and Biological Products...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

The Food and Drug Administration (FDA) is announcing the availability of a guidance for industry entitled ``Labeling for Human Prescription Drug and Biological Products--Implementing the PLR Content and Format Requirements.'' This guidance is intended to assist applicants in complying with the content and format requirements of labeling for human prescription drug and biological products. The......

2013-02-25

280

Mechanisms of Prescription Drug Diversion Among Drug-Involved Club- and Street-Based Populations  

PubMed Central

Objective Prescription drug diversion involves the unlawful channeling of regulated pharmaceuticals from legal sources to the illicit marketplace, and can occur along all points in the drug delivery process, from the original manufacturing site to the wholesale distributor, the physician's office, the retail pharmacy, or the patient. However, empirical data on diversion are limited. Method In an attempt to develop a better understanding of how specific drug-using populations are diverting prescription opioids and other medications, or obtaining controlled drugs that have already been diverted, qualitative interviews and focus group data were collected on four separate populations of prescription drug abusers in Miami, Florida—club drug users, street-based illicit drug users, methadone maintenance patients, and HIV positive individuals who abuse and/or divert drugs. Results Sources of abused prescription drugs cited by focus group participants were extremely diverse, including their physicians and pharmacists; parents and relatives; “doctor shopping”; leftover supplies following an illness or injury; personal visits to Mexico, South America and the Caribbean; prescriptions intended for the treatment of mental illness; direct sales on the street and in nightclubs; pharmacy and hospital theft; through friends or acquaintances; under-the-door apartment flyers advertising telephone numbers to call; and “stealing from grandma's medicine cabinet.” Conclusion While doctor shoppers, physicians and the Internet receive much of the attention regarding diversion, the data reported in this paper suggest that there are numerous active street markets involving patients, Medicaid recipients and pharmacies as well. In addition, there are other data which suggest that the contributions of residential burglaries, pharmacy robberies and thefts, and “sneak thefts” to the diversion problem may be understated. PMID:17305688

Inciardi, James A.; Surratt, Hilary L.; Kurtz, Steven P.; Cicero, Theodore J.

2010-01-01

281

HOW CLINICIANS USE PRESCRIPTION DRUG MONITORING PROGRAMS: A QUALITATIVE INQUIRY  

PubMed Central

Objectives Prescription drug monitoring programs (PDMP) are now active in most states to assist clinicians in identifying potential controlled drug misuse, diversion or excessive prescribing. Little is still known about the ways in which they are incorporated into workflow and clinical decision making, what barriers continue to exist, and how clinicians are sharing PDMP results with their patients. Design Qualitative data were collected through online focus groups and telephone interviews Setting Clinicians from pain management, emergency and family medicine, psychiatry/behavioral health, rehabilitation medicine, internal medicine and dentistry. Subjects 35 clinicians from 9 states participated. Methods We conducted two online focus groups and seven telephone interviews. A multidisciplinary team then used a grounded theory approach coupled with an immersion-crystallization strategy for identifying key themes in the resulting transcripts. Results Some participants, mainly from pain clinics, reported checking the PDMP with every patient, every time. Others checked only for new patients, for new opioid prescriptions, or for patients for whom they suspected abuse. Participants described varied approaches to sharing PDMP information with patients, including openly discussing potential addiction or safety concerns; avoiding discussion altogether; and approaching discussion confrontationally. Participants described patient anger or denial as a common response and noted the role of patient satisfaction surveys as an influence on prescribing. Conclusion Routines for accessing PDMP data and how clinicians respond to it vary widely. As PDMP use becomes more widespread, it will be important to understand what approaches are most effective for identifying and addressing unsafe medication use. PMID:24833113

Hildebran, Christi; Cohen, Deborah J.; Irvine, Jessica M.; Foley, Carol; O'Kane, Nicole; Beran, Todd; Deyo, Richard A.

2014-01-01

282

Improving Patient Understanding of Prescription Drug Label Instructions  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background  Patient misunderstanding of instructions on prescription drug labels is common and a likely cause of medication error and\\u000a less effective treatment.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Objective  To test whether the use of more explicit language to describe dose and frequency of use for prescribed drugs could improve\\u000a comprehension, especially among patients with limited literacy.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Design  Cross-sectional study using in-person, structured interviews.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Patients  Three hundred and fifty-nine adults

Terry C. Davis; Alex D. Federman; Pat F. Bass III; Robert H. Jackson; Mark Middlebrooks; Ruth M. Parker; Michael S. Wolf

2009-01-01

283

Changing Effects of Direct-to-Consumer Broadcast Drug Advertising Information Sources on Prescription Drug Requests  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study tracks the changes of the effects of 4 information sources for direct-to-consumer drug advertising on patients' requests for prescription drugs from physicians since the inception of the “Guidance for Industry about Consumer-directed Broadcast Advertisements.” The Guidance advises pharmaceuticals to use four information sources for consumers to seek further information to supplement broadcast drug advertisements: small-print information, the Internet,

Annisa Lai Lee

2009-01-01

284

21 CFR 205.50 - Minimum requirements for the storage and handling of prescription drugs and for the establishment...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

21 Food and Drugs 4 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false ...requirements for the storage and handling of prescription drugs and for the establishment and maintenance of prescription drug distribution records. 205.50 Section...

2011-04-01

285

Changing effects of direct-to-consumer broadcast drug advertising information sources on prescription drug requests.  

PubMed

This study tracks the changes of the effects of 4 information sources for direct-to-consumer drug advertising on patients' requests for prescription drugs from physicians since the inception of the "Guidance for Industry about Consumer-directed Broadcast Advertisements." The Guidance advises pharmaceuticals to use four information sources for consumers to seek further information to supplement broadcast drug advertisements: small-print information, the Internet, a toll-free number, and health-care providers (nurses, doctors, and pharmacists). Logistic models were created by using survey data collected by the Food and Drug Administration in 1999 and 2002. Results show that throughout the years, health-care providers remain the most used and strongest means associated with patients' direct requests for nonspecific and specific prescription drugs from doctors. The small-print information source gains power and changes from an indirect means associated with patients' discussing drugs with health-care providers to a direct means associated with patients' asking about nonspecific and specific drugs from their doctors. The Internet is not directly related to drug requests, but the effect of its association with patients seeking information from health-care providers grew 11-fold over the course of the study. The toll-free number lost its power altogether for both direct request for a prescription drug and further discussion with health-care providers. Patient demographics will be considered for specific policy implications. PMID:19499430

Lee, Annisa Lai

2009-06-01

286

A population-wide profile of prescription drug use in Saskatchewan, 1989.  

PubMed Central

OBJECTIVE: To measure the prevalence of prescription drug use in Saskatchewan in 1989. DESIGN: Retrospective study. PARTICIPANTS: A total of 961,203 Saskatchewan residents (including those who died or were born during the study year) who were eligible for coverage under the Saskatchewan Prescription Drug Plan. The study population represented 94% of the province's total population; those excluded were mostly status Indians (for whom a federal plan is available). MAIN RESULTS: At least one prescription was received by 66.0% of the study population in 1989. The mean number of prescriptions per patient was 8.2, and the mean cost of drug material per prescription was $13.95. Females received substantially more prescriptions than males; the difference was particularly notable for cardiovascular agents, antidepressants and benzodiazepines. In the senior population 80.8% received at least one prescription; the mean number of prescriptions per patient was 18.4. The most commonly dispensed drug for the entire study population was amoxicillin (290 prescriptions per 1000 people); triazolam was the most frequently dispensed central nervous system drug (74 prescriptions per 1000 people). Regional variation in overall drug use was remarkably small, although it increased at the drug-class level, especially for tranquillizers. The use of cardiovascular drugs was 27% to 32% higher (depending on how use was measured) per Regina resident than per Saskatoon resident. Benzodiazepines were commonly used on a long-term basis, despite recommendations to the contrary. CONCLUSIONS: The results quantify the prevalence of prescription drug use, underscore the importance of careful management of drug therapy by physicians and pharmacists (especially for seniors), illustrate substantial variation in drug therapy strategies and raise questions about utilization of benzodiazepines and cardiovascular drugs. PMID:1351790

Quinn, K; Baker, M J; Evans, B

1992-01-01

287

An Exploration of Social Circles and Prescription Drug Abuse Through Twitter  

PubMed Central

Background Prescription drug abuse has become a major public health problem. Relationships and social context are important contributing factors. Social media provides online channels for people to build relationships that may influence attitudes and behaviors. Objective To determine whether people who show signs of prescription drug abuse connect online with others who reinforce this behavior, and to observe the conversation and engagement of these networks with regard to prescription drug abuse. Methods Twitter statuses mentioning prescription drugs were collected from November 2011 to November 2012. From this set, 25 Twitter users were selected who discussed topics indicative of prescription drug abuse. Social circles of 100 people were discovered around each of these Twitter users; the tweets of the Twitter users in these networks were collected and analyzed according to prescription drug abuse discussion and interaction with other users about the topic. Results From November 2011 to November 2012, 3,389,771 mentions of prescription drug terms were observed. For the 25 social circles (n=100 for each circle), on average 53.96% (SD 24.3) of the Twitter users used prescription drug terms at least once in their posts, and 37.76% (SD 20.8) mentioned another Twitter user by name in a post with a prescription drug term. Strong correlation was found between the kinds of drugs mentioned by the index user and his or her network (mean r=0.73), and between the amount of interaction about prescription drugs and a level of abusiveness shown by the network (r=0.85, P<.001). Conclusions Twitter users who discuss prescription drug abuse online are surrounded by others who also discuss it—potentially reinforcing a negative behavior and social norm. PMID:24014109

2013-01-01

288

Use, Abuse and Dependence of Prescription Drugs in Adolescents and Young Adults  

Microsoft Academic Search

Lifetime prevalence estimates of psychotropic medicine use as well as prevalence of DSM-IV prescription drug use disorders from the baseline investigation of the Early Developmental Stages of Psychopathology (EDSP) Study are presented. Use of prescription medication at some time in their life was reported by 27.4% of the respondents. Illicit use of prescription drugs, which means an intake without medical

Roselind Lieb; Hildegard Pfister; Hans-Ulrich Wittchen

1998-01-01

289

Caffeine overdose  

MedlinePLUS

Caffeine is a substance that exists naturally in certain plants. It can also be produced synthetically and ... and a diuretic, which means it increases urination. Caffeine overdose occurs when someone accidentally or intentionally takes ...

290

Prescription Drug Misuse among University Staff and Students: A Survey of Motives, Nature and Extent  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Aims: To determine the prevalence and nature of prescription drug misuse among university staff and students in the UK. Methods: In 2009, an online questionnaire regarding non-medical use of prescription drugs was completed by 1614 students and 489 staff registered at a large university in Wales. The sample data were weighted to match the…

Holloway, Katy; Bennett, Trevor

2012-01-01

291

Multiple Prescription Drug Use among Rehabilitation Clients Referred for Psychological Evaluation.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Studied vocational rehabilitation clients' (N=110) use of multiple prescription drugs. Found 44 percent had parallel prescriptions from two or more physicians. Individuals were found to be largely uninformed about possible pernicious somatic and psychological sequelae of drug usage. Suggests recommendations for vocational rehabilitation efforts.…

Keller, Mary Jane; Green, Monica A.

1981-01-01

292

Total and Out-of-Pocket Expenditures for Prescription Drugs among Older Persons  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Purpose: The burden of prescription drug costs on Medicare beneficiaries has become a critical policy issue in improving the Medicare program, yet few studies have provided detailed and current information on that burden. The present study estimates total and out-of-pocket expenditures for prescription drugs and the burden of these costs in…

Sambamoorthi, Usha; Shea, Dennis; Crystal, Stephen

2003-01-01

293

Nonmedical Prescription Drug Use among College Students: A Comparison between Athletes and Nonathletes  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Objective: Given the substantial increase in nonmedical prescription drug use in recent years and a lack of research on the topic, the author analyzed data on nonmedical prescription drug use among college students. Participants and Methods: Using data from the 2001 College Alcohol Study (N = 10,904), the author examined variation in nonmedical…

Ford, Jason A.

2008-01-01

294

Prescription Drug Expenditures in the United States: The Effects of Obesity, Demographics, and New Pharmaceutical Products  

Microsoft Academic Search

During the period 1990–1998, real per capita expenditures on prescription drugs in the United States increased by 84% (1996 dollars, GDP deflator). This paper examines the factors driving prescription drug expenditures in the United States and provides some quantitative measures. Panel data from all 50 states for 1990–1998 are employed. In addition to an aging population, other important determinants of

Donald Vandegrift; Anusua Datta

2006-01-01

295

The West Virginia Prescription Drug Abuse Quitline: Challenges and Lessons Learned From Running a Remote Quitline  

Microsoft Academic Search

The West Virginia Prescription Drug Abuse Quitline (WVPDAQ) is a resource that offers education and support to individuals and families affected by prescription drug abuse. The WVPDAQ began functioning September 11, 2008, through the use of mobile phone and laptop technology. Although some helplines and quitlines use some aspects of remote technology, most function through traditional call center and landline

Rebecca J. White; Keith J. Zullig; Laura Lander; Clara Shockley; Robert Pack; Carl Sullivan

2012-01-01

296

Prescription Drug Abuse Among Older Adults: A Family Ecological Case Study  

Microsoft Academic Search

The issue of prescription drug abuse among the elderly population is multifaceted. Such abuse has implications for the individual's health and his or her family relationships, and has other ecological dimensions. In this in-depth, qualitative case study, one family's experience with prescription drug abuse is examined using human ecological theory as a guiding framework. Findings include the powerful role played

Martha Morgan; Whitney A. Brosi

2007-01-01

297

Adverse childhood experiences and prescription drug use in a cohort study of adult HMO patients  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Prescription drugs account for approximately 11% of national health expenditures. Prior research on adverse childhood experiences (ACEs), which include common forms of child maltreatment and related traumatic stressors, has linked them to numerous health problems. However, data about the relationship of these experiences to prescription drug use are scarce. METHOD: We used the ACE Score (an integer count of

Robert F Anda; David W Brown; Vincent J Felitti; Shanta R Dube; Wayne H Giles

2008-01-01

298

Are Direct to Consumer Advertisements of Prescription Drugs Educational?: Comparing 1992 to 2002  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

We investigate the educational value of direct-to-consumer (DTC) prescription drug advertisements from 58 popular magazines published in 1992 and 2002. We find that the number of DTC prescription drug ads increased nine-fold from 1992 to 2002, while the advertisements for other health care products increased only slightly. We examine changes in…

Curry, Timothy Jon; Jarosch, Jeff; Pacholok, Shelley

2005-01-01

299

An Exploration of the Relationship between the Use of Methamphetamine and Prescription Drugs  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study examines patterns of use of prescription drugs and methamphetamine. We drew our sample from a study about 130 active and inactive methamphetamine users and focused on 16 participants with a recent history of methamphetamine and prescription drug use. We collected in-depth interviews to explore relationships in use trajectory patterns.…

Lamonica, Aukje K.; Boeri, Miriam

2012-01-01

300

Use of prescription drugs and future delinquency among adolescent offenders.  

PubMed

Non-medical use of prescription drugs (NMUPD) by adolescents is a significant public health concern. The present study investigated the profile of NMUPD in 1349 adolescent offenders from the Pathways to Desistance project, and whether NMUPD predicted future delinquency using longitudinal data. Results indicated that increased frequency and recency of NMUPD in adolescent offenders are related to some demographic factors, as well as increased risk for violence exposure, mental health diagnoses, other drug use, and previous delinquency, suggesting that severity of NMUPD is important to consider. However, ANCOVA analyses found that NMUPD was not a significant predictor of drug-related, non-aggressive, or aggressive delinquency 12months later beyond other known correlates of delinquency. Age, sex, exposure to violence, lower socioeconomic status, more alcohol use, and having delinquency histories were more important than NMUPD in predicting future delinquency. These findings suggest that although NMUPD is an important risk factor relating to many correlates of delinquency, it does not predict future delinquency beyond other known risk factors. PMID:25135798

Drazdowski, Tess K; Jäggi, Lena; Borre, Alicia; Kliewer, Wendy L

2015-01-01

301

Gender and Other Factors Associated with the Nonmedical Use of Abusable Prescription Drugs  

Microsoft Academic Search

Although there is extensive research on gender differences in the use of alcohol and illicit substances, few studies have examined gender differences in nonmedical prescription drug use. Using data from the 1991 National Household Survey on Drug Abuse (NHSDA), based

Linda Simoni-Wastila; Grant Ritter; Gail Strickler

2004-01-01

302

76 FR 58020 - Prescription Drug User Fee Act IV Information Technology Plan  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Prescription Drug User Fee Act IV Information Technology Plan AGENCY: Food and Drug Administration...the availability of an updated information technology (IT) plan entitled ``PDUFA IV Information Technology Plan'' (updated plan) to...

2011-09-19

303

Deadly heroin or the death of heroin -- overdoses caused by illicit drugs of abuse in Budapest, Hungary between 1994 and 2012.  

PubMed

Rates of illicit drug use and drug-related deaths have continuously increased in developed countries since the 1960s even though the patterns of use and thus the related mortality differ from region to region. In Europe heroin is the drug most often implicated in overdoses. The decedents are most often male, between 20 and 30 years of age and have a long history of drug use. According to the majority of available studies a concomitant use of alcohol and benzodiazepines is one of the risk factors of heroin overdose. In our study we have examined the basic demographic and toxicological features of illicit drug related death cases in Budapest, Hungary between 1994 and 2012. Drug overdose death cases have been divided into two subgroups according to the substances responsible for the death of the subjects: an opioid group and a non-opioid group. The huge majority (87.9%) of decedents died due to heroin overdose and were male (87%). There has been a significant increase in the mean age of the opioid group for the past 19 years. The majority of heroin overdose cases (58%) has had no other psychofarmacons present at the toxicological examination. We have found a slight but significant positive correlation (p=0.0204, r=0.349) between the number of heroin overdose death cases and the mean concentration of street level purity heroin. Most of the examined demographic and toxicological features of the population studied have been in concordance with data previously reported. However, in contrast to other studies we report a strikingly high proportion of "pure" heroin overdose cases where no other psychoactive substances were found. The reason for this is currently unknown; we can only speculate that it can be related to the fact that heroin is used and abused differently from other countries. The remarkable phenomenon of the "ageing" of heroin users may also support a change in the drug use habits of the youngest population. The emergence and spread of new designer drugs also change the mortality characteristics of the youngest abusers and pose a new challenge for researchers. PMID:24380966

Horváth, Mónika; Dunay, György; Csonka, Renata; Keller, Éva

2013-12-01

304

Barely or fairly balancing drug risks? Content and format effects in direct-to-consumer online prescription drug promotions  

Microsoft Academic Search

A critical requirement of direct-to-consumer (DTC) drug promotion on the Internet is the concept of fair balance. This means that prescription drug Web sites should provide an accurate, balanced portrayal of the risks relative to the benefits of using prescription medications. However, one of the most pervasive findings in con- sumer research is that risk perceptions are often not aligned

Jeremy Kees; Paula Fitzgerald Bone; John Kozup; Pam Scholder Ellen

2008-01-01

305

Acute heroin overdose.  

PubMed

Acute heroin overdose is a common daily experience in the urban and suburban United States and accounts for many preventable deaths. Heroin acts as a pro-drug that allows rapid and complete central nervous system absorption; this accounts for the drug's euphoric and toxic effects. The heroin overdose syndrome (sensitivity for diagnosing heroin overdose, 92%; specificity, 76%) consists of abnormal mental status, substantially decreased respiration, and miotic pupils. The response of naloxone does not improve the sensitivity of this diagnosis. Most overdoses occur at home in the company of others and are more common in the setting of other drugs. Heroin-related deaths are strongly associated with use of alcohol or other drugs. Patients with clinically significant respiratory compromise need treatment, which includes airway management and intravenous or subcutaneous naloxone. Hospital observation for several hours is necessary for recurrence of hypoventilation or other complications. About 3% to 7% of treated patients require hospital admission for pneumonia, noncardiogenic pulmonary edema, or other complications. Methadone maintenance is an effective preventive measure, and others strategies should be studied. PMID:10189329

Sporer, K A

1999-04-01

306

Which psychoactive prescription drugs are illegally obtained and through which ways of acquisition? About OPPIDUM survey.  

PubMed

The objective of the study was to determine which psychoactive prescription drugs are illegally obtained and through which ways of acquisition. OPPIDUM is an annual national study. It is based on specialized care centers that included subjects presenting a drug dependency or under opiate maintenance treatment. All their psychoactive substances consumed are reported. This work focuses on the different ways of acquisition specially the illegal ways of acquisition (bought on the street, forged prescription, stolen, given, internet). For each medication illegally obtained, a ratio has been calculated (number of illegal acquisitions divided by the number of described acquisitions). In 2008, 5542 subjects have been included and have described the consumption of 11 027 substances including 63.8% of prescription drugs. Among them, 11% were illegally obtained. The different illegal acquisition ways were 'street market' (77.6%), 'gift' (16.6%), 'theft' (2.3%), 'forged prescription' (2.3%), and 'internet' (0.7%). The third first drugs illegally obtained were high dosage buprenorphine, methadone, and clonazepam. Some prescription drugs, less consumed, have an important ratio of illegal acquisition like ketamine, flunitrazepam, morphine, trihexyphenidyl, or methylphenidate. This study confirms that theft, forged prescription and internet are few used and permits to highlight diversion of prescription drugs. It is important to inform healthcare professionals on the different prescription drugs that are illegally obtained. PMID:21564282

Frauger, Elisabeth; Nordmann, Sandra; Orleans, Veronica; Pradel, Vincent; Pauly, Vanessa; Thirion, Xavier; Micallef, Joëlle

2012-08-01

307

Bacitracin zinc overdose  

MedlinePLUS

... Small amounts of bacitracin zinc are dissolved in petroleum jelly to create antibiotic ointments. Bacitracin zinc overdose ... 1-800-222-1222. See also: Bacitracin overdose Petroleum jelly overdose Zinc oxide overdose

308

42 CFR 423.415 - Temporary waivers for entities seeking to offer a prescription drug plan in more than one State...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...for entities seeking to offer a prescription drug plan in more than one State...PROGRAM VOLUNTARY MEDICARE PRESCRIPTION DRUG BENEFIT Organization Compliance...entities seeking to offer a prescription drug plan in more than one...

2011-10-01

309

42 CFR 423.415 - Temporary waivers for entities seeking to offer a prescription drug plan in more than one State...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...for entities seeking to offer a prescription drug plan in more than one State...CONTINUED) VOLUNTARY MEDICARE PRESCRIPTION DRUG BENEFIT Organization Compliance...entities seeking to offer a prescription drug plan in more than one...

2013-10-01

310

42 CFR 423.415 - Temporary waivers for entities seeking to offer a prescription drug plan in more than one State...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...for entities seeking to offer a prescription drug plan in more than one State...PROGRAM VOLUNTARY MEDICARE PRESCRIPTION DRUG BENEFIT Organization Compliance...entities seeking to offer a prescription drug plan in more than one...

2010-10-01

311

42 CFR 423.415 - Temporary waivers for entities seeking to offer a prescription drug plan in more than one State...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...for entities seeking to offer a prescription drug plan in more than one State...CONTINUED) VOLUNTARY MEDICARE PRESCRIPTION DRUG BENEFIT Organization Compliance...entities seeking to offer a prescription drug plan in more than one...

2012-10-01

312

An inevitable wave of prescription drug monitoring programs in the context of prescription opioids: pros, cons and tensions  

PubMed Central

Background In an effort to control non-medical use and/or medical abuse of prescription drugs, particularly prescription opioids, electronic prescription drug monitoring programs (PDMP) have been introduced in North-American countries, Australia and some parts of Europe. Paradoxically, there are simultaneous pressures to increase opioid prescribing for the benefit of individual patients and to reduce it for the sake of public health, and this pressure warrants a delicate balance of appropriate therapeutic uses of these drugs with the risk of developing dependence. This article discusses pros and cons of PDMP in reducing diversion of prescription opioids, without hampering access to those medications for those with genuine needs, and highlights tensions around PDMP implementation. Discussion PDMPs may help alleviate diversion, over-prescription and fraudulent prescribing/dispensing; prompt drug treatment referrals; avoid awkward drug urine test; and inform spatial changes in prescribing practices and help designing tailored interventions. Fear of legal retribution, privacy and data security, potential confusion about addiction and pseudo-addiction, and potential undue pressure of detecting misuse/diversion - are the major problems. There are tensions about unintended consequence of excessive regulatory enforcements, corresponding collateral damages particularly about inadequate prescribing for patients with genuine needs, and mandatory consultation requirements of PDMP. Summary In this era of information technology PDMP is likely to flourish and remain with us for a long time. A clear standard of practice against which physicians’ care will be judged may expedite the utilisation of PDMP. In addition, adequate training on addiction and pain management along with public awareness, point-of-supply data entry from pharmacy, point-of-care real-time access to data, increasing access to addiction treatment and appropriate regulatory enforcement preferably through healthcare administration, together, may help remove barriers to PDMP use. PMID:25127880

2014-01-01

313

Awareness of and attitudes toward direct-to-consumer prescription drug advertising among young adults.  

PubMed

This study examines awareness and knowledge of and attitudes toward direct-to-consumer (DTC) prescription drug advertising among young adults between 18 and 24 years of age. The study finds that young adults are not as aware of prescription drug advertising as older consumers, however, they are aware of specific heavily advertised drugs, especially those for allergy medications, birth control, and sleep aids. Young adults hold mixed to negative views about advertising in general, and they do not view DTC prescription drug advertising as a beneficial source of information, nor do they believe such advertising serves to educate consumers. PMID:25120044

Alperstein, Neil M

2014-01-01

314

Drug-induced deaths - United States, 1999-2010.  

PubMed

Drug-induced deaths include all deaths for which drugs are the underlying cause, including those attributable to acute poisoning by drugs (drug overdoses) and deaths from medical conditions resulting from chronic drug use (e.g., drug-induced Cushing's syndrome). A drug includes illicit or street drugs (e.g., heroin and cocaine), as well as legal prescription and over-the-counter drugs; alcohol is not included. Deaths from drug overdose have increased sharply in the past decade. This increase has been associated with overdoses of prescription opioid pain relievers, which have more than tripled in the past 20 years, escalating to 16,651 deaths in the United States in 2010. Most drug-induced deaths are unintentional drug poisoning deaths, with suicidal drug poisoning and drug poisoning of undetermined intent comprising the majority of the remainder. PMID:24264508

Mack, Karin A

2013-11-22

315

A qualitative exploration of prescription opioid injection among street-based drug users in Toronto: behaviours, preferences and drug availability  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: There is evidence of a high prevalence of prescription opioid (PO) and crack use among street drug users in Toronto. The purpose of this qualitative study was to describe drug use behaviours and preferences as well as the social and environmental context surrounding the use of these drugs among young and old street-based drug injection drug users (IDUs). METHODS:

Michelle Firestone; Benedikt Fischer

2008-01-01

316

Riskier Than We Think? The Relationship Between Risk Statement Completeness and Perceptions of Direct to Consumer Advertised Prescription Drugs  

Microsoft Academic Search

Direct to consumer (DTC) prescription drug advertising is one of the fastest growing categories of advertising. Expenditures have increased from about $25 million in 1992 to nearly $2 billion in 1999. Given strong evidence of consumer driven demand for advertised prescription drugs, research was conducted to assess the extent to which DTC prescription drug advertising provides consumers with the information

Joel J. Davis

2000-01-01

317

Prescription drug misuse and sexual risk taking among HIV-negative MSM.  

PubMed

Men who have sex with men (MSM) misuse prescription drugs at high rates. Little research has examined the connection between prescription drug misuse and HIV risk in this population. With a community sample of MSM, the authors assessed prescription drug misuse-not including erectile dysfunction medications-and sexual risk behaviors among HIV-negative MSM. The findings indicate that recent prescription drug misusers had higher odds of engaging in unprotected anal intercourse (UAI; OR = 1.63), specifically receptive UAI (OR = 1.58), and more likely to have UAI with a higher number of seroconcordant partners (b = 0.268). MSM who reported recently misusing prescription drugs during sexual encounters were more likely to engage in UAI (OR = 2.02), specifically insertive UAI (OR = 1.86). There was no association between prescription drug misuse and identification as a barebacker. This research indicates that prescription drug misusing MSM are a risk group who may benefit from HIV prevention and intervention efforts. PMID:21769494

Kelly, Brian C; Parsons, Jeffrey T

2013-03-01

318

Prescription and over-the-counter drug treatment admissions to the California public treatment system  

PubMed Central

Prescription and over-the-counter (OTC) drug abuse has become a focal point of public health policy, prevention, and control efforts. Adolescents represent one of the fastest growing segments of the general population abusing prescription and OTC drugs as represented by national surveys. This article reports on treatment admission data to the California addiction public system for prescription and OTC drugs among two age subgroups: adolescents 12–17 years and adults 18 years and older. Of the 6,841 admissions for primary abuse of prescription and OTC drugs in California (during 2006–2007), most adolescent admissions (12–17) were for stimulant prescription and OTC drugs (45.3% and 32.1%, respectively), whereas opioid prescription drugs (88.9%) were most common for adults 18 years and older. Differences in psychosocial, treatment, and substance use characteristics between these two age subgroups are described. Results from this study offer useful treatment admission information about prescription and OTC drug abuse within the California public addiction treatment system. PMID:21193282

Gonzales, Rachel; Brecht, Mary-Lynn; Mooney, Larissa; Rawson, Richard A.

2014-01-01

319

What Explains the Use of Direct-to-Consumer Advertising of Prescription Drugs?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Following the clarification of advertising regulation in 1997, direct-to-consumer advertising (DTCA) of prescription drugs has skyrocketed in the U.S., creating a controversy over the role of DTCA. Little is known, however, regarding what affects firms' advertising decisions and which drugs have been advertised to consumers. Using brand-level advertising data, I examine the determinants of DTCA of prescription drugs. I find

Toshiaki Iizuka

2004-01-01

320

A Computational Drug-Target Network for Yuanhu Zhitong Prescription  

PubMed Central

Yuanhu Zhitong prescription (YZP) is a typical and relatively simple traditional Chinese medicine (TCM), widely used in the clinical treatment of headache, gastralgia, and dysmenorrhea. However, the underlying molecular mechanism of action of YZP is not clear. In this study, based on the previous chemical and metabolite analysis, a complex approach including the prediction of the structure of metabolite, high-throughput in silico screening, and network reconstruction and analysis was developed to obtain a computational drug-target network for YZP. This was followed by a functional and pathway analysis by ClueGO to determine some of the pharmacologic activities. Further, two new pharmacologic actions, antidepressant and antianxiety, of YZP were validated by animal experiments using zebrafish and mice models. The forced swimming test and the tail suspension test demonstrated that YZP at the doses of 4?mg/kg and 8?mg/kg had better antidepressive activity when compared with the control group. The anxiolytic activity experiment showed that YZP at the doses of 100?mg/L, 150?mg/L, and 200?mg/L had significant decrease in diving compared to controls. These results not only shed light on the better understanding of the molecular mechanisms of YZP for curing diseases, but also provide some evidence for exploring the classic TCM formulas for new clinical application. PMID:23762151

Lu, Peng; Zhang, Fangbo; Yuan, Yuan; Wang, Songsong

2013-01-01

321

Non-medical use of prescription drugs and sexual risk behavior in young adults.  

PubMed

In recent years, the non-medical use of prescription drugs (without a doctor's prescription) has increased dramatically, particularly in young adults. Previous work has noted associations between the non-medical use of prescription drugs and the use of illicit drugs, and associations between the use of illicit drugs and sexual risk behavior. Investigations examining associations between the non-medical use of prescription drugs (NMUPD) and sexual risk behavior are sparse. In the present study, undergraduate students (n=435) ages 18-25 completed an instrument assessing these behaviors. Overall, 35.6% of participants reported NMUPD. Individuals who reported NMUPD were more likely to also report the use of alcohol, marijuana, ecstasy, cocaine, methamphetamine, and poppers. Participants who indicated they had used prescription medications without a doctor's consent had significantly higher rates of sexual risk behavior, including more sexual partners and more instances of unprotected sex in the previous 3 months. Results suggest that a significant minority of young adults are using prescription medication recreationally and are risking negative consequences, including the potential for addiction, dangerous interactions between prescription and recreational drugs, and greater risk for contracting sexually transmitted infections. PMID:20863626

Benotsch, Eric G; Koester, Stephen; Luckman, Diana; Martin, Aaron M; Cejka, Anna

2011-01-01

322

Prescription drugs purchased through the internet: Who are the end users?  

PubMed Central

Although prescription drugs are readily available on the Internet, little is known about the prevalence of Internet use for the purchase of medications without a legitimate prescription, and the characteristics of those that obtain non-prescribed drugs through online sources. The scientific literature on this topic is limited to anecdotal reports or studies plagued by small sample sizes. Within this context, the focus of this paper is an examination of five national data sets from the U.S. with the purpose of estimating: (1) how common obtaining prescription medications from the Internet actually is, (2) who are the typical populations of “end users” of these non-prescribed medications, and (3) which drugs are being purchased without a prescription. Three of the data sets are drawn from the RADARS® (Researched Abuse Diversion and Addiction-Related Surveillance) System, a comprehensive series of studies designed to collect timely and geographically specific data on the abuse and diversion of a number of prescription stimulants and opioid analgesics. The remaining data sets include the National Survey on Drug Use and Health (NSDUH) and the Monitoring the Future (MTF) survey. Our analysis yielded uniformly low rates of prescription drug acquisition from online sources across all five data systems we examined. The consistency of this finding across very diverse populations suggests that the Internet is a relatively minor source for illicit purchases of prescription medications by the individual end-users of these drugs. PMID:20227199

Inciardi, James A.; Surratt, Hilary L.; Cicero, Theodore J.; Rosenblum, Andrew; Ahwah, Candice; Bailey, J. Elise; Dart, Richard C.; Burke, John J.

2012-01-01

323

Review of Medicare Part D Prescription Drug Event Data for Schedule II Drugs at United HealthCare Medicare and Retirement.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

United HealthCare Medicare & Retirement (United) contracted with CMS as a Part D sponsor to provide prescription drug benefits to eligible Part D beneficiaries. United provided prescription drug coverage to approximately 1 million beneficiaries and submit...

2012-01-01

324

Income and the Use of Prescription Drugs by the Elderly: Evidence from the Notch Cohorts  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

We use exogenous variation in Social Security payments created by the Social Security benefits notch to estimate how retirees' use of prescription medications responds to changes in their incomes. Using data from the 1993 Wave of the AHEAD, we obtain instrumental variables estimates of the income elasticity of prescription drug use that are…

Moran, John R.; Simon, Kosali Ilayperuma

2006-01-01

325

Desisting From Prescription Drug Abuse: An Application of Growth Models to Rx Opioid Users  

Microsoft Academic Search

Modern desistance research has examined many facets of desistance, in terms of theoretical predictors of desistance and recidivism, and in terms of differing types of offending. Though predicting desistance from illegal drug use is among these topics, no research to date has examined the predictors of desisting from prescription opioid abuse. This study uses longitudinal data from 318 prescription opioid

Whitney D. Gunter; Steven P. Kurtz; Nicholas W. Bakken; Daniel J. O’Connell

2012-01-01

326

Media Credibility and Informativeness of Direct-to-Consumer Prescription Drug Advertising  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this article, we report the results of a study conducted to determine consumer perceptions of the media credibility and informativeness of direct-to-consumer prescription drug advertising (DTC advertising) and to examine how those perceptions are influenced by consumer predispositions and demographic characteristics, especially consumer age. This study specifically surveyed older consumers, who are the most significant market segment for prescription

Jisu Huh; Denise E. Delorme; Leonard N. Reid

2004-01-01

327

Prescription drug abuse & addiction: past, present and future: the paradigm for an epidemic.  

PubMed

Prescription drug abuse has reached epidemic proportions in the United States and West Virginia is not immune. It is estimated that in 2009, the number of adolescents and adults with a substance abuse and/or dependence problem has reached 23.2 million in the US. There has been an alarming rate of increased sales of methadone, hydrocodone and oxycodone. This article addresses the scope of the problem of prescription drug abuse in West Virginia and the impact by and on the addicted individual. Addiction is a chronic relapsing neuropsychiatric illness manifested by compulsive drug seeking and use. It has created a substantive socioeconomic burden on our state. Prescription drug abuse and addiction increase medical expenses, drug related crime and unemployment. There are misconceptions regarding the etiology and treatment of addiction based on past clinical experience. The view of addiction as volitional misconduct alone has been disproven scientifically. A more current understanding of neurobiological alterations caused by this disease, current treatment strategies and future directions will be presented. This article provides an understanding of prescription drug abuse and addiction's contribution and impact on society's health and social policy. Addressing the problem of prescription drug abuse requires an understanding of the disease of addiction, thus enhancing the effectiveness in diminishing the associated health and social costs. It is the article's intent to illuminate the mutually symbiotic relationship of prescription drug abuse and the disease of addiction and subsequently provide recommendations toward the resolution of this most important issue. PMID:21932750

Hall, P Bradley; Hawkinberry, Denzil; Moyers-Scott, Pam

2010-01-01

328

The Effect of Reinsurance on Tier Placement for High-Cost Drugs in the Medicare Prescription Drug Benefit Program  

Microsoft Academic Search

An increasing fraction of new prescription drugs are expensive specialty drugs, with annual treatment costs of $40,000 or more. Designing appropriate insurance coverage for such drugs is an important policy question. Previous studies of optimal insurance coverage focus on trade-offs between appropriate incentives and financial protection for patients. In the case of these drugs, protecting the insurer against undue financial

Erin Taylor; Patricia Danzon

2010-01-01

329

Ambient temperature and risk of death from accidental drug overdose in New York City, 1990-2006  

PubMed Central

Background: Mortality increases as ambient temperature increases. Because cocaine affects core body temperature, ambient temperature may play a role in cocaine-related mortality in particular. The present study examined the association between ambient temperature and fatal overdoses over time in New York City (NYC). Methods: Mortality data were obtained from the Office of the Chief Medical Examiner for 1990 through 2006, and temperature data from the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Association. We used Generalized Additive Models to test the relationship between weekly average temperatures and counts of accidental overdose deaths in NYC, controlling for year and average length of daylight hours. Results: We found a significant relation between ambient temperature and accidental overdose fatality for all models where the overdoses were due in whole or in part to cocaine (all p < 0.05), but not for non-cocaine overdoses. Risk of accidental overdose deaths increased for weeks when the average temperature was above 24 degrees Celsius. Conclusions: These results suggest a strong relation between temperature and accidental overdose mortality that is driven by cocaine-related overdoses rising at temperatures above 24 degrees Celsius; this is a substantially lower temperature than prior estimates. To put this in perspective, approximately seven weeks a year between 1990 and 2006 had an average weekly temperature of 24 or above in NYC. Heat-related mortality presents a considerable public health concern, and cocaine users constitute a high-risk group. PMID:20219056

Bohnert, Amy S.B.; Prescott, Marta; Vlahov, David; Tardiff, Kenneth J.; Galea, Sandro

2010-01-01

330

An Examination of Consumer Perceptions of Direct to Consumer Prescription Drug Advertisements And Implications for Current Food and Drug Administration Oversight of Direct to Consumer Advertisement Regulations  

Microsoft Academic Search

The debate over the effects of marketing prescription drugs to consumers is a rich and complex one. Proponents of direct to consumer (DTC) advertising of prescription drugs claim that advertisements provide consumers with powerful information about their health that they otherwise would not have had. Opponents claim that prescription drug advertisements market more expensive medications, leading consumers to request advertised

Nicole Nixen

331

Measures Such As Interstate Cooperation Would Improve The Efficacy Of Programs To Track Controlled Drug Prescriptions  

PubMed Central

In response to increasing abuse of prescription drugs, 44 states have implemented -- and five more states will soon adopt -- monitoring programs to track prescriptions of controlled medications. Although these programs are primarily designed to help law enforcement officials and regulatory agencies spot possible illegal activity, health care providers have begun to use data from them to help improve patient safety and quality of care. We reviewed government documents, expert white papers, articles from the peer reviewed medical literature, and reports of the experiences of local health officials. Although we found some evidence that prescription drug monitoring programs are a benefit to both law enforcement and health care delivery, the programs have strengths and weaknesses, and their overall impact on drug abuse and illegal activity remains unclear. We believe that improving the efficacy of prescription drug monitoring programs will require such changes as more standardization and interstate cooperation, better training of providers, more secure funding, and further evaluation. PMID:23406570

Deyo, Richard A.; Irvine, Jessica; Millet, Lisa; Beran, Todd; O'Kane, Nicole; Wright, Dagan; McCarty, Dennis

2013-01-01

332

Growing Internet use may help explain the rise in prescription drug abuse in the United States.  

PubMed

The rising availability through the Internet of commonly abused prescription drugs has raised public health concerns. We examined whether the growth of US prescription drug abuse may be explained by the parallel growth in high-speed Internet use. We find that for every 10 percent increase in high-speed Internet use at the state level, associated treatment facility admissions for prescription drug abuse rose by 1 percent. Admissions for abuse of alcohol, cocaine, and heroin, which are not readily purchased online, had minimal or negative growth during the same period. The results suggest that better surveillance of online prescription drug sales is warranted, and aggressive efforts to curb illegitimate online pharmacies may be necessary. PMID:21565838

Jena, Anupam B; Goldman, Dana P

2011-06-01

333

Prescription drug samples--does this marketing strategy counteract policies for quality use of medicines?  

PubMed

Prescription drug samples, as used by the pharmaceutical industry to market their products, are of current interest because of their influence on prescribing, and their potential impact on consumer safety. Very little research has been conducted into the use and misuse of prescription drug samples, and the influence of samples on health policies designed to improve the rational use of medicines. This is a topical issue in the prescription drug debate, with increasing costs and increasing concerns about optimizing use of medicines. This manuscript critically evaluates the research that has been conducted to date about prescription drug samples, discusses the issues raised in the context of traditional marketing theory, and suggests possible alternatives for the future. PMID:12911677

Groves, K E M; Sketris, I; Tett, S E

2003-08-01

334

Structure-based discovery of prescription drugs that interact with the norepinephrine transporter, NET  

E-print Network

Structure-based discovery of prescription drugs that interact with the norepinephrine transporter transporter (NET) transports norepinephrine from the synapse into presynaptic neurons, where norepinephrine neurons (2, 3). Mutations in NET have been associated with a variety of behavioral disorders

Sali, Andrej

335

Staff Report on Sales, Promotion, and Product Differentiation in Two Prescription Drug Markets.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The report presents new evidence on the concept of product differentiation and its relationship to brand promotion and sales. Focusing upon two therapeutic markets for prescription drugs, the analysis supports in part, and refutes in part, the notion that...

D. F. Lean, R. S. Bond

1977-01-01

336

Shock due to amlodipine overdose  

PubMed Central

Amlodipine is a commonly prescribed calcium channel blocker. Its toxicity is the leading cause of drug overdose seen in the practice of cardiovascular medicine. It can lead to profound hypotension and shock. Management involves early and aggressive supportive measures and calcium infusion in large doses to overcome competitive blockade. We report one such case that presented with amlodipine overdose and was successfully managed. PMID:24501491

Upreti, Vimal; Ratheesh, V. R.; Dhull, Pawan; Handa, Ajay

2013-01-01

337

The Safety Effects of Child-Resistant \\\\ Packaging for Oral Prescription Drugs Two Decades of Experience  

Microsoft Academic Search

was associated with an annual reduction in the oral prescription drug-related mor- tality rate of 1.40 (95% confidence interval, 0.85-1.95) deaths per million children younger than 5 years. This suggests a reduction of about 460 child deaths from 1974, the year oral prescription drugs became subject to child-resistant packaging requirements, through 1992-a mortality rate reduction of about 45% from levels

Gregory B. Rodgers

2010-01-01

338

Impact of Multitiered Copayments on the Use and Cost of Prescription Drugs among Medicare Beneficiaries  

PubMed Central

Objectives To assess the impact of multitiered copayments on the cost and use of prescription drugs among Medicare beneficiaries. Data Sources Marketscan 2002 Medicare Supplemental and Coordination of Benefits database and Plan Benefit Design database. Study Design The study uses cross-sectional variation in copayment structures among firms with a self-insured retiree health plan to measure the impact of number of copayment tiers on total and enrollee drug payments, number of prescriptions filled, and generic substitution. The study also assesses the effect of enrollee cost sharing on the cost and use of prescription medications for the long-term treatment of chronic conditions. Data Collection Methods We linked plan enrollment and benefit data with medical and drug claims for 352,760 Medicare beneficiaries with employer-sponsored retiree drug coverage. Primary Findings Medicare beneficiaries in three-tiered plans had 14.3 percent lower total drug expenditures, 14.6 percent fewer prescriptions filled, and 57.6 percent higher out-of-pocket costs than individuals in lower tiered plans. They also had fewer brand name and generic prescriptions filled, and a higher percentage of generics. The estimated price elasticity of demand for prescription drug expenditures was ?0.23. Finally, for maintenance medications used for the long-term treatment of chronic conditions, members in three-tiered plans had 11.5 percent fewer prescriptions filled. Conclusions Higher tiered drug plans reduce overall expenditures and the number of prescriptions purchased by Medicare beneficiaries. Beneficiaries are less responsive to cost sharing incentives when using drugs to treat chronic conditions. PMID:18370964

Gilman, Boyd H; Kautter, John

2008-01-01

339

NewMedBlog.info NewMedBlog.info -Prescription drug information and pharmaceutical news for professionals and  

E-print Network

NewMedBlog.info NewMedBlog.info - Prescription drug information and pharmaceutical news. NewMedBlog.info - Prescription drug information and pharmaceutical news for professionals and con) (required) Website medical and pharmaceutical information blog Submit Comment NewMedBlog.info - Prescription

Chiao, Jung-Chih

340

75 FR 12555 - Prescription Drug User Fee Act; Public Meeting  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...ACTION: Notice of public meeting...FDA) is announcing a public meeting on the Prescription...The legislative authority for PDUFA expires in...intention to hold a public meeting on PDUFA. The authority for PDUFA expires...

2010-03-16

341

78 FR 28862 - Announcement of Requirements and Registration for “Propose New Ideas For Prescription Drugs Oral...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...second-most abused category of drugs in the United States, following marijuana. The most commonly misused prescription drugs fall into three...deadly as illegal drugs when used improperly and for non-medical reasons. The possibility that patients will abuse,...

2013-05-16

342

Prescription Drug (Rx) and DEA Controlled Substance Order Worksheet PI/Researcher Name: Date of Order  

E-print Network

Prescription Drug (Rx) and DEA Controlled Substance Order Worksheet PI/Researcher Name: Date to EH&S at Carothers) · Use the item category code 5114220008 or 5100000008 (DEA/Rx drugs must be routed or in the "comments section" so it will appear on the Purchase Order. DEA Schedule I or II drugs: Create a note

Sura, Philip

343

Attempted suicide by drug overdose and by poison-ingestion methods seen at the main general hospital in the Fiji islands: a comparative study  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: This study examined the prevalence and the characteristics of deliberate self-poisoning patients seen at the main general hospital in the Fiji Islands.Method: Thirty-one consecutive patients with deliberate drug-overdose and 27 others with nonoverdosed self-poisoning were compared on sociodemographic and clinical variables.Results: Deliberate self-poisoning cases represented 0.3% of the hospital admissions, and had a rate of 25.9 per 100,000 population.

Henry S. Aghanwa

2001-01-01

344

Preventing deaths from rising opioid overdose in the US – the promise of naloxone antidote in community-based naloxone take-home programs  

PubMed Central

The opioid overdose epidemic is an alarming and serious public health problem in the United States (US) that has been escalating for 11 years. The 2011 National Survey on Drug Use and Health (NSDUH) demonstrated that 1 in 20 persons in the US aged 12 or older reported nonmedical use of prescription painkillers in the past year. Prescription drug overdose is now the leading cause of accidental death in the United States – surpassing motor vehicle accidents. Great efforts have been initiated to curb the overdose crisis. Notable examples of these efforts are (1) the Drug Enforcement Administration’s (DEA) National Take-Back Initiative instituted in 2010; (2) the Prescription Drug Monitoring Programs (PDMPs) implemented in most US states to provide practitioners with point-of-care information regarding a patient’s controlled substance use; (3) the naloxone rescue programs initiated in the community to avert mortality resulting from overdose. The use of naloxone rescue strategies has gained traction as an effective measure to prevent fatal opioid overdose. Many US federal-government agencies are working to make these strategies more accessible to first responders and community participants. This new approach faces many challenges, such as accessibility to naloxone and the equipment and training needed to administer it, but none is more challenging than the fear of legal repercussions. US federal-government agencies, local governments, health care institutions, and community-based organizations have begun to tackle these barriers, and naloxone take-home programs have gained recognition as a feasible and sensible preventive strategy to avoid a fatal result from opioid overdose. Although many challenges still need to be overcome, it is important for federal government research agencies to initiate and support independent and rigorous evaluation of these programs to inform policymakers how effective these programs can be to save lives and curb the opioid overdose public health crisis. PMID:24273417

Straus, Michele M; Ghitza, Udi E; Tai, Betty

2013-01-01

345

Literacy demands of product information intended to supplement television direct-to-consumer prescription drug advertisements  

Microsoft Academic Search

The US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) allows television direct-to-consumer (DTC) prescription drug advertisements that do not fully disclose drug risks if the ads include “adequate provision” for dissemination of the drug’s approved labeling. This requirement can be met in part by referring consumers to multiple text sources of product labeling. This study was designed to assess the materials to

Kimberly A. Kaphingst; Rima E. Rudd; William DeJong; Lawren H. Daltroy

2004-01-01

346

Screening for Drug Abuse Among Medical and Nonmedical Users of Prescription Drugs in a Probability Sample of College Students  

PubMed Central

Objectives To determine the prevalence of medical and nonmedical use of 4 classes of prescription drugs (opioid, stimulant, sleeping, and sedative or anxiety) and to assess probable drug abuse among 4 mutually exclusive groups of medical and nonmedical use of prescription drugs. Design In 2005, a Web survey was self-administered by a probability sample of 3639 college students (68% response rate). Setting A large, midwestern 4-year university. Participants The sample had a mean age of 19.9 years, and respondents were 53.6% female, 67.4% white, 12.1% Asian, 6.0% African American, 4.2% Hispanic, and 10.2% other racial categories. Main Outcome Measures Medical and nonmedical use of prescription drugs was measured. Probable drug abuse was assessed using a modified version of the Drug Abuse Screening Test, Short Form. Results A total of 40.1% of respondents reported no lifetime use of at least 1 of 4 classes of prescription drugs, 39.7% reported medical use only, 15.8% reported both medical and nonmedical use, and 4.4% reported nonmedical use only. The odds of a positive screening result for drug abuse were greater among medical and nonmedical users (adjusted odds ratio, 5.5; 95% confidence interval, 3.4–7.3) and nonmedical users only (adjusted odds ratio, 6.5; 95% confidence interval, 4.0–10.6) compared with nonusers. The odds of a positive screening result for drug abuse did not differ between medical users only and nonusers. Conclusions Nonmedical users of prescription drugs are at heightened risk for drug abuse, whereas medical users without a history of nonmedical use are generally not at increased risk. Drug abuse screening should be routine for college students, especially among individuals with any history of nonmedical use of prescription drugs. PMID:18316659

McCabe, Sean Esteban

2008-01-01

347

Dose finding with drug combinations in cancer phase I clinical trials using conditional escalation with overdose control.  

PubMed

We present a Bayesian adaptive design for dose finding of a combination of two drugs in cancer phase I clinical trials. The goal is to estimate the maximum tolerated dose (MTD) as a curve in the two-dimensional Cartesian plane. We use a logistic model to describe the relationship between the doses of the two agents and the probability of dose limiting toxicity. The model is re-parameterized in terms of parameters clinicians can easily interpret. Trial design proceeds using univariate escalation with overdose control, where at each stage of the trial, we seek a dose of one agent using the current posterior distribution of the MTD of this agent given the current dose of the other agent. At the end of the trial, an estimate of the MTD curve is proposed as a function of Bayes estimates of the model parameters. We evaluate design operating characteristics in terms of safety of the trial design and percent of dose recommendation at dose combination neighborhoods around the true MTD curve. We also examine the performance of the approach under model misspecifications for the true dose-toxicity relationship. PMID:24825779

Tighiouart, Mourad; Piantadosi, Steven; Rogatko, André

2014-09-28

348

Patterns of prescription and drug use in ophthalmology in a tertiary hospital in Delhi  

PubMed Central

Aims The present study was carried out to describe the patterns of prescription and drug use in Ophthalmology in out-patients at Dr Rajendra Prasad (R.P.) Centre for Ophthalmic Sciences of All India Institute of Medical Sciences (A.I.I.M.S.), New Delhi. Methods Prescriptions of 1017 out-patients were audited through a specially designed form and analysed for the following: average number of drugs per prescription, duration of treatment (recorded or not), dosage forms prescribed, frequency of administration (recorded or not), number of encounters with antibiotics and percentage of drugs prescribed by generic name. Results Prescription analysis showed that the average number of drugs per prescription was 3.03. Duration of treatment was recorded for only 26.4% of the drugs prescribed. The maximum number of drugs prescribed were in the form of eye drops (76%), followed by tablets (10.9%), ointments (6.4%), syrups (1%), capsules (0.7%), lotions (0.3%) and injections (0.1%). No dosage form was recorded for 4.6% of the drugs prescribed. The frequency of administration was recorded for only 77.9% of the drugs prescribed. The number of antibiotics prescribed was 1059 which constitutes 34.2% of the total number of drugs prescribed. The percentage of drugs prescribed by generic name was only 35%. Conclusions The results obtained in this study indicated an awareness of polypharmacy but a high incidence of common prescription writing errors such as not recording the duration of therapy, frequency of administration and dosage form. Moreover prescribing by generic name was also low. PMID:11298073

Biswas, Nihar R; Jindal, Sanjay; Siddiquei, M Mairaj; Maini, Rajiv

2001-01-01

349

The Drug Facts Box: Improving the communication of prescription drug information  

PubMed Central

Communication about prescription drugs ought to be a paragon of public science communication. Unfortunately, it is not. Consumers see $4 billion of direct-to-consumer advertising annually, which typically fails to present data about how well drugs work. The professional label—the Food and Drug Administration's (FDA) mechanism to get physicians information needed for appropriate prescribing—may also fail to present benefit data. FDA labeling guidance, in fact, suggests that industry omit benefit data for new drugs in an existing class and for drugs approved on the basis of unfamiliar outcomes (such as depression rating scales). The medical literature is also problematic: there is selective reporting of favorable trials, favorable outcomes within trials, and “spinning” unfavorable results to maximize benefit and minimize harm. In contrast, publicly available FDA reviews always include the phase 3 trial data on benefit and harm, which are the basis of drug approval. However, these reviews are practically inaccessible: lengthy, poorly organized, and weakly summarized. To improve accessibility, we developed the Drug Facts Box: a one-page summary of benefit and harm data for each indication of a drug. A series of studies—including national randomized trials—demonstrates that most consumers understand the Drug Facts Box and that it improves decision-making. Despite calls from their own Risk Communication Advisory Committee and Congress (in the Affordable Care Act) to consider implementing boxes, the FDA announced it needs at least 3–5 y more to make a decision. Given its potential public health impact, physicians and the public should not have to wait that long for better drug information. PMID:23942130

Schwartz, Lisa M.; Woloshin, Steven

2013-01-01

350

Medical and Nonmedical Use of Prescription Drugs among Secondary School Students  

PubMed Central

Purpose The main objective of this study was to assess the prevalence of medical and nonmedical use of four categories of prescription drugs (opioid, stimulant, sleeping, and sedative/anxiety medication) in a racially diverse sample of secondary public school students in the Detroit metropolitan area. A secondary objective was to examine the association between the use of four categories of prescription medications and illicit drug use and probable drug abuse. Methods In 2005, a Web-based survey was self-administered by 1086 secondary school students in grades seven through 12. Results The sample consisted of 54% female, 52% White, 45% African American, and 3% from other racial categories. Forty-eight percent of the sample reported no lifetime use of four categories of prescription drugs (nonusers), 31.5% reported medically prescribed use only (medical users), 17.5% reported both medical and nonmedical use (medical/nonmedical users) and 3.3% reported nonmedical use only (nonmedical users). Multivariate analyses indicated that medical/nonmedical users and nonmedical users were significantly more likely than nonusers to report illicit drug use and probable drug abuse. Medical users generally reported similar or increased odds of illicit drug use and probable drug abuse than non-users. Conclusions These findings provide evidence that nonmedical use of prescription drugs represents a problem behavior among secondary school students. PMID:17185209

McCabe, Sean Esteban; Boyd, Carol J.; Young, Amy

2006-01-01

351

Medical Use, Illicit Use, and Diversion of Abusable Prescription Drugs  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The authors investigated the medical use, illicit use, and diversion of 4 distinct classes of abusable prescription medication (sleeping medication, sedative or anxiety medication, stimulant medication, and pain medication) in a random sample of undergraduate students. In spring 2003, 9,161 undergraduate students attending a large, public,…

McCabe, Sean Esteban; Teter, Christian J.; Boyd, Carol J.

2006-01-01

352

Medical and Nonmedical Users of Prescription Drugs among College Students  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Objectives: To examine medical and nonmedical users of prescription opioids, central nervous system depressants, and stimulants taken individually and in combination. Participants: Undergraduates at an urban mid-Atlantic university with 12,000 students. Methods: A questionnaire administered in classes provided 413 responses, with a usable response…

Rozenbroek, Katelyn; Rothstein, William G.

2011-01-01

353

Prescription Drug Abuse: Some Considerations in Evaluating Policy Responses  

Microsoft Academic Search

Although psychotherapeutics are among the most tightly regulated commodities in the world, some small but significant number are regularly diverted from legitimate use for the purpose of sustaining abuse and dependence. Contemporary concerns about such diversion have prompted renewed interest in methods to curb physicians' prescriptive authority and monitor actual prescribing practices. In order to manage these proposed solutions in

Bonnie B. Wilford

1991-01-01

354

Medical Use, Illicit Use, and Diversion of Abusable Prescription Drugs  

Microsoft Academic Search

The authors investigated the medical use, illicit use, and diversion of 4 distinct classes of abusable prescription medication (sleeping medication, sedative or anxiety medication, stimulant medication, and pain medication) in a random sample of undergraduate students. In spring 2003, 9, 161 undergraduate students attending a large, public, midwestern research university in the United States self-administered a Web-based survey. The prevalence

Sean Esteban McCabe; Christian J. Teter; Carol J. Boyd

2006-01-01

355

EFFECTS OF IMAGE CONGRUENCY ON PERSUASIVENESS AND RECALL IN DIRECT-TO-CONSUMER PRESCRIPTION DRUG ADVERTISING  

Microsoft Academic Search

Although direct-to-consumer (DTC) prescription drug advertising is regulated by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration, content analyses (Baird-Harris, 2009; Frosch, Krueger, Hornik, Cronbolm, & Berg, 2007; Kaphingst, DeJong, Rudd, & Daltroy, 2004; Wilkes, Bell, & Kravitz, 2000) and other studies (Davis, 2000, 2007) have suggested that advertisers may not disclose drug risks to the same extent that they describe drug

Kristen M. Kiernicki

2012-01-01

356

Prescription drug use during pregnancy: a population-based study in Regione Emilia-Romagna, Italy  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose  Drug utilization studies in pregnant women are crucial to inform pharmacovigilance efforts in human teratogenicity. The purpose\\u000a of this study was to estimate the prevalence of prescription drug use among pregnant women in Regione Emilia-Romagna (RER),\\u000a Italy.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Methods  We conducted a retrospective prevalence study using data from the RER health care database. Outpatient prescription drug data\\u000a were reconciled for RER residents

Joshua J. Gagne; Vittorio Maio; Vincenzo Berghella; Daniel Z. Louis; Joseph S. Gonnella

2008-01-01

357

Preventing drug interactions by online prescription screening in community pharmacies and medical practices  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: Drug interactions have been shown to be preventable by computerized prescription entry and screening only in hospitals and not in community-based practice.Methods: We retrospectively evaluated the effect of online prescription screening in community pharmacies and physician offices of one health maintenance organization, phased in during 3 consecutive 6-month periods in 1998 to 1999 (period I, system active only in

Hillel Halkin; Itzhak Katzir; Irena Kurman; Joseph Jan; Becky Ben-Oz Malkin

2001-01-01

358

21 CFR 201.100 - Prescription drugs for human use.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

21 Food and Drugs 4 2010-04-01... Section 201.100 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION...proportion of each active ingredient, as well as the information...additives may be designated as coloring without naming...

2010-04-01

359

21 CFR 201.100 - Prescription drugs for human use.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

21 Food and Drugs 4 2012-04-01... Section 201.100 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION...proportion of each active ingredient, as well as the information...additives may be designated as coloring without naming...

2012-04-01

360

21 CFR 201.100 - Prescription drugs for human use.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

21 Food and Drugs 4 2013-04-01... Section 201.100 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION...proportion of each active ingredient, as well as the information...additives may be designated as coloring without naming...

2013-04-01

361

Ephemeral profiles of prescription drug and formulation tampering: Evolving pseudoscience on the Internet  

Microsoft Academic Search

The magnitude of non-therapeutic use, or misuse of prescription pharmaceuticals now rivals that of illicit drug abuse. Drug and formulation tampering enables misusers to administer higher doses by intended and non-intended routes. Perceived motives appear to be a combination of interests in achieving a faster onset and enhancing psychoactive effects. Narcotic analgesics, stimulants, and depressants are widely sought, examined, and

Edward J. Cone

2006-01-01

362

The Prescription Drug Safety Net: Access to Pharmaceuticals for the Uninsured  

Microsoft Academic Search

OVERVIEW — This background paper provides an overview of organized programs that provide access to prescription drug products for uninsured persons, with an emphasis on manufacturer-sponsored pharmacy assistance programs (PAPs) and the federal 340B drug pricing program. It summa- rizes the chief characteristics of these programs and reviews concerns re- garding the reach and efficiency of these efforts. The paper

Jack Hoadley

363

Direct-to-Consumer Promotion of Prescription Drugs: Economic Implications for Patients, Payers and Providers  

Microsoft Academic Search

Spending on outpatient prescription drugs in the US is accelerating rapidly. Although numerous factors are driving this trend, attention has recently focused on the role played by the marketing, promotion and advertising of pharmaceuticals, in particular direct-to-consumer (DTC) advertising. In 1997, the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) issued a `guidance' on such mass media promotion. The guidance altered existing

Steven D. Findlay

2001-01-01

364

The effect of instruction on comprehension and recall of prescription drug label information in older adults  

Microsoft Academic Search

Older adults are the fastest growing segment of the population. They consume the largest quantities of prescription and nonprescription medication compared to other age groups, often using drugs on a daily basis over extended periods of time. They are prime candidates for many types of medication errors often as a result of an inadequate understanding of the drug regimen, misinterpreting

Maria Kostyniuk Daniv

1992-01-01

365

Fluoride overdose  

MedlinePLUS

... counter and prescription products, including: Certain mouthwashes and toothpastes Certain vitamins (Tri-Vi-Flor, Poly-Vi-Flor, ... for recovery. The amount of fluoride found in toothpaste is usually not swallowed in large enough amounts ...

366

21 CFR 201.100 - Prescription drugs for human use.  

21 Food and Drugs 4 2014-04-01 2014-04-01...use. 201.100 Section 201.100 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT...determine the complete manufacturing history of the package of the drug....

2014-04-01

367

21 CFR 201.100 - Prescription drugs for human use.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

21 Food and Drugs 4 2011-04-01 2011-04-01...use. 201.100 Section 201.100 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT...determine the complete manufacturing history of the package of the drug....

2011-04-01

368

A Benefit-Based Copay for Prescription Drugs: Patient Contribution Based on Total Benefits, Not Drug Acquisition Cost  

Microsoft Academic Search

Several managerial mechanisms have been used by man- aged care organizations to affect prescription drug utilization and related expenditures. Some efforts have focused on moni- toring clinical conditions, drug use, and compliance, whereas other efforts have focused on consumer cost sharing and changing product-mix. Efforts focusing on improving quality of care by identifying untreated patients or by enhancing com- pliance

A. Mark Fendrick; Dean G. Smith; Michael E. Chernew; Sonali N. Shah

369

DESIGN AND IMPLEMENTATION OF A COMPUTERIZED INFORMATICS TOOL TO FACILITATE CLINICIAN ACCESS TO A STATES PRESCRIPTION DRUG MONITORING PROGRAM DATABASE.  

E-print Network

??BIOMEDICAL INFORMATICS DESIGN AND IMPLEMENTATION OF A COMPUTERIZED INFORMATICS TOOL TO FACILITATE CLINICIAN ACCESS TO A STATES PRESCRIPTION DRUG MONITORING PROGRAM DATABASE STEVEN JOHN WHITE… (more)

White, Steven John

2013-01-01

370

Hospitalizations for Suicide-Related Drug Poisonings and Co-Occurring Alcohol Overdoses in Adolescents (Ages 12-17) and Young Adults (Ages 18-24) in the United States, 1999-2008: Results from the Nationwide Inpatient Sample  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Drug poisoning is the leading method of suicide-related deaths among females and third among males in the United States. Alcohol can increase the severity of drug poisonings, yet the prevalence of alcohol overdoses in suicide-related drug poisonings (SRDP) remains unclear. Data from the Nationwide Inpatient Sample was examined to determine rates…

White, Aaron M.; MacInnes, Erin; Hingson, Ralph W.; Pan, I-Jen

2013-01-01

371

Prescription Drug Abuse: Epidemiology, Regulatory Issues, Chronic Pain Management with Narcotic Analgesics  

PubMed Central

Synopsis The epidemic of prescription drug abuse has reached a critical level, which has received national attention. Physicians must learn strategies to effectively treat chronic pain, and help reduce the rates of prescription drug abuse. This chapter will provide insight into the epidemiology of prescription drug abuse, explain regulatory issues, and provide guidelines for the assessment and management of pain, particularly with chronic opioid therapy. The use of informed consent forms, treatment agreements, risk documentation tools, and regular monitoring of the 4 “A's” helps to educate patients, as well as guide management based on treatment goals. By using universal precautions, and being aware of aberrant behaviors, physicians may feel more confident in identifying and addressing problematic behaviors. PMID:21356422

Manubay, Jeanne M.; Muchow, Carrie; Sullivan, Maria A.

2012-01-01

372

A qualitative exploration of prescription opioid injection among street-based drug users in Toronto: behaviours, preferences and drug availability  

PubMed Central

Background There is evidence of a high prevalence of prescription opioid (PO) and crack use among street drug users in Toronto. The purpose of this qualitative study was to describe drug use behaviours and preferences as well as the social and environmental context surrounding the use of these drugs among young and old street-based drug injection drug users (IDUs). Methods In-depth interviews were conducted with 25 PO injectors. Topics covered included drug use history, types of drugs used, how drugs were purchased and transitions to PO use. Interviews were taped and transcribed. Content analysis was conducted to identify themes. Results Five prominent themes emerged from the interviews: 1) Combination of crack and prescription opioids, 2) First injection experience and transition to prescription opioids, 3) Drug preferences and availability, 4) Housing and income and 5) Obtaining drugs. There was consensus that OxyContin and crack were the most commonly available drugs on the streets of Toronto. Drug use preferences and behaviours were influenced by the availability of drugs, the desired effect, ease of administration and expectations around the purity of the drugs. Distinct experiences were observed among younger users as compared to older users. In particular, the initiation of injection drug use and experimentation with POs among younger users was influenced by their experiences on the street, their peers and general curiosity. Conclusion Given the current profile of street-based drug market in Toronto and the emergence of crack and POs as two predominant illicit drug groups, understanding drug use patterns and socio-economic factors among younger and older users in this population has important implications for preventive and therapeutic interventions. PMID:18928556

Firestone, Michelle; Fischer, Benedikt

2008-01-01

373

Insurance Coverage of Prescription Drugs and the Rural Elderly  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Rural impacts of a Medicare drug benefit will ultimately depend on the number of elderly who are currently without drug coverage, new demand by those currently without coverage, the nature of the new benefit relative to current benefits, and benefit design. Purpose: To enhance understanding of drug coverage among rural elderly Medicare…

Mueller, Curt; Schur, Claudia

2004-01-01

374

Fetal exposure to prescription drugs and adult sexual orientation  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study was undertaken to determine if prenatal exposure to therapeutic drugs contributes to variations in sexual orientation. Especially suspect were drugs that could affect the delicate balance of sex hormone levels that appear to guide the sexual differentiation of the fetal brain. The recollections of 5102 mothers concerning their use of therapeutic drugs during pregnancy were linked to reports

Lee Ellis; Jill Hellberg

2005-01-01

375

Low literacy impairs comprehension of prescription drug warning labels  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Adverse events resulting from medication error are a serious concern. Patients’ literacy and their ability to understand\\u000a medication information are increasingly seen as a safety issue.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a OBJECTIVE: To examine whether adult patients receiving primary care services at a public hospital clinic were able to correctly interpret\\u000a commonly used prescription medication warning labels.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a DESIGN: In-person structured interviews with literacy assessment.

Terry C. Davis; Michael S. Wolf; Pat F. Bass III; Mark Middlebrooks; Estela Kennen; David W. Baker; Charles L. Bennett; Ramon Durazo-Arvizu; Anna Bocchini; Stephanie Savory; Ruth M. Parker

2006-01-01

376

A prescription for unemployment? Recessions and the demand for mental health drugs.  

PubMed

We estimate the relationship between mental health drug prescriptions and the level of labor market activity in the USA. Based on monthly data from the National Ambulatory Medical Care Survey of physicians and aggregated by US census regions, we find that the number of mental health drug prescriptions (those aimed at alleviating depression and anxiety) rises by about 10% when employment falls by 1% and when unemployment rises by 100 basis points, but only for patients in the Northeast region. This paper is one of the first to look at compensatory health behavior in response to the business cycle. Copyright © 2013 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. PMID:23956154

Bradford, W David; Lastrapes, William D

2014-11-01

377

Utility of the Electrocardiogram in Drug Overdose and Poisoning: Theoretical Considerations and Clinical Implications  

PubMed Central

The ECG is a rapidly available clinical tool that can help clinicians manage poisoned patients. Specific myocardial effects of cardiotoxic drugs have well-described electrocardiographic manifestations. In the practice of clinical toxicology, classic ECG changes may hint at blockade of ion channels, alterations of adrenergic tone, or dysfunctional metabolic activity of the myocardium. This review will offer a structured approach to ECG interpretation in poisoned patients with a focus on clinical implications and ECG-based management recommendations in the initial evaluation of patients with acute cardiotoxicity. PMID:22708912

Yates, Christopher; Manini, Alex F

2012-01-01

378

Aberrant drug-related behaviors: Unsystematic documentation does not identify prescription drug use disorder  

PubMed Central

Objective No evidence-based methods exist to identify prescription drug use disorder (PDUD) in primary care (PC) patients prescribed controlled substances. Aberrant drug-related behaviors (ADRBs) are suggested as a proxy. Our objective was to determine whether ADRBs documented in electronic medical records (EMRs) of patients prescribed opioids and benzodiazepines could serve as a proxy for identifying PDUD. Design A cross-sectional study of PC patients at an urban, academic medical center. Subjects 264 English-speaking patients (ages 18–60) with chronic pain (?3 months), receiving ?1 opioid analgesic or benzodiazepine prescription in the past year, were recruited during outpatient PC visits. Outcome Measures Composite International Diagnostic Interview defined DSM-IV diagnoses of past-year PDUD and no disorder. EMRs were reviewed for 15 pre-specified ADRBs (e.g. early refill, stolen medications) in the year before and after study entry. Fisher’s exact test compared frequencies of each ADRB between participants with and without PDUD. Results 61 participants (23%) met DSM-IV PDUD criteria and 203 (77%) had no disorder; 85% had one or more ADRB documented. Few differences in frequencies of individual behaviors were noted between groups, with only “appearing intoxicated or high” documented more frequently among participants with PDUD (n=10, 16%) vs. no disorder (n=8, 4%), p=0.002. The only common ADRB, “emergency visit for pain,” did not discriminate between those with and without the disorder (82% PDUD vs. 78% no disorder, p=0.6). Conclusions EMR documentation of ADRBs is common among PC patients prescribed opioids or benzodiazepines, but unsystematic clinician documentation does not identify PDUDs. Evidence-based approaches are needed. PMID:23057631

Meltzer, Ellen C.; Rybin, Dennis; Meshesha, Lidia Z.; Saitz, Richard; Samet, Jeffrey H.; Rubens, Sonia L.; Liebschutz, Jane M.

2012-01-01

379

Potential drug-drug interactions in prescriptions dispensed in community and hospital pharmacies in East of Iran  

PubMed Central

Objective: This study aim to evaluate and compare type and prevalence of drug-drug interactions (DDIs) in prescriptions dispensed in both community and hospital setting in Zabol, Iran. Methods: A total of 2796 prescriptions were collected from community and inpatient and outpatient pharmacy of Amir-al-momenin only current acting hospital in Zabol, Iran. The prescriptions were processed using Lexi-Comp drug interaction software. The identified DDIs were categorized into five classes (A, B, C, D, X). Findings: Overall 41.6% of prescriptions had at last one potential DDI. The most common type of interactions was type C (66%). The percentage of drug interactions in community pharmacies were significantly lower than hospital pharmacies (P < 0.0001). Conclusion: Our results indicate that patients in Zabol are at high risk of adverse drug reactions caused by medications due to potential DDIs. Appropriate education for physicians about potentially harmful DDIs, as well as active participation of pharmacists in detection and prevention of drug-related injuries, could considerably prevent the consequence of DDIs among patients.

Dirin, Mandana Moradi; Mousavi, Sarah; Afshari, Amir Reza; Tabrizian, Kaveh; Ashrafi, Mohammad Hossein

2014-01-01

380

Structure-based discovery of prescription drugs that interact with the norepinephrine transporter, NET  

PubMed Central

The norepinephrine transporter (NET) transports norepinephrine from the synapse into presynaptic neurons, where norepinephrine regulates signaling pathways associated with cardiovascular effects and behavioral traits via binding to various receptors (e.g., ?2-adrenergic receptor). NET is a known target for a variety of prescription drugs, including antidepressants and psychostimulants, and may mediate off-target effects of other prescription drugs. Here, we identify prescription drugs that bind NET, using virtual ligand screening followed by experimental validation of predicted ligands. We began by constructing a comparative structural model of NET based on its alignment to the atomic structure of a prokaryotic NET homolog, the leucine transporter LeuT. The modeled binding site was validated by confirming that known NET ligands can be docked favorably compared to nonbinding molecules. We then computationally screened 6,436 drugs from the Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG DRUG) against the NET model. Ten of the 18 high-scoring drugs tested experimentally were found to be NET inhibitors; five of these were chemically novel ligands of NET. These results may rationalize the efficacy of several sympathetic (tuaminoheptane) and antidepressant (tranylcypromine) drugs, as well as side effects of diabetes (phenformin) and Alzheimer’s (talsaclidine) drugs. The observations highlight the utility of virtual screening against a comparative model, even when the target shares less than 30% sequence identity with its template structure and no known ligands in the primary binding site. PMID:21885739

Schlessinger, Avner; Geier, Ethan; Fan, Hao; Irwin, John J.; Shoichet, Brian K.; Giacomini, Kathleen M.; Sali, Andrej

2011-01-01

381

An Exploratory Study of Rape Survivors' Prescription Drug Use as a Means of Coping with Sexual Assault  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In this study we examined rape survivors' post assault use of prescription drugs, including sedatives, tranquilizers, and antidepressants. In a community-based sample of 102 sexual assault survivors, 44% had used prescription drugs post rape. Consistent with prior research on alcohol as a postassault coping mechanism, the current study found…

Sturza, Marisa L.; Campbell, Rebecca

2005-01-01

382

Use of Antipsychotic Drugs in Individuals with Intellectual Disability (ID) in the Netherlands: Prevalence and Reasons for Prescription  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Background: We investigated antipsychotic drug prescription practice of Dutch ID physicians, studying prevalence of antipsychotic drug use, reasons for prescription and the relationship between these reasons and patient characteristics. Methods: A cross-sectional study of medical and pharmaceutical records in a population living in residential…

de Kuijper, G.; Hoekstra, P.; Visser, F.; Scholte, F. A.; Penning, C.; Evenhuis, H.

2010-01-01

383

Teens and the Misuse of Prescription Drugs: Evidence-Based Recommendations to Curb a Growing Societal Problem  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The misuse of prescription drugs by teens in the United States is a growing public health problem. This article provides a systematic synthesis of multiple strands of literature to recommend effective prevention methods. Using a social-ecological framework, we review the scope of the problem of prescription drug use among teens. Then, we analyze…

Twombly, Eric C.; Holtz, Kristen D.

2008-01-01

384

75 FR 61621 - Charges Billed to Third Parties for Prescription Drugs Furnished by VA to a Veteran for a...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...charges billed for prescription drugs...administered during treatment by changing the...document, VA billed for prescription drugs...administered during treatment based on the sum...Alcohol abuse, Alcoholism, Claims, Day...Veterans Affairs. 0 For the reasons stated...administered during treatment will be the...

2010-10-06

385

21 CFR 202.1 - Prescription-drug advertisements.  

...the drug or ingredient is a common substance, the limitations of which are readily...contains a broad claim that a drug is an antibacterial agent, the advertisement shall name...201.100 or 201.105. (4) Substance of information to be included in...

2014-04-01

386

21 CFR 202.1 - Prescription-drug advertisements.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...the drug or ingredient is a common substance, the limitations of which are readily...contains a broad claim that a drug is an antibacterial agent, the advertisement shall name...201.100 or 201.105. (4) Substance of information to be included in...

2013-04-01

387

Comparison of Older and Younger Alcoholics and Prescription Drug Abusers  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study compared 26 elderly patients with 33 younger patients with a diagnosis of a substance use disorder. Subjects were compared on demographic, medical, psychiatric, and social factors. Alcohol was the most commonly used drug for both groups and poly-drug addicts were the norm for both groups. Significant social and psychiatric pathology were also common in both groups. Elderly addicts

Kenneth Solomon; Susan Stark

1993-01-01

388

Increased alcohol consumption, nonmedical prescription drug use, and illicit drug use are associated with energy drink consumption among college students  

PubMed Central

Objectives This longitudinal study examined the prevalence and correlates of energy drink use among college students, and investigated its possible prospective associations with subsequent drug use, including nonmedical prescription drug use. Methods Participants were 1,060 undergraduates from a large, public university who completed three annual interviews, beginning in their first year of college. Use of energy drinks, other caffeinated products, tobacco, alcohol, and other illicit and prescription drugs were assessed, as well as demographic and personality characteristics. Results Annual weighted prevalence of energy drink use was 22.6%wt and 36.5%wt in the second and third year of college, respectively. Compared to energy drink non-users, energy drink users had heavier alcohol consumption patterns, and were more likely to have used other drugs, both concurrently and in the preceding assessment. Regression analyses revealed that Year 2 energy drink use was significantly associated with Year 3 nonmedical use of prescription stimulants and prescription analgesics, but not with other Year 3 drug use, holding constant demographics, prior drug use, and other factors. Conclusions A substantial and rapidly-growing proportion of college students use energy drinks. Energy drink users tend to have greater involvement in alcohol and other drug use and higher levels of sensation-seeking, relative to non-users of energy drinks. Prospectively, energy drink use has a unique relationship with nonmedical use of prescription stimulants and analgesics. More research is needed regarding the health risks associated with energy drink use in young adults, including their possible role in the development of substance use problems. PMID:20729975

Arria, Amelia M.; Caldeira, Kimberly M.; Kasperski, Sarah J.; O’Grady, Kevin E.; Vincent, Kathryn B.; Griffiths, Roland R.; Wish, Eric D.

2009-01-01

389

Time trends of antidepressant drug prescriptions in men versus women in a geographically defined US population.  

PubMed

The aim of this work was to study time trends of antidepressant drug (AD) prescriptions in a geographically defined US population between 2005 and 2011 for men and women separately. Using the Rochester Epidemiology Project medical records-linkage system, we identified all Olmsted County, MN residents who received AD outpatient prescriptions between 2005 and 2011 (7 years). We calculated the annual age- and sex-specific prevalence over 7 years and used generalized estimating equation models to test for time trends. The prevalence of subjects receiving at least one AD prescription was approximately two times higher in women than in men consistently across the 7 years of the study. The standardized annual prevalence increased from 10.8 % in 2005 to 14.4 % in 2011 overall, from 7.0 % in 2005 to 9.9 % in 2011 for men, and from 14.4 % in 2005 to 18.6 % in 2011 for women. The absolute percent increase was greater in women (4.2 vs. 2.9 %; standardized); however, the relative percent increase was greater in men (41.4 vs. 29.2 %; standardized). The relative percent increase was greater in the age group 65+ years for both men and women. AD prescriptions are increasing over time, especially in the elderly. Women receive more AD prescriptions than men. However, the relative increase in AD prescriptions over time is greater in men than women. PMID:25113318

Zhong, Wenjun; Kremers, Hilal Maradit; Yawn, Barbara P; Bobo, William V; St Sauver, Jennifer L; Ebbert, Jon O; Finney Rutten, Lila J; Jacobson, Debra J; Brue, Scott M; Rocca, Walter A

2014-12-01

390

Association of prescription drug misuse with risky motor vehicle behaviors among low-income young women  

PubMed Central

The purpose of this study was to examine the association between prescription drug misuse and risky motor vehicle behaviors among 16-24 year old women. A survey was conducted on misuse of four classes of prescription drugs (pain relievers, tranquilizers, stimulants, and sedatives) and past-month risky motor vehicle behaviors among these women during 2008-2010. Overall, 47.7% (1408/2952) of women reported risky motor vehicle behavior(s) in the past month. Misuse of one or more of the four classes was 30.1% (lifetime), 15.0% (past year), and 6.7% (past month). Misuse of one or more of these prescription drug classes was associated with risky motor vehicle behaviors in their lifetime (odds ratio (OR) 1.83, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.54-2.18), past year (OR 2.25, 95% CI 1.80-2.83), and past month (OR 2.70, 95% CI 1.94-3.78). Our finding that misuse of one or more of the four prescription drug classes, irrespective of when this last occurred, is associated with risky motor vehicle behaviors may help formulate awareness programs. PMID:24159912

Laz, Tabassum H; Shemontee, Mirza O.; Rahman, Mahbubur; Berenson, Abbey B

2013-01-01

391

What Constitutes Prescription Drug Misuse? Problems and Pitfalls of Current Conceptualizations  

Microsoft Academic Search

Many medications with sedative, anxiolytic, analgesic, or stimulant properties have the potential to be inappro- priately used. However, because these substances have beneficial effects, many issues pertinent to understanding prescrip- tion drug misuse may differ from those associated with other misused substances. There is currently a lack of consensus about what constitutes prescription misuse and a wide range of operational

Sean P. Barrett; Jessica R. Meisner; Sherry H. Stewart

2008-01-01

392

Consumer attitudes and behaviors associated with direct-to-consumer prescription drug marketing  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose – This article seeks to examine attitudes about direct-to-consumer advertising (DTCA) of prescription drugs to final users (referred to as consumers in this paper). Design\\/methodology\\/approach – A national telephone survey was carried out of 300 consumers that had seen a doctor in the last six months. Findings – Consumer awareness of DTCA continues at a very high level (96

Michael Friedman; James Gould

2007-01-01

393

[Drugs used for cognitive impairment. Analysis of 1.5 million prescriptions in Argentina].  

PubMed

Cognitive impairment and dementia treatment costs are significant for health systems. According to national and international guidelines, recommended drugs for treatment of dementias are cholinesterase inhibitors (donepezil, galantamine, rivastigmine) and memantine. Despite these guidelines recommendations, other nootropics, vasodilators and antioxidants are often used in Argentina. The purpose of this study was to describe and compare the prescription pattern of commonly used drugs for the treatment of cognitive disorders and dementia in different regions of Argentina. An observational, retrospective study of 1814108 recipes prescribed to National Institute of Social Services for Retired and Pensioners outpatients during the during the second half of 2008 and the first and second half of 2009 was performed, taking in count the whole country and also different Argentina's regions. Demographic variables, quantity and rate of prescriptions, dosage forms and strengths were analyzed. Considering the entire country, memantine was the most prescribed drug in these periods (570893 packages). An increase in the memantine, donepezil, rivastigmine and idebenone rates of prescription was observed. Prescription rate of memantine increased in the North-West and North-East regions, that of idebenone in the North-East region and Patagonia and donepezil in the North-East region. Non recommended drugs were highly prescribed in all the analyzed regions. Some of them were indicated to young and middle-aged patients. PMID:23732196

Rojas, Galeno; Demey, Ignacio; Arizaga, Raúl L

2013-01-01

394

Views on Personalized Medicine: Do the Attitudes of African American and White Prescription Drug Consumers Differ?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Aims: Although recent advances in pharmacogenomics are making possible the use of genetic testing to determine the best medication for patients, little is known about how patients view such procedures. The aims for this study that were developed collaboratively as part of a community-academic partnership are: (1) What are the attitudes and perceptions of prescription drug consumers concerning personalized medicine

M. De Marco

2010-01-01

395

Utilizing Business, University, and Community Resources to Target Adolescent Prescription Drug Abuse  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

"Generation Rx" is a prescription drug abuse prevention strategy which includes a "toolkit" designed to be used with youth. Developed by Cardinal Health Foundation and the Ohio State University, it provides health care providers (especially pharmacists), parents, teachers, youth workers, and other community leaders with interactive tools and…

Wade-Mdivanian, R.; Anderson-Butcher, D.; Hale, K.; Kwiek, N.; Smock, J.; Radigan, D.; Lineberger, J.

2012-01-01

396

The demand for prescription drugs as a function of cost-sharing  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper estimates how cost-sharing affects the use of prescription drugs. The data for this analysis are derived from the Rand Health Insurance Experiment (HIE), a randomized controlled trial that randomly assigned participants to insurance plans with varying coinsurance rates and deductibles. Therefore, the cost-sharing they faced was independent of their health and demographic characteristics. The paper used HIE data

Arleen Leibowitz; Willard G. Manning; Joseph P. Newhouse

1985-01-01

397

The Relationship between Health Professionals and the Elderly Patient Facing Drug Prescription: A Qualitative Approach  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Aiming at identifying the relationship between the elderly patient facing drug prescription and health professionals, an exploratory and descriptive study of a qualitative cut was carried out using semi-structured interviews. To this end, the Collective Subject Discourse analysis technique was employed. Thirty elderly patients living in the urban…

Lefevre, Fernando; Teixeira, Jorge Juarez Vieira; Lefevre, Ana Maria Cavalcanti; de Castro, Lia Lusitana Cardozo; Spinola, Aracy Witt de Pinho

2004-01-01

398

Imprecise Frequency Descriptors and the Miscomprehension of Prescription Drug Advertising: Public Policy and Regulatory Implications.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Explores the communicative effectiveness of imprecise frequency descriptors within the context of consumer prescription drug advertising. Conducts two separate studies using a total sample of 147 adults. Finds that consumers are unable to accurately estimate the relative likelihood of side effect occurrence when a list of side effects are preceded…

Davis, Joel J.

1999-01-01

399

Medicare: Prescription Drug Issues. Report to the Chairman, Special Committee on Aging, U.S. Senate.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This report was written by the General Accounting Office (GAO) in response to a request by Senator John Melcher that the GAO provide information about prescription drugs as they relate to the needs of the elderly. The information in the report is based on results of an ongoing GAO study of catastrophic illness insurance and is derived from…

General Accounting Office, Washington, DC. Div. of Human Resources.

400

Retail prescription drug spending in the National Health Accounts.  

PubMed

Recent rapid spending growth for retail drugs has largely arisen from increased use of new drugs, rather than from increasing prices of existing drugs. A sizable shift in the payment from consumers to third parties has also contributed to faster growth. Strategies such as negotiating for rebates and using tiered copayments have sought to slow spending growth but simultaneously have complicated the estimation of spending in the National Health Accounts (NHA). NHA estimates show that retail pharmaceuticals' share of health spending is not much different than it was in 1960, although its share of gross domestic product (GDP) has tripled. PMID:15002638

Smith, Cynthia

2004-01-01

401

Non-medical use of prescription drugs in a national sample of college women.  

PubMed

Non-medical use of prescription drugs (NMUPD) is one of the fastest growing forms of illicit drug use, with research indicating that college students represent a particularly high risk population. The current study examined demographic characteristics, health/mental health, substance misuse, and rape experiences as potential risk correlates of NMUPD among a national sample of college women (N=2000). Interviews were conducted via telephone using Computer-Assisted Telephone Interviewing technology. NMUPD was assessed by asking if, participants had used a prescription drug non-medically in the past year. NMUPD was endorsed by 7.8% of the sample (n=155). Although incapacitated and drug-alcohol facilitated rape were associated with NMUPD in the initial model, the final multivariable model showed that only lifetime major depression and other forms of substance use/abuse were significantly uniquely associated with an increased likelihood of NMUPD. Implications for primary and secondary prevention and subsequent research are addressed. PMID:21356576

McCauley, Jenna L; Amstadter, Ananda B; Macdonald, Alexandra; Danielson, Carla Kmett; Ruggiero, Kenneth J; Resnick, Heidi S; Kilpatrick, Dean G

2011-07-01

402

PHAR 1004 Common Prescription Drugs and Diseases Course Syllabus  

E-print Network

communicating via email please maintain the same respect that you would use in face-to-face communication. You mechanism of action (how they work) Benefits of drug, including those that are not directly related

Thomas, David D.

403

21 CFR 202.1 - Prescription-drug advertisements.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...advertisements which are intended to provide consumers with information concerning the price...National Academy of Sciences/National Research Council (NAS/NRC), Drug Efficacy Study...act include advertisements in published journals, magazines, other periodicals,...

2010-04-01

404

The Effect of Incentive-Based Formularies on Prescription-Drug Utilization and Spending  

Microsoft Academic Search

background Many employers and health plans have adopted incentive-based formularies in an at- tempt to control prescription-drug costs. methods We used claims data to compare the utilization of and spending on drugs in two employ- er-sponsored health plans that implemented changes in formulary administration with those in comparison groups of enrollees covered by the same insurers. One plan simul- taneously

Haiden A. Huskamp; Patricia A. Deverka; Arnold M. Epstein; Robert S. Epstein; Kimberly A. McGuigan; Richard G. Frank

2009-01-01

405

Rote learning after exposure to a direct-to-consumer television advertisement for a prescription drug  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of this exploratory study was to: (1) test the rote learning response; and (2) investigate the effects of selected consumer demographic\\/psychographic, information-access, and health-related knowledge\\/experience variables on rote learning after exposure to a televised direct-to-consumer prescription drug advertisement that was developed and broadcast under new US Food and Drug Administration guidelines. A judgment (nonprobability) sample of 202 individuals

Jon C. Schommer; William R. Doucette; Bella H. Mehta

1998-01-01

406

Benefit and risk information in prescription drug advertising: review of empirical studies and marketing implications.  

PubMed

As pharmaceutical companies began to advertise prescription drugs directly to consumers as well as to physicians, understanding the impact of benefit and risk information in drug advertising on physicians and consumers has become more critical. This paper reviews previous empirical studies that examined the content of benefit and risk information in drug advertising and its potential effects on physicians' subsequent prescribing behaviors. It also reviews studies that investigated how consumers process information on a drug's efficacy and side effects. Based on the findings of these studies, implications are discussed for effective marketing information development as well as for government regulation. PMID:11010219

Kopp, S W; Bang, H K

2000-01-01

407

[Drug prescriptions of patients treated in a geriatric outpatient ward of a university hospital: a descriptive cross-sectional study].  

PubMed

The scope of this study was to evaluate drug prescriptions for elderly patients in the geriatric outpatient ward of a hospital. A cross-sectional descriptive study was conducted in a university hospital, with the application of a questionnaire. Patients aged >60 years were interviewed about their drug prescriptions and a total of 208 patients were interviewed. The average number of drugs used per person was 3.8 and the drugs most used were for the cardiovascular system (37%). 406 potential interactions were identified in 140 patients (67.3%), and duplicate therapy was found in two prescriptions. The potentially inappropriate drug most used for the elderly was nifedipine (2.4%). Data from this study support the relevance of the issue of drug use among the elderly, thus reinforcing the importance of the evaluation of the process of the prescription of drugs for this population. PMID:25119075

Cuentro, Vanessa da Silva; Andrade, Marcieni Ataide de; Gerlack, Letícia Farias; Bós, Angelo José Gonçalves; Silva, Marcos Valério Santos da; Oliveira, Alex Ferreira de

2014-08-01

408

Patients' Insight of Interpreting Prescriptions and Drug Labels - A Cross Sectional Study  

PubMed Central

Background Errors in consuming drugs are associated with significant morbidity and mortality, besides an impact on the already overburdened health-care system. Misunderstanding drug labels and prescriptions plays an important role in contributing to adverse drug events. Objective To evaluate abilities to understand prescriptions and drug labels among patients attending tertiary care hospital in Karachi. Methods A cross sectional study was conducted at the Aga Khan University Hospital (AKUH), from January to March 2009. After informed consent, 181 adult patients and their healthy attendants were interviewed at AKUH using a standardized questionnaire, which ascertained patient demographics, factors that might increase exposure to health-care personnel as well as the basic knowledge and understanding of prescriptions and drug labels. Results Out of 181, majority 137(76%) had received graduate or post-graduate degrees. 16 (9%) had received no formal education; of which all were females and 89(84%) of the total females were housewives. Overall, 130(72%) followed only a single doctor’s prescription. Majority failed to understand various medical terminologies related to dosage. In the high literacy group, 45(33%) understood once daily OD (p?=?0.003), 27(20%) thrice daily TID (p?=?0.05), 29(21%) twice daily BD (p?=?0.01), 31(23%) thrice daily TDS (p?=?0.002) and 43(31%) as needed SOS (p?=?0.003) as compared to the group with no formal education, who were unable to comprehend the terms. The most common reason for using more than one prescription was decreased satisfaction with the doctor in 19(39%) and multiple co-morbids as responded by 17(35%) of patients. Knowledge regarding various medical terminologies used for dosage and routes of drug administration were also understood more frequently among the English medium respondents. The elderly identified medicine through color (47%, p<0.001), and were less likely to understand drug indications (p?=?0.05) compared to younger subjects. Conclusion Understanding of drug prescriptions is alarmingly low in the community, even amongst the educated. Care givers need to revisit this often ignored aspect of patient care. PMID:23755168

Patel, Muhammad Junaid; Khan, Muhammad Shoaib; Ali, Farheen; Kazmi, Zehra; Riaz, Talha; Awan, Safia; Sorathia, Ayesha L.

2013-01-01

409

Direct-to-consumer prescription drug advertising and the public  

Microsoft Academic Search

OBJECTIVE: Drug manufacturers are intensely promoting their products directly to consumers, but the impact has not been widely studied.\\u000a Consumers’ awareness and understanding of, attitudes toward, and susceptibility to direct-to-consumer (DTC) drug advertising\\u000a were examined.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a DESIGN: Random-digit dialing telephone survey with a random household member selection procedure (completion and response rates,\\u000a 58% and 69%, respectively).\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a SETTING: Respondents were interviewed while

Robert A. Bell; Richard L. Kravitz; Michael S. Wilkes

1999-01-01

410

Treatment outcomes for prescription drug misusers: the negative effect of geographic discordance.  

PubMed

This is the first known study to examine geographic discordance (traveling from one's home residence to a county with a different socio-cultural context to receive substance abuse treatment) as a predictor of clinical and social functioning treatment outcomes (i.e., relapse, self-help attendance, anxiety, and incarceration) among a sample of prescription drug misusers. Treatment entry and 12-month follow-up client-level survey data were collected from 187 clients who misused prescription drugs, and center-level survey data were collected from the supervisors at treatment centers attended by the clients. Multivariate models reveal that geographic discordance significantly increased the odds that prescription drug misusers would report relapse to prescription opioid misuse, anxiety, and any incarceration at follow-up. Moreover, geographically discordant clients were significantly less likely to have attended a self-help group, net of the effect of other individual- and center-level factors. Implications for clinical practice and substance abuse treatment policy are provided. PMID:25200740

Oser, Carrie B; Harp, Kathi L H

2015-01-01

411

Forces Pushing Prescription Psychotropic Drugs in College Mental Health  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A complex of forceful influences is greatly accelerating the use of what are usually referred to as "psychiatric drugs," although most prescribing is not done by psychiatrists. Many other clinicians, including other kinds of physicians, and recently psychologists, prescribe these medications. The influences contributing to this dramatic surge…

Whitaker, Leighton C.

2007-01-01

412

OxyContin: Prescription Drug Abuse. CSAT Advisory.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Recently, the media have issued numerous reports about the apparent increase in OxyContin abuse and addiction. OxyContin has been heralded as a miracle drug that allows patients with chronic pain to resume a normal life. It has also been called pharmaceutical heroin and is thought to have been responsible for a number of deaths and robberies in…

Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration (DHHS/PHS), Rockville, MD. Center for Substance Abuse Treatment.

413

Strategies Used by Adults to Reduce Their Prescription Drug Costs  

MedlinePLUS

... drug costs, by age, health insurance status, and poverty status, using data from the 2011 National Health Interview Survey (NHIS). Keywords: ... in the past 12 months, by age and poverty status: United States, 2011 1 Significantly different from those who were not poor ( p < 0.05). ...

414

Beta blockers overdose  

MedlinePLUS

... used to treat high blood pressure. Beta blocker overdose occurs when someone accidentally or intentionally takes more ... is common in children with this type of overdose, and it can lead to nervous system symptoms.

415

Prescription drug use among older adults in Italy: a country-wide perspective.  

PubMed

In Italy, prescription drug costs represent approximately 17% of total public health expenditures. Older adults commonly use multiple drugs and, for this reason, this population is responsible for a large portion of drug-related costs. In 2012, public expenditure for pharmaceuticals in primary care exceeded 11 billion Euros (approximately 15.2 billion US $), and older adults aged 65 or older accounted for more than 60% of these costs. Recently, increased attention has been focused on studies aimed at monitoring drug use and evaluating the appropriateness of drug prescribing in older adults. In this article, we examined studies that assessed these issues in different settings at a national level. Specifically, results of surveys of prescription drug use in primary care (OsMED), hospital (GIFA, CRIME, and REPOSI) and long-term care (ULISSE and SHELTER) settings are reviewed. Overall, these studies showed that the quality of drug prescribing in older patients is far from optimal. This leads to an increased risk of negative health outcomes and increased health care costs. Data from these studies are valuable, not only to monitor drug use, but also to target interventions aimed at improving the quality of prescribing. Translating the findings of clinical research and monitoring programs will be challenging, but it will lead to quantifiable improvements in the quality of drug prescribing at a national level. PMID:24878216

Onder, Graziano; Vetrano, Davide Liborio; Cherubini, Antonio; Fini, Massimo; Mannucci, Pier Mannuccio; Marengoni, Alessandra; Monaco, Alessandro; Nobili, Alessandro; Pecorelli, Sergio; Russo, Pierluigi; Vitale, Cristiana; Bernabei, Roberto

2014-07-01

416

Perceived harmfulness predicts nonmedical use of prescription drugs among college students: Interactions with sensation-seeking  

PubMed Central

This study describes the level of perceived harmfulness of nonmedical prescription stimulant and analgesic use in a sample of college students, and examines the prospective relationship between perceived harmfulness and subsequent nonmedical use. In addition, we explore whether the association between perceived harmfulness and nonmedical use varies by level of sensation-seeking. Personal interviews, including questions on sensation-seeking and drug use, were conducted with 1,253 first-year college students. Participants were then followed-up twice at six-month intervals. Perceived harmfulness of nonmedical use of prescription drugs was assessed at six months via a web-based survey. At the 12-month follow-up interview, drug use was again assessed. Students who never had the opportunity to use prescription drugs nonmedically were excluded from all analyses. Results revealed that one in four students perceived a great risk of harm from occasional nonmedical use of prescription stimulants (25.2%) and analgesics (27.8%). As expected, low perceived harmfulness and high sensation-seeking were independently associated with increased risk of nonmedical use, holding constant demographic characteristics. The protective effect of high perceived harmfulness could be seen at all levels of sensation-seeking with one important exception: among high sensation-seekers, perceived harmfulness was not related to nonmedical use of prescription analgesics. Perceived harmfulness appears to distinguish nonmedical users from non-users, given the opportunity to use. Increasing perceived harmfulness may be a viable prevention strategy for most students, but alternative approaches might need to be developed that are tailored to high sensation-seekers. PMID:18633709

Arria, Amelia M.; Caldeira, Kimberly M.; Vincent, Kathryn B.; O'Grady, Kevin E.; Wish, Eric D.

2008-01-01

417

FDA direct-to-consumer advertising for prescription drugs: what are consumer preferences and response tendencies?  

PubMed

The effect of direct-to-consumer (DTC) television advertising of prescription medications is a growing concern of the United States (U.S.) Congress, state legislatures, and the Food and Drug Administration (FDA). This research study was conducted in order to examine consumers' perceived preferences of DTC television advertisement in relation to "reminder" "help-seeking," and "product-claim" FDA-approved advertisement categories. An additional objective was to examine the influence of DTC television advertising of prescription drugs on consumers' tendency to seek more information about the medication and/or the medical condition. The research indicates that DTC television drug ads appear to be insufficient for consumers to make informed decisions. Their mixed perception and acceptance of the advertisements seem to influence them to seek more information from a variety of medical sources. PMID:19042521

Khanfar, Nile; Loudon, David; Sircar-Ramsewak, Feroza

2007-01-01

418

National health spending in 2006: a year of change for prescription drugs.  

PubMed

In 2006, U.S. health care spending increased 6.7 percent to $2.1 trillion, or $7,026 per person. The health care portion of gross domestic product (GDP) was 16.0 percent, slightly higher than in 2005. Prescription drug spending growth accelerated in 2006 to 8.5 percent, partly as a result of Medicare Part D's impact. Most of the other major health care services and public payers experienced slower growth in 2006 than in prior years. The implementation of Medicare Part D caused a major shift in the distribution of payers for prescription drugs, as Medicare played a larger role in drug purchases than it had before. PMID:18180476

Catlin, Aaron; Cowan, Cathy; Hartman, Micah; Heffler, Stephen

2008-01-01

419

Evaluation of the community pharmacist's behavior towards a prescription of antidiabetic and antiasthma drugs  

PubMed Central

Objective The objective of this study is to assess the performance of community pharmacist towards antidiabetic and antiasthma prescriptions, and also to assess the lack of information provided by community pharmacists regarding patient counseling and missing data, using a simulated patient technique. Methods A prescription including antidiabetic and antiasthma drugs was used by simulated patient to assess community pharmacist’s performance in 194 pharmacies. A performance assessment sheet was used to measure the patient counseling process. A quantitative descriptive and comparative analysis was done for the collected data. Pearson chi-square test (crosstabs) was used with a level of significance 95%). Results The analysis of the 194 pharmacies visited revealed that most of the pharmacists were male (61%), Arabs (35%) and Indians (55%) with some other nationalities. The dispensing time in the pharmacy ranged between 2 to 10 minutes. Spending time with patients was not affected by gender (p-value 0.087), slightly affected by nationality (p-value 0.04), and highly affected by age (p-value 0.002) leaning towards older pharmacists who spent more time with patients than younger pharmacists. Most pharmacists (90%) started preparing the prescription once they received the prescription with no actual prescription screening. fifty five percent of the pharmacists asked about the duration of the treatment after preparing the prescription. ninety six percent did not counsel patients about diet, exercise and lifestyle changes. Less than 40% asked if the prescription was intended to be used for the same patient. Conclusion This study recommends that health authorities consider follow up plans in order to ensure the best pharmaceutical care is provided by community pharmacies. PMID:25132888

Alomar, Muaed J.; Qandil, Shareef; Al-Hilwani, Hanan M.A.; Malkat, Dima M.; Caroline, Claire

2010-01-01

420

Is Access Sufficient?: An Examination of the Effects of the MedShare Program to Expand Access to Prescription Drugs for Indigent Populations  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

We conduct an evaluation of MedShare, a program designed to enhance access to prescription drugs for indigent patients in the Greater Cincinnati area. The program expands access to drugs by providing subsidies to reduce the costs paid by patients for their prescriptions. The assumption is that by expanding access to prescription drugs, participant…

Shaw, Thomas; Carrozza, Mark

2008-01-01

421

Medicare Part D and Its Effect on the Use of Prescription Drugs and Use of Other Health Care Services of the Elderly  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

We examine the effect of gaining prescription drug insurance, as a result of Medicare Part D, on use of prescription drugs and other medical services for a nationally representative sample of Medicare beneficiaries. Given the heightened importance of prescription drugs for those with chronic illness, we provide separate estimates for elderly in…

Kaestner, Robert; Nasreen Khan,

2012-01-01

422

The urban built environment and overdose mortality in New York City neighborhoods  

Microsoft Academic Search

Accidental drug overdose continues to be a substantial cause of mortality for drug users. Characteristics of the neighborhood built environment may be important determinants of the likelihood of drug overdose mortality independent of individual-level factors. Using data from the New York City Office of the Chief Medical Examiner, we conducted a multilevel case control study using data on accidental overdose

C. Hembree; S. Galea; J. Ahern; M. Tracy; T. Markham Piper; J. Miller; D. Vlahov; K. J. Tardiff

2005-01-01

423

76 FR 1174 - Drugs for Human Use; Drug Efficacy Study Implementation; Oral Prescription Drugs Offered for...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Relief of Symptoms of Cough, Cold, or Allergy; Withdrawal of Hearing Requests; Opportunity...drugs offered for relief of cough, cold, allergy, and related symptoms. The exemptions...Relief of Symptoms of Cough, Cold, or Allergy A. DESI Cough, Cold, or Allergy...

2011-01-07

424

Researching Prescription Drug Misuse among First Nations in Canada: Starting from a Health Promotion Framework  

PubMed Central

The intentional misuse of psychotropic drugs is recognized as a significant public health concern in Canada, although there is a lack of empirical research detailing this. Even less research has been documented on the misuse of prescription drugs among First Nations in Canada. In the past, Western biomedical and individual-based approaches to researching Indigenous health have been applied, whereas First Nations’ understandings of health are founded on a holistic view of wellbeing. Recognition of this disjuncture, alongside the protective influence of First Nations traditional culture, is foundational to establishing an empirical understanding of and comprehensive response to prescription drug misuse. We propose health promotion as a framework from which to begin to explore this. Our work with a health promotion framework has conveyed its potential to support the consideration of Western and Indigenous worldviews together in an ‘ethical space’, with illustrations provided. Health promotion also allots for the consideration of Canada’s colonial history of knowledge production in public health and supports First Nations’ self-determination. Based on this, we recommend three immediate ways in which a health promotion framework can advance research on prescription drug misuse among First Nations in Canada. PMID:22879752

Dell, Colleen Anne; Roberts, Gary; Kilty, Jennifer; Taylor, Kelli; Daschuk, Mitch; Hopkins, Carol; Dell, Debra

2012-01-01

425

Potential Savings from an Evidence-Based Consumer-Oriented Public Education Campaign on Prescription Drugs  

PubMed Central

Objective To estimate potential savings associated with the Consumer Reports Best Buy Drugs program, a national educational program that provides consumers with price and effectiveness information on prescription drugs. Data Sources National data on 2006 prescription sales and retail prices paid for angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors (ACEIs), ?-blockers, calcium channel blockers, and 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl coenzyme A (HMG-coA) reductase inhibitors (statins). Study Design We converted national data on aggregate unit sales of drugs in the four classes to defined daily doses (DDD) and estimated a range of potential savings from generic and therapeutic substitution. Principal Findings We estimated that $2.76 billion, or 7.83 percent of sales, could be saved if use of the drugs recommended by the educational program was increased. The recommended drugs’ prices were 15–65 percent lower per DDD than their therapeutic alternatives. The majority (57.4 percent) of potential savings would be achieved through therapeutic substitution. Conclusions Substantial savings can be achieved through greater use of comparatively effective and lower cost drugs recommended by a national consumer education program. However, barriers to dissemination of consumer-oriented drug information must be addressed before savings can be realized. PMID:18479406

Donohue, Julie M; Fischer, Michael A; Huskamp, Haiden A; Weissman, Joel S

2008-01-01

426

College on Problems of Drug Dependence taskforce on prescription opioid non-medical use and abuse: position statement  

Microsoft Academic Search

This position paper from the College on Problems of Drug Dependence addresses the issues related to non-medical use and abuse of prescription opioids. A central theme throughout is the need to strike a balance between risk management strategies to prevent and deter prescription opioid abuse and the need for physicians and patients to have appropriate access to opioid pharmaceuticals for

James Zacny; George Bigelow; Peggy Compton; Kathleen Foley; Martin Iguchi; Christine Sannerud

2003-01-01

427

Design, development, and evaluation of visual aids for communicating prescription drug instructions to nonliterate patients in rural Cameroon  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this study, culturally sensitive visual aids designed to help convey drug information to nonliterate female adults who has a prescription for a solid oral dosage form of antibiotic medications were developed and evaluated. The researchers conceptualized the educational messages while a local artist produced the visual aids.Seventy-eight female ambulatory patients were evaluated for comprehension and compliance with antibiotic prescription

Lucy N. Ngoh; Marvin D. Shepherd

1997-01-01

428

Doping in gymnasiums in Amman: the other side of prescription and nonprescription drug abuse.  

PubMed

This study investigated the abuse of over-the-counter (OTC) products (e.g., proteins, dietary supplements) and prescription drugs (e.g., hormones) in gymnasiums in Amman by random distribution of a structured questionnaire to 375 gym clients (November 2012-February 2013). Data were analyzed using SPSS for Windows (version 17.0). A total of 31 (8.8%) clients admitted to using 21 products (mentioned 71 times) of anabolic steroids and other hormones (e.g., growth hormone and thyroxine) to increase muscular power at the gym or build muscle mass. Abuse of different prescription and OTC drugs among gymnasium clients is present in Jordan, but current methods for controlling the problem are ineffective. Better methods should be developed. The study's limitations are noted. PMID:24611822

Wazaify, Mayyada; Bdair, Ahmad; Al-Hadidi, Kamal; Scott, Jenny

2014-08-01

429

Seniors' Uncertainty Management of Direct-to-Consumer Prescription Drug Advertising Usefulness  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study provides insight into seniors' perceptions of and responses to direct-to-consumer prescription drug advertising (DTCA) usefulness, examines support for DTCA regulation as a type of uncertainty management, and extends and gives empirical voice to previous survey results through methodological triangulation. In-depth interview findings revealed that, for most informants, DTCA usefulness was uncertain and this uncertainty stemmed from 4 sources.

Denise E. DeLorme; Jisu Huh

2009-01-01

430

What kind of patients and physicians value direct-to-consumer advertising of prescription drugs  

Microsoft Academic Search

Direct-to-consumer (DTC) advertising of prescription drugs can enhance the physician–patient relationship, as well as benefiting\\u000a its sponsor. However, overall benefits can only occur if the patients value the information enough to discuss it with their\\u000a physicians and the physicians are not predisposed against the DTC information. We investigate the impact of demographics and\\u000a exposure to marketing on consumers' and physicians'

Füsun F. Gönül; Franklin Carter; Jerry Wind

2000-01-01

431

Evaluation, Use, and Usefulness of Prescription Drug Information Sources Among Anglo and Hispanic Americans  

Microsoft Academic Search

This survey was conducted to determine and compare how Anglo and Hispanic Americans evaluate and use interpersonal, advertising, and mediated sources of prescription drug information. Findings suggest the following: (1) Hispanics rely on doctors, Internet advertising sources, and direct-to-consumer advertising (DTCA), while Anglos frequently use health-related websites and health care professionals; (2) Anglos are more likely to use health-related websites

Denise E. DeLorme; Jisu Huh; Leonard N. Reid

2010-01-01

432

Perceived Harmfulness Predicts Nonmedical Use of Prescription Drugs Among College Students: Interactions with Sensation-Seeking  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study describes the level of perceived harmfulness of nonmedical prescription stimulant and analgesic use in a sample\\u000a of college students, and examines the prospective relationship between perceived harmfulness and subsequent nonmedical use.\\u000a In addition, we explore whether the association between perceived harmfulness and nonmedical use varies by level of sensation-seeking.\\u000a Personal interviews, including questions on sensation-seeking and drug use,

Amelia M. Arria; Kimberly M. Caldeira; Kathryn B. Vincent; Kevin E. O’Grady; Eric D. Wish

2008-01-01

433

The past, present, and future of direct-to-consumer prescription drug advertising  

Microsoft Academic Search

Since the first experiences with direct-toconsumer c(DTC) prescription drug advertising in the early 1980s, pharmaceutical marketers, government regulators, researchers, health practitioners, and consumers have been both perplexed and intrigued by this practice. As experience with DTC advertising has expanded, so has knowledge and understanding of its risks and rewards. This article discusses important issues in DTC advertising, such as the

Matthew Perri; Shashank Shinde; Reshma Banavali

1999-01-01

434

Impact of Celebrity Pitch in Direct-to-Consumer Advertising of Prescription Drugs  

Microsoft Academic Search

Online surveys were conducted to determine the impact of endorser credibility, endorser effectiveness, and consumers’ involvement in direct-to-consumer advertising. In a randomized posttest only study, using the elaboration likelihood model, survey participants (U.S. adults) were either exposed to a fictitious prescription drug ad with a celebrity or a noncelebrity endorser. There was no significant difference in credibility and effectiveness between

Nilesh S. Bhutada; Ajit M. Menon; Aparna D. Deshpande; Matthew Perri III

2012-01-01

435

A Content Analysis of Direct-to-Consumer Television Prescription Drug Advertisements  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article reports the results of a content analysis of 23 direct-to-consumer (DTC) product-specific television prescription drug advertisements broadcast during 2001. A majority of ads used both medical and lay terms to convey medical ideas. Most gave consumers somewhat more time to absorb facts about benefits than those about risks, which could have implications for the “fair balance” requirement. Complete

KIMBERLY A. KAPHINGST; WILLIAM DEJONG; RIMA E. RUDD; LAWREN H. DALTROY

2004-01-01

436

Dextromethorphan overdose  

MedlinePLUS

... extremely high amounts of this medication to "feel good" and to have hallucinations. Like other drugs of abuse, this can be dangerous. Over-the-counter cough medicines that contain dextromethorphan ...

437

78 FR 8446 - Center for Drug Evaluation and Research; Prescription Drug Labeling Improvement and Enhancement...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...labeling to the ``Physician Labeling Rule (PLR)'' format described in the 2006 FDA final...as the ``Physician Labeling Rule'' (PLR or final rule) because it addresses prescription...Federal Register document, the term ``PLR format'' refers to labeling that...

2013-02-06

438

Marketing drugs, marketing health care relationships: a content analysis of visual cues in direct-to-consumer prescription drug advertising.  

PubMed

Proponents and opponents of direct-to-consumer advertising (DTCA) of prescription drugs argue that it promotes greater participation in health care by consumers with significant implications for public health and health care outcomes. This article (a). proposes a social cognitive theoretical framework to explain DTCA's effects, and (b). reports the first in a series of studies on DTCA's observational learning functions that may influence consumer behavior and the physician-patient relationship. This investigation addresses visual features of print DTCA. Results focus on the prevalence and nature of models featured in the ads and how visual cues may offer identity and relational motivators while reinforcing the value of prescription drug treatments. Further, DTCA may market disenfranchising images that increase disparity in health care information and access, despite their argued educational function. PMID:15090282

Welch Cline, Rebecca J; Young, Henry N

2004-01-01

439

Pharmaceutical pricing: a review of proposals to improve access and affordability of prescription drugs.  

PubMed

This article discusses how pharmaceutical innovation achieves remarkable improvements in human health but a significant portion of the U.S. population cannot afford prescription drugs. The author examines ways that patent protection, generics, supply chain complexity, and the cost of innovation and promotion affect access and affordability. The author then looks at the influences of marketing strategies and industry trends such as the patent cliff and pipeline for new drugs, innovations in biotechnology and genomics, comparative effectiveness analysis, and payor and employer strategies on drug prices. An analysis of reform proposals in the context of industry trends suggests that promoting generic drug use and availability through education, prohibiting authorized generics, and restricting the practice of developing follow-on drugs and discontinuing the original formulations upon patent expiration could improve access and affordability most quickly and significantly. PMID:21443147

Tironi, Paula

2010-01-01

440

Consumer attitudes towards medical information : an exploratory study of direct-to-consumer prescription drug advertising in Australia.  

E-print Network

??The present exploratory study examined consumer attitudes towards medical information, particularly, from Direct-To-Consumer Prescription Drug Advertising (DTCA) in Australia. Nowadays, consumers require more information about… (more)

Vatjanapukka, Verawoot

2004-01-01

441

Variation in Estimated Medicare Prescription Drug Plan Costs and Affordability for Beneficiaries Living in Different States  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a Background  Medicare Part D prescription drug plans (PDPs) implemented in January 2006 are designed to improve beneficiaries’ access to\\u000a pharmaceuticals and use market competition to yield affordable drug costs. Variations in estimated PDP costs for beneficiaries\\u000a living in different states have not previously been characterized.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Objective  To describe variations in the estimated costs of PDPs (plan premium, copays, and coinsurance) within and

Matthew M. Davis; Mitesh S. Patel; Lakshmi K. Halasyamani

2007-01-01

442

An assessment of direct-to-consumer advertising of prescription drugs.  

PubMed

Advertising is widely seen by economists and regulators as beneficial to markets and consumers. The prescription drug market offers exceptional opportunities for direct-to-consumer advertising (DTCA) to provide new-product information, improve compliance, alleviate widespread underdiagnosis and undertreatment, and motivate new-product development.5 DTCA can also induce excess or even dangerous prescribing, however, partly because patients are poorly informed and usually pay far less than the full cost of drugs. Empirical research can help resolve these issues. PMID:17851572

Calfee, J E

2007-10-01

443

TRENDS IN ANTIHYPERTENSIVE DRUG PRESCRIPTION PATTERNS AMONG AMBULATORY STROKE PATIENTS IN THE US, 2000-2009  

PubMed Central

Background While the ambulatory setting is recognized as the best arena for optimizing antihypertensive drug treatment after a stroke, little is known about recent office-based antihypertensive drug treatment patterns in the United States. We assessed national trends in antihypertensive treatment of stroke patients in office-based medical practice. Methods Datafrom the 2000-2009 National Ambulatory Medical Care Surveys were analyzed comprising outpatient visits to physicians in office-based practice by patientsaged ? 40 yearswith a diagnosis of stroke(weighted estimate = 46,317,269). The main outcome measure was visits with a prescription of antihypertensive medication(s). Results The proportion of total visits that included a prescription of antihypertensive medicationwas 35.6% in 2000-2002, 29.5% in 2003-2005, and 49.3% in 2006-2009 (p=0.002);50.9% were primary care physician (PCP) visits vs.26.2% neurologist-visits (<0.0001).Age-adjusted logistic regression analyses confirmed a higher prescription rate in 2006-2009 vs. 2000-2002 (1.81, 95% CI=1.10-2.96) and PCP vs. neurologists (2.82, 95% CI=1.86-4.27). Use of two or more agent classes was 31.6% in 2000-2002, 44.2% in 2003-2005, and 56.7% in 2006-2009 (p=0.014). Age-adjusted logistic regression analyses confirmed a higher prescription rate of ? 2 agent classesin 2006-2009 vs. 2000-2002 (2.96, 95% CI=1.40-6.24). There were no significant differences in agent class type or number between neurologists vs. PCPs. Conclusion Over the last decade, there was a significant rise in use of antihypertensive drugs and combination of agent classes for patients aged? 40 years seen in an ambulatory setting with a diagnosis of stroke. PCPs were more likely than neurologists to prescribe these agents. PMID:23871702

Ovbiagele, Bruce; Ernstrom, Karin; Markovic, Daniela; Raman, Rema

2013-01-01

444

Teens and the Misuse of Prescription Drugs: Evidence-Based Recommendations to Curb a Growing Societal Problem  

Microsoft Academic Search

The misuse of prescription drugs by teens in the United States is a growing public health problem. This article provides a\\u000a systematic synthesis of multiple strands of literature to recommend effective prevention methods. Using a social-ecological\\u000a framework, we review the scope of the problem of prescription drug use among teens. Then, we analyze the multiple factors\\u000a that may influence teen

Eric C. Twombly; Kristen D. Holtz

2008-01-01

445

PRESCRIPTION DRUG CLAIM FORM In order to process your claim(s), you must provide all information requested below. Submit the completed form with the original pharmacy  

E-print Network

Page - 1 PRESCRIPTION DRUG CLAIM FORM In order to process your claim(s), you must provide all #Prescription Details Drug Name & Strength or NDC # Quantity and Day Supply Dispensed Member Paid Expense 1) Rx information requested below. Submit the completed form with the original pharmacy prescription label

Devoto, Stephen H.

446

Direct-to-consumer advertising of prescription drugs: European Commission persists in putting industry's interests first.  

PubMed

In late September 2010, Members of the European Parliament (MEPs) issued their verdict on European Commission proposals aimed at lifting the ban on pharmaceutical companies communicating directly with the general public about prescription drugs. The MEPs were able to limit the scope of some of the more harmful aspects of these proposals, in particular by proposing that drug regulatory agencies should pre-screen the "information" produced by drug companies before it is made available to the public. In December 2010, faced with ongoing opposition from European Member States, the Commission appeared to back down, announcing that it was drawing up "amended proposals". They were publicly released in February 2012 but still leave the door open to direct-to-consumer advertising of prescription drugs, particularly "reminder advertising". As of 4 July 2012, the amended proposals had not yet been examined by Member States, thus obstructing the legislative process. Public health and management of the costs of social services for Member States are at stake. The Medicines in Europe Forum (MiEF) and the International Society of Drug Bulletins (ISDB) urge Member States to continue to refuse to examine the Commission's proposals, and have drawn up concrete counterproposals that would enable the general public to obtain relevant health information. PMID:23373084

2013-01-01

447

Adverse selection and the challenges to stand-alone prescription drug insurance.  

PubMed

This paper investigates a possible predictor of adverse selection problems in unsubsidized stand-alone prescription drug insurance: the persistence of an individual's high spending over multiple years. Using Medstat claims data and data from the Medicare Survey of Current Beneficiaries, we find that persistence is much higher for outpatient drug expenses than for other categories of medical expenses. We then use these estimates to develop a simple and intuitive model of adverse selection in competitive insurance markets and show that this high relative persistence makes it unlikely that unsubsidized drug insurance can be offered for sale, even with premiums partially risk adjusted, without a probable adverse selection death spiral. We show that this outcome can be avoided if drug coverage is bundled with other coverage, and we briefly discuss the need either for comprehensive coverage or generous subsidies if adverse selection is to be avoided in private and Medicare insurance markets. PMID:15612335

Pauly, Mark V; Zeng, Yuhui

2004-01-01

448

Acute overdose of a new dopamine agonist, CV 205-502.  

PubMed

CV 205-502 is a new dopamine agonist used for hyperprolactinaemia. We report a case of acute overdose (one month treatment, i.e. 2.25 mg) in a 25-year-old male patient. Clinical symptoms were restricted to nausea and mild hypotension. Treatment consisting of ipeca cuanha, charcoal and intravenous fluids allowed a rapid, successful outcome. This case illustrates the particular features of CV 205-502 intoxication when compared to other dopamine agonists, pointing out the tolerance of the drug which can be considered for wider indications and safer prescriptions. PMID:7910531

Tauveron, I; Gesta, J M; Jalenques, I; Thieblot, P

1994-04-01

449

Prescription Opioid Use, Misuse, and Diversion among Street Drug Users in New York City  

PubMed Central

Objective The use of heroin, cocaine, and other drugs is well researched in New York City, but prescription opioids (POs) have been overlooked. This study documents patterns of PO use, misuse, and diversion among street drug users, and begins to indicate how drug culture practices interact with the legitimate therapeutic goals of PO prescriptions (e.g. pain management). Methods Staff completed interviews inquiring about the reasons for use of POs and illicit drugs with 586 street drug users. Ethnographers wrote extensive field notes about subjects’ complex patterns of PO use. Results Methadone was used (71.9%) and sold (64.7%) at a higher level than OxyContin, Vicodin, and Percocet, used by between 34% and 38% of the users and sold by between 28% and 41% of the sellers. Recent PO use is associated with the recency of using heroin and cocaine (p<.001). Half of the heroin/cocaine sellers sold POs, and one quarter of the PO sellers only sold POs. Subjects were classified into four groups by whether they diverted POs or used POs to relieve pain or withdrawal rather than for euphoria. This classification was associated with frequency of PO use, whether POs were obtained from doctors/pharmacies or from drug dealers and family members, and those mostly likely to use POs for pain and withdrawal. Conclusions POs are an important component of street drug users’ drug-taking regimes, especially those who are Physically III Chemical Abusers (PICA). Future research is needed to model PO use, misuse, and diversion among this population. PMID:17913395

Rees Davis, W.; Johnson, Bruce D.

2008-01-01

450

Public/private partnerships for prescription drug coverage: policy formulation and outcomes in Quebec's universal drug insurance program, with comparisons to the Medicare prescription drug program in the United States.  

PubMed

In January 1997, the government of Quebec, Canada, implemented a public/private prescription drug program that covered the entire population of the province. Under this program, the public sector collaborates with private insurers to protect all Quebecers from the high cost of drugs. This article outlines the principal features and history of the Quebec plan and draws parallels between the factors that led to its emergence and those that led to the passage of the Medicare Prescription Drug, Improvement and Modernization Act (MMA) in the United States. It also discusses the challenges and similarities of both programs and analyzes Quebec's ten years of experience to identify adjustments that may help U.S. policymakers optimize the MMA. PMID:17718665

Pomey, Marie-Pascale; Forest, Pierre-Gerlier; Palley, Howard A; Martin, Elisabeth

2007-09-01

451

How Might the Medicare Prescription Drug, Improvement, and Modernization Act of 2003 Affect the Financial Viability of Rural Pharmacies? An Analysis of Preimplementation Prescription Volume and Payment Sources in Rural and Urban Areas  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Passage of the Medicare Prescription Drug, Improvement, and Modernization Act of 2003 (MMA) has created interest in how the legislation will affect access to prescription drugs among rural beneficiaries. Policy attention has focused to a much lesser degree on the implications of the MMA for the financial viability of rural pharmacies. This article…

Fraher, Erin P.; Slifkin, Rebecca T.; Smith, Laura; Randolph, Randy; Rudolf, Matthew; Holmes, George M.

2005-01-01

452

Korean Americans' prescription drug information seeking and evaluation and use of different information sources.  

PubMed

This study examined Korean Americans' prescription drug information seeking, evaluation and use of different information sources, and communication with physicians, and compared the findings with those from the White American population. The results suggest that although Korean and White Americans were similar in extent of drug information seeking, Korean Americans tended to experience relatively greater difficulty finding information. Regarding perceived source usefulness, Korean Americans were significantly more likely to perceive higher usefulness in mass media and direct-to-consumer advertising sources than were Whites. Korean Americans were also more likely to use fewer sources, and less likely to use mass media and printed materials in drug information seeking. However, the hypothesized in-group source preference by Korean Americans was not found. PMID:23472746

Huh, Jisu; Delorme, Denise E; Reid, Leonard N; Kim, Junga

2013-01-01

453

Increases in heroin overdose deaths - 28 States, 2010 to 2012.  

PubMed

Nationally, death rates from prescription opioid pain reliever (OPR) overdoses quadrupled during 1999-2010, whereas rates from heroin overdoses increased by <50%. Individual states and cities have reported substantial increases in deaths from heroin overdose since 2010. CDC analyzed recent mortality data from 28 states to determine the scope of the heroin overdose death increase and to determine whether increases were associated with changes in OPR overdose death rates since 2010. This report summarizes the results of that analysis, which found that, from 2010 to 2012, the death rate from heroin overdose for the 28 states increased from 1.0 to 2.1 per 100,000, whereas the death rate from OPR overdose declined from 6.0 per 100,000 in 2010 to 5.6 per 100,000 in 2012. Heroin overdose death rates increased significantly for both sexes, all age groups, all census regions, and all racial/ethnic groups other than American Indians/Alaska Natives. OPR overdose mortality declined significantly among males, persons aged <45 years, persons in the South, and non-Hispanic whites. Five states had increases in the OPR death rate, seven states had decreases, and 16 states had no change. Of the 18 states with statistically reliable heroin overdose death rates (i.e., rates based on at least 20 deaths), 15 states reported increases. Decreases in OPR death rates were not associated with increases in heroin death rates. The findings indicate a need for intensified prevention efforts aimed at reducing overdose deaths from all types of opioids while recognizing the demographic differences between the heroin and OPR-using populations. Efforts to prevent expansion of the number of OPR users who might use heroin when it is available should continue. PMID:25275328

Rudd, Rose A; Paulozzi, Len J; Bauer, Michael J; Burleson, Richard W; Carlson, Rick E; Dao, Dan; Davis, James W; Dudek, Jennifer; Eichler, Beth Ann; Fernandes, Jessie C; Fondario, Anna; Gabella, Barbara; Hume, Beth; Huntamer, Theron; Kariisa, Mbabazi; Largo, Thomas W; Miles, JoAnne; Newmyer, Ashley; Nitcheva, Daniela; Perez, Beatriz E; Proescholdbell, Scott K; Sabel, Jennifer C; Skiba, Jessica; Slavova, Svetla; Stone, Kathy; Tharp, John M; Wendling, Tracy; Wright, Dagan; Zehner, Anne M

2014-10-01

454

Potential Drug-Drug Interactions in Prescriptions to Patients over 45 Years of Age in Primary Care, Southern Brazil  

PubMed Central

Background Few cross-sectional studies involving adults and elderly patients with major DDIs have been conducted in the primary care setting. The study aimed to investigate the prevalence of potential drug-drug interactions (DDIs) in patients treated in primary care. Methodology/Principal Findings A cross-sectional study involving patients aged 45 years or older was conducted at 25 Basic Health Units in the city of Maringá (southern Brazil) from May to December 2010. The data were collected from prescriptions at the pharmacy of the health unit at the time of the delivery of medication to the patient. After delivery, the researcher checked the electronic medical records of the patient. A total of 827 patients were investigated (mean age: 64.1; mean number of medications: 4.4). DDIs were identified in the Micromedex® database. The prevalence of potential DDIs and major DDIs was 63.0% and 12.1%, respectively. In both the univariate and multivariate analyses, the number of drugs prescribed was significantly associated with potential DDIs, with an increasing risk from three to five drugs (OR?=?4.74; 95% CI: 2.90–7.73) to six or more drugs (OR?=?23.03; 95% CI: 10.42–50.91). Forty drugs accounted for 122 pairs of major DDIs, the most frequent of which involved simvastatin (23.8%), captopril/enalapril (16.4%) and fluoxetine (16.4%). Conclusions/Significance This is the first large-scale study on primary care carried out in Latin America. Based on the findings, the estimated prevalence of potential DDIs was high, whereas clinically significant DDIs occurred in a smaller proportion. Exposing patients to a greater number of prescription drugs, especially three or more, proved to be a significant predictor of DDIs. Prescribers should be more aware of potential DDIs. Future studies should assess potential DDIs in primary care over a longer period of time. PMID:23071711

Teixeira, Jorge Juarez Vieira; Crozatti, Marcia Terezinha Lonardoni; dos Santos, Carlos Aparecido; Romano-Lieber, Nicolina Silvana

2012-01-01

455

Analysis of clinical records of dental patients attending Jordan University Hospital: Documentation of drug prescriptions and local anesthetic injections  

PubMed Central

Objectives: The aim of this study was to analyze clinical records of dental patients attending the Dental Department at the University of Jordan Hospital: a teaching hospital in Jordan. Analysis aimed at determining whether dental specialists properly documented the drug prescriptions and local anesthetic injections given to their patients. Methods: Dental records of the Dental Department at the Jordan University Hospital were reviewed during the period from April 3rd until April 26th 2007 along with the issued prescriptions during that period. Results: A total of 1000 records were reviewed with a total of 53 prescriptions issued during that period. Thirty records documented the prescription by stating the category of the prescribed drug. Only 13 records stated the generic or the trade names of the prescribed drugs. Of these, 5 records contained the full elements of a prescription. As for local anesthetic injections, the term “LA used” was found in 22 records while the names and quantities of the local anesthetics used were documented in only 13 records. Only 5 records documented the full elements of a local anesthetic injection. Conclusion: The essential data of drug prescriptions and local anesthetic injections were poorly documented by the investigated group of dental specialists. It is recommended that the administration of the hospital and the dental department implement clear and firm guidelines for dental practitioners in particular to do the required documentation procedure. PMID:19209291

Dar-Odeh, Najla; Ryalat, Soukaina; Shayyab, Mohammad; Abu-Hammad, Osama

2008-01-01

456

Prescription drug coupons: evolution and need for regulation in direct-to-consumer advertising.  

PubMed

Pharmaceutical marketing in the United States had undergone a shift from largely exclusively targeting physicians to considerable efforts in targeting patients through various forms of direct-to-consumer advertising ("DTCA"). This includes the use of DTCA in prescription drug coupons ("PDCs"), a new form of DTCA that offers discounts and rebates directly to consumers to lower costs of drug purchasing. Our examination of PDCs reveals that the use and types of PDC programs is expanding and includes promotion of the vast majority of top grossing pharmaceuticals. However, controversy regarding this emerging form of DTCA has given rise to health policy concerns about their overall impact on prescription drug expenditures for consumers, payers, and the health care system, and whether they lead to optimal long-term utilization of pharmaceuticals. In response to these concerns and the growing popularity of PDCs, what we propose here are clearer regulation and regulatory guidance for PDC DTCA use. This would include review for appropriate disclosure of marketing claims, increased transparency in PDC use for pharmaceutical pricing, and leveraging potential positive benefits of PDC use for vulnerable or underserved patient populations. PMID:24120330

Mackey, Tim K; Yagi, Nozomi; Liang, Bryan A

2014-01-01

457

Effect of presentation modality in direct-to-consumer (DTC) prescription drug television advertisements.  

PubMed

Direct-to-consumer (DTC) drug advertising markets medications requiring a physician's script to the general public. In television advertising, risk disclosures (such as side effects and contraindications) may be communicated in either auditory (voice) or visual (text) or both in the commercials. This research examines presentation modality factors affecting the communication of the risk disclosures in DTC prescription drug television commercials. The results showed that risk disclosures presented either visually only or both visually and auditorily increased recall and recognition compared to no presentation. Risk disclosures presented redundantly in both the visual and auditory modalities produced the highest recall and recognition. Visual only produced better performance than auditory only. Simultaneous presentation of non-risk information together with risk disclosures produced lower recall and recognition compared to risk disclosures alone-without concurrent non-risk information. Implications for the design of DTC prescription drug television commercials and other audio-visual presentations of risk information including on the Internet, are discussed. PMID:24377979

Wogalter, Michael S; Shaver, Eric F; Kalsher, Michael J

2014-09-01

458

National health spending in 2004: recent slowdown led by prescription drug spending.  

PubMed

U.S. health care spending rose 7.9 percent to $1.9 trillion in 2004, or $6,280 per person. Health spending accounted for 16 percent of gross domestic product (GDP), nearly the same as in 2003. The pace of health spending growth has slowed, compared with the 2000-2002 period, for both public and private payers. Hospital spending accounted for 30 percent of the aggregate increase between 2002 and 2004, and prescription drugs accounted for an 11 percent share-smaller than its share of the increase in recent years and much slower in absolute terms. PMID:16403753

Smith, Cynthia; Cowan, Cathy; Heffler, Stephen; Catlin, Aaron

2006-01-01

459

Policing and risk of overdose mortality in urban neighborhoods  

PubMed Central

Background Accidental drug overdose is a major cause of mortality among drug users. Fears of police arrest may deter witnesses of drug overdose from calling for medical help and may be a determinant of drug overdose mortality. To our knowledge, no studies have empirically assessed the relation between levels of policing and drug overdose mortality. We hypothesized that levels of police activity, congruent with fears of police arrest, are positively associated with drug overdose mortality. Methods We assembled cross-sectional time-series data for 74 New York City (NYC) police precincts over the period 1990–1999 using data collected from the Office of the Chief Medical Examiner of NYC, the NYC Police Department, and the US Census Bureau. Misdemeanor arrest rate—reflecting police activity—was our primary independent variable of interest, and overdose rate our primary dependent variable of interest. Results The mean overdose rate per 100,000 among police precincts in NYC between 1990 and 1999 was 10.8 (standard deviation = 10.0). In a Bayesian hierarchical model that included random spatial and temporal effects and a space-time interaction, the misdemeanor arrest rate per 1,000 was associated with higher overdose mortality (posterior median = 0.003, 95% Credible Interval = 0.001, 0.005) after adjustment for overall drug use in the precinct and demographic characteristics. Conclusions Levels of police activity in a precinct are associated with accidental drug overdose mortality. Future research should examine aspects of police-community interactions that contribute to higher overdose mortality. PMID:20727684

Bohnert, Amy S.B.; Nandi, Arijit; Tracy, Melissa; Cerda, Magdalena; Tardiff, Kenneth J; Vlahov, David; Galea, Sandro

2010-01-01

460

College on Problems of Drug Dependence taskforce on prescription opioid non-medical use and abuse: position statement.  

PubMed

This position paper from the College on Problems of Drug Dependence addresses the issues related to non-medical use and abuse of prescription opioids. A central theme throughout is the need to strike a balance between risk management strategies to prevent and deter prescription opioid abuse and the need for physicians and patients to have appropriate access to opioid pharmaceuticals for the treatment of pain. The epidemiology of prescription opioid use and abuse is reviewed. Non-medical use and abuse of prescription opioids are on the rise in the United States, illicit use of several widely prescribed opioids has increased disproportionately more than illicit use, and the prevalence of prescription opioid abuse appears to be similar to that of heroin and cocaine abuse. There is a paucity of abuse liability testing of prescription opioids, and methods should be developed to fill critical gaps in our knowledge in this area. The role of regulatory agencies in preventing diversion of prescription opioids and identifying potential sources of diversion are discussed. More research is needed to identify those populations most at risk for abusing prescription opioids, and then to develop appropriately targeted prevention programs. Treatment options are discussed; these depend on whether or not an abuser is in pain. Prescription opioid abuse has harmful ramifications for the legitimate and appropriate use of opioids, including stigmatization, opiophobia, and undertreatment of pain. Recommended steps to take include further epidemiological research, laboratory testing of prescription opioids to determine abuse liability, and clinical trials to determine the efficacy of different approaches to the prevention and treatment of prescription opioid abuse. PMID:12633908

Zacny, James; Bigelow, George; Compton, Peggy; Foley, Kathleen; Iguchi, Martin; Sannerud, Christine

2003-04-01

461

21 CFR 310.200 - Prescription-exemption procedure.  

...USE NEW DRUGS New Drugs Exempted From Prescription-Dispensing Requirements...prescription requirement. Any drug limited to prescription use under section...drug application. Any drug limited to prescription use under section...

2014-04-01

462

21 CFR 310.200 - Prescription-exemption procedure.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...USE NEW DRUGS New Drugs Exempted From Prescription-Dispensing Requirements...prescription requirement. Any drug limited to prescription use under section...drug application. Any drug limited to prescription use under section...

2013-04-01

463

21 CFR 310.200 - Prescription-exemption procedure.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...USE NEW DRUGS New Drugs Exempted From Prescription-Dispensing Requirements...prescription requirement. Any drug limited to prescription use under section...drug application. Any drug limited to prescription use under section...

2010-04-01

464

21 CFR 310.200 - Prescription-exemption procedure.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...USE NEW DRUGS New Drugs Exempted From Prescription-Dispensing Requirements...prescription requirement. Any drug limited to prescription use under section...drug application. Any drug limited to prescription use under section...

2011-04-01

465

21 CFR 310.200 - Prescription-exemption procedure.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...USE NEW DRUGS New Drugs Exempted From Prescription-Dispensing Requirements...prescription requirement. Any drug limited to prescription use under section...drug application. Any drug limited to prescription use under section...

2012-04-01

466

Syndrome of inappropriate antidiuresis in doxylamine overdose.  

PubMed

Doxylamine succinate, an H(1)-antihistamine drug, is commonly used as sleep-inducing agent as well as therapy for nausea and vomiting in pregnancy. At usual doses, it may cause impairment of cognitive and psychomotor performance, anticholinergic effects, agitation and postural hypotension. Besides, since this drug is frequently involved in either accidental or intentional overdoses, it seems relevant to bear in mind other possible toxic effects. We report a case of acute severe hyponatremia in the setting of a syndrome of inappropriate antidiuresis (SIAD), an apparent new adverse effect linked to doxylamine overdose. The Naranjo adverse drug reaction probability scale indicated a probable relationship between doxylamine intake and SIAD development. SIAD may be considered as a potential, serious adverse reaction of doxylamine overdose. Clinicians should consider this aetiological possibility when attending patients suffering from hyponatremia. PMID:23166178

Carrascosa, Miguel F; Caviedes, José-Ramón Salcines; Lucena, M Isabel; Cuadrado-Lavín, Antonio

2012-01-01

467

Antacid (A02A) and antiulcer (A02B) drug prescription patterns: Predicting factors, dosage and treatment duration  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: A study is made of the pharmaco-epidemiology of antacid (ATC class A02A) and antiulcer (A02B) drug prescriptions during the year 1992. Methods: Prescription data were extracted from 1941 case histories of patients over 15 years old from four health care centers in the Valencian Community (Spain). Dosage and treatment duration were evaluated, along with the way in which morbidity,

V. J. Girbes Pelechano

1998-01-01

468

anthem.com/ca Anthem Blue Cross/Anthem Blue Cross Life and Health Insurance Company (P-NP) LR2027 Effective 11/2009 Printed 6/21/2010 Prescription Drug Benefits  

E-print Network

Effective 11/2009 Printed 6/21/2010 5/10 Prescription Drug Benefits PLEASE NOTE: The following represents that prescription drugs are the fastest­rising item of your total health care benefits cost. Reasons for the spiraling costs of prescription drugs are varied: a general increase of prescription medication use

Gleeson, Joseph G.

469

anthem.com/ca Anthem Blue Cross/Anthem Blue Cross Life and Health Insurance Company (P-NP) LR2027 Effective 11/2009 Printed 6/7/2010 Prescription Drug Benefits  

E-print Network

Effective 11/2009 Printed 6/7/2010 Prescription Drug Benefits MODIFIED (2010) PLEASE NOTE: The following, we know that prescription drugs are the fastest­rising item of your total health care benefits cost. Reasons for the spiraling costs of prescription drugs are varied: a general increase of prescription

Gleeson, Joseph G.

470

Demand for prescription drugs under non-linear pricing in Medicare Part D.  

PubMed

We estimate the price elasticity of prescription drug use in Medicare Part D, which features a non-linear price schedule due to a coverage gap. We analyze patterns of drug utilization prior to the coverage gap, where the "effective price" is higher than the actual copayment for drugs because consumers anticipate that more spending will make them more likely to reach the gap. We find that enrollees' total pre-gap drug spending is sensitive to their effective prices: the estimated price elasticity of drug spending ranges between [Formula: see text]0.14 and [Formula: see text]0.36. This finding suggests that filling in the coverage gap, as mandated by the health care reform legislation passed in 2010, will influence drug utilization prior to the gap. A simulation analysis indicates that closing the gap could increase Part D spending by a larger amount than projected, with additional pre-gap costs among those who do not hit the gap. PMID:24214101

Jung, Kyoungrae; Feldman, Roger; McBean, A Marshall

2014-03-01

471

The Demise of Oregon's Medically Needy Program: Effects of Losing Prescription Drug Coverage  

PubMed Central

BACKGROUND In January 2003, people covered by Oregon’s Medically Needy program lost benefits owing to state budget shortfalls. The Medically Needy program is a federally matched optional Medicaid program. In Oregon, this program mainly provided prescription drug benefits. OBJECTIVE To describe the Medically Needy population and determine how benefit loss affected this population’s health and prescription use. DESIGN A 49-question telephone survey instrument created by the research team and administered by a research contractor. PARTICIPANTS A random sample of 1,269 eligible enrollees in Oregon’s Medically Needy Program. Response rate was 35% with 439 individuals, ages 21–91 and 64% women, completing the survey. MEASUREMENTS Demographics, health information, and medicatication use at the time of the survey obtained from the interview. Medication use during the program obtained from administrative data. RESULTS In the 6 months after the Medically Needy program ended, 75% had skipped or stopped medications. Sixty percent of the respondents had cut back on their food budget, 47% had borrowed money, and 49% had skipped paying other bills to pay for medications. By self-report, there was no significant difference in emergency department visits, but a significant decrease in hospitalizations comparing 6 months before and after losing the program. Two-thirds of respondents rated their current health as poor or fair. CONCLUSIONS The Medically Needy program provided coverage for a low-income, chronically ill population. Since its termination, enrollees have decreased prescription drug use and increased financial burden. As states make program changes and Medicare Part D evolves, effects on vulnerable populations must be considered. PMID:17380369

Edlund, Tina; Krois, Lisa; Smith, Jeanene

2007-01-01

472

The Psychological and Social Characteristics of Asian Adolescent Overdose.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Compared social and psychological features of Asian (n=13) and Caucasian (n=37) adolescents who had taken drug overdoses. Found that Asians were more socially isolated than Caucasians and that, despite Asians having low suicidal intent, they had higher rates of depression, hopelessness, long premeditation time, and previous overdose. (Author/NB)

Kingsbury, Stephen

1994-01-01

473

Women Who Abuse Prescription Opioids: Findings from the Addiction Severity Index-Multimedia Version(R) Connect Prescription Opioid Database  

PubMed Central

Background Evidence suggests gender differences in abuse of prescription opioids. This study aimed to describe characteristics of women who abuse prescription opioids in a treatment-seeking sample and to contrast gender differences among prescription opioid abusers. Methods Data collected November 2005 to April 2008 derived from the Addiction Severity Index Multimedia Version Connect (ASI-MV® Connect) database. Bivariate and multivariable logistic regression examined correlates of prescription opioid abuse stratified by gender. Results 29,906 assessments from 220 treatment centers were included, of which 12.8% (N=3,821) reported past month prescription opioid abuse. Women were more likely than men to report use of any prescription opioid (29.8% females vs. 21.1% males, p< 0.001) and abuse of any prescription opioid (15.4% females vs. 11.1% males, p < 0.001) in the past month. Route of administration and source of prescription opioids displayed gender-specific tendencies. Women-specific correlates of recent prescription opioid abuse were problem drinking, age <54, inhalant use, residence outside of West US Census region, and history of drug overdose. Men-specific correlates were age <34, currently living with their children, residence in the South and Midwest, hallucinogen use, and recent depression. Women prescription opioid abusers were less likely to report a pain problem although they were more likely to report medical problems than women who abused other drugs. Conclusions Gender-specific factors should be taken into account in efforts to screen and identify those at highest risk of prescription opioid abuse. Prevention and intervention efforts with a gender-specific approach are warranted. PMID:19409735

Green, Traci C.; Grimes Serrano, Jill M.; Licari, Andrea; Budman, Simon H.; Butler, Stephen F.

2009-01-01

474

Age and the purchase of prescription drug insurance by older adults  

PubMed Central

The Medicare Part D Prescription Drug Program places an unprecedented degree of choice in the hands of older adults despite concerns over their ability to make effective decisions and desire to have extensive choice in this context. While previous research has compared older adults to younger adults along these dimensions, our study, in contrast, examines how likelihood to delay decision making and preferences for choice differ by age among older age cohorts. Our analysis is based on responses of older adults to a simulation of enrollment in Medicare Part D. We examine how age, numeracy, cognitive reflection, and the interaction between age and performance on these instruments are related to the decision to enroll in a Medicare prescription drug plan and preference for choice in this context. We find that numeracy and cognitive reflection are positively associated with enrollment likelihood and that they are more important determinants of enrollment than age. We also find that greater numeracy is associated with a lower willingness to pay for choice. Hence, our findings raise concern that older adults, and, in particular, those with poorer numerical processing skills, may need extra support in enrolling in the program: they are less likely to enroll than those with stronger numerical processing skills, even though they show greater willingness to pay for choice. PMID:21534689

Szrek, Helena; Bundorf, M. Kate

2011-01-01

475

Utilisation and off-label prescriptions of respiratory drugs in children.  

PubMed

Respiratory drugs are widely used in children to treat labeled and non-labeled indications but only some data are available quantifying comprehensively off-label usage. Thus, we aim to analyse drug utilisation and off-label prescribing of respiratory drugs focusing on age- and indication-related off-label use. Patients aged ?18 years documented in the Bavarian Association of Statutory Health Insurance Physicians database (approx. 2 million children) between 2004 and 2008 were included in our study. Annual period prevalence rates (PPRs) per 10,000 children and the proportion of age- and indication-related off-label prescriptions were calculated and stratified by age and gender. Within the study period, highest PPRs were found for the fixed combination of clenbuterol/ambroxol (between 374-575 per 10,000 children) and the inhaled short acting beta-2-agonist salbutamol (between 378-527 per 10,000 children). Highest relative PPR increase was found for oral salbutamol (approx. 39-fold) whereas the most distinct decrease was found for oral long-acting beta-2-agonist clenbuterol (-97%). Compound classes most frequently involved in off-label prescribing were inhaled bronchodilative compounds (91,402; 37.3%) and oral beta-2-agonists (26,850; 22.5%). The highest absolute number of off-label prescriptions were found for inhaled salbutamol (n?=?67,084; 42.0%) and oral clenbuterol/ambroxol (fixed combination, n?=?18,897; 20.7%). Off-label prescribing due to indication was of much greater relevance than age-related off-label use. Most frequently, bronchodilative compounds were used off-label to treat respiratory tract infections. Highest off-label prescription rates were found in the youngest patients without relevant gender-related differences. Off-label prescribing of respiratory drugs is common especially in young children. Bronchodilative drugs were most frequently used off-label for treating acute bronchitis or upper respiratory tract infections underlining the essential need for a more rational prescribing in this area. PMID:25180704

Schmiedl, Sven; Fischer, Rainald; Ibáñez, Luisa; Fortuny, Joan; Klungel, Olaf H; Reynolds, Robert; Gerlach, Roman; Tauscher, Martin; Thürmann, Petra; Hasford, Joerg; Rottenkolber, Marietta

2014-01-01

476

Rote learning after exposure to a direct-to-consumer television advertisement for a prescription drug.  

PubMed

The purpose of this exploratory study was to: (1) test the rote learning response; and (2) investigate the effects of selected consumer demographic/psychographic, information-access, and health-related knowledge/experience variables on rote learning after exposure to a televised direct-to-consumer prescription drug advertisement that was developed and broadcast under new US Food and Drug Administration guidelines. A judgment (nonprobability) sample of 202 individuals waiting for their appointments at a university-based general medicine clinic was selected to view a televised advertisement and complete a questionnaire. One participant returned an unusable form; 24 others held positions in health care occupations and were omitted from the analysis. Results based on responses from the 177 eligible participants showed that the presentation of both promotional and risk-related product information in the same broadcast advertisement may lead to viewer problems with rote learning of each type of information. PMID:9663375

Schommer, J C; Doucette, W R; Mehta, B H

1998-01-01

477

Ephemeral profiles of prescription drug and formulation tampering: evolving pseudoscience on the Internet.  

PubMed

The magnitude of non-therapeutic use, or misuse of prescription pharmaceuticals now rivals that of illicit drug abuse. Drug and formulation tampering enables misusers to administer higher doses by intended and non-intended routes. Perceived motives appear to be a combination of interests in achieving a faster onset and enhancing psychoactive effects. Narcotic analgesics, stimulants, and depressants are widely sought, examined, and tampered with for recreational use. This review examines tampering methods reported on the Internet for selected pharmaceutical products. The Internet provides broad and varied guidance on tampering methods that are specific to drug classes and unique formulations. Instructions are available on crushing, separating, purifying and chemically altering specific formulations to allow changes in dosage, route of administration, and time course of effects. Many pharmaceutical formulations contain features that serve as "barriers" to tampering. The nature and effectiveness of formulation barriers vary widely with many being overcome by adventurous misusers. Examples of successes and failures in tampering attempts are frequently described on Internet sites that support recreational drug use. Successful tampering methods that have widespread appeal evolve into recipes and become archived on multiple websites. Examples of tampering methods include: (1) how to separate narcotic drugs (codeine, hydrocodone, oxycodone) from excipients and non-desirable actives (aspirin, acetaminophen, ibuprofen); (2) overcoming time-release formulations (beads, layers, matrices); (3) removal of active drug from high-dose formulations (patches, pills); (4) alteration of dosage forms for alternate routes of administration. The development of successful formulations that inhibit or prevent drug/formulation tampering with drugs of abuse should take into consideration the scope and practice of tampering methods available to recreational drug users on the Internet. PMID:16458455

Cone, Edward J

2006-06-01

478

Falling into the Coverage Gap: Part D Drug Costs and Adherence for Medicare Advantage Prescription Drug Plan Beneficiaries with Diabetes  

PubMed Central

Objective To compare drug costs and adherence among Medicare beneficiaries with the standard Part D coverage gap versus supplemental gap coverage in 2006. Data Sources Pharmacy data from Medicare Advantage Prescription Drug (MAPD) plans. Study Design Parallel analyses comparing beneficiaries aged 65+ with diabetes in an integrated MAPD with a gap versus no gap (n=28,780); and in a network-model MAPD with a gap versus generic-only coverage during the gap (n=14,984). Principal Findings Drug spending was 3 percent (95 percent confidence interval [CI]: 1–4 percent) and 4 percent (CI: 1–6 percent) lower among beneficiaries with a gap versus full or generic-only gap coverage, respectively. Out-of-pocket expenditures were 189 percent higher (CI: 185–193 percent) and adherence to three chronic drug classes was lower among those with a gap versus no gap (e.g., odds ratio=0.83, CI: 0.79–0.88, for oral diabetes drugs). Annual out-of-pocket spending was 14 percent higher (CI: 10–17 percent) for beneficiaries with a gap versus generic-only gap coverage, but levels of adherence were similar. Conclusions Among Medicare beneficiaries with diabetes, having the Part D coverage gap resulted in lower total drug costs, but higher out-of-pocket spending and worse adherence compared with having no gap. Having generic-only coverage during the gap appeared to confer limited benefits compared with having no gap coverage. PMID:20050931

Fung, Vicki; Mangione, Carol M; Huang, Jie; Turk, Norman; Quiter, Elaine S; Schmittdiel, Julie A; Hsu, John

2010-01-01

479

A Database Developed with Information Extracted from Chemotherapy Drug Package Inserts to Enhance Future Prescriptions  

PubMed Central

Package inserts of Food and Drug Administration (FDA) approved prescription drugs, including chemotherapy drugs, must follow a specific format imposed by the FDA. These inserts are created by unrelated pharmaceutical companies and as a result tend to be very different in the way the required information is reported. Chemical and pharmacokinetic properties including absorption, distribution, metabolism, excretion, and toxicity (ADME/Tox) are crucial elements to a prescribing information packet and are often missing from the reported data. This undergraduate research project analyzes the information packets of 85 randomly chosen chemically diverse chemotherapy drugs for four parameters important to patient care; viz, volume of distribution (VD), elimination half-life (t1/2), bioavailability, and water solubility. The prescribing information from the package inserts of each was analyzed in detail and pertinent information was consequently tabulated into a database using a commercial informatics platform. Then using a substructure search-tool, sixty-five chemotherapy drugs containing a carbonyl group in their chemical structure were selected and as hypothesized, it was found that many of these packets were significantly lacking in the reporting of the four parameters of interest. To further enhance this cataloged data, a freely available online database was consequently developed (http://annotation.dbi.udel.edu/CancerDB/) with the intention that the chemical, biological, and clinical community will now add some of the missing parameters. PMID:25302340

Alabed, Ghada J.; Wheatley, Jordan M.; Veturi, Yogasudha; Bi, Xia; Continisio, Christopher Hart

2011-01-01

480

Non-Steroidal Anti-Inflammatory Drugs and Antibiotics Prescription Trends at a Central West Bank Hospital  

PubMed Central

Objectives: We aimed to reliably describe the pattern of outpatient prescription of non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) and antibiotics (ATBs) at a central hospital in the West Bank, Palestine. Methods: This was a retrospective, cross-sectional study investigating a cohort of 2,208 prescriptions ordered by outpatient clinics and the emergency room over one year in Beit Jala Hospital in Bethlehem, West Bank. The orders were analysed for the rate and types of NSAIDs and ATBs utilised, and the appropriateness of these drugs to the diagnosis. Results: Of the total prescriptions, 410 contained NSAIDs (18.6%), including diclofenac (40.2%), low dose aspirin (23.9%), ibuprofen (17.8%) and indomethacin (15.1%). A minority of these prescriptions contained a combination of these agents (2.5%). Only one prescription contained cyclooxyeganse-2 inhibitors (0.2%). The appropriateness of NSAID use to the diagnosis was as follows: appropriate (58.3%), inappropriate (14.4%) and difficult to tell (27.3%). The rate of ATB use was 30.3% (669 prescriptions). The ATBs prescribed were amoxicillin (23.3%), augmentin (14.3%), quinolones (12.7%), first and second generation cephalosporins (9.4% and 12.7%, respectively) and macrolides (7.2%). ATB combinations were identified in 9.4%, with the most common being second-generation cephalopsorins and metronidazole (4.3%). Regarding the appropriateness of prescribing ATBs according to the diagnosis, it was appropriate in 44.8%, inappropriate in 20.6% and difficult to tell in 34.6% of the prescriptions. Conclusion: These findings revealed a relatively large number and inappropriate utilisation of ATBs and NSAIDs. An interventional programme needs to be adopted to reinforce physicians’ knowledge of the rational prescription of these agents. PMID:24273668

Tayem, Yasin I.; Qubaja, Marwan M.; Shraim, Riyad K.; Taha, Omar B.; Abu Shkheidem, Imadeddin A.; Ibrahim, Murad A.

2013-01-01

481

Castor oil overdose  

MedlinePLUS

Castor oil is a yellowish liquid often used as a lubricant and in laxatives. This article discusses poisoning from swallowing a large amount (overdose) of castor oil. This is for information only and not for ...

482

Methyl salicylate overdose  

MedlinePLUS

Methyl salicylate is a wintergreen-scented chemical found in many over-the-counter products, including muscle ache creams. Methyl salicylate overdose occurs when someone accidentally or intentionally takes ...