Science.gov

Sample records for present day situation

  1. How significant are Phaeocystis colony blooms in the present-day Southern North Sea compared to a reconstructed pristine situation: a model study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lancelot, Christiane; Passy, Paul; Gypens, Nathalie

    2014-05-01

    We performed simulations with the existing MIRO&CO 3D ecological model to assess the present-day magnitude and geographical extent of undesirable Phaeocystis colony blooms in the Southern Bight of the North Sea (SNS) receiving nutrient inputs by large European rivers. The criterion of 4 106 Phaeocystis cells L-1 of Lancelot et al. (2009) is used to scale the presence of undesirable bloom. These simulations are compared with a reconstructed pristine SNS ecosystem making use of nutrient inputs calculated by the Seneque/Riverstrahler model of the river system when all human activities on the watershed have been erased. Interannual variability is considered by performing model runs for two contrasted meteorological years: wet (2001) and dry (2005). Results show a large excess of nitrogen (N) and phosphorus (P) delivery to the SNS of i.e. respectively 12 and 5 times the pristine situation. In contrast the total silicon (Si) delivery is decreased with respect to natural conditions although not shown for every river. Qualitatively, pristine river inputs are shown a large excess Si for pristine but excess N for both 2001 and 2005, when compared to the agreed N, P and Si requirement of coastal diatoms. Responding to the river nutrient inputs, either natural or of anthropogenic origin, phytoplankton blooms are simulated in the vicinity of the river mouths, especially in the eastern SNS receiving 78-98% of the direct river inputs and where nutrients cumulate along a SW-NE gradient, allowing the bloom to form a wide ribbon parallel to the coast. A short time-delay is simulated between the western and eastern SNS due to light limitation imposed by the large sediment inputs discharged by the Thames. A spring diatom-Phaeocystis succession is simulated for both present-day and pristine. Pristine diatoms dominate the bulk of the phytoplankton community; Phaeocystis colonies develop in the whole domain, especially in the Thames and Scheldt river plume though their biomass remains

  2. [The present situation and subject].

    PubMed

    Mori, Hisazumi; Sakamoto, Kazunori; Tokonami, Norihito; Natsuaki, Toshikatsu; Takashima, Tsuneo; Shigenobu, Mitsunori

    2002-12-01

    Terumo Corporation has been supporting the regional medical network, developing new products for home health care and providing service through the Home-Joint system in the fields of HPN, HEN, and HOT. In the chain of servicing, we are carrying out call center operations that can receive inquiries regarding machine operation and machine trouble from the patients, for 24 hours a day, all year round. Most inquiries are settled then and there, but some cases need further treatment. The principal cases are, Lowness mastery degree of patients or tenders, wants of knowledge of the person in charge of answering inquiries, and coming under the medical treatment. It is indispensable to connect closely with Hospitals, the visiting nurse, and agencies. Today's Subject: Pursuit of simplicity and safety of equipment based on On-Call experience. Thorough, careful confirmation for several days from the start. Standardization of On-call information and sharing with the agency and hospital. Advancement of knowledge for answering inquiries. Making a system to cope with medical facilities. PMID:12536853

  3. Present-day plate motions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Minster, J. B.; Jordan, T. H.

    1977-01-01

    A data set comprising 110 spreading rates, 78 transform fault azimuths and 142 earthquake slip vectors was inverted to yield a new instantaneous plate motion model, designated RM2. The mean averaging interval for the relative motion data was reduced to less than 3 My. A detailed comparison of RM2 with angular velocity vectors which best fit the data along individual plate boundaries indicates that RM2 performs close to optimally in most regions, with several notable exceptions. On the other hand, a previous estimate (RM1) failed to satisfy an extensive set of new data collected in the South Atlantic Ocean. It is shown that RM1 incorrectly predicts the plate kinematics in the South Atlantic because the presently available data are inconsistent with the plate geometry assumed in deriving RM1. It is demonstrated that this inconsistency can be remedied by postulating the existence of internal deformation with the Indian plate, although alternate explanations are possible.

  4. The present situation of echinococcoses in Mongolia.

    PubMed

    Ito, A; Budke, C M

    2015-11-01

    This review presents the historical and current situation of echinococcoses in Mongolia. Since the collapse of the Soviet Union in 1991, Mongolia's health surveillance infrastructure has been very poor, especially as it pertains to chronic diseases, including neglected zoonotic diseases (NZDs). Although there is anecdotal evidence of people dying from hepatic disease due to infection with the larval stage of Echinococcus spp., there are very few published reports. All confirmed cases of echinococcoses in Mongolia are from hospitals located in the capital city of Ulaanbaatar. Cases of cystic echinococcosis (CE), caused by either Echinococcus granulosus sensu stricto or Echinococcus canadensis are believed to be relatively common throughout Mongolia. In contrast, cases of alveolar echinococcosis (AE), caused by Echinococcus multilocularis, are believed to be rare. Recent wild-animal surveys have revealed that wolves (Canis lupus) are the major definitive hosts of E. canadensis, whereas both wolves and red foxes (Vulpes vulpes) are the primary definitive hosts of E. multilocularis. Although wild-animal surveys have begun to elucidate the transmission of Echinococcus spp. in Mongolia, there have yet to be large-scale studies conducted in domestic dogs and livestock. Therefore, further epidemiological studies, in addition to education-based control campaigns, are needed to help combat this NZD. PMID:26234999

  5. Present situation and prospects of China's population.

    PubMed

    Zha, R

    1989-06-01

    For a very long time China has been the most populous country in the world. Throughout the last 15-16 years China has achieved great success in checking the excessively rapid growth of its population. However, due to historical reasons as well as current changes, China is still facing a serious situation. As a result of historical evolution, a great number of contradictions exist in China between population on the 1 hand and arable land, food, natural resources, the environment, employment, education, and support of the aged on the other hand. Per capita arable land is now only about .1 hectare. Restricted by the area of arable land, the food supply in China has always been a source of tension. People are reclaiming land on hills and from lakes in ways that are not good for the environment. With rapid population growth, large numbers of young people are reaching working age every year. The ultimate goal of modernization is to promote the well-being of the people. Although the achievements of economic development have been remarkable, the level of goods per person remains low. This has made people realize that population growth must be controlled. The main causes of the rapid fertility decline are 1) socioeconomic development, 2) state guidance, and 3) a strong government policy. Beginning in 1979 in China, the focal point of work has been shifted to economic construction. China's strategic goal of population control is to attain the stationary state through rapid fertility decline. Prospects for the 21st century include 1) an aging population, 2) a more abundant labor force, 3) the further development of cultural and educational undertakings, 4) rapid urbanization, and 5) environmental pollution and resource shortages. PMID:12316068

  6. Coal and the Present Energy Situation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Osborn, Elburt F.

    1974-01-01

    Advocates an increase in the use of coal to alleviate the oil and gas shortage. Outlines present deterrents which limit the exploitation of coal, and discusses ways in which this energy source might be more effectively utilized. (JR)

  7. The Italian present-day stress map

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Montone, Paola; Mariucci, Maria Teresa; Pierdominici, Simona

    2012-05-01

    In this paper, we present a significant update of the Italian present-day stress data compilation not only to improve the knowledge on the tectonic setting of the region or to constrain future geodynamic models, but also to understand the mechanics of processes linked to faulting and earthquakes. In this paper, we have analysed, revised and collected new contemporary stress data from borehole breakouts and we have assembled earthquake and fault data. In total, 206 new quality-ranked entries complete the definition of the horizontal stress orientation and tectonic regime in some areas, and bring new information mainly in Sicily and along the Apenninic belt. Now the global Italian data set consists of 715 data points, including 499 of A-C quality, representing an increase of 37 per cent compared to the previous compilation. The alignment of horizontal stresses measured in some regions, closely matches the ˜N-S first-order stress field orientation of ongoing relative crustal motions between Eurasia and Africa plates. The Apenninic belt shows a diffuse extensional stress regime indicating a ˜NE-SW direction of extension, that we interpret as related to a second-order stress field. The horizontal stress rotations observed in peculiar areas reflect a complex interaction between first-order stress field and local effects revealing the importance of the tectonic structure orientations. In particular, in Sicily the new data delineate a more complete tectonic picture evidencing adjacent areas characterized by distinct stress regime: northern offshore of Sicily and in the Hyblean plateau the alignment of horizontal stresses is consistent with the crustal motions, whereas different directions have been observed along the belt and foredeep.

  8. Cosmology: from Pomeranchuk to the Present Day

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dolgov, A. D.

    A short and, due to lack of time (half a century of the science progress in half an hour), rather superficial review on the development of cosmology for scientists working on particle and nuclear physics is presented. The introductory historical part is mostly dedicated to the fundamental works done in Russia (USSR), but not always well known outside the country. Next, the key papers on theory and on astronomical observations, which determined the progress in cosmology during the last half-century or posed crucial problem, are discussed. Among them there are inflation, baryogenesis, dark matter, dark energy, the vacuum energy problem, modification of gravity at large scales, and angular fluctuations of the cosmic microwave background radiation. The presentation is probably biased towards cosmology as it is seen from Russia (or from ITEP) and reflects personal prejudice of the author.

  9. Cosmology: from Pomeranchuk to the present day

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dolgov, A. D.

    2014-02-01

    A review of half a century of cosmology is presented for an intended audience of elementary particle physicists. The review is based on a half-hour seminar talk (at the Institute of Theoretical and Experimental Physics, ITEP) and is therefore brief and superficial. The introductory historical section is mostly devoted to the fundamental work done in, but not always known outside, Russia (USSR). Foundational works and astronomical observations instrumental in shaping the field are discussed, as are inflation, baryosynthesis, dark matter and dark energy, vacuum energy, large-scale gravity modifications, and microwave background angular fluctuations. The presentation is admittedly not entirely objective but rather is given from the Russian (ITEP) perspective and is influenced by the author's personal views and biases.

  10. Self-Presentation in Task-Oriented Leadership Situations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leary, Mark R.; Schlenker, Barry R.

    To examine tactical self-presentations (images persons display publicly) in task-oriented leadership situations, 128 subjects (56 male and 72 female) were assigned leadership positions in groups that did very well or very poorly. The leaders learned that either they or the group-at-large were responsible for the performance and that the other…

  11. Assessment of the world food situation-present and future.

    PubMed

    Almeida, S; Baytelman, D; Chonchol, J; Collins, J; George, S; Vieira, L A; Marc von der Weid, J

    1975-01-01

    The widespread bad harvests of 1972 in various regions of the world, the consequent reduction in grain reserves, the rapid rise in food prices almost everywhere and its impact on inflation, all have served to draw renewed attention to the problem of hunger which affects millions of human beings in the world today. During the 1974 United Nations World Food Conference many important matters relating to this problem were debated: the creation of international grain reserves; problems concerning world trade of foodstuffs; the current difficulties with certain key agricultural production factors, such as fertilizers; the necessity for organizing a worldwide information system on the situation; and prospects of various harvests and threats of famine in underdeveloped countries. It is often the case that discussion of the hunger problem does not correspond to the gravity of the crisis; true causes of the present situation are not examined, and measures are not adopted that will once and for all--for the first time--abolish hunger. In view of the prospect that the real issues are often ignored, the Transnational Institute provides this analysis in an attempt to clarify what must be done to abolish hunger in the belief that this is within the reach of humanity when and if we are determined to end the irrationalities of the present economic system and the relations of domination which some individuals and countries seek to continue. PMID:1158536

  12. Taeniases and cysticercosis in Indonesia: past and present situations.

    PubMed

    Wandra, Toni; Ito, Akira; Swastika, Kadek; Dharmawan, Nyoman S; Sako, Yasuhito; Okamoto, Munehiro

    2013-11-01

    The main aim of this study is to overview the past and present situations of human taeniases and cysticercosis in Indonesia and including future perspectives. Through joint projects from 1996, we have confirmed the occurrence of Taenia saginata (beef tapeworm) in Bali, of Taenia solium (pork tapeworm) mainly in Papua and sporadically in Bali, and of Taenia asiatica in North Sumatra. These taeniases were caused through eating uncooked pork and pig viscera for T. solium and T. asiatica, respectively, and beef for T. saginata. The distribution of these tapeworms in Indonesia is basically highly restricted by the traditional cultural and religious backgrounds in each island. T. saginata is relatively common in Bali although people consume pork 'lawar' more than beef 'lawar'. Taeniases due to T. saginata or T. asiatica and T. solium and cysticercosis due to T. solium have also been sporadically reported in some other islands. Among these species, T. solium is exceptional since humans can be infected not only by larval stages (cysticerci) in pork but also by eggs released from human tapeworm carriers. Cysticercosis has been confirmed in Indonesia in humans, pigs and even dogs. PMID:23965293

  13. Presidents' Day in Second Grade with First-Person Presentations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morris, Ronald V.

    2002-01-01

    This article describes how the second-graders of one school performed a first-person historical presentation using all of the presidents of the United States as their characters. In connection with Presidents' Day, students presented a one-minute overview of the president's life in first-person characterization including costumes. Rationale,…

  14. Swiss teleradiology survey: present situation and future trends.

    PubMed

    Lienemann, Bernhard; Hodler, Juerg; Luetolf, Marcus; Pfirrmann, Christian W A

    2005-10-01

    The purpose of this study was to obtain a survey about the present situation including the usage pattern, technical characteristics and the anticipated future of teleradiology in Switzerland. An internet-based questionnaire was made available to all members of the Swiss Society of Radiology. Questions concerning current teleradiology usage, the type of transmitted modalities, the technology employed, security, billing issues and the anticipated future of teleradiology were addressed. One hundred and two (22.67%) of 450 radiologists responded to the survey. Of the total, 41.2% (42) were teleradiology users, 35.3% (36) planned to use teleradiology in the near future and 24.5% (25) did not use or plan to use teleradiology. The mean number of examinations transmitted per month was 198 (range 1-2,000) and the mean distance was 33 km (range 1,250 km). An emergency service was considered the most important purpose (mean score 6.90; minimum 1, maximum 10) for the use of teleradiology, followed by image distribution (mean 6.74) and expert consultation (mean 6.61). The most commonly transmitted modality was computed tomography (mean 8.80), followed by conventional X-rays (8.40) and magnetic resonance imaging (8.32). The most commonly transmitted format was Digital Imaging and Communications in Medicine (DICOM) (66.7%), followed by bitmap/Joint Photographic Experts Group (jpg) (38.1%), using the DICOM send/receive protocol (52.4%), followed by the hypertext transfer protocol (26.2%) and e-mail (21.4%). For security a secure connection (54.8%) followed by encryption (14.3%) and anonymization (9.5%) was used. For the future, image distribution was rated the most important aspect of teleradiology (7.88), followed by emergency (7.22) and expert consultation (6.53). Development of legal regulations is considered most important (8.17), followed by data security guidelines (8.15). Most radiologists believe that insurance companies should pay for the costs of teleradiology (37

  15. Common Characteristics of Models in Present-Day Scientific Practice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Van Der Valk, Ton; Van Driel, Jan H.; De Vos, Wobbe

    2007-01-01

    Teaching the use of models in scientific research requires a description, in general terms, of how scientists actually use models in their research activities. This paper aims to arrive at defining common characteristics of models that are used in present-day scientific research. Initially, a list of common features of models and modelling, based…

  16. Present situation and future R&D at Nobelpharma AB.

    PubMed

    Holmberg, C

    1995-01-01

    Nobelpharma's long-term objectives are to reach many patients with implant treatment, to strengthen our position as the world's leading implant company and to become one of the world's leading companies in the dental field. We have defined a number of strategies and identified obstacles which need to be overcome in order to achieve these objectives. Research and development is of course one of the most important strategic fields for our company. For a leading research company, it is essential to be able to protect its innovations, so patents are very important. Our patent situation today is very strong and we now have more than 100 original patents or patent applications. We are continuously working on the development of new techniques and products. Our research areas include studying interface geometries, soft tissue integration, defining guidelines for treatment planning and increasing our knowledge about precision requirements in support of future product development. PMID:9063136

  17. Overcoming Present-Day Powerplant Limitations Via Unconventional Engine Configurations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Meitner, Peter L.

    2006-01-01

    The Army Research Laboratory s Vehicle Technology Directorate is sponsoring the prototype development of three unconventional engine concepts - two intermittent combustion (IC) engines and one turbine engine (via SBIR (Small Business Innovative Research) contracts). The IC concepts are the Nutating Engine and the Bonner Engine, and the turbine concept is the POWER Engine. Each of the three engines offers unique and greatly improved capabilities (which cannot be achieved by present-day powerplants), while offering significant reductions in size and weight. This paper presents brief descriptions of the physical characteristics of the three engines, and discusses their performance potentials, as well as their development status.

  18. Nuclear Fusion Drives Present-Day Accelerated Cosmic Expansion

    SciTech Connect

    Ying, Leong

    2010-09-30

    The widely accepted model of our cosmos is that it began from a Big Bang event some 13.7 billion years ago from a single point source. From a twin universe perspective, the standard stellar model of nuclear fusion can account for the Dark Energy needed to explain the mechanism for our present-day accelerated expansion. The same theories can also be used to account for the rapid inflationary expansion at the earliest time of creation, and predict the future cosmic expansion rate.

  19. Uncommon situation and presentation of chronic sclerosing sialadenitis.

    PubMed

    Adouly, T; Adnane, C; Housni, Y; Rouadi, S; Abada, R; Roubal, M; Mahtar, M

    2016-04-01

    Chronic sclerosing sialadenitis of the parotid gland is a very uncommon chronic inflammatory salivary gland disease. Clinically, it presents as a slow-growing painful. Histologically, it showed a chronic inflammation and fibrosis. This case report highlights the clinical, radiological and histological aspects of this disease. We report unusual case of chronic sclerosing sialadenitis of the parotid in a 12-year-old man. CT detected a mass of tissue density in the right parotid. The evolution was marked by spontaneous fistula allowing a surgical biopsy. The mass regressed after corticosteroids. The follow-up was normal. The location, age and presentation make our case very interesting. PMID:26968047

  20. Present-day dynamic and residual topography in central Anatolia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Uluocak, Ebru Şengül; Pysklywec, Russell; Göğüş, Oğuz H.

    2016-06-01

    The Central Anatolian orogenic plateau is represented by young volcanism, rapid plateau uplift, and distinctive (past and active) tectonic deformation. In this study, we consider observational data in terms of regional present-day geodynamics in the region. The residual topography of Central Anatolia was derived to define the regional isostatic conditions according to Airy isostasy and infer the potential role of "dynamic topography". Two-dimensional thermo-mechanical forward models for coupled mantle-lithosphere flow/deformation were conducted along a N-S directional profile through the region (e.g. northern/Pontides, interior, and southern/Taurides). These models were based on seismic tomography data that provide estimates about the present-day mantle thermal structure beneath the Anatolian plate. We compare the modelling results with calculated residual topography and independent data sets of geological deformation, gravity, and high surface heat flow/widespread geothermal activity. Model results suggest that there is ˜1 km of mantle flow induced dynamic topography associated with the sub-lithospheric flow driven by the seismically-inferred mantle structure. The uprising mantle may have also driven the asthenospheric source of volcanism in the north (e.g. Galatia volcanic province) and the Cappadocia volcanic province in the south while elevating the surface in the last 10 Myrs. Our dynamic topography calculations emphasize the role of vertical forcing under other orogenic plateaux underlain by relatively thin crust and low-density asthenospheric mantle.

  1. Present-day Antarctic Ice Mass Changes and Crustal Motion

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    James, Thomas S.; Ivins, Erik R.

    1995-01-01

    The peak vertical velocities predicted by three realistic, but contrasting, present-day scenarios of Antarctic ice sheet mass balance are found to be of the order of several mm/a. One scenario predicts local uplift rates in excess of 5 mm/a. These rates are small compared to the peak Antarctic vertical velocities of the ICE-3G glacial rebound model, which are in excess of 20 mm/a. If the Holocene Antarctic deglaciation history portrayed in ICE-3G is realistic, and if regional upper mantle viscosity is not an order of magnitude below 10(exp 21) pa s, then a vast geographical region in West Antarctica is uplifting at a rate that could be detected by a future Global Positioning System (GPS) campaign. While present-day scenarios predict small vertical crustal velocities, their overall continent-ocean mass exchange is large enough to account for a substantial portion of the observed secular polar motion ((Omega)m(bar)) and time-varying zonal gravity field J(sub 1).

  2. Present-day Antarctic ice mass changes and crustal motion

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    James, Thomas S.; Ivins, Erik R.

    1995-01-01

    The peak vertical velocities predicted by three realistic, but contrasting, present-day scenarios of Antarctic ice sheet mass balance are found to be of the order of several mm/a. One scenario predicts local uplift rates in excess of 5 mm/a. These rates are small compared to the peak Antarctic vertical velocities of the ICE-3G glacial rebound model, which are in excess of 20 mm/a. If the Holocene Antarctic deglaciation history protrayed in ICE-3G is realistic, and if regional upper mantle viscosity is not an order of magnitude below 10(exp 21) Pa(dot)s, then a vast geographical region in West Antarctica is uplifting at a rate that could be detected by a future Global Positioning System (GPS) campaign. While present-day scenarios predict small vertical crustal velocities, their overall continent-ocean mass exchange is large enough to account for a substantial portion of the observed secular polar motion (omega m(arrow dot)) and time-varying zonal gravity field.

  3. An Extremely Rare Situation - Subcutaneously Filariasis Presented at ED Craiova

    PubMed Central

    ROTARU, LUCIANA; ȘERBAN, C,

    2014-01-01

    A 32 year old male patient presented to the ED Craiova with migratory, burning pain, to the right cervical and left upper eyelid. Sudden, transient, bilateral knee swelling six months ago. An inflammatory trace and a renitent cord can feel at this level, with spontaneous mobility. A microfilaraemic parasite was surgically extracted from upper eyelid. Mobility of the parasite was the key element of an extremely quick and easy diagnosis for a very rare disease but the specific circumstances of the contamination remains unclear. Even uncommon, multiple determinations are possible requiring systematic and long term investigation and medical surveillance. PMID:25729596

  4. The present situation of human taeniases and cysticercosis in Asia.

    PubMed

    Ito, Akira; Wandra, Toni; Li, Tiaoying; Dekumyoy, Paron; Nkouawa, Agathe; Okamoto, Munehiro; Budke, Christine M

    2014-01-01

    Three human Taenia species, Taenia solium, Taenia saginata, and Taenia asiatica, are endemic in rural regions of Asia, with these species sympatrically distributed in parts of Thailand and China. The pork tapeworm, T. solium, is the most pathogenic to humans, causing cysticercosis and neurocysticercosis (NCC). Due to its public health impact, T. solium taeniasis/cysticercosis is one of 17 neglected tropical diseases (NTDs) prioritized by the World Health Organization. In this review, the current status of taeniasis and NCC in several Asian countries will be presented as will possible prevention and control strategies. Among the known T. solium endemic areas in Asia, Bali, Indonesia is of high importance due to the risk of tourists becoming infected. Therefore, special attention will be given to ongoing control initiatives in Bali. PMID:25858304

  5. Blindness in Africa: present situation and future needs

    PubMed Central

    Lewallen, S.; Courtright, P.

    2001-01-01

    AIM—To review the prevalence and causes of blindness in sub-Saharan Africa, the existing services and limitations, and the Vision 2020 goals for the future.
METHODS—Methodologically sound population based surveys published in the past 20 years are reviewed and results for prevalence and causes of blindness are tabulated. The current resources and needs according to recent publications and international working groups are described.
CONCLUSIONS—Blindness prevalence rates vary widely but the evidence suggests that approximately 1% of Africans are blind. The major cause is cataract; trachoma and glaucoma are also important causes of blindness. The bulk of blindness in the region is preventable or curable. Efforts should focus on eye problems which are universally present and for which there are cost effective remedies, such as cataract and refractive problems and on those problems which occur focally and can be prevented by primary healthcare measures, such as trachoma, onchocerciasis, and vitamin A deficiency. Major development of staffing levels, infrastructure, and community programmes will be necessary to achieve Vision 2020 goals.

 PMID:11466240

  6. Phosphorus Necrosis of the Jaw: A Present-day Study

    PubMed Central

    Hughes, J. P. W.; Baron, R.; Buckland, D. H.; Cooke, M. A.; Craig, J. D.; Duffield, D. P.; Grosart, A. W.; Parkes, P. W. J.; Porter, A.

    1962-01-01

    A historical note on the aetiology of phossy jaw shows that present-day knowledge is little greater than it was a century ago. The varied clinical course of the disease is described together with a report of 10 classical cases not previously reported. Six cases, not amounting to true necrosis but in which healing after dental extraction was delayed, and described, and mention is made of the noticeable differences in the oral state and appearances of tartar of healthy workmen exposed to phosphorus compared with healthy workmen not exposed. But no systematic differences of any kind were found in the incidence of general infections, fractures of bones, haematological findings, and biochemical studies of blood and urine in two groups of healthy men most exposed and least exposed to phosphorous in the same factory. An intensive study in hospital of a case of classical necrosis showed no departure from normal, except delayed healing following bone biopsy from the iliac crest, and a reversed polymorphonuclear/lymphocyte ratio. In the discussion the time of onset of necrosis after first exposure to phosphorus, clinical and radiological diagnosis, the organisms present, personal susceptibility, the appearance of the sequestra, and regeneration of bone are considered. An up-to-date note on prevention of the disease is given, although this has met with only partial success. Some persons are highly susceptible and, whilst complete protection is impossible in the light of our present knowledge, early diagnosis and modern treatment have robbed the disease of its terrible manifestations of Victorian times and turned it into a minor, although often uncomfortable complaint, with little or no resulting disability. Images PMID:14449812

  7. ADAPTION OF NONSTANDARD PIPING COMPONENTS INTO PRESENT DAY SEISMIC CODES

    SciTech Connect

    D. T. Clark; M. J. Russell; R. E. Spears; S. R. Jensen

    2009-07-01

    With spiraling energy demand and flat energy supply, there is a need to extend the life of older nuclear reactors. This sometimes requires that existing systems be evaluated to present day seismic codes. Older reactors built in the 1960s and early 1970s often used fabricated piping components that were code compliant during their initial construction time period, but are outside the standard parameters of present-day piping codes. There are several approaches available to the analyst in evaluating these non-standard components to modern codes. The simplest approach is to use the flexibility factors and stress indices for similar standard components with the assumption that the non-standard component’s flexibility factors and stress indices will be very similar. This approach can require significant engineering judgment. A more rational approach available in Section III of the ASME Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code, which is the subject of this paper, involves calculation of flexibility factors using finite element analysis of the non-standard component. Such analysis allows modeling of geometric and material nonlinearities. Flexibility factors based on these analyses are sensitive to the load magnitudes used in their calculation, load magnitudes that need to be consistent with those produced by the linear system analyses where the flexibility factors are applied. This can lead to iteration, since the magnitude of the loads produced by the linear system analysis depend on the magnitude of the flexibility factors. After the loading applied to the nonstandard component finite element model has been matched to loads produced by the associated linear system model, the component finite element model can then be used to evaluate the performance of the component under the loads with the nonlinear analysis provisions of the Code, should the load levels lead to calculated stresses in excess of Allowable stresses. This paper details the application of component-level finite

  8. On the Stability of Liquid Water on Present Day Mars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Haberle, Robert M.; DeVincenzi, Donald L. (Technical Monitor)

    2000-01-01

    The mean annual surface pressure and temperature on present day Mars do not allow for the long term stability of liquid water on the surface. However, theoretical arguments have been advanced that suggest liquid water could form in transient events even though it would not be in equilibrium with the environment. Using a Mars General Circulation Model, we calculate where and for how long the surface pressure and surface temperature meet the minimum requirements for this metastability of liquid water. These requirements are that the pressure and temperature must be above the triple point of water, but below its boiling point. We find that there are five regions on Mars where these requirements are periodically satisfied: in the near equatorial regions of Amazonis, Arabia, and Elysium, and in the Hellas and Argyre impact basins. Whether liquid water ever forms in these regions depends on the availability of ice and heat, and on the evaporation rate. The latter is poorly understood for low pressure CO2 environments, but is likely to be so high that melting occurs rarely, if at all. However, in the relatively recent past, surface pressures may have been higher than they are today perhaps by as much as a factor of 2 or 3. Under these circumstances melting would have been easier to achieve. We plan to undertake laboratory experiments to better understand the potential for melting in low pressure environments.

  9. The landscape of Neandertal ancestry in present-day humans

    PubMed Central

    Sankararaman, Sriram; Mallick, Swapan; Dannemann, Michael; Prüfer, Kay; Kelso, Janet; Pääbo, Svante; Patterson, Nick; Reich, David

    2014-01-01

    Analyses of Neandertal genomes have revealed that Neandertals have contributed genetic variants to modern humans1–2. The antiquity of Neandertal gene flow into modern humans means that regions that derive from Neandertals in any one human today are usually less than a hundred kilobases in size. However, Neandertal haplotypes are also distinctive enough that several studies have been able to detect Neandertal ancestry at specific loci1,3–8. Here, we have systematically inferred Neandertal haplotypes in the genomes of 1,004 present-day humans12. Regions that harbor a high frequency of Neandertal alleles in modern humans are enriched for genes affecting keratin filaments suggesting that Neandertal alleles may have helped modern humans adapt to non-African environments. Neandertal alleles also continue to shape human biology, as we identify multiple Neandertal-derived alleles that confer risk for disease. We also identify regions of millions of base pairs that are nearly devoid of Neandertal ancestry and enriched in genes, implying selection to remove genetic material derived from Neandertals. Neandertal ancestry is significantly reduced in genes specifically expressed in testis, and there is an approximately 5-fold reduction of Neandertal ancestry on chromosome X, which is known to harbor a disproportionate fraction of male hybrid sterility genes20–22. These results suggest that part of the reduction in Neandertal ancestry near genes is due to Neandertal alleles that reduced fertility in males when moved to a modern human genetic background. PMID:24476815

  10. A comparative study of prebiotic and present day translational models

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rein, R.; Raghunathan, G.; Mcdonald, J.; Shibata, M.; Srinivasan, S.

    1986-01-01

    It is generally recognized that the understanding of the molecular basis of primitive translation is a fundamental step in developing a theory of the origin of life. However, even in modern molecular biology, the mechanism for the decoding of messenger RNA triplet codons into an amino acid sequence of a protein on the ribosome is understood incompletely. Most of the proposed models for prebiotic translation lack, not only experimental support, but also a careful theoretical scrutiny of their compatibility with well understood stereochemical and energetic principles of nucleic acid structure, molecular recognition principles, and the chemistry of peptide bond formation. Present studies are concerned with comparative structural modelling and mechanistic simulation of the decoding apparatus ranging from those proposed for prebiotic conditions to the ones involved in modern biology. Any primitive decoding machinery based on nucleic acids and proteins, and most likely the modern day system, has to satisfy certain geometrical constraints. The charged amino acyl and the peptidyl termini of successive adaptors have to be adjacent in space in order to satisfy the stereochemical requirements for amide bond formation. Simultaneously, the same adaptors have to recognize successive codons on the messenger. This translational complex has to be realized by components that obey nucleic acid conformational principles, stabilities, and specificities. This generalized condition greatly restricts the number of acceptable adaptor structures.

  11. The present-day number of tectonic plates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harrison, Christopher G. A.

    2016-03-01

    The number of tectonic plates on Earth described in the literature has expanded greatly since the start of the plate tectonic era, when only about a dozen plates were considered in global models of present-day plate motions. With new techniques of more accurate earthquake epicenter locations, modern ways of measuring ocean bathymetry using swath mapping, and the use of space based geodetic techniques, there has been a huge growth in the number of plates thought to exist. The study by Bird (2003) proposed 52 plates, many of which were delineated on the basis of earthquake locations. Because of the pattern of areas of these plates, he suggested that there should be more small plates than he could identify. In this paper, I gather together publications that have proposed a total of 107 new plates, giving 159 plates in all. The largest plate (Pacific) is about 20 % of the Earth's area or 104 Mm2, and the smallest of which (Plate number 5 from Hammond et al. 2011) is only 273 km2 in area. Sorting the plates by size allows us to investigate how size varies as a function of order. There are several changes of slope in the plots of plate number organized by size against plate size order which are discussed. The sizes of the largest seven plates is constrained by the area of the Earth. A middle set of 73 plates down to an area of 97,563 km2 (the Danakil plate at number 80, is the plate of median size) follows a fairly regular pattern of plate size as a function of plate number. For smaller plates, there is a break in the slope of the plate size/plate number plot and the next 32 plates follow a pattern of plate size proposed by the models of Koehn et al. (2008) down to an area of 11,638 km2 (West Mojave plate # 112). Smaller plates do not follow any regular pattern of area as a function of plate number, probably because we have not sampled enough of these very small plates to reveal any clear pattern.

  12. Present Day Activity of South Polar Gullies on Mars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Raack, J.; Reiss, D.; Ruesch, O.; Hiesinger, H.

    2012-04-01

    Here we report on clearly identified seasonal changes of gullies observed within the last two martian years (MY) on slopes of a south polar pit, which is located in a filled crater (diameter ~54 km) north of Sisyphi Cavi at ~68.5°S and ~1.5°E. Using new high-resolution imaging (High Resolution Imaging Science Experiment, HiRISE), temperature (Thermal Emission Spectrometer, TES) and spectral data (Compact Reconnaissance Imaging Spectrometer for Mars, CRISM; Observatoire pour la Minéralogie, l'Eau, les Glaces et l'Activité, OMEGA), we analyzed the exact timing of changes of gullies and detect the possible medium (CO2, H2O or dry) and mechanism which initiate present day gully activity. Two locations in the study region with clear modifications of gullies were identified in MY 29 between LS 226° and LS 247° and between LS 209° and LS 247°. In MY 30 changes occur in both locations between LS 218° and LS 249°. Modifications are the formation of a new small apron and new deposits within the channel, both associated with the deposition of dark material. Erosion in gully alcoves or channels was not observed. TES data show temperatures between ~180 and ~240 K within the period of gully modifications. Maximum temperatures in the region rise up to ~285 K between LS ~270° and ~310°. Spectral data show a CO2-cover of the study region until LS 227°. CO2-ice free surface are spectrally observed for the first time at LS 249°. H2O was not spectrally detected in the study region and a mixture of CO2 and H2O as presented in [1] cannot be clearly detected. Unfortunately, there are no spectral data available between LS 227° and 249°. Modifications of gullies imply seasonal volatile activity. The activity can be narrowed down to occur between LS 226° and 247° at mean temperatures between ~180 and ~240 K. This is in the range of temperatures where CO2 sublimates back into the atmosphere. Based on the temperature range, the most likely candidate for the observed new

  13. Augmented reality technology for day/night situational awareness for the dismounted Soldier

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gans, Eric; Roberts, David; Bennett, Matthew; Towles, Herman; Menozzi, Alberico; Cook, James; Sherrill, Todd

    2015-05-01

    This paper describes Applied Research Associates' (ARA) recent advances in Soldier augmented reality (AR) technology. Our AR technology, called ARC4, delivers heads-up situational awareness to the dismounted warfighter, enabling non-line-of-sight team coordination in distributed operations. ARC4 combines compact head tracking sensors with advanced pose estimation algorithms, network management software, and an intuitive AR visualization interface to overlay tactical iconic information accurately on the user's real-world view. The technology supports heads-up navigation, blue-force tracking, target handoff, image sharing, and tagging of features in the environment. It integrates seamlessly with established network protocols (e.g., Cursor-on-Target) and Command and Control software tools (e.g., Nett Warrior, Android Tactical Assault Kit) and interfaces with a wide range of daytime see-through displays and night vision goggles to deliver real-time actionable intelligence, day or night. We describe our pose estimation framework, which fuses inertial data, magnetometer data, GPS, DTED, and digital imagery to provide measurements of the operator's precise orientation. These measurements leverage mountainous terrain horizon geometry, known landmarks, and sun position, enabling ARC4 to achieve significant improvements in accuracy compared to conventional INS/GPS solutions of similar size, weight, and power. We detail current research and development efforts toward helmet-based and handheld AR systems for operational use cases and describe extensions to immersive training applications.

  14. Dawn of a New Day. A WKCSC Presentation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hartmann, Joyce; And Others

    This panel contains presentations by four members of the Western Kansas Community Services Consortium (WKCSC) who are involved in either teaching or administering college programs in Kansas in which part-time students are participating. Joyce Hartmann underscores the importance of part-time students as growing consumers of college programming in…

  15. Teaching with Social Media: Disrupting Present Day Public Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Meabon Bartow, Susan

    2014-01-01

    Because social technologies present illuminating educational, ethical, economic, and structural challenges to existing constructions of public education, they catalyze a fundamental examination of what public education should look like and be like in a democracy. Given their performances in other arenas, mobile and electronic technologies have the…

  16. Tracing galaxy evolution by their present-day luminosity function

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tempel, Elmo

    2011-04-01

    Galaxies, which are complex objects containing up to several tens of billions stars, as well as gas and dust, are remarkable objects. The Universe contains a very diverse "zoo" of galaxies: there are galaxies with a discy shape and spiral structure, elliptical galaxies, and even galaxies, which show no sign of structure. This variety of galaxies leads to the basic question: how the galaxies form and evolve and which processes shape the structure of galaxies? Due to the complexity of galaxy formation and evolution, this question is still an unresolved puzzle and it is one of the biggest challenges in modern cosmology. The present thesis is based on large galaxy surveys and concentrates on the large-scale structure: how galaxy evolution is related to the surrounding large-scale environment of superclusters and voids. To study the evolution of galaxies, we use the luminosity function, which is in this respect one of the most fundamental of all cosmological observables. One of the principal results of the present study was the conclusion that the evolution of spiral galaxies is almost independent of the global environment, especially for blue and red spirals separately, showing that the formation of spiral galaxies has to be similar in all environments. Meanwhile, the luminosity function of elliptical galaxies depends strongly on the environment. This shows that the global environmental density is an important factor (via merging history) in the formation of elliptical galaxies. The results of the present study show clearly, that besides the local/group environment, the global (supercluster-void) environment plays also an important role in the formation and evolution of galaxies. Accounting for the role of global environment can help to solve several problems in the present picture of galaxy formation and evolution.

  17. [Fungus patents: from Pasteur to the present day].

    PubMed

    Bernardo-Álvarez, María Ángela

    2012-01-01

    At the end of the 19(th) century, the American Patent Office granted the patent known as "Pasteur's application", claiming the protection of a yeast strain. Since that date, the debate around biotechnology patents, especially for those that affect living organisms or part of them, has grown exponentially. In the present article, the Patent Law is reviewed, pointing out the particular problems about fungi or parts of them. Also, some of the fungus patents are discussed from the perspective of the ethical, economical, social and environmental aspects of these kind of patents. PMID:22677466

  18. Present-day aeolian activity in Herschel Crater, Mars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cardinale, Marco; Silvestro, Simone; Vaz, David A.; Michaels, Timothy; Bourke, Mary C.; Komatsu, Goro; Marinangeli, Lucia

    2016-02-01

    In this report, we show evidence for ripple and dune migration in Herschel Crater on Mars. We estimate an average dune migration of 0.8 m and a minimum ripple migration of 1.1 m in a time span of 3.7 Earth-years. These dunes and ripples are mainly shaped by prevailing winds coming from the north, however we also report the presence of secondary winds which elongate the barchans' horns. Such a complex wind scenario is likely caused by the influence of winds blowing off the western crater rim as suggested by the Mars Regional Atmospheric Modeling System (MRAMS), an atmospheric mesoscale model. A multi-directional wind regime at the local scale is also supported by the observed bimodal distribution of the ripple trends. For the first time, a survey integrating the assessment of dune and ripple migration is presented, showing how dune topography can influence the migration patterns of ripples and how underlying topography appears to control the rates of dune migration.

  19. Likelihood of nitrogen condensation in Titan's present-day atmosphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tokano, Tetsuya

    2016-04-01

    The temperature in Titan's upper troposphere measured by the Huygens Probe is relatively close to the nitrogen condensation point. This poses the question as to whether seasonal nitrogen condensation might occur on Titan analogously to seasonal carbon dioxide condensation on Mars. The likelihood of nitrogen condensation in Titan's atmosphere is investigated using tropospheric temperature data obtained by Cassini radio occultations and simulation with a general circulation model (GCM). The observed tropospheric temperature generally decreases towards both poles but does not reach the nitrogen condensation point anywhere. However, Cassini may not have sounded the coldest season and area in Titan's troposphere. The GCM simulation shows that in the upper troposphere the variable solar distance associated with Saturn's orbital eccentricity has a larger impact on the seasonal polar temperature variation than the variable solar declination associated with Saturn's obliquity. In the upper troposphere relevant for nitrogen condensation the annual minimum polar temperature is predicted to occur around the northern autumnal equinox, approximately one season after aphelion. This temperature is then 1-2 K lower than in the season of the Cassini/Huygens mission. It is possible if not certain that some nitrogen condensation with cloud formation occurs in the northern and southern polar region in the upper troposphere around the northern autumnal equinox. Under the present orbital parameters of Saturn and Titan nitrogen condensation may occur more frequently near the south pole than near the north pole.

  20. Evaluating some indicators for identifying mountain waves situations in snow days by means of numerical modeling and continuous data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sanchez, Jose Luis; Posada, Rafael; Hierro, Rodrigo; García-Ortega, Eduardo; Lopez, Laura; Gascón, Estibaliz

    2013-04-01

    Madrid - Barajas airport is placed at 70 km away from the Central System and snow days and mountains waves are considered as risks days for landing operations. This motivated the study of mesoscale factors affecting this type of situations. The availability of observational data gathered during three consecutives winter campaigns in the Central System along with data from high-resolution numerical models, have allowed the evaluation of the environmental conditions necessary for mountain waves formations in snow days and were characterized from observational data and numerical simulations. By means of Meteosat Second Generation satellite images, lee clouds were observed in 25 days corresponding to the 2008-2011 winter seasons. Six of them, which also presented NW low level flow over the mountain range, were analyzed. Necessary conditions for oscillations as well as vertical wave propagation were studied from radiometer data and MM5 model simulations. From radiometer data the presence of stable environment in the six selected events is confirmed. From MM5 model, dynamic conditions allowing the flow to cross the mountain range were evaluated in three different locations around the mountain range. Simulations of vertical velocity show that MM5 model is able to detect mountain waves. The waves present in the six selected events are examined. Tropospheric were able to forecast energy release associated with the mountain waves. The vertical wavelength presented a high variability due to intense background winds at high tropospheric levels. The average values estimated for λz were between 3 and 12 km. The intrinsic period estimated was around 30 and 12 km. The simulations were able to forecast energy release associated with mountain waves. Acknowledgments: This study was supported by the Plan Nacional de I+D of Spain, through the grants CGL2010-15930, Micrometeo IPT-310000-2010-022 and the Junta de Castilla y León through the grant LE220A11-2.

  1. Tactical Self-Presentation and Sex Differences in Task-Oriented Leadership Situations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leary, Mark R.; Schlenker, Barry R.

    Through self-presentations, individuals claim a variety of public images that influence how others regard and treat them in social interactions. An examination of self-presentation in a leadership situation focused on three dimensions of leader behavior: competence, socioemotionality, and prominence. Subjects (N=128) were assigned leadership…

  2. Past- and present-day Madden-Julian Oscillation in CNRM-CM5

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Song, Eun-Ji; Seo, Kyong-Hwan

    2016-04-01

    Madden-Julian Oscillation (MJO) in the past (nineteenth century) and present day (twentieth century) is examined using preindustrial and historical experiments of Centre National de Recherches Météorologiques-Coupled Models, version 5 (CNRM-CM5) in Coupled Model Intercomparison Project Phase 5 (CMIP5). The present-day MJO is stronger than the past MJO by 33% and it is ~10% more frequent. In particular, the MJO phases 4-7 signifying deep convection situated over the Maritime continent and western Pacific (WP) are considerably enhanced. These changes are due mainly to greenhouse gas forcing with little impact from nature forcing. Dynamical mechanisms for this change are investigated. A peculiar strengthening of MJO over WP comes from increased basic-state sea surface temperature (SST) over the Central Pacific (CP) and EP. The increase in precipitation over WP results from both the response to enhanced SST over CP and the inverted Walker circulation induced by the EP and CP SST increase. The latter causes a pair of anticyclonic Rossby waves straddling the equator, leading to moisture convergence over WP.

  3. The present situation and forecasts of semiconductor elements performance within the microwave range, 1970-1985

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Peterson, B.

    1978-01-01

    The present situation and possible developments over the period 1970-1985 for active semiconductor elements in the microwave range are outlined. After a short historical survey of FT techniques, the following are discussed: Generation, power amplification, amplification of small signals, frequency conversion, detection, electronic signal control and integrated microwave circuits.

  4. Flight simulators. Part 1: Present situation and trends. Part 2: Implications for training

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hass, D.; Volk, W.

    1977-01-01

    The present situation and developments in the technology of flight simulators based on digital computers are evaluated from the standpoint of training airline flight crews. Areas covered are minicomputers and their advantages in terms of cost, space and time savings, software data packets, motion simulation, visual simulation and instructor aids. The division of training time between aircraft and simulator training and the possible advantages from increased use of simulators are evaluated.

  5. THE PICNIC GAME: PRESENTATION OF A SITUATION OF OBSERVATION TO ASSESS FAMILY INTERACTIONS.

    PubMed

    Favez, Nicolas; Frascarolo, France; Grimard, Nathalie

    2016-05-01

    The aim of this article is to present a situation of observation designed for the assessment of family interactions: The PicNic Game (PNG). In this situation, families are invited to play at having a picnic together. This can be done with any number of children, aged from a few weeks to adolescence. A companion assessment tool, the Revised-Picnic Assessment Scale (Re-PAS), allows evaluation of interactions in the family on several dimensions. This article presents the PNG and a preliminary study of the validation of the Re-PAS dimensions in a sample of families (N = 67) with 18-month-old infants and their siblings. The PNG was well-received by the families. Construct validity of the Re-PAS was tested, first against self-reported data by mothers and fathers regarding marital satisfaction, coparenting behavior, and division of household tasks, and then against observed maternal and paternal sensitivity and controlling behaviors assessed during free-play. Results show satisfactory preliminary reliability and validity. Two contrasting cases are presented to illustrate the different interactions highlighted in the PNG. This situation is useful for researchers and clinicians, particularly as a basis for video-feedback work with the family. PMID:27098206

  6. The history of time and frequency from antiquity to the present day

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Levine, Judah

    2016-04-01

    I will discuss the evolution of the definitions of time, time interval, and frequency from antiquity to the present day. The earliest definitions of these parameters were based on a time interval defined by widely observed apparent astronomical phenomena, so that techniques of time distribution were not necessary. With this definition, both time, as measured by clocks, and frequency, as realized by some device, were derived quantities. On the other hand, the fundamental parameter today is a frequency based on the properties of atoms, so that the situation is reversed and time and time interval are now derived quantities. I will discuss the evolution of this transition and its consequences. In addition, the international standards of both time and frequency are currently realized by combining the data from a large number of devices located at many different laboratories, and this combination depends on (and is often limited by) measurements of the times of clocks located at widely-separated laboratories. I will discuss how these measurements are performed and how the techniques have evolved over time.

  7. Present-day Mars' water cycle: new views and blind perspectives

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Montmessin, F.; Smith, M. D.; Fedorova, A.; Langevin, Y.; Mellon, M.

    2012-09-01

    Addressing recent cimate changes on Mars necessarily requires a succesful representation of present-day Mars water cycle. Decades of observations and modeling efforts have been conducted that now allow to elaborate a new, yet incomplete, picture, of the seasonal activity of water on Mars. This presentation explores the various observational and theoretical studies that have been conducted to date, and attempts to present a clear and detailed explanation of the major physical mechanisms that command the seasonal and geographical variability of present-day Mars water cycle, as inferred from the combined analysis of measurements and climate model simulations. Remaining issues and enigmae will be presented as well.

  8. Present situation of the research and application of engineering multiwave seismic prospecting in China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Xiao-Ping; Zhao, Hong-Ru

    1996-05-01

    In four aspects, which are the leading exploration of mine and tunnel; engineering geological hazard prospecting and engineering shock resistance; non-destructive testing of engineering quality; the measurement of rock physical properties, this paper gives a detailed summary and some comments on the present situation of the research and application of the ideas, theories and methods of engineering multiwave seismic prospecting. The content includes: the prospecting of coal field caved pillar, underground gallery, underground cavity and the fault ahead of tunnel; the exploration of earth surface Karst collapse, active fault, and shock resistance of underground lifeline engineering; the dynamic non-destructive testing of quality and bearing capacity of pile foundation, the non-destructive testing of strength, thickness and defects of concrete pavement, and the non-destructive testing of submarine tunnel engineering quality; the measurement of rock physical properties under high temperature and high pressure and the determination of physical properties of irregular rock samples. Some existing problems are discussed and the direction which should be developed in the future is proposed.

  9. Modelling microbiological water quality in the Seine river drainage network: past, present and future situations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Servais, P.; Billen, G.; Goncalves, A.; Garcia-Armisen, T.

    2007-09-01

    The Seine river watershed is characterized by a high population density and intense agricultural activities. Data show low microbiological water quality in the main rivers (Seine, Marne, Oise) of the watershed. Today, there is an increasing pressure from different social groups to restore microbiological water quality in order to both increase the safety of drinking water production and to restore the possible use of these rivers for bathing and rowing activities, as they were in the past. A model, appended to the hydro-ecological SENEQUE/Riverstrahler model describing the functioning of large river systems, was developed to describe the dynamics of faecal coliforms (FC), the most usual faecal contamination indicator. The model is able to calculate the distribution of FC concentrations in the whole drainage network resulting from land use and wastewater management in the watershed. The model was validated by comparing calculated FC concentrations with available field data for some well-documented situations in different river stretches of the Seine drainage network. Once validated, the model was used to test various predictive scenarios, as, for example, the impact of the modifications in wastewater treatment planned at the 2012 horizon in the Seine watershed in the scope of the implementation of the european water framework directive. The model was also used to investigate past situations. In particular, the variations of the microbiological water quality in the Parisian area due to population increase and modifications in wastewater management were estimated over the last century. It was shown that the present standards for bathing and other aquatic recreational activities are not met in the large tributaries upstream from Paris since the middle of the 1950's, and at least since the middle of the XIXth century in the main branch of the Seine river downstream from Paris. Efforts carried out for improving urban wastewater treatment in terms or organic matter and

  10. Modelling microbiological water quality in the Seine river drainage network: past, present and future situations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Servais, P.; Billen, G.; Goncalves, A.; Garcia-Armisen, T.

    2007-05-01

    The Seine river watershed is characterized by a high population density and intense agricultural activities. Data show low microbiological water quality in the main rivers (Seine, Marne, Oise) of the watershed. Today, there is an increasing pressure from different social groups to restore microbiological water quality in order to both increase the safety of drinking water production and to restore the possible use of these rivers for bathing and rowing activities, as they were in the past. A model, appended to the hydro-ecological SENEQUE/Riverstrahler model describing the functioning of large river systems, was developed to describe the dynamics of faecal coliforms (FC), the most usual faecal contamination indicator. The model is able to calculate the distribution of FC abundance in the whole drainage network resulting from land use and wastewater management in the watershed. The model was validated by comparing calculated FC concentrations with available field data for some well-documented situations in different river stretches of the Seine drainage network. Once validated, the model was used to test various predictive scenarios, as, for example, the impact of the modifications in wastewater treatment planned at the 2012 horizon in the Seine watershed in the scope of the implementation of the European Water Framework Directive. The model was also used to investigate past situations. In particular, the variations of the microbiological water quality in the Parisian area due to population increase and modifications in wastewater management were estimated over the last century. It was shown that the present standards for bathing and other aquatic recreational activities are not met in the large tributaries upstream from Paris since the middle of the 1950's, and at least since the middle of the XIXth century in the main branch of the Seine river downstream from Paris. Efforts carried out for improving urban wastewater treatment in terms or organic matter and

  11. Present-day secular variations in the zonal harmonics of earth's geopotential

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mitrovica, J. X.; Peltier, W. R.

    1993-01-01

    The mathematical formulation required for predicting secular variation in the geopotential is developed for the case of a spherically symmetric, self-gravitating, viscoelastic earth model and an arbitrary surface load which can include a gravitational self-consistent ocean loading component. The theory is specifically applied to predict the present-day secular variation in the zonal harmonics of the geopotenial arising from the surface mass loading associated with the late Pleistocene glacial cycles. A procedure is outlined in which predictions of the present-day geopotential signal due to the late Pleistocene glacial cycles may be used to derive bounds on the net present-day mass flux from the Antarctic and Greenland ice sheets to the local oceans.

  12. Day Care.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Merro, John; And Others

    Interviews on the quality of day care in the United States are presented in this transcript of a program broadcast in the National Public Radio weekly series, "Options in Education." Writers, day care center personnel and others describe and evaluate the current situation. Federal legislation concerning children is examined, and researchers…

  13. Historical trauma as public narrative: A conceptual review of how history impacts present-day health

    PubMed Central

    Mohatt, Nathaniel Vincent; Thompson, Azure B.; Thai, Nghi D.; Tebes, Jacob Kraemer

    2014-01-01

    Theories of historical trauma increasingly appear in the literature on individual and community health, especially in relation to racial and ethnic minority populations and groups that experience significant health disparities. As a consequence of this rapid growth, the literature on historical trauma comprises disparate terminology and research approaches. This critical review integrates this literature in order to specify theoretical mechanisms that explain how historical trauma influences the health of individuals and communities. We argue that historical trauma functions as a public narrative for particular groups or communities that connects present-day experiences and circumstances to the trauma so as to influence health. Treating historical trauma as a public narrative shifts the research discourse away from an exclusive search for past causal variables that influence health to identifying how present-day experiences, their corresponding narratives, and their health impacts are connected to public narratives of historical trauma for a particular group or community. We discuss how the connection between historical trauma and present-day experiences, related narratives, and health impacts may function as a source of present-day distress as well as resilience. PMID:24561774

  14. Ancient DNA reveals matrilineal continuity in present-day Poland over the last two millennia.

    PubMed

    Juras, Anna; Dabert, Miroslawa; Kushniarevich, Alena; Malmström, Helena; Raghavan, Maanasa; Kosicki, Jakub Z; Metspalu, Ene; Willerslev, Eske; Piontek, Janusz

    2014-01-01

    While numerous ancient human DNA datasets from across Europe have been published till date, modern-day Poland in particular, remains uninvestigated. Besides application in the reconstruction of continent-wide human history, data from this region would also contribute towards our understanding of the history of the Slavs, whose origin is hypothesized to be in East or Central Europe. Here, we present the first population-scale ancient human DNA study from the region of modern-day Poland by establishing mitochondrial DNA profiles for 23 samples dated to 200 BC - 500 AD (Roman Iron Age) and for 20 samples dated to 1000-1400 AD (Medieval Age). Our results show that mitochondrial DNA sequences from both periods belong to haplogroups that are characteristic of contemporary West Eurasia. Haplotype sharing analysis indicates that majority of the ancient haplotypes are widespread in some modern Europeans, including Poles. Notably, the Roman Iron Age samples share more rare haplotypes with Central and Northeast Europeans, whereas the Medieval Age samples share more rare haplotypes with East-Central and South-East Europeans, primarily Slavic populations. Our data demonstrates genetic continuity of certain matrilineages (H5a1 and N1a1a2) in the area of present-day Poland from at least the Roman Iron Age until present. As such, the maternal gene pool of present-day Poles, Czechs and Slovaks, categorized as Western Slavs, is likely to have descended from inhabitants of East-Central Europe during the Roman Iron Age. PMID:25337992

  15. Exploring Presentation Styles in Higher Education Teaching and Research Situations: Distance and Face-to-Face

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shephard, Kerry; Knightbridge, Karen

    2011-01-01

    Universities are increasingly using advanced video-conferencing environments to interact for teaching and research purposes at a distance and in situations that combine distant participants with those face-to-face. Those who use these technologies expect professional development support to do so but we do not yet have a comprehensive research…

  16. The Use of Informatics in Education. Present Situation, Trends and Perspectives.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hebenstreit, Jacques

    This overview of the use of computers in education begins by tracing the history of the development of computer programs for instruction in three developed countries, the United States, the United Kingdom, and France. Significant research and programs, general trends, the current situation, plans, and problems in each of the countries are…

  17. What is the present situation of vascular surgery? Considerations and reflections based on real practice.

    PubMed

    Sirignano, P; Setacci, F; Galzerano, G; Sirignano, A; Fineschi, V; Setacci, C

    2013-10-01

    "For the best vascular care to every patient, every day" is the goal of our practice, but is it a possible goal? Where are we now? The general idea is that we are pursuing the right way. The evolution of our discipline in the last two decades has been extraordinary and we reaffirm that we are the leaders in diagnose and treatment of the arterial pathology. Unfortunately, we can find some cases in which reality has to be faced as hardly as it can be, remembering us that we still have to go further with our job. The delay in the diagnose and treatment could lead to a permanent deficit and a money loss for the national health system due to prolonged hospitalization, multiple re-hospitalizations, loss of working capacity. This must be avoided. We strongly suggest that a vascular surgeon should be present in all the Emergency Room and should be routinely involved in the management of patients. The routine use of dedicated interdisciplinary protocols should be strongly advocated. Vascular surgery, as medical specialty, should be recognized as single specialty in all countries and as "peculiar" by the National Authority as well as Neurosurgery and Cardiac Surgery. PMID:24002393

  18. Present-day kinematics of the Rivera plate and implications for tectonics in southwestern Mexico

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Demets, Charles; Stein, Seth

    1990-01-01

    A model for the present-day motion of the Rivera plate relative to the North America, Cocos, and Pacific plates is derived using new data from the Pacific-Rivera rise and Rivera transform fault, together with new estimates of Pacific-Rivera motions. The results are combined with the closure-consistent NUVEL-1 global plate motion model of DeMets et al. (1990) to examine present-day deformation in southwestern Mexico. The analysis addresses several questions raised in previous studies of the Rivera plate. Namely, do plate motion data from the northern East Pacific rise require a distinct Rivera plate? Do plate kinematic data require the subduction of the Rivera plate along the seismically quiescent Acapulco trench? If so, what does the predicted subduction rate imply about the earthquake recurrence interval in the Jalisco region of southwestern Mexico?

  19. Idiopathic neonatal giant cell hepatitis presenting with acute hepatic failure on postnatal day one.

    PubMed

    Correa, Kimberley K; Nanjundiah, Prathiba; Wirtschafter, David D; Alshak, Najeeb S

    2002-01-01

    We report a term male infant presenting on postnatal day 1 with fulminant hepatic failure. Described congenital infection, metabolic disorders, and cardiovascular etiologies of acute neonatal liver failure were assessed and eliminated. A liver biopsy on postnatal day 10 showed neonatal giant cell hepatitis (NGCH) with an unusual degree of fibrosis for this early postnatal age. NGCH is a clinical diagnosis of cholestatic disorders of unknown etiology in the newborn, and, to our knowledge, has not been previously associated with immediate neonatal hepatic failure. The giant cell transformation is a common response to a variety of insults and only rarely occurs beyond the neonatal period. Most cases present with cholestatic jaundice and varying degrees of coagulopathy, and, many, as in this case, show progressive resolution. PMID:11948391

  20. Mantle rheology and satellite signatures from present-day glacial forcings

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sabadini, Roberto; Yuen, David A.; Gasperini, Paolo

    1988-01-01

    Changes in the long-wavelength region of the earth's gravity field resulting from both present-day glacial discharges and the possible growth of the Antarctic ice sheet are considered. Significant differences in the responses between the Maxell and Burger body rheologies are found for time spans of less than 100 years. The quantitative model for predicting the secular variations of the gravitational potential, and means for incorporating glacial forcings, are described. Results are given for the excitation of the degree two harmonics. It is suggested that detailed satellite monitoring of present-day ice movements in conjunction with geodetic satellite missions may provide a reasonable alternative for the esimation of deep mantle viscosity.

  1. Present-day kinematics of the Rivera plate and implications for tectonics in southwestern Mexico

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Demets, Charles; Stein, Seth

    1990-12-01

    A model for the present-day motion of the Rivera plate relative to the North America, Cocos, and Pacific plates is derived using new data from the Pacific-Rivera rise and Rivera transform fault, together with new estimates of Pacific-Rivera motions. The results are combined with the closure-consistent NUVEL-1 global plate motion model of DeMets et al. (1990) to examine present-day deformation in southwestern Mexico. The analysis addresses several questions raised in previous studies of the Rivera plate. Namely, do plate motion data from the northern East Pacific rise require a distinct Rivera plate? Do plate kinematic data require the subduction of the Rivera plate along the seismically quiescent Acapulco trench? If so, what does the predicted subduction rate imply about the earthquake recurrence interval in the Jalisco region of southwestern Mexico?

  2. Convergence, divergence, and parallelism in marine biodiversity trends: Integrating present-day and fossil data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Shan; Roy, Kaustuv; Valentine, James W.; Jablonski, David

    2015-04-01

    Paleontological data provide essential insights into the processes shaping the spatial distribution of present-day biodiversity. Here, we combine biogeographic data with the fossil record to investigate the roles of parallelism (similar diversities reached via changes from similar starting points), convergence (similar diversities reached from different starting points), and divergence in shaping the present-day latitudinal diversity gradients of marine bivalves along the two North American coasts. Although both faunas show the expected overall poleward decline in species richness, the trends differ between the coasts, and the discrepancies are not explained simply by present-day temperature differences. Instead, the fossil record indicates that both coasts have declined in overall diversity over the past 3 My, but the western Atlantic fauna suffered more severe Pliocene-Pleistocene extinction than did the eastern Pacific. Tropical western Atlantic diversity remains lower than the eastern Pacific, but warm temperate western Atlantic diversity recovered to exceed that of the temperate eastern Pacific, either through immigration or in situ origination. At the clade level, bivalve families shared by the two coasts followed a variety of paths toward today's diversities. The drivers of these lineage-level differences remain unclear, but species with broad geographic ranges during the Pliocene were more likely than geographically restricted species to persist in the temperate zone, suggesting that past differences in geographic range sizes among clades may underlie between-coast contrasts. More detailed comparative work on regional extinction intensities and selectivities, and subsequent recoveries (by in situ speciation or immigration), is needed to better understand present-day diversity patterns and model future changes.

  3. Ancient DNA Reveals Matrilineal Continuity in Present-Day Poland over the Last Two Millennia

    PubMed Central

    Juras, Anna; Dabert, Miroslawa; Kushniarevich, Alena; Malmström, Helena; Raghavan, Maanasa; Kosicki, Jakub Z.; Metspalu, Ene; Willerslev, Eske; Piontek, Janusz

    2014-01-01

    While numerous ancient human DNA datasets from across Europe have been published till date, modern-day Poland in particular, remains uninvestigated. Besides application in the reconstruction of continent-wide human history, data from this region would also contribute towards our understanding of the history of the Slavs, whose origin is hypothesized to be in East or Central Europe. Here, we present the first population-scale ancient human DNA study from the region of modern-day Poland by establishing mitochondrial DNA profiles for 23 samples dated to 200 BC – 500 AD (Roman Iron Age) and for 20 samples dated to 1000–1400 AD (Medieval Age). Our results show that mitochondrial DNA sequences from both periods belong to haplogroups that are characteristic of contemporary West Eurasia. Haplotype sharing analysis indicates that majority of the ancient haplotypes are widespread in some modern Europeans, including Poles. Notably, the Roman Iron Age samples share more rare haplotypes with Central and Northeast Europeans, whereas the Medieval Age samples share more rare haplotypes with East-Central and South-East Europeans, primarily Slavic populations. Our data demonstrates genetic continuity of certain matrilineages (H5a1 and N1a1a2) in the area of present-day Poland from at least the Roman Iron Age until present. As such, the maternal gene pool of present-day Poles, Czechs and Slovaks, categorized as Western Slavs, is likely to have descended from inhabitants of East-Central Europe during the Roman Iron Age. PMID:25337992

  4. Convergence, divergence, and parallelism in marine biodiversity trends: Integrating present-day and fossil data.

    PubMed

    Huang, Shan; Roy, Kaustuv; Valentine, James W; Jablonski, David

    2015-04-21

    Paleontological data provide essential insights into the processes shaping the spatial distribution of present-day biodiversity. Here, we combine biogeographic data with the fossil record to investigate the roles of parallelism (similar diversities reached via changes from similar starting points), convergence (similar diversities reached from different starting points), and divergence in shaping the present-day latitudinal diversity gradients of marine bivalves along the two North American coasts. Although both faunas show the expected overall poleward decline in species richness, the trends differ between the coasts, and the discrepancies are not explained simply by present-day temperature differences. Instead, the fossil record indicates that both coasts have declined in overall diversity over the past 3 My, but the western Atlantic fauna suffered more severe Pliocene-Pleistocene extinction than did the eastern Pacific. Tropical western Atlantic diversity remains lower than the eastern Pacific, but warm temperate western Atlantic diversity recovered to exceed that of the temperate eastern Pacific, either through immigration or in situ origination. At the clade level, bivalve families shared by the two coasts followed a variety of paths toward today's diversities. The drivers of these lineage-level differences remain unclear, but species with broad geographic ranges during the Pliocene were more likely than geographically restricted species to persist in the temperate zone, suggesting that past differences in geographic range sizes among clades may underlie between-coast contrasts. More detailed comparative work on regional extinction intensities and selectivities, and subsequent recoveries (by in situ speciation or immigration), is needed to better understand present-day diversity patterns and model future changes. PMID:25901312

  5. Convergence, divergence, and parallelism in marine biodiversity trends: Integrating present-day and fossil data

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Shan; Roy, Kaustuv; Valentine, James W.; Jablonski, David

    2015-01-01

    Paleontological data provide essential insights into the processes shaping the spatial distribution of present-day biodiversity. Here, we combine biogeographic data with the fossil record to investigate the roles of parallelism (similar diversities reached via changes from similar starting points), convergence (similar diversities reached from different starting points), and divergence in shaping the present-day latitudinal diversity gradients of marine bivalves along the two North American coasts. Although both faunas show the expected overall poleward decline in species richness, the trends differ between the coasts, and the discrepancies are not explained simply by present-day temperature differences. Instead, the fossil record indicates that both coasts have declined in overall diversity over the past 3 My, but the western Atlantic fauna suffered more severe Pliocene−Pleistocene extinction than did the eastern Pacific. Tropical western Atlantic diversity remains lower than the eastern Pacific, but warm temperate western Atlantic diversity recovered to exceed that of the temperate eastern Pacific, either through immigration or in situ origination. At the clade level, bivalve families shared by the two coasts followed a variety of paths toward today’s diversities. The drivers of these lineage-level differences remain unclear, but species with broad geographic ranges during the Pliocene were more likely than geographically restricted species to persist in the temperate zone, suggesting that past differences in geographic range sizes among clades may underlie between-coast contrasts. More detailed comparative work on regional extinction intensities and selectivities, and subsequent recoveries (by in situ speciation or immigration), is needed to better understand present-day diversity patterns and model future changes. PMID:25901312

  6. Multimodel intercomparison of preindustrial, present-day and future tropospheric OH and methane lifetime

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Voulgarakis, A.; Naik, V.; Archibald, A. T.; Collins, B.; Dentener, F. J.; Josse, B.; Lamarque, J.; Prather, M. J.; Shindell, D. T.; Stevenson, D. S.; Sudo, K.; Szopa, S.; Takemura, T.; Wild, O.; Williams, J.; Young, P. J.; Zeng, G.

    2011-12-01

    The oxidizing capacity of the atmosphere heavily depends on the levels of the hydroxyl radical (OH) and its geographical distribution. OH removes a wide range of pollutants and non-CO2 greenhouse gases from the atmosphere. It controls the atmospheric lifetime of methane, the most important anthropogenic greenhouse gas after carbon dioxide, and is key to the formation of tropospheric ozone and aerosols. Because of its crucial role, it is important to understand how OH has changed from preindustrial to present day, and how it may change in the future in response to different emission scenarios. Here, we analyze simulations performed for the Atmospheric Chemistry and Climate Modeling Intercomparison Project (ACCMIP), in support of the IPCC AR5, to investigate the changes in global and regional OH and consequent changes in methane lifetime between 1850 and 2100. The ACCMIP project includes a variety of chemistry-climate models, which were run for the historical period (1850 to present-day) and for the future (present-day to 2100) following the different Representative Concentration Pathways (RCPs). A wide range of chemical output from these simulations is expected to contribute to our understanding of chemistry-climate interactions. We identify changes in OH and methane lifetime, and also the key drivers of these changes, including the ratio between different emissions (NOx, CO, VOCs), changes in water vapor, as well as changes in the ozone photolysis rate and factors affecting it (stratospheric ozone, aerosols and clouds).

  7. Minimal effects of latitude on present-day speciation rates in New World birds.

    PubMed

    Rabosky, Daniel L; Title, Pascal O; Huang, Huateng

    2015-06-22

    The tropics contain far greater numbers of species than temperate regions, suggesting that rates of species formation might differ systematically between tropical and non-tropical areas. We tested this hypothesis by reconstructing the history of speciation in New World (NW) land birds using BAMM, a Bayesian framework for modelling complex evolutionary dynamics on phylogenetic trees. We estimated marginal distributions of present-day speciation rates for each of 2571 species of birds. The present-day rate of speciation varies approximately 30-fold across NW birds, but there is no difference in the rate distributions for tropical and temperate taxa. Using macroevolutionary cohort analysis, we demonstrate that clades with high tropical membership do not produce species more rapidly than temperate clades. For nearly any value of present-day speciation rate, there are far more species in the tropics than the temperate zone. Any effects of latitude on speciation rate are marginal in comparison to the dramatic variation in rates among clades. PMID:26019156

  8. IMS/Satellite Situation Center report: Orbit plots and bar charts for Prognoz 4, days 1-91 1976

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1976-01-01

    Orbit plots for the Prognoz 4 satellite for the time period January to March 1976 are given. This satellite was identified as a possible important contributor to the International Magnetospheric Study project. The orbits were based on an element epoch of December 26, 1975, 3h 8min and 17s. In view of the low perigee of this satellite, the Satellite Situation Center (SSC) considered that the effect of atmospheric drag precludes orbit predictions for the length of time normally used by the SSC for high-altitude satellites. Consequently, orbit data are shown for the first 3 months of 1976 only. The orbit generated for this report was based on the earlier epoch, and it positions the satellite within 30s of the ascending node at the later epoch. Therefore, within the accuracy of the plots shown in this report, the orbit used was regarded as an achieved orbit. The orbit information is displayed graphically in four ways: bar charts, geocentric solar ecliptic plots, boundary plots, and solar magnetic latitude versus local time plots. The most concise presentation is the bar charts. The bar charts give the crude three-dimensional position of the satellite for each magnetospheric region.

  9. Natural change and human impact in a present-day fluvial catchment: The Geul River, Southern Netherlands

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vandenberghe, J.; de Moor, J. J. W.; Spanjaard, G.

    2012-07-01

    The Geul River has a long history of channel straightening and bank protection, but also has several natural meandering parts. In addition, some formerly 'fixed' or 'protected' stretches of the river have been allowed to meander freely since 1988. Therefore, it represents an ideal case for evaluating the contribution of human interference to the intrinsic evolution of the river. In this paper, we compare the response of selected (not protected) reaches of the present-day river to different human modifications. The river banks were labelled as "stable", "unstable" or "erosive". As might be expected, stretches with a high sinuosity have a high percentage of erosive and unstable bank length, while low-sinuosity stretches experience hardly any erosion. The amount of lateral erosion and sedimentation in natural situations is compared with that in situations with different bank protection and stabilization types. Erosion rates may locally attain up to 2 m per year. Detailed grain-size analysis of point-bar sections enable distinction of successive fining-up sequences. Vertical aggradation rates within the point-bars are up to 0.15 m yr- 1. The highest rates are found in the youngest point-bars. Collectively, the results of this study show that when bank protection is removed, the freely meandering river creates its own specific ecosystems and retention capacity increases. Such a return to natural environmental and ecological conditions is in accordance with the objectives of the European Water Framework Directive.

  10. Functional Analyses of Transcription Factor Binding Sites that Differ between Present-Day and Archaic Humans.

    PubMed

    Weyer, Sven; Pääbo, Svante

    2016-02-01

    We analyze 25 previously identified transcription factor binding sites that carry DNA sequence changes that are present in all or nearly all present-day humans, yet occur in the ancestral state in Neandertals and Denisovans, the closest evolutionary relatives of humans. When the ancestral and derived forms of the transcription factor binding sites are tested using reporter constructs in 3 neuronal cell lines, the activity of 12 of the derived versions of transcription factor binding sites differ from the respective ancestral variants. This suggests that the majority of this class of evolutionary differences between modern humans and Neandertals may affect gene expression in at least some tissue or cell type. PMID:26454764

  11. Functional Analyses of Transcription Factor Binding Sites that Differ between Present-Day and Archaic Humans

    PubMed Central

    Weyer, Sven; Pääbo, Svante

    2016-01-01

    We analyze 25 previously identified transcription factor binding sites that carry DNA sequence changes that are present in all or nearly all present-day humans, yet occur in the ancestral state in Neandertals and Denisovans, the closest evolutionary relatives of humans. When the ancestral and derived forms of the transcription factor binding sites are tested using reporter constructs in 3 neuronal cell lines, the activity of 12 of the derived versions of transcription factor binding sites differ from the respective ancestral variants. This suggests that the majority of this class of evolutionary differences between modern humans and Neandertals may affect gene expression in at least some tissue or cell type. PMID:26454764

  12. Simulating present-day and future air quality as climate changes: Model evaluation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dawson, John P.; Racherla, Pavan N.; Lynn, Barry H.; Adams, Peter J.; Pandis, Spyros N.

    The global-regional climate-air pollution modeling system (GRE-CAPS) has been developed, coupling an existing general circulation model/chemical transport model (GCM/CTM), a regional meteorological model, and a regional chemical transport model. This system is intended to enable studies of the effects of changes in climate, intercontinental transport, and emissions on regional and urban air quality. The GRE-CAPS system consists of the GISS II' GCM/CTM, the MM5 regional meteorological model, and the PMCAMx regional CTM. The modeling system is evaluated for the present day, with comparisons between model-predicted, measured ozone, and speciated PM 2.5 concentrations. The ability of the model to predict present-day concentrations of ozone and PM 2.5 is compared to that of PMCAMx when used for retrospective modeling. Comparisons between model-predicted temperatures and precipitation are also made. The model was used to simulate five present-day Januaries and six present-day Julys. The biases and errors in GRE-CAPS-predicted ozone concentrations were similar to those of PMCAMx when used for standard retrospective modeling. The fractional biases in mean daily peak ozone concentration and mean daily maximum 8-h average ozone concentration are both <10%. The model-predicted distribution of peak hourly and daily maximum 8-h average values agreed rather well with the measured distribution. There is less agreement between the model and measurements in the number of hours with ozone mixing ratios >70 or 80 ppb, though this is also the case with standard PMCAMx modeling. The predictions of PM 2.5 concentrations by GRE-CAPS were also of similar quality to those of PMCAMx driven by historical meteorology. The fractional biases in the predictions of total PM 2.5, sulfate, ammonium, and nitrate were all <25% in both January and July. The model agrees well with organic PM 2.5 measurements from the IMPROVE network, though there is less agreement with measurements from the STN network

  13. The present situation of prophylactic vaccination in Japan for travel abroad.

    PubMed

    Nakano, Takashi

    2008-11-01

    The current situation of vaccination in Japan is reviewed from a viewpoint of overseas travelers. Vaccinations before travel to developing countries, where the risk of infection is high, are recommended for two reasons: "individual protection" and "prevention of communicable disease importation". However, there are problems in Japan; some vaccines available commonly in foreign nations are not approved in Japan and the vaccination schedule is not convenient for travelers. Vaccination is sometimes needed also for travel to Europe and North America. This is because certain vaccinations are required for entering school or studying abroad. In Japan, there is no regulation which recommends vaccination as an entrance requirement. Compared with other nations, Japanese children receive fewer vaccines routinely. On the other hand, there are different features from other industrialized nations, such as routine childhood BCG vaccination and immunization against Japanese encephalitis in Japan. Compared with foreign nations, awareness as regards "travel medicine" is lower in Japan. Recognizing this situation will lead to improvement of vaccination of travelers. PMID:18984478

  14. Chemical interactions between the present-day Martian atmosphere and surface minerals

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Prinn, Ronald; Fegley, Bruce

    1987-01-01

    Thermochemical and photochemical reactions between surface minerals and present-day atmospheric constituents are predicted to produce microscopic effects on the surfaces of mineral grains. Relevant reactions hypothesized in the literature include conversions of silicates and volcanic glasses to clay minerals, conversion of ferrous to ferric compounds, and formation of carbonates, nitrates, and sulfates. These types of surface-atmosphere interactions are important for addressing issues such as chemical weathering of minerals, biological potential of the surface environment, and atmospheric stability in both present and past Martian epochs. It is emphasized that the product of these reactions will be observable and interpretable on the microscopic surface layers of Martian surface rocks using modern techniques with obvious implications for sample return from Mars. Macroscopic products of chemical weathering reactions in past Martian epochs are also expected in Martian surface material. These products are expected not only as a result of reactions similar to those proceeding today but also due to aqueous reactions in past epochs in which liquid water was putatively present. It may prove very difficult or impossible however to determine definitively from the relic macroscopic product alone either the exact weathering process which led to its formation or the identity of its weathered parent mineral. The enormous advantages of studying Martian chemical weathering by investigating the microscopic products of present-day chemical reactions on sample surfaces are very apparent.

  15. Chemical interactions between the present-day Martian atmosphere and surface minerals: Implications for sample return

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Prinn, Ronald; Fegley, Bruce

    1988-01-01

    Thermochemical and photochemical reactions between surface minerals and present-day atmospheric constituents are predicted to produce microscopic effects on the surface of mineral grains. Relevant reactions hypothesized in the literature include conversions of silicates and volcanic glasses to clay minerals, conversion of ferrous to ferric compounds, and formation of carbonates, nitrates, and sulfates. These types of surface-atmosphere weathering of minerals, biological potential of the surface environment, and atmospheric stability in both present and past Martian epochs. It is emphasized that the product of these reactions will be observable and interpretable on the microscopic surface layers of Martian surface rocks using modern techniques with obvious implications for sample return from Mars. Macroscopic products of chemical weathering reactions in past Martian epochs are also expected in Martian surface materials. These products are expected not only as a result of reactions similar to those proceeding today but also due to aqueous reactions in past epochs in which liquid water was putatively present. It may prove very difficult or impossible, however, to determine definitively from the relic macroscopic product alone either the exact weathering process which led to its formation of the identity of its weathering parent mineral. The enormous advantages of studying the Martian chemical weathering by investigating the microscopic products of present-day chemical reactions on sample surfaces are very apparent.

  16. Evaluation of a wetland methane emission parameterization for present-day and Last Glacial Maximum

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Basu, A.; Schultz, M. G.; Francois, L.

    2012-04-01

    Wetlands are the largest natural source of atmospheric methane and presumably contribute ~25-40% to its annual budget (~500 Tg). However, there remain considerable uncertainties in estimation of global wetlands and their methane emissivity, given the large domain of their vegetation and hydrological characteristics. In this study, we describe the development of a wetland methane emission model in conjunction with global wetland parameterization at seasonal resolution. Contrary to most of the other modeling studies, our model is based on a simple parameterization and also readily adaptable to different paleo climatic scenarios, in which the role of methane is still largely unexplored. Wetlands with a strong climatic sensitivity are perceived to be a key factor in past changes of atmospheric methane concentration, e.g. the double fold increase since the Last Glacial Maximum (LGM). The present parameterization is primarily based on CARAIB, a large scale dynamic vegetation model designed to study the role of vegetation in the global carbon cycle. Its hydrological module is adept at simulating soil water and several associated hydrological fluxes over various biome types. Our model parameterization uses three basic drivers from CARAIB: soil water, soil temperature and soil carbon content along with high resolution terrain slope data. The emission model is included in the chemistry climate model ECHAM5-MOZ for present day and also used in LGM methane simulations. The model results are evaluated in comparison with atmospheric methane observations from the NOAA-CMDL flask network and ice core records for LGM. We obtained the present day wetland methane source to be 153 Tg/year, which lies near the lower edge of model assumptions. We also discuss the uncertainties of the present day simulation and the impact of emission scaling on atmospheric concentration. The latitudinal distribution of other major methane sources, uncertainties in their budget and their potential role in

  17. Utilizing Present-Day Stable Water Isotopes to Improve Paleoclimate Records from the Southeast (USA)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McKay, K. K.; Lambert, W. J.

    2015-12-01

    Present-day water isotope data are used to help interpret climate (paleo-rainfall) proxies archived in the geologic record, which can then aid in the creation of General Circulation Models (GCM). The Southeast (USA) is under-represented with respect to present-day measurement of water isotopes and high-resolution paleoclimate records, thus GCMs must extrapolate data for the region. We will evaluate water isotope data (δ18O, δD) collected and analyzed at The University of Alabama (33°13'N, 87°33'W) since June 2005. The monitoring station, central to the Southeast, was established to provide long-term water isotope data needed for reconstructing paleo-rainfall records of the region. Proxy data (e.g., δ18Ocalcite) archived in speleothems have been demonstrated to provide trustworthy information about past climate conditions; however, present-day monitoring of both local rainfall and cave dripwater are crucial. The decade-long (June 2005 - May 2015) rainfall record allows for the establishment of the relationship between water isotopes (δ18O, δD) and monthly air temperature, rainfall amount, as well as the general differences between summer and winter rainfall. Dripwater from Cathedral Caverns (34°34'N, 86°13'W), located in northeastern Alabama, has been sampled at a monthly resolution since January 2015 to determine if the water chemistry in the cave represents an annual mean for the rainfall or if it is seasonally biased. The ultimate goal of this study is to better understand how atmospheric air currents (specifically the strength/position of the Polar Jet Stream, PJS), and hence rainfall in the Southeast, varied during past periods of relative warming (e.g., Dansgaard-Oeschger events) and cooling (e.g., Heinrich events) of the Northern Hemisphere atmosphere. Future GCMs will be improved if a reliable high-resolution paleo-rainfall record can be produced for the Southeast.

  18. Present-day and future global bottom-up ship emission inventories including polar routes.

    PubMed

    Paxian, Andreas; Eyring, Veronika; Beer, Winfried; Sausen, Robert; Wright, Claire

    2010-02-15

    We present a global bottom-up ship emission algorithm that calculates fuel consumption, emissions, and vessel traffic densities for present-day (2006) and two future scenarios (2050) considering the opening of Arctic polar routes due to projected sea ice decline. Ship movements and actual ship engine power per individual ship from Lloyd's Marine Intelligence Unit (LMIU) ship statistics for six months in 2006 and further mean engine data from literature serve as input. The developed SeaKLIM algorithm automatically finds the most probable shipping route for each combination of start and destination port of a certain ship movement by calculating the shortest path on a predefined model grid while considering land masses, sea ice, shipping canal sizes, and climatological mean wave heights. The resulting present-day ship activity agrees well with observations. The global fuel consumption of 221 Mt in 2006 lies in the range of previously published inventories when undercounting of ship numbers in the LMIU movement database (40,055 vessels) is considered. Extrapolated to 2007 and ship numbers per ship type of the recent International Maritime Organization (IMO) estimate (100,214 vessels), a fuel consumption of 349 Mt is calculated which is in good agreement with the IMO total of 333 Mt. The future scenarios show Arctic polar routes with regional fuel consumption on the Northeast and Northwest Passage increasing by factors of up to 9 and 13 until 2050, respectively. PMID:20088494

  19. Present-day strain rates and dynamics of the East African Rift

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stamps, D. S.; Flesch, L. M.; Calais, E.

    2009-04-01

    The forces and physical processes at work during continental rifting remain to be fully understood and quantified. We investigate the balance of large-scale forces affecting present-day rifting in East Africa using a thin sheet approach to quantify strain rates and deviatoric stresses. We develop a strain rate model constrained by a combination of GPS-derived kinematic models and seismic moment tensors (CMT catalog) for our region of interest. We estimate a total deviatoric stress field by combining (1) stresses caused by gravitational potential energy (GPE) gradients within the crust and (2) a buoyancy signal present in the topography that we use to compute stresses. To estimate internal body forces, we assume crustal thicknesses and lateral density variations modeled in Crust 2.0 (G. Laske and G. Masters, http://mahi.ucsd.edu/Gabi/sediment.html, 2000). In our preferred model of deviatoric stresses, we estimate and remove the dynamic topography buoyancy signal by allowing the mantle lithosphere density to vary, compensating the lithosphere to a given reference depth. To test the reliability of our total deviatoric stress field, we compare tensor patterns of deviatoric stresses, with and without contributions from the mantle, to tensor patterns from kinematic deformation indicators. Our results to date suggest that horizontal buoyancy forces arising from variable crustal thicknesses and lateral density variations within the lithosphere contribute significantly to the diverging plate boundary forces of the EAR but do not account for the entire budget of force needed to produce present-day deformation.

  20. Present-day crustal deformation along the El Salvador Fault Zone from ZFESNet GPS network

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Staller, Alejandra; Martínez-Díaz, José Jesús; Benito, Belén; Alonso-Henar, Jorge; Hernández, Douglas; Hernández-Rey, Román; Díaz, Manuel

    2016-02-01

    This paper presents the results and conclusions obtained from new GPS data compiled along the El Salvador Fault Zone (ESFZ). We calculated a GPS-derived horizontal velocity field representing the present-day crustal deformation rates in the ESFZ based on the analysis of 30 GPS campaign stations of the ZFESNet network, measured over a 4.5 year period from 2007 to 2012. The velocity field and subsequent strain rate analysis clearly indicate dextral strike-slip tectonics with extensional component throughout the ESFZ. Our results suggest that the boundary between the Salvadoran forearc and Caribbean blocks is a deformation zone which varies along the fault zone. We estimate that the movement between the two blocks is at least ~ 12 mm yr- 1. From west to east, this movement is variably distributed between faults or segments of the ESFZ. We propose a kinematic model with three main blocks; the Western, Central and Eastern blocks delimited by major faults. For the first time, we were able to provide a quantitative measure of the present-day horizontal geodetic slip rate of the main segments of ESFZ, ranging from ~ 2 mm yr- 1 in the east segment to ~ 8 mm yr- 1, in the west and central segments. This study contributes new kinematic and slip rate data that should be used to update and improve the seismic hazard assessments in northern Central America.

  1. A non-tectonic origin for the present day stress field in the sedimentary Paris Basin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cornet, Francois; Magnenet, Vincent

    2016-04-01

    The large scale stress patterns observed in intraplate area is generally considered to result from far-field boundary forces that drive plate tectonics. However, no present day deformation has been detected in the Paris Basin, yet significant deviatoric stresses are measured in limestone formations observed above soft argillite layers encountered in this region at depths close to 500m. Further, the pore pressure measured in the argillite is larger than that measured in the surrounding permeable zones. These observations suggest a presently active source of stress in this sedimentary system. We propose that this stress is not related to tectonics but to pressure solution effects activated by pore pressure transients. These transients develop in the natural fracture system that affects the limestone formations. They are linked to climatic variations and involve periods that range from thousands to hundreds of thousands years. This mechanism generates time-dependent shear stresses in soft formations and explains overpressures observed in the very low permeability argillite. This mechanism may be modeled by different visco-elastic behaviors for the various formations. It outlines the influence of time dependent material properties on the present day stress field. These results imply that the viscoelastic properties of sedimentary formations raise a strong difficulty for extrapolating measured surface deformations to basement rocks in domains of very slow tectonics.

  2. Present-day Exposures of Water Ice in the Northern Mid-latitudes of Mars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Allen, Carlton C.; Kanner, Lisa C.

    2007-01-01

    Water ice is exposed in the martian north polar cap, but is rarely exposed beyond the cap boundary. Orbital gamma ray spectrometry data strongly imply the presence of water ice within meters of the surface at latitudes north of approximately 60deg. We have examined mid-latitude areas of the northern plains displaying residual ice-rich layers, and report evidence of present-day surface exposures of water ice. These exposures, if confirmed, could con-strain the latitudinal and temporal stability of surface ice on Mars.

  3. EXPECTED NUMBER OF MASSIVE GALAXY RELICS IN THE PRESENT DAY UNIVERSE

    SciTech Connect

    Quilis, Vicent; Trujillo, Ignacio

    2013-08-10

    The number of present day massive galaxies that have survived untouched since their formation at high-z is an important observational constraint to the hierarchical galaxy formation models. Using three different semianalytical models based on the Millenium simulation, we quantify the expected fraction and number densities of the massive galaxies that form at z > 2 and have evolved in stellar mass less than 10% and 30%. We find that only a small fraction of the massive galaxies that already formed at z {approx} 2 have remained almost unaltered since their formation (<2% with {Delta}M{sub *}/M{sub *} < 0.1 and <8% with {Delta}M{sub *}/M{sub *} < 0.3). These fractions correspond to the following number densities of massive relics in the present day universe: {approx}1.2 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup -6} Mpc{sup -3} for {Delta}M{sub *}/M{sub *} < 0.1 and {approx}5.7 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup -6} Mpc{sup -3} for {Delta}M{sub *}/M{sub *} < 0.3. The observed number of relic candidates found in the nearby universe is rather uncertain today (with uncertainties up to a factor of {approx}100), preventing us from establishing firm conclusions about the ability of current theoretical expectations to predict such an important number.

  4. Pacific variability under present-day and Middle Miocene boundary conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krapp, Mario; Jungclaus, Johann H.

    2015-05-01

    We use the coupled climate model MPI-ESM to show that for higher CO2 levels the El Niño-Southern Oscillation (ENSO) and the Pacific Decadal Oscillation (PDO) merge into a single mode of Pacific variability, regardless of present-day or Middle Miocene (~15 Ma) topographic boundary conditions. Hence, topographic differences—determining the landscape of past climates—play a smaller role for Pacific variability than previously thought. We attribute the single variability mode to resonance between these two oscillation patterns. In order to estimate the strength of the resonance we compute the spectral power of the ENSO and PDO time series and their coherence. We find that for both Middle Miocene and present-day topographic conditions, higher CO2 forcing leads to stronger resonance between ENSO and PDO. Our results show that (1) stronger CO2 forcing enhances Pacific variability resulting in stronger "atmospheric bridge" and that (2) past climates are likely to exhibit Pacific variability corresponding either to ENSO, PDO, or our proposed single mode.

  5. Future droughts in Global Climate Models and adaptation strategies from regional present-day analogues

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Orlowsky, B.; Seneviratne, S. I.

    2012-04-01

    Droughts are among the most impacting phenomena of a changing climate, affecting agricultural productivity and human health. They can furthermore interact with and amplify other climatic extreme events such as heat waves. Our analysis of the CMIP5 ensemble of GCM simulations identifies several hot spots of aggravating droughts in coming decades, such as the Mediterranean, parts of the Southern US and North East Brazil, which also compare well with increasing stress from heat waves. However, as we show by a comparison of drought indices, the exact pattern can substantially depend on the index choice. In some regions of the developing world which are particularly vulnerable to droughts, e.g. Central Africa, this uncertainty is further increased by a high disagreement between the GCMs. In a second step, we perform an analogue search which, for a given target region, identifies regions which under present-day climate show drought conditions that are similar to the projected future drought conditions of the target region. For example, the future conditions in the Mediterranean are found to be analogue to the present-day conditions in parts of the US, Central Asia or Australia. Information from web resources on climate change adaptation and agricultural practices for the identified similar regions are then assessed in the context of the target region as potential guidelines for adaptation. Thus combining the temporal and spatial dimension helps to transfer local climate adaptation knowledge to other regions, where it is expected to become relevant in the future.

  6. Mitogenomes from The 1000 Genome Project Reveal New Near Eastern Features in Present-Day Tuscans

    PubMed Central

    Pardo-Seco, Jacobo; Amigo, Jorge; Martinón-Torres, Federico

    2015-01-01

    Background Genetic analyses have recently been carried out on present-day Tuscans (Central Italy) in order to investigate their presumable recent Near East ancestry in connection with the long-standing debate on the origins of the Etruscan civilization. We retrieved mitogenomes and genome-wide SNP data from 110 Tuscans analyzed within the context of The 1000 Genome Project. For phylogeographic and evolutionary analysis we made use of a large worldwide database of entire mitogenomes (>26,000) and partial control region sequences (>180,000). Results Different analyses reveal the presence of typical Near East haplotypes in Tuscans representing isolated members of various mtDNA phylogenetic branches. As a whole, the Near East component in Tuscan mitogenomes can be estimated at about 8%; a proportion that is comparable to previous estimates but significantly lower than admixture estimates obtained from autosomal SNP data (21%). Phylogeographic and evolutionary inter-population comparisons indicate that the main signal of Near Eastern Tuscan mitogenomes comes from Iran. Conclusions Mitogenomes of recent Near East origin in present-day Tuscans do not show local or regional variation. This points to a demographic scenario that is compatible with a recent arrival of Near Easterners to this region in Italy with no founder events or bottlenecks. PMID:25786119

  7. Present-Day Surface Changes on Mars: Implications for Recent Climate Variability and Habitability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McEwen, A. S.; Dundas, C. M.; Diniega, S.; Byrne, S.; Bridges, N. T.; Hansen, C. J.

    2012-12-01

    With the high-resolution and repeat-image capability of MRO/HiRISE, we have been documenting present-day surface activity. This activity includes seasonal defrosting (spots, fans, etc.), changes in polar deposits, new impacts, migrating sand dunes, enlargement of gullies, and a variety of slope flows. What does this tell us about possible environmental change and habitability? Perhaps the key result is that previous suggestions of recent climate change on Mars may have been somewhat exaggerated. One such suggestion is that the enlargement of pits in the south polar residual cap indicates present-day global warming. However, recent models of continuous sublimation and redeposition of the CO2 predict a suite of landforms that have been observed to exist today (Byrne, 2009, AREPS 37, 535). Another suggestion is that mid-latitude gullies formed by melting snow or shallow ice after a recent period of high obliquity, but HiRISE observations have shown rapid and widespread gully activity in the present climate (Diniega et al., 2010, Geology 38, 1047; Dundas et al., 2012, Icarus 220, 124; Dundas et al., this conference). Likewise, suggestions that Mars needed a significantly higher atmospheric density to explain the presence of well-preserved sand dunes have been countered by observations of widespread current activity (Bridges et al., 2012, Geology 40, 31; Bridges et al., 2012, Nature 485, 339). These observations do not rule out significantly different past climate conditions but do suggest that their effects were less pronounced, at least in recent times. There are features that do not appear active today; one example is the transverse aeolian ridges. Also, the mid-latitude icy lobate flows and ice-rich mantles have not shown current activity, appear to have partially sublimated, and are likely remnants of recent past climates. Ground ice excavated by new craters is observed closer to the equator than predicted for the present atmospheric water vapor content, but

  8. Three-dimensional instantaneous dynamics modeling of present-day Aegean subduction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Glerum, Anne; Thieulot, Cedric; Pranger, Casper; van Hinsbergen, Douwe; Fraters, Menno; Spakman, Wim

    2015-04-01

    The Aegean region (Eastern Mediterranean) is exemplary of the interaction between crustal tectonics, plate motion, subduction and mantle flow: African subduction underneath the region has been continuous for at least the last 100 My, leading to about 2100-2500 km of subducted lithosphere residing in the mantle (van Hinsbergen et al., 2005). During this subduction, decoupled upper continental and oceanic crust accreted into a wedge of stacked nappes. In turn, these nappes have been significantly extended, predominantly during the last 25 My, due to the retreat of the African slab relative to Eurasia (van Hinsbergen and Schmid, 2012). As a first step to better understanding the coupling of the tectonic evolution of the crust and the underlying mantle dynamics, we are developing 3-D numerical models of the instantaneous dynamics of the present-day Aegean subduction system using the finite element code ASPECT (Kronbichler et al., 2012). The instantaneous models are set up with initial slab geometries derived from tomography and realistic plate boundary configurations and incorporate the major crustal weak zones of the overriding plate. Our modeling results in predictions of flow fields and stress, strain rate and rotation rate fields for the present-day tectonic setting of the Aegean region. By comparing our various model predictions to the widely available observations, such as focal mechanisms, GPS velocities and seismic anisotropy, we aim at an improved understanding of how mantle flow, subduction morphology and possibly slab segmentation, as well as the rheological behavior of the overriding plate, control present-day tectonic deformation. We expect to show preliminary results of this comparison. Kronbichler, M., Heister, T. and Bangerth, W. (2012), High Accuracy Mantle Convection Simulation through Modern Numerical Methods, Geophysical Journal International, 191, 12-29. Van Hinsbergen, D. J. J., Hafkenscheid, E., Spakman, W., Meulenkamp, J. E. and Wortel, R. (2005

  9. Modelling economic losses of historic and present-day high-impact winter storms in Switzerland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Welker, Christoph; Martius, Olivia; Stucki, Peter; Bresch, David; Dierer, Silke; Brönnimann, Stefan

    2015-04-01

    Windstorms can cause significant financial damage and they rank among the most hazardous meteorological hazards in Switzerland. Risk associated with windstorms involves the combination of hazardous weather conditions, such as high wind gust speeds, and socio-economic factors, such as the distribution of assets as well as their susceptibilities to damage. A sophisticated risk assessment is important in a wide range of areas and has benefits for e.g. the insurance industry. However, a sophisticated risk assessment needs a large sample of storm events for which high-resolution, quantitative meteorological and/or loss data are available. Latter is typically an aggravating factor. For present-day windstorms in Switzerland, the data basis is generally sufficient to describe the meteorological development and wind forces as well as the associated impacts. In contrast, historic windstorms are usually described by graphical depictions of the event and/or by weather and loss reports. The information on historic weather events is overall sparse and the available historic weather and loss reports mostly do not provide quantitative information. It has primarily been the field of activity of environmental historians to study historic weather extremes and their impacts. Furthermore, the scarce availability of atmospheric datasets reaching back sufficiently in time has so far limited the analysis of historic weather events. The Twentieth Century Reanalysis (20CR) ensemble dataset, a global atmospheric reanalysis currently spanning 1871 to 2012, offers potentially a very valuable resource for the analysis of historic weather events. However, the 2°×2° latitude-longitude grid of the 20CR is too coarse to realistically represent the complex orography of Switzerland, which has considerable ramifications for the representation of smaller-scale features of the surface wind field influenced by the local orography. Using the 20CR as a starting point, this study illustrates a method to

  10. Larval therapy from antiquity to the present day: mechanisms of action, clinical applications and future potential

    PubMed Central

    Whitaker, Iain S; Twine, Christopher; Whitaker, Michael J; Welck, Mathew; Brown, Charles S; Shandall, Ahmed

    2007-01-01

    When modern medicine fails, it is often useful to draw ideas from ancient treatments. The therapeutic use of fly larvae to debride necrotic tissue, also known as larval therapy, maggot debridement therapy or biosurgery, dates back to the beginnings of civilisation. Despite repeatedly falling out of favour largely because of patient intolerance to the treatment, the practice of larval therapy is increasing around the world because of its efficacy, safety and simplicity. Clinical indications for larval treatment are varied, but, in particular, are wounds infected with multidrug‐resistant bacteria and the presence of significant co‐morbidities precluding surgical intervention. The flies most often used in larval therapy are the facultative calliphorids, with the greenbottle blowfly (Lucilia sericata) being the most widely used species. This review summarises the fascinating and turbulent history of larval therapy from its origin to the present day, including mechanisms of action and evidence for its clinical applications. It also explores future research directions. PMID:17551073

  11. Pole of rotating analysis of present-day Juan de Fuca plate motion

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nishimura, C.; Wilson, D. S.; Hey, R. N.

    1984-01-01

    Convergence rates between the Juan de Fuca and North American plates are calculated by means of their relative, present-day pole of rotation. A method of calculating the propagation of errors in addition to the instantaneous poles of rotation is also formulated and applied to determine the Euler pole for Pacific-Juan de Fuca. This pole is vectorially added to previously published poles for North America-Pacific and 'hot spot'-Pacific to obtain North America-Juan de Fuca and 'hot spot'-Juan de Fuca, respectively. The errors associated with these resultant poles are determined by propagating the errors of the two summed angular velocity vectors. Under the assumption that hot spots are fixed with respect to a mantle reference frame, the average absolute velocity of the Juan de Puca plate is computed at approximately 15 mm/yr, thereby making it the slowest-moving of the oceanic plates.

  12. Cloud properties in the present-day tropical climate: EC-EARTH model biases

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lacagnina, C.; Selten, F.

    2012-04-01

    Observations are compared with the observed SST forced and coupled simulation performed by the EC-EARTH climate model. We use different diagnostic tools to investigate model biases in simulating marine cloud properties at different spatial and time scales in the present-day (1985 to 2001) tropical climate. The model underestimates the thick low-cloud amount and their contribution to the reflection of the solar radiation. In general, most of the simulated cloud types are too bright. As a result, the net cloud cooling effect is often overestimated, except over the subsidence cold pools. Furthermore, our model fails to reproduce the correlations between low-cloud fraction and mid-tropospheric pressure velocity (ω500) and SST changes during El Niño. In addition, some indications lead to infer EC-EARTH does not properly reproduce the impact of the Walker circulation shifts on the CRF fluctuations in the interannual variability.

  13. Ancient human genomes suggest three ancestral populations for present-day Europeans.

    PubMed

    Lazaridis, Iosif; Patterson, Nick; Mittnik, Alissa; Renaud, Gabriel; Mallick, Swapan; Kirsanow, Karola; Sudmant, Peter H; Schraiber, Joshua G; Castellano, Sergi; Lipson, Mark; Berger, Bonnie; Economou, Christos; Bollongino, Ruth; Fu, Qiaomei; Bos, Kirsten I; Nordenfelt, Susanne; Li, Heng; de Filippo, Cesare; Prüfer, Kay; Sawyer, Susanna; Posth, Cosimo; Haak, Wolfgang; Hallgren, Fredrik; Fornander, Elin; Rohland, Nadin; Delsate, Dominique; Francken, Michael; Guinet, Jean-Michel; Wahl, Joachim; Ayodo, George; Babiker, Hamza A; Bailliet, Graciela; Balanovska, Elena; Balanovsky, Oleg; Barrantes, Ramiro; Bedoya, Gabriel; Ben-Ami, Haim; Bene, Judit; Berrada, Fouad; Bravi, Claudio M; Brisighelli, Francesca; Busby, George B J; Cali, Francesco; Churnosov, Mikhail; Cole, David E C; Corach, Daniel; Damba, Larissa; van Driem, George; Dryomov, Stanislav; Dugoujon, Jean-Michel; Fedorova, Sardana A; Gallego Romero, Irene; Gubina, Marina; Hammer, Michael; Henn, Brenna M; Hervig, Tor; Hodoglugil, Ugur; Jha, Aashish R; Karachanak-Yankova, Sena; Khusainova, Rita; Khusnutdinova, Elza; Kittles, Rick; Kivisild, Toomas; Klitz, William; Kučinskas, Vaidutis; Kushniarevich, Alena; Laredj, Leila; Litvinov, Sergey; Loukidis, Theologos; Mahley, Robert W; Melegh, Béla; Metspalu, Ene; Molina, Julio; Mountain, Joanna; Näkkäläjärvi, Klemetti; Nesheva, Desislava; Nyambo, Thomas; Osipova, Ludmila; Parik, Jüri; Platonov, Fedor; Posukh, Olga; Romano, Valentino; Rothhammer, Francisco; Rudan, Igor; Ruizbakiev, Ruslan; Sahakyan, Hovhannes; Sajantila, Antti; Salas, Antonio; Starikovskaya, Elena B; Tarekegn, Ayele; Toncheva, Draga; Turdikulova, Shahlo; Uktveryte, Ingrida; Utevska, Olga; Vasquez, René; Villena, Mercedes; Voevoda, Mikhail; Winkler, Cheryl A; Yepiskoposyan, Levon; Zalloua, Pierre; Zemunik, Tatijana; Cooper, Alan; Capelli, Cristian; Thomas, Mark G; Ruiz-Linares, Andres; Tishkoff, Sarah A; Singh, Lalji; Thangaraj, Kumarasamy; Villems, Richard; Comas, David; Sukernik, Rem; Metspalu, Mait; Meyer, Matthias; Eichler, Evan E; Burger, Joachim; Slatkin, Montgomery; Pääbo, Svante; Kelso, Janet; Reich, David; Krause, Johannes

    2014-09-18

    We sequenced the genomes of a ∼7,000-year-old farmer from Germany and eight ∼8,000-year-old hunter-gatherers from Luxembourg and Sweden. We analysed these and other ancient genomes with 2,345 contemporary humans to show that most present-day Europeans derive from at least three highly differentiated populations: west European hunter-gatherers, who contributed ancestry to all Europeans but not to Near Easterners; ancient north Eurasians related to Upper Palaeolithic Siberians, who contributed to both Europeans and Near Easterners; and early European farmers, who were mainly of Near Eastern origin but also harboured west European hunter-gatherer related ancestry. We model these populations' deep relationships and show that early European farmers had ∼44% ancestry from a 'basal Eurasian' population that split before the diversification of other non-African lineages. PMID:25230663

  14. Meteoritic parent bodies - Nature, number, size and relation to present-day asteroids

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lipschutz, Michael E.; Gaffey, Michael J.; Pellas, Paul

    1989-01-01

    The relationship between meteoritic parent bodies and the present-day asteroids is discussed. Results on oxygen isotopic signatures and chemical distinctions among meteorite classes indicate that meteorites derive from a small number of parent bodies relative to the number of asteroids. The spectral properties of the ordinary chondrites and similar inclusions in meteoritic breccias differ from those of the abundant S asteroids (with no process known that can account for these differences); the closest spectral analogs of these chondrites are the rare near-earth Q-type asteroids. These facts lead to the question of why abundant meteorites have rare asteroidal analogs, while the abundant asteroids have rare meteoritic analogs. This question constitutes a prime topic for future studies.

  15. Modelling economic losses of historic and present-day high-impact winter windstorms in Switzerland

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Welker, Christoph; Martius, Olivia; Stucki, Peter; Bresch, David; Dierer, Silke; Bronnimann, Stefan

    2016-03-30

    This study investigates the wind gusts and associated economic loss patterns of high-impact winter windstorms in Switzerland between 1871 and 2011. A novel approach for simulating windstorm-related gusts and losses at regional to local scales is applied to a sample of 84 windstorms. The approach involves the dynamical downscaling of the Twentieth Century Reanalysis (20CR) ensemble mean to 3-km horizontal grid size using the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) model. Economic losses are simulated at municipal level for present-day asset distribution based on the downscaled (parameterised) wind gusts at high spatiotemporal resolution using the open-source impact model climada. A comparisonmore » with insurance loss data for two recent windstorms ("Lothar'' in 1999, "Joachim'' in 2011) indicates that the loss simulation allows to realistically simulate the spatial patterns of windstorm losses. The loss amplitude is strongly underestimated for 'Lothar', while it is in reasonable agreement for 'Joachim'. Possible reasons are discussed. Uncertainties concerning the loss simulation arise from the wind gust estimation method applied; estimates can differ considerably among the different methods, in particular over high orography. Furthermore, the quality of the loss simulation is affected by the underlying simplified assumptions regarding the distribution of assets and their susceptibilities to damage. For the whole windstorm sample, composite averages of simulated wind gust speed and loss are computed. Both composites reveal high values for the densely populated Swiss Plateau and lower values for south-eastern Switzerland; metropolitan areas stand out in the loss composite. Eight of the top 10 events concerning the losses simulated for present-day asset distribution and summed over all Swiss municipalities occurred after 1950. Furthermore, it remains uncertain whether this is due to decadal-scale changes of winter windstorms in Switzerland or merely due to a possible

  16. The Combined Landscape of Denisovan and Neanderthal Ancestry in Present-Day Humans.

    PubMed

    Sankararaman, Sriram; Mallick, Swapan; Patterson, Nick; Reich, David

    2016-05-01

    Some present-day humans derive up to ∼5% [1] of their ancestry from archaic Denisovans, an even larger proportion than the ∼2% from Neanderthals [2]. We developed methods that can disambiguate the locations of segments of Denisovan and Neanderthal ancestry in present-day humans and applied them to 257 high-coverage genomes from 120 diverse populations, among which were 20 individual Oceanians with high Denisovan ancestry [3]. In Oceanians, the average size of Denisovan fragments is larger than Neanderthal fragments, implying a more recent average date of Denisovan admixture in the history of these populations (p = 0.00004). We document more Denisovan ancestry in South Asia than is expected based on existing models of history, reflecting a previously undocumented mixture related to archaic humans (p = 0.0013). Denisovan ancestry, just like Neanderthal ancestry, has been deleterious on a modern human genetic background, as reflected by its depletion near genes. Finally, the reduction of both archaic ancestries is especially pronounced on chromosome X and near genes more highly expressed in testes than other tissues (p = 1.2 × 10(-7) to 3.2 × 10(-7) for Denisovan and 2.2 × 10(-3) to 2.9 × 10(-3) for Neanderthal ancestry even after controlling for differences in level of selective constraint across gene classes). This suggests that reduced male fertility may be a general feature of mixtures of human populations diverged by >500,000 years. PMID:27032491

  17. A novel GIS-based tool for estimating present-day ocean reference depth using automatically processed gridded bathymetry data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jurecka, Mirosława; Niedzielski, Tomasz; Migoń, Piotr

    2016-05-01

    This paper presents a new method for computing the present-day value of the reference depth (dr) which is an essential input information for assessment of past sea-level changes. The method applies a novel automatic geoprocessing tool developed using Python script and ArcGIS, and uses recent data about ocean floor depth, sediment thickness, and age of oceanic crust. The procedure is multi-step and involves creation of a bathymetric dataset corrected for sediment loading and isostasy, delineation of subduction zones, computation of perpendicular sea-floor profiles, and statistical analysis of these profiles versus crust age. The analysis of site-specific situations near the subduction zones all around the world shows a number of instances where the depth of the oceanic crust stabilizes at a certain level before reaching the subduction zone, and this occurs at depths much lower than proposed in previous approaches to the reference depth issue. An analysis of Jurassic and Cretaceous oceanic lithosphere shows that the most probable interval at which the reference depth occurs is 5300-5800 m. This interval is broadly consistent with dr estimates determined using the Global Depth-Heatflow model (GDH1), but is significantly lower than dr estimates calculated on a basis of the Parsons-Sclater Model (PSM).

  18. INTRODUCTION AND SUMMARY. GENOTOXICITY AND CARCINOGENICITY DATA BASES: AN ASSESSMENT OF THE PRESENT SITUATION

    EPA Science Inventory

    This paper is an introduction to the Proceedings of the Intl. Symp. on Data Bases of Genotoxicity and Carcinogenicity and their Usefulness for Hazard Evaluations, held in Genova, Italy, January 1991. he purpose of this meeting was to review the present status of genotoxicity and ...

  19. Risk Management in Companies -A Questionnaire as an Instrument for Analysing the Present Situation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stiller, Diana; Joehnk, Peter

    2014-12-01

    The topic risk management receives new impulses in the context of the financial and economic crisis in the years 2007 until 2011 as well as the question whether companies took consequences. The article briefly describes the importance of risk management and then explained the theoretical principles of empirical methods. Excerpts from developed questionnaire will be presented.

  20. From School Libraries to School Media Centres: Experiences, the Present Situation and Possible Improvement.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization, Paris (France). Div. of Educational Sciences, Contents & Methods of Educ.

    This report presents case studies of the role of school libraries and their transformation into school media centers in elementary and secondary schools in Serbia, Croatia, and Hungary. It is noted that the school media center is not conceived of as a simple mechanism for storing books and audiovisual aids, but as an active center for…

  1. [Strategies for Mycobacterium avium complex infection control in Japan: how do they improve the present situation?].

    PubMed

    Ogawa, Kenji; Sano, Chiaki

    2013-03-01

    Mycobacterium avium complex (MAC) were the most frequently isolated (about 80%) and most common cause of lung nontuberculosis. Its rate of infection is globally increasing, especially in Japan. In this situation, it is urgently needed to provide scientific evidences and develop therapeutic interventions in MAC infections. Recently, more and more patients are elderly women with no history of smoking, and they have reticulonodular infiltrates and patchy bilateral bronchiectasis. However the prognostic and intractable factors of MAC infections are poorly known. In this symposium, we address five novel strategies for MAC infection, concerning the more accurate incidence and prevalence rates compared with other countries, host defense associated with Th1/Th17 balance, route of MAC infection related soil exposure, MAC IgA antibody as a diagnosis maker, and improved chemotherapy including aminoglycoside or new quinolone. Appropriate clinical intervention may help to reduce the prolongation of MAC infection or enhance the activity of chemotherapy for the improved control of MAC. Below are the abstracts for each of the five speakers. 1. Review of current epidemiological study of pulmonary nontuberculous mycobacterial disease in Japan and the rest of the world: Kozo MORIMOTO (Respiratory Center, Fukujuji Hospital, Japan Anti-Tuberculosis Association) The studies on pulmonary nontuberculous mycobacterial (NTM) disease prevalence were started in early 1970s in Japan by the Mycobacteriosis Research Group of National Chest Hospitals. They were followed by a questionnaire survey in 1990s, by the National Tuberculosis and NTM Survey in late 1990s, and recently by the questionnaire surveys conducted by the NTM Disease Research Committee. The latest data in Japan (from 2007) indicated a morbidity rate of 5.7 per 100,000 population. Deaths from NTM disease were reported for the first time in 1970 and showed a marked, steady increase until 2007, with 912 deaths in that year. We

  2. Is Present Day Continental Deformation Nearly Plate-Like? If so, Why?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thatcher, W.

    2001-12-01

    Some indicators of deformation (seismicity, late Cenozoic faulting, regional topographic relief) suggest broad deformation zones. However, space geodetic mappings of current movements and Holocene fault distributions often show straining focussed in very narrow zones. Conventional wisdom has it that continental deformation is spread over broad regions while straining of oceanic lithosphere occurs in narrow zones. Here I present evidence, largely from recent GPS surveys, suggesting present day continental deformation is actually occurring in a largely plate-like manner through the relative motions of a small number of micro-plates within each deforming zone, sometimes perturbed by isolated zones of deformation driven by local lithospheric density gradients. How can this be so? I speculate that this behavior is caused by the inherent lateral heterogeneity of continental lithosphere and by frictional and ductile weakening and strengthening mechanisms that promote focussed deformation that migrates with time. Qualitative indications of active deformation can sometimes be misleading. In many active regions erosion and tectonism are in balance and very low rates of slip on inclined faults can generate significant steady-state topography. However, in currently inactive regions, erosion rates are very low, much less than rates of vertical movement in even moderately active deforming zones. Therefore landscape relief provides evidence for current activity but preserves it over long periods, millions to tens of millions of years (Ma) (e.g. Alps, Rocky Mountains). Secondly, background seismicity is a qualitative measure of tectonic activity and only the largest earthquakes contribute significantly to representative long term deformation rates, so the spatial distribution of all smaller events can be misleading. Finally, many mappings of `active' faults encompass features up to several Ma old that are not necessarily representative of current activity. In contrast, late

  3. Improved Present Day Euler Vector for the Sierra Nevada Block Using GPS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Psencik, K. O.; Dixon, T. H.; Schmalzle, G.; McQuarrie, N.; McCaffery, R.

    2006-12-01

    We present a new surface velocity field for California and Nevada (UM-CANVAS) and use it to solve for a new angular velocity for the rigid Sierra Nevada-Great Valley block. We use all publicly available GPS data for this region, from both continuous (CGPS) and episodic campaign (EGPS) sites. All data were re-processed to create a consistent velocity field. Site velocities are referenced to both stable North America and the central Basin and Range. The Sierra Nevada block is a relatively long, narrow block, bounded on the west by the San Andreas Fault, on the east by a complex fault system comprising the Eastern California Shear Zone and the Walker Lane Belt, and on the south by the Garlock fault. The northern extent of the block is not well defined. The new data along with a strain accumulation algorithm may help to define this boundary. Published estimates for the motion of Sierra Nevada block include clockwise, counter-clockwise, and no rotation relative to stable North America; the new velocity data may also help to resolve this discrepancy. To better understand the motion of the Sierra Nevada block over time, we compare our model of present day motion to a geologic model of block motion over the last 2-3 Ma (McQuarrie and Wernicke, 2005). McQuarrie, N. and B. Wernicke, An Animated tectonic reconstruction of southwestern North America since 36 Ma. Geosphere, V.1; no.3; 147-172; 2005.

  4. Present-day stress-field in the Cooper basin of Australia: implications for petroleum exploration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Backé, G.; King, R.

    2010-12-01

    The Cooper Basin is located in centre part of the Australian continent, 5000km away from the nearest plate boundary. This Late Carboniferous to Middle Triassic basin is the largest onshore sedimentary basin producing oil and gas in Australia - mostly by fraccing tight reservoirs. Thus, an extensive database is available for studying the in-situ stress field in the basin. Previous studies have shown a significant variability if the stress field across the basin. However, the development of the mostly tight prospects require a good understanding of the structure of the reservoirs, mechanical properties of the stratigraphy, fracture geometry and density, in-situ stress field and fracture stimulation strategies in order to maximise the production This study provides new in-situ stress data from borehole breakouts and drilling-induced tensile fractures, along with a description of the fractures present along the well trajectory. The geometry of the natural fault and fracture network is interpreted from 3D seismic data, and compared to the well data. Finally, we performed a series of numeric simulation to test the fault and fracture stability in the present-day stress field. These data and our interpretation are used to evaluate the geomechanical properties of the Cooper Basin. This method is reproducible to other oil-bearing basins around the world, but is also applicable to the development of engineered geothermal reservoir or evaluation of carbon dioxide storage site.

  5. Land subsidence of coastal areas of Jiangsu Province, China: historical review and present situation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhu, J. Q.; Yang, Y.; Yu, J.; Gong, X. L.

    2015-11-01

    Surface faults related to land subsidence have been observed in coastal cities, such as Nantong, Yancheng, and Lian Yungang, in Jiangsu Province (CAJS) since the early 1970s. Nowadays, increases flooding and rising sea levels are attributed to subsidence caused by groundwater pumping. In this work we present a brief description of land subsidence in CAJS, we examine the mechanisms of land subsidence induced mainly by groundwater pumping and its evolution and economic implications as well as the implemented measures by the local government to prevent new damage.

  6. Endoscopic ultrasonography with fine-needle aspiration: present situation and indications.

    PubMed

    Vila Costas, J J

    2005-12-01

    Endoscopic ultrasonography with fine-needle aspiration is a safe technique that allows the collection of tissue samples for histological diagnosis, as well as therapeutic maneuvers. It has better diagnostic accuracy versus other exploration techniques used for the staging of neoplasms in the gastrointestinal tract as well as in other organs. The risk for complications is extremely low, and the procedure has been shown to be cost-effective in many studies. In this paper we attempt to review the main present indications of endoscopic ultrasonography with fine-needle aspiration. PMID:16454609

  7. How large are present-day heat flow variations across Mars' surface?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Plesa, Ana-Catalina; Tosi, Nicola; Grott, Matthias; Breuer, Doris

    2015-04-01

    The upcoming InSight (Interior exploration using Seismic Investigations, Geodesy and Heat Transport) mission, to be launched in 2016, will carry the first in-situ Martian heat flow measurement and provide an important baseline to constrain the present-day heat budget of the planet and, in turn, the thermal and chemical evolution of its interior. Currently, the Earth and the Moon are the only bodies on which in-situ surface heat flow measurements have been performed. Here, strong spatial variations of the surface heat flow are primarily caused by plate tectonics and the heterogeneous distribution of heat producing elements over the surface (e.g., the so-called Procellarum KREEP Terrane PKT on the lunar nearside). In the absence of plate-tectonics and large-scale geochemical anomalies, on Mars, surface heat flow is expected to vary less with geological location, being mainly influenced by variations in the thickness and HPE content of the crust [1], and by mantle plumes [2]. We have tested this assumption by running thermal evolution models for Mars in 3D spherical geometry, using the mantle convection code Gaia [3]. In our calculations, we employ a crust of fixed thickness with a north-south dichotomy in crustal thickness, a low conductivity compared to the mantle and enriched in radiogenic heat producing elements. Our results show that including compressibility effects, phase transitions and different core sizes, surface heat flow variations are mainly dominated by the crust contribution, unless the mantle viscosity increases more than three orders of magnitude with depth. In the latter case, heat flow variations due to mantle upwellings are ~ 8 mW/m2 relative to surface average and remain confined to limited surface regions. Both surface heat flow variations on Mars obtained from numerical models and the heat flow measurement planned for the InSight mission will permit to address the question of a possible plume underneath Elysium and also to test the feasibility

  8. Present-day serpentinization in the Tablelands, Gros Morne National Park, Newfoundland: a Mars Analogue Site

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Szponar, N.; Morrill, P. L.; Brazelton, W. J.; Schrenk, M. O.; Bower, D. M.; Steele, A.

    2010-12-01

    Serpentinization - a reaction between water and ultramafic rock (derived from the mantle) - is suspected to be a source of hydrocarbons such as methane on Mars. Through the hydration of ultramafic rock, this reaction produces hydrogen (H2) gas and reducing conditions necessary for abiogenic hydrocarbon synthesis, while also producing conditions amendable for the production of methane through microbial chemoautotrophic pathways. Mars analogue sites of present-day serpentinization can be used to determine what geochemical measurements are required for determining the reactions responsible for the methane in the Martian atmosphere. On Earth few locations that are known to exhibit active serpentinization are easily accessible. One such location is found in the Tablelands at Gros Morne National Park, Newfoundland. Peridotite rocks similar to those found on Mars dominate the Tablelands thus making the Tablelands an important analogue site for potential ecosystems on Mars. Present-day serpentinization is evidenced by fluid seeps characterized by highly alkaline (pH 11 to 12) and highly reducing (as low as -820 mV) conditions, travertine and the presence of dissolved methane. These fluids contain high concentrations of Ca2+ (~5.00x104ppb) compared to freshwater inputs (~ 1.00x103) and react at the surface with atmospheric CO2 producing travertine deposits (as CaCO3 precipitate). Dissolved H2 gas produced abiogenically through the serpentinization reaction also provides copious geofuels, which can be used for chemosynthesis. Preliminary data has shown that microbial life lives in the high pH springs of the Tablelands. Ongoing studies of targeted compounds including phospholipid fatty acids and ether-linked lipids are being used to determine the microbial community compositions and verify the occurrence of Bacteria and Archaea in these fluids. An important question is also the source of the serpentinized fluid seeps. Hydrogen (δ2H) and oxygen (δ18O) isotopes of these

  9. α-1,3-Glucanase: present situation and prospect of research.

    PubMed

    Suyotha, Wasana; Yano, Shigekazu; Wakayama, Mamoru

    2016-02-01

    α-1,3-Glucanases hydrolyze α-1,3-glucan which is an insoluble linear α-1,3-linked homopolymer of glucose and these enzymes are classified into two families of glycoside hydrolases on the basis of amino acid sequence similarity; type-71 α-1,3-glucanases found in fungi and type-87 enzymes in bacteria. α-1,3-Glucan (also called 'mutan') is a major component of dental plaque formed by oral Streptococci and has important physiological roles in various fungal species, including as a component of cell walls, an endogenous carbon source for sexual development, and a virulent factor. Considering these backgrounds, α-1,3-glucanases have been investigated from the perspectives of applications to dental care and development of cell-wall lytic enzymes. Compared with information regarding other glycoside hydrolases such as amylases, cellulases, chitinases, and β-glucanases, there is limited biochemical and structural information available regarding α-1,3-glucanase. Further research on α-1,3-glucanases on enzyme application to dental care and biological control of pathogenic fungi is expected. In this mini-review, we briefly describe how α-1,3-glucanases are categorized and characterized and present our study findings regarding α-1,3-glucanase from Bacillus circulans KA-304. Furthermore, we briefly discuss potential future applications of α-1,3-glucanases. PMID:26748807

  10. Do power lines and protected areas present a catch-22 situation for Cape vultures (Gyps coprotheres)?

    PubMed

    Phipps, W Louis; Wolter, Kerri; Michael, Michael D; MacTavish, Lynne M; Yarnell, Richard W

    2013-01-01

    Cape vulture Gyps coprotheres populations have declined across their range due to multiple anthropogenic threats. Their susceptibility to fatal collisions with the expanding power line network and the prevalence of carcasses contaminated with illegal poisons and other threats outside protected areas are thought to be the primary drivers of declines in southern Africa. We used GPS-GSM units to track the movements and delineate the home ranges of five adult (mean ±SD minimum convex polygon area = 121,655±90,845 km(2)) and four immature (mean ±SD minimum convex polygon area = 492,300±259,427 km(2)) Cape vultures to investigate the influence of power lines and their use of protected areas. The vultures travelled more than 1,000 km from the capture site and collectively entered five different countries in southern Africa. Their movement patterns and core foraging ranges were closely associated with the spatial distribution of transmission power lines and we present evidence that the construction of power lines has allowed the species to extend its range to areas previously devoid of suitable perches. The distribution of locations of known Cape vulture mortalities caused by interactions with power lines corresponded to the core ranges of the tracked vultures. Although some of the vultures regularly roosted at breeding colonies located inside protected areas the majority of foraging activity took place on unprotected farmland. Their ability to travel vast distances very quickly and the high proportion of time they spend in the vicinity of power lines and outside protected areas make Cape vultures especially vulnerable to negative interactions with the expanding power line network and the full range of threats across the region. Co-ordinated cross-border conservation strategies beyond the protected area network will therefore be necessary to ensure the future survival of threatened vultures in Africa. PMID:24137496

  11. Do Power Lines and Protected Areas Present a Catch-22 Situation for Cape Vultures (Gyps coprotheres)?

    PubMed Central

    Phipps, W. Louis; Wolter, Kerri; Michael, Michael D.; MacTavish, Lynne M.; Yarnell, Richard W.

    2013-01-01

    Cape vulture Gyps coprotheres populations have declined across their range due to multiple anthropogenic threats. Their susceptibility to fatal collisions with the expanding power line network and the prevalence of carcasses contaminated with illegal poisons and other threats outside protected areas are thought to be the primary drivers of declines in southern Africa. We used GPS-GSM units to track the movements and delineate the home ranges of five adult (mean ±SD minimum convex polygon area  =  121,655±90,845 km2) and four immature (mean ±SD minimum convex polygon area  =  492,300±259,427 km2) Cape vultures to investigate the influence of power lines and their use of protected areas. The vultures travelled more than 1,000 km from the capture site and collectively entered five different countries in southern Africa. Their movement patterns and core foraging ranges were closely associated with the spatial distribution of transmission power lines and we present evidence that the construction of power lines has allowed the species to extend its range to areas previously devoid of suitable perches. The distribution of locations of known Cape vulture mortalities caused by interactions with power lines corresponded to the core ranges of the tracked vultures. Although some of the vultures regularly roosted at breeding colonies located inside protected areas the majority of foraging activity took place on unprotected farmland. Their ability to travel vast distances very quickly and the high proportion of time they spend in the vicinity of power lines and outside protected areas make Cape vultures especially vulnerable to negative interactions with the expanding power line network and the full range of threats across the region. Co-ordinated cross-border conservation strategies beyond the protected area network will therefore be necessary to ensure the future survival of threatened vultures in Africa. PMID:24137496

  12. Present-day deformation of northern Pakistan from Salt Ranges to Karakorum Ranges

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jouanne, F.; Awan, A.; Pêcher, A.; Kausar, A.; Mugnier, J. L.; Khan, I.; Khan, N. A.; Van Melle, J.

    2014-03-01

    Episodic GPS measurements are used to quantify the present-day velocity field in the northwestern Himalaya from the southern Pamir to the Himalayan foreland. We report large postseismic displacements following the 2005 Kashmir earthquake and several mm/yr thrusting of the central segment of the Salt Ranges and Potwar Plateau over the foreland, westward thrusting of Nanga Parbat above the Kohistan Plateau, and ~12 mm/yr SSE velocities of the Karakorum Ranges and of the Deosai and Kohistan Plateaus relative to the Indian Plate. Numerical simulations allow to determine a first approximation of slip along active faults: (1) substantial creep of ~87 mm/yr between 2006 and 2012 along the flat northeast of the Balakot-Bagh Thrust affected by the 2005 earthquake; (2) ~5 mm/yr slip of the central segment of the Salt Ranges and Potwar Plateau, whereas their western boundaries are clearly inactive over the time span covered by our measurements; (3) 13 mm/yr ductile slip along the Main Himalayan Thrust modeled by a dislocation dipping 7° northward, locked at a depth of 15 km; and (4) ~20 mm/yr slip along the shear zone forming the western boundary of Nanga Parbat, between depths of 1.6 and 6.5 km. Residuals velocities suggest the existence of left-lateral strike slip along the Jhelum Fault.

  13. Global hotspots in the present-day distribution of ancient animal and plant lineages.

    PubMed

    Procheş, Şerban; Ramdhani, Syd; Perera, Sandun J; Ali, Jason R; Gairola, Sanjay

    2015-01-01

    The current distribution of biotic lineages that emerged in the deep time has both theoretical and practical implications, in particular for understanding the processes that have forged present-day biodiversity and informing local and regional-scale conservation efforts. To date however, there has been no examination of such patterns globally across taxa and geological time. Here we map the diversity of selected extant seed plant and tetrapod vertebrate lineages that were already in existence either in the latest Triassic or latest Cretaceous. For Triassic-age lineages, we find concentrations in several regions - both tropical and temperate - parts of North America, Europe, East and South-east Asia, northern South America, and New Zealand. With Cretaceous-age lineages, high values are relatively uniformly distributed across the tropics, with peak the values along the Andes, in South-east Asia and Queensland, but also in the temperate Cape Mountains. These patterns result from a combination of factors, including land area, geographic isolation, climate stability and mass extinction survival ability. While the need to protect many of these lineages has been long recognised, a spatially-explicit approach is critical for understanding and maintaining the factors responsible for their persistence, and this will need to be taken forward across finer scales. PMID:26498226

  14. Recovery of a geocentric reference frame using the present-day GPS system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Malla, Rajendra P.; Wu, Sien-Chong

    1990-01-01

    A geocentric reference frame adopts the center of mass of the earth as the origin of the coordinate axes. The center of mass of the earth is the natural and unambiguous origin of a geocentric satellite dynamical system. But in practice a kinematically obtained terrestrial reference frame may assume an origin other than the geocenter. The establishment of a geocentric reference frame, to which all relevant observations and results can be referred and in which geodynamic theories or models for the dynamic behavior of earth can be formulated, requires the ability to accurately recover a given coordinate frame origin offset from the geocenter. GPS measurements, because of their abundance and broad distribution, provide a powerful tool to obtain this origin offset in a short period of time. Two effective strategies have been devised. Data from the First Central And South America (Casa Uno) geodynamics experiment has been studied, in order to demonstrate the ability of recovering the geocenter location with present day GPS satellites and receivers.

  15. Challenges in constraining anthropogenic aerosol effects on cloud radiative forcing using present-day spatiotemporal variability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ghan, Steven; Wang, Minghuai; Zhang, Shipeng; Ferrachat, Sylvaine; Gettelman, Andrew; Griesfeller, Jan; Kipling, Zak; Lohmann, Ulrike; Morrison, Hugh; Neubauer, David; Partridge, Daniel G.; Stier, Philip; Takemura, Toshihiko; Wang, Hailong; Zhang, Kai

    2016-05-01

    A large number of processes are involved in the chain from emissions of aerosol precursor gases and primary particles to impacts on cloud radiative forcing. Those processes are manifest in a number of relationships that can be expressed as factors dlnX/dlnY driving aerosol effects on cloud radiative forcing. These factors include the relationships between cloud condensation nuclei (CCN) concentration and emissions, droplet number and CCN concentration, cloud fraction and droplet number, cloud optical depth and droplet number, and cloud radiative forcing and cloud optical depth. The relationship between cloud optical depth and droplet number can be further decomposed into the sum of two terms involving the relationship of droplet effective radius and cloud liquid water path with droplet number. These relationships can be constrained using observations of recent spatial and temporal variability of these quantities. However, we are most interested in the radiative forcing since the preindustrial era. Because few relevant measurements are available from that era, relationships from recent variability have been assumed to be applicable to the preindustrial to present-day change. Our analysis of Aerosol Comparisons between Observations and Models (AeroCom) model simulations suggests that estimates of relationships from recent variability are poor constraints on relationships from anthropogenic change for some terms, with even the sign of some relationships differing in many regions. Proxies connecting recent spatial/temporal variability to anthropogenic change, or sustained measurements in regions where emissions have changed, are needed to constrain estimates of anthropogenic aerosol impacts on cloud radiative forcing.

  16. Simulation of Net Infiltration for Present-Day and Potential Future Climates

    SciTech Connect

    D. Levitt

    2004-11-09

    The purpose of this model report is to document the infiltration model used to estimate upper-bound, mean, and lower-bound spatially-distributed average annual net infiltration rates for present-day and potential future climates at Yucca Mountain, Nevada. Net infiltration is the component of infiltrated precipitation, snowmelt, or surface water run-on that has percolated below the zone of evapotranspiration as defined by the depth of the effective root zone. The estimates of net infiltration are primarily used for defining the upper boundary condition for the site-scale three-dimensional unsaturated zone (UZ) model. The UZ flow model is one of several process models abstracted by the total system performance assessment (TSPA) model used to evaluate performance of the repository at Yucca Mountain, Nevada. The net-infiltration model is important for assessing repository-system performance because output from this model provides the upper boundary condition for the UZ flow model used to generate flow fields; water percolating downward from the UZ will be the principal means by which radionuclides are potentially released to the saturated zone (SZ). The SZ is the principal pathway to the biosphere where the reasonably maximally exposed individual (RMEI) is exposed to radionuclides.

  17. Global hotspots in the present-day distribution of ancient animal and plant lineages

    PubMed Central

    Procheş, Şerban; Ramdhani, Syd; Perera, Sandun J.; Ali, Jason R.; Gairola, Sanjay

    2015-01-01

    The current distribution of biotic lineages that emerged in the deep time has both theoretical and practical implications, in particular for understanding the processes that have forged present-day biodiversity and informing local and regional-scale conservation efforts. To date however, there has been no examination of such patterns globally across taxa and geological time. Here we map the diversity of selected extant seed plant and tetrapod vertebrate lineages that were already in existence either in the latest Triassic or latest Cretaceous. For Triassic-age linages, we find concentrations in several regions – both tropical and temperate – parts of North America, Europe, East and South-east Asia, northern South America, and New Zealand. With Cretaceous-age lineages, high values are relatively uniformly distributed across the tropics, with peak the values along the Andes, in South-east Asia and Queensland, but also in the temperate Cape Mountains. These patterns result from a combination of factors, including land area, geographic isolation, climate stability and mass extinction survival ability. While the need to protect many of these lineages has been long recognised, a spatially-explicit approach is critical for understanding and maintaining the factors responsible for their persistence, and this will need to be taken forward across finer scales. PMID:26498226

  18. The evolution of galaxies from primeval irregulars to present-day ellipticals.

    PubMed

    Mori, Masao; Umemura, Masayuki

    2006-03-30

    Galaxy formation is believed to proceed in a 'bottom up' manner, starting with the formation of small clumps of gas and stars that then merge hierarchically into giant systems. The baryonic gas loses thermal energy by radiative cooling and falls towards the centres of the new galaxies, while supernovae blow gas out. Any realistic model therefore requires a proper treatment of these processes, but hitherto this has been far from satisfactory. Here we report a simulation that follows evolution from the earliest stages of galaxy formation through the period of dynamical relaxation, at which point the resulting galaxy is in its final form. The bubble structures of gas revealed in our simulation (for times of less than 3 x 10(8) years) resemble closely high-redshift Lyman-alpha emitters. After 10(9) years, these bodies are dominated by stellar continuum radiation and then resemble the Lyman break galaxies, which are high-redshift star-forming galaxies. At this point, the abundance of elements heavier than helium ('metallicity') appears to be solar. After 1.3 x 10(10) years, these galaxies resemble present-day ellipticals. PMID:16572164

  19. Present-day climate of Antarctica : A study with a regional atmospheric climate model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van de Berg, W. J.

    2008-02-01

    The present-day climate of Antarctica is studied with a regional climate model. In this research, foci are the surface mass balance, i.e. the accumulation of snow on the ice cap, and the heat budget of the atmosphere above Antarctica. Insight in the surface mass balance of the Antarctic ice cap is gained by explanation, evaluation and subsequently calibration of model-simulated surface mass balance patterns using more than 1900 in situ observations. Furthermore, a method is developed to quantify the uncertainty in the local and spatially integrated surface mass balance estimate. In our study, a good correlation between the observations and model results is found, giving reliability to the results presented. The final surface mass balance estimate primarily deviates in the coastal zones of Antarctica from earlier estimates. Our results strongly suggest much higher accumulation rates than previously assumed, leading to a 15% higher overall accumulation. Unfortunately, the coastal zone is poorly covered by observations, which makes a final assessment difficult. Analysis of the heat budget of the Antarctic atmosphere clarifies the dynamics of the Antarctic boundary layer and shows the coupling to the global climate. Our results show how the boundary layer develops from the interior of Antarctica to the coast; from shallow and extremely stable to deeper, mixed but still stable. Furthermore, the effect of surface undulations on the local near surface temperature is explained. Domes and ridges have a weakening effect on the surface inversion of the temperature through enhanced divergence of the near-surface wind field. Oppositely, valleys strengthen the surface inversion. This coupling of topography and temperature causes the spatial variability of surface temperatures on scales of typical a few hundred kilometers.

  20. Liquid Water Lakes on Mars Under Present-Day Conditions: Sustainability and Effects on the Subsurface

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goldspiel, Jules M.

    2015-11-01

    Decades of Mars exploration have produced ample evidence that aqueous environments once existed on the surface. Much evidence supports groundwater emergence as the source of liquid water on Mars [1-4]. However, cases have also been made for rainfall [5] and snow pack melts [6].Whatever the mechanism by which liquid water is emplaced on the surface of Mars, whether from groundwater seeps, atmospheric precipitation, or some combination of sources, this water would have collected in local topographic lows, and at least temporarily, would have created a local surface water system with dynamic thermal and hydrologic properties. Understanding the physical details of such aqueous systems is important for interpreting the past and present surface environments of Mars. It is also important for evaluating potential habitable zones on or near the surface.In conjunction with analysis of surface and core samples, valuable insight into likely past aqueous sites on Mars can be gained through modeling their formation and evolution. Toward that end, we built a 1D numerical model to follow the evolution of small bodies of liquid water on the surface of Mars. In the model, liquid water at different temperatures is supplied to the surface at different rates while the system is subjected to diurnally and seasonally varying environmental conditions. We recently simulated cases of cold (275 K) and warm (350 K) water collecting in a small depression on the floor of a mid southern latitude impact crater. When inflows create an initial pool > 3 m deep and infiltration can be neglected, we find that the interior of the pool can remain liquid over a full Mars year under the present cold and dry climate as an ice cover slowly thickens [7]. Here we present new results for the thermal and hydrologic evolution of surface water and the associated subsurface region for present-day conditions when infiltration of surface water into the subsurface is considered.[1] Pieri (1980) Science 210.[2] Carr

  1. Simulation of present-day precipitation over India using a regional climate model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maurya, Rajesh Kumar Singh; Singh, G. P.

    2016-04-01

    The objective of the present paper is to examine the capability of the regional climate model version 3 (RegCM3) to simulate the annual as well as seasonal precipitation variability over the Indian subcontinent. RegCM3 has been run at 40 km horizontal resolution for the period of 1982-2006 continuously and model results were compared to the observed precipitation datasets of India Meteorological Department (IMD) and CPC Merged Analysis of Precipitation (CMAP). Model evaluation has been done using different statistical methods like mean bias error (MBE), root mean square error, mean percentage error (MPE) and studied the spatial pattern of annual and seasonal variability and trend. Daily precipitation data at 1° × 1° grids of IMD have been used to study observed climatological means (both annual and seasonal), regression trends, interannual and intraseasonal variability over India from 1951 to 2007. The spatial distribution of annual precipitation shows a decreasing trend over west coast of India, central India, hilly region of India and an increasing trend is found over the northwest India, peninsular India and northeast India. The temporal distribution of daily precipitation shows highest rainfall of 18 mm/day in mid July (in composite flood cases only) and 12 mm/day during August (in composite drought cases only). The RegCM3 simulated annual and seasonal precipitation variability is close to the observed IMD and CMAP over all India (AI). During winter and pre-monsoon season, the model has overestimated the mean precipitation while underestimated in summer and post-monsoon season. Overall, annual precipitation showed the deficiency of -22.44 % compared to IMD and -1.41 % compared to CMAP over India. To understand the possible cause of annual and seasonal precipitation biases over India and its six homogeneous regions, the vertical difference (model mines National Centre for Environmental Prediction; NCEP) fields of water vapor mixing ratio (WVMR) and air

  2. Status of Day Care in Canada: A Review of the Major Findings of the National Day Care Study, 1974. (Situation De La Garde De Jour Au Canada: Une Revue des Principales Constatations Sur La Garde De Jour, 1974).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Department of National Health and Welfare, Ottawa (Ontario).

    This booklet presents (in both French and English) the results of a 1974 survey which assessed the growth of day care services in Canada. Similar national surveys had been conducted in 1971 and 1973. Results indicated that the number of day care spaces and the number of children of working mothers in day care increased substantially from 1973 to…

  3. Present-Day 3D Velocity Field of Eastern North America Based on Continuous GPS Observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goudarzi, Mohammad Ali; Cocard, Marc; Santerre, Rock

    2016-07-01

    The Saint Lawrence River valley in eastern Canada was studied using observations of continuously operating GPS (CGPS) stations. The area is one of the most seismically active regions in eastern North America characterized by many earthquakes, which is also subject to an ongoing glacial isostatic adjustment. We present the current three-dimensional velocity field of eastern North America obtained from more than 14 years (9 years on average) of data at 112 CGPS stations. Bernese GNSS and GITSA software were used for CGPS data processing and position time series analysis, respectively. The results show the counterclockwise rotation of the North American plate in the No-Net-Rotation model with the average of 16.8 ± 0.7 mm/year constrained to ITRF 2008. We also present an ongoing uplift model for the study region based on the present-day CGPS observations. The model shows uplift all over eastern Canada with the maximum rate of 13.7 ± 1.2 mm/year and subsidence to the south mainly over northern USA with a typical rate of -1 to -2 mm/year and the minimum value of -2.7 ± 1.4 mm/year. We compared our model with the rate of radial displacements from the ICE-5G model. Both models agree within 0.02 mm/year at the best stations; however, our model shows a systematic spatial tilt compared to ICE-5G. The misfits between two models amount to the maximum relative subsidence of -6.1 ± 1.1 mm/year to the east and maximum relative uplift of 5.9 ± 2.7 mm/year to the west. The intraplate horizontal velocities are radially outward from the centers of maximum uplift and are inward to the centers of maximum subsidence with the typical velocity of 1-1.6 ± 0.4 mm/year that is in agreement with the ICE-5G model to the first order.

  4. Present-Day 3D Velocity Field of Eastern North America Based on Continuous GPS Observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goudarzi, Mohammad Ali; Cocard, Marc; Santerre, Rock

    2016-03-01

    The Saint Lawrence River valley in eastern Canada was studied using observations of continuously operating GPS (CGPS) stations. The area is one of the most seismically active regions in eastern North America characterized by many earthquakes, which is also subject to an ongoing glacial isostatic adjustment. We present the current three-dimensional velocity field of eastern North America obtained from more than 14 years (9 years on average) of data at 112 CGPS stations. Bernese GNSS and GITSA software were used for CGPS data processing and position time series analysis, respectively. The results show the counterclockwise rotation of the North American plate in the No-Net-Rotation model with the average of 16.8 ± 0.7 mm/year constrained to ITRF 2008. We also present an ongoing uplift model for the study region based on the present-day CGPS observations. The model shows uplift all over eastern Canada with the maximum rate of 13.7 ± 1.2 mm/year and subsidence to the south mainly over northern USA with a typical rate of -1 to -2 mm/year and the minimum value of -2.7 ± 1.4 mm/year. We compared our model with the rate of radial displacements from the ICE-5G model. Both models agree within 0.02 mm/year at the best stations; however, our model shows a systematic spatial tilt compared to ICE-5G. The misfits between two models amount to the maximum relative subsidence of -6.1 ± 1.1 mm/year to the east and maximum relative uplift of 5.9 ± 2.7 mm/year to the west. The intraplate horizontal velocities are radially outward from the centers of maximum uplift and are inward to the centers of maximum subsidence with the typical velocity of 1-1.6 ± 0.4 mm/year that is in agreement with the ICE-5G model to the first order.

  5. Effects of Present-Day Ice Melting on the Geodetic Measurements in Southeast Alaska

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sato, T.; Larsen, C. F.; Miura, S.; Ohta, Y.; Fujimoto, H.; Sun, W.; Sugano, T.; Kaufman, A. M.; Freymueller, J. T.

    2008-12-01

    It is known that the southeast Alaska (SE-AK) is undergoing a rapid land uplift, which is considered to be mainly due to the effect of melting of past ice, especially in the last two hundred years after the little ice age (LIA). The crustal deformation caused by the post-glacial rebound (PGR) has been clearly detected by GPS and tidal gauge measurements and modeled (Larsen et al., 2004 and 2005). On the other hand, it is considered also that the observed uplift rate is affected by the present-day ice melting (PDIM), which is considered to be the effect of recent global warming (Larsen et al., 2005; Sato et al., 2006). The displacement measurements provide us useful information to evaluate the ice-melting rate and to discuss the viscosity of the earth. However, usually, it is difficult to separate the uplift rate due to the long- term viscous response of the earth by only using displacement observations, because the two effects (i.e. the elastic and viscous deformations) are mixed in the observed data. Related to this problem, Wahr et al. (1995) demonstrated a method to separate the viscous contribution from the observed data by collocating position and gravity measurements. Considered this, since 2006, we, a joint team of Japanese and U.S. researchers are carrying out the absolute gravity (AG) measurements once a year adding to the temporal and continuous GPS observations in SE-AK. Combining the AG measurements and GPS measurements is useful because the attraction part of gravity measurement is sensitive to a mass change of the present-day ice melting, while the past-ices should have no effect to the attraction part of the observed gravity change. In this context of the discussion, precise numerical estimation of the PDIM effect is important (Sato et al., 2007). Based on the two kinds of DEM (Digital Elevation Model), i.e. one is from the 2000 Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM) and other is that from air photo dating data which were obtained in the period of

  6. Challenges in constraining anthropogenic aerosol effects on cloud radiative forcing using present-day spatiotemporal variability

    PubMed Central

    Ghan, Steven; Wang, Minghuai; Zhang, Shipeng; Ferrachat, Sylvaine; Gettelman, Andrew; Griesfeller, Jan; Kipling, Zak; Lohmann, Ulrike; Morrison, Hugh; Neubauer, David; Partridge, Daniel G.; Stier, Philip; Takemura, Toshihiko; Wang, Hailong; Zhang, Kai

    2016-01-01

    A large number of processes are involved in the chain from emissions of aerosol precursor gases and primary particles to impacts on cloud radiative forcing. Those processes are manifest in a number of relationships that can be expressed as factors dlnX/dlnY driving aerosol effects on cloud radiative forcing. These factors include the relationships between cloud condensation nuclei (CCN) concentration and emissions, droplet number and CCN concentration, cloud fraction and droplet number, cloud optical depth and droplet number, and cloud radiative forcing and cloud optical depth. The relationship between cloud optical depth and droplet number can be further decomposed into the sum of two terms involving the relationship of droplet effective radius and cloud liquid water path with droplet number. These relationships can be constrained using observations of recent spatial and temporal variability of these quantities. However, we are most interested in the radiative forcing since the preindustrial era. Because few relevant measurements are available from that era, relationships from recent variability have been assumed to be applicable to the preindustrial to present-day change. Our analysis of Aerosol Comparisons between Observations and Models (AeroCom) model simulations suggests that estimates of relationships from recent variability are poor constraints on relationships from anthropogenic change for some terms, with even the sign of some relationships differing in many regions. Proxies connecting recent spatial/temporal variability to anthropogenic change, or sustained measurements in regions where emissions have changed, are needed to constrain estimates of anthropogenic aerosol impacts on cloud radiative forcing. PMID:26921324

  7. Present-day antarctic climatology of the NCAR community climate model version 1

    SciTech Connect

    Tzeng, Renyow; Bromwich, D.H. ); Parish, T.R. )

    1993-02-01

    Five-year seasonal cycle output produced by the NCAR Community Climate Model Version 1 (CCM 1) with R15 resolution is used to evaluate the ability of the model to simulate the present-day climate of Antarctica. The model results are compared with observed horizontal syntheses and point data. Katabatic winds, surface temperatures over the continent, the circumpolar trough, the vertical motion field, the split jet stream over the Pacific Ocean, and the snowfall accumulation are analyzed. The results show that the CCM1 with R15 resolution can simulate to some extent the dynamics of Antarctic climate not only for the synoptic scale, but also for some mesoscale features. This is reflected in the zonal-mean pattern of vertical motion by the presence of two convergence centers. The finding suggests that the CCM I might also capture the split jet stream over New Zealand in winter, but the evidence is mixed. This is inferred to be due to inadequate simulation of the thermal forcing over high southern latitudes. The CCM I can also capture the phase and amplitude of the annual and semiannual variation of temperature, sea level pressure, and zonally averaged zonal (E-W) wind. That the CCM 1 can simulate some characteristics of the semiannual variation may be due to the improved radiation treatment compared to the earlier CCMO. The most dramatic shortcomings were associated with the model's anomalously large precipitation amounts at high latitudes. The simulations of cloudiness and the atmospheric heat balance are adversely affected. A greatly refined moisture budget scheme is needed to eliminate these problems and may allow the split jet-stream feature over the New Zealand area in winter to be accurately reproduced. A coupled mesoscale-CCM 1 model may be needed to simulate the feedback from mesoscale cyclones to synoptic-scale weather systems, and the katabatic wind circulation.

  8. Quantifying present-day and long-term shale weathering rates across a latitudinal climosequence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dere, A. L. D.; Andrews, E.; White, T. S.

    2015-12-01

    A transect of shale sites was established across the Northern Hemisphere as part of the Susquehanna Shale Hills Critical Zone Observatory (SSHO) to investigate the role of climate in shale weathering. Mean annual temperature and precipitation vary across sites located in Wales, New York, Pennsylvania, Virginia, Tennessee, Alabama and Puerto Rico. Long-term weathering rates were quantified by comparing bulk soil geochemistry with original parent shale composition and cosmogenic 10Be inventories to estimate weathering duration. Present-day weathering rates were obtained by burying approximately 2 cm by 1 cm shale chips at multiple depths in soil pit walls. Shale chip samples were exhumed after two and five years of burial, washed and mass loss measured. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDS) were used to determine surface chemistry and physical alteration of the recovered shale. Long-term weathering rates increase with increasing temperature across the transect. Similarly, after two years of burial, exhumed shale chip weathering rates increased from 2.9 ± 0.9 in Wales to 11.2 ± 3.7 m Ma-1 in Puerto Rico. Average weathering rates after two years of burial were similar in Virginia, Tennessee and Alabama (8.6 - 10.6 m Ma-1). Many shale chips in Alabama and Puerto Rico, however, retained soil particles even after washing, therefore total mass loss, and thus weathering rates, at these sites could be even greater. After five years of burial, mass loss across the Appalachian sites was greatest in Tennessee while weathering rates were overall generally similar to two year rates (3.0 to 12.6 m Ma-1). Evidence of physical and chemical changes, especially Na and Mg loss, from shale chip surfaces was greater on shale chips buried at warmer and wetter sites. Quantifying weathering rates as a function of climate at multiple scales will contribute to understanding the effects of global climate change on soil formation rates in the Critical

  9. Diversity and biogeography of present-day magnetotactic bacteria in eastern China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, W.; Wang, Y.; Pan, Y.

    2012-12-01

    A number of microorganisms are able to biomineralize iron minerals. Among them, magnetotactic bacteria (MTB) mineralize intracellular membrane-enveloped magnetite and/or greigite, known as magnetosomes that help cells to swim along the Earth's magnetic field. In recent years, MTB have become an attractive model system for investigating the biogeomagnetism. The occurrence of MTB has been reported in aquatic environments from freshwater to marine ecosystems. And, fossil magnetosomes are found to be potential carriers of natural remanent magnetization and indicators of paleoenvironmental changes. However, their distribution across heterogeneous habitats remains unclear. Here we report the diversity and biogeography of MTB from more than 20 locations from freshwater to saline habitats in eastern China. Great morphological variability was observed in MTB communities through light and transmission electron microscope observation. Phylogenetic analysis based on 16S rRNA genes has revealed that identified MTB belonged to the Alphaproteobacteria, Deltaproteobacteria, Gammaproteobacteria, and the phylum Nitrospirae. The overall composition of MTB communities was compared, and we found a restricted distribution of MTB communities across a large spatial scale with pronounced endemicity. Variation partitioning analyses indicated that the biogeography of MTB is relatively more influenced by environmental factors (e.g., salinity, sulfate, total iron, Eh, and temperature) than geographic distance. More interestingly, we found, for the first time, that the strength of the Earth's magnetic field appears to influence the biogeography of MTB, implying an impact of geophysical effects on these microorganisms. Our results infer that MTB community represents a biogeographic distribution across the studied heterogeneous environments. Knowledge of the present-day MTB biogeography may be applied towards the reconstruction of paleo-environments and assessment of contribution of bacterial

  10. A test of present-day plate geometries for northeast Asia and Japan

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Demets, Charles

    1992-01-01

    Alternative geometries for the present-day configuration of plate boundaries in northeast Asia and Japan are tested using NUVEL-1 and 256 horizontal earthquake slip vectors from the Japan and northern Kuril trenches. Statistical analysis of the slip vectors is used to determine whether the North American, Eurasian, or Okhotsk plate overlies the trench. Along the northern Kuril trench, slip vectors are well-fit by the NUVEL-1 Pacific-North America Euler pole, but are poorly fit by the Pacific-Eurasia Euler pole. Results for the Japan trench are less conclusive, but suggest that much of Honshu and Hokkaido are also part of the North American plate. The simplest geometry consistent with the trench slip vectors is a geometry in which the North American plate extends south to 41 deg N, and possibly includes northern Honshu and southern Hokkaido. Although these results imply that the diffuse seismicity that connects the Lena River delta to Sakhalin Island and the eastern Sea of Japan records motion between Eurasia and North America, onshore geologic and seismic data define an additional belt of seismicity in Siberia that cannot be explained with this geometry. Assuming that these two seismic belts constitute evidence for an Okhotsk block, two published kinematic models for motion of the Okhotsk block are tested. The first model, which predicts motion of up to 15 mm/yr relative to North America, is rejected because Kuril and Japan trench slip vectors are fit more poorly than for the simpler geometry described above. The second model gives a good fit to the trench slip vectors, but only if Okhotsk-North America motion is slower than 5 mm/yr.

  11. Uncovering the Genetic History of the Present-Day Greenlandic Population

    PubMed Central

    Moltke, Ida; Fumagalli, Matteo; Korneliussen, Thorfinn S.; Crawford, Jacob E.; Bjerregaard, Peter; Jørgensen, Marit E.; Grarup, Niels; Gulløv, Hans Christian; Linneberg, Allan; Pedersen, Oluf; Hansen, Torben; Nielsen, Rasmus; Albrechtsen, Anders

    2015-01-01

    Because of past limitations in samples and genotyping technologies, important questions about the history of the present-day Greenlandic population remain unanswered. In an effort to answer these questions and in general investigate the genetic history of the Greenlandic population, we analyzed ∼200,000 SNPs from more than 10% of the adult Greenlandic population (n = 4,674). We found that recent gene flow from Europe has had a substantial impact on the population: more than 80% of the Greenlanders have some European ancestry (on average ∼25% of their genome). However, we also found that the amount of recent European gene flow varies across Greenland and is far smaller in the more historically isolated areas in the north and east and in the small villages in the south. Furthermore, we found that there is substantial population structure in the Inuit genetic component of the Greenlanders and that individuals from the east, west, and north can be distinguished from each other. Moreover, the genetic differences in the Inuit ancestry are consistent with a single colonization wave of the island from north to west to south to east. Although it has been speculated that there has been historical admixture between the Norse Vikings who lived in Greenland for a limited period ∼600–1,000 years ago and the Inuit, we found no evidence supporting this hypothesis. Similarly, we found no evidence supporting a previously hypothesized admixture event between the Inuit in East Greenland and the Dorset people, who lived in Greenland before the Inuit. PMID:25557782

  12. Present-day deformation of the intra-Eurasian plate regions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Garcia Sancho, Candela; Govers, Rob; Tesauro, Magdala

    2015-04-01

    , and paleomagnetic observations, which capture present-day and long-term deformation. We discuss various causes for differences.

  13. Challenges in constraining anthropogenic aerosol effects on cloud radiative forcing using present-day spatiotemporal variability.

    PubMed

    Ghan, Steven; Wang, Minghuai; Zhang, Shipeng; Ferrachat, Sylvaine; Gettelman, Andrew; Griesfeller, Jan; Kipling, Zak; Lohmann, Ulrike; Morrison, Hugh; Neubauer, David; Partridge, Daniel G; Stier, Philip; Takemura, Toshihiko; Wang, Hailong; Zhang, Kai

    2016-05-24

    A large number of processes are involved in the chain from emissions of aerosol precursor gases and primary particles to impacts on cloud radiative forcing. Those processes are manifest in a number of relationships that can be expressed as factors dlnX/dlnY driving aerosol effects on cloud radiative forcing. These factors include the relationships between cloud condensation nuclei (CCN) concentration and emissions, droplet number and CCN concentration, cloud fraction and droplet number, cloud optical depth and droplet number, and cloud radiative forcing and cloud optical depth. The relationship between cloud optical depth and droplet number can be further decomposed into the sum of two terms involving the relationship of droplet effective radius and cloud liquid water path with droplet number. These relationships can be constrained using observations of recent spatial and temporal variability of these quantities. However, we are most interested in the radiative forcing since the preindustrial era. Because few relevant measurements are available from that era, relationships from recent variability have been assumed to be applicable to the preindustrial to present-day change. Our analysis of Aerosol Comparisons between Observations and Models (AeroCom) model simulations suggests that estimates of relationships from recent variability are poor constraints on relationships from anthropogenic change for some terms, with even the sign of some relationships differing in many regions. Proxies connecting recent spatial/temporal variability to anthropogenic change, or sustained measurements in regions where emissions have changed, are needed to constrain estimates of anthropogenic aerosol impacts on cloud radiative forcing. PMID:26921324

  14. Generation of harmonic frequencies and their effects in present day ICRF systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Durodié, F.; Vervier, M.

    1999-09-01

    The whole TEXTOR-94 ICRF system [1,2] circuit has been analyzed, partially modelled and studied at the fundamental operating frequency and, more important, at harmonic frequencies thereof. It has been found that without appropriate measures, present day systems and especially the TEXTOR ICRF system are prone to spurious generation of power at the second harmonic frequency. This leads either to erroneous activation of the reflected power safety protection or to highly increased (in some cases doubled) voltages in the transmission lines and antennas. As the voltage standing waves at the second harmonic displace the total voltage maxima in the transmission lines and antennas, this also explains why arcs are not always found at the expected voltage maxima for the fundamental frequency. The model is also able to give additional explanations why the ASDEX-Upgrade ICRF system has dramatically improved its power handling capabilities after the introduction of the ``3dB coupler reflection compensation scheme'' [3,4]. The output of one of the TEXTOR transmitters has been fitted with a quarter wave length shorted stub which has no effect on the operation at the fundamental frequency but which effectively shorts out the second harmonic. It has to be noted that eg. the Tore Supra RDL [5] antennas are fitted with such a stub in the feeding transmission line whose function is to enter cooling water into the transmission line system. Hence, this could be the explanation of the apparent higher than average power handling capabilities of the TS antenna system. Experimental results clearly indicate a much improved operational power handling capability on plasma and an increased voltage stand-off when conditioning this antenna pair on vacuum. Limits have yet to be explored but already remarkable is the fact that since the installation of the quarter wavelength stub the reflected power safety system has been activated only once and furthermore so in poorly matched conditions.

  15. Uncovering the genetic history of the present-day Greenlandic population.

    PubMed

    Moltke, Ida; Fumagalli, Matteo; Korneliussen, Thorfinn S; Crawford, Jacob E; Bjerregaard, Peter; Jørgensen, Marit E; Grarup, Niels; Gulløv, Hans Christian; Linneberg, Allan; Pedersen, Oluf; Hansen, Torben; Nielsen, Rasmus; Albrechtsen, Anders

    2015-01-01

    Because of past limitations in samples and genotyping technologies, important questions about the history of the present-day Greenlandic population remain unanswered. In an effort to answer these questions and in general investigate the genetic history of the Greenlandic population, we analyzed ∼200,000 SNPs from more than 10% of the adult Greenlandic population (n = 4,674). We found that recent gene flow from Europe has had a substantial impact on the population: more than 80% of the Greenlanders have some European ancestry (on average ∼25% of their genome). However, we also found that the amount of recent European gene flow varies across Greenland and is far smaller in the more historically isolated areas in the north and east and in the small villages in the south. Furthermore, we found that there is substantial population structure in the Inuit genetic component of the Greenlanders and that individuals from the east, west, and north can be distinguished from each other. Moreover, the genetic differences in the Inuit ancestry are consistent with a single colonization wave of the island from north to west to south to east. Although it has been speculated that there has been historical admixture between the Norse Vikings who lived in Greenland for a limited period ∼600-1,000 years ago and the Inuit, we found no evidence supporting this hypothesis. Similarly, we found no evidence supporting a previously hypothesized admixture event between the Inuit in East Greenland and the Dorset people, who lived in Greenland before the Inuit. PMID:25557782

  16. Estimating hypothetical present-day insured losses for past intense hurricanes in the French Antilles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thornton, James; Desarthe, Jérémy; Naulin, Jean-Philippe; Garnier, Emmanuel; Liu, Ye; Moncoulon, David

    2015-04-01

    On the islands of the French Antilles, the period for which systematic meteorological measurements and historic event loss data are available is short relative to the recurrence intervals of very intense, damaging hurricanes. Additionally, the value of property at risk changes through time. As such, the recent past can only provide limited insight into potential losses from extreme storms in coming years. Here we present some research that seeks to overcome, as far as is possible, the limitations of record length in assessing the possible impacts of near-future hurricanes on insured properties. First, using the archives of the French overseas departments (which included administrative and weather reports, inventories of damage to houses, crops and trees, as well as some meteorological observations after 1950) we reconstructed the spatial patterns of hazard intensity associated with three historical events. They are: i) the 1928 Hurricane (Guadeloupe), ii) Hurricane Betsy (1956, Guadeloupe) and iii) Hurricane David (1979, Martinique). These events were selected because all were damaging, and the information available on each is rich. Then, using a recently developed catastrophe model for hurricanes affecting Guadeloupe, Martinique, Saint-Barthélemy and Saint-Martin, we simulated the hypothetical losses to insured properties that the reconstructed events might cause if they were to reoccur today. The model simulated damage due to wind, rainfall-induced flooding and storm surge flooding. These 'what if' scenarios provided an initial indication of the potential present-day exposure of the insurance industry to intense hurricanes. However, we acknowledge that historical events are unlikely to repeat exactly. We therefore extended the study by producing a stochastic event catalogue containing a large number of synthetic but plausible hurricane events. Instrumental data were used as a basis for event generation, but importantly the statistical methods we applied permit

  17. A No-Net-Rotation Model of Present-Day Surface Motions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kreemer, C.; Holt, W. E.

    2001-12-01

    A significant portion of the Earth's surface consists of zones of diffuse deformation. The interior regions of these diffuse zones of deformation move at distinctly different velocities from that of adjacent plates, and, because of their complexities, have been ignored in previous no-net-rotation (NNR) models (e.g., NNR-NUVEL1A). We have calculated a new NNR model from a continuous velocity field that incorporates both rigid plate motion and velocity gradients within plate boundary zones. The velocity field is obtained through a bi-cubic Bessel interpolation of almost 3000 geodetic velocities and strain rates inferred from Quaternary faults. The geodetic velocities are taken from about 50 different, mainly published, studies. For each study we have not adopted the original reference frame. Instead, we have solved for a rigid body rotation for each study that rotate the vectors of each study into a model reference frame in the process of satisfying a least-squares fit between model and observed velocities and model and observed strain rates. When compared with earlier NNR models we find significantly different angular velocities for many plates in our model. Differences between the NNR model presented here and earlier NNR models can be attributed to both the effect of including velocity gradients in diffuse plate boundary zones, as well as actual differences between geodetically derived, present-day, surface motions and geologic estimates. We find that for the Indian, Arabian, Nazca, Cocos, Philippine Sea, and the Caribbean plate the differences between our model and the NNR-NUVEL1A model are mainly due to differences between geodetic and geologic plate velocities. For the Eurasian plate the discrepancy that we find between our result and NNR-NUVEL1A model can not only be ascribed to the difference between geodetic and geologic velocities, but also to the significant effect of including plate boundary zones. The significantly different NNR rotation vectors that we

  18. Present-day Stress Pattern of Turkey from Inversion of Updated Earthquake Focal Mechanism Catalogue

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Özacar, A.

    2011-12-01

    Active tectonic setting of Turkey is characterized by different stress regimes. In order to analyze present-day tectonic stresses throughout the country, all available earthquake focal mechanisms with updated locations reported by the International Seismological Center (ISC) and national catalogues are compiled between 34° - 43° latitudes and 25° - 46° longitudes. Focal mechanisms of earthquakes with multiple solutions are chosen based on their reliability and consistency with the local tectonic setting. The resultant database which includes 1391 events occurred during the period 1909 - 2010 with magnitudes ranging from 2.0 to 8.0 and depths reaching up to 165 km, constitutes the base information for better active fault characterization in seismic hazard analyses. Using this catalogue, the pressure-tension axes, maximum-minimum horizontal stress axes, and tectonic stress regime of each earthquake are determined following the World Stress Map (WSM) project guidelines and analyzed separately for crustal and intermediate depth earthquakes. During stress inversion, crustal events are grouped in 36 and intermediate depth events in 2 distinct regions on the basis of their geographical proximity, kinematic homogeneity and tectonic setting to minimize the amount of heterogeneity and map the variations in the stress field. In the following stage, results of independent stress inversions including orientations of the three principal compressive stresses (σ1 = maximum, σ2 = intermediate, and σ3 = minimum), ratio of stress magnitudes (σ2 - σ3 / σ1 - σ3), and dominant stress regimes, are analyzed along with seismicity recorded by national seismic networks and previously mapped active faults. Our results reveal widespread strike-slip faulting in the crust throughout Turkey including North Anatolian Fault Zone, North Aegean Trough, Pliny-Strabo Trenches, Paphos Transform Fault, Tuzgölü Fault, East Anatolian Fault Zone, and East Anatolian Plateau. The regions

  19. Statistical dynamical downscaling of present day and future precipitation regimes in southern Vietnam

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schubert, David; Reyers, Mark; Pinto, Joaquim; Fink, Andreas; Massmeyer, Klaus

    2016-04-01

    Southeast Asia has been identified as one of the hot-spots of climate change. While the projected changes in annual precipitation are comparatively small, there is a clear tendency towards more rainfall in the dry season and an increase in extreme precipitation events. In this study, a statistical dynamical downscaling (SDD) approach is applied to obtain higher resolution and more robust regional climate change projections for tropical Southeast Asia with focus on Vietnam. First, a recent climate (RC) simulation with the regional climate model COSMO-CLM with a spatial resolution of ~50 km driven by ERA-Interim (1979-2008) is performed for the tropical region of Southeast Asia. For the SDD, six weather types (WTs) are selected for Vietnam during the wet season (April - October) using a k-means cluster analysis of daily zonal wind component in 850 hPa and 200 hPa from the RC run. For each calculated weather type, simulated representatives are selected from the RC run and are then further dynamically downscaled to a resolution of 0.0625° (7 km). By using historical WT frequencies, the simulated representatives are recombined to a high resolution rainfall climatology for the recent climate. It is shown that the SDD is generally able to capture the present day climatology and that the employment of the higher resolved simulated representatives enhances the performance of the SDD. However, an overestimation of rainfall at higher altitudes is found. To obtain future climate projections, an ensemble of eight CMIP5 model members are selected to study precipitation changes. For these projections, WT frequencies of future scenarios under two representative Concentration Pathways (RCP4.5 and RCP8.5) are taken into account for the mid-term scenario (2046-2065) and the long-term scenario (2081-2100). The strongest precipitation changes are found for the RCP8.5 scenario. Most of the models indicate a generally increase in precipitation amount in the wet period over Southeast

  20. Present-day loading rates of faults in the northern Mojave region, California, from GPS Geodesy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Spinler, J. C.; Bennett, R. A.; McGill, S. F.

    2013-12-01

    We analyzed GPS data from 45 continuous sites along with 9 campaign sites within the northern Mojave region for the time period 2002.0-2013.0 to model the present-day crustal velocity field for the region. In addition to the 54 sites we analyzed, we included 21 site velocities from the USGS Fort Irwin network and 66 site velocities from the SCEC Crustal Motion Map 4 velocity field. We rotated the USGS and SCEC velocities into our Stable North America Reference Frame (SNARF) through a minimization of the differences amongst sites in common between the different solutions. We used our velocities to constrain an elastic block model in order to estimate fault-loading rates of crustal faults within the northern Mojave region. Each crustal block is allowed to both translate and rotate about a vertical axis. Results include new slip rate estimates for the NW-SE oriented right-lateral strike-slip faults within the eastern California shear zone (ECSZ), including model faults representing the Lenwood-Lockhart fault zone (4.5×0.2 mm/yr), Calico-Blackwater faults (1.0×0.4 mm/yr), and Goldstone Lake fault (1.2×0.5 mm/yr), with a total slip across the ECSZ of ~8-9 mm/yr, lower than some previous geodetic estimates, but slightly higher than geologic estimates. We estimate left-lateral slip rates of 4.4×0.2 and 4.9×0.3 mm/yr for the model faults representing the west-central and central segments of the Garlock fault, respectively, with rates decreasing to 0.5×0.4 mm/yr for the easternmost segment. We estimate clockwise rotation rates of the crustal blocks in the Northeast Mojave domain in the range of 3-5×0.7 °/Myr, consistent with paleomagnetic estimates of as much as 50° since 10 Ma.

  1. Importance of Past Human and Natural Disturbance in Present-Day Net Ecosystem Productivity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Felzer, B. S.; Phelps, P.

    2014-12-01

    Gridded datasets of Net Ecosystem Exchange derived from eddy covariance and remote sensing measurements provide a means of validating Net Ecosystem Productivity (NEP, opposite of NEE) from terrestrial ecosystem models. While most forested regions in the U.S. are observed to be moderate to strong carbon sinks, models not including human or natural disturbances will tend to be more carbon neutral, which is expected of mature ecosystems. We have developed the Terrestrial Ecosystems Model Hydro version (TEM-Hydro) to include both human and natural disturbances to compare against gridded NEP datasets. Human disturbances are based on the Hurtt et al. (2006) land use transition dataset and include transient agricultural (crops and pasture) conversion and abandonment and timber harvest. We include natural disturbances of storms and fires based on stochastic return intervals. Tropical storms and hurricane return intervals are based on Zheng et al. (2009) and occur only along the U.S. Atlantic and Gulf coasts. Fire return intervals are based on LANDFIRE Rapid Assessment Vegetation Models and vegetation types from the Hurtt dataset. We are running three experiments with TEM-Hydro from 1700-2011 for the conterminous U.S.: potential vegetation (POT), human disturbance only (agriculture and timber harvest, LULC), and human plus natural disturbance (agriculture, timber harvest, storms, and fire, DISTURB). The goal is to compare our NEP values to those obtained by FLUXNET-MTE (Jung et al. 2009) from 1982-2008 and ECMOD (Xiao et al., 2008) from 2000-2006 for different plant functional types (PFTs) within the conterminous U.S. Preliminary results show that, for the entire U.S., potential vegetation yields an NEP of 10.8 gCm-2yr-1 vs 128.1 gCm-2yr-1 for LULC and 89.8 gCm-2yr-1 for DISTURB from 1982-2008. The effect of regrowth following agricultural and timber harvest disturbance therefore contributes substantially to the present-day carbon sink, while stochastic storms and fires

  2. Present-day Tectonic Stress Regimes in Northern Iraq and Surrounding Regions from Focal Mechanism Data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mahdi, H. H.; Abdulnaby, W.; Al-Shukri, H. J.; Numan, N.

    2013-12-01

    The collision zone between the Arabian and the Eurasian plates is one of the most seismically active regions. Northern Iraq represents the northeastern part of the Arabian plate that has a suture zone with the Turkish and Iranian plates named Bitlis-Zagros suture zone. The present-day tectonic stress regimes can be estimated from focal mechanism data. The waveform moment tensor inversion method was used to derive the focal mechanism solution of 65 earthquakes with magnitudes of ≥3.5. Green's functions for the local and regional seismograms were generated in order to perform the moment tensor inversion using complete seismograms. From focal mechanism solutions, the direction of slip and the orientations of the moment tensor axes (P, N, and T) on the fault surface during an earthquake were determined. The tectonic stress regime of each focal mechanism was estimated based on Zoback (1992). The results show that all six categories of the stress regimes, which are normal faulting (NF), normal faulting with strike-slip component (NS), strike-slip faulting (SS), thrust faulting with strike-slip component (TS), thrust faulting (TF), and unknown or oblique faulting (UF), exist. However, the most common tectonic regimes in the study area are the SS (43.94%), UF (27.27%), and TF (13.64%). In most cases, the strike-slip movement on the fault surfaces consists of left-lateral movement. The NF regime, which is located in one small area near Diyala city at the Iraq-Iran border, might be a local tensional stress regime. The directions of the compressional stress axes show that the stress regime at the Zagros suture zone has two directions. One is perpendicular to the suture near the Iraq-Iran border, and the second is parallel to the suture near the Iraq-Turkey border. In addition, the compressional stress axes at the city of Sinjar, near the Iraq-Syria border, have E-W direction. These results are compatible with the tectonic setting of the Arabain-Eurasian continental

  3. Disaster Day! Integrating Speech Skills though Impromptu Group Research and Presentation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pruim, Douglas E.

    2016-01-01

    Courses: Disaster Day (DD) is a single-class activity designed for public speaking classrooms, but could also be applied to courses addressing small group communication. Objectives: DD integrates fundamental skills of the basic speech course, fosters participation through group work, and introduces new concepts and skills. By the end of the…

  4. Children's Understanding of Night and Day: A Research Report Presented at NCSS, 1984.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Frazee, Bruce M.

    What advanced 4- and 5-year-old children know about night and day in relationship to the earth and sun was studied to test the hypothesis that two teaching activities would help children to understand the cause of the phenomenon. Participants were 21 middle to upper class boys and girls enrolled in a part-time early childhood enrichment program…

  5. Acceptance or refusal of convenience food in present-day prison.

    PubMed

    Vanhouche, An-Sofie

    2015-11-01

    Food in prison is an insufficiently researched topic. However, prisoners often highlight problems with and criticism of their prison meals. This article aims to further develop this topic by giving closer insight into the use and attitudes toward ready-made meals in the Tilburg prison. In this prison, prisoners receive ready-made meals. This is in contrast to Belgian prisons, from which they were transferred, where meals were made from scratch. This change in the food system led to commotion and complaints. To understand the situation, interviews with prisoners and staff were conducted and observations in the Tilburg prison were made. The results showed that a food system can have considerable influence on prison experiences. In addition, and contrary to what earlier reports have mentioned, the ready-made meals also have some advantages, especially for the organization of daily prison life. However, most prisoners had negative attitudes toward these meals. PMID:25891041

  6. Potential autotrophic metabolisms in ultra-basic reducing springs associated with present-day continental serpentinization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morrill, P. L.; Miles, S.; Kohl, L.; Kavanagh, H.; Ziegler, S. E.; Brazelton, W. J.; Schrenk, M. O.

    2013-12-01

    Ultra-basic reducing springs at continental sites of serpentinization act as windows into the biogeochemistry of this subsurface exothermic environment rich in H2 and CH4 gases. Biogeochemical carbon transformations in these systems are of interest because serpentinization creates conditions that are amenable to abiotic and biotic reduction of carbon. However, little is known about the metabolic capabilities of the microorganisms that live in this environment. To determine the potential for autotrophic metabolisms, bicarbonate and CO substrate addition microcosm experiments were performed using water and sediment from an ultra-basic reducing spring in the Tablelands, Newfoundland, Canada, a site of present-day continental serpentinization. CO was consistently observed to be utilized in the Live but not the Killed controlled replicates amended with 10% 13C labelled CO and non-labelled (natural C isotope abundance) CO. In the Live CO microcosms with natural C isotope abundance, the residual CO became enriched in 13C (~10 ‰) consistent with a decrease in the fraction of CO remaining. In the Killed CO controlled replicates with natural C isotope abundance the CO showed little 13C enrichment (~1.3 ‰). The data from the Live CO microcosms were well described by a Rayleigh isotopic distillation model, yielding an isotopic enrichment factor for microbial CO uptake of 15.7 ×0.5 ‰ n=2. These data suggest that there was microbial CO utilization in these experiments. The sediment and water from the 13C-labelled and non-labelled, Live and Killed microcosms were extracted for phospholipid fatty acids (PLFAs) to determine changes in community composition between treatments as well as to determine the microbial uptake of CO. The difference in community composition between the Live and Killed microcosms was not readily resolvable based on PLFA distributions. Additionally, the microbial uptake of 13CO had minimal to no affect on the δ13C of the cellular biomarkers, with the

  7. Influence of ocean tide dynamics on the climate system from the Cretaceous to present day

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weber, Tobias; Thomas, Maik

    2016-04-01

    Global numerical ocean models used for paleo-climate reconstructions generally only consider the ocean's general circulation, but neglect tidal dynamics. However, it has been demonstrated that tidally induced friction at the ocean bottom alters the mean ocean circulation and energy fluxes on timescales larger than one tidal period and up to climate timescales. Thereby the mean ocean circulation and temperature advection is altered and can thus affect climate. We simultaneously modeled the ocean's general circulation and tidal dynamics for five time-slices from the Cretaceous to present day: the Albian (ca. 110 million years ago, Ma), the Cenomanian-Turonian Boundary (ca. 93 Ma, CTB), the early Eocene (ca. 55 Ma), the early Pliocene (ca. 3.5 Ma), and a pre-industrial period (ca. 1850 AD). These simulations show that the tectonic evolution of ocean basins changes the resonance conditions in the paleo-oceans over time and thus the position of amphydromic systems and the amplitudes of partial tides. Largest amplitudes of the M2 partial tide are obtained during the early Eocene when they are in the global mean by 150% larger than in the CTB, when amplitudes are smallest. The evolution of the tidal system leads to an individual interaction between tidal dynamics and the ocean general circulation for all time-slices. In the Albian a reduction of horizontal velocities of up to 50% is simulated in the deep Indo-Pacific Throughflow (IPT) below 1000m depth. This reduction is the product of tidal residual mean currents induced by tidal waves propagating from the Pacific Ocean into the Indian Ocean that oppose the prevailing eastward thermohaline currents. In all other time-slices mainly an increase in horizontal transports is simulated. In the CTB both tidal residual mean currents (less than 0.2cm/s in most of the ocean) and the general ocean circulation (less than 0.5cm/s) are small, thus leading to a tidally induced increase by 50% in horizontal velocities in almost half of

  8. IMS/Satellite Situation Center report. Daily summary for IMS high-altitude satellites, days 182-365 1977

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1977-01-01

    The orbital positions of a number of high-altitude satellites, capable of making magnetospheric measurements in the second half of 1977, are described. The following satellites are considered: Vela 5A, Vela 5B, Vela 6A, Vela 6B, Solrad 11A, Solrad 11B, Hawkeye 1, Prognoz 5, Explorer 47, Explorer 50, and ISEE-A/-B. The orbit elements used for generating the satellite ephemeris are shown. Complete presentations of the positions of these satellites for the second half of 1977 are given, as well as the IMS/SSC special periods. Detailed plots illustrating these periods are provided. Time-ordered tables of magnetopause crossings, bow shock crossings, neutral sheet passes, midlatitude magnetotail passes, high-latitude magnetotail passes, and Hawkeye 1 northern cusp passes are presented. Bar charts covering the second half of 1977 are given which identify thirteen special periods (Nos. 10-22) based upon certain conjunctions of the high-altitude satellites.

  9. Present-Day Seasonal Gully Activity in a South Polar Pit (Sisyphi Cavi) on Mars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Raack, Jan; Reiss, Dennis; Appéré, Thomas; Vincendon, Mathieu; Ruesch, Ottaviano; Hiesinger, Harald

    2014-05-01

    Seasonal activity of gullies under current climatic conditions on Mars was observed by [1-7]. Dundas et al. [2] reviewed the present-day activity of classical gullies (including the gully presented in this work), dune gullies, and other mass wasting processes in the southern hemisphere on Mars. Recent polar gullies in Sisyphi Cavi were also analyzed by [8], who estimated ages of about 20 ka to 20 Ma for the gullies. In this study we focus on a single gully in Sisyphi Cavi, located in the south polar region at 1.44° E and 68.54° S. The gully occurs on the gullied equator-facing slope of an isolated polar pit within an infilled impact crater. Multi-temporal high-resolution image data analyses show new deposits at the terminus of the gully channel and on the gully apron within spring (after solar longitudes of 236°) of martian years (MY) 29 and 31. In MY 29 deposition of material shortens the channel by about 40 m; in MY 31 a new deposit at the western flank of the gully apron with approximately 300-600 m3 of material is visible [3]. Our morphological investigations show that the identified new deposits were formed by dark flows through the entire gully deposited on top of the apron between LS ~218° and ~226°. Thermal data show a temperature increase between solar longitudes (LS) ~218° and ~226°. Near-infrared spectral data show relatively constant band strengths of CO2 ice and H2O ice in this time range. After the formation of the dark flows (after LS ~226°), temperatures increase rapidly from ~180 K to >~270 K at LS ~250°. At this time, spectral data indicate that all volatiles on the surface sublimated. However, an earlier beginning of sublimation when the dark flows were observed (between LS ~218° and ~226°) is likely, due to the fact that the instruments can only show the last phase of sublimation (decrease of volatile band strengths) [3]. Spectral modeling shows that from winter to mid-spring, the surface of the studied area is covered by CO2 slab

  10. An unusual presentation of a Page kidney 24 days after transplantation: case report.

    PubMed

    Butt, F K; Seawright, A H; Kokko, K E; Hawxby, A M

    2010-12-01

    The Page kidney phenomenon is a well recognized entity where an extrinsically compressed kidney results in hypertension and loss of function. This compression is usually caused by a subcapsular hematoma secondary to blunt abdominal trauma or an invasive procedure such as a renal biopsy. We describe an unusual case involving the spontaneous development of a Page kidney 24 days after renal transplantation without any history of preceding trauma. The subcapsular hematoma was detected by a computerized tomographic scan performed as part of the work-up for acute allograft dysfunction. Prompt recognition and early intervention are essential if renal function is to be restored before irreversible damage occurs. PMID:21168685

  11. Present and future assessment of growing degree days over selected Greek areas with different climate conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pattanaik, D. R.; Mohapatra, M.; Srivastava, A. K.; Kumar, Arun

    2016-06-01

    The determination of heat requirements in the first developing phases of plants has been expressed as Growing Degree Days (GDD). The current study focuses on three selected study areas in Greece that are characterised by different climatic conditions due to their location and aims to assess the future variation and spatial distribution of Growing Degree Days (GDD) and how these can affect the main cultivations in the study areas. Future temperature data were obtained and analysed by the ENSEMBLES project. The analysis was performed for the future periods 2021-2050 and 2071-2100 with the A1B and B1 scenarios. Spatial distribution was performed using a combination of dynamical and statistical downscaling technique through ArcGIS 10.2.1. The results indicated that for all the future periods and scenarios, the GDD are expected to increase. Furthermore, the increase in the Sperchios River basin will be the highest, followed by the Ardas and the Geropotamos River basins. Moreover, the cultivation period will be shifted from April-October to April-September which will have social, economical and environmental benefits. Additionally, the spatial distribution indicated that in the upcoming years the existing cultivations can find favourable conditions and can be expanded in mountainous areas as well. On the other hand, due to the rough topography that exists in the study areas, the wide expansion of the existing cultivations into higher altitudes is unaffordable. Nevertheless, new more profitable cultivations can be introduced which can find propitious conditions in terms of GDD.

  12. [Dental insurance systems in light of present-day prevention potentials].

    PubMed

    Marthaler, T; Zollinger, E

    1979-05-01

    The situation of public dental insurance systems of several countries in Western Europe was examined in the light of the fact that caries and periodontitis may be prevented. Available epidemiological data were discussed as to their relevance. In Switzerland, dental insurance systems are of minor importance. In voluntary insurance plans for adults, prevention is scarcely included. On the other hand, the communities provide subsidies for dental care of schoolchildren, and prevention is an integral part of this system. In the German Federal Republic, dental insurance costs have quadrupled during the period 1970-1977. Preventive measures are not subsidized, and in recent years, more than half of the insurance payments were used for prosthetic dentistry. The few dental statistics available show that dental treatment of children is unsatisfactory. In Sweden, preventive measures are refunded at 75%. Since the introduction of the public insurance system in 1974 prosthetic dental work has increased at the expense of conservative treatment. In France, the social security system pays for about three quarters of conservative and simple prosthetic work. Prevention has so far not been included. Despite liberal refunding of restorative work markedly higher prevalence of tooth loss was found in lower social levels as compared to higher levels. In Great Britain, the National Health Service was introduced in 1948. As in France, tooth loss is most frequent in lower social levels. The findings are discussed with respect to cost developments and oral health prospects in Switzerland. Attention is focused upon the observation that the insurance systems were conceived at a time when realistic preventive programs were unavailable and their success had not yet been demonstrated in large groups. PMID:293044

  13. Bulgarian singer Dyana presents PA Director Dickinson with her new CD on STS-90 launch day

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1998-01-01

    David Dickinson, the acting director of the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) Public Affairs Office at Kennedy Space Center, accepts a copy of Bulgarian singer Dyana Dafova's latest compact disc (CD) from her on behalf of NASA. The 525-foot tall Vehicle Assembly Building, where Space Shuttle orbiters are mated to their external tank/solid rocket booster stacks, looms in the background. Dyana is touring the United States to promote her CD, entitled 'Sounds of the Earth,' and was an invited guest of NASA for the launch of Columbia on STS-90, the Neurolab mission, earlier in the day. Columbia lifted off from Launch Pad 39B at 2:19 p.m. EDT. Dyana characterized the music on her CD as a new sound, incorporating jazz and new age classics, sung in a newly created language comprised of Bulgarian, English, Sanskrit, Aramski and Hebrew.

  14. Present-day plate motions: Retrieval from the TOPEX/Poseidon orbitography network (DORIS system)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Souriau, Annie; Cazenave, Anny; Biancale, R.; Balmino, G.; Dominh, K.; Mazzega, P.; Lemoine, J.-M.; Boucher, Claude; Willis, P.; Kasser, M.

    1991-01-01

    The goal of the proposal is to determine the present motion of the main tectonic plates from the Doppler data of the Doppler Orbitography and Radiopositioning Integrated by Satellite (DORIS) orbitography system, which includes in its final configuration about 50 tracking stations with a world-wide distribution.

  15. Present-day radio-astronomical systems of aperture synthesis (Review)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tseitlin, N. M.

    The characteristics of a number of synthetic-aperture radio telescopes are presented. Particular consideration is given to cruciform and T-shaped radio telescopes consisting of 'linear' antennas (Mills crosses); multielement radio telescopes with immobile antennas; multielement radio telescopes with immobile and moving elements; and millimeter-wave interferometers.

  16. Present-day fluxes of coccolithophores and diatoms in the pelagic Ionian Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Malinverno, Elisa; Maffioli, Paola; Corselli, Cesare; De Lange, Gert J.

    2014-04-01

    Biogenic fluxes from two sediment traps in the Ionian sea (35°13‧N, 21°30‧E) at 500 and 2800 m water depth are discussed in relation with the main oceanographic and external forcing and compared with previous data from a nearby location. This study is part of a multi-year sediment trap deployment, aimed at assessing seasonality and interannual variability of biogenic and abiogenic fluxes. Here, we focus on fluxes related to two main phytoplankton groups: coccolithophores and diatoms. At our mooring site, high-coccolithophore and low-diatom fluxes confirm the oligotrophic character of the pelagic eastern Mediterranean year-round. Coccolithophore assemblages are dominated by the cosmopolitan species Emiliania huxleyi, followed by the deep-dwelling Florisphaera profunda and by several minor species. Diatom assemblages are dominated by Thalassionema bacillare and Nitzschia interruptestriata, with ~ 100 common and minor species. Overall, the combined flux pattern of coccolithophores and diatoms shows a clear seasonality throughout the study period, which can be related to changing oceanographic conditions and a different depth of production within the photic zone. Worth to note is the extremely high abundance, with respect to previous pelagic records, of species indicative of an intense deep chlorophyll maximum (DCM), which could indicate a shoaling of the nutricline. This feature can be related to the variability that affects surface hydrography and the deep water masses. Additionally, the occurrence of neritic, benthic and brackish to fresh-water diatom species, mainly in the deeper trap, could be linked to either lateral transport within the water column or the atmospheric input of Saharan dust, which is known to be common over the eastern Mediterranean especially during spring time. Finally, correlation of the flux pattern at different depths allowed sinking speeds for total and biogenic particles to be calculated, which ranged from 70 to > 200 m day- 1. Three

  17. Computational approach for investigation of thrust and acoustic performances of present-day nozzles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vlasenko, V.; Bosniakov, S.; Mikhailov, S.; Morozov, A.; Troshin, A.

    2010-05-01

    A computational viewpoint on the problems of design and numerical simulation for the nozzles of modern aircraft turbofan engines is presented. Modern concepts of noise-suppressing nozzles for civil aircraft are reviewed. Examples of application of CFD (computational fluid dynamics) methods to the analysis of nozzle flow structure and assessment of nozzle thrust characteristics are given. Errors of turbulence models in simulation of jets are analyzed. The authors’ experience in simulation of noise-suppressing nozzles for supersonic civil aircrafts is demonstrated. Insufficient accuracy of acoustic analogies for this class of tasks is shown, but a possible area of acoustic analogies application is noted. The essential elements of computational aeroacoustics (CAA) approach and numerical methods characteristic of CAA are reviewed. Numerical methodology for the simulation of nozzle acoustic performance is described in detail, including methods for simulation of near and far field of a nozzle, for generation of input perturbations and for the processing the far-field noise. Results of verification and methodical analysis of this acoustic methodology are presented.

  18. Discovery of Five Candidates for Present Day η Carinae Analogs in Nearby Galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khan, Rubab M.

    2016-01-01

    Late-stage evolution of the most massive stars such as η Carinae is controlled by the effects of mass loss, possibly dominated by poorly understood episodic mass ejections. Through a systematic search utilizing archival Spitzer and HST data, we have discovered five objects in the nearby (<10 Mpc) massive star-forming galaxies M51, M83, M101 and NGC6946 that have optical through mid-infrared photometric properties consistent with their being analogs of the hitherto unique η Car as it is presently observed. Prior to this discovery there were no known analogs of η Car either in our or other galaxies. These objects are very luminous, with Lbol=3-6×106 L⊙. Their Spitzer mid-infrared spectral energy distributions rise steeply in the 3.6-8 μm bands, then turn over between 8 and 24 μm indicating the presence of warm (~400-600 K) circumstellar dust. Their optical counterparts, identified in deep HST images, are 1.5-2 dex fainter relative to mid-IR peaks and require the presence of ~5-10 M⊙ obscuring material. We present the properties of these five sources and discuss the implications of our discovery for understanding massive star evolution.

  19. Competing bounds on the present-day time variation of fundamental constants

    SciTech Connect

    Dent, Thomas; Stern, Steffen; Wetterich, Christof

    2009-04-15

    We compare the sensitivity of a recent bound on time variation of the fine structure constant from optical clocks with bounds on time-varying fundamental constants from atomic clocks sensitive to the electron-to-proton mass ratio, from radioactive decay rates in meteorites, and from the Oklo natural reactor. Tests of the weak equivalence principle also lead to comparable bounds on present variations of constants. The 'winner in sensitivity' depends on what relations exist between the variations of different couplings in the standard model of particle physics, which may arise from the unification of gauge interactions. Weak equivalence principle tests are currently the most sensitive within unified scenarios. A detection of time variation in atomic clocks would favor dynamical dark energy and put strong constraints on the dynamics of a cosmological scalar field.

  20. Present-day biogeochemical activities of anaerobic bacteria and their relevance to future exobiological investigations

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Oremland, R.S.

    1989-01-01

    If the primordial atmosphere was reducing, then the first microbial ecosystem was probably composed of anaerobic bacteria. However, despite the presence of an oxygen-rich atmosphere, anaerobic habitats are important, commonplace components of the Earth's present biosphere. The geochemical activities displayed by these anaerobes impact the global cycling of certain elements (e.g., C, N, S, Fe, Mn, etc.). Methane provides an obvious example of how human-enhanced activities on a global scale can influence the content of a "radiative" (i.e., infrared absorbing) trace gas in the atmosphere. Methane can be oxidized by anaerobic bacteria, but this does not appear to support their growth. Acetylene, however, does support such growth. This may form the basis for future exobiological investigations of the atmospheres of anoxic, hydrocarbon-rich planets like Jupiter and Saturn, as well as the latter's satellite Titan. ?? 1989.

  1. Ancient human genomes suggest three ancestral populations for present-day Europeans

    PubMed Central

    Lazaridis, Iosif; Patterson, Nick; Mittnik, Alissa; Renaud, Gabriel; Mallick, Swapan; Kirsanow, Karola; Sudmant, Peter H.; Schraiber, Joshua G.; Castellano, Sergi; Lipson, Mark; Berger, Bonnie; Economou, Christos; Bollongino, Ruth; Fu, Qiaomei; Bos, Kirsten I.; Nordenfelt, Susanne; Li, Heng; de Filippo, Cesare; Prüfer, Kay; Sawyer, Susanna; Posth, Cosimo; Haak, Wolfgang; Hallgren, Fredrik; Fornander, Elin; Rohland, Nadin; Delsate, Dominique; Francken, Michael; Guinet, Jean-Michel; Wahl, Joachim; Ayodo, George; Babiker, Hamza A.; Bailliet, Graciela; Balanovska, Elena; Balanovsky, Oleg; Barrantes, Ramiro; Bedoya, Gabriel; Ben-Ami, Haim; Bene, Judit; Berrada, Fouad; Bravi, Claudio M.; Brisighelli, Francesca; Busby, George B. J.; Cali, Francesco; Churnosov, Mikhail; Cole, David E. C.; Corach, Daniel; Damba, Larissa; van Driem, George; Dryomov, Stanislav; Dugoujon, Jean-Michel; Fedorova, Sardana A.; Romero, Irene Gallego; Gubina, Marina; Hammer, Michael; Henn, Brenna M.; Hervig, Tor; Hodoglugil, Ugur; Jha, Aashish R.; Karachanak-Yankova, Sena; Khusainova, Rita; Khusnutdinova, Elza; Kittles, Rick; Kivisild, Toomas; Klitz, William; Kučinskas, Vaidutis; Kushniarevich, Alena; Laredj, Leila; Litvinov, Sergey; Loukidis, Theologos; Mahley, Robert W.; Melegh, Béla; Metspalu, Ene; Molina, Julio; Mountain, Joanna; Näkkäläjärvi, Klemetti; Nesheva, Desislava; Nyambo, Thomas; Osipova, Ludmila; Parik, Jüri; Platonov, Fedor; Posukh, Olga; Romano, Valentino; Rothhammer, Francisco; Rudan, Igor; Ruizbakiev, Ruslan; Sahakyan, Hovhannes; Sajantila, Antti; Salas, Antonio; Starikovskaya, Elena B.; Tarekegn, Ayele; Toncheva, Draga; Turdikulova, Shahlo; Uktveryte, Ingrida; Utevska, Olga; Vasquez, René; Villena, Mercedes; Voevoda, Mikhail; Winkler, Cheryl; Yepiskoposyan, Levon; Zalloua, Pierre; Zemunik, Tatijana; Cooper, Alan; Capelli, Cristian; Thomas, Mark G.; Ruiz-Linares, Andres; Tishkoff, Sarah A.; Singh, Lalji; Thangaraj, Kumarasamy; Villems, Richard; Comas, David; Sukernik, Rem; Metspalu, Mait; Meyer, Matthias; Eichler, Evan E.; Burger, Joachim; Slatkin, Montgomery; Pääbo, Svante; Kelso, Janet; Reich, David; Krause, Johannes

    2014-01-01

    We sequenced the genomes of a ~7,000 year old farmer from Germany and eight ~8,000 year old hunter-gatherers from Luxembourg and Sweden. We analyzed these and other ancient genomes1–4 with 2,345 contemporary humans to show that most present Europeans derive from at least three highly differentiated populations: West European Hunter-Gatherers (WHG), who contributed ancestry to all Europeans but not to Near Easterners; Ancient North Eurasians (ANE) related to Upper Paleolithic Siberians3, who contributed to both Europeans and Near Easterners; and Early European Farmers (EEF), who were mainly of Near Eastern origin but also harbored WHG-related ancestry. We model these populations’ deep relationships and show that EEF had ~44% ancestry from a “Basal Eurasian” population that split prior to the diversification of other non-African lineages. PMID:25230663

  2. Present day versus Temporal Heterogeneity of the Subridge Mantle in the Central Atlantic

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ligi, M.; Bonatti, E.; Brunelli, D.; Cipriani, A.

    2009-12-01

    Studies of MORB and of MORP (Mid Ocean Ridge Peridotite) show that the oceanic upper mantle is heterogeneous. Long and short wavelength chemical variability has been reported from the Mid Atlantic Ridge. The subridge mantle degree of melting, estimated from MORP mineral chemistry of mantle equilibrated spinel, opx and cpx, as well as from MORB glasses, decreases from the Azores swell at ~40ο N to the equator, in parallel to the decrease of crustal thickness inferred from the near zero-age Mantle Bouguer anomaly. The temporal evolution of this portion of a slow-spreading mid ocean ridge can be studied along seafloor spreading flowlines normal to ridge segments. A lithospheric section exposed between 10ο and 11ο N, south of the Vema Fracture Zone is giving us the opportunity to study how generation of lithosphere at a 80-km long ridge segment evolved since 25 Ma. Gravity data, and MORP-MORB chemistry correlations suggest a steady increase in crustal thickness and in mantle degree of melting from 20 Ma to Present, with superimposed 3-4 Ma oscillations. Variations of degree of melting, peridotite temperature of equilibration and crustal thickness are not proportional to spreading rate, suggesting variations in mantle source composition and a non-purely passive lithosphere formation at ridge axis. The combination of the zero-age axial ridge trend with the 20 Ma to Present trend could be explained by a subaxial hot/fertile mantle flow from the Azores swell toward an equatorial “cold” belt. The equatorial belt, characterized by long offset transforms, is magma starved and nearly free of basaltic crust. Small quantities of basalt, generated mostly in the garnet stability region by low degrees of partial melting, could not be expelled from the mantle, and froze to form a “constipated”, crust free lithosphere. Numerical calculations show a strong decrease of crustal production as a ridge approaches a transform, proportional to slip rate and offset length. When the

  3. Monitoring in-vitro bovine embryo development during the first days after fertilization (Conference Presentation)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kandel, Mikhail E.; Rubessa, Marcello; Fernandes, Daniel; Nguyen, Tan H.; Wheeler, Matthew B.; Popescu, Gabriel

    2016-03-01

    Conventional label-based contrast enhancement techniques (e.g., fluorescence) frequently modify the genetic makeup of tagged cells, making them poor candidates for use in in-vitro fertilization applications. Instead, we choose a label-free form of contrast, based on interferometric imaging, sensitive to optical path length differences. Compared to, single HeLa cells, typical mammalian ova and embryos are more than an order of magnitude thicker. As a result, regions of large phase variation lead to phase wrapping and an overall reduction in signal intensity occurs due to multiple scattering. These effects manifest themselves in low-spatial frequencies (blurs), with the desired details buried in the background. We present a phase shifting interferometer that yields the derivative of the phase, a quantity whose value is particularly sensitive to local variations and fine details. We demonstrate that our new real-time imaging platform is valuable in measuring the multiday development of bovine embryos. Reconstructing the derivative of the image phase and amplitude, we characterize the motion of previously low-contrast structures, which are relevant for embryo viability tests.

  4. Microbial Diversity Analysis of the Bacterial and Archaeal Population in Present Day Stromatolites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ortega, Maya C.

    2011-01-01

    Stromatolites are layered sedimentary structures resulting from microbial mat communities that remove carbon dioxide from their environment and biomineralize it as calcium carbonate. Although prevalent in the fossil record, stromatolites are rare in the modem world and are only found in a few locations including Highbome Cay in the Bahamas. The stromatolites found at this shallow marine site are analogs to ancient microbial mat ecosystems abundant in the Precambrian period on ancient Earth. To understand how stromatolites form and develop, it is important to identify what microorganisms are present in these mats, and how these microbes contribute to geological structure. These results will provide insight into the molecular and geochemical processes of microbial communities that prevailed on ancient Earth. Since stromatolites are formed by lithifying microbial mats that are able to mineralize calcium carbonate, understanding the biological mechanisms involved may lead to the development of carbon sequestration technologies that will be applicable in human spaceflight, as well as improve our understanding of global climate and its sustainability. The objective of my project was to analyze the archaeal and bacterial dIversity in stromatolites from Highborn Cay in the Bahamas. The first step in studying the molecular processes that the microorganisms carry out is to ascertain the microbial complexity within the mats, which includes identifying and estimating the numbers of different microbes that comprise these mats.

  5. MCTP Summer Research Internship Program. Research Presentation Day: Experience Mathematics and Science in the Real World

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1996-01-01

    This paper presents the summaries of the MCTP Summer Research Internship Program. Technological areas discussed include: Mathematical curriculum development for real world problems; Rain effects on air-water gas exchange; multi-ring impact basins on mars; developing an interactive multimedia educational cd-rom on remote sensing; a pilot of an activity for for the globe program; fossils in maryland; developing children's programming for the american horticultural society at river farm; children's learning, educational programs of the national park service; a study of climate and student satisfaction in two summer programs for disadvantaged students interested in careers in mathematics and science; the maryland governor's academy, integrating technology into the classroom; stream sampling with the maryland biological stream survey (MBSS); the imaging system inspection software technology, the preparation and detection of nominal and faulted steel ingots; event-based science, the development of real-world science units; correlation between anxiety and past experiences; environmental education through summer nature camp; enhancing learning opportunities at the Salisbury zoo; plant growth experiment, a module for the middle school classroom; the effects of proxisome proliferators in Japanese medaka embryos; development of a chapter on birth control and contraceptive methodologies as part of an interactive computer-based education module on hiv and aids; excretion of gentamicin in toadfish and goldfish; the renaissance summer program; and Are field trips important to the regional math science center?

  6. An approach to modeling present-day deformation in southern California

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rundle, J. B.

    1986-01-01

    This paper presents an approach to modeling the complete, time-dependent deformation in southern California. A variety of techniques are used to include the far-field plate motion, stress relaxation in the asthenosphere, aseismic fault slip within the elastic lithosphere, and the complex, three-dimensional nature of the faults within the southern California region. Among the conclusions of the work here are the following: (1) the data exibit a marginal preference for a relatively thin lithosphere in southern California: (2) the most sensitive determinant for lithospheric thickness and viscosity of the asthenosphere is the rotation rate of the motion vectors toward or away from major faults; (3) the major faults in southern California are slipping at depth, at or near their average Holocene rates; (4) a shallow, active decollement beneath the Transverse Ranges is apparently needed to realistically model the strain changes observed there; and (5) this modeling technique offers the best approach for understanding the complex deformation field in southern California.

  7. An approach to modeling present-day deformation in southern California

    SciTech Connect

    Rundle, J.B.

    1986-02-10

    This paper presents an approach to modeling the complete, time-dependent deformation in southern California. We make use of a variety of techniques to include the far-field plate motion, stress relaxation in the asthenosphere, aseismic fault slip within the elastic lithosphere, and the complex, three-dimensional nature of the faults within the southern California region. Among the conclusions of the work here are the following: (1) the data exhibit a marginal preference for a relatively thin lithosphere in southern California, (2) the most sensitive determinant for lithospheric thickness and viscosity of the asthenosphere is the rotation rate of the motion vectors toward or away from major faults, (3) major faults in southern California are slipping at depth, at or near their average Holocene rates, (4) a shallow, active decollement beneath the Transverse Ranges is apparently needed to realistically model the strain changes observed there, and (5) this modeling technique offers the best approach for understanding the complex deformation field in southern California.

  8. Can You Tell Me Something about Yourself?: Self-Presentation in Children and Adolescents with High Functioning Autism Spectrum Disorder in Hypothetical and Real Life Situations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Scheeren, Anke M.; Begeer, Sander; Banerjee, Robin; Terwogt, Mark Meerum; Koot, Hans M.

    2010-01-01

    The self-presentation skills of children and adolescents with high-functioning autistic spectrum disorder (HFASD) and typically developing (TD) controls were compared, in response to both hypothetical and real life situations. In both situations, 26 HFASD and 26 TD participants were prompted to describe themselves twice, first in a baseline…

  9. Digitization of the human body in the present-day economy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    D'Apuzzo, Nicola

    2005-01-01

    In this paper we report on the historic development of human body digitization and on the actual state of commercially available technology. Complete systems for the digitization of the human body exist since more than ten years. One of the main users of this technology was the entertainment industry. Every new movie excited with attractive visual effects, but only few people knew that the most thrilling cuts were realized by using virtual persons. The faces and bodies of actors were digitized and the "virtual twin" replaced the actor in the movie. Nowadays, the state of the human body digitization is so high that it is not possible any more to distinguish the real actor from the virtual one. Indeed, for the rush technical development has to be thanked the movie industry, which was one of the strong economic motors for this technology. Today, with the possibility of a massive cost reduction given by new technologies, methods for digitization of the human body are used also in other fields of application, such as ergonomics, medical applications, computer games, biometry and anthropometrics. With the time, this technology becomes interesting also for sport, fitness, fashion and beauty. A large expansion of human body digitization is expected in the near future. To date, different technologies are used commercially for the measurement of the human body. They can be divided into three distinguished groups: laser-scanning, projection of light patterns, combination modeling and image processing. The different solutions have strengths and weaknesses that profile their suitability for specific applications. This paper gives an overview of their differences and characteristics and expresses clues for the selection of the adequate method. Practical examples of commercial exploitation of human body digitization are also presented and new interesting perspectives are introduced.

  10. Digitization of the human body in the present-day economy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    D'Apuzzo, Nicola

    2004-12-01

    In this paper we report on the historic development of human body digitization and on the actual state of commercially available technology. Complete systems for the digitization of the human body exist since more than ten years. One of the main users of this technology was the entertainment industry. Every new movie excited with attractive visual effects, but only few people knew that the most thrilling cuts were realized by using virtual persons. The faces and bodies of actors were digitized and the "virtual twin" replaced the actor in the movie. Nowadays, the state of the human body digitization is so high that it is not possible any more to distinguish the real actor from the virtual one. Indeed, for the rush technical development has to be thanked the movie industry, which was one of the strong economic motors for this technology. Today, with the possibility of a massive cost reduction given by new technologies, methods for digitization of the human body are used also in other fields of application, such as ergonomics, medical applications, computer games, biometry and anthropometrics. With the time, this technology becomes interesting also for sport, fitness, fashion and beauty. A large expansion of human body digitization is expected in the near future. To date, different technologies are used commercially for the measurement of the human body. They can be divided into three distinguished groups: laser-scanning, projection of light patterns, combination modeling and image processing. The different solutions have strengths and weaknesses that profile their suitability for specific applications. This paper gives an overview of their differences and characteristics and expresses clues for the selection of the adequate method. Practical examples of commercial exploitation of human body digitization are also presented and new interesting perspectives are introduced.

  11. Climatology and temporal evolution of the atmospheric semidiurnal tide in present-day reanalyses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Díaz-Argandoña, J.; Ezcurra, A.; Sáenz, J.; Ibarra-Berastegi, G.; Errasti, I.

    2016-05-01

    The solar semidiurnal atmospheric tide (S2) was extracted from seven reanalysis data sets, including current data sets, such as CFSR (Climate Forecast System Reanalysis), MERRA (Modern-Era Retrospective Analysis for Research and Applications), ERA-Interim (ECMWF Reanalysis), and 20CR (Twentieth Century Reanalysis), and older frozen products, such as NCEP/NCAR (National Center for Environmental Prediction/National Center for Atmospheric Research), ERA-40 (ECMWF Reanalysis), and JRA-25 (Japanese 25 year Reanalysis). In this calculation, we emphasized the temporal variation of the tide. We also calculated the tidal error, which was sizable at high latitudes and over short averaging periods and large for 20CR at all latitudes. Because of the four standard daily samples, the interpolation scheme of van den Dool et al. (1997) was used when necessary. We found this method to be accurate for zonally averaged tides only. Comparing the climatology from the MERRA and CFSR S2 with a recent empirical tide model showed that MERRA better represented the geographical structure of the tide, especially its phase. We found a bias in the phase in all of the reanalysis data sets except for MERRA. The temporal evolution of the tide was inconsistent between the different data sets, although similar seasonal variations were observed. The seasonal cycle was also better depicted in MERRA. The S2 calculated from MERRA and satellite precipitation measurements from TRMM (Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission) presented results that were inconsistent with the hypothesis in which rainfall latent heat release represents S2 forcing and functions as a source of S2 seasonal variability.

  12. Scandinavian postglacial faults and their physical connection to present day seismicity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arvidsson, R.

    2015-12-01

    In Scandinavia large earthquakes up to M~8.2 occurred 9500 yBP due to rapid deglaciation leaving fault scarps with lengths up to 160km and vertical offsets of at least 10 m. Today a lion share of local earthquakes are located to the vicinity of the faults. I show here from Coulomb failure stress modeling a physical connection between clustering of recent earthquakes and high Coulomb failure stresses around the faults. This can be interpreted In such a fashion that the location of the current earthquakes resembles locations of aftershock sequences. The explanation is that when these faults where formed it was due to state of stress in the crust at time of deglaciation, different from today's conditions. The crust was heavily depressed at deglaciation about 250 m in the region and due of the receding icesheet the crust was subjected to high stresses resulting in fault motion. This fault motion occurred in order to minimize state of stress at deglaciation. However, this state of stress has since changed with the regional postglacial uplift and thus today these faults remain as perturbations in the crust with concentrations of high stresses. I elaborate on this mechanism. I also advocate that this correlation between high stressed fault areas and locations of earthquakes indicates that seismicity within stable continental regions like Scandinavia might be caused by previous crustal disturbances that show local perturbations of the stress field. Therefore if faults are favorably oriented in the present stress field they can be released by brittle earthquake faulting . Thus past transient tectonic events can explain part of the stable continental region's seismicity. This may be of large importance to assessment of seismic hazard within stable continental regions particularly for critical structures like e.g., nuclear waste deposits and hydroelectric dams.

  13. Kinematic interpretation of present-day crustal deformation in central Greece from continuous GPS measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chousianitis, Konstantinos; Ganas, Athanassios; Gianniou, Michail

    2013-11-01

    We processed 30-s GPS data from continuous GPS stations in central Greece using the Kalman filtering approach and accounting for time-correlated noise content obtaining a velocity field in the ITRF2008 and the Eurasian-fixed reference frame. The station distribution allowed us to compute 1D strain through rates of baseline length changes as well as to construct the image of the 2D strain and rotation rate fields. The obtained baselines range in length from 11 to 132 km and show rates from -1.95 mm/yr up to 14.14 mm/yr (estimated uncertainties from 0.3 to 0.8 mm/yr), while the calculated 1D strain rate ranges from -27 ns/yr up to 226 ns/yr (average uncertainty ˜15 ns/yr). Largest extension (192-226 ns/yr) is observed in the western and central part of the Corinth rift while similar extension rates (80-120 ns/yr) are obtained for the eastern part of the Corinth rift and its continuation in the south Viotia-south of Evia region and across the Sperchios-Kammena Vourla rift. The coherent picture of the velocity pattern for Attica and north-eastern Peloponnese (Corinth) stations indicates that these areas belong to the same crustal block, separating by the Viotia region by a nearly E-W crustal discontinuity along the Kaparelli-Asopos valley faults. However, some internal strain is present within Attica's crust as well as across the Saronic Gulf resulting in extension rates of the order of 25 ns/yr. We also find extension (54-71 ns/yr) across "rigid" Peloponnese taken by normal faults in the greater Kalavryta region.

  14. Present-day groundwater recharge estimation in parts of the Indian Sub-Continent

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bhanja, S. N.; Mukherjee, A.; Wada, Y.; Scanlon, B. R.; Taylor, R. G.; Rodell, M.; Malakar, P.

    2015-12-01

    Large part of global population has been dependent on groundwater as a source of fresh water. The demand would further increase with increasing population and stress associated with climate change. We tried to provide regional-scale groundwater recharge estimates in a large part of Indian Sub-Continent. A combination of ground-based, satellite-based and numerical model simulated recharge estimates were presented in the densely populated region. Three different methods: an intense network of observational wells (n>13,000 wells), a satellite (TRMM) and global land-surface model (CLM) outputs, and a global-scale hydrological model (PCR GLOBWB) were employed to calculate recharge estimates. Groundwater recharge values exhibit large spatial variations over the entire region on the basis of aquifer hydrogeology, precipitation and groundwater withdrawal patterns. Groundwater recharge estimates from all three estimation techniques were found to be higher (>300 mm/year) in fertile planes of Indus-Ganges-Brahmaputra (IGB) river basins. A combination of favorable hydrogeologic conditions (porosity, permeability etc.), comparatively higher rates of precipitation, and return flow from rapidly withdrawn irrigation water might influence occurrence of high recharge rates. However, central and southern study area experiences lower recharge rates (<200 mm/year), might be associated with unfavorable hydrogeologic conditions associated with cratonic provinces. Statistical analysis of inter-comparison between the three different recharge estimates show good matches in some of the areas. Recharge estimates indicate dynamic nature of groundwater recharge as a function of precipitation, land use pattern, and hydrogeologic parameters. On a first hand basis, the estimates will help policy makers to understand groundwater recharge process over the densely populated region and finally would facilitate to implement sustainable policy for securing water security.

  15. Present-day formation and seasonal evolution of linear dune gullies on Mars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pasquon, Kelly; Gargani, Julien; Massé, Marion; Conway, Susan J.

    2016-08-01

    Linear dune gullies are a sub-type of martian gullies. As their name suggests they only occur on sandy substrates and comprise very long (compared to their width) straight or sinuous channels, with relatively small source areas and almost non-existent visible deposits. Linear dune gullies have never been observed on terrestrial dunes and their formation process on Mars is unclear. Here, we present the results of the first systematic survey of these features in Mars' southern hemisphere and an in-depth study of six dunefields where repeat-imaging allows us to monitor the changes in these gullies over time. This study was undertaken with HiRISE images at 25-30 cm/pix and 1 m/pix elevation data derived from HiRISE stereo images. We find the latitudinal distribution and orientation of linear dune gullies broadly consistent with the general population of martian gullies. They occur predominantly between 36.3°S and 54.3°S, and occasionally between 64.6°S and 70.4°S. They are generally oriented toward SSW (at bearings between 150° and 260°). We find that these gullies are extremely active over the most recent 5 Martian years of images. Activity comprises: (1) appearance of new channels, (2) lengthening of existing channels, (3) complete or partial reactivation, and (4) disappearance of gullies. We find that gully channels lengthen by ∼100 m per year. The intense activity and the progressive disappearance of linear dune gullies argues against the hypothesis that these are remnant morphologies left over from previous periods of high obliquity millions of years ago. The activity of linear dune gullies reoccurs every year between the end of winter and the beginning of spring (Ls 167.4°-216.6°), and coincides with the final stages of the sublimation of annual CO" ice deposit. This activity often coincides spatially and temporally with the appearance of recurrent diffusing flows (RDFs)-digitate-shaped, dark patches with low relative albedo (up to 48% lower than the

  16. How Many Hotspots are on Present-day Earth, and are all Plumes hot?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Herzberg, C.

    2004-12-01

    The petrological characteristics of primary magmas that exit the melting regime are sensitive indicators of mantle potential temperature. However, most primary magmas partially crystallize some olivine during transit to the surface, and erupted lavas are typically hybrid mixtures of olivine and solidified liquid. Primitive glass on the surface can have an MgO content that is lower than a parental magma from which it was derived, and a parental magma can differ from its primary magma by partial crystallization of olivine in a crustal magma chamber. However, the parental magma composition can be restored using a simple petrological procedure when olivine is the sole phenocryst phase. On Kilauea the most primitive magnesian glass has been reported to contain 15% MgO, and the most magnesian olivines contain Fo 90-91. The exchange coefficients (Kd) for FeO and MgO between these olivine and glass compositions are 0.25-0.28, much lower than 0.33-0.34 for olivine equilibrated with liquid in melting experiments. The only way to obtain the correct Kd is by computing the effects of dissolving olivine into a 15% MgO liquid composition. This procedure results in a crustal parental magma with 17-19% MgO and a mantle primary magma with 18-20% MgO. The potential crystallization temperature for Kilauea is 1400C, an estimate that includes the effects of 0.34% H2O. Hawaii is therefore a hotspot. This is the most fundamental geological constraint that all models are required to satisfy. It is independent of ongoing questions concerning the role of subducted crust and pyroxenite in the melting regime. A primary magma with 18-20% MgO is successfully reproduced by decompression melting in a hot plume with potential temperatures in excess of 1550C. Hawaii is the only hotspot Earth at the present time. The mantle below Iceland is comparatively cooler, warmer than oceanic ridges, but it was hotter during the early Tertiary. A preliminary analysis of volcanics in and around the African and

  17. Sedimentological processes and environmental variability at Lake Ohrid (Macedonia, Albania) between 640 ka and present day

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Francke, A.; Wagner, B.; Just, J.; Leicher, N.; Gromig, R.; Baumgarten, H.; Vogel, H.; Lacey, J. H.; Sadori, L.; Wonik, T.; Leng, M. J.; Zanchetta, G.; Sulpizio, R.; Giaccio, B.

    2015-09-01

    Lake Ohrid (FYROM, Albania) is thought to be more than 1.2 million years old and hosts more than 200 endemic species. As a target of the International Continental Scientific Drilling Program (ICDP), a successful deep drilling campaign was carried out within the scope of the Scientific Collaboration on Past Speciation Conditions in Lake Ohrid (SCOPSCO) project in 2013. Here, we present lithological, sedimentological, and (bio-)geochemical data from the upper 247.8 m of the overall 569 m long DEEP site sediment succession from the central part of the lake. According to an age model, which is based on nine tephra layers (1st order tie points), and on tuning of biogeochemical proxy data to orbital parameters (2nd order tie points) and to the global benthic isotope stack LR04 (3rd order tie points), respectively, the analyzed sediment sequence covers the last 640 ka. The DEEP site sediment succession consists of hemipelagic sediments, which are interspersed by several tephra layers and infrequent, thin (< 5 cm) mass wasting deposits. The hemipelagic sediments can be classified into three different lithotypes. Lithotype 1 and 2 deposits comprise calcareous and slightly calcareous silty clay and are predominantly attributed to interglacial periods with high primary productivity in the lake during summer and reduced mixing during winter. The data suggest that high ion and nutrient concentrations in the lake water promoted calcite precipitation and diatom growth in the epilmnion in during MIS15, 13, and 5. Following a strong primary productivity, highest interglacial temperatures can be reported for MIS11 and 5, whereas MIS15, 13, 9, and 7 were comparable cooler. Lithotype 3 deposits consist of clastic, silty clayey material and predominantly represent glacial periods with low primary productivity during summer and longer and intensified mixing during winter. The data imply that most severe glacial conditions at Lake Ohrid persisted during MIS16, 12, 10, and 6 whereas

  18. Late Holocene and present-day fluvial morphodynamics in small catchment areas of Central Germany

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Englhard, Michael; Damm, Bodo; Frechen, Manfred; Terhorst, Birgit

    2010-05-01

    During the past decades strong runoff events repeatedly occurred in small drainage basins of the European low mountains. In numerous events runoff was connected with erosion and transport of extensive bed load. Runoff events were predominantly triggered by rainstorms, which were limited to the catchment areas. They partly caused severe economic loss. The present study focuses on fluvial morphodynamics in northern Hesse and Lower Saxony. In this area runoff and transport of bed load occurred in small tributary catchment areas of the Fulda, Werra and Oberweser rivers. In general, the small drainage basins are used by agriculture and forestry. Drainage channels are developed as gullies and are incised into solid bedrock, Quaternary hillslope sediments, alluvial fills, and anthropogenic deposits. Vertical incision into the bedrock may amount to 1 meter per event. Furthermore, in single cases sediment discharge amounted to 16.000 m³ in addition to the suspension load. On the base of historical analyses about 50 severe runoff events with a maximum frequency of 10 events during 1965 are recorded during the past 150 years in the study area. Field survey, sedimentological analyses and dating reveal intensive runoff processes since the Neolithic age in a comparable catchment area. In this context potsherds could be dated to the Linear Pottery culture, which were detected in an alluvial cone of the "Rehgraben gully", close to the city of.Kassel. Furthermore, findings of fossil wood were recovered in the same alluvial cone. Radiocarbon dating reveals calibrated ages which are for the most parts younger than AD. In younger sediments we suppose the severe runoff event of 1342. Current studies in the catchment area of the Rehgraben aim to distinguish different processes of the fluvial morphodynamics on a temporal scale and to estimate potential Holocene erosional rates. References Damm, B., 2004. Geschiebe führende und murfähige Wildbäche in Mittelgebirgsr

  19. Present-day formation and seasonal evolution of linear dune gullies on Mars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pasquon, Kelly; Gargani, Julien; Massé, Marion; Conway, Susan J.

    2016-08-01

    Linear dune gullies are a sub-type of martian gullies. As their name suggests they only occur on sandy substrates and comprise very long (compared to their width) straight or sinuous channels, with relatively small source areas and almost non-existent visible deposits. Linear dune gullies have never been observed on terrestrial dunes and their formation process on Mars is unclear. Here, we present the results of the first systematic survey of these features in Mars' southern hemisphere and an in-depth study of six dunefields where repeat-imaging allows us to monitor the changes in these gullies over time. This study was undertaken with HiRISE images at 25-30 cm/pix and 1 m/pix elevation data derived from HiRISE stereo images. We find the latitudinal distribution and orientation of linear dune gullies broadly consistent with the general population of martian gullies. They occur predominantly between 36.3°S and 54.3°S, and occasionally between 64.6°S and 70.4°S. They are generally oriented toward SSW (at bearings between 150° and 260°). We find that these gullies are extremely active over the most recent 5 Martian years of images. Activity comprises: (1) appearance of new channels, (2) lengthening of existing channels, (3) complete or partial reactivation, and (4) disappearance of gullies. We find that gully channels lengthen by ∼100 m per year. The intense activity and the progressive disappearance of linear dune gullies argues against the hypothesis that these are remnant morphologies left over from previous periods of high obliquity millions of years ago. The activity of linear dune gullies reoccurs every year between the end of winter and the beginning of spring (Ls 167.4°-216.6°), and coincides with the final stages of the sublimation of annual CO₂ ice deposit. This activity often coincides spatially and temporally with the appearance of recurrent diffusing flows (RDFs)-digitate-shaped, dark patches with low relative albedo (up to 48% lower than the

  20. Modeling Greenland ice sheet present-day and near-future runoff contribution.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peano, Daniele; Colleoni, Florence; Masina, Simona

    2014-05-01

    The last IPCC report [AR5, IPCC] has shown an increasing contribution from Greenland melting to global sea-level over the last decade, increasing from 0.09 mm/year (period 1992-2001) to 0.59 mm/year (period 2002-2011). Given its strategic location, i.e. close to the main North Atlantic ocean convection sites, it is therefore of importance to better assess ice sheet melting and its impact on regional ocean processes. So far, runoff estimate from ice sheet has been poorly constrained (e.g. [Hanna et al., 2005], [Hanna et al., 2008]) and most of the time the few estimates comes from regional atmospheric models or general circulation models (e.g. [Edwards et al., 2013], [Fettweis et al., 2013]). Here, we present the results from the implementation of a routing scheme into the thermo-mechanical ice sheet-ice shelves model GRISLI [Ritz et al, 2001], applied to the Greenland ice sheet mass evolution over the 20th and 21st centuries. The routing scheme is based on the "multiple flow direction" developed by [Quinn et al., 1991]. We further improved this scheme by considering topographic depressions as possible "lakes" to be filled by meltwater. In this way, when a depression is filled, only the extra water is routed towards the Greenland coasts. This allow us to obtain an estimate of the total amount of freshwater reaching the ocean at each time step of the model integration, as well as a time-varying spatial distribution of the runoff along the coasts of Greenland. This routing scheme is applied in routing both surface and basal meltwater. Surface meltwater is computed by means of a PDD method [Fausto et al., 2007] on which only a fraction is considered for routing while the basal melting rate is part of the heat balance at the ice-bed interface. Runoff is simulated on a 5km x 5km horizontal grid and validation is performed over the 20th century using mean annual total precipitation and air temperature at 2 meters from Era-Interim reanalysis [Dee et al., 2011]. Near future

  1. Present-day formation and seasonal evolution of linear dune gullies on Mars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pasquon, Kelly; Gargani, Julien; Massé, Marion; Conway, Susan

    2016-04-01

    Linear dune gullies are an enigmatic sub-type of martian gullies. As their name suggests they only occur on sandy substrates and comprise very long (compared to their width) straight or sinuous channels, with relatively small source areas and almost inexistent deposits. This specific morphology has never been observed on terrestrial dunes and its formation process on Mars is still unclear [e.g. 1, 2, 3]. Here, we present the results of the first systematic survey for these features in Mars' southern hemisphere and an in-depth study of six dune fields where repeat-imaging allows us to monitor the changes over time of these linear gullies. This study was performed with HiRISE images at 25-30 cm/pix and 1 m/pix elevation data derived from HiRISE stereo images. We find the latitudinal distribution and orientation of linear gullies is broadly consistent with the general population of martian gullies. They occur predominantly between 36.3°S and 54.3°S, and occasionally between 64.6°S and 70.4°S. They are oriented towards SSW (between 150°N and 260°N). In contrast with the general gully population, however, we find that these gullies are extremely active over the 5 Mars years of images. Activity comprises: (i) appearance of new channels, (ii) elongation of existing channels, (iii) complete or partial reactivation, and (iv) disappearance of gullies. Gully channels can elongate by an average ~100 m per year. Their intense activity and the progressive disappearance of linear gullies argues against the hypothesis that these are remnant morphologies left over from previous periods of high obliquity millions of years ago. The activity of linear dune gullies reoccurs every year between the end of winter and the beginning of spring (Ls 167.4° - 216.6°), coinciding with the final stages of the sublimation of annual CO₂ frosts. This activity often coincides spatially and temporally with the appearance of Recurrent Diffusing Flows (RDF) - dark patches which surround the

  2. A summary of present-day gully formation and activity on Mars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Diniega, Serina; Hansen, Candice; McEwen, Alfred; Dundas, Colin; Byrne, Shane

    2016-07-01

    trends and variations in gully size, morphology, orientation, and location are additionally examined as indications of a seasonal (or other) control, as well as variations with latitude, dune type/size/orientation, or Mars year. This presentation will summarize the results of our monitoring campaigns, and will compare the data that are available about gullies of different morphologies and locations. Our aim is to identify possible similarities (and differences) in gully activity processes across Mars, and to estimate the rates of gully formation and modification processes (as has been done for gullies in the southern mid-latitudes [3]). Such estimates would aid interpretation of the likely ages of observed gullies, which have implications for whether records of past (and potential aqueous) gully formation processes are still observable. [1] Diniega et al. (2010) Geology, 38, 1047-1050. [2] Dundas et al. (2012) Icarus, 220, 124-143. [3] Dundas et al. (2015) Icarus, 251, 244-263. [4] Dundas et al. (2010) GRL, 37, L07202. [5] Vincendon (2015) JGR, 120, 1859-1879. [6] Harrison et al. (2015) Icarus, 252, 236-254. [7] Pilorget & Forget (2016) Nature Geosci. 9, 65-69. [8] Vincendon et al. (2010) JGR, 115, E10001. [9] Horgan & Bell (2012) Geophys. Res. Lett. 39, L09201. [10] Hansen et al., (2011) Science 331, 575-578. [11] Hansen et al. (2015) Icarus 251, 264-267.

  3. Acquired immunodeficiency syndrome — an assessment of the present situation in the world: Memorandum from a WHO Meeting*

    PubMed Central

    1984-01-01

    A consultative meeting was convened by the World Health Organization in Geneva on 22-25 November 1983 to assess the present situation of AIDS (the acquired immunodeficiency syndrome) in the world and to encourage collaboration between the different nations affected by this disease. AIDS was first reported in the USA in 1981, but probably existed there as early as 1978. Soon after its recognition in the USA, similar cases were identified in other areas of the world. In most western European countries and Canada, the epidemiological pattern is very similar to that in the United States, the majority of cases being in homosexual men. In other areas such as equatorial Africa and the Caribbean, the pattern seems to be different with no identifiable risk factors for the majority of cases. The disease is manifested by opportunistic infections and/or selected malignancies, with apparent differences in the clinical presentation between the cases in North America and Europe, on the one hand, and those in the tropics. To date there is no treatment that has significantly improved the underlying cellular immune deficiency, and the mortality is very high. The etiology of AIDS is unknown, but the epidemiological pattern is most consistent with its being caused by a transmissible agent; retroviruses come on top of the list of candidate agents. Despite the unknown etiology and the lack of laboratory diagnostic tests, sufficient information is available to permit health authorities to make recommendations that may reduce appreciably the incidence of the disease. AIDS is an important health problem in a number of countries and has international implications. Collaborative laboratory, epidemiological and clinical research between countries is needed to accelerate control efforts. In the meantime, WHO will coordinate exchange of information among countries. ImagesFig. 1 PMID:6331905

  4. Situational Consultation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rimehaug, Tormod; Helmersberg, Ingunn

    2010-01-01

    Situational Consultation (SC) is presented as a framework for flexible integration of several models and methodologies in consultation practice by choosing an approach adapted to the specific situation. In SC, models and their characteristic role positions are considered interchangeable tools with qualitative differences in strengths and…

  5. Evolution of the stress field in the southern Scotia Arc from the late Mesozoic to the present-day

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maestro, Adolfo; López-Martínez, Jerónimo; Galindo-Zaldívar, Jesús; Bohoyo, Fernando; Mink, Sandra

    2014-12-01

    The geological evolution of the Scotia Arc, which developed between Antarctica and South America, has facilitated the connection between the Pacific and Atlantic oceans and, has important global implications. To improve the knowledge of the late Mesozoic evolution of the southern Scotia Arc, over 6000 brittle mesostructures were measured over the last 20 years at different outcrops from the northern Antarctic Peninsula and the South Shetland Islands as well as the James Ross and South Orkney archipelagos. This dataset covers a length of more than 1000 km of the arc. Fault data were analysed using the Etchecopar, y-R, Right Dihedra, Stress Inversion and Search Grid Inversion Palaeostress Determination methods. A total of 275 stress tensors were obtained. The results showed that the maximum horizontal stress was in the ENE-WSW and the NW-SE orientations and that the horizontal extension tensors were oriented NE-SW and NW-SE. In addition, seismic activity and focal mechanism solutions were analysed using the Gephart method to establish the present-day stress field and characterise the active tectonics. The results obtained suggest that there is a regional NE-SW compression and a NW-SE extension regime at the present day. The Southern Scotia Arc has a complex geological history due to the different tectonic settings (transform, convergent and divergent) that have affected this sector during its geological evolution from the late Mesozoic until the present day. Six stress fields were obtained from the brittle mesostructure population analysis in the region. The NW-SE and N-S maximum horizontal stresses were related to a combination of Mesozoic oceanic subduction of the former Phoenix Plate under the Pacific margin of the Antarctic Plate, Mesozoic-Cenozoic subduction of the northern Weddell Sea and the Oligocene to the Middle Miocene dextral strike-slip movement between the Scotia and Antarctic plates along the South Scotia Ridge. The NE-SW compression was related to

  6. A Day in the Life of an Industrial Hearing Conservationist: A Template for Successful Career Education and Outreach Presentations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cooper, Beth A.

    1997-01-01

    Whether in a classroom setting or at a local community meeting, opportunities for providing descriptive and positive information about our professions to an audience unfamiliar with acoustics, noise control or hearing conservation often call for alternatives to technical demonstrations that illustrate principles of acoustics or noise control. More importantly, successful outreach presentations must convey images of our day-to-day activities and the challenges we address, many of which are non-technical. One successful approach to career outreach presentations makes use of a collection of photo slides featuring the speaker, his colleagues, customers and workplaces to vividly illustrate the specific job tasks, people and environment of the speaker's job or career. Against this fluid and multi-dimensional visual backdrop, an accompanying script addresses the main theme. A comprehensive photo slide collection may be established gradually, often by making use of and adding to technical and personal slides already in the speaker's possession. Slide collections are portable, easily and quickly reconfigured for back-to-back or spontaneous engagements, and they are well suited to speaking opportunities where technical presentations or demonstrations are not practical or appropriate. A carefully chosen sequence of photo slides minimizes the need for speaker's notes, as each photo itself provides a visual prompt. Although photo slide presentations are appropriate to a variety of outreach and professional settings, the specific illustrative and explanatory material presented here illustrates their application in career education outreach activities, using industrial hearing conservation as an example.

  7. Present-day and future Antarctic ice sheet climate and surface mass balance in the Community Earth System Model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lenaerts, Jan T. M.; Vizcaino, Miren; Fyke, Jeremy; van Kampenhout, Leo; van den Broeke, Michiel R.

    2016-02-01

    We present climate and surface mass balance (SMB) of the Antarctic ice sheet (AIS) as simulated by the global, coupled ocean-atmosphere-land Community Earth System Model (CESM) with a horizontal resolution of ˜1° in the past, present and future (1850-2100). CESM correctly simulates present-day Antarctic sea ice extent, large-scale atmospheric circulation and near-surface climate, but fails to simulate the recent expansion of Antarctic sea ice. The present-day Antarctic ice sheet SMB equals 2280 ± 131 {Gt year^{-1}} , which concurs with existing independent estimates of AIS SMB. When forced by two CMIP5 climate change scenarios (high mitigation scenario RCP2.6 and high-emission scenario RCP8.5), CESM projects an increase of Antarctic ice sheet SMB of about 70 {Gt year^{-1}} per degree warming. This increase is driven by enhanced snowfall, which is partially counteracted by more surface melt and runoff along the ice sheet's edges. This intensifying hydrological cycle is predominantly driven by atmospheric warming, which increases (1) the moisture-carrying capacity of the atmosphere, (2) oceanic source region evaporation, and (3) summer AIS cloud liquid water content.

  8. Very high resolution modelling of the Surface Mass Balance of the Greenland Ice Sheet: Present day conditions and future prospects.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mottram, Ruth; Aðalgeirsdóttir, Guðfinna; Boberg, Fredrik; Hesselbjerg Christensen, Jens; Bøssing Christensen, Ole; Langen, Peter; Rodehacke, Christian; Stendel, Martin; Yang, Shuting

    2014-05-01

    Recent experiments with the Regional Climate Model (RCM) HIRHAM5 have produced new surface mass balance (SMB) estimates at the unprecedented high horizontal resolution of 0.05 degrees (~5.5km). These simulations indicate a present day SMB of 347 ± 98 Gt/year over the whole ice sheet averaged over the period 1989 - 2012 driven by the ERA-Interim reanalysis dataset. We validate accumulation rates over the ice sheet using estimates from shallow firn cores to confirm the importance of resolution to accurate estimates of accumulation. Comparison with PROMICE and GC-Net automatic weather station observations shows the model represents present day climate and climate variability well when driven by the ERA-Interim reanalysis dataset. Comparison with a simulation at 0.25 degrees (~27km) resolution from the same model shows a significantly different calculated SMB over the whole ice sheet, largely due to changes in precipitation distribution over Greenland. The very high resolution requires a more sophisticated treatment of sub-grid scale processes in the snow pack including meltwater retention and refreezing and an enhanced albedo scheme. Our results indicate retention processes account for a significant proportion of the total surface budget based on a new parameterization scheme in the model. SMB projections, driven by the EC-Earth Global Climate Model (GCM) at the boundaries for the RCP 4.5 scenario indicate a declining surface mass balance over the 21st century with some compensation for warmer summer temperatures and enhanced melt in the form of increased precipitation. A cold bias in the driving GCM for present day conditions suggests that this simulation likely underestimates the change in SMB. However, the downscaled precipitation fields compare well with those in the reanalysis driven simulations. A soon-to-be complete simulation uses driving fields from the GCM running the RCP8.5 scenario.

  9. Past agricultural land use and present-day fire regimes can interact to determine the nature of seed predation.

    PubMed

    Stuhler, John D; Orrock, John L

    2016-06-01

    Historical agriculture and present-day fire regimes can have significant effects on contemporary ecosystems. Although past agricultural land use can lead to long-term changes in plant communities, it remains unclear whether these persistent land-use legacies alter plant-consumer interactions, such as seed predation, and whether contemporary disturbance (e.g., fire) alters the effects of historical agriculture on these interactions. We conducted a study at 27 sites distributed across 80,300 ha in post-agricultural and non-agricultural longleaf pine woodlands with different degrees of fire frequency to test the hypothesis that past and present-day disturbances that alter plant communities can subsequently alter seed predation. We quantified seed removal by arthropods and rodents for Tephrosia virginiana and Vernonia angustifolia, species of conservation interest. We found that the effects of land-use history and fire frequency on seed removal were contingent on granivore guild and microhabitat characteristics. Tephrosia virginiana removal was greater in low fire frequency sites, due to greater seed removal by rodents. Although overall removal of V. angustifolia did not differ among habitats, rodents removed more seeds than arthropods at post-agricultural sites and non-agricultural sites with low fire frequencies, but not at non-agricultural sites with high fire frequencies. Land-use history and fire frequency also affected the relationship between microhabitat characteristics and removal of V. angustifolia. Our results suggest that historical agriculture and present-day fire regimes may alter seed predation by shifting the impact of rodent and arthropod seed predators among habitats, with potential consequences for the establishment of rare plant species consumed by one or both predators. PMID:26905418

  10. Isolation and prominent aboriginal maternal legacy in the present-day population of La Gomera (Canary Islands).

    PubMed

    Fregel, Rosa; Cabrera, Vicente M; Larruga, José M; Hernández, Juan C; Gámez, Alejandro; Pestano, Jose J; Arnay, Matilde; González, Ana M

    2015-09-01

    The present-day population structure of La Gomera is outstanding in its high aboriginal heritage, the greatest in the Canary Islands. This was earlier confirmed by both mitochondrial DNA and autosomal analyses, although genetic drift due to the fifteenth century European colonization could not be excluded as the main factor responsible. The present mtDNA study of aboriginal remains and extant samples from the six municipal districts of the island indeed demonstrates that the pre-Hispanic colonization of La Gomera by North African people involved a strong founder event, shown by the high frequency of the indigenous Canarian U6b1a lineage in the aboriginal samples (65%). This value is even greater than that observed in the extant population (44%), which in turn is the highest of all the seven Canary Islands. In contrast to previous results obtained for the aboriginal populations of Tenerife and La Palma, haplogroups related to secondary waves of migration were not detected in La Gomera aborigines, indicating that isolation also had an important role in shaping the current population. The rugged relief of La Gomera divided into several distinct valleys probably promoted subsequent aboriginal intra-insular differentiation that has continued after the European colonization, as seen in the present-day population structure observed on the island. PMID:25407001

  11. Isolation and prominent aboriginal maternal legacy in the present-day population of La Gomera (Canary Islands)

    PubMed Central

    Fregel, Rosa; Cabrera, Vicente M; Larruga, José M; Hernández, Juan C; Gámez, Alejandro; Pestano, Jose J; Arnay, Matilde; González, Ana M

    2015-01-01

    The present-day population structure of La Gomera is outstanding in its high aboriginal heritage, the greatest in the Canary Islands. This was earlier confirmed by both mitochondrial DNA and autosomal analyses, although genetic drift due to the fifteenth century European colonization could not be excluded as the main factor responsible. The present mtDNA study of aboriginal remains and extant samples from the six municipal districts of the island indeed demonstrates that the pre-Hispanic colonization of La Gomera by North African people involved a strong founder event, shown by the high frequency of the indigenous Canarian U6b1a lineage in the aboriginal samples (65%). This value is even greater than that observed in the extant population (44%), which in turn is the highest of all the seven Canary Islands. In contrast to previous results obtained for the aboriginal populations of Tenerife and La Palma, haplogroups related to secondary waves of migration were not detected in La Gomera aborigines, indicating that isolation also had an important role in shaping the current population. The rugged relief of La Gomera divided into several distinct valleys probably promoted subsequent aboriginal intra-insular differentiation that has continued after the European colonization, as seen in the present-day population structure observed on the island. PMID:25407001

  12. Assessment of present day geomorphological dynamics to decipher landscape evolution around the Paleolithic sites of Melka Kunture, Ethiopia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maerker, Michael; Schillaci, Calogero; Melis, Rita; Mussi, Margherita

    2014-05-01

    The area of Melka Kunture (central Ethiopia) is one of the most important clusters of Paleolithic sites in Eastern Africa. The archaeological record spans from c. 1.7 Ma onwards, with a number of stratified occurrences of Oldowan, Acheulean, Middle Stone Age and Late Stone Age industries, together with faunal remains and human fossils. However, the archaeological sites are endangered by flooding and soil erosion. The main excavation area lies close to the convergence of the Awash river with the Atabella river, one of the main tributaries of the upper Awash catchment. In the semi-arid Ethiopian highlands, gully networks develop especially in the vicinity of the active and inactive river meanders. Various erosion processes are linked to specific driving factors such as the rainfall regime, the land use/cover changes and vertic soils with a specific hydrological behaviour. It was documented in the field and by previous research that the origin of most of the man made erosion channels is due to animal pathways and car tracks. However, paleolandscape features increase the general erosion risk. Former wetland areas and deposition zones are particularly affected by soil erosion processes. Hence, the spatial distribution and characteristics of present day geomorphic processes also reveal information on the paleolandscape. In order to assess landscape evolution and present day geomorphologic dynamics, we mapped the geomorphology describing in detail the present-day slope processes at a 10.000 scale. We performed a detailed terrain analysis based on high resolution DEMs such as SRTM-X with 25m resolution and ALOS/PRISM with 10m resolution to characterize the main erosion processes and surface runoff dynamics. The latter ones are simulated using a Soil Conservation Service Curve Number method. Landuse was delineated for a larger area using ASTER 25m multispectral data. Finally, using calibrated topographic indices and a simple hydrological model we were able to detect and

  13. The present-day strain partitioning of the Western Alps and its relationships with the crustal scale geometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schwartz, S.; Lardeaux, J. M.; Tricart, P.; Paul, A.; Béthoux, N.; Masson, F.

    2003-04-01

    In the orogenic belt, the combination of the geological data (tectonic, petrologic and kinematic analysis) with the geophysical imagery of the crust (regional seismicity, local earthquake tomography and gravimetry) allows to obtain crustal scale models coherent with the present-day deformation. In this way, the recent pluridisciplinary studies performed in the framework of " Geo-France 3D Alpes " show an important syn-convergence strain-partitioning at the scale of the western alpine belt. In the internal domain, this strain-partitioning, corresponds to extensional tectonics combinated with important strike-slip components while the external domain and the Po plain, located at the periphery, record an important shortening accomodated in surface by thrust and strike-slip faults. In order to understand the alpine present-day strain pattern, we propose and discuss a new crustal-scale cross-section performed along the Pelvoux-Dora Maira transect. The proeminent features of this crustal-scale geometry are : -the existence of a slice of cold and rigid mantle of Apulian origin beneath the Dora Maira massif. This rigid mantle is truncated in two distinct bodies by a system of deeply-rooted vertical faults related to the Insubric line. -these two main bodies of mantle acted as indenters driving the decoupling of the European crust and at least a part of the exhumation of the high-pressure metamorphic units. -the deep architecture is characterized by the stacking of crustal slices detached from the European lithosphere. Some of these slices represent tectonic extrusions within the overlying Piemont Schistes lustrés. -the Monviso eclogitized ophiolites are plunging up to 20 km depth below the Piemont schistes lustrés. In this geometrical model, the decoupling of the mantle identor drives the crustal-scale strain-partitioning of the western Alps. Indeed, the lower part of the rigid mantle transfers the compression onto the european foreland and is responsible for the present-day

  14. Iceland hotspot track in southeast Greenland causes huge present-day vertical viscoelastic motion of the bedrock

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khan, Shfaqat Abbas; Sasgen, Ingo; Bevis, Michael; van Dam, Tonie; Wahr, John; Bamber, Jonathan; Wouters, Bert; Helm, Veit; Willis, Michael; Csatho, Beata; Knudsen, Per; Kuipers Munneke, Peter; Kjær, Kurt

    2016-04-01

    The process of Glacial Isostatic Adjustment (GIA) represents the ongoing response of the solid Earth to past ice mass loss that occurred following the Last Glacial Maximum (LGM, ~21 ka B.P.). The magnitude of the GIA uplift depends on the temporal history of the ice load and is highly sensitive to variations in upper mantle viscosity. Greenland GIA is thought to be well contained and due to relative high viscosity, influence of more recent changes e.g. since the Little Ice Age have minor present-day effect (<2 mm/yr). Here we use data from the Greenland Global Positioning System (GPS) network to measure GIA. We identify an unexpected GIA anomaly of ~12 mm/yr in southeast Greenland, which we interpret as linked to a zone of warmer upper mantle caused by the Iceland hotspot track that would reduce the viscosity and produce greater viscoelastic uplift due to recent ice mass changes. We reconsider the evolution of the Greenland ice sheet since LGM and estimate a total ice mass loss equivalent to sea level rise of 4.9 m since LGM. Our observations suggest southeast and northwest Greenland, subject to present-day major ice loss, also contributed by significantly more mass loss on millennia scale than previously estimated.

  15. Oxidation of dissolved iron under warmer, wetter conditions on Mars: Transitions to present-day arid environments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Burns, R. G.

    1993-01-01

    The copious deposits of ferric-iron assemblages littering the surface of bright regions of Mars indicate that efficient oxidative weathering reactions have taken place during the evolution of the planet. Because the kinetics of atmosphere-surface (gas-solid) reactions are considerably slower than chemical weathering reactions involving an aqueous medium, most of the oxidation products now present in the martian regolith probably formed when groundwater flowed near the surface. This paper examines how chemical weathering reactions were effected by climatic variations when warm, wet environments became arid on Mars. Analogies are drawn with hydrogeochemical and weathering environments on the Australian continent where present-day oxidation of iron is occurring in acidic ground water under arid conditions.

  16. Fulminant Type 1 Diabetes Mellitus Presenting 11 Days after Delivery in a Patient of Mixed Genetic Background.

    PubMed

    Furukawa, Shoko; Fujihara, Kazuya; Kumagai, Ryo; Isono, Momoko; Yagyu, Hiroaki

    2016-01-01

    The patient was a 25-year-old woman whose paternal family was Japanese, maternal grandfather was Filipino, and maternal grandmother was Chinese. Eleven days after delivery, she presented with excessive thirst and disturbed consciousness due to diabetic ketoacidosis. She was diagnosed as having fulminant type 1 diabetes associated with pregnancy (PF). The antibody concentration against glutamic acid decarboxylase was 1.2 (<1.5) U/mL, and human leukocyte antigen (HLA) class II haplotypes were DRB1*04:10-DQB1*03:02 and DRB1*15:02-DQB1*05:01. The present case had unique HLA class II haplotypes that have not been previously reported in association with PF. PMID:27432097

  17. Day and night variation in chemical composition and toxicological responses of size segregated urban air PM samples in a high air pollution situation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jalava, P. I.; Wang, Q.; Kuuspalo, K.; Ruusunen, J.; Hao, L.; Fang, D.; Väisänen, O.; Ruuskanen, A.; Sippula, O.; Happo, M. S.; Uski, O.; Kasurinen, S.; Torvela, T.; Koponen, H.; Lehtinen, K. E. J.; Komppula, M.; Gu, C.; Jokiniemi, J.; Hirvonen, M.-R.

    2015-11-01

    samples. Some of the day to night difference may have been caused also by differing wind directions transporting air masses from different emission sources during the day and the night. The present findings indicate the important role of the local particle sources and atmospheric processes on the health related toxicological properties of the PM. The varying toxicological responses evoked by the PM samples showed the importance of examining various particle sizes. Especially the detected considerable toxicological activity by PM0.2 size range suggests they're attributable to combustion sources, new particle formation and atmospheric processes.

  18. A High-resolution 3D Geodynamical Model of the Present-day India-Asia Collision System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kaus, B.; Baumann, T.

    2015-12-01

    We present a high-resolution, 3D geodynamic model of the present-day India-Asia collision system. The model is separated into multiple tectonic blocks, for which we estimate the first order rheological properties and the impact on the dynamics of the collision system. This is done by performing systematic simulations with different rheologies to minimize the misfit to observational constraints such as the GPS-velocity field. The simulations are performed with the parallel staggered grid FD code LaMEM using a numerical resolution of at least 512x512x256 cells to resolve dynamically important shear zones reasonably well. A fundamental part of this study is the reconstruction of the 3D present-day geometry of Tibet and the adjacent regions. Our interpretations of crust and mantle lithosphere geometry are jointly based on a globally available shear wave tomography (Schaeffer and Lebedev, 2013) and the Crust 1.0 model (Laske et al. http://igppweb.ucsd.edu/~gabi/crust1.html). We regionally refined and modified our interpretations based on seismicity distributions and focal mechanisms and incorporated regional receiver function studies to improve the accuracy of the Moho in particular. Results suggest that we can identify at least one "best-fit" solution in terms of rheological model properties that reproduces the observed velocity field reasonably well, including the strong rotation of the GPS velocity around the eastern syntax of the Himalaya. We also present model co-variances to illustrate the trade-offs between the rheological model parameters, their respective uncertainties, and the model fit. Schaeffer, A.J., Lebedev, S., 2013. Global shear speed structure of the upper mantle and transition zone. Geophysical Journal International 194, 417-449. doi:10.1093/gji/ggt095

  19. Unraveling the geochemistry of melts in exhumed mantle domains in present-day and fossil magma-poor rifted margins

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Amann, Méderic; Ulrich, Marc; Autin, Julia; Manatschal, Gianreto; Epin, Marie-Eva; Müntener, Othmar; Boiron, Marie-Christine; Sauter, Daniel

    2016-04-01

    The role of magmatic processes occurring during the continental break-up and the onset of steady-state seafloor spreading are still a matter of debate. Beside the tectonic processes like stretching, thinning and exhumation, magmatic processes also play a key role in the evolution and breakup of magma-poor rifted margins. To unravel the impact of such processes, Ocean-Continent-Transitions (OCTs) are of particular interest. OCTs are complex areas where hyper-extended continental crust, exhumed mantle and proto-oceanic crust occur. All these domains have been identified and sampled in both present-day (Iberia/Newfoundland margins) and fossil margins (Platta/Err nappes). In this study, we present preliminary results that enable to characterize the nature of the mantle rocks and the melts found in the OCTs of these paleo- and present-day margins with the aim to investigate how the mantle evolves from initial exhumation to final lithospheric breaks. In OCTs two types of mantle rocks can be observed: (i) a « sub-continental type » free of syn-exhumation melt imprint preserving the early geochemical evolution, and (ii) a « refertilized type » characterized by melt infiltration and mantle-melt interaction. Melts from these domains have different major, trace element and isotopic compositions and can therefore be used to constrain how melt interacts with the mantle and to understand the role of magmatic processes in the break-up. We therefore summarized whole-rock, in-situ and isotopic analysis available in the literature from the Iberia/Newfoundland present-day margin system and completed the existing database with new additional data from the Iberia margin. These new data have been obtained using in-situ technics mainly on clinopyroxenites, serpentinized peridotites and gabbros of ODP drill cores. Around 200 new data have been acquired using the LA-ICPMS technic. Preliminary results show that clinopyroxenes in serpentinized peridodite breccia from ODP site 637A and

  20. Simple models for late Holocene and present-day Patagonian glacier fluctuations and predictions of a geodetically detectable isostatic response

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ivins, Erik R.; James, Thomas S.

    1999-09-01

    The late Holocene glacial moraine chronology in the southernmost South American Andes includes four ^1 ^4 C dated Neoglacial advances and retreats. These are used as proxy information to characterize mass fluctuation of the Patagonian icefields during the last 5000 years. Modelled ice loads force a phase-lagged viscoelastic gravitational deformation of the solid Earth. The ancient glacier fluctuations may, therefore, drive present-day crustal motion even in the absence of present-day ice mass imbalance. Numerical models show that such rates of present-day uplift and subsidence are larger than those driven by the viscous memory of late Pleistocene deglaciation. Both spherical and flat-earth models are employed, the latter being used to study exhaustively the effects of glacial load history on the predicted vertical crustal velocity. Recent assessment of net mass balance from 1944 to 1985 indicates that the Southern Patagonian icefield has significantly deteriorated due to snout retreat and thinning. Volume loss rates are estimated at about 3.4-9.3 km^3 yr^- ^1 . The predicted vertical isostatic response to this recession and to the modelled Holocene Neoglaciations is at a marginally detectable level (~1 mm yr^- ^1 ) if the mantle/asthenosphere beneath Patagonia has a viscosity of about 10^2 ^1 Pa s. However, for reduced mantle viscosities, the younger Holocene glacial load histories predict larger signatures. In fact, if the viscosity is about 2x10^2 ^0 Pa s, or lower, then geodetically detectable vertical motion may be driven by a regional Little Ice Age (LIA) (1400-1750 AD) glacier advance and subsequent 20th century retreat. Although this value for mantle viscosity is lower than thought typical of continental shield mantle (~10^2 ^1 Pa s), it is consistent with inversions for post-seismic relaxation time constants in island arc environments and in regions with significant Neogene continental tectonism. In the viscosity regime of 5x10^1 ^8 -2x10^1 ^9 Pa s, the

  1. Situated University, Situated Writing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Feldman, Ann M.

    2009-01-01

    This article argues that teaching as a situated, civic activity must be a core intellectual activity in the engaged metropolitan university. Situated writing provides the key pedagogy for the Chicago Civic Leadership Certificate Program at the University of Illinois at Chicago, an engaged public research university. The role of writing, or…

  2. Microphytobenthos and phytoplankton in the Severn estuary, UK: present situation and possible consequences of a tidal energy barrage.

    PubMed

    Underwood, Graham J C

    2010-01-01

    Information on the distribution of microphytobenthos (micro-algae forming biofilms on sediment surfaces) and phytoplankton in the Severn estuary is reviewed. Microphytobenthos (MPB) are widely distributed in salt marsh and mudflat environments, with biomass levels lower than in other estuaries (average 53 mg chl am(-2) on mud, 12 mg chl am(-2) on sand). Seasonal and spatial patterns occur in the species composition of biofilms. Large areas of the Severn have not been surveyed, but it is likely that MPB are abundant in these regions. Dissolved inorganic N, P and Si concentrations are high in the upper estuary (>400 microM nitrate, >10 microM phosphate, >140 microM silicate) and decrease seaward. Phytoplanktonic chl a concentrations are low in the main estuary (2.2 microg chl aL(-1)), but increase in the Bristol Channel and at the head of the estuary (>10 microg chl aL(-1)). High turbidity is the likely cause for low phytoplankton activity. Annual production of MPB was estimated at 33 g Cm(-2) of inter-tidal area y(-1) in the Severn estuary. This estimated benthic primary production would utilise 3.9% and 4.9% of the annual estuarine N and P loads. Construction of tidal energy barrages is estimated to significantly reduce annual estuarine MPB production (by 77% for the Cardiff-Weston barrage). It is unlikely that any potential increases in MPB biomass on remaining inter-tidal areas will be sufficient to compensate for these losses. In general, the data coverage for benthic and planktonic distribution, production and related nutrient cycles is extremely limited and significant new research work is needed to enable more definite predictions of the post-barrage situation to be made. PMID:20074756

  3. Modeling of Present-Day Atmosphere and Ocean Non-Tidal De-Aliasing Errors for Future Gravity Mission Simulations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bergmann-Wolf, I.; Dobslaw, H.; Mayer-Gürr, T.

    2015-12-01

    A realistically perturbed synthetic de-aliasing model consistent with the updated Earth System Model of the European Space Agency (Dobslaw et al., 2015) is now available for the years 1995 -- 2006. The data-set contains realizations of (i) errors at large spatial scales assessed individually for periods between 10 -- 30, 3 -- 10, and 1 -- 3 days, the S1 atmospheric tide, and sub-diurnal periods; (ii) errors at small spatial scales typically not covered by global models of atmosphere and ocean variability; and (iii) errors due to physical processes not represented in currently available de-aliasing products. The error magnitudes for each of the different frequency bands are derived from a small ensemble of four atmospheric and oceanic models. In order to demonstrate the plausibility of the error magnitudes chosen, we perform a variance component estimation based on daily GRACE normal equations from the ITSG-Grace2014 global gravity field series recently published by the University of Graz. All 12 years of the error model are used to calculate empirical error variance-covariance matrices describing the systematic dependencies of the errors both in time and in space individually for five continental and four oceanic regions, and daily GRACE normal equations are subsequently employed to obtain pre-factors for each of those matrices. For the largest spatial scales up to d/o = 40 and periods longer than 24 h, errors prepared for the updated ESM are found to be largely consistent with noise of a similar stochastic character contained in present-day GRACE solutions. Differences and similarities identified for all of the nine regions considered will be discussed in detail during the presentation.Dobslaw, H., I. Bergmann-Wolf, R. Dill, E. Forootan, V. Klemann, J. Kusche, and I. Sasgen (2015), The updated ESA Earth System Model for future gravity mission simulation studies, J. Geod., doi:10.1007/s00190-014-0787-8.

  4. HLA Class I and Class II Alleles and Haplotypes Confirm the Berber Origin of the Present Day Tunisian Population.

    PubMed

    Hajjej, Abdelhafidh; Almawi, Wassim Y; Hattab, Lasmar; El-Gaaied, Amel; Hmida, Slama

    2015-01-01

    In view of its distinct geographical location and relatively small area, Tunisia witnessed the presence of many civilizations and ethnic groups throughout history, thereby questioning the origin of present-day Tunisian population. We investigated HLA class I and class II gene profiles in Tunisians, and compared this profile with those of Mediterranean and Sub-Sahara African populations. A total of 376 unrelated Tunisian individuals of both genders were genotyped for HLA class I (A, B) and class II (DRB1, DQB1), using reverse dot-blot hybridization (PCR-SSO) method. Statistical analysis was performed using Arlequin software. Phylogenetic trees were constructed by DISPAN software, and correspondence analysis was carried out by VISTA software. One hundred fifty-three HLA alleles were identified in the studied sample, which comprised 41, 50, 40 and 22 alleles at HLA-A,-B,-DRB1 and -DQB1 loci, respectively. The most frequent alleles were HLA-A*02:01 (16.76%), HLA-B*44:02/03 (17.82%), HLA-DRB1*07:01 (19.02%), and HLA-DQB1*03:01 (17.95%). Four-locus haplotype analysis identified HLA-A*02:01-B*50:01-DRB1*07:01-DQB1*02:02 (2.2%) as the common haplotype in Tunisians. Compared to other nearby populations, Tunisians appear to be genetically related to Western Mediterranean population, in particular North Africans and Berbers. In conclusion, HLA genotype results indicate that Tunisians are related to present-day North Africans, Berbers and to Iberians, but not to Eastern Arabs (Palestinians, Jordanians and Lebanese). This suggests that the genetic contribution of Arab invasion of 7th-11th century A.D. had little impact of the North African gene pool. PMID:26317228

  5. Present-day oxidative subsidence of organic soils and mitigation in the Sacramento-San Joaquin Delta, California, USA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Deverel, Steven J.; Ingrum, Timothy; Leighton, David

    2016-05-01

    Subsidence of organic soils in the Sacramento-San Joaquin Delta threatens sustainability of the California (USA) water supply system and agriculture. Land-surface elevation data were collected to assess present-day subsidence rates and evaluate rice as a land use for subsidence mitigation. To depict Delta-wide present-day rates of subsidence, the previously developed SUBCALC model was refined and calibrated using recent data for CO2 emissions and land-surface elevation changes measured at extensometers. Land-surface elevation change data were evaluated relative to indirect estimates of subsidence and accretion using carbon and nitrogen flux data for rice cultivation. Extensometer and leveling data demonstrate seasonal variations in land-surface elevations associated with groundwater-level fluctuations and inelastic subsidence rates of 0.5-0.8 cm yr-1. Calibration of the SUBCALC model indicated accuracy of ±0.10 cm yr-1 where depth to groundwater, soil organic matter content and temperature are known. Regional estimates of subsidence range from <0.3 to >1.8 cm yr-1. The primary uncertainty is the distribution of soil organic matter content which results in spatial averaging in the mapping of subsidence rates. Analysis of leveling and extensometer data in rice fields resulted in an estimated accretion rate of 0.02-0.8 cm yr-1. These values generally agreed with indirect estimates based on carbon fluxes and nitrogen mineralization, thus preliminarily demonstrating that rice will stop or greatly reduce subsidence. Areas below elevations of -2 m are candidate areas for implementation of mitigation measures such as rice because there is active subsidence occurring at rates greater than 0.4 cm yr-1.

  6. Similarities in the Spatial Pattern of the Surface Flux Response to Present-Day Greenhouse Gases and Aerosols

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Persad, G.; Ming, Y.; Ramaswamy, V.

    2014-12-01

    Recent studies suggest that present-day greenhouse gases (GHGs) and aerosols can produce remarkably similar patterns of climate response in fully coupled general circulation model (GCM) simulations, despite having significantly different spatial patterns of top-of-atmosphere (TOA) forcing. However, there is little understanding of the mechanisms of ocean-atmosphere interaction that could lead to the response pattern formation. Surface flux perturbations are a crucial pathway by which TOA forcing is communicated to the ocean, and may be a vital link in explaining the spatial similarities in the fully coupled responses to disparate TOA forcing patterns—a phenomenon with implications for detection and attribution, as well as the climate sensitivity to different forcers. We analyze the surface energy budget response to present-day aerosols versus GHGs in single forcing, fixed SST, atmospheric GCM experiments to identify mechanisms for response pattern formation via surface flux perturbations. We find that, although the TOA forcing spatial patterns of GHGs and aerosols are largely uncorrelated, their surface radiative and heat flux patterns are significantly anti-correlated. Furthermore, this anti-correlation is largely explained by similar (but sign-reversed) spatial patterns of surface latent and sensible heat flux response to the two forcers, particularly over the winter-hemisphere extratropical oceans. These are, in turn, driven by spatially similar perturbations in surface winds from changes in mean tropical and midlatitude circulation. These results suggest that the mean atmospheric circulation, which has many anti-symmetric responses to GHG and aerosol forcings, is an efficient homogenizer of spatial patterns in the surface heat flux response to heterogeneous TOA forcings, creating an atmosphere-only pathway for similarities in the fully coupled response.

  7. Present-day oxidative subsidence of organic soils and mitigation in the Sacramento-San Joaquin Delta, California, USA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Deverel, Steven J.; Ingrum, Timothy; Leighton, David

    2016-03-01

    Subsidence of organic soils in the Sacramento-San Joaquin Delta threatens sustainability of the California (USA) water supply system and agriculture. Land-surface elevation data were collected to assess present-day subsidence rates and evaluate rice as a land use for subsidence mitigation. To depict Delta-wide present-day rates of subsidence, the previously developed SUBCALC model was refined and calibrated using recent data for CO2 emissions and land-surface elevation changes measured at extensometers. Land-surface elevation change data were evaluated relative to indirect estimates of subsidence and accretion using carbon and nitrogen flux data for rice cultivation. Extensometer and leveling data demonstrate seasonal variations in land-surface elevations associated with groundwater-level fluctuations and inelastic subsidence rates of 0.5-0.8 cm yr-1. Calibration of the SUBCALC model indicated accuracy of ±0.10 cm yr-1 where depth to groundwater, soil organic matter content and temperature are known. Regional estimates of subsidence range from <0.3 to >1.8 cm yr-1. The primary uncertainty is the distribution of soil organic matter content which results in spatial averaging in the mapping of subsidence rates. Analysis of leveling and extensometer data in rice fields resulted in an estimated accretion rate of 0.02-0.8 cm yr-1. These values generally agreed with indirect estimates based on carbon fluxes and nitrogen mineralization, thus preliminarily demonstrating that rice will stop or greatly reduce subsidence. Areas below elevations of -2 m are candidate areas for implementation of mitigation measures such as rice because there is active subsidence occurring at rates greater than 0.4 cm yr-1.

  8. HLA Class I and Class II Alleles and Haplotypes Confirm the Berber Origin of the Present Day Tunisian Population

    PubMed Central

    Hajjej, Abdelhafidh; Almawi, Wassim Y.; Hattab, Lasmar; El-Gaaied, Amel; Hmida, Slama

    2015-01-01

    In view of its distinct geographical location and relatively small area, Tunisia witnessed the presence of many civilizations and ethnic groups throughout history, thereby questioning the origin of present-day Tunisian population. We investigated HLA class I and class II gene profiles in Tunisians, and compared this profile with those of Mediterranean and Sub-Sahara African populations. A total of 376 unrelated Tunisian individuals of both genders were genotyped for HLA class I (A, B) and class II (DRB1, DQB1), using reverse dot-blot hybridization (PCR-SSO) method. Statistical analysis was performed using Arlequin software. Phylogenetic trees were constructed by DISPAN software, and correspondence analysis was carried out by VISTA software. One hundred fifty-three HLA alleles were identified in the studied sample, which comprised 41, 50, 40 and 22 alleles at HLA-A,-B,-DRB1 and -DQB1 loci, respectively. The most frequent alleles were HLA-A*02:01 (16.76%), HLA-B*44:02/03 (17.82%), HLA-DRB1*07:01 (19.02%), and HLA-DQB1*03:01 (17.95%). Four-locus haplotype analysis identified HLA-A*02:01-B*50:01-DRB1*07:01-DQB1*02:02 (2.2%) as the common haplotype in Tunisians. Compared to other nearby populations, Tunisians appear to be genetically related to Western Mediterranean population, in particular North Africans and Berbers. In conclusion, HLA genotype results indicate that Tunisians are related to present-day North Africans, Berbers and to Iberians, but not to Eastern Arabs (Palestinians, Jordanians and Lebanese). This suggests that the genetic contribution of Arab invasion of 7th-11th century A.D. had little impact of the North African gene pool. PMID:26317228

  9. Comparison of statistical and dynamical downscaling of extreme precipitations over France in present-day and future climate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Colin, Jeanne; Déqué, Michel; Sanchez Gomez, Emila; Somot, Samuel

    2010-05-01

    We present a comparison of two downscaling methods of extreme precipitations over France at a climatic time scale : a dynamical one performed with the Regional Climate Model ALADIN-Climate used at a resolution of 12 km, and a statistical one based on the weather regime approach and using the analog methodology to reconstruct daily fields of precipitations at a 8 km resolution. We focus on the most heavy precipitations of the area of interest, which occur in southeastern France in Autumn. Those involve small-scale processes than can be explicitly resolved only with 2-1 km resolution non-hydrostatic models. However, such models can not be used for climate simulations because of their computational cost is still too high. Yet these extreme events cause rather heavy damages, so that their possible evolution in the context of climate change is of great concern. Thus, there is strong need in assessing downscaling methods' ability to represent them. First, we downscale the low-resolution ERA40 re-analysis over the 1958-2000 time period with ALADIN-Climate, and from the year 1980 to the year 2000 with the statistical method. Then, we apply a quantile-quantile correction to the daily precipitations of the last twenty years of the ALADIN-Climate simulation. The correction rates are computed over the first part of the simulation (1958-1979) using a high-resolution gridded database : the SAFRAN analysis, which provides series of hourly fields for the 1958-2008 period over the french territory at a 8 km resolution. We assess the performances of each downscaling method in present-day climate by comparing the simulated precipitations to the SAFRAN database. The use of the ERA40 re-analysis allows to reproduce the real chronology in both downscalings, which enables to analyze the results not only from a statistical point of view but also through day-to-day diagnosis such as time correlations or spatial patterns of rain for given extreme events. Secondly, we apply these downscaling

  10. Human reponses to historical eruptions of Etna (Sicily) from 1600 to present and their implications for present-day disaster planning

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sangster, H.; Chester, D. K.; Duncan, A. M.

    2012-04-01

    Mount Etna in northeastern Sicily (Italy) rises to over 3000 m, covers an area of ca.1750 km2 and is the most active volcano in Europe. Observations of Etna by literate observers stretch back to the classical era and one of the earliest references to an eruption of Etna was by Pindar in his Pythian Odes, to the event of ca. 474-479 B.C. The history of its activity has been reconstructed by scholars up to the present day and records of eruptions are reasonably complete from the early fifteenth century, reliable from 1669, and document the threats and destruction to human settlements and livelihoods. Effusive and explosive activity has occurred continually throughout the historical period and eruptions of Mount Etna have presented numerous eruption styles, from persistent central crater activity, to periodic flank eruptions. From 1600 to 1669 the activity of Etna was characterised by a high volumetric output of lava with a mean eruption rate of 1.19 m3s-1, this was followed by a pause from flank eruptions and the re-establishment of significant activity from the middle of the eighteenth century. After 1750 the output of lava by flank eruptions was lower than in the previous century, with the mean eruption rate falling to 0.18 m3s-1. This paper summarises: the characteristics of the eruptions that occurred between the period of 1600 to present; the particularities of the societal responses over time and the role of the authorities; and, the important lessons this history holds for the management of present-day civil defence planning in the region. People responded to the eruptions at three levels: as members of a family and extended family; as members of a community and, as citizens of the State. The State, however, was a minor player in responding to these eruptions until the early nineteenth century as the State then became more involved in each successive eruption as the responses moved to a more industrial nature rather than pre-industrial. Today emergencies are

  11. Chronic disease risk factors, healthy days and medical claims in South African employees presenting for health risk screening

    PubMed Central

    Kolbe-Alexander, Tracy L; Buckmaster, Chris; Nossel, Craig; Dreyer, Liezel; Bull, Fiona; Noakes, Timothy D; Lambert, Estelle V

    2008-01-01

    Background Non-communicable diseases (NCD) accounts for more than a third (37%) of all deaths in South Africa. However, this burden of disease can be reduced by addressing risk factors. The aim of this study was to determine the health and risk profile of South African employees presenting for health risk assessments and to measure their readiness to change and improve lifestyle behaviour. Methods Employees (n = 1954) from 18 companies were invited to take part in a wellness day, which included a health-risk assessment. Self-reported health behaviour and health status was recorded. Clinical measures included cholesterol finger-prick test, blood pressure and Body Mass Index (BMI). Health-related age was calculated using an algorithm incorporating the relative risk for all case mortality associated with smoking, physical activity, fruit and vegetable intake, BMI and cholesterol. Medical claims data were obtained from the health insurer. Results The mean percentage of participation was 26% (n = 1954) and ranged from 4% in transport to 81% in the consulting sector. Health-related age (38.5 ± 12.9 years) was significantly higher than chronological age (34.9 ± 10.3 yrs) (p < 0.001). Both chronological and risk-related age were significantly different between the sectors (P < 0.001), with the manufacturing sector being the oldest and finance having the youngest employees. Health-related age was significantly associated with number of days adversely affected by mental and physical health, days away from work and total annual medical costs (p < 0.001). Employees had higher rates of overweight, smoking among men, and physical inactivity (total sample) when compared the general SA population. Increased health-related expenditure was associated with increased number of risk factors, absenteeism and reduced physical activity. Conclusion SA employees' health and lifestyle habits are placing them at increased risk for NCD's, suggesting that they may develop NCD's earlier than

  12. Complex Bedforms and Complex Water Masses: A Case Study from the Tertiary to Present-day, Pelotas Basin, Offshore Uruguay

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thompson, P.; Badalini, G.; Wrigley, S.; Walker, R.; Argent, J.; Hernandez-Molina, J.; de Santa Ana, H.; Soto, M.; Tomasini, J.

    2015-12-01

    varied both spatially and temporally and operated at various water depths. This complexity continues Present-day and is spectacularly imaged by pseudo time-lapse seismic data from the Present-day water column. These data, which are commonly neglected, highlight the true complexity of ocean currents and show how discrete dynamic water masses mix and move over time.

  13. Model sensitivity of ice flux over the grounding line to present-day climatic forcing and geothermal flux

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kleiner, Thomas; Humbert, Angelika

    2016-04-01

    Large uncertainties remain in the current and future contribution to sea level change from Antarctica from observations and numerical flow modelling. Within the SeaRISE project atmospheric, oceanic, and subglacial forcing scenarios were applied to different ice-sheet models to assess Antarctic ice sheet sensitivity over a 500 year timescale. The scenario results have been compared to the individual state of each model at the end of its spin-up. It has been shown, that the model results highly depend on the chosen climate forcing and spin-up strategy. Here we use the Parallel Ice Sheet Model (PISM) to perform spin-up simulations across different data sets for present-day boundary conditions for the Antarctic Ice Sheet (surface temperature, surface mass balance and geothermal flux). The utilized spin-up methods include free evolving and geometry constrained simulations. Here we present our analysis of the ice flux over the grounding line for each set-up and compare the fluxes from large drainage basin units with estimates derived from remote sensing.

  14. Intraoperative presentation of Bochdalek's hernia in an adult during robotic-assisted partial nephrectomy: An uncommon situation and literature review.

    PubMed

    Cindolo, Luca; Berardinelli, Francesco; Manzi, Arianna; Spagnuolo, Francesca; Fabbri, Elisa; Castellan, Pietro; Petrini, Flavia; Schips, Luigi

    2015-12-01

    Bochdalek's diaphragmatic hernia (BDH) is a congenital defect of the diaphragm that usually present during the neonatal period and rarely remain silent until adulthood. We present a 45-year-old-female case with diagnosis of double left kidney tumor prepared for robot-assisted partial nephrectomy (RPN). During the preoperative procedure she had a reduction of inspiratory volumes and increased pulmonary pressures: the robotic camera revealed the incidental presence of the left diaphragmatic defect. We report a simultaneous nephron sparing surgery (NSS) and left posterolateral BDH correction done by the da Vinci Surgical Robot (Intuitive Surgical, Sunnyvale, CA). PMID:26766808

  15. Estimating present day extreme water level exceedance probabilities around the coastline of Australia: tropical cyclone-induced storm surges

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Haigh, Ivan D.; MacPherson, Leigh R.; Mason, Matthew S.; Wijeratne, E. M. S.; Pattiaratchi, Charitha B.; Crompton, Ryan P.; George, Steve

    2014-01-01

    The incidence of major storm surges in the last decade have dramatically emphasized the immense destructive capabilities of extreme water level events, particularly when driven by severe tropical cyclones. Given this risk, it is vitally important that the exceedance probabilities of extreme water levels are accurately evaluated to inform risk-based flood and erosion management, engineering and for future land-use planning and to ensure the risk of catastrophic structural failures due to under-design or expensive wastes due to over-design are minimised. Australia has a long history of coastal flooding from tropical cyclones. Using a novel integration of two modeling techniques, this paper provides the first estimates of present day extreme water level exceedance probabilities around the whole coastline of Australia, and the first estimates that combine the influence of astronomical tides, storm surges generated by both extra-tropical and tropical cyclones, and seasonal and inter-annual variations in mean sea level. Initially, an analysis of tide gauge records has been used to assess the characteristics of tropical cyclone-induced surges around Australia. However, given the dearth (temporal and spatial) of information around much of the coastline, and therefore the inability of these gauge records to adequately describe the regional climatology, an observationally based stochastic tropical cyclone model has been developed to synthetically extend the tropical cyclone record to 10,000 years. Wind and pressure fields derived for these synthetically generated events have then been used to drive a hydrodynamic model of the Australian continental shelf region with annual maximum water levels extracted to estimate exceedance probabilities around the coastline. To validate this methodology, selected historic storm surge events have been simulated and resultant storm surges compared with gauge records. Tropical cyclone induced exceedance probabilities have been combined with

  16. Volcanoes and the environment: Lessons for understanding Earth's past and future from studies of present-day volcanic emissions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mather, Tamsin A.

    2015-10-01

    Volcanism has affected the environment of our planet over a broad range of spatial (local to global) and temporal (< 1 yr to 100s Myr) scales and will continue to do so. As well as examining the Earth's geological record and using computer modelling to understand these effects, much of our knowledge of these processes comes from studying volcanism on the present-day planet. Understanding the full spectrum of possible routes and mechanisms by which volcanism can affect the environment is key to developing a realistic appreciation of possible past and potential future volcanic impact scenarios. This review paper seeks to give a synoptic overview of these potential mechanisms, focussing on those that we can seek to understand over human timescales by studying current volcanic activity. These effects are wide ranging from well-documented planetary-scale impacts (e.g., cooling by stratospheric aerosol veils) to more subtle or localised processes like ash fertilisation of ocean biota and impacts on cloud properties, atmospheric oxidant levels and terrestrial ecosystems. There is still much to be gained by studying present-day volcanic emissions. This review highlights the need for further work in three example areas. Firstly, to understand regional and arc-scale volcanic emissions, especially cycling of elements through subduction zones, more volatile measurements are needed to contribute to a fundamental and systematic understanding of these processes throughout geological time. Secondly, there is still uncertainty surrounding whether stratospheric ozone depletion following volcanic eruptions results solely from activation of anthropogenic halogen species. We should be poised to study future eruptions into the stratosphere with regard to their impacts and halogen load and work to improve our models and understanding of the relevant underlying processes within the Earth and the atmosphere. Thirdly, we lack a systematic understanding of trace metal volatility from magmas

  17. Atmospheric transport of persistent organic pollutants to and from the Arctic under present-day and future climate.

    PubMed

    Octaviani, Mega; Stemmler, Irene; Lammel, Gerhard; Graf, Hans F

    2015-03-17

    The long-term atmospheric cycling and fate of persistent organic pollutants under the influence of a changing climate is a concern. A GCM's realization of present-day (1970-1999) and future (2070-2099) climate, the latter under a medium scenario of greenhouse gas emissions, is used to study meridional transports and their correlations with the Arctic and North Atlantic Oscillations (AO and NAO). Regions of import and export maxima into the Arctic are identified along the Arctic Circle. It is found that, under future climate conditions, the net export of PCB153 out of the Arctic will increase. The meridional net flux pattern of this substance is expected to become independent of AO and NAO. For DDT, a trend of decreasing net Arctic import will reverse to an increasing trend 100 years after peak emission, which is partly due to more frequent AO and NAO positive phases. It is concluded that the long-term accumulation trends in the Arctic of other persistent pollutants, including so-called emerging pollutants, are subject to the substances' specific behavior and fate in the environment and need to be studied specifically. PMID:25686012

  18. Evaluation of Present-day Aerosols over China Simulated from the Atmospheric Chemistry and Climate Model Intercomparison Project (ACCMIP)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liao, H.; Chang, W.

    2014-12-01

    High concentrations of aerosols over China lead to strong radiative forcing that is important for both regional and global climate. To understand the representation of aerosols in China in current global climate models, we evaluate extensively the simulated present-day aerosol concentrations and aerosol optical depth (AOD) over China from the 12 models that participated in Atmospheric Chemistry & Climate Model Intercomparison Project (ACCMIP), by using ground-based measurements and satellite remote sensing. Ground-based measurements of aerosol concentrations used in this work include those from the China Meteorological Administration (CMA) Atmosphere Watch Network (CAWNET) and the observed fine-mode aerosol concentrations collected from the literature. The ground-based measurements of AOD in China are taken from the AErosol RObotic NETwork (AERONET), the sites with CIMEL sun photometer operated by Institute of Atmospheric Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, and from Chinese Sun Hazemeter Network (CSHNET). We find that the ACCMIP models generally underestimate concentrations of all major aerosol species in China. On an annual mean basis, the multi-model mean concentrations of sulfate, nitrate, ammonium, black carbon, and organic carbon are underestimated by 63%, 73%, 54%, 53%, and 59%, respectively. The multi-model mean AOD values show low biases of 20-40% at studied sites in China. The ACCMIP models can reproduce seasonal variation of nitrate but cannot capture well the seasonal variations of other aerosol species. Our analyses indicate that current global models generally underestimate the role of aerosols in China in climate simulations.

  19. Present-Day Genetic Structure of Atlantic Salmon (Salmo salar) in Icelandic Rivers and Ice-Cap Retreat Models

    PubMed Central

    Olafsson, Kristinn; Pampoulie, Christophe; Hjorleifsdottir, Sigridur; Gudjonsson, Sigurdur; Hreggvidsson, Gudmundur O.

    2014-01-01

    Due to an improved understanding of past climatological conditions, it has now become possible to study the potential concordance between former climatological models and present-day genetic structure. Genetic variability was assessed in 26 samples from different rivers of Atlantic salmon in Iceland (total of 2,352 individuals), using 15 microsatellite loci. F-statistics revealed significant differences between the majority of the populations that were sampled. Bayesian cluster analyses using both prior information and no prior information on sampling location revealed the presence of two distinguishable genetic pools - namely, the Northern (Group 1) and Southern (Group 2) regions of Iceland. Furthermore, the random permutation of different allele sizes among allelic states revealed a significant mutational component to the genetic differentiation at four microsatellite loci (SsaD144, Ssa171, SSsp2201 and SsaF3), and supported the proposition of a historical origin behind the observed variation. The estimated time of divergence, using two different ABC methods, suggested that the observed genetic pattern originated from between the Last Glacial Maximum to the Younger Dryas, which serves as additional evidence of the relative immaturity of Icelandic fish populations, on account of the re-colonisation of this young environment following the Last Glacial Maximum. Additional analyses suggested the presence of several genetic entities which were likely to originate from the original groups detected. PMID:24498283

  20. Present-Day Crustal Vertical Motion Around the Ordos Block Constrained by Precise Leveling and GPS Data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hao, Ming; Wang, Qingliang; Cui, Duxin; Liu, Liwei; Zhou, Lin

    2016-06-01

    Precise leveling data observed in the period of 1970-2014 around the Ordos block were collected and processed to estimate present-day crustal vertical movement. Vertical rates of 6 GPS sites were employed as a priori constraints to define the reference frame. The velocity field shows that the interior of the Ordos block moves upward at a rate of 3 mm/a as a stable block. With respect to the central Ordos, the grabens and rifts around the Ordos block are undergoing subsidence, while the northeastern and southwestern Ordos uplift at the average rates of 2 and 1 mm/a, respectively. To the southeastern margin of the Ordos block, the Weihe and southern Shanxi grabens are subsiding at the rates of 4-6 mm/a. The subsidence of the Shanxi graben indicates that the graben is experiencing extensional movement on a long timescale. To the northwestern margin of the Ordos block, the Hetao and Yinchuan rifts are subsiding at the rates of 2-3 mm/a. A 2-D buried faulting model is used to infer the normal or reverse dip-slip rates. Our solution shows that most of the normal slip rates along the faults in the grabens and rifts are ~2 mm/a.

  1. Global connections between aeolian dust, climate and ocean biogeochemistry at the present day and at the last glacial maximum

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maher, B. A.; Prospero, J. M.; Mackie, D.; Gaiero, D.; Hesse, P. P.; Balkanski, Y.

    2010-04-01

    Palaeo-dust records in sediments and ice cores show that wind-borne mineral aerosol ('dust') is strongly linked with climate state. During glacial climate stages, for example, the world was much dustier, with dust fluxes two to five times greater than in interglacial stages. However, the influence of dust on climate remains a poorly quantified and actively changing element of the Earth's climate system. Dust can influence climate directly, by the scattering and absorption of solar and terrestrial radiation, and indirectly, by modifying cloud properties. Dust transported to the oceans can also affect climate via ocean fertilization in those regions of the world's oceans where macronutrients like nitrate are abundant but primary production and nitrogen fixation are limited by iron scarcity. Dust containing iron, as fine-grained iron oxides/oxyhydroxides and/or within clay minerals, and other essential micronutrients (e.g. silica) may modulate the uptake of carbon in marine ecosystems and, in turn, the atmospheric concentration of CO 2. Here, in order to critically examine past fluxes and possible climate impacts of dust in general and iron-bearing dust in particular, we consider present-day sources and properties of dust, synthesise available records of dust deposition at the last glacial maximum (LGM); evaluate the evidence for changes in ocean palaeo-productivity associated with, and possibly caused by, changes in aeolian flux to the oceans at the LGM; and consider the radiative forcing effects of increased LGM dust loadings.

  2. Present-Day Crustal Vertical Motion Around the Ordos Block Constrained by Precise Leveling and GPS Data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hao, Ming; Wang, Qingliang; Cui, Duxin; Liu, Liwei; Zhou, Lin

    2016-09-01

    Precise leveling data observed in the period of 1970-2014 around the Ordos block were collected and processed to estimate present-day crustal vertical movement. Vertical rates of 6 GPS sites were employed as a priori constraints to define the reference frame. The velocity field shows that the interior of the Ordos block moves upward at a rate of 3 mm/a as a stable block. With respect to the central Ordos, the grabens and rifts around the Ordos block are undergoing subsidence, while the northeastern and southwestern Ordos uplift at the average rates of 2 and 1 mm/a, respectively. To the southeastern margin of the Ordos block, the Weihe and southern Shanxi grabens are subsiding at the rates of 4-6 mm/a. The subsidence of the Shanxi graben indicates that the graben is experiencing extensional movement on a long timescale. To the northwestern margin of the Ordos block, the Hetao and Yinchuan rifts are subsiding at the rates of 2-3 mm/a. A 2-D buried faulting model is used to infer the normal or reverse dip-slip rates. Our solution shows that most of the normal slip rates along the faults in the grabens and rifts are ~2 mm/a.

  3. Present-day deformation in NE Iran and the South Caspian constraint by Global Positioning System measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mousavi, Z.; Walpersdorf, A.; Walker, R. T.; Tavakoli, F.; Pathier, E.; Nankali, H.; Nilfouroushan, F.; Aghamohammadi, A.; Djamour, Y.

    2012-12-01

    The continental collision between Arabia, the Eurasia and distribution of earthquake epicenters show that most of the deformation is accommodated within the political borders of Iran. In recent years, constraints from GPS, seismology and geological estimates of fault slip-rate have allowed considerable advances in understanding the rates and kinematics of faulting across many parts of Iran. However, until now, only little is known on the present-day distribution of strain across the eastern and northeastern parts of the country, such that it has been difficult to assess the rates of faulting, the related earthquake hazard, and the relationship between the active faults and the overall tectonic motions. This area is one of the most densely populated regions of Iran with almost 6.5 million habitants and a significant number of historical earthquakes like the Qumis 856 A.D earthquake with 200.000 victims. But while eastern Alborz and Kopeh Dagh are clearly regions of active faulting, a lack of instrumental earthquakes is presently observed, making this area particularly interesting for hazard assessment studies. The sparse GPS measurements in NE Iran provide only limited constraints on the applicability of different kinematic scenarios that have been proposed to explain the role of the observed faults. Here, we present a velocity field, composed from 47 GPS stations (20 campaign and 27 permanent), recording over up to 11 years, and covering the entire NE of Iran. This new GPS velocity field helps to investigate how northward directed Arabia-Eurasia shortening is accommodated at the northern boundary of the deforming zone. A regional deformation field for NE Iran has been estimated from the GPS measurements. It shows how the incoming ~7 mm/yr of NS shortening between Central Iran and Eurasia is accommodated in Alborz, Binalud and Kopeh Dagh. The shortening rate decreases toward the east and dies out at the Afghanistan border. The deformation pattern is contrasted along

  4. Spatial distribution of precipitation annual cycles over South Africa in 10 CORDEX regional climate model present-day simulations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Favre, Alice; Philippon, Nathalie; Pohl, Benjamin; Kalognomou, Evangelia-Anna; Lennard, Christopher; Hewitson, Bruce; Nikulin, Grigori; Dosio, Alessandro; Panitz, Hans-Juergen; Cerezo-Mota, Ruth

    2016-03-01

    This study presents an evaluation of the ability of 10 regional climate models (RCMs) participating in the COordinated Regional climate Downscaling Experiment-Africa to reproduce the present-day spatial distribution of annual cycles of precipitation over the South African region and its borders. As found in previous studies, annual mean precipitation is quasi-systematically overestimated by the RCMs over a large part of southern Africa south of about 20°S and more strongly over South Africa. The spatial analysis of precipitation over the studied region shows that in most models the distribution of biases appears to be linked to orography. Wet biases are quasi-systematic in regions with higher elevation with inversely neutral to dry biases particularly in the coastal fringes. This spatial pattern of biases is particularly obvious during summer and specifically at the beginning of the rainy season (November and December) when the wet biases are found to be the strongest across all models. Applying a k-means algorithm, a classification of annual cycles is performed using observed precipitation data, and is compared with those derived from modeled data. It is found that the in-homogeneity of the spatial and temporal distribution of biases tends to impact the modeled seasonality of precipitation. Generally, the pattern of rainfall seasonality in the ensemble mean of the 10 RCMs tends to be shifted to the southwest. This spatial shift is mainly linked to a strong overestimation of convective precipitation at the beginning of the rainy season over the plateau inducing an early annual peak and to an underestimation of stratiform rainfall in winter and spring over southwestern South Africa.

  5. Impact of the Yakutat indentor corner on present-day tectonics and fault activity in SE Alaska - SW Yukon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mazzotti, S.; Marechal, A.; Ritz, J. F.; Ferry, M. A.

    2015-12-01

    We present an active tectonic model of the SE Alaska - SW Yukon region based principally on the integration of recent GPS velocity data and new fault-slip rates derived from geomorphology. In this region, the Yakutat collision results in complex tectonics with patterns of strain localization and strain partitioning that strongly vary across the various mountain ranges and active faults. We propose that deformation and fault activity in the St. Elias and Chugach Mountains are primarily controlled by the eastern syntaxis of the Yakutat collision, which produces a semi-radial tectonic pattern: Velocities, principal horizontal shortening rates, and maximum horizontal stress orientations rotate by 60 - 80 ° around the syntaxis, from roughly parallel to the relative Pacific - North America motion at the front of the collision to roughly orthogonal southeast of the syntaxis. The interaction between this strain pattern and major inherited tectonic structures inland of the collision zone (i.e., Denali and Duke River Faults) results in various reactivation modes of these structures. Specifically, the Denali Fault shows a very pronounced lateral variations of activity from ~12 mm/a of dextral slip rate in its central section to ~1 mm/a of mostly shortening slip rate along its southern section. This marked change of activity is associated with a possible relay system where the Duke River and Totschunda Faults accommodate a major part (8 - 12 mm/a) of the inland strain transfer directly in front of the syntaxis. This new tectonic model retains some questions, in particular regarding the mechanisms of deformation and strain transfer (1) from the syntaxis to the Duke River - Totschunda system and (2) at the junction between Totschunda and Denali Faults. Numerical models of present-day deformation may help address these issues and provide information about relative strength of the various crustal and inherited fault elements of this system.

  6. Life detection at a Mars analogue site of present-day serpentinization in the Tablelands Ophiolite of Newfoundland (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morrill, P. L.; Szponar, N.; Brazelton, W. J.; Woodruff, Q.; Schrenk, M. O.; Bower, D. M.; Steele, A.

    2010-12-01

    The Tableland Ophiolite was created during the collision of Laurentia and Gondwana continents ca. 470 million years ago. Ultramafic mantle rocks, from the ancient sea bed that once separated these continents, were thrusted westward onto the old continental margin, which is now Western Newfoundland. Weathering due to recent glaciations has left large areas of ultramafic rock at the surface and created fissures for fluid flow. As a result serpentinization is occurring as fresh water penetrates the unaltered ultramafic rock. Serpentinization is of particular interest because, through hydration of ultramafic rock, this reaction produces H2 and the reducing conditions necessary for abiogenic hydrocarbon synthesis, while also producing conditions amenable for chemolithotrophic life. Therefore sites of active serpentinization can be the source of either abiogenic or biogenic organics, or both. Serpentinization is a suspected (past or present) source of (detected or putative) hydrocarbons on Mars, Titan and Europa, hence these astrobodies may be potentially habitable or once habitable environments. The Tablelands Ophiolite is an analogue site that is ideal for testing methods of life detection in an extreme environment of high pH and low microbial biomass characteristic of sites of serpentinization. Multiple ultrabasic reducing springs characteristic of present-day serpentinization have been identified and characterized based on their geochemistry and microbiology. Field-based instruments were deployed for the detection of microbial activity (ATP), microbial cell wall material, and mineralogy, in yet untested high pH and low biomass environment. In this talk I will give an overview of the in situ measurements of life detection and put these measurements in context of geochemistry, microbiology, carbon source and reaction pathways, and I will discuss what we have learned that will help us plan for future mission measurements.

  7. The Herschel view of the dominant mode of galaxy growth from z = 4 to the present day

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schreiber, C.; Pannella, M.; Elbaz, D.; Béthermin, M.; Inami, H.; Dickinson, M.; Magnelli, B.; Wang, T.; Aussel, H.; Daddi, E.; Juneau, S.; Shu, X.; Sargent, M. T.; Buat, V.; Faber, S. M.; Ferguson, H. C.; Giavalisco, M.; Koekemoer, A. M.; Magdis, G.; Morrison, G. E.; Papovich, C.; Santini, P.; Scott, D.

    2015-03-01

    our findings on the cosmic SFR history and on the origin of present-day stars: more than two-thirds of present-day stars must have formed in a regime dominated by the "main sequence" mode. As a consequence we conclude that, although omnipresent in the distant Universe, galaxy mergers had little impact in shaping the global star formation history over the last 12.5 billion years. Herschel is an ESA space observatory with science instruments provided by European-led Principal Investigator consortia and with important participation from NASA.Appendices are available in electronic form at http://www.aanda.org

  8. Arsenic present in the soil-vine-wine chain in vineyards situated in an old mining area in Trentino, Italy.

    PubMed

    Bertoldi, Daniela; Villegas, Tomás Román; Larcher, Roberto; Santato, Alessandro; Nicolini, Giorgio

    2013-04-01

    The present study follows arsenic (As) transfer through the chain of soil-vine-leaves-grapes-wine to assess the possible risk of arsenic intake related to consuming grapes and wines produced in 10 vineyards located in a mining area rich in this element. The results are compared with date from 18 uncontaminated areas. In the soil, the content of As extracted with acqua regia and that extracted with ammonium acetate, were analyzed. Leaves and berries were analyzed after washing with acidified aqueous solution and acid mineralization in a closed vessel, whereas wines were simply diluted before analysis. All analyses were performed using an inductively coupled plasma mass-spectrometer. The aqua regia extractable As concentration in soil ranged from 3.7 to 283 mg/kg, whereas available As varied from 18 to 639 µg/kg, and As total concentration ranged from 16.3 to 579 µg/kg dry weight in leaves and from <0.1 to 36.8 µg/kg dry weight in grapes. Arsenic levels in wines were always below 1.62 µg/L, with higher concentration in red wines than in white wines. Significant and positive correlations between the As concentrations in soils, leaves, and berries are highlighted, with the samples collected near the mining area having significantly higher values. Nevertheless, As levels in wines were always well below the limit (200 µg/L) suggested by the International Organization of Vine and Wine. PMID:23322473

  9. Modelling the economic losses of historic and present-day high-impact winter storms in Switzerland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Welker, Christoph; Stucki, Peter; Bresch, David; Dierer, Silke; Martius, Olivia; Brönnimann, Stefan

    2014-05-01

    Severe winter storms such as "Vivian" in February 1990 and "Lothar" in December 1999 are among the most destructive meteorological hazards in Switzerland. Disaster severity resulting from such windstorms is attributable, on the one hand, to hazardous weather conditions such as high wind gust speeds; and on the other hand to socio-economic factors such as population density, distribution of values at risk, and damage susceptibility. For present-day winter storms, the data basis is generally good to describe the meteorological development and wind forces as well as the associated socio-economic impacts. In contrast, the information on historic windstorms is overall sparse and the available historic weather and loss reports mostly do not provide quantitative information. This study illustrates a promising technique to simulate the economic impacts of both historic and present winter storms in Switzerland since end of the 19th century. Our approach makes use of the novel Twentieth Century Reanalysis (20CR) spanning 1871-present. The 2-degree spatial resolution of the global 20CR dataset is relatively coarse. Thus, the complex orography of Switzerland is not realistically represented, which has considerable ramifications for the representation of wind systems that are strongly influenced by the local orography, such as Föhn winds. Therefore, a dynamical downscaling of the 20CR to 3 km resolution using the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) model was performed, for in total 40 high-impact winter storms in Switzerland since 1871. Based on the downscaled wind gust speeds and the climada loss model, the estimated economic losses were calculated at municipality level for current economic and social conditions. With this approach, we find an answer to the question what would be the economic losses of e.g. a hazardous Föhn storm - which occurred in northern Switzerland in February 1925 - today, i.e. under current socio-economic conditions. Encouragingly, the pattern of

  10. Impact of urban emission on air-quality over central Europe: present day and future emissions perspective

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huszar, Peter; Belda, Michal; Halenka, Tomas; Karlicky, Jan

    2016-04-01

    The purpose of the study is to quantify the impact of present-day and future urban emission from central European cities on the regional air-quality (AQ), based on a modeling couple of the regional climate model RegCM4.2 and the chemistry transport model CAMx, including two-way interactions. A series of simulations was carried out for the present (2001-2010) decade and two future decades (2026-2035 and 2046-2055) either with all urban emissions included (base case) or without considering urban emissions. As we are interested on the impact of emission changes only, the impact of different driving meteorological conditions in the future (due to climate change) are not considered. The emissions used is the TNO MEGAPOLI European emission database that includes country/sector based scenarios for years 2030 and 2050, which were used for the encompassing decades. Further, the sensitivity of ozone production to urban emissions was examined by performing reduction experiments with -20% emission perturbation of NOx and/or NMVOC. The model was also validated using surface measurements of key pollutants. Selected air-quality measures were used as metrics describing the cities emission impact on regional air pollution. Due to urban emissions, significant ozone titration occurs over cities while over rural areas further from, ozone production is modeled, mainly in terms of number of exceedances and accumulated exceedances over the threshold of 40 ppbv. Urban NOx, SO2 and PM2.5 emissions also significantly contribute to concentrations in the cities themselves (up to 50-70% for NOx and SO2 , and up to 55% for PM2.5), but the contribution is large over rural areas as well (10-20%). Although air pollution over cities is largely determined by the local urban emissions, considerable (often a few tens of %) fraction of the concentration is attributable to other sources from rural areas and minor cities. The future urban emission AQ fingerprint is, in general, slightly smaller than in

  11. Modelling the contributions to marine acidification from deposited SOx, NOx, and NHx in the Baltic Sea: Past and present situations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Omstedt, Anders; Edman, Moa; Claremar, Björn; Rutgersson, Anna

    2015-12-01

    We have examined the effects of historical atmospheric depositions of sulphate, nitrate, and ammonium from land and shipping on the acid-base balance in the Baltic Sea. The modelling considers the 1750-2014 period, when land and ship emissions changed greatly, with increasing carbon dioxide concentrations, SOx, NOx, and NHx emissions, and nutrient loads. The present results indicate that Baltic Sea acidification due to the atmospheric deposition of acids peaked around 1980, with a pH cumulative decrease of approximately 10-2 in surface waters. This is one order of magnitude less than the cumulative acidification due to increased atmospheric CO2. The acidification contribution of shipping is one order of magnitude less than that of land emissions. However, the pH trend due to atmospheric acids has started to reverse due to reduced land emissions, though the effect of shipping is ongoing. The effect of strong atmospheric acids on Baltic Sea water depends on the region and period studied. The largest total alkalinity sink per surface area is in the south-western Baltic Sea where shipping is intense. Considering the entire Baltic Sea over the 2001-2010 period, the pH changes are approximately -3×10-3 to -11×10-3 and -4×10-4 to -16×10-4 pH units attributable to all emissions and ship emissions only, respectively. The corresponding changes in total alkalinity are approximately -10 to -30 μmol kg-1 and -1 to -4 μmol kg-1 attributable to all emissions and ship emissions only, respectively.

  12. The Secrets of the Nearest Starburst Cluster. II. The Present-Day Mass Function in NGC 3603

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stolte, Andrea; Brandner, Wolfgang; Brandl, Bernhard; Zinnecker, Hans

    2006-07-01

    Based on deep Very Large Telescope Infrared Spectrometer and Array Camera JHK photometry, we have derived the present-day mass function (MF) of the central starburst cluster NGC 3603 YC (Young Cluster) in the giant H II region NGC 3603. The effects of field contamination, individual reddening, and a possible binary contribution are investigated. The MF slopes resulting from the different methods are compared and lead to a surprisingly consistent cluster MF with a slope of Γ=-0.9+/-0.15. Analyzing different radial annuli around the cluster core, no significant change in the slope of the MF is observed. However, mass segregation in the cluster is evidenced by the increasing depletion of the high-mass tail of the stellar mass distribution with increasing radius. We discuss the indications of mass segregation with respect to the changes observed in the binned and cumulative stellar MFs and argue that the cumulative function, as well as the fraction of high- to low-mass stars, provides better indicators for mass segregation than the MF slope alone. Finally, the observed MF and starburst morphology of NGC 3603 YC are discussed in the context of massive local star-forming regions such as the Galactic center Arches cluster, R136/30 Dor in the LMC, and the Orion Trapezium cluster, all providing resolved templates for extragalactic star formation. Despite the similarity in the observed MF slopes, dynamical considerations suggest that the starburst clusters do not form gravitationally bound systems over a Hubble time. Both the environment (gravitational potential of the Milky Way) and the concentration of stars in the cluster core determine the dynamical stability of a dense star cluster, such that the long-term evolution of a starburst is not exclusively determined by the stellar evolution of its members, as frequently assumed for globular cluster systems. Based on observations obtained at the ESO Very Large Telescope on Paranal, Chile, under programs 63.I-0015 and 65.I

  13. Lyman Alpha-emitting Galaxies at z = 2.1: Characterizing the Progenitors of Typical Present-day Galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gawiser, Eric J.; Guaita, L.; Padilla, N.; Francke, H.; Bond, N. A.; Gronwall, C.; Ciardullo, R.; Sinawa, S.; Feldmeier, J. J.; MUSYC Collaboration

    2010-01-01

    We discovered a sample of 261 Lyman alpha emitting (LAE) galaxies at z=2.1 in an ultra-deep 3727A narrow-band MUSYC image of the Extended Chandra Deep Field-South. LAEs were selected to have rest-frame equivalent widths >20A and emission line fluxes >3.7x10-17 ergs/cm2/s, corresponding to L_Lya>1.2x1042 ergs/s. 3% of the original candidates were detected in X-rays by Chandra, and 7% were detected in the rest-frame far-UV by GALEX; these objects were eliminated to minimize contamination by AGN and low-redshift galaxies. Our sample has median rest-frame EW=40A, and only a few galaxies have rest-frame EW bigger than 200A. Our results show that the luminosity function of LAEs at z=2.1 is consistent with that of LAEs at z=3.1 but with number density a factor of 1.8+-0.3 higher. We used the rest frame UV luminosity to estimate a median star formation rate of 4 Msun/yr. Clustering analysis reveals that LAEs at z=2.1 have r0=3+-0.5 Mpc, corresponding to b=1.0+-0.2, the lowest clustering bias of any high-redshift galaxy population. This implies that z=2.1 LAEs reside in dark matter halos with masses 1010 Msun, which are the lowest-mass halos yet probed at this redshift. We used the Sheth-Tormen conditional mass function to study the descendants of these LAEs and found that their typical present-day descendants are local galaxies with sub-L* and L* luminosities, like the Milky Way. We gratefully acknowledge grant support for this research from NSF, DOE, and NASA.

  14. Historical and Present Day Mercury Contamination From Gold Mining in Three Feeding Guilds of Bats From the Peruvian Amazon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kumar, A.; Divoll, T.

    2014-12-01

    Miners in many countries use mercury as an amalgam to separate gold from river sediments. In the last twenty years the price of gold has risen and the number of small-scale, artisanal gold mining operations in the Amazon basin have also increased. The influx of mercury into natural river systems has detrimental consequences for the surrounding ecosystem and for organisms, particularly those at higher trophic levels. Toxic mercury levels have been shown to impair reproductive, neurological and behavioral functioning of organisms. I used bats (Chiroptera) as a mammalian model system to study mercury contamination and accumulation due to gold mining from field caught and museum collection specimens in Amazonian Perú and showed that: (1) Total mercury concentrations in Amazonian bat species have increased over time since the 1920's; (2) Bat species from sites with current active mining have higher concentrations of mercury than non-mining sites, with some species having levels exceeding those considered toxic for mammals; (3) Higher trophic levels of bats (piscivores and insectivores) bioaccumulate more mercury than bats of lower trophic levels (frugivores); (4) Bats located in present day uncontaminated sites have the same mercury levels as bats collected in the 1920's from the Amazon basin. The variety of bat feeding guilds allowed for a comparison of how mercury accumulation is affected by diet within one taxonomic order. The novel use of museum specimens allowed for a look back into the historical timeline of mercury contamination in the Amazon basin. Bats represent a new and exciting study system since, like humans, they are mammals and should therefore show similar neurochemical and behavioral responses to this toxic element.

  15. Multivariate spatio-temporal modelling for assessing Antarctica's present-day contribution to sea-level rise

    PubMed Central

    Zammit-Mangion, Andrew; Rougier, Jonathan; Schön, Nana; Lindgren, Finn; Bamber, Jonathan

    2015-01-01

    Antarctica is the world's largest fresh-water reservoir, with the potential to raise sea levels by about 60 m. An ice sheet contributes to sea-level rise (SLR) when its rate of ice discharge and/or surface melting exceeds accumulation through snowfall. Constraining the contribution of the ice sheets to present-day SLR is vital both for coastal development and planning, and climate projections. Information on various ice sheet processes is available from several remote sensing data sets, as well as in situ data such as global positioning system data. These data have differing coverage, spatial support, temporal sampling and sensing characteristics, and thus, it is advantageous to combine them all in a single framework for estimation of the SLR contribution and the assessment of processes controlling mass exchange with the ocean. In this paper, we predict the rate of height change due to salient geophysical processes in Antarctica and use these to provide estimates of SLR contribution with associated uncertainties. We employ a multivariate spatio-temporal model, approximated as a Gaussian Markov random field, to take advantage of differing spatio-temporal properties of the processes to separate the causes of the observed change. The process parameters are estimated from geophysical models, while the remaining parameters are estimated using a Markov chain Monte Carlo scheme, designed to operate in a high-performance computing environment across multiple nodes. We validate our methods against a separate data set and compare the results to those from studies that invariably employ numerical model outputs directly. We conclude that it is possible, and insightful, to assess Antarctica's contribution without explicit use of numerical models. Further, the results obtained here can be used to test the geophysical numerical models for which in situ data are hard to obtain. © 2015 The Authors. Environmetrics published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd. PMID:25937792

  16. Present-day crustal deformation along the Magallanes-Fagnano Fault System in Tierra del Fuego from repeated GPS observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mendoza, L.; Perdomo, R.; Hormaechea, J. L.; Del Cogliano, D.; Fritsche, M.; Richter, A.; Dietrich, R.

    2011-03-01

    The present-day deformation of the earth crust in the Argentine part of Tierra del Fuego main island (southernmost South America) is here investigated based on repeated geodetic GPS observations. The island is traversed by the active transform boundary between the South American and Scotia tectonic plates, represented by the Magallanes-Fagnano fault system. Since 1993 a regional network comprising to date 29 GPS sites has been observed almost every year. The complete set of accumulated observations was processed using the Bernese GPS software and state-of-the-art processing strategies and models. The utilization of homogeneous GPS products resulting from a reprocessing of the global IGS network warrants a stable realization of a global reference frame. For each GPS site 3-D positions and linear velocities with error estimates were obtained. A strain analysis of the horizontal velocity components revealed the zones of major deformation activity. A 30-km-wide deformation belt centred on the main trace of the fault system was identified. This belt is bordered to the north (South America) and south (Scotia) by geodynamically stable zones, which move horizontally with a relative average velocity of 4.4 ± 0.6 (east) and -0.3 ± 0.4 (north) mm a-1. Within the deformation belt a maximum strain rate in the order of 0.25 μstrain per year has been detected. A pronounced change in the deformation style from transtension (east) to transpression (west) is observed. The area of predominating shortening of the crust coincides with a local rotation minimum and relative uplift. Throughout the period covered by the GPS observations the displacements and deformations occurred to be linear with time.

  17. Changing black carbon transport to the Arctic from present day to the end of 21st century

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jiao, Chaoyi; Flanner, Mark G.

    2016-05-01

    Here we explore how climate warming under the Representative Concentration Pathway 8.5 (RCP8.5) impacts Arctic aerosol distributions via changes in atmospheric transport and removal processes. We modify the bulk aerosol module in the Community Atmosphere Model to track distributions and fluxes of 200 black carbon-like tracers emitted from different locations, and we conduct idealized experiments with and without active aerosol deposition. Changing wind patterns, studied in isolation, cause the Arctic burdens of tracers emitted from East Asia and West Europe during winter to increase about 20% by the end of the century while decreasing the Arctic burdens of North American emissions by about 30%. These changes are caused by an altered winter polar dome structure that results from Arctic amplification and inhomogeneous sea ice loss and surface warming, both of which are enhanced in the Chukchi Sea region. The resulting geostrophic wind favors Arctic transport of East Asian emissions while inhibiting poleward transport of North American emissions. When active deposition is also considered, however, Arctic burdens of emissions from northern midlatitudes show near-universal decline. This is a consequence of increased precipitation and wet removal, particularly within the Arctic, leading to decreased Arctic residence time. Simulations with present-day emissions of black carbon indicate a 13.6% reduction in the Arctic annual mean burden by the end of the 21st century, due to warming-induced transport and deposition changes, while simulations with changing climate and emissions under RCP8.5 show a 61.0% reduction.

  18. Mantle-circulation models with sequential data assimilation: inferring present-day mantle structure from plate-motion histories.

    PubMed

    Bunge, Hans-Peter; Richards, M A; Baumgardner, J R

    2002-11-15

    limited in age to the Cretaceous. This result implies that sequential assimilation of past plate-motion models is ineffective in studying the temporal evolution of core-mantle-boundary heterogeneity, and that a method for extrapolating present-day information backwards in time is required. For short time periods (of the order of perhaps a few tens of Myr) such a method exists in the form of crude 'backward' convection calculations. For longer time periods (of the order of a mantle overturn), a rigorous approach to extrapolating information back in time exists in the form of iterative nonlinear optimization methods that carry assimilated information into the past through the use of an adjoint mantle convection model. PMID:12460480

  19. High natural erosion rates are the backdrop for present-day soil erosion in the agricultural Middle Hills of Nepal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    West, A. J.; Arnold, M.; AumaItre, G.; Bourles, D. L.; Keddadouche, K.; Bickle, M.; Ojha, T.

    2015-07-01

    Although agriculturally accelerated soil erosion is implicated in the unsustainable environmental degradation of mountain environments, such as in the Himalaya, the effects of land use can be challenging to quantify in many mountain settings because of the high and variable natural background rates of erosion. In this study, we present new long-term denudation rates, derived from cosmogenic 10Be analysis of quartz in river sediment from the Likhu Khola, a small agricultural river basin in the Middle Hills of central Nepal. Calculated long-term denudation rates, which reflect background natural erosion processes over 1000+ years prior to agricultural intensification, are similar to present-day sediment yields and to soil loss rates from terraces that are well maintained. Similarity in short- and long-term catchment-wide erosion rates for the Likhu is consistent with data from elsewhere in the Nepal Middle Hills but contrasts with the very large increases in short-term erosion rates seen in agricultural catchments in other steep mountain settings. Our results suggest that the large sediment fluxes exported from the Likhu and other Middle Hills rivers in the Himalaya are derived in large part from natural processes, rather than from soil erosion as a result of agricultural activity. Catchment-scale erosional fluxes may be similar over short and long timescales if both are dominated by mass wasting sources such as gullies, landslides, and debris flows (e.g., as is evident in the landslide-dominated Khudi Khola of the Nepal High Himalaya, based on compiled data). As a consequence, simple comparison of catchment-scale fluxes will not necessarily pinpoint land use effects on soils where these are only a small part of the total erosion budget, unless rates of mass wasting are also considered. Estimates of the mass wasting contribution to erosion in the Likhu imply catchment-averaged soil production rates on the order of ~ 0.25-0.35 mm yr-1, though rates of mass wasting are

  20. Dusty wind of W Hydrae. Multi-wavelength modelling of the present-day and recent mass loss

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khouri, T.; Waters, L. B. F. M.; de Koter, A.; Decin, L.; Min, M.; de Vries, B. L.; Lombaert, R.; Cox, N. L. J.

    2015-05-01

    Context. Low- and intermediate-mass stars go through a period of intense mass-loss at the end of their lives, during the asymptotic giant branch (AGB) phase. While on the AGB a significant part, or even most, of their initial mass is expelled in a stellar wind. This process controls the final stages of the evolution of these stars and contributes to the chemical evolution of galaxies. However, the wind-driving mechanism of AGB stars is not yet well understood, especially so for oxygen-rich sources. Characterizing both the present-day mass-loss rate and wind structure and the evolution of the mass-loss rate of such stars is paramount to advancing our understanding of this processes. Aims: We study the dusty wind of the oxygen-rich AGB star W Hya to understand its composition and structure and shed light on the mass-loss mechanism. Methods: We modelled the dust envelope of W Hya using an advanced radiative transfer code. We analysed our dust model in the light of a previously calculated gas-phase wind model and compared it with measurements available in the literature, such as infrared spectra, infrared images, and optical scattered light fractions. Results: We find that the dust spectrum of W Hya can partly be explained by a gravitationally bound dust shell that probably is responsible for most of the amorphous Al2O3 emission. The composition of the large (~0.3 μm) grains needed to explain the scattered light cannot be constrained, but probably is dominated by silicates. Silicate emission in the thermal infrared was found to originate from beyond 40 AU from the star. In our model, the silicates need to have substantial near-infrared opacities to be visible at such large distances. The increase in near-infrared opacity of the dust at these distances roughly coincides with a sudden increase in expansion velocity as deduced from the gas-phase CO lines. The dust envelope of W Hya probably contains an important amount of calcium but we were not able to obtain a dust

  1. Investigating the Present Day Cosmic Dust Flux at the Earth's Surface: Initial Results from the Kwajalein Micrometeorite Collection

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wozniakiewicz, P. J.; Bradley, J. P.; Price, M. C.; Zolensky, M. E.; Ishii, H. A.; Brownlee, D. E.; Russell, S. S.

    2014-01-01

    Examination of impact craters on the Long Duration Exposure Facility satellite indicate a present day micrometeoroid flux of approx. 30,000 tonnes [1 after 2]. But what portion of this material arrives at the Earth's surface as micrometeorites? Studies of available micrometeorite collections from deep sea sediments [e.g. 3], Greenland blue ice [e.g. 4] and the South Pole water well [e.g. 1] may be complicated by terrestrial weathering and, in some cases, collection bias (magnetic separation for deep sea sediments) and poorly constrained ages. We have recently set up a micrometeorite collection station on Kwajalein Island in the Republic of the Marshall Islands in the Pacific Ocean, using high volume air samplers to collect particles directly from the atmosphere. By collecting in this way, the terrestrial age of the particles is known, the weathering they experience is minimal, and we are able to constrain particle arrival times. Collecting at this location also exploits the considerably reduced anthropogenic background [5]. Method: High volume air samplers were installed on top of the two-story airport building on Kwajalein. These were fitted with polycarbonate membrane filters with 5µm diameter perforations. The flow rates were set to 0.5m3/min, and filters were changed once a week. After collection, filters were washed to remove salt and concentrate particles [see 5] in preparation for analysis by SEM. Results and Discussion: A selection of filters have been prepared and surveyed. Due to their ease of identification our initial investigations have focused on particles resembling cosmic spherules. The spheres can be divided into three main groups: 1. Silicate spherules rich in Al, Ca, K and Na (to varying degrees), 2. Silicate spherules rich in Mg and Fe and 3. Fe-rich spherules. Group 1 spherules are often vesiculated and can occur as aggregates. They are similar in appearance and composition to volcanic microspheres [e.g. 6] and are thus likely terrestrial in

  2. Present-day vertical displacements in the north-western Alps and southern Jura Mountains: Data from leveling comparisons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jouanne, F.; MéNard, G.; Darmendrail, X.

    1995-06-01

    Two high-precision leveling networks were successively surveyed in France, the NGF, measured during the 1886-1907 period, and the IGN69, measured from 1965 to 1979. The accuracy of these levelings (standard deviation of 1.8mm/√km to 3.8mm/√km) allows us to compute the vertical displacements of the benchmarks between two different eras. The results indicate the occurrence of discrete zones of uplift and subsidence: (1) a regional uplift (up to 1.4 mm/yr) of the Subalpine Massifs; (2) an important uplift of the internal Jura (up to 2 mm/yr); (3) a relative subsidence of the southern part of the Jura (0.8 mm/yr); and (4) a relative subsidence of the Bresse Basin with respect to the external Jura. Comparing the spatial distribution of zones of uplift and their respective vertical displacement rates with a regional structural cross section leads to the conclusion that present-day uplift of the Belledonne and Bornes Massifs and of the internal parts of the Jura Mountains, can be explained by crustal shortening along a major basement-involving thrust fault. This fault ramps up under the Bornes Massif from a depth of 12 km to 7 km, turns into a flat under the Molasse Basin, ramps up to the top of the basement at the north-eastern margin of the internal Jura Mountains, and reaches the surface in the external Jura. The Salève ramp-anticline is carried by a bifurcation of this thrust. Horizontal displacement rates of 6 mm/yr at the Bornes ramp, 2 mm/yr at the Salève ramp, and 4 mm/yr at the internal Jura ramp have been determined by inversion of profiles of uplift rates. Whether this basement-involving thrust fault was already active during the Miocene main folding phase of the Jura Mountains or whether it was activated only during Pliocene-Pleistocene times is subject to debate.

  3. PRESENT-DAY MASS FUNCTION OF SIX SMALL MAGELLANIC CLOUD INTERMEDIATE-AGE AND OLD STAR CLUSTERS

    SciTech Connect

    Glatt, Katharina; Grebel, Eva K.; Jordi, Katrin; Gallagher, John S. III; Harbeck, Daniel; Da Costa, Gary; Clementini, Gisella; Tosi, Monica; Nota, Antonella; Sabbi, Elena; Sirianni, Marco

    2011-08-15

    We determined the present-day mass functions (PDMFs) of the five intermediate-age star clusters Lindsay 1, Kron 3, NGC 339, NGC 416, and Lindsay 38 and the old star cluster NGC 121 in the Small Magellanic Cloud (SMC) based on observations with the Hubble Space Telescope Advanced Camera for Surveys. The global PDMFs are well matched by Salpeter-like power laws from their main-sequence turnoffs to {approx}0.6 M{sub sun} with a power-law exponent {alpha} ranging from 1.51 {+-} 0.11 (Lindsay 1) to 2.29 {+-} 0.15 (NGC 339). We derive total stellar masses of {approx}10{sup 5} M{sub sun}, except for Lindsay 38, whose mass is of the order of {approx}10{sup 4} M{sub sun}. Differences between the PDMFs most likely reflect the varying stages of dynamical evolution of the clusters. These SMC clusters do not follow the {alpha} versus concentration parameter c correlation as found for Galactic globular clusters of similar mass. This might be an age effect or due to their location in a galaxy where bulge and disk crossings do not play a role. No correlation is found between {alpha} and the cluster core and tidal radii (r{sub c} and r{sub t} , respectively), the half-light radii r{sub h} , age, central surface brightness, metallicity, and galactocentric radius r{sub gc}. All six clusters mass-segregated to different degrees. The two clusters Lindsay 1 and Kron 3 barely show signs for mass segregation, but have low-mass star deficient global PDMFs and might be the remnants of star clusters whose outer parts were stripped. A trend exists between the degree of mass segregation and the ratio age/relaxation time t{sub r,h}, which indicates the stage of dynamical evolution for a cluster. Our data thus suggest that the SMC clusters in the present sample had a range of initial densities and presumably different amounts of mass loss that led to different rates of dynamical evolution. The clusters' positions in the r{sub h,m}/r{sub t} versus r{sub 0}/r{sub h,m} plane imply that all of the

  4. Paleontological records indicate the occurrence of open woodlands in a dry inland climate at the present-day Arctic coast in western Beringia during the Last Interglacial

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kienast, Frank; Wetterich, Sebastian; Kuzmina, Svetlana; Schirrmeister, Lutz; Andreev, Andrei A.; Tarasov, Pavel; Nazarova, Larisa; Kossler, Annette; Frolova, Larisa; Kunitsky, Viktor V.

    2011-08-01

    Permafrost records, accessible at outcrops along the coast of Oyogos Yar at the Dmitry Laptev Strait, NE-Siberia, provide unique insights into the environmental history of Western Beringia during the Last Interglacial. The remains of terrestrial and freshwater organisms, including plants, coleopterans, chironomids, cladocerans, ostracods and molluscs, have been preserved in the frozen deposits of a shallow paleo-lake and indicate a boreal climate at the present-day arctic mainland coast during the Last Interglacial. Terrestrial beetle and plant remains suggest the former existence of open forest-tundra with larch ( Larix dahurica), tree alder ( Alnus incana), birch and alder shrubs ( Duschekia fruticosa, Betula fruticosa, Betula divaricata, Betula nana), interspersed with patches of steppe and meadows. Consequently, the tree line was shifted to at least 270 km north of its current position. Aquatic organisms, such as chironomids, cladocerans, ostracods, molluscs and hydrophytes, indicate the formation of a shallow lake as the result of thermokarst processes. Steppe plants and beetles suggest low net precipitation. Littoral pioneer plants and chironomids indicate intense lake level fluctuations due to high evaporation. Many of the organisms are thermophilous, indicating a mean air temperature of the warmest month that was greater than 13 °C, which is above the minimum requirements for tree growth. These temperatures are in contrast to the modern values of less than 4 °C in the study area. The terrestrial and freshwater organism remains were found at a coastal exposure that was only 3.5 m above sea level and in a position where they should have been under sea during the Last Interglacial when the global sea level was 6-10 m higher than the current levels. The results suggest that during the last warm stage, the site was inland, and its modern coastal situation is the result of tectonic subsidence.

  5. Effects of the past- and present-day ice melting on observed uplift rates in Southeast Alaska

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sato, T.; Larsen, C. F.; Miura, S.; Ohta, Y.; Fujimoto, H.; Sun, W.; Sugano, T.; Kaufman, A. M.; Motyka, R. J.; Freymueller, J. T.

    2009-12-01

    A joint Japanese-US observation project called ISEA (International geodetic project in South-Eastern Alaska) was initiated in 2005 to follow up the work of the University of Alaska Fairbanks (UAF) by adding new geodetic data sets (Miura et al., 2007). Based on 91 improved GPS velocities and the proposed ice loss models by Larsen et al. (2004, 2005, 2007) and by Tushingham and Peltier (1991), we estimated three effects: present-day ice melting (PDIM), post-little ice age (LIA) melting, and deglaciation following the last glacier maximum (LGM). We also have reevaluated the thickness of lithosphere and the viscosities of the mantle including that of asthenosphere in the region. The effects of LGM deglaciation were computed based on the ICE3G model (Tushingham and Peltier, 1991). Although the effect of LGM ice is small in SE-AK (i.e. 2 mm/yr at the maximum), we have confirmed that, by comparing with the misfits obtained by correcting for only two effects of PDIM and LIA, correcting for the LGM effect can improve the chi^2 of misfits by about 0.5 %. We estimated the effect of post-LIA ice melting based on the melting history proposed by Larsen et al. (2004, 2005). For the viscoelastic structure, we have tested two different kinds of mantle viscosity structure: a two-layer model similar to the model used by Larsen et al. (2005) and a 4-layer model. To search the best combination of the lithosphere thickness and the mantle viscosities, the combinations of the rheological parameters tested here were 161 in total number. To test the sensitivity of the estimated rheological parameters to the elastic PDIM effects, we have compared two PDIM models; one is EPSL2005 model (Larsen et al., 2005) and the other is JGR2007 model (Larsen et al., 2007). Statistical examinations of the misfits between observations and model predictions, which were based on the magnitudes of the minimum chi^2 and the mean of residuals fitting to a Gaussian function, indicate that the JGR2007 model gives

  6. Intraseasonal Variability of the South Asian Summer Monsoon: Present-day Simulations with the Regional Atmospheric Model HIRHAM5

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hanf, F. S.; Rinke, A.; Dethloff, K.

    2014-12-01

    Since 1950, observations show a robust negative trend of the seasonal rainfall associated with the South Asian summer monsoon over India coinciding with a continuous decrease in surface solar radiation ("dimming") over South Asia due to an increase of local aerosol emissions. On the intraseasonal timescale the summer monsoon fluctuates between periods of enhanced and reduced rainfall. The frequency of occurrence of these active and breaks monsoon phases affects directly the seasonal monsoon rainfall. This study investigates the regional pattern and changes of the South Asian monsoon for the period 1979-2012 using the regional atmospheric model HIRHAM5 with a horizontal resolution of 0.25° forced at the lateral and lower boundaries with ERA-Interim reanalysis data. Despite the dry bias in the mean summer monsoon rainfall over the Indian landmass, the simulated temperature and atmospheric circulation patterns are in agreement with the ERA-Interim reanalysis indicating a realistic representation of important dynamical summer monsoon features. In addition, mechanisms which controls active and break phases within the summer monsoon season are analyzed using daily outgoing longwave radiation model data as an identification tool of monsoon breaks as proposed by Krishnan et al. (2000). Model results reveal an increasing trend of the cumulative monsoon break days of around 1.4 days per year during the last 30 years. The possible link between this increasing of cumulative monsoon break days and the observed decrease of seasonal South Asian monsoon rainfall will be the scope of further investigations.

  7. Utilizing DNA analysis to combat the world wide plague of present day slavery – trafficking in persons

    PubMed Central

    Palmbach, Timothy; Blom, Jeffrey; Hoynes, Emily; Primorac, Dragan; Gaboury, Mario

    2014-01-01

    A study was conducted to determine if modern forensic DNA typing methods can be properly employed throughout the world with a final goal of increasing arrests, prosecutions, and convictions of perpetrators of modern day trafficking in persons while concurrently reducing the burden of victim testimony in legal proceedings. Without interruption of investigations, collection of samples containing DNA was conducted in a variety of settings. Evidentiary samples were analyzed on the ANDE Rapid DNA system. Many of the collected swabs yielded informative short tandem repeat profiles with Rapid DNA technology. PMID:24577820

  8. Comparison of Smoking, Drinking, and Marijuana Use between Students Present or Absent on the Day of a School-Based Survey

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bovet, Pascal; Viswanathan, Bharathi; Faeh, David; Warren, Wick

    2006-01-01

    The aim of this population-based survey was to compare the prevalence of selected risk behaviors between students present or absent on the day of a school-based survey. The study population was a representative sample of all students of secondary schools in the Seychelles (Indian Ocean). Students absent on the day of the survey were traced and…

  9. Using Television for Teaching a Second Language Through Dramatized Every Day Situations; An Assessment of Effects on Active Speech and On Understanding Dialogues Presented by Other Media.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tidhar, Hava

    A series of experiments explored the use of television in Israel to teach English to Hebrew-Speaking students. The emphasis of the experiments was on assessing the ways in which television can be used to fulfill specific tasks in language instruction that are not easily fulfilled by the classroom teachers. Ninth graders were divided into two…

  10. A Lagrangian analysis of the present-day sources of moisture for major ice-core sites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Drumond, Anita; Taboada, Erica; Nieto, Raquel; Gimeno, Luis; Vicente-Serrano, Sergio M.; López-Moreno, Juan Ignacio

    2016-07-01

    A Lagrangian approach was used to identify the moisture sources for 14 ice-core sites located worldwide for the period of 1980-2012. The sites were classified into three domains: Arctic, Central (Andes, Alps, and Kilimanjaro), and Antarctic. The approach was used to compute budgets of evaporation minus precipitation by calculating changes in the specific humidity along 10-day backward trajectories. The results indicate that the oceanic regions around the subtropical high-pressure centres provide most of moisture, and their contribution varies throughout the year following the annual cycles of the centres. For the Arctic Domain, the sources lie in the subtropical North Atlantic and Pacific. The subtropical South Atlantic, Indian, and Pacific oceans provide moisture for the Antarctic Domain. The sources for South America are the Atlantic and South Pacific, for Europe the sources are in the Mediterranean and the North Atlantic, and for Asia the sources are the Indian Ocean and the Arabian Sea.

  11. The anthropogenic nature of present-day low energy rivers in western France and implications for current restoration projects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lespez, L.; Viel, V.; Rollet, A. J.; Delahaye, D.

    2015-12-01

    As in other European countries, western France has seen an increase in river restoration projects. In this paper, we examine the restoration goals, methods and objectives with respect to the long-term trajectory and understanding of the contemporary dynamics of the small low energy rivers typical of the lowlands of Western Europe. The exhaustive geomorphological, paleoenvironmental and historical research conducted in the Seulles river basin (Normandy) provides very accurate documentation of the nature and place of the different legacies in the fluvial systems we have inherited. The sedimentation rate in the Seulles valley bottom has multiplied by a factor of 20 since the end of the Bronze Age and has generated dramatic changes in fluvial forms. Hydraulic control of the rivers and valley bottoms drainage throughout the last millennium has channelized rivers within these deposits. The single meandering channel which characterizes this river today is the legacy of the delayed and complex effects of long term exploitation of the river basin and the fluvial system. Bring to light that the "naturalness" of the restored rivers might be questioned. Our research emphasizes the gap between the poor knowledge of the functioning of these rivers and the concrete objectives of the restoration works undertaken, including dam and weir removal. Account of the long-term history of fluvial systems is required, not only to produce a pedagogic history of the "river degradation" but more fundamentally (i) to situate the current functioning of the fluvial system in a trajectory to try to identify thresholds and anticipate the potential turning points in a context of climate and land use change, (ii) to understand the role of morphosedimentary legacies on the current dynamics, (iii) to open the discussion on reference functioning or expected states and (iv) to open discussion on the sustainability of ecological restoration. To conclude, we point out the necessity to take into account the

  12. Present-day kinematics of the eastern Tibetan Plateau and Sichuan Basin: Implications for lower crustal rheology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rui, X.; Stamps, D. S.

    2016-05-01

    The Sichuan Province comprises the cratonic Sichuan Basin and the eastern Tibetan Plateau separated by the recently activated Longmen Shan fault zone, thus providing a natural laboratory to study interseismic and postseismic processes. In this work we compute a new regional geodetic velocity solution from most of the continuous Global Navigation Satellite Systems (GNSS)/GPS data available in the Sichuan Province that we assess for transient postseismic deformation. For 11 continuous sites in close proximity to the Wenchuan 2008 event epicenter that were operational during the Wenchuan event we find an average short-term relaxation time of 11 days with maximum amplitude of 6.6 mm for the postseismic transient and no resolvable long-term transient. Using tests for block rigidity guided by previous kinematic studies we elucidate a longer-term transient in GNSS/GPS observations collected after the Wenchuan event that spans an extensive region of the eastern Tibetan Plateau. We correct for transients, produce an updated secular velocity field, and revise the kinematics of the region using elastic block modeling. Our results indicate that predicted slip rates are in good agreement with both geological and GNSS/GPS velocity profile-derived results, and we resolve two independent blocks with the expanded GNSS/GPS data set. Our constraints on the spatial extent of long-term postseismic deformation support models of ductile lower crust in the eastern margin of the Tibetan Plateau.

  13. [The model of state health policy and the system of medical assistance adopted in present-day Brazil].

    PubMed

    Queiroz, M de S; Vianna, A L

    1992-04-01

    A contribution to the analysis of the health reform presently occurring in Brazil is presented. The need to consolidate the theoretical background which supports the advances already achieved in order to understand recent events in the area is stressed. In this regard, the health reform is understood as a question transcending the mere administrative and managerial aspect of the health system, since it necessarily involves a redefinition of the concepts of health, disease and the medical practice adopted by the dominant mechanistic paradigm of medicine. The recent events which delineate the health system in Brazil are analysed and criticised in the light of this concern. PMID:1307428

  14. Modeling of present-day atmosphere and ocean non-tidal de-aliasing errors for future gravity mission simulations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dobslaw, Henryk; Bergmann-Wolf, Inga; Forootan, Ehsan; Dahle, Christoph; Mayer-Gürr, Torsten; Kusche, Jürgen; Flechtner, Frank

    2016-05-01

    A realistically perturbed synthetic de-aliasing model consistent with the updated Earth System Model of the European Space Agency is now available over the period 1995-2006. The dataset contains realizations of (1) errors at large spatial scales assessed individually for periods 10-30, 3-10, and 1-3 days, the S1 atmospheric tide, and sub-diurnal periods; (2) errors at small spatial scales typically not covered by global models of atmosphere and ocean variability; and (3) errors due to physical processes not represented in currently available de-aliasing products. The model is provided in two separate sets of Stokes coefficients to allow for a flexible re-scaling of the overall error level to account for potential future improvements in atmosphere and ocean mass variability models. Error magnitudes for the different frequency bands are derived from a small ensemble of four atmospheric and oceanic models. For the largest spatial scales up to d/o = 40 and periods longer than 24 h, those error estimates are approximately confirmed from a variance component estimation based on GRACE daily normal equations. Future mission performance simulations based on the updated Earth System Model and the realistically perturbed de-aliasing model indicate that for GRACE-type missions only moderate reductions of de-aliasing errors can be expected from a second satellite pair in a shifted polar orbit. Substantially more accurate global gravity fields are obtained when a second pair of satellites in an moderately inclined orbit is added, which largely stabilizes the global gravity field solutions due to its rotated sampling sensitivity.

  15. The present-day flux of large meteoroids on the lunar surface—A synthesis of models and observational techniques

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oberst, J.; Christou, A.; Suggs, R.; Moser, D.; Daubar, I. J.; McEwen, A. S.; Burchell, M.; Kawamura, T.; Hiesinger, H.; Wünnemann, K.; Wagner, R.; Robinson, M. S.

    2012-12-01

    Monitoring the lunar surface for impacts is a highly rewarding approach to study small asteroids and large meteoroids encountering the Earth-Moon System. The various effects of meteoroids impacting the Moon are described and results from different detection and study techniques are compared. While the traditional statistics of impact craters allow us to determine the cumulative meteoroid flux on the lunar surface, the recent successful identification of fresh craters in orbital imagery has the potential to directly measure the cratering rate of today. Time-resolved recordings, e.g., seismic data of impacts and impact flash detections clearly demonstrate variations of the impact flux during the lunar day. From the temporal/spatial distribution of impact events, constraints can be obtained on the meteoroid approach trajectories and velocities. The current monitoring allows us to identify temporal clustering of impacts and to study the different meteoroid showers encountering the Earth-Moon system. Though observational biases and deficiencies in our knowledge of the scaling laws are severe, there appears to be an order-of-magnitude agreement in the observed flux within the error limits. Selenographic asymmetries in the impact flux (e.g., for equatorial vs. polar areas) have been predicted. An excess of impacts on the lunar leading hemisphere can be demonstrated in current data. We expect that future missions will allow simultaneous detections of seismic events and impact flashes. The known locations and times of the flashes will allow us to constrain the seismic solutions. While the numbers of flash detections are still limited, coordinated world-wide observations hold great potential for exploiting this observation technique. The potential for identification of fresh craters in high-resolution orbital image data has just barely been tapped, but should improve significantly with the LRO extended mission.

  16. Engaging nursing home residents with dementia in activities: The effects of modeling, presentation order, time of day, and setting characteristics

    PubMed Central

    Cohen-Mansfield, Jiska; Thein, Khin; Dakheel-Ali, Maha; Marx, Marcia S.

    2011-01-01

    We examined the impact of setting characteristics and presentation effects on engagement with stimuli in a group of 193 nursing home residents with dementia (recruited from a total of seven nursing homes). Engagement was assessed through systematic observations using the Observational Measurement of Engagement (OME), and data pertaining to setting characteristics (background noise, light, and number of persons in proximity) were recorded via the environmental portion of the Agitation Behavior Mapping Inventory (ABMI; Cohen-Mansfield, Werner, & Marx, (1989). An observational study of agitation in agitated nursing home residents. International Psychogeriatrics, 1, 153–165). Results revealed that study participants were engaged more often with moderate levels of sound and in the presence of a small group of people (from four to nine people). As to the presentation effects, multiple presentations of the same stimulus were found to be appropriate for the severely impaired as well as the moderately cognitively impaired. Moreover, modeling of the appropriate behavior significantly increased engagement, with the severely cognitively impaired residents receiving the greatest benefit from modeling. These findings have direct implications for the way in which caregivers could structure the environment in the nursing home and how they could present stimuli to residents in order to optimize engagement in persons with dementia. PMID:20455123

  17. From past sailors' eras to the present day: scurvy as a surprising manifestation of an uncommon gastrointestinal disease.

    PubMed

    Branquinho, Diogo Ferreira; Pinto-Gouveia, Miguel; Mendes, Sofia; Sofia, Carlos

    2015-01-01

    A 45-year-old man presented with follicular exanthema in his lower limbs, alternating bowel habits and significant weight loss. His medical history included seronegative arthritis, bipolar disease and an inconclusive diagnostic laparoscopy. Diagnostic work up revealed microcytic anaemia and multivitamin deficiency. Skin biopsy of the exanthema suggested scurvy. Owing to these signs of malabsorption, upper endoscopy with duodenal biopsies was performed, exhibiting villous atrophy and extensive periodic acid-Schiff-positive material in the lamina propria, therefore diagnosing Whipple's disease (WD). After starting treatment with ceftriaxone and co-trimoxazole, an impressive recovery was noted, as the wide spectrum of malabsorption signs quickly disappeared. After a year of antibiotics, articular and cutaneous manifestations improved, allowing the patient to stop taking corticosteroids and antidepressants. This truly unusual presentation reflects the multisystemic nature of WD, often leading to misdiagnosis of other entities. Scurvy is a rare finding in developed countries, but its presence should raise suspicion for small bowel disease. PMID:26376699

  18. Studies of volatiles and organic materials in early terrestrial and present-day outer solar system environments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sagan, Carl; Thompson, W. Reid; Chyba, Christopher F.; Khare, B. N.

    1991-01-01

    A review and partial summary of projects within several areas of research generally involving the origin, distribution, chemistry, and spectral/dielectric properties of volatiles and organic materials in the outer solar system and early terrestrial environments are presented. The major topics covered include: (1) impact delivery of volatiles and organic compounds to the early terrestrial planets; (2) optical constants measurements; (3) spectral classification, chemical processes, and distribution of materials; and (4) radar properties of ice, hydrocarbons, and organic heteropolymers.

  19. Ductile deformation, boudinage and low angle normal faults. An overview of the structural variability at present-day rifted margins

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Clerc, Camille; Jolivet, Laurent; Ringenbach, Jean-Claude; Ballard, Jean-François

    2016-04-01

    High quality industrial seismic profiles acquired along most of the world's passive margins present stunningly increased resolution that leads to unravel an unexpected variety of structures. An important benefit of the increased resolution of recent seismic profiles is that they provide an unprecedented access to the processes occurring in the middle and lower continental crust. We present a series of so far unreleased profiles that allow the identification of various rift-related geological processes such as crustal boudinage, ductile shear and low angle detachment faulting. The lower crust in passive margins appears much more intensely deformed than usually represented. At the foot of both magma-rich and magma-poor margins, we observe clear indications of ductile deformation of the deep continental crust along large-scale shallow dipping shear zones. These shear zones generally show a top-to-the-continent sense of shear consistent with the activity of overlying continentward dipping normal faults observed in the upper crust. This pattern is responsible for a migration of the deformation and associated sedimentation and/or volcanic activity toward the ocean. In some cases, low angle shear zones define an anastomosed pattern that delineates boudin-like structures. The interboudins areas seem to localize the maximum of deformation. The lower crust is intensely boudinaged and the geometry of those boudins seems to control the position and dip of upper crustal normal faults. We present some of the most striking examples (Uruguay, West Africa, Barents sea…) and discuss their implications for the time-temperature-subsidence history of the margins.

  20. Landau ghost pole problem in quantum field theory: From 50th of last century to the present day

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jafarov, Rauf G.; Mutallimov, Mutallim M.

    2016-03-01

    In this paper we present our results of the investigation of asymptotical behavior of amplitude at short distances in four-dimensional scalar field theory with ϕ4 interaction. To formulate of our calculating model - two-particle approximation of the mean-field expansion we have used an Rochev's iteration scheme of solution of the Schwinger-Dyson equations with the fermion bilocal source. We have considered the nonlinear integral equations in deep-inelastic region of momenta. As result we have a non-trivial behavior of amplitude at large momenta.

  1. Adult medulloblastoma, from spongioblastoma cerebelli to the present day: a review of treatment and the integration of molecular markers.

    PubMed

    Shonka, Nicole; Brandes, Alba; De Groot, John F

    2012-11-01

    Although they represent the most common malignant brain tumor in the pediatric population, medulloblastomas are rare in adults, with an incidence of 0.5 per million. With only one exception, all of the prospective clinical trials in this disease have been done in the pediatric population, and therefore therapy for adult medulloblastoma has been either extrapolated from the pediatric literature or based on retrospective reviews. A growing body of literature underscores the genetic similarities between adult and pediatric disease, which may allow tailored therapy directed towards specific molecular pathways and may have an impact on clinical outcomes. Here we present the history, staging system, and treatment of medulloblastoma, reviewing the prognostic value and clinical application of molecular subtyping while highlighting the differences between adult and pediatric disease. PMID:23330353

  2. On the flow of a compressible fluid by the hodograph method I : unification and extension of present-day results

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Garrick, I E; Kaplan, Carl

    1944-01-01

    Elementary basic solutions of the equations of motion of a compressible fluid in the hodograph variables are developed and used to provide a basis for comparison, in the form of velocity correction formulas, of corresponding compressible and incompressible flows. The known approximate results of Chaplygin, Von Karman and Tsien, Temple and Yarwood, and Prandtl and Glauert are unified by means of the analysis of the present paper. Two new types of approximations, obtained from the basic solutions, are introduced; they possess certain desirable features of the other approximations and appear preferable as a basis for extrapolation into the range of high stream Mach numbers and large disturbances to the main stream. Tables and figures giving velocity and pressure-coefficient correction factors are included in order to facilitate the practical application of the results.

  3. Present-Day Rates of Deformation Across the Southern Walker Lane From a Densified Regional GPS Network

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lifton, Z. M.; Frankel, K. L.; Newman, A. V.; Foy, T. A.; Feng, L.; Johnson, C.; Dixon, T. H.

    2010-12-01

    The Walker Lane is a diffuse region of right-lateral shear in western Nevada and eastern California that accommodates ~25% (9.3 ± 0.2 mm/yr) of the relative motion between the Pacific and North American plates. The region is characterized by discontinuous NNW-trending right-lateral strike-slip faults, and NE-trending, down-to-the-NW normal faults. The late Quaternary cumulative slip across the southern Walker Lane is only 1/3 the observed regional geodetic rate of right-lateral shear. We address this discrepancy between geologic and modern geodetic rates by installing and surveying a denser network of GPS monuments than previously existed. The higher spatial resolution will allow us to better define deformation rates in this complex tectonic setting. Our GPS data will be combined with accompanying fault kinematic and geochronologic data to determine deformation rates across multiple time scales, from late Quaternary to the present. We conducted a campaign GPS survey covering approximately 10,000 square kilometers encompassing the White Mountains, Fish Lake Valley, Clayton Valley, and the Silver Peak Range. We occupied 23 sites, including 10 newly installed monuments, which are spaced approximately 15-20 km apart. The existing sites used in this survey include the UNR-NEARNET sites, as well as a number of other campaign networks archived at UNAVCO. Stations with the longest history (including sites first surveyed as early as 1992) are expected to yield the most accurate results, while newer sites will help identify spatial patterns of strain partitioning. Monuments will be reoccupied annually and combined with past campaign survey data to determine modern crustal velocities. Initial results from this survey will be presented, which have important implications for understanding strain distribution along this important segment of the Pacific-North America boundary.

  4. Salt geometry influence on present-day stress orientations in the Nile Delta: Insights from numerical modeling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eckert, Andreas; Zhang, Weicheng

    2016-02-01

    The offshore Nile Delta displays sharply contrasting orientations of the maximum horizontal stress, SH, in regions above Messinian evaporites (suprasalt) and regions below Messinian evaporites (subsalt). Published stress orientation data predominantly show margin-normal suprasalt SH orientations but a margin-parallel subsalt SH orientation. While these data sets provide the first major evidence that evaporite sequences can act as mechanical detachment horizons, the cause for the stress orientation contrast remains unclear. In this study, 3D finite element analysis is used to investigate the causes for stress re-orientation based on two different hypotheses. The modeling study evaluates the influence of different likely salt geometries and whether stress reorientations are the result of basal drag forces induced by gravitational gliding or whether they represent localized variations due to mechanical property contrasts. The modeling results show that when salt is present as a continuous layer, gravitational gliding occurs and basal drag forces induced in the suprasalt layers result in the margin-normal principal stress becoming the maximum horizontal stress. With the margin-normal stress increase being confined to the suprasalt layers, the salt acts as a mechanical detachment horizon, resulting in different SH orientations in the suprasalt compared to the subsalt layers. When salt is present as isolated bodies localized stress variations occur due to the mechanical property contrasts imposed by the salt, also resulting in different SH orientations in the suprasalt compared to the subsalt layers. The modeling results provide additional quantitative evidence to confirm the role of evaporite sequences as mechanical detachment horizons.

  5. Historic, pre-European settlement, and present-day contribution of wild ruminants to enteric methane emissions in the United States.

    PubMed

    Hristov, A N

    2012-04-01

    The objectives of this analysis were to estimate historic (pre-European settlement) enteric CH(4) emissions from wild ruminants in the contiguous United States and compare these with present-day CH(4) emissions from farmed ruminants. The analysis included bison, elk (wapiti), and deer (white-tailed and mule). Wild ruminants such as moose, antelope (pronghorn), caribou, and mountain sheep and goat were not included in the analysis because their natural range is mostly outside the contiguous United States or because they have relatively small population sizes. Data for presettlement and present-day population sizes, animal BW, feed intake, and CH(4) emission factors were adopted from various sources. Present-day CH(4) emissions from livestock were from recent United States Environmental Protection Agency estimates. The most important factor determining CH(4) emissions from wild ruminants in the presettlement period was the size of the bison population. Overall, enteric CH(4) emissions from bison, elk, and deer in the presettlement period were about 86% (assuming bison population size of 50 million) of the current CH(4) emissions from farmed ruminants in the United States. Present-day CH(4) emissions from wild ruminants (bison, elk, and deer) were estimated at 0.28 Tg/yr, or 4.3% of the emissions from domestic ruminants. Due to its population size (estimated at 25 million), the white-tailed deer is the most significant present-day wild ruminant contributor to enteric CH(4) emissions in the contiguous United States. PMID:22178852

  6. Present day and geologic deformation rates in the Ardenne and the lower Rhine embayment (North-western Europe)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van Camp, M.; Camelbeeck, T.; Vanneste, K.; Warnant, R.

    2003-04-01

    In the Roer Graben and the Belgian Ardenne, there is a difference of an order of magnitude in the inferred vertical crustal movements deduced on one side from geological information (0.1 mm/yr) and on the other side from repeated levellings since the end of the 19th century (~1 mm/yr). We present a new analysis of the repeated levellings: generally, they are not significant enough to infer actual vertical ground displacements. We also reconsider the interpretation of the significant measurements with crustal movements: observed vertical movements in areas with a thick cover of unconsolidated sediments, which is generally the case in the Roer Valley Graben, can be related to the local geological conditions rather than to true crustal movements. An example is the man-made subsidence induced by water pumping to prevent large open-cast mines in Germany from being flooded, observed by repeated levellings, GPS, INSAR and gravity measurements. To measure the present crustal deformations for the interpretation of the slip rates along the active-faults in the Lower-Rhine Embayment, we have performed two very-long-term experiments. First, continuous measurements of the movements across the Feldbiss fault have been recorded by two GPS permanent stations (Bree &Meeuwen) on either side of the fault since 1997. No observable relative vertical (horizontal resp.) movement larger than 0.5 mm/yr (0.3 mm/yr resp.) has been observed for the last 5 years. These values are already less than the results deduced from repeated levellings. Secondly, since 1999, we undertook a series of biannual campaigns of absolute gravity measurements (AG) along an 8-station profile running over 140 km across the Ardenne and the Roer valley rift system. We present the first results and they show that, in all the stations but Jülich, there is no detectable gravity rate of change larger than 2 µGal/yr. This is equivalent to an uplift of 10 mm/yr, using a deformational gradient of -0.2 µGal/mm. J

  7. Present-day challenges and future solutions in postoperative pain management: results from PainForum 2014

    PubMed Central

    Kuusniemi, Kristiina; Pöyhiä, Reino

    2016-01-01

    This paper is a summary of presentations on postoperative pain control by the authors at the 2014 PainForum meeting in People’s Republic of China. Postoperative pain is often untreated or undertreated and may lead to subsequent chronic pain syndromes. As more procedures migrate to the outpatient setting, postoperative pain control will become increasingly more challenging. Evidence-based guidelines for postoperative pain control recommend pain assessment using validated tools on a consistent basis. In this regard, consistency may be more important than the specific tool selected. Many hospitals have introduced a multidisciplinary acute pain service (APS), which has been associated with improved patient satisfaction and fewer adverse events. Patient education is an important component of postoperative pain control, which may be most effective when clinicians chose a multimodal approach, such as paracetamol (acetaminophen) and opioids. Opioids are a mainstay of postoperative pain control but require careful monitoring and management of side effects, such as nausea, vomiting, dizziness, and somnolence. Opioids may be administered using patient-controlled analgesia systems. Protocols for postoperative pain control can be very helpful to establish benchmarks for pain management and assure that clinicians adhere to evidence-based standards. The future of postoperative pain control around the world will likely involve more and better established APSs and greater communication between patients and clinicians about postoperative pain. The changes necessary to implement and move forward with APSs is not a single step but rather one of continuous improvement and ongoing change. PMID:26893579

  8. Present-day challenges and future solutions in postoperative pain management: results from PainForum 2014.

    PubMed

    Kuusniemi, Kristiina; Pöyhiä, Reino

    2016-01-01

    This paper is a summary of presentations on postoperative pain control by the authors at the 2014 PainForum meeting in People's Republic of China. Postoperative pain is often untreated or undertreated and may lead to subsequent chronic pain syndromes. As more procedures migrate to the outpatient setting, postoperative pain control will become increasingly more challenging. Evidence-based guidelines for postoperative pain control recommend pain assessment using validated tools on a consistent basis. In this regard, consistency may be more important than the specific tool selected. Many hospitals have introduced a multidisciplinary acute pain service (APS), which has been associated with improved patient satisfaction and fewer adverse events. Patient education is an important component of postoperative pain control, which may be most effective when clinicians chose a multimodal approach, such as paracetamol (acetaminophen) and opioids. Opioids are a mainstay of postoperative pain control but require careful monitoring and management of side effects, such as nausea, vomiting, dizziness, and somnolence. Opioids may be administered using patient-controlled analgesia systems. Protocols for postoperative pain control can be very helpful to establish benchmarks for pain management and assure that clinicians adhere to evidence-based standards. The future of postoperative pain control around the world will likely involve more and better established APSs and greater communication between patients and clinicians about postoperative pain. The changes necessary to implement and move forward with APSs is not a single step but rather one of continuous improvement and ongoing change. PMID:26893579

  9. Reversing Present Day Northern Plains Ecosystem Water Supply Stressors Resulting from the Near Extinction of Three Keystone Species

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Collins, M. R.

    2006-05-01

    Near-extinction of three keystone species (the beaver, the bison, and the prairie dog) had a measurable negative influence on the local and regional climate, and water availability in the Northern Great Plains ecosystem compared to pre-contact conditions. Restoration of these three keystone species may have a significant positive influence by increasing the recharge rate to the aquifers and raising soil moisture due to the sharp hooves and wallows of the bison, prairie dog burrows, and beaver dams providing avenues of ingress. Predictions 1) The recharge of the aquifer will be greater where these three keystone species are present because of the prairie dog burrows, buffalo hooves and wallows, and beaver dams in comparison to the control area; 2) The entire ecosystem will be rejuvenated where the three species are permitted to return; 3) The microclimate changes caused by this reintroduction will stimulate an observable, measurable improvement in water supply when allowed to proceed to near pre-contact conditions. Next Steps 1) Inventory research area containing bison, prairie dog, and beaver versus control plot. (keystone species absent). 2) Measure the soil moisture, water table, water influx rates. 3) Monitor changes over time. 4) Later phase manipulation: Beaver re-introduction into severely damaged riparian area. 5) Link to Northern Plains NEON Initiative. Current Activity 1. Candidate study locations on Standing Rock reservation have been selected and evaluated for suitability, both as study site with beaver activity and a control site with beaver absent. 2. Research mentor identified and selected. Dr. Carol Johnston of South Dakota State University, Director of the Center for Biocomplexity Studies has graciously agreed to oversee my research project 3. Review of previous work is nearing completion. 4. Tribal Agency personnel currently involved with research related to the three keystone species have been interviewed and information obtained from them

  10. Present-day deformation of the Pyrenees revealed by GPS surveying and earthquake focal mechanisms until 2011

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rigo, A.; Vernant, P.; Feigl, K. L.; Goula, X.; Khazaradze, G.; Talaya, J.; Morel, L.; Nicolas, J.; Baize, S.; Chéry, J.; Sylvander, M.

    2015-05-01

    The Pyrenean mountain range is a slowly deforming belt with continuous and moderate seismic activity. To quantify its deformation field, we present the velocity field estimated from a GPS survey of the Pyrenees spanning 18 yr. The PotSis and ResPyr networks, including a total of 85 GPS sites, were installed and first measured in 1992 and 1995-1997, respectively, and remeasured in 2008 and 2010. We obtain a deformation field with velocities less than 1 mm yr-1 across the range. The estimated velocities for individual stations do not differ significantly from zero with 95 per cent confidence. Even so, we estimate a maximum extensional horizontal strain rate of 2.0 ± 1.7 nanostrain per year in a N-S direction in the western part of the range. We do not interpret the vertical displacements due to their large uncertainties. In order to compare the horizontal strain rates with the seismic activity, we analyse a set of 194 focal mechanisms using three methods: (i) the `r' factor relating their P and T axes, (ii) the stress tensors obtained by fault slip inversion and (iii) the strain-rate tensors. Stress and strain-rate tensors are estimated for: (i) the whole data set, (ii) the eastern and western parts of the range separately, and (iii) eight zones, which are defined based on the seismicity and the tectonic patterns of the Pyrenees. Each of these analyses reveals a lateral variation of the deformation style from compression and extension in the east to extension and strike-slip in the west of the range. Although the horizontal components of the strain-rate tensors estimated from the seismic data are slightly smaller in magnitude than those computed from the GPS velocity field, they are consistent within the 2σ uncertainties. Furthermore, the orientations of their principal axes agree with the mapped active faults.

  11. Bridging onshore and offshore present-day kinematics of central and eastern Mediterranean: Implications for crustal dynamics and mantle flow

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    PéRouse, EugéNie; Chamot-Rooke, Nicolas; Rabaute, Alain; Briole, Pierre; Jouanne, FrançOis; Georgiev, Ivan; Dimitrov, Dimitar

    2012-09-01

    We present a new kinematic and strain model of an area encompassing the Calabrian and Hellenic subduction zones, western Anatolia and the Balkans. Using Haines and Holt's (1993) method, we derive continuous velocity and strain rate fields by interpolating geodetic velocities, including recent GPS data in the Balkans. Relative motion between stable Eurasia and the western Aegean Sea is gradually accommodated by distributed N-S extension from Southern Balkans to the Eastern Corinth Gulf, so that the westward propagation of the North Anatolian Fault (NAF) throughout continental Greece or Peloponnesus is not required. We thus propose that the NAF terminates in north Aegean and that N-S extension localized in the Corinth Gulf and distributed in Southern Balkans is due to the retreat of the Hellenic slab. The motion of the Hyblean plateau, Apulia Peninsula, south Adriatic Sea, Ionian Basin and Sirte plain can be minimized by a single rigid rotation around a pole located in the Sirte plain, compatible with the opening the Pelagian rifts (2-2.5 mm/yr) and seismotectonics in Libya. We interpret the trenchward ultraslow motion of the Calabrian arc (2-2.5 mm/yr) as pure collapse, the Calabrian subduction being now inactive. In the absolute plate motion reference frame, our modeled velocity field depicts two toroïdal crustal patterns located at both ends of the Hellenic subduction zone, clockwise in NW Greece and counter-clockwise in western Anatolia. We suggest the NW Greece toroïdal pattern is the surface expression of a slab tear and consequent toroïdal asthenospheric flow.

  12. Present-day Galactic Evolution: Low-metallicity, Warm, Ionized Gas Inflow Associated with High-velocity Cloud Complex A

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barger, K. A.; Haffner, L. M.; Wakker, B. P.; Hill, Alex. S.; Madsen, G. J.; Duncan, A. K.

    2012-12-01

    The high-velocity cloud Complex A is a probe of the physical conditions in the Galactic halo. The kinematics, morphology, distance, and metallicity of Complex A indicate that it represents new material that is accreting onto the Galaxy. We present Wisconsin Hα Mapper kinematically resolved observations of Complex A over the velocity range of -250 to -50 km s-1 in the local standard of rest reference frame. These observations include the first full Hα intensity map of Complex A across (\\mathit {l, b}) = (124{^\\circ }, 18{^\\circ }) to (171°, 53°) and deep targeted observations in Hα, [S II] λ6716, [N II] λ6584, and [O I] λ6300 toward regions with high H I column densities, background quasars, and stars. The Hα data imply that the masses of neutral and ionized material in the cloud are similar, both being greater than 106 M ⊙. We find that the Bland-Hawthorn & Maloney model for the intensity of the ionizing radiation near the Milky Way is consistent with the known distance of the high-latitude part of Complex A and an assumed cloud geometry that puts the lower-latitude parts of the cloud at a distance of 7-8 kpc. This compatibility implies a 5% ionizing photon escape fraction from the Galactic disk. We also provide the nitrogen and sulfur upper abundance solutions for a series of temperatures, metallicities, and cloud configurations for purely photoionized gas; these solutions are consistent with the sub-solar abundances found by previous studies, especially for temperatures above 104 K or for gas with a high fraction of singly ionized nitrogen and sulfur.

  13. The impact of modern migrations on present-day multi-ethnic Argentina as recorded on the mitochondrial DNA genome

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background The genetic background of Argentineans is a mosaic of different continental ancestries. From colonial to present times, the genetic contribution of Europeans and sub-Saharan Africans has superposed to or replaced the indigenous genetic 'stratum'. A sample of 384 individuals representing different Argentinean provinces was collected and genotyped for the first and the second mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) hypervariable regions, and selectively genotyped for mtDNA SNPs. This data was analyzed together with additional 440 profiles from rural and urban populations plus 304 from Native American Argentineans, all available from the literature. A worldwide database was used for phylogeographic inferences, inter-population comparisons, and admixture analysis. Samples identified as belonging to hg (hg) H2a5 were sequenced for the entire mtDNA genome. Results Phylogenetic and admixture analyses indicate that only half of the Native American component in urban Argentineans might be attributed to the legacy of extinct ancestral Argentineans and that the Spanish genetic contribution is slightly higher than the Italian one. Entire H2a5 genomes linked these Argentinean mtDNAs to the Basque Country and improved the phylogeny of this Basque autochthonous clade. The fingerprint of African slaves in urban Argentinean mtDNAs was low and it can be phylogeographically attributed predominantly to western African. The European component is significantly more prevalent in the Buenos Aires province, the main gate of entrance for Atlantic immigration to Argentina, while the Native American component is larger in North and South Argentina. AMOVA, Principal Component Analysis and hgs/haplotype patterns in Argentina revealed an important level of genetic sub-structure in the country. Conclusions Studies aimed to compare mtDNA frequency profiles from different Argentinean geographical regions (e.g., forensic and case-control studies) should take into account the important genetic

  14. Present-day velocity and stress fields of the Amurian plate from thin-shell finite element modelling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Petit, C.; Fournier, M.

    2003-04-01

    Space geodetic data have shown that east of longitude 100°E, the southeastern and eastern Asia including Sundaland, South China, North China, and the Amurian plate move eastward at a mean rate of 1 cm/yr relative to Siberia. The relative motions between the main continental blocks of eastern Asia are low, of the order of 1-2 mm/yr. Thus, a wide region extending from the Baikal Rift to the Japan Sea and to SE Asia and Indonesia is slowly extruded eastward at a rate of ~1 cm/yr. It is generally admitted that eastward extrusion of such continental blocks accounts for 1/4 to 1/3 of deformation in Asia, while the remaining 2/3 to 3/4 are accommodated by crustal and/or lithospheric thickening. As a consequence, any dynamic model of deformation in Asia should take into account body forces due to plate thickening as well as boundary forces coming from the India-Asia collision and Pacific subductions. We present spherical thin-plate models of the Amurian continental plate using the finite element code SHELLS developed by Peter Bird (1999). This 2D modelling code simulates short-term deformation of a 2-layered lithosphere with lateral variations of crustal and lithospheric thicknesses, and heat flow. We first analyze the Amurian plate kinematics and deformation through GPS and seismotectonic data. Then we use the finite element model to define the boundary conditions that best match the observed velocity and stress fields. The best-fitting model involves a transition from NW-SE compression to eastward extrusion along the southern plate boundary, favoring the opening of the Baikal rift east of 105°E. NE-SW to EW compression along the eastern plate limit is satisfyingly reproduced by the relative motions of the Okhotsk, Pacific and Philippine Sea plates. Finally, we show that body forces due to sharp changes in crustal and lithospheric thicknesses can explain the rapid transition from NE-SW extension in the north Baikal rift to ~NS compression in the Stanovoy range.

  15. Impact of preindustrial to present-day changes in short-lived pollutant emissions on atmospheric composition and climate forcing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Naik, Vaishali; Horowitz, Larry W.; Fiore, Arlene M.; Ginoux, Paul; Mao, Jingqiu; Aghedo, Adetutu M.; Levy, Hiram

    2013-07-01

    We describe and evaluate atmospheric chemistry in the newly developed Geophysical Fluid Dynamics Laboratory chemistry-climate model (GFDL AM3) and apply it to investigate the net impact of preindustrial (PI) to present (PD) changes in short-lived pollutant emissions (ozone precursors, sulfur dioxide, and carbonaceous aerosols) and methane concentration on atmospheric composition and climate forcing. The inclusion of online troposphere-stratosphere interactions, gas-aerosol chemistry, and aerosol-cloud interactions (including direct and indirect aerosol radiative effects) in AM3 enables a more complete representation of interactions among short-lived species, and thus their net climate impact, than was considered in previous climate assessments. The base AM3 simulation, driven with observed sea surface temperature (SST) and sea ice cover (SIC) over the period 1981-2007, generally reproduces the observed mean magnitude, spatial distribution, and seasonal cycle of tropospheric ozone and carbon monoxide. The global mean aerosol optical depth in our base simulation is within 5% of satellite measurements over the 1982-2006 time period. We conduct a pair of simulations in which only the short-lived pollutant emissions and methane concentrations are changed from PI (1860) to PD (2000) levels (i.e., SST, SIC, greenhouse gases, and ozone-depleting substances are held at PD levels). From the PI to PD, we find that changes in short-lived pollutant emissions and methane have caused the tropospheric ozone burden to increase by 39% and the global burdens of sulfate, black carbon, and organic carbon to increase by factors of 3, 2.4, and 1.4, respectively. Tropospheric hydroxyl concentration decreases by 7%, showing that increases in OH sinks (methane, carbon monoxide, nonmethane volatile organic compounds, and sulfur dioxide) dominate over sources (ozone and nitrogen oxides) in the model. Combined changes in tropospheric ozone and aerosols cause a net negative top

  16. Present-day Galaxy Evolution through Baryon Flows in the Circumgalactic Medium of the Galactic-Magellanic System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barger, Kathleen Ann

    Galaxy evolution is governed by an intricate ballet of gas flows. To sustain star formation over many billions of years, more gas must inflow than outflow. Although numerous gas clouds surround the Milky Way, their attributes, origins, destinations, and responses to their surroundings need thorough investigation on an individual basis to realize how the entire population affects Galactic evolution. This dissertation hones in on two circumgalactic gas structures near the Milky Way: Complex A and the Magellanic Bridge. Complex A is an elongated gas structure that is traversing the hot Halo of the Milky Way, plummeting towards the Galaxy's disk. The Magellanic Bridge is a bridge of gas and stars that connects the Magellanic Clouds, created by galaxy interactions. In this thesis, I present the results of the highest sensitivity and kinematically resolved Halpha emission-line survey of Complex A and Halpha, [S II], and [N II] surveys of the Magellanic Bridge using the Wisconsin Halpha Mapper to explore their properties, surroundings, origins, and fates to unravel how circumgalactic structures influence galaxy evolution. I find that the observational properties of Complex A closely match with radiative transfer model predictions of a cloud ionized by the Milky Way and extragalactic background, implying a 5% escape fraction of ionizing photons from the Galactic disk. The multiline observations and modeling place the cloud's metallicity below solar. These results combined with other studies suggests the cloud has an intergalactic medium origin. I find that the global distribution of the warm ionized gas traces the neutral gas in the Magellanic Bridge. These observations place the ionized gas mass between (0.7 -- 1.6) x 108 solar masses, implying an ionization fraction of 25 -- 33% and a 5% maximum escape fraction of ionizing photons from the Magellanic Clouds. The line ratios reveal that the physical state of the the SMC-Tail and the LMC-Bridge interface regions differ

  17. Present Situation and Ripple Effect of “Science Summer Festival in Tokushima” Held to Aim to Avoid Moving Away from the Engineering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sugiyama, Shigeru; Inaoka, Takeshi; Sugino, Shoichi; Ohnishi, Tokuo

    It is generally known that many young Japanese are moving away from the Engineering. In the Faculty of Engineering, the University of Tokushima, “Science Summer Festival in Tokushima” was started in 1997 in order to increase young persons, who are interested in the Engineering, and marks its 12th anniversary in 2008. In the festival, the main theme is “Let‧s experience science together” and various creative entertainments, which are operated through collaboration between industry, educational institutions and the administration in Tokushima Prefecture, are opened. Since first-grade students, who are expected to join the festival as a first-grade in an elementary school in 1997, were entered in the Faculty of Engineering in 2008, the effect of the festival on their motive for the entrance to the Faculty of the Engineering has been examined. In the present paper, the present situation of “Science Summer Festival in Tokushima” and the results of the examinations are described.

  18. [The national strategies for suicide prevention by the United Nation/World Health Organization and the present situation of suicide in the East Asia].

    PubMed

    Takahashi, Yoshitomo; Takahashi, Sho; Imamura, Yoshihiro; Yamashita, Rira

    2014-01-01

    We discussed "Prevention of suicide: Guidelines for the formulation and implementation of national strategies" formulated by the United Nations and the World Health Organization in 1996 and the present situation of suicide in the East Asia. Although much public attention has been paid to a high suicide rate of Japan in the world, the increasing tendency of suicide rates have been found in other East Asian countries as well. For example the Republic of Korea shows a recent suicide rate higher than 30 per 100,000, which surpasses the suicide rate of Japan. Facing the fact, various measures for suicide prevention have been conducted. The UN guidelines for suicide prevention point out that these strategies should be discussed to meet each country's need for more appropriate suicide prevention. The Japanese government had the Basic Law on Suicide Prevention enforced in 2006 to implement measures that society must tackle because various social factors are behind suicides. In recent years, some countries in the East Asia also show increasing suicide rates, which attract the society's serious concern. The rapid economic growth and globalization have led to personnel cut, performance-based compensation, and the widening gap between the rich and the poor and the society cannot maintain the conventional employment system. In addition, socio-economic changes have brought collapse of the original societal and familial system, which might have existed behind the increase of suicide in this region. PMID:25244733

  19. Estimations of historical atmospheric mercury concentrations from mercury refining and present-day soil concentrations of total mercury in Huancavelica, Peru.

    PubMed

    Robins, Nicholas A; Hagan, Nicole; Halabi, Susan; Hsu-Kim, Heileen; Gonzales, Ruben Dario Espinoza; Morris, Mark; Woodall, George; Richter, Daniel deB; Heine, Paul; Zhang, Tong; Bacon, Allan; Vandenberg, John

    2012-06-01

    Detailed Spanish records of cinnabar mining and mercury production during the colonial period in Huancavelica, Peru were examined to estimate historical health risks to the community from exposure to elemental mercury (Hg) vapor resulting from cinnabar refining operations. Between 1564 and 1810, nearly 17,000 metric tons of Hg were released to the atmosphere in Huancavelica from Hg production. AERMOD was used with estimated emissions and source characteristics to approximate historic atmospheric concentrations of mercury vapor. Modeled 1-hour and long-term concentrations were compared with present-day inhalation reference values for elemental Hg. Estimated 1-hour maximum concentrations for the entire community exceeded present-day occupational inhalation reference values, while some areas closest to the smelters exceeded present-day emergency response guideline levels. Estimated long-term maximum concentrations for the entire community exceeded the EPA Reference Concentration (RfC) by a factor of 30 to 100, with areas closest to the smelters exceeding the RfC by a factor of 300 to 1000. Based on the estimated historical concentrations of Hg vapor in the community, the study also measured the extent of present-day contamination throughout the community through soil sampling and analysis. Total Hg in soils sampled from 20 locations ranged from 1.75 to 698 mg/kg and three adobe brick samples ranging from 47.4 to 284 mg/kg, consistent with other sites of mercury mining and use. The results of the soil sampling indicate that the present-day population of Huancavelica is exposed to levels of mercury from legacy contamination which is currently among the highest worldwide, consequently placing them at potential risk of adverse health outcomes. PMID:22542225

  20. Post World War II orcharding creates present day DDT-problems in The Sørfjord (Western Norway)--a case study.

    PubMed

    Ruus, Anders; Green, Norman W; Maage, Amund; Amundsen, Carl Einar; Schøyen, Merete; Skei, Jens

    2010-10-01

    The Sørfjord has a long history of agriculture and industry, and environmental monitoring has been conducted for decades, comprising analyses of contaminants in mussel, fish and sediments. DDT was used as an insecticide in orchards surrounding the fjord between World War II and 1970. Since the early 1990 s, elevated concentrations of DDT were found in mussels and fish. Unexpectedly, DDT-concentrations increased towards present day, despite the discontinuation of use. The highest concentrations in mussels (in 2006) corresponded to about two orders of magnitude higher than background. Analyses of sediment core sections also indicated increased input towards present day. Shifts in climatic parameters, as well as increased amounts of soil dissolved organic carbon following a decline in atmospheric sulphate deposition may have contributed to this phenomenon. We warrant the need for increased knowledge of the effects of alterations in variables acting regionally and globally on the disposition of contaminants in ecosystems. PMID:20719343

  1. The influence of mantle viscosity structure and past decadal to millennial-scale ice mass changes on present-day land motion in Greenland.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Simpson, Matthew; Wake, Leanne; Milne, Glenn; Huybrechts, Philippe

    2010-05-01

    We show predictions of present-day vertical land motion in Greenland using a recently developed Glacial Isostatic Adjustment (GIA) model, calibrated using both relative sea-level observations and geomorphological contraints on ice extent (Simpson et al., 2009). Predictions from our GIA model are in good agreement to the relatively small number of GPS measurements of absolute vertical motion from south and southwest Greenland. This suggests that our model of ice sheet evolution over the Holocene period is reasonably accurate. The uplift predictions are highly sensitive to variations of upper mantle viscosity; depending on the Earth model adopted different periods of ice loading change dominate the present-day response in particular regions of Greenland. We shall present a suite of results to demonstrate this sensitivity. We also consider the possible influence of more recent changes in the ice sheet by applying a second ice model; specifically, a surface mass balance (SMB) model (Wake et al., 2009), which covers the period 1866 to 2005. Predictions from this model suggest that decadal-scale SMB changes over the last c. 140 years play only a small role in determining the present-day viscous response. However, high rates of peripheral thinning from 1995 to 2005 in the SMB model produce large elastic uplift rates in west and southwest Greenland. Using the same SMB model, we extend our study period to cover the last thousand years (for which there is less accurate climate data) and constrain ice mass changes over this time using new high resolution records of relative sea-level change. Our preliminary findings suggest that century-scale ice mass variation over the last thousand years may contribute significantly to the present-day viscous response. Simpson, M.J.R, Milne, G.A., Huybrechts, P., Long, A.J., 2009. Calibrating a glaciological model of the Greenland ice sheet from the last glacial maximum to present-day using field observations of relative sea level and ice

  2. English Day by Day.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roddy, Michael

    This book is designed as a text and workbook for students of English as a Second Language. The workbook stresses grammar, reading, writing, and pronunciation in the context of real-life situations where competency in written and conversational skills and in problem-solving can be critical. The format is sequential. Thirteen units on different…

  3. Preindustrial to Present-Day Changes in Tropospheric Hydroxyl Radical and Methane Lifetime from the Atmospheric Chemistry and Climate Model Intercomparison Project (ACCMIP)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Naik, V.; Voulgarakis, A.; Fiore, A. M.; Horowitz, L. W.; Lamarque, J.-F.; Lin, M.; Prather, M. J.; Young, P. J.; Bergmann, D.; Cameron-Smith, P. J.; Cionni, I.; Collins, W. J.; Dalsoren, S. B.; Doherty, R.; Eyring, V.; Faluvegi, G.; Folberth, G. A.; Josse, B.; Lee, Y. H.; MacKenzie, I. A.; Nagashima, T.; vanNoije, T. P. C.; Plummer, D. A.; Righi, M.; Rumbold, S. T.; Skeie, R.; Shindell, D. T.; Stevenson, D. S.; Strode, S.; Sudo, K.; Szopa, S.; Zeng, G.

    2013-01-01

    We have analysed time-slice simulations from 17 global models, participating in the Atmospheric Chemistry and Climate Model Intercomparison Project (ACCMIP), to explore changes in present-day (2000) hydroxyl radical (OH) concentration and methane (CH4) lifetime relative to preindustrial times (1850) and to 1980. A comparison of modeled and observation-derived methane and methyl chloroform lifetimes suggests that the present-day global multi-model mean OH concentration is overestimated by 5 to 10% but is within the range of uncertainties. The models consistently simulate higher OH concentrations in the Northern Hemisphere (NH) compared with the Southern Hemisphere (SH) for the present-day (2000; inter-hemispheric ratios of 1.13 to 1.42), in contrast to observation-based approaches which generally indicate higher OH in the SH although uncertainties are large. Evaluation of simulated carbon monoxide (CO) concentrations, the primary sink for OH, against ground-based and satellite observations suggests low biases in the NH that may contribute to the high north–south OH asymmetry in the models. The models vary widely in their regional distribution of present-day OH concentrations (up to 34%). Despite large regional changes, the multi-model global mean (mass-weighted) OH concentration changes little over the past 150 yr, due to concurrent increases in factors that enhance OH (humidity, tropospheric ozone, nitrogen oxide (NOx) emissions, and UV radiation due to decreases in stratospheric ozone), compensated by increases in OH sinks (methane abundance, carbon monoxide and non-methane volatile organic carbon (NMVOC) emissions). The large inter-model diversity in the sign and magnitude of preindustrial to present-day OH changes (ranging from a decrease of 12.7% to an increase of 14.6%) indicate that uncertainty remains in our understanding of the long-term trends in OH and methane lifetime. We show that this diversity is largely explained by the different ratio of the

  4. Leprosy situation in Brazil.

    PubMed

    Tomimori-Yamashita, Jane

    2006-09-01

    We present the situation of leprosy in Brazil, reporting about epidemiology, clinical criteria for classification, multidrugtherapy and special situations, as co-infection. This material was presented in the 79th Annual Meeting of Japanese Hansen's Disease Association in May 2006, during a discussion about the Japanese Guidelines for leprosy treatment. PMID:17037380

  5. Estimating heat stress from climate-based indicators: present-day biases and future spreads in the CMIP5 global climate model ensemble

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Y.; Ducharne, A.; Sultan, B.; Braconnot, P.; Vautard, R.

    2015-08-01

    The increased exposure of human populations to heat stress is one of the likely consequences of global warming, and it has detrimental effects on health and labor capacity. Here, we consider the evolution of heat stress under climate change using 21 general circulation models (GCMs). Three heat stress indicators, based on both temperature and humidity conditions, are used to investigate present-day model biases and spreads in future climate projections. Present day estimates of heat stress indicators from observational data shows that humid tropical areas tend to experience more frequent heat stress than other regions do, with a total frequency of heat stress 250-300 d yr-1. The most severe heat stress is found in the Sahel and south India. Present-day GCM simulations tend to underestimate heat stress over the tropics due to dry and cold model biases. The model based estimates are in better agreement with observation in mid to high latitudes, but this is due to compensating errors in humidity and temperature. The severity of heat stress is projected to increase by the end of the century under climate change scenario RCP8.5, reaching unprecedented levels in some regions compared with observations. An analysis of the different factors contributing to the total spread of projected heat stress shows that spread is primarily driven by the choice of GCMs rather than the choice of indicators, even when the simulated indicators are bias-corrected. This supports the utility of the multi-model ensemble approach to assess the impacts of climate change on heat stress.

  6. Differential responses of calcifying and non-calcifying epibionts of a brown macroalga to present-day and future upwelling pCO2.

    PubMed

    Saderne, Vincent; Wahl, Martin

    2013-01-01

    Seaweeds are key species of the Baltic Sea benthic ecosystems. They are the substratum of numerous fouling epibionts like bryozoans and tubeworms. Several of these epibionts bear calcified structures and could be impacted by the high pCO2 events of the late summer upwellings in the Baltic nearshores. Those events are expected to increase in strength and duration with global change and ocean acidification. If calcifying epibionts are impacted by transient acidification as driven by upwelling events, their increasing prevalence could cause a shift of the fouling communities toward fleshy species. The aim of the present study was to test the sensitivity of selected seaweed macrofoulers to transient elevation of pCO2 in their natural microenvironment, i.e. the boundary layer covering the thallus surface of brown seaweeds. Fragments of the macroalga Fucus serratus bearing an epibiotic community composed of the calcifiers Spirorbis spirorbis (Annelida) and Electra pilosa (Bryozoa) and the non-calcifier Alcyonidium hirsutum (Bryozoa) were maintained for 30 days under three pCO2 conditions: natural 460 ± 59 µatm, present-day upwelling1193 ± 166 µatm and future upwelling 3150 ± 446 µatm. Only the highest pCO2 caused a significant reduction of growth rates and settlement of S. spirorbis individuals. Additionally, S. spirorbis settled juveniles exhibited enhanced calcification of 40% during daylight hours compared to dark hours, possibly reflecting a day-night alternation of an acidification-modulating effect by algal photosynthesis as opposed to an acidification-enhancing effect of algal respiration. E. pilosa colonies showed significantly increased growth rates at intermediate pCO2 (1193 µatm) but no response to higher pCO2. No effect of acidification on A. hirsutum colonies growth rates was observed. The results suggest a remarkable resistance of the algal macro-epibionts to levels of acidification occurring at present day upwellings in the Baltic. Only extreme

  7. Differential Responses of Calcifying and Non-Calcifying Epibionts of a Brown Macroalga to Present-Day and Future Upwelling pCO2

    PubMed Central

    Saderne, Vincent; Wahl, Martin

    2013-01-01

    Seaweeds are key species of the Baltic Sea benthic ecosystems. They are the substratum of numerous fouling epibionts like bryozoans and tubeworms. Several of these epibionts bear calcified structures and could be impacted by the high pCO2 events of the late summer upwellings in the Baltic nearshores. Those events are expected to increase in strength and duration with global change and ocean acidification. If calcifying epibionts are impacted by transient acidification as driven by upwelling events, their increasing prevalence could cause a shift of the fouling communities toward fleshy species. The aim of the present study was to test the sensitivity of selected seaweed macrofoulers to transient elevation of pCO2 in their natural microenvironment, i.e. the boundary layer covering the thallus surface of brown seaweeds. Fragments of the macroalga Fucus serratus bearing an epibiotic community composed of the calcifiers Spirorbis spirorbis (Annelida) and Electra pilosa (Bryozoa) and the non-calcifier Alcyonidium hirsutum (Bryozoa) were maintained for 30 days under three pCO2 conditions: natural 460±59 µatm, present-day upwelling1193±166 µatm and future upwelling 3150±446 µatm. Only the highest pCO2 caused a significant reduction of growth rates and settlement of S. spirorbis individuals. Additionally, S. spirorbis settled juveniles exhibited enhanced calcification of 40% during daylight hours compared to dark hours, possibly reflecting a day-night alternation of an acidification-modulating effect by algal photosynthesis as opposed to an acidification-enhancing effect of algal respiration. E. pilosa colonies showed significantly increased growth rates at intermediate pCO2 (1193 µatm) but no response to higher pCO2. No effect of acidification on A. hirsutum colonies growth rates was observed. The results suggest a remarkable resistance of the algal macro-epibionts to levels of acidification occurring at present day upwellings in the Baltic. Only extreme future

  8. Sulfur Dioxide and the Production of Sulfuric Acid on Present-Day and Early Mars: Implications for the Lack of Detected Carbonates on the Surface

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Levine, Joel S.; Summers, Michael E.

    2008-01-01

    In the early history of Mars, volcanic activity associated with the formation of the Tharsis ridge produced a very large amount of atmospheric SO2--on the order of a bar of atmospheric SO2. In the present-day atmosphere of Mars, the lifetime of SO2 is relatively short with a lifetime of less than a day. The short lifetime of SO2 in the present Mars atmosphere makes the production of significant levels of H2SO4 very difficult since the SO2 may be destroyed by various chemical and photochemical processes before the SO2 can be converted to H2SO4. However, photochemical calculations performed and described here, indicate that enhanced atmospheric levels of CO2 in the early atmosphere of Mars resulted in a significantly enhanced atmospheric lifetime for SO2 up to several years. With a significantly enhanced atmospheric lifetime, SO2 could readily form large amounts of H2SO4, which precipitated out of the atmosphere in the form of droplets. The precipitated H2SO4 then reacted with potential surface carbonates, destroying the carbonates and resulting in the abundant and widespread distribution of sulfates on the surface of Mars as detected by recent Mars missions.

  9. Seismological Structure of the 1.8Ga Trans-Hudson Orogen of North America and its affinity to present-day Tibet

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gilligan, A.; Bastow, I. D.; Darbyshire, F. A.

    2015-12-01

    How tectonic processes operated and changed through the Precambrian is debated: what was the nature and scale of orogenic events and were they different on the younger, hotter, more ductile Earth? The geology of northern Hudson Bay records the Paleoproterozoic collision between the Western Churchill and Superior plates: the 1.8Ga Trans-Hudson Orogeny (THO) and is thus an ideal study locale to address this issue. It has been suggested, primarily on the strength of traditional field geology, that the THO was comparable in scale and style to the present-day Himalayan-Karakoram-Tibet Orogen (HKTO). However, understanding of the deep crustal architecture of the THO, and how it compares to the evolving HKTO is presently lacking. Through joint inversion of teleseismic receiver functions and surface wave data, we obtain new Moho depth estimates and shear velocity models for the crust and upper mantle. Archean crust in the Rae, Hearne and Churchill domains is thin and structurally simple, with a sharp Moho; upper crustal wavespeed variations are readily attributed to post-formation events. However, the Paleoproterozoic Quebec-Baffin segment of the THO has a deeper Moho and more complex crustal structure. Our observations are strikingly similar to recent models, computed using the same methods, of the HKTO lithosphere, where deformation also extends >400km beyond the collision front. On the strength of Moho character, present-day crustal thickness, and metamorphic grade, we thus propose that southern Baffin experienced uplift of a similar magnitude and spatial extent to the Himalayas during the Paleoproterozoic Trans-Hudson Orogeny.

  10. Day to Day

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jurecki, Dennis

    2006-01-01

    A clean, healthy and safe school provides students, faculty and staff with an environment conducive to learning and working. However, budget and staff reductions can lead to substandard cleaning practices and unsanitary conditions. Some school facility managers have been making the switch to a day-schedule to reduce security and energy costs, and…

  11. The origin of the asymmetry in the Iceland hotspot along the Mid-Atlantic Ridge from continental breakup to present-day

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Howell, Samuel M.; Ito, Garrett; Breivik, Asbjørn J.; Rai, Abhishek; Mjelde, Rolf; Hanan, Barry; Sayit, Kaan; Vogt, Peter

    2014-04-01

    The Iceland hotspot has profoundly influenced the creation of oceanic crust throughout the North Atlantic basin. Enigmatically, the geographic extent of the hotspot influence along the Mid-Atlantic Ridge has been asymmetric for most of the spreading history. This asymmetry is evident in crustal thickness along the present-day ridge system and anomalously shallow seafloor of ages ∼49-25 Ma created at the Reykjanes Ridge (RR), SSW of the hotspot center, compared to deeper seafloor created by the now-extinct Aegir Ridge (AR) the same distance NE of the hotspot center. The cause of this asymmetry is explored with 3-D numerical models that simulate a mantle plume interacting with the ridge system using realistic ridge geometries and spreading rates that evolve from continental breakup to present-day. The models predict plume-influence to be symmetric at continental breakup, then to rapidly contract along the ridges, resulting in widely influenced margins next to uninfluenced oceanic crust. After this initial stage, varying degrees of asymmetry along the mature ridge segments are predicted. Models in which the lithosphere is created by the stiffening of the mantle due to the extraction of water near the base of the melting zone predict a moderate amount of asymmetry; the plume expands NE along the AR ∼70-80% as far as it expands SSW along the RR. Without dehydration stiffening, the lithosphere corresponds to the near-surface, cool, thermal boundary layer; in these cases, the plume is predicted to be even more asymmetric, expanding only 40-50% as far along the AR as it does along the RR. Estimates of asymmetry and seismically measured crustal thicknesses are best explained by model predictions of an Iceland plume volume flux of ∼100-200 m/s, and a lithosphere controlled by a rheology in which dehydration stiffens the mantle, but to a lesser degree than simulated here. The asymmetry of influence along the present-day ridge system is predicted to be a transient

  12. Structural Evolution of the India-Arabia Plate Boundary from Miocene to Present-Day (NW Indian Ocean) and Comparison with the Dead Sea Fault (Eastern Mediterranean Sea).

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rodriguez, M.; Huchon, P.; Chamot Rooke, N.; Fournier, M.; Delescluse, M.; Ben Avraham, Z.; Ten Brink, U. S.

    2014-12-01

    Arabia is bounded by the Dead Sea Transform (DST) to the west and by the Owen Fracture Zone (OFZ) to the east. These present-day major strike-slip fault systems activated during the Plio-Pleistocene, which contrasts with the age of inception of strike-slip motion, assumed to begin around 13-18 Ma for the DST and around 20 Ma at the edge of the Owen-Murray Ridge (OMR) for the India-Arabia plate boundary. This discrepancy between the age of the active strike-slip systems and the age of inception of strike-slip motion raises the question of the kinematic driver for the transition between successive generations of strike-slip faults. Using a recent mutibeam and seismic dataset crossing the OFZ and the OMR, we provide a new geodynamic framework for the Miocene to present-day structural evolution of the India-Arabia plate boundary, and highlight some similarities with the structural evolution of the DST. We first document a Late Miocene episode of uplift of the OMR uplift along the Miocene India-Arabia plate boundary. The onset of this uplift is coeval with a plate reorganization event marked by the onset of intra-plate deformation in the Central Indian Ocean. The OFZ emplaced around 3 Ma, with major pull-apart basins opening (20°N Basin, Dalrymple Trough) dated at 2.4 Ma by far-field correlation with ODP Sites. The opening of pull-apart basins is coeval with the last structural reorganization of the Makran accretionnary wedge, marked by the regional M-unconformity, and with a major intensification of the Indian monsoon. A Late Miocene episode of folding is also recognized at the Lebanon ranges prior to the onset of the present-day DST, which occurred in the Late Pliocene-Early Pleistocene. The similarities between the geological history of the India-Arabia plate boundary and the DST in the Late Miocene and the Late Pliocene-Early Pleistocene suggest that both plate boundaries recorded the same kinematic changes. Late Miocene (i.e. Tortonian) deformation is widely

  13. Transient climate simulation from the Maunder Minimum to present day using prescribed changes in GHG, total/spectral solar irradiance and ozone

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Spangehl, Thomas; Cubasch, Ulrich; Schimanke, Semjon

    A fully coupled AO-GCM including representation of the middle atmosphere is used for tran-sient simulation of climate from 1630 to 2000 AD. For better representation of changes in the UV/visible part of the solar spectrum an improved short-wave radiation scheme is implemented. The model is driven by changes in GHG concentrations, solar activity and volcanic eruptions. Solar variability is introduced via changes in total/spectral solar irradiance (TSI/SSI) and pre-scribed changes in stratospheric ozone. The secular trend in TSI is in the range of 0.1 percent increase from Maunder Minimum to present-day. Volcanic eruptions are represented via abrupt reduction in TSI. With the applied forcings the model does not simulate a clear reduction of the annual Northern Hemisphere (NH) mean near surface temperature during Maunder Minimum. By contrast the Dalton Minimum is characterized by distinct cooling and there is a significant raise of NH mean near surface temperature until the end of the 20th century. Focusing on the North Atlantic/European region the winter mean near surface temperature change pat-tern from Late Maunder Minimum (1675-1715) to present-day (1960-1990) reveals maximum warming over north-eastern Europe and cooling over the western North Atlantic with maxi-mum cooling west of Greenland. These changes can partly be explained by a shift of the NAO towards a more positive phase. The simulated changes in tropospheric circulation are discussed with special emphasize on the role of the solar forcing. Besides the stratospheric solar forcing which may affect NAO variability via downward propagation of the solar signal from the strato-sphere to the troposphere the magnitude of the secular trend in TSI might play a role. For the period from Maunder Minimum to present-day the simulation shows less near surface temper-ature increase especially over arctic regions when compared to simulations performed with the same model including the standard radiation scheme but

  14. PCSK9 is present in human cerebrospinal fluid and is maintained at remarkably constant concentrations throughout the course of the day.

    PubMed

    Chen, Yan Q; Troutt, Jason S; Konrad, Robert J

    2014-05-01

    Proprotein convertase subtilisin kexin type 9 (PCSK9) is a key regulator of serum low density lipoprotein cholesterol levels. PCSK9 is secreted by the liver and binds the hepatic low density lipoprotein receptor, causing its subsequent degradation. PCSK9 has also been shown to regulate the levels of additional membrane-bound proteins in vitro, including very low-density lipoprotein receptor, apolipoprotein E receptor 2, and beta-site amyloid precursor protein-cleaving enzyme 1, which are highly expressed in central nervous system (CNS) and have been implicated in Alzheimer’s disease. Previous studies have demonstrated that human circulating PCSK9 displays a diurnal rhythm. Currently, little is known about PCSK9 levels in human cerebrospinal fluid (CSF). In the present study, we measured PCSK9 concentrations in both serum and CSF collected from healthy human subjects at multiple time points throughout the day. While PCSK9 in serum manifested a distinct diurnal pattern, CSF PCSK9 levels were remarkably constant throughout the course of the day and were also consistently lower than corresponding serum PCSK9 concentrations. Our results indicate that regulation of PCSK9 in human CSF may be different than for plasma PCSK9, suggesting that further study of the role of PCSK9 in the CNS is warranted. PMID:24659111

  15. Pedological constraints controlling the occurrence of mire plant bioindicators from north Atlantic formerly frozen soils to present-day Mediterranean sandy wet habitats

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Geraldes, Miguel; da Conceição Freitas, Maria; Cruces, Anabela; Andrade, César; Oliva, Marc; Neto, Carlos; do Rosário Carvalho, Maria

    2013-04-01

    Unlocking the palaeoenvironmental context, in which present peaty sols in former cold regions of Western Europe, may contribute to the understanding of the actual distribution of three acid-soil vascular plants. Likewise can the role played by similar soil and water conditions (due to other context) be the key to explain their expansion further South. The present work aims to compare the origins and traits of such similar ecotons and to verify how these vascular plants can be use as bioindicators for the presence of peaty soils, picking the proper variables and their geographical variation fits in the Ecological amplitude of the species. The soil and the water are the two compartmeents in which some of the variables might control the present-day distributions of the three taxa. The reactions of a certain number of soil samples carefully taken at shallow depths in the profiles of peaty soils of mires or peat-reach habitats, which cover more than fifty tiny to moderate sampled areas of western Europe (Atlantic Façade and the Iberian Península) and Northwestern Morocco, are being determined in the laboratory of the Geology Department of the University of Lisbon, where some characteristic mire-akin plant taxa have their southernmost range, somewhat in disharmony with meso-to thermomediterranean climates (Rivas Martínez, Global Bioclimatics). Two samples (A and B) were collected per site, the A corresponding to the presence of one of the three bioindicators, the B dug where the species ceases to be present. The present soil processes in the northern part of this sampling is in many cases related to a cold region, glaciated or under periglacial conditions during LGM, but the sedimentary and hydrologic analogies further south might help to explain how euro-siberian species can migrate that long and withstand present-day warmer and drier climates. The pH values of samples were plotted against the depth, and curves, correlations and other possible relationships will be

  16. Situating Motivation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nolen, Susan Bobbitt; Horn, Ilana Seidel; Ward, Christopher J.

    2015-01-01

    This article describes a situative approach to studying motivation to learn in social contexts. We begin by contrasting this perspective to more prevalent psychological approaches to the study of motivation, describing epistemological and methodological differences that have constrained conversation between theoretical groups. We elaborate on…

  17. Evaluating CMIP5 ocean biogeochemistry and Southern Ocean carbon uptake using atmospheric potential oxygen: Present-day performance and future projection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nevison, C. D.; Manizza, M.; Keeling, R. F.; Stephens, B. B.; Bent, J. D.; Dunne, J.; Ilyina, T.; Long, M.; Resplandy, L.; Tjiputra, J.; Yukimoto, S.

    2016-03-01

    Observed seasonal cycles in atmospheric potential oxygen (APO ~ O2 + 1.1 CO2) were used to evaluate eight ocean biogeochemistry models from the Coupled Model Intercomparison Project (CMIP5). Model APO seasonal cycles were computed from the CMIP5 air-sea O2 and CO2 fluxes and compared to observations at three Southern Hemisphere monitoring sites. Four of the models captured either the observed APO seasonal amplitude or phasing relatively well, while the other four did not. Many models had an unrealistic seasonal phasing or amplitude of the CO2 flux, which in turn influenced APO. By 2100 under RCP8.5, the models projected little change in the O2 component of APO but large changes in the seasonality of the CO2 component associated with ocean acidification. The models with poorer performance on present-day APO tended to project larger net carbon uptake in the Southern Ocean, both today and in 2100.

  18. Quantitative Study of the Present-Day Climate of the Middle Tennessee Elk Watershed Area From Global and Regional Climate Model Simulations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kebede, G.

    2015-12-01

    As part of a wider hydro climatic modeling research, we studied the spatial and temporal variability of precipitation and temperature over the Middle Tennessee Elk watershed and its environs using regional climate model simulations over the past 30 years. Three sets of simulations with the Hadley Center's regional climate model (PRECIS) were carried out for the present day climate (1980-2010) at a resolution of 25km covering the southeastern U.S. These three sets simulations are driven by lateral boundary conditions taken from ERA-Interim reanalysis, and two global climate models (HadCM3 and ECHAM5) respectively. For validation, high resolution observed daily data sets from North American Land-Data Assimilation System (NLDAS) and Climate Research Unit, CRU data are used. Preliminary results show that the spatial distribution of the present-day seasonal mean rainfall and temperature, simulated by PRECIS, are not only consistent with NLDAS and CRU but also captured fine scale spatial structures that are missing in the global model simulations due to their coarse resolution. In addition, the annual cycle and intera-anual variability, particularly that of temperature, are reasonably well reproduced by the PRECIS. When comparing the PRECIS simulations with the driving GCMs, PRECIS is sensitive to the choice of the driving GCM, suggesting a careful selection of driving GCM based on the current climate performance for the use of future climate impact assessment. Quantitative understanding of the climate system and better estimation of the fresh water balance over the Middle Tennessee Elk watershed is a vital corner stone for a sustainable economic growth of the region over the coming decades.

  19. Estimating historical atmospheric mercury concentrations from silver mining and their legacies in present-day surface soil in Potosí, Bolivia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hagan, Nicole; Robins, Nicholas; Hsu-Kim, Heileen; Halabi, Susan; Morris, Mark; Woodall, George; Zhang, Tong; Bacon, Allan; Richter, Daniel De B.; Vandenberg, John

    2011-12-01

    Detailed Spanish records of mercury use and silver production during the colonial period in Potosí, Bolivia were evaluated to estimate atmospheric emissions of mercury from silver smelting. Mercury was used in the silver production process in Potosí and nearly 32,000 metric tons of mercury were released to the environment. AERMOD was used in combination with the estimated emissions to approximate historical air concentrations of mercury from colonial mining operations during 1715, a year of relatively low silver production. Source characteristics were selected from archival documents, colonial maps and images of silver smelters in Potosí and a base case of input parameters was selected. Input parameters were varied to understand the sensitivity of the model to each parameter. Modeled maximum 1-h concentrations were most sensitive to stack height and diameter, whereas an index of community exposure was relatively insensitive to uncertainty in input parameters. Modeled 1-h and long-term concentrations were compared to inhalation reference values for elemental mercury vapor. Estimated 1-h maximum concentrations within 500 m of the silver smelters consistently exceeded present-day occupational inhalation reference values. Additionally, the entire community was estimated to have been exposed to levels of mercury vapor that exceed present-day acute inhalation reference values for the general public. Estimated long-term maximum concentrations of mercury were predicted to substantially exceed the EPA Reference Concentration for areas within 600 m of the silver smelters. A concentration gradient predicted by AERMOD was used to select soil sampling locations along transects in Potosí. Total mercury in soils ranged from 0.105 to 155 mg kg-1, among the highest levels reported for surface soils in the scientific literature. The correlation between estimated air concentrations and measured soil concentrations will guide future research to determine the extent to which the

  20. Present-day cosmic abundances. A comprehensive study of nearby early B-type stars and implications for stellar and Galactic evolution and interstellar dust models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nieva, M.-F.; Przybilla, N.

    2012-03-01

    Context. Early B-type stars are ideal indicators for present-day cosmic abundances since they preserve their pristine abundances and typically do not migrate far beyond their birth environments over their short lifetimes, in contrast to older stars like the Sun. They are also unaffected by depletion onto dust grains, unlike the cold/warm interstellar medium (ISM) or H ii regions. Aims: A carefully selected sample of early B-type stars in OB associations and the field within the solar neighbourhood is studied comprehensively. Quantitative spectroscopy is used to characterise their atmospheric properties in a self-consistent way. Present-day abundances for the astrophysically most interesting chemical elements are derived in order to investigate whether a present-day cosmic abundance standard can be established. Methods: High-resolution and high-S/N FOCES, FEROS and ELODIE spectra of well-studied sharp-lined early B-type stars are analysed in non-LTE. Line-profile fits based on extensive model grids and an iterative analysis methodology are used to constrain stellar parameters and elemental abundances at high accuracy and precision. Atmospheric parameters are derived from the simultaneous establishment of independent indicators, from multiple ionization equilibria and the Stark-broadened hydrogen Balmer lines, and they are confirmed by reproduction of the stars' global spectral energy distributions. Results: Effective temperatures are constrained to 1-2% and surface gravities to less than 15% uncertainty, along with accurate rotational, micro- and macroturbulence velocities. Good agreement of the resulting spectroscopic parallaxes with those from the new reduction of the Hipparcos catalogue is obtained. Absolute values for abundances of He, C, N, O, Ne, Mg, Si and Fe are determined to better than 25% uncertainty. The synthetic spectra match the observations reliably over almost the entire visual spectral range. Three sample stars, γ Ori, o Per and θ1 Ori D, are

  1. Investigations of potential microbial methanogenic and carbon monoxide utilization pathways in ultra-basic reducing springs associated with present-day continental serpentinization: the Tablelands, NL, CAN

    PubMed Central

    Morrill, Penny L.; Brazelton, William J.; Kohl, Lukas; Rietze, Amanda; Miles, Sarah M.; Kavanagh, Heidi; Schrenk, Matthew O.; Ziegler, Susan E.; Lang, Susan Q.

    2014-01-01

    Ultra-basic reducing springs at continental sites of serpentinization act as portals into the biogeochemistry of a subsurface environment with H2 and CH4 present. Very little, however, is known about the carbon substrate utilization, energy sources, and metabolic pathways of the microorganisms that live in this ultra-basic environment. The potential for microbial methanogenesis with bicarbonate, formate, acetate, and propionate precursors and carbon monoxide (CO) utilization pathways were tested in laboratory experiments by adding substrates to water and sediment from the Tablelands, NL, CAD, a site of present-day continental serpentinization. Microbial methanogenesis was not observed after bicarbonate, formate, acetate, or propionate addition. CO was consumed in the live experiments but not in the killed controls and the residual CO in the live experiments became enriched in 13C. The average isotopic enrichment factor resulting from this microbial utilization of CO was estimated to be 11.2 ± 0.2‰. Phospholipid fatty acid concentrations and δ13C values suggest limited incorporation of carbon from CO into microbial lipids. This indicates that in our experiments, CO was used primarily as an energy source, but not for biomass growth. Environmental DNA sequencing of spring fluids collected at the same time as the addition experiments yielded a large proportion of Hydrogenophaga-related sequences, which is consistent with previous metagenomic data indicating the potential for these taxa to utilize CO. PMID:25431571

  2. Interactive effects of ocean acidification and warming on coral reef associated epilithic algal communities under past, present-day and future ocean conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vogel, N.; Cantin, N. E.; Strahl, J.; Kaniewska, P.; Bay, L.; Wild, C.; Uthicke, S.

    2016-06-01

    Epilithic algal communities play critical ecological roles on coral reefs, but their response to individual and interactive effects of ocean warming (OW) and ocean acidification (OA) is still largely unknown. We investigated growth, photosynthesis and calcification of early epilithic algal community assemblages exposed for 6 months to four temperature profiles (-1.1, ±0.0, +0.9, +1.6 °C) that were crossed with four carbon dioxide partial pressure (pCO2) levels (360, 440, 650, 940 µatm), under flow-through conditions and natural light regimes. Additionally, we compared the cover of heavily calcified crustose coralline algae (CCA) and lightly calcified red algae of the genus Peyssonnelia among treatments. Increase in cover of epilithic communities showed optima under moderately elevated temperatures and present pCO2, while cover strongly decreased under high temperatures and high-pCO2 conditions, particularly due to decreasing cover of CCA. Similarly, community calcification rates were strongly decreased at high pCO2 under both measured temperatures. While final cover of CCA decreased under high temperature and pCO2 (additive negative effects), cover of Peyssonnelia spp. increased at high compared to annual average and moderately elevated temperatures. Thus, cover of Peyssonnelia spp. increased in treatment combinations with less CCA, which was supported by a significant negative correlation between organism groups. The different susceptibility to stressors most likely derived from a different calcification intensity and/or mineral. Notably, growth of the epilithic communities and final cover of CCA were strongly decreased under reduced-pCO2 conditions compared to the present. Thus, CCA may have acclimatized from past to present-day pCO2 conditions, and changes in carbonate chemistry, regardless in which direction, negatively affect them. However, if epilithic organisms cannot further acclimatize to OW and OA, the interacting effects of both factors may change

  3. Human responses to eruptions of Etna (Sicily) during the late-Pre-Industrial Era and their implications for present-day disaster planning

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chester, David K.; Duncan, Angus M.; Sangster, Heather

    2012-05-01

    This paper summarises: the characteristics of eruptions that occurred between 1792/3 and 1923; the ways in which human responses evolved during the period and the lessons this history holds for the management of present-day volcanic and volcano-related disasters. People responded to eruptions at three levels: as members of a family and extended family; through the mutual support of a village or larger settlement and as citizens of the State. During the study period and with the exception of limited financial aid and preservation of law and order, the State was a minor player in responding to eruptions. Families and extended families provided shelter, accommodation and often alternative agricultural employment; whilst supportive villages communities displayed a well developed tendency to learn from experience (e.g. innovating techniques to bring land back into cultivation and avoiding the risks of phreatic activity as lava encountered water and saturated ground) and providing labour to enable household chattels and agricultural crops to be salvaged from land threatened with lava incursion. Eruptions were widely believed to be 'Acts of God', with divine punishment frequently being invoked as a primary cause of human suffering. Elaborate rituals of propitiation were performed to appease a supposed angry God, but this world-view did not produce a fatalistic attitude amongst the population preventing people from coping with disasters in a generally effective manner. Despite present day emergencies being handled by the State and its agencies, some features of nineteenth century responses remain in evidence, including salvaging all that may be easily removed from a building and/or agricultural holding, and explanations of disaster which are theistic in character. Lessons from eruptions that occurred between 1792/3 to 1923 are that the former should be encouraged, whilst the latter does not prevent people acting to preserve life and property or obeying the authorities

  4. UV-B absorbing compounds in present-day and fossil pollen, spores, cuticles, seed coats and wood: evaluation of a proxy for solar UV radiation.

    PubMed

    Rozema, J; Blokker, P; Mayoral Fuertes, M A; Broekman, R

    2009-09-01

    UV-B absorbing compounds (UACs) in present-day and fossil pollen, spores, cuticles, seed coats and wood have been evaluated as a proxy for past UV. This proxy may not only provide information on variation of stratospheric ozone and solar UV in the period preceding and during the Antarctic ozone hole (1974-present day), but also on the development and variation of the stratospheric ozone layer and solar surface UV during the evolution of life on Earth. Sporopollenin and cutin are highly resistant biopolymers, preserving well in the geological record and contain the phenolic acids p-coumaric (pCA) and ferulic acid (FA). pCA and FA represent a good perspective for a plant-based proxy for past surface UV radiation since they are induced by solar UV-B via the phenylpropanoid pathway (PPP). UV-B absorption by these monomers in the wall of pollen and spores and in cuticles may prevent damage to the cellular metabolism. Increased pCA and FA in pollen of Vicia faba exposed to enhanced UV-B was found in greenhouse experiments. Further correlative evidence comes from UV-absorbing compounds in spores from 1960-2000 comparing exposure of land plants (Lycopodium species) to solar UV before and during ozone depletion and comparing plants from Antarctica (severe ozone depletion), Arctic, and other latitudes with less or negligible ozone depletion. Wood-derived compounds guaiacyl (G), syringyl (S), and p-hydroxyphenyl (P) are produced via the PPP. The proportions of P, G, and S in the lignin differ between various plant groups (e.g. dicotyledons/monocotyledons, gymnosperms/angiosperms). It is hypothesized that this lignin composition and derived physiological and physical properties of lignin (such as tree-ring wood density) has potential as a proxy for palaeo-UV climate. However validation by exposure of trees to enhanced UV is lacking. pCA and FA also form part of cutin polymers and are found in extant and fossil Ginkgo leaf cuticles as shown by thermally-assisted hydrolysis and

  5. Present-Day Strain Transfer Across the Yakutat Collision in SW Yukon - SE Alaska: The Death of the Southern Denali Fault?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marechal, A.; Mazzotti, S.; Ritz, J. F.; Ferry, M. A.; Freymueller, J. T.

    2014-12-01

    In SW Yukon-SE Alaska, the present-day Pacific-North America relative motion is highly oblique to the main plate boundary, resulting in strong strain-partitioning tectonics that link the Aleutian subduction to the west to Queen Charlotte transform to the south. This transition region is also the site of present-day orogeny and accretion of the Yakutat Terrane to the Northern Cordillera. Multiple datasets (GPS, geomorphology, seismicity) are integrated to characterize and quantify strain patterns, with particular emphasis on strain partitioning between strike-slip and shortening deformation. New GPS data straddling the main faults (Denali, Totschunda, Fairweather) indicate that, south of the collision corner, 95% of the Pacific-North America strike-slip motion is accommodated on the plate-boundary Fairweather Fault, leaving near-zero motion on the Denali Fault only ~100 km inboard. In contrast, the fault-perpendicular component is strongly distributed between shortening offshore, in the orogen, and inland outward motion. In the region of highest convergence obliquity, GPS data show a diffuse indentor-like deformation, with strong along-strike variations of the main fault slip rates. Preliminary results of a regional geomorphology study give further information about the Denali Fault, where previous data suggest a velocity decrease from 8 mm/yr (Matmon et al.,2006) to 4 mm/yr (Seitz et al., 2010). A high resolution DEM processed from Pleiades satellite imagery highlights a significant vertical component on the Denali Fault and very little to no strike-slip movement in its southern part. Metric-scale displacements are measured along the "inactive" part of the fault showing recent vertical deformation since the Last Glacial Maximum (~20 kyrs ago). In contrast, significant dextral offsets on post-LGM structures are measured on the southern Totschunda Fault. Ongoing datation of geomorphological markers (Be10, OSL) will give us new slip-rate estimates along the southern

  6. Hazard responses in the pre-industrial era: vulnerability and resilience of traditional societies to volcanic disasters and the implications for present-day disaster planning

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sangster, Heather

    2014-05-01

    A major research frontier in the study of natural hazard research involves unravelling the ways in which societies have reacted historically to disasters, and how such responses influence current policies of disaster reduction. For societies it is common to classify responses to natural hazards into: pre-industrial (folk); industrial; and post-industrial (comprehensive) responses. Pre-industrial societies are characterised by: a pre-dominantly rural location; an agricultural economic focus; artisan handicrafts rather than industrial production, parochialism, with people rarely travelling outside their local area and being little affected by external events and a feudal or semi-feudal social structure. In the past, hazard assessment focused on the physical processes that produced extreme and potentially damaging occurrences, however from the middle of the twenty-first century research into natural hazards has been cast within a framework defined by the polarities (or opposites) of vulnerability and resilience, subject to a blend of unique environmental, social, economic and cultural forces in hazardous areas, that either increase or decrease the impact of extreme events on a given society. In the past decade research of this type has been facilitated by a 'revolution' of source materials across a range of languages and in a variety of electronic formats (e.g. official archives; major contemporary and near-contemporary publications - often available as reprints; national and international newspapers of record; newsreel-films; and, photographs) and in the introduction of more reliable translation software (e.g. Systrans) that provides far more scope to the researcher in the study of natural hazards than was the case even a few years ago. Knowledge of hazard responses in the pre-industrial era is, not only important in its own right because it reveals indigenous strategies of coping, but also informs present-day disaster planners about how people have reacted to past

  7. Determination of the root-mean-square radius of the deuteron from present-day experimental data on neutron-proton scattering

    SciTech Connect

    Babenko, V. A.; Petrov, N. M.

    2008-10-15

    The correlation between the root-mean-square matter radius of the deuteron, r{sub m}, and its effective radius, {rho}, is investigated. A parabolic relationship between these two quantities makes it possible to determine the root-mean-square radius r{sub m} to within 0.01% if the effective radius {rho} is known. The matter (r{sub m}), structural (r{sub d}), and charge (r{sub ch}) radii of the deuteron are found with the aid of modern experimental results for phase shifts from the SAID nucleon-nucleon database, and their values are fully consistent with their counterparts deduced by using the experimental value of the effective deuteron radius due to Borbely and his coauthors. The charge-radius value of 2.124(6) fm, which was obtained with the aid of the SAID nucleon-nucleon database, and the charge-radius value of 2.126(12) fm, which was obtained with the aid of the experimental value of the effective radius {rho}, are in very good agreement with the present-day chargeradius value of 2.128(11) fm, which was deduced by Sick and Trautmann by processing world-average experimental data on elastic electron scattering by deuterons with allowance for Coulomb distortions.

  8. Anti-HIV drug development: structural features and limitations of present day drugs and future challenges in the successful HIV/AIDS treatment.

    PubMed

    Kumari, Garima; Singh, Ramendra K

    2013-01-01

    Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome (AIDS), an immuno-compromized condition, a sequel to untreated human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection, inviting several life-threatening diseases, has become one of the most fatal disorders in the recent past because of HIV strain variance due to mutations, passive latency and reservoirs helping in replenishing and reviving the HIV-1 proviral DNA. Scientific efforts have led to the discovery of several effective drugs against HIV and lowered the morbidity and mortality all over the world. However, despite availability of a good number of anti-HIV drugs, the problem, for the foreseeable reasons, stands out as the most chronic disease due to the less tolerability and low accessibility of drugs, life-long expensive treatment, and above all, the emergence of drug resistant viral strains. This review dwells upon HIV infection and its proliferation inside the host system, drug targets, different types of drugs, their structural features and mode of interaction with viral targets and drug regimens. It further focuses on topics of latest interest regarding drug development, fixed dose combinations (FDCs), the limitations of present day drugs with their structural features along with their pharmacodynamics, pharmacokinetics and pharmacogenomics and the challenges in finding a permanent cure for HIV/AIDS. PMID:23092282

  9. Estimating present day extreme water level exceedance probabilities around the coastline of Australia: tides, extra-tropical storm surges and mean sea level

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Haigh, Ivan D.; Wijeratne, E. M. S.; MacPherson, Leigh R.; Pattiaratchi, Charitha B.; Mason, Matthew S.; Crompton, Ryan P.; George, Steve

    2014-01-01

    The occurrence of extreme water levels along low-lying, highly populated and/or developed coastlines can lead to considerable loss of life and billions of dollars of damage to coastal infrastructure. Therefore it is vitally important that the exceedance probabilities of extreme water levels are accurately evaluated to inform risk-based flood management, engineering and future land-use planning. This ensures the risk of catastrophic structural failures due to under-design or expensive wastes due to over-design are minimised. This paper estimates for the first time present day extreme water level exceedence probabilities around the whole coastline of Australia. A high-resolution depth averaged hydrodynamic model has been configured for the Australian continental shelf region and has been forced with tidal levels from a global tidal model and meteorological fields from a global reanalysis to generate a 61-year hindcast of water levels. Output from this model has been successfully validated against measurements from 30 tide gauge sites. At each numeric coastal grid point, extreme value distributions have been fitted to the derived time series of annual maxima and the several largest water levels each year to estimate exceedence probabilities. This provides a reliable estimate of water level probabilities around southern Australia; a region mainly impacted by extra-tropical cyclones. However, as the meteorological forcing used only weakly includes the effects of tropical cyclones, extreme water level probabilities are underestimated around the western, northern and north-eastern Australian coastline. In a companion paper we build on the work presented here and more accurately include tropical cyclone-induced surges in the estimation of extreme water level. The multi-decadal hindcast generated here has been used primarily to estimate extreme water level exceedance probabilities but could be used more widely in the future for a variety of other research and practical

  10. Analysis of the global atmospheric methane budget using ECHAM-MOZ simulations for present-day, pre-industrial time and the Last Glacial Maximum

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Basu, A.; Schultz, M. G.; Schröder, S.; Francois, L.; Zhang, X.; Lohmann, G.; Laepple, T.

    2014-01-01

    Atmospheric methane concentrations increased considerably from pre-industrial (PI) to present times largely due to anthropogenic emissions. However, firn and ice core records also document a notable rise of methane levels between the Last Glacial Maximum (LGM) and the pre-industrial era, the exact cause of which is not entirely clear. This study investigates these changes by analyzing the methane sources and sinks at each of these climatic periods. Wetlands are the largest natural source of methane and play a key role in determining methane budget changes in particular in the absence of anthropogenic sources. Here, a simple wetland parameterization suitable for coarse-scale climate simulations over long periods is introduced, which is derived from a high-resolution map of surface slopes together with various soil hydrology parameters from the CARAIB vegetation model. This parameterization was implemented in the chemistry general circulation model ECHAM5-MOZ and multi-year time slices were run for LGM, PI and present-day (PD) climate conditions. Global wetland emissions from our parameterization are 72 Tg yr-1 (LGM), 115 Tg yr-1 (PI), and 132 Tg yr-1 (PD). These estimates are lower than most previous studies, and we find a stronger increase of methane emissions between LGM and PI. Taking into account recent findings that suggest more stable OH concentrations than assumed in previous studies, the observed methane distributions are nevertheless well reproduced under the different climates. Hence, this is one of the first studies where a consistent model approach has been successfully applied for simulating methane concentrations over a wide range of climate conditions.

  11. Constraints of mapped and unfolded slabs on Oligocene to present-day Western Mediterranean plate reconstructions: potential role of north Iberia continental delamination

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Yi-Te; Wu, Jonny; Wu, Yi-Min; Suppe, John; Sibuet, Jean-Claude; Chevrot, Sebastien

    2015-04-01

    Seismic tomographic images of subducted lithospheric remnants under the western Mediterranean have provided new constraints for Oligocene to present-day plate reconstructions. In this study, we mapped slabs under the western Mediterranean and Iberia from regional seismic tomography (Chevrot et al., 2014; Bezada et al., 2013) and from MITP08 global tomography (Li et al., 2008). A newly developed method was used to unfold (ie. structurally restore) the mapped slabs to a model spherical Earth surface, minimizing area and shape distortion. Slab constraints were input into plate tectonic reconstructions using Gplates software. Our mapping confirms the existence of western Mediterranean slabs including the Betic-Alboran, Algerian, and Calabrian slabs that were previously identified by Spakman and Wortel (2004). When unfolded these mapped slabs fit together in an Oligocene plate reconstruction, within tomographic resolution limits. Slab stretching was not required. Slab segmentation supports the existence of a North Balearic transform. Here we emphasize the potential importance for western Mediterranean tectonics of antoher slab under Iberia that we call the 'mid-Iberia slab'. This slab was first identified by Sibuet et al. (2004) and interpreted to be a Neotethyan suture. We have mapped this slab in detail from recent regional tomography (Chevrot et al., 2014). Our mapped slab is sub-vertical and strikes E-W under the southern margins of the Duero and Ebro basins. We newly interpret this slab to be delaminated northern Iberian continental lithosphere. We propose that continental delamination occurred during the Oligocene and produced uplifted Iberian Meseta topography, internally-drained basins, and high mean elevations that still persist today. We show how Oligocene northern Iberian continental delamination could have initiated subduction and rollback of the western Mediterranean

  12. Growth changes in plaice, cod, haddock and saithe in the North Sea: a comparison of (post-)medieval and present-day growth rates based on otolith measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bolle, Loes J.; Rijnsdorp, Adriaan D.; van Neer, Wim; Millner, Richard S.; van Leeuwen, Piet I.; Ervynck, Anton; Ayers, Richard; Ongenae, Ellen

    2004-05-01

    Fishing effort has strongly increased in the North Sea since the mid-19th century, causing a substantial reduction in the population size of exploited fish stocks. As fisheries research has developed simultaneously with the industrialisation of the fisheries, our knowledge of population dynamics at low levels of exploitations is limited. Otoliths retrieved from archaeological excavations offer a unique opportunity to study growth rates in the past. This study compares historical and present-day growth rates for four commercially important demersal fish species. A total of 2532 modern otoliths (AD 1984-1999) and 1286 historical otoliths (AD 1200-1925) obtained from archaeological excavations in Belgium and Scotland were analysed. Comparison of the growth patterns between eras revealed a major increase in growth rate of haddock, whereas growth changes were not observed in saithe and only in the smaller size classes of plaice and cod. Comparison of our results with literature data indicates that the observed growth rate changes in plaice and cod occurred within the 20th century. Apparently the onset of industrialised fisheries has not greatly affected the growth of plaice, cod and saithe populations in the North Sea. This result contradicts the expectation of density-dependent limitation of growth during the era of pre-industrialised fishing, but is in agreement with the concentration hypothesis of Beverton (Neth. J. Sea Res. 34 (1995) 1) stating that species which concentrate spatially into nursery grounds during their early life-history may 'saturate' the carrying capacity of the juvenile habitat even though the adult part of the population is not limited by the adult habitat.

  13. Evaluation of Preindustrial to Present-day Black Carbon and its Albedo Forcing from Atmospheric Chemistry and Climate Model Intercomparison Project (ACCMIP)

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, Y. H.; Lamarque, J.-F.; Flanner, M. G.; Jiao, C.; Shindell, Drew; Berntsen, T.; Bisiauxs, M.; Cao, J.; Collins, W. J.; Curran, M.; Edwards, R.; Faluvegi, G.; Ghan, Steven J.; Horowitz, L.; McConnell, J.R.; Ming, J.; Myhre, G.; Nagashima, T.; Naik, Vaishali; Rumbold, S.; Skeie, R. B.; Sudo, K.; Takemura, T.; Thevenon, F.; Xu, B.; Yoon, Jin-Ho

    2013-03-05

    As a part of the Atmospheric Chemistry and Climate Model Intercomparison Project (ACCMIP), we evaluate the historical black carbon (BC) aerosols simulated by 8 ACCMIP models against the observations including 12 ice core records, a long-term surface mass concentrations and recent Arctic BC snowpack measurements. We also estimate BC albedo forcing by performing additional simulations using the NCAR Community Land and Sea-Ice model 4 with prescribed meteorology from 1996-2000, which includes the SNICAR BC-snow model. We evaluated the vertical profile of BC snow concentrations from these offline simulations to using recent BC snowpack measurements. Despite using the same BC emissions, global BC burden differs by approximately a factor of 3 among models due to the differences in aerosol removal parameterizations and simulated meteorology among models; 34 Gg to 103 Gg in 1850 and 82 Gg to 315 Gg in 2000. However,models agree well on 2.5~3 times increase in the global BC burden from preindustrial to present-day, which matches with the 2.5 times increase in BC emissions. We find a large model diversity at both NH and SH high latitude regions for BC burden and at SH high latitude regions for deposition fluxes. The ACCMIP simulations match the observed BC mass concentrations well in Europe and North America except at Jungfrauch and Ispra. However, the models fail to capture the Arctic BC seasonality due tosevere underestimations during winter and spring. Compared to recent snowpack measurements, the simulated vertically resolved BC snow concentrations are, on average, within a factor of 2-3 of observations except for Greenland and Arctic Ocean. However, model and observation differ widely due to missing interannual variations in emissions and possibly due to the choice of the prescribed meteorology period (i.e., 1996-2000).

  14. Evaluation of preindustrial to present-day black carbon and its albedo forcing from Atmospheric Chemistry and Climate Model Intercomparison Project (ACCMIP)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lee, Y. H.; Lamarque, J.-F.; Flanner, M. G.; Jiao, C.; Shindell, D. T.; Bernsten, T.; Bisiaux, M. M.; Cao, J.; Collins, W. J.; Curran, M.; Edwards, R.; Faluvegi, G.; Ghan, S.; Horowitz, L. W.; McConnell, J. R.; Ming, J.; Myhre, G.; Nagashima, T.; Naik, V.; Rumbold, S. T.; Skeie, R. B.; Sudo, K.; Takemura, T.; Thevenon, F.; Xu, B.; Yoon, J.-H.

    2013-01-01

    As part of the Atmospheric Chemistry and Climate Model Intercomparison Project (ACCMIP), we evaluate the historical black carbon (BC) aerosols simulated by 8 ACCMIP models against observations including 12 ice core records, long-term surface mass concentrations, and recent Arctic BC snowpack measurements. We also estimate BC albedo forcing by performing additional simulations using offline models with prescribed meteorology from 1996-2000. We evaluate the vertical profile of BC snow concentrations from these offline simulations using the recent BC snowpack measurements. Despite using the same BC emissions, the global BC burden differs by approximately a factor of 3 among models due to differences in aerosol removal parameterizations and simulated meteorology: 34 Gg to 103 Gg in 1850 and 82 Gg to 315 Gg in 2000. However, the global BC burden from preindustrial to present-day increases by 2.5-3 times with little variation among models, roughly matching the 2.5-fold increase in total BC emissions during the same period.We find a large divergence among models at both Northern Hemisphere (NH) and Southern Hemisphere (SH) high latitude regions for BC burden and at SH high latitude regions for deposition fluxes. The ACCMIP simulations match the observed BC surface mass concentrations well in Europe and North America except at Ispra. However, the models fail to predict the Arctic BC seasonality due to severe underestimations during winter and spring. The simulated vertically resolved BC snow concentrations are, on average, within a factor of 2-3 of the BC snowpack measurements except for Greenland and the Arctic Ocean. For the ice core evaluation, models tend to adequately capture both the observed temporal trends and the magnitudes at Greenland sites. However, models fail to predict the decreasing trend of BC depositions/ice core concentrations from the 1950s to the 1970s in most Tibetan Plateau ice cores. The distinct temporal trend at the Tibetan Plateau ice cores

  15. Late Miocene to present-day exhumation and uplift of the Internal Zone of the Rif chain: Insights from low temperature thermochronometry and basin analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Romagny, A.; Ph. Münch; Cornée, J.-J.; Corsini, M.; Azdimousa, A.; Melinte-Dobrinescu, M. C.; Drinia, H.; Bonno, M.; Arnaud, N.; Monié, P.; Quillévéré, F.; Ben Moussa, A.

    2014-07-01

    Located on the margin of the west Alboran basin, the Gibraltar Arc (Betic-Rif mountain belt) displays post-Pliocene vertical movements evidenced by uplifted marine sedimentary basins and marine terraces. Quantification of vertical movements is an important clue to understand the origin of present-day relief generation in the Betic-Rif mountain chain together with the causes of the Messinian Salinity Crisis. In this paper, we present the results of a pluridisciplinary study combining an analysis of low temperature thermochronology and Pliocene basins evolution to constrain the exhumation history and surface uplift of internals units of the Rif belt (Northern Morocco). The mean (U-Th)/He apatite ages obtained from 11 samples are comprised between 14.1 and 17.8 Ma and display a wide dispersion, which could be explained by a great variability of apatite chemistries in the analyzed samples. No correlations between altitude and age have been found along altitudinal profile suggesting a rapid exhumation during this period. Thermal modeling using our (U-Th)/He apatite ages and geochronological data previously obtained in the same area (40Ar/39Ar and K/Ar data on biotite, zircon and apatite fission track) allow us to propose a cooling history. The rocks suffered a rapid cooling at 60-100 °C/Ma between 22.5 and 19 Ma, then cooled to temperatures around 40 °C between 19 and 18 Ma. They were re-heated at around 110 °C between 18 and 15 Ma then rapidly cooled and exhumed to reach the surface temperature at around 13 Ma. The re-heating could be related to a renewal in thrusting and burying of the inner zones. Between 15 and 13 Ma the cooling resumed at a rate of 50 °C/Ma indicating an exhumation rate of 0.8 mm/y considering an average 40 °C/km geothermal gradient. This exhumation may be linked to the extension in the Alboran Sea. Otherwise biostratigraphic and sedimentological analysis of Pliocene basins of the internal Rif provided informations on the more recent events

  16. Little Ice Age versus Present Day: Comparison of Temperature, Precipitation and Seasonality in Speleothem Records from the Han-sur-Lesse Cave, Belgium.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vansteenberge, S.; Van Opdenbosch, J.; Van Rampelbergh, M.; Verheyden, S.; Keppens, E.; Cheng, H.; Edwards, R. L.; Claeys, P. F.

    2015-12-01

    The Proserpine stalagmite is a 2 m large, tabular-shaped speleothem located in the Han-sur-Lesse cave in Belgium. The speleothem formed over the last 1000 years and is still growing. High-accuracy U/Th datings have indicated exceptionally high growth-rates of up to 2 mm per year. This, together with a well expressed annual layering, makes the Proserpine stalagmite an ideal candidate for high-resolution paleoclimate reconstructions of the last millennium. Previous work, including over 10 years of cave monitoring, has already learned us how short-term, i.e. decadal to seasonal, climate variations are incorporated within speleothem calcite from the Han-sur-Lesse cave system. It has been shown that δ18O and δ13C stable isotopes and trace element proxies of recently formed calcite reflect seasonal variations in temperature and precipitation of the near-cave environment (Verheyden et al, 2008; Van Rampelbergh et al., 2014). Now, this knowledge was used to infer local climate parameters further back in time to the period of +/- 1620-1630 CE, corresponding to one of the cold peaks within the Little Ice Age. Speleothem calcite was sampled at sub-annual resolution, with approximately 11 samples per year, for stable isotope analysis. LA-ICP-MS and µXRF analyses resulted in time series of trace elements. Preliminary results indicate a well expressed seasonal signal in δ13C and trace element composition but a multi-annual to decadal trend in δ18O. This combined proxy study eventually enables comparison of the expression of seasonality and longer term climate variations between a Little Ice Age cold peak and Present Day. References: Verheyden, S. et al., 2008, Monitoring climatological, hydrological and geochemical parameters in the Père Noël cave (Belgium): implication for the interpretation of speleothem isotopic and geochemical time-series. International Journal of Speleology, 37(3), 221-234. Van Rampelbergh, M. et al., 2014, Seasonal variations recorded in cave

  17. Aerosol Direct, Indirect, Semidirect, and Surface Albedo Effects from Sector Contributions Based on the IPCC AR5 Emissions for Preindustrial and Present-day Conditions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bauer, Susanne E.; Menon, Surabi

    2012-01-01

    The anthropogenic increase in aerosol concentrations since preindustrial times and its net cooling effect on the atmosphere is thought to mask some of the greenhouse gas-induced warming. Although the overall effect of aerosols on solar radiation and clouds is most certainly negative, some individual forcing agents and feedbacks have positive forcing effects. Recent studies have tried to identify some of those positive forcing agents and their individual emission sectors, with the hope that mitigation policies could be developed to target those emitters. Understanding the net effect of multisource emitting sectors and the involved cloud feedbacks is very challenging, and this paper will clarify forcing and feedback effects by separating direct, indirect, semidirect and surface albedo effects due to aerosols. To this end, we apply the Goddard Institute for Space Studies climate model including detailed aerosol microphysics to examine aerosol impacts on climate by isolating single emission sector contributions as given by the Coupled Model Intercomparison Project Phase 5 (CMIP5) emission data sets developed for Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) AR5. For the modeled past 150 years, using the climate model and emissions from preindustrial times to present-day, the total global annual mean aerosol radiative forcing is -0.6 W/m(exp 2), with the largest contribution from the direct effect (-0.5 W/m(exp 2)). Aerosol-induced changes on cloud cover often depends on cloud type and geographical region. The indirect (includes only the cloud albedo effect with -0.17 W/m(exp 2)) and semidirect effects (-0.10 W/m(exp 2)) can be isolated on a regional scale, and they often have opposing forcing effects, leading to overall small forcing effects on a global scale. Although the surface albedo effects from aerosols are small (0.016 W/m(exp 2)), triggered feedbacks on top of the atmosphere (TOA) radiative forcing can be 10 times larger. Our results point out that each

  18. Aerosol direct, indirect, semidirect, and surface albedo effects from sector contributions based on the IPCC AR5 emissions for preindustrial and present-day conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bauer, Susanne E.; Menon, Surabi

    2012-01-01

    The anthropogenic increase in aerosol concentrations since preindustrial times and its net cooling effect on the atmosphere is thought to mask some of the greenhouse gas-induced warming. Although the overall effect of aerosols on solar radiation and clouds is most certainly negative, some individual forcing agents and feedbacks have positive forcing effects. Recent studies have tried to identify some of those positive forcing agents and their individual emission sectors, with the hope that mitigation policies could be developed to target those emitters. Understanding the net effect of multisource emitting sectors and the involved cloud feedbacks is very challenging, and this paper will clarify forcing and feedback effects by separating direct, indirect, semidirect and surface albedo effects due to aerosols. To this end, we apply the Goddard Institute for Space Studies climate model including detailed aerosol microphysics to examine aerosol impacts on climate by isolating single emission sector contributions as given by the Coupled Model Intercomparison Project Phase 5 (CMIP5) emission data sets developed for Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) AR5. For the modeled past 150 years, using the climate model and emissions from preindustrial times to present-day, the total global annual mean aerosol radiative forcing is -0.6 W/m2, with the largest contribution from the direct effect (-0.5 W/m2). Aerosol-induced changes on cloud cover often depends on cloud type and geographical region. The indirect (includes only the cloud albedo effect with -0.17 W/m2) and semidirect effects (-0.10 W/m2) can be isolated on a regional scale, and they often have opposing forcing effects, leading to overall small forcing effects on a global scale. Although the surface albedo effects from aerosols are small (0.016 W/m2), triggered feedbacks on top of the atmosphere (TOA) radiative forcing can be 10 times larger. Our results point out that each emission sector has varying

  19. Grainsize Patterns and Bed Evolution of the Rhone River (France): A Present-day Snapshot Following a Century and a Half of Human Modifications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Michal, T.; Parrot, E.; Piegay, H.

    2014-12-01

    Over the past 150 years the Rhône River has been heavily altered by human infrastructures. The first wave (1860 - 1930) of modifications consisted of dikes and groynes designed to narrow the channel and promote incision in order to facilitate navigation. A second period (1948 - 1986) involved the construction of a series of canals and dams for hydroelectricity production. These works bypass multiple reaches of the original channel and drastically reduce the discharge and sediment load reaching them. A comprehensive study underway is aimed at describing the present-day morphology of the Rhone along its 512 km length from its source at Lake Geneva to its sink at the Mediterranean Sea and quantifying the role of management works in the evolution to its current state. Grainsize distributions and armour ratios were determined using a combination of Wolman counts on bars and in shallow channels and dredge samples collected from a boat in navigable reaches. Long profiles were constructed from historical bathymetric maps and bathymetric data collected between 1950 - 2010. Differential long profiles highlighting changes in bed elevation due to sediment storage and erosion were analyzed for three different periods: post-channelization, post-dam construction, and a recent period of major floods. Results show a complex discontinuous pattern in grainsize associated with hydraulic discontinuities imposed by dams. The D50 for bypass reaches is 45 mm compared to a D50 of 34 mm in the non-bypass reaches. The lower D50 as well as a finer tailed distribution in non-bypass reaches reflects fining associated with storage upstream of dams. Armour ratios are on average around 2 but are notably higher for reaches in the middle section of the Rhone. The average incision rate was 1.8 cm/yr for the period of post-channelization and 1.2 cm/yr following dam construction, suggesting the post-dam Rhone was already partially armoured due to incision associated with channelization preceding dam

  20. Submarine gravitative mass movements in the ``Corinth Gulf'' graben in Greece. A natural laboratory for the enhancement of present day knowledge on mass movements.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Papatheodorou, G.; Stefatos, A.; Christodoulou, D.; Ferentinos, G.

    2003-04-01

    caused by the deformation of the underlying sediments. This can be attributed to the partial loss of sediment strength due to either the remoulding or excess pore fluid pressure caused by the cyclic loading induced by the earthquake. Historical observations give evidence that: (i) coastal mass movements like those described above have also occurred in the past, (ii) mass movements have been triggered by earthquakes or heavy rain and (iii) the frequency occurrence of mass movements all over the Corinth Gulf graben may be once in every two or three years. These mass movements have caused destruction to the coastal infrastructure and also to offshore submarine cables. The review of the state of the art on the existing knowledge suggests, that in the past three decades, there have been great scientific and engineering advances in the recognition of mass movements on the seafloor and of the basic geological processes involved. There is however, a lack of scientific knowledge related to the prediction of the reactivation of existing mass movements and to the identification of slopes prone to failure. This knowledge could be acquired by the continuous monitoring of the changes in the physical and mechanical properties of the sediments. The study of the continuous changes in the sediment properties is hindered mainly by the high cost of monitoring in the unfriendly ocean environment. Taking the aforementioned into consideration, and bearing in mind that the Gulf of Corinth is a semi-enclosed embayment characterized by calm sea conditions, the Gulf would therefore, be an ideal natural laboratory for the further advancement of present day knowledge on mass movement processes and slope stability prediction.

  1. The Present Language Situation in Kazakhstan.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arenov, M. M.; Kalmykov, S. K.

    1997-01-01

    Summarizes the results of a survey documenting language use among the rural and urban populations, educational levels, occupations, and ethnic groups of Kazakhstan. Reveals that efforts to promote Kazakh over Russian have largely failed. Includes a wealth of statistical information on groups and activities within Kazakhstan. (MJP)

  2. Lyα-emitting Galaxies at z = 2.1 in ECDF-S: Building Blocks of Typical Present-day Galaxies?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guaita, Lucia; Gawiser, Eric; Padilla, Nelson; Francke, Harold; Bond, Nicholas A.; Gronwall, Caryl; Ciardullo, Robin; Feldmeier, John J.; Sinawa, Shawn; Blanc, Guillermo A.; Virani, Shanil

    2010-05-01

    ) = 11.5+0.4 -0.5, which are among the lowest mass halos yet probed at this redshift. We used the Sheth and Tormen conditional mass function to study the descendants of these LAEs and found that their typical present-day descendants are local galaxies with L* properties, like the Milky Way. Based on observations obtained at Cerro Tololo Inter-American Observatory, a division of the National Optical Astronomy Observatory, which is operated by the Association of Universities for Research in Astronomy, Inc., under cooperative agreement with the National Science Foundation.

  3. Family Day Care Associations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bookman, Robert

    This paper presents information on the organization and accomplishments of Family Day Care Associations, organized groups of individuals who provide day care services in their own homes. Although primarily based on experiences of day care mothers in New York State, the paper presents information relevant to day care providers in any area.…

  4. A historical to present-day account of efforts to answer the question, “What puts the brakes on mammalian hair cell regeneration?”

    PubMed Central

    Burns, Joseph C.; Corwin, Jeffrey T.

    2013-01-01

    Hearing and balance deficits often affect humans and other mammals permanently, because their ears stop producing hair cells within a few days after birth. But production occurs throughout life in the ears of sharks, bony fish, amphibians, reptiles, and birds allowing them to replace lost hair cells and quickly recover after temporarily experiencing the kinds of sensory deficits that are irreversible for mammals. Since the mid 1970's, researchers have been asking what puts the brakes on hair cell regeneration in mammals? Here we evaluate the headway that has been made and assess current evidence for various alternative mechanistic hypotheses that have been proposed to account for the limits to hair cell regeneration in mammals. PMID:23333259

  5. Marathi Conversational Situations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Berntsen, Maxine; Nimbkar, Jai

    This volume is an elementary Marathi conversation text for adult learners of Marathi, both foreign and Indian. Designed to be used in conjunction with "Marathi Structural Patterns. Book One," the volume presents over 80 conversations that include material required in everyday situations. Each section contains basic and more difficult…

  6. Kindergarten: All Day Every Day?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oelerich, Marjorie L.

    This paper reports findings that all-day every-day educational programs have positive effects on kindergarten children. Also included is a Minnesota Association for Childhood Education (MACE) position paper which advocates the provision of full-day kindergarten programs and details seven criteria that a quality full-day program must meet. Efforts…

  7. Understanding existing exposure situations.

    PubMed

    Lecomte, J-F

    2016-06-01

    International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP) Publication 103 removed the distinction between practices and interventions, and introduced three types of exposure situation: existing, planned, and emergency. It also emphasised the optimisation principle in connection with individual dose restrictions for all controllable exposure situations. Existing exposure situations are those resulting from sources, natural or man-made, that already exist when a decision on control has to be taken. They have common features to be taken into account when implementing general recommendations, such as: the source may be difficult to control; all exposures cannot be anticipated; protective actions can only be implemented after characterisation of the exposure situation; time may be needed to reduce exposure below the reference level; levels of exposure are highly dependent on individual behaviour and present a wide spread of individual dose distribution; exposures at work may be adventitious and not considered as occupational exposure; there is generally no potential for accident; many stakeholders have to be involved; and many factors need to be considered. ICRP is currently developing a series of reports related to the practical implementation of Publication 103 to various existing exposure situations, including exposure from radon, exposure from cosmic radiation in aviation, exposure from processes using naturally occurring radioactive material, and exposure from contaminated sites due to past activities. PMID:26975365

  8. Impact of the day-30 screening strategy on the disease presentation and outcome of retinopathy of prematurity. The Indian twin cities retinopathy of prematurity report number 3

    PubMed Central

    Jalali, Subhadra; Anand, Raj; Rani, Padmaja Kumari; Balakrishnan, Divya

    2014-01-01

    Context: Outcomes of various screening strategies in retinopathy of prematurity are not well reported. Aim: To assess the impact of a city-wide, ROP screening strategy, on the disease presentation and treatment outcome. Materials and Methods: A retrospective case-control study from a prospectively collected ROP data-base was analyzed. Cases (group 1a) included ROP babies that were screened directly in neonatal intensive care units, and controls (group 1b) were babies referred directly to the institute from other neonatal centers during the same period. Historical controls (group 2) were ROP cases seen in the years preceding establishment of this ROP program and database. Primary outcome measure was the risk of eyes presenting with stage 4 or worse ROP, and main secondary outcome measure was the final anatomic outcome. Results: Of the 643 cases screened, 322 eyes of 161 babies had ROP. The median age of 7.19 months at presentation for the 46 patients (92 eyes) in group 2 was higher than the median age of 1.29 months for the 115 patients (230 eyes) in group 1. Within the group 1, group 1a had lower median age at presentation than group 1b (0.91 months versus 2.30 months). The relative risk of an eye presenting in the stage 4 and 5 in group 2 was 4.7 times higher (95% confidence interval 3.07 -7.32) than in group 1. Eyes that could be given treatment in group 2 were significantly less (P < 0.0005) than in group 1. The relative risk of poor outcome in group 2 was 3.83 times higher (95% confidence interval 2.75 -5.34) than in group 1. Group 1a eyes had the best outcomes. Conclusion: Early screening before one month of age in neonatal centers detects the disease early where prompt treatment can lead to favorable outcomes. The study provides early results of a model strategy for ROP screening. PMID:24088643

  9. [Present situation and question and prospect of study on kidney-supplementing and blood-activating method in treating ovaries functional disorders (infertility with dysfunctional ovulation) for stimulating ovaries reactive mechanism to gonadotropic hormones].

    PubMed

    Ma, Kun

    2011-09-01

    To summarize present situation of a study on kidney-supplementing and blood-activating method in treating ovaries functional disorders (infertility with dysfunctional ovulation) for stimulating ovaries reactive mechanism to gonadotropic hormones. Refer to correlative articles and combine clinical experience to report. Kidney-supplementing and blood-activating method have obvious therapeutic effect and no side effect and no adverse reaction. More attention are paid on influence factors and contribution about kidney-supplementing and blood-activating method in treating ovaries functional disorders especially on sex hormones, ovulating, corpora luteuman and implantation factors. Indicate the necessarity to develop polycentric kidney-supplementing and blood-activating method in treating ovaries functional disorders (infertility with dysfunctional ovulation) evaluation research. PMID:22121820

  10. Benthic foraminifera from the deep-water Niger delta (Gulf of Guinea): Assessing present-day and past activity of hydrate pockmarks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fontanier, C.; Koho, K. A.; Goñi-Urriza, M. S.; Deflandre, B.; Galaup, S.; Ivanovsky, A.; Gayet, N.; Dennielou, B.; Grémare, A.; Bichon, S.; Gassie, C.; Anschutz, P.; Duran, R.; Reichart, G. J.

    2014-12-01

    We present ecological and isotopic (δ18O and δ13C) data on benthic foraminifera sampled from 4 deep-sea stations in a pockmark field from the deep-water Niger delta (Gulf of Guinea, Equatorial Atlantic Ocean). In addition, a series of sedimentological and (bio)geochemical data are shown to back up foraminiferal observations. All stations are located within 1.2 km of each other, so prevailing oceanographic conditions can be assumed to be similar at each site. Two of the sites (GMMC-01 and GMMC-02) are located in a pockmark (named "pockmark A") where current methane seepages were recorded by ROV observations. A third station (GMMC-03) is located in the topographic depression interpreted as a collapsed pockmark (named "pockmark B"). The fourth site (GMMC-04) is a reference station, without evidence of past or present seepages. Our observations show that degraded organic matter with low bio-availability is present at all stations with a preferential burial of organic compounds in topographic depressions (GMMC-03 station). Authigenic aragonite is abundant in surface sediments at stations GMMC-01 and -02. Its precipitation is likely related to high rates of methane oxidation during past seep events in episodically active pockmark A. In contrast, the absence of anaerobic methanotrophic Archaea (ANME) during the sampling period (November 2011) suggests that only moderate sulphide and methane oxidation take place close to the sediment-water interface. Compared to the reference site GMMC-04, living foraminifera at the collapsed and episodically active pockmarks show minor changes in terms of diversity, standing stocks and faunal composition. However, the δ13C signal of living and dead (but well-preserved) foraminiferal species (Ceratobulimina contraria, Melonis barleeanus, Uvigerina peregrina) is depleted in the episodically active pockmark A compared to the other stations. Overgrowth of authigenic carbonate on altered foraminifera generates an important shift to lower

  11. Simulations of the HDO and H2O-18 atmospheric cycles using the NASA GISS general circulation model - Sensitivity experiments for present-day conditions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jouzel, Jean; Koster, R. D.; Suozzo, R. J.; Russell, G. L.; White, J. W. C.

    1991-01-01

    Incorporating the full geochemical cycles of stable water isotopes (HDO and H2O-18) into an atmospheric general circulation model (GCM) allows an improved understanding of global delta-D and delta-O-18 distributions and might even allow an analysis of the GCM's hydrological cycle. A detailed sensitivity analysis using the NASA/Goddard Institute for Space Studies (GISS) model II GCM is presented that examines the nature of isotope modeling. The tests indicate that delta-D and delta-O-18 values in nonpolar regions are not strongly sensitive to details in the model precipitation parameterizations. This result, while implying that isotope modeling has limited potential use in the calibration of GCM convection schemes, also suggests that certain necessarily arbitrary aspects of these schemes are adequate for many isotope studies. Deuterium excess, a second-order variable, does show some sensitivity to precipitation parameterization and thus may be more useful for GCM calibration.

  12. Dendritic Spines and Development: Towards a Unifying Model of Spinogenesis—A Present Day Review of Cajal's Histological Slides and Drawings

    PubMed Central

    García-López, Pablo; García-Marín, Virginia; Freire, Miguel

    2010-01-01

    Dendritic spines receive the majority of excitatory connections in the central nervous system, and, thus, they are key structures in the regulation of neural activity. Hence, the cellular and molecular mechanisms underlying their generation and plasticity, both during development and in adulthood, are a matter of fundamental and practical interest. Indeed, a better understanding of these mechanisms should provide clues to the development of novel clinical therapies. Here, we present original results obtained from high-quality images of Cajal's histological preparations, stored at the Cajal Museum (Instituto Cajal, CSIC), obtained using extended focus imaging, three-dimensional reconstruction, and rendering. Based on the data available in the literature regarding the formation of dendritic spines during development and our results, we propose a unifying model for dendritic spine development. PMID:21584262

  13. Partitioning of oblique convergence in the Northern Andes subduction zone: Migration history and the present-day boundary of the North Andean Sliver in Ecuador

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alvarado, A.; Audin, L.; Nocquet, J. M.; Jaillard, E.; Mothes, P.; Jarrín, P.; Segovia, M.; Rolandone, F.; Cisneros, D.

    2016-05-01

    Along the Ecuadorian margin, oblique subduction induces deformation of the overriding continental plate. For the last 15 Ma, both exhumation and tectonic history of Ecuador suggest that the northeastward motion of the North Andean Sliver (NAS) was accompanied by an eastward migration of its eastern boundary and successive progressively narrowing restraining bends. Here we present geologic data, earthquake epicenters, focal mechanisms, GPS results, and a revised active fault map consistent with this new kinematic model. All data sets concur to demonstrate that active continental deformation is presently localized along a single major fault system, connecting fault segments from the Gulf of Guayaquil to the eastern Andean Cordillera. Although secondary faults are recognized within the Cordillera, they accommodate a negligible fraction of relative motion compared to the main fault system. The eastern limit is then concentrated rather than distributed as first proposed, marking a sharp boundary between the NAS, the Inca sliver, and the Subandean domain overthrusting the South American craton. The NAS limit follows a northeast striking right-lateral transpressional strike-slip system from the Gulf of Guayaquil (Isla Puná) to the Andean Cordillera and with the north-south striking transpressive faults along the eastern Andes. Eastward migration of the restraining belt since the Pliocene, abandonment of the sutures and reactivation of north-south striking ancient fault zones lead to the final development of a major tectonic boundary south and east of the NAS, favoring its extrusion as a continental sliver, accommodating the oblique convergence of the Nazca oceanic plate toward South America.

  14. Situational Interest and Academic Achievement in the Active-Learning Classroom

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rotgans, Jerome I.; Schmidt, Henk G.

    2011-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to investigate how situational interest develops over time and how it is related to academic achievement in an active-learning classroom. Five measures of situational interest were administered at critical points in time to 69 polytechnic students during a one-day, problem-based learning session. Results revealed…

  15. Impact of present-day and future (1850-2200) ice sheet melting on regional climate in the fully coupled CESM

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lenaerts, Jan; van Kampenhout, Leo; Vizcaino, Miren; Le Bars, Dewi; van den Broeke, Michiel

    2015-04-01

    Earth's ice sheets are currently losing volume at an accelerating pace, thereby not only contributing to sea level rise, but also altering the global ocean freshwater budget. The latter potentially impacts ocean circulations, which in turn affects polar and global climate. However, state-of-the-art climate models (e.g. from CMIP5) do not include changing meltwater fluxes from ice sheets, since both ice dynamics and snow hydrology are poorly represented. Here we forced the fully coupled, ~1° resolution Community Earth System Model (CESM) with a best estimate of past (from 1850 onwards), present and future ice sheet freshwater forcing according to two climate change scenarios, RCP2.6 and RCP8.5, both until the year 2200. This dataset was constructed from observations and regional climate model output and contains high spatial (drainage basin) and temporal (daily) detail. We compare results of these CESM simulations to observations and benchmark CESM simulations, without ice sheet melting, and focus particularly on the North Atlantic region. We find that ice sheet melting leads to additional weakening in the meridional overturning circulation strength in the North Atlantic beyond the year 2100, with important consequences for the climate in northwestern Europe and Greenland itself.

  16. More than a century of bathymetric observations and present-day shallow sediment characterization in Belfast Bay, Maine, USA: implications for pockmark field longevity

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Brothers, Laura L.; Kelley, Joseph T.; Belknap, Daniel F.; Barnhardt, Walter A.; Andrews, Brian D.; Maynard, Melissa Landon

    2011-01-01

    Mechanisms and timescales responsible for pockmark formation and maintenance remain uncertain, especially in areas lacking extensive thermogenic fluid deposits (e.g., previously glaciated estuaries). This study characterizes seafloor activity in the Belfast Bay, Maine nearshore pockmark field using (1) three swath bathymetry datasets collected between 1999 and 2008, complemented by analyses of shallow box-core samples for radionuclide activity and undrained shear strength, and (2) historical bathymetric data (report and smooth sheets from 1872, 1947, 1948). In addition, because repeat swath bathymetry surveys are an emerging data source, we present a selected literature review of recent studies using such datasets for seafloor change analysis. This study is the first to apply the method to a pockmark field, and characterizes macro-scale (>5 m) evolution of tens of square kilometers of highly irregular seafloor. Presence/absence analysis yielded no change in pockmark frequency or distribution over a 9-year period (1999–2008). In that time pockmarks did not detectably enlarge, truncate, elongate, or combine. Historical data indicate that pockmark chains already existed in the 19th century. Despite the lack of macroscopic changes in the field, near-bed undrained shear-strength values of less than 7 kPa and scattered downcore 137Cs signatures indicate a highly disturbed setting. Integrating these findings with independent geophysical and geochemical observations made in the pockmark field, it can be concluded that (1) large-scale sediment resuspension and dispersion related to pockmark formation and failure do not occur frequently within this field, and (2) pockmarks can persevere in a dynamic estuarine setting that exhibits minimal modern fluid venting. Although pockmarks are conventionally thought to be long-lived features maintained by a combination of fluid venting and minimal sediment accumulation, this suggests that other mechanisms may be equally active in

  17. More than a century of bathymetric observations and present-day shallow sediment characterization in Belfast Bay, Maine, USA: Implications for pockmark field longevity

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Brothers, L.L.; Kelley, J.T.; Belknap, D.F.; Barnhardt, W.A.; Andrews, B.D.; Maynard, M.L.

    2011-01-01

    Mechanisms and timescales responsible for pockmark formation and maintenance remain uncertain, especially in areas lacking extensive thermogenic fluid deposits (e.g., previously glaciated estuaries). This study characterizes seafloor activity in the Belfast Bay, Maine nearshore pockmark field using (1) three swath bathymetry datasets collected between 1999 and 2008, complemented by analyses of shallow box-core samples for radionuclide activity and undrained shear strength, and (2) historical bathymetric data (report and smooth sheets from 1872, 1947, 1948). In addition, because repeat swath bathymetry surveys are an emerging data source, we present a selected literature review of recent studies using such datasets for seafloor change analysis. This study is the first to apply the method to a pockmark field, and characterizes macro-scale (>5 m) evolution of tens of square kilometers of highly irregular seafloor. Presence/absence analysis yielded no change in pockmark frequency or distribution over a 9-year period (1999-2008). In that time pockmarks did not detectably enlarge, truncate, elongate, or combine. Historical data indicate that pockmark chains already existed in the 19th century. Despite the lack of macroscopic changes in the field, near-bed undrained shear-strength values of less than 7 kPa and scattered downcore 137Cs signatures indicate a highly disturbed setting. Integrating these findings with independent geophysical and geochemical observations made in the pockmark field, it can be concluded that (1) large-scale sediment resuspension and dispersion related to pockmark formation and failure do not occur frequently within this field, and (2) pockmarks can persevere in a dynamic estuarine setting that exhibits minimal modern fluid venting. Although pockmarks are conventionally thought to be long-lived features maintained by a combination of fluid venting and minimal sediment accumulation, this suggests that other mechanisms may be equally active in

  18. A new chemistry-climate tropospheric and stratospheric model MOCAGE-Climat: evaluation of the present-day climatology and sensitivity to surface processes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Teyssèdre, H.; Michou, M.; Clark, H. L.; Josse, B.; Karcher, F.; Olivié, D.; Peuch, V.-H.; Saint-Martin, D.; Cariolle, D.; Attié, J.-L.; Ricaud, P.; van der A, R. J.; Chéroux, F.

    2007-08-01

    We present the chemistry-climate configuration of the Météo-France Chemistry and Transport Model, MOCAGE-Climat. MOCAGE-Climat is a state-of-the-art model that simulates the global distribution of ozone and its precursors (82 chemical species) both in the troposphere and the stratosphere, up to the mid-mesosphere (~70 km). Surface processes (emissions, dry deposition), convection, and scavenging are explicitly described in the model that has been driven by the ECMWF operational analyses of the period 2000-2005, on T21 and T42 horizontal grids and 60 hybrid vertical levels, with and without a procedure that reduces calculations in the boundary layer, and with on-line or climatological deposition velocities. Model outputs have been compared to available observations, both from satellites (TOMS, HALOE, SMR, SCIAMACHY, MOPITT) and in-situ instrument measurements (ozone sondes, MOZAIC and aircraft campaigns) at climatological timescales. The distribution of long-lived species is in fair agreement with observations in the stratosphere putting apart shortcomings linked to the large-scale circulation. The variability of the ozone column, both spatially and temporarily, is satisfactory. However, the too fast Brewer-Dobson circulation accumulates too much ozone in the lower to mid-stratosphere at the end of winter. Ozone in the UTLS region does not show any systematic bias. In the troposphere better agreement with ozone sonde measurements is obtained at mid and high latitudes than in the tropics and differences with observations are the lowest in summer. Simulations using a simplified boundary layer lead to ozone differences between the model and the observations up to the mid-troposphere. NOx in the lowest troposphere is in general overestimated, especially in the winter months over the northern hemisphere, which might result from a positive bias in OH. Dry deposition fluxes of O3 and nitrogen species are within the range of values reported by recent inter

  19. Dinosaur Day!

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nakamura, Sandra; Baptiste, H. Prentice

    2006-01-01

    In this article, the authors describe how they capitalized on their first-grade students' love of dinosaurs by hosting a fun-filled Dinosaur Day in their classroom. On Dinosaur Day, students rotated through four dinosaur-related learning stations that integrated science content with art, language arts, math, and history in a fun and time-efficient…

  20. CEMI Days

    SciTech Connect

    2015-07-01

    CEMI Days are an important channel of engagement between DOE and the manufacturing industry to identify challenges and opportunities for increasing U.S. manufacturing competitiveness. CEMI Days that are held at manufacturing companies’ facilities can include tours of R&D operations or other points of interest determined by the host company.

  1. Global three-dimensional model calculations of the budgets and present-day atmospheric lifetimes of CF2ClCFCl2 (CFC-113) and CHClF2 (CFC-22)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Golombek, Amram; Prinn, Ronald G.

    1989-01-01

    The annual percentage increases in concentrations of the chlorofluorocarbons CFC-113 (an industrial solvent) and CFC-22 (a refrigerant) are the highest among major chlorofluorocarbons in the atmosphere today. The present-day atmospheric lifetimes for these species are computed using a global three-dimensional dynamical-chemical model. The present-day lifetimes of both are long (15.5 years for CFC-22 and 136 or 195 years for CFC-113, depending on assumed O2 absorption cross sections), underscoring the need to decrease their emissions in order to minimize their future role in ozone destruction and greenhouse warming.

  2. Situated Cognition: Describing the Theory.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Altalib, Hasan

    This paper presents an overview of the theory of situated cognition by providing its origin, a listing of its main principles and then discussing in detail the principles of, authentic learning environments, legitimate peripheral participation, and assessment. It also provides two examples of the application of situated cognition principles. The…

  3. [Present day Marxist sociology and psychoanalysis].

    PubMed

    Biran, S

    1979-01-01

    The main common theme in psychoanalysis and Marxist sociology is the understanding that it is not consciousness that determines being, but being (spiritual, social) that determines consciousness. The different variations of Marxist movements today are in fact distant from Marx's theory of sociology. They have become representatives of utopian socialism, using anarchistic methods to achieve that aim. This development can only be understood as a social neurosis, with the narcistic frustation of the intellectual class as its cause, and grandiose claims, intolerance, dogmatic thinking and destructive behaviour as its symptoms. The only justified criticism of psychoanalysis from the pseudo-Marxist side is based on the imperfection and error in the analytical doctrine of superego. This should be replaced by the idea of conscious, subjective, emotional morality which clearly explains the aggression contained in social structures. PMID:498762

  4. Career Day

    NASA Video Gallery

    NASA's 2013 Career Days was a joint collaboration between NASA Langley and the Newport News Shipbuilding where 600 high school students from Virginia took on two design challenges -- designing a ca...

  5. Inspire Day

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bohach, Barbara M.; Meade, Birgitta

    2014-01-01

    The authors collaborated on hosting a "Spring Inspire Day." planned and delivered by preservice elementary teachers as a social studies/science methods project. Projects that have authentic application opportunities can make learning meaningful for prospective teachers as well as elementary students. With the impetus for an integrated…

  6. Situation and ethnic identity.

    PubMed

    Simila, M

    1988-12-01

    This paper illustrates situational variation as regards ethnic identification and develops some ideas about identity formation and the expression of ethnic identity in multiple ethnic contexts. The author discusses both social (ethnic) identity and subjective social identity (self-identifications). The author shows how expressions of ethnic origin and identification vary with changes in a number of hypothetical situational settings, explained in terms of a combination of the present and the past. The material consists of interview data from 110 Turks and 114 Yugoslavs aged 16-24, selected randomly, in Stockholm, Sweden. The 1st interview question asked of the Turks and Yugoslavs is how they would describe where they came from in several hypothetical situations. Answers vary more by place asked than by person asking. A tendency exists to relate oneself positively to the person asking, by stressing commonalities. The 2nd question was "To whom do you think you most strongly belong?" Answers show that these immigrants primarily relate themselves to their own ethnic groups and to Swedes, while other immigrant groups in Sweden are less important. The final question was "How would you feel if someone here in Sweden told you that you seem to be just like other Swedes?" The most usual answer is that it does not matter. Both Turks and Yugoslavs would appreciate the statements more from a Swede than a compatriot, and the Turks would become more angry than the Yugoslavs if a compatriot said it. Turks have preserved more ethnic and traditional lifestyles, lack close ties to the Swedes, and experience greater social distance to Swedes. Migrants often develop complex multiple identities, and situational variation, at least in part, can be understood as a competence for living with and making use of this complexity. The article concludes with a typology that illustrates how the interplay between the past and the present creates more or less complex patterns of identification, so

  7. Valentine's Day

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2006-01-01

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site] Context image for PIA02174 Valentine's Day

    This isolated mesa [lower left center of the image] has an almost heart-shaped margin. Happy Valentine's Day from Mars.

    Image information: VIS instrument. Latitude 29.4N, Longitude 79.1E. 18 meter/pixel resolution.

    Note: this THEMIS visual image has not been radiometrically nor geometrically calibrated for this preliminary release. An empirical correction has been performed to remove instrumental effects. A linear shift has been applied in the cross-track and down-track direction to approximate spacecraft and planetary motion. Fully calibrated and geometrically projected images will be released through the Planetary Data System in accordance with Project policies at a later time.

    NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory manages the 2001 Mars Odyssey mission for NASA's Office of Space Science, Washington, D.C. The Thermal Emission Imaging System (THEMIS) was developed by Arizona State University, Tempe, in collaboration with Raytheon Santa Barbara Remote Sensing. The THEMIS investigation is led by Dr. Philip Christensen at Arizona State University. Lockheed Martin Astronautics, Denver, is the prime contractor for the Odyssey project, and developed and built the orbiter. Mission operations are conducted jointly from Lockheed Martin and from JPL, a division of the California Institute of Technology in Pasadena.

  8. Agoraphobia: A Situational Analysis.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sinnott, Austin; And Others

    1981-01-01

    Agoraphobia patients answered a questionnaire describing anxiety-producing situations. Home environment was associated with supportive company. Situations requiring patients to venture out alone were most anxiety-producing. The overriding importance of a significant other suggests treatment implications. (JAC)

  9. Hydrology day

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morel-Seytoux, H. J.

    Registration for the Hydrology Day sponsored by the Front Range Branch of AGU on April 23 at Colorado State University in Fort Collins, Colorado, totaled 121 participants, of whom 61 were students.Thirty-one individuals joined the Front Range Branch. Three students from Colorado State University won the awards for best paper in their category: Thomas W. Anzia (Sr.), ‘A Comprehensive Table of Standard Deviates for Confidence Limits on Extreme Events’ Victor Nazareth (M.S.), ‘Aquifer Properties from Single-Hole Aquifer Tests’ and Roy W. Koch (Ph.D.), ‘A Physically Based Derivation of the Distribution of Excess Precipitation.’ Judges for the awards were Dr. Bittinger, Resource Consultants, Fort Collins; George Leavesley and Daniel Bauer, USGS, Water Resources Division, Denver; Scott Tucker, Executive Director, Denver Urban Drainage and Flood Control District; Charles Brendecke, Department of Civil Engineering, Univ. of Colorado, Boulder.

  10. Dynamics of Situation Definition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Park, Dongseop; Moro, Yuji

    2006-01-01

    Situation definition is the process and product of actors' interpretive activities toward a given situation. By reviewing a number of psychological studies conducted in experimental settings, we found that the studies have only explicated a part of the situation definition process and have neglected its dynamic aspects. We need to focus on the…

  11. Situation Change: Stability and Change of Situation Variables between and within Persons

    PubMed Central

    Rauthmann, John F.; Sherman, Ryne A.

    2016-01-01

    When, how, and why situations flow into one another is important for understanding dynamic personality processes, but the topic of situation change has traditionally been a thorny issue in personality/social psychology. We explore conceptual and methodological issues in research on situation change: (1) What is situation change, which variables could we measure, and how can situation change be methodologically captured and analyzed (at between- and within-person levels)? (2) Which person-situation transaction mechanisms (situation management strategies) could entail stability and change of situations in daily life? (3) How do single or repeated instances of situation change impact short-, middle-, and long-term outcomes (e.g., intra- and interpersonal adjustment)? Besides laying out a research program for situation change, we present preliminary data from participants who wore mini-video cameras recording their situations so that they could be rated later in the lab. We demonstrate rater consensus on when situations change, mean-level changes of situation characteristics across situations, similarity of situation characteristics across adjacent situations, and inter-individual differences in intra-individual situation change in change networks. PMID:26779068

  12. 34 CFR 300.11 - Day; business day; school day.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... included in the designation of business day, as in § 300.148(d)(1)(ii)). (c)(1) School day means any day... 34 Education 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Day; business day; school day. 300.11 Section 300.11... CHILDREN WITH DISABILITIES General Definitions Used in This Part § 300.11 Day; business day; school day....

  13. 34 CFR 300.11 - Day; business day; school day.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... included in the designation of business day, as in § 300.148(d)(1)(ii)). (c)(1) School day means any day... 34 Education 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Day; business day; school day. 300.11 Section 300.11... CHILDREN WITH DISABILITIES General Definitions Used in This Part § 300.11 Day; business day; school day....

  14. 34 CFR 300.11 - Day; business day; school day.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... included in the designation of business day, as in § 300.148(d)(1)(ii)). (c)(1) School day means any day... 34 Education 2 2014-07-01 2013-07-01 true Day; business day; school day. 300.11 Section 300.11... CHILDREN WITH DISABILITIES General Definitions Used in This Part § 300.11 Day; business day; school day....

  15. 34 CFR 300.11 - Day; business day; school day.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... included in the designation of business day, as in § 300.148(d)(1)(ii)). (c)(1) School day means any day... 34 Education 2 2011-07-01 2010-07-01 true Day; business day; school day. 300.11 Section 300.11... CHILDREN WITH DISABILITIES General Definitions Used in This Part § 300.11 Day; business day; school day....

  16. 34 CFR 300.11 - Day; business day; school day.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... included in the designation of business day, as in § 300.148(d)(1)(ii)). (c)(1) School day means any day... 34 Education 2 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Day; business day; school day. 300.11 Section 300.11... CHILDREN WITH DISABILITIES General Definitions Used in This Part § 300.11 Day; business day; school day....

  17. My Lucky Day

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Olvey, Maura

    2010-01-01

    Teaching based on problem solving brings challenges for the teacher, primarily that of finding problems with multiple access points that accommodate all students. This article narrates the author's lucky day as she discovers the Four fours problem which impacted her passion for teaching math. The day she presented the Four fours problem to her…

  18. Day of the Dead

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dann, Tammy; Murphy, Amy

    2012-01-01

    Foreign Language in Elementary School (FLES) teachers in the West Des Moines schools incorporate the Day of the Dead into the fourth grade curriculum each year. The teachers discuss the Day of the Dead celebration at the Art Center, and many ask for volunteers from fourth grade to participate in the event. Student presentations include a wide…

  19. School Building Day, 2001.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Council of Educational Facility Planners, International, Scottsdale, AZ.

    This document presents information and development materials about "School Building Day" (an event spotlighting the school facility and developing support and pride in the community's schools) to help local school districts conduct their own "School Building Day" to be held on April 20th of 2001. Included are lists of suggested activities and…

  20. Science Challenge Day

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Siegel, Deborah

    2013-01-01

    Science fairs can be good motivators, but as extracurricular activities, they leave some students behind. However, by staging a Science Challenge Day at school, educators can involve all students in doing everything from choosing activities to judging projects. This article presents a model for running a successful Science Challenge Day. The…

  1. Situating emotional experience

    PubMed Central

    Wilson-Mendenhall, Christine D.; Barrett, Lisa Feldman; Barsalou, Lawrence W.

    2013-01-01

    Psychological construction approaches to emotion suggest that emotional experience is situated and dynamic. Fear, for example, is typically studied in a physical danger context (e.g., threatening snake), but in the real world, it often occurs in social contexts, especially those involving social evaluation (e.g., public speaking). Understanding situated emotional experience is critical because adaptive responding is guided by situational context (e.g., inferring the intention of another in a social evaluation situation vs. monitoring the environment in a physical danger situation). In an fMRI study, we assessed situated emotional experience using a newly developed paradigm in which participants vividly imagine different scenarios from a first-person perspective, in this case scenarios involving either social evaluation or physical danger. We hypothesized that distributed neural patterns would underlie immersion in social evaluation and physical danger situations, with shared activity patterns across both situations in multiple sensory modalities and in circuitry involved in integrating salient sensory information, and with unique activity patterns for each situation type in coordinated large-scale networks that reflect situated responding. More specifically, we predicted that networks underlying the social inference and mentalizing involved in responding to a social threat (in regions that make up the “default mode” network) would be reliably more active during social evaluation situations. In contrast, networks underlying the visuospatial attention and action planning involved in responding to a physical threat would be reliably more active during physical danger situations. The results supported these hypotheses. In line with emerging psychological construction approaches, the findings suggest that coordinated brain networks offer a systematic way to interpret the distributed patterns that underlie the diverse situational contexts characterizing emotional

  2. Situating emotional experience.

    PubMed

    Wilson-Mendenhall, Christine D; Barrett, Lisa Feldman; Barsalou, Lawrence W

    2013-01-01

    Psychological construction approaches to emotion suggest that emotional experience is situated and dynamic. Fear, for example, is typically studied in a physical danger context (e.g., threatening snake), but in the real world, it often occurs in social contexts, especially those involving social evaluation (e.g., public speaking). Understanding situated emotional experience is critical because adaptive responding is guided by situational context (e.g., inferring the intention of another in a social evaluation situation vs. monitoring the environment in a physical danger situation). In an fMRI study, we assessed situated emotional experience using a newly developed paradigm in which participants vividly imagine different scenarios from a first-person perspective, in this case scenarios involving either social evaluation or physical danger. We hypothesized that distributed neural patterns would underlie immersion in social evaluation and physical danger situations, with shared activity patterns across both situations in multiple sensory modalities and in circuitry involved in integrating salient sensory information, and with unique activity patterns for each situation type in coordinated large-scale networks that reflect situated responding. More specifically, we predicted that networks underlying the social inference and mentalizing involved in responding to a social threat (in regions that make up the "default mode" network) would be reliably more active during social evaluation situations. In contrast, networks underlying the visuospatial attention and action planning involved in responding to a physical threat would be reliably more active during physical danger situations. The results supported these hypotheses. In line with emerging psychological construction approaches, the findings suggest that coordinated brain networks offer a systematic way to interpret the distributed patterns that underlie the diverse situational contexts characterizing emotional life

  3. Novice Situation Cards: The Scripted Situation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Longan, Nathan

    1995-01-01

    This article suggests that to better prepare students for the American Council on the Teaching of Foreign Languages (ACTFL) oral proficiency interview, it is up to instructors to see that these students are better prepared in oral, creative speech. Bridging exercises between dialogue memorization and personalized situations can be used to help…

  4. Cognitive dynamic logic algorithms for situational awareness

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Perlovsky, L. I.; Ilin, R.

    2010-04-01

    Autonomous situational awareness (SA) requires an ability to learn situations. It is mathematically difficult because in every situation there are many objects nonessential for this situation. Moreover, most objects around are random, unrelated to understanding contexts and situations. We learn in early childhood to ignore these irrelevant objects effortlessly, usually we do not even notice their existence. Here we consider an agent that can recognize a large number of objects in the world; in each situation it observes many objects, while only few of them are relevant to the situation. Most of situations are collections of random objects containing no relevant objects, only few situations "make sense," they contain few objects, which are always present in these situations. The training data contains sufficient information to identify these situations. However, to discover this information all objects in all situations should be sorted out to find regularities. This "sorting out" is computationally complex; its combinatorial complexity exceeds by far all events in the Universe. The talk relates this combinatorial complexity to Gödelian limitations of logic. We describe dynamic logic (DL) that quickly learns essential regularities-relevant, repeatable objects and situations. DL is related to mechanisms of the brain-mind and we describe brain-imaging experiments that have demonstrated these relations.

  5. Situational reaction and planning

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yen, John; Pfluger, Nathan

    1994-01-01

    One problem faced in designing an autonomous mobile robot system is that there are many parameters of the system to define and optimize. While these parameters can be obtained for any given situation determining what the parameters should be in all situations is difficult. The usual solution is to give the system general parameters that work in all situations, but this does not help the robot to perform its best in a dynamic environment. Our approach is to develop a higher level situation analysis module that adjusts the parameters by analyzing the goals and history of sensor readings. By allowing the robot to change the system parameters based on its judgement of the situation, the robot will be able to better adapt to a wider set of possible situations. We use fuzzy logic in our implementation to reduce the number of basic situations the controller has to recognize. For example, a situation may be 60 percent open and 40 percent corridor, causing the optimal parameters to be somewhere between the optimal settings for the two extreme situations.

  6. Updating Situation Models

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zwaan, Rolf A.; Madden, Carol J.

    2004-01-01

    The authors examined how situation models are updated during text comprehension. If comprehenders keep track of the evolving situation, they should update their models such that the most current information, the here and now, is more available than outdated information. Contrary to this updating hypothesis, E. J. O'Brien, M. L. Rizzella, J. E.…

  7. The Rhetorical Situation Revisited.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Garret, Mary; Xiao, Xiaosui

    1993-01-01

    Reviews and redefines a concept known as the "rhetorical situation" through an examination of the political discourse of China during the 19th-century Opium Wars. Arrives at three alterations to the "rhetorical situation" concerning the role of the audience, the role of the culture's discourse tradition, and the interactive and organic nature of…

  8. Using present-day patterns of interseismic coupling to model the C.E. 1707 Hōei earthquake and simulate tsunami inundation of Lake Ryuuoo in the Bungo Channel, southwestern Japan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baranes, H. E.; Woodruff, J. D.; Loveless, J. P.; Cheng, W.; Weiss, R.; Kanamaru, K.

    2015-12-01

    The C.E. 1707 Hōei event is often considered the worst-case scenario for a Nankai Trough earthquake and tsunami impacting southwestern Japan, and recent estimates of the earthquake's magnitude have exceeded MW 9. However, when paired with tsunami simulations, previously published earthquake models for the event fail to match sedimentological and historical records of 1707 tsunami height in Shikoku and Kyushu. Specifically, models do not produce a sufficiently large tsunami in the northern Bungo Channel and Seto Inland Sea without also over-predicting tsunami heights along the open Pacific coastlines of Shikoku and Kyushu. Here, we apply a newly developed rupture model that uses present-day patterns of geodetically imaged interseismic coupling to inform patterns in coseismic slip. Along the southwestern extent of the plate interface (the Hyuga-nada area), there is a region of weak coupling up-dip along the trench axis and a region of strong coupling down-dip beneath Shikoku and Kyushu. Following this pattern, the new earthquake model produces less coseismic uplift offshore and greater subsidence in an inland region that includes the Bungo Channel. This combination of regional subsidence and a tsunami wave more focused to the Bungo Channel results in inundation patterns more consistent with historical and sedimentological observations in the Hyuga-nada area. We also run the tsunami simulation on a high-resolution grid around Lake Ryuuoo, a back-barrier lake in the northern Bungo Channel that contains a marine overwash deposit from the 1707 tsunami. We apply a simple sediment transport model to demonstrate that the coupling-based rupture scenario produces flow over Lake Ryuuoo's barrier capable of transporting the maximum grain size observed in the lake's 1707 deposit. These findings suggest that spatial trends in our present-day coupling model are more consistent with inundation patterns observed for large tsunamis generated by coseismic rupture along the Nankai

  9. An atypical presentation of an extremely late stent thrombosis after more than 7 years (2634 days) of DES implantation in a patient without obvious risk factors on regular dual antiplatelet therapy

    PubMed Central

    Parekh, Pritesh; Agrawal, Navin; Vasavada, Apurva; Vinchurkar, Mahesh

    2014-01-01

    Very late stent thrombosis is a rare complication of percutaneous coronary intervention in the era of dual antiplatelet therapy. The risk factors for stent thrombosis are drug default, age, diabetes, renal dysfunction, left ventricular dysfunction, smoking or procedure-related factors and complications. We are describing the case of a 55-year-old non-smoker patient without the conventional risk factors for stent thrombosis maintaining good compliance with dual antiplatelet (aspirin and clopidogrel) drugs in standard doses. The patient had a history of having received a Cypher stent more than 7 years (2634 days) ago in the left circumflex artery for the management of in-stent restenosis of a bare metal stent implanted previously. He was referred with acute stent thrombosis with an atypical presentation of non-ST elevation myocardial infarction having unexplainable spontaneous resolution of electrocardiographic changes. The patient was successfully managed with newer generation drug-eluting stents reimplantation. The presence of acute onset of symptoms and thrombus containing soft lesion as documented during intervention supported the diagnosis of acute stent thrombosis. To the best of our knowledge this case is one of the longest duration of presentation with acute stent thrombosis after stent implantation ever reported in literature and is also unique in its unusual mode of presentation. PMID:25028419

  10. The Language Situation in Italy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tosi, Arturo

    2004-01-01

    This monograph provides an overview of the language situation in Italy, within the framework of language policy and language planning. It presents an account of multilingualism, linguistic diversity, social variation, educational issues and phenomena of language contact both within and outside Italy. The four main threads are (1) the current…

  11. The Language Situation in Mozambique.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lopes, Armando Jorge

    1998-01-01

    Addresses the language situation in post-independent Mozambique from both a language-planning and language-policy perspective. Presents an up-to-date profile of the country, discusses the issue of linguistic diversity, and examines the language-spread dynamics in education, literacy, and the media. (Author/VWL)

  12. The Language Situation in Finland.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Latomaa, Sirkku; Nuolijarvi, Pirkko

    2002-01-01

    Provides an overview of the language situation in Finland, an officially bilingual country in Northern Europe. Presents the language profile of Finland, gives a detailed overview of the spread of all the languages used in the country, focuses on language planning and language policy legislation, discusses the current status of languages spoken in…

  13. Seafloor morphology of the Eurasia-Nubia (Africa) plate boundary between the Tore-Madeira Rise and the Straits of Gibraltar: a case of coexistent Mesozoic through Present day features of tectonic, oceanographic and sedimentary origin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Terrinha, Pedro; Duarte, João.; Valadares, Vasco; Batista, Luis; Zitellini, Nevio; Grácia, Eulalia; Lourenço, Nuno; Rosas, Filipe; Roque, Cristina

    2010-05-01

    The joint use of more than 10.000 km multichannel seismic reflection profiles and 180.000km2 of multibeam swath bathymetry and backscatter allowed for a new vision of the seafloor tectonic and geomorphic processes of the area that encompasses the present day plate boundary between Africa and Eurasia, between the Gibraltar Straits and the Tore-Madeira Rise, in the southern sector of the North Atlantic Ocean. The interpretation of this data allowed for the detailed description of the seafloor morphology (i.e. a morphologic map) and the classification of the morphologic features in what respects the genetic process and age. It can be seen that in the same region coexist morphologic features that result from tectonic processes associated with the Triassic-Cretaceous break-up of Pangea, the Paleogene-Miocene compressive phase, the Miocene through Present subduction under the Gibraltar Arc (Gutscher et al., 2002), the Pliocene-Quaternary wrench tectonics and possible coeval plate boundary (Zitellini et al., 2009), the Present day mud volcanism and propagation of the compressive deformation along the West Continental Margin of Portugal (Terrinha et al., 2009). Interpretation of the seismic profiles together with the bathymetry allows the understanding of endogenous and exogenous processes that creates reliefs associated with active structures (related to the Miocene through Present compressive stress field). Other reliefs generated in Mesozoic times by analogous processes can be as well preserved as these active ones. In what concerns exogenous processes, the analysis of the two datasets (reflection seismics and bathymetry) allowed for the description of morphologic features associated with oceanic currents that interact with the seafloor forming these important features. As is the case of the well known active contourites but also less known features, like giant scours at 4 km water depth that have recently been described, suggesting the interaction of deep currents and

  14. Preparing for Emergency Situations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Asproth, Viveca; Amcoff Nyström, Christina

    2010-11-01

    Disaster relief can be seen as a dynamic multi actor process with actors both joining and leaving the relief work during the help and rescue phase after the disaster has occurred. Actors may be governmental agencies, non profit voluntary organisations or spontaneous helpers comprised of individual citizens or temporal groups of citizens. Hence, they will vary widely in agility, competence, resources, and endurance. To prepare for for disasters a net based Agora with simulation of emergency situations for mutual preparation, training, and organisational learning is suggested. Such an Agora will ensure future security by: -Rising awareness and preparedness of potential disaster responders by help of the components and resources in the netAgora environment; -Improving cooperation and coordination between responders; -Improving competence and performance of organisations involved in security issues; -Bridging cultural differences between responders from different organizations and different backgrounds. The developed models are intended to reflect intelligent anticipatory systems for human operator anticipation of future consequences. As a way to catch what should be included in this netbased Agora and to join the split pictures that is present, Team Syntegrity could be a helpful tool. The purpose of Team Syntegrity is to stimulate collaboration and incite cross fertilization and creativity. The difference between syntegration and other group work is that the participants are evenly and uniquely distributed and will collectively have the means, the knowledge, the experience, the perspectives, and the expertise, to deal with the topic. In this paper the possibilities with using Team Syntegrity in preparation for the development of a netbased Agora is discussed. We have identified that Team Syntegrity could be useful in the steps User Integration, Designing the netAgora environment, developing Test Scenarios, and assessment of netAgora environment.

  15. The Ellsberg psychoanalytic situation.

    PubMed

    Bernal, V

    1976-01-01

    The author proposes to explore an event that received nationwide publicity through the Watergate investigation: the burglary of the office of a Los Angeles psychoanalyst believed to be treating Dr. Daniel Ellsberg. A brief questionnaire, with an accompanying letter, was mailed to all members of the American Psychoanalytic Association. It requested voluntary information on the reaction of their patients to the aforesaid particular event. The results of the study was then evaluated as serving hopefully an indirect inquiry into psychoanalytic practice. This paper is based on an adjusted sample of 861 respondent psychoanalysts, who reported on a total of 5,074 analysands. The resultant figures indicate that a high percentage of the analysand sample was silent concerning the office break-in during the eight-week period following the national publicity given the event. Of the small percentage of analysands that did present material concerning the event, the survey found that they were the patients of only 84 analysts of the entire sample of 861. The absence of reference to the Ellsberg Affair in so many patients may have been due to (1) the fact that analysts create an analytic situation which has a basic quality of interference such that events of this kind do not get communicated, and (2), more important, the fact that analysts through some defensive need failed to take cognizance of references to the Ellsberg Affair in dreams or in the latent content of the associations of their patients. A "natural" psychoanalytic experiment has been studied, and the results are offered for consideration. PMID:955794

  16. Personalizing situation awareness

    SciTech Connect

    Collins, Linn Marks; Powell, James E; Roman, Jorge R; Martinez, Mark L B; Mane, Ketan K

    2009-01-01

    Emergency responders need access to information but what counts as actionable information depends on their role, task, location, and other variables. For example, experts who have unique knowledge and experience and are called on to serve as scientific and teclmical responders, require correspondingly unique situation awareness in order to do their work. In our research-in-progress we leverage emerging and evolving web and digital library technologies to create personalized situation awareness tools that address the needs of these scientific and technical responders in real time, through focused information collection, extraction, integration, representation, and dissemination. We describe three personalized situation awareness tools in this paper: the Theme Awareness Tool (THEMAT), Social Awareness Tool (SAT), and Expertise Awareness Tool (EXPAT). The concepts and technologies we are developing in collaboration with experts apply to those who use the Web, in general, and offer an approach to the general issue of HCI design for emergencies.

  17. Situational theory of leadership.

    PubMed

    Waller, D J; Smith, S R; Warnock, J T

    1989-11-01

    The situational theory of leadership and the LEAD instruments for determining leadership style are explained, and the application of the situational leadership theory to the process of planning for and implementing organizational change is described. Early studies of leadership style identified two basic leadership styles: the task-oriented autocratic style and the relationship-oriented democratic style. Subsequent research found that most leaders exhibited one of four combinations of task and relationship behaviors. The situational leadership theory holds that the difference between the effectiveness and ineffectiveness of the four leadership styles is the appropriateness of the leader's behavior to the particular situation in which it is used. The task maturity of the individual or group being led must also be accounted for; follower readiness is defined in terms of the capacity to set high but attainable goals, willingness or ability to accept responsibility, and possession of the necessary education or experience for a specific task. A person's leadership style, range, and adaptability can be determined from the LEADSelf and LEADOther questionnaires. By applying the principles of the situational leadership theory and adapting their managerial styles to specific tasks and levels of follower maturity, the authors were successful in implementing 24-hour pharmacokinetic dosing services provided by staff pharmacists with little previous experience in clinical services. The situational leadership model enables a leader to identify a task, set goals, determine the task maturity of the individual or group, select an appropriate leadership style, and modify the style as change occurs. Pharmacy managers can use this model when implementing clinical pharmacy services. PMID:2589352

  18. Family Day Care Handbook.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Community Coordinated Child Care (4-C) in Dane County, Inc., Madison, WI.

    This handbook provides both general and specific information on child development and child care to help adults who are providing child care in their homes. Information is presented in six sections which describe: (1) the family day care system, the occupation of caregiver, and the development of relationships; (2) development of a health program,…

  19. Day Care: Nutrition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Foster, Florence P.; And Others

    This collection of 12 short, bilingual papers on nutrition and preschool children is part of a series of papers on various aspects of day care published by the Canadian Department of Health and Welfare. Each paper is presented in both English and French. Topics dealt with include an overview of children's nutritional needs; development of…

  20. An Earth Day Reader.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moser, Don, Ed.

    1990-01-01

    Presents what the author believes to be some of the most important environmental books published since Earth Day 1970. Discusses each selection and how it provides the historical background, basic information, and appreciation necessary to understand the character of our environmental dilemma and our need to address it. (MCO)

  1. Every Child, Every Day

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Allington, Richard L.; Gabriel, Rachael E.

    2012-01-01

    We know more now than we ever did before about how to make every child a successful reader, write Allington and Gabriel in this research review. Yet, few students regularly receive the best reading instruction we know how to give. The authors present research supporting their recommendation that every child, every day, should (1) read something he…

  2. Moral Reasoning in Hypothetical and Actual Situations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sumprer, Gerard F.; Butter, Eliot J.

    1978-01-01

    Results of this investigation suggest that moral reasoning of college students, when assessed using the DIT format, is the same whether the dilemmas involve hypothetical or actual situations. Subjects, when presented with hypothetical situations, become deeply immersed in them and respond as if they were actual participants. (Author/BEF)

  3. Situating Gendered Learning in the Workplace

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tanggaard, Lene

    2006-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to situate the concept of gendered learning in the workplace. Design/methodology/approach: The paper presents the results of two closely related, qualitative studies of apprenticeship learning in two major industrial companies in Denmark. Findings: The paper finds that the creation of a situated-gendered…

  4. Flight Day 2 Highlights

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2003-01-01

    The STS-107 second flight day begins with a shot of the Spacehab Research Double Module. Live presentations of experiments underway inside of the Spacehab Module are presented. Six experiments are shown. As part of the Space Technology and Research Student Payload, students from Australia, China, Israel, Japan, New York, and Liechtenstein are studying the effect that microgravity has on ants, spiders, silkworms, fish, bees, granular materials, and crystals. Mission Specialist Kalpana Chawla is seen working with the zeolite crystal growth experiment.

  5. Texas Irrigation Situation

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The irrigation situation in Texas is an interaction between hydrology and water policies. In 2012, according to National Agricultural Statistical Service (NASS) four High Plains counties, Gainesville, Yoakum, Terry and Cochran, accounted for approximately 60% of the 150,000 acres of peanut productio...

  6. Embarrassment: Situational Social Anxiety.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miller, Rowland S.

    Embarrassment occurs when the social identity or "face" that one is trying to maintain is abruptly discredited. Thus, embarrassment usually assumes the presence of an audience, real or imagined, and a public predicament which changes the situation. Most people try to avoid embarrassment if they can, and if they have been embarrassed they will go…

  7. Perspectives on Infant Day Care.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Elardo, Richard, E.; Pagan, Betty, Ed.

    These proceedings of the first annual SACUS workshop on infant day care contain the papers presented at the conference, plus an appendix--Developmental Objectives for Infants and Toddlers. The papers are: "Infant Day Care--Fads, Facts, and Fancies" by Bettye M. Caldwell; "Family Day Care""A Broad Perspective" by Malcolm S. Host; "Getting…

  8. Space Situational Awareness Architecture Vision

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Richmond, D.

    2013-09-01

    Vast amounts of Space Situational data are collected each day. Net-Centric approaches are being developed to expose this data. The need to shift from our closed legacy systems to an open scalable architecture has begun through the JMS efforts. Cloud computing/Big Data concepts are also desired to store and process this data. Architecture insights will be provided to highlight how these apparently competing concepts can work together to provide a robust system of systems. Key items that will be covered include: 1) An overview of the "As-Is" system of JMS and Web Services 2) Definition of "Cloud Computing" and "Big Data" 3) Vision of To-Be SSA system of systems 4) Benefits of future approach 5) Path forward Governance and Oversight

  9. When Every Day Is Professional Development Day

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tienken, Christopher H.; Stonaker, Lew

    2007-01-01

    In the Monroe Township (New Jersey) Public Schools, teachers' learning occurs daily, not just on one day in October and February. Central office and school-level administrators foster job-embedded teacher growth. Every day is a professional development day in the district, but that has not always been so. How did the district become a system with…

  10. Adolescents and social support situations.

    PubMed

    Olsson, Ingrid; Hagekull, Berit; Giannotta, Fabrizia; Åhlander, Camilla

    2016-06-01

    The present study concerned adolescents' needs for social support with a focus on specific situations. The Adolescent Need for Social Support Questionnaire (ANSSQ) was developed based on qualitative interviews with typically developing adolescents about situations in which they need parent support. The questionnaire was tested on a sample of 380 Swedish 15-year-olds. A 3-component structure reflecting the dimensions "Home and school", "Low mood", and "Sex and alcohol" was tested in SEM analyses. Scales based on these dimensions, measuring support from parents and peers, yielded satisfactory psychometric results. Parent support was preferred over peer support for "Home and school" situations; in the other two areas peers were more likely to be the support providers. Females turned more often to parents and friends for support than males. Seeking parental support was positively related to adolescent disclosure and negatively related to adolescent secrecy, indicating convergent and discriminant validity. Further validation of the ANSSQ is discussed. The current study points to possibilities for adapting measures of social support to contexts. PMID:27038341

  11. Sedimentological imprints of environmental variability at the Balkan Peninsula on the sediment sequence of Lake Ohrid (Macedonia, Albania) between the Mid Pleistocene Transition and present days: The ICDP SCOPSCO project

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Francke, Alexander; Wagner, Bernd; Leicher, Niklas; Raphael, Gromig; Leng, Melanie; Lacey, Jack; Vogel, Hendrik; Baumgarten, Henrike; Thomas, Wonik; Zanchetta, Giovanni; Roberto, Sulpizio; Krastel, Sebastian; Lindhorst, Katja

    2015-04-01

    The UNESCO World Heritage site of Lake Ohrid in the Balkans is thought to be the oldest, continuously existing lake in Europe. In order to unravel the geological and evolutionary history of the lake, a deep drilling campaign was conducted in spring 2013 under the umbrella of the ICDP SCOPSCO project. At the coring site "DEEP" in central parts of the lake, more than 1,500 m of sediments were recovered down to a penetration depth of 569 m blf. This sediment sequence is assumed to be more than 1.2 Ma old and likely covers the entire lacustrine deposits of the Lake Ohrid Basin. Currently, an age model for the upper 260m of the DEEP- site sequence is available. This age model is based on chronological tie points (tephrochronology), and wiggle matching of down hole logging data and (bio-)geochemistry data (XRF, TIC, TOC) from the core sequence to the global benthic stack LR04 and local insolation patterns. The data suggests that the upper 260 m of the DEEP-site sequence corresponds to the time period between the Mid Pleistocene Transition (MPT) and present days. During this period, the sedimentological properties of the sediments show a strong dependency on environmental variability in the area. Interglacial deposits appear massive or marbled, contain up to 80 % of CaCO3 (high TIC), high amounts of organic matter (high TOC) and biogenic silica (high BSi), and low contents of clastic material. Glacial deposits are predominantly marbled and calcite is generally absent. Similarly, the amounts of organic matter and biogenic silica are low, and glacial sediments predominately consist of clastic matter. Distinct layers of siderite and uniformly distributed Fe- or Mn- oxides occur in the glacial deposits, vivianite concretions occur in both the glacial and interglacial periods. High CaCO3 contents in deposits formed during warm (interglacial) periods are also known from studies on short pilot cores from Lake Ohrid and are triggered by increased productivity in the lake, such as

  12. Situational adapting system supporting team situation awareness

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Helldin, Tove; Erlandsson, Tina; Niklasson, Lars; Falkman, Göran

    2010-10-01

    Military fighter pilots have to make suitable decisions fast in an environment where continuously increasing flows of information from sensors, team members and databases are provided. Not only do the huge amounts of data aggravate the pilots' decision making process: time-pressure, presence of uncertain data and high workload are factors that can worsen the performance of pilot decision making. In this paper, initial ideas of how to support the pilots accomplishing their tasks are presented. Results from interviews with two fighter pilots are described as well as a discussion about how these results can guide the design of a military fighter pilot decision support system, with focus on team cooperation.

  13. Western coal marketing days

    SciTech Connect

    Dahle, H.

    1983-01-01

    Fifteen papers were presented covering the following: the outlook for Powder River Basin Coals; markets for medium-range Western coals; outlook for domestic coal sales; Canada - the reliable coal supplier; coal requirements and procurement policies; coal procurement at Nevada Power Co; Nebraska Public Power District coal fired power plants - specifications and projections; NSP and its fuel needs; coal procurement at Grand River Dam Authority; Son of OPEC: Western Fuels and its coal contracting procedures; an update of the coal supply and demand situation of China Light and Power Co. Ltd; maximum rate guidelines - deja vu or the real thing.; Western coal shippers concerns; domestic and export movements; 1984-eleven years later. Most of the papers are in the form of transcripts.

  14. The Forest Indians in the Present Political Situation of Peru.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Varese, Stefano

    The article focuses on tribal minorities (American Indians) of the Peruvian tropical forest from the point of view of the political circumstances and the general administrative conditions of the country. In 1968 the revolutionary military government initiated a series of structural reforms which aimed at transforming Peru. This article poses and…

  15. Present situation of cystic echinococcosis in Central Asia.

    PubMed

    Torgerson, Paul R; Oguljahan, B; Muminov, Abdoullo E; Karaeva, Roza R; Kuttubaev, Omurbek T; Aminjanov, Mirabbas; Shaikenov, Blok

    2006-01-01

    Cystic echinococcosis (CE) caused by Echinococcus granulosus has always been an endemic disease in central Asia. During the period of Soviet Administration up to 1991, human surgical incidence rates tended to be relatively low with perhaps at most 1-5 cases per 100,000 per year. Following the collapse of the Soviet Union and the emergence of the New Independent States there has been profound economic and social changes. Associated with this has been a serious epidemic of CE throughout the region. In many areas figures suggest the surgical incidence is now greater than 10 cases per 100,000. Furthermore, official government figures are believed to substantially under report the extent of the problem. For example, official figures in Uzbekistan reported 819 cases of CE surgically treated in 2001. However, a detailed analysis of hospital records suggests that the true figure was 4089, more than 4 fold higher. The latter figure represents an annual surgical incidence rate of nearly 25 cases/100,000 per year. Similarly high endemic areas are seen in southern Kazakhstan, Kyrgystan and Tadjikistan with incidence rates of up to 13 cases/100,000, 20 cases/100,000 and 27 cases/100,000 respectively. A disproportionate number of cases are in children and the unemployed. The rates of infection have also increased in major livestock species such as sheep with a doubling of reported prevalence in some areas. In the dog population, independent studies in Uzbekistan and Kazakhstan have demonstrated that the rural dog population, closely associated with the sheep industry, is highly infected, with prevalences approaching 25%. Village and urban dogs have a considerably lower prevalence. PMID:16361112

  16. Traditional Chinese medicine and cancer: History, present situation, and development

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Jie; Wang, Shuo; Zhang, Ying; Fan, Hui-ting; Lin, Hong-sheng

    2015-01-01

    Cancer treatment with traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) has a long history. Heritage provides general conditions for the innovation and development of TCM in oncology. This article reviews the development of TCM in oncology, interprets the position and function of TCM for cancer prevention and treatment, summarizes the innovations of TCM in oncology over nearly fifty years, and suggests the development direction. PMID:26445604

  17. Lifelong Education (Learning) in China: Present Situation and Development Trends

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zhang, Zhupeng

    2009-01-01

    Based on the historic background and development of lifelong education (learning) in China, this paper introduces major developments of lifelong education (learning) that have been achieved through adopting a series of measures under policies issued by the Chinese government since the 1990s. Throughout the decades, efforts have been made to…

  18. Liver transplantation: an appraisal of the present situation.

    PubMed

    Otto, Gerd

    2013-01-01

    Liver transplantation (LT) is an established approach to treatment of end-stage liver diseases, metabolic diseases and early hepatocellular carcinoma, and the results of this procedure have improved considerably. MELD allocation and the great number of transplant centers had a negative influence on outcome in Germany. Typical surgical issues following transplantation are vascular thrombosis and the development of biliary lesions. Nonanastomotic strictures impact graft survival and cause considerable posttransplant morbidity. Nonsurgical issues in LT are hepatitis C reinfection, selection of appropriate patients with hepatocellular carcinoma and individualized immunosuppression. In hepatitis C the new antiviral drugs (protease and polymerase inhibitors) are promising tools to prevent reinfection. Nephrotoxicity caused by calcineurin inhibitors - which remain the mainstay of immunosuppression - can only partially be avoided. So far, alternative forms of treatment using mycophenolic acid and mTOR inhibitors cannot totally replace calcineurin inhibitors. In view of graft scarcity, we need to think about a benefit-based model of liver allocation which focuses on the optimal use of this resource. Deciding on this form of organ allocation requires an ethical consensus: not the most urgent patient is the first candidate to receive a graft, but rather the patient who is supposed to have the greatest benefit. PMID:23797139

  19. Review of the Present Situation of Special Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    United Nations Educational, Scientific, and Cultural Organization, Paris (France).

    The review of special education worldwide is based on questionnaire replies of appropriate ministries in 58 United Nations member states during 1986-87. The first part of the review consists of a summary and analysis of data collected concerning such aspects of special education as policy, legislation, administration and organization, special…

  20. The depressive situation

    PubMed Central

    A. Jacobs, Kerrin

    2013-01-01

    From a naturalistic perspective on mental illness, depression is often described in terms of biological dysfunctions, while a normative perspective emphasizes the lived experience of depression as a harmful condition. The paper relates a conceptual analysis of “depressive situation” to an analysis of the lived experience of depression. As such, it predominantly aims to specify depression as a harmful condition in lights of normative perspective on mental disorder, but partially refers to empirical research, i.e., naturalistic perspective on depression, to exemplarily stress on the methodological merits and limits of relating phenomenological considerations closer to empirical research. The depressive situation is further specified with an examination of the evaluative dynamics by which individuals meaningfully relate to themselves, others and the world. These evaluative dynamics emerge out of the interplay of pre-reflective and reflective processes, which are significantly altered in depression. Such alterations of the evaluative structure are inextricably intertwined with significant distortions of practical sense in depression. From a phenomenological perspective, these distortions of practical sense show in characteristic experiences of evaluative incoherence and impairments of agency. Finally, this paper focuses on an examination of “evaluative incapacity,” which has the integrative potential to capture a range of typical changes of meaningful relatedness that determine the depressive situation. PMID:23882238

  1. Schoolwide Literacy Days.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Polder, Darlene D.

    2000-01-01

    Describes 10 "literacy day" activities that one California elementary school has used successfully schoolwide, typically one such day per month, to make reading fun and purposeful, while developing a sense of community. Includes: spread-a-quilt day; teacher exchange day; turn off the TV; Dr. Seuss day; community readers; schoolwide poets; original…

  2. USAF Academy Center for Space Situational Awareness

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dearborn, M.; Chun, F.; Liu, J.; Tippets, R.

    2011-09-01

    Since the days of Sputnik, the Air Force has maintained the surveillance of space and a position catalog of objects that can be tracked by primarily ground-based radars and optical systems. Recent events in space such as the test of the Chinese anti-satellite weapon in 2007 and the collision between an Iridium and Russian Cosmo satellite have demonstrated the great need to have a more comprehensive awareness of the situation in space. Hence space situational awareness (SSA) has become an increasingly important mission to the Air Force and to the security of the United States. To help meet the need for future leaders knowledgeable about SSA, the Air Force Academy formally stood up the Center for Space Situational Awareness (CSSAR). The goal of the CSSAR is to provide a unique combination of educational operational experience as well as a world-class research capability for hands-on education in SSA. In order to meet this goal, the CSSAR is implementing an array of sensors, operations center, and associated software, and analysis tools. For example we have radar receivers for bi-static returns from the VHF space fence, a network of small aperture telescopes, AFSPC astro standards software, and Joint Mission System software. This paper focuses on the observational capabilities of our telescopes. In general, the preferable method for characterizing a satellite is to obtain a high-resolution image. However, high-resolution images from groundbased telescopes are only achievable if the satellite is large and close in range. Thus small satellites in low-earth orbits and large satellites in geosynchronous orbits are essentially unresolved in the focal plane of a ground-based telescope. Building ever larger telescopes capable of tracking fast enough for satellites at high resolution requires tremendous resources and funding. Cost is one of the reasons we decided to develop a network of small, commercially available telescopes spatially diverse and networked together. We call

  3. Cross-Situational Word Learning in the Right Situations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dautriche, Isabelle; Chemla, Emmanuel

    2014-01-01

    Upon hearing a novel word, language learners must identify its correct meaning from a diverse set of situationally relevant options. Such referential ambiguity could be reduced through "repetitive" exposure to the novel word across diverging learning situations, a learning mechanism referred to as "cross-situational learning."…

  4. The Satellite Situation Center

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Teague, M. J.; Sawyer, D. M.; Vette, J. I.

    1982-01-01

    Considerations related to the early planning for the International Magnetospheric Study (IMS) took into account the desirability of an establishment of specific entities for generating and disseminating coordination information for both retrospective and predictive periods. The organizations established include the IMS/Satellite Situation Center (IMS/SSC) operated by NASA. The activities of the SSC are related to the preparation of reports on predicted and actually achieved satellite positions, the response to inquiries, the compilation of information on satellite experiments, and the issue of periodic status summaries. Attention is given to high-altitude satellite services, other correlative satellite services, non-IMS activities of the SSC, a summary of the SSC request activity, and post-IMS and future activities.

  5. Sizing Up the Situation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    Hailstorm damage to the Space Shuttle's External Tank inspired a NASA innovation with extensive photography applications. In order to measure the defects caused by the storm, Kennedy Space Center used telephoto lenses to zoom in on the tank and view the damage clearly. However, since there was no reference object in the image, the engineers could not determine the scale of the damage. In photographic situations similar to this, an object, such as a ruler, is placed within the field of view. This allows a person to look at a photograph and have a visual indication of the scale of the objects in it. In the External Tank situation, however, this procedure was not possible. As a solution, Kennedy developed the Scaling and Measurement Device for Photographic Images, which provides a non-intrusive means of adding a scale to a photograph. In addition to meeting Kennedy's needs, scaling images is extremely important in crime and accident scene investigations, oil and chemical tank monitoring, and aerial photography. The innovation consists of a tool that attaches directly to a camera or charge coupled device using a standard screw. Two lasers fitted to the device provide parallel beams that are set 1 inch apart. These lasers enable the device to project a pattern into the field of view. When a photograph is taken, the image of the laser pattern appears, along with the image of the object under investigation, allowing the viewer quantifiable information as to the size of the object. The laser beams are accurate to approximately 200 feet. Windows-based software was developed to work with the scaling device tool. The software provides further techniques to measure objects in photographs and digital images. By using the software, any object in the image can be measured diagonally, vertically, and horizontally. The device and its software enable the user to determine two-dimensional measurements within a photograph.

  6. Quitting Smoking - Help for Cravings and Tough Situations

    MedlinePlus

    ... Situations What does it take to stay tobacco-free? Quitting smoking can be a long and hard ... as each day passes without smoking. Staying tobacco-free over holidays The first few weeks after quitting ...

  7. First Day of Life

    MedlinePlus

    ... Things to Know About Zika & Pregnancy The First Day of Life KidsHealth > For Parents > The First Day ... continue What Your Baby Does on the First Day Many parents are surprised to see how alert ...

  8. Day one sustainability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Orr, John; Ibell, Timothy; Evernden, Mark; Darby, Antony

    2015-05-01

    Emissions reductions targets for the UK set out in the Climate Change Act for the period to 2050 will only be achieved with significant changes to the built environment, which is currently estimated to account for 50% of the UK's carbon emissions. The socio-technological nature of Civil Engineering means that this field is uniquely placed to lead the UK through such adaptations. This paper discusses the importance of interdisciplinary teaching to produce multi-faceted team approaches to sustainable design solutions. Methods for measuring success in education are often not fit for purpose, producing good students but poor engineers. Real-world failures to apply sustainable design present a serious, difficult to detect, and ultimately economically negative situation. Techniques to replace summative examinations are presented and discussed, with the aim of enhancing core technical skills alongside those required for sustainable design. Finally, the role of our future engineers in policy-making is discussed. In addition to carbon, the provision of water and food will heavily influence the work of civil engineers in the coming decades. Leadership from civil engineers with the technical knowledge and social awareness to tackle these issues will be required. This provides both opportunities and challenges for engineering education in the UK.

  9. Instructional Design for Situated Learning.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Young, Michael F.

    1993-01-01

    Discusses the design of situated learning and the ecological psychology of situated cognition. Topics addressed include the teacher's role; teacher training; anchored instruction; transfer skills; the meaning of learning; apprenticeships; and the Jasper Series, a macrocontext designed to investigate the issues of situated learning. (46 references)…

  10. French Basic Course: Basic Situations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Defense Language Inst., Monterey, CA.

    This volume of the French Basic Course contains ten situations from daily life, each divided into five sub-situations. The material for each situation consists of cartoons and lists of selected words. The purpose of the volume is to provide a vehicle for reviewing the grammar and vocabulary of lessons 1-85 of the Basic Course and adding new words…

  11. Day Care Center Enrichment Program.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    West Virginia State Dept. of Welfare, Charleston.

    This guide to a West Virginia Department of Welfare project for upgrading the quality of day care centers throughout the state presents samples of the forms used in the program, accompanied by a brief description of the program's format, requirements and procedures. The Day Care Center Enrichment Program provides a monetary incentive for…

  12. A traffic situation analysis system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sidla, Oliver; Rosner, Marcin

    2011-01-01

    The observation and monitoring of traffic with smart visions systems for the purpose of improving traffic safety has a big potential. For example embedded vision systems built into vehicles can be used as early warning systems, or stationary camera systems can modify the switching frequency of signals at intersections. Today the automated analysis of traffic situations is still in its infancy - the patterns of vehicle motion and pedestrian flow in an urban environment are too complex to be fully understood by a vision system. We present steps towards such a traffic monitoring system which is designed to detect potentially dangerous traffic situations, especially incidents in which the interaction of pedestrians and vehicles might develop into safety critical encounters. The proposed system is field-tested at a real pedestrian crossing in the City of Vienna for the duration of one year. It consists of a cluster of 3 smart cameras, each of which is built from a very compact PC hardware system in an outdoor capable housing. Two cameras run vehicle detection software including license plate detection and recognition, one camera runs a complex pedestrian detection and tracking module based on the HOG detection principle. As a supplement, all 3 cameras use additional optical flow computation in a low-resolution video stream in order to estimate the motion path and speed of objects. This work describes the foundation for all 3 different object detection modalities (pedestrians, vehi1cles, license plates), and explains the system setup and its design.

  13. Preparing Students for Front-Line Management: Non-Routine Day-to-Day Decisions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clydesdale, Greg; Tan, John

    2009-01-01

    Purpose: This paper attempts to reduce the gap between management education and practice. It emphasises day-to-day decisions that middle and lower level managers make. The purpose is to provide an education framework embodying a flexible approach to interpretation and solution creation, suitable for situations of ambiguity and uncertainty.…

  14. Solutions for Hot Situations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2003-01-01

    From the company that brought the world an integral heating and cooling food service system after originally developing it for NASA's Apollo Program, comes yet another orbital offshoot: a product that can be as thin as paper and as strong as steel. Nextel Ceramic Textiles and Composites from 3M Company offer space-age protection and innovative solutions for hot situations, ranging from NASA to NASCAR. With superior thermal protection, Nextel fabrics, tape, and sleevings outperform other high temperature textiles such as aramids, carbon, glass, and quartz, permitting engineers and manufacturers to handle applications up to 2,500 F (1,371 C). The stiffness and strength of Nextel Continuous Ceramic Fibers make them a great match for improving the rigidity of aluminum in metal matrix composites. Moreover, the fibers demonstrate low shrinkage at operating temperatures, which allow for the manufacturing of a dimensionally stable product. These novel fibers also offer excellent chemical resistance, low thermal conductivity, thermal shock resistance, low porosity, and unique electrical properties.

  15. Adult Day Services

    MedlinePlus

    A Smart Choice Adult Day Services Comparison At-a-Glance 1 Adult Day Services Assisted Living Home Care Nursing Homes Live at home with family ... supervision Nursing care available as needed during the day Flexibility to receive care only on days when ...

  16. Assessing the volcanic hazard for Rome: 40Ar/39Ar and In-SAR constraints on the most recent eruptive activity and present-day uplift at Colli Albani Volcanic District

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marra, F.; Gaeta, M.; Giaccio, B.; Jicha, B. R.; Palladino, D. M.; Polcari, M.; Sottili, G.; Taddeucci, J.; Florindo, F.; Stramondo, S.

    2016-07-01

    We present new 40Ar/39Ar data which allow us to refine the recurrence time for the most recent eruptive activity occurred at Colli Albani Volcanic District (CAVD) and constrain its geographic area. Time elapsed since the last eruption (36 kyr) overruns the recurrence time (31 kyr) in the last 100 kyr. New interferometric synthetic aperture radar data, covering the years 1993-2010, reveal ongoing inflation with maximum uplift rates (>2 mm/yr) in the area hosting the most recent (<200 ka) vents, suggesting that the observed uplift might be caused by magma injection within the youngest plumbing system. Finally, we frame the present deformation within the structural pattern of the area of Rome, characterized by 50 m of regional uplift since 200 ka and by geologic evidence for a recent (<2000 years) switch of the local stress-field, highlighting that the precursors of a new phase of volcanic activity are likely occurring at the CAVD.

  17. Grounding Emotion in Situated Conceptualization

    PubMed Central

    Wilson-Mendenhall, Christine D.; Barrett, Lisa Feldman; Simmons, W. Kyle; Barsalou, Lawrence W.

    2011-01-01

    According to the Conceptual Act Theory of Emotion, the situated conceptualization used to construe a situation determines the emotion experienced. A neuroimaging experiment tested two core hypotheses of this theory: (1) different situated conceptualizations produce different forms of the same emotion in different situations, (2) the composition of a situated conceptualization emerges from shared multimodal circuitry distributed across the brain that produces emotional states generally. To test these hypotheses, the situation in which participants experienced an emotion was manipulated. On each trial, participants immersed themselves in a physical danger or social evaluation situation and then experienced fear or anger. According to Hypothesis 1, the brain activations for the same emotion should differ as a function of the preceding situation (after removing activations that arose while constructing the situation). According to Hypothesis 2, the critical activations should reflect conceptual processing relevant to the emotion in the current situation, drawn from shared multimodal circuitry underlying emotion. The results supported these predictions and demonstrated the compositional process that produces situated conceptualizations dynamically. PMID:21192959

  18. Simulation, situated conceptualization, and prediction

    PubMed Central

    Barsalou, Lawrence W.

    2009-01-01

    Based on accumulating evidence, simulation appears to be a basic computational mechanism in the brain that supports a broad spectrum of processes from perception to social cognition. Further evidence suggests that simulation is typically situated, with the situated character of experience in the environment being reflected in the situated character of the representations that underlie simulation. A basic architecture is sketched of how the brain implements situated simulation. Within this framework, simulators implement the concepts that underlie knowledge, and situated conceptualizations capture patterns of multi-modal simulation associated with frequently experienced situations. A pattern completion inference mechanism uses current perception to activate situated conceptualizations that produce predictions via simulations on relevant modalities. Empirical findings from perception, action, working memory, conceptual processing, language and social cognition illustrate how this framework produces the extensive prediction that characterizes natural intelligence. PMID:19528009

  19. Comment: On the World's Energy Situation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kouzminow, V. A.

    1979-01-01

    Reviewed, in this editorial, are the present world energy situation and estimates of the prospects of supplying mankind with the amount of energy necessary for future socioeconomic development. Stressed is the role of different energy sources in the present and future energy balance of the world. (BT)

  20. The influence of anti-VEGF therapy on present day management of macular edema due to BRVO and CRVO: a longitudinal analysis on visual function, injection time interval and complications.

    PubMed

    Papadia, Marina; Misteli, Marie; Jeannin, Bruno; Herbort, Carl P

    2014-12-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the impact of intravitreal bevacizumab injections on the management and outcome of patients affected by retinal vein occlusions, their effectiveness on morphological and functional parameters, the modalities of long-term management and the need for additional laser treatment due to ischemic retinal evolution. Patients diagnosed with branch retinal vein occlusion (BRVO) or central retinal vein occlusion (CRVO) had a comprehensive work-up including complete ophthalmic examination, fluorangiography (FA), optical coherence tomography (OCT), visual field testing (VFT), microperimetry (MP), and laser flare photometry (LFP). In case of BRVO, intraocular bevacizumab injection was performed if significant macular edema/visual deficit was still present 3 months after onset of occlusion and injections were started at presentation in case of CRVO. Post-injection follow-up examination including best corrected visual acuity (BCVA), intraocular pressure (IOP), LFP, OCT, MP, and VFT were performed monthly and recorded at the end of follow-up. Follow-up FA was performed between 12 and 18 months after diagnosis. Injections were repeated in case of recurrence of a significant central macular edema. Patients were subdivided into 2 groups according to number of injections: 1-4 injections or more than 4 injections. The proportion of resolved cases (no recurrence after a minimum follow-up of 12 months) was calculated and correlated with number of injections. In patients needing sustained injections, management modalities were recorded. The proportion of patients having needed laser photocoagulation treatment because of significant ischemic signs was recorded. Fifty-one patients were diagnosed with retinal vein occlusion between 2006 and 2012 at the Centre for Specialized Ophthalmic Care (COS) in Lausanne, Switzerland. Forty-four had enough data and were included in the study. Nine eyes were affected by CRVO and 35 were affected by BRVO. Mean BCVA

  1. Presentation skills for nurses.

    PubMed

    Foulkes, Mark

    2015-02-20

    This article emphasises the importance of effective presentation skills. Such skills allow nurses to share knowledge and expertise and to communicate clearly in a range of workplace scenarios. Nurses are increasingly being asked to present in formal and informal situations, such as conferences, poster presentations, job interviews, case reports and ward-based teaching. This article explores the principles underpinning the development of these skills, discusses the situations in which they could be applied and demonstrates how nurses might improve and develop as presenters. PMID:25690236

  2. Present-day strain distribution across a segment of the central bend of the North Anatolian Fault Zone from a Persistent-Scatterers InSAR analysis of the ERS and Envisat archives

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peyret, M.; Masson, F.; Yavasoglu, H.; Ergintav, S.; Reilinger, R.

    2013-03-01

    The North Anatolian Fault Zone (NAFZ) is the major transform system that accommodates the westward movement of the relatively rigid Anatolian block with respect to Eurasia. Mitigating the hazard associated with devastating earthquakes requires understanding how the NAFZ accumulates and releases the potential energy of elastic deformation both in space and in time. In this study, we focus on the central bend of the NAFZ where the strike of the North Anatolian Fault (NAF) changes from N75° to N105° within less than 100 km, and where a secondary fault system veers southwards within the interior of Anatolia. We present interseismic velocity fields obtained from a Persistent-Scatterers (PS) Interferometric radar analysis of ERS and Envisat radar archives. Despite the high vegetation cover, the spatial density of measurements is high (˜10 PS/km2 in average). Interseismic velocities presented below indicate a velocity change of ˜6-8 mm/yr along the satellite line-of-sight (LOS) mainly centred on the NAF surface trace, and are in good agreement with the GPS velocity field published previously. The observed deformation is accommodated within a zone of ˜20 to 30 km width, in this area where no surface creep has been reported, contrary to the Ismetpasa segment located ˜30 km to the west of this study zone. Although less conspicuous, ˜2-3 mm/yr (˜1 mm/yr along the LOS) of the total deformation seems to be localized along the Lacin Fault. The overall agreement with horizontal GPS measurements suggests that the vertical component of the ground deformation is minor. This is confirmed, over the western part of our study zone, by the 3-D estimation of the ground deformation from the combination of the GPS- and the PS-mean velocity fields. However, a specific pattern of the PS velocity fields suggests that an area, enclosed between two faults with roughly south-north orientation, experiences uplift. The PS analyses of radar time-series both prior and posterior to the Izmit

  3. Seismicity and seismogenic structures of Central Apennines (Italy): constraints on the present-day stress field from focal mechanisms - The SLAM (Seismicity of Lazio-Abruzzo and Molise) project

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Frepoli, Alberto; Battista Cimini, Giovanni; De Gori, Pasquale; De Luca, Gaetano; Marchetti, Alessandro; Montuori, Caterina; Pagliuca, Nicola

    2016-04-01

    We present new results for the microseismic activity in the Central Apennines recorded from a total of 81seismic stations. The large number of recording sites derives from the combination of temporary and permanent seismic networks operating in the study region. Between January 2009 and October 2013 we recorded 6923 earthquakes with local magnitudes ML ranging from 0.1 to 4.8. We located hypocentres by using a refined 1D crustal velocity model. The majority of the hypocenters are located beneath the axes of the Apenninic chain, while the seismic activity observed along the peri-Tyrrhenian margin is lower. The seismicity extends to a depth of 32 km; the hypocentral depth distribution exhibits a pronounced peak of seismic energy release in the depth range between 8 and 20 km. During the observation period we recorded two major seismic swarms and one seismic sequence in the Marsica-Sorano area in which we have had the largest detected magnitude (ML = 4.8). Fault plane solutions for a total of 600 earthquakes were derived from P-polarities. This new data set consists of a number of focal plane solutions that is about four times the data so far available for regional stress field study. The majority of the focal mechanisms show predominantly normal fault solutions. T-axis trends are oriented NE-SW confirming that the area is in extension. We also derived the azimuths of the principal stress axes by inverting the fault plane solutions and calculated the direction of the maximum horizontal stress, which is mainly sub-vertical oriented. The study region has been historically affected by many strong earthquakes, some of them very destructive. This work can give an important contribution to the seismic hazard assessment in an area densely populated as the city of Rome which is distant around 60 km from the main seismogenic structures of Central Apennine.

  4. Paleomagnetic evidence for vertical-axis rotations of crustal blocks in the Woodlark Rift, SE Papua New Guinea: Miocene to present-day kinematics in one of the world's most rapidly extending plate boundary zones

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cairns, Elizabeth A.; Little, Timothy A.; Turner, Gillian M.; Wallace, Laura M.; Ellis, Susan

    2015-07-01

    The continental Woodlark Rift, in SE Papua New Guinea lies west of a propagating oceanic spreading center in the Woodlark Basin and is currently one of few places on Earth where active continental breakup is thought to be occurring. Here north-south extension is localized on a few major normal faults. We determined characteristic remanent magnetization (ChRM) components from demagnetization profiles of >300 individual specimens. From these, 157 components contribute to paleomagnetic directions for six formations. We compare Early Miocene (˜20 Ma) to Late Pliocene (3.0 ± 0.5) ChRM mean directions, at four localities, with contemporaneous expected field directions corresponding to the Australian Plate. Time-varying finite rotations from Cape Vogel Peninsula (28-12°) suggest anticlockwise rotation had begun by ˜15 Ma. This rotation may have been accompanied by rifting, ˜7 Ma earlier than previously inferred. Furthermore, that early extension may have occurred south of the present rift, and that deformation later migrated north of the Peninsula. Pliocene vertical-axis rotations are consistent with GPS-determined plate motions, suggesting that contemporary rift kinematics were established by ˜3 Ma. Finite anticlockwise rotation (10.1 ± 7.6°) in the Amphlett Islands is accordant with seafloor spreading in the Woodlark Basin, suggesting this locality has seen the full Woodlark plate motion since 3 Ma. Clockwise rotation of the Goodenough Bay Block (-6.5 ± 11.2°) since the Late Miocene has accomplished transfer of deformation between major extensional corridors, and an especially rapid local rotation (-16.3 ± 9.5°) in NW Normanby Island may suggest an incipient dextral transfer fault.

  5. Every Day Is National Lab Day

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bull, Glen

    2010-01-01

    President Barack Obama recently issued a call for increased hands-on learning in U.S. schools in an address at the National Academy of Sciences. Obama concluded that the future of the United States depends on one's ability to encourage young people to "create, and build, and invent." In this article, the author discusses National Lab Day (NLD)…

  6. A new tropospheric and stratospheric Chemistry and Transport Model MOCAGE-Climat for multi-year studies: evaluation of the present-day climatology and sensitivity to surface processes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Teyssèdre, H.; Michou, M.; Clark, H. L.; Josse, B.; Karcher, F.; Olivié, D.; Peuch, V.-H.; Saint-Martin, D.; Cariolle, D.; Attié, J.-L.; Nédélec, P.; Ricaud, P.; Thouret, V.; van der A, R. J.; Volz-Thomas, A.; Chéroux, F.

    2007-11-01

    We present the configuration of the Météo-France Chemistry and Transport Model (CTM) MOCAGE-Climat that will be dedicated to the study of chemistry and climate interactions. MOCAGE-Climat is a state-of-the-art CTM that simulates the global distribution of ozone and its precursors (82 chemical species) both in the troposphere and the stratosphere, up to the mid-mesosphere (~70 km). Surface processes (emissions, dry deposition), convection, and scavenging are explicitly described in the model that has been driven by the ECMWF operational analyses of the period 2000-2005, on T21 and T42 horizontal grids and 60 hybrid vertical levels, with and without a procedure that reduces calculations in the boundary layer, and with on-line or climatological deposition velocities. Model outputs have been compared to available observations, both from satellites (TOMS, HALOE, SMR, SCIAMACHY, MOPITT) and in-situ instrument measurements (ozone sondes, MOZAIC and aircraft campaigns) at climatological timescales. The distribution of long-lived species is in fair agreement with observations in the stratosphere putting aside the shortcomings associated with the large-scale circulation. The variability of the ozone column, both spatially and temporarily, is satisfactory. However, because the Brewer-Dobson circulation is too fast, too much ozone is accumulated in the lower to mid-stratosphere at the end of winter. Ozone in the UTLS region does not show any systematic bias. In the troposphere better agreement with ozone sonde measurements is obtained at mid and high latitudes than in the tropics and differences with observations are the lowest in summer. Simulations using a simplified boundary layer lead to larger ozone differences between the model and the observations up to the mid-troposphere. NOx in the lowest troposphere is in general overestimated, especially in the winter months over the Northern Hemisphere, which may result from a positive bias in OH. Dry deposition fluxes of O3 and

  7. Riley-Day syndrome

    MedlinePlus

    Riley-Day syndrome is an inherited disorder that affects nerves throughout the body. ... Riley-Day syndrome is passed down through families (inherited). A person must inherit a copy of the defective gene ...

  8. Riley-Day syndrome

    MedlinePlus

    ... page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/001387.htm Riley-Day syndrome To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Riley-Day syndrome is an inherited disorder that affects nerves ...

  9. Growing degree day calculator

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Degree-day benchmarks indicate discrete biological events in the development of insect pests. For the Sparganothis fruitworm, we have isolated all key development events and linked them to degree-day accumulations. These degree-day accumulations can greatly improve treatment timings for cranberry IP...

  10. Every Day Is Mathematical

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barger, Rita H.; Jarrah, Adeeb M.

    2012-01-01

    March 14 is special because it is Pi Day. Mathematics is celebrated on that day because the date, 3-14, replicates the first three digits of pi. Pi-related songs, websites, trivia facts, and more are at the fingertips of interested teachers and students. Less celebrated, but still fairly well known, is National Metric Day, which falls on October…

  11. QCD relics in the present-day Universe?

    SciTech Connect

    Ribeiro, J. E. F. T.; Antonov, D.; Nefediev, A. V.

    2011-05-23

    A possibility is suggested for the formation in the Universe of domains occupied by coherent-like states of strongly correlated quark-antiquark pairs. Only domains of the radius larger than 5 fm had a chance to survive over the entire history of the Universe, while the requirement of stability against the gravitational collapse restricts the maximum domain's radius to 14 km. Within the Generalised Nambu-Jona-Lasinio model, an exponential suppression with the domain's volume is found for the overlap between the macroscopic ground-state wavefunction of the quark-antiquark pairs and the QCD vacuum. This finding supports, at the microscopic level, the above arguments in favour of the stability of the domains.

  12. Active Immunization—Some Present-Day Problems

    PubMed Central

    1941-01-01

    Diphtheria.—Immunization is safe and effective. Compulsory measures are indicated, especially for the younger age-groups. The Schick test may be reserved for selected groups and to control modified methods. Proper spacing of doses of prophylactics and periodic reinoculation will ensure a high level of immunity. It is important to beware of “one-shot” methods. Indiscriminate swabbing is to be discouraged; high carrier rates are an indication for widespread diphtheria prophylaxis. Enteric fever.—Mass immunization is desirable in many areas, although there is no justification for compulsion except for people exposed to special risks. In deciding upon dosage of vaccine, more attention should be paid to physical state and body-weight. After the primary course, very small periodic doses (for example o.i.c.c) are worthy of trial. Vaccine can be given during an epidemic without increasing the chances of infection. Tetanus.—Two doses of toxoid spaced by six weeks give useful immunity. Women give significantly higher titres than men. A third dose of i.o.c.c. after a long interval—seven to nine months—often produces a dramatic rise in circulating antitoxin, and counteracts any tendency to waning immunity. Smallpox.—As vaccination has not been made compulsory in this country, infection by virulent strains from the continent may tax the resources of the public health services. Whooping-cough.—The large number of injections of vaccine usually recommended is a deterrent to mass immunization. Research into the possibility of fewer doses and wider spacing is indicated. Other diseases are considered briefly. Combined immunization.—It may be useful to combine diphtheria T.A.F. and tetanus toxoid, also tetanus toxoid and T.A.B. vaccine. T.A.F. plus T.A.B. is probably contra-indicated for adults on account of severe reactions. Diphtheria A.P.T. should not be mixed with tetanus toxoid as it may go into solution and become ineffective. Sterilization of syringes and needles.—An intensive inoculation campaign is no excuse for slip-shod methods. PMID:19992328

  13. Present-day anthelmintics and perspectives on future new targets.

    PubMed

    Taman, Amira; Azab, Manar

    2014-07-01

    In absence of vaccines for the majority of helminths, chemotherapy is still the mainstay for controlling human helminthiases. However, a limited number of drugs are available in the market to combat parasitic helminths in human. Besides, the development and spread of drug resistance have declined the use of most currently available anthelmintics. Clearly, availability of new anthelmintic agents will be essential in the next few years. More research into the mechanisms of drug actions and their targets are eminent for the discovery and development of novel anthelmintic agents. Recent drug discovery techniques mostly rely on mechanism-based screening of compounds on heterologously expressed targets in bacterial, mammalian or yeast cells. Although this is usually a successful approach, it is money- and time-consuming; meanwhile, pharmaceutical companies prefer the tested target that is chosen based on basic research. The nervous system is the site of action of several chemotherapeutics including pesticides and antinematode drugs; accordingly, the nervous system continues to be a promising target. Recent advances in exploring helminths' nervous system, neurotransmitters and receptors have paved the way for the development of potential agents targeting the nervous system and its components. PMID:24894082

  14. Present-day uplift of the western Alps

    PubMed Central

    Nocquet, J.-M.; Sue, C.; Walpersdorf, A.; Tran, T.; Lenôtre, N.; Vernant, P.; Cushing, M.; Jouanne, F.; Masson, F.; Baize, S.; Chéry, J.; van der Beek, P. A.

    2016-01-01

    Collisional mountain belts grow as a consequence of continental plate convergence and eventually disappear under the combined effects of gravitational collapse and erosion. Using a decade of GPS data, we show that the western Alps are currently characterized by zero horizontal velocity boundary conditions, offering the opportunity to investigate orogen evolution at the time of cessation of plate convergence. We find no significant horizontal motion within the belt, but GPS and levelling measurements independently show a regional pattern of uplift reaching ~2.5 mm/yr in the northwestern Alps. Unless a low viscosity crustal root under the northwestern Alps locally enhances the vertical response to surface unloading, the summed effects of isostatic responses to erosion and glaciation explain at most 60% of the observed uplift rates. Rock-uplift rates corrected from transient glacial isostatic adjustment contributions likely exceed erosion rates in the northwestern Alps. In the absence of active convergence, the observed surface uplift must result from deep-seated processes. PMID:27346228

  15. [Present-day metal-cutting tools and working conditions].

    PubMed

    Kondratiuk, V P

    1990-01-01

    Polyfunctional machine-tools of a processing centre type are characterized by a set of hygienic advantages as compared to universal machine-tools. But low degree of mechanization and automation of some auxiliary processes, and constructional defects which decrease the ergonomic characteristics of the tools, involve labour intensity in multi-machine processing. The article specifies techniques of allowable noise level assessment, and proposes hygienic recommendations, some of which have been introduced into practice. PMID:2328919

  16. [Fire worship on Soratte: form prehistory to present days].

    PubMed

    Falchetti, Mario; Ottini, Laura

    2013-01-01

    Fire has always been involved in human thoughts, believes and actions. For many psychological reasons fire has been considered as living power: red as the human blood, warm as the human body, clearly shines in the night. Fire worship is very common, especially in regions where terrestrial fire is believed to be the image of the heavenly fire. Fire worship has represented the base for symbolic systems involved in the cultural-anthropological evolution of populations settled close to mount Soratte. Fire cults in this region have originated in independent and long-time separated contexts, according to available knowledge. Hirpi Sorani, ancient inhabitants of mount Soratte territory, celebrated Sorano Apollo by a famous fire walking ceremony, with a likely cathartic and apotropaic meaning, as reported by ancient Roman writers. The victory of Christianity over paganism caused the decline of these religious practices. The beginning of the XIX century witnessed the establishment ofa new kind of devotion to the Virgin Mary at the mount Soratte. Today, this religious piety-linked identity has weakened due to changes in lifestyles,from an agricultural to one based on outside home employment, and has been largely shifted on cultural and anthropological bases. In conclusion, fire worship at mount Soratte has evolved because of external influences and local inhabitants have reacted by asserting their own identity. PMID:25807785

  17. Present-day uplift of the western Alps

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nocquet, J.-M.; Sue, C.; Walpersdorf, A.; Tran, T.; Lenôtre, N.; Vernant, P.; Cushing, M.; Jouanne, F.; Masson, F.; Baize, S.; Chéry, J.; van der Beek, P. A.

    2016-06-01

    Collisional mountain belts grow as a consequence of continental plate convergence and eventually disappear under the combined effects of gravitational collapse and erosion. Using a decade of GPS data, we show that the western Alps are currently characterized by zero horizontal velocity boundary conditions, offering the opportunity to investigate orogen evolution at the time of cessation of plate convergence. We find no significant horizontal motion within the belt, but GPS and levelling measurements independently show a regional pattern of uplift reaching ~2.5 mm/yr in the northwestern Alps. Unless a low viscosity crustal root under the northwestern Alps locally enhances the vertical response to surface unloading, the summed effects of isostatic responses to erosion and glaciation explain at most 60% of the observed uplift rates. Rock-uplift rates corrected from transient glacial isostatic adjustment contributions likely exceed erosion rates in the northwestern Alps. In the absence of active convergence, the observed surface uplift must result from deep-seated processes.

  18. The ethical debate on present day paternity testing practices.

    PubMed

    Mertens, G

    2006-01-01

    The last years, the number of paternity tests on buccal swabs sold over the internet as "test kits", has steeply increased. The commercial providers of these services facilitate controversial practices, including clandestine sampling at home, anonymous sending off for analysis, motherless testing and using "stolen" personal objects containing biological material (combs, cigarette butts). This has led to concern on the consequences on the family unit--especially the child--which may suffer emotionally, physically and financially. In reaction, legal initiatives are appearing throughout Europe. The UK Human Genetics Commission has advised that the non-consensual obtaining and analysis of personal genetic information should be a new criminal offence. The German Federal Court of Justice has ruled that paternity tests performed without the mother's knowledge are inadmissible as evidence in lawsuits. French law strictly forbids the application of DNA testing without the involvement of the court system. In Belgium, a proposal for law has been laid down where the offering to PMID:16792338

  19. Illiteracy, Sex and Occupational Status in Present-Day China.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lamontagne, Jacques

    This study determined the magnitude of disparity between men and women in China in relation to illiteracy and occupational status. Region and ethnicity are used as control variables. The data collected are from a 10 percent sampling of the 1982 census; the total sample size includes a population of 100,380,000 nationwide. The census questionnaire…

  20. Catalogues of variable stars from Parenago to the present day

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Samus, N. N.

    2006-04-01

    After World War II, the International Astronomical Union made Soviet astronomers responsible for variable-star catalogues. This work has been continued ever since the first edition of the General Catalogue of Variable Stars compiled by the team headed by P.P. Parenago and B.V. Kukarkin and published in 1948. Currently, the catalogue work is a joint project of the Institute of Astronomy (Russian Academy of Sciences) and the Sternberg Astronomical Institute (Moscow University). This paper is a brief review of recent trends in the field of variable-star catalogues. Problems as well as new prospects related to modern large-scale automatic photometric sky surveys are discussed.

  1. Microplate model for the present-day deformation of Tibet

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Thatcher, W.

    2007-01-01

    Site velocities from 349 Global Positioning System (GPS) stations are used to construct an 11-element quasi-rigid block model of the Tibetan Plateau and its surroundings. Rigid rotations of five major blocks are well determined, and average translation velocities of six smaller blocks can be constrained. Where data are well distributed the velocity field can be explained well by rigid block motion and fault slip across block boundaries. Residual misfits average 1.6 mm/yr compared to typical one standard deviation velocity uncertainties of 1.3 mm/yr. Any residual internal straining of the blocks is small and heterogeneous. However, residual substructure might well represent currently unresolved motions of smaller blocks. Although any smaller blocks must move at nearly the same rate as the larger blocks within which they lie, undetected relative motions between them could be significant, particularly where there are gaps in GPS coverage. Predicted relative motions between major blocks agree with the observed sense of slip and along-strike partitioning of motion across major faults. However, predicted slip rates across Tibet's major strike-slip faults are low, only 5-12 mm/yr, a factor of 2-3 smaller than most rates estimated from fault offset features dated by radiometric methods as ???2000 to ???100,000 year old. Previous work has suggested that both GPS data and low fault slip rates are incompatible with rigid block motions of Tibet. The results reported here overcome these objections.

  2. Present-day uplift of the western Alps.

    PubMed

    Nocquet, J-M; Sue, C; Walpersdorf, A; Tran, T; Lenôtre, N; Vernant, P; Cushing, M; Jouanne, F; Masson, F; Baize, S; Chéry, J; van der Beek, P A

    2016-01-01

    Collisional mountain belts grow as a consequence of continental plate convergence and eventually disappear under the combined effects of gravitational collapse and erosion. Using a decade of GPS data, we show that the western Alps are currently characterized by zero horizontal velocity boundary conditions, offering the opportunity to investigate orogen evolution at the time of cessation of plate convergence. We find no significant horizontal motion within the belt, but GPS and levelling measurements independently show a regional pattern of uplift reaching ~2.5 mm/yr in the northwestern Alps. Unless a low viscosity crustal root under the northwestern Alps locally enhances the vertical response to surface unloading, the summed effects of isostatic responses to erosion and glaciation explain at most 60% of the observed uplift rates. Rock-uplift rates corrected from transient glacial isostatic adjustment contributions likely exceed erosion rates in the northwestern Alps. In the absence of active convergence, the observed surface uplift must result from deep-seated processes. PMID:27346228

  3. Satellite galaxies around present-day massive ellipticals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ruiz, Pablo; Trujillo, Ignacio; Mármol-Queraltó, Esther

    2014-07-01

    Using the spectroscopic New York University Value-Added Galaxy Catalogue and the photometric photo-z catalogues of the Sloan Digital Sky Survey Data Release 7, we have explored the satellite distribution around ˜1000 massive (M⋆ ≳ 2 × 1011 M⊙) visually classified elliptical galaxies down to a satellite mass ratio of 1:400 (i.e. 5 × 108 ≲ Msat ≲ 2 × 1011 M⊙). Our host galaxies were selected to be representative of a mass complete sample. The satellites of these galaxies were searched within a projected radial distance of 100 kpc to their hosts. We have found that only 20-23 per cent of the massive ellipticals have at least a satellite down to a mass ratio 1:10. This number increases to 45-52 per cent if we explore satellites down to 1:100 and is >60-70 per cent if we go further down to 1:400. The average projected radial distance of the satellites to their hosts for our whole sample down to 1:400 is ˜59 kpc (which can be decreased at least down to 50 kpc if we account for incompleteness effects). The number of satellites per galaxy host only increases very mildly at decreasing the satellite mass. The fraction of mass which is contained in the satellites down to a mass ratio of 1:400 is 8 per cent of the total mass contained by the hosts. Satellites with a mass ratio from 1:2 to 1:5 (with ˜28 per cent of the total mass of the satellites) are the main contributor to the total satellite mass. If the satellites eventually infall into the host galaxies, the merger channel will be largely dominated by satellites with a mass ratio down to 1:10 (as these objects have 68 per cent of the total mass in satellites).

  4. Human Capital and Its Development in Present-Day Russia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nureev, R. M.

    2010-01-01

    In the broad sense of the word human capital is a specific form of capital that is embodied in people themselves. It consists of the individual's reserve of health, knowledge, skills, abilities, and motivations that enable him to increase his labor productivity and give him an income in the form of wages, salaries, and other income. The structure…

  5. Present-day plate motions. [ocean bottom movements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Minster, J. B.; Jordan, T. H.

    1978-01-01

    An instantaneous plate-motion model, Relative Motion 2 (RM2), is obtained by inverting a data set comprising 110 spreading rates, 78 transform fault azimuths, and 142 earthquake slip vectors. RM2 is compared with angular velocity vectors which best fit the data along individual plate boundaries and, while the model performs close to optimally in most regions, attention is directed to those regions which are not suitably described by the model. Reasons for the discrepancies between RM2 and observations for the India-Antarctica plate boundary, the Pacific-India plate boundary, and the east-west trending transform fault azimuths observed in the French-American Mid-Ocean Undersea Study area are discussed.

  6. Syphilis: An Old Disease With Present-Day Implications.

    PubMed

    McNeil, Candice J; Bachmann, Laura H

    2016-01-01

    Syphilis continues to be a burden on the public health system. While men who have sex with men and HIV-infected individuals are the most affected populations, syphilis rates have also increased in reproductive-aged women, resulting in concurrent increases in congenital syphilis. Prompt diagnosis and treatment are requisite components of syphilis control. PMID:27621352

  7. Creating Day and Night: Past, Present, and Future

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kaiser, Mary K.

    The capability to produce compelling renderings of daylight and nocturnal environments has been a challenge both for flight simulation and for film and related entertainment venues. In this chapter, I compare and contrast the technologies and techniques that these communities have employed during the last half-century. In particular, I will examine the varying criteria (aesthetics-based, performance-based, information-based) employed to evaluate the “goodness” of the rendering. I will also discuss the future challenges awaiting the simulation community, as humans migrate to space environments whose lighting characteristics are decidedly non-terrestrial, and where the transition between “day” and “night” occurs, not at dusk, but at the edge of a boulder or crevasse.

  8. Oceanic Situational Awareness Over the Pacific Corridor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Welch, Bryan; Greenfeld, Israel

    2005-01-01

    Air traffic control (ATC) mandated, aircraft separations over the oceans impose a limitation on traffic capacity for a given corridor, given the projected traffic growth over the Pacific Ocean. The separations result from a lack of acceptable situational awareness over oceans where radar position updates are not available. This study considers the use of Automatic Dependent Surveillance (ADS) data transmitted over a commercial satellite communications system as an approach to provide ATC with the needed situational awareness and thusly allow for reduced aircraft separations. This study uses Federal Aviation Administration data from a single day for the Pacific Corridor to analyze traffic loading to be used as a benchmark against which to compare several approaches for coordinating data transmissions from the aircraft to the satellites.

  9. A Model Disability Awareness Day.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Watson, Emily Strauss

    1984-01-01

    Describes an all-day conciousness raising program designed to teach elementary school students about the disabled. The program described consisted of oral presentations and a theater performance by disabled individuals; it was presented to 270 students at Mary A. Hubbard School in Ramsey, New Jersey. (GC)

  10. Two Replicable Suppressor Situations in Personality Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Paulhus, Delroy L.; Robins, Richard W.; Trzesniewski, Kali H.; Tracy, Jessica L.

    2004-01-01

    Suppressor situations occur when the simultaneous inclusion of two predictors improves one or both validities. A common allegation is that suppressor effects rarely replicate and have little substantive import. We present substantive examples from two established research domains to counter this skepticism. In the first domain, we show how…

  11. Teaching Decision-Making Using Situational Leadership.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Prior, Daniel W.; And Others

    1991-01-01

    This article reviews the basic tenets of the Situational Leadership model, examines the steps of the Conflict Model for decision making, and presents a conceptual model that integrates the two. The integrated model aims to provide a systematic means for allowing individuals to learn how to participate in organizational decisions. (JDD)

  12. The Language Planning Situation in Malawi.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kayambazinthu, Edrinnie

    1998-01-01

    Presents a detailed study of the language-planning situation in Malawi, exploring the historical and political processes, as well as current practices of language planning in the country. Discussion reconstructs and demonstrates how sociopolitical change has been perceived in Malawi and how this perception has translated into language planning in…

  13. IMS/Satellite Situation Center report

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1973-01-01

    Services planned by the Satellite Situation Center during the International Magnetospheric Study are briefly described. User requirements are emphasized. The following data are presented: orbital parameters for ISIS 2, ESRO 4, and HEOS 2; entry exit times for highly elliptical satellites; plots for highly elliptical earth satellites; and plots and flux tube intersection for low altitude satellites.

  14. Directors' Self Appraisal of Leadership Situations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gill, Wanda E.

    The leadership styles of 15 directors at Bowie State College (Maryland) was examined, using the Leader Effectiveness and Adaptability Description (LEAD) Self Survey. The instrument presents situations that show the leader's concern for job relationships and tasks. Directors were defined as mid-level managers with key administrative and supervisory…

  15. News UK public libraries offer walk-in access to research Atoms for Peace? The Atomic Weapons Establishment and UK universities Students present their research to academics: CERN@school Science in a suitcase: Marvin and Milo visit Ethiopia Inspiring telescopes A day for everyone teaching physics 2014 Forthcoming Events

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2014-05-01

    UK public libraries offer walk-in access to research Atoms for Peace? The Atomic Weapons Establishment and UK universities Students present their research to academics: CERN@school Science in a suitcase: Marvin and Milo visit Ethiopia Inspiring telescopes A day for everyone teaching physics 2014 Forthcoming Events

  16. Eso's Situation in Chile

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1995-02-01

    that the best VLT site would be the Paranal Mountain, 700 km north of La Silla and 130 km south of Antofagasta, the capital of the Second Region in Chile. In October 1988, the Chilean Government by an official act donated the land surrounding Paranal (in all 725 sq. km) to ESO. As is the case for La Silla, this would serve to protect the planned, incredibly sensitive mega-telescope against all possible future sources of outside interference. The donation was made on the condition that ESO would indeed proceed with the construction of the VLT at Paranal within the next five years. The corresponding decision was taken by the ESO Council in December 1990. The construction of the VLT observatory site at Paranal started immediately thereafter, thus fulfilling the condition attached to the donation. The construction of the VLT is now well advanced. In Europe, the main parts of the first VLT unit 8.2-metre telescope will be pre-assembled later this year and the first two of the enormous mirrors are being polished. In Chile, the extensive landscaping of the Paranal peak was finished in 1993, during which around 300,000 cubic metres of rock and soil was removed to provide a 100x100 sq. metres platform for the VLT, and the concrete foundations are now ready. The installation of the first telescope enclosure can now begin and the next will start later this year. The first of the four telescopes is expected to start observations in late 1997. All in all, ESO has until now committed about 70 percent of the expected total investment for the VLT, estimated to be approximately 570 million DEM. THE OWNERSHIP OF PARANAL According to information later received, the Chilean Ministry of National Properties ("Bienes Nacionales") inscribed in 1977 in its name various lands in the commune of Taltal, including the area of the Paranal peak. At that time, i.e. ten years before ESO decided to construct the VLT, nobody in this Organisation could imagine that this telescope would one day be

  17. Advancing Space Situational Awareness through International Coordination

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Onsager, Terrance

    2012-07-01

    The growing interest in Space Situational Awareness and the recognized need for global coordination has led to the involvement of numerous international activities to increase awareness and foster cooperation. These activities are serving to prioritize and to coordinate our efforts and helping to establish a stronger, global Space Situational Awareness enterprise. This coordination is important for our data infrastructure, research developments, and the provision of operational services. Among the organizations that are contributing to this global coordination are: the International Space Environment Service, the World Meteorological Organization, the United Nations Office for Outer Space Affairs, the International Civil Aviation Organization, the Coordination Group for Meteorological Satellites, and the International Committee on GNSS. In this presentation, the contributions of these various organizations to coordinating our Space Situational Awareness efforts will be described, with an emphasis on space weather.

  18. How "situational" is judgment in situational judgment tests?

    PubMed

    Krumm, Stefan; Lievens, Filip; Hüffmeier, Joachim; Lipnevich, Anastasiya A; Bendels, Hanna; Hertel, Guido

    2015-03-01

    Whereas situational judgment tests (SJTs) have traditionally been conceptualized as low-fidelity simulations with an emphasis on contextualized situation descriptions and context-dependent knowledge, a recent perspective views SJTs as measures of more general domain (context-independent) knowledge. In the current research, we contrasted these 2 perspectives in 3 studies by removing the situation descriptions (i.e., item stems) from SJTs. Across studies, the traditional contextualized SJT perspective was not supported for between 43% and 71% of the items because it did not make a significant difference whether the situation description was included or not for these items. These results were replicated across construct domains, samples, and response instructions. However, there was initial evidence that judgment in SJTs was more situational when (a) items measured job knowledge and skills and (b) response options denoted context-specific rules of action. Verbal protocol analyses confirmed that high scorers on SJTs without situation descriptions relied upon general rules about the effectiveness of the responses. Implications for SJT theory, research, and design are discussed. PMID:25111248

  19. Popular Chat Day Q & A

    MedlinePlus

    ... Day / Popular Chat Day Q & A Popular Chat Day Q & A Print Read students’ most popular questions ... Cool Order Free Materials National Drugs & Alcohol Chat Day Chat Day Participant FAQs Popular Chat Day Q & ...

  20. Situation Awareness Information Requirements for Commercial Airline Pilots

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Endsley, Mica R.; Farley, Todd C.; Jones, William M.; Midkiff, Alan H.; Hansman, R. John

    1998-01-01

    Situation awareness is presented as a fundamental requirement for good airmanship, forming the basis for pilot decision making and performance. To develop a better understanding of the role of situation awareness in flying, an analysis was performed to determine the specific situation awareness information requirements for commercial aircraft pilots. This was conducted as a goal-directed task analysis in which pilots' major goals, subgoals, decisions, and associated situation awareness information requirements were delineated based on elicitation from experienced commercial airline pilots. A determination of the major situation awareness information requirements for visual and instrument flight was developed from this analysis, providing a foundation for future system development which seeks to enhance pilot situation awareness and provide a basis for the development of situation awareness measures for commercial flight.

  1. The Presidents' Day Game

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maxwell, D. Jackson

    2008-01-01

    The history behind the holiday commonly called "Presidents' Day" is a bit confusing. It started as a federal holiday called Washington's Birthday. It was a day set aside to honor George Washington for his accomplishments as a founding father of the country. Later, many northern states began to recognize Abraham Lincoln's Birthday as well for his…

  2. Family Science Day

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McCubbins, Sara; Thomas, Bethany; Vetere, Michael

    2014-01-01

    This article describes a family-friendly science day event that encourages scientific discovery through hands-on activities, while also providing an opportunity to learn about scientific careers from actual research scientists and science educators, thereby raising awareness of the importance of STEM in our society. The one-day event bought…

  3. Rainy Day Activities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Texas Child Care, 1997

    1997-01-01

    Experienced caregivers plan ahead for rainy days. This article describes specific rainy day activities for young children, such as books and crafts to learn about rain (rain in a jar, making a rainbow), simple cooking activities (taffy pull, cinnamon candy tea), and games (mummy wrap, hunt the thimble, rain lotto). (EV)

  4. RED-LETTER DAYS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The word "red-letter" is an adjective meaning "of special significance." It's origin is from the practice of marking Christian holy days in red letters on calendars. The "red-letter days" to which I refer occurred while I was a graduate student of ...

  5. Increasing situational awareness using smartphones

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boddhu, Sanjay K.; Williams, Robert L.; Wasser, Edward; Kode, Niranjan

    2012-06-01

    In recent years, the United States Armed Services and various law enforcement agencies have shown increasing interest in evaluating the feasibility of using smartphones and hand-held devices as part of the standard gear for its personnel, who are actively engaged on battlefield or in crime-prone areas. The primary motive driving analysis efforts to employ smartphone-based technologies is the prospect of the increased "Situational Awareness" achievable thru a digitally connected network of armed personnel. Personnel would be equipped with customized smart applications that use the device's sensors (GPS, camera, compass, etc...) to sense the hostile environments as well as enabling them to perform collaborative tasks to effectively complete a given mission. In this vein, as part of the Summer At The Edge (SATE) program, a group of student interns under the guidance of mentors from Qbase and AFRL, have employed smartphones and built three smart applications to tackle three real-world scenarios: PinPoint, IStream, and Cooperative GPS. This paper provides implementation details for these prototype applications, along with the supporting visualization and sensor cloud platforms and discusses results obtained from field testing of the same. Further, the paper concludes by providing the implications of the present work and insights into future work.

  6. Macrocognition in Day-To-Day Police Incident Response

    PubMed Central

    Baber, Chris; McMaster, Richard

    2016-01-01

    Using examples of incidents that UK Police Forces deal with on a day-to-day basis, we explore the macrocognition of incident response. Central to our analysis is the idea that information relating to an incident is translated from negotiated to structured and actionable meaning, in terms of the Community of Practice of the personnel involved in incident response. Through participant observation of, and interviews with, police personnel, we explore the manner in which these different types of meaning shift over the course of incident. In this way, macrocognition relates to gathering, framing, and sharing information through the collaborative sensemaking practices of those involved. This involves two cycles of macrocognition, which we see as ‘informal’ (driven by information gathering as the Community of Practice negotiates and actions meaning) and ‘formal’ (driven by the need to assign resources to the response and the need to record incident details). The examples illustrate that these cycles are often intertwined, as are the different forms of meaning, in situation-specific ways that provide adaptive response to the demands of the incident. PMID:27014117

  7. The Concept of Situation in Information Science.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cool, Colleen

    2001-01-01

    Reviews the theoretical and empirical literature on the concept of situation in information science. Highlights include situation, context, and interaction with information; cognitive sociology and social interaction theory; situated action; the theory of situation awareness; person-in-situation model; and situation environments. (Contains 126…

  8. The Language Situation in Tunisia.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Daoud, Mohamed

    2001-01-01

    Describes the current language situation in Tunisia while maintaining a historical perspective that is helpful in understanding how language-related changes have come about, and a prospective view that may illuminate future developments. (Author/VWL)

  9. AAS 227: Day 4

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kohler, Susanna

    2016-01-01

    Editors Note:This week were at the 227th AAS Meeting in Kissimmee, FL. Along with several fellow authors from astrobites.com, I will bewritingupdates on selectedevents at themeeting and posting at the end of each day. Follow along here or atastrobites.com, or catch ourlive-tweeted updates from the@astrobites Twitter account. The usual posting schedule for AAS Nova will resumenext week.Welcome to Day 4 of the winter American Astronomical Society (AAS) meeting in Kissimmee! Several of us are attending the conference this year, and we will report highlights from each day here on astrobites. If youd like to see more timely updates during the day, we encourage you to follow @astrobites on twitter or search the #aas227 hashtag.Helen B. Warner Prize: Origins of Structure in Planetary Systems (by Erika Nesvold)Another excellent prize lecture started off todays sessions. The Helen B. Warner Prize is awarded for achievement in observational or theoretical astrophysics by a young researcher (no more than eight years after their Ph.D.). This years Warner Prize was presented to Ruth Murray-Clay of UC Santa Barbara. For her award lecture, Murray-Clay told us all about planetary system architecture: the number, masses, and orbits of planets in a given system.Ruth Murray-Clay [photo from http://web.physics.ucsb.edu/ ~murray/biocv.html]The underlying question motivating this type of research is: How rare is the Solar System? In other words, how likely is it that a given planetary system will have rocky planets close to their star, gas giants farther out, and ice giants at the outer reaches of the system? Answering this question will help us solve the physics problem of how and where planets form, and will also help us on our search for other planets like Earth.The data on exoplanet population from transit and radial velocity observations and from direct imaging tell us that our Solar System is not common (many systems we observe have much more eccentric gas giants), but that doesnt

  10. Postural correlates with painful situations

    PubMed Central

    Lelard, Thierry; Montalan, Benoît; Morel, Maria F.; Krystkowiak, Pierre; Ahmaidi, Said; Godefroy, Olivier; Mouras, Harold

    2013-01-01

    Background: Emotional context may play a crucial role in movement production. According to simulation theories, emotional states affect motor systems. The aim of this study was to compare postural responses assessed by posturography and electromyography when subjects were instructed to imagine themselves in a painful or a non-painful situation. Methods: Twenty-nine subjects (22.3 ± 3.7 years) participated in this study. While standing quietly on a posturographic platform, they were instructed to imagine themselves in a painful or non-painful situation. Displacement of the center of pressure (COP), leg muscle electromyographic activity, heart rate, and electrodermal activity were assessed in response to painful and non-painful situations. Results: The anteroposterior path was shorter (p < 0.05) when subjects imagined themselves in a painful situation (M = 148.0 ± 33.4 mm) compared to a non-painful situation (158.2 ± 38.7 mm). Higher tibialis anterior (TA) activity (RMS-TA = 3.38 ± 1.95% vs. 3.24 ± 1.85%; p < 0.001) and higher variability of soleus (SO) activity (variation coefficient of RMS-SO = 13.5 ± 16.2% vs. M = 9.0 ± 7.2%; p < 0.05) were also observed in painful compared to non-painful situations. No significant changes were observed for other physiological data. Conclusion: This study demonstrates that simulation of painful situations induces changes in postural control and leg muscle activation compared to non-painful situations, as increased stiffness was demonstrated in response to aversive pictures in accordance with previous results. PMID:23386816

  11. AAS 227: Day 2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kohler, Susanna

    2016-01-01

    Editors Note:This week were at the 227th AAS Meeting in Kissimmee, FL. Along with several fellow authors from astrobites.com, I will bewritingupdates on selectedevents at themeeting and posting at the end of each day. Follow along here or atastrobites.com, or catch ourlive-tweeted updates from the@astrobites Twitter account. The usual posting schedule for AAS Nova will resumenext week.Welcome to Day 2 of the winter American Astronomical Society (AAS) meeting in Kissimmee! Several of us are attending the conference this year, and we will report highlights from each day here on astrobites. If youd like to see more timely updates during the day, we encourage you to follow @astrobites on twitter or search the #aas227 hashtag.Plenary Session: Black Hole Physics with the Event Horizon Telescope (by Susanna Kohler)If anyone needed motivation to wake up early this morning, they got it in the form of Feryal Ozel (University of Arizona) enthralling us all with exciting pictures, videos, and words about black holes and the Event Horizon Telescope. Ozel spoke to a packed room (at 8:30am!) about where the project currently stands, and where its heading in the future.The EHT has pretty much the coolest goal ever: actually image the event horizons of black holes in our universe. The problem is that the largest black hole we can look at (Sgr A*, in the center of our galaxy) has an event horizon size of 50 as. For this kind of resolution roughly equivalent to trying to image a DVD on the Moon! wed need an Earth-sized telescope. EHT has solved this problem by linking telescopes around the world, creating one giant, mm-wavelength effective telescope with a baseline the size of Earth.Besides producing awesome images, the EHT will be able to test properties of black-hole spacetime, the no-hair theorem, and general relativity (GR) in new regimes.Ozel walked us through some of the theory prep work we need to do now in order to get the most science out of the EHT, including devising new

  12. Pregnancy - identifying fertile days

    MedlinePlus

    ... between days 7 and 20 of a woman's menstrual cycle. In order to become pregnant, having sex every ... hours of ovulation. If you have an irregular menstrual cycle, an ovulation predictor kit can help you know ...

  13. Career Day 2012

    NASA Video Gallery

    More than 200 high school juniors and seniors with interests in science, technology, engineering and math met one-on-one with professionals at NASA's Langley Research Center during Career Day 2012,...

  14. Stennis Day Camper

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2005-01-01

    Sara Beth Casey, 5, proudly displays her artwork, 'Planets.' Sara Beth created the art as a student of Stennis Day Camp, a free camp for Stennis Space Center employees' children whose schools have not resumed since Hurricane Katrina hit the region on Aug. 29. The camp has registered nearly 200 children and averages 100 children each day. The camp will continue until all schools are back in session.

  15. AAS 227: Day 4

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kohler, Susanna

    2016-01-01

    Editors Note:This week were at the 227th AAS Meeting in Kissimmee, FL. Along with several fellow authors from astrobites.com, I will bewritingupdates on selectedevents at themeeting and posting at the end of each day. Follow along here or atastrobites.com, or catch ourlive-tweeted updates from the@astrobites Twitter account. The usual posting schedule for AAS Nova will resumenext week.Welcome to Day 4 of the winter American Astronomical Society (AAS) meeting in Kissimmee! Several of us are attending the conference this year, and we will report highlights from each day here on astrobites. If youd like to see more timely updates during the day, we encourage you to follow @astrobites on twitter or search the #aas227 hashtag.Helen B. Warner Prize: Origins of Structure in Planetary Systems (by Erika Nesvold)Another excellent prize lecture started off todays sessions. The Helen B. Warner Prize is awarded for achievement in observational or theoretical astrophysics by a young researcher (no more than eight years after their Ph.D.). This years Warner Prize was presented to Ruth Murray-Clay of UC Santa Barbara. For her award lecture, Murray-Clay told us all about planetary system architecture: the number, masses, and orbits of planets in a given system.Ruth Murray-Clay [photo from http://web.physics.ucsb.edu/ ~murray/biocv.html]The underlying question motivating this type of research is: How rare is the Solar System? In other words, how likely is it that a given planetary system will have rocky planets close to their star, gas giants farther out, and ice giants at the outer reaches of the system? Answering this question will help us solve the physics problem of how and where planets form, and will also help us on our search for other planets like Earth.The data on exoplanet population from transit and radial velocity observations and from direct imaging tell us that our Solar System is not common (many systems we observe have much more eccentric gas giants), but that doesnt

  16. Experiments for a Special Day

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gluck, Paul

    2008-01-01

    Special events like science days, teacher's meetings and physics recruiting efforts require spectacular and, if possible, interactive experiments for the audience. Based on past experience with such events, we have gathered and present here a series of demonstration experiments in mechanics, optics, waves and electricity which are suitable, and…

  17. Festivals of the Darkest Days.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cacha, Frances B.

    1980-01-01

    Presents historical background on various winter festivals around the world including Saturnalia, Christmas, winter solstice, Yule festivals, Hannukah, Divali, and New Year's Day. Suggests how teachers can help elementary school students understand their own culture by studying these and other festivals using maps, mobiles, discussion, and reading…

  18. AAS 227: Day 3

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kohler, Susanna

    2016-01-01

    Editors Note:This week were at the 227th AAS Meeting in Kissimmee, FL. Along with several fellow authors from astrobites.com, I will bewritingupdates on selectedevents at themeeting and posting at the end of each day. Follow along here or atastrobites.com, or catch ourlive-tweeted updates from the@astrobites Twitter account. The usual posting schedule for AAS Nova will resumenext week.Welcome to Day 3 of the winter American Astronomical Society (AAS) meeting in Kissimmee! Several of us are attending the conference this year, and we will report highlights from each day here on astrobites. If youd like to see more timely updates during the day, we encourage you to follow @astrobites on twitter or search the #aas227 hashtag.Henry Norris Russell Lecture: Viewing the Universe with Infrared Eyes: The Spitzer Space Telescope (by Erika Nesvold)The Henry Norris Russell Award is the highest honor given by the AAS, for a lifetime of eminence in astronomy research. This years award went to Giovanni Fazio of the Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics. Fazio became a leader in gamma ray astronomy before switching mid-career to the study of infrared astronomy, and he gave his award lecture on the latter subject, specifically on the Spitzer Space Telescope, one of the most successful infrared telescopes of all time.Artists rendering of the Spitzer space telescope. [NASA/JPL-Caltech]Spitzer has been operating for more than twelve years, and has resulted in over six thousand papers in refereed journals in that time. The telescope sits in an Earth-trailing orbit around the Sun, and is now farther from the Earth (1.4 AU) than the Earth is from the Sun. Fazio gave the audience a fascinating overview of the science done by Spitzer over more than a decade. One of the most productive areas of research for Spitzer is the study of exoplanets, which hadnt even been discovered when the Spitzer Telescope was first conceived. Spitzers high sensitivity and ability to observe exoplanets over

  19. Antarctica Day: An International Celebration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pope, A.; Hambrook Berkman, J.; Berkman, P. A.

    2013-12-01

    involving the International Association of Antarctic Tour Operators; and public lectures and online videos (including a notable submission from Polar Educators International). Antarctica Day was initiated as a legacy of the 2009 Antarctic Treaty Summit (www.atsumit50.aq), which was convened at the Smithsonian Institution with 40 sponsoring institutions from around the world as part of the International Polar Year. Antarctic Day involved participants from 14 nations in 2010. 28 nations in 2011, and 26 nations in 2012 with representatives from all 7 continents. Antarctica Day 2013 will have recently taken place before the AGU Fall Meeting 2013, and we will present updates at that time. Our aim is to continue expanding Antarctica Day as a globally-accessible platform to share, interpret and cherish the values associated with Antarctica for the benefit of present and future generations. We look forward to the discussion and sharing that this session will provide.

  20. Image processing for flight crew enhanced situation awareness

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Roberts, Barry

    1993-01-01

    This presentation describes the image processing work that is being performed for the Enhanced Situational Awareness System (ESAS) application. Specifically, the presented work supports the Enhanced Vision System (EVS) component of ESAS.

  1. Athletic Training Clinical Instructors as Situational Leaders

    PubMed Central

    Meyer, Linda Platt

    2002-01-01

    Objective: To present Situational Leadership as a model that can be implemented by clinical instructors during clinical education. Effective leadership occurs when the leadership style is matched with the observed followers' characteristics. Effective leaders anticipate and assess change and adapt quickly and grow with the change, all while leading followers to do the same. As athletic training students' levels of readiness change, clinical instructors also need to transform their leadership styles and strategies to match the students' ever-changing observed needs in different situations. Data Sources: CINAHL (1982–2002), MEDLINE (1990–2001), SPORT Discus (1949–2002), ERIC (1966–2002), and Internet Web sites were searched. Search terms included leadership, situational leadership, clinical instructors and leadership, teachers as leaders, and clinical education. Data Synthesis: Situational Leadership is presented as a leadership model to be used by clinical instructors while teaching and supervising athletic training students in the clinical setting. This model can be implemented to improve the clinical-education process. Situational leaders, eg, clinical instructors, must have the flexibility and range of skills to vary their leadership styles to match the challenges that occur while teaching athletic training students. Conclusions/Recommendations: This leadership style causes the leader to carry a substantial responsibility to lead while giving power away. Communication is one of the most important leadership skills to develop to become an effective leader. It is imperative for the future of the profession that certified athletic trainers continue to develop effective leadership skills to address the changing times in education and expectations of the athletic training profession. PMID:12937555

  2. Thunder day increase

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hilberg, Steven D.

    1984-04-01

    A report issued by the Illinois State Water Survey concludes that annual values of thunder days for North America exhibited a general increase of about 15% from 1901 to 1945, followed by a general decrease of 10% from 1945 to 1980. A study of the variability of thunder days across North America showed a general decrease with time, particularly after 1940. A major finding of this study is that frequencies of thunderstorms over areas as large as the North American continent show major long-term trends.The report, “Temporal Distribution of Global Thunder Days,” summarizes the results of a 1-year study by Stanley A. Changnon, Jr., and Chin-Fei Hsu of the temporal variations of thunder-day records during 1901-1980 using quality weather records from weather stations scattered around the globe. A thunder day is recorded when one or more peals of thunder are heard anytime during the 24-hour period from midnight to midnight, which is consistent with the definition of a thunderstorm used at first-order weather stations since 1897. They found most stations in the northern hemisphere north of 45° latitude exhibited a general increase in thunder activity from 1901 to 1980. The project was funded by the National Science Foundation.

  3. AAS 227: Day 2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kohler, Susanna

    2016-01-01

    Editors Note:This week were at the 227th AAS Meeting in Kissimmee, FL. Along with several fellow authors from astrobites.com, I will bewritingupdates on selectedevents at themeeting and posting at the end of each day. Follow along here or atastrobites.com, or catch ourlive-tweeted updates from the@astrobites Twitter account. The usual posting schedule for AAS Nova will resumenext week.Welcome to Day 2 of the winter American Astronomical Society (AAS) meeting in Kissimmee! Several of us are attending the conference this year, and we will report highlights from each day here on astrobites. If youd like to see more timely updates during the day, we encourage you to follow @astrobites on twitter or search the #aas227 hashtag.Plenary Session: Black Hole Physics with the Event Horizon Telescope (by Susanna Kohler)If anyone needed motivation to wake up early this morning, they got it in the form of Feryal Ozel (University of Arizona) enthralling us all with exciting pictures, videos, and words about black holes and the Event Horizon Telescope. Ozel spoke to a packed room (at 8:30am!) about where the project currently stands, and where its heading in the future.The EHT has pretty much the coolest goal ever: actually image the event horizons of black holes in our universe. The problem is that the largest black hole we can look at (Sgr A*, in the center of our galaxy) has an event horizon size of 50 as. For this kind of resolution roughly equivalent to trying to image a DVD on the Moon! wed need an Earth-sized telescope. EHT has solved this problem by linking telescopes around the world, creating one giant, mm-wavelength effective telescope with a baseline the size of Earth.Besides producing awesome images, the EHT will be able to test properties of black-hole spacetime, the no-hair theorem, and general relativity (GR) in new regimes.Ozel walked us through some of the theory prep work we need to do now in order to get the most science out of the EHT, including devising new

  4. AAS 227: Day 3

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kohler, Susanna

    2016-01-01

    Editors Note:This week were at the 227th AAS Meeting in Kissimmee, FL. Along with several fellow authors from astrobites.com, I will bewritingupdates on selectedevents at themeeting and posting at the end of each day. Follow along here or atastrobites.com, or catch ourlive-tweeted updates from the@astrobites Twitter account. The usual posting schedule for AAS Nova will resumenext week.Welcome to Day 3 of the winter American Astronomical Society (AAS) meeting in Kissimmee! Several of us are attending the conference this year, and we will report highlights from each day here on astrobites. If youd like to see more timely updates during the day, we encourage you to follow @astrobites on twitter or search the #aas227 hashtag.Henry Norris Russell Lecture: Viewing the Universe with Infrared Eyes: The Spitzer Space Telescope (by Erika Nesvold)The Henry Norris Russell Award is the highest honor given by the AAS, for a lifetime of eminence in astronomy research. This years award went to Giovanni Fazio of the Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics. Fazio became a leader in gamma ray astronomy before switching mid-career to the study of infrared astronomy, and he gave his award lecture on the latter subject, specifically on the Spitzer Space Telescope, one of the most successful infrared telescopes of all time.Artists rendering of the Spitzer space telescope. [NASA/JPL-Caltech]Spitzer has been operating for more than twelve years, and has resulted in over six thousand papers in refereed journals in that time. The telescope sits in an Earth-trailing orbit around the Sun, and is now farther from the Earth (1.4 AU) than the Earth is from the Sun. Fazio gave the audience a fascinating overview of the science done by Spitzer over more than a decade. One of the most productive areas of research for Spitzer is the study of exoplanets, which hadnt even been discovered when the Spitzer Telescope was first conceived. Spitzers high sensitivity and ability to observe exoplanets over

  5. [Current malaria situation in Turkmenistan].

    PubMed

    Amangel'diev, K A

    2001-01-01

    Malaria is one of the main health problems facing most developing countries having a hot climate. It is a problem in Turkmenistan. The country is situated in Central Asia, north of the Kopetdag mountains, between the Caspian Sea to the west and the Amu-Darya river to the east. Turkmenistan stretches for a distance of 1,100 km from west to east and 650 km from north to south. It borders Kazakhstan in the north, Uzbekistan in the east and north-east, Iran in the south, and Afghanistan in the south-east. Seven malaria vector species are found in Turkmenistan, the main ones being Anopheles superpictus, An. pulcherrimus, and An. martinius. The potentially endemic area consists of the floodplains of the Tejen and Murgab rivers, with a long chain of reservoirs built along them. In 1980 most cases of imported malaria were recorded in military personnel who had returned from service in Afghanistan. In the past years, only tertian (Plasmodium vivax) malaria has been recorded and there have been no death from malaria over that period. In the Serkhetabad (Gushgi) district there are currently 5 active foci of malaria infection, with a population of 22,000 people. In 1999, forty nine cases of P. vivax malaria were recorded in Turkmenistan. Of them, 36 cases, including 4 children under 14 years were diagnosed for the first time while 13 were relapses. There were 88 fewer cases than those in the previous year (by a factor of 2.8). There were 17 more cases of imported malaria than those in 1998 (by a factor of 1.7), most of which occurred in the foci of malaria infection (Serkhetabad, Tagtabazar, and Kerki districts), in the city of Ashkhabat and in Lebap, Dashkhovuz and Akhal Regions. The emergence of indigenous malaria in the border areas was due to the importation of the disease at intervals by infected mosquitoes flying in from neighbouring countries (e.g. Afghanistan), the lack of drugs to treat the first cases and the lack of alternative insecticides. Most patients suffer

  6. Day Care Licensing Study Summary Report on Phase I: State and Local Day Care Licensing Requirements.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Consulting Services Corp., Seattle, WA.

    Phase I of the Day Care Licensing Study is presented. It includes a summary of findings, conclusions, and recommendations; two sections on day care regulations; a section on day care facilities; and a section on the climate for change. Appendices include: Methodology; Depts. of State Government Responsible for Licensing Day Care Facilities;…

  7. Unlocking the Power of Situational Interest in Physical Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Subramaniam, Prithwi Raj

    2010-01-01

    Situational interest plays an important role in student engagement and learning, and it can be used to motivate disengaged students in physical education. Situational interest is evoked through the manipulation or modification of the learning environment, learning climate, task presentation, or structure of the learning experiences. An interesting…

  8. Teaching Games for Understanding: A Situated Perspective on Student Learning.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kirk, David; Brooker, Ross; Braiuka, Sandy

    This paper presents an interpretation of student learning from a situated learning perspective, seeking to enhance approaches already employed in teaching games for understanding (TGfU) research. The analysis was designed to help identify three specific dimensions of situated learning in physical education: the perceptual-physical,…

  9. Situational Leadership and Innovation in the EFL Classroom.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Osburne, Andrea G.

    A case-study approach is presented to demonstrate how to use situational leadership (a management theory model developed by Hersey and Blanchard) to make students in teacher education programs more receptive to educational innovation in second language learning. Situational leadership theory defines a leader as anyone trying to influence another…

  10. Situation Reports--Bahamas, Brasil, Guatemala, Netherlands Antilles (Curacao), Uruguay.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    International Planned Parenthood Federation, London (England).

    Data relating to population and family planning in four foreign countries are presented in these situation reports. Countries included are Bahamas, Guatemala, Netherlands Antilles (Curacao), and Uruguay. Information is provided under two topics, general background and family planning situation, where appropriate and if it is available. General…

  11. Marketing Your Day Camp.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Coleman, George

    1997-01-01

    Marketing strategies for day camps include encouraging camp staff to get involved in organizations involving children, families, and communities; holding camp fairs; offering the use of camp facilities to outside groups; hosting sport leagues and local youth outings; planning community fairs; and otherwise involving the camp in the community. (LP)

  12. First Day of School

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bort, Nancy

    2004-01-01

    In this brief article, the author, a science teacher at F. C. Hammond Middle School in Alexandria, Virginia, describes how the setting up of a simple science experiment on the first day of school can get students excited about learning science. The experiment involves heating a small amount of water in a flask, then covering the opening of the…

  13. Make a Splash Day

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Coverdale, Greg; Rust, April; Jensen, Belinda

    2004-01-01

    At the annual, all-day events-sponsored by Project WET (Water Education for Teachers) and held in nearly every state across the country each September--students participate in interactive activities and exhibits to learn about water resources and explore how human behaviors, such as development and recreation, can affect the quality of the…

  14. One Play a Day

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blankenship, Mark

    2007-01-01

    Undergraduate theater students rarely get the chance to work on a major world premiere, but this year hundreds of them will. Currently, more than 70 colleges and universities are participating in "365 Days/365 Plays," an ambitious project from Pulitzer Prize-winning playwright Suzan-Lori Parks. Every week, as they mount their portion of this epic…

  15. Sun-Earth Day

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2007-01-01

    Michael Sandras, a member of the Pontchartrain Astronomical Society, explains his solar telescope to students of Second Street in Bay St. Louis, Hancock County and Nicholson elementary schools in StenniSphere's Millennium Hall on April 10. The students participated in several hands-on activities at Stennis Space Center's Sun-Earth Day celebration.

  16. Scheduling: Seven Period Day

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Williamson, Ronald

    2010-01-01

    Driven by stable or declining financial resources many school districts are considering the costs and benefits of a seven-period day. While there is limited evidence that any particular scheduling model has a greater impact on student learning than any other, it is clear that the school schedule is a tool that can significantly impact teacher…

  17. We Love Science Day.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kepler, Lynne

    1986-01-01

    Describes the goals and outcomes of the "We Love Science Day" programs that resulted from the inservice course, "Creative Integration of Science in Elementary Education" for Pennsylvania teachers. Provides samples of the hands-on activities that were offered to students, parents, and teachers. Includes a calendar of extracurricular science…

  18. Fabulous Weather Day

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marshall, Candice; Mogil, H. Michael

    2007-01-01

    Each year, first graders at Kensington Parkwood Elementary School in Kensington, Maryland, look forward to Fabulous Weather Day. Students learn how meteorologists collect data about the weather, how they study wind, temperature, precipitation, basic types/characteristics of clouds, and how they forecast. The project helps the students grow in…

  19. International School Library Day.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clyde, Laurel A.

    2001-01-01

    Describes the development of an International School Library Day and discusses activities in Australian school libraries. Highlights include the development of Web pages; sponsorship by national, state, or provincial associations; publicity materials; joint activities with other countries; student involvement; and activities with public libraries.…

  20. 90-Day Cycle Handbook

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Park, Sandra; Takahashi, Sola

    2013-01-01

    90-Day Cycles are a disciplined and structured form of inquiry designed to produce and test knowledge syntheses, prototyped processes, or products in support of improvement work. With any type of activity, organizations inevitably encounter roadblocks to improving performance and outcomes. These barriers might include intractable problems at…