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Sample records for presentation du protocole

  1. NREL Test-to-Failure Protocol (Presentation)

    SciTech Connect

    Hacke, P.

    2012-03-01

    The presentation describes the test-to-failure protocol that was developed and piloted at NREL, stressing PV modules with multiple applications of damp heat (with bias) and thermal cycling until they fail.

  2. COMMENT: An external attack on the Brádler Dušek protocol

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qin, Su-Juan; Wen, Qiao-Yan; Zhu, Fu-Chen

    2007-12-01

    The two quantum secret sharing protocols in the paper of Brádler and Dušek (2004 J. Opt. B: Quantum Semiclass. Opt. 6 63) are analysed and it is shown that both protocols are insecure not only for a dishonest participant but also for an external eavesdropper. An external eavesdropper Eve can steal half of Alice's secret without being detected, if she employs a special attack strategy. We give a possible way to improve the protocol to withstand this attack.

  3. Renal colic: current protocols for emergency presentations.

    PubMed

    Leveridge, Mike; D'Arcy, Frank T; O'Kane, Dermot; Ischia, Joseph J; Webb, David R; Bolton, Damien M; Lawrentschuk, Nathan

    2016-02-01

    Flank pain caused by renal colic is a common presentation to emergency departments. This paper reviews the acute clinical assessment of these patients, outlines appropriate diagnostic strategies with labwork and imaging and updates the reader on conservative treatments, suitable choices for analgesia and indications for surgical intervention. Prompt diagnosis and appropriate treatment instituted in the Emergency Department can rapidly and effectively manage this excruciatingly painful condition. PMID:26367338

  4. The Geneva Protocol of 1925: Past and Present.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harbison, John L.

    1982-01-01

    Presents a position paper for use in high school social studies class debates on the Geneva Protocol of 1925. The Protocol was an international agreement to restrict chemical and biological warfare (CBW). The author traces the history of U.S. policies dealing with CBW since 1925. (AM)

  5. Coronagraphy at Pic du Midi: Present state and future projects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koechlin, L.

    2012-12-01

    The Pic du Midi coronagraph (CLIMSO) is a group of four instruments in parallel, taking images of the whole solar photosphere and low corona. It provides series of 2048*2048 pixels images taken nominally at 1 minute time intervals, all year long, weather permitting. A team of ≃q 60 persons, by groups of 2 or 3 each week, operate the instruments. Their work is programmed in collaboration with Institut de Recherches en astrophysique et planétologie (IRAP) of Observatoire Midi Pyrénées (OMP), and with Programme National Soleil Terre (PNST). The four instruments of CLIMSO (L1, C1, L2 and C2) collect images of the Sun as following: 1) L1 : photosphere in H-α (656.28 nm) ; 2) L2 : photosphere in Ca-II (393.37 nm) ; 3) C1 : prominences in H-α ; 4) C2 : prominences in He-I (1083.0 nm). The data taken are stored in fits format images and mpeg films. They are available publicly on data bases such as BASS 2000 Meudon ({http://bass2000.obspm.fr/home.php?lang=en} and BASS2000 Tarbes ({http://bass2000.bagn.obs-mip.fr/base/sun/index.php}). Several solar studies are carried in relation with these data. In addition to the raw fits images, new images will soon be sent to the data bases: they will be calibrated in solar surface emittance, expressed in W/m^2/nm/steradian. Series of mpeg films for each day are presented in superposed color layers, so as to visualize the multispectral information better. New instrumental developments are planned for the next years and already financed. They will use spectropolarimetry to measure the magnetic field and radial velocities in the photosphere and corona. The data will cover the entire solar disc and have a sample rate of one map per minute.

  6. Lymphome malin non hodgkinien du cavum: protocoles thérapeutiques et facteurs pronostiques

    PubMed Central

    Ouraini, Saloua; Nakkabi, Ismail; Benariba, Fouad

    2015-01-01

    Le lymphome malin non hodgkinien est une entité histologique rare parmi les cancers du cavum, la plupart des tumeurs du nasopharynx étant des carcinomes indifférenciés ou Undifferencied Carcinoma of Nasopharyngeal Type (UCNT); Il pose souvent un problème de diagnostic positif clinique et histologique. La symptomatologie est généralement peu spécifique et la démarche étiologique repose sur la biopsie du cavum faite à l'examen endoscopique avec examen immuno-histochimique. Nous rapportons le cas d'un lymphome non hodgkinien avec atteinte du nasopharynx, l'analyse anatomopathologique est en faveur d'un lymphome malin non hodgkinien de phénotype B. Les aspects cliniques, radiologiques, histologiques et thérapeutiques sont décrits. PMID:26889334

  7. Sensitivity comparison of sequential monadic and side-by-side presentation protocols in affective consumer testing.

    PubMed

    Colyar, Jessica M; Eggett, Dennis L; Steele, Frost M; Dunn, Michael L; Ogden, Lynn V

    2009-09-01

    The relative sensitivity of side-by-side and sequential monadic consumer liking protocols was compared. In the side-by-side evaluation, all samples were presented at once and evaluated together 1 characteristic at a time. In the sequential monadic evaluation, 1 sample was presented and evaluated on all characteristics, then returned before panelists received and evaluated another sample. Evaluations were conducted on orange juice, frankfurters, canned chili, potato chips, and applesauce. Five commercial brands, having a broad quality range, were selected as samples for each product category to assure a wide array of consumer liking scores. Without their knowledge, panelists rated the same 5 retail brands by 1 protocol and then 3 wk later by the other protocol. For 3 of the products, both protocols yielded the same order of overall liking. Slight differences in order of overall liking for the other 2 products were not significant. Of the 50 pairwise overall liking comparisons, 44 were in agreement. The different results obtained by the 2 protocols in order of liking and significance of paired comparisons were due to the experimental variation and differences in sensitivity. Hedonic liking scores were subjected to statistical power analyses and used to calculate minimum number of panelists required to achieve varying degrees of sensitivity when using side-by-side and sequential monadic protocols. In most cases, the side-by-side protocol was more sensitive, thus providing the same information with fewer panelists. Side-by-side protocol was less sensitive in cases where sensory fatigue was a factor. PMID:19895498

  8. EPA Protocol Gas Verification Program - Presented at NIST Gas Panel Meeting

    EPA Science Inventory

    Accurate compressed gas calibration standards are needed to calibrate continuous emission monitors (CEMs) and ambient air quality monitors that are being used for regulatory purposes. US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) established its traceability protocol to ensure that c...

  9. Group differences in physician responses to handheld presentation of clinical evidence: a verbal protocol analysis

    PubMed Central

    Lottridge, Danielle M; Chignell, Mark; Danicic-Mizdrak, Romana; Pavlovic, Nada J; Kushniruk, Andre; Straus, Sharon E

    2007-01-01

    Background To identify individual differences in physicians' needs for the presentation of evidence resources and preferences for mobile devices. Methods Within-groups analysis of responses to semi-structured interviews. Interviews consisted of using prototypes in response to task-based scenarios. The prototypes were implemented on two different form factors: a tablet style PC and a pocketPC. Participants were from three user groups: general internists, family physicians and medicine residents, and from two different settings: urban and semi-urban. Verbal protocol analysis, which consists of coding utterances, was conducted on the transcripts of the testing sessions. Statistical relationships were investigated between staff physicians' and residents' background variables, self-reported experiences with the interfaces, and verbal code frequencies. Results 47 physicians were recruited from general internal medicine, family practice clinics and a residency training program. The mean age of participants was 42.6 years. Physician specialty had a greater effect on device and information-presentation preferences than gender, age, setting or previous technical experience. Family physicians preferred the screen size of the tablet computer and were less concerned about its portability. Residents liked the screen size of the tablet, but preferred the portability of the pocketPC. Internists liked the portability of the pocketPC, but saw less advantage to the large screen of the tablet computer (F[2,44] = 4.94, p = .012). Conclusion Different types of physicians have different needs and preferences for evidence-based resources and handheld devices. This study shows how user testing can be incorporated into the process of design to inform group-based customization. PMID:17655759

  10. A Video Recording and Viewing Protocol for Student Group Presentations: Assisting Self-Assessment through a Wiki Environment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barry, Shane

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this research was to firstly develop a protocol for video recording student group oral presentations, for later viewing and self-assessment by student group members. Secondly, evaluations of students' experiences of this process were undertaken to determine if this self-assessment method was a positive experience for them in gaining…

  11. Magnetic nanobeads present during enzymatic amplification and labeling for a simplified DNA detection protocol based on AC susceptometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bejhed, Rebecca S.; Strømme, Maria; Svedlindh, Peter; Ahlford, Annika; Strömberg, Mattias

    2015-12-01

    Magnetic biosensors are promising candidates for low-cost point-of-care biodiagnostic devices. For optimal efficiency it is crucial to minimize the time and complexity of the assay protocol including target recognition, amplification, labeling and read-out. In this work, possibilities for protocol simplifications for a DNA biodetection principle relying on hybridization of magnetic nanobeads to rolling circle amplification (RCA) products are investigated. The target DNA is recognized through a padlock ligation assay resulting in DNA circles serving as templates for the RCA process. It is found that beads can be present during amplification without noticeably interfering with the enzyme used for RCA (phi29 polymerase). As a result, the bead-coil hybridization can be performed immediately after amplification in a one-step manner at elevated temperature within a few minutes prior to read-out in an AC susceptometer setup, i.e. a combined protocol approach. Moreover, by recording the phase angle ξ = arctan(χ″/χ'), where χ and χ″ are the in-phase and out-of-phase components of the AC susceptibility, respectively, at one single frequency the total assay time for the optimized combined protocol would be no more than 1.5 hours, often a relevant time frame for diagnosis of cancer and infectious disease. Also, applying the phase angle method normalization of AC susceptibility data is not needed. These findings are useful for the development of point-of-care biodiagnostic devices relying on bead-coil binding and magnetic AC susceptometry.

  12. Brief Intervention for Drug Users Presenting in Emergency Departments (NIDA CTN Protocol 0047: SMART-ED)

    PubMed Central

    Bogenschutz, Michael P.; Donovan, Dennis M.; Mandler, Raul N.; Perl, Harold I.; Forcehimes, Alyssa A.; Crandall, Cameron; Lindblad, Robert; Oden, Neal L.; Sharma, Gaurav; Metsch, Lisa; Lyons, Michael S.; McCormack, Ryan; Konstantopoulos, Wendy Macias; Douaihy, Antoine

    2014-01-01

    IMPORTANCE Medical treatment settings such as Emergency Departments (EDs) present important opportunities to address problematic substance use. Currently, EDs do not typically intervene beyond acute medical stabilization. OBJECTIVE To contrast the effects of a brief intervention with telephone boosters (BI-B) to those of screening, assessment, and referral to treatment (SAR) and minimal screening only (MSO) among drug-using ED patients. DESIGN Between October 2010 and February 2012, 1285 patients were randomized to MSO (n = 431), SAR (n = 427), or BI-B (n = 427). Follow-up assessments were conducted at 3, 6, and 12 months by blinded interviewers. SETTING EDs of six academic hospitals in the U.S. PARTICIPANTS Participants were adult ED patients scoring ≥ 3 on the 10-item Drug Abuse Screening Test (indicating moderate to severe problems related to drug use) and currently using drugs. INTERVENTIONS Following screening, MSO participants received only an informational pamphlet. SAR participants received assessment plus referral to addiction treatment if indicated. BI-B participants received assessment and referral as in SAR, plus a manual-guided counseling session based on motivational interviewing principles and up to 2 “booster” sessions by telephone during the month following the ED visit. MAIN OUTCOMES AND MEASURES Outcomes evaluated at follow-up visits included self-reported days using the patient-defined primary problem drug, days using any drug, days of heavy drinking, and drug use based on analysis of hair samples. RESULTS Follow-up rates were 88%, 86%, and 81% at 3, 6, and 12 months, respectively. There were no significant differences between groups in self-reported days using the primary drug, days using any drug, or heavy drinking days at 3, 6, or 12 months. At the 3-month follow-up, participants in the SAR group had a higher rate of hair samples positive for their primary drug of abuse (265/280, 95%) than did participants in the MSO group (253/287, 88

  13. Communications protocol

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zhou, Xiaoming (Inventor); Baras, John S. (Inventor)

    2010-01-01

    The present invention relates to an improved communications protocol which increases the efficiency of transmission in return channels on a multi-channel slotted Alohas system by incorporating advanced error correction algorithms, selective retransmission protocols and the use of reserved channels to satisfy the retransmission requests.

  14. The 2008 Charles H. Thompson Lecture-Colloquium Presentation: From Du Bois to Obama--The Education of Peoples of African Descent in the United States in the 21st Century

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Carol D.

    2009-01-01

    This article presents the text of a lecture delivered by American Educational Research Association President Carol D. Lee at the 29th Annual Charles H. Thompson Lecture-Colloquium Series which was held on November 5, 2008. In her lecture, Lee discussed several points of similarities between W. E. B. Du Bois and President Barack Obama. These…

  15. A new protocol for screening adults presenting with their own medical problems at the Emergency Department to identify children at high risk for maltreatment.

    PubMed

    Diderich, Hester M; Fekkes, Minne; Verkerk, Paul H; Pannebakker, Fieke D; Velderman, Mariska Klein; Sorensen, Peggy J G; Baeten, Paul; Oudesluys-Murphy, Anne Marie

    2013-12-01

    Identifying child abuse and neglect solely on the grounds of child characteristics leaves many children undetected. We developed a new approach (Hague protocol) based on characteristics of parents who attend the Emergency Department (ED) because they have the following problems: (1) intimate partner violence, (2) substance abuse, or (3) suicide attempt or other serious psychiatric problems. The goal of this protocol is to enable the Reporting Center for Child Abuse and Neglect (RCCAN) to rapidly assess family problems and offer voluntary community based support to these parents. The aim of this study is to assess whether this protocol for screening adults presenting for care in the Emergency Department can identify children at high risk for maltreatment. A before and after study was conducted at 9 EDs in 3 regions in the Netherlands (one intervention region and 2 control regions). During the period January 2006 to November 2007, prior to the introduction of the Hague protocol, from a total of 385,626 patients attending the ED in the intervention region 4 parents (1 per 100,000) were referred to the RCCAN. In the period after introduction of the protocol (December 2007 to December 2011), the number rose to 565 parents from a total of 885,301 patients attending the ED (64 per 100,000). In the control region, where the protocol was not implemented, these figures were 2 per 163,628 (1 per 100,000) and 10 per 371,616 (3 per 100,000) respectively (OR=28.0 (95 CI 4.6-170.7)). At assessment, child abuse was confirmed in 91% of referred cases. The protocol has a high positive predictive value of 91% and can substantially increase the detection rate of child abuse in an ED setting. Parental characteristics are strong predictors of child abuse. Implementing guidelines to detect child abuse based on parental characteristics of parents attending the adult section of the ED can increase the detection rate of child abuse and neglect allowing appropriate aid to be initiated for

  16. Superiority of visual (verbal) vs. auditory test presentation modality in a P300-based CIT: The Complex Trial Protocol for concealed autobiographical memory detection.

    PubMed

    Deng, Xiaohong; Rosenfeld, J Peter; Ward, Anne; Labkovsky, Elena

    2016-07-01

    This paper continues our efforts to determine which modality is best for presentation of stimuli in the P300-based concealed information test (CIT) called the Complex Trial Protocol (CTP). The first part of the CTP trial involves presentation of the key probe or irrelevant stimuli, and is followed by presentation of target (T) or non-target (NT). In Rosenfeld et al. (2015), probes and irrelevants regularly alternated modality over trials, but Ts and NTs were always visual. In the present study, (in both its experiments, EXP 1 and EXP 2), probes and irrelevants alternated modalities on successive trials, as before. In present EXP 1, Ts and NTs were always auditory, but in EXP 2, they were simultaneously auditory and visual. Probe P300 data were different in each study: In Rosenfeld et al. (2015) and EXP 2 here, the bootstrap-based detection rates based on probe-minus-irrelevant differences, significantly differed favoring visual probe and irrelevant presentation modality. In EXP 1 here, detection rates were the same for the two modalities. In Rosenfeld et al. (2015) there was no main effect of probe modality, visual vs. auditory on probe-minus-irrelevant P300 difference. There were such effects here in EXP 1 (p<0.08, effect size=0.19) and EXP 2 (p<0.02, effect size=0.31), favoring the visual modality. Probe P300 latencies were shorter for visual than for auditory stimuli in Rosenfeld et al. (2015), a trend specifically reversed in the present pair of studies. RT was faster for visual stimuli in the present studies. The T and NT modality appears to interact with probe/irrelevant modality, and the best protocol for detecting concealed information is with the 2015 study protocol or that of EXP 2, using visual stimulus presentation. PMID:27140728

  17. Evidence suggesting superiority of visual (verbal) vs. auditory test presentation modality in the P300-based, Complex Trial Protocol for concealed autobiographical memory detection.

    PubMed

    Rosenfeld, J Peter; Ward, Anne; Frigo, Vincent; Drapekin, Jesse; Labkovsky, Elena

    2015-04-01

    One group of participants received a series of city name stimuli presented on trials of the Complex Trial Protocol (CTP) version of a P300-based, concealed information test (CIT). Stimuli were presented on alternating trials in either auditory or visual presentation modality. In 1/7 of the trials the participant's home town (probe) repeatedly appeared in a series of 6 other (irrelevant) repeated city names. In both modalities, probe stimuli produced larger P300s than irrelevant stimuli. Visual stimuli produced shorter behavioral reaction times and P300 latencies, as well as larger P300 probe amplitudes, probe-irrelevant amplitude differences, and individual diagnostic accuracies than the same stimuli presented in the auditory modality. Possible reasons for these effects are discussed, and subject to discussed limitations, the applied conclusion reached is that in all CITs, visual presentation of stimuli, if feasible, should be preferentially used. PMID:25728461

  18. Correcting non cephalic presentation with moxibustion: study protocol for a multi-centre randomised controlled trial in general practice

    PubMed Central

    Vas, Jorge; Aranda, José Manuel; Barón, Mercedes; Perea-Milla, Emilio; Méndez, Camila; Ramírez, Carmen; Aguilar, Inmaculada; Modesto, Manuela; Lara, Ana María; Martos, Francisco; García-Ruiz, Antonio J

    2008-01-01

    Background Non cephalic presentation in childbirth involves various risks to both the mother and the foetus. The incidence in Spain is 3.8% of all full-term pregnancies. The most common technique used to end the gestation in cases of non cephalic presentation is that of caesarian section, and although it provokes a lower rate of morbi-mortality than does vaginal delivery in such situations, there remains the possibility of traumatic injury to the foetal head and neck, while maternal morbidity is also increased. The application of heat (moxibustion) to an acupuncture point, in order to correct non cephalic presentation, has been practised in China since ancient times, but as yet there is insufficient evidence of its real effectiveness. Methods/Design The experimental design consists of a multi-centre randomised controlled trial with three parallel arms, used to compare real moxibustion, sham moxibustion and the natural course of events, among pregnant women with a non cephalic presentation and a gestational duration of 33–35 weeks (estimated by echography). The participants in the trial will be blinded to both interventions. The results obtained will be analyzed by professionals, blinded with respect to the allocation to the different types of intervention. In addition, we intend to carry out a economic analysis. Discussion This trial will contribute to the development of evidence concerning moxibustion in the correction of non cephalic presentations. The primary outcome variable is the proportion of cephalic presentations at term. As secondary outcomes, we will evaluate the proportion of cephalic presentations at week 38 of gestation, determined by echography, together with the safety of the technique, the specificity of moxibustion and the control of the blinding process. This study has been funded by the Health Ministry of the Andalusian Regional Government. Trial registration Current Controlled Trials ISRCTN10634508. PMID:18495031

  19. Effectiveness of individualized physiotherapy on pain and functioning compared to a standard exercise protocol in patients presenting with clinical signs of subacromial impingement syndrome. A randomized controlled trial

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Shoulder impingement syndrome is a common musculoskeletal complaint leading to significant reduction of health and disability. Physiotherapy is often the first choice of treatment although its effectiveness is still under debate. Systematic reviews in this field highlight the need for more high quality trials to investigate the effectiveness of physiotherapy interventions in patients with subacromial impingement syndrome. Methods/Design This randomized controlled trial will investigate the effectiveness of individualized physiotherapy in patients presenting with clinical signs and symptoms of subacromial impingement, involving 90 participants aged 18-75. Participants are recruited from outpatient physiotherapy clinics, general practitioners, and orthopaedic surgeons in Germany. Eligible participants will be randomly allocated to either individualized physiotherapy or to a standard exercise protocol using central randomization. The control group will perform the standard exercise protocol aiming to restore muscular deficits in strength, mobility, and coordination of the rotator cuff and the shoulder girdle muscles to unload the subacromial space during active movements. Participants of the intervention group will perform the standard exercise protocol as a home program, and will additionally be treated with individualized physiotherapy based on clinical examination results, and guided by a decision tree. After the intervention phase both groups will continue their home program for another 7 weeks. Outcome will be measured at 5 weeks and at 3 and 12 months after inclusion using the shoulder pain and disability index and patients' global impression of change, the generic patient-specific scale, the average weekly pain score, and patient satisfaction with treatment. Additionally, the fear avoidance beliefs questionnaire, the pain catastrophizing scale, and patients' expectancies of treatment effect are assessed. Participants' adherence to the protocol, use

  20. Modelisation du Signal Radar EN Milieu Stratifie et Evaluation de Techniques de Mesure de L'humidite du Sol

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boisvert, Johanne

    La presente etude se penche sur des problemes relies a l'echantillonnage de l'humidite de sol et a l'estimation du signal radar sur sols nus. Le travail se divise en deux volets. Le volet 1 evalue trois techniques de mesure de l'humidite du sol (gravimetrie, reflectometrie temporelle et sonde dielectrique) et deux protocoles d'echantillonnage. Dans le volet 2, un modele de simulation du signal en milieu stratifie est developpe, et les estimes de signal obtenus sont compares aux estimes bases uniquement sur une valeur moyenne d'humidite du sol prise sur une profondeur fixe d'echantillonnage. Les differences entre les deux estimes dependent de la frequence et du choix judicieux de la profondeur d'echantillonnage; elles sont plus importantes aux faibles angles et en polarisation HV, puis VV. Le modele de simulation a aussi ete utilise pour etudier la profondeur de penetration du signal et en deduire la profondeur optimale d'echantillonnage en tenant compte des caracteristiques du signal. Une variation de 25 ^circ de l'angle d'incidence a peu d'effet sur la profondeur de penetration en bande Ku; l'ecart reste inferieur ou egal a 0,5 cm en bande C mais peut atteindre 1,3 cm en bande L. L'impact de la polarisation est nul en bande Ku mais croi t avec l'angle d'incidence en bande C et L. A 50^circ, il est, en moyenne de 1 cm en bande C et de 2 cm en bande L. En polarisation VV, la profondeur croi t avec une augmentation de l'angle alors que l'effet est inverse en polarisation HH. Deux methodes pour estimer la profondeur d'echantillonnage en conditions operationnelles sont presentees. Lorsqu'on inverse un modele pour estimer l'humidite du sol a partir du signal, ces methodes permettent aussi d'estimer l'epaisseur de sol representee par l'humidite ainsi estimee.

  1. Development and validation of a screening tool to predict the risk of chronic low back pain in patients presenting with acute low back pain: a study protocol

    PubMed Central

    Traeger, Adrian; Henschke, Nicholas; Hübscher, Markus; Williams, Christopher M; Kamper, Steven J; Maher, Chris G; Moseley, G Lorimer; McAuley, James H

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Around 40% of people presenting to primary care with an episode of acute low back pain develop chronic low back pain. In order to reduce the risk of developing chronic low back pain, effective secondary prevention strategies are needed. Early identification of at-risk patients allows clinicians to make informed decisions based on prognostic profile, and researchers to select appropriate participants for secondary prevention trials. The aim of this study is to develop and validate a prognostic screening tool that identifies patients with acute low back pain in primary care who are at risk of developing chronic low back pain. This paper describes the methods and analysis plan for the development and validation of the tool. Methods/analysis The prognostic screening tool will be developed using methods recommended by the Prognosis Research Strategy (PROGRESS) Group and reported using the Transparent Reporting of a multivariable prediction model for Individual Prognosis Or Diagnosis (TRIPOD) statement. In the development stage, we will use data from 1248 patients recruited for a prospective cohort study of acute low back pain in primary care. We will construct 3 logistic regression models to predict chronic low back pain according to 3 definitions: any pain, high pain and disability at 3 months. In the validation stage, we will use data from a separate sample of 1643 patients with acute low back pain to assess the performance of each prognostic model. We will produce validation plots showing Nagelkerke R2 and Brier score (overall performance), area under the curve statistic (discrimination) and the calibration slope and intercept (calibration). Ethics and dissemination Ethical approval from the University of Sydney Ethics Committee was obtained for both of the original studies that we plan to analyse using the methods outlined in this protocol (Henschke et al, ref 11-2002/3/3144; Williams et al, ref 11638). PMID:26179647

  2. Effectiveness of a primary care based complex intervention to promote self-management in patients presenting psychiatric symptoms: study protocol of a cluster-randomized controlled trial

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Anxiety, Depression and Somatoform (ADSom) disorders are highly prevalent in primary care. Managing these disorders is time-consuming and requires strong commitment on behalf of the General Practitioners (GPs). Furthermore, the management of these patients is restricted by the high patient turnover rates in primary care practices, especially in the German health care system. In order to address this problem, we implement a complex, low-threshold intervention by an Advanced Practice Nurse (APN) using a mixture of case management and counseling techniques to promote self-management in these patients. Here we present the protocol of the “Self-Management Support for Anxiety, Depression and Somatoform Disorders in Primary Care” (SMADS)-Study. Methods/Design The study is designed as a cluster-randomized controlled trial, comparing an intervention and a control group of 10 primary care practices in each case. We will compare the effectiveness of the intervention applied by an APN with usual GP-care. A total of 340 participants will be enrolled in the study, 170 in either arm. We use the Patient Health Questionnaire-German version (PHQ-D) as a screening tool for psychiatric symptoms, including patients with a score above 5 on any of the three symptom scales. The primary outcome is self-efficacy, measured by the General Self-Efficacy Scale (GSE), here used as a proxy for self-management. As secondary outcomes we include the PHQ-D symptom load and questionnaires regarding coping with illness and health related quality of life. Outcome assessments will be applied 8 weeks and 12 months after the baseline assessment. Discussion The SMADS-study evaluates a complex, low threshold intervention for ambulatory patients presenting ADSom-symptoms, empowering them to better manage their condition, as well as improving their motivation to engage in self-help and health-seeking behaviour. The benefit of the intervention will be substantiated, when patients can enhance

  3. Efficacité de la prévention de la transmission mère-enfant du Virus de l'Immunodéficience Humaine par le protocole 2010 de l'Organisation Mondiale de la Santé au Centre Médical Saint Camille de Ouagadougou (Burkina Faso)

    PubMed Central

    OuédraogoYugbaré, Solange Odile; Zagré, Nikaise; Koueta, Fla; Dao, Lassina; Kam, Ludovic; Ouattara, Diarra Yé; Simporé, Jacques

    2015-01-01

    L’épidémie du Virus de l'Immunodéficience Humaine en milieu pédiatrique est surtout le résultat de la transmission mère-enfant. Notre étude a pour objectif de décrire l'efficacité de la prévention de la transmission mère-enfant du Virus de l'Immunodéficience Humaine par le protocole OMS 2010 (Option A et trithérapie) au centre médical saint Camille de Ouagadougou. Nous avons mené une étude d'une cohorte d'enfants suivis dans le cadre de la prévention de la transmission mère-enfant du Virus de l'Immunodéficience Humaine au centre médical saint Camille de Ouagadougou sur une période de 2 ans allant du 1er Janvier 2012 au 31 Décembre 2013. Nous avons obtenu l'accord de 4900 femmes enceintes pour le dépistage de l'infection du Virus de l'Immunodéficience Humaine et 238 gestantes ont été diagnostiquées séropositives soit 4,86% de séroprévalence. Les femmes étaient surtout infectées par le Virus de l'Immunodéficience Humaine avec de type I (95,38%)). La majorité était sous trithérapie (74,3%) et (25,7%) sous prophylaxie (option A). Les nouveau-nés (92,5%) ont reçu un traitement antirétroviral à base de névirapine dans les 72 heures après la naissance. L'allaitement sécurisé a été appliquée dans 78% des cas. Le taux global de transmission mère-enfant du VIH était de 3,6% avec 3% de transmission chez les enfants nés de mères sous trithérapie antirétrovirale et 6,3% dans les cas de prophylaxie antirétrovirale. Le facteur de risque de transmission a été le long délai du début d'administration des antirétroviraux chez le nouveau-né. La mortalité infantile à un an était de 3,5%. Cette étude a révélé l'efficacité de l'Option A et conforté celle de la trithérapie, le passage à l'Option B+ serait donc plus bénéfique. PMID:26966499

  4. Actes du colloque: Tendances actuelles de la recherche sur la langue parlee (Conference Presentations: Current Trends in Research on Oral Language).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Auger, Julie, Ed.

    Student papers presented at a sociolinguistics conference include: "La variation phonologique [d'une voyelle] a Hull"; "La force illocutoire des pronoms personnels 'je' et 'tu' en tant qu'insignes des places d'ou parlent les femmes et les hommes"; "L'emploi des modes indicatif et subjonctif dans le francais parle de la ville de Quebec"; "A Study…

  5. Optimal protocols for nonlocality distillation

    SciTech Connect

    Hoeyer, Peter; Rashid, Jibran

    2010-10-15

    Forster et al. recently showed that weak nonlocality can be amplified by giving the first protocol that distills a class of nonlocal boxes (NLBs) [Phys. Rev. Lett. 102, 120401 (2009)] We first show that their protocol is optimal among all nonadaptive protocols. We next consider adaptive protocols. We show that the depth-2 protocol of Allcock et al. [Phys. Rev. A 80, 062107 (2009)] performs better than previously known adaptive depth-2 protocols for all symmetric NLBs. We present a depth-3 protocol that extends the known region of distillable NLBs. We give examples of NLBs for which each of the Forster et al., the Allcock et al., and our protocols perform best. The understanding we develop is that there is no single optimal protocol for NLB distillation. The choice of which protocol to use depends on the noise parameters for the NLB.

  6. Montreal protocol: Business opportunites

    SciTech Connect

    1998-12-31

    The Montreal Protocol on Substances that Deplete the Ozone Layer was signed by 24 countries in 1987, establishing measures for controlling the production and consumption of ozone-depleting substances. This publication begins with some background information on ozone depletion and the history of the Protocol. It then describes aspects of the Protocol`s Multilateral Fund, created to assist developing countries to meet Protocol deadlines: Its administration, structure, and how projects are initiated. Names, addresses, and phone/fax numbers of Fund contacts are provided. Canadian projects under the Fund are then reviewed and opportunities for Canadian environmental companies are noted. Finally, information sheets are presented which summarize Fund-related Canadian bilateral projects undertaken to date.

  7. Protocol: does sodium nitrite administration reduce ischaemia-reperfusion injury in patients presenting with acute ST segment elevation myocardial infarction? Nitrites in acute myocardial infarction (NIAMI)

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    regulatory approvals This study is funded by a grant from the UK Medical Research Council. This protocol is approved by the Scotland A Research Ethics Committee and has also received clinical trial authorisation from the Medicines and Healthcare products Regulatory Agency (MHRA) (EudraCT number: 2010-023571-26). Trial registration ClinicalTrials.gov: NCT01388504 and Current Controlled Trials: ISRCTN57596739 PMID:23648219

  8. Superiority of pictorial versus verbal presentation and initial exposure in the P300-based, complex trial protocol for concealed memory detection.

    PubMed

    Rosenfeld, J Peter; Ward, Anne; Thai, Michelle; Labkovsky, Elena

    2015-06-01

    Two mock guilty groups had either pictorial or verbal initial exposure to crime items (probes) on which they were told they would later be tested. Then each subject was tested in two sessions on two successive days with both verbal and pictorial presentation, one test modality per session/day. The three dependent variables analyzed were three different estimates of the same basic measurement: the difference between P300s evoked by key (probe) and irrelevant stimuli. All three indexes were significantly increased more by both initial pictorial exposure, as well as by pictorial presentation modality, than by verbal exposure and presentation. We saw no main effect of exposure-presentation modality congruence, as congruence interacted with exposure: The largest probe-irrelevant differences were evoked by congruent pictorial exposure and presentation modality, and the smallest by congruent verbal exposure and presentation modality. PMID:25772317

  9. "Cirque du Freak."

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rivett, Miriam

    2002-01-01

    Considers the marketing strategies that underpin the success of the "Cirque du Freak" series. Describes how "Cirque du Freak" is an account of events in the life of schoolboy Darren Shan. Notes that it is another reworking of the vampire narrative, a sub-genre of horror writing that has proved highly popular with both adult and child readers. (SG)

  10. Long-Term Follow-Up of Autotransplantation Trials for Multiple Myeloma: Update of Protocols Conducted by the Intergroupe Francophone du Myelome, Southwest Oncology Group, and University of Arkansas for Medical Sciences

    PubMed Central

    Barlogie, Bart; Attal, Michel; Crowley, John; van Rhee, Frits; Szymonifka, Jackie; Moreau, Philippe; Durie, Brian G.M.; Harousseau, Jean-Luc

    2010-01-01

    Purpose The purpose of this study was to update outcomes of autotransplantation trials for myeloma conducted by the Intergroupe Francophone du Myelome (IFM), the Southwest Oncology Group, and the University of Arkansas for Medical Sciences (Total Therapy [TT]). Methods IFM90 (N = 194), IFM04 (N = 402), IFM9902 (N = 692), IFM9904 (N = 197), S9321 (N = 817), TT1 (N = 231), TT2 (N = 668), and TT3 (N = 303) were updated, and results were compared with original reports. Results Superior survival with single transplantation versus standard therapy in IFM90 was confirmed (P = .004), and a trend in favor of tandem versus single transplantation was maintained in IFM94 (P = .08). S9321 data were validated, with comparable survival in single transplantation and standard treatment arms (P = .35). A survival benefit from thalidomide maintenance in IFM9902 was not confirmed (P = .39) but emerged for the thalidomide arm of TT2 (P = .04). On multivariate analysis, survival was superior in TT2, TT3, and IFM9902 (all P < .001); tandem transplantations were superior to both single transplantations and standard therapies (P < .001), as were tandem transplantations with added thalidomide versus trials without thalidomide (P < .001). Postrelapse survival (PRS) was superior when initial event-free survival (EFS) exceeded 1280 days and when tandem transplantations had been administered, whereas PRS was shorter when EFS lasted 803 days or less and when trials had included thalidomide and bortezomib. Conclusion These long-term follow-up data of transplantation trials provide a crucial framework of reference for outcome reporting of novel agent–based trials reportedly exhibiting remarkable short-term efficacy approaching high-dose therapy results. PMID:20085933

  11. The effect of different cardiovascular risk presentation formats on intentions, understanding and emotional affect: a randomised controlled trial using a web-based risk formatter (protocol)

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background The future risk of heart disease can be predicted with increasing precision. However, more research is needed into how this risk is conveyed and presented. The aim of this study is to compare the effects of presenting cardiovascular risk in different formats on individuals' intention to change behaviour to reduce risk, understanding of risk information and emotional affect. Methods/design A randomised controlled trial comprising four arms, with a between subjects design will be performed. There will be two intervention groups and two control groups. The first control comprises a pre-intervention questionnaire and presents risk in a bar graph format. The second control presents risk in a bar graph format without pre-intervention questionnaire. These two control groups are to account for the potential Hawthorne effect of thinking about cardiovascular risk before viewing actual risk. The two intervention groups comprise presenting risk in either a pictogram or metonym format (image depicting seriousness of having a myocardial infarction). 800 individuals' aged between 45 and 64 years, who have not been previously diagnosed with heart disease and have access to a computer with internet, will be given a link to a website comprising a risk calculator and electronic questionnaires. 10-year risk of having a coronary heart disease event will be assessed and presented in one of the three formats. A post-intervention questionnaire will be completed after viewing the risk format. Main outcome measures are (i) intention to change behaviour, (ii) understanding of risk information, (iii) emotional affect and (iv) worry about future heart disease. Secondary outcomes are the sub-components of the theory of planned behaviour: attitudes, perceived behavioural control and subjective norms. Discussion Having reviewed the literature, we are not aware of any other studies which have used the assessment of actual risk, in a trial to compare different graphical cardiovascular

  12. Preventing avoidable incidents leading to a presentation to the emergency department (ED) by older adults with cognitive impairment: protocol for a scoping review

    PubMed Central

    Provencher, Véronique; Généreux, Mélissa; Gagnon-Roy, Mireille; Veillette, Nathalie; Egan, Mary; Sirois, Marie-Josée; Lacasse, Francis; Rose, Kathy; Stocco, Stéphanie

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Older adults with cognitive impairment represent a large portion (21–42%) of people (65+) who consult at an emergency department (ED). Because this sub-group is at higher risk for hospitalisation and mortality following an ED visit, awareness about ‘avoidable’ incidents should be increased in order to prevent presentations to the ED due to such incidents. This study aims to synthetise the actual knowledge related to ‘avoidable’ incidents (ie, traumatic injuries, poisoning and other consequences of external causes) (WHO, 2016) leading to ED presentations in older people with cognitive impairment. Methodology and analysis A scoping review will be performed. Scientific and grey literature (1996–2016) will be searched using a combination of key words pertaining to avoidable incidents, ED presentations, older adults and cognitive impairment. A variety of databases (MEDLINE, CINAHL, Ageline, SCOPUS, ProQuest Dissertations/theses, EBM Reviews, Healthstar), online library catalogues, governmental websites and published statistics will be examined. Included sources will pertain to community-dwelling older adults presenting to the ED as a result of an avoidable incident, with the main focus on those with cognitive impairment. Data (eg, type, frequency, severity, circumstances of incidents, preventive measures) will be extracted and analysed using a thematic chart and content analysis. Discussion and dissemination This scoping review will provide a picture of the actual knowledge on the subject and identify knowledge gaps in existing literature to be filled by future primary researches. Findings will help stakeholders to develop programmes in order to promote safe and healthy environments and behaviours aimed at reducing avoidable incidents in seniors, especially those with cognitive impairment. PMID:26873049

  13. Reliable multicast protocol specifications protocol operations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Callahan, John R.; Montgomery, Todd; Whetten, Brian

    1995-01-01

    This appendix contains the complete state tables for Reliable Multicast Protocol (RMP) Normal Operation, Multi-RPC Extensions, Membership Change Extensions, and Reformation Extensions. First the event types are presented. Afterwards, each RMP operation state, normal and extended, is presented individually and its events shown. Events in the RMP specification are one of several things: (1) arriving packets, (2) expired alarms, (3) user events, (4) exceptional conditions.

  14. Etude et simulation du protocole TTEthernet sur un sous-systeme de gestion de vols et adaptation de la planification des tâches a des fins de simulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abidi, Dhafer

    TTEthernet is a deterministic network technology that makes enhancements to Layer 2 Quality-of-Service (QoS) for Ethernet. The components that implement its services enrich the Ethernet functionality with distributed fault-tolerant synchronization, robust temporal partitioning bandwidth and synchronous communication with fixed latency and low jitter. TTEthernet services can facilitate the design of scalable, robust, less complex distributed systems and architectures tolerant to faults. Simulation is nowadays an essential step in critical systems design process and represents a valuable support for validation and performance evaluation. CoRE4INET is a project bringing together all TTEthernet simulation models currently available. It is based on the extension of models of OMNeT ++ INET framework. Our objective is to study and simulate the TTEthernet protocol on a flight management subsystem (FMS). The idea is to use CoRE4INET to design the simulation model of the target system. The problem is that CoRE4INET does not offer a task scheduling tool for TTEthernet network. To overcome this problem we propose an adaptation for simulation purposes of a task scheduling approach based on formal specification of network constraints. The use of Yices solver allowed the translation of the formal specification into an executable program to generate the desired transmission plan. A case study allowed us at the end to assess the impact of the arrangement of Time-Triggered frames offsets on the performance of each type of the system traffic.

  15. The du Bois sign.

    PubMed

    Voelpel, James H; Muehlberger, Thomas

    2011-03-01

    According to the current literature, the term "du Bois sign" characterizes the condition of a shortened fifth finger as a symptom of congenital syphilis, Down syndrome, dyscrania, and encephalic malformation. Modern medical dictionaries and text books attribute the eponym to the French gynecologist Paul Dubois (1795-1871). Yet, a literature analysis revealed incorrect references to the person and unclear definitions of the term. Our findings showed that the origin of the term is based on observations made by the Swiss dermatologist Charles du Bois (1874-1947) in connection with congenital syphilis. In addition, a further eponymical fifth finger sign is closely associated with the du Bois sign. In conclusion, the du Bois sign has only limited diagnostic value and is frequently occurring in the normal healthy population. PMID:21263293

  16. Rational Protocols

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cachin, Christian

    Security research continues to provide a plethora of new protocols and mechanisms; these solutions patch either existing vulnerabilities found in practical systems or solve hypothetical security problems in the sense that the problem is often conceived at the same time when the first solution is proposed. Yet only a very small fraction of this research is relevant to ordinary users in the sense that they are willing to actually deploy the technology.

  17. Testing Protocol for Module Encapsulant Creep (Presentation)

    SciTech Connect

    Kempe, M. D.; Miller, D. C.; Wohlgemuth, J. H.; Kurtz, S. R.; Moseley, J. M.; Shah, Q.; Tamizhmani, G.; Sakurai, K.; Inoue, M.; Doi, T.; Masuda, A.

    2012-02-01

    Recently there has been an interest in the use of thermoplastic encapsulant materials in photovoltaic modules to replace chemically crosslinked materials, e.g., ethylene-vinyl acetate. The related motivations include the desire to: reduce lamination time or temperature; use less moisture-permeable materials; or use materials with better corrosion characteristics. However, the use of any thermoplastic material in a high-temperature environment raises safety and performance concerns, as the standardized tests currently do not expose the modules to temperatures in excess of 85C, yet modules may experience temperatures above 100C in operation. Here we constructed eight pairs of crystalline-silicon modules and eight pairs of glass/encapsulation/glass mock modules using different encapsulation materials of which only two were designed to chemically crosslink. One module set was exposed outdoors with insulation on the back side in Arizona in the summer, and an identical set was exposed in environmental chambers. High precision creep measurements and performance measurements indicate that despite many of these polymeric materials being in the melt state at some of the highest outdoor temperatures achievable, very little creep was seen because of their high viscosity, temperature heterogeneity across the modules, and in the case of the crystalline-silicon modules, the physical restraint of the backsheet. These findings have very important implications for the development of IEC and UL qualification and safety standards, and in regards to the necessary level of cure during the processing of crosslinking encapsulants.

  18. Indoor air quality investigation protocols

    SciTech Connect

    Greene, R.E.; Williams, P.L.

    1996-10-01

    Over the past 10 to 15 years, an increasing number of complaints about discomfort and health effects related to indoor air quality (IAQ) have been reported. The increase in complaints has been accompanied by an increase in requests for IAQ investigations. This study presents an overview of the many IAQ investigation protocols published since 1984. For analysis, the protocols are divided into four categories: solution-oriented, building diagnostics, industrial hygiene, and epidemiology. In general, the protocols begin with general observations, proceed to collect more specific data as indicated, and end with conclusions and recommendations. A generic IAQ protocol is presented that incorporates the common aspects of the various protocols. All of the current protocols place heavy emphasis on the ventilation system during the investigation. A major problem affecting all of the current protocols is the lack of generally accepted IAQ standards. IN addition, the use of questionnaires, occupant interviews, and personal diaries (as well as the point in the investigation at which they are administered) differs among the protocols. Medical evaluations and verification procedures also differ among the protocols.

  19. Sign Communication in Cri du Chat Syndrome

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Erlenkamp, Sonja; Kristoffersen, Kristian Emil

    2010-01-01

    This paper presents findings from a study on the use of sign supported Norwegian (SSN) in two individuals with Cri du chat syndrome (CCS). The study gives a first account of some selected aspects of production and intelligibility of SSN in CCS. Possible deviance in manual parameters, in particular inter- and/or intra-subject variation in the use…

  20. Cri du Chat syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Cerruti Mainardi, Paola

    2006-01-01

    The Cri du Chat syndrome (CdCS) is a genetic disease resulting from a deletion of variable size occurring on the short arm of chromosome 5 (5p-). The incidence ranges from 1:15,000 to 1:50,000 live-born infants. The main clinical features are a high-pitched monochromatic cry, microcephaly, broad nasal bridge, epicanthal folds, micrognathia, abnormal dermatoglyphics, and severe psychomotor and mental retardation. Malformations, although not very frequent, may be present: cardiac, neurological and renal abnormalities, preauricular tags, syndactyly, hypospadias, and cryptorchidism. Molecular cytogenetic analysis has allowed a cytogenetic and phenotypic map of 5p to be defined, even if results from the studies reported up to now are not completely in agreement. Genotype-phenotype correlation studies showed a clinical and cytogenetic variability. The identification of phenotypic subsets associated with a specific size and type of deletion is of diagnostic and prognostic relevance. Specific growth and psychomotor development charts have been established. Two genes, Semaphorin F (SEMAF) and δ-catenin (CTNND2), which have been mapped to the "critical regions", are potentially involved in cerebral development and their deletion may be associated with mental retardation in CdCS patients. Deletion of the telomerase reverse transcriptase (hTERT) gene, localised to 5p15.33, could contribute to the phenotypic changes in CdCS. The critical regions were recently refined by using array comparative genomic hybridisation. The cat-like cry critical region was further narrowed using quantitative polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and three candidate genes were characterised in this region. The diagnosis is based on typical clinical manifestations. Karyotype analysis and, in doubtful cases, FISH analysis will confirm the diagnosis. There is no specific therapy for CdCS but early rehabilitative and educational interventions improve the prognosis and considerable progress has been made in

  1. Publishing protocols for partnered research.

    PubMed

    Hysong, Sylvia J; Woodard, LeChauncy; Garvin, Jennifer H; Murawsky, Jeffrey; Petersen, Laura A

    2014-12-01

    Published scientific protocols are advocated as a means of controlling bias in research reporting. Indeed, many journals require a study protocol with manuscript submission. However, publishing protocols of partnered research (PPR) can be challenging in light of the research model's dynamic nature, especially as no current reporting standards exist. Nevertheless, as these protocols become more prevalent, a priori documentation of methods in partnered research studies becomes increasingly important. Using as illustration a suite of studies aimed at improving coordination and communication in the primary care setting, we sought to identify challenges in publishing PPR relative to traditional designs, present alternative solutions to PPR publication, and propose an initial checklist of content to be included in protocols of partnered research. Challenges to publishing PPR include reporting details of research components intended to be co-created with operational partners, changes to sampling and entry strategy, and alignment of scientific and operational goals. Proposed solutions include emulating reporting standards of qualitative research, participatory action research, and adaptive trial designs, as well as embracing technological tools that facilitate publishing adaptive protocols, with version histories that are able to be updated as major protocol changes occur. Finally, we present a proposed checklist of reporting elements for partnered research protocols. PMID:25355092

  2. Distributed simulation of network protocols

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Paterra, Frank; Overstreet, C. Michael; Maly, Kurt J.

    1990-01-01

    Simulations of high speed network protocols are very CPU intensive operations requiring very long run times. Very high speed network protocols (Gigabit/sec rates) require longer simulation runs in order to reach a steady state, while at the same time requiring additional CPU processing for each unit of time because of the data rates for the traffic being simulated. As protocol development proceeds and simulations provide insights into any problems associated with the protocol, the simulation model often must be changed to generate additional or finer statistical performance information. Iterating on this process is very time consuming due to the required run times for the simulation models. The results of the efforts to distribute a high speed ring network protocol, Carrier Sensed Multiple Access/Ring Network (CSMA/RN), are presented.

  3. Generalized teleportation protocol

    SciTech Connect

    Gordon, Goren; Rigolin, Gustavo

    2006-04-15

    A generalized teleportation protocol (GTP) for N qubits is presented, where the teleportation channels are nonmaximally entangled and all the free parameters of the protocol are considered: Alice's measurement basis, her sets of acceptable results, and Bob's unitary operations. The full range of fidelity (F) of the teleported state and the probability of success (P{sub suc}) to obtain a given fidelity are achieved by changing these free parameters. A channel efficiency bound is found, where one can determine how to divide it between F and P{sub suc}. A one-qubit formulation is presented and then expanded to N qubits. A proposed experimental setup that implements the GTP is given using linear optics.

  4. Automatic Sequencing for Experimental Protocols

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hsieh, Paul F.; Stern, Ivan

    We present a paradigm and implementation of a system for the specification of the experimental protocols to be used for the calibration of AXAF mirrors. For the mirror calibration, several thousand individual measurements need to be defined. For each measurement, over one hundred parameters need to be tabulated for the facility test conductor and several hundred instrument parameters need to be set. We provide a high level protocol language which allows for a tractable representation of the measurement protocol. We present a procedure dispatcher which automatically sequences a protocol more accurately and more rapidly than is possible by an unassisted human operator. We also present back-end tools to generate printed procedure manuals and database tables required for review by the AXAF program. This paradigm has been tested and refined in the calibration of detectors to be used in mirror calibration.

  5. Delta Coherence Protocols: The Home Update Protocol

    SciTech Connect

    Williams, C.; Reynolds, P.F.; de Supinoki, B.

    2000-07-21

    We describe a new class of directory coherence protocols called delta coherence protocols that use network guarantees to support a new and highly concurrent approach to maintain a consistent shared memory. Delta coherence protocols are more concurrent than other coherence protocols in that they allow processes to pipeline memory accesses without violating sequential consistency; support multiple concurrent readers and writers to the same cache block; and allow processes to access multiple shared variables atomically without invalidating the copies held by other processes or otherwise obtaining exclusive access to the referenced variables. Delta protocols include both update and invalidate protocols. In this paper we describe the simplest, most basic delta protocol, an update protocol called the home update protocol. Delta protocols are based on isotach network guarantees. An isotach network maintains a logical time system that allows each process to predict and control the logical time at which its messages are received. Processes use isotach guarantees to control the logical time at which their requests on shared memory appear to be executed. We prove the home update protocol is correct using logical time to reason about the order in which requests are executed.

  6. Cost-Effective Remediation of Depleted Uranium (DU) at Environmental Restoration Sites

    SciTech Connect

    MILLER,MARK; GALLOWAY,ROBERT B.; VANDERPOEL,GLENN; JOHNSON,ED; COPLAND,JOHN; SALAZAR,MICHAEL

    1999-11-03

    Numerous sites in the United States and around the world are contaminated with depleted uranium (DU) in various forms. A prevalent form is fragmented DU originating from various scientific tests involving high explosives and DU during weapon-development programs, at firing practice ranges, or in war theaters where DU was used in armor-piercing projectiles. The contamination at these sites is typically very heterogeneous, with discrete, visually identifiable DU fragments mixed with native soil. The bulk-averaged DU activity is quite low, whereas DU fragments, which are distinct from the soil matrix, have much higher specific activity. DU is best known as a dark metal that is nearly twice as dense as lead, but DU in the environment readily weathers (oxidizes) to a distinctive bright yellow color that is quite visible. While the specific activity (amount of radioactivity per mass of soil) of DU is relatively low and presents only a minor radiological hazard, the fact that DU is radioactive and visually identifiable makes it desirable to remove the DU ''contamination'' from the environment. The typical approach to conducting this DU remediation is to use radiation-detection instruments to identify the contaminant and then to separate it from the adjacent soil, packaging it for disposal as radioactive waste. This process can be performed manually or by specialized, automated equipment. Alternatively, a more cost-effective approach might be simple mechanical or gravimetric separation of the DU fragments from the host soil matrix. At SNL/NM, both the automated and simple mechanical approaches have recently been employed. This paper discusses the pros/cons of the two approaches.

  7. Robust multipartite multilevel quantum protocols

    SciTech Connect

    Nihira, Hideomi; Stroud, C.R. Jr.

    2005-08-15

    We present a quantum protocol utilizing a tripartite three-level state. The state used in this scheme contains entanglement even after one system is traced out and as a result can be used for both a secret-sharing protocol among the three parties and a quantum-key-distribution protocol between any two parties. We show how to utilize this residual entanglement for quantum-key-distribution purposes, and explore a possible realization of the scheme using entanglement of orbital-angular-momentum states of photons.

  8. The diagnosis of urinary tract infections in young children (DUTY): protocol for a diagnostic and prospective observational study to derive and validate a clinical algorithm for the diagnosis of UTI in children presenting to primary care with an acute illness

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Urinary tract infection (UTI) is common in children, and may cause serious illness and recurrent symptoms. However, obtaining a urine sample from young children in primary care is challenging and not feasible for large numbers. Evidence regarding the predictive value of symptoms, signs and urinalysis for UTI in young children is urgently needed to help primary care clinicians better identify children who should be investigated for UTI. This paper describes the protocol for the Diagnosis of Urinary Tract infection in Young children (DUTY) study. The overall study aim is to derive and validate a cost-effective clinical algorithm for the diagnosis of UTI in children presenting to primary care acutely unwell. Methods/design DUTY is a multicentre, diagnostic and prospective observational study aiming to recruit at least 7,000 children aged before their fifth birthday, being assessed in primary care for any acute, non-traumatic, illness of ≤ 28 days duration. Urine samples will be obtained from eligible consented children, and data collected on medical history and presenting symptoms and signs. Urine samples will be dipstick tested in general practice and sent for microbiological analysis. All children with culture positive urines and a random sample of children with urine culture results in other, non-positive categories will be followed up to record symptom duration and healthcare resource use. A diagnostic algorithm will be constructed and validated and an economic evaluation conducted. The primary outcome will be a validated diagnostic algorithm using a reference standard of a pure/predominant growth of at least >103, but usually >105 CFU/mL of one, but no more than two uropathogens. We will use logistic regression to identify the clinical predictors (i.e. demographic, medical history, presenting signs and symptoms and urine dipstick analysis results) most strongly associated with a positive urine culture result. We will then use economic evaluation

  9. Consequences experimentales des effets des fluctuations du vide sur la fluorescence parametrique et la generation du second harmonique en milieu confine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Robichaud, Luc

    Les fluctuations du vide, qui consistent en l'apparition momentanee de particules, ce qui est permit par le principe d'incertitude de Heisenberg, joue un role primordial dans les processus photoniques, en particulier les processus non-lineaires. Par la manipulation de ces fluctuations du vide a l'aide de confinement optique, on retrouve deux phenomenes particuliers : l'intensification de la fluorescence parametrique (Walker, 2008) et l'inhibition de la generation du second harmonique (Collette, 2013). Dans ce travail, on presente les resultats dans le cas classique ; c'est-a-dire sans fluctuations du vide et confinement. Par la suite, on presente les effets des fluctuations du vide et du confinement, ce qui mene aux deux effets mentionnes. Dans le cas de la fluorescence parametrique, le bruit quantique sur le champ interne et externe est calcule, le role du desaccord de phase dans le modele est expose et une generalisation tridimensionnelle est etudiee afin de generaliser la conception du modele d'un cas unidimensionnel a un cas tridimensionnel planaire. Dans le cas de la generation du second harmonique, les difficultes d'un modele purement tridimensionnel sont exposees et ensuite le cas limite planaire est etudie.

  10. DuPont extends CFC production after EPA warns of scarcity

    SciTech Connect

    Kirschner, E.

    1994-01-05

    DuPont reversed its voluntary commitment to phase out CFC production at the end of 1994 to prevent a possible shortage for automotive air conditioning repairs. In a December letter, the US EPA asked Dupont to continue producing its full 1995 allowance of 76 million tons of CFC-12 under the Montreal Protocol.

  11. Oxidation states of uranium in DU particles from Kosovo.

    PubMed

    Salbu, B; Janssens, K; Lind, O C; Proost, K; Danesi, P R

    2003-01-01

    The oxidation states of uranium contained in depleted uranium (DU) particles were determined by synchrotron radiation based micro-XANES, applied to individual particles in soil samples collected at Ceja Mountain, Kosovo. Based on scanning electron microscopy (SEM) with XRMA prior to micro-XANES, DU particles ranging from submicrons to about 30 microm (average size: 2 microm or less) were identified. Compared to well-defined standards, all investigated DU particles were oxidized. About 50% of the DU particles were characterized as UO2, the remaining DU particles present were U3O8 or a mixture of oxidized forms (ca. 2/3 UO2, 1/3 U3O8). Since the particle weathering rate is expected to be higher for U3O8 than for UO2, the presence of respiratory U3O8 and UO2 particles, their corresponding weathering rates and subsequent remobilisation of U from DU particles should be included in the environmental or health impact assessments. PMID:12500803

  12. Kyste hydatique primitif du sein

    PubMed Central

    Mouslik, Rabii; Settaf, Abdellatif; Elalami, Yacir; Lahnini, Hicham; Lahlou, Khalid; Chad, Bouziane

    2012-01-01

    Le kyste hydatique du sein est une parasitose rare même dans les pays endémiques. Nous rapportons une nouvelle observation d'une patiente de 30 ans qui présentait une masse du sein gauche. Le diagnostic de kyste hydatique du sein a été évoqué devant les données de l'examen clinique et de la mammographie couplée à l’échographie. Le geste chirurgical a consisté en une kystectomie. L'examen anatomopathologique de la pièce opératoire a confirmé le diagnostic. PMID:23133704

  13. Quantum three-pass cryptography protocol

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Li; Wu, Ling-An; Liu, Songhao

    2002-09-01

    We present a new kind of quantum cryptography protocol based on Shamir's three-pass protocol of classical cryptography, which allows the transmission of qubits directly and secretly via the aid of an unjammable classical channel. In this protocol we implement the encryption and decryption transformations via rotations on the Poincare sphere of the photons polarization parameters. The key technique is that Bob's encryption rotation must be commutative with Alice s decryption rotation; this means that the axes of these two rotations must be parallel. We also present a security analysis of the protocol under a man-in-the-middle attack.

  14. NATCON Papers 1999 = Les Actes du CONAT. [Papers Presented at the Annual Meeting of the National Consultation on Career Development (NATCON) (25th, Ottawa, Ontario, Canada, January 25-27, 1999)].

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Consultation on Career Development (NATCON), Toronto (Ontario).

    This book contains the texts of a number of presentations from the 1999 NATCON conferences. These papers are: (1) "A Book of Surprises: Games, Stories, and Magic for Career Practitioners" (E. Sylvester); (2) "Academic and Career Choices for Lesbian and Gay Young Adults" (M. Schneider and J. McCurdy-Myers); (3)"Adolescent Values Development:…

  15. Alternative parallel ring protocols

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mukkamala, R.; Foudriat, E. C.; Maly, Kurt J.; Kale, V.

    1990-01-01

    Communication protocols are know to influence the utilization and performance of communication network. The effect of two token ring protocols on a gigabit network with multiple ring structure is investigated. In the first protocol, a mode sends at most one message on receiving a token. In the second protocol, a mode sends all the waiting messages when a token is received. The behavior of these protocols is shown to be highly dependent on the number of rings as well as the load in the network.

  16. Interpolation of recurrence and hashing entanglement distillation protocols

    SciTech Connect

    Vollbrecht, Karl Gerd H.; Verstraete, Frank

    2005-06-15

    We construct interesting entanglement distillation protocols by interpolating between the recurrence and hashing protocols. This leads to asymptotic two-way distillation protocols, resulting in an improvement of the distillation rate for all mixed Bell diagonal entangled states, even for the ones with very high fidelity. We also present a method for how entanglement-assisted distillation protocol can be converted into nonentanglement-assisted protocols with the same yield.

  17. Optical Circuit Switched Protocol

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Monacos, Steve P. (Inventor)

    2000-01-01

    The present invention is a system and method embodied in an optical circuit switched protocol for the transmission of data through a network. The optical circuit switched protocol is an all-optical circuit switched network and includes novel optical switching nodes for transmitting optical data packets within a network. Each optical switching node comprises a detector for receiving the header, header detection logic for translating the header into routing information and eliminating the header, and a controller for receiving the routing information and configuring an all optical path within the node. The all optical path located within the node is solely an optical path without having electronic storage of the data and without having optical delay of the data. Since electronic storage of the header is not necessary and the initial header is eliminated by the first detector of the first switching node. multiple identical headers are sent throughout the network so that subsequent switching nodes can receive and read the header for setting up an optical data path.

  18. A Unified Fault-Tolerance Protocol

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Miner, Paul; Gedser, Alfons; Pike, Lee; Maddalon, Jeffrey

    2004-01-01

    Davies and Wakerly show that Byzantine fault tolerance can be achieved by a cascade of broadcasts and middle value select functions. We present an extension of the Davies and Wakerly protocol, the unified protocol, and its proof of correctness. We prove that it satisfies validity and agreement properties for communication of exact values. We then introduce bounded communication error into the model. Inexact communication is inherent for clock synchronization protocols. We prove that validity and agreement properties hold for inexact communication, and that exact communication is a special case. As a running example, we illustrate the unified protocol using the SPIDER family of fault-tolerant architectures. In particular we demonstrate that the SPIDER interactive consistency, distributed diagnosis, and clock synchronization protocols are instances of the unified protocol.

  19. The braided single-stage protocol for quantum secure communication

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Darunkar, Bhagyashri; Verma, Pramode K.

    2014-05-01

    This paper presents the concept and implementation of a Braided Single-stage Protocol for quantum secure communication. The braided single-stage protocol is a multi-photon tolerant secure protocol. This multi-photon tolerant protocol has been implemented in the laboratory using free-space optics technology. The proposed protocol capitalizes on strengths of the three-stage protocol and extends it with a new concept of braiding. This protocol overcomes the limitations associated with the three-stage protocol in the following ways: It uses the transmission channel only once as opposed to three times in the three-stage protocol, and it is invulnerable to man-in-the-middle attack. This paper also presents the error analysis resulting from the misalignment of the devices in the implementation. The experimental results validate the efficient use of transmission resources and improvement in the data transfer rate.

  20. Continuous improvement journey at Du Pont photomasks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Henderson, Robert K.

    1994-02-01

    This paper describes the history and experiences of Du Pont Photomasks in their efforts to integrate the continuous improvement philosophy and practices embodied in the Malcolm Baldrige National Quality Award criteria into their way of doing business. A case study of key learnings in this almost four year long process is presented. Specific topics discussed include the process applied to achieve ISO 9000 certification, the quality systems deployed in this effort, and the use of a balanced set of business and quality metrics to assess and improve upon performance.

  1. Modelisation par elements finis du muscle strie

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leonard, Mathieu

    Ce present projet de recherche a permis. de creer un modele par elements finis du muscle strie humain dans le but d'etudier les mecanismes engendrant les lesions musculaires traumatiques. Ce modele constitue une plate-forme numerique capable de discerner l'influence des proprietes mecaniques des fascias et de la cellule musculaire sur le comportement dynamique du muscle lors d'une contraction excentrique, notamment le module de Young et le module de cisaillement de la couche de tissu conjonctif, l'orientation des fibres de collagene de cette membrane et le coefficient de poisson du muscle. La caracterisation experimentale in vitro de ces parametres pour des vitesses de deformation elevees a partir de muscles stries humains actifs est essentielle pour l'etude de lesions musculaires traumatiques. Le modele numerique developpe est capable de modeliser la contraction musculaire comme une transition de phase de la cellule musculaire par un changement de raideur et de volume a l'aide des lois de comportement de materiau predefinies dans le logiciel LS-DYNA (v971, Livermore Software Technology Corporation, Livermore, CA, USA). Le present projet de recherche introduit donc un phenomene physiologique qui pourrait expliquer des blessures musculaires courantes (crampes, courbatures, claquages, etc.), mais aussi des maladies ou desordres touchant le tissu conjonctif comme les collagenoses et la dystrophie musculaire. La predominance de blessures musculaires lors de contractions excentriques est egalement exposee. Le modele developpe dans ce projet de recherche met ainsi a l'avant-scene le concept de transition de phase ouvrant la porte au developpement de nouvelles technologies pour l'activation musculaire chez les personnes atteintes de paraplegie ou de muscles artificiels compacts pour l'elaboration de protheses ou d'exosquelettes. Mots-cles Muscle strie, lesion musculaire, fascia, contraction excentrique, modele par elements finis, transition de phase

  2. L'Aventure du LHC

    ScienceCinema

    None

    2011-10-06

    Cette présentation s?adressera principalement aux personnes qui ont construit le LHC. La construction du LHC fut longue et difficile. De nombreux problèmes sont apparus en cours de route. Tous ont été résolus grâce au dévouement et à l?engagement du personnel et des collaborateurs. Je reviendrai sur les coups durs et les réussites qui ont marqués ces 15 dernières années et je vous montrerai combien cette machine, le fruit de vos efforts, est extraordinaire.

  3. L'Aventure du LHC

    SciTech Connect

    2010-06-11

    Cette présentation s’adressera principalement aux personnes qui ont construit le LHC. La construction du LHC fut longue et difficile. De nombreux problèmes sont apparus en cours de route. Tous ont été résolus grâce au dévouement et à l’engagement du personnel et des collaborateurs. Je reviendrai sur les coups durs et les réussites qui ont marqués ces 15 dernières années et je vous montrerai combien cette machine, le fruit de vos efforts, est extraordinaire.

  4. Non-destructive analysis of DU content in the NIF hohlraums

    SciTech Connect

    Gharibyan, Narek; Moody, Ken J.; Shaughnessy, Dawn A.

    2015-12-16

    The advantage of using depleted uranium (DU) hohlraums in high-yield deuterium-tritium (DT) shots at the National Ignition Facility (NIF) is addressed by Döppner, et al., in great detail [1]. This DU based hohlraum incorporates a thin layer of DU, ~7 μm thick, on the inner surface along with a thin layer of a gold coating, ~0.7 μm thick, while the outer layer is ~22 μm thick gold. A thickness measurement of the DU layer can be performed using an optical microscope where the total DU weight can be computed provided a uniform DU layer. However, the uniformity of the thickness is not constant throughout the hohlraum since CAD drawing calculations of the DU weight do not agree with the computed values from optical measurements [2]. Therefore, a non-destructive method for quantifying the DU content in hohlraums has been established by utilizing gamma-ray spectroscopy. The details of this method, along with results from several hohlraums, are presented in this report.

  5. National Sample Assessment Protocols

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ministerial Council on Education, Employment, Training and Youth Affairs (NJ1), 2012

    2012-01-01

    These protocols represent a working guide for planning and implementing national sample assessments in connection with the national Key Performance Measures (KPMs). The protocols are intended for agencies involved in planning or conducting national sample assessments and personnel responsible for administering associated tenders or contracts,…

  6. Reliable broadcast protocols

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Joseph, T. A.; Birman, Kenneth P.

    1989-01-01

    A number of broadcast protocols that are reliable subject to a variety of ordering and delivery guarantees are considered. Developing applications that are distributed over a number of sites and/or must tolerate the failures of some of them becomes a considerably simpler task when such protocols are available for communication. Without such protocols the kinds of distributed applications that can reasonably be built will have a very limited scope. As the trend towards distribution and decentralization continues, it will not be surprising if reliable broadcast protocols have the same role in distributed operating systems of the future that message passing mechanisms have in the operating systems of today. On the other hand, the problems of engineering such a system remain large. For example, deciding which protocol is the most appropriate to use in a certain situation or how to balance the latency-communication-storage costs is not an easy question.

  7. College of DuPage Student Portrait, Fall Quarter 1999.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    College of DuPage, Glen Ellyn, IL. Office of Research and Planning.

    The report profiles the College of DuPage's (COD) fall quarter 1999 student body. It presents a brief history of the college's enrollment and a comparison of enrollments with other Illinois community colleges. It also provides demographic information on current students. Additionally, enrollment information is included by program, division, and…

  8. Cryptanalysis of the arbitrated quantum signature protocols

    SciTech Connect

    Gao Fei; Qin Sujuan; Guo Fenzhuo; Wen Qiaoyan

    2011-08-15

    As a new model for signing quantum messages, arbitrated quantum signature (AQS) has recently received a lot of attention. In this paper we study the cryptanalysis of previous AQS protocols from the aspects of forgery and disavowal. We show that in these protocols the receiver, Bob, can realize existential forgery of the sender's signature under known message attack. Bob can even achieve universal forgery when the protocols are used to sign a classical message. Furthermore, the sender, Alice, can successfully disavow any of her signatures by simple attack. The attack strategies are described in detail and some discussions about the potential improvements of the protocols are given. Finally we also present several interesting topics on AQS protocols that can be studied in future.

  9. Cryptanalysis of the arbitrated quantum signature protocols

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gao, Fei; Qin, Su-Juan; Guo, Fen-Zhuo; Wen, Qiao-Yan

    2011-08-01

    As a new model for signing quantum messages, arbitrated quantum signature (AQS) has recently received a lot of attention. In this paper we study the cryptanalysis of previous AQS protocols from the aspects of forgery and disavowal. We show that in these protocols the receiver, Bob, can realize existential forgery of the sender's signature under known message attack. Bob can even achieve universal forgery when the protocols are used to sign a classical message. Furthermore, the sender, Alice, can successfully disavow any of her signatures by simple attack. The attack strategies are described in detail and some discussions about the potential improvements of the protocols are given. Finally we also present several interesting topics on AQS protocols that can be studied in future.

  10. An improved quantum key distribution protocol

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Ting-wan; Wu, Guo-hua

    2008-08-01

    This paper presented an improved quantum key distribution protocol of the quantum cryptology. Using the same measure polarizer as BB84 protocol, the improved protocol we designed with not any classical channel, but a new looped quantum channel instead, so the job of sending and receiving can be finished only by one same person. It brings several good points: the utilization ratio of photons 100% in perfect condition, at least twice over other protocols, or even higher; the public channel easy to be attacked is avoided. Further, the improved protocol authenticates the legal communicators with pre-share information, so that no attacker can jump over the progress of authentication. Be alien from the protocol of BB84, the improved protocol uses message summary to detect whether messages intercepted by attacker. Because the message summary is encrypted by one-time-pad method using pre-share information, attacker could not alter the message summary and that not to be discovered. Moreover, some theoretical analysis to the improved protocol given with information theory: we used the measure channel concept for quantum detection, and calculated the information quantity obtained by attacker in the quantum secrecy communication. The analysis results provide the theory criterion for the legal communicators and the attackers.

  11. Tendencies in the development of utilization protocols, seminar report

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roveri, A.

    1983-07-01

    The open system interconnections model (OSI) structured approach to specify protocols is discussed. A stratification in seven levels characterizes the architecture of the system. Transfer level protocol characterization of utilization protocols in the OSI model, data flow control, and presentation and application levels are described.

  12. Quantum deniable authentication protocol

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shi, Wei-Min; Zhou, Yi-Hua; Yang, Yu-Guang

    2014-07-01

    The proposed quantum identity authentication schemes only involved authentication between two communicators, but communications with deniability capability are often desired in electronic applications such as online negotiation and electronic voting. In this paper, we proposed a quantum deniable authentication protocol. According to the property of unitary transformation and quantum one-way function, this protocol can provide that only the specified receiver can identify the true source of a given message and the specified receiver cannot prove the source of the message to a third party by a transcript simulation algorithm. Moreover, the quantum key distribution and quantum encryption algorithm guarantee the unconditional security of this scheme. Security analysis results show that this protocol satisfies the basic security requirements of deniable authentication protocol such as completeness and deniability and can withstand the forgery attack, impersonation attack, inter-resend attack.

  13. The Pic du Midi solar survey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koechlin, L.

    2015-12-01

    We carry a long term survey of the solar activity with our coronagraphic system at Pic du Midi de Bigorre in the French Pyrenees (CLIMSO). It is a set of two solar telescopes and two coronagraphs, taking one frame per minute for each of the four channels : Solar disk in H-α (656.28 nm), prominences in H-α, disk in Ca II (393.3 nm), prominences in He I (1083 nm), all year long, weather permitting. Since 2015 we also take images of the FeXIII corona (1074.7 nm) at the rate of one every 10 minutes. These images cover a large field: 1.25 solar diameter, 2k*2K pixels, and are freely downloadable form a database. The improvements made since 2015 concern an autoguiding system for better centering of the solar disk behind the coronagraphic masks, and a new Fe XIII channel at λ=1074.7 nm. In the near future we plan to provide radial velocity maps of the disc and polarimetry maps of the disk and corona. This survey took its present form in 2007 and we plan to maintain image acquisition in the same or better experimental conditions for a long period: one or several solar cycles if possible. During the partial solar eclipse of March 20, 2015, the CLIMSO instruments and the staff at Pic du Midi operating it have provided several millions internet users with real time images of the Sun and Moon during all the phenomenon.

  14. Re-examining generalized teleportation protocol

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xia, Yan; Song, Jie; Song, He-Shan

    2007-11-01

    We present an explicit generalized protocol for probabilistic teleportation of an arbitrary N-qubit GHZ entangled state via only one non-maximally two-qubit entangled state. Without entanglement concentration, using standard Bell-state measurement and classical communication one cannot teleport the state with unit fidelity and unit probability. We show that by properly choosing the measurement basis it is possible to achieve unity fidelity transfer of the state. Compared with Gordon et al's protocol [G. Gordon, G. Rigolin, Phys. Rev. A 73 (2006) 042309], this protocol has the advantage of transmitting much less qubits and classical information for teleporting an arbitrary N-qubit GHZ state.

  15. Quantum key distribution protocol using random bases

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meslouhi, A.; Amellal, H.; Hassouni, Y.; El Baz, M.; El Allati, A.

    2016-04-01

    In order to enhance the quantum key distribution (QKD) security, a new protocol, “QKDPRB” based on random bases is proposed. It consists of using standard encoding bases moving circularly with a variable rotational angle α which depends on angular velocity ω(t); thus, the traditional bases turn into relative ones. To prove the security and the efficiency of the protocol, we present a universal demonstration which proves a high level security of the proposed protocol, even in the presence of the intercept and resend attack. Finally, the QKDPRB may improve the security of QKD.

  16. Presentation by the scientific and technical commission on the analysis of the events relating to the unexpected ice storm of 5 to 9 January. Presentation a la commission scientifique et technique chargee d'analyser les evenements relatifs (a) la tempete de verglas survenue du 5 au 9 janvier 1998

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1998-01-01

    The first part of this report contains three presentations in French by directors of Hydro-Quebec regarding the utility's actions during the January 1998 ice storm and initiatives to reinforce and maintain the power network to avoid ice storm problems in the future. The second part is in a question and answer format and covers the utility's response to ice storm threats in the following areas: Climate (forecasting of ice storm periods, line design criteria, impact of climatic changes and El Nino, ice data interpretation and measurement, research); structural aspects, including failures of components, towers, and lines; electrical aspects, including consolidation of the transmission system, power system security, burying of installations, conductor de-icing, strategic lines, and manpower use; economic aspects (network improvement, reliability, continuity and maintenance expenditures, interconnections, internal communications, service enhancement programs, work force reduction, strategic plans); and the management of emergency measures, including planning, service restoration priorities, human and material resources management, coordination, communications, and risk analysis.

  17. A verification system of RMAP protocol controller

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khanov, V. Kh; Shakhmatov, A. V.; Chekmarev, S. A.

    2015-01-01

    The functional verification problem of IP blocks of RMAP protocol controller is considered. The application of the verification method using fully- functional models of the processor and the internal bus of a system-on-chip is justified. Principles of construction of a verification system based on the given approach are proposed. The practical results of creating a system of verification of IP block of RMAP protocol controller is presented.

  18. The CHICO (Children's Cough) Trial protocol: a feasibility randomised controlled trial investigating the clinical and cost-effectiveness of a complex intervention to improve the management of children presenting to primary care with acute respiratory tract infection

    PubMed Central

    Turnbull, Sophie L; Redmond, Niamh M; Lucas, Patricia; Cabral, Christie; Ingram, Jenny; Hollinghurst, Sandra; Hay, Alastair D; Peters, Tim J; Horwood, Jeremy; Little, Paul; Francis, Nick; Blair, Peter S

    2015-01-01

    Introduction While most respiratory tract infections (RTIs) will resolve without treatment, many children will receive antibiotics and some will develop severe symptoms requiring hospitalisation. There have been calls for evidence to reduce uncertainty regarding the identification of children who will and will not benefit from antibiotics. The aim of this feasibility trial is to test recruitment and the acceptance of a complex behavioural intervention designed to reduce antibiotic prescribing, and to inform how best to conduct a larger trial. Methods and analysis The CHICO (Children's Cough) trial is a single-centre feasibility cluster randomised controlled trial (RCT) comparing a web-based, within-consultation, behavioural intervention with usual care for children presenting to general practitioner practices with RTI and acute cough. The trial aims to recruit at least 300 children between October 2014 and April 2015, in a single area in South West England. Following informed consent, demographic information will be recorded, and symptoms and signs measured. Parents/carers of recruited children will be followed up on a weekly basis to establish symptom duration, resource use and cost of the illness to the parent until the child's cough has resolved or up to 8 weeks, whichever occurs earlier. A review of medical notes, including clinical history, primary care reconsultations and hospitalisations will be undertaken 2 months after recruitment. The trial feasibility will be assessed by: determining acceptability of the intervention to clinicians and parent/carers; quantifying differential recruitment and follow-up; determining intervention fidelity; the success in gathering the data necessary to conduct a cost-effectiveness analysis; and collecting data about antibiotic prescribing rates to inform the sample size needed for a fully powered RCT. Ethics and dissemination The study was approved by the North West—Haydock Research Ethics Committee, UK (reference

  19. Presentation by the scientific and technical commission on the analysis of the events relating to the unexpected ice storm of 5 to 9 January; Presentation a la commission scientifique et technique chargee d`analyser les evenements relatifs (a) la tempete de verglas survenue du 5 au 9 janvier 1998

    SciTech Connect

    1998-12-31

    The first part of this report contains three presentations in French by directors of Hydro-Quebec regarding the utility`s actions during the January 1998 ice storm and initiatives to reinforce and maintain the power network to avoid ice storm problems in the future. The second part is in a question and answer format and covers the utility`s response to ice storm threats in the following areas: Climate (forecasting of ice storm periods, line design criteria, impact of climatic changes and El Nino, ice data interpretation and measurement, research); structural aspects, including failures of components, towers, and lines; electrical aspects, including consolidation of the transmission system, power system security, burying of installations, conductor de-icing, strategic lines, and manpower use; economic aspects (network improvement, reliability, continuity and maintenance expenditures, interconnections, internal communications, service enhancement programs, work force reduction, strategic plans); and the management of emergency measures, including planning, service restoration priorities, human and material resources management, coordination, communications, and risk analysis.

  20. A prospective observational study to assess the diagnostic accuracy of clinical decision rules for children presenting to emergency departments after head injuries (protocol): the Australasian Paediatric Head Injury Rules Study (APHIRST)

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Head injuries in children are responsible for a large number of emergency department visits. Failure to identify a clinically significant intracranial injury in a timely fashion may result in long term neurodisability and death. Whilst cranial computed tomography (CT) provides rapid and definitive identification of intracranial injuries, it is resource intensive and associated with radiation induced cancer. Evidence based head injury clinical decision rules have been derived to aid physicians in identifying patients at risk of having a clinically significant intracranial injury. Three rules have been identified as being of high quality and accuracy: the Canadian Assessment of Tomography for Childhood Head Injury (CATCH) from Canada, the Children’s Head Injury Algorithm for the Prediction of Important Clinical Events (CHALICE) from the UK, and the prediction rule for the identification of children at very low risk of clinically important traumatic brain injury developed by the Pediatric Emergency Care Applied Research Network (PECARN) from the USA. This study aims to prospectively validate and compare the performance accuracy of these three clinical decision rules when applied outside the derivation setting. Methods/design This study is a prospective observational study of children aged 0 to less than 18 years presenting to 10 emergency departments within the Paediatric Research in Emergency Departments International Collaborative (PREDICT) research network in Australia and New Zealand after head injuries of any severity. Predictor variables identified in CATCH, CHALICE and PECARN clinical decision rules will be collected. Patients will be managed as per the treating clinicians at the participating hospitals. All patients not undergoing cranial CT will receive a follow up call 14 to 90 days after the injury. Outcome data collected will include results of cranial CTs (if performed) and details of admission, intubation, neurosurgery and death. The

  1. InterGroup Protocols

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (ESTSC)

    2003-04-02

    Existing reliable ordered group communication protocols have been developed for local-area networks and do not in general scale well to a large number of nodes and wide-area networks. The InterGroup suite of protocols is a scalable group communication system that introduces an unusual approach to handling group membership, and supports a receiver-oriented selection of service. The protocols are intended for a wide-area network, with a large number of nodes, that has highly variable delays andmore » a high message loss rate, such as the Internet. The levels of the message delivery service range from unreliable unordered to reliable timestamp ordered.« less

  2. Carte du Ciel, San Fernando zone

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abad, C.

    2014-06-01

    An updated summary of a future large astrometric catalogue is presented, based on the two most important astrometric projects carried out by the Real Instituto y Observatorio de la Armada de San Fernando (ROA). The goal is to make a catalogue of positions and proper motions based on ROA's Cart du Ciel (CdC) and the Astrographic Catalogue (AC) San Fernando zone plates, and the HAMC2 meridian circle catalogue. The CdC and AC plates are being reduced together to provide first-epoch positions while HAMC2 will provide second-epoch ones. New techniques have been applied, that range from using a commercial flatbed scanner to the proper reduction schemes to avoid systematics from it. Only thirty plates (out of 540) remain to be processed, due to scanning problems that are being solved.

  3. The Dutch Linguistic Intraoperative Protocol: a valid linguistic approach to awake brain surgery.

    PubMed

    De Witte, E; Satoer, D; Robert, E; Colle, H; Verheyen, S; Visch-Brink, E; Mariën, P

    2015-01-01

    Intraoperative direct electrical stimulation (DES) is increasingly used in patients operated on for tumours in eloquent areas. Although a positive impact of DES on postoperative linguistic outcome is generally advocated, information about the neurolinguistic methods applied in awake surgery is scarce. We developed for the first time a standardised Dutch linguistic test battery (measuring phonology, semantics, syntax) to reliably identify the critical language zones in detail. A normative study was carried out in a control group of 250 native Dutch-speaking healthy adults. In addition, the clinical application of the Dutch Linguistic Intraoperative Protocol (DuLIP) was demonstrated by means of anatomo-functional models and five case studies. A set of DuLIP tests was selected for each patient depending on the tumour location and degree of linguistic impairment. DuLIP is a valid test battery for pre-, intraoperative and postoperative language testing and facilitates intraoperative mapping of eloquent language regions that are variably located. PMID:25526520

  4. Routing Protocols in Wireless Sensor Networks

    PubMed Central

    Villalba, Luis Javier García; Orozco, Ana Lucila Sandoval; Cabrera, Alicia Triviño; Abbas, Cláudia Jacy Barenco

    2009-01-01

    The applications of wireless sensor networks comprise a wide variety of scenarios. In most of them, the network is composed of a significant number of nodes deployed in an extensive area in which not all nodes are directly connected. Then, the data exchange is supported by multihop communications. Routing protocols are in charge of discovering and maintaining the routes in the network. However, the appropriateness of a particular routing protocol mainly depends on the capabilities of the nodes and on the application requirements. This paper presents a review of the main routing protocols proposed for wireless sensor networks. Additionally, the paper includes the efforts carried out by Spanish universities on developing optimization techniques in the area of routing protocols for wireless sensor networks. PMID:22291515

  5. WOODSTOVE DURABILITY TESTING PROTOCOL

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report discusses the development of an accelerated laboratory test to simulate in-home woodstove aging and degradation. nown as a stress test, the protocol determines the long-term durability of woodstove models in a 1- to 2-week time frame. wo avenues of research have been t...

  6. Mars Sample Quarantine Protocol Workshop

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    DeVincenzi, Donald L. (Editor); Bagby, John (Editor); Race, Margaret (Editor); Rummel, John (Editor)

    1999-01-01

    The Mars Sample Quarantine Protocol (QP) Workshop was convened to deal with three specific aspects of the initial handling of a returned Mars sample: 1) biocontainment, to prevent uncontrolled release of sample material into the terrestrial environment; 2) life detection, to examine the sample for evidence of live organisms; and 3) biohazard testing, to determine if the sample poses any threat to terrestrial life forms and the Earth's biosphere. During the first part of the Workshop, several tutorials were presented on topics related to the workshop in order to give all participants a common basis in the technical areas necessary to achieve the objectives of the Workshop.

  7. A secure key agreement protocol based on chaotic maps

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Xing-Yuan; Luan, Da-Peng

    2013-11-01

    To guarantee the security of communication in the public channel, many key agreement protocols have been proposed. Recently, Gong et al. proposed a key agreement protocol based on chaotic maps with password sharing. In this paper, Gong et al.'s protocol is analyzed, and we find that this protocol exhibits key management issues and potential security problems. Furthermore, the paper presents a new key agreement protocol based on enhanced Chebyshev polynomials to overcome these problems. Through our analysis, our key agreement protocol not only provides mutual authentication and the ability to resist a variety of common attacks, but also solve the problems of key management and security issues existing in Gong et al.'s protocol.

  8. The EON model of intervention protocols and guidelines.

    PubMed Central

    Tu, S. W.; Musen, M. A.

    1996-01-01

    We present a computational model of treatment protocols abstracted from implemented systems that we have developed previously. In our framework, a protocol is modeled as a hierarchical plan where high-level protocol steps are decomposed into descriptions of more specific actions. The clinical algorithms embodied in a protocol are represented by procedures that encode the sequencing, looping, and synchronization of protocol steps. The representation allows concurrent and optional protocol steps. We define the semantics of a procedure in terms of an execution model that specifies how the procedure should be interpreted. We show that the model can be applied to an asthma guideline different from the protocols for which the model was originally constructed. PMID:8947734

  9. Design and research on a multi-protocol RAID

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pei, Can-hao; Luo, Dong-jian; Zhang, Cheng-feng; Wu, Wei

    2008-12-01

    With the rapid development of massive storages, traditional RAID of single-protocol is increasingly unable to satisfy the various demands of users. For the purpose of keeping down the investment of storages, we propose a multi-protocol RAID that utilizes existing storage devices. The multi-protocol RAID achieves the integration of storage via managing the disks of different interfaces. This paper presents a framework of multi-protocol RAID and a prototype implementation of it, i.e., the proposed multi-protocol approach can not only unify the storage devices of different types, but also provide different access channels (e.g. iSCSI, FC) to manage the heterogeneous RAID system, thus achieving the goal of centralized management. Our function tests validate the feasibility and flexibility of the proposed RAID system. The comparison tests indicate that the multi-protocol RAID can attain even higher performance than that of the single-protocol RAID, especially the aggregated bandwidth.

  10. Protocols for distributive scheduling

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Richards, Stephen F.; Fox, Barry

    1993-01-01

    The increasing complexity of space operations and the inclusion of interorganizational and international groups in the planning and control of space missions lead to requirements for greater communication, coordination, and cooperation among mission schedulers. These schedulers must jointly allocate scarce shared resources among the various operational and mission oriented activities while adhering to all constraints. This scheduling environment is complicated by such factors as the presence of varying perspectives and conflicting objectives among the schedulers, the need for different schedulers to work in parallel, and limited communication among schedulers. Smooth interaction among schedulers requires the use of protocols that govern such issues as resource sharing, authority to update the schedule, and communication of updates. This paper addresses the development and characteristics of such protocols and their use in a distributed scheduling environment that incorporates computer-aided scheduling tools. An example problem is drawn from the domain of space shuttle mission planning.

  11. Robust Optimization of Biological Protocols

    PubMed Central

    Flaherty, Patrick; Davis, Ronald W.

    2015-01-01

    When conducting high-throughput biological experiments, it is often necessary to develop a protocol that is both inexpensive and robust. Standard approaches are either not cost-effective or arrive at an optimized protocol that is sensitive to experimental variations. We show here a novel approach that directly minimizes the cost of the protocol while ensuring the protocol is robust to experimental variation. Our approach uses a risk-averse conditional value-at-risk criterion in a robust parameter design framework. We demonstrate this approach on a polymerase chain reaction protocol and show that our improved protocol is less expensive than the standard protocol and more robust than a protocol optimized without consideration of experimental variation. PMID:26417115

  12. Satellite Communications Using Commercial Protocols

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ivancic, William D.; Griner, James H.; Dimond, Robert; Frantz, Brian D.; Kachmar, Brian; Shell, Dan

    2000-01-01

    NASA Glenn Research Center has been working with industry, academia, and other government agencies in assessing commercial communications protocols for satellite and space-based applications. In addition, NASA Glenn has been developing and advocating new satellite-friendly modifications to existing communications protocol standards. This paper summarizes recent research into the applicability of various commercial standard protocols for use over satellite and space- based communications networks as well as expectations for future protocol development. It serves as a reference point from which the detailed work can be readily accessed. Areas that will be addressed include asynchronous-transfer-mode quality of service; completed and ongoing work of the Internet Engineering Task Force; data-link-layer protocol development for unidirectional link routing; and protocols for aeronautical applications, including mobile Internet protocol routing for wireless/mobile hosts and the aeronautical telecommunications network protocol.

  13. Mars Communication Protocols

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kazz, G. J.; Greenberg, E.

    2000-01-01

    Over the next decade, international plans and commitments are underway to develop an infrastructure at Mars to support future exploration of the red planet. The purpose of this infrastructure is to provide reliable global communication and navigation coverage for on-approach, landed, roving, and in-flight assets at Mars. The claim is that this infrastructure will: 1) eliminate the need of these assets to carry Direct to Earth (DTE) communications equipment, 2) significantly increase data return and connectivity, 3) enable small mission exploration of Mars without DTE equipment, 4) provide precision navigation i.e., 10 to 100m position resolution, 5) supply timing reference accurate to 10ms. This paper in particular focuses on two CCSDS recommendations for that infrastructure: CCSDS Proximity-1 Space Link Protocol and CCSDS File Delivery Protocol (CFDP). A key aspect of Mars exploration will be the ability of future missions to interoperate. These protocols establish a framework for interoperability by providing standard communication, navigation, and timing services. In addition, these services include strategies to recover gracefully from communication interruptions and interference while ensuring backward compatibility with previous missions from previous phases of exploration.

  14. Dysphonia risk screening protocol

    PubMed Central

    Nemr, Katia; Simões-Zenari, Marcia; da Trindade Duarte, João Marcos; Lobrigate, Karen Elena; Bagatini, Flavia Alves

    2016-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To propose and test the applicability of a dysphonia risk screening protocol with score calculation in individuals with and without dysphonia. METHOD: This descriptive cross-sectional study included 365 individuals (41 children, 142 adult women, 91 adult men and 91 seniors) divided into a dysphonic group and a non-dysphonic group. The protocol consisted of 18 questions and a score was calculated using a 10-cm visual analog scale. The measured value on the visual analog scale was added to the overall score, along with other partial scores. Speech samples allowed for analysis/assessment of the overall degree of vocal deviation and initial definition of the respective groups and after six months, the separation of the groups was confirmed using an acoustic analysis. RESULTS: The mean total scores were different between the groups in all samples. Values ranged between 37.0 and 57.85 in the dysphonic group and between 12.95 and 19.28 in the non-dysphonic group, with overall means of 46.09 and 15.55, respectively. High sensitivity and specificity were demonstrated when discriminating between the groups with the following cut-off points: 22.50 (children), 29.25 (adult women), 22.75 (adult men), and 27.10 (seniors). CONCLUSION: The protocol demonstrated high sensitivity and specificity in differentiating groups of individuals with and without dysphonia in different sample groups and is thus an effective instrument for use in voice clinics. PMID:27074171

  15. Approche de prise en charge du trouble du spectre de l’autisme

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Patrick F.; Thomas, Roger E.; Lee, Patricia A.

    2015-01-01

    Résumé Objectif Se pencher sur les critères diagnostiques du trouble du spectre de l’autisme (TSA) comme les définit le Manuel diagnostique et statistique des troubles mentaux, cinquième édition (DSM-V), et concevoir une approche de prise en charge du TSA à l’aide du cadre CanMEDS–Médecine familiale (CanMEDS-MF). Sources d’information Le DSM-V, publié par l’American Psychiatric Association en mai 2013, énonce de nouveaux critères diagnostiques du TSA. Le cadre CanMEDS-MF du Collège des médecins de famille du Canada fournit un plan d’orientation pour la prise en charge complexe du TSA. Nous avons utilisé des données recueillies par le Centers for Disease Control and Prevention afin de déterminer la prévalence du TSA, ainsi que la revue systématique et méta-analyse détaillée effectuée par le National Institute for Health and Care Excellence du R.-U. pour ses lignes directrices sur le TSA dans le but d’évaluer les données probantes issues de plus de 100 interventions. Message principal Selon les données du Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, la prévalence du TSA se chiffrait à 1 sur 88 en 2008 aux États-Unis. La classification du TSA dans la quatrième édition du DSM incluait l’autisme, le syndrome d’Asperger, le trouble envahissant du développement et le trouble désintégratif de l’enfance. La dernière révision du DSM-V réunit tous ces troubles sous la mention TSA, avec différents niveaux de sévérité. La prise en charge du TSA est complexe; elle exige les efforts d’une équipe multidisciplinaire ainsi que des soins continus. Les rôles CanMEDS-MF fournissent un cadre de prise en charge. Conclusion Les médecins de famille sont au cœur de l’équipe de soins multidisciplinaire pour le TSA, et le cadre CanMEDS-MF tient lieu de plan détaillé pour guider la prise en charge d’un enfant atteint de TSA et aider la famille de cet enfant.

  16. Validation of survivability validation protocols

    SciTech Connect

    Stringer, T.A. )

    1993-05-01

    Issues associated with the validation of survivability protocols are discussed. Both empirical and analytical approaches to protocol validation are included. The use of hybrid simulations (hardware-in-the-loop, scene generators, software generators, man-in-the-loop, etc.) for the validation of survivability protocols is discussed.

  17. A Secure and Efficient Handover Authentication Protocol for Wireless Networks

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Weijia; Hu, Lei

    2014-01-01

    Handover authentication protocol is a promising access control technology in the fields of WLANs and mobile wireless sensor networks. In this paper, we firstly review an efficient handover authentication protocol, named PairHand, and its existing security attacks and improvements. Then, we present an improved key recovery attack by using the linearly combining method and reanalyze its feasibility on the improved PairHand protocol. Finally, we present a new handover authentication protocol, which not only achieves the same desirable efficiency features of PairHand, but enjoys the provable security in the random oracle model. PMID:24971471

  18. The Design of a Reliable Multipeer Protocol for DVEs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stuer, Gunther; Broeckhove, Jan; Arickx, Frans

    2003-01-01

    Presents the design and implementation of a reliable multipeer protocol (RMPP), which is written in Java and is suitable for applications in the area of distributed virtual environments (DVEs). Discusses motivation, protocol classification, design goals and the error recovery algorithm and lists implementation issues. Presents two possible…

  19. Les plaies du tendon patellaire

    PubMed Central

    Mechchat, Atif; Elidrissi, Mohammed; Mardy, Abdelhak; Elayoubi, Abdelghni; Shimi, Mohammed; Elibrahimi, Abdelhalim; Elmrini, Abdelmajid

    2014-01-01

    Les plaies du tendon patellaire sont peu fréquentes et sont peu rapportés dans la littérature, contrairement aux ruptures sous cutanées. Les sections du tendon patellaire nécessitent une réparation immédiate afin de rétablir l'appareil extenseur et de permettre une récupération fonctionnelle précoce. A travers ce travail rétrospectif sur 13 cas, nous analysons les aspects épidémiologiques, thérapeutiques et pronostiques de ce type de pathologie en comparant différents scores. L’âge moyen est de 25 ans avec une prédominance masculine. Les étiologies sont dominées par les accidents de la voie publique (68%) et les agressions par agent tranchant (26%) et contendant (6 %). Tous nos patients ont bénéficié d'un parage chirurgical avec suture tendineuse direct protégée par un laçage au fils d'aciers en légère flexion. La rééducation est débutée après sédation des phénomènes inflammatoires. Au dernier recul les résultats sont excellents et bon à 92%. Nous n'avons pas noté de différence de force musculaire et d'amplitude articulaire entre le genou sain et le genou lésé. Les lésions ouvertes du tendon patellaire est relativement rare. La prise en charge chirurgicale rapide donne des résultats assez satisfaisants. La réparation est généralement renforcée par un semi-tendineux, synthétique ou métallique en forme de cadre de renfort pour faciliter la réadaptation et réduire le risque de récidive après la fin de l'immobilisation. PMID:25170379

  20. Communication complexity protocols for qutrits

    SciTech Connect

    Tamir, Boaz

    2007-03-15

    Consider a function where its entries are distributed among many parties. Suppose each party is allowed to send only a limited amount of information to a referee. The referee can use a classical protocol to compute the value of the global function. Is there a quantum protocol improving the results of all classical protocols? In a recent work Brukner et al. showed the deep connection between such problems and the theory of Bell inequalities. Here we generalize the theory to trits. There, the best classical protocol fails whereas the quantum protocol yields the correct answer.

  1. TRIGA: Telecommunications Protocol Processing Subsystem Using Reconfigurable Interoperable Gate Arrays

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pang, Jackson; Pingree, Paula J.; Torgerson, J. Leigh

    2006-01-01

    We present the Telecommunications protocol processing subsystem using Reconfigurable Interoperable Gate Arrays (TRIGA), a novel approach that unifies fault tolerance, error correction coding and interplanetary communication protocol off-loading to implement CCSDS File Delivery Protocol and Datalink layers. The new reconfigurable architecture offers more than one order of magnitude throughput increase while reducing footprint requirements in memory, command and data handling processor utilization, communication system interconnects and power consumption.

  2. Wireless Sensor Networks Energy-Efficient MAC Protocol

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lijuan, Du; Yuanpeng, Wang; WeiPeng, Jing

    This paper presents a new wireless sensor network energy-efficient MAC protocol, ES-MAC protocol, and shows the results of simulation experiments. During the transmission the nodes do not send ACK packages while use a small amount of new information packets, so they can reduce unnecessary energy loss and wasted time. The theoretical analysis and simulation results show that ES-MAC protocol reduces energy consumption while reducing network latency and improving network throughput.

  3. A Survey on Underwater Acoustic Sensor Network Routing Protocols

    PubMed Central

    Li, Ning; Martínez, José-Fernán; Meneses Chaus, Juan Manuel; Eckert, Martina

    2016-01-01

    Underwater acoustic sensor networks (UASNs) have become more and more important in ocean exploration applications, such as ocean monitoring, pollution detection, ocean resource management, underwater device maintenance, etc. In underwater acoustic sensor networks, since the routing protocol guarantees reliable and effective data transmission from the source node to the destination node, routing protocol design is an attractive topic for researchers. There are many routing algorithms have been proposed in recent years. To present the current state of development of UASN routing protocols, we review herein the UASN routing protocol designs reported in recent years. In this paper, all the routing protocols have been classified into different groups according to their characteristics and routing algorithms, such as the non-cross-layer design routing protocol, the traditional cross-layer design routing protocol, and the intelligent algorithm based routing protocol. This is also the first paper that introduces intelligent algorithm-based UASN routing protocols. In addition, in this paper, we investigate the development trends of UASN routing protocols, which can provide researchers with clear and direct insights for further research. PMID:27011193

  4. A Survey on Underwater Acoustic Sensor Network Routing Protocols.

    PubMed

    Li, Ning; Martínez, José-Fernán; Meneses Chaus, Juan Manuel; Eckert, Martina

    2016-01-01

    Underwater acoustic sensor networks (UASNs) have become more and more important in ocean exploration applications, such as ocean monitoring, pollution detection, ocean resource management, underwater device maintenance, etc. In underwater acoustic sensor networks, since the routing protocol guarantees reliable and effective data transmission from the source node to the destination node, routing protocol design is an attractive topic for researchers. There are many routing algorithms have been proposed in recent years. To present the current state of development of UASN routing protocols, we review herein the UASN routing protocol designs reported in recent years. In this paper, all the routing protocols have been classified into different groups according to their characteristics and routing algorithms, such as the non-cross-layer design routing protocol, the traditional cross-layer design routing protocol, and the intelligent algorithm based routing protocol. This is also the first paper that introduces intelligent algorithm-based UASN routing protocols. In addition, in this paper, we investigate the development trends of UASN routing protocols, which can provide researchers with clear and direct insights for further research. PMID:27011193

  5. Learning about Cri du Chat Syndrome

    MedlinePlus

    ... chat syndrome - also known as 5p- syndrome and cat cry syndrome - is a rare genetic condition that ... du chat syndrome usually include a high-pitched cat-like cry, mental retardation, delayed development, distinctive facial ...

  6. Security and SCADA protocols

    SciTech Connect

    Igure, V. M.; Williams, R. D.

    2006-07-01

    Supervisory control and data acquisition (SCADA) networks have replaced discrete wiring for many industrial processes, and the efficiency of the network alternative suggests a trend toward more SCADA networks in the future. This paper broadly considers SCADA to include distributed control systems (DCS) and digital control systems. These networks offer many advantages, but they also introduce potential vulnerabilities that can be exploited by adversaries. Inter-connectivity exposes SCADA networks to many of the same threats that face the public internet and many of the established defenses therefore show promise if adapted to the SCADA differences. This paper provides an overview of security issues in SCADA networks and ongoing efforts to improve the security of these networks. Initially, a few samples from the range of threats to SCADA network security are offered. Next, attention is focused on security assessment of SCADA communication protocols. Three challenges must be addressed to strengthen SCADA networks. Access control mechanisms need to be introduced or strengthened, improvements are needed inside of the network to enhance security and network monitoring, and SCADA security management improvements and policies are needed. This paper discusses each of these challenges. This paper uses the Profibus protocol as an example to illustrate some of the vulnerabilities that arise within SCADA networks. The example Profibus security assessment establishes a network model and an attacker model before proceeding to a list of example attacks. (authors)

  7. Protocol Architecture Model Report

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dhas, Chris

    2000-01-01

    NASA's Glenn Research Center (GRC) defines and develops advanced technology for high priority national needs in communications technologies for application to aeronautics and space. GRC tasked Computer Networks and Software Inc. (CNS) to examine protocols and architectures for an In-Space Internet Node. CNS has developed a methodology for network reference models to support NASA's four mission areas: Earth Science, Space Science, Human Exploration and Development of Space (REDS), Aerospace Technology. This report applies the methodology to three space Internet-based communications scenarios for future missions. CNS has conceptualized, designed, and developed space Internet-based communications protocols and architectures for each of the independent scenarios. The scenarios are: Scenario 1: Unicast communications between a Low-Earth-Orbit (LEO) spacecraft inspace Internet node and a ground terminal Internet node via a Tracking and Data Rela Satellite (TDRS) transfer; Scenario 2: Unicast communications between a Low-Earth-Orbit (LEO) International Space Station and a ground terminal Internet node via a TDRS transfer; Scenario 3: Multicast Communications (or "Multicasting"), 1 Spacecraft to N Ground Receivers, N Ground Transmitters to 1 Ground Receiver via a Spacecraft.

  8. Building multiservice Internet protocol virtual private networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cheung, William

    1999-11-01

    Multiservice Internet Protocol-based Virtual Private Networks (MIP- VPNs) with Quality of Service (QoS) are becoming a reality due to the availability of new standards from the Internet Engineering Task Force (IETF). This paper describes how components including security models, IP tunneling protocols, and service differentiation schemes fit together in order to construct such a VPN. First, the concept and rationale of VPN is presented, followed by a discussion of its supporting components. A comparison is made among the various VPN technologies.

  9. Social Protocols for Agile Virtual Teams

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Picard, Willy

    Despite many works on collaborative networked organizations (CNOs), CSCW, groupware, workflow systems and social networks, computer support for virtual teams is still insufficient, especially support for agility, i.e. the capability of virtual team members to rapidly and cost efficiently adapt the way they interact to changes. In this paper, requirements for computer support for agile virtual teams are presented. Next, an extension of the concept of social protocol is proposed as a novel model supporting agile interactions within virtual teams. The extended concept of social protocol consists of an extended social network and a workflow model.

  10. Cryptanalysis of the Quantum Group Signature Protocols

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Ke-Jia; Sun, Ying; Song, Ting-Ting; Zuo, Hui-Juan

    2013-11-01

    Recently, the researches of quantum group signature (QGS) have attracted a lot of attentions and some typical protocols have been designed for e-payment system, e-government, e-business, etc. In this paper, we analyze the security of the quantum group signature with the example of two novel protocols. It can be seen that both of them cannot be implemented securely since the arbitrator cannot solve the disputes fairly. In order to show that, some possible attack strategies, which can be used by the malicious participants, are proposed. Moreover, the further discussions of QGS are presented finally, including some insecurity factors and improved ideas.

  11. Reengineering Archival Access through the OAI Protocols.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Prom, Christopher J.

    2003-01-01

    The Open Archives Initiative (OAI) Protocol for Metadata Harvesting program presents a method by which metadata regarding archives and manuscripts can be shared and made more interoperable with metadata from other sources. Outlines a method for exposing hierarchical metadata from encoded archival description (EAD) files and assesses some…

  12. STATISTICAL PRINCIPLES FOR PROSPECTIVE STUDY PROTOCOLS:

    PubMed Central

    Langberg, Henning

    2012-01-01

    In the design of scientific studies it is essential to decide on which scientific questions one aims to answer, just as it is important to decide on the correct statistical methods to use to answer these questions. The correct use of statistical methods is crucial in all aspects of research to quantify relationships in data. Despite an increased focus on statistical content and complexity of biomedical research these topics remain difficult for most researchers. Statistical methods enable researchers to condense large spreadsheets with data into means, proportions, and difference between means, risk differences, and other quantities that convey information. One of the goals in biomedical research is to develop parsimonious models ‐ meaning as simple as possible. This approach is valid if the subsequent research report (the article) is written independent of whether the results are “statistically significant” or not. In the present paper we outline the considerations and suggestions on how to build a trial protocol, with an emphasis on having a rigorous protocol stage, always leading to a full article manuscript, independent of statistical findings. We conclude that authors, who find (rigorous) protocol writing too troublesome, will realize that they have already written the first half of the final paper if they follow these recommendations; authors simply need to change the protocols future tense into past tense. Thus, the aim of this clinical commentary is to describe and explain the statistical principles for trial protocols in terms of design, analysis, and reporting of findings. PMID:23091782

  13. Probabilistic protocols in quantum information science: Use and abuse

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Caves, Carlton

    2014-03-01

    Protocols in quantum information science often succeed with less than unit probability, but nonetheless perform useful tasks because success occurs often enough to make tolerable the overhead from having to perform the protocol several times. Any probabilistic protocol must be analyzed from the perspective of the resources required to make the protocol succeed. I present results from analyses of two probabilistic protocols: (i) nondeterministic (or immaculate) linear amplification, in which an input coherent state is amplified some of the time to a larger-amplitude coherent state, and (ii) probabilistic quantum metrology, in which one attempts to improve estimation of a parameter (or parameters) by post-selecting on a particular outcome. The analysis indicates that there is little to be gained from probabilistic protocols in these two situations.

  14. A protocol-based evaluation of medical image digitizers.

    PubMed

    Efstathopoulos, E P; Costaridou, L; Kocsis, O; Panayiotakis, G

    2001-09-01

    Medical film digitizers play an important transitory role as digital-to-analogue bridges in radiology. Their use requires performance evaluation to assure medical image quality. A complete quality control protocol is presented, based on a set of test objects adaptable to the specification of various digitizers. The protocol includes parameters such as uniformity, input-output response, noise, geometric distortion, spatial resolution, low contrast discrimination, film slippage and light leakage, as well as associated measurement methods. The applicability of the protocol is demonstrated with two types of medical film digitizers; a charge-coupled device (CCD) digitizer and a laser digitizer. The potential value of the protocol is also discussed. PMID:11560833

  15. Variable bandwidth broadcasting protocol for video-on-demand

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Paris, Jehan-Francois; Long, Darrell D. E.

    2003-01-01

    We present the first broadcasting protocol that can alter the number of channels allocated to a given video without inconveniencing the viewer and without causing any temporary bandwidth surge. Our variable bandwidth broadcasting (VBB) protocol assigns to each video a minimum number of channels whose bandwidths are all equal to the video consumption rate. Additional channels can be assigned to the video at any time to reduce the customer waiting time or retaken to free server bandwidth. The cost of this additional flexibility is quite reasonable as the bandwidth requirements of our VBB fall between those of the fast broadcasting protocol and the new pagoda broadcasting protocol.

  16. Network protocols for real-time applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnson, Marjory J.

    1987-01-01

    The Fiber Distributed Data Interface (FDDI) and the SAE AE-9B High Speed Ring Bus (HSRB) are emerging standards for high-performance token ring local area networks. FDDI was designed to be a general-purpose high-performance network. HSRB was designed specifically for military real-time applications. A workshop was conducted at NASA Ames Research Center in January, 1987 to compare and contrast these protocols with respect to their ability to support real-time applications. This report summarizes workshop presentations and includes an independent comparison of the two protocols. A conclusion reached at the workshop was that current protocols for the upper layers of the Open Systems Interconnection (OSI) network model are inadequate for real-time applications.

  17. Licklider Transmission Protocol Implementation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Burleigh, Scott C.; Krupiarz, Chris

    2011-01-01

    This software is an implementation of the Licklider Transmission Protocol (LTP), a communications protocol intended to support the Bundle Protocol in Delay-Tolerant Network (DTN) operations. LTP is designed to provide retransmission-based reliability over links characterized by extremely long message round-trip times and/or frequent interruptions in connectivity. Communication in interplanetary space is the most prominent example of this sort of environment, and LTP is principally aimed at supporting long-haul reliable transmission over deep-space RF links. Like any reliable transport service employing ARQ (Automatic Repeat re-Quests), LTP is stateful. In order to assure the reception of a block of data it has sent, LTP must retain for possible retransmission all portions of that block which might not have been received yet. In order to do so, it must keep track of which portions of the block are known to have been received so far, and which are not, together with any additional information needed for purposes of retransmitting part, or all, of the block. Long round-trip times mean substantial delay between the transmission of a block of data and the reception of an acknowledgement from the block s destination, signaling arrival of the block. If LTP postponed transmission of additional blocks of data until it received acknowledgement of the arrival of all prior blocks, valuable opportunities to use what little deep space transmission bandwidth is available would be forever lost. For this reason, LTP is based in part on a notion of massive state retention. Any number of requested transmission conversations (sessions) may be concurrently in flight at various displacements along the link between two LTP engines, and the LTP engines must necessarily retain transmission status and retransmission resources for all of them. Moreover, if any of the data of a given block are lost en route, it will be necessary to retain the state of that transmission during an additional

  18. Clinicians as Communication Partners: Developing a Mediated Discourse Elicitation Protocol

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hengst, Julie A.; Duff, Melissa C.

    2007-01-01

    This article presents the development and piloting of a mediated discourse elicitation protocol. Grounded in situated theories of communication and informed by mediated discourse analysis, this protocol selectively samples familiar discourse types in a manner designed to preserve interactional aspects of communication. Critically, the mediated…

  19. An efficient sampling protocol for sagebrush/grassland monitoring

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Monitoring the health and condition of rangeland vegetation can be very time consuming and costly. An efficiency but rigorous sampling protocol is needed for monitoring sagebrush/grassland vegetation. A randomized sampling protocol was presented for geo-referenced, nadir photographs acquired using...

  20. Semi-Structured Interview Protocol for Constructing Logic Models

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gugiu, P. Cristian; Rodriguez-Campos, Liliana

    2007-01-01

    This paper details a semi-structured interview protocol that evaluators can use to develop a logic model of a program's services and outcomes. The protocol presents a series of questions, which evaluators can ask of specific program informants, that are designed to: (1) identify key informants basic background and contextual information, (2)…

  1. Presentation Timer

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (ESTSC)

    2010-06-23

    Abstract Conferences and Meetings feature many presentations on a tight schedule. The Session Timer system provides an electronic display for showing the remaining time in a presentation. It provides continuous feedback so the speaker can judge the pace throughout a presentation. The timer automates the job so the session chairman does not have to awkwardly interrupt the speaker.

  2. Pru du 2S albumin or Pru du vicilin?

    PubMed

    Garino, Cristiano; De Paolis, Angelo; Coïsson, Jean Daniel; Arlorio, Marco

    2015-06-01

    A short partial sequence of 28 amino acids is all the information we have so far about the putative allergen 2S albumin from almond. The aim of this work was to analyze this information using mainly bioinformatics tools, in order to verify its rightness. Based on the results reported in the paper describing this allergen from almond, we analyzed the original data of amino acids sequencing through available software. The degree of homology of the almond 12kDa protein with any other known 2S albumin appears to be much lower than the one reported in the paper that firstly described it. In a publicly available cDNA library we discovered an expressed sequence tag which translation generates a protein that perfectly matches both of the sequencing outputs described in the same paper. A further analysis indicated that the latter protein seems to belong to the vicilin superfamily rather than to the prolamin one. The fact that also vicilins are seed storage proteins known to be highly allergenic would explain the IgE reactivity originally observed. Based on our observations we suggest that the IgE reactive 12kDa protein from almond currently known as Pru du 2S albumin is in reality the cleaved N-terminal region of a 7S vicilin like protein. PMID:25854802

  3. Biokinetics and dosimetry of depleted uranium (DU) in rats implanted with DU fragments.

    SciTech Connect

    Guilmette, Ray A.; Hahn, Fletcher F.; Durbin, P. W.

    2004-01-01

    A number of U. S. veterans of the Persian Gulf War were wounded with depleted uranium (DU) metal fragments as a result of 'friendly fire' incidents, in which Abrams tanks and Bradley fighting vehicles were struck by DU anti-armor munitions. Some of the crew members who survived were left with multiple small fragments of DU in their muscles and soft tissues. The number, size and location of the fragments made them inoperable in general, and therefore subject to long-term retention. Because there was inadequate data to predict the potential carcinogenicity of DU fragments in soft tissues, Hahn et al. (2003) conducted a lifespan cancer study in rats. As part of that study, a number of rats were maintained to study the biokinetics and dosimetry of DU implanted intramuscularly in male Wistar rats. Typically, four metal fragments, either as cylindrical pellets or square wafers were implanted into the biceps femoris muscles of the rats. Urine samples were collected periodically during their lifespans, and DU was analyzed in kidneys and eviscerated carcass (minus the implant sites) at death. The daily DU urinary excretion rate increased steeply during the first 30 d after implantation peaking at about 90 d at 3-10 x 10{sup -3}%/d. During the first 150 d, the average excretion rate was 2.4 x 10{sup -3}%/d, decreasing thereafter to about 1 x 10{sup -3}%/d. Serial radiographs were made of the wound sites to monitor gross morphologic changes in the DU implant and the surrounding tissue. As early as 1 w after implantation, radiographs showed the presence of surface corrosion and small, dense bodies near the original implant, presumably DU. This corrosion from the surface of the implant continued with time, but did not result in an increasing amount of DU reaching the blood and urine after the first 3 mo. During this 3-mo period, connective tissue capsules formed around the implants, and are hypothesized to have reduced the access of DU to tissue fluids by limiting the diffusion

  4. A Hybrid Quorum Protocol for Improved Availability, Capacity, Load and Reduced Overhead

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pandey, Parul; Tripathi, Maheshwari

    2016-06-01

    Data replication is playing a vital role in the design of distributed information systems. This paper presents a novel and efficient distributed algorithm for managing replicated data and for better performance and availability. This paper presents an extension to existing wheel protocol for improved performance. Wheel protocol imposes a logical wheel structure on the set of copies of an object and gives smallest read quorum. In addition to small read quorum size for read intensive applications, it is necessary to have good write availability as well. This paper proposes two hybrid wheel protocols, which superimpose logarithmic and ring protocols on top of the wheel protocol. It shows that, both protocols help in improving write availability, read capacity, load and message overhead and also compare their performances with wheel and other protocols. Hybrid protocols expand usage of wheel protocol to different type of applications.

  5. Avian Risk and Fatality Protocol

    SciTech Connect

    Morrison, M. L.

    1998-11-12

    The protocol is designed to assist with the placement of wind power developments, and to document bird behavior and fatalities resulting from existing wind power developments. A standardized protocol will assist with comparing data among potential and existing development locations. Furthermore, this protocol is based on standard methods being used in other studies of bird behavior. The data collected will only be useful if observers follow each method carefully. In addition, the data collected using this protocol will likely be used by a permitting or other regulatory agency in evaluating the avian impacts at the site.

  6. Modelisation frequentielle de la permittivite du beton pour le controle non destructif par georadar

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bourdi, Taoufik

    Le georadar (Ground Penetrating Radar (GPR)) constitue une technique de controle non destructif (CND) interessante pour la mesure des epaisseurs des dalles de beton et la caracterisation des fractures, en raison de ses caracteristiques de resolution et de profondeur de penetration. Les equipements georadar sont de plus en plus faciles a utiliser et les logiciels d'interpretation sont en train de devenir plus aisement accessibles. Cependant, il est ressorti dans plusieurs conferences et ateliers sur l'application du georadar en genie civil qu'il fallait poursuivre les recherches, en particulier sur la modelisation et les techniques de mesure des proprietes electriques du beton. En obtenant de meilleures informations sur les proprietes electriques du beton aux frequences du georadar, l'instrumentation et les techniques d'interpretation pourraient etre perfectionnees plus efficacement. Le modele de Jonscher est un modele qui a montre son efficacite dans le domaine geophysique. Pour la premiere fois, son utilisation dans le domaine genie civil est presentee. Dans un premier temps, nous avons valide l'application du modele de Jonscher pour la caracterisation de la permittivite dielectrique du beton. Les resultats ont montre clairement que ce modele est capable de reproduire fidelement la variation de la permittivite de differents types de beton sur la bande de frequence georadar (100 MHz-2 GHz). Dans un deuxieme temps, nous avons montre l'interet du modele de Jonscher en le comparant a d'autres modeles (Debye et Debye-etendu) deja utilises dans le domaine genie civil. Nous avons montre aussi comment le modele de Jonscher peut presenter une aide a la prediction de l'efficacite de blindage et a l'interpretation des ondes de la technique GPR. Il a ete determine que le modele de Jonscher permet de donner une bonne presentation de la variation de la permittivite du beton dans la gamme de frequence georadar consideree. De plus, cette modelisation est valable pour differents

  7. Berberine-induced anticancer activities in FaDu head and neck squamous cell carcinoma cells.

    PubMed

    Seo, Yo-Seob; Yim, Min-Ji; Kim, Bok-Hee; Kang, Kyung-Rok; Lee, Sook-Young; Oh, Ji-Su; You, Jae-Seek; Kim, Su-Gwan; Yu, Sang-Joun; Lee, Gyeong-Je; Kim, Do Kyung; Kim, Chun Sung; Kim, Jin-Soo; Kim, Jae-Sung

    2015-12-01

    In the present study, we investigated berberine‑induced apoptosis and the signaling pathways underlying its activity in FaDu head and neck squamous cell carcinoma cells. Berberine did not affect the viability of primary human normal oral keratinocytes. In contrast, the cytotoxicity of berberine was significantly increased in FaDu cells stimulated with berberine for 24 h. Furthermore, berberine increased nuclear condensation and apoptosis rates in FaDu cells than those in untreated control cells. Berberine also induced the upregulation of apoptotic ligands, such as FasL and TNF-related apoptosis-inducing ligand, and triggered the activation of caspase-8, -7 and -3, and poly(ADP ribose) polymerase, characteristic of death receptor-dependent extrinsic apoptosis. Moreover, berberine activated the mitochondria‑dependent apoptotic signaling pathway by upregulating pro-apoptotic factors, such as Bax, Bad, Apaf-1, and the active form of caspase-9, and downregulating anti-apoptotic factors, such as Bcl-2 and Bcl-xL. In addition, berberine increased the expression of the tumor suppressor p53 in FaDu cells. The pan-caspase inhibitor Z-VAD-fmk suppressed the activation of caspase-3 and prevented cytotoxicity in FaDu cells treated with berberine. Interestingly, berberine suppressed cell migration through downregulation of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-2, and MMP-9. Moreover, the phosphorylation of extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK1/2) and p38, components of the mitogen-activated protein kinase pathway that are associated with the expression of MMP and VEGF, was suppressed in FaDu cells treated with berberine for 24 h. Therefore, these data suggested that berberine exerted anticancer effects in FaDu cells through induction of apoptosis and suppression of migration. Berberine may have potential applications as a chemotherapeutic agent for the management of head and neck squamous carcinoma. PMID:26503508

  8. A Novel Probabilistic Passive Attack on the Protocols HB and HB+

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carrijo, José; Tonicelli, Rafael; Imai, Hideki; Nascimento, Anderson C. A.

    We present a very simple probabilistic, passive attack against the protocols HB and HB+. Our attack presents some interesting features: it requires less captured transcripts of protocol executions when compared to previous results; It makes possible to trade the amount of required transcripts for computational complexity; the value of noise used in the protocols HB and HB+ need not be known.

  9. College of DuPage Institutional Plan for Computing, FY93-FY95. Executive Summary.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    College of DuPage, Glen Ellyn, IL.

    The College of DuPage's 5-year plan for meeting its academic, administrative, and central computing needs is presented. An executive summary reviews the planning process and highlights recommendations and financial considerations. As the first section of the report, the introduction presents the college's demographics, mission and vision…

  10. W. E. B. Du Bois: Crusader for Peace. With a Message from Benjamin L. Hooks. Picture-Book Biography Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cryan-Hicks, Kathryn T.

    A biogaphy of W. E. B. Du Bois is presented in this book for young children. Du Bois is widely regarded as the foremost black intellectual from the United States. A great scholar, he was the first black American to receive a Ph.D. from Harvard University. Of his written work he is probably best known for his essays, "The Souls of Black Folk." Du…

  11. Security of the arbitrated quantum signature protocols revisited

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kejia, Zhang; Dan, Li; Qi, Su

    2014-01-01

    Recently, much attention has been paid to the study of arbitrated quantum signature (AQS). Among these studies, the cryptanalysis of some AQS protocols and a series of improved ideas have been proposed. Compared with the previous analysis, we present a security criterion, which can judge whether an AQS protocol is able to prevent the receiver (i.e. one participant in the signature protocol) from forging a legal signature. According to our results, it can be seen that most AQS protocols which are based on the Zeng and Keitel (ZK) model are susceptible to a forgery attack. Furthermore, we present an improved idea of the ZK protocol. Finally, some supplement discussions and several interesting topics are provided.

  12. PROTOCOL FOR EXAMINATION OF THE INNER CAN CLOSURE WELD REGION FOR 3013 DE CONTAINERS

    SciTech Connect

    Mickalonis, J.

    2014-09-16

    The protocol for the examination of the inner can closure weld region (ICCWR) for 3013 DE containers is presented within this report. The protocol includes sectioning of the inner can lid section, documenting the surface condition, measuring corrosion parameters, and storing of samples. This protocol may change as the investigation develops since findings may necessitate additional steps be taken. Details of the previous analyses, which formed the basis for this protocol, are also presented.

  13. Quantifying the ozone and ultraviolet benefits already achieved by the Montreal Protocol

    PubMed Central

    Chipperfield, M. P.; Dhomse, S. S.; Feng, W.; McKenzie, R. L.; Velders, G.J.M.; Pyle, J. A.

    2015-01-01

    Chlorine- and bromine-containing ozone-depleting substances (ODSs) are controlled by the 1987 Montreal Protocol. In consequence, atmospheric equivalent chlorine peaked in 1993 and has been declining slowly since then. Consistent with this, models project a gradual increase in stratospheric ozone with the Antarctic ozone hole expected to disappear by ∼2050. However, we show that by 2013 the Montreal Protocol had already achieved significant benefits for the ozone layer. Using a 3D atmospheric chemistry transport model, we demonstrate that much larger ozone depletion than observed has been avoided by the protocol, with beneficial impacts on surface ultraviolet. A deep Arctic ozone hole, with column values <120 DU, would have occurred given meteorological conditions in 2011. The Antarctic ozone hole would have grown in size by 40% by 2013, with enhanced loss at subpolar latitudes. The decline over northern hemisphere middle latitudes would have continued, more than doubling to ∼15% by 2013. PMID:26011106

  14. Quantifying the ozone and ultraviolet benefits already achieved by the Montreal Protocol

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chipperfield, M. P.; Dhomse, S. S.; Feng, W.; McKenzie, R. L.; Velders, G. J. M.; Pyle, J. A.

    2015-05-01

    Chlorine- and bromine-containing ozone-depleting substances (ODSs) are controlled by the 1987 Montreal Protocol. In consequence, atmospheric equivalent chlorine peaked in 1993 and has been declining slowly since then. Consistent with this, models project a gradual increase in stratospheric ozone with the Antarctic ozone hole expected to disappear by ~2050. However, we show that by 2013 the Montreal Protocol had already achieved significant benefits for the ozone layer. Using a 3D atmospheric chemistry transport model, we demonstrate that much larger ozone depletion than observed has been avoided by the protocol, with beneficial impacts on surface ultraviolet. A deep Arctic ozone hole, with column values <120 DU, would have occurred given meteorological conditions in 2011. The Antarctic ozone hole would have grown in size by 40% by 2013, with enhanced loss at subpolar latitudes. The decline over northern hemisphere middle latitudes would have continued, more than doubling to ~15% by 2013.

  15. The World Already Avoided: Quantifying the Ozone Benefits Achieved by the Montreal Protocol

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chipperfield, Martyn; Dhomse, Sandip; Feng, Wuhu; McKenzie, Richard; Velders, Guus; Pyle, John

    2015-04-01

    Chlorine and bromine-containing ozone-depleting substances (ODSs) are controlled by the 1987 Montreal Protocol. In consequence, atmospheric equivalent chlorine peaked in 1993 and has been declining slowly since then. Consistent with this, models project a gradual increase in stratospheric ozone with the Antarctic Ozone Hole expected to disappear by ~2050. However, we show that by 2014 the Montreal Protocol has already achieved significant benefits for the ozone layer. Using an off-line 3-D atmospheric chemistry model, we demonstrate that much larger ozone depletion than observed has been avoided by the protocol, with benefits for surface UV and climate. A deep Arctic Ozone Hole, with column values <120 DU, would have occurred given the meteorological conditions in 2011. The Antarctic Ozone Hole would have grown in size by 40% by 2013, with enhanced loss at subpolar latitudes. The ozone decline over northern hemisphere middle latitudes would have continued, more than doubling to ~15% by 2013.

  16. Quantifying the ozone and ultraviolet benefits already achieved by the Montreal Protocol.

    PubMed

    Chipperfield, M P; Dhomse, S S; Feng, W; McKenzie, R L; Velders, G J M; Pyle, J A

    2015-01-01

    Chlorine- and bromine-containing ozone-depleting substances (ODSs) are controlled by the 1987 Montreal Protocol. In consequence, atmospheric equivalent chlorine peaked in 1993 and has been declining slowly since then. Consistent with this, models project a gradual increase in stratospheric ozone with the Antarctic ozone hole expected to disappear by ∼2050. However, we show that by 2013 the Montreal Protocol had already achieved significant benefits for the ozone layer. Using a 3D atmospheric chemistry transport model, we demonstrate that much larger ozone depletion than observed has been avoided by the protocol, with beneficial impacts on surface ultraviolet. A deep Arctic ozone hole, with column values <120 DU, would have occurred given meteorological conditions in 2011. The Antarctic ozone hole would have grown in size by 40% by 2013, with enhanced loss at subpolar latitudes. The decline over northern hemisphere middle latitudes would have continued, more than doubling to ∼15% by 2013. PMID:26011106

  17. Information Presentation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Holden, Kritina; Sandor, A.; Thompson, S. G.; McCann, R. S.; Kaiser, M. K.; Begault, D. R.; Adelstein, B. D.; Beutter, B. R.; Stone, L. S.

    2008-01-01

    The goal of the Information Presentation Directed Research Project (DRP) is to address design questions related to the presentation of information to the crew on flight vehicles, surface landers and habitats, and during extra-vehicular activities (EVA). Designers of displays and controls for exploration missions must be prepared to select the text formats, label styles, alarms, electronic procedure designs, and cursor control devices that provide for optimal crew performance on exploration tasks. The major areas of work, or subtasks, within the Information Presentation DRP are: 1) Controls, 2) Displays, 3) Procedures, and 4) EVA Operations.

  18. A Security Analysis of the 802.11s Wireless Mesh Network Routing Protocol and Its Secure Routing Protocols

    PubMed Central

    Tan, Whye Kit; Lee, Sang-Gon; Lam, Jun Huy; Yoo, Seong-Moo

    2013-01-01

    Wireless mesh networks (WMNs) can act as a scalable backbone by connecting separate sensor networks and even by connecting WMNs to a wired network. The Hybrid Wireless Mesh Protocol (HWMP) is the default routing protocol for the 802.11s WMN. The routing protocol is one of the most important parts of the network, and it requires protection, especially in the wireless environment. The existing security protocols, such as the Broadcast Integrity Protocol (BIP), Counter with cipher block chaining message authentication code protocol (CCMP), Secure Hybrid Wireless Mesh Protocol (SHWMP), Identity Based Cryptography HWMP (IBC-HWMP), Elliptic Curve Digital Signature Algorithm HWMP (ECDSA-HWMP), and Watchdog-HWMP aim to protect the HWMP frames. In this paper, we have analyzed the vulnerabilities of the HWMP and developed security requirements to protect these identified vulnerabilities. We applied the security requirements to analyze the existing secure schemes for HWMP. The results of our analysis indicate that none of these protocols is able to satisfy all of the security requirements. We also present a quantitative complexity comparison among the protocols and an example of a security scheme for HWMP to demonstrate how the result of our research can be utilized. Our research results thus provide a tool for designing secure schemes for the HWMP. PMID:24002231

  19. A security analysis of the 802.11s wireless mesh network routing protocol and its secure routing protocols.

    PubMed

    Tan, Whye Kit; Lee, Sang-Gon; Lam, Jun Huy; Yoo, Seong-Moo

    2013-01-01

    Wireless mesh networks (WMNs) can act as a scalable backbone by connecting separate sensor networks and even by connecting WMNs to a wired network. The Hybrid Wireless Mesh Protocol (HWMP) is the default routing protocol for the 802.11s WMN. The routing protocol is one of the most important parts of the network, and it requires protection, especially in the wireless environment. The existing security protocols, such as the Broadcast Integrity Protocol (BIP), Counter with cipher block chaining message authentication code protocol (CCMP), Secure Hybrid Wireless Mesh Protocol (SHWMP), Identity Based Cryptography HWMP (IBC-HWMP), Elliptic Curve Digital Signature Algorithm HWMP (ECDSA-HWMP), and Watchdog-HWMP aim to protect the HWMP frames. In this paper, we have analyzed the vulnerabilities of the HWMP and developed security requirements to protect these identified vulnerabilities. We applied the security requirements to analyze the existing secure schemes for HWMP. The results of our analysis indicate that none of these protocols is able to satisfy all of the security requirements. We also present a quantitative complexity comparison among the protocols and an example of a security scheme for HWMP to demonstrate how the result of our research can be utilized. Our research results thus provide a tool for designing secure schemes for the HWMP. PMID:24002231

  20. Résultats du traitement du synovialosarcome des members

    PubMed Central

    Lukulunga, Loubet Unyendje; Moussa, Abdou Kadri; Mahfoud, Mustapha; El Bardouni, Ahmed; Ismail, Farid; Kharmaz, Mohammed; Berrada, Mohamed Saleh; El Yaacoubi, Moradh

    2014-01-01

    Les synovialosarcomes, sarcomes de haut grade, sont de diagnostic tardif et le traitement est complexe et onéreux, nécessitant la mise en œuvre d'une équipe pluridisciplinaire. Le but de ce travail était d'apprécier les résultats de l'association de la chirurgie à la radio chimiothérapie des synovialosarcomes des membres. Il s'agissait d'une étude rétrospective portant sur des patients présentant de synovialosarcomes des membres pris en charge dans le service de chirurgie orthopédique et traumatologique du CHU Ibn SINA de Rabat allant de Janvier 2006 à Décembre 2011 (6 ans). Nous avons inclus les malades présentant de synovialosarcomes des membres dont la clinique et l'imagerie médicale étaient en faveur, confirmés par l'examen anatomopathologique et la prise en charge effectuée dans le service. Les patients ont été revus avec un recul moyen de 3 ans. Nous n'avons pas retenu les patients dont les dossiers étaient incomplets, perdus de vue. Nous avons apprécié les résultats selon les critères carcinologiques et le score MSTS (Musculoskeletal Tumor Society). La saisie et l'analyse des données ont été faites sur le logiciel SPSS Stastic 17.0 Nous avons colligé 20 cas de synovialosarcome des membres dans le Service de Chirurgie Orthopédique et Traumatologique au CHU Ibn SINA de Rabat Le sexe masculin a prédominé avec 65% (n = 13) avec un sex ratio 1,85. L’âge moyen a été de 42,6 ans avec des extrêmes allant de 20 ans et 70 ans. Notre délai moyen de consultation était de 14,42 mois. Tous les malades ont consulté pour une tuméfaction dans 100% (localisée au membre inférieur dans 65% (n = 13), membre supérieur dans 35% (n = 7). La douleur était associée à la tuméfaction dans 55% (n = 11), quant à l'altération de l’état général et l'ulcération de la masse, elles ont été notées dans 3 cas chacune. Nous avons réalisé un bilan d'imagerie médicale comprenant: radiographie standard, échographie, écho doppler

  1. Protocols for Publishing PMRT Documents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ministerial Council on Education, Employment, Training and Youth Affairs (NJ1), 2004

    2004-01-01

    The purpose of these protocols is to assist in providing guidance to PMRT members and Sub-groups in relation to seeking approval for the publication of documents of the Performance Measurement and Reporting Taskforce (PMRT) or of its predecessor the National Education Performance Monitoring Taskforce (NEPMT). These protocols complement the…

  2. Common Protocols for Shared Communities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bull, Glen; Bull, Gina; Sigmon, Tim

    1997-01-01

    Although it is becoming easier to share materials via the Internet, the process is still not transparent, especially when cross-platform transfers are involved. This article reviews common protocols and discusses several utilities and strategies for exchanging information online. Includes a table listing transfer and compression protocols, common…

  3. Conservation Presentation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Friday, Gerald

    2001-01-01

    Introduces a project in which students teach about the importance of recycling and conservation by presenting demonstrations. Includes demonstrations on water, plastic, and other recycling products such as steel. (YDS)

  4. Delivery presentations

    MedlinePlus

    ... brow first position. Most of the time, the force of contractions causes the baby to be in face-first position. It is also detected when labor does not progress. In some of these presentations, ...

  5. Information Presentation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Holden, K.L.; Boyer, J.L.; Sandor, A.; Thompson, S.G.; McCann, R.S.; Begault, D.R.; Adelstein, B.D.; Beutter, B.R.; Stone, L.S.

    2009-01-01

    The goal of the Information Presentation Directed Research Project (DRP) is to address design questions related to the presentation of information to the crew. The major areas of work, or subtasks, within this DRP are: 1) Displays, 2) Controls, 3) Electronic Procedures and Fault Management, and 4) Human Performance Modeling. This DRP is a collaborative effort between researchers at Johnson Space Center and Ames Research Center.

  6. Protocols for Scholarly Communication

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pepe, A.; Yeomans, J.

    2007-10-01

    CERN, the European Organization for Nuclear Research, has operated an institutional preprint repository for more than 10 years. The repository contains over 850,000 records of which more than 450,000 are full-text OA preprints, mostly in the field of particle physics, and it is integrated with the library's holdings of books, conference proceedings, journals and other grey literature. In order to encourage effective propagation and open access to scholarly material, CERN is implementing a range of innovative library services into its document repository: automatic keywording, reference extraction, collaborative management tools and bibliometric tools. Some of these services, such as user reviewing and automatic metadata extraction, could make up an interesting testbed for future publishing solutions and certainly provide an exciting environment for e-science possibilities. The future protocol for scientific communication should guide authors naturally towards OA publication, and CERN wants to help reach a full open access publishing environment for the particle physics community and related sciences in the next few years.

  7. Provably-secure (Chinese government) SM2 and simplified SM2 key exchange protocols.

    PubMed

    Yang, Ang; Nam, Junghyun; Kim, Moonseong; Choo, Kim-Kwang Raymond

    2014-01-01

    We revisit the SM2 protocol, which is widely used in Chinese commercial applications and by Chinese government agencies. Although it is by now standard practice for protocol designers to provide security proofs in widely accepted security models in order to assure protocol implementers of their security properties, the SM2 protocol does not have a proof of security. In this paper, we prove the security of the SM2 protocol in the widely accepted indistinguishability-based Bellare-Rogaway model under the elliptic curve discrete logarithm problem (ECDLP) assumption. We also present a simplified and more efficient version of the SM2 protocol with an accompanying security proof. PMID:25276863

  8. Provably-Secure (Chinese Government) SM2 and Simplified SM2 Key Exchange Protocols

    PubMed Central

    Nam, Junghyun; Kim, Moonseong

    2014-01-01

    We revisit the SM2 protocol, which is widely used in Chinese commercial applications and by Chinese government agencies. Although it is by now standard practice for protocol designers to provide security proofs in widely accepted security models in order to assure protocol implementers of their security properties, the SM2 protocol does not have a proof of security. In this paper, we prove the security of the SM2 protocol in the widely accepted indistinguishability-based Bellare-Rogaway model under the elliptic curve discrete logarithm problem (ECDLP) assumption. We also present a simplified and more efficient version of the SM2 protocol with an accompanying security proof. PMID:25276863

  9. A Self-Stabilizing Synchronization Protocol for Arbitrary Digraphs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Malekpour, Mahyar R.

    2011-01-01

    This paper presents a self-stabilizing distributed clock synchronization protocol in the absence of faults in the system. It is focused on the distributed clock synchronization of an arbitrary, non-partitioned digraph ranging from fully connected to 1-connected networks of nodes while allowing for differences in the network elements. This protocol does not rely on assumptions about the initial state of the system, other than the presence of at least one node, and no central clock or a centrally generated signal, pulse, or message is used. Nodes are anonymous, i.e., they do not have unique identities. There is no theoretical limit on the maximum number of participating nodes. The only constraint on the behavior of the node is that the interactions with other nodes are restricted to defined links and interfaces. This protocol deterministically converges within a time bound that is a linear function of the self-stabilization period. We present an outline of a deductive proof of the correctness of the protocol. A bounded model of the protocol was mechanically verified for a variety of topologies. Results of the mechanical proof of the correctness of the protocol are provided. The model checking results have verified the correctness of the protocol as they apply to the networks with unidirectional and bidirectional links. In addition, the results confirm the claims of determinism and linear convergence. As a result, we conjecture that the protocol solves the general case of this problem. We also present several variations of the protocol and discuss that this synchronization protocol is indeed an emergent system.

  10. [Scientific presentation].

    PubMed

    Kraft, Giuliano

    2002-01-01

    To give a correct and effective scientific presentation, is an arduous task that asks for close examination of basic techniques of communication. This article proposes indications and suggestions to help public speakers to be communicators, to use visual aids and it explains how to capture the audience attention. PMID:12599721

  11. Overview Presentation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lytle, John

    2001-01-01

    This report provides an overview presentation of the 2000 NPSS (Numerical Propulsion System Simulation) Review and Planning Meeting. Topics include: 1) a background of the program; 2) 1999 Industry Feedback; 3) FY00 Status, including resource distribution and major accomplishments; 4) FY01 Major Milestones; and 5) Future direction for the program. Specifically, simulation environment/production software and NPSS CORBA Security Development are discussed.

  12. [Pediatric serial urinary cystoureterography. Needs, nursing diagnosis, and care protocol].

    PubMed

    Ramírez Lopera, María del Carmen; Esplá García, Leonardo

    2002-01-01

    The authors present the causes which lead to carrying out a Series of Urinal Tract Retrograde Cystography (CUMS) study in a child and they discuss some reasons which justify the elaboration of a nursing treatment protocol and the corresponding procedures in order to care for the child. To make a protocol for a procedure facilitates and enhances its execution. Nursing treatments, like any other activity, are susceptible to having a protocol and therefore can improve their quality. Nurses in the radio-diagnostic pediatrics ward at the University Hospital Reina Sofía in Cordoba are elaborating treatment protocols for every one of their radiological studies for the care of every child to whom we attend whom requires nursing care. In this article some protocols and procedures are commented on along with the reasons which justify their elaboration. PMID:13677766

  13. Packet-Based Protocol Efficiency for Aeronautical and Satellite Communications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Carek, David A.

    2005-01-01

    This paper examines the relation between bit error ratios and the effective link efficiency when transporting data with a packet-based protocol. Relations are developed to quantify the impact of a protocol s packet size and header size relative to the bit error ratio of the underlying link. These relations are examined in the context of radio transmissions that exhibit variable error conditions, such as those used in satellite, aeronautical, and other wireless networks. A comparison of two packet sizing methodologies is presented. From these relations, the true ability of a link to deliver user data, or information, is determined. Relations are developed to calculate the optimal protocol packet size forgiven link error characteristics. These relations could be useful in future research for developing an adaptive protocol layer. They can also be used for sizing protocols in the design of static links, where bit error ratios have small variability.

  14. Collusive attacks to "circle-type" multi-party quantum key agreement protocols

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Bin; Xiao, Di; Jia, Heng-Yue; Liu, Run-Zong

    2016-05-01

    We find that existing multi-party quantum key agreement (MQKA) protocols designed for fairness of the key are, in fact, unfair. Our analysis shows that these protocols are sensitive to collusive attacks; that is, dishonest participants can collaborate in predetermining the key without being detected. In fact, the transmission structures of the quantum particles in those unfair MQKA protocols, three of which have already been analyzed, have much in common. We call these unfair MQKA protocols circle-type MQKA protocols. Likewise, the transmission structures of the quantum particles in MQKA protocols that can resist collusive attacks are also similar. We call such protocols complete-graph-type MQKA protocols. A MQKA protocol also exists that can resist the above attacks but is still not fair, and we call it the tree-type MQKA protocol. We first point out a common, easily missed loophole that severely compromises the fairness of present circle-type MQKA protocols. Then we show that two dishonest participants at special positions can totally predetermine the key generated by circle-type MQKA protocols. We anticipate that our observations will contribute to secure and fair MQKA protocols, especially circle-type protocols.

  15. Protocol independent adaptive route update for VANET.

    PubMed

    Rasheed, Asim; Ajmal, Sana; Qayyum, Amir

    2014-01-01

    High relative node velocity and high active node density have presented challenges to existing routing approaches within highly scaled ad hoc wireless networks, such as Vehicular Ad hoc Networks (VANET). Efficient routing requires finding optimum route with minimum delay, updating it on availability of a better one, and repairing it on link breakages. Current routing protocols are generally focused on finding and maintaining an efficient route, with very less emphasis on route update. Adaptive route update usually becomes impractical for dense networks due to large routing overheads. This paper presents an adaptive route update approach which can provide solution for any baseline routing protocol. The proposed adaptation eliminates the classification of reactive and proactive by categorizing them as logical conditions to find and update the route. PMID:24723807

  16. Protocol Independent Adaptive Route Update for VANET

    PubMed Central

    Rasheed, Asim; Qayyum, Amir

    2014-01-01

    High relative node velocity and high active node density have presented challenges to existing routing approaches within highly scaled ad hoc wireless networks, such as Vehicular Ad hoc Networks (VANET). Efficient routing requires finding optimum route with minimum delay, updating it on availability of a better one, and repairing it on link breakages. Current routing protocols are generally focused on finding and maintaining an efficient route, with very less emphasis on route update. Adaptive route update usually becomes impractical for dense networks due to large routing overheads. This paper presents an adaptive route update approach which can provide solution for any baseline routing protocol. The proposed adaptation eliminates the classification of reactive and proactive by categorizing them as logical conditions to find and update the route. PMID:24723807

  17. Hydrogen Hazards Assessment Protocol (HHAP): Approach and Methodology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Woods, Stephen

    2009-01-01

    This viewgraph presentation reviews the approach and methodology to develop a assessment protocol for hydrogen hazards. Included in the presentation are the reasons to perform hazards assessment, the types of hazard assessments that exist, an analysis of hydrogen hazards, specific information about the Hydrogen Hazards Assessment Protocol (HHAP). The assessment is specifically tailored for hydrogen behavior. The end product of the assesment is a compilation of hazard, mitigations and associated factors to facilitate decision making and achieve the best practice.

  18. D-RATS 2011: RAFT Protocol Overview

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Utz, Hans

    2011-01-01

    A brief overview presentation on the protocol used during the D-RATS2011 field test for file transfer from the field-test robots at Black Point Lava Flow AZ to Johnson Space Center, Houston TX over a simulated time-delay. The file transfer actually uses a commercial implementation of an open communications standard. The focus of the work lies on how to make the state of the distributed system observable.

  19. A Public-Key Based Authentication and Key Establishment Protocol Coupled with a Client Puzzle.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, M. C.; Fung, Chun-Kan

    2003-01-01

    Discusses network denial-of-service attacks which have become a security threat to the Internet community and suggests the need for reliable authentication protocols in client-server applications. Presents a public-key based authentication and key establishment protocol coupled with a client puzzle protocol and validates it through formal logic…

  20. Multiagency Protocols in Intellectual Disabilities Transition Partnerships: A Survey of Local Authorities in Wales

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kaehne, Axel

    2010-01-01

    The paper presents the findings of a study of transition protocols (for adolescents leaving school and entering the general marketplace) in place for intellectual disability partnerships in 22 local authorities in Wales. The study consisted of a survey of existing protocols and a documentary analysis of the content of the obtained protocols. The…

  1. A Token Ring Protocol for Dynamic Ad-hoc Wireless Environments

    SciTech Connect

    Top, P; Kohlhepp, V; Dowla, F

    2005-09-30

    A wireless ad-hoc networking protocol is presented. The protocol is designed to be flexible, easy to use and adaptable to a wide variety of potential applications. The primary considerations in design are small code size, guaranteed bandwidth access, limited delay, and error resilience in a highly dynamic ad-hoc environment. These considerations are achieved through the use of token ring protocol.

  2. Step-up-to-Excellence: A Change Navigation Protocol for Transforming School Systems

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Duffy, Francis M.

    2006-01-01

    This article presents a protocol change leaders can use to navigate whole-system change in their school districts. The information describing the protocol will help change leaders in school districts and policymakers interested in whole-district change answer the question, "How do we transform our entire school system"? The protocol is…

  3. W. E. B. Du Bois: A Dynamic Communicator and Cultural Iconoclast.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reppert, James E.

    This paper presents a biographical sketch of the prolific African-American writer and sociologist W.E.B. Du Bois, designed as an instructional unit in an introduction to mass communication course which can help make students aware of the roles played by ethnic minorities in shaping American and world media. The paper provides numerous details of…

  4. Security analysis of multi-party quantum private comparison protocol by model checking

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Fan; Yang, Guowu; Hao, Yujie; Luo, Qingbin; Wang, Yuqi

    2015-06-01

    This paper presents an analysis method for quantum information protocols based on model checking, with special focus on the quantum privacy comparison (QPC). The security properties of these protocols can be proved but in ways with much difficulty. Here we will discuss a probabilistic model checking tool — PRISM to verify specific properties of QPC protocol with multi-body and PRISM to verify specific properties of quantum private comparison (QPC) protocol with multi-party and d-dimensional entangled states.

  5. The Channel Acquisition Slot Protocol

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Milian, Arturo Valencia; Tamura, Shinsuke; Yanase, Tatsuro

    This paper discusses the Channel Acquisition Slot Protocol (CASP), a new protocol for the Media Access Control (MAC) of wireless networks. The CASP is intended to provide a more efficient use of communication channels; this is achieved by mechanisms for eliminating contentions among network stations and by an implicit handling of acknowledge messages. To avoid collisions of messages, the protocol divides the time into short slots, each of which is assigned to a single station, and any station must wait its own slot to start its transmission. However once a transmission is started the slot can be extended and no other station can make use of the channel. The use of an implicit acknowledge mechanism removes the necessity of an acknowledge message exchange for every transmission. In various simulated scenarios the CASP shows a 25% better throughput efficiency compared with the one of the IEEE802.11 protocol.

  6. [Diagnostic protocol and special tests].

    PubMed

    Bellia, M; Pennarola, R

    2008-01-01

    Diagnostic protocol and special tests to ionizing radiations have a preventive function in the medical surveillance of the exposed worker. This protocol must be provided with laboratory and special test assessing fitness for working at the risk of ionizing radiations. The health of workers must be compatible with working conditions and radiation risk. This healthiness of workers is evalued in the time to give an assessment fitness for working at ionizing radiations. For this purpose the basic diagnostic protocol must guarantee minimum information about state of organs and apparatus in addition to the normality of the metabolisms. The diagnostic protocol of the exposed worker to ionizing radiations must be adapted to the specific clinical situation so as to finally make a costs-benefits balance sheet. PMID:19288808

  7. QUALITY CONTROL - VARIABILITY IN PROTOCOLS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The EPA Risk Reduction Engineering Laboratory’s Quality Assurance Office, which published the popular pocket guide Preparing Perfect Project Plans, is now introducing another quality assurance reference aid. The document Variability in Protocols (VIP) was initially designed as a ...

  8. EPA Protocol Gas Verification Program

    EPA Science Inventory

    Accurate compressed gas calibration standards are needed to calibrate continuous emission monitors (CEMs) and ambient air quality monitors that are being used for regulatory purposes. US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) established its traceability protocol to ensure that co...

  9. Prejudice: From Allport to DuBois.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gaines, Stanley O., Jr.; Reed, Edward S.

    1995-01-01

    Examines the differences between Gordon Allport's and W. E. B. DuBois's theories on the origins of prejudice and the impact of discrimination on the personality and social development of blacks. The article argues that prejudice is a historically developed process, not a universal feature of human psychology. Implications for U.S. race relations…

  10. Steroid sulfatase inhibitor DU-14 protects spatial memory and synaptic plasticity from disruption by amyloid β protein in male rats.

    PubMed

    Yue, Xing-Hua; Tong, Jia-Qing; Wang, Zhao-Jun; Zhang, Jun; Liu, Xu; Liu, Xiao-Jie; Cai, Hong-Yan; Qi, Jin-Shun

    2016-07-01

    Alzheimer's disease (AD) is an age-related mental disorder characterized by progressive loss of memory and multiple cognitive impairments. The overproduction and aggregation of Amyloid β protein (Aβ) in the brain, especially in the hippocampus, are closely involved in the memory loss in the patients with AD. Accumulating evidence indicates that the Aβ-induced imbalance of dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) and dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate (DHEAS) in the brain plays an important role in the AD pathogenesis and progression. The level of DHEA is elevated, while DHEAS is dramatically decreased in the AD brain. The present study tried to restore the balance between DHEA and DHEAS by using a non-steroidal sulfatase inhibitor DU-14, which increases endogenous DHEAS through preventing DHEAS converted back into DHEA. We found that: (1) DU-14 effectively attenuated the Aβ1-42-induced cognitive deficits in spatial learning and memory of rats in Morris water maze test; (2) DU-14 prevented Aβ1-42-induced decrease in the cholinergic theta rhythm of hippocampal local field potential (LFP) in the CA1 region; (3) DU-14 protected hippocampal synaptic plasticity against Aβ1-42-induced suppression of long term potentiation (LTP). These results provide evidence for the neuroprotective action of DU-14 against neurotoxic Aβ, suggesting that up-regulation of endogenous DHEAS by DU-14 could be beneficial to the alleviation of Aβ-induced impairments in spatial memory and synaptic plasticity. PMID:27222435

  11. A Quantum Private Comparison Protocol with Splitting Information Carriers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Yu-kun; Zhang, Jie; Huang, Wei; Zhang, Jia-li; Sun, Ying

    2015-01-01

    Based on quantum information splitting and reconstruction, we present a quantum private comparison (QPC) protocol, enabling two distrustful parties (Alice and Bob) to compare the equality of their information without revealing the information content. In this protocol, the information carriers are split into two wave packets by a beam splitter (BS), which is owned by a semi-honest third party Trent, and then they are sent to Alice and Bob, respectively. Alice and Bob encodes their secret information on the received wave packets. Only the superimposition of the two wave packets in Trent's site can reveal the compared result. Compared with the QPC protocols using entangled states, the information carriers used in our protocol is single-photon pulse, which reduces the difficulty of realization in practical. In addition, our protocol is feasible with the present techniques since only linear optical components, BS, single-photon detector, phase shifter (PS) and switcher (SWT) are required. The security of the protocol is ensured by principles on the phenomenon of quantum interference. And through the security analysis it shows that the protocol is secure and resists against the well-known attacks.

  12. A Quantum Watermarking Protocol Based on Bell Dual Basis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mo, Jia; Ma, Zhaofeng; Yang, Yixian; Niu, Xinxin

    2013-11-01

    This paper presents a Bell-dual-basis-based quantum watermarking protocol composed of three major algorithms: watermark embedding and extracting and the intercepting test. The first two are completed by using the entanglement swapping property of Bell dual basis and the test is accomplished through IBF protocol to guarantee its bottom security. The watermarking protocol is mainly designed for the protection of digital copyright in the existence of classical information. This design finds that the quality of digital contents is not damaged with its zero-watermark attributes when embedding watermarks.

  13. An XML-Based Protocol for Distributed Event Services

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, Warren; Gunter, Dan; Quesnel, Darcy; Biegel, Bryan (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    A recent trend in distributed computing is the construction of high-performance distributed systems called computational grids. One difficulty we have encountered is that there is no standard format for the representation of performance information and no standard protocol for transmitting this information. This limits the types of performance analysis that can be undertaken in complex distributed systems. To address this problem, we present an XML-based protocol for transmitting performance events in distributed systems and evaluate the performance of this protocol.

  14. Performance enhancement of OSPF protocol in the private network

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Yang; Lu, Yang; Lin, Xiaokang

    2005-11-01

    The private network serves as an information exchange platform to support the integrated services via microwave channels and accordingly selects the open shortest path first (OSPF) as the IP routing protocol. But the existing OSPF can't fit the private network very well for its special characteristics. This paper presents our modifications to the standard protocol in such aspects as the single-area scheme, link state advertisement (LSA) types and formats, OSPF packet formats, important state machines, setting of protocol parameters and link flap damping. Finally simulations are performed in various scenarios and the results indicate that our modifications can enhance the OSPF performance in the private network effectively.

  15. Protocol for secure quantum machine learning at a distant place

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bang, Jeongho; Lee, Seung-Woo; Jeong, Hyunseok

    2015-10-01

    The application of machine learning to quantum information processing has recently attracted keen interest, particularly for the optimization of control parameters in quantum tasks without any pre-programmed knowledge. By adapting the machine learning technique, we present a novel protocol in which an arbitrarily initialized device at a learner's location is taught by a provider located at a distant place. The protocol is designed such that any external learner who attempts to participate in or disrupt the learning process can be prohibited or noticed. We numerically demonstrate that our protocol works faithfully for single-qubit operation devices. A trade-off between the inaccuracy and the learning time is also analyzed.

  16. An XML-based protocol for distributed event services

    SciTech Connect

    Gunter, Dan K.; Smith, Warren; Quesnel, Darcy

    2001-06-25

    A recent trend in distributed computing is the construction of high-performance distributed systems called computational grids. One difficulty we have encountered is that there is no standard format for the representation of performance information and no standard protocol for transmitting this information. This limits the types of performance analysis that can be undertaken in complex distributed systems. To address this problem, we present an XML-based protocol for transmitting performance events in distributed systems and evaluate the performance of this protocol.

  17. Protocols.io: Virtual Communities for Protocol Development and Discussion.

    PubMed

    Teytelman, Leonid; Stoliartchouk, Alexei; Kindler, Lori; Hurwitz, Bonnie L

    2016-08-01

    The detailed know-how to implement research protocols frequently remains restricted to the research group that developed the method or technology. This knowledge often exists at a level that is too detailed for inclusion in the methods section of scientific articles. Consequently, methods are not easily reproduced, leading to a loss of time and effort by other researchers. The challenge is to develop a method-centered collaborative platform to connect with fellow researchers and discover state-of-the-art knowledge. Protocols.io is an open-access platform for detailing, sharing, and discussing molecular and computational protocols that can be useful before, during, and after publication of research results. PMID:27547938

  18. Protocols.io: Virtual Communities for Protocol Development and Discussion

    PubMed Central

    Stoliartchouk, Alexei; Kindler, Lori; Hurwitz, Bonnie L.

    2016-01-01

    The detailed know-how to implement research protocols frequently remains restricted to the research group that developed the method or technology. This knowledge often exists at a level that is too detailed for inclusion in the methods section of scientific articles. Consequently, methods are not easily reproduced, leading to a loss of time and effort by other researchers. The challenge is to develop a method-centered collaborative platform to connect with fellow researchers and discover state-of-the-art knowledge. Protocols.io is an open-access platform for detailing, sharing, and discussing molecular and computational protocols that can be useful before, during, and after publication of research results. PMID:27547938

  19. A complete classification of quantum public-key encryption protocols

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Chenmiao; Yang, Li

    2015-10-01

    We present a classification of quantum public-key encryption protocols. There are six elements in quantum public-key encryption: plaintext, ciphertext, public-key, private-key, encryption algorithm and decryption algorithm. According to the property of each element which is either quantum or classical, the quantum public-key encryption protocols can be divided into 64 kinds. Among 64 kinds of protocols, 8 kinds have already been constructed, 52 kinds can be proved to be impossible to construct and the remaining 4 kinds have not been presented effectively yet. This indicates that the research on quantum public-key encryption protocol should be focus on the existed kinds and the unproposed kinds.

  20. Superselection rules and quantum protocols

    SciTech Connect

    Kitaev, Alexei; Preskill, John; Mayers, Dominic

    2004-05-01

    We show that superselection rules do not enhance the information-theoretic security of quantum cryptographic protocols. Our analysis employs two quite different methods. The first method uses the concept of a reference system--in a world subject to a superselection rule, unrestricted operations can be simulated by parties who share access to a reference system with suitable properties. By this method, we prove that if an n-party protocol is secure in a world subject to a superselection rule, then the security is maintained even if the superselection rule is relaxed. However, the proof applies only to a limited class of superselection rules, those in which the superselection sectors are labeled by unitary irreducible representations of a compact symmetry group. The second method uses the concept of the format of a message sent between parties--by verifying the format, the recipient of a message can check whether the message could have been sent by a party who performed charge-conserving operations. By this method, we prove that protocols subject to general superselection rules (including those pertaining to non-Abelian anyons in two dimensions) are no more secure than protocols in the unrestricted world. However, the proof applies only to two-party protocols. Our results show in particular that, if no assumptions are made about the computational power of the cheater, then secure quantum bit commitment and strong quantum coin flipping with arbitrarily small bias are impossible in a world subject to superselection rules.

  1. Authenticated semi-quantum key distribution protocol using Bell states

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yu, Kun-Fei; Yang, Chun-Wei; Liao, Ci-Hong; Hwang, Tzonelih

    2014-06-01

    This study presents the first authenticated semi-quantum key distribution (ASQKD) protocols without using authenticated classical channels. By pre-sharing a master secret key between two communicants, a sender with advanced quantum devices can transmit a working key to a receiver, who can merely perform classical operations. The idea of ASQKD enables establishment of a key hierarchy in security systems that also eases the key management problem. The proposed protocols are free from several well-known attacks

  2. Three-qubit Protocol to Purify Generalized Werner States

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jafarpour, M.; Ashrafpouri, F.

    2015-05-01

    Generalizing the two-qubit purification method of Bennett et al. (Phys. Rev. Lett. 76, 722-725 1996), we present a three-qubit protocol, to purify partially entangled pairs of generalized Werner states, with application of controlled-not gates, projective measurements and Pauli rotations. The protocol is simple and recyclable and the fidelity of the purified states converge rapidly to 1, after a few cycles.

  3. Eavesdropping on the quantum dialogue protocol in lossy channel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Heng; Zhang, Xiu-Lan; Lü, Hui

    2011-07-01

    We present an improved eavesdropping scheme on the quantum dialogue protocol in lossy channel, which is based on the strategies of Wójcik [Phys. Rev. Lett. 90 157901 (2003)] and ZML [Phys. Lett. A 333 46 (2004)] attack schemes. We show that our attack scheme doubles the domain of Eve's eavesdropping and Eve can gain more information of the communication with less risk of being detected. Finally, a possible improvement for the dialogue protocol security is proposed.

  4. 40 CFR 160.120 - Protocol.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... PRACTICE STANDARDS Protocol for and Conduct of a Study § 160.120 Protocol. (a) Each study shall have an... study. The protocol shall contain but shall not necessarily be limited to the following information: (1... maintained. (14) The date of approval of the protocol by the sponsor and the dated signature of the...

  5. 40 CFR 160.120 - Protocol.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... PRACTICE STANDARDS Protocol for and Conduct of a Study § 160.120 Protocol. (a) Each study shall have an... study. The protocol shall contain but shall not necessarily be limited to the following information: (1... maintained. (14) The date of approval of the protocol by the sponsor and the dated signature of the...

  6. Compositional mining of multiple object API protocols through state abstraction.

    PubMed

    Dai, Ziying; Mao, Xiaoguang; Lei, Yan; Qi, Yuhua; Wang, Rui; Gu, Bin

    2013-01-01

    API protocols specify correct sequences of method invocations. Despite their usefulness, API protocols are often unavailable in practice because writing them is cumbersome and error prone. Multiple object API protocols are more expressive than single object API protocols. However, the huge number of objects of typical object-oriented programs poses a major challenge to the automatic mining of multiple object API protocols: besides maintaining scalability, it is important to capture various object interactions. Current approaches utilize various heuristics to focus on small sets of methods. In this paper, we present a general, scalable, multiple object API protocols mining approach that can capture all object interactions. Our approach uses abstract field values to label object states during the mining process. We first mine single object typestates as finite state automata whose transitions are annotated with states of interacting objects before and after the execution of the corresponding method and then construct multiple object API protocols by composing these annotated single object typestates. We implement our approach for Java and evaluate it through a series of experiments. PMID:23844378

  7. Protocols, practices, and the reproduction of technique in molecular biology.

    PubMed

    Lynch, Michael

    2002-06-01

    Protocols are one of the main organizational resources in molecular biology. They are written instructions that specify ingredients, equipment, and sequences of steps for making technical preparations. Some protocols are published in widely used manuals, while others are hand-written variants used by particular laboratories and individual technicians. It is widely understood, both in molecular biology and in social studies of science, that protocols do not describe exactly what practitioners do in the laboratory workplace. In social studies of science, the difference between protocols and the actual practices of doing them often is used to set up ironic contrasts between 'messy' laboratory practices and the appearance of technical order. Alternatively, in ethnomethodological studies of work, the difference is examined as a constitutive feature, both of the lived-work of doing technical projects, and of the administrative work of regulating and evaluating such projects. The present article takes its point of departure from ethnomethodology, and begins with a discussion of local problems with performing molecular biology protocols on specific occasions. The discussion then moves to particular cases in criminal law in which defense attorneys cross-examine forensic technicians and lab administrators. In these interrogations, the distinction between protocols and actual practices animates the dialogue and becomes consequential for judgments in the case at hand. The article concludes with a discussion of administrative science: the work of treating protocols and paper trails as proxies for actual 'scientific' practices. PMID:12171609

  8. Compositional Mining of Multiple Object API Protocols through State Abstraction

    PubMed Central

    Mao, Xiaoguang; Qi, Yuhua; Wang, Rui; Gu, Bin

    2013-01-01

    API protocols specify correct sequences of method invocations. Despite their usefulness, API protocols are often unavailable in practice because writing them is cumbersome and error prone. Multiple object API protocols are more expressive than single object API protocols. However, the huge number of objects of typical object-oriented programs poses a major challenge to the automatic mining of multiple object API protocols: besides maintaining scalability, it is important to capture various object interactions. Current approaches utilize various heuristics to focus on small sets of methods. In this paper, we present a general, scalable, multiple object API protocols mining approach that can capture all object interactions. Our approach uses abstract field values to label object states during the mining process. We first mine single object typestates as finite state automata whose transitions are annotated with states of interacting objects before and after the execution of the corresponding method and then construct multiple object API protocols by composing these annotated single object typestates. We implement our approach for Java and evaluate it through a series of experiments. PMID:23844378

  9. Representation of Clinical Nursing Protocols Using GEM II & GEM Cutter

    PubMed Central

    Koch, Karen A.; Woodcock, Michael W.; Harris, Marcelline R.

    2010-01-01

    The machineable representation and execution of clinical guidelines has been the focus of research efforts for some time, however there is less examination of whether the methods and techniques for guidelines are sufficient for clinical protocols. The objective of this study was to test the feasibility of using the Guideline Elements Model II (GEM II) and GEM Cutter for the representation of clinical protocols, specifically clinical protocols commonly used by nurses. After downloading the GEM Cutter 2.5, we decomposed a set of clinical protocols and analyzed the completeness in which elemental protocol data was represented. One of the most complicated of these protocols (extravasations of infused medication) is presented as an example. While GEM II adequately represents core elements of clinical protocols at the high level, it was not possible to adequately represent sequence and associated role based permissions via use of conditional criteria at branching and procedural levels. Functionality of the tool would also be enhanced with more robust terminology management and support for multi-authoring. PMID:21347008

  10. Mars Sample Handling Protocol Workshop Series: Workshop 4

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Race Margaret S. (Editor); DeVincenzi, Donald L. (Editor); Rummel, John D. (Editor); Acevedo, Sara E. (Editor)

    2001-01-01

    In preparation for missions to Mars that will involve the return of samples to Earth, it will be necessary to prepare for the receiving, handling, testing, distributing, and archiving of martian materials here on Earth. Previous groups and committees have studied selected aspects of sample return activities, but specific detailed protocols for the handling and testing of returned samples must still be developed. To further refine the requirements for sample hazard testing and to develop the criteria for subsequent release of sample materials from quarantine, the NASA Planetary Protection Officer convened a series of workshops in 2000-2001. The overall objective of the Workshop Series was to produce a Draft Protocol by which returned martian sample materials can be assessed for biological hazards and examined for evidence of life (extant or extinct) while safeguarding the purity of the samples from possible terrestrial contamination. This report also provides a record of the proceedings of Workshop 4, the final Workshop of the Series, which was held in Arlington, Virginia, June 5-7, 2001. During Workshop 4, the sub-groups were provided with a draft of the protocol compiled in May 2001 from the work done at prior Workshops in the Series. Then eight sub-groups were formed to discuss the following assigned topics: Review and Assess the Draft Protocol for Physical/Chemical Testing Review and Assess the Draft Protocol for Life Detection Testing Review and Assess the Draft Protocol for Biohazard Testing Environmental and Health/Monitoring and Safety Issues Requirements of the Draft Protocol for Facilities and Equipment Contingency Planning for Different Outcomes of the Draft Protocol Personnel Management Considerations in Implementation of the Draft Protocol Draft Protocol Implementation Process and Update Concepts This report provides the first complete presentation of the Draft Protocol for Mars Sample Handling to meet planetary protection needs. This Draft Protocol

  11. Lightweight Distance Bounding Protocol against Relay Attacks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Jin Seok; Cho, Kookrae; Yum, Dae Hyun; Hong, Sung Je; Lee, Pil Joong

    Traditional authentication protocols are based on cryptographic techniques to achieve identity verification. Distance bounding protocols are an enhanced type of authentication protocol built upon both signal traversal time measurement and cryptographic techniques to accomplish distance verification as well as identity verification. A distance bounding protocol is usually designed to defend against the relay attack and the distance fraud attack. As there are applications to which the distance fraud attack is not a serious threat, we propose a streamlined distance bounding protocol that focuses on the relay attack. The proposed protocol is more efficient than previous protocols and has a low false acceptance rate under the relay attack.

  12. A Simple XML Producer-Consumer Protocol

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, Warren; Gunter, Dan; Quesnel, Darcy

    2000-01-01

    This document describes a simple XML-based protocol that can be used for producers of events to communicate with consumers of events. The protocol described here is not meant to be the most efficient protocol, the most logical protocol, or the best protocol in any way. This protocol was defined quickly and it's intent is to give us a reasonable protocol that we can implement relatively easily and then use to gain experience in distributed event services. This experience will help us evaluate proposals for event representations, XML-based encoding of information, and communication protocols. The next section of this document describes how we represent events in this protocol and then defines the two events that we choose to use for our initial experiments. These definitions are made by example so that they are informal and easy to understand. The following section then proceeds to define the producer-consumer protocol we have agreed upon for our initial experiments.

  13. Secret Public Key Protocols Revisited

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lim, Hoon Wei; Paterson, Kenneth G.

    Password-based protocols are important and popular means of providing human-to-machine authentication. The concept of secret public keys was proposed more than a decade ago as a means of securing password-based authentication protocols against off-line password guessing attacks, but was later found vulnerable to various attacks. In this paper, we revisit the concept and introduce the notion of identity-based secret public keys. Our new identity-based approach allows secret public keys to be constructed in a very natural way using arbitrary random strings, eliminating the structure found in, for example, RSA or ElGamal keys. We examine identity-based secret public key protocols and give informal security analyses, indicating that they are secure against off-line password guessing and other attacks.

  14. The Groningen Protocol - the Jewish perspective.

    PubMed

    Gesundheit, Benjamin; Steinberg, Avraham; Blazer, Shraga; Jotkowitz, Alan

    2009-01-01

    Despite significant advances in neonatology, there will always be newborns with serious life-threatening conditions creating most difficult bioethical dilemmas. Active euthanasia for adult patients is one of the most controversial bioethical questions; for severely ill neonates, the issue is even more complex, due to their inability to take part in any decision concerning their future. The Groningen Protocol introduced in 2005 by P.J. Sauer proposes criteria allowing active euthanasia for severely ill, not necessarily terminal, newborns with incurable conditions and poor quality of life in order to spare them unbearable suffering. We discuss the ethical dilemma and ideological foundations of the protocol, the opinions of its defenders and critics, and the dangers involved. The Jewish perspective relating to the subject is presented based on classical Jewish sources, which we trust may enrich modern bioethical debates. In Jewish law, the fetus acquires full legal status only after birth. However, while the lives of terminally ill neonates must in no way be actively destroyed or shortened, there is no obligation to make extraordinary efforts to prolong their lives. Accurate preimplantation or prenatal diagnosis might significantly reduce the incidence of nonviable births, but active killing of infants violates the basic foundations of Jewish law, and opens the 'slippery slope' for uncontrolled abuse. Therefore, we call upon the international medical and bioethical community to reject the Groningen Protocol that permits euthanization and to develop ethical guidelines for the optimal care of severely compromised neonates. PMID:19176977

  15. [The prevention of voice disorders in the actor: protocol and follow-up nine months of professional theater].

    PubMed

    Ormezzano, Y; Delale, A; Lamy-Simonian, A

    2011-01-01

    In July 2009, at the beginning of this work, 26 theses addressing professional principles of voice were listed in the database of SUDOC (Système Universitaire de Documentation): 9 related to voices of teachers (about 900,000* professionals in France), 14 theses relating to singers (7500** professionals), and only 3 about the voice of actors (20 000*** professional actors in France in 2006). The latter pertaining to concerning rookie actors (sensibilisation vocale auprès du comédien débutant Bichet, Linda, Bordeaux II, 2006), the mechanical larynx (étude des mécanismes laryngés dans la voix projetée: cas particulier des comédiennes Guerin, Mélanie, Paris VI, 2009), vocal fatigue (Fatigue vocale après une tâche d'utilisation prolongée de la voix chez le comédien Canaan Baggioni, Brigitte, Aix-Marseille II, 2009). Professional actors are plentiful; their training in vocal technique is very heterogeneous, or non-existent: it is not a prerequisite to have a degree to work as an actor! This lack of vocal technique is associated with risk factors specific to the acting profession: numerous travels in air-conditioned vehicles, unsuitable workplaces; dusty or poorly heated, irregular working patterns, excessive demands from directors... All this makes the actors highly susceptible to voice disorders. The protocol for the prevention of voice disorders presented here is holistic and ecological. This work also examines the effectiveness of such a preventive protocol aimed at theatre comedians. PMID:21977701

  16. FTP Extensions for Variable Protocol Specification

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Allman, Mark; Ostermann, Shawn

    2000-01-01

    The specification for the File Transfer Protocol (FTP) assumes that the underlying network protocols use a 32-bit network address and a 16-bit transport address (specifically IP version 4 and TCP). With the deployment of version 6 of the Internet Protocol, network addresses will no longer be 32-bits. This paper species extensions to FTP that will allow the protocol to work over a variety of network and transport protocols.

  17. The Network Protocol Analysis Technique in Snort

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Qing-Xiu

    Network protocol analysis is a network sniffer to capture data for further analysis and understanding of the technical means necessary packets. Network sniffing is intercepted by packet assembly binary format of the original message content. In order to obtain the information contained. Required based on TCP / IP protocol stack protocol specification. Again to restore the data packets at protocol format and content in each protocol layer. Actual data transferred, as well as the application tier.

  18. [Brief discussion on "Sanli acupoint for du-fu diseases"].

    PubMed

    Zhou, Li; He, Quan; Xin, Yu; Zhang, Hongxing

    2015-07-01

    The connotations of "du-fu" and "Sanli" in "Sanli acupoint for du-fu diseases" are discussed in this paper, which can provide theoretical foundation for the clinical application of "Sanli acupoint for du-fu diseases". Based on ancient literature combined with related theories in the Huangdi Neijing (Yellow Emperor's Canon of Internal Classic), a deep discussion is performed through the relationship between Zusanli (ST 36) and stomach, indication and mechanism of Zusanli (ST 36) on du-fu diseases and comparison between Zusanli (ST 36) and Shousanli (LI 10). It is believed that "du" should be pronounced as "dŭ", meaning stomach, and it indicates that Zusanli (ST 36) is closely related to stomach and spleen when it is used for du-fu diseases; "fu" means abdomen area, including liver-gallbladder, spleen, stomach-intestine, kidney, uterus, triple energizer; "sanli' means exclusively the acupoint of Zusanli (ST 36). PMID:26521594

  19. Frequency Scale Factors for Some Double-Hybrid Density Functional Theory Procedures: Accurate Thermochemical Components for High-Level Composite Protocols.

    PubMed

    Chan, Bun; Radom, Leo

    2016-08-01

    In the present study, we have obtained geometries and frequency scale factors for a number of double-hybrid density functional theory (DH-DFT) procedures. We have evaluated their performance for obtaining thermochemical quantities [zero-point vibrational energies (ZPVE) and thermal corrections for 298 K enthalpies (ΔH298) and 298 K entropies (S298)] to be used within high-level composite protocols (using the W2X procedure as a probe). We find that, in comparison with the previously prescribed protocol for optimization and frequency calculations (B3-LYP/cc-pVTZ+d), the use of contemporary DH-DFT methods such as DuT-D3 and DSD-type procedures leads to a slight overall improved performance compared with B3-LYP. A major strength of this approach, however, lies in the better robustness of the DH-DFT methods in that the largest deviations are notably smaller than those for B3-LYP. In general, the specific choices of the DH-DFT procedure and the associated basis set do not drastically change the performance. Nonetheless, we find that the DSD-PBE-P86/aug'-cc-pVTZ+d combination has a very slight edge over the others that we have examined, and we recommend its general use for geometry optimization and vibrational frequency calculations, in particular within high-level composite methods such as the higher-level members of the WnX series of protocols. The scale factors determined for DSD-PBE-P86/aug'-cc-pVTZ+d are 0.9830 (ZPVE), 0.9876 (ΔH298), and 0.9923 (S298). PMID:27471908

  20. Entanglement purification protocol for a mixture of a pure entangled state and a pure product state

    SciTech Connect

    Czechlewski, Mikolaj; Wojcik, Antoni; Grudka, Andrzej; Ishizaka, Satoshi

    2009-07-15

    We present an entanglement purification protocol for a mixture of a pure entangled state and a pure product state, which are orthogonal to each other. The protocol is a combination of bisection method and one-way hashing protocol. We give recursive formula for the rate of the protocol for different states, i.e., the number of maximally entangled two-qubit pairs obtained with the protocol per a single copy of the initial state. We also calculate numerically the rate for some states.

  1. Sustainable growth, the DuPont way.

    PubMed

    Holliday, C

    2001-09-01

    Like many manufacturers, DuPont traditionally has grown by making more and more "stuff." And its business growth has been proportional to the amount of raw materials and energy used--as well as the resulting waste and emissions from operations. Over the years, though, DuPont became aware that cheap supplies of nonrenewable resources wouldn't be endlessly available and that the earth's ecosystems couldn't indefinitely absorb the waste and emissions of production and consumption. Chad Holliday, chairman and CEO of DuPont, believes strongly in the challenge of sustainable growth and makes the business case for it: By using creativity and scientific knowledge effectively, he says, companies can provide strong returns for shareholders and grow their businesses--while also meeting the human needs of societies around the world and reducing the environmental footprint of their operations and products. In fact, a focus on sustainability can help identify new products, markets, partnerships, and intellectual property and lead to substantial business growth. Holliday describes how DuPont developed a three-pronged strategy to translate the concept of sustainability into nuts-and-bolts business practices. Focusing on integrated science, knowledge intensity, and productivity improvement, the strategy was accompanied by a new way to measure progress quantitatively. Sustainable growth should be viewed not as a program for stepped-up environmental performance but as a comprehensive way of doing business, one that delivers tremendous economic value and opens up new opportunities. Ultimately, companies will find that they can generate substantial business value through sustainability while both enhancing the quality of life around the world and protecting the environment. PMID:11550629

  2. Du Pont Classifications of 6 Supernovae

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morrell, N.; Shappee, Benjamin J.

    2016-06-01

    We report optical spectroscopy (range 370-910 nm) of six supernovae from the Backyard Observatory Supernova Search (BOSS) and the All-Sky Automated Survey for Supernovae (ASAS-SN) using the du Pont 2.5-m telescope (+ WFCCD) at Las Campanas Observatory on June 17 2016 UT. We performed a cross-correlation with a library of supernova spectra using the "Supernova Identification" code (SNID; Blondin and Tonry 2007, Ap.J.

  3. Efficient multiparty quantum key agreement protocol based on commutative encryption

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, Zhiwei; Huang, Jiwu; Wang, Ping

    2016-05-01

    A secure multiparty quantum key agreement protocol using single-qubit states is proposed. The agreement key is computed by performing exclusive-OR operation on all the participants' secret keys. Based on the commutative property of the commutative encryption, the exclusive-OR operation can be performed on the plaintext in the encrypted state without decrypting it. Thus, it not only protects the final shared key, but also reduces the complexity of the computation. The efficiency of the proposed protocol, compared with previous multiparty QKA protocols, is also improved. In the presented protocol, entanglement states, joint measurement and even the unitary operations are not needed, and only rotation operations and single-state measurement are required, which are easier to be realized with current technology.

  4. A Taxonomy of Attacks on the DNP3 Protocol

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    East, Samuel; Butts, Jonathan; Papa, Mauricio; Shenoi, Sujeet

    Distributed Network Protocol (DNP3) is the predominant SCADA protocol in the energy sector - more than 75% of North American electric utilities currently use DNP3 for industrial control applications. This paper presents a taxonomy of attacks on the protocol. The attacks are classified based on targets (control center, outstation devices and network/communication paths) and threat categories (interception, interruption, modification and fabrication). To facilitate risk analysis and mitigation strategies, the attacks are associated with the specific DNP3 protocol layers they exploit. Also, the operational impact of the attacks is categorized in terms of three key SCADA objectives: process confi- dentiality, process awareness and process control. The attack taxonomy clarifies the nature and scope of the threats to DNP3 systems, and can provide insights into the relative costs and benefits of implementing mitigation strategies.

  5. Medanta insulin protocols in patients undergoing cardiac surgery

    PubMed Central

    Bansal, Beena; Mithal, Ambrish; Carvalho, Pravin; Mehta, Yatin; Trehan, Naresh

    2014-01-01

    Hyperglycemia is common in patients undergoing cardiac surgery and is associated with poor outcomes. This is a review of the perioperative insulin protocol being used at Medanta, the Medicity, which has a large volume cardiac surgery setup. Preoperatively, patients are usually continued on their preoperative outpatient medications. Intravenous insulin infusion is intiated postoperatively and titrated using a column method with a choice of 7 scales. Insulin dose is calculated as a factor of blood glucose and patient's estimated insulin sensitivity. A comparison of this protocol is presented with other commonly used protocols. Since arterial blood gas analysis is done every 4 hours for first two days after cardiac surgery, automatic data collection from blood gas analyzer to a central database enables collection of glucose data and generating glucometrics. Data auditing has helped in improving performance through protocol modification. PMID:25143899

  6. Cloning and sequencing of Duck circovirus (DuCV).

    PubMed

    Hattermann, K; Schmitt, C; Soike, D; Mankertz, A

    2003-12-01

    The genome of Duck circovirus (DuCV) is circular and 1996 nts in size. Two major open reading frames were identified, encoding the replicase (V1) and the capsid protein (C1). A stem-loop structure comprising the nonamer 5'-TATTATTAC, conserved in all circo-, nano- and geminiviruses, was found. Unique to DuCV, the region between the 3'-ends of the rep and cap gene contains four repeats of a 44-bp sequence. Phylogenetic analysis shows close relation of DuCV with Goose circovirus and suggests classification of DuCV as a new member of the genus Circovirus of the virus family Circoviridae. PMID:14648300

  7. Two-generation reproductive toxicity study of implanted depleted uranium (DU) in CD rats.

    PubMed

    Arfsten, D P; Still, K R; Wilfong, E R; Johnson, E W; McInturf, S M; Eggers, J S; Schaeffer, D J; Bekkedal, M Y-V

    2009-01-01

    Depleted uranium (DU) munitions and armor plating have been used in several conflicts over the last 17 yr, including the Persian Gulf War and the Iraq War. Because of its effectiveness and availability, DU will continue to be used in military applications into the foreseeable future. There is much controversy over the use of DU in weapons and equipment because of its potential radiological and toxic hazards, and there is concern over the chronic adverse health effects of embedded DU shrapnel in war veterans and bystanders. This study evaluated the effects of long-term implantation of DU on the reproductive success of F0 generation adults and development and survival of subsequent F1 and F2 generations in a two-generation reproductive toxicity study. F0 generation Sprague-Dawley rats, 8 wk of age, were surgically implanted with 0, 4, 8, 12, or 20 DU pellets (1 x 2 mm). Inert implant control animals were implanted with 12 or 20 tantallum (Ta) pellets. The F0 generation was then mated at 120 d post DU implantation. In the F0 generation, when measured on postimplantation d 27 and 117, uranium was present in the urine of DU-implanted animals in a dose-dependent manner. F0 reproductive success was similar across treatment groups and the maternal retrieval test revealed no changes in maternal behavior. DU implantation exerted no effect on the survival, health, or well-being of the F0 generation. Necropsy results of F0 animals were negative with the exception of a marked inflammatory response surrounding the implanted DU pellets. For the F1 generation, measures of F1 development through postnatal day (PND) 20 were unremarkable and no gross abnormalities were observed in F1 offspring. No uranium was detected in whole-body homogenates of PND 4 or PND 20 pups. Necropsy findings of F1 PND 20 pups were negative and no instances of ribcage malformation were observed in F1 PND 20 pups. Body weight and body weight gain of F1 rats through PND 120 were similar across treatment

  8. FIELD SAMPLING PROTOCOLS AND ANALYSIS

    EPA Science Inventory

    I have been asked to speak again to the environmental science class regarding actual research scenarios related to my work at Kerr Lab. I plan to discuss sampling protocols along with various field analyses performed during sampling activities. Many of the students have never see...

  9. Changing Teacher Performance with Protocols.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Galluzzo, Gary R.

    This study examined whether selected protocol materials in classroom management, used in inservice courses, would bring about long-term significant changes in teachers' classroom performance. Fifteen teachers participated in the study by taking an inservice course on classroom management and discipline. Two modules of classroom management…

  10. Bundle Security Protocol for ION

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Burleigh, Scott C.; Birrane, Edward J.; Krupiarz, Christopher

    2011-01-01

    This software implements bundle authentication, conforming to the Delay-Tolerant Networking (DTN) Internet Draft on Bundle Security Protocol (BSP), for the Interplanetary Overlay Network (ION) implementation of DTN. This is the only implementation of BSP that is integrated with ION.

  11. A Student Teamwork Induction Protocol

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kamau, Caroline; Spong, Abigail

    2015-01-01

    Faulty group processes have harmful effects on performance but there is little research about intervention protocols to pre-empt them in higher education. This naturalistic experiment compared a control cohort with an inducted cohort. The inducted cohort attended a workshop, consultations, elected a leader and used tools (a group log and group…

  12. Mesure de haute resolution de la fonction de distribution radiale du silicium amorphe pur

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Laaziri, Khalid

    1999-11-01

    Cette these porte sur l'etude de la structure du silicium amorphe prepare par irradiation ionique. Elle presente des mesures de diffraction de rayons X sur de la poudre de silicium cristallin, du silicium amorphe relaxe et non relaxe, ainsi que tous les developpements mathematiques et physiques necessaires pour extraire la fonction de distribution radiale correspondant a chaque echantillon. Au Chapitre I, nous presentons une methode de fabrication de membranes minces de silicium amorphe pur. Il y a deux etapes majeures lors du processus de fabrication: l'implantation ionique, afin de creer une couche amorphe de plusieurs microns et l'attaque chimique, pour enlever le reste du materiau cristallin. Nous avons caracterise premierement les membranes de silicium amorphe par spectroscopie Raman pour verifier qu'il ne reste plus de trace de materiau cristallin dans les films amorphes. Une deuxieme caracterisation par detection de recul elastique (ERD-TOF) sur ces memes membranes a montre qu'il y a moins de 0.1% atomique de contaminants tels que l'oxygene, le carbone, et l'hydrogene. Au Chapitre II, nous proposons une nouvelle methode de correction de la contribution inelastique "Compton" des spectres de diffusion totale afin d'extraire les pics de diffusion elastique, responsable de la diffraction de Bragg. L'article presente tout d'abord une description simplifiee d'une theorie sur la diffusion inelastique dite "Impulse Approximation" (IA) qui permet de calculer des profils de Compton en fonction de l'energie et de l'angle de diffusion 2theta. Ces profils sont utilises comme fonction de lissage de la diffusion Compton experimentale. Pour lisser les pics de diffusion elastique, nous avons utilise une fonction pic de nature asymetrique. Aux Chapitre III, nous exposons de maniere detaillee les resultats des experiences de diffraction de rayons X sur les membranes de silicium amorphe et la poudre de silicium cristallin que nous avons preparees. Nous abordons aussi les

  13. Quantum oblivious set-member decision protocol

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shi, Run-hua; Mu, Yi; Zhong, Hong; Zhang, Shun

    2015-08-01

    We present and define a privacy-preserving problem called the oblivious set-member decision problem, which allows a server to decide whether a private secret of a user is a member of his private set in an oblivious manner. Namely, if the secret belongs to his private set, he does not know which member it is. We propose a quantum solution to the oblivious set-member decision problem. Compared to classical solutions, the proposed quantum protocol achieves an exponential reduction in communication complexity, since it only needs O (1 ) communication cost.

  14. How to write a protocol: part 2.

    PubMed

    Thomas, Kathy; Farrell, Mary Beth

    2015-03-01

    Clinical protocols play an important role in the provision of high-quality care in nuclear medicine. Properly written protocols help to ensure that nuclear medicine procedures are performed in a standardized, reproducible manner so that patients receive high-quality care. The following article is the second in a 2-part series on how to write a protocol. A framework for composing protocols and the components of clinical imaging protocols were detailed in the first article. This article details the framework and components of protocols for cardiac stress testing, therapy, and quality control. PMID:25655345

  15. Compositional Verification of a Communication Protocol for a Remotely Operated Vehicle

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Goodloe, Alwyn E.; Munoz, Cesar A.

    2009-01-01

    This paper presents the specification and verification in the Prototype Verification System (PVS) of a protocol intended to facilitate communication in an experimental remotely operated vehicle used by NASA researchers. The protocol is defined as a stack-layered com- position of simpler protocols. It can be seen as the vertical composition of protocol layers, where each layer performs input and output message processing, and the horizontal composition of different processes concurrently inhabiting the same layer, where each process satisfies a distinct requirement. It is formally proven that the protocol components satisfy certain delivery guarantees. Compositional techniques are used to prove these guarantees also hold in the composed system. Although the protocol itself is not novel, the methodology employed in its verification extends existing techniques by automating the tedious and usually cumbersome part of the proof, thereby making the iterative design process of protocols feasible.

  16. Formal Analysis of FPH Contract Signing Protocol Using Colored Petri Nets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Payeras-Capellà, Magdalena; Mut-Puigserver, Macià; Isern-Deyà, Andreu Pere; Ferrer-Gomila, Josep L.; Huguet-Rotger, Llorenç

    An electronic contract signing protocol is a fair exchange protocol where the parties exchange their signature on a contract. Some contract signing protocols have been presented, and usually they come with an informal analysis. In this paper we use Colored Petri Nets to formally verify the fairness and the resistance to five previously described attacks of FPH contract signing protocol. We have modeled the protocol and the roles of the signers, a trusted third party, malicious signers as well as the role of an intruder. We have proven that the protocol is resistant to typical attacks. However, we have detected three cases where the protocol generates contradictory evidences. Finally, we have explained which should be the behavior of an arbiter to allow the resolution of these conflicting situations.

  17. Design and Verification of a Distributed Communication Protocol

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Munoz, Cesar A.; Goodloe, Alwyn E.

    2009-01-01

    The safety of remotely operated vehicles depends on the correctness of the distributed protocol that facilitates the communication between the vehicle and the operator. A failure in this communication can result in catastrophic loss of the vehicle. To complicate matters, the communication system may be required to satisfy several, possibly conflicting, requirements. The design of protocols is typically an informal process based on successive iterations of a prototype implementation. Yet distributed protocols are notoriously difficult to get correct using such informal techniques. We present a formal specification of the design of a distributed protocol intended for use in a remotely operated vehicle, which is built from the composition of several simpler protocols. We demonstrate proof strategies that allow us to prove properties of each component protocol individually while ensuring that the property is preserved in the composition forming the entire system. Given that designs are likely to evolve as additional requirements emerge, we show how we have automated most of the repetitive proof steps to enable verification of rapidly changing designs.

  18. Experimental protocols and preparations to study respiratory long term facilitation

    PubMed Central

    Mateika, Jason H.; Sandhu, Kulraj S.

    2011-01-01

    Respiratory long-term facilitation is a form of neuronal plasticity that is induced following exposure to intermittent hypoxia. Long-term facilitation is characterized by a progressive increase in respiratory motor output during normoxic periods that separate hypoxic episodes and by a sustained elevation in respiratory activity for up to 90 min after exposure to intermittent hypoxia. This phenomenon is associated with increases in phrenic, hypoglossal or carotid sinus nerve inspiratory-modulated discharge. The examination of long-term facilitation has been steadily ongoing for approximately 3 decades. During this period of time a variety of animal models (e.g. cats, rats and humans), experimental preparations and intermittent hypoxia protocols have been used to study long-term facilitation. This review is designed to summarize the strengths and weaknesses of the models, preparations and protocols that have been used to study LTF over the past 30 years. The review is divided into two primary sections. Initially, the models and protocols used to study LTF in animals other than humans will be discussed, followed by a section specifically focused on human studies. Each section will begin with a discussion of various factors that must be considered when selecting an experimental preparation and intermittent hypoxia protocol to examine LTF. Model and protocol design recommendations will follow, with the goal of presenting a prevailing model and protocol that will ultimately ensure standardized comparisons across studies. PMID:21292044

  19. An Evaluation of Protocols for UAV Science Applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ivancic, William D.; Stewart, David E.; Sullivan, Donald V.; Finch, Patrick E.

    2012-01-01

    This paper identifies data transport needs for current and future science payloads deployed on the NASA Global Hawk Unmanned Aeronautical Vehicle (UAV). The NASA Global Hawk communication system and operational constrains are presented. The Genesis and Rapid Intensification Processes (GRIP) mission is used to provide the baseline communication requirements as a variety of payloads were utilized in this mission. User needs and desires are addressed. Protocols are matched to the payload needs and an evaluation of various techniques and tradeoffs are presented. Such techniques include utilization rate-base selective negative acknowledgement protocols and possible use of protocol enhancing proxies. Tradeoffs of communication architectures that address ease-of-use and security considerations are also presented.

  20. Oral presentation bias: a retrospective cohort study.

    PubMed

    Decullier, Evelyne; Chapuis, François

    2007-03-01

    The aim of this paper was to assess oral presentation bias at a national level. This was a retrospective cohort study with initial characteristics of the approved protocols extracted from the committee's archives, and follow-up characteristics obtained from a questionnaire mailed to the principal investigators. A representative sample of French research ethics committees (25/48), the only committees legally endorsed for ethical authorisation in biomedical research, were studied. All completed research protocols, which had been approved in 1994 by these committees, were included. Initial characteristics (design, study size, investigator) of completed studies and follow-up information (direction of results, rates of publication and rates of oral presentation) were collected. Complete information on results and their dissemination was available for 248 completed non-confidential protocols. Half of these (49%) were declared as orally presented. The observed ranking for strategies to disseminate results was the following: orally presented and published, published only, neither orally presented nor published and orally presented only. Confirmatory results were more often orally presented, with an adjusted OR of 6.4 (95% CI 2.69 to 15.22). Other associated variables are the following: national/international scope of the study, protocol writer's university status, adverse events and interim analysis. There is a trend to submit or accept confirmatory results for oral presentations: meetings are a biased representation of research, and oral presentation bias could even be higher than publication bias. PMID:17325393

  1. La reconstruction du sourcil par greffon composite du cuir chevelu: une astuce pour faciliter la technique

    PubMed Central

    El Omari, Mounia; El Mazouz, Samir; Gharib, Noureddine; EL Abbassi, Abdallah

    2015-01-01

    Les sourcils jouent un rôle important dans l’équilibre esthétique du visage. Leur reconstruction ou ophriopoïése, après séquelle de brûlure fait partie intégrante du programme de réhabilitation de la face brûlée. Plusieurs techniques ont été décrites. Nous insistons ici sur l'intérêt d'une technique simple, à la portée de tous les chirurgiens, et dont la méthode et les résultats peuvent être améliorés par un dessin bien planifié des zones donneuse et receveuse: la greffe composite prélevée au niveau du cuir chevelu dessinée à l'aide d'un calque du sourcil controlatéral. PMID:26401195

  2. An Improved RSA Based User Authentication and Session Key Agreement Protocol Usable in TMIS.

    PubMed

    Amin, Ruhul; Biswas, G P

    2015-08-01

    Recently, Giri et al.'s proposed a RSA cryptosystem based remote user authentication scheme for telecare medical information system and claimed that the protocol is secure against all the relevant security attacks. However, we have scrutinized the Giri et al.'s protocol and pointed out that the protocol is not secure against off-line password guessing attack, privileged insider attack and also suffers from anonymity problem. Moreover, the extension of password guessing attack leads to more security weaknesses. Therefore, this protocol needs improvement in terms of security before implementing in real-life application. To fix the mentioned security pitfalls, this paper proposes an improved scheme over Giri et al.'s scheme, which preserves user anonymity property. We have then simulated the proposed protocol using widely-accepted AVISPA tool which ensures that the protocol is SAFE under OFMC and CL-AtSe models, that means the same protocol is secure against active and passive attacks including replay and man-in-the-middle attacks. The informal cryptanalysis has been also presented, which confirmed that the proposed protocol provides well security protection on the relevant security attacks. The performance analysis section compares the proposed protocol with other existing protocols in terms of security and it has been observed that the protocol provides more security and achieves additional functionalities such as user anonymity and session key verification. PMID:26123833

  3. Influenza. Past, present, and future.

    PubMed

    Regan, Sean F; Fowler, Christianne

    2002-11-01

    Influenza is a viral infection of the respiratory tract spread by airborne transmission. Vaccination remains the best strategy for influenza prevention, and is especially recommended for high-risk groups, such as residents of nursing or residential homes, as well as those with diabetes, chronic renal failure, or chronic respiratory conditions. The clinician must realize the importance of active surveillance in addition to symptomatology interpretation and diagnostic testing to reliably and efficiently diagnose influenza. Active surveillance allows the clinician to monitor regional patterns of influenza movement to know when influenza is present in any given area. Surveillance data allows the practitioner to effectively time vaccination programs and implement prophylaxis protocols as indicated. An influenza management protocol ensuring the prompt recognition and management of influenza outbreaks should be devised and implemented for high-risk facilities. Managing clients with influenza requires prompt diagnosis and initiation of therapy, including use of antivirals available for the prevention or treatment of influenza. Because of the severity of morbidity and mortality caused by the influenza virus among older adults in particular, it is imperative that gerontological nurses have expert knowledge related to influenza. The clinician who participates in active influenza surveillance, promotes vaccination programs, implements influenza management protocols, and stays abreast of recent breakthroughs in the arena of influenza research--such as the development of neuraminidase inhibitors--will be able to contribute to diminishing the morbidity and mortality impact associated with influenza. PMID:12465200

  4. Neonatal euthanasia: The Groningen Protocol*

    PubMed Central

    Vizcarrondo, Felipe E.

    2014-01-01

    For the past thirty years, voluntary euthanasia and physician-assisted suicide of adult patients have been common practice in the Netherlands. Neonatal euthanasia was recently legalized in the Netherlands and the Groningen Protocol (GP) was developed to regulate the practice. Supporters claim compliance with the GP criteria makes neonatal euthanasia ethically permissible. An examination of the criteria used by the Protocol to justify the euthanasia of seriously ill neonates reveals the criteria are not based on firm moral principles. The taking of the life of a seriously ill person is not the solution to the pain and suffering of the dying process. It is the role of the medical professional to care for the ailing patient with love and compassion, always preserving the person's dignity. Neonatal euthanasia is not ethically permissible. PMID:25473136

  5. Chapter 14: Chiller Evaluation Protocol

    SciTech Connect

    Tiessen, A.

    2014-09-01

    This protocol defines a chiller measure as a project that directly impacts equipment within the boundary of a chiller plant. A chiller plant encompasses a chiller--or multiple chillers--and associated auxiliary equipment. This protocol primarily covers electric-driven chillers and chiller plants. It does not include thermal energy storage and absorption chillers fired by natural gas or steam, although a similar methodology may be applicable to these chilled water system components. Chillers provide mechanical cooling for commercial, institutional, multiunit residential, and industrial facilities. Cooling may be required for facility heating, ventilation, and air conditioning systems or for process cooling loads (e.g., data centers, manufacturing process cooling). The vapor compression cycle, or refrigeration cycle, cools water in the chilled water loop by absorbing heat and rejecting it to either a condensing water loop (water cooled chillers) or to the ambient air (air-cooled chillers).

  6. Neonatal euthanasia: The Groningen Protocol.

    PubMed

    Vizcarrondo, Felipe E

    2014-11-01

    For the past thirty years, voluntary euthanasia and physician-assisted suicide of adult patients have been common practice in the Netherlands. Neonatal euthanasia was recently legalized in the Netherlands and the Groningen Protocol (GP) was developed to regulate the practice. Supporters claim compliance with the GP criteria makes neonatal euthanasia ethically permissible. An examination of the criteria used by the Protocol to justify the euthanasia of seriously ill neonates reveals the criteria are not based on firm moral principles. The taking of the life of a seriously ill person is not the solution to the pain and suffering of the dying process. It is the role of the medical professional to care for the ailing patient with love and compassion, always preserving the person's dignity. Neonatal euthanasia is not ethically permissible. PMID:25473136

  7. 76 FR 68124 - Television Broadcasting Services; Fond du Lac, WI

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-11-03

    ... reconsideration of an August 12, 2009 Report and Order changing the allotted channel for station WWAZ-TV, Fond du... 5 for channel 44 at Fond du Lac ] because it permitted WLS-TV, an ABC network affiliate in Chicago... network service to numerous viewers that had lost service after the transition of WLS-TV to...

  8. 33 CFR 117.443 - Du Large Bayou.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Du Large Bayou. 117.443 Section 117.443 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY BRIDGES DRAWBRIDGE OPERATION REGULATIONS Specific Requirements Louisiana § 117.443 Du Large Bayou. The draw of...

  9. A Wiki Based CT Protocol Management System.

    PubMed

    Szczykutowicz, Timothy P; Rubert, Nicholas; Belden, Daryn; Ciano, Amanda; Duplissis, Andrew; Hermanns, Ashley; Monette, Stephen; Saldivar, Elliott Janssen

    2015-01-01

    At the University of Wisconsin Madison Department of Radiology, CT protocol management requires maintenance of thousands of parameters for each scanner. Managing CT protocols is further complicated by the unique configurability of each scanner. Due to recent Joint Commission requirements, now all CT protocol changes must be documented and reviewed by a site's CT protocol optimization team. The difficulty of managing the CT protocols was not in assembling the protocols, but in managing and implementing changes. This is why a wiki based solution for protocol management was implemented. A wiki inherently keeps track of all changes, logging who made the changes and when, allowing for editing and viewing permissions to be controlled, as well as allowing protocol changes to be instantly relayed to all scanner locations. PMID:26710573

  10. Integrating protocol schedules with patients' personal calendars.

    PubMed

    Civan, Andrea; Gennari, John H; Pratt, Wanda

    2006-01-01

    We propose a new approach for integrating protocol care schedules into patients' personal calendars. This approach could provide patients with greater control over their current and future scheduling demands as they seek and receive protocol-based care. PMID:17238511

  11. The reliable multicast protocol application programming interface

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Montgomery , Todd; Whetten, Brian

    1995-01-01

    The Application Programming Interface for the Berkeley/WVU implementation of the Reliable Multicast Protocol is described. This transport layer protocol is implemented as a user library that applications and software buses link against.

  12. How to write a protocol: part 1.

    PubMed

    Thomas, Kathy; Farrell, Mary Beth

    2015-03-01

    Clinical imaging protocols play an important role in the provision of high-quality care in nuclear medicine. It is imperative that all nuclear medicine facilities have protocols for every procedure performed. However, creating protocols that are detailed, unambiguous, and consistent is often easier said than done. Properly written protocols help to ensure that nuclear medicine procedures are performed in a standardized, reproducible manner so that patients receive high-quality care. This 2-part article provides technologists with a framework for composing comprehensive protocols. Part 1 discusses the secrets to successfully composing protocols ensuring they are detailed and step-by-step along with the importance of basing protocols on evidence from published guidelines and peer-reviewed literature. The components and important aspects of clinical imaging protocols are detailed. PMID:25613336

  13. Protocol Sensing Across Multiple Space Missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Okino, Clayton; Gray, Andrew; Schoolcraft, Joshua

    2006-01-01

    In this work, we present sensing performance using an architecture for a reconfigurable protocol chip for spacebased applications. Toward utilizing the IP packet architecture, utilizing data link layer framing structures for multiplexed data on a channel are the targeted application considered for demonstration purposes. Specifically, we examine three common framing standards and present the sensing performance of these standards and their relative de-correlation metrics. Some analysis is performed to investigate the impact of lossy links and on the number of packets required to perform a decision with some probability. Finally, we present results on a demonstration platform that integrated reconfigurable sensing technology into the Ground Station Interface Device (GRID) for End-to-End IP demonstrations in space.

  14. Building America House Simulation Protocols

    SciTech Connect

    Hendron, Robert; Engebrecht, Cheryn

    2010-09-01

    The House Simulation Protocol document was developed to track and manage progress toward Building America's multi-year, average whole-building energy reduction research goals for new construction and existing homes, using a consistent analytical reference point. This report summarizes the guidelines for developing and reporting these analytical results in a consistent and meaningful manner for all home energy uses using standard operating conditions.

  15. A comparative study of protocols for secure quantum communication under noisy environment: single-qubit-based protocols versus entangled-state-based protocols

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sharma, Vishal; Thapliyal, Kishore; Pathak, Anirban; Banerjee, Subhashish

    2016-07-01

    The effect of noise on various protocols of secure quantum communication has been studied. Specifically, we have investigated the effect of amplitude damping, phase damping, squeezed generalized amplitude damping, Pauli type as well as various collective noise models on the protocols of quantum key distribution, quantum key agreement, quantum secure direct quantum communication and quantum dialogue. From each type of protocol of secure quantum communication, we have chosen two protocols for our comparative study: one based on single-qubit states and the other one on entangled states. The comparative study reported here has revealed that single-qubit-based schemes are generally found to perform better in the presence of amplitude damping, phase damping, squeezed generalized amplitude damping noises, while entanglement-based protocols turn out to be preferable in the presence of collective noises. It is also observed that the effect of noise depends upon the number of rounds of quantum communication involved in a scheme of quantum communication. Further, it is observed that squeezing, a completely quantum mechanical resource present in the squeezed generalized amplitude channel, can be used in a beneficial way as it may yield higher fidelity compared to the corresponding zero squeezing case.

  16. Extra-Vehicular Activity (EVA) glove evaluation test protocol

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hinman-Sweeney, E. M.

    1994-01-01

    One of the most critical components of a space suit is the gloves, yet gloves have traditionally presented significant design challenges. With continued efforts at glove development, a method for evaluating glove performance is needed. This paper presents a pressure-glove evaluation protocol. A description of this evaluation protocol, and its development is provided. The protocol allows comparison of one glove design to another, or any one design to bare-handed performance. Gloves for higher pressure suits may be evaluated at current and future design pressures to drive out differences in performance due to pressure effects. Using this protocol, gloves may be evaluated during design to drive out design problems and determine areas for improvement, or fully mature designs may be evaluated with respect to mission requirements. Several different test configurations are presented to handle these cases. This protocol was run on a prototype glove. The prototype was evaluated at two operating pressures and in the unpressurized state, with results compared to bare-handed performance. Results and analysis from this test series are provided, as is a description of the configuration used for this test.

  17. Multiple protocol fluorometer and method

    DOEpatents

    Kolber, Zbigniew S.; Falkowski, Paul G.

    2000-09-19

    A multiple protocol fluorometer measures photosynthetic parameters of phytoplankton and higher plants using actively stimulated fluorescence protocols. The measured parameters include spectrally-resolved functional and optical absorption cross sections of PSII, extent of energy transfer between reaction centers of PSII, F.sub.0 (minimal), F.sub.m (maximal) and F.sub.v (variable) components of PSII fluorescence, photochemical and non-photochemical quenching, size of the plastoquinone (PQ) pool, and the kinetics of electron transport between Q.sub.a and PQ pool and between PQ pool and PSI. The multiple protocol fluorometer, in one embodiment, is equipped with an excitation source having a controlled spectral output range between 420 nm and 555 nm and capable of generating flashlets having a duration of 0.125-32 .mu.s, an interval between 0.5 .mu.s and 2 seconds, and peak optical power of up to 2 W/cm.sup.2. The excitation source is also capable of generating, simultaneous with the flashlets, a controlled continuous, background illumination.

  18. Resilient packet ring media access protocol

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thepot, Frederic

    2001-07-01

    The discussion will cover the new initiative to create a new MAC layer standard for resilient packet rings: IEEE 802.17 RPR. The key aspects of the presentation will include a preliminary address of the Metro Area Network today and the current networking technologies such as SONET/SDH which are not optimized to carry IP traffic over Metro MAN. The next segment will cover the options which could change the traditional and expensive layered networking model, and address the real benefits of marrying several technologies like Ethernet, SONET/SDH and IP into one technology. The next part of the discussion will detail the technical advantages a new MAC will bring to the services providers. Lastly a summary of the view and strategy about the acceptance and deployment of this new technology in the next 12 months, specifically, now one defines and develops standards for a Resilient Packet Ring Access Protocol for use in Local, Metropolitan, and Wide Area Networks for transfer of data packets at rates scalable to multiple gigabits per second; specifically address the data transmission requirements of carriers that have present and planned fiber optic physical infrastructure in a ring topology; and, defining and developing detailed specifications for using existing and/or new physical layers at appropriate data rates that will support transmission of this access protocol.

  19. Toward a Standard Protocol for Micelle Simulation.

    PubMed

    Johnston, Michael A; Swope, William C; Jordan, Kirk E; Warren, Patrick B; Noro, Massimo G; Bray, David J; Anderson, Richard L

    2016-07-01

    In this paper, we present protocols for simulating micelles using dissipative particle dynamics (and in principle molecular dynamics) that we expect to be appropriate for computing micelle properties for a wide range of surfactant molecules. The protocols address challenges in equilibrating and sampling, specifically when kinetics can be very different with changes in surfactant concentration, and with minor changes in molecular size and structure, even using the same force field parameters. We demonstrate that detection of equilibrium can be automated and is robust, for the molecules in this study and others we have considered. In order to quantify the degree of sampling obtained during simulations, metrics to assess the degree of molecular exchange among micellar material are presented, and the use of correlation times are prescribed to assess sampling and for statistical uncertainty estimates on the relevant simulation observables. We show that the computational challenges facing the measurement of the critical micelle concentration (CMC) are somewhat different for high and low CMC materials. While a specific choice is not recommended here, we demonstrate that various methods give values that are consistent in terms of trends, even if not numerically equivalent. PMID:27096611

  20. A Contextuality Based Quantum Key Distribution Protocol

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Troupe, James

    In 2005 Spekkens presented a generalization of noncontextuality that applies to imperfect measurements (POVMs) by allowing the underlying hidden variable model to be indeterministic. In addition, unlike traditional Bell-Kochen-Specker noncontextuality, HV models of a single qubit were shown to be contextual under this definition. Thus, not all single qubit POVM measurement outcomes can be modeled classically. Recently M. Pusey showed that, under certain conditions, exhibiting an anomalous weak value (i.e. values outside the eigenspectrum of the observable) implies contextuality. We will present a new single qubit prepare and measure QKD protocol that uses observation of anomalous weak values of particular observables to estimate the quantum channel error rate and certify the security of the channel. We also argue that it is the ``degree'' of contextuality of the noisy qubits exiting the channel that fundamentally determine the secure key rate. A benefit of this approach is that the security does not depend on the fair sampling assumption, and so is not compromised by Eve controlling Bob's measurement devices. Thus, it retains much of the benefit of ``Measurement Device Independent'' QKD protocols while only using single photon preparations and measurements. Supported by the Office of Naval Research under Grant N00014-15-1-2225.

  1. Oncoplastie avec conservation mammaire dans le traitement du cancer du sein: à propos de 16 cas

    PubMed Central

    Bouzoubaa, Wail; Laadioui, Meryam; Jayi, Sofia; Alaoui, Fatime Zahra Fdili; Bouguern, Hakima; Chaara, Hikmat; Melhouf, Moulay Abdelilah

    2015-01-01

    Le cancer du sein est actuellement le cancer le plus fréquent chez la femme, et pose un véritable problème diagnostique et thérapeutique. Le dépistage des lésions à un stade de plus en plus précoce, a permis une extension des indications du traitement conservateur radiochirurgical, qui était initialement limitées aux tumeurs de moins de 3 cm, unifocales, non inflammatoires. Par ailleurs, l'utilisation de traitements préopératoires permet d’étendre les indications du traitement conservateur à des tumeurs plus volumineuses. Parallèlement à cette extension des indications de conservation mammaire, on a observé le développement de nouvelles approches thérapeutiques notamment la chirurgie oncoplastique, technique du ganglion sentinelle et chirurgie stéréotaxique, dont les résultats initiaux sont très encouragent. A travers cette étude réalisée dans le service de gynécologie et obstétrique II du CHU HASSAN II de FES au MAROC, après l'analyse rétrospective de 16 patientes traitées par traitement conservateur et oncoplastie, nous avons voulus montrer notre aptitude a réalisé ses techniques chirurgicales et a bien prendre en charge ces patientes, mais aussi évaluer ces techniques en termes de résultat carcinologique et de résultat esthétique, aussi en terme de survie globale, survie sans métastase et en termes de récidive locale entre les plasties mammaires et les traitements usuels: mastectomie et traitement conservateur classique. PMID:26430477

  2. Limb shape observations at the Pic du Midi Observatory. Determination of the solar gravitational moments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rozelot, J. P.; Lefebvre, S.

    The accurate shape of the Sun has been actively debated since 1974. So far, balloon and satellite experiments achieved the required sensibility to measure the expected small asphericities of the solar limb shape. However, exceptional good meteorological conditions encountered during several missions at the Pic du Midi Observatory have permitted to measure the coefficients shape of the solar limb on the two first Legendre polynomials expansion. In theory, this photospheric outer shape is sensitive to the interior rate, and asphericities can be explained both in terms of gravitational moments and thermal wind. We present observations made at the Pic du Midi Observatory and we compare results with these obtained by SDS (Sofia et al., 1994, 1996) and SOHO/MDI (Kuhn, 1999). The accepted and dedicated PICARD space mission on this subject is briefly presented.

  3. Effect of eletroacupuncture on DU-14 (Dazhui), DU-2 (Yaoshu), and Liv-13 (Zhangmen) on the survival of Wistar rats' dorsal skin flaps.

    PubMed

    Uema, Deise; Orlandi, Denise; Freitas, Raphael R; Rodgério, Tatiane; Yamamura, Ysao; Tabosa, Angela F

    2008-01-01

    The survival of skin flaps has great interest in many areas of Medicine. In practice, one of the most important complications in the use of skin flaps is the tissue ischemia, which frequently results in widespread necrosis and failure of the proposed treatments. The objective of this study was to evaluate the possible benefits of eletroacupuncture stimulation of the points DU-14 (Dazhui), DU-2 (Yaoshu), and Liv-13 (Zhangmen) over the skin flap survival of Wistar rats after 8 days of treatment. Forty male Wistar rats were allocated into four groups with 10 animals each. They were submitted to a surgical procedure in which a dorsal skin flap measuring 10 x 4 cm was elevated and then sutured back with a plastic barrier between the flap and the donor site. During the following 8 days, one group received electro stimulation in two "nonaccupoints" whereas the other one had the accupoints DU-14 (Dazhui), DU-2 (Yaoshu), and Liv-13 (Zhangmen) stimulated. After this period, the rats were killed and flaps were appraised qualitative and quantitatively. Data were evaluated with analysis of variance and to establish significance Fisher's PLSD test was used when analysis of variance showed P < .05. It was observed that electroacupuncture group presented a skin flap survival index remarkably larger than the others. It has also shown a better evolution during the 8 days PO, confirmed by the lowest rate of necrosis and absent area. In this experimental model, eletroacupuncture was an efficient method to preserve vitality and decrease dorsal skin flap necrosis on Wistar rats. PMID:18354293

  4. Handbook for Using IP Protocols for Space Missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hogie, Keith; Criscuolo, Ed; Parise, Ron

    2004-01-01

    This presentation will provide a summary of a handbook developed at GSFC last year that contains concepts and guidelines for using Internet protocols for space missions. It will include topics on: Lessons learned from current Space IP mission. General architectural issues related to use of IP in space. Operational scenarios for common space data transfer applications. Security issues. A general review of protocols applicable for use with IP in space. The presentation will also pose questions on what sort of information would be useful in future versions of the document.

  5. La fin du jeûne?

    PubMed Central

    Naugler, Christopher; Sidhu, Davinder

    2014-01-01

    Résumé Objectif Présenter une mise à jour sur l’utilité clinique de ne pas être à jeun par rapport à l’être pour l’analyse des lipides dans le but d’améliorer l’observance par les patients, leur sécurité et l’évaluation clinique dans les tests du cholestérol. Qualité des données Les recommandations sont classées comme étant fondées sur des données probantes fortes, acceptables ou faibles (conflictuelles ou insuffisantes), selon les classifications adoptées par le Groupe d’étude canadien sur les soins de santé préventifs. Message principal Le dépistage de la dyslipidémie comme facteur de risque de coronaropathie et la prescription de médicaments hypolipidémiants sont des activités importantes en soins primaires. De récentes données probantes remettent en question la nécessité d’être à jeun pour la mesure des lipides. Dans des études sur la population, le cholestérol total, le cholestérol à lipoprotéines de haute densité et le cholestérol à lipoprotéines autres qu’à haute densité variaient tous d’en moyenne 2 % à jeun. Pour un dépistage de routine, la mesure du cholestérol sans être à jeun est maintenant une option de rechange raisonnable à l’analyse à jeun. Pour les patients diabétiques, l’exigence d’être à jeun peut représenter un important problème de sécurité en raison des possibilités d’hypoglycémie. Pour la surveillance des triglycérides et du cholestérol à lipoprotéines de basse densité chez les patients qui prennent des médicaments hypolipidémiants, le jeûne devient important. Conclusion Être à jeun pour la détermination routinière des niveaux lipidiques est largement inutile et il est improbable que le jeûne influence la stratification du risque clinique chez le patient, tandis que la mesure sans être à jeun pourrait améliorer l’observance par le patient et sa sécurité.

  6. Cryptanalysis on Cheng et al. protocol

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thakur, Tejeshwari

    2016-06-01

    Deployment of new node in any wireless sensor network is a sensitive task. This is the reason why, an Access Control Protocol is required in WSN. In this paper, we demonstrate that Access Control Protocol proposed by Cheng et al.[1] for Wireless Sensor Network is insecure. The reason is that this protocol fails to resist the active attack.

  7. 21 CFR 312.30 - Protocol amendments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... the current protocol, or any significant increase in the number of subjects under study. (ii) Any... 21 Food and Drugs 5 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Protocol amendments. 312.30 Section 312.30 Food... Protocol amendments. Once an IND is in effect, a sponsor shall amend it as needed to ensure that...

  8. 21 CFR 1301.18 - Research protocols.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... to 21 U.S.C. 355(i) and 21 CFR 130.3, I, (Name and Address of IND Sponsor) submitted a Notice of..., DISTRIBUTORS, AND DISPENSERS OF CONTROLLED SUBSTANCES Registration § 1301.18 Research protocols. (a) A protocol... security provisions (as proscribed in paragraph (a)(2)(vi) of this section for a research protocol) to,...

  9. 21 CFR 1301.18 - Research protocols.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... to 21 U.S.C. 355(i) and 21 CFR 130.3, I, (Name and Address of IND Sponsor) submitted a Notice of..., DISTRIBUTORS, AND DISPENSERS OF CONTROLLED SUBSTANCES Registration § 1301.18 Research protocols. (a) A protocol... security provisions (as proscribed in paragraph (a)(2)(vi) of this section for a research protocol) to,...

  10. 21 CFR 312.30 - Protocol amendments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... the current protocol, or any significant increase in the number of subjects under study. (ii) Any... 21 Food and Drugs 5 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Protocol amendments. 312.30 Section 312.30 Food... Protocol amendments. Once an IND is in effect, a sponsor shall amend it as needed to ensure that...

  11. 21 CFR 312.30 - Protocol amendments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... the current protocol, or any significant increase in the number of subjects under study. (ii) Any... 21 Food and Drugs 5 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Protocol amendments. 312.30 Section 312.30 Food... Protocol amendments. Once an IND is in effect, a sponsor shall amend it as needed to ensure that...

  12. 21 CFR 1301.18 - Research protocols.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... to 21 U.S.C. 355(i) and 21 CFR 130.3, I, (Name and Address of IND Sponsor) submitted a Notice of..., DISTRIBUTORS, AND DISPENSERS OF CONTROLLED SUBSTANCES Registration § 1301.18 Research protocols. (a) A protocol... security provisions (as proscribed in paragraph (a)(2)(vi) of this section for a research protocol) to,...

  13. 21 CFR 312.30 - Protocol amendments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... separate IND for such investigation. (a) New protocol. Whenever a sponsor intends to conduct a study that... amendment containing the protocol for the study. Such study may begin provided two conditions are met: (1... the current protocol, or any significant increase in the number of subjects under study. (ii)...

  14. 21 CFR 312.30 - Protocol amendments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... separate IND for such investigation. (a) New protocol. Whenever a sponsor intends to conduct a study that... amendment containing the protocol for the study. Such study may begin provided two conditions are met: (1... the current protocol, or any significant increase in the number of subjects under study. (ii)...

  15. 47 CFR 11.31 - EAS protocol.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false EAS protocol. 11.31 Section 11.31....31 EAS protocol. (a) The EAS uses a four part message for an emergency activation of the EAS. The... protocol, including any codes, must not be amended, extended or abridged without FCC authorization. The...

  16. 40 CFR 792.120 - Protocol.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 33 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Protocol. 792.120 Section 792.120 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) TOXIC SUBSTANCES CONTROL ACT (CONTINUED) GOOD LABORATORY PRACTICE STANDARDS Protocol for and Conduct of A Study § 792.120 Protocol. (a) Each study shall have an approved...

  17. 21 CFR 312.83 - Treatment protocols.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 5 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Treatment protocols. 312.83 Section 312.83 Food...-debilitating Illnesses § 312.83 Treatment protocols. If the preliminary analysis of phase 2 test results appears promising, FDA may ask the sponsor to submit a treatment protocol to be reviewed under...

  18. 21 CFR 312.83 - Treatment protocols.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 5 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Treatment protocols. 312.83 Section 312.83 Food...-debilitating Illnesses § 312.83 Treatment protocols. If the preliminary analysis of phase 2 test results appears promising, FDA may ask the sponsor to submit a treatment protocol to be reviewed under...

  19. 21 CFR 312.83 - Treatment protocols.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 5 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Treatment protocols. 312.83 Section 312.83 Food...-debilitating Illnesses § 312.83 Treatment protocols. If the preliminary analysis of phase 2 test results appears promising, FDA may ask the sponsor to submit a treatment protocol to be reviewed under...

  20. 21 CFR 312.83 - Treatment protocols.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 5 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Treatment protocols. 312.83 Section 312.83 Food...-debilitating Illnesses § 312.83 Treatment protocols. If the preliminary analysis of phase 2 test results appears promising, FDA may ask the sponsor to submit a treatment protocol to be reviewed under...

  1. 21 CFR 312.83 - Treatment protocols.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 5 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Treatment protocols. 312.83 Section 312.83 Food...-debilitating Illnesses § 312.83 Treatment protocols. If the preliminary analysis of phase 2 test results appears promising, FDA may ask the sponsor to submit a treatment protocol to be reviewed under...

  2. Difficult‐to‐control asthma management through the use of a specific protocol

    PubMed Central

    Giavina‐Bianchi, Pedro; Aun, Marcelo Vivolo; Bisaccioni, Carla; Agondi, Rosana; Kalil, Jorge

    2010-01-01

    The present study is a critical review of difficult‐to‐control asthma, highlighting the characteristics and severity of the disease. It also presents a protocol for the management of patients with this asthma phenotype. The protocol, which was based on relevant studies in the literature, is described and analyzed. PMID:21049219

  3. Secure Biometrically Based Authentication Protocol for a Public Network Environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tait, Bobby; von Solms, Basie

    Biometric technology allows a computer system to identify and authenticate a person directly based on physical or behavioral traits [1]. However passwords and tokens that are currently widely used for authentication purposes do not directly authenticate a person; whenever a person offers a password or token the system only authenticates the presented password or token as authentic, but not the actual person presenting it [2], [8]. For this reason a lot of research went into developing a protocol that will allow a person to securely use a biometric token for personal authentication. Biometric technology is an attractive option for authenticating a person as there is a direct link between the person and a person's biometric token. This paper discusses a protocol, named BioVault. BioVault ensures safe transport of biometric tokens over un-secure networked environment without using any encryption technologies. The BioVault protocol also lays the foundation for biometrically based encryption, and biometrically based digital signatures.

  4. Two Quantum Protocols for Oblivious Set-member Decision Problem.

    PubMed

    Shi, Run-Hua; Mu, Yi; Zhong, Hong; Cui, Jie; Zhang, Shun

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, we defined a new secure multi-party computation problem, called Oblivious Set-member Decision problem, which allows one party to decide whether a secret of another party belongs to his private set in an oblivious manner. There are lots of important applications of Oblivious Set-member Decision problem in fields of the multi-party collaborative computation of protecting the privacy of the users, such as private set intersection and union, anonymous authentication, electronic voting and electronic auction. Furthermore, we presented two quantum protocols to solve the Oblivious Set-member Decision problem. Protocol I takes advantage of powerful quantum oracle operations so that it needs lower costs in both communication and computation complexity; while Protocol II takes photons as quantum resources and only performs simple single-particle projective measurements, thus it is more feasible with the present technology. PMID:26514668

  5. Two Quantum Protocols for Oblivious Set-member Decision Problem

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shi, Run-Hua; Mu, Yi; Zhong, Hong; Cui, Jie; Zhang, Shun

    2015-10-01

    In this paper, we defined a new secure multi-party computation problem, called Oblivious Set-member Decision problem, which allows one party to decide whether a secret of another party belongs to his private set in an oblivious manner. There are lots of important applications of Oblivious Set-member Decision problem in fields of the multi-party collaborative computation of protecting the privacy of the users, such as private set intersection and union, anonymous authentication, electronic voting and electronic auction. Furthermore, we presented two quantum protocols to solve the Oblivious Set-member Decision problem. Protocol I takes advantage of powerful quantum oracle operations so that it needs lower costs in both communication and computation complexity; while Protocol II takes photons as quantum resources and only performs simple single-particle projective measurements, thus it is more feasible with the present technology.

  6. Two Quantum Protocols for Oblivious Set-member Decision Problem

    PubMed Central

    Shi, Run-hua; Mu, Yi; Zhong, Hong; Cui, Jie; Zhang, Shun

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, we defined a new secure multi-party computation problem, called Oblivious Set-member Decision problem, which allows one party to decide whether a secret of another party belongs to his private set in an oblivious manner. There are lots of important applications of Oblivious Set-member Decision problem in fields of the multi-party collaborative computation of protecting the privacy of the users, such as private set intersection and union, anonymous authentication, electronic voting and electronic auction. Furthermore, we presented two quantum protocols to solve the Oblivious Set-member Decision problem. Protocol I takes advantage of powerful quantum oracle operations so that it needs lower costs in both communication and computation complexity; while Protocol II takes photons as quantum resources and only performs simple single-particle projective measurements, thus it is more feasible with the present technology. PMID:26514668

  7. Mesure du taux de la capture radiative du muon par l'hydrogene liquide

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jonkmans, Guy

    À basse énergie, l'interaction faible entre leptons et quarks est décrite par une interaction de la forme courant × courant de type V - A. La présence de l'interaction forte induit des couplages additionnels qui doivent être déterminés expérimentalement. De ceux-ci, le couplage pseudoscalaire induit, gp , est mesuré avec la plus grande incertitude et fait l'objet de la présente recherche. L'hypothèse du Courant Axial Partiellement Conservé (CAPC) et l'usage de la relation de Goldberger-Treiman relie gp au couplage axial ga . Cette relation a été vérifiée traditionnellement par la Capture Ordinaire du Muon (COM) à une valeur fixe du moment de transfert q. La Capture Radiative du Muon (CRM), m- p-->nnmg , est un meilleur outil pour l'étude de gp à cause de sa dépendance variable en q2 qui offre une plus grande sensibilité dans la partie à haute énergie du spectre des photons. Toutefois, le petit rapport d'embranchement (~10-8) de la CRM par rapport à la désintégration du muon a retardé cette mesure jusqu'à ce jour. La théorie et les difficultés expérimentales associées à la détection des photons de CRM sont présentées au deuxième chapitre. On décrit ensuite, au troisième chapitre, les composantes du système de détection. Ce détecteur est un spectromètre à paires de grand angle solide (~3p) et qui permet l'observation des photons par l'analyse des électrons et des positrons de photo-conversion. Ainsi, le bruit de fond important des neutrons de la COM ne constitue pas un problème pour cette mesure. Nous décrivons, au quatrième chapitre, toutes les étapes de l'analyse, nécessaires pour la réduction des multiples bruits de fond. Le cinquième chapitre présente le calcul des efficacités ainsi que l'estimation des erreurs systématiques. Le sixième chapitre démontre comment l'on extrait le rapport d'embranchement pour la CRM ainsi que la valeur ae gp . On insiste sur la dépendance de gp en fonction de la valeur de

  8. Nonblocking and orphan free message logging protocols

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Alvisi, Lorenzo; Hoppe, Bruce; Marzullo, Keith

    1992-01-01

    Currently existing message logging protocols demonstrate a classic pessimistic vs. optimistic tradeoff. We show that the optimistic-pessimistic tradeoff is not inherent to the problem of message logging. We construct a message-logging protocol that has the positive features of both optimistic and pessimistic protocol: our protocol prevents orphans and allows simple failure recovery; however, it requires no blocking in failure-free runs. Furthermore, this protocol does not introduce any additional message overhead as compared to one implemented for a system in which messages may be lost but processes do not crash.

  9. E.I. DuPont De Nemours & Company/Oberlin Filter Company Microfiltration Technology. Applications Analysis Report

    EPA Science Inventory

    This report evaluates the DuPont/Oberlin microfiltration technology’s ability to remove metals (present in soluble or insoluble form) and particulates from liquid wastes while producing a dry filter cake and a filtrate that meet applicable disposal requirements. This report also ...

  10. Élimination du bore du silicium par plasma inductif sous champ électrique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Combes, R.; Morvan, D.; Picard, G.; Amouroux, J.

    1993-05-01

    We analyzed purification mechanisms of silicon by inductive plasma with a fluoride slag. The aim is to study boron elimination from doped electronic grade silicon in function of the nature of the slag to obtain a photovoltaic grade silicon. The steady began with the calculation and the comparison of the stability diagram of boron compounds in presence of CaF2, BaF2 and MgF2. This study led us to conclude that BaF2 is the better slag for silicon purification. This has been confirmed by experience. In a second time, we made purifications under electric bias to enhance slag efficiency. We noticed that BaF2 is more sensitive to electric bias than other slags. Nous avons analysé le mécanisme de purification du silicium sous plasma inductif en présence d'un laitier fluoré. L'objectif principal est d'étudier l'élimination du bore du silicium électronique dopé en fonction de la nature du fluorure pour obtenir un silicium de qualité photovoltaïque. L'étude a commencé par l'établissement et la comparaison de diagrammes des composés du bore en présence de CaF2, de MgF2 et de BaF2. Nous avons déduit de cette première étude que BaF2 est le meilleur laitier pour la purification du silicium. Ceci a été corroboré par l'expérience. Nous avons ensuite opéré en présence d'un champ électrique dans le but d'améliorer encore l'efficacité des laitiers. Nous avons constaté que BaF2 est plus sensible au champ électrique que les deux autres laitiers utilisés.

  11. Effective Protocols for Mobile Communications and Networking

    SciTech Connect

    Espinoza, J.; Sholander, P.; Van Leeuwen, B,

    1998-12-01

    This report examines methods of mobile communications with an emphasis on mobile computing and wireless communications. Many of the advances in communications involve the use of Internet Protocol (IP), Asynchronous Transfer Mode (ATM), and ad hoc network protocols. However, many of the advances in these protocols have been focused on wired communications. Recently much focus has been directed at advancing communication technology in the area of mobile wireless networks. This report discusses various protocols used in mobile communications and proposes a number of extensions to existing protocols. A detailed discussion is also included on desirable protocol characteristics and evaluation criteria. In addition, the report includes a discussion on several network simulation tools that maybe used to evaluate network protocols.

  12. Chapter 18: Variable Frequency Drive Evaluation Protocol

    SciTech Connect

    Romberger, J.

    2014-11-01

    An adjustable-speed drive (ASD) includes all devices that vary the speed of a rotating load, including those that vary the motor speed and linkage devices that allow constant motor speed while varying the load speed. The Variable Frequency Drive Evaluation Protocol presented here addresses evaluation issues for variable-frequency drives (VFDs) installed on commercial and industrial motor-driven centrifugal fans and pumps for which torque varies with speed. Constant torque load applications, such as those for positive displacement pumps, are not covered by this protocol. Other ASD devices, such as magnetic drive, eddy current drives, variable belt sheave drives, or direct current motor variable voltage drives, are also not addressed. The VFD is by far the most common type of ASD hardware. With VFD speed control on a centrifugal fan or pump motor, energy use follows the affinity laws, which state that the motor electricity demand is a cubic relationship to speed under ideal conditions. Therefore, if the motor runs at 75% speed, the motor demand will ideally be reduced to 42% of full load power; however, with other losses it is about 49% of full load power.

  13. Protocol for cardiac assessment of recreational athletes.

    PubMed

    Chinea, Ana M; Lollett, Carlos; Herrera, Hector; Passariello, Gianfranco; Wong, Sara

    2012-01-01

    In this work, the development of a database on physical fitness is presented. As initial population to fill this database, people who practice recreational sports at the Universidad Simon Bolivar (USB) were chosen. The goal was studying individual physical fitness in order to structure exercise routines that gives certain benefits without risking the individual health, promoting a less sedentary way of life. Before the study, a low-cost noninvasive protocol was designed to determine the level of physical fitness. The methodology consisted of four steps: a) A review of existing protocols to propose a set of physical fitness (International Physical Activity Questionnaire (IPAQ)), cardiovascular (heart rate variability, heart rate recovery time and arterial blood pressure), anthropomorphic, aerobic (maximum oxygen consumption) and mood state (Profile of Mood State (POMS)) measurements, which allow sketching a complete profile on the sportsman physical fitness. b) Instrumental data collection. c) Electrocardiographic signal processing. d) Data post-processing using multivariate analysis. The database was composed of 26 subject from USB. Ten subjects were soccer players, ten were mountain climbers and six were sedentary people. Results showed that the heart rate recover time after 2-3 min, IPAQ and maximum oxygen consumption have higher weights for classifying individuals according to their habitual physical activity. Heart rate variability, as well as, POMS did not contribute greatly for discriminating recreational sport from sedentary persons. PMID:23366343

  14. A high performance totally ordered multicast protocol

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Montgomery, Todd; Whetten, Brian; Kaplan, Simon

    1995-01-01

    This paper presents the Reliable Multicast Protocol (RMP). RMP provides a totally ordered, reliable, atomic multicast service on top of an unreliable multicast datagram service such as IP Multicasting. RMP is fully and symmetrically distributed so that no site bears un undue portion of the communication load. RMP provides a wide range of guarantees, from unreliable delivery to totally ordered delivery, to K-resilient, majority resilient, and totally resilient atomic delivery. These QoS guarantees are selectable on a per packet basis. RMP provides many communication options, including virtual synchrony, a publisher/subscriber model of message delivery, an implicit naming service, mutually exclusive handlers for messages, and mutually exclusive locks. It has commonly been held that a large performance penalty must be paid in order to implement total ordering -- RMP discounts this. On SparcStation 10's on a 1250 KB/sec Ethernet, RMP provides totally ordered packet delivery to one destination at 842 KB/sec throughput and with 3.1 ms packet latency. The performance stays roughly constant independent of the number of destinations. For two or more destinations on a LAN, RMP provides higher throughput than any protocol that does not use multicast or broadcast.

  15. INEEL AIR MODELING PROTOCOL ext

    SciTech Connect

    C. S. Staley; M. L. Abbott; P. D. Ritter

    2004-12-01

    Various laws stemming from the Clean Air Act of 1970 and the Clean Air Act amendments of 1990 require air emissions modeling. Modeling is used to ensure that air emissions from new projects and from modifications to existing facilities do not exceed certain standards. For radionuclides, any new airborne release must be modeled to show that downwind receptors do not receive exposures exceeding the dose limits and to determine the requirements for emissions monitoring. For criteria and toxic pollutants, emissions usually must first exceed threshold values before modeling of downwind concentrations is required. This document was prepared to provide guidance for performing environmental compliance-driven air modeling of emissions from Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory facilities. This document assumes that the user has experience in air modeling and dose and risk assessment. It is not intended to be a "cookbook," nor should all recommendations herein be construed as requirements. However, there are certain procedures that are required by law, and these are pointed out. It is also important to understand that air emissions modeling is a constantly evolving process. This document should, therefore, be reviewed periodically and revised as needed. The document is divided into two parts. Part A is the protocol for radiological assessments, and Part B is for nonradiological assessments. This document is an update of and supersedes document INEEL/INT-98-00236, Rev. 0, INEEL Air Modeling Protocol. This updated document incorporates changes in some of the rules, procedures, and air modeling codes that have occurred since the protocol was first published in 1998.

  16. Protocolized Resuscitation of Burn Patients.

    PubMed

    Cancio, Leopoldo C; Salinas, Jose; Kramer, George C

    2016-10-01

    Fluid resuscitation of burn patients is commonly initiated using modified Brooke or Parkland formula. The fluid infusion rate is titrated up or down hourly to maintain adequate urine output and other endpoints. Over-resuscitation leads to morbid complications. Adherence to paper-based protocols, flow sheets, and clinical practice guidelines is associated with decreased fluid resuscitation volumes and complications. Computerized tools assist providers. Although completely autonomous closed-loop control of resuscitation has been demonstrated in animal models of burn shock, the major advantages of open-loop and decision-support systems are identifying trends, enhancing situational awareness, and encouraging burn team communication. PMID:27600131

  17. Optical protocols for terabit networks

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chua, P. L.; Lambert, J. L.; Morookian, J. M.; Bergman, L. A.

    1991-01-01

    This paper describes a new fiber-optic local area network technology providing 100X improvement over current technology, has full crossbar funtionality, and inherent data security. Based on optical code-division multiple access (CDMA), using spectral phase encoding/decoding of optical pulses, networking protocols are implemented entirely in the optical domain and thus conventional networking bottlenecks are avoided. Component and system issues for a proof-of-concept demonstration are discussed, as well as issues for a more practical and commercially exploitable system. Possible terrestrial and aerospace applications of this technology, and its impact on other technologies are explored. Some initial results toward realization of this concept are also included.

  18. A Self-Stabilizing Distributed Clock Synchronization Protocol for Arbitrary Digraphs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Malekpour, Mahyar R.

    2011-01-01

    This report presents a self-stabilizing distributed clock synchronization protocol in the absence of faults in the system. It is focused on the distributed clock synchronization of an arbitrary, non-partitioned digraph ranging from fully connected to 1-connected networks of nodes while allowing for differences in the network elements. This protocol does not rely on assumptions about the initial state of the system, other than the presence of at least one node, and no central clock or a centrally generated signal, pulse, or message is used. Nodes are anonymous, i.e., they do not have unique identities. There is no theoretical limit on the maximum number of participating nodes. The only constraint on the behavior of the node is that the interactions with other nodes are restricted to defined links and interfaces. We present an outline of a deductive proof of the correctness of the protocol. A model of the protocol was mechanically verified using the Symbolic Model Verifier (SMV) for a variety of topologies. Results of the mechanical proof of the correctness of the protocol are provided. The model checking results have verified the correctness of the protocol as they apply to the networks with unidirectional and bidirectional links. In addition, the results confirm the claims of determinism and linear convergence. As a result, we conjecture that the protocol solves the general case of this problem. We also present several variations of the protocol and discuss that this synchronization protocol is indeed an emergent system.

  19. Analyzing the effect of routing protocols on media access control protocols in radio networks

    SciTech Connect

    Barrett, C. L.; Drozda, M.; Marathe, A.; Marathe, M. V.

    2002-01-01

    We study the effect of routing protocols on the performance of media access control (MAC) protocols in wireless radio networks. Three well known MAC protocols: 802.11, CSMA, and MACA are considered. Similarly three recently proposed routing protocols: AODV, DSR and LAR scheme 1 are considered. The experimental analysis was carried out using GloMoSim: a tool for simulating wireless networks. The main focus of our experiments was to study how the routing protocols affect the performance of the MAC protocols when the underlying network and traffic parameters are varied. The performance of the protocols was measured w.r.t. five important parameters: (i) number of received packets, (ii) average latency of each packet, (iii) throughput (iv) long term fairness and (v) number of control packets at the MAC layer level. Our results show that combinations of routing and MAC protocols yield varying performance under varying network topology and traffic situations. The result has an important implication; no combination of routing protocol and MAC protocol is the best over all situations. Also, the performance analysis of protocols at a given level in the protocol stack needs to be studied not locally in isolation but as a part of the complete protocol stack. A novel aspect of our work is the use of statistical technique, ANOVA (Analysis of Variance) to characterize the effect of routing protocols on MAC protocols. This technique is of independent interest and can be utilized in several other simulation and empirical studies.

  20. Protocols for calibrating multibeam sonar.

    PubMed

    Foote, Kenneth G; Chu, Dezhang; Hammar, Terence R; Baldwin, Kenneth C; Mayer, Larry A; Hufnagle, Lawrence C; Jech, J Michael

    2005-04-01

    Development of protocols for calibrating multibeam sonar by means of the standard-target method is documented. Particular systems used in the development work included three that provide the water-column signals, namely the SIMRAD SM2000/90- and 200-kHz sonars and RESON SeaBat 8101 sonar, with operating frequency of 240 kHz. Two facilities were instrumented specifically for the work: a sea well at the Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution and a large, indoor freshwater tank at the University of New Hampshire. Methods for measuring the transfer characteristics of each sonar, with transducers attached, are described and illustrated with measurement results. The principal results, however, are the protocols themselves. These are elaborated for positioning the target, choosing the receiver gain function, quantifying the system stability, mapping the directionality in the plane of the receiving array and in the plane normal to the central axis, measuring the directionality of individual beams, and measuring the nearfield response. General preparations for calibrating multibeam sonars and a method for measuring the receiver response electronically are outlined. Advantages of multibeam sonar calibration and outstanding problems, such as that of validation of the performance of multibeam sonars as configured for use, are mentioned. PMID:15898644

  1. Numerical analysis of decoy state quantum key distribution protocols

    SciTech Connect

    Harrington, Jim W; Rice, Patrick R

    2008-01-01

    Decoy state protocols are a useful tool for many quantum key distribution systems implemented with weak coherent pulses, allowing significantly better secret bit rates and longer maximum distances. In this paper we present a method to numerically find optimal three-level protocols, and we examine how the secret bit rate and the optimized parameters are dependent on various system properties, such as session length, transmission loss, and visibility. Additionally, we show how to modify the decoy state analysis to handle partially distinguishable decoy states as well as uncertainty in the prepared intensities.

  2. The nurse's role in misoprostol induction: a proposed protocol.

    PubMed

    Wilson, C

    2000-01-01

    The use of misoprostol (PGE 1) for induction of labor has been studied in the United States since 1993. The current medical literature contains studies of this non-FDA-approved indication for misoprostol. The data reveal that misoprostol is as effective or more effective in inducing labor as are oxytocin and prostaglandin E2 (PGE 2), with less cost. Nurses need to understand the physiology of prostaglandins and management of misoprostol in labor. Nurses often must assess the safety of mother and fetus during a misoprostol induction without a protocol based on research findings. This article presents a sample protocol. PMID:11110327

  3. Authenticated semi-quantum direct communication protocols using Bell states

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Luo, Yi-Ping; Hwang, Tzonelih

    2016-02-01

    This study presents the first two authenticated semi-quantum direct communication protocols without using any classical channel. By pre-sharing a master secret key between two communicants, a sender with advanced quantum devices can transmit a secret message to a receiver who can only perform classical operations without any information leakage. The receiver is then capable of verifying the message up to the single-qubit level, i.e., a one-qubit modification of the transmitted quantum sequence can be detected with a probability close to 1. Moreover, the proposed protocols are resistant to several well-known attacks.

  4. Real-Time QoS Routing Protocols in Wireless Multimedia Sensor Networks: Study and Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Alanazi, Adwan; Elleithy, Khaled

    2015-01-01

    Many routing protocols have been proposed for wireless sensor networks. These routing protocols are almost always based on energy efficiency. However, recent advances in complementary metal-oxide semiconductor (CMOS) cameras and small microphones have led to the development of Wireless Multimedia Sensor Networks (WMSN) as a class of wireless sensor networks which pose additional challenges. The transmission of imaging and video data needs routing protocols with both energy efficiency and Quality of Service (QoS) characteristics in order to guarantee the efficient use of the sensor nodes and effective access to the collected data. Also, with integration of real time applications in Wireless Senor Networks (WSNs), the use of QoS routing protocols is not only becoming a significant topic, but is also gaining the attention of researchers. In designing an efficient QoS routing protocol, the reliability and guarantee of end-to-end delay are critical events while conserving energy. Thus, considerable research has been focused on designing energy efficient and robust QoS routing protocols. In this paper, we present a state of the art research work based on real-time QoS routing protocols for WMSNs that have already been proposed. This paper categorizes the real-time QoS routing protocols into probabilistic and deterministic protocols. In addition, both categories are classified into soft and hard real time protocols by highlighting the QoS issues including the limitations and features of each protocol. Furthermore, we have compared the performance of mobility-aware query based real-time QoS routing protocols from each category using Network Simulator-2 (NS2). This paper also focuses on the design challenges and future research directions as well as highlights the characteristics of each QoS routing protocol. PMID:26364639

  5. An XML-Based Protocol for Distributed Event Services

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, Warren; Gunter, Dan; Quesnel, Darcy; Biegel, Bryan (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    This viewgraph presentation provides information on the application of an XML (extensible mark-up language)-based protocol to the developing field of distributed processing by way of a computational grid which resembles an electric power grid. XML tags would be used to transmit events between the participants of a transaction, namely, the consumer and the producer of the grid scheme.

  6. Performance Analysis of the HTTP Protocol on Geostationary Satellite Links

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Krus, Hans; Allman, Mark; Griner, Jim; Tran, Diepchi

    1998-01-01

    Various issues associated with HTTP protocol on geostationary satellite links are presented in viewgraph form. Specific topics include: 1) Network reference points; 2) The HTTP 1.0 and 1.1 mechanisms; 3) Experimental setup; 4) TCP and HTTP configuration; 5) Modelling slow start and 6) Results and future work.

  7. Primary-backup protocols: Lower bounds and optimal implementations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Budhiraja, Navin; Marzullo, Keith; Schneider, Fred B.; Toueg, Sam

    1992-01-01

    A formal specification of primary-backup is presented. We then prove lower bounds on the degree of replication, failover time, and worst-case response time to client requests assuming different failure models. Finally, we outline primary-backup protocols and indicate which of our lower bounds are tight.

  8. A Protocol for Reducing Juvenile Recidivism through Relapse Prevention.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roget, Nancy A.; Fisher, Gary L.; Johnson, Michael L.

    1998-01-01

    The connection between alcohol and other drug use and juvenile crime activities is well established. The source of this connection and specific interventions with juvenile offenders involved in alcohol and drug use is unclear. Reviews existing literature and presents an adolescent-specific relapse-prevention protocol that provides a structure for…

  9. An automated reminder for perioperative glucose regulation improves protocol compliance.

    PubMed

    Polderman, Jorinde A W; de Groot, Fleur A; Zamanbin, Alaleh; Hollmann, Markus W; Holleman, Frits; Preckel, Benedikt; Hermanides, Jeroen

    2016-06-01

    A growing proportion of patients presenting for surgery have diabetes. Unfortunately, perioperative diabetes protocol compliance is low. Using digitalization of the perioperative environment, an automated reminder in the preoperative assessment platform proved to increase compliance and we advocate its use throughout the perioperative process. PMID:27321319

  10. Quantum Encryption Protocol Based on Continuous Variable EPR Correlations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    He, Guang-Qiang; Zeng, Gui-Hua

    2006-07-01

    A quantum encryption protocol based on Gaussian-modulated continuous variable EPR correlations is proposed. The security is guaranteed by continuous variable EPR entanglement correlations produced by nondegenerate optical parametric amplifier (NOPA). For general beam splitter eavesdropping strategy, the mutual information I(α,epsilon) between Alice and Eve is calculated by employing Shannon information theory. Finally the security analysis is presented.

  11. Adult Rhabdomyosarcoma Survival Improved With Treatment on Multimodality Protocols

    SciTech Connect

    Gerber, Naamit Kurshan; Wexler, Leonard H.; Singer, Samuel; Alektiar, Kaled M.; Keohan, Mary Louise; Shi, Weiji; Zhang, Zhigang; Wolden, Suzanne

    2013-05-01

    Purpose: Rhabdomyosarcoma (RMS) is a pediatric sarcoma rarely occurring in adults. For unknown reasons, adults with RMS have worse outcomes than do children. Methods and Materials: We analyzed data from all patients who presented to Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center between 1990 and 2011 with RMS diagnosed at age 16 or older. One hundred forty-eight patients met the study criteria. Ten were excluded for lack of adequate data. Results: The median age was 28 years. The histologic diagnoses were as follows: embryonal 54%, alveolar 33%, pleomorphic 12%, and not otherwise specified 2%. The tumor site was unfavorable in 67% of patients. Thirty-three patients (24%) were at low risk, 61 (44%) at intermediate risk, and 44 (32%) at high risk. Forty-six percent were treated on or according to a prospective RMS protocol. The 5-year rate of overall survival (OS) was 45% for patients with nonmetastatic disease. The failure rates at 5 years for patients with nonmetastatic disease were 34% for local failure and 42% for distant failure. Among patients with nonmetastatic disease (n=94), significant factors associated with OS were histologic diagnosis, site, risk group, age, and protocol treatment. On multivariate analysis, risk group and protocol treatment were significant after adjustment for age. The 5-year OS was 54% for protocol patients versus 36% for nonprotocol patients. Conclusions: Survival in adult patients with nonmetastatic disease was significantly improved for those treated on RMS protocols, most of which are now open to adults.

  12. Study on Cloud Security Based on Trust Spanning Tree Protocol

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lai, Yingxu; Liu, Zenghui; Pan, Qiuyue; Liu, Jing

    2015-09-01

    Attacks executed on Spanning Tree Protocol (STP) expose the weakness of link layer protocols and put the higher layers in jeopardy. Although the problems have been studied for many years and various solutions have been proposed, many security issues remain. To enhance the security and credibility of layer-2 network, we propose a trust-based spanning tree protocol aiming at achieving a higher credibility of LAN switch with a simple and lightweight authentication mechanism. If correctly implemented in each trusted switch, the authentication of trust-based STP can guarantee the credibility of topology information that is announced to other switch in the LAN. To verify the enforcement of the trusted protocol, we present a new trust evaluation method of the STP using a specification-based state model. We implement a prototype of trust-based STP to investigate its practicality. Experiment shows that the trusted protocol can achieve security goals and effectively avoid STP attacks with a lower computation overhead and good convergence performance.

  13. Self-Referenced Continuous-Variable Quantum Key Distribution Protocol

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Soh, Daniel B. S.; Brif, Constantin; Coles, Patrick J.; Lütkenhaus, Norbert; Camacho, Ryan M.; Urayama, Junji; Sarovar, Mohan

    2015-10-01

    We introduce a new continuous-variable quantum key distribution (CV-QKD) protocol, self-referenced CV-QKD, that eliminates the need for transmission of a high-power local oscillator between the communicating parties. In this protocol, each signal pulse is accompanied by a reference pulse (or a pair of twin reference pulses), used to align Alice's and Bob's measurement bases. The method of phase estimation and compensation based on the reference pulse measurement can be viewed as a quantum analog of intradyne detection used in classical coherent communication, which extracts the phase information from the modulated signal. We present a proof-of-principle, fiber-based experimental demonstration of the protocol and quantify the expected secret key rates by expressing them in terms of experimental parameters. Our analysis of the secret key rate fully takes into account the inherent uncertainty associated with the quantum nature of the reference pulse(s) and quantifies the limit at which the theoretical key rate approaches that of the respective conventional protocol that requires local oscillator transmission. The self-referenced protocol greatly simplifies the hardware required for CV-QKD, especially for potential integrated photonics implementations of transmitters and receivers, with minimum sacrifice of performance. As such, it provides a pathway towards scalable integrated CV-QKD transceivers, a vital step towards large-scale QKD networks.

  14. Self-referenced continuous-variable quantum key distribution protocol

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Soh, Daniel B. S.; Brif, Constantin; Coles, Patrick J.; Lutkenhaus, Norbert; Camacho, Ryan M.; Urayama, Junji; Sarovar, Mohan

    2015-10-21

    Here, we introduce a new continuous-variable quantum key distribution (CV-QKD) protocol, self-referenced CV-QKD, that eliminates the need for transmission of a high-power local oscillator between the communicating parties. In this protocol, each signal pulse is accompanied by a reference pulse (or a pair of twin reference pulses), used to align Alice’s and Bob’s measurement bases. The method of phase estimation and compensation based on the reference pulse measurement can be viewed as a quantum analog of intradyne detection used in classical coherent communication, which extracts the phase information from the modulated signal. We present a proof-of-principle, fiber-based experimental demonstration ofmore » the protocol and quantify the expected secret key rates by expressing them in terms of experimental parameters. Our analysis of the secret key rate fully takes into account the inherent uncertainty associated with the quantum nature of the reference pulse(s) and quantifies the limit at which the theoretical key rate approaches that of the respective conventional protocol that requires local oscillator transmission. The self-referenced protocol greatly simplifies the hardware required for CV-QKD, especially for potential integrated photonics implementations of transmitters and receivers, with minimum sacrifice of performance. As such, it provides a pathway towards scalable integrated CV-QKD transceivers, a vital step towards large-scale QKD networks.« less

  15. Self-referenced continuous-variable quantum key distribution protocol

    SciTech Connect

    Soh, Daniel B. S.; Brif, Constantin; Coles, Patrick J.; Lutkenhaus, Norbert; Camacho, Ryan M.; Urayama, Junji; Sarovar, Mohan

    2015-10-21

    Here, we introduce a new continuous-variable quantum key distribution (CV-QKD) protocol, self-referenced CV-QKD, that eliminates the need for transmission of a high-power local oscillator between the communicating parties. In this protocol, each signal pulse is accompanied by a reference pulse (or a pair of twin reference pulses), used to align Alice’s and Bob’s measurement bases. The method of phase estimation and compensation based on the reference pulse measurement can be viewed as a quantum analog of intradyne detection used in classical coherent communication, which extracts the phase information from the modulated signal. We present a proof-of-principle, fiber-based experimental demonstration of the protocol and quantify the expected secret key rates by expressing them in terms of experimental parameters. Our analysis of the secret key rate fully takes into account the inherent uncertainty associated with the quantum nature of the reference pulse(s) and quantifies the limit at which the theoretical key rate approaches that of the respective conventional protocol that requires local oscillator transmission. The self-referenced protocol greatly simplifies the hardware required for CV-QKD, especially for potential integrated photonics implementations of transmitters and receivers, with minimum sacrifice of performance. As such, it provides a pathway towards scalable integrated CV-QKD transceivers, a vital step towards large-scale QKD networks.

  16. Segmented proportional spacing medium access control protocol for APONs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Hongbin; Yu, Yiqing; Zhou, Dongru; Meng, Bo

    2004-04-01

    Combining asynchronous transfer mode (ATM) over a passive optical network (APON) can provide broadband services as defined by the international telecommunications union (ITU). The medium access control (MAC) layer is of primary importance to the access scheme as in controls the flow of traffic in the access network. This paper presents a novel MAC protocol-segmented proportional spacing MAC protocol, which complies with ITU-T recommendations, is firstly designed for APON system based on the analysis of different type of bandwidth allocation algorithms. The main idea of protocol is: frame structure adopts the structure regulated by ITU; fine time division for the optical network unit (ONU) to apply bandwidth; the bandwidth"s application is not based on the T-interface but ONU, the bandwidth allocation algorithm uses segmented proportional spacing algorithm. At last, we compare our protocol to other MAC protocols, the results show that proportional spacing and segmented bandwidth allocation control the cell jitter with satisfactory and improve the system bandwidth efficiency at same time, the correlative conclusions are given finally.

  17. RadNet: Open network protocol for radiation data

    SciTech Connect

    Rees, B.; Olson, K.; Beckes-Talcott, J.; Kadner, S.; Wenderlich, T.; Hoy, M.; Doyle, W.; Koskelo, M.

    1998-12-31

    Safeguards instrumentation is increasingly being incorporated into remote monitoring applications. In the past, vendors of radiation monitoring instruments typically provided the tools for uploading the monitoring data to a host. However, the proprietary nature of communication protocols lends itself to increased computer support needs and increased installation expenses. As a result, a working group of suppliers and customers of radiation monitoring instruments defined an open network protocol for transferring packets on a local area network from radiation monitoring equipment to network hosts. The protocol was termed RadNet. While it is now primarily used for health physics instruments, RadNet`s flexibility and strength make it ideal for remote monitoring of nuclear materials. The incorporation of standard, open protocols ensures that future work will not render present work obsolete; because RadNet utilizes standard Internet protocols, and is itself a non-proprietary standard. The use of industry standards also simplifies the development and implementation of ancillary services, e.g. E-main generation or even pager systems.

  18. Research of storage encryption based on multi-protocol RAID

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pei, Canhao; Xie, Changsheng; Zhang, Le

    2009-08-01

    Traditional RAID gradually becomes unable to satisfy most applications. It is reflected in two main respects, one is the security problem of data in RAID system, the other is that one RAID controller can not use several devices of different protocol. Now, the performance of RAID controller gets faster and faster, therefore, it is the right time to use software encryption module instead of hardware encryption to guarantee the data confidentiality. Furthermore, with the development of storage device, different disk interface appears. How to use the disk of different protocol in the same RAID controller is becoming a new research hotspot. As to the problems mentioned above, this paper presents a new multi-protocol disk array architecture that provides encryption on RAID, referred to as Encryption Multi-protocol RAID (EMRAID). EMRAID solution not only uses different interface to management the different kinds of device, but also adopts SEAL algorithm which is an efficient pseudorandom function family encryption algorithm. Analysis result indicates that EMRAID performs more efficiently than the single-protocol RAID, and the experiment shows that the encryption algorithm has certain loss (not very large) on I/O performance.

  19. Hand Self-Wiping Protocol for the Investigation of Lead Exposure in the Workplace

    PubMed Central

    Gorce, Jean-Philippe; Roff, Martin

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this project was to develop and validate a hand wiping protocol to be used by occupational hygienists, scientists, or other competent persons, measuring skin exposure to lead in workplaces. Inadvertent lead ingestion is likely to occur once the hands of employees have become contaminated. Ideally, a hand wiping protocol should maximize the recovery of lead-based residues present on employees’ hands in a cost-effective and reproducible manner. This article describes an effective and practical hand wiping procedure. Here, two standardized protocols (A and B) are designed. Protocol A is a self-wiping protocol requiring employees to wipe their own hands using four separate and successive wipes. Protocol B involves a scientist wiping the hands of employees using four wipes, followed by employees self-wiping their hands using two wipes (total of six wipes). Both protocols are defined by four wipe passes over each hand using Ghost wipes. Because this study took place in the workplace rather than in a simulated laboratory environment, only the relative (i.e., not absolute) removal efficiencies of the hand wiping protocols have been assessed. The two protocols were first evaluated at a double glazing panel manufacturing site where between 248 μg and 4544 μg of lead was found on employees’ hands. A statistical analysis (t-test) on the mean relative lead levels recovered in the first parts of the protocols indicated that Protocol A was more efficient than Protocol B (73% for Protocol A vs. 65% for Protocol B). The relative recovery of the combined first two passes against the combined first three passes also confirmed the greater efficiency of Protocol A (83.3% for Protocol A vs. 76.5% for Protocol B). However, lead levels recovered on the fourth pass remain significant at more than 10% of the total recovered loadings. Nonetheless, Protocol A was preferred and further evaluated at a lead battery manufacturing site where between 149 μg and 18,784

  20. Simple protocols for oblivious transfer and secure identification in the noisy-quantum-storage model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schaffner, Christian

    2010-09-01

    We present simple protocols for oblivious transfer and password-based identification which are secure against general attacks in the noisy-quantum-storage model as defined in R. König, S. Wehner, and J. Wullschleger [e-print arXiv:0906.1030]. We argue that a technical tool from König suffices to prove security of the known protocols. Whereas the more involved protocol for oblivious transfer from König requires less noise in storage to achieve security, our “canonical” protocols have the advantage of being simpler to implement and the security error is easier control. Therefore, our protocols yield higher OT rates for many realistic noise parameters. Furthermore, a proof of security of a direct protocol for password-based identification against general noisy-quantum-storage attacks is given.

  1. A practical protocol for three-party authenticated quantum key distribution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guan, D. J.; Wang, Yuan-Jiun; Zhuang, E. S.

    2014-06-01

    Recently, Hwang et al. proposed two three-party authenticated quantum key distribution protocols for two communicating parties to establish a session key via a trusted center. They also showed their protocols were secure by using random oracle model. However, their protocols were designed to run in an ideal world. In this paper, we present a more practical protocol by considering some issues, which have not been addressed in their protocols. These issues include (1) session key consistence, (2) online guessing attack, and (3) noise in quantum channels. To deal with these issues, we use error correction code and key evolution. We also give a formal proof for the security of our protocols by using standard reduction, instead of the random oracle model.

  2. A hybrid quantum key distribution protocol based on extended unitary operations and fountain codes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lai, Hong; Xue, Liyin; Orgun, Mehmet A.; Xiao, Jinghua; Pieprzyk, Josef

    2015-02-01

    In 1984, Bennett and Brassard designed the first quantum key distribution protocol, whose security is based on quantum indeterminacy. Since then, there has been growing research activities, aiming in designing new, more efficient and secure key distribution protocols. The work presents a novel hybrid quantum key distribution protocol. The key distribution is derived from both quantum and classical data. This is why it is called hybrid. The protocol applies extended unitary operations derived from four basic unitary operations and distributed fountain codes. Compared to other protocols published so far, the new one is more secure (provides authentication of parties and detection of eavesdropping) and efficient. Moreover, our protocol still works over noisy and lossy channels.

  3. The impact of the Family Communication Coordinator (FCC) Protocol on the role stress of hospital chaplains.

    PubMed

    Dodd-McCue, Diane; Tartaglia, Alexander

    2005-01-01

    The Family Communication Coordinator (FCC) Protocol was implemented to provide early family intervention and to facilitate effective communications during potential organ donation cases. Previous studies found the Protocol associated with improved donor outcome measures and with reduced role stress for ICU nurses caring for potential donors. The present study examines the impact of the Protocol on the perceived role stress of hospital chaplains serving as FCCs. All hospital chaplains serving as FCCs at an academic teaching hospital were surveyed. Their perceptions of job dimensions, role stress, job satisfaction, and commitment were measured; interviews and secondary data supplemented the surveys. The findings demonstrate that the FCC Protocol is associated with improved role stress, specifically role ambiguity and role conflict, among hospital chaplains serving as FCCs. Additionally, the findings suggest that satisfaction with the Protocol may be associated with experience with the Protocol. PMID:16392645

  4. Simple protocols for oblivious transfer and secure identification in the noisy-quantum-storage model

    SciTech Connect

    Schaffner, Christian

    2010-09-15

    We present simple protocols for oblivious transfer and password-based identification which are secure against general attacks in the noisy-quantum-storage model as defined in R. Koenig, S. Wehner, and J. Wullschleger [e-print arXiv:0906.1030]. We argue that a technical tool from Koenig et al. suffices to prove security of the known protocols. Whereas the more involved protocol for oblivious transfer from Koenig et al. requires less noise in storage to achieve security, our ''canonical'' protocols have the advantage of being simpler to implement and the security error is easier control. Therefore, our protocols yield higher OT rates for many realistic noise parameters. Furthermore, a proof of security of a direct protocol for password-based identification against general noisy-quantum-storage attacks is given.

  5. Implementation and Results of a Percutaneous Renal Allograft Biopsy Protocol to Reduce Complication Rate.

    PubMed

    Li, Charles H; Traube, Laura E; Lu, David S; Raman, Steven S; Danovitch, Gabriel M; Gritsch, Hans A; McWilliams, Justin P

    2016-05-01

    Percutaneous renal transplant biopsy (PRTB) is the gold standard for evaluating allograft rejection after renal transplant. Hemorrhage is the predominant complication. We describe the implementation of a standardized protocol for PRTB at a single institution, with the aim of reducing bleeding complications. Utilizing the plan-do-study-act model for quality improvement, we created and deployed a protocol centered on controlling patient's hypertension, platelet function, and anticoagulation status. The 4-year study encompassed a total of 880 PRTBs, before and after implementation of the protocol. Total complication rate, which was 5.8% in the 2 years leading up to implementation of the protocol, was reduced to 2.9% after the protocol was introduced (P = .04). A standardized approach to PRTB can potentially lower complication rates; we present a framework for implementating a quality improvement protocol at other institutions. PMID:26970700

  6. Annuaire du Bureau des longitudes - 2006

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Imcce; Bureau Des Longitudes

    2005-07-01

    This annual publication provides ephemerides and data to the use of professionnal and amateur astronomers. Divided in 11 chapters it covers concordance of various calendars, explanation of fondamental astronomy and various time scales, explanation for the use of ephemerides; tables provide ephemerides (positions, rise/set/passage) of the Sun and the Moon, planets, planetary satellites, asteroids, comets, bright stars; data and explanation for the physical observation of the surface of the Sun, the Moon, and planets; chart of the sky and a list of constellations and galaxies; prediction and ephemerides for astronomical phenomenon: occultation by the moon, stellar occultations by asteroids and appulses, solar eclipses and lunar eclipses; and an additional review about a hot scientific topic, this year: "Legendre et le méridien terrestre, 200 ans après". Cette publication annuelle fournit des éphémérides et des données à l'usage des astronomes professionnels et des astronomes amateurs. Composée de 11 chapitres elle comprend les rubriques sur les différents calendriers et leurs concordance, les fêtes légales en France, les dates et décrets sur les heures légales en France métropolitaine ; une introduction à l'astronomie fondamentale et aux différentes échelles de temps, des explications sur l'utilisation des éphémérides ; des tables fournissent les éphémérides (positions, heures de lever/coucher/passage) du Soleil et de la Lune, de planètes, de satellites naturels, d'astéroïdes, de comètes, d'étoiles brillantes ; des données pour l'observation de la surface du Soleil, de la Lune, et des planètes ; des cartes du ciel ainsi qu'une liste de constellations et de galaxies ; des prédictions des phénomènes astronomiques : occultation par la Lune, occultation stellaires par des astéroïdes et appulses, éclipses de Soleil et de la Lune; la liste et les coordonnées des observatoires astronomiques les plus connus ; et enfin un cahier th

  7. On the same page--physicist and radiologist perspectives on protocol management and review.

    PubMed

    Szczykutowicz, Timothy P; Siegelman, Jenifer

    2015-08-01

    To sustain compliance with accreditation requirements of the ACR, Joint Commission, and state-specific statutes and regulatory requirements, a CT protocol review committee requires a structure for systematic analysis of protocols. Safe and reproducible practice of CT in a complex environment requires that physician supervision processes and protocols be precisely and clearly presented. This article discusses necessary components for data structure, and a description of an IT-based approach for protocol review based on experiences at 2 academic centers, 3 community hospitals, 1 cancer center, and 2 outpatient clinics. PMID:26065337

  8. Serial link protocol design: a critique of the X. 25 standard, Level 2

    SciTech Connect

    Fletcher, J.G.

    1983-10-25

    There are certain technical design principles for link communication protocols which, if followed, result in a protocol that is less complex in both concept and implementation, but at the same time provides better service, than if the principles are not followed. These principles include modularization into subprotocols, symmetry between the nodes on the link, and use of the state-exchange model of a conversation rather than the command-response model. The principles are described, the extent to which they are followed by the standard protocol X.25, level 2, is examined, and a protocol adhering to them is presented.

  9. A Dynamic CFP Allocation and Opportunity Contention-Based WBAN MAC Protocol

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Seo, Young-Sun; Kim, Dae-Young; Cho, Jinsung

    WBANs provide communication services in the vicinity of the human body. Since WBANs utilize both MICS frequency band for implant medical applications and ISM frequency band for medical and consumer electronics (CE) applications, MAC protocols in WBAN should be designed considering flexibility between medical and CE applications. In this letter, we identify the requirements of WBAN MAC protocols and propose a WBAN MAC protocol which satisfies the requirements. In order to provide transmission flexibility for various applications, we present the dynamic CFP allocation and opportunity period. Extensive simulation results show that the proposed protocol achieves improved throughput and latency in WBAN environment compared with IEEE 802.15.4.

  10. A Component-Based Evaluation Protocol for Clinical Decision Support Interfaces

    PubMed Central

    Febretti, Alessandro; Lopez, Karen D.; Stifter, Janet; Johnson, Andrew E.; Keenan, Gail M.; Wilkie, Diana J.

    2016-01-01

    In this paper we present our experience in designing and applying an evaluation protocol for assessing usability of a clinical decision support (CDS) system. The protocol is based on component-based usability testing, cognitive interviewing, and a rigorous coding scheme cross-referenced to a component library. We applied this protocol to evaluate alternate designs of a CDS interface for a nursing plan of care tool. The protocol allowed us to aggregate and analyze usability data at various granularity levels, supporting both validation of existing components and providing guidance for targeted redesign.

  11. Comments on the "Byzantine Self-Stabilizing Pulse Synchronization" Protocol: Counter-examples

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Malekpour, Mahyar R.; Siminiceanu, Radu

    2006-01-01

    Embedded distributed systems have become an integral part of many safety-critical applications. There have been many attempts to solve the self-stabilization problem of clocks across a distributed system. An analysis of one such protocol called the Byzantine Self-Stabilizing Pulse Synchronization (BSS-Pulse-Synch) protocol from a paper entitled "Linear Time Byzantine Self-Stabilizing Clock Synchronization" by Daliot, et al., is presented in this report. This report also includes a discussion of the complexity and pitfalls of designing self-stabilizing protocols and provides counter-examples for the claims of the above protocol.

  12. An arbitrated quantum signature protocol based on the chained CNOT operations encryption

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Feng-Guang; Shi, Jian-Hong

    2015-06-01

    At present, the encryption scheme used by most arbitrated quantum signature (AQS) protocols is quantum one-time pad (QOTP) which encrypts data qubit by qubit. Though QOTP can achieve high security for data encryption, it is not suitable for AQS. There are many attacks on AQS using QOTP. In this paper, we propose an AQS protocol based on another encryption scheme called the chained CNOT operations, which encrypts quantum message ensemble. Our protocol preserves all merits in the similar AQS schemes and has better security. Security analysis shows that our protocol cannot be forged and disavowed under the existing attacks.

  13. Distributed Dynamic Host Configuration Protocol (D2HCP).

    PubMed

    Villalba, Luis Javier García; Matesanz, Julián García; Orozco, Ana Lucila Sandoval; Díaz, José Duván Márquez

    2011-01-01

    Mobile Ad Hoc Networks (MANETs) are multihop wireless networks of mobile nodes without any fixed or preexisting infrastructure. The topology of these networks can change randomly due to the unpredictable mobility of nodes and their propagation characteristics. In most networks, including MANETs, each node needs a unique identifier to communicate. This work presents a distributed protocol for dynamic node IP address assignment in MANETs. Nodes of a MANET synchronize from time to time to maintain a record of IP address assignments in the entire network and detect any IP address leaks. The proposed stateful autoconfiguration scheme uses the OLSR proactive routing protocol for synchronization and guarantees unique IP addresses under a variety of network conditions, including message losses and network partitioning. Simulation results show that the protocol incurs low latency and communication overhead for IP address assignment. PMID:22163856

  14. Distributed Dynamic Host Configuration Protocol (D2HCP)

    PubMed Central

    Villalba, Luis Javier García; Matesanz, Julián García; Orozco, Ana Lucila Sandoval; Díaz, José Duván Márquez

    2011-01-01

    Mobile Ad Hoc Networks (MANETs) are multihop wireless networks of mobile nodes without any fixed or preexisting infrastructure. The topology of these networks can change randomly due to the unpredictable mobility of nodes and their propagation characteristics. In most networks, including MANETs, each node needs a unique identifier to communicate. This work presents a distributed protocol for dynamic node IP address assignment in MANETs. Nodes of a MANET synchronize from time to time to maintain a record of IP address assignments in the entire network and detect any IP address leaks. The proposed stateful autoconfiguration scheme uses the OLSR proactive routing protocol for synchronization and guarantees unique IP addresses under a variety of network conditions, including message losses and network partitioning. Simulation results show that the protocol incurs low latency and communication overhead for IP address assignment. PMID:22163856

  15. A flexible acquisition cycle for incompletely defined fieldbus protocols.

    PubMed

    Gaitan, Vasile-Gheorghita; Gaitan, Nicoleta-Cristina; Ungurean, Ioan

    2014-05-01

    Real time data-acquisition from fieldbuses strongly depends on the network type and protocol used. Currently, there is an impressive number of fieldbuses, some of them are completely defined and others are incompletely defined. In those from the second category, the time variable, the main element in real-time data acquisition, does not appear explicitly. Examples include protocols such as Modbus ASCII/RTU, M-bus, ASCII character-based, and so on. This paper defines a flexible acquisition cycle based on the Master-Slave architecture that can be implemented on a Master station, called a Base Station Gateway (BSG). The BSG can add a timestamp for temporal location of data. It also presents a possible extension for the Modbus protocol, developed as simple and low cost solution based on existing hardware. PMID:24650922

  16. Future directions in packet radio architectures and protocols

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shacham, Nachum; Westcott, Jil

    1987-01-01

    The technology of packet switching over multihop, multiple-access channels has evolved to the point at which its protocols can now support internetwork operation of medium-size networks whose nodes possess some degree of mobility. As regards the needs and challenges of the future operating environment, it is clear that these can be met only by enhancing the packet radio architecture and its protocols. Several enhancements that allow the organization of large, dynamic networks that can operate over multiple channels, adapt to varying conditions, and possess self-monitoring and self-control capabilities are discussed. As these areas are examined, the attendant issues and tradeoffs are discussed; in addition, some protocols and information regarding their performance are presented.

  17. A RFID grouping proof protocol for medication safety of inpatient.

    PubMed

    Huang, Hsieh-Hong; Ku, Cheng-Yuan

    2009-12-01

    In order to provide enhanced medication safety for inpatients, the medical mechanism which adopts the modified grouping proof protocol is proposed in this paper. By using the grouping proof protocol, the medical staffs could confirm the authentication and integrity of a group of Radio-Frequency Identification (RFID) tags which are embedded on inpatient bracelets and the containers of drugs. This mechanism is designed to be compatible with EPCglobal Class-1 Generation-2 standard which is the most popular specification of RFID tags. Due to the light-weight computational capacity of passive tags, only the pseudo-random number generator (PRNG) and cyclic redundancy code (CRC) are allowed to be used in the communication protocol. Furthermore, a practical scenario of using this proposed mechanism in hospital to examine the medication safety is also presented. PMID:20052898

  18. Message Protocols for Provisioning and Usage of Computing Services

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Borissov, Nikolay; Caton, Simon; Rana, Omer; Levine, Aharon

    The commercial availability of computational resources enable consumers to scale their applications on-demand. However, it is necessary for both consumers and providers of computational resources to express their technical and economic preferences using common language protocols. Ultimately, this requires clear, flexible and pragmatic communication protocols and policies for the expression of bids and resulting generation of service level agreements (SLAs). Further standardization efforts in such description languages will foster the specification of common interfaces and matching rules for establishing SLAs. Grid middleware are not compatible with market-orientated resource provisioning. We aim to reduce this gap by defining extensions to a standardized specification such as JSDL. Furthermore, we present a methodology for matchmaking consumer bids and provider offers and map the additional economic attributes into a SLA. We demonstrate the usage of the message protocols in an application scenario.

  19. Protocol for detection of nonsecular conversion through coherent nanooptical spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krecik, Markus; Hein, Sven M.; Schoth, Mario; Richter, Marten

    2015-11-01

    The theoretical description of dynamics in open quantum systems becomes very demanding upon inclusion of non-Markovian effects. To simplify the computational implementation for density matrix equations of motion, the secular approximation is often applied. An experimental verification of its validity though remains difficult due to uncertainties in the system parameters and the absence of qualitatively distinct features. In this paper, we present the proposal for an experimental detection protocol sensitive to nonsecular processes neglected in the secular approximation. The protocol uses a combination of multidimensional coherent spectroscopy and nanoplasmonics. It allows for studies of nonsecular processes in various systems and provides a tool to experimentally verify the validity of the secular approximation. We apply this protocol to a system of CdSe/ZnS nanostructures and discuss the particular features originating from nonsecular processes on the resulting two-dimensional spectra.

  20. A practical approach to the interGroup protocols

    SciTech Connect

    Berket, Karlo; Agarwal, Deborah A.; Chevassut, Olivier

    2001-11-12

    Existing reliable ordered group communication protocols have been developed for local-area networks and do not, in general, scale well to large numbers of nodes and wide-area networks. The InterGroup suite of protocols is a scalable group communication system that introduces an unusual approach to handling group membership, and supports a receiver-oriented selection of service. The protocols are intended for a wide-area network, with a large number of nodes, that has highly variable delays and a high message loss rate, such as the Internet. The levels of the message delivery service range from unreliable unordered to reliable timestamp ordered. We also present a secure group layer that builds on InterGroup to provide SSL-like security for groups.

  1. A Survey on Clustering Routing Protocols in Wireless Sensor Networks

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Xuxun

    2012-01-01

    The past few years have witnessed increased interest in the potential use of wireless sensor networks (WSNs) in a wide range of applications and it has become a hot research area. Based on network structure, routing protocols in WSNs can be divided into two categories: flat routing and hierarchical or clustering routing. Owing to a variety of advantages, clustering is becoming an active branch of routing technology in WSNs. In this paper, we present a comprehensive and fine grained survey on clustering routing protocols proposed in the literature for WSNs. We outline the advantages and objectives of clustering for WSNs, and develop a novel taxonomy of WSN clustering routing methods based on complete and detailed clustering attributes. In particular, we systematically analyze a few prominent WSN clustering routing protocols and compare these different approaches according to our taxonomy and several significant metrics. Finally, we summarize and conclude the paper with some future directions. PMID:23112649

  2. Reporting of planned statistical methods in published surgical randomised trial protocols: a protocol for a methodological systematic review

    PubMed Central

    Madden, Kim; Arseneau, Erika; Evaniew, Nathan; Smith, Christopher S; Thabane, Lehana

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Poor reporting can lead to inadequate presentation of data, confusion regarding research methodology used, selective reporting of results, and other misinformation regarding health research. One of the most recent attempts to improve quality of reporting comes from the Standard Protocol Items: Recommendations for Interventional Trials (SPIRIT) Group, which makes recommendations for the reporting of protocols. In this report, we present a protocol for a systematic review of published surgical randomised controlled trial (RCT) protocols, with the purpose of assessing the reporting quality and completeness of the statistical aspects. Methods We will include all published protocols of randomised trials that investigate surgical interventions. We will search MEDLINE, EMBASE, and CENTRAL for relevant studies. Author pairs will independently review all titles, abstracts, and full texts identified by the literature search, and extract data using a structured data extraction form. We will extract the following: year of publication, country, sample size, description of study population, description of intervention and control, primary outcome, important methodological qualities, and quality of reporting of planned statistical methods based on the SPIRIT guidelines. Ethics and dissemination The results of this review will demonstrate the quality of statistical reporting of published surgical RCT protocols. This knowledge will inform recommendations to surgeons, researchers, journal editors and peer reviewers, and other knowledge users that focus on common deficiencies in reporting and how to rectify them. Ethics approval for this study is not required. We will disseminate the results of this review in peer-reviewed publications and conference presentations, and at a doctoral independent study of oral defence. PMID:27259528

  3. Flexible protocol for quantum private query based on B92 protocol

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Yu-Guang; Sun, Si-Jia; Xu, Peng; Tian, Ju

    2013-12-01

    Jakobi et al. for the first time proposed a novel and practical quantum private query (QPQ) protocol based on SARG04 (Scarani et al. in Phys Rev Lett 92:057901, 2004) quantum key distribution protocol (Jakobi et al. in Phys Rev A 83:022301, 2011). Gao et al. generalized Jakobi et al's protocol and proposed a flexible QPQ protocol (Gao et al. in Opt Exp 20(16):17411-17420, 2012). When θ <π /4, Gao et al's protocol exhibits better database security than Jakobi et al's protocol, but has a higher probability with which Bob can correctly guess the address of Alice's query. In this paper, we propose a flexible B92-based QPQ protocol. Although SARG04 protocol is a modification of B92 protocol and can be seen as a generalization of B92 protocol, our protocol shows different advantages from Gao et al's protocol. It can simultaneously obtain better database security and a lower probability with which Bob can correctly guess the address of Alice's query when θ <π /4. By introducing entanglement, the proposed QPQ protocol is robust against channel-loss attack, which also implies lower classical communication complexity. Similar to Gao et al's protocol, it is flexible, practical, and robust against quantum memory attack.

  4. Picture archiving and communications systems protocol based on ISO-OSI standard

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martinez, Ralph; Nam, Jiseung; Dallas, William J.; Osada, Masakazu; McNeill, Kevin M.; Ozeki, Takeshi; Komatsu, Ken-Ichi

    1991-07-01

    During the last decade, the concept of picture archiving and communication systems (PACS) has evolved and matured to integrate digital image information in a hospital. PACS integrates various imaging devices, database archive systems, and image viewing workstations. One of the most difficult problems for integration is the standardization of communication protocols required to connect devices from different vendors. When the ACR-NEMA standard was announced for communications in digital radiology in 1985, it solved some of the problems for PACS with a hardware interface, a set of software commands, and a consistent set of data formats. However, it has been found to be inadequate for networked PACS environments, not only because of its point-to-point nature and lack of a network layer, but also because of its inflexibility to allow other services and protocols to be added in the future. Based on previous experience, the case is made for a new standard for PACS networks and a suggested approach for new protocol is presented. This paper addresses the development of a new standard for PACS protocol layers and attempts to define the protocols from a layered-systems approach. The basis for the new protocol definition is primarily the International Organization for Standardization/Open Systems Interconnection (ISO/OSI) protocols and the data format portion of ACR-NEMA standard. The scope and rationale of the proposed protocol, background, and relationship to PACS technology are discussed. The proposed PACS protocol covers the protocol service definition and specification for the application, presentation, session, transport, and network layers. The proposed PACS protocol is intended to facilitate the development of PACSs by several vendors capable of interfacing with each other. The new PACS protocols will also support a global PACS environment.

  5. Etude des phenomenes dynamiques ultrarapides et des caracteristiques impulsionnelles d'emission terahertz du supraconducteur YBCO

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Savard, Stephane

    choisi, nous avons mesure les proprietes intrinseques du meme echantillon de YBa2Cu3O7- delta avec la technique pompe-visible et sonde-terahertz donnant, elle aussi, acces aux temps caracteristiques regissant l'evolution hors-equilibre de ce materiau. Dans le meilleur scenario, ces temps caracteristiques devraient correspondre a ceux evalues grace a la modelisation des antennes. Un bon controle des parametres de croissance des couches minces supraconductrices et de fabrication du dispositif nous a permis de realiser des antennes d'emission terahertz possedant d'excellentes caracteristiques en terme de largeur de bande d'emission (typiquement 3 THz) exploitables pour des applications de spectroscopie resolue dans le domaine temporel. Le modele developpe et retenu pour le lissage du spectre terahertz decrit bien les caracteristiques de l'antenne supraconductrice pour tous les parametres d'operation. Toutefois, le lien avec la technique pompe-sonde lors de la comparaison des proprietes intrinseques n'est pas direct malgre que les deux techniques montrent que le temps de relaxation des porteurs augmente pres de la temperature critique. Les donnees en pompe-sonde indiquent que la mesure du temps de relaxation depend de la frequence de la sonde, ce qui complique la correspondance des proprietes intrinseques entre les deux techniques. De meme, le temps de relaxation extrait a partir du spectre de l'antenne terahertz augmente en s'approchant de la temperature critique (T c) de YBa2Cu 3O7-delta. Le comportement en temperature du temps de relaxation correspond a une loi de puissance qui est fonction de l'inverse du gap supraconducteur avec un exposant 5 soit 1/Delta 5(T). Le travail presente dans cette these permet de mieux decrire les caracteristiques des antennes supraconductrices a haute temperature critique et de les relier aux proprietes intrinseques du materiau qui les compose. De plus, cette these presente les parametres a ajuster comme le courant applique, la puissance de

  6. Optical protocols for advanced spacecraft networks

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bergman, Larry A.

    1991-01-01

    Most present day fiber optic networks are in fact extensions of copper wire networks. As a result, their speed is still limited by electronics even though optics is capable of running three orders of magnitude faster. Also, the fact that photons do not interact with one another (as electrons do) provides optical communication systems with some unique properties or new functionality that is not readily taken advantage of with conventional approaches. Some of the motivation for implementing network protocols in the optical domain, a few possible approaches including optical code-division multiple-access (CDMA), and how this class of networks can extend the technology life cycle of the Space Station Freedom (SSF) with increased performance and functionality are described.

  7. Automatic quality assessment protocol for MRI equipment.

    PubMed

    Bourel, P; Gibon, D; Coste, E; Daanen, V; Rousseau, J

    1999-12-01

    The authors have developed a protocol and software for the quality assessment of MRI equipment with a commercial test object. Automatic image analysis consists of detecting surfaces and objects, defining regions of interest, acquiring reference point coordinates and establishing gray level profiles. Signal-to-noise ratio, image uniformity, geometrical distortion, slice thickness, slice profile, and spatial resolution are checked. The results are periodically analyzed to evaluate possible drifts with time. The measurements are performed weekly on three MRI scanners made by the Siemens Company (VISION 1.5T, EXPERT 1.0T, and OPEN 0.2T). The results obtained for the three scanners over approximately 3.5 years are presented, analyzed, and compared. PMID:10619255

  8. Le mouvement du pôle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bizouard, Christian

    2012-03-01

    Les variations de la rotation terrestre. En conditionnant à la fois notre vie quotidienne, notre perception du ciel, et bon nombre de phénomènes géophysiques comme la formation des cyclones, la rotation de la Terre se trouve au croisement de plusieurs disciplines. Si le phenomena se faisait uniformément, le sujet serait vite discuté, mais c'est parce que la rotation terrestre varie, même imperceptiblement pour nos sens, dans sa vitesse angulaire comme dans la direction de son axe, qu'elle suscite un grand intérêt. D'abord pour des raisons pratiques : non seulement les aléas de la rotation terrestre modi_ent à la longue les pointés astrométriques à un instant donné de la journée mais in_uencent aussi les mesures opérées par les techniques spatiales ; en consequence l'exploitation de ces mesures, par exemple pour déterminer les orbites des satellites impliqués ou pratiquer le positionnement au sol, nécessite une connaissance précise de ces variations. Plus fondamentalement, elles traduisent les propriétés globales de la Terre comme les processus physiques qui s'y déroulent, si bien qu'en analysant les causes des fluctuations observées, on dispose d'un moyen de mieux connaître notre globe. La découverte progressive des fluctuations de la rotation de la Terre a une longue histoire. Sous l'angle des techniques d'observation, trois époques se pro-celle du pointé astrométrique à l'oeil nu, à l'aide d'instruments en bois ou métalliques (quart de cercle muraux par exemple). À partir du XVIIe siècle débute l'astrométrie télescopique dont les pointés sont complétés par des datations de plus en plus précises grâce à l'invention d'horloges régulées par balancier. Cette deuxième époque se termine vers 1960, avec l'avènement des techniques spatiales : les pointés astrométriques sont délaissés au profit de la mesure ultra-précise de durées ou de fréquences de signaux électromagnétiques, grâce à l'invention des horloges

  9. Intelligent routing protocol for ad hoc wireless network

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peng, Chaorong; Chen, Chang Wen

    2006-05-01

    A novel routing scheme for mobile ad hoc networks (MANETs), which combines hybrid and multi-inter-routing path properties with a distributed topology discovery route mechanism using control agents is proposed in this paper. In recent years, a variety of hybrid routing protocols for Mobile Ad hoc wireless networks (MANETs) have been developed. Which is proactively maintains routing information for a local neighborhood, while reactively acquiring routes to destinations beyond the global. The hybrid protocol reduces routing discovery latency and the end-to-end delay by providing high connectivity without requiring much of the scarce network capacity. On the other side the hybrid routing protocols in MANETs likes Zone Routing Protocol still need route "re-discover" time when a route between zones link break. Sine the topology update information needs to be broadcast routing request on local zone. Due to this delay, the routing protocol may not be applicable for real-time data and multimedia communication. We utilize the advantages of a clustering organization and multi-routing path in routing protocol to achieve several goals at the same time. Firstly, IRP efficiently saves network bandwidth and reduces route reconstruction time when a routing path fails. The IRP protocol does not require global periodic routing advertisements, local control agents will automatically monitor and repair broke links. Secondly, it efficiently reduces congestion and traffic "bottlenecks" for ClusterHeads in clustering network. Thirdly, it reduces significant overheads associated with maintaining clusters. Fourthly, it improves clusters stability due to dynamic topology changing frequently. In this paper, we present the Intelligent Routing Protocol. First, we discuss the problem of routing in ad hoc networks and the motivation of IRP. We describe the hierarchical architecture of IRP. We describe the routing process and illustrate it with an example. Further, we describe the control manage

  10. Telomerase Repeated Amplification Protocol (TRAP)

    PubMed Central

    Mender, Ilgen; Shay, Jerry W.

    2016-01-01

    Telomeres are found at the end of eukaryotic linear chromosomes, and proteins that bind to telomeres protect DNA from being recognized as double-strand breaks thus preventing end-to-end fusions (Griffith et al., 1999). However, due to the end replication problem and other factors such as oxidative damage, the limited life span of cultured cells (Hayflick limit) results in progressive shortening of these protective structures (Hayflick and Moorhead, 1961; Olovnikov, 1973). The ribonucleoprotein enzyme complex telomerase-consisting of a protein catalytic component hTERT and a functional RNA component hTR or hTERC- counteracts telomere shortening by adding telomeric repeats to the end of chromosomes in ~90% of primary human tumors and in some transiently proliferating stem-like cells (Shay and Wright, 1996; Shay and Wright, 2001). This results in continuous proliferation of cells which is a hallmark of cancer. Therefore, telomere biology has a central role in aging, cancer progression/metastasis as well as targeted cancer therapies. There are commonly used methods in telomere biology such as Telomere Restriction Fragment (TRF) (Mender and Shay, 2015b), Telomere Repeat Amplification Protocol (TRAP) and Telomere dysfunction Induced Foci (TIF) analysis (Mender and Shay, 2015a). In this detailed protocol we describe Telomere Repeat Amplification Protocol (TRAP). The TRAP assay is a popular method to determine telomerase activity in mammalian cells and tissue samples (Kim et al., 1994). The TRAP assay includes three steps: extension, amplification, and detection of telomerase products. In the extension step, telomeric repeats are added to the telomerase substrate (which is actually a non telomeric oligonucleotide, TS) by telomerase. In the amplification step, the extension products are amplified by the polymerase chain reaction (PCR) using specific primers (TS upstream primer and ACX downstream primer) and in the detection step, the presence or absence of telomerase is

  11. Classification moléculaire du cancer du sein au Maroc

    PubMed Central

    Fouad, Abbass; Yousra, Akasbi; Kaoutar, Znati; Omar, El Mesbahi; Afaf, Amarti; Sanae, Bennis

    2012-01-01

    Introduction La classification moléculaire des cancers du sein basée sur l'expression génique puis sur le profil protéique a permis de distinguer cinq groupes moléculaires: luminal A, luminal B, Her2/neu, basal-like et non-classées. L'objectif de cette étude réalisée au CHU Hassan II de Fès est de classer 335 cancers du sein infiltrant en groupes moléculaires, puis de les corréler avec les caractéristiques clinicopathologiques. Méthodes Etude rétrospective étalée sur 45 mois, comportant 335 patientes colligées au CHU pour le diagnostic et le suivi. Les tumeurs sont analysées histologiquement et classées après une étude immunohistochimique en groupes: luminal A, luminal B, Her2+, basal-like et non-classées. Résultats 54.3% des tumeurs sont du groupe luminal A, 16% luminal B, 11.3% Her2+, 11.3% basal-like et 7% non-classées. Le groupe luminal A renferme le plus faible taux de grade III, d'emboles vasculaires ainsi que de métastases; alors que le groupe des non-classées et basal-like représentent un taux élevé de grade III, une faible proportion d'emboles vasculaires et d'envahissement ganglionnaire. Ces facteurs sont significativement élevés dans les groupes luminal B et Her2+ avec un taux de survie globale de 78% et 76% respectivement. Dans le groupe luminal A, la survie globale des patientes est élevée (87%) alors qu'elle n'est que de 49% dans le groupe des triples négatifs (basal-like et non-classés). Conclusion Le groupe luminal B est différent du luminal A et il est de pronostic péjoratif vis à vis du groupe Her2+. Les caractéristiques clinicopathologiques concordent avec le profil moléculaire donc devraient être pris en considération comme facteurs pronostiques. PMID:23396646

  12. Measuring Discourse-Level Processes with Verbal Protocols and Latent Semantic Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Millis, Keith; Magliano, Joseph; Todaro, Stacey

    2006-01-01

    The present study used latent semantic analysis (LSA) to analyze verbal protocols that were collected while participants read expository passages. In the study, participants were asked to type their thoughts after reading each sentence of 2 scientific texts. The semantic similarity between the protocols and the current sentence and prior causal…

  13. Using Green Star Metrics to Optimize the Greenness of Literature Protocols for Syntheses

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Duarte, Rita C. C.; Ribeiro, M. Gabriela T. C.; Machado, Adélio A. S. C.

    2015-01-01

    A procedure to improve the greenness of a synthesis, without performing laboratory work, using alternative protocols available in the literature is presented. The greenness evaluation involves the separate assessment of the different steps described in the available protocols--reaction, isolation, and purification--as well as the global process,…

  14. Transport of Internet Protocol traffic over an Ethernet-over-wavelength-division-multiplexing architecture

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gilardi, Guido; Pattavina, Achille; Verticale, Giacomo

    2002-08-01

    We present a solution for transport of Internet Protocol (IP) packets over optical networks. The protocol relies heavily on the data link and physical layer of the proposed standard 10-Gbit/s Ethernet. The architecture is able to perform optical multiplexing and forwarding of asynchronous packets such as those generated by classical Ethernet devices.

  15. Validating Knowledge-Based Framework through Mission-Oriented Sensors Array and Smart Sensor Protocol

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rodrigues, Douglas; Pires, Rayner M.; Branco, Kalinka R. L. J. C.

    2015-09-01

    This paper addresses the problem of using Service-Oriented Architecture (SOA) in critical embedded systems, mainly in Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAVs). We present the use of a SOA approach to provide the integration of the payload in the UAV. The integration is provided by a plug and play protocol named Smart Sensor Protocol (SSP) that validates the SOA approach.

  16. Communication protocol in chassis detecting wireless transmission system based on WiFi

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In chassis detecting wireless transmission system, the wireless network communication protocol plays a key role in the information exchange and synchronization between the host and chassis PDA. This paper presents a wireless network transmission protocol based on TCP/IP which makes the rules of info...

  17. 16S rRNA region based PCR protocol for identification and subtyping of Parvimonas micra

    PubMed Central

    Ota-Tsuzuki, C.; Brunheira, A.T.P.; Mayer, M.P.A.

    2008-01-01

    The present study established a PCR protocol in order to identify Parvimonas micra and to evaluate the intra-species diversity by PCR-RFLP of 16S rRNA partial sequence. The data indicated that the protocol was able to identify this species which could be clustered in five genotypes. PMID:24031274

  18. A Self-Stabilizing Hybrid Fault-Tolerant Synchronization Protocol

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Malekpour, Mahyar R.

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents a strategy for solving the Byzantine general problem for self-stabilizing a fully connected network from an arbitrary state and in the presence of any number of faults with various severities including any number of arbitrary (Byzantine) faulty nodes. The strategy consists of two parts: first, converting Byzantine faults into symmetric faults, and second, using a proven symmetric-fault tolerant algorithm to solve the general case of the problem. A protocol (algorithm) is also present that tolerates symmetric faults, provided that there are more good nodes than faulty ones. The solution applies to realizable systems, while allowing for differences in the network elements, provided that the number of arbitrary faults is not more than a third of the network size. The only constraint on the behavior of a node is that the interactions with other nodes are restricted to defined links and interfaces. The solution does not rely on assumptions about the initial state of the system and no central clock nor centrally generated signal, pulse, or message is used. Nodes are anonymous, i.e., they do not have unique identities. A mechanical verification of a proposed protocol is also present. A bounded model of the protocol is verified using the Symbolic Model Verifier (SMV). The model checking effort is focused on verifying correctness of the bounded model of the protocol as well as confirming claims of determinism and linear convergence with respect to the self-stabilization period.

  19. 1. Historic American Buildings Survey, drawn by Pierre du Simitiere ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. Historic American Buildings Survey, drawn by Pierre du Simitiere (papers in Philadelphia Library) DRAWING OF REDWOOD LIBRARY IN 1768. - Redwood Library, 50 Bellevue Avenue, Newport, Newport County, RI

  20. Universal protocol for alopecia areata clinical studies.

    PubMed

    Mesinkovska, Natasha A; Bergfeld, Wilma F

    2013-12-01

    Within the area of alopecia areata research, there is an obvious need for well-designed clinical trials of therapeutic agents. The National Alopecia Areata Foundation (NAAF) has created an initiative for the development of a unified protocol with guidelines for clinical studies. The NAAF universal protocol represents a joint effort of clinicians and investigators with experience in treating alopecia areata. This protocol will serve as a tremendous resource to facilitate future clinical studies. PMID:24326554

  1. Layered protocols in voice interaction with computers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Taylor, M. M.

    1987-02-01

    The Layered Protocol model for human computer interfaces is described, with special reference to the problems of voice input and output. In a layered protocol, each level passes virtual messages back and forth between human and computer. These virtual messages are realized in the form of interchanges at the level below. The protocol at a level is analogous to the syntax of a sentence, in that it is the method by which the content of a message can be given an agreed interpretation. Each protocol can be designed or evaluated independently of all the others in an interface. The stability of a protocol is determined by its response delays and by the channel capacity of the lower level protocols that support its messages. Sometimes an unstable protocol can be stabilized and speeded by reducing the message rate of the supporting protocols. Users have been observed to do this intuitively. Voice input provides special problems because of the relatively high error probability inherent in the recognizer: errors in other modalities are likely to be due to operator fault. This tends to lead to unwarranted distrust of voice input, and to demands for types of feedback that are probably inappropriate to the level of protocol to which the recognizer is suited. Voice output can be used by the computer to initiate protocols, or to provide a response channel for protocols under conditions where the user's eyes are otherwise occupied. Consideration of protocol demands helps to clarify the requirements for precision in recognition, and for the characteristics of computer responses to voice input; it helps also in judging appropriate conditions for the use of voice output.

  2. [The research protocol. Part I].

    PubMed

    Miranda-Novales, María Guadalupe; Villasís-Keever, Miguel Ángel

    2015-01-01

    One of the principal aims in research is the publication of the study in scientific journals. This implies two challenges: the first one, the election of an adequate research design, and the second one, the concrete and simple wording of the results for the study to be accepted in the most appropriate journal according to the scope. Despite numerous supporting documents are available for both issues, the publication process is long, tiresome, and can discourage the most enthusiastic researcher. This is the first of a series of articles with the objective to describe the steps from the research question to the publication of the study. First of all, the importance of the research design will be addressed. The structure of the protocol is essential to achieve the objectives, and provides a way to organize the investigation in a logic, comprehensible and efficient manner. PMID:26556666

  3. Diosmin induces genotoxicity and apoptosis in DU145 prostate cancer cell line.

    PubMed

    Lewinska, Anna; Siwak, Justyna; Rzeszutek, Iwona; Wnuk, Maciej

    2015-04-01

    Plant-derived dietary polyphenolic compounds, such as flavonoids, with cancer cell-specific pro-apoptotic activity and chemopreventive potential are thought to be promising anticancer agents. In the present study, we were interested in determining if flavonoid-induced genotoxicity may also provoke cancer cell death. Cyto- and genotoxicity of three selected flavonoid glycosides (naringin, diosmin and hesperidin) in DU145 prostate cancer cell line were investigated. Flavonoid glycosides decreased cancer cell number and proliferative activity in a different manner. Flavonoid glycosides induced oxidative stress: intracellular total ROS and superoxide production were augmented after flavonoid treatment. Flavonoid glycosides stimulated DNA double strand breaks (DSBs) and micronuclei production. Diosmin was found the most potent genotoxic agent in DU145 cells, which, in turn, resulted in its pro-apoptotic activity. The more robust recruitment of 53BP1 was correlated with lower DNA and chromosomal damage after naringin and hesperidin treatment compared with diosmin treatment. Flavonoid glycosides were also found to be DNA hypomethylating agents with an ability to modulate cancer cell epigenome leading to changes in the gene expression patterns. Taken together, diosmin, a dietary flavonoid glycoside, was found active against DU145 cells by promoting genotoxic events and a concomitant apoptotic cell death. Thus, a comprehensive analysis of biological activity of diosmin against cancer cells both in vitro and in vivo deserves further investigation. PMID:25499067

  4. Canine adenovirus downstream processing protocol.

    PubMed

    Puig, Meritxell; Piedra, Jose; Miravet, Susana; Segura, María Mercedes

    2014-01-01

    Adenovirus vectors are efficient gene delivery tools. A major caveat with vectors derived from common human adenovirus serotypes is that most adults are likely to have been exposed to the wild-type virus and exhibit active immunity against the vectors. This preexisting immunity limits their clinical success. Strategies to circumvent this problem include the use of nonhuman adenovirus vectors. Vectors derived from canine adenovirus type 2 (CAV-2) are among the best-studied representatives. CAV-2 vectors are particularly attractive for the treatment of neurodegenerative disorders. In addition, CAV-2 vectors have shown great promise as oncolytic agents in virotherapy approaches and as vectors for recombinant vaccines. The rising interest in CAV-2 vectors calls for the development of scalable GMP compliant production and purification strategies. A detailed protocol describing a complete scalable downstream processing strategy for CAV-2 vectors is reported here. Clarification of CAV-2 particles is achieved by microfiltration. CAV-2 particles are subsequently concentrated and partially purified by ultrafiltration-diafiltration. A Benzonase(®) digestion step is carried out between ultrafiltration and diafiltration operations to eliminate contaminating nucleic acids. Chromatography purification is accomplished in two consecutive steps. CAV-2 particles are first captured and concentrated on a propyl hydrophobic interaction chromatography column followed by a polishing step using DEAE anion exchange monoliths. Using this protocol, high-quality CAV-2 vector preparations containing low levels of contamination with empty viral capsids and other inactive vector forms are typically obtained. The complete process yield was estimated to be 38-45 %. PMID:24132487

  5. Data Provenance in Photogrammetry Through Documentation Protocols

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carboni, N.; Bruseker, G.; Guillem, A.; Bellido Castañeda, D.; Coughenour, C.; Domajnko, M.; de Kramer, M.; Ramos Calles, M. M.; Stathopoulou, E. K.; Suma, R.

    2016-06-01

    Documenting the relevant aspects in digitisation processes such as photogrammetry in order to provide a robust provenance for their products continues to present a challenge. The creation of a product that can be re-used scientifically requires a framework for consistent, standardised documentation of the entire digitisation pipeline. This article provides an analysis of the problems inherent to such goals and presents a series of protocols to document the various steps of a photogrammetric workflow. We propose this pipeline, with descriptors to track all phases of digital product creation in order to assure data provenance and enable the validation of the operations from an analytic and production perspective. The approach aims to support adopters of the workflow to define procedures with a long term perspective. The conceptual schema we present is founded on an analysis of information and actor exchanges in the digitisation process. The metadata were defined through the synthesis of previous proposals in this area and were tested on a case study. We performed the digitisation of a set of cultural heritage artefacts from an Iron Age burial in Ilmendorf, Germany. The objects were captured and processed using different techniques, including a comparison of different imaging tools and algorithms. This augmented the complexity of the process allowing us to test the flexibility of the schema for documenting complex scenarios. Although we have only presented a photogrammetry digitisation scenario, we claim that our schema is easily applicable to a multitude of 3D documentation processes.

  6. Tumeur du sac vitellin du testicule au stade IIIc métastatique : à propos d’un cas

    PubMed Central

    Zizi, Mohamed; Ziouziou, Imad; El Yacoubi, Souhail; Khmou, Mouna; Jahid, Ahmed; Mahassini, Najat; Karmouni, Tariq; El Khader, Khalid; Koutani, Abdellatif; Andaloussi, Ahmed Iben Attya

    2014-01-01

    Résumé Les tumeurs du sac vitellin du testicule sont rares chez l’adulte. Ces tumeurs se caractérisent par un mauvais pronostic à un stade métastatique avancé. Cependant, nous rapportons, dans le présent article, le cas clinique d’un adulte de 32 ans qui présentait une tumeur du sac vitellin du testicule au stade IIIc métastatique. Ce patient a subi une orchidectomie haute, accompagnée de quatre cycles de chimiothérapie à base de bléomycine, d’étoposide et de cisplatine. Il a répondu complètement au traitement, moyennant un recul de deux ans. PMID:25295144

  7. The Virtual Insect Brain protocol: creating and comparing standardized neuroanatomy

    PubMed Central

    Jenett, Arnim; Schindelin, Johannes E; Heisenberg, Martin

    2006-01-01

    Background In the fly Drosophila melanogaster, new genetic, physiological, molecular and behavioral techniques for the functional analysis of the brain are rapidly accumulating. These diverse investigations on the function of the insect brain use gene expression patterns that can be visualized and provide the means for manipulating groups of neurons as a common ground. To take advantage of these patterns one needs to know their typical anatomy. Results This paper describes the Virtual Insect Brain (VIB) protocol, a script suite for the quantitative assessment, comparison, and presentation of neuroanatomical data. It is based on the 3D-reconstruction and visualization software Amira, version 3.x (Mercury Inc.) [1]. Besides its backbone, a standardization procedure which aligns individual 3D images (series of virtual sections obtained by confocal microscopy) to a common coordinate system and computes average intensities for each voxel (volume pixel) the VIB protocol provides an elaborate data management system for data administration. The VIB protocol facilitates direct comparison of gene expression patterns and describes their interindividual variability. It provides volumetry of brain regions and helps to characterize the phenotypes of brain structure mutants. Using the VIB protocol does not require any programming skills since all operations are carried out at an intuitively usable graphical user interface. Although the VIB protocol has been developed for the standardization of Drosophila neuroanatomy, the program structure can be used for the standardization of other 3D structures as well. Conclusion Standardizing brains and gene expression patterns is a new approach to biological shape and its variability. The VIB protocol provides a first set of tools supporting this endeavor in Drosophila. The script suite is freely available at [2] PMID:17196102

  8. GENERIC VERIFICATION PROTOCOL: DISTRIBUTED GENERATION AND COMBINED HEAT AND POWER FIELD TESTING PROTOCOL

    EPA Science Inventory

    This report is a generic verification protocol by which EPA’s Environmental Technology Verification program tests newly developed equipment for distributed generation of electric power, usually micro-turbine generators and internal combustion engine generators. The protocol will ...

  9. Model Checking a Byzantine-Fault-Tolerant Self-Stabilizing Protocol for Distributed Clock Synchronization Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Malekpour, Mahyar R.

    2007-01-01

    This report presents the mechanical verification of a simplified model of a rapid Byzantine-fault-tolerant self-stabilizing protocol for distributed clock synchronization systems. This protocol does not rely on any assumptions about the initial state of the system. This protocol tolerates bursts of transient failures, and deterministically converges within a time bound that is a linear function of the self-stabilization period. A simplified model of the protocol is verified using the Symbolic Model Verifier (SMV) [SMV]. The system under study consists of 4 nodes, where at most one of the nodes is assumed to be Byzantine faulty. The model checking effort is focused on verifying correctness of the simplified model of the protocol in the presence of a permanent Byzantine fault as well as confirmation of claims of determinism and linear convergence with respect to the self-stabilization period. Although model checking results of the simplified model of the protocol confirm the theoretical predictions, these results do not necessarily confirm that the protocol solves the general case of this problem. Modeling challenges of the protocol and the system are addressed. A number of abstractions are utilized in order to reduce the state space. Also, additional innovative state space reduction techniques are introduced that can be used in future verification efforts applied to this and other protocols.

  10. EXACT2: the semantics of biomedical protocols

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background The reliability and reproducibility of experimental procedures is a cornerstone of scientific practice. There is a pressing technological need for the better representation of biomedical protocols to enable other agents (human or machine) to better reproduce results. A framework that ensures that all information required for the replication of experimental protocols is essential to achieve reproducibility. Methods We have developed the ontology EXACT2 (EXperimental ACTions) that is designed to capture the full semantics of biomedical protocols required for their reproducibility. To construct EXACT2 we manually inspected hundreds of published and commercial biomedical protocols from several areas of biomedicine. After establishing a clear pattern for extracting the required information we utilized text-mining tools to translate the protocols into a machine amenable format. We have verified the utility of EXACT2 through the successful processing of previously 'unseen' (not used for the construction of EXACT2) protocols. Results The paper reports on a fundamentally new version EXACT2 that supports the semantically-defined representation of biomedical protocols. The ability of EXACT2 to capture the semantics of biomedical procedures was verified through a text mining use case. In this EXACT2 is used as a reference model for text mining tools to identify terms pertinent to experimental actions, and their properties, in biomedical protocols expressed in natural language. An EXACT2-based framework for the translation of biomedical protocols to a machine amenable format is proposed. Conclusions The EXACT2 ontology is sufficient to record, in a machine processable form, the essential information about biomedical protocols. EXACT2 defines explicit semantics of experimental actions, and can be used by various computer applications. It can serve as a reference model for for the translation of biomedical protocols in natural language into a semantically

  11. Protocols for Image Processing based Underwater Inspection of Infrastructure Elements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    O'Byrne, Michael; Ghosh, Bidisha; Schoefs, Franck; Pakrashi, Vikram

    2015-07-01

    Image processing can be an important tool for inspecting underwater infrastructure elements like bridge piers and pile wharves. Underwater inspection often relies on visual descriptions of divers who are not necessarily trained in specifics of structural degradation and the information may often be vague, prone to error or open to significant variation of interpretation. Underwater vehicles, on the other hand can be quite expensive to deal with for such inspections. Additionally, there is now significant encouragement globally towards the deployment of more offshore renewable wind turbines and wave devices and the requirement for underwater inspection can be expected to increase significantly in the coming years. While the merit of image processing based assessment of the condition of underwater structures is understood to a certain degree, there is no existing protocol on such image based methods. This paper discusses and describes an image processing protocol for underwater inspection of structures. A stereo imaging image processing method is considered in this regard and protocols are suggested for image storage, imaging, diving, and inspection. A combined underwater imaging protocol is finally presented which can be used for a variety of situations within a range of image scenes and environmental conditions affecting the imaging conditions. An example of detecting marine growth is presented of a structure in Cork Harbour, Ireland.

  12. Cryptanalysis of the Hillery-Buzek-Berthiaume quantum secret-sharing protocol

    SciTech Connect

    Qin Sujuan; Gao Fei; Wen Qiaoyan; Zhu Fuchen

    2007-12-15

    The participant attack is the most serious threat for quantum secret-sharing protocols. We present a method to analyze the security of quantum secret-sharing protocols against this kind of attack taking the scheme of Hillery, Buzek, and Berthiaume (HBB) [Phys. Rev. A 59, 1829 (1999)] as an example. By distinguishing between two mixed states, we derive the necessary and sufficient conditions under which a dishonest participant can attain all the information without introducing any error, which shows that the HBB protocol is insecure against dishonest participants. It is easy to verify that the attack scheme of Karlsson, Koashi, and Imoto [Phys. Rev. A 59, 162 (1999)] is a special example of our results. To demonstrate our results further, we construct an explicit attack scheme according to the necessary and sufficient conditions. Our work completes the security analysis of the HBB protocol, and the method presented may be useful for the analysis of other similar protocols.

  13. Simultaneous quantification of an anti-inflammatory compound (DuP 697) and a potential metabolite (X6882) in human plasma and urine by high-performance liquid chromatography.

    PubMed

    Joshi, A S; Raghavan, N; Williams, R M; Takahashi, K; Shingu, H; King, S Y

    1994-10-01

    A high-performance liquid chromatographic (HPLC) method using fluorescence detection has been developed for the simultaneous analysis of low nanogram concentrations of an anti-inflammatory drug, 5-Bromo-2-(4-fluorophenyl)-3-[4-(methylsulfonyl)phenyl]thiophene (DuP 697), and a potential metabolite (X6882) in human plasma and of DuP 697 in human urine. This assay method used an EM Separations Lichrospher C18 endcapped column. The mobile phase was acetonitrile-water (75:25, v/v). The detection of DuP 697 and X6882 was by fluorescence at excitation and emission wavelengths of 256 and 419 nm, respectively. The chromatographic system could separate DuP 697 from X6882, the external standard (anthracene), and other endogenous substances present in human plasma. In human plasma the limits of quantification for DuP 697 and X6882 were 3 and 20 ng/ml, respectively; the limit of quantification for DuP 697 in human urine was 5 ng/ml. These compounds were shown to be stable in frozen (-20 degrees C) human plasma and urine for at least 9 weeks. The assay described has been used to characterize DuP 697 pharmacokinetics after oral administration in humans. PMID:7858707

  14. c-Met inhibitor SU11274 enhances the response of the prostate cancer cell line DU145 to ionizing radiation

    SciTech Connect

    Yu, Hongliang; Li, Xiaoying; Sun, Shaoqian; Gao, Xianshu; Zhou, Demin

    2012-10-26

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer c-Met inhibition could significantly enhance the radiosensitivity of DU145 cells. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The mechanisms of the radiosensitization effect of c-Met inhibition on DU145 cells were also presented in this paper. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer This is the first study demonstrating the effectiveness of c-Met inhibition on treating HRPC cells with radiotherapy. -- Abstract: Hormone-refractory prostate cancer shows substantial resistance to most conventional therapies including radiotherapy, constitutes a key impediment to curing patients with the disease. c-Met overexpression plays a key role in prostate cancer tumorigenesis and disease progression. Here, we demonstrate that c-Met inhibition by SU11274 could significantly suppress cell survival and proliferation as well as enhance the radiosensitivity of DU145 cells. The underlying mechanisms of the effects of SU11274 on DU145 cells may include the inhibition of c-Met signaling, depolarization of the mitochondrial membrane potential, impairment of DNA repair function, abrogation of cell cycle arrest, and enhancement of cell death. Our study is the first to show the effectiveness of combining c-Met inhibition with ionizing radiation to cure hormone-refractory prostate cancer.

  15. Mesure de la Polarisation des Lambda Produits dans les Collisions Positron-Electron AU Lep a L'aide du Detecteur Opal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vandenplas, Denis

    Le Modele Standard est le cadre theorique general qui, jusqu'a present, a permis l'interpretation de tous les resultats experimentaux en physique des hautes energies. Cette theorie decrit, entre autres, la production d'une paire de particules elementaires, formee d'un quark et d'un antiquark, a partir de la desintegration de l'un des bosons mediateurs de l'interaction faible, le Z^0. Cependant, dans ce cas precis, la transformation subsequente des quarks primaires en particules reelles, un processus appele hadronisation, n'est decrite qu'a l'aide de modeles phenomenologiques. Afin de sonder les mecanismes de l'hadronisation, cette these presente la mesure du transfert du spin d'un quark etrange primaire a une particule appelee Lambda lors des desintegrations hadroniques du Z^0. L'etude a ete realisee dans le cadre de la collaboration OPAL, une des quatre experiences menees au collisionneur LEP, la ou des electrons et des positrons sont acceleres jusqu'a une energie commune, sqrt{s} = {rm E_ {cm}}, voisine de l'energie de production du rm Z^0, M_{Z ^0} egale a 91.3 GeV. La theorie electrofaible precise la direction du spin, c'est-a-dire la polarisation, d'un quark etrange primaire provenant de la desintegration d'un Z ^0. Quant a lui, le modele des quarks etablit que l'orientation du spin d'un Lambda est directement reliee a la polarisation du quark etrange dont il provient. La question est de determiner dans quelle mesure la polarisation du quark primaire est transmise au Lambda a la suite du processus de l'hadronisation, decrit dans le cadre de la ChromoDynamique Quantique. Une estimation, qui tient compte de tous ces differents aspects theoriques, evalue a 30% la polarisation des Lambda dont l'impulsion est superieure a 15 GeV/c. La mesure experimentale de la polarisation repose sur l'identification des Lambda a partir de la reconstitution de la desintegration Lambdato ppi^-. Ce processus, qui se deroule par le biais de l'interaction faible, viole la parite car

  16. PROTOCOL FOR BIOASSESSMENT OF HAZARDOUS WASTE SITES

    EPA Science Inventory

    The bioassessment protocol is one of several tools, including chemical analysis and field study, that can be used to characterize the potential environmental risk associated with hazardous waste sites. The protocol can be applied to priority ranking for deciding the need for clea...

  17. Open commit protocols tolerating commission failures

    SciTech Connect

    Rothermel, K.; Pappe, S. )

    1993-06-01

    To ensure atomicity of transactions in disturbed systems so-called 2-phase commit (2PC) protocols have been proposed. The basic assumption of these protocols is that the processing nodes involved in transactions are [open quotes]sane,[close quotes] i.e., they only fail with omission failures, and nodes eventually recover from failures. Unfortunately, this assumption is not realistic for so-called Open Distributed Systems (ODSs), in which nodes may have totally different reliability characteristics. In ODSs, nodes can be classified into trusted nodes (e.g., a banking server) and nontrusted nodes (e.g., a home PC requesting a remote banking service). While trusted nodes are assumed to be sane, nontrusted nodes may fail permanently and even cause commission failures to occur. In this paper, we propose a family of 2PC protocols that tolerate any number of omission failures at trusted nodes and any number of commission and omission failures at nontrusted nodes. The proposed protocols ensure that (at least) the trusted nodes participating in a transaction eventually terminate the transaction in a consistent manner. Unlike Byzantine commit protocols, our protocols do not incorporate mechanisms for achieving Byzantine agreement, which has advantages in terms of complexity: Our protocols have the same or only a slightly higher message complexity than traditional 2PC protocols. 31 refs., 10 figs., 3 tabs.

  18. MTP: An atomic multicast transport protocol

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Freier, Alan O.; Marzullo, Keith

    1990-01-01

    Multicast transport protocol (MTP); a reliable transport protocol that utilizes the multicast strategy of applicable lower layer network architectures is described. In addition to transporting data reliably and efficiently, MTP provides the client synchronization necessary for agreement on the receipt of data and the joining of the group of communicants.

  19. Delay Tolerant Networking - Bundle Protocol Simulation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    SeGui, John; Jenning, Esther

    2006-01-01

    In this paper, we report on the addition of MACHETE models needed to support DTN, namely: the Bundle Protocol (BP) model. To illustrate the useof MACHETE with the additional DTN model, we provide an example simulation to benchmark its performance. We demonstrate the use of the DTN protocol and discuss statistics gathered concerning the total time needed to simulate numerous bundle transmissions.

  20. 47 CFR 11.31 - EAS protocol.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false EAS protocol. 11.31 Section 11.31 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION GENERAL EMERGENCY ALERT SYSTEM (EAS) Equipment Requirements § 11.31 EAS protocol. (a) The EAS uses a four part message for an emergency activation of the EAS. The four parts are: Preamble and EAS Header...

  1. An Argument Approach to Observation Protocol Validity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bell, Courtney A.; Gitomer, Drew H.; McCaffrey, Daniel F.; Hamre, Bridget K.; Pianta, Robert C.; Qi, Yi

    2012-01-01

    This article develops a validity argument approach for use on observation protocols currently used to assess teacher quality for high-stakes personnel and professional development decisions. After defining the teaching quality domain, we articulate an interpretive argument for observation protocols. To illustrate the types of evidence that might…

  2. 40 CFR 161.70 - Acceptable protocols.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... appropriate protocol may be used provided that it meets the purpose of the test standards specified in the... ingredient, mixture, or product. Accordingly, failure to follow a suggested protocol will not invalidate a... data generated by the study will satisfy the requirements of this part. (c) Procedures for...

  3. 40 CFR 161.70 - Acceptable protocols.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... appropriate protocol may be used provided that it meets the purpose of the test standards specified in the... ingredient, mixture, or product. Accordingly, failure to follow a suggested protocol will not invalidate a... data generated by the study will satisfy the requirements of this part. (c) Procedures for...

  4. 21 CFR 1301.18 - Research protocols.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... to 21 U.S.C. 355(i) and 21 CFR 130.3, I, (Name and Address of IND Sponsor) submitted a Notice of... 21 Food and Drugs 9 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Research protocols. 1301.18 Section 1301.18 Food..., DISTRIBUTORS, AND DISPENSERS OF CONTROLLED SUBSTANCES Registration § 1301.18 Research protocols. (a) A...

  5. 21 CFR 1301.18 - Research protocols.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... to 21 U.S.C. 355(i) and 21 CFR 130.3, I, (Name and Address of IND Sponsor) submitted a Notice of... 21 Food and Drugs 9 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Research protocols. 1301.18 Section 1301.18 Food..., DISTRIBUTORS, AND DISPENSERS OF CONTROLLED SUBSTANCES Registration § 1301.18 Research protocols. (a) A...

  6. 16 CFR 1210.4 - Test protocol.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Test protocol. 1210.4 Section 1210.4... STANDARD FOR CIGARETTE LIGHTERS Requirements for Child Resistance § 1210.4 Test protocol. (a) Child test panel. (1) The test to determine if a lighter is resistant to successful operation by children uses...

  7. 16 CFR 1212.4 - Test protocol.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Test protocol. 1212.4 Section 1212.4... STANDARD FOR MULTI-PURPOSE LIGHTERS Requirements for Child-Resistance § 1212.4 Test protocol. (a) Child test panel. (1) The test to determine if a multi-purpose lighter is resistant to successful...

  8. National Protocols for Higher Education Approval Processes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ministerial Council on Education, Employment, Training and Youth Affairs (NJ1), 2007

    2007-01-01

    The National Protocols for Higher Education Approval Processes (the "National Protocols") are a key element of the national quality assurance framework for Australian higher education. They protect the standing of Australian higher education nationally and internationally by assuring students and the community that higher education institutions in…

  9. STANDARD MEASUREMENT PROTOCOLS - FLORIDA RADON RESEARCH PROGRAM

    EPA Science Inventory

    The manual, in support of the Florida Radon Research Program, contains standard protocols for key measurements where data quality is vital to the program. t contains two sections. he first section, soil measurements, contains field sampling protocols for soil gas permeability and...

  10. 40 CFR 161.70 - Acceptable protocols.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 25 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Acceptable protocols. 161.70 Section 161.70 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) PESTICIDE PROGRAMS DATA REQUIREMENTS FOR REGISTRATION OF ANTIMICROBIAL PESTICIDES General Provisions § 161.70 Acceptable protocols....

  11. 40 CFR 161.70 - Acceptable protocols.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 25 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Acceptable protocols. 161.70 Section 161.70 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) PESTICIDE PROGRAMS DATA REQUIREMENTS FOR REGISTRATION OF ANTIMICROBIAL PESTICIDES General Provisions § 161.70 Acceptable protocols....

  12. Massive transfusion and massive transfusion protocol

    PubMed Central

    Patil, Vijaya; Shetmahajan, Madhavi

    2014-01-01

    Haemorrhage remains a major cause of potentially preventable deaths. Rapid transfusion of large volumes of blood products is required in patients with haemorrhagic shock which may lead to a unique set of complications. Recently, protocol based management of these patients using massive transfusion protocol have shown improved outcomes. This section discusses in detail both management and complications of massive blood transfusion. PMID:25535421

  13. Ocean fertilization, carbon credits and the Kyoto Protocol

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Westley, M. B.; Gnanadesikan, A.

    2008-12-01

    Commercial interest in ocean fertilization as a carbon sequestration tool was excited by the December 1997 agreement of the Kyoto Protocol to the United Nations Convention on Climate Change. The Protocol commits industrialized countries to caps on net greenhouse gas emissions and allows for various flexible mechanisms to achieve these caps in the most economically efficient manner possible, including trade in carbon credits from projects that reduce emissions or enhance sinks. The carbon market was valued at 64 billion in 2007, with the bulk of the trading (50 billion) taking place in the highly regulated European Union Emission Trading Scheme, which deals primarily in emission allowances in the energy sector. A much smaller amount, worth $265 million, was traded in the largely unregulated "voluntary" market (Capoor and Ambrosi 2008). As the voluntary market grows, so do calls for its regulation, with several efforts underway to set rules and standards for the sale of voluntary carbon credits using the Kyoto Protocol as a starting point. Four US-based companies and an Australian company currently seek to develop ocean fertilization technologies for the generation of carbon credits. We review these plans through the lens of the Kyoto Protocol and its flexible mechanisms, and examine whether and how ocean fertilization could generate tradable carbon credits. We note that at present, ocean sinks are not included in the Kyoto Protocol, and that furthermore, the Kyoto Protocol only addresses sources and sinks of greenhouse gases within national boundaries, making open-ocean fertilization projects a jurisdictional challenge. We discuss the negotiating history behind the limited inclusion of land use, land use change and forestry in the Kyoto Protocol and the controversy and eventual compromise concerning methodologies for terrestrial carbon accounting. We conclude that current technologies for measuring and monitoring carbon sequestration following ocean fertilization

  14. Accuracy of NHANES periodontal examination protocols.

    PubMed

    Eke, P I; Thornton-Evans, G O; Wei, L; Borgnakke, W S; Dye, B A

    2010-11-01

    This study evaluates the accuracy of periodontitis prevalence determined by the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) partial-mouth periodontal examination protocols. True periodontitis prevalence was determined in a new convenience sample of 454 adults ≥ 35 years old, by a full-mouth "gold standard" periodontal examination. This actual prevalence was compared with prevalence resulting from analysis of the data according to the protocols of NHANES III and NHANES 2001-2004, respectively. Both NHANES protocols substantially underestimated the prevalence of periodontitis by 50% or more, depending on the periodontitis case definition used, and thus performed below threshold levels for moderate-to-high levels of validity for surveillance. Adding measurements from lingual or interproximal sites to the NHANES 2001-2004 protocol did not improve the accuracy sufficiently to reach acceptable sensitivity thresholds. These findings suggest that NHANES protocols produce high levels of misclassification of periodontitis cases and thus have low validity for surveillance and research. PMID:20858782

  15. Security Weaknesses in Arbitrated Quantum Signature Protocols

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Feng; Zhang, Kejia; Cao, Tianqing

    2014-01-01

    Arbitrated quantum signature (AQS) is a cryptographic scenario in which the sender (signer), Alice, generates the signature of a message and then a receiver (verifier), Bob, can verify the signature with the help of a trusted arbitrator, Trent. In this paper, we point out there exist some security weaknesses in two AQS protocols. Our analysis shows Alice can successfully disavow any of her signatures by a simple attack in the first protocol. Furthermore, we study the security weaknesses of the second protocol from the aspects of forgery and disavowal. Some potential improvements of this kind of protocols are given. We also design a new method to authenticate a signature or a message, which makes AQS protocols immune to Alice's disavowal attack and Bob's forgery attack effectively.

  16. Mise à jour sur le nouveau vaccin 9-valent pour la prévention du virus du papillome humain

    PubMed Central

    Yang, David Yi; Bracken, Keyna

    2016-01-01

    Résumé Objectif Informer les médecins de famille quant à l’efficacité, à l’innocuité, aux effets sur la santé publique et à la rentabilité du vaccin 9-valent contre le virus du papillome humain (VPH). Qualité des données Des articles pertinents publiés dans PubMed jusqu’en mai 2015 ont été examinés et analysés. La plupart des données citées sont de niveau I (essais randomisés et contrôlés et méta-analyses) ou de niveau II (études transversales, cas-témoins et épidémiologiques). Des rapports et recommandations du gouvernement sont aussi cités en référence. Message principal Le vaccin 9-valent contre le VPH, qui offre une protection contre les types 6, 11, 16, 18, 31, 33, 45, 52 et 58 du VPH, est sûr et efficace et réduira encore plus l’incidence des infections à VPH, de même que les cas de cancer lié au VPH. Il peut également protéger indirectement les personnes non immunisées par l’entremise du phénomène d’immunité collective. Un programme d’immunisation efficace peut prévenir la plupart des cancers du col de l’utérus. Les analyses montrent que la rentabilité du vaccin 9-valent chez les femmes est comparable à celle du vaccin quadrivalent original contre le VPH (qui protège contre les types 6, 11, 16 et 18 du VPH) en usage à l’heure actuelle. Toutefois, il faut investiguer plus en profondeur l’utilité d’immuniser les garçons avec le vaccin 9-valent contre le VPH. Conclusion en plus d’être sûr, le vaccin 9-valent protège mieux contre le VPH que le vaccin quadrivalent. Une analyse coûtefficacité en favorise l’emploi, du moins chez les adolescentes. Ainsi, les médecins devraient recommander le vaccin 9-valent à leurs patients plutôt que le vaccin quadrivalent contre le VPH.

  17. Modèle simplifié du comportement hygrothermique d'un chai

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Battaglia, J.-L.; Jomaa, W.; Gounot, J.

    1996-11-01

    Coupling between heat and moisture is often important for some kind of buildings. It is the case for wine and spirit storehouse for the breeding of wine in cask. Without strong assumptions, the knowledge model is too complex is regard to the formulation and the resolution of the equations. In this work, we develop a simplified model based on a preliminary study of the concerned building. For the resolution, an algorithm, adapted to our configuration, is proposed. Assumptions are proved with respect to experimental measurements of temperature and relative moisture, for two periods of the year. A sensitivity analysis of the model to some parameters is carried out. Finally, an implementation of the model, to estimate the quantity of wine lost by evaporation during one year, is presented. Le couplage entre chaleur et humidité est souvent important dans certains types de bâtiment et ne permet pas de traiter les deux transferts indépendamment l'un de l'autre. C'est le cas des chais où se déroule l'élevage du vin en barriques. Sans hypothèses fortes, la prise en compte du couplage hygrothermique donne alors lieu à une modélisation complexe tant au point de vue de sa formulation que la résolution des équations. Dans ce travail, nous développons un modèle simplifié, basé sur une étude préliminaire du bâtiment considéré. Un algorithme de résolution, adapté à la configuration étudiée, est proposé. Les hypothèses de modélisation sont validées à partir de relevés expérimentaux de température et d'humidité, réalisés sur deux périodes de l'année. Une étude de sensibilité du modèle à certains paramètres est menée. Enfin, une application du modèle, pour l'évaluation de la quantité de vin évaporée sur une année, est présentée.

  18. Protocol design for scalable and reliable group rekeying

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Xincheng B.; Lam, Simon S.; Lee, Dong Y.; Yang, Yang R.

    2001-07-01

    We present the design and specification of a scalable and reliable protocol for group rekeying together with performance evaluation results. The protocol is based upon the use of key trees for secure groups and periodic batch rekeying. At the beginning of each rekey period, the key server sends a rekey message to all users consisting of encrypted new keys (encryptions, in short) carried in a sequence of packets. We present a simple strategy for identifying keys, encryptions, and users, and a key assignment algorithm which ensures that the encryptions needed by a user are in the same packet. Our protocol provides reliable delivery of new keys to all users eventually. It also attempts to deliver new keys to all users with a high probability by the end of the rekeying period. For each rekey message, the protocol runs in two steps: a multicast step followed by a unicast step. Proactive FEC multicast is used to control NACK implosion and reduce delivery latency. Our experiments show that a small FEC block size can be used to reduce encoding time at the server without increasing server bandwidth overhead. Early transition to unicast, after at most two multicast rounds, further reduces the worst-case delivery latency as well as user bandwidth requirement. The key server adaptively adjusts the proactivity factor based upon past feedback information; our experiments show that the number of NACKs after a multicast round can be effectively controlled around a target number. Throughout the protocol design, we strive to minimize processing and bandwidth requirements for both the key server and users.

  19. A Simple XML Producer-Consumer Protocol

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, Warren; Gunter, Dan; Quesnel, Darcy; Biegel, Bryan (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    There are many different projects from government, academia, and industry that provide services for delivering events in distributed environments. The problem with these event services is that they are not general enough to support all uses and they speak different protocols so that they cannot interoperate. We require such interoperability when we, for example, wish to analyze the performance of an application in a distributed environment. Such an analysis might require performance information from the application, computer systems, networks, and scientific instruments. In this work we propose and evaluate a standard XML-based protocol for the transmission of events in distributed systems. One recent trend in government and academic research is the development and deployment of computational grids. Computational grids are large-scale distributed systems that typically consist of high-performance compute, storage, and networking resources. Examples of such computational grids are the DOE Science Grid, the NASA Information Power Grid (IPG), and the NSF Partnerships for Advanced Computing Infrastructure (PACIs). The major effort to deploy these grids is in the area of developing the software services to allow users to execute applications on these large and diverse sets of resources. These services include security, execution of remote applications, managing remote data, access to information about resources and services, and so on. There are several toolkits for providing these services such as Globus, Legion, and Condor. As part of these efforts to develop computational grids, the Global Grid Forum is working to standardize the protocols and APIs used by various grid services. This standardization will allow interoperability between the client and server software of the toolkits that are providing the grid services. The goal of the Performance Working Group of the Grid Forum is to standardize protocols and representations related to the storage and distribution of

  20. Physiological responses to simulated firefighter exercise protocols in varying environments.

    PubMed

    Horn, Gavin P; Kesler, Richard M; Motl, Robert W; Hsiao-Wecksler, Elizabeth T; Klaren, Rachel E; Ensari, Ipek; Petrucci, Matthew N; Fernhall, Bo; Rosengren, Karl S

    2015-01-01

    For decades, research to quantify the effects of firefighting activities and personal protective equipment on physiology and biomechanics has been conducted in a variety of testing environments. It is unknown if these different environments provide similar information and comparable responses. A novel Firefighting Activities Station, which simulates four common fireground tasks, is presented for use with an environmental chamber in a controlled laboratory setting. Nineteen firefighters completed three different exercise protocols following common research practices. Simulated firefighting activities conducted in an environmental chamber or live-fire structures elicited similar physiological responses (max heart rate: 190.1 vs 188.0 bpm, core temperature response: 0.047°C/min vs 0.043°C/min) and accelerometry counts. However, the response to a treadmill protocol commonly used in laboratory settings resulted in significantly lower heart rate (178.4 vs 188.0 bpm), core temperature response (0.037°C/min vs 0.043°C/min) and physical activity counts compared with firefighting activities in the burn building. Practitioner Summary: We introduce a new approach for simulating realistic firefighting activities in a controlled laboratory environment for ergonomics assessment of fire service equipment and personnel. Physiological responses to this proposed protocol more closely replicate those from live-fire activities than a traditional treadmill protocol and are simple to replicate and standardise. PMID:25597759

  1. Accessing planetary plasma datasets via the TAP and PDAP protocols

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bourrel, N.; Cecconi, B.; Le Sidaner, P.; Érard, S.; Gangloff, M.; Jacquey, C.; Berthier, J.; Pallier, E.; Topf, F.

    2012-09-01

    There are many challenges to achieving interoperability and data sharing across heterogeneous systems. Systems and data are implemented and stored across multiple platforms and specifications. This has created rigid point-topoint integrations. To allow the interoperability of data discovery when querying planetary science data centers, the needs are to have common standards and specifications to search and retrieve data from the disparate sources provides. From a data producer perspective, they are provided with a common construct on how to expose their data, without having to compromise their internal implementation, that users and systems can easily discover, search, and consume. TAP (Table Access Protocol) and PDAP (Planetary Data Access Protocol) are protocols to access, distributed and retrieve planetary data. They can permit to provide an interoperable and flexible environment to search, aggregate and retrieve data. We will present the prototype of interoperable system planetary plasma datasets based in the Planetary Science Resource Data Model designed by EuroPlaNet IDIS (Integrated and Distributed Information Service) via the TAP and PDAP protocols.

  2. Testing warning messages on smokers’ cigarette packages: A standardized protocol

    PubMed Central

    Brewer, Noel T.; Hall, Marissa G.; Lee, Joseph G. L.; Peebles, Kathryn; Noar, Seth M.; Ribisl, Kurt M.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose Lab experiments on cigarette warnings typically use a brief one-time exposure that is not paired with the cigarette packs smokers use every day, leaving open the question of how repeated warning exposure over several weeks may affect smokers. This proof of principle study sought to develop a new protocol for testing cigarette warnings that better reflects real-world exposure by presenting them on cigarette smokers’ own packs. Methods We tested a cigarette pack labeling protocol with 76 US smokers ages 18 and older. We applied graphic warnings to the front and back of smokers’ cigarette packs. Results Most smokers reported that at least 75% of the packs of cigarettes they smoked during the study had our warnings. Nearly all said they would participate in the study again. Using cigarette packs with the study warnings increased quit intentions (p<.05). Conclusion Our findings suggest a feasible pack labeling protocol with six steps: (1) schedule appointments at brief intervals; (2) determine typical cigarette consumption; (3) ask smokers to bring a supply of cigarette packs to study appointments; (4) apply labels to smokers’ cigarette packs; (5) provide participation incentives at the end of appointments; and (6) refer smokers to cessation services at end of the study. When used in randomized controlled trials in settings with real-world message exposure over time, this protocol may help identify the true impact of warnings and thus better inform tobacco product labeling policy. PMID:25564282

  3. Protocol for sampling environmental sites for legionellae.

    PubMed

    Barbaree, J M; Gorman, G W; Martin, W T; Fields, B S; Morrill, W E

    1987-07-01

    A protocol for sampling environmental sites was developed and used to identify possible sources of Legionella species in support of epidemiologic investigations at two hospitals. In hospital A, legionellae were isolated from 43 of 106 (40%) different sites. Three separate Legionella pneumophila serotypes and a previously unrecognized species were present in different combinations in the positive samples. Two of five cooling towers contained the same L. pneumophila serogroup 1 monoclonal type (1,2,4,5) as was isolated from patients. The same monoclonal type was also isolated from make-up water for the two cooling towers, a hot water tank, water separators in four main air compressor systems for respiratory therapy, and cold and hot water faucets. In hospital B, 13 of 37 (38%) sample sites contained legionellae, all of which were L. pneumophila serogroup 1. The monoclonal type matching isolates from patients (1,2,4,5) was found at the highest concentration in a hot water tank, but it was also present at four other sample sites. Since legionellae not related to disease may be found in many of the sites sampled, an epidemiologic association with the probable source should be established before intervention methods, such as disinfection, are undertaken. PMID:3662501

  4. Scalable Multicast Protocols for Overlapped Groups in Broker-Based Sensor Networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Chayoung; Ahn, Jinho

    In sensor networks, there are lots of overlapped multicast groups because of many subscribers, associated with their potentially varying specific interests, querying every event to sensors/publishers. And gossip based communication protocols are promising as one of potential solutions providing scalability in P(Publish)/ S(Subscribe) paradigm in sensor networks. Moreover, despite the importance of both guaranteeing message delivery order and supporting overlapped multicast groups in sensor or P2P networks, there exist little research works on development of gossip-based protocols to satisfy all these requirements. In this paper, we present two versions of causally ordered delivery guaranteeing protocols for overlapped multicast groups. The one is based on sensor-broker as delegates and the other is based on local views and delegates representing subscriber subgroups. In the sensor-broker based protocol, sensor-broker might lead to make overlapped multicast networks organized by subscriber's interests. The message delivery order has been guaranteed consistently and all multicast messages are delivered to overlapped subscribers using gossip based protocols by sensor-broker. Therefore, these features of the sensor-broker based protocol might be significantly scalable rather than those of the protocols by hierarchical membership list of dedicated groups like traditional committee protocols. And the subscriber-delegate based protocol is much stronger rather than fully decentralized protocols guaranteeing causally ordered delivery based on only local views because the message delivery order has been guaranteed consistently by all corresponding members of the groups including delegates. Therefore, this feature of the subscriber-delegate protocol is a hybrid approach improving the inherent scalability of multicast nature by gossip-based technique in all communications.

  5. Kilovoltage x-ray dosimetry—an experimental comparison between different dosimetry protocols

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rosenschöld, Per Munck af; Nilsson, Per; Knöös, Tommy

    2008-08-01

    Kilovoltage dosimetry protocols by the IAEA (TRS-277 and TRS-398), DIN (6809), IPEMB (with addendum), AAPM (TG-61) and NCS (report 10) were compared experimentally in four clinical beams. The beams had acceleration potentials of 30, 80, 120 and 200 kV, with half-value layers ranging from 0.6 mm Al to 1 mm Cu. Dosimetric measurements were performed and data were collected under reference conditions as stipulated within each separate protocol under investigation. The Monte Carlo method was used to derive backscatter factors for the actual x-ray machine. In general, the agreement of the dosimetric data at the surface of a full-scatter water phantom obtained using the guidelines of the various protocols was fairly good, i.e. within 1 2%. However, the in-air calibration method using the IPEMB and AAPM TG-61 protocols yielded an absorbed dose about 7% lower than the IAEA TRS-398 protocol in the 120 kV beam. By replacing the backscatter factors given in the protocols with Monte Carlo calculated backscatter factors, the convergence between the protocols improved (within 4%). The internal consistency obtained for protocols supporting more than one geometry for dosimetry under reference conditions was better than 0.2% for the DIN protocol (120 kV beam), 2 3% for the AAPM TG-61 (120 and 200 kV beams) and about 2% for the IPEMB protocol (200 kV beam). The present study shows that the current-supported dosimetry protocols in the kilovoltage range were in fairly good agreement, and there were only a few exceptions of clinical significance.

  6. STANDARD OPERATING PROTOCOLS FOR DECOMMISSIONING

    SciTech Connect

    Foss, D. L.; Stevens, J. L.; Gerdeman, F. W.

    2002-02-25

    Decommissioning projects at Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA) sites are conducted under project-specific decision documents, which involve extensive preparation time, public comment periods, and regulatory approvals. Often, the decision documents must be initiated at least one year before commencing the decommissioning project, and they are expensive and time consuming to prepare. The Rocky Flats Environmental Technology Site (RFETS) is a former nuclear weapons production plant at which hazardous substances and wastes were released or disposed during operations. As a result of the releases, RFETS was placed on the National Priorities List in 1989, and is conducting cleanup activities under a federal facilities compliance agreement. Working closely with interested stakeholders and state and federal regulatory agencies, RFETS has developed and implemented an improved process for obtaining the approvals. The key to streamlining the approval process has been the development of sitewide decision documents called Rocky Flats Cleanup Agreement Standard Operating Protocols or ''RSOPs.'' RSOPs have broad applicability, and could be used instead of project-specific documents. Although no two decommissioning projects are exactly the same and they may vary widely in contamination and other hazards, the basic steps taken for cleanup are usually similar. Because of this, using RSOPs is more efficient than preparing a separate project-specific decision documents for each cleanup action. Over the Rocky Flats cleanup life cycle, using RSOPs has the potential to: (1) Save over 5 million dollars and 6 months on the site closure schedule; (2) Eliminate preparing one hundred and twenty project-specific decision documents; and (3) Eliminate writing seventy-five closure description documents for hazardous waste unit closure and corrective actions.

  7. Nouvelles approches en theorie du champ moyen dynamique: le cas du pouvoir thermoelectrique et celui de l'effet orbital d'un champ magnetique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arsenault, Louis-Francois

    Les applications reliees a la generation d'energie motivent la recherche de materiaux ayant un fort pouvoir thermoelectrique (S). De plus, S nous renseigne sur certaines proprietes fondamentales des materiaux, comme, par exemple, la transition entre l'etat coherent et incoherent des quasi-particules lorsque la temperature augmente. Empiriquement, la presence de fortes interactions electron-electron peut mener a un pouvoir thermoelectrique geant. Nous avons donc etudie le modele le plus simple qui tient compte de ces fortes interactions, le modele de Hubbard. La theorie du champ moyen dynamique (DMFT) est tout indiquee dans ce cas. Nous nous sommes concentres sur un systeme tridimensionnel (3d) cubique a face centree (fcc), et ce, pour plusieurs raisons. A) Ce type de cristal est tres commun dans la nature. B) La DMFT donne de tres bons resultats en 3d et donc ce choix sert aussi de preuve de principe de la methode. C) Finalement, a cause de la frustration electronique intrinseque au fcc, celui-ci ne presente pas de symetrie particule-trou, ce qui est tres favorable a l'apparition d'une grande valeur de S. Ce travail demontre que lorsque le materiau est un isolant a demi-remplissage a cause des fortes interactions (isolant de Mott), il est possible d'obtenir de grands pouvoirs thermoelectriques en le dopant legerement. C'est un resultat pratique important. Du point de vue methodologique, nous avons montre comment la limite de frequence infinie de S et l'approche dite de Kelvin, qui considere la limite de frequence nulle avant la limite thermodynamique pour S, donnent des estimations fiables de la vraie limite continue (DC) dans les domaines de temperature appropriee. Ces deux approches facilitent grandement les calculs en court-circuit ant la necessite de recourir a de problematiques prolongements analytiques. Nous avons trouve que la methode de calcul a frequence infinie fonctionne bien lorsque les echelles d'energie sont relativement faibles. En d'autres termes

  8. Efficiency of different protocols for enamel clean-up after bracket debonding: an in vitro study

    PubMed Central

    Sigilião, Lara Carvalho Freitas; Marquezan, Mariana; Elias, Carlos Nelson; Ruellas, Antônio Carlos; Sant'Anna, Eduardo Franzotti

    2015-01-01

    Objective: This study aimed to assess the efficiency of six protocols for cleaning-up tooth enamel after bracket debonding. Methods: A total of 60 premolars were divided into six groups, according to the tools used for clean-up: 12-blade bur at low speed (G12L), 12-blade bur at high speed (G12H), 30-blade bur at low speed (G30L), DU10CO ORTHO polisher (GDU), Renew System (GR) and Diagloss polisher (GD). Mean roughness (Ra) and mean roughness depth (Rz) of enamel surface were analyzed with a profilometer. Paired t-test was used to assess Ra and Rz before and after enamel clean-up. ANOVA/Tukey tests were used for intergroup comparison. The duration of removal procedures was recorded. The association between time and variation in enamel roughness (∆Ra, ∆Rz) were evaluated by Pearson's correlation test. Enamel topography was assessed by scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Results: In Groups G12L and G12H, original enamel roughness did not change significantly. In Groups G30L, GDU, GR and GD, a smoother surface (p < 0.05) was found after clean-up. In Groups G30L and GD, the protocols used were more time-consuming than those used in the other groups. Negative and moderate correlation was observed between time and (∆Ra, ∆Rz); Ra and (∆Ra, ∆Rz); Rz (r = - 0.445, r = - 0.475, p < 0.01). Conclusion: All enamel clean-up protocols were efficient because they did not result in increased surface roughness. The longer the time spent performing the protocol, the lower the surface roughness. PMID:26560825

  9. A History of the Improvement of Internet Protocols Over Satellites Using ACTS

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Allman, Mark; Kruse, Hans; Ostermann, Shawn

    2000-01-01

    This paper outlines the main results of a number of ACTS experiments on the efficacy of using standard Internet protocols over long-delay satellite channels. These experiments have been jointly conducted by NASAs Glenn Research Center and Ohio University over the last six years. The focus of our investigations has been the impact of long-delay networks with non-zero bit-error rates on the performance of the suite of Internet protocols. In particular, we have focused on the most widely used transport protocol, the Transmission Control Protocol (TCP), as well as several application layer protocols. This paper presents our main results, as well as references to more verbose discussions of our experiments.

  10. Development and implementation of explicit computerized protocols for mechanical ventilation in children

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Mechanical ventilation can be perceived as a treatment with a very narrow therapeutic window, i.e., highly efficient but with considerable side effects if not used properly and in a timely manner. Protocols and guidelines have been designed to make mechanical ventilation safer and protective for the lung. However, variable effects and low compliance with use of written protocols have been reported repeatedly. Use of explicit computerized protocols for mechanical ventilation might very soon become a "must." Several closed loop systems are already on the market, and preliminary studies are showing promising results in providing patients with good quality ventilation and eventually weaning them faster from the ventilator. The present paper defines explicit computerized protocols for mechanical ventilation, describes how these protocols are designed, and reports the ones that are available on the market for children. PMID:22189095

  11. Space Network Time Distribution and Synchronization Protocol Development for Mars Proximity Link

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Woo, Simon S.; Gao, Jay L.; Mills, David

    2010-01-01

    Time distribution and synchronization in deep space network are challenging due to long propagation delays, spacecraft movements, and relativistic effects. Further, the Network Time Protocol (NTP) designed for terrestrial networks may not work properly in space. In this work, we consider the time distribution protocol based on time message exchanges similar to Network Time Protocol (NTP). We present the Proximity-1 Space Link Interleaved Time Synchronization (PITS) algorithm that can work with the CCSDS Proximity-1 Space Data Link Protocol. The PITS algorithm provides faster time synchronization via two-way time transfer over proximity links, improves scalability as the number of spacecraft increase, lowers storage space requirement for collecting time samples, and is robust against packet loss and duplication which underlying protocol mechanisms provide.

  12. Le kyste hydatique du cordon spermatique: une localisation exceptionnelle

    PubMed Central

    Hamdane, Mohamed Moncef; Bougrine, Fethi; Msakni, Issam; Dhaoui-Ghozzi, Amen; Bouziani, Ammar

    2011-01-01

    L’ hydatidose est une anthropo-zoonose due au développement chez l'homme de la forme larvaire du taenia Echinococcus granulosis. La plupart des kystes hydatiques se localisent dans le foie et les poumons. Le kyste hydatique du cordon spermatique est extrêmement rare avec seulement 4 cas rapportés dans la littérature. Les auteurs rapportent dans cet article un nouveau cas d'hydatidose du cordon spermatique. Il s'agissait d'un homme de 40 ans qui consultait pour des douleurs scrotales évoluant depuis huit mois. L'examen clinique a mis en évidence une tuméfaction mobile, inguino-scrotale, droite. L’échographie testiculaire a objectivé une hernie inguinale droite associée à deux kystes épididymaires bilatéraux. Le patient a été opéré pour cure de son hernie avec découverte en per-opératoire d'un kyste du cordon spermatique qui a été réséqué. L'examen anatomopathologique a conclu à une hydatidose du cordon spermatique. PMID:22384304

  13. Exploring Shared Memory Protocols in FLASH

    SciTech Connect

    Horowitz, Mark; Kunz, Robert; Hall, Mary; Lucas, Robert; Chame, Jacqueline

    2007-04-01

    ABSTRACT The goal of this project was to improve the performance of large scientific and engineering applications through collaborative hardware and software mechanisms to manage the memory hierarchy of non-uniform memory access time (NUMA) shared-memory machines, as well as their component individual processors. In spite of the programming advantages of shared-memory platforms, obtaining good performance for large scientific and engineering applications on such machines can be challenging. Because communication between processors is managed implicitly by the hardware, rather than expressed by the programmer, application performance may suffer from unintended communication – communication that the programmer did not consider when developing his/her application. In this project, we developed and evaluated a collection of hardware, compiler, languages and performance monitoring tools to obtain high performance on scientific and engineering applications on NUMA platforms by managing communication through alternative coherence mechanisms. Alternative coherence mechanisms have often been discussed as a means for reducing unintended communication, although architecture implementations of such mechanisms are quite rare. This report describes an actual implementation of a set of coherence protocols that support coherent, non-coherent and write-update accesses for a CC-NUMA shared-memory architecture, the Stanford FLASH machine. Such an approach has the advantages of using alternative coherence only where it is beneficial, and also provides an evolutionary migration path for improving application performance. We present data on two computations, RandomAccess from the HPC Challenge benchmarks and a forward solver derived from LS-DYNA, showing the performance advantages of the alternative coherence mechanisms. For RandomAccess, the non-coherent and write-update versions can outperform the coherent version by factors of 5 and 2.5, respectively. In LS-DYNA, we obtain

  14. Cultural Heritage Documentation and Integrated Geomatics Techniques in AN Educational Context: Case Bois-Du (belgium)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stal, C.; Goossens, R.; Carlier, L.; Debie, J.; Haoudy, K.; Nuttens, T.; De Wulf, A.

    2013-07-01

    maps of the site, including the inside domain of the buildings. Already available aerial photographs are processed to obtain a 3D model of the site and the wider region. In March 2013, the first campaign took place. During this first campaign, a topographical network was set out and a series of detail points were measured for the detailed topographic mapping. The topographical network was well-planned and covers almost the whole site, forming a set of permanently materialized reference points for later measurements. Besides, a large number of ground control points (GCPs) were taken for the 3D reconstruction of the area, based on high resolution airborne imagery. This enables the students to familiarize themselves with photogrammetric principles in a practical exercise. Both the topographic maps and the 3D model fit within the large scale geographic reference map of the Walloon Region. In this contribution, the results of this intensive trans-regional collaboration on the preservation of the sites are presented. This paper will discuss the first deliverables from the project and the advantages for the responsible government, the cultural heritage organisations (Ecomusée du Bois-du-Luc) and the students. The main focus here is on the educational context of the project. Furthermore, future projects on the same site will be discussed.

  15. Mandible condylar hyperplasia: a review of diagnosis and treatment protocol

    PubMed Central

    Olate, Sergio; Netto, Henrique Duque; Rodriguez-Chessa, Jaime; Alister, Juan Pablo; de Albergaria-Barbosa, Jose; de Moraes, Márcio

    2013-01-01

    Condylar hyperplasia (CH) is a bone disease characterized by the increased development of one mandibular condyle. It regularly presents as an active growth with facial asymmetry generally without pain. Statistically it affects more women in adolescence, although it does not discriminate by age or gender. Its best-known consequence is asymmetric facial deformity (AFD), which combined with alteration of the dental occlusion with unilateral crossbite or open bite. It is not known when CH begins and how long it lasts; diagnostic examinations are described and are efficient in some research about diagnosis. Protocol treatment is not well studie and depends on the criteria described in this paper. The aim of this research is to provide up-to-date information about the diagnosis of this disease and to analyze the treatment protocol, visualizing the CH and AFD presented. PMID:24179565

  16. Mandible condylar hyperplasia: a review of diagnosis and treatment protocol.

    PubMed

    Olate, Sergio; Netto, Henrique Duque; Rodriguez-Chessa, Jaime; Alister, Juan Pablo; de Albergaria-Barbosa, Jose; de Moraes, Márcio

    2013-01-01

    Condylar hyperplasia (CH) is a bone disease characterized by the increased development of one mandibular condyle. It regularly presents as an active growth with facial asymmetry generally without pain. Statistically it affects more women in adolescence, although it does not discriminate by age or gender. Its best-known consequence is asymmetric facial deformity (AFD), which combined with alteration of the dental occlusion with unilateral crossbite or open bite. It is not known when CH begins and how long it lasts; diagnostic examinations are described and are efficient in some research about diagnosis. Protocol treatment is not well studie and depends on the criteria described in this paper. The aim of this research is to provide up-to-date information about the diagnosis of this disease and to analyze the treatment protocol, visualizing the CH and AFD presented. PMID:24179565

  17. Performance evaluation of TCP over ABT protocols

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ata, Shingo; Murata, Masayuki; Miyahara, Hideo

    1998-10-01

    ABT is promising for effectively transferring a highly bursty data traffic in ATM networks. Most of past studies focused on the data transfer capability of ABT within the ATM layer. In actual, however, we need to consider the upper layer transport protocol since the transport layer protocol also supports a network congestion control mechanism. One such example is TCP, which is now widely used in the Internet. In this paper, we evaluate the performance of TCP over ABT protocols. Simulation results show that the retransmission mechanism of ABT can effectively overlay the TCP congestion control mechanism so that TCP operates in a stable fashion and works well only as an error recovery mechanism.

  18. The first/last access protocol

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karol, M. J.; Schwartz, S. C.

    When a random access protocol is used to share a communications channel, conflicts arising from simultaneous transmissions must be resolved. Listening to feedback on a broadcast channel, and using knowledge of round trip propagation delays, the First/Last Access Protocol (FLAP) reserves time for retransmissions of the 'first' and 'last' packets involved in a channel collision. Time slots of duration greater than a packet transmission time exploit the advantages of both slotted access protocols. The maximum achievable system throughput is 0.673 as the input rate increases. Extensions of FLAP yield system throughputs greater than 0.80.

  19. Overview of the InterGroup protocols

    SciTech Connect

    Berket, Karlo; Agarwal, Deborah A.; Melliar-Smith, P. Michael; Moser, Louise E.

    2001-03-01

    Existing reliable ordered group communication protocols have been developed for local-area networks and do not, in general, scale well to large numbers of nodes and wide-area networks. The InterGroup suite of protocols is a scalable group communication system that introduces a novel approach to handling group membership, and supports a receiver-oriented selection of service. The protocols are intended for a wide-area network, with a large number of nodes, that has highly variable delays and a high message loss rate, such as the Internet. The levels of the message delivery service range from unreliable unordered to reliable group timestamp ordered.

  20. An efficient three-party password-based key agreement protocol using extended chaotic maps

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shu, Jian

    2015-06-01

    Three-party password-based key agreement protocols allow two users to authenticate each other via a public channel and establish a session key with the aid of a trusted server. Recently, Farash et al. [Farash M S, Attari M A 2014 “An efficient and provably secure three-party password-based authenticated key exchange protocol based on Chebyshev chaotic maps”, Nonlinear Dynamics 77(7): 399-411] proposed a three-party key agreement protocol by using the extended chaotic maps. They claimed that their protocol could achieve strong security. In the present paper, we analyze Farash et al.’s protocol and point out that this protocol is vulnerable to off-line password guessing attack and suffers communication burden. To handle the issue, we propose an efficient three-party password-based key agreement protocol using extended chaotic maps, which uses neither symmetric cryptosystems nor the server’s public key. Compared with the relevant schemes, our protocol provides better performance in terms of computation and communication. Therefore, it is suitable for practical applications. Project supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant No. 61462033).

  1. Robust Multi-unit Auction Protocol against False-name Bids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yokoo, Makoto; Sakurai, Yuko; Matsubara, Shigeo

    This paper presents a new multi-unit auction protocol (IR protocol) that is robust against false-name bids. Internet auctions have become an integral part of Electronic Commerce and a promising field for applying agent and Artificial Intelligence technologies. Although the Internet provides an excellent infrastructure for executing auctions, the possibility of a new type of cheating called false-name bids has been pointed out. A false-name bid is a bid submitted under a fictitious name. A protocol called LDS has been developed for combinatorial auctions of multiple different items and has proven to be robust against false-name bids. Although we can modify the LDS protocol to handle multi-unit auctions, in which multiple units of an identical item are auctioned, the protocol is complicated and requires the auctioneer to carefully pre-determine the combination of bundles to obtain a high social surplus or revenue. For the auctioneer, our newly developed IR protocol is easier to use than the LDS, since the combination of bundles is automatically determined in a flexible manner according to the declared evaluation values of agents. The evaluation results show that the IR protocol can obtain a better social surplus than that obtained by the LDS protocol.

  2. Verification of a Byzantine-Fault-Tolerant Self-stabilizing Protocol for Clock Synchronization

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Malekpour, Mahyar R.

    2008-01-01

    This paper presents the mechanical verification of a simplified model of a rapid Byzantine-fault-tolerant self-stabilizing protocol for distributed clock synchronization systems. This protocol does not rely on any assumptions about the initial state of the system except for the presence of sufficient good nodes, thus making the weakest possible assumptions and producing the strongest results. This protocol tolerates bursts of transient failures, and deterministically converges within a time bound that is a linear function of the self-stabilization period. A simplified model of the protocol is verified using the Symbolic Model Verifier (SMV). The system under study consists of 4 nodes, where at most one of the nodes is assumed to be Byzantine faulty. The model checking effort is focused on verifying correctness of the simplified model of the protocol in the presence of a permanent Byzantine fault as well as confirmation of claims of determinism and linear convergence with respect to the self-stabilization period. Although model checking results of the simplified model of the protocol confirm the theoretical predictions, these results do not necessarily confirm that the protocol solves the general case of this problem. Modeling challenges of the protocol and the system are addressed. A number of abstractions are utilized in order to reduce the state space.

  3. A Secure Three-Factor User Authentication and Key Agreement Protocol for TMIS With User Anonymity.

    PubMed

    Amin, Ruhul; Biswas, G P

    2015-08-01

    Telecare medical information system (TMIS) makes an efficient and convenient connection between patient(s)/user(s) and doctor(s) over the insecure internet. Therefore, data security, privacy and user authentication are enormously important for accessing important medical data over insecure communication. Recently, many user authentication protocols for TMIS have been proposed in the literature and it has been observed that most of the protocols cannot achieve complete security requirements. In this paper, we have scrutinized two (Mishra et al., Xu et al.) remote user authentication protocols using smart card and explained that both the protocols are suffering against several security weaknesses. We have then presented three-factor user authentication and key agreement protocol usable for TMIS, which fix the security pitfalls of the above mentioned schemes. The informal cryptanalysis makes certain that the proposed protocol provides well security protection on the relevant security attacks. Furthermore, the simulator AVISPA tool confirms that the protocol is secure against active and passive attacks including replay and man-in-the-middle attacks. The security functionalities and performance comparison analysis confirm that our protocol not only provide strong protection on security attacks, but it also achieves better complexities along with efficient login and password change phase as well as session key verification property. PMID:26112322

  4. Achieving the Holevo bound via a bisection decoding protocol

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rosati, Matteo; Giovannetti, Vittorio

    2016-06-01

    We present a new decoding protocol to realize transmission of classical information through a quantum channel at asymptotically maximum capacity, achieving the Holevo bound and thus the optimal communication rate. At variance with previous proposals, our scheme recovers the message bit by bit, making use of a series of "yes-no" measurements, organized in bisection fashion, thus determining which codeword was sent in log2 N steps, N being the number of codewords.

  5. Coherent eavesdropping strategies for the four state quantum cryptography protocol

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cirac, J. I.; Gisin, N.

    1997-02-01

    An elementary derivation of best eavesdropping strategies for the four state BB84 quantum cryptography protocol is presented, for both incoherent and two-qubit coherent attacks. While coherent attacks do not help Eve to obtain more information, they are more powerful to reveal the whole message sent by Alice. Our results are based on symmetric eavesdropping strategies, which we show to be sufficient to analyze these kind of problems.

  6. The Role of Additional Pulses in Electropermeabilization Protocols

    PubMed Central

    Suárez, Cecilia; Soba, Alejandro; Maglietti, Felipe; Olaiz, Nahuel; Marshall, Guillermo

    2014-01-01

    Electropermeabilization (EP) based protocols such as those applied in medicine, food processing or environmental management, are well established and widely used. The applied voltage, as well as tissue electric conductivity, are of utmost importance for assessing final electropermeabilized area and thus EP effectiveness. Experimental results from literature report that, under certain EP protocols, consecutive pulses increase tissue electric conductivity and even the permeabilization amount. Here we introduce a theoretical model that takes into account this effect in the application of an EP-based protocol, and its validation with experimental measurements. The theoretical model describes the electric field distribution by a nonlinear Laplace equation with a variable conductivity coefficient depending on the electric field, the temperature and the quantity of pulses, and the Penne's Bioheat equation for temperature variations. In the experiments, a vegetable tissue model (potato slice) is used for measuring electric currents and tissue electropermeabilized area in different EP protocols. Experimental measurements show that, during sequential pulses and keeping constant the applied voltage, the electric current density and the blackened (electropermeabilized) area increase. This behavior can only be attributed to a rise in the electric conductivity due to a higher number of pulses. Accordingly, we present a theoretical modeling of an EP protocol that predicts correctly the increment in the electric current density observed experimentally during the addition of pulses. The model also demonstrates that the electric current increase is due to a rise in the electric conductivity, in turn induced by temperature and pulse number, with no significant changes in the electric field distribution. The EP model introduced, based on a novel formulation of the electric conductivity, leads to a more realistic description of the EP phenomenon, hopefully providing more accurate

  7. Microplastics in seafood: Benchmark protocol for their extraction and characterization.

    PubMed

    Dehaut, Alexandre; Cassone, Anne-Laure; Frère, Laura; Hermabessiere, Ludovic; Himber, Charlotte; Rinnert, Emmanuel; Rivière, Gilles; Lambert, Christophe; Soudant, Philippe; Huvet, Arnaud; Duflos, Guillaume; Paul-Pont, Ika

    2016-08-01

    Pollution of the oceans by microplastics (<5 mm) represents a major environmental problem. To date, a limited number of studies have investigated the level of contamination of marine organisms collected in situ. For extraction and characterization of microplastics in biological samples, the crucial step is the identification of solvent(s) or chemical(s) that efficiently dissolve organic matter without degrading plastic polymers for their identification in a time and cost effective way. Most published papers, as well as OSPAR recommendations for the development of a common monitoring protocol for plastic particles in fish and shellfish at the European level, use protocols containing nitric acid to digest the biological tissues, despite reports of polyamide degradation with this chemical. In the present study, six existing approaches were tested and their effects were compared on up to 15 different plastic polymers, as well as their efficiency in digesting biological matrices. Plastic integrity was evaluated through microscopic inspection, weighing, pyrolysis coupled with gas chromatography and mass spectrometry, and Raman spectrometry before and after digestion. Tissues from mussels, crabs and fish were digested before being filtered on glass fibre filters. Digestion efficiency was evaluated through microscopical inspection of the filters and determination of the relative removal of organic matter content after digestion. Five out of the six tested protocols led to significant degradation of plastic particles and/or insufficient tissue digestion. The protocol using a KOH 10% solution and incubation at 60 °C during a 24 h period led to an efficient digestion of biological tissues with no significant degradation on all tested polymers, except for cellulose acetate. This protocol appeared to be the best compromise for extraction and later identification of microplastics in biological samples and should be implemented in further monitoring studies to ensure

  8. The role of additional pulses in electropermeabilization protocols.

    PubMed

    Suárez, Cecilia; Soba, Alejandro; Maglietti, Felipe; Olaiz, Nahuel; Marshall, Guillermo

    2014-01-01

    Electropermeabilization (EP) based protocols such as those applied in medicine, food processing or environmental management, are well established and widely used. The applied voltage, as well as tissue electric conductivity, are of utmost importance for assessing final electropermeabilized area and thus EP effectiveness. Experimental results from literature report that, under certain EP protocols, consecutive pulses increase tissue electric conductivity and even the permeabilization amount. Here we introduce a theoretical model that takes into account this effect in the application of an EP-based protocol, and its validation with experimental measurements. The theoretical model describes the electric field distribution by a nonlinear Laplace equation with a variable conductivity coefficient depending on the electric field, the temperature and the quantity of pulses, and the Penne's Bioheat equation for temperature variations. In the experiments, a vegetable tissue model (potato slice) is used for measuring electric currents and tissue electropermeabilized area in different EP protocols. Experimental measurements show that, during sequential pulses and keeping constant the applied voltage, the electric current density and the blackened (electropermeabilized) area increase. This behavior can only be attributed to a rise in the electric conductivity due to a higher number of pulses. Accordingly, we present a theoretical modeling of an EP protocol that predicts correctly the increment in the electric current density observed experimentally during the addition of pulses. The model also demonstrates that the electric current increase is due to a rise in the electric conductivity, in turn induced by temperature and pulse number, with no significant changes in the electric field distribution. The EP model introduced, based on a novel formulation of the electric conductivity, leads to a more realistic description of the EP phenomenon, hopefully providing more accurate

  9. 78 FR 37652 - Environmental Impact Statement: Kenosha, Racine, Milwaukee, Waukesha, Washington, Dodge, Fond Du...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-06-21

    ..., Waukesha, Washington, Dodge, Fond Du Lac, Winnebago, Outagamie and Brown Counties, Wisconsin AGENCY... proposed Interstate conversion of U.S. Highway 41 in Milwaukee, Waukesha, Washington, Dodge, Fond du Lac... 41 to an Interstate in Milwaukee, Waukesha, Washington, Dodge, Fond du Lac, Winnebago, Outagamie,...

  10. Plant proteomics methods and protocols.

    PubMed

    Jorrin-Novo, Jesus V

    2014-01-01

    In this first, introductory chapter, it is intended to summarize from a methodological point of view the state of the art in plant proteomics, focusing on mass spectrometry-based strategies. Thus, this chapter is mainly directed at beginners or at those trying to get into the field, rather than at those with real experience or a long trajectory in plant proteomics research. The different alternative workflows, methods, techniques, and protocols from the experimental design to the data analysis will be briefly commented, with cross references to previous monographs and reviews, as well as to the rest of the book chapters. The difficulty of working with proteins, together with the power, limitations, and challenges of the approach will also be briefly discussed.Proteins, as molecular entities, and the cell proteome, as a whole, are much more complex than what we thought in the past and can be studied in a single experiment. Because of that, fractionation and complementary strategies are required for its study. The MS analysis of complex samples may result in up to 100,000-peptide spectra that cannot be easily analyzed with standard procedures. Therefore, proteomics, more than other -omics, needs a dry lab, time, and an effort in data mining.As main conclusion, it can be stated that proteomics is in its beginnings. It is starting to make important contributions to a proper gene annotation, identification, and characterization of gene products or protein species and to the knowledge of living organisms, having also an enormous application potential to translational research. However, and despite its great potential, and as in any other experimental approach, it is far from being a Pandora's Box. In the case of plant research, the full potential of proteomics is quite far from being totally exploited, and second-, third-, and fourth-generation proteomics techniques are still of very limited use. Most of the plant proteomics papers so far published belong to the

  11. Processus mis en jeu dans l'evolution morpho-dynamique de Roberts Bank (Delta du Fraser): Observation et modelisation hydrodynamiques et sedimentaires

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meule, Samuel

    Roberts Bank couvre le delta intertidal entre le bras principal du fleuve Fraser et la pointe du Cap Roberts en Colombie Britannique, Canada. Sous la pression du developpement urbain et la modification du regime sedimentaire, cette plage de sable fin est soumise a une erosion significative. L'identification des forces hydrodynamiques, leur importance et leur interaction permettent de determiner les zones de transport, et donc la stabilite de Roberts Bank. Deux periodes de mesures associees a des phases de modelisation de la houle et des courants ont ete effectuees lors de ce travail. La premiere periode de mesure, entre le 29 juin et le 8 juillet 2001, a permis l'identification de processus hydrodynamiques et sedimentaires associes aux forts courants de maree presents le long de Roberts Bank. La seconde phase de mesure, entre le 1er mars et le 26 mars 2002, a permis d'etudier les processus de remise en suspension associes a la houle. Des phases de modelisation ont ete menees a partir des connaissances acquises sur le terrain, afin d'affiner la comprehension des processus sedimentaires et notamment les interactions houle - courant - sediment. Les mecanismes, mis en evidence dans cette etude, participent au faconnage de Roberts Bank, contribuent a son erosion et a la mise en place de nouvelles structures sedimentaires. Les courants de flot de maree vont initier la creation de nuages de resuspension de sediment depuis le fond. En eau peu profonde, la composante " onshore" du courant de maree induit un transport a la cote, tandis qu'en eau plus profonde une faible composante " offshore" du courant peut favoriser un transport au large le long de la pente. Les chenaux, les dunes subaquatiques et les surfaces d'erosion affleurantes fournissent une rugosite de fond suffisante a la generation de turbulence et donc de nuages de sediment en suspension. Lors de la maree de jusant, les sediments resuspendus en eau peu profonde, sont transportes vers le large a partir d

  12. La chirurgie du diaphragme sous aortique

    PubMed Central

    Moutakiallah, Younes; Maaroufi, Ilham; Aithoussa, Mahdi; Bamous, Mehdi; Abdou, Abdessamad; Atmani, Noureddine; Hatim, Abdedaïm; Amahzoune, Brahim; Bekkali, Youssef El; Boulahya, Abdelatif

    2016-01-01

    Le diaphragme sous aortique se caractérise par une certaine latence clinique et une faible morbi-mortalité. La chirurgie reste le traitement de choix malgré un réel risque de récurrence à long terme. Nous rapportons 18 patients opérés entre Avril 1994 et Mars 2011 pour diaphragme sous aortique d’âge moyen de 18,1±9,7 ans avec 11 patients de sexe masculin. Le diaphragme était de nature fibreuse chez 13 patients et fibro-musculaire chez 5 patients. Tous les patients ont été opérés par résection de diaphragme associée à une myectomie, une plastie aortique, une fermeture de communication interventriculaire et une ligature de canal artériel perméable respectivement chez 3, 3, 2 et 2 patients. La Mortalité opératoire était nulle et sans aucun cas de trouble de conduction postopératoire. Le suivi a duré en moyenne 44,3±36,8 mois sans aucun décès tardif. Deux patients ont présenté une récidive de diaphragme qui a nécessité une réopération avec bonne évolution. La tendance actuelle dans la chirurgie du diaphragme se fait vers des interventions précoces et des résections plus extensives. Cependant, le risque de récidive impose une surveillance échographique systématique et rapprochée. PMID:27516830

  13. Benchmark of Lower Hybrid coupling codes (Brambilla, GRILL3D-U, TOPLHA) with the FTU conventional grill experimental data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ceccuzzi, Silvio; Maggiora, Riccardo; Milanesio, Daniele; Mirizzi, Francesco; Panaccione, Luigi

    2011-12-01

    The present work compares and experimentally validates the results coming out from the following three Lower Hybrid (LH) coupling codes: Brambilla code (M. Brambilla), GRILL3D-U (Mikhail Irzak, A. F. Ioffe Physico-Technical Institute, Russia) and TOPLHA (Politecnico di Torino, Italy). The conventional grill antenna, operating in FTU in different scenarios, is used as benchmark. The validation with experimental data is carried out with respect to the average reflection coefficients at the input of a row of the grill, considering two different phasings between adjacent waveguides: -90 ° and -75 °. A comparison between calculated power spectra is also presented. Good agreement can be observed for all the simulated plasma profiles and waveguide phasings between experimental data and codes, in particular for the most recent numerical tools, namely GRILL3D-U and TOPLHA.

  14. Commande non linéaire en vitesse d'un servomoteur synchrone avec calcul de trajectoire et estimation du couple résistant

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Le Pioufle, B.; Georgiou, G.

    1992-10-01

    In this paper, a method improving performances and robustness of nonlinear control of synchronous servomotor is proposed. A speed trajectory, asymptotically tracked by the nonlinear controller, is computed in real time and permits to obtain th optimum torque during the speed transients. A load torque estimator is included in the control. Simulation and experimentation results are presented. Dans cet article, une méthode est proposée pour améliorer robustesse et performances de la commande non linéaire du servomoteur synchrone. La méthode consiste à calculer en temps réel un trajectoire asymptotique pour la vitesse, engendrant un couple moteur optimum pendant la durée du transitoire de vitesse. Un estimateur du couple résistant est utilisé. Des simulations et des résultats expérimentaux sont présentés.

  15. A Look Back at the Montreal Protocol

    NASA Video Gallery

    The Montreal Protocol is an international treaty designed to protect the ozone layer. This video takes a look back at how scientists, industry leaders, and policy makers came together to regulate C...

  16. Evolution of Natural Attenuation Evaluation Protocols

    EPA Science Inventory

    Traditionally the evaluation of the efficacy of natural attenuation was based on changes in contaminant concentrations and mass reduction. Statistical tools and models such as Bioscreen provided evaluation protocols which now are being approached via other vehicles including m...

  17. Protocol to Exploit Waiting Resources for UASNs.

    PubMed

    Hung, Li-Ling; Luo, Yung-Jeng

    2016-01-01

    The transmission speed of acoustic waves in water is much slower than that of radio waves in terrestrial wireless sensor networks. Thus, the propagation delay in underwater acoustic sensor networks (UASN) is much greater. Longer propagation delay leads to complicated communication and collision problems. To solve collision problems, some studies have proposed waiting mechanisms; however, long waiting mechanisms result in low bandwidth utilization. To improve throughput, this study proposes a slotted medium access control protocol to enhance bandwidth utilization in UASNs. The proposed mechanism increases communication by exploiting temporal and spatial resources that are typically idle in order to protect communication against interference. By reducing wait time, network performance and energy consumption can be improved. A performance evaluation demonstrates that when the data packets are large or sensor deployment is dense, the energy consumption of proposed protocol is less than that of existing protocols as well as the throughput is higher than that of existing protocols. PMID:27005624

  18. Putting the Human Back in the Protocol

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Christianson, Bruce

    Hello, everyone, and welcome to the 14th International Security Protocols Workshop. I’m going to start with a quotation from someone who, at least in principle, is in charge of a very different security community than ours:

  19. Entanglement distillation protocols and number theory

    SciTech Connect

    Bombin, H.; Martin-Delgado, M.A.

    2005-09-15

    We show that the analysis of entanglement distillation protocols for qudits of arbitrary dimension D benefits from applying basic concepts from number theory, since the set Z{sub D}{sup n} associated with Bell diagonal states is a module rather than a vector space. We find that a partition of Z{sub D}{sup n} into divisor classes characterizes the invariant properties of mixed Bell diagonal states under local permutations. We construct a very general class of recursion protocols by means of unitary operations implementing these local permutations. We study these distillation protocols depending on whether we use twirling operations in the intermediate steps or not, and we study them both analytically and numerically with Monte Carlo methods. In the absence of twirling operations, we construct extensions of the quantum privacy algorithms valid for secure communications with qudits of any dimension D. When D is a prime number, we show that distillation protocols are optimal both qualitatively and quantitatively.

  20. A practical quantum bit commitment protocol

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arash Sheikholeslam, S.; Aaron Gulliver, T.

    2012-01-01

    In this paper, we introduce a new quantum bit commitment protocol which is secure against entanglement attacks. A general cheating strategy is examined and shown to be practically ineffective against the proposed approach.

  1. Authentication Protocol using Quantum Superposition States

    SciTech Connect

    Kanamori, Yoshito; Yoo, Seong-Moo; Gregory, Don A.; Sheldon, Frederick T

    2009-01-01

    When it became known that quantum computers could break the RSA (named for its creators - Rivest, Shamir, and Adleman) encryption algorithm within a polynomial-time, quantum cryptography began to be actively studied. Other classical cryptographic algorithms are only secure when malicious users do not have sufficient computational power to break security within a practical amount of time. Recently, many quantum authentication protocols sharing quantum entangled particles between communicators have been proposed, providing unconditional security. An issue caused by sharing quantum entangled particles is that it may not be simple to apply these protocols to authenticate a specific user in a group of many users. An authentication protocol using quantum superposition states instead of quantum entangled particles is proposed. The random number shared between a sender and a receiver can be used for classical encryption after the authentication has succeeded. The proposed protocol can be implemented with the current technologies we introduce in this paper.

  2. Protocol dependence of the jamming transition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bertrand, Thibault; Behringer, Robert P.; Chakraborty, Bulbul; O'Hern, Corey S.; Shattuck, Mark D.

    2016-01-01

    We propose a theoretical framework for predicting the protocol dependence of the jamming transition for frictionless spherical particles that interact via repulsive contact forces. We study isostatic jammed disk packings obtained via two protocols: isotropic compression and simple shear. We show that for frictionless systems, all jammed packings can be obtained via either protocol. However, the probability to obtain a particular jammed packing depends on the packing-generation protocol. We predict the average shear strain required to jam initially unjammed isotropically compressed packings from the density of jammed packings, shape of their basins of attraction, and path traversed in configuration space. We compare our predictions to simulations of shear strain-induced jamming and find quantitative agreement. We also show that the packing fraction range, over which shear strain-induced jamming occurs, tends to zero in the large system limit for frictionless packings with overdamped dynamics.

  3. A Demand Access Protocol for Space Applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gao, Jay L.; Leang, Dee

    2007-01-01

    This paper describes a demand access protocol for space communications, which is a messaging procedure that facilitates the exchange of resource requests and grants between users and service providers. A minimal set of operational and environmental needs and constraints are assumed since the intent is to keep the protocol flexible and efficient for a wide-range of envisioned NASA robotic and human exploration missions. The protocol described in this document defines the message format and procedures used to ensure proper and correct functioning of a demand access communications system, which must operate under customized resource management policies applied by the users and service providers. This protocol also assumes a minimal set of capabilities from the underlying communications system so that no unique requirements are imposed on the communications sub-systems.

  4. Les rivières et les sources de la Plaine du Cul-de-Sac: extrait du rapport sur les eaux souterraines de la Plaine du Cul-de-Sac

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Taylor, George C., Jr.; Lemoine, Rémy C.

    1949-01-01

    Les principales rivières de la Plaine du Cul-de-Sac, la Rivière Grise ou Grande Rivière du Cul-de-Sac et la Rivière Blanche, prennent naissance sur le flanc Nord du Massif de la Selle à des altitudes de 1,300 à 1,800 mètres au dessus du niveau de la mer. Elles coulent à l’amont à travers des gorges profondes et sont éloignées de 9 Kms. dans la partie central de la bordure Sud de la plaine.

  5. Design issues for floor control protocols

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dommel, Hans-Peter; Garcia-Luna-Aceves, Jose J.

    1995-03-01

    Floor control allows users of networked multimedia applications to remotely share resources like cursors, data views, video and audio channels, or entire applications without access conflicts. Floors are mutually exclusive permissions, granted dynamically to collaborating users, mitigating race conditions and guaranteeing fair and deadlock- free resource access. Although floor control is an early concept within computer-supported cooperative work, no framework exists and current floor control mechanisms are often limited to simple objects. While small-scale collaboration can be facilitated by social conventions, the importance of floors becomes evident for large-scale application sharing and teleconferencing orchestration. In this paper, the concept of a scalable session protocol is enhanced with floor control. Characteristics of collaborative environments are discussed, and session and floor control are discerned. The system's and user's requirements perspectives are discussed, including distributed storage policies, packet structure and user-interface design for floor presentation, manipulation, and triggering conditions for floor migration. Interaction stages between users, and scenarios of participant withdrawal, late joins, and establishment of subgroups are elicited with respect to floor generation, bookkeeping, and passing. An API is proposed to standardize and integrate floor control among shared applications. Finally, a concise classification for existing systems with a notion of floor control is introduced.

  6. Field Monitoring Protocol. Heat Pump Water Heaters

    SciTech Connect

    Sparn, B.; Earle, L.; Christensen, D.; Maguire, J.; Wilson, E.; Hancock, C. E.

    2013-02-01

    This document provides a standard field monitoring protocol for evaluating the installed performance of Heat Pump Water Heaters in residential buildings. The report is organized to be consistent with the chronology of field test planning and execution. Research questions are identified first, followed by a discussion of analysis methods, and then the details of measuring the required information are laid out. A field validation of the protocol at a house near the NREL campus is included for reference.

  7. Field Monitoring Protocol: Heat Pump Water Heaters

    SciTech Connect

    Sparn, B.; Earle, L.; Christensen, D.; Maguire, J.; Wilson, E.; Hancock, E.

    2013-02-01

    This document provides a standard field monitoring protocol for evaluating the installed performance of Heat Pump Water Heaters in residential buildings. The report is organized to be consistent with the chronology of field test planning and execution. Research questions are identified first, followed by a discussion of analysis methods, and then the details of measuring the required information are laid out. A field validation of the protocol at a house near the NREL campus is included for reference.

  8. Protocol for communications in potentially noisy environments

    DOEpatents

    Boyd, Gerlad M.; Farrow, Jeffrey

    2016-02-09

    A communications protocol that is designed for transmission of data in networks that are subjected to harsh conditions is described herein. A network includes a plurality of devices, where the devices comprise respective nodes. The nodes are in communication with one another by way of a central network hub. The protocol causes the nodes to transmit data over a network bus at different data rates depending upon whether the nodes are operating normally or an arbitration procedure has been invoked.

  9. Protocol Development | Division of Cancer Prevention

    Cancer.gov

    The chemoprevention Phase I and II consortia must submit Letters of Intent for review and approval prior to the submission and review of the protocol. Letter of Intent (LOI) Process The chemoprevention Phase I and II consortia must submit Letters of Intent for review and approval prior to the submission and review of the protocol. DCP will solicit Letters of Intent from investigators who want to conduct clinical trials with specific agents. |

  10. Reconfigurable Protocol Sensing in an End-to-End Demonstration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Okino, Clayton M.; Gray, Andrew; Schoolcraft, Joshua

    2006-01-01

    In this work, we present sensing performance using an architecture for a reconfigurable protocol chip for spacebased applications. Toward utilizing the IP packet architecture, utilizing data link layer framing structures for multiplexed data on a channel are the targeted application considered for demonstration purposes. Specifically, we examine three common framing standards and present the sensing performance of these standards and their relative de-correlation metrics. Some analysis is performed to investigate the impact of lossy links. Finally, we present results on a demonstration platform that integrated reconfigurable sensing technology into the Ground Station Interface Device (GRID) for End-to-End IP demonstrations in space.

  11. Du pont ''Freon'' helps tap geothermal wells for power

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1984-07-01

    Low-grade heat from geothermal wells can now be harnessed to produce electricity by using Du Pont ''Freon'' IF as the power conversion fluid. The new system was developed by Turbonetics Energy Inc. The company's Organic Rankine Cycle (ORC) system takes advantage of the low boiling point (117F) of Du Pont ''Freon'' TF. Geothermal energy is harnessed by utilizing the heat from 200F to 400F water to vaporize the ''Freon'' power fluid. Then the fluid expands through a turbine and drives a generator. The system can produce from 600 kW of electric power.

  12. The Variable Rate Intravenous Insulin Infusion Protocol.

    PubMed

    Collard, Benjamin; Sturgeon, Jonathan; Patel, Natasha; Asharia, Shabbar

    2014-01-01

    Insulin use among inpatients is high and associated with severe and regular medication errors. An initial baseline audit showed a wide variation in the prescription of intravenous insulin within the trust. These included variation in the choice of fluid prescribed, electrolyte levels not consistently checked, handwritten illegible prescriptions, and varying parameters set for adjustment of the prescription. A Variable Rate Intravenous Insulin Infusion protocol (VRIII)) was introduced to standardize intravenous insulin prescription throughout the trust by all members of the clinical team. We looked at and measured uptake and effects of the VRIII protocol in improving standardization of insulin prescription for inpatients on insulin at St George's NHS trust. The protocol was uploaded to the intranet to allow access 24 hours a day and the staff educated about it. The VRIII protocol was routinely used successfully throughout the trust. Any initial problems were addressed through education of clinical staff. The protocol has shown decreased prescribing and administrative errors, whilst demonstrating good glucose and electrolyte control. Use of a standardized protocol helps reduce medication errors and demonstrates good glycaemic control. Regular and continued education of clinical staff is necessary to maintain its efficacy. PMID:26734228

  13. Making your presentation fun: creative presentation techniques

    SciTech Connect

    KEENEN,MARTHA JANE

    2000-05-18

    What possesses someone to volunteer and go through hoops and red tape to make a presentation at a conference? For that matter, why does anyone ever present anything to anyone? Actually, presentations are a fact of life and there are many reasons for doing a presentation and doing it well. New and existing staff need training and orientation to the way things are done here. Handing all of them a manual and hoping they read it is pretty much a waste of paper. On the other hand, an effective, entertaining and upbeat presentation on the relevant topics is more likely to stick with those people. They will even have a name and face to remember and seek out when they have an issue on or with that topic. This can be a very effective beginning for networking with new peers. The presenter is seen as knowledgeable, as a source of information on company topics and possibly evaluated as a potential mentor or future manager. Project staff and/or peers benefit from clear, concise, presentations of topical knowledge. This is one way that a group working on various aspects of the same project or program can stay in touch and in step with each other. Most importantly, presentations may be the best or only door into the minds (and budgets) of management and customers. These presentations are a wonderful opportunity to address legal and compliance issues, budget, staffing, and services. Here is a chance, maybe the only one, to demonstrate and explain the wonderfulness of a program and the benefit they get by using the services offered most effectively. An interactive presentation on legal and compliance issues can be an effective tool in helping customers and/or management make good risk management decisions.

  14. Baisse du HDL-cholestérol indicateur du stress oxydatif dans le diabète de type 2

    PubMed Central

    Kabamba, Arsène Tshikongo; Bakari, Salvius Amuri; Longanga, Albert Otshudi; Lukumwena, Zet Kalala

    2014-01-01

    L'hypercholestérolémie est étroitement liée au stress oxydatif. Lorsqu'il y a trop de cholestérol qui circule dans le sang, il n'est pas utilisé en totalité par les cellules et il risque de s'accumuler dans les vaisseaux sanguins. Cela peut entrainer la formation des plaques d'athérosclérose qui gênent la circulation sanguine et provoquent des accidents cardiovasculaires. Le stress oxydatif apparait très tôt dans l'histoire des complications du diabète de type 2, et est lié à l'oxydation du glucose mais aussi à la peroxydation lipidique. Le cholestérol-HDL est un marqueur important du stress oxydatif par sa capacité à faciliter la métabolisation du cholestérol, sa baisse est souvent considérée comme la source de beaucoup d'inquiétudes. L'objectif est l’évaluation de la variation du taux de cholestérol-HDL, marqueur du stress oxydatif, chez les patients diabétiques de type 2 dans la population congolaise. Nous avons inclus dans cette étude prospective des cas témoins des patients diabétiques de type 2 reconnus et diagnostiqués, et des témoins non diabétiques appariés selon l’âge et le sexe. Parallèlement au bilan biologique classique, une analyse d'un des facteurs de risque du stress oxydatif a été réalisée: baisse de HDL-Cholestérol. L’âge moyen des 30 patients diabétiques (47,77±10,78 ans) était comparable à celui des 30 témoins (48,83±10,73 ans). Une baisse significative du cholestérol-HDL dans le sang était observée chez 100% des diabétiques et 50% des témoins (p=0,0000). L'augmentation du HDL cholestérol permet d’éliminer le mauvais cholestérol en excès en nettoyant les tissus et en ramenant le cholestérol vers le foie. Lors du diabète de type 2 on constate une baisse sanguine sensible du taux de HDL-cholestérol, qui est signe indicateur du stress oxydatif. PMID:25767660

  15. A New On-Line Diagnosis Protocol for the SPIDER Family of Byzantine Fault Tolerant Architectures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Geser, Alfons; Miner, Paul S.

    2004-01-01

    This paper presents the formal verification of a new protocol for online distributed diagnosis for the SPIDER family of architectures. An instance of the Scalable Processor-Independent Design for Electromagnetic Resilience (SPIDER) architecture consists of a collection of processing elements communicating over a Reliable Optical Bus (ROBUS). The ROBUS is a specialized fault-tolerant device that guarantees Interactive Consistency, Distributed Diagnosis (Group Membership), and Synchronization in the presence of a bounded number of physical faults. Formal verification of the original SPIDER diagnosis protocol provided a detailed understanding that led to the discovery of a significantly more efficient protocol. The original protocol was adapted from the formally verified protocol used in the MAFT architecture. It required O(N) message exchanges per defendant to correctly diagnose failures in a system with N nodes. The new protocol achieves the same diagnostic fidelity, but only requires O(1) exchanges per defendant. This paper presents this new diagnosis protocol and a formal proof of its correctness using PVS.

  16. The Use of Efficient Broadcast Protocols in Asynchronous Distributed Systems. Ph.D. Thesis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schmuck, Frank Bernhard

    1988-01-01

    Reliable broadcast protocols are important tools in distributed and fault-tolerant programming. They are useful for sharing information and for maintaining replicated data in a distributed system. However, a wide range of such protocols has been proposed. These protocols differ in their fault tolerance and delivery ordering characteristics. There is a tradeoff between the cost of a broadcast protocol and how much ordering it provides. It is, therefore, desirable to employ protocols that support only a low degree of ordering whenever possible. This dissertation presents techniques for deciding how strongly ordered a protocol is necessary to solve a given application problem. It is shown that there are two distinct classes of application problems: problems that can be solved with efficient, asynchronous protocols, and problems that require global ordering. The concept of a linearization function that maps partially ordered sets of events to totally ordered histories is introduced. How to construct an asynchronous implementation that solves a given problem if a linearization function for it can be found is shown. It is proved that in general the question of whether a problem has an asynchronous solution is undecidable. Hence there exists no general algorithm that would automatically construct a suitable linearization function for a given problem. Therefore, an important subclass of problems that have certain commutativity properties are considered. Techniques for constructing asynchronous implementations for this class are presented. These techniques are useful for constructing efficient asynchronous implementations for a broad range of practical problems.

  17. A Self-Stabilizing Hybrid-Fault Tolerant Synchronization Protocol

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Malekpour, Mahyar R.

    2014-01-01

    In this report we present a strategy for solving the Byzantine general problem for self-stabilizing a fully connected network from an arbitrary state and in the presence of any number of faults with various severities including any number of arbitrary (Byzantine) faulty nodes. Our solution applies to realizable systems, while allowing for differences in the network elements, provided that the number of arbitrary faults is not more than a third of the network size. The only constraint on the behavior of a node is that the interactions with other nodes are restricted to defined links and interfaces. Our solution does not rely on assumptions about the initial state of the system and no central clock nor centrally generated signal, pulse, or message is used. Nodes are anonymous, i.e., they do not have unique identities. We also present a mechanical verification of a proposed protocol. A bounded model of the protocol is verified using the Symbolic Model Verifier (SMV). The model checking effort is focused on verifying correctness of the bounded model of the protocol as well as confirming claims of determinism and linear convergence with respect to the self-stabilization period. We believe that our proposed solution solves the general case of the clock synchronization problem.

  18. The Modeling Library of Eavesdropping Methods in Quantum Cryptography Protocols by Model Checking

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Fan; Yang, Guowu; Hao, Yujie

    2016-07-01

    The most crucial issue of quantum cryptography protocols is its security. There exists many ways to attack the quantum communication process. In this paper, we present a model checking method for modeling the eavesdropping in quantum information protocols. So when the security properties of a certain protocol are needed to be verified, we can directly use the models which are already built. Here we adopt the probabilistic model checking tool—PRISM to model these attack methods. The verification results show that the detection rate of eavesdropping is approximately close to 1 when enough photons are transmitted.

  19. Development and evaluation of multispecies test protocols for assessing chemical toxicity

    SciTech Connect

    Garten, C.T. Jr.; Suter, G.W. II; Blaylock, B.G.

    1985-06-01

    Toxicity testing is a well-recognized tool to assist in evaluating the hazards of chemicals to individual biological species. Multispecies toxicity tests, however, are now well developed. Three test systems were examined: the legume-Rhizobium symbiosis for N-fixation, soil microbial populations, and algal multispecies interactions. Test protocols were to be developed and tested using several different chemicals. Test protocols for the legume-Rhizobium and soil microorganisms systems were developed and are presented. The algal multispecies system will require more research, and thus no protocol was recommended at this time. Separate abstracts were prepared for each test system. (ACR)

  20. Distance bounded energy detecting ultra-wideband impulse radio secure protocol.

    PubMed

    Hedin, Daniel S; Kollmann, Daniel T; Gibson, Paul L; Riehle, Timothy H; Seifert, Gregory J

    2014-01-01

    We present a demonstration of a novel protocol for secure transmissions on a Ultra-wideband impulse radio that includes distance bounding. Distance bounding requires radios to be within a certain radius to communicate. This new protocol can be used in body area networks for medical devices where security is imperative. Many current wireless medical devices were not designed with security as a priority including devices that can be life threatening if controlled by a hacker. This protocol provides multiple levels of security including encryption and a distance bounding test to prevent long distance attacks. PMID:25571513

  1. A Draft Test Protocol for Detecting Possible Biohazards in Martian Samples Returned to Earth

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rummel, John D.; Race, Margaret S.; DeVinenzi, Donald L.; Schad, P. Jackson; Stabekis, Pericles D.; Viso, Michel; Acevedo, Sara E.

    2002-01-01

    This document presents the first complete draft of a protocol for detecting possible biohazards in Mars samples returned to Earth; it is the final product of the Mars Sample Handling Protocol Workshop Series, convened in 2000-2001 by NASA's Planetary Protection Officer. The goal of the five-workshop Series vas to develop a comprehensive protocol by which returned martian sample materials could be assessed for the presence of any biological hazard(s) while safeguarding the purity of the samples from possible terrestrial contamination The reference numbers for the proceedings from the five individual Workshops.

  2. Medicinal properties, in vitro protocols and secondary metabolite analyses of scots pine.

    PubMed

    Häggman, Hely; Pirttilä, Anna Maria; Niemi, Karoliina; Sarjala, Tytti; Julkunen-Tiitto, Riitta

    2009-01-01

    Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) is known as an economically important forest tree with a wide distribution throughout the Northern hemisphere. Recently, the species has also become recognized as a novel source of functional food and bioactive compounds with medicinal properties. The present paper provides up-to-date information on protocols for somatic embryogenesis (i.e., the most promising in vitro method for vegetative propagation of Scots pine). Endophyte protocols cover the topics of endophyte isolation, identification and elimination from in vitro cultures. Moreover, the protocols for secondary metabolite analyses are described in order to emphasize the emerging role of Scots pine as a medicinal plant. PMID:19521833

  3. Optimizing local protocols for implementing bipartite nonlocal unitary gates using prior entanglement and classical communication

    SciTech Connect

    Cohen, Scott M.

    2010-06-15

    We present a method of optimizing recently designed protocols for implementing an arbitrary nonlocal unitary gate acting on a bipartite system. These protocols use only local operations and classical communication with the assistance of entanglement, and they are deterministic while also being 'one-shot', in that they use only one copy of an entangled resource state. The optimization minimizes the amount of entanglement needed, and also the amount of classical communication, and it is often the case that less of each of these resources is needed than with an alternative protocol using two-way teleportation.

  4. A QoS-Enabled Double Auction Protocol for the Service Grid

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gao, Zhan; Luo, Siwei

    Traditional double auction protocols only concern the price information of participants without considering their QoS requirements, which makes them unsuitable for the service grid. In this paper we first introduce QoS information into double auction to present the QoS-enabled Double Auction Protocol (QDAP). QDAP tries to assign the asks which have the least candidate bids firstly to make more participants trade and provides QoS guarantee at the same time. Simulation experiments have been performed to compare QDAP with two traditional double auction protocols and the result shows that QDAP is more suitable for the service grid.

  5. A Draft Test Protocol for Detecting Possible Biohazards in Martian Samples Returned to Earth

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rummel, John D. (Editor); Race, Margaret S.; DeVincenzi, Donald L.; Schad, P. Jackson; Stabekis, Pericles D.; Viso, Michel; Acevedo, Sara E.

    2002-01-01

    This document presents the first complete draft of a protocol for detecting possible biohazards in Mars samples returned to Earth: it is the final product of the Mars Sample Handling Protocol Workshop Series. convened in 2000-2001 by NASA's Planetary Protection Officer. The goal of the five-workshop Series vas to develop a comprehensive protocol by which returned martian sample materials could be assessed k r the presence of any biological hazard(s) while safeguarding the purity of the samples from possible terrestrial contamination.

  6. Evaluation of the Telecommunications Protocol Processing Subsystem Using Reconfigurable Interoperable Gate Array

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pang, Jackson; Liddicoat, Albert; Ralston, Jesse; Pingree, Paula

    2006-01-01

    The current implementation of the Telecommunications Protocol Processing Subsystem Using Reconfigurable Interoperable Gate Arrays (TRIGA) is equipped with CFDP protocol and CCSDS Telemetry and Telecommand framing schemes to replace the CPU intensive software counterpart implementation for reliable deep space communication. We present the hardware/software co-design methodology used to accomplish high data rate throughput. The hardware CFDP protocol stack implementation is then compared against the two recent flight implementations. The results from our experiments show that TRIGA offers more than 3 orders of magnitude throughput improvement with less than one-tenth of the power consumption.

  7. The Modeling Library of Eavesdropping Methods in Quantum Cryptography Protocols by Model Checking

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Fan; Yang, Guowu; Hao, Yujie

    2016-03-01

    The most crucial issue of quantum cryptography protocols is its security. There exists many ways to attack the quantum communication process. In this paper, we present a model checking method for modeling the eavesdropping in quantum information protocols. So when the security properties of a certain protocol are needed to be verified, we can directly use the models which are already built. Here we adopt the probabilistic model checking tool—PRISM to model these attack methods. The verification results show that the detection rate of eavesdropping is approximately close to 1 when enough photons are transmitted.

  8. Quantum Oblivious Transfer Based on a Quantum Symmetrically Private Information Retrieval Protocol

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Yu-Guang; Sun, Si-Jia; Wang, Yan

    2015-03-01

    Private information retrieval implies oblivious transfer in classical cryptography. Following this clue, we present a novel quantum one-out-of-two OT protocol based on a practical quantum symmetrically private information retrieval protocol Jakobi et al. (Phys. Rev. A 83, 022301 2011), with changes only in the classical postprocessing of the key. While unconditionally secure oblivious transfer is known to be impossible, we argue that an interesting degree of security can be achieved by means of quantum physical principles instead of unproven security assumptions in order to protect both the sender and the receiver. The proposed OT protocol is loss tolerant, practical and robust against quantum memory attack.

  9. [A protocol to assist people with suicidal thoughts in clinical practice].

    PubMed

    Gagliesi, Pablo

    2010-01-01

    This article presents a Protocol for Suicidal Clients in mental health practice. These protocols in medicine should promote a practice based on evidence and the experts consensus. It discusses the advantages and disadvantages of this procedures, promoting its use. The reasons include research, training, efficacy, evidence based practices, stress reduction and better performance of the mental health professionals. Based on Dialectical Behavioral Therapy, this protocol has been designed and used in a program with severly disturb clients. This article also discusses the advantages and disadvantages of the No Harm Contracts versus its replacement for Treatment Agreements or Compromises. PMID:20440411

  10. [An update of the obstetrics hemorrhage treatment protocol].

    PubMed

    Morillas-Ramírez, F; Ortiz-Gómez, J R; Palacio-Abizanda, F J; Fornet-Ruiz, I; Pérez-Lucas, R; Bermejo-Albares, L

    2014-04-01

    Obstetric hemorrhage is still a major cause of maternal and fetal morbimortality in developed countries. This is an underestimated problem, which usually appears unpredictably. A high proportion of the morbidity of obstetric hemorrhage is considered to be preventable if adequately managed. The major international clinical guidelines recommend producing consensus management protocols, adapted to local characteristics and keep them updated in the light of experience and new scientific publications. We present a protocol updated, according to the latest recommendations, and our own experience, in order to be used as a basis for those anesthesiologists who wish to use and adapt it locally to their daily work. This last aspect is very important to be effective, and is a task to be performed at each center, according to the availability of resources, personnel and architectural features. PMID:24560060

  11. Reliable multicast protocol specifications flow control and NACK policy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Callahan, John R.; Montgomery, Todd L.; Whetten, Brian

    1995-01-01

    This appendix presents the flow and congestion control schemes recommended for RMP and a NACK policy based on the whiteboard tool. Because RMP uses a primarily NACK based error detection scheme, there is no direct feedback path through which receivers can signal losses through low buffer space or congestion. Reliable multicast protocols also suffer from the fact that throughput for a multicast group must be divided among the members of the group. This division is usually very dynamic in nature and therefore does not lend itself well to a priori determination. These facts have led the flow and congestion control schemes of RMP to be made completely orthogonal to the protocol specification. This allows several differing schemes to be used in different environments to produce the best results. As a default, a modified sliding window scheme based on previous algorithms are suggested and described below.

  12. Wireless Intelligent Sensors Management Application Protocol-WISMAP

    PubMed Central

    Cuevas-Martinez, Juan Carlos; Gadeo-Martos, Manuel Angel; Fernandez-Prieto, Jose Angel; Canada-Bago, Joaquin; Yuste-Delgado, Antonio Jesus

    2010-01-01

    Although many recent studies have focused on the development of new applications for wireless sensor networks, less attention has been paid to knowledge-based sensor nodes. The objective of this work is the development in a real network of a new distributed system in which every sensor node can execute a set of applications, such as fuzzy ruled-base systems, measures, and actions. The sensor software is based on a multi-agent structure that is composed of three components: management, application control, and communication agents; a service interface, which provides applications the abstraction of sensor hardware and other components; and an application layer protocol. The results show the effectiveness of the communication protocol and that the proposed system is suitable for a wide range of applications. As real world applications, this work presents an example of a fuzzy rule-based system and a noise pollution monitoring application that obtains a fuzzy noise indicator. PMID:22163383

  13. An Energy Efficient Protocol For The Internet Of Things

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Venčkauskas, Algimantas; Jusas, Nerijus; Kazanavičius, Egidijus; Štuikys, Vytautas

    2015-01-01

    The Internet of Things (IoT) is a technological revolution that represents the future of computing and communications. One of the most important challenges of IoT is security: protection of data and privacy. The SSL protocol is the de-facto standard for secure Internet communications. The extra energy cost of encrypting and authenticating of the application data with SSL is around 15%. For IoT devices, where energy resources are limited, the increase in the cost of energy is a very significant factor. In this paper we present the energy efficient SSL protocol which ensures the maximum bandwidth and the required level of security with minimum energy consumption. The proper selection of the security level and CPU multiplier, can save up to 85% of the energy required for data encryption.

  14. A streamlined ribosome profiling protocol for the characterization of microorganisms.

    PubMed

    Latif, Haythem; Szubin, Richard; Tan, Justin; Brunk, Elizabeth; Lechner, Anna; Zengler, Karsten; Palsson, Bernhard O

    2015-06-01

    Ribosome profiling is a powerful tool for characterizing in vivo protein translation at the genome scale, with multiple applications ranging from detailed molecular mechanisms to systems-level predictive modeling. Though highly effective, this intricate technique has yet to become widely used in the microbial research community. Here we present a streamlined ribosome profiling protocol with reduced barriers to entry for microbial characterization studies. Our approach provides simplified alternatives during harvest, lysis, and recovery of monosomes and also eliminates several time-consuming steps, in particular size-selection steps during library construction. Furthermore, the abundance of rRNAs and tRNAs in the final library is drastically reduced. Our streamlined workflow enables greater throughput, cuts the time from harvest to the final library in half (down to 3-4 days), and generates a high fraction of informative reads, all while retaining the high quality standards of the existing protocol. PMID:26054770

  15. Wireless Intelligent Sensors Management Application Protocol-WISMAP.

    PubMed

    Cuevas-Martinez, Juan Carlos; Gadeo-Martos, Manuel Angel; Fernandez-Prieto, Jose Angel; Canada-Bago, Joaquin; Yuste-Delgado, Antonio Jesus

    2010-01-01

    Although many recent studies have focused on the development of new applications for wireless sensor networks, less attention has been paid to knowledge-based sensor nodes. The objective of this work is the development in a real network of a new distributed system in which every sensor node can execute a set of applications, such as fuzzy ruled-base systems, measures, and actions. The sensor software is based on a multi-agent structure that is composed of three components: management, application control, and communication agents; a service interface, which provides applications the abstraction of sensor hardware and other components; and an application layer protocol. The results show the effectiveness of the communication protocol and that the proposed system is suitable for a wide range of applications. As real world applications, this work presents an example of a fuzzy rule-based system and a noise pollution monitoring application that obtains a fuzzy noise indicator. PMID:22163383

  16. Direct Cellular Lysis/Protein Extraction Protocol for Soil Metaproteomics

    SciTech Connect

    Chourey, Karuna; Jansson, Janet; Verberkmoes, Nathan C; Shah, Manesh B; Chavarria, Krystle L.; Tom, Lauren M; Brodie, Eoin L.; Hettich, Robert {Bob} L

    2010-01-01

    We present a novel direct protocol for deep proteome characterization of microorganisms in soil. The method employs thermally assisted detergent-based cellular lysis (SDS) of soil samples, followed by TCA precipitation for proteome extraction/cleanup prior to liquid chromatography-mass spectrometric characterization. This approach was developed and optimized using different soils inoculated with genome-sequenced bacteria (Gram-negative Pseudomonas putida or Gram-positive Arthrobacter chlorophenolicus). Direct soil protein extraction was compared to protein extraction from cells isolated from the soil matrix prior to lysis (indirect method). Each approach resulted in identification of greater than 500 unique proteins, with a wide range in molecular mass and functional categories. To our knowledge, this SDS-TCA approach enables the deepest proteome characterizations of microbes in soil to date, without significant biases in protein size, localization, or functional category compared to pure cultures. This protocol should provide a powerful tool for ecological studies of soil microbial communities.

  17. Protocol for Communication Networking for Formation Flying

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jennings, Esther; Okino, Clayton; Gao, Jay; Clare, Loren

    2009-01-01

    An application-layer protocol and a network architecture have been proposed for data communications among multiple autonomous spacecraft that are required to fly in a precise formation in order to perform scientific observations. The protocol could also be applied to other autonomous vehicles operating in formation, including robotic aircraft, robotic land vehicles, and robotic underwater vehicles. A group of spacecraft or other vehicles to which the protocol applies could be characterized as a precision-formation- flying (PFF) network, and each vehicle could be characterized as a node in the PFF network. In order to support precise formation flying, it would be necessary to establish a corresponding communication network, through which the vehicles could exchange position and orientation data and formation-control commands. The communication network must enable communication during early phases of a mission, when little positional knowledge is available. Particularly during early mission phases, the distances among vehicles may be so large that communication could be achieved only by relaying across multiple links. The large distances and need for omnidirectional coverage would limit communication links to operation at low bandwidth during these mission phases. Once the vehicles were in formation and distances were shorter, the communication network would be required to provide high-bandwidth, low-jitter service to support tight formation-control loops. The proposed protocol and architecture, intended to satisfy the aforementioned and other requirements, are based on a standard layered-reference-model concept. The proposed application protocol would be used in conjunction with conventional network, data-link, and physical-layer protocols. The proposed protocol includes the ubiquitous Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE) 802.11 medium access control (MAC) protocol to be used in the datalink layer. In addition to its widespread and proven use in

  18. Evolution des quasiparticules nodales du cuprate supraconducteur YBa2Cu3Oy en conductivite thermique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rene de Cotret, Samuel

    Ce memoire presente des mesures de conductivite thermique sur les supraconducteurs YBCO et Tl-2201 afin de statuer sur la presence possible d'un point critique quantique (QCP) dans le diagramme de phase de cuprates. Ce point critique quantique serait a l'origine de la reconstruction de la surface de Fermi, d'un large cylindre de trous en de petites poches de trous et d'electrons. La conductivite thermique dans le regime T → 0 permet d'extraire une quantite purement electronique liee aux vitesses de Fermi et du gap, au noeud. Une discontinuite dans cette quantite pourrait signaler la traversee du dopage critique qui reconstruit la surface de Fermi. Plusieurs sondes experimentales distinguent une transition de phase ou un crossover a T* a temperature finie. D'autres sondes mettent en evidence une transition de phase sous l'effet d'un champ magnetique. La presence ou non de cet ordre, a temperature et champ magnetique nul questionne la communaute depuis plusieurs annees. Dans cette etude, nous detectons une variation brusque de kappa0/T a p = 0.18 dans YBCO et a p = 0.20 dans Tl-2201. Ces sauts sont interpretes comme un signe de la transition a temperature nulle et sont en faveur d'un QCP. Le manque de donnees d'un meme materiau a ces dopages ne permet pas de valider hors de tout doute l'existence d'un point critique quantique. Le modele theorique YRZ decrit aussi bien les donnees de conductivite thermique. Des pistes de travaux experimentaux a poursuivre sont proposees pour determiner la presence ou non du QCP de facon franche. Mots-cles : Supraconducteurs, cuprates, conductivite thermique, point critique quantique.

  19. Bulk transfer protocols on satellite link - Study within the OSI reference model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Valet, I.

    Since satellite systems, such as TELECOM1 in France, are available for data transmission, new protocols need to be designed to fit the requirements of satellite communication systems and to offer specific facilities to the users. The main features of these new transmission protocols, as they have been specified by NADIR studies, are described. Next, the reasons for choosing to study these protocols within the OSI Reference Model are explained. A detailed study about introducing the protocol mechanisms described above in the OSI Reference model layers is then presented. Different approaches are presented, and the solutions studied are appraised in terms of efficiency, and of conformity to the OSI Reference Model. Finally, the experiments planned by NADIR are mentionned.

  20. W. E. B. Du Bois: Reform, Will, and the Veil

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    England, Lynn; Warner, W. Keith

    2013-01-01

    While W. E. B. Du Bois is widely recognized for his contributions to the sociology of race, his contributions to the foundations of sociology are largely ignored. His sociology is based on African American reformism, a version of pragmatism, and a contingent historicism. The basic view of sociology is one that emphasizes the role of chance and…

  1. Pic-du-Midi Observatory (Observatoire Midi-Pyrenees) (OMP)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Murdin, P.

    2000-11-01

    OMP is under the administrative supervision of both the Institute des Sciences de l'Univers (INSU) of the French National Center for Scientific Research (CNRS) and the Ministry of Research, Technology and Education. It has laboratories located at the Université Paul Sabatier in Toulouse, Bagnères, Lannemezan and at the summit of Pic du Midi de Bigorre....

  2. DuSable High School Internet Project and its influence in connecting Chicago Public Schools to the Internet

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    York, D. G.; Mac Low, M. M.; Brown, B.; Franco, L. M.; Rebull, L. M.; Graziani, C.; Lauroesch, J.

    1998-05-01

    Jean Baptiste Point DuSable High School is a public school in inner city Chicago with a 100% African American student population, over 90% of which live below the poverty limit. In 1995, in partnership with the University of Chicago they applied to NASA's IDEAS program for seed money to bring the Internet to the school via a dedicated T1 connection. We will present the detailed successes and failures of this project. While several aspects did not work out as well as expected, in the long term the project did provide important guidance for a more sucessful involvement in 12 additional public schools in the same social situation. In these more recent involvements we have been able to provide more consistent and continued support than was possible at DuSable High School.

  3. Field validation of protocols developed to evaluate in-line mastitis detection systems.

    PubMed

    Kamphuis, C; Dela Rue, B T; Eastwood, C R

    2016-02-01

    This paper reports on a field validation of previously developed protocols for evaluating the performance of in-line mastitis-detection systems. The protocols outlined 2 requirements of these systems: (1) to detect cows with clinical mastitis (CM) promptly and accurately to enable timely and appropriate treatment and (2) to identify cows with high somatic cell count (SCC) to manage bulk milk SCC levels. Gold standard measures, evaluation tests, performance measures, and performance targets were proposed. The current study validated the protocols on commercial dairy farms with automated in-line mastitis-detection systems using both electrical conductivity (EC) and SCC sensor systems that both monitor at whole-udder level. The protocol for requirement 1 was applied on 3 commercial farms. For requirement 2, the protocol was applied on 6 farms; 3 of them had low bulk milk SCC (128×10(3) cells/mL) and were the same farms as used for field evaluation of requirement 1. Three farms with high bulk milk SCC (270×10(3) cells/mL) were additionally enrolled. The field evaluation methodology and results were presented at a workshop including representation from 7 international suppliers of in-line mastitis-detection systems. Feedback was sought on the acceptance of standardized performance evaluation protocols and recommended refinements to the protocols. Although the methodology for requirement 1 was relatively labor intensive and required organizational skills over an extended period, no major issues were encountered during the field validation of both protocols. The validation, thus, proved the protocols to be practical. Also, no changes to the data collection process were recommended by the technology supplier representatives. However, 4 recommendations were made to refine the protocols: inclusion of an additional analysis that ignores small (low-density) clot observations in the definition of CM, extension of the time window from 4 to 5 milkings for timely alerts for CM

  4. Katimavik Out-Trip Protocol.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    OPCAN, Montreal (Quebec).

    A supplement to the active leisure learning student manual for Katimavik (the 9-month volunteer community service and experiential learning program for 17-21 year old Canadians) provides in greater detail the procedure for preparing and implementing the Outdoor Wilderness Trip. Sections presented are definition of terms, national training,…

  5. WDM Network and Multicasting Protocol Strategies

    PubMed Central

    Zaim, Abdul Halim

    2014-01-01

    Optical technology gains extensive attention and ever increasing improvement because of the huge amount of network traffic caused by the growing number of internet users and their rising demands. However, with wavelength division multiplexing (WDM), it is easier to take the advantage of optical networks and optical burst switching (OBS) and to construct WDM networks with low delay rates and better data transparency these technologies are the best choices. Furthermore, multicasting in WDM is an urgent solution for bandwidth-intensive applications. In the paper, a new multicasting protocol with OBS is proposed. The protocol depends on a leaf initiated structure. The network is composed of source, ingress switches, intermediate switches, edge switches, and client nodes. The performance of the protocol is examined with Just Enough Time (JET) and Just In Time (JIT) reservation protocols. Also, the paper involves most of the recent advances about WDM multicasting in optical networks. WDM multicasting in optical networks is given as three common subtitles: Broadcast and-select networks, wavelength-routed networks, and OBS networks. Also, in the paper, multicast routing protocols are briefly summarized and optical burst switched WDM networks are investigated with the proposed multicast schemes. PMID:24744683

  6. The Space Communications Protocol Standards Program

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jeffries, Alan; Hooke, Adrian J.

    1994-11-01

    In the fall of 1992 NASA and the Department of Defense chartered a technical team to explore the possibility of developing a common set of space data communications standards for potential dual-use across the U.S. national space mission support infrastructure. The team focused on the data communications needs of those activities associated with on-lined control of civil and military aircraft. A two-pronged approach was adopted: a top-down survey of representative civil and military space data communications requirements was conducted; and a bottom-up analysis of available standard data communications protocols was performed. A striking intersection of civil and military space mission requirements emerged, and an equally striking consensus on the approach towards joint civil and military space protocol development was reached. The team concluded that wide segments of the U.S. civil and military space communities have common needs for: (1) an efficient file transfer protocol; (2) various flavors of underlying data transport service; (3) an optional data protection mechanism to assure end-to-end security of message exchange; and (4) an efficient internetworking protocol. These recommendations led to initiating a program to develop a suite of protocols based on these findings. This paper describes the current status of this program.

  7. Network protocols for mobile robot systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gage, Douglas W.

    1998-01-01

    Communications and communications protocols will play an important role in mobile robot systems able to address real world applications. A poorly integrated 'stack' of communications protocols, or protocols which are poorly matched to the functional and performance characteristics of the underlying physical communications links, can greatly reduce the effectiveness of an otherwise well implemented robotic or networked sensors system. The proliferation of Internet-like networks in military as well as civilian domains has motivated research to address some of the performance limitations TCP suffers when using RF and other media with long bandwidth-delay, dynamic connectivity, and error-prone links. Beyond these performance issues, however, TCP is poorly matched to the requirements of mobile robot and other quasi-autonomous systems: it is oriented to providing a continuous data stream, rather than discrete messages, and the canonical 'socket' interface conceals short losses of communications connectivity, but simply gives up and forces the application layer software to deal with longer losses. For the multipurpose security and surveillance mission platform project, a software applique is being developed that will run on top of user datagram protocol to provide a reliable message-based transport service. In addition, a session layer protocol is planned to support the effective transfer of control of multiple platforms among multiple stations.

  8. The Space Communications Protocol Standards Program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jeffries, Alan; Hooke, Adrian J.

    1994-01-01

    In the fall of 1992 NASA and the Department of Defense chartered a technical team to explore the possibility of developing a common set of space data communications standards for potential dual-use across the U.S. national space mission support infrastructure. The team focused on the data communications needs of those activities associated with on-lined control of civil and military aircraft. A two-pronged approach was adopted: a top-down survey of representative civil and military space data communications requirements was conducted; and a bottom-up analysis of available standard data communications protocols was performed. A striking intersection of civil and military space mission requirements emerged, and an equally striking consensus on the approach towards joint civil and military space protocol development was reached. The team concluded that wide segments of the U.S. civil and military space communities have common needs for: (1) an efficient file transfer protocol; (2) various flavors of underlying data transport service; (3) an optional data protection mechanism to assure end-to-end security of message exchange; and (4) an efficient internetworking protocol. These recommendations led to initiating a program to develop a suite of protocols based on these findings. This paper describes the current status of this program.

  9. The Interplanetary Overlay Networking Protocol Accelerator

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pang, Jackson; Torgerson, Jordan L.; Clare, Loren P.

    2008-01-01

    A document describes the Interplanetary Overlay Networking Protocol Accelerator (IONAC) an electronic apparatus, now under development, for relaying data at high rates in spacecraft and interplanetary radio-communication systems utilizing a delay-tolerant networking protocol. The protocol includes provisions for transmission and reception of data in bundles (essentially, messages), transfer of custody of a bundle to a recipient relay station at each step of a relay, and return receipts. Because of limitations on energy resources available for such relays, data rates attainable in a conventional software implementation of the protocol are lower than those needed, at any given reasonable energy-consumption rate. Therefore, a main goal in developing the IONAC is to reduce the energy consumption by an order of magnitude and the data-throughput capability by two orders of magnitude. The IONAC prototype is a field-programmable gate array that serves as a reconfigurable hybrid (hardware/ firmware) system for implementation of the protocol. The prototype can decode 108,000 bundles per second and encode 100,000 bundles per second. It includes a bundle-cache static randomaccess memory that enables maintenance of a throughput of 2.7Gb/s, and an Ethernet convergence layer that supports a duplex throughput of 1Gb/s.

  10. WDM network and multicasting protocol strategies.

    PubMed

    Kirci, Pinar; Zaim, Abdul Halim

    2014-01-01

    Optical technology gains extensive attention and ever increasing improvement because of the huge amount of network traffic caused by the growing number of internet users and their rising demands. However, with wavelength division multiplexing (WDM), it is easier to take the advantage of optical networks and optical burst switching (OBS) and to construct WDM networks with low delay rates and better data transparency these technologies are the best choices. Furthermore, multicasting in WDM is an urgent solution for bandwidth-intensive applications. In the paper, a new multicasting protocol with OBS is proposed. The protocol depends on a leaf initiated structure. The network is composed of source, ingress switches, intermediate switches, edge switches, and client nodes. The performance of the protocol is examined with Just Enough Time (JET) and Just In Time (JIT) reservation protocols. Also, the paper involves most of the recent advances about WDM multicasting in optical networks. WDM multicasting in optical networks is given as three common subtitles: Broadcast and-select networks, wavelength-routed networks, and OBS networks. Also, in the paper, multicast routing protocols are briefly summarized and optical burst switched WDM networks are investigated with the proposed multicast schemes. PMID:24744683

  11. A test protocol to screen capacitors for radiation-induced charge loss.

    SciTech Connect

    Zarick, Thomas Andrew; Hartman, E. Frederick

    2008-09-01

    This report presents a test protocol for screening capacitors dielectrics for charge loss due to ionizing radiation. The test protocol minimizes experimental error and provides a test method that allows comparisons of different dielectric types if exposed to the same environment and if the same experimental technique is used. The test acceptance or screening method is fully described in this report. A discussion of technical issues and possible errors and uncertainties is included in this report also.

  12. Alternating-Offers Protocol for Multi-issue Bilateral Negotiation in Semantic-Enabled Marketplaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ragone, Azzurra; di Noia, Tommaso; di Sciascio, Eugenio; Donini, Francesco M.

    We present a semantic-based approach to multi-issue bilateral negotiation for e-commerce. We use Description Logics to model advertisements, and relations among issues as axioms in a TBox. We then introduce a logic-based alternating-offers protocol, able to handle conflicting information, that merges non-standard reasoning services in Description Logics with utility thoery to find the most suitable agreements. We illustrate and motivate the theoretical framework, the logical language, and the negotiation protocol.

  13. Quantifying Thermal Spray Coating Architecture by Stereological Protocols: Part II. Key Points to be Addressed

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Antou, Guy; Montavon, Ghislain

    2007-06-01

    This commentary aims at presenting, from a practical viewpoint, some key points to assess when implementing image analysis coupled to stereological protocols to quantify statistically the architecture of thermal spray coatings and their relevant features (pores, lamellae, and so forth.). This article is the second of a two-part commentary; the first one, published in Journal of Thermal Spray Technology, Vol 16 (No. 1), 2007, detailed those stereological protocols from a historical perspective.

  14. Differentiation of Human Induced-Pluripotent Stem Cells into Smooth-Muscle Cells: Two Novel Protocols

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Libang; Geng, Zhaohui; Nickel, Thomas; Johnson, Caitlin; Gao, Lin; Dutton, James; Hou, Cody; Zhang, Jianyi

    2016-01-01

    Conventional protocols for differentiating human induced-pluripotent stem cells (hiPSCs) into smooth-muscle cells (SMCs) can be inefficient and generally fail to yield cells with a specific SMC phenotype (i.e., contractile or synthetic SMCs). Here, we present two novel hiPSC-SMC differentiation protocols that yield SMCs with predominantly contractile or synthetic phenotypes. Flow cytometry analyses of smooth-muscle actin (SMA) expression indicated that ~45% of the cells obtained with each protocol assumed an SMC phenotype, and that the populations could be purified to ~95% via metabolic selection. Assessments of cellular mRNA and/or protein levels indicated that SMA, myosin heavy chain II, collagen 1, calponin, transgelin, connexin 43, and vimentin expression in the SMCs obtained via the Contractile SMC protocol and in SMCs differentiated via a traditional protocol were similar, while SMCs produced via the Sythetic SMC protocol expressed less calponin, more collagen 1, and more connexin 43. Differences were also observed in functional assessments of the two SMC populations: the two-dimensional surface area of Contractile SMCs declined more extensively (to 12% versus 44% of original size) in response to carbachol treatment, while quantification of cell migration and proliferation were greater in Synthetic SMCs. Collectively, these data demonstrate that our novel differentiation protocols can efficiently generate SMCs from hiPSCs. PMID:26771193

  15. Validation of a Ramp Running Protocol for Determination of the True VO2max in Mice

    PubMed Central

    Ayachi, Mohamed; Niel, Romain; Momken, Iman; Billat, Véronique L.; Mille-Hamard, Laurence

    2016-01-01

    In the field of comparative physiology, it remains to be established whether the concept of VO2max is valid in the mouse and, if so, how this value can be accurately determined. In humans, VO2max is generally considered to correspond to the plateau observed when VO2 no longer rises with an increase in workload. In contrast, the concept of VO2peak tends to be used in murine studies. The objectives of the present study were to determine whether (i) a continuous ramp protocol yielded a higher VO2peak than a stepwise, incremental protocol, and (ii) the VO2peak measured in the ramp protocol corresponded to VO2max. The three protocols (based on intensity-controlled treadmill running until exhaustion with eight female FVB/N mice) were performed in random order: (a) an incremental protocol that begins at 10 m.min−1 speed and increases by 3 m.min−1 every 3 min. (b) a ramp protocol with slow acceleration (3 m.min−2), and (c) a ramp protocol with fast acceleration (12 m.min−2). Each protocol was performed with two slopes (0 and 25°). Hence, each mouse performed six exercise tests. We found that the value of VO2peak was protocol-dependent (p < 0.05) and was highest (59.0 ml.kg 0.75.min−1) for the 3 m.min−2 0° ramp protocol. In the latter, the presence of a VO2max plateau was associated with the fulfillment of two secondary criteria (a blood lactate concentration >8 mmol.l−1 and a respiratory exchange ratio >1). The total duration of the 3 m.min−2 0° ramp protocol was shorter than that of the incremental protocol. Taken as a whole, our results suggest that VO2max in the mouse is best determined by applying a ramp exercise protocol with slow acceleration and no treadmill slope. PMID:27621709

  16. La genèse du concept de champ quantique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Darrigol, O.

    This is a historical study of the roots of a concept which has proved to be essential in modern particle physics : the concept of quantum field. The first steps were accomplished by two young theoreticians : Pascual Jordan quantized the free electromagnetic field in 1925 by means of the formal rules of the just discovered matrix mechanics, and Paul Dirac quantized the whole system charges + field in 1927. Using Dirac's equation for electrons (1928) and Jordan's idea of quantized matter waves (second quantization), Werner Heisenberg and Wolfgang Pauli provided in 1929-1930 an extension of Dirac's radiation theory and the proof of its relativistic invariance. Meanwhile Enrico Fermi discovered independently a more elegant and pedagogical formulation. To appreciate the degree of historical necessity of the quantization of fields, and the value of contemporaneous critics to this approach, it was necessary to investigate some of the history of the old radiation theory. We present the various arguments however provisional or naïve or wrong they could be in retrospect. So we hope to contribute to a more vivid picture of notions which, once deprived of their historical setting, might seem abstruse to the modern user. Nous présentons une étude historique des origines d'un concept devenu essentiel dans la physique moderne des particules : le concept de champ quantique. Deux jeunes théoriciens franchirent les premières étapes : Pascual Jordan quantifia le champ électromagnétique en 1925 grâce aux règles formelles de la mécanique des matrices naissante, et Paul Dirac quantifia le système complet charges + champ en 1927. Au moyen de l'équation de l'électron de Dirac (1928) et de l'idée de Jordan d'ondes de matière quantifiées (deuxième quantification), Werner Heisenberg et Wolfgang Pauli donnèrent en 1929-1930 une extension de la théorie du rayonnement de Dirac et la preuve de son invariance relativiste. Pendant ce temps Enrico Fermi découvrit ind

  17. Current Protocols in Protein Science

    PubMed Central

    Huynh, Kathy

    2015-01-01

    The purification of recombinant proteins for biochemical assays and structural studies is time-consuming and presents inherent difficulties that depend on the optimization of protein stability. The use of dyes to monitor thermal denaturation of proteins with sensitive fluorescence detection enables the rapid and inexpensive determination of protein stability using real-time PCR instruments. By screening a wide range of solution conditions and additives in 96-well format, the thermal shift assay easily identifies conditions that significantly enhance the stability of recombinant proteins. The same approach can be used as a low cost, initial screen to discover new protein:ligand interactions by capitalizing on increases in protein stability that typically occur upon ligand binding. This unit presents a methodological workflow for the small-scale, high-throughout thermal denaturation of recombinant proteins in the presence of SYPRO Orange dye. PMID:25640896

  18. Incorporating ethical principles into clinical research protocols: a tool for protocol writers and ethics committees

    PubMed Central

    Li, Rebecca H; Wacholtz, Mary C; Barnes, Mark; Boggs, Liam; Callery-D'Amico, Susan; Davis, Amy; Digilova, Alla; Forster, David; Heffernan, Kate; Luthin, Maeve; Lynch, Holly Fernandez; McNair, Lindsay; Miller, Jennifer E; Murphy, Jacquelyn; Van Campen, Luann; Wilenzick, Mark; Wolf, Delia; Woolston, Cris; Aldinger, Carmen; Bierer, Barbara E

    2016-01-01

    A novel Protocol Ethics Tool Kit (‘Ethics Tool Kit’) has been developed by a multi-stakeholder group of the Multi-Regional Clinical Trials Center of Brigham and Women's Hospital and Harvard. The purpose of the Ethics Tool Kit is to facilitate effective recognition, consideration and deliberation of critical ethical issues in clinical trial protocols. The Ethics Tool Kit may be used by investigators and sponsors to develop a dedicated Ethics Section within a protocol to improve the consistency and transparency between clinical trial protocols and research ethics committee reviews. It may also streamline ethics review and may facilitate and expedite the review process by anticipating the concerns of ethics committee reviewers. Specific attention was given to issues arising in multinational settings. With the use of this Tool Kit, researchers have the opportunity to address critical research ethics issues proactively, potentially speeding the time and easing the process to final protocol approval. PMID:26811365

  19. Incorporating ethical principles into clinical research protocols: a tool for protocol writers and ethics committees.

    PubMed

    Li, Rebecca H; Wacholtz, Mary C; Barnes, Mark; Boggs, Liam; Callery-D'Amico, Susan; Davis, Amy; Digilova, Alla; Forster, David; Heffernan, Kate; Luthin, Maeve; Lynch, Holly Fernandez; McNair, Lindsay; Miller, Jennifer E; Murphy, Jacquelyn; Van Campen, Luann; Wilenzick, Mark; Wolf, Delia; Woolston, Cris; Aldinger, Carmen; Bierer, Barbara E

    2016-04-01

    A novel Protocol Ethics Tool Kit ('Ethics Tool Kit') has been developed by a multi-stakeholder group of the Multi-Regional Clinical Trials Center of Brigham and Women's Hospital and Harvard. The purpose of the Ethics Tool Kit is to facilitate effective recognition, consideration and deliberation of critical ethical issues in clinical trial protocols. The Ethics Tool Kit may be used by investigators and sponsors to develop a dedicated Ethics Section within a protocol to improve the consistency and transparency between clinical trial protocols and research ethics committee reviews. It may also streamline ethics review and may facilitate and expedite the review process by anticipating the concerns of ethics committee reviewers. Specific attention was given to issues arising in multinational settings. With the use of this Tool Kit, researchers have the opportunity to address critical research ethics issues proactively, potentially speeding the time and easing the process to final protocol approval. PMID:26811365

  20. An Integrated Hierarchical Dynamic Quantum Secret Sharing Protocol

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mishra, Sandeep; Shukla, Chitra; Pathak, Anirban; Srikanth, R.; Venugopalan, Anu

    2015-09-01

    Generalizing the notion of dynamic quantum secret sharing (DQSS), a simplified protocol for hierarchical dynamic quantum secret sharing (HDQSS) is proposed and it is shown that the protocol can be implemented using any existing protocol of quantum key distribution, quantum key agreement or secure direct quantum communication. The security of this proposed protocol against eavesdropping and collusion attacks is discussed with specific attention towards the issues related to the composability of the subprotocols that constitute the proposed protocol. The security and qubit efficiency of the proposed protocol is also compared with that of other existing protocols of DQSS. Further, it is shown that it is possible to design a semi-quantum protocol of HDQSS and in principle, the protocols of HDQSS can be implemented using any quantum state. It is also noted that the completely orthogonal-state-based realization of HDQSS protocol is possible and that HDQSS can be experimentally realized using a large number of alternative approaches.

  1. A class-chest for deriving transport protocols

    SciTech Connect

    Strayer, W.T.

    1996-10-01

    Development of new transport protocols or protocol algorithms suffers from the complexity of the environment in which they are intended to run. Modeling techniques attempt to avoid this by simulating the environment. Another approach to promoting rapid prototyping of protocols and protocol algorithms is to provide a pre-built infrastructure that is common to transport protocols, so that the focus is placed on the protocol-specific aspects. The Meta-Transport Library is a library of C++ base classes that implement or abstract out the mundane functions of a protocol, new protocol implementations are derived from base classes. The result is a fully viable user- level transport protocol implementation, with emphasis on modularity. The collection of base classes form a ``class-chest`` of tools .from which protocols can be developed and studied with as little change to a normal UNIX environment as possible.

  2. A Quantum Protocol for ( t, n)-Threshold Identity Authentication Based on Greenberger-Horne-Zeilinger States

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Yu-Guang; Wang, Hong-Yang; Jia, Xin; Zhang, Hua

    2013-02-01

    A quantum protocol for ( t, n)-threshold identity authentication based on Greenberger-Horne-Zeilinger states is presented. A trusted third party (TTP) can authenticate the users simultaneously when and only when t or more users among n apply for authentication. Compared with the previous multiparty simultaneous quantum identity authentication (MSQIA) protocols, the proposed scheme is more flexible and suitable for practical applications.

  3. Conceptual design and first results of a combined electrical resistivity and induced polarization monitoring at the Aiguille du Midi rock permafrost summit (Mont Blanc Massif, French/Italian Alps)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krautblatter, M.; Verleysdonk, S.; Flores-Orozco, A.; Kemna, A.; Deline, P.; Ravanel, L.; Pogliotti, P.; Coviello, V.; Malet, E.

    2009-04-01

    Monitoring of systemic changes in high mountain rock permafrost proves to be of increasing significance. The association with ongoing and future climate change raises the need for monitoring schemes to enable modelling of future scenarios. Due to the high degree of tourist utilisation and the good accessibility via cable car, the Aiguille du Midi represents the ideal premises to establish a long-term monitoring site. At 3842 m a.s.l. the steep granite summit offers access to all aspects in combination with persistent ice in the rock face and different rock mechanical settings. The geophysical monitoring presented here integrates into the framework of the French-Italian PERMAdataROC project and is presently considered for the EU co-funded project PermaNET (Permafrost long-term monitoring network: www.permanet-alpinespace.eu). ERT and IP were conducted along three transects at the Aiguille du Midi in December 2008. Two transects were installed along galleries and in the rock faces that are accessible from the public platform at 3770 m a.s.l.. A further transect was installed by abseiling from the summit to the steep north and south face. The southern limb of the transect goes past the meteorological station installed in a vertical rock section. All transects were measured with a Syscal Pro device with high voltages of 800 V and we applied 48 steel electrodes per transect placed firmly in drilled holes. For optimum coverage we developed a high-resolution ERT protocol with approximately 3000 dipole-dipole measurements per array and 200 cross-borehole type measurements. Time domain IP was measured alongside to check chargeability of clefts with fine-grained fillings. Simultaneously, a survey of all important clefts was made to reference chargeability values. Both ERT and IP measurements were recorded in normal and reciprocal orientation and are used to define the error levels inherent in the measurements. A smoothness-constrained Occam's inversion is then adjusted to

  4. Chapter 22: Compressed Air Evaluation Protocol

    SciTech Connect

    Benton, N.

    2014-11-01

    Compressed-air systems are used widely throughout industry for many operations, including pneumatic tools, packaging and automation equipment, conveyors, and other industrial process operations. Compressed-air systems are defined as a group of subsystems composed of air compressors, air treatment equipment, controls, piping, pneumatic tools, pneumatically powered machinery, and process applications using compressed air. A compressed-air system has three primary functional subsystems: supply, distribution, and demand. Air compressors are the primary energy consumers in a compressed-air system and are the primary focus of this protocol. The two compressed-air energy efficiency measures specifically addressed in this protocol are: high-efficiency/variable speed drive (VSD) compressor replacing modulating compressor; compressed-air leak survey and repairs. This protocol provides direction on how to reliably verify savings from these two measures using a consistent approach for each.

  5. Efficient Controlled Quantum Secure Direct Communication Protocols

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Patwardhan, Siddharth; Moulick, Subhayan Roy; Panigrahi, Prasanta K.

    2016-03-01

    We study controlled quantum secure direct communication (CQSDC), a cryptographic scheme where a sender can send a secret bit-string to an intended recipient, without any secure classical channel, who can obtain the complete bit-string only with the permission of a controller. We report an efficient protocol to realize CQSDC using Cluster state and then go on to construct a (2-3)-CQSDC using Brown state, where a coalition of any two of the three controllers is required to retrieve the complete message. We argue both protocols to be unconditionally secure and analyze the efficiency of the protocols to show it to outperform the existing schemes while maintaining the same security specifications.

  6. Chapter 15: Commercial New Construction Protocol

    SciTech Connect

    Keates, S.

    2014-09-01

    This protocol is intended to describe the recommended method when evaluating the whole-building performance of new construction projects in the commercial sector. The protocol focuses on energy conservation measures (ECMs) measures (or packages of measures) where evaluators can best analyze impacts using building simulation. These ECMs typically require the use of calibrated building simulations under Option D of the International Performance Measurement and Verification Protocol. Examples of such measures include Leadership in Energy and Environmental Design building certification, novel and/or efficient heating, ventilation, and air conditioning system designs, and extensive building controls systems. In general, it is best to evaluate any ECM (or set of measures) expected to significantly interact with other systems within the building and with savings sensitive to seasonal variations in weather.

  7. Efficient Controlled Quantum Secure Direct Communication Protocols

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Patwardhan, Siddharth; Moulick, Subhayan Roy; Panigrahi, Prasanta K.

    2016-07-01

    We study controlled quantum secure direct communication (CQSDC), a cryptographic scheme where a sender can send a secret bit-string to an intended recipient, without any secure classical channel, who can obtain the complete bit-string only with the permission of a controller. We report an efficient protocol to realize CQSDC using Cluster state and then go on to construct a (2-3)-CQSDC using Brown state, where a coalition of any two of the three controllers is required to retrieve the complete message. We argue both protocols to be unconditionally secure and analyze the efficiency of the protocols to show it to outperform the existing schemes while maintaining the same security specifications.

  8. Low Cost Time Synchronization Protocol for Wireless Sensor Network

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Ki-Hyeon; Hong, Won-Kee; Kim, Hie-Cheol

    A time synchronization protocol for WSN is required to compensate time discrepancy. Time discrepancy among sensor nodes inevitably happens in WSN due to several internal and external factors. In order to make WSN's own job done effectively, a time synchronization protocol should be designed to achieve low execution time and low network traffic as well as accurate synchronization. Several synchronization protocols have been proposed to provide accurate time synchronization but do not consider execution time and network traffic for time synchronization. This paper proposes MNTP; it provides rapid and accurate time synchronization in multi-hop communication range. It presents a new broadcast scheme and time stamping mechanism to achieve low execution time and low network traffic along with accurate synchronization. Evaluation results show that MNTP improves synchronization accuracy up to 22% in single-hop and 51% in multi-hop respectively. MNTP also has 67 times and 58 times lower execution time and network traffic when 300 nodes are deployed in 20 × 20m2 sensor field.

  9. Streetlight Control System Based on Wireless Communication over DALI Protocol

    PubMed Central

    Bellido-Outeiriño, Francisco José; Quiles-Latorre, Francisco Javier; Moreno-Moreno, Carlos Diego; Flores-Arias, José María; Moreno-García, Isabel; Ortiz-López, Manuel

    2016-01-01

    Public lighting represents a large part of the energy consumption of towns and cities. Efficient management of public lighting can entail significant energy savings. This work presents a smart system for managing public lighting networks based on wireless communication and the DALI protocol. Wireless communication entails significant economic savings, as there is no need to install new wiring and visual impacts and damage to the facades of historical buildings in city centers are avoided. The DALI protocol uses bidirectional communication with the ballast, which allows its status to be controlled and monitored at all times. The novelty of this work is that it tackles all aspects related to the management of public lighting: a standard protocol, DALI, was selected to control the ballast, a wireless node based on the IEEE 802.15.4 standard with a DALI interface was designed, a network layer that considers the topology of the lighting network has been developed, and lastly, some user-friendly applications for the control and maintenance of the system by the technical crews of the different towns and cities have been developed. PMID:27128923

  10. Protocols for Robust Herbicide Resistance Testing in Different Weed Species.

    PubMed

    Panozzo, Silvia; Scarabel, Laura; Collavo, Alberto; Sattin, Maurizio

    2015-01-01

    Robust protocols to test putative herbicide resistant weed populations at whole plant level are essential to confirm the resistance status. The presented protocols, based on whole-plant bioassays performed in a greenhouse, can be readily adapted to a wide range of weed species and herbicides through appropriate variants. Seed samples from plants that survived a field herbicide treatment are collected and stored dry at low temperature until used. Germination methods differ according to weed species and seed dormancy type. Seedlings at similar growth stage are transplanted and maintained in the greenhouse under appropriate conditions until plants have reached the right growth stage for herbicide treatment. Accuracy is required to prepare the herbicide solution to avoid unverifiable mistakes. Other critical steps such as the application volume and spray speed are also evaluated. The advantages of this protocol, compared to others based on whole plant bioassays using one herbicide dose, are related to the higher reliability and the possibility of inferring the resistance level. Quicker and less expensive in vivo or in vitro diagnostic screening tests have been proposed (Petri dish bioassays, spectrophotometric tests), but they provide only qualitative information and their widespread use is hindered by the laborious set-up that some species may require. For routine resistance testing, the proposed whole plant bioassay can be applied at only one herbicide dose, so reducing the costs. PMID:26167668

  11. VAC protocol for treatment of dogs with stage III hemangiosarcoma.

    PubMed

    Alvarez, Francisco J; Hosoya, Kenji; Lara-Garcia, Ana; Kisseberth, William; Couto, Guillermo

    2013-01-01

    Hemangiosarcomas (HSAs) are aggressive tumors with a high rate of metastasis. Clinical stage has been considered a negative prognostic factor for survival. The study authors hypothesized that the median survival time (MST) of dogs with metastatic (stage III) HSA treated with a vincristine, doxorubicin, and cyclophosphamide (VAC) chemotherapy protocol would not be different than those with stage I/II HSA. Sixty-seven dogs with HSA in different anatomic locations were evaluated retrospectively. All dogs received the VAC protocol as an adjuvant to surgery (n = 50), neoadjuvant (n = 3), or as the sole treatment modality (n = 14). There was no significant difference (P = 0.97) between the MST of dogs with stage III and stage I/II HSA. For dogs presenting with splenic HSA alone, there was no significant difference between the MST of dogs with stage III and stage I/II disease (P = 0.12). The overall response rate (complete response [CR] and partial response [PR]) was 86%). No unacceptable toxicities were observed. Dogs with stage III HSA treated with the VAC protocol have a similar prognosis to dogs with stage I/II HSA. Dogs with HSA and evidence of metastases at the time of diagnosis should not be denied treatment. PMID:24051260

  12. A Patterned Preamble MAC Protocol for Wireless Sensor Networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Joe, Inwhee

    In this paper, we propose a novel MAC protocol with the patterned preamble technique to improve performance in terms of low power, channel utilization, and delay in wireless sensor networks. B-MAC is one of typical MAC protocols for wireless sensor networks using the duty cycle in order to achieve low-power operation. Since it works in an asynchronous fashion, B-MAC employs extended preamble and preamble sampling techniques. Even if it has outstanding performance in idle state, the overhead of these techniques is very large when packets are sent and received, because there is a lot of waste in the traditional preamble method. Instead of the simple preamble, our proposed MAC solution is to introduce more intelligent preamble with some patterns consisting of 2 phases (Tx phase & Ack phase). With this concept we implement real source code working on the mica2 platform with Tinyos-1.x version. Also, the test setup is presented, and the test results demonstrate that the proposed protocol provides better performance in terms of delay compared to B-MAC.

  13. A secure cluster-based multipath routing protocol for WMSNs.

    PubMed

    Almalkawi, Islam T; Zapata, Manel Guerrero; Al-Karaki, Jamal N

    2011-01-01

    The new characteristics of Wireless Multimedia Sensor Network (WMSN) and its design issues brought by handling different traffic classes of multimedia content (video streams, audio, and still images) as well as scalar data over the network, make the proposed routing protocols for typical WSNs not directly applicable for WMSNs. Handling real-time multimedia data requires both energy efficiency and QoS assurance in order to ensure efficient utility of different capabilities of sensor resources and correct delivery of collected information. In this paper, we propose a Secure Cluster-based Multipath Routing protocol for WMSNs, SCMR, to satisfy the requirements of delivering different data types and support high data rate multimedia traffic. SCMR exploits the hierarchical structure of powerful cluster heads and the optimized multiple paths to support timeliness and reliable high data rate multimedia communication with minimum energy dissipation. Also, we present a light-weight distributed security mechanism of key management in order to secure the communication between sensor nodes and protect the network against different types of attacks. Performance evaluation from simulation results demonstrates a significant performance improvement comparing with existing protocols (which do not even provide any kind of security feature) in terms of average end-to-end delay, network throughput, packet delivery ratio, and energy consumption. PMID:22163854

  14. A Highly Sensitive Genetic Protocol to Detect NF1 Mutations

    PubMed Central

    Carmen Valero, María; Martín, Yolanda; Hernández-Imaz, Elisabete; Marina Hernández, Alba; Meleán, Germán; María Valero, Ana; Javier Rodríguez-Álvarez, Francisco; Tellería, Dolores; Hernández-Chico, Concepción

    2011-01-01

    Neurofibromatosis type 1 (NF1) is a hereditary disorder caused by mutations in the NF1 gene. Detecting mutation in NF1 is hindered by the gene's large size, the lack of mutation hotspots, the presence of pseudogenes, and the wide variety of possible lesions. We developed a method for detecting germline mutations by combining an original RNA-based cDNA-PCR mutation detection method and denaturing high-performance liquid chromatography (DHPLC) with multiplex ligation-dependent probe amplification (MLPA). The protocol was validated in a cohort of 56 blood samples from NF1 patients who fulfilled NIH diagnostic criteria, identifying the germline mutation in 53 cases (95% sensitivity). The efficiency and reliability of this approach facilitated detection of different types of mutations, including single-base substitutions, deletions or insertions of one to several nucleotides, microdeletions, and changes in intragenic copy number. Because mutational screening for minor lesions was performed using cDNA and the characterization of mutated alleles was performed at both the RNA and genomic DNA level, the analysis provided insight into the nature of the different mutations and their effect on NF1 mRNA splicing. After validation, we implemented the protocol as a routine test. Here we present the overall unbiased spectrum of NF1 mutations identified in 93 patients in a cohort of 105. The results indicate that this protocol is a powerful new tool for the molecular diagnosis of NF1. PMID:21354044

  15. A Secure Cluster-Based Multipath Routing Protocol for WMSNs

    PubMed Central

    Almalkawi, Islam T.; Zapata, Manel Guerrero; Al-Karaki, Jamal N.

    2011-01-01

    The new characteristics of Wireless Multimedia Sensor Network (WMSN) and its design issues brought by handling different traffic classes of multimedia content (video streams, audio, and still images) as well as scalar data over the network, make the proposed routing protocols for typical WSNs not directly applicable for WMSNs. Handling real-time multimedia data requires both energy efficiency and QoS assurance in order to ensure efficient utility of different capabilities of sensor resources and correct delivery of collected information. In this paper, we propose a Secure Cluster-based Multipath Routing protocol for WMSNs, SCMR, to satisfy the requirements of delivering different data types and support high data rate multimedia traffic. SCMR exploits the hierarchical structure of powerful cluster heads and the optimized multiple paths to support timeliness and reliable high data rate multimedia communication with minimum energy dissipation. Also, we present a light-weight distributed security mechanism of key management in order to secure the communication between sensor nodes and protect the network against different types of attacks. Performance evaluation from simulation results demonstrates a significant performance improvement comparing with existing protocols (which do not even provide any kind of security feature) in terms of average end-to-end delay, network throughput, packet delivery ratio, and energy consumption. PMID:22163854

  16. Measurement and protocol for evaluating video and still stabilization systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cormier, Etienne; Cao, Frédéric; Guichard, Frédéric; Viard, Clément

    2013-01-01

    This article presents a system and a protocol to characterize image stabilization systems both for still images and videos. It uses a six axes platform, three being used for camera rotation and three for camera positioning. The platform is programmable and can reproduce complex motions that have been typically recorded by a gyroscope mounted on different types of cameras in different use cases. The measurement uses a single chart for still image and videos, the texture dead leaves chart. Although the proposed implementation of the protocol uses a motion platform, the measurement itself does not rely on any specific hardware. For still images, a modulation transfer function is measured in different directions and is weighted by a contrast sensitivity function (simulating the human visual system accuracy) to obtain an acutance. The sharpness improvement due to the image stabilization system is a good measurement of performance as recommended by a CIPA standard draft. For video, four markers on the chart are detected with sub-pixel accuracy to determine a homographic deformation between the current frame and a reference position. This model describes well the apparent global motion as translations, but also rotations along the optical axis and distortion due to the electronic rolling shutter equipping most CMOS sensors. The protocol is applied to all types of cameras such as DSC, DSLR and smartphones.

  17. An interactive Bayesian geostatistical inverse protocol for hydraulic tomography

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Fienen, Michael N.; Clemo, Tom; Kitanidis, Peter K.

    2008-01-01

    Hydraulic tomography is a powerful technique for characterizing heterogeneous hydrogeologic parameters. An explicit trade-off between characterization based on measurement misfit and subjective characterization using prior information is presented. We apply a Bayesian geostatistical inverse approach that is well suited to accommodate a flexible model with the level of complexity driven by the data and explicitly considering uncertainty. Prior information is incorporated through the selection of a parameter covariance model characterizing continuity and providing stability. Often, discontinuities in the parameter field, typically caused by geologic contacts between contrasting lithologic units, necessitate subdivision into zones across which there is no correlation among hydraulic parameters. We propose an interactive protocol in which zonation candidates are implied from the data and are evaluated using cross validation and expert knowledge. Uncertainty introduced by limited knowledge of dynamic regional conditions is mitigated by using drawdown rather than native head values. An adjoint state formulation of MODFLOW-2000 is used to calculate sensitivities which are used both for the solution to the inverse problem and to guide protocol decisions. The protocol is tested using synthetic two-dimensional steady state examples in which the wells are located at the edge of the region of interest.

  18. Streetlight Control System Based on Wireless Communication over DALI Protocol.

    PubMed

    Bellido-Outeiriño, Francisco José; Quiles-Latorre, Francisco Javier; Moreno-Moreno, Carlos Diego; Flores-Arias, José María; Moreno-García, Isabel; Ortiz-López, Manuel

    2016-01-01

    Public lighting represents a large part of the energy consumption of towns and cities. Efficient management of public lighting can entail significant energy savings. This work presents a smart system for managing public lighting networks based on wireless communication and the DALI protocol. Wireless communication entails significant economic savings, as there is no need to install new wiring and visual impacts and damage to the facades of historical buildings in city centers are avoided. The DALI protocol uses bidirectional communication with the ballast, which allows its status to be controlled and monitored at all times. The novelty of this work is that it tackles all aspects related to the management of public lighting: a standard protocol, DALI, was selected to control the ballast, a wireless node based on the IEEE 802.15.4 standard with a DALI interface was designed, a network layer that considers the topology of the lighting network has been developed, and lastly, some user-friendly applications for the control and maintenance of the system by the technical crews of the different towns and cities have been developed. PMID:27128923

  19. Optimizing the Protocol for Pulmonary Cryoablation: A Comparison of a Dual- and Triple-Freeze Protocol

    SciTech Connect

    Hinshaw, J. Louis; Littrup, Peter J.; Durick, Nathan; Leung, Winnie; Lee, Fred T.; Sampson, Lisa; Brace, Christopher L.

    2010-12-15

    The purpose of this study was to compare a double freeze-thaw protocol to a triple freeze-thaw protocol for pulmonary cryoablation utilizing an in vivo porcine lung model. A total of 18 cryoablations were performed in normal porcine lung utilizing percutaneous technique with 9 each in a double- (10-5-10) and triple-freeze (3-3-7-7-5) protocol. Serial noncontrast CT images were obtained during the ablation. CT imaging findings and pathology were reviewed. No imaging changes were identified during the initial freeze cycle with either protocol. However, during the first thaw cycle, a region of ground glass opacity developed around the probe with both protocols. Because the initial freeze was shorter with the triple freeze-thaw protocol, the imaging findings were apparent sooner with this protocol (6 vs. 13 min). Also, despite a shorter total freeze time (15 vs. 20 min), the ablation zone identified with the triple freeze-thaw protocol was not significantly different from the double freeze-thaw protocol (mean diameter: 1.67 {+-} 0.41 cm vs. 1.66 {+-} 0.21 cm, P = 0.77; area: 2.1 {+-} 0.48 cm{sup 2} vs. 1.99 {+-} 0.62 cm{sup 2}, P = 0.7; and circularity: 0.95 {+-} 0.04 vs. 0.96 {+-} 0.03, P = 0.62, respectively). This study suggests that there may be several advantages of a triple freeze-thaw protocol for pulmonary cryoablation, including earlier identification of the imaging findings associated with the ablation, the promise of a shorter procedure time or larger zones of ablation, and theoretically, more effective cytotoxicity related to the additional freeze-thaw cycle.

  20. Objective and automated protocols for the evaluation of biomedical search engines using No Title Evaluation protocols

    PubMed Central

    Campagne, Fabien

    2008-01-01

    Background The evaluation of information retrieval techniques has traditionally relied on human judges to determine which documents are relevant to a query and which are not. This protocol is used in the Text Retrieval Evaluation Conference (TREC), organized annually for the past 15 years, to support the unbiased evaluation of novel information retrieval approaches. The TREC Genomics Track has recently been introduced to measure the performance of information retrieval for biomedical applications. Results We describe two protocols for evaluating biomedical information retrieval techniques without human relevance judgments. We call these protocols No Title Evaluation (NT Evaluation). The first protocol measures performance for focused searches, where only one relevant document exists for each query. The second protocol measures performance for queries expected to have potentially many relevant documents per query (high-recall searches). Both protocols take advantage of the clear separation of titles and abstracts found in Medline. We compare the performance obtained with these evaluation protocols to results obtained by reusing the relevance judgments produced in the 2004 and 2005 TREC Genomics Track and observe significant correlations between performance rankings generated by our approach and TREC. Spearman's correlation coefficients in the range of 0.79–0.92 are observed comparing bpref measured with NT Evaluation or with TREC evaluations. For comparison, coefficients in the range 0.86–0.94 can be observed when evaluating the same set of methods with data from two independent TREC Genomics Track evaluations. We discuss the advantages of NT Evaluation over the TRels and the data fusion evaluation protocols introduced recently. Conclusion Our results suggest that the NT Evaluation protocols described here could be used to optimize some search engine parameters before human evaluation. Further research is needed to determine if NT Evaluation or variants of these