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1

Preservation of Liquid Biological Samples  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The present invention related to the preservation of a liquid biological sample. The biological sample is exposed to a preservative containing at least about 0.15 g of sodium benzoate and at least about 0.025 g of citric acid per 100 ml of sample. The biological sample may be collected in a vessel or an absorbent mass. The biological sample may also be exposed to a substrate and/or a vehicle.

Putcha, Lakshmi (Inventor); Nimmagudda, Ramalingeshwara (Inventor)

2004-01-01

2

Preservation of Liquid Biological Samples  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The present invention provides a method of preserving a liquid biological sample, comprising the step of: contacting said liquid biological sample with a preservative comprising, sodium benzoate in an amount of at least about 0.15% of the sample (weight/volume) and citric acid in an amount of at least about 0.025% of the sample (weight/volume).

Putcha, Lakshmi (Inventor); Nimmagudda, Ramalingeshwara R. (Inventor)

2000-01-01

3

Jasper Ridge Biological Preserve Annual Report 200405  

E-print Network

Jasper Ridge Biological Preserve Annual Report 2004­05 #12;The mission of Jasper Ridge Biological, and protection of the preserve's resources. #12;1 T HIS IS THE BEGINNING of a new era for me and for Jasper Ridge. 2006 is the start of my fourth decade of association with the preserve. For 30 years, Jasper Ridge has

4

Jasper Ridge Biological Preserve Annual Report 200809  

E-print Network

Jasper Ridge Biological Preserve Annual Report 2008­09 #12;Contents From the Faculty Director.....................27 Staff, endnotes, and credits......................29 The mission of Jasper Ridge Biological, and protection of the preserve's resources. #12;1 Jasper Ridge is a remarkable treasure. I know I speak

Fukami, Tadashi

5

Jasper Ridge Biological Preserve Annual Report 200506  

E-print Network

Jasper Ridge Biological Preserve Annual Report 2005­06 #12;Contents From the Faculty Director In Memoriam............................................33 The mission of Jasper Ridge Biological Preserve to this very special place. My primary connection with Jasper Ridge is still as a researcher, but in the past

6

Jasper Ridge Biological Preserve Annual Report 200708  

E-print Network

Jasper Ridge Biological Preserve Annual Report 2007­08 #12;Contents From the Faculty Director In Memoriam............................................33 The mission of Jasper Ridge Biological Preserve, and all of us need skills and information, as well as the ability Jasper Ridge is justifiably famous

7

Mosquito Report for Jasper Ridge Biological Preserve  

E-print Network

Page 1 Mosquito Report for Jasper Ridge Biological Preserve S a n M a t e o C o u n t y M o s q u i works with Stanford University and the staff of the Jasper Ridge Biological Preserve (JRBP) to control of the work done at this site and its results to date. The Need for Mosquito Control at Jasper Ridge

8

Jasper Ridge Biological Preserve Annual Report 2000 -01 Stanford University  

E-print Network

Jasper Ridge Biological Preserve Annual Report 2000 - 01 · Stanford University #12;The mission of Jasper Ridge Biological Preserve is to contribute to the understanding of the Earth's natural sys- tems previously unmet Jasper Ridge needs, but also represents our ef- fort to lighten the load we place

9

28 CFR 28.22 - The requirement to preserve biological evidence.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...The requirement to preserve biological evidence. 28.22 Section 28.22 Judicial Administration DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE DNA IDENTIFICATION SYSTEM Preservation of Biological Evidence 28.22 The requirement to preserve biological...

2011-07-01

10

28 CFR 28.22 - The requirement to preserve biological evidence.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...The requirement to preserve biological evidence. 28.22 Section 28.22 Judicial Administration DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE DNA IDENTIFICATION SYSTEM Preservation of Biological Evidence 28.22 The requirement to preserve biological...

2010-07-01

11

28 CFR 28.22 - The requirement to preserve biological evidence.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...The requirement to preserve biological evidence. 28.22 Section 28.22 Judicial Administration DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE DNA IDENTIFICATION SYSTEM Preservation of Biological Evidence 28.22 The requirement to preserve biological...

2013-07-01

12

28 CFR 28.22 - The requirement to preserve biological evidence.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...The requirement to preserve biological evidence. 28.22 Section 28.22 Judicial Administration DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE DNA IDENTIFICATION SYSTEM Preservation of Biological Evidence 28.22 The requirement to preserve biological...

2012-07-01

13

28 CFR 28.22 - The requirement to preserve biological evidence.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...The requirement to preserve biological evidence. 28.22 Section 28.22 Judicial Administration DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE DNA IDENTIFICATION SYSTEM Preservation of Biological Evidence 28.22 The requirement to preserve biological...

2014-07-01

14

Jasper Ridge Biological Preserve Annual Report 2009-10  

E-print Network

Jasper Ridge Biological Preserve Annual Report 2009-10 #12;Contents From the Faculty Director;1 Jasper Ridge is an amazing asset -- not only for Stanford, but also for the local community and the scientific world. Combin- ing aspects of laboratory, classroom, nature preserve, park, and spiritual retreat,Jasper

Fukami, Tadashi

15

Survey of techniques used to preserve biological materials  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The techniques used to preserve biological materials are documented and summarized. The report is presented in a handbook format that categorizes the most important preservation techniques available, and includes a representative sampling of the thousands of applications of these techniques to biological materials and organisms. Details of the information coverage and method of approach are outlined. Data are given in tabular form, and an index and extensive bibliography are included.

Feinler, E. J.; Hubbard, R. W.

1972-01-01

16

Plastination: Preservation Technology Enhances Biology Teaching.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Urges the use of plastinated specimens as an alternative to traditional dissection in biology classrooms. Suggests that plastinated biological specimens heighten student interest and enhance teaching. Interview responses of students, teachers, and administrators to the use of plastinated specimens in selected high schools were found to be very

Douglass, Claudia; Glover, Roy

2003-01-01

17

Postextraction Alveolar Ridge Preservation: Biological Basis and Treatments  

PubMed Central

Following tooth extraction, the alveolar ridge undergoes an inevitable remodeling process that influences implant therapy of the edentulous area. Socket grafting is a commonly adopted therapy for the preservation of alveolar bone structures in combination or not with immediate implant placement although the biological bases lying behind this treatment modality are not fully understood and often misinterpreted. This review is intended to clarify the literature support to socket grafting in order to provide practitioners with valid tools to make a conscious decision of when and why to recommend this therapy. PMID:22737169

Pagni, Giorgio; Pellegrini, Gaia; Giannobile, William V.; Rasperini, Giulio

2012-01-01

18

Jasper Ridge Biological Preserve Annual Report 2001-02 Stanford University  

E-print Network

Jasper Ridge Biological Preserve Annual Report 2001-02 · Stanford University #12;Those who at Jasper Ridge Biological Preserve reflects and is inspired by such concerns. In many respects the Preserve. With the con- tinued support of the University, the Jasper Ridge community, and many generous people, I can

19

Anterior Cruciate Ligament Reconstruction and Preservation: The Single-Anteromedial Bundle Biological Augmentation (SAMBBA) Technique.  

PubMed

Preservation of the anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) remnant during ACL reconstruction has the advantages of improved vascularity and synovial encircling of the graft tendon. We describe a technique called single-anteromedial bundle biological augmentation (SAMBBA) using complete preservation of the ACL remnant, as well as preservation of the semitendinosus tibial insertion, that uses standard portals and equipment. PMID:25685675

Sonnery-Cottet, Bertrand; Freychet, Benjamin; Murphy, Colin G; Pupim, Barbara H B; Thaunat, Mathieu

2014-12-01

20

Jasper Ridge Biological Preserve Annual Report 2003-04 Stanford University  

E-print Network

Jasper Ridge Biological Preserve Annual Report 2003-04 · Stanford University #12;The mission of Jasper Ridge Biological Preserve is to contribute to the understanding of the Earth's natural systems. For Jasper Ridge, that means understanding the urban presence of humans as an integral dimension

21

Leslie Shao-ming Sun Field Station at Jasper Ridge Biological Preserve  

E-print Network

Leslie Shao-ming Sun Field Station at Jasper Ridge Biological Preserve A CASE STUDY IN SUSTAINABLE to build a new field station at Jasper Ridge Biological Preserve presented intrinsic conflicts (http://www.recycleworks. org/greenbuilding/gbsanmateo_ jasper.html/) 1 2 3 4 #12;· Solar heating system

Straight, Aaron

22

TREATING WOOD PRESERVING PLANT WASTEWATER BY CHEMICAL AND BIOLOGICAL METHODS  

EPA Science Inventory

A completely mixed activated sludge system was designed for a wood preserving plant with an average daily wastewater flow of 27,000 l/day (7,150 gal/day), a BOD concentration of 1,100 mg/l, and a phenol concentration of 120 mg/l. Included in the design were capabilities for pre- ...

23

Geologic nature of the Jasper Ridge Biological Preserve, San Francisco Peninsula, California  

USGS Publications Warehouse

This short report attempts to illuminate the geological features that contributed to making the Jasper Ridge Biological Preserve (JRBP) a unique research island within the rapidly urbanized San Francisco Peninsula. Written in the rocks of the Preserve is a history of continental growth that extends back to the Jurassic (???150 Ma) as the California continental margin grew by subduction and accretion. Movement along the San Andreas fault system has left an indelible mark on the topography by uplift and faulting, and is even now changing the landscape by measurable increments. The sediments of Searsville Lake preserve a chronology of logging in the last century and housing development in more recent decades. Continued multidisciplinary study of this dynamic island of preserved interlocking biological, geological, and hydrogeological records will enhance student, faculty, and docent research, and our understanding of this complex area. ?? 2004 by V. H. Winston and Son, Inc. All rights reserved.

Coleman, R.G.

2004-01-01

24

Ecosystem management: Controlling biological invasion in an Illinois nature preserve  

SciTech Connect

Understanding the nature and effects of human interaction with the landscape is an important aspect of environmental decisionmaking. Often, human action alters the composition and distribution of organisms. In the North American central Midwest, human occupation has decimated native woodlands, which endure as habitat islands in a highly fragmented natural landscape dominated by intensive agriculture and permeated by invasive exotic species. The alterations in the landscape have affected the structure and function of the few remaining intact forests by altering the environment experienced by tree and herb species. A frequent invader of forest understories throughout the central Midwest is Vinca minor, a horticultural groundcover, yet this species has not previously been studied as a woodland invader. We tested the hypothesis that native understory species were excluded from colonized areas, and that tree seedling growth was suppressed. Using study plots in Knobeloch Woods Nature Preserve, St. Clair County, Illinois, we measured the effect of Vinca colonization on understory composition and diversity, by comparing colonized and uncolonized plots. We also related understory characteristics to soil and canopy properties. Finally, to evaluate an ongoing program to control the invasion in the field, we tested the hypothesis that simultaneous cutting and herbicide treatment had increased the diversity of native understory species. We hope with this study to provide fact-based recommendations for management of midwestern nature preserves experiencing exotic plant invasions.

Thelen, C.S. [Southern Illinois Univ. at Edwardsville, Belleville, IL (United States); Schulz, K.E. [Southern Illinois Univ. of Edwardsville, IL (United States)

1995-12-01

25

Organ preservation at low temperature: a physical and biological problem  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Before reporting the preliminary results obtained by our group, we first review the main problems to be solved in the preservation of organs at very low temperature, before being transplanted. This cryopreservation is being presently explored in order to increase the preservation tiine of transplants and to contribute to a better control of the donor recipient compatibility. We recall that, for the isolated cells to be preserved at nitrogen liquid temperatures, as now successfully performed at industrial scale, it is necessary to immerse the cells in a solution containing more or less t,oxical additives (so-called cryopro tect ants). Furthermore cooling and warming rates must be specific of each type of cells. We then show that cryo preservation could be extrapolated to whole organs by means of vitrification, the only way to avoid any ice crystallization. This vitrification will be the result of two directions of research, the one on the elaboration of cryoprotective solutions, the least toxic possible, the other on the obtention of high enough and homogeneous cooling and warming rates. After having briefly summarized the state of research on the heart and kidneys of small mammals, we present the first results that we have obtained on perfusion at 4 ^{circ}C and the auto-transplantation of rabbit kidneys, on the toxicity of a new cryoprotectant, 2,3-butanediol, on the heart rate, and on the cooling of experimental models of organs. Avant de prsenter les rsultats prliminaires obtenus par notre groupe, nous passons d'abord en revue les principaux problmes rsoudre pour conserver trs basse temprature des organes en vue de leur transplantation. Cette cryoprservation est une voie de recherche actuellement explore pour augmenter la dure de conservation des greffons et permettre ainsi de mieux contrler la compatibilit donneur-receveur. Nous rappelons que la conservation des cellules isoles la temprature de l'azote liquide, actuellement ralise avec succs l'chelle industrielle, ne peut se faire qu'en prsence de substances plus ou moins toxiques dites cryoprotectrices, et condition de respecter des vitesses de refroidissement et de rchauffement adaptes chaque type de cellule. Nous montrons ensuite que l'extension de la cryoprservation au cas des organes entiers ne pourra se faire qu'au moyen de la vitrification, seule solution pour viter toute formation de glace. Cette vitrification sera l'aboutissement de 2 axes de recherche, l'un sur l'laboration de solutions cryoprotectrices les moins toxiques possibles, l'autre sur l'obtention de vitesses de refroidissement et de rchauffement suffisamment leves et homognes. Aprs avoir brivement rsum l'tat des recherches sur le coeur et le rein de petits mammifres, nous prsentons les premiers rsultats que nous avons obtenus sur la perfusion 4 ^{circ}C et l'autotransplantation de reins de lapin, sur la toxicit sur le coeur de rat d'un nouveau cryoprotecteur le 2,3-butanediol, et sur le refroidissement de systmes modles exprimentaux d'organes.

Aussedat, J.; Boutron, P.; Coquilhat, P.; Descotes, J. L.; Faure, G.; Ferrari, M.; Kay, L.; Mazuer, J.; Monod, P.; Odin, J.; Ray, A.

1993-02-01

26

Jasper Ridge Biological Preserve Annual Report 2002-03 Stanford University  

E-print Network

Jasper Ridge Biological Preserve Annual Report 2002-03 · Stanford University #12;The most basic into new opportunities. Jasper Ridge is faced with limits to growth and is susceptible to the strains Sedgwick, and Irene Brown; Nona Chiariello (Jasper Ridge Research Coordinator), as well as myself

27

Synthetic fossilization of soft biological tissues and their shape-preserving transformation into silica or electron-conductive replicas  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Structural preservation of complex biological systems from the subcellular to whole organism level in robust forms, enabling dissection and imaging while preserving 3D context, represents an enduring grand challenge in biology. Here we report a simple immersion method for structurally preserving intact organisms via conformal stabilization within silica. This self-limiting process, which we refer to as silica bioreplication, occurs by condensation of water-soluble silicic acid proximally to biomolecular interfaces throughout the organism. Conformal nanoscopic silicification of all biomolecular features imparts structural rigidity enabling the preservation of shape and nano-to-macroscale dimensional features upon drying to form a biocomposite and further high temperature oxidative calcination to form silica replicas or reductive pyrolysis to form electrically conductive carbon replicas of complete organisms. The simplicity and generalizability of this approach should facilitate efforts in biological preservation and analysis and could enable the development of new classes of biomimetic composite materials.

Townson, Jason L.; Lin, Yu-Shen; Chou, Stanley S.; Awad, Yasmine H.; Coker, Eric N.; Brinker, C. Jeffrey; Kaehr, Bryan

2014-12-01

28

Synthetic fossilization of soft biological tissues and their shape-preserving transformation into silica or electron-conductive replicas  

PubMed Central

Structural preservation of complex biological systems from the subcellular to whole organism level in robust forms, enabling dissection and imaging while preserving 3D context, represents an enduring grand challenge in biology. Here we report a simple immersion method for structurally preserving intact organisms via conformal stabilization within silica. This self-limiting process, which we refer to as silica bioreplication, occurs by condensation of water-soluble silicic acid proximally to biomolecular interfaces throughout the organism. Conformal nanoscopic silicification of all biomolecular features imparts structural rigidity enabling the preservation of shape and nano-to-macroscale dimensional features upon drying to form a biocomposite and further high temperature oxidative calcination to form silica replicas or reductive pyrolysis to form electrically conductive carbon replicas of complete organisms. The simplicity and generalizability of this approach should facilitate efforts in biological preservation and analysis and could enable the development of new classes of biomimetic composite materials. PMID:25482611

Townson, Jason L.; Lin, Yu-Shen; Chou, Stanley S.; Awad, Yasmine H.; Coker, Eric N.; Brinker, C. Jeffrey; Kaehr, Bryan

2014-01-01

29

Synthetic fossilization of soft biological tissues and their shape-preserving transformation into silica or electron-conductive replicas.  

PubMed

Structural preservation of complex biological systems from the subcellular to whole organism level in robust forms, enabling dissection and imaging while preserving 3D context, represents an enduring grand challenge in biology. Here we report a simple immersion method for structurally preserving intact organisms via conformal stabilization within silica. This self-limiting process, which we refer to as silica bioreplication, occurs by condensation of water-soluble silicic acid proximally to biomolecular interfaces throughout the organism. Conformal nanoscopic silicification of all biomolecular features imparts structural rigidity enabling the preservation of shape and nano-to-macroscale dimensional features upon drying to form a biocomposite and further high temperature oxidative calcination to form silica replicas or reductive pyrolysis to form electrically conductive carbon replicas of complete organisms. The simplicity and generalizability of this approach should facilitate efforts in biological preservation and analysis and could enable the development of new classes of biomimetic composite materials. PMID:25482611

Townson, Jason L; Lin, Yu-Shen; Chou, Stanley S; Awad, Yasmine H; Coker, Eric N; Brinker, C Jeffrey; Kaehr, Bryan

2014-01-01

30

Biologically mediated isotope fractionations - Biochemistry, geochemical significance and preservation in the earth's oldest sediments  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Preferential metabolization of isotopically light carbon and sulfur has resulted in a fractionation of the stable isotopes of these elements on a global scale, with the light species (C-12, S-32) markedly concentrated in biogenic materials. Since the biological effects are basically retained when carbon and sulfur are incorporated in sediments, the respective fractionations are propagated into the rock section of the geochemical cycle, this having consequently caused a characteristic bipartition of both elements between 'light' and 'heavy' crustal reservoirs. Preservation of the biological isotope effects in sedimentary rocks makes it possible to trace the underlying biochemical processes back over most of the geological record. According to the available evidence, biological (autotrophic) carbon fixation arose prior to 3.5(if not 3.8) billion years ago, while the emergence of dissimilatory sulfate reduction antedates the appearance of the oldest presumably bacteriogenic sulfur isotope patterns in rocks between 2.7 and 2.8 billion years old. Hence, biological control of the terrestrial carbon and sulfur cycles has been established very early in the earth's history.

Schidlowski, M.

1983-01-01

31

The biological correction is the new way of preservation of the Face of the Earth  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The major links of terrestrial ecosystems functioning are: composted organic material with mull humus type, nitrogen-fixing microorganisms and litholytic organisms, which capable of active biological weathering of minerals and/or rock in the soil. Now the main ways of influence on plant-soil system functioning are physical and chemical correction. Physical correction is the system of different soil cultivation and land reclamation. It directed on creation and maintenance of favorable water, thermal and air regimes and also the biological activity of soils for crops. Although the general tendency of agriculture is minimized of tillage (strip-till, mini-till and no-till), nevertheless the intensive cultivation is widely used in modern agriculture. Chemical correction is the agriculture chemicalixation. It directed on regulation of plant producing by replenishment of plant, mineral nutrition elements in soils, by foliar nutrition using water solutions of macro- and microelements, and by regulation of acidic and salt soil regimes. In this case the plant protection against the pests and infections is carried out by various pesticides. This way of correction is completely realized in agriculture, but it doesn't consider the natural laws due to plants together with the soil from the interconnected and interdependent system. The continuing increase of agriculture chemicalixation simultaneously with a repeated tillage is led to loss of the major links of plant-soil systems functioning and to the degradation of a soil cover. Such way of plant productivity is a deadlock. New evolutionary way of preservation of the Face of the Earth is biological correction of plant-soil system functioning. A gist of this correction is the replenishment of the lost plant-soil system links. Biological correction leans on scientific achievements of modern biotechnologies, such as: vermicomposting, microbiologic specimens, physiologically active substances, biological agents of plant protection, etc. Methods of biological correction are exact biological analogs of natural links and so they can't cause the negative phenomena of plant growth and development. The principle of biological interrelationship is the base of these methods. At the heart of these methods the principle of biological compliance lies. Herewith, physiological features of plants are considered necessary. There are following main biological correction methods of plant productivity: (i) biological amelioration of soils (using of vermicomposts, earthworms, microbiologic specimens, organic and green manure, etc.); (ii) infection of plants by cultures of living microorganisms (for plant nutrition and protection); (iii) inputting of biological insecticides into plants (allows to fight even against larvae of mining insects successfully); (iv) influence on a plant metabolism by physiologically active substances (such as solutions of humic substances in particular); (v) creation of multilayered mats for gardening of deserts. The field experiments in working conditions, which were carried out in different climatic zones, bear evidence of efficiency of biological correction methods. In our opinion biological correction methods are capable to support and/or restore land-cover, to stop a degradation, and by that to prevent a disfigurement of the Face of the Earth.

Popov, Alexander

2014-05-01

32

Integrating Surgery Into Treatment Paradigms for Organ Preservation: Tailoring Treatment to Biology Improves Outcomes  

SciTech Connect

Purpose: Neoadjuvant chemotherapy was introduced into treatment paradigms for curable head and neck cancer in the early 1970s in an effort to reduce the magnitude of mutilating surgery and to provide a rationale for adjuvant systemic chemotherapy in patients who responded to initial chemotherapy. The large number of trials that followed failed to demonstrate improved survival when neoadjuvant chemotherapy was added to conventional surgery or radiation. Importantly, a consistent observation in these neoadjuvant trials was the significant association of clinical tumor response to neoadjuvant therapy and favorable prognosis. Results: The findings led to development of a new treatment paradigm that was based on the hypothesis that the biology of an individual cancer is more predictive of response to specific therapy and overall outcome than is anatomic tumor site or extent, and on the corollary that matching treatment modality to biology will improve overall survival rates. Conclusions: This report identifies key findings that are important in the design and analysis of organ preservation trials and biologic markers predictive of response and outcomes. Ongoing studies incorporating biomarkers such as p53, Bcl-xL, HPV, EGFR, COX-2, and tumor promoter gene methylation are underway and will identify new targets for molecular manipulation, response monitoring, and tumor imaging that could allow real-time changes in how we integrate the various components of multi-modal therapy.

Wolf, Gregory T. [Department of Otolaryngology-Head and Neck Surgery, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI (United States)], E-mail: gregwolf@umich.edu

2007-10-01

33

The Preservation of "Non-Biological" Environments in the Solar System  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Nature preservation will be a central element of the exploration of the Solar System, whether this emphasis is initially planned for or not. Exploration of extraterrestrial environments will generate images and scientific information that will excite the imagination of the general public throughout the world and be supportive of more funding for exploration. However, damage to the environments visited, once made public, will likely generate a backlash against exploration programs that could inhibit exploration or even bring it completely to an end. The exploration in the nineteenth century of the western United States, with landscapes aesthetically very different from those found in Europe but very similar to those existing on the Moon and on Mars, provides an excellent indication of what will happen in off-planet exploration. Nearly every place painted by a major artist or photographed by a photographer on a geological survey during that time period is today a national park or national monument. If extraterrestrial environments are not protected, the major space societies that are currently enthusiastically supportive of space agencies around the world could become political opponents, much as the Sierra Club evolved into a serious and effective critic of the U.S. Forest Service and National Park Service in the United States. At a minimum, space agencies must be protective of the historical landing sites on the Moon, avoid strip mining on the Moon that may draw criticism, and protect major features on Mars from damage, such as the Cydonian Face on Mars, Valles Marineris, the grand canyon of Mars, and Olympus Mons, a mountain three times as tall as Mount Everest. A good first step might be to establish a world-heritage-style site to protect the visible side of the Moon. Although extraterrestrial sites may initially be labeled "non-biological," caution must be taken to be protective of possible extraterrestrial life, active or dormant, even in the most unlikely places. Such concern will not pose a great burden, given that such life will most likely be microbial, and the concern will be for the preservation of species, not for the protection of the individual members of those species (eliminating any need to deal with the animal liberation and animal rights movements). The battle cry will be about the "wanton destruction" of species, not about the "unnecessary suffering" of animals. Because nature preservation has been a political reality for nearly two centuries, concern for the preservation of off-planet environments can be expected to be more intense than it was in the late nineteenth and early twentieth centuries and more effective in its impact once it begins.

Hargrove, Eugene

34

Application and Adaptation of Intensive Family Preservation Services to Use for the Reunification of Foster Children with Their Biological Parents.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Compared the application of intensive family preservation services (IFPS) to reunify children in out-of-home care placement with their biological families, with the same service used for preventing the need for such placements. Suggests that the relative usage of specific services and service goals confirmed the continuation of the original model.

Lewis, Robert E.

1994-01-01

35

Nuclear magnetic resonance studies of biological systems: Applications to liver preservation and metabolism in cultured pituitary tumor cells  

SciTech Connect

This study centers on applications of both {sup 31}P and {sup 13}C nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy to two different biological systems. The first application utilizes {sup 31}P NMR to study mobile phospholipids in the MMQ cell line, a pituitary tumor cell line. These measurements characterize membrane phospholipids thought to be part of a RNA-proteolipid complex unique to cellular transformation. The second application utilizes both {sup 31}P and {sup 13}C spectroscopy to study liver preservation and transplantation an a rat model. In this work, several questions were addressed: (1) to what extent do successful preservation solutions slow ATP breakdown (2) can clinically successful preservation conditions ameliorate total nucleotide breakdown (3) to what extent is energy reconstitution following cold storage correlated with transport success and (4) can any spectroscopic parameter be used as a diagnostic indicator of tissue viability

Fralix, T.A.

1989-01-01

36

Evolutionary and preservational constraints on origins of biologic groups: divergence times of eutherian mammals  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Some molecular clock estimates of divergence times of taxonomic groups undergoing evolutionary radiation are much older than the groups' first observed fossil record. Mathematical models of branching evolution are used to estimate the maximal rate of fossil preservation consistent with a postulated missing history, given the sum of species durations implied by early origins under a range of species origination and extinction rates. The plausibility of postulated divergence times depends on origination, extinction, and preservation rates estimated from the fossil record. For eutherian mammals, this approach suggests that it is unlikely that many modern orders arose much earlier than their oldest fossil records.

Foote, M.; Hunter, J. P.; Janis, C. M.; Sepkoski, J. J. Jr

1999-01-01

37

Gelatin embedding: a novel way to preserve biological samples for terahertz imaging and spectroscopy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Sample dehydration has traditionally been a challenging problem in ex vivo terahertz biomedical experiments as water content changes significantly affect the terahertz properties and can diminish important contrast features. In this paper, we propose a novel method to prevent sample dehydration using gelatin embedding. By looking at terahertz image data and calculating the optical properties of the gelatin-embedded sample, we find that our method successfully preserves the sample for at least 35?h, both for imaging and spectroscopy. Our novel preservation method demonstrates for the first time the capability to simultaneously maintain sample structural integrity and prevent dehydration at room temperature. This is particularly relevant for terahertz studies of freshly excised tissues but could be beneficial for other imaging and spectroscopy techniques.

Fan, Shuting; Ung, Benjamin; Parrott, Edward P. J.; Pickwell-MacPherson, Emma

2015-04-01

38

Gelatin embedding: a novel way to preserve biological samples for terahertz imaging and spectroscopy.  

PubMed

Sample dehydration has traditionally been a challenging problem in ex vivo terahertz biomedical experiments as water content changes significantly affect the terahertz properties and can diminish important contrast features. In this paper, we propose a novel method to prevent sample dehydration using gelatin embedding. By looking at terahertz image data and calculating the optical properties of the gelatin-embedded sample, we find that our method successfully preserves the sample for at least 35?h, both for imaging and spectroscopy. Our novel preservation method demonstrates for the first time the capability to simultaneously maintain sample structural integrity and prevent dehydration at room temperature. This is particularly relevant for terahertz studies of freshly excised tissues but could be beneficial for other imaging and spectroscopy techniques. PMID:25768394

Fan, Shuting; Ung, Benjamin; Parrott, Edward P J; Pickwell-MacPherson, Emma

2015-04-01

39

uShuffle: A useful tool for shuffling biological sequences while preserving the k-let counts  

PubMed Central

Background Randomly shuffled sequences are routinely used in sequence analysis to evaluate the statistical significance of a biological sequence. In many cases, biologists need sophisticated shuffling tools that preserve not only the counts of distinct letters but also higher-order statistics such as doublet counts, triplet counts, and, in general, k-let counts. Results We present a sequence analysis tool (named uShuffle) for generating uniform random permutations of biological sequences (such as DNAs, RNAs, and proteins) that preserve the exact k-let counts. The uShuffle tool implements the latest variant of the Euler algorithm and uses Wilson's algorithm in the crucial step of arborescence generation. It is carefully engineered and extremely efficient. The uShuffle tool achieves maximum flexibility by allowing arbitrary alphabet size and let size. It can be used as a command-line program, a web application, or a utility library. Source code in C, Java, and C#, and integration instructions for Perl and Python are provided. Conclusion The uShuffle tool surpasses existing implementation of the Euler algorithm in both performance and flexibility. It is a useful tool for the bioinformatics community. PMID:18405375

Jiang, Minghui; Anderson, James; Gillespie, Joel; Mayne, Martin

2008-01-01

40

DataONE: Preserving Data and Enabling Data-Intensive Biological and Environmental Research  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Addressing grand environmental science challenges requires unprecedented access to easily understood data that cross the breadth of temporal, spatial, and thematic scales. From a scientist's perspective, the challenges lie in discovering the relevant data, dealing with data heterogeneity, and converting data to information and knowledge. Solving these challenges requires new approaches for managing, preserving, sharing and analyzing data. DataONE (Observation Network for Earth) represents a virtual organization whose goal is to enable new science and knowledge creation through preservation and access to data about life on Earth and the environment that sustains it. DataONE supports science through facilitating easy, secure, and persistent storage of data and disseminating integrated and user-friendly tools for data discovery, analysis, visualization, and decision-making. DataONE engages its community of partners through working groups focused on identifying and implementing the DataONE cyberinfrastructure, governance, and sustainability models. These working groups, which consist of a diverse group of graduate students, educators, government representatives, and leading computer, information, and library scientists: (1) adapt interoperability standards; (2) create value-added technologies (e.g., semantic mediation, scientific workflow, and visualization) that facilitate data integration, analysis, and understanding; (3) address socio-cultural barriers to sustainable data preservation and data sharing; and (4) promote the adoption of best practices for managing the full data life cycle.

Cook, R. B.; DataONE Leadership Team

2011-12-01

41

APPLICATIONS ANALYSIS REPORT: BIOLOGICAL TREATMENT OF WOOD PRESERVING SITE GROUNDWATER BY BIOTROL, INC.  

EPA Science Inventory

This report is an evaluation of the Biotrol, Inc. Aqueous Treatment System (BATS), a fixed-film, aerobic biological treatment process for contaminated groundwaters and other wastewaters. t summarizes and analyzes the results of the Superfund Innovative Technology Evaluation (SITE...

42

Antigen recovery and preservation using the microwave irradiation of biological samples for transmission electron microscopy analysis.  

PubMed

Most studies using microwave irradiation (MWI) for the preparation of tissue samples have reported an improvement in structural integrity. However, there have been few studies on the effect of microwave (MW) on antigen preservation during sample preparation prior to immunolocalization. This report documents our experience of specimen preparation using an automatic microwave apparatus to obtain antigen preservation and retrieval. We tested the effects of MW processing vs. conventional procedures on the morphology and antigenicity of two different tissues: the brain and mammary gland, whose chemical composition and anatomical organization are quite different. We chose to locate the transcription factor PPAR?/? using immunocytochemistry on brain tissue sections from hamsters. Antigen retrieval protocols involving MWI were used to restore immunoreactivity. We also studied the efficiency of the ultrastructural immunolocalization of both PPAR? and caveolin-1 following MWI vs. conventional treatment, on mammary gland tissue from mice at 10 days of lactation. Our findings showed that the treatment of tissue samples with MWI, in the context of a process lasting just a few hours from fixation to immunolocalization, enabled similar, or even better, results than conventional protocols. The quantification of immunolabeling for cav-1 indicated an increase in density of up to three-fold in tissues processed in the microwave oven. Furthermore, MW treatment permitted the localization of PPAR?/? in glutaraldehyde-fixed specimens, which was impossible in the absence of MWI. This study thus showed that techniques involving the use of microwaves could largely improve both ultrastructure and immunodetection. PMID:23962686

Aoun, Josiane; Chat, Sophie; Bordat, Christian; Pchoux, Christine

2013-01-01

43

Biophysical and biological factors determining the ability to achieve long-term cryobiological preservation  

SciTech Connect

The BESTCapsule will maintain appropriate biological specimens for decades or centuries at cryogenic temperatures in the living state. Maintenance at temperatures below {approximately} {minus}140 C is not a problem. No ordinary chemical reactions in aqueous solutions can occur. The only source of damage will be the slow accumulation of physical damage to DNA from background ionizing radiation. But this source of damage should not become serious in less than a millennium. Rather, the main problem in cryopreservation is to devise procedures for cooling the biological specimens to {minus}196 C and returning them to normal temperatures without inflicting lethal injury. Regardless of the cell type, there are certain encompassing biophysical factors and constraints that determine whether they will survive or die during freezing and thawing. Superimposed on these may be special biological factors that apply to specific cell types. This paper will emphasize the former and give illustrative examples of the latter.

Mazur, P. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States). Life Sciences Div.

1997-12-01

44

Collecting and preserving biological samples from challenging environments for DNA analysis.  

PubMed

Biological materials collected in harsh environments such as archaeological excavations, at crime scenes, after mass disasters, in museums, or non-invasively in the field constitute a highly valuable source of genetic information. However, poor quality and limited quantity of the DNA extracted from these samples can be extremely challenging during further analyses. Here we have reviewed how degradation, decomposition, and contamination can affect DNA analysis, and how correct sample collection and storage methods will ensure the best possible conditions for further genetic analysis. Furthermore, highly efficient protocols for collection, decontamination, and extraction of DNA from minute amounts of biological material are presented. PMID:24620766

Bu?, Magdalena M; Allen, Marie

2014-02-01

45

TECHNOLOGY EVALUATION REPORT: BIOLOGICAL TREATMENT OF WOOD PRESERVING SITE GROUNDWATER BY BIOTROL, INC.  

EPA Science Inventory

This report provides the in-depth data analysis from the SITE Program's six-week demonstration of BioTrol's Aqueous Treatment System (BATS) at the MacGillis and Gibbs Company wood treatment facility in New Brighton, Minnesota. he pilot scale (5gpm), fixed-film biological system u...

46

Journal of Theoretical Biology 238 (2006) 683693 Turing pattern with proportion preservation  

E-print Network

.e. the ratio of the wavelength to the size, that is often required in biological morphogenesis. To get over morphogenesis is discussed from the viewpoint of its generality, robustness, and evolutionary accessibility. r 2005 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved. Keywords: Turing pattern; Morphogenesis; Size-invariance 1

Kaneko, Kunihiko

2006-01-01

47

Biologically based fertilizer recommendations to meet yield expectations and preserve water quality  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Corn is one of the most demanding crops for N and therefore often requires a high rate of N fertilizer to achieve high productivity. Cost of N fertilizer has risen dramatically during the past decade. Our goal was to develop a biologically based tool to improve N management in high N demanding cer...

48

Structural data and biological properties of almond gum oligosaccharide: application to beef meat preservation.  

PubMed

Enzymatic hydrolysis of almond gum generates low molecular weight oligosaccharides (OAG) with a yield of 33.5%. The generated oligosaccharides were purified and identified. OAG analyses show that the most prominent residues were galactose and arabinose with traces of xylose, rhamnose, glucose and mannose. The glycosyl linkage positions were analyzed using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry showing a main chain composed of galactose units [ ? 3)-Gal-(1 ? ] branched mainly with arabinose residues [Ara-(1 ? ]. The antioxidant and antimicrobial activities of OAG were investigated. As regards the in vitro antioxidant activities, the OAG showed a high total antioxidant activity (347 ?g ascorbic acid equivalent/mL), an important DPPH (1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl) scavenging activity (IC50 = 0.64 mg/mL) and a high reducing capacity (RP0.5AU = 3.6 mg/mL). Furthermore, OAG had a high antimicrobial activity against Salmonella thyphimirium, Bacillus cereus, Actinomycetes sp, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Escherichia coli, Alternaria alternate and Candidat albicans. Finally, OAG efficiency was tested using 0.5%; 0.75% and 1% concentrations in beef meat preservation. Microbial growth and lipid oxidation were monitored during 9 days at 4 C. The results showed significant inhibitions (p < 0.05) of lipid oxidation and microbial growth in ground beef meat containing OAG. PMID:25195541

Bouaziz, Fatma; Helbert, Claire Boisset; Romdhane, Molka Ben; Koubaa, Mohamed; Bhiri, Fatma; Kallel, Fatma; Chaari, Fatma; Driss, Dorra; Buon, Laurine; Chaabouni, Semia Ellouz

2015-01-01

49

Edge-Preserving Regularization for the Deconvolution of Biological Images in Nanoscopy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper deals with reconstructions of density images from data with Poisson statistics, with particular focus on cartoon reconstructions. We propose a total variation (TV) based regularization technique adapted to the case of Poisson data and use a forward-backward (FB) splitting strategy to create a numerical scheme that alternates a standard Expectation-Maximization (EM) reconstruction step with a TV correction step, which is realized by a modified version of the Rudin-Osher-Fatemi (ROF) model. We illustrate our technique at a synthetic object simulating optical nanoscopy measurements. Inspired by the high redundancy of information in a typical biological image, we give an outlook for an extension of the FB-EM-TV method to a nonlocal TV (NL-TV) regularization. NL-TV uses a nonlocal graph regularization, which allows to take advantage of the high degree of redundancy of natural images. Furthermore, we discuss the main challenges of the nonlocal regularization to create efficient numerical solvers which occurs automatically due to the high structure of complexity of the nonlocal regularization graph.

Sawatzky, Alex; Burger, Martin

2010-09-01

50

Production, preservation, and biological processing of mass-independent sulfur isotope fractionation in the Archean surface environment.  

PubMed

Mass-independent fractionation of sulfur isotopes (S MIF) in Archean and Paleoproterozoic rocks provides strong evidence for an anoxic atmosphere before ~2,400 Ma. However, the origin of this isotopic anomaly remains unclear, as does the identity of the molecules that carried it from the atmosphere to Earth's surface. Irrespective of the origin of S MIF, processes in the biogeochemical sulfur cycle modify the primary signal and strongly influence the S MIF preserved and observed in the geological record. Here, a detailed model of the marine sulfur cycle is used to propagate and distribute atmospherically derived S MIF from its delivery to the ocean to its preservation in the sediment. Bulk pyrite in most sediments carries weak S MIF because of microbial reduction of most sulfur compounds to form isotopically homogeneous sulfide. Locally, differential incorporation of sulfur compounds into pyrite leads to preservation of S MIF, which is predicted to be most highly variable in nonmarine and shallow-water settings. The Archean ocean is efficient in diluting primary atmospheric S MIF in the marine pools of sulfate and elemental sulfur with inputs from SO2 and H2S, respectively. Preservation of S MIF with the observed range of magnitudes requires the S MIF production mechanism to be moderately fractionating ( 20-40). Constraints from the marine sulfur cycle allow that either elemental sulfur or organosulfur compounds (or both) carried S MIF to the surface, with opposite sign to S MIF in SO2 and H2SO4. Optimal progress requires observations from nonmarine and shallow-water environments and experimental constraints on the reaction of photoexcited SO2 with atmospheric hydrocarbons. PMID:23572589

Halevy, Itay

2013-10-29

51

Production, preservation, and biological processing of mass-independent sulfur isotope fractionation in the Archean surface environment  

PubMed Central

Mass-independent fractionation of sulfur isotopes (S MIF) in Archean and Paleoproterozoic rocks provides strong evidence for an anoxic atmosphere before ?2,400 Ma. However, the origin of this isotopic anomaly remains unclear, as does the identity of the molecules that carried it from the atmosphere to Earths surface. Irrespective of the origin of S MIF, processes in the biogeochemical sulfur cycle modify the primary signal and strongly influence the S MIF preserved and observed in the geological record. Here, a detailed model of the marine sulfur cycle is used to propagate and distribute atmospherically derived S MIF from its delivery to the ocean to its preservation in the sediment. Bulk pyrite in most sediments carries weak S MIF because of microbial reduction of most sulfur compounds to form isotopically homogeneous sulfide. Locally, differential incorporation of sulfur compounds into pyrite leads to preservation of S MIF, which is predicted to be most highly variable in nonmarine and shallow-water settings. The Archean ocean is efficient in diluting primary atmospheric S MIF in the marine pools of sulfate and elemental sulfur with inputs from SO2 and H2S, respectively. Preservation of S MIF with the observed range of magnitudes requires the S MIF production mechanism to be moderately fractionating (2040). Constraints from the marine sulfur cycle allow that either elemental sulfur or organosulfur compounds (or both) carried S MIF to the surface, with opposite sign to S MIF in SO2 and H2SO4. Optimal progress requires observations from nonmarine and shallow-water environments and experimental constraints on the reaction of photoexcited SO2 with atmospheric hydrocarbons. PMID:23572589

Halevy, Itay

2013-01-01

52

The Effects of Computer Animated Dissection versus Preserved Animal Dissection on the Student Achievement in a High School Biology Class.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The purpose of this study was to examine the effectiveness of computer-animated dissection techniques versus the effectiveness of traditional dissection techniques as related to student achievement. The sample used was 104 general biology students from a small, rural high school in Northeast Tennessee. Random selection was used to separate the

Kariuki, Patrick; Paulson, Ronda

53

Preservation Directory  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Persons with a penchant for preservation will find that this clearinghouse website is a top-notch resource for materials on historic preservation, preservation-based tourism, and downtown revitalization projects across the United States and Canada. The site was created in 1999 by Tim Cannan, a native of the Finger Lakes region with a professional and academic background in historic and cultural preservation. The materials on the site are divided into topical areas that include "Preservation Events & Conferences", "Grants & Funding Sources" and nine other headings. Visitors who might be less familiar with the world of historic preservation will want to look over the "Video Library". Here they will find clips of restoration projects in progress, preservation walking tours, and endangered places. Also, it is worth noting that the site contains listings and links for over 7000 history museums, 1000 downtown and main street groups, and 4500 historical societies in North America.

54

Structural plasticity of calmodulin on the surface of CaF2 nanoparticles preserves its biological function  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Nanoparticles are increasingly used in biomedical applications and are especially attractive as biocompatible and biodegradable protein delivery systems. Herein, the interaction between biocompatible 25 nm CaF2 nanoparticles and the ubiquitous calcium sensor calmodulin has been investigated in order to assess the potential of these particles to serve as suitable surface protein carriers. Calmodulin is a multifunctional messenger protein that activates a wide variety of signaling pathways in eukaryotic cells by changing its conformation in a calcium-dependent manner. Isothermal titration calorimetry and circular dichroism studies have shown that the interaction between calmodulin and CaF2 nanoparticles occurs with physiologically relevant affinity and that the binding process is fully reversible, occurring without significant alterations in protein secondary and tertiary structures. Experiments performed with a mutant form of calmodulin having an impaired Ca2+-binding ability in the C-terminal lobe suggest that the EF-hand Ca2+-binding motifs are directly involved in the binding of calmodulin to the CaF2 matrix. The residual capability of nanoparticle-bound calmodulin to function as a calcium sensor protein, binding to and altering the activity of a target protein, was successfully probed by biochemical assays. Even if efficiently carried by CaF2 nanoparticles, calmodulin may dissociate, thus retaining the ability to bind the peptide encompassing the putative C-terminal calmodulin-binding domain of glutamate decarboxylase and activate the enzyme. We conclude that the high flexibility and structural plasticity of calmodulin are responsible for the preservation of its function when bound in high amounts to a nanoparticle surface.Nanoparticles are increasingly used in biomedical applications and are especially attractive as biocompatible and biodegradable protein delivery systems. Herein, the interaction between biocompatible 25 nm CaF2 nanoparticles and the ubiquitous calcium sensor calmodulin has been investigated in order to assess the potential of these particles to serve as suitable surface protein carriers. Calmodulin is a multifunctional messenger protein that activates a wide variety of signaling pathways in eukaryotic cells by changing its conformation in a calcium-dependent manner. Isothermal titration calorimetry and circular dichroism studies have shown that the interaction between calmodulin and CaF2 nanoparticles occurs with physiologically relevant affinity and that the binding process is fully reversible, occurring without significant alterations in protein secondary and tertiary structures. Experiments performed with a mutant form of calmodulin having an impaired Ca2+-binding ability in the C-terminal lobe suggest that the EF-hand Ca2+-binding motifs are directly involved in the binding of calmodulin to the CaF2 matrix. The residual capability of nanoparticle-bound calmodulin to function as a calcium sensor protein, binding to and altering the activity of a target protein, was successfully probed by biochemical assays. Even if efficiently carried by CaF2 nanoparticles, calmodulin may dissociate, thus retaining the ability to bind the peptide encompassing the putative C-terminal calmodulin-binding domain of glutamate decarboxylase and activate the enzyme. We conclude that the high flexibility and structural plasticity of calmodulin are responsible for the preservation of its function when bound in high amounts to a nanoparticle surface. Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available: Supplementary methods and figures. See DOI: 10.1039/c4nr04368e

Astegno, Alessandra; Maresi, Elena; Marino, Valerio; Dominici, Paola; Pedroni, Marco; Piccinelli, Fabio; Dell'Orco, Daniele

2014-11-01

55

Structural plasticity of calmodulin on the surface of CaF2 nanoparticles preserves its biological function.  

PubMed

Nanoparticles are increasingly used in biomedical applications and are especially attractive as biocompatible and biodegradable protein delivery systems. Herein, the interaction between biocompatible 25 nm CaF2 nanoparticles and the ubiquitous calcium sensor calmodulin has been investigated in order to assess the potential of these particles to serve as suitable surface protein carriers. Calmodulin is a multifunctional messenger protein that activates a wide variety of signaling pathways in eukaryotic cells by changing its conformation in a calcium-dependent manner. Isothermal titration calorimetry and circular dichroism studies have shown that the interaction between calmodulin and CaF2 nanoparticles occurs with physiologically relevant affinity and that the binding process is fully reversible, occurring without significant alterations in protein secondary and tertiary structures. Experiments performed with a mutant form of calmodulin having an impaired Ca(2+)-binding ability in the C-terminal lobe suggest that the EF-hand Ca(2+)-binding motifs are directly involved in the binding of calmodulin to the CaF2 matrix. The residual capability of nanoparticle-bound calmodulin to function as a calcium sensor protein, binding to and altering the activity of a target protein, was successfully probed by biochemical assays. Even if efficiently carried by CaF2 nanoparticles, calmodulin may dissociate, thus retaining the ability to bind the peptide encompassing the putative C-terminal calmodulin-binding domain of glutamate decarboxylase and activate the enzyme. We conclude that the high flexibility and structural plasticity of calmodulin are responsible for the preservation of its function when bound in high amounts to a nanoparticle surface. PMID:25367003

Astegno, Alessandra; Maresi, Elena; Marino, Valerio; Dominici, Paola; Pedroni, Marco; Piccinelli, Fabio; Dell'Orco, Daniele

2014-12-21

56

Mostly Plants. Individualized Biology Activities on: I. Investigating Bread Mold; II. Transpiration; III. Botany Project; IV. Collecting/Preserving/Identifying Leaves; [and] V. Student Science Laboratory Write-Ups.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Individualized biology activities for secondary students are presented in this teaching guide. The guide is divided into five sections: (1) investigating bread mold; (2) investigating transpiration; (3) completing a botany project; (4) collecting, preserving, and identifying leaves; and (5) writing up science laboratory investigations. The

Gibson, Paul R.

57

Water quality, organic chemistry of sediment, and biological conditions of streams near an abandoned wood-preserving plant site at Jackson, Tennessee  

USGS Publications Warehouse

An investigation of water quality, organic sediment chemistry, and biological conditions of streams near an abandoned wood-preserving plant site at Jackson, Tennessee, was conducted during December 1990. The study was designed to assess the extent of possible contamination of water and biota in the streams from creosote-related discharge originating at this Superfund site. Central Creek, adjacent to the plant, had degraded water quality and biological conditions. Water samples from the most downstream station on Central Creek contained 30 micrograms per liter of pentachlorophenol, which exceeds the State's criterion maximum concentrations of 9 micrograms per liter for fish and aquatic life. Bottom-sediment samples from stations on Central Creek contained concentrations of acenaphthene, napthalene, and phenanthrene ranging from 1,400 to 2,500 micrograms per kilogram. Chronic or acute toxicity resulted during laboratory experiments using test organisms exposed to creosote-related contaminants. Sediment elutriate samples from Central Creek caused slightly to highly toxic effects on Ceriodaphnia dubia. Pimephales promelas, and Photobacterium phosphoreum. Fish-tissue samples from this station contained concentrations of naphthalene. dibenzofuran, fluorene, and phenanthrene ranging from 1.5 to 3.9 micrograms per kilogram Blue-green algae at this station represented about 79 percent of the organisms counted, whereas diatoms accounted for only 11 percent. Benthic invertebrate and fish samples from Central Creek had low diversity and density. Sediment samples from a station on the South Fork Forked Deer River downstream from its confluence with Central Creek contained concentrations of acenaphthene, anthracene, chrysene, fluoranthene, fluorene, pyrere, and phenanthrene ranging from 2,800 to 69,000 micrograms per kilogram. Sediment elutriate samples using water as elutriate from this station contained concentrations of extractable organic compounds ranging from an estimated 43 to 420 micrograms per liter. Sediment elutriate samples were toxic to Ceriodaphnia dubta, Pimephales promelas, Photobacterium phosphoreum, and Salenastrum capricornulum.

Bradfield, A.D.; Flexner, N.M.; Webster, D.A.

1993-01-01

58

Preservation Environments  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The long-term preservation of digital entities requires mechanisms to manage the authenticity of massive data collections that are written to archival storage systems. Preservation environments impose authenticity constraints and manage the evolution of the storage system technology by building infrastructure independent solutions. This seeming paradox, the need for large archives, while avoiding dependence upon vendor specific solutions, is resolved through use of data grid technology. Data grids provide the storage repository abstractions that make it possible to migrate collections between vendor specific products, while ensuring the authenticity of the archived data. Data grids provide the software infrastructure that interfaces vendor-specific storage archives to preservation environments.

Moore, Reagan W.

2004-01-01

59

Preservation Online  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The National Trust for Historic Preservation has received a number of awards for its magazine, Preservation, and their online version is well worth a look. The site is quite nice, and it contains brief profiles of current preservation stories written especially for this website. Recent stories have included profiles of neon signs in Los Angeles, brewery renovations in Milwaukee, and a list of the ten most endangered Civil War battlefields. The site is rounded out by an online archive which allows visitors to search back issues from 1992 to 2006.

60

Heritage Preservation  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Heritage Preservation: The National Institute for Conservation is a 30-year-old non-profit in Washington, DC, that is concerned with preserving the treasures of the United States that are already in institutions, such as museums, historical societies, and libraries, as well as those historical treasures that are in people's homes, basements, and attics. Their website is comprehensive, and lists the programs they run to help accomplish this monumental task. Under the "Programs" tab visitors will find links to the "Conservation Assessment Program" and "Heritage Emergency National Task Force", which is like FEMA for historical objects. "Rescue Public Murals" and "Save Outdoor Sculpture!" are also programs the Heritage Preservation runs. Visitors can see photographs of "Murals That Have Been Lost" and "Murals That Have Been Saved". Finally, the link under "Programs" to the "Heritage Health Index" provides a full online report of the "first comprehensive survey to assess the condition and preservation needs of U.S. collections".

61

Preserving Biodiversity  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This website is part of National Geographic's Xpeditions Hall and includes lesson plans and activities related to the topic of biodiversity. The site covers ecosystems, endangered species, why preserving biodiversity is necessary, and how captive breeding has been used to try and save some species from extinction. These lesson plans were written by educators and have been tested in the classroom.

62

Preservation Matters  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

One must undertake multi-institutional efforts that include universities, archives, museums, libraries and community-based arts organizations and the artists to preserve Latino art history. Arts infrastructure can be strengthened by various Chicano Studies Research Center projects that are concerned with archive building and scholarship, and with

Noriega, Chon A.

2005-01-01

63

Records Preservation  

USGS Multimedia Gallery

Older materials and recently arrived items in the Field Records Collection are in various states of preservation and documentation. In the current reorganization project, items are inventoried for content, transferred to archival storage containers, and archived as shelf items (notebooks and file fo...

64

BIOLOG  

EPA Science Inventory

BIOLOG contains more than 43,000 citations to literature on microbial degradation and toxicity of more than 6,000 chemicals. Records are organized by CAS Registry Number and by 6 categories (i.e., biodegradation/toxicity; oxygen condition (anaerobic/aerobic); culture type (pure e...

65

Soft Tissue Preservation in Terrestrial Mesozoic Vertebrates  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Exceptionally preserved fossils -- i.e., those that retain, in some manner, labile components of organisms that are normally degraded far too quickly to enter the fossil record -- hold the greatest potential for understanding aspects of the biology of long-extinct animals and are the best targets for the search for endogenous biomolecules. Yet the modes of preservation of these labile components, and exactly what remains of the original composition, are not well understood. Here, I review a selection of cases of soft tissue preservation in Mesozoic vertebrates, examine chemical and environmental factors that may influence such preservation, explore the potential of these fossils for high-resolution analytical studies, and suggest clarification of terminologies and criteria for determining the endogeneity of source and the degree of preservation of these well-preserved tissues.

Schweitzer, Mary Higby

2011-05-01

66

Economic impact and preservation: a case study of the Big Thicket National Preserve in east Texas  

E-print Network

the hnportance of this astounding biosphere. East Texas is an area of rich biological diversity where the eastern hardwood forests, the southern coastal wetlands, the western prairies and the arid southwest all converge. The Big Thicket provides an excellent... to preserve the area's distinct biological identity, the overall preserve was created in a fiagmented way to aHow visitors to experience as many of the different biospheres as possible. Understanding the controversy that surrounded the beginning...

Powis, Jennifer

2013-02-22

67

Preserve the Investment-Antibiological Spray  

E-print Network

"PRESERVE THE INVESTMENT - ANTIBIOLOGICAL SPRAY" by ROBERT REIDENBACH Spraying Services, Inc. Houston, TX ABSTRACT Annual preservative spray applications to the plenum area combined with a good water treatment program will extend... biological attack once it is put into service. The initial pre-treatment of the wood by the pressure treatment method is generally inade quate for the long-term protection of the framework and other wood components from the devastation of internal wood...

Reidenbach, R.

68

The Silver Creek Preserve  

USGS Multimedia Gallery

Before The Nature Conservancy established the Silver Creek Preserve, the watershed had been degraded by years of livestock grazing and overfishing. Preserve managers have been concerned about sedimentation, increasing stream temperatures, and invasive species. To measure the effectiveness of their ...

69

A History Worth Preserving  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Manhattan Project transformed the course of American and world history, science, politics and society. If we can read about this in books and watch History Channel documentaries, why do we need to preserve some of the properties of this enormous undertaking? The presentation, ``A History Worth Preserving,'' will address why some of the physical properties need to be preserved

Cynthia Kelly

2008-01-01

70

Preservation--Everybody's Job.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Outlines concepts essential for library material preservation. Describes the following components of a formal preservation program: (1) environmental control; (2) repair; (3) binding; (4) deacidification; (5) reformatting; (6) disaster preparedness; (7) education; and (8) administration. Suggests that libraries can improve their preservation

Schobernd, Elizabeth M.

1999-01-01

71

[Preservatives in ophthalmology].  

PubMed

Preservatives are a legal requirement for eye drops in multidose containers. Moreover, they are necessary for stabilization and intraocular penetration for a number of ophthalmic preparations. Most preservatives act in a relatively unspecific manner as detergents or by oxidative mechanisms and thereby cause side effects at the ocular surface. They may also affect the lens, trabecular meshwork and the retina. Benzalkonium chloride is the most commonly used preservative in ophthalmology and is more toxic than other or newer preservatives, such as polyquaternium-1 (Polyquad), sodium perborate, oxychloro-complex (Purite) and SofZia. Preservative-free topical medication is highly recommended for patients with ocular surface disease, frequent eye drop administration, proven allergy to preservatives and contact lens wear. PMID:23179809

Messmer, E M

2012-11-01

72

Jasper Ridge Biological Preserve Annual Report 200607  

E-print Network

awarding of the 2007 Nobel Peace Prize to the Intergovern- mental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) and to Al on which the reports of the IPCC are built. Nobel Prizes in the sciences typically reward a single discovery, something like elucidating the structure of DNA. But this year's Nobel Prize for Peace differs

73

National Film Preservation Foundation  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Created by the United States Congress, the National Film Preservation Foundation provides nationwide support to the preservation of American films of cultural and historical significance, along with improving film access for study, education, and exhibition. Located in San Francisco, the Foundation also awards grants to various film archives and preservations agencies who are also dedicated to preserving important landmarks in American cinematic history. Information on the site includes Preservation Basics, which talks about the importance of film preservation and the nature and chemistry of film decay. A grants and projects section offers information about applying for a film preservation grant from the Foundation and about ongoing preservation projects, like the Saving the Silents: The American Silent Fiction Film Project. In addition, the site contains a complete listing (by title, date, and archive) of the 500 films helped preserved by the Foundation. Film researchers and scholars will find a map of the United States that lists existing film archives and study centers around the country both helpful and a useful tool for determining the direction of their research.

74

Fertility preservation during cancer treatment: clinical guidelines.  

PubMed

The majority of children, adolescents, and young adults diagnosed with cancer today will become long-term survivors. The threat to fertility that cancer treatments pose to young patients cannot be prevented in many cases, and thus research into methods for fertility preservation is developing, aiming at offering cancer patients the ability to have biologically related children in the future. This paper discusses the current status of fertility preservation methods when infertility risks are related to surgical oncologic treatments, radiation therapy, or chemotherapy. Several scientific groups and societies have developed consensus documents and guidelines for fertility preservation. Decisions about fertility and imminent potentially gonadotoxic therapies must be made rapidly. Timely and complete information on the impact of cancer treatment on fertility and fertility preservation options should be presented to all patients when a cancer treatment is planned. PMID:24623991

Rodriguez-Wallberg, Kenny A; Oktay, Kutluk

2014-01-01

75

PRESERVING BIODIVERSITY: SPECIES, ECOSYSTEMS, OR LANDSCAPES?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Efforts to preserve biological diversity must focus increasingly at the ecosystem level because of the immense number of species, the majority of which are currently unknown. An ecosystem approach is also the only way to conserve processes and habitats (such as forest canopies, belowground habitats, and hyporheic zones) that, with their constituent species, are poorly known. Continued concern with species

JERRY F. FRANKLIN

1993-01-01

76

Locality Preserving Projections  

Microsoft Academic Search

Many problems in information processing involve some form of dimen- sionality reduction. In this paper, we introduce Locality Preserving Pro- jections (LPP). These are linear projective maps that arise by solving a variational problem that optimally preserves the neighborhood structure of the data set. LPP should be seen as an alternative to Principal Com- ponent Analysis (PCA) - a classical

Xiaofei He; Partha Niyogi

2003-01-01

77

The Preservation of Ephemera  

Microsoft Academic Search

An outline for the storage and preservation of ephemera is provided, including criteria for determining artifactual and intrinsic value; steps to be taken in the assessment of the condition of collections; and various preservation strategies, such as reformatting, microforms, photography, and digital imaging.

Lois Olcott Price

1997-01-01

78

Conservation, Preservation, and Digitization.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Digital technologies should be considered a method of preservation for library materials. Current conservation strategies of restoration, deacidification, and microfilming are expensive, and they limit access. Digitization offers improved access while preserving materials and reflects a change in the library role from depository of printed

Lynch, Clifford A.; Brownrigg, Edwin B.

1986-01-01

79

Environmental Controls on Shipwreck Preservation: The Irish Context  

Microsoft Academic Search

A discussion is presented of environmental controls that affect the preservation of archaeological artefacts in the marine environment. Physical, biological and chemical degradation processes are discussed although it is appreciated that these processes operate in conjunction and often in a site-specific manner. Two Irish case studies are presented of environmental controls on shipwreck preservation: The Kish Bank, Outer Dublin Bay

A. J. Wheeler

2002-01-01

80

Why Preserve Biodiversity?  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This lesson plan stresses the importance of maintaining ecosystems and explores the various arguments in favor of preserving the biodiversity of Earth. Students will view photos of endangered species and discuss why these animals are threatened and why they should be protected; learn the meaning of biodiversity, ecosystem, and extinction; explain why all members of an ecosystem are important; list the reasons why biodiversity should be preserved; read articles on various arguments in favor of preserving biodiversity; and write essays in which they explain what they feel are the most compelling reasons for preserving biodiversity and also describe the arguments they think would be most likely to convince the general public that biodiversity should be preserved.

81

Mojave National Preserve  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This National Park Service site contains sections on: desert ecology, with explanations of the desert types (rain shadow deserts, coastal deserts, and remote interior basins), and data on desert population growth; desert plants and animals; history of the preserve including Mojave Indian and Black homesteaders history; recreational information; education, with a list of rangers to call or email for curriculum programs; management issues, including a Final Environmental Impact Statement and General Management Plan; and maps of the preserve. There is also an online story book for kids about desert tortoises and links to information on the geology (as well as geological maps) of the preserve.

82

Locality Preserving Discriminant Projections  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A new manifold learning algorithm called locality preserving discriminant projections (LPDP) is proposed by adding between-class scatter matrix and within-class scatter matrix into locality preserving projections (LPP). LPDP can preserve locality and utilize label information in the projection. It is shown that the LPDP can successfully find the subspace which has better discrimination between different pattern classes. The subspace obtained by LPDP has more discriminant power than LPP, and is more suitable for recognition tasks. The proposed method was applied to USPS handwriting database and compared with LPP. Experimental results show the effectiveness of the proposed algorithm.

Gui, Jie; Wang, Chao; Zhu, Ling

83

Mechanism of entanglement preservation  

SciTech Connect

We study the entanglement preservation of two qubits locally interacting with their reservoirs. We show that the existence of a bound state of the qubit and its reservoir and the non-Markovian effect are two essential ingredients and their interplay plays a crucial role in preserving the entanglement in the steady state. When the non-Markovian effect is neglected, the entanglement sudden death (ESD) is reproduced. On the other hand, when the non-Markovian is significantly strong but the bound state is absent, the phenomenon of the ESD and its revival is recovered. Our formulation presents a unified picture about the entanglement preservation and provides a clear clue on how to preserve the entanglement in quantum information processing.

Tong Qingjun [Center for Interdisciplinary Studies, Lanzhou University, Lanzhou 730000 (China); Department of Modern Physics, Lanzhou University, Lanzhou 730000 (China); An Junhong [Center for Interdisciplinary Studies, Lanzhou University, Lanzhou 730000 (China); Department of Physics, National University of Singapore, 3 Science Drive 2, Singapore 117543 (Singapore); Luo Honggang [Center for Interdisciplinary Studies, Lanzhou University, Lanzhou 730000 (China); Key Laboratory for Magnetism and Magnetic Materials of MOE, Lanzhou University, Lanzhou 730000 (China); Oh, C. H. [Department of Physics, National University of Singapore, 3 Science Drive 2, Singapore 117543 (Singapore)

2010-05-15

84

Preservation Map of Europe  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In an effort to stimulate international information exchange, cooperative projects, and research, the European Commission on Preservation and Access (ECPA) has created an online directory of European organizations working in the preservation field. This directory is based on a survey conducted over the past year. For each of the twenty-five countries currently listed there is a section on national policy as it relates to preservation in libraries and archives, followed by background information on individual organizations, projects, and training courses. Background information includes contacts, email or web access if available, and a brief description of activities. Users can search the preservation map database by organization name, project focus, training availability, or by keyword.

85

Shape Preserving Spline Interpolation  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A rational spline solution to the problem of shape preserving interpolation is discussed. The rational spline is represented in terms of first derivative values at the knots and provides an alternative to the spline-under-tension. The idea of making the shape control parameters dependent on the first derivative unknowns is then explored. The monotonic or convex shape of the interpolation data can then be preserved automatically through the solution of the resulting non-linear consistency equations of the spline.

Gregory, J. A.

1985-01-01

86

National Preservation Institute  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The National Preservation Institute (NPI) "offers continuing education and professional training for those involved in the management, preservation, and stewardship of cultural heritage." The NPI website is a treasure trove of material for people interested in such matters, along with information on scholarships, online resources, and the Institute's upcoming seminars. The Resources area includes a set of useful links to Internet resources and a very nice set of tools for cultural resource managers. These tools include technical documents designed to be used in the formal transfer of historic properties, along with key documents about the National Environmental Policy Act. In the Scholarships area, visitors can learn about scholarships offered by the NPI and the National Endowment for the Arts dealing with historic preservation. Additionally, visitors can sign up for the NPI mailing list and learn more about seminars on cultural and natural resources management.

2012-06-08

87

PreserveNet  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Internet allows many interested communities that may be spread across great distances to share information, and PreserveNet is just such a community. Since 1994, preservationists have had a fine resource to draw on at the PreserveNet website. The site has been redesigned several times since its creation, and currently visitors to the site can find out about funding sources for projects, employment opportunities, and upcoming conferences and related events. Along with these sections, visitors may also wish to take a look through the Legal section, which offers links to summaries of court cases related to historic preservation and also to the codes of federal regulation. Finally, the site also has a links area, which contains numerous links categorized by theme, such as cultural studies, sprawl, and maritime resources.

88

Preservation North Carolina  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Preservation North Carolina was created in 1939, and works to promote and protect the buildings and landscape of the Tarheel State. The organization has five regional offices across the state and visitors can learn about their ambitious mission and work on this well-designed site. Here visitors can make their way through Events, In the News, and Features. This last area offers visitors insights into recent projects completed by the organization, along with instructive lessons for others involved in historic preservation, architecture, and urban design projects. The Get Answers area is a real gem, as it contains answers to questions like "How do I repair my old house?" "How can I protect my neighborhood?" and "Is preservation good for the environment?"

2013-01-01

89

A History Worth Preserving  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Manhattan Project transformed the course of American and world history, science, politics and society. If we can read about this in books and watch History Channel documentaries, why do we need to preserve some of the properties of this enormous undertaking? The presentation, ``A History Worth Preserving,'' will address why some of the physical properties need to be preserved and which ones we are struggling to maintain for future generations. The story of this effort begins in 1997 as the Department of Energy was posed to demolish the last remaining Manhattan Project properties at the Los Alamos laboratory. Located deep behind security fences, the ``V Site's'' asbestos-shingled wooden buildings looked like humble garages with over-sized wooden doors. The ``V Site'' properties were almost lost twice, first to bulldozers and then the Cerro Grande fire of 2000. Now, visitors can stand inside the building where J. Robert Oppenheimer and his crew once worked and imagine the Trinity ``gadget'' hanging from its hoist shortly before it ushered in the Atomic Age on July 16, 1945. As Richard Rhodes has commented, we preserve what we value of the physical past because it specifically embodies our social past. But many challenge whether the Manhattan Project properties ought to be preserved. Rather than recognize the Manhattan Project as a great achievement worthy of commemoration, some see it as a regrettable event, producing an instrument to take man's inhumanity to man to extremes. While these divergent views will no doubt persist, the significance of the Manhattan Project in producing the world's first atomic bombs is irrefutable. Preserving some of its tangible remains is essential so that future generations can understand what the undertaking entailed from its humble wooden sheds to enormous first-of-a-kind industrial plants with 125,000 people working in secret and living in frontier-like communities. With continuing pressure for their demolition, what progress has been made in preserving some properties of the Manhattan Project? The presentation will share the handful of remaining properties that we believe are needed to tell the story of the Manhattan Project. It will share our successes, what is still at risk, and the on-going struggle to preserve this history.

Kelly, Cynthia

2008-04-01

90

Preservation vs Conservation...  

E-print Network

Preservation vs Conservation... ...in real life #12;As a result of Muir, Pinchot, and later Leopold Materials Transportation Act · 1976 - Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) · 1976 - Toxic · 1978 - National Energy Conservation Policy Act Between 1970-1977, Congress adopts 14 major new statutes

Callender, Craig

91

Privacy Preserving Data Mining  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper we address the issue of privacy preserving data mining. Specifically, we consider a scenario in which two parties owning confidential databases wish to run a data mining algorithm on the union of their databases, without revealing any unnecessary information. Our work is motivated by the need to both protect privileged information and enable its use for research

Yehuda Lindell; Benny Pinkas

2000-01-01

92

Preserving digital local news  

Microsoft Academic Search

Much local news -- important documentation of local history -- is being lost. The fact that a lot of news media is now available digitally, presents new opportunities but also new challenges for such preservation. We explore issues and approaches for collection and management of born digital local news. Purpose Design\\/methodology\\/approach\\/findings We examine several specific bottlenecks for implementing this project.

Robert B. Allen; Kirsten A. Johnson

2008-01-01

93

Additives to preservation solutions.  

PubMed

As the impact of ischemia reperfusion injury on graft outcome is now well defined, efforts are made towards decreasing these lesions, typically through the improvement of preservation techniques. The use of pharmacological supplements which could be compatible with any preservation solution used by the transplant center and target specific pathways of IR is an interesting strategy to improve graft quality. However, the extensive number of studies showing the benefits a molecule in an animal model of IR without thorough mechanistic determination of the effects of this agent make it difficult to opt for specific pharmaceutical intervention. Herein we expose studies which demonstrate the benefits of several molecules relying on a thorough mechanical analysis of the events occurring during preservation, both at the cellular and the systemic levels. We believe this approach is the most appropriate to truly understand the potential benefits of a molecule and particularly to design a comprehensive pharmaceutical regiment, with several agents acting synergistically against IR, to improve organ preservation and graft outcome. PMID:24950930

Saint Yves, T; Delpech, P-O; Giraud, S; Thuillier, R; Hauet, T

2014-06-01

94

Preservation: Issues and Planning.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A reference guide from leading experts in the field, this book covers the repair, maintenance, and preservation of library or archive collections, providing a definitive and authoritative analysis of how to plan for and ensure the long-term health of an institution's collection in this digital age. Chapters include: (1) "Defining the Library

Banks, Paul N., Ed.; Pilette, Roberta, Ed.

95

Preserving Southwest Virginia's Folklore.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes Southwest Virginia's rich tradition of folklore and culture and the need for its preservation. Summarizes the author's time-consuming process of preparing an inventory and indexing the vast archival collections gathered by students in American Folklore classes at Mountain Empire Community College and by the Southwest Virginia Folklore

Burgin, Ramond

1997-01-01

96

Classification conundrums: categorizing chimeras and enacting species preservation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Sociologists have challenged the discipline to account for and incorporate biological factors in their analyses. Heeding this\\u000a call, this article asks how chimeras, a particularly puzzling biological organism, are being officially classified in the\\u000a interrelated sites of endangered species preservation and the zoo. Based on a qualitative study of endeavors to clone endangered\\u000a animals, I contend that biology alone cannot

Carrie Friese

2010-01-01

97

Sharing the Preservation Burden  

SciTech Connect

Preserving digitally encoded information which is not just to be rendered, as a document, but which must processed, like data, is even harder than one might think, because understandability of the information which is encoded in the digital object(s) is what is required. Information about Nuclear Waste will include both documents as well as data. Moreover one must be able to understand the relationship between the many individual pieces of information. Furthermore the volume of information involved will require us to allow automated processing of such information. Preserving the ability to understand and process digitally encoded information over long periods of time is especially hard when so many things will change, including hardware, software, environment and the tacit and implicit knowledge that people have. Since we cannot predict these changes this cannot be just a one-off action; continued effort is required. However it seems reasonable to say that no organization, project or person can ever say for certain that their ability to provide this effort is going to last forever. What can be done? Can anything be guaranteed? Probably not guaranteed - but at least one can try to reduce the risk of losing the information. We argue that if no single organization, project or person can guarantee funding or effort (or even interest), then somehow we must share the 'preservation load', and this is more than a simple chain of preservation consisting of handing on the collection of bits from one holder to the next. Clearly the bits must be passed on (but may be transformed along the way), however something more is required - because of the need to maintain understandability, not just access. This paper describes the tools, techniques and infrastructure components which the CASPAR project is producing to help in sharing the preservation burden. In summary: CASPAR is attempting to use OAIS concepts rigorously and to the fullest extent possible, supplementing these where appropriate. Based on these fundamental ideas about digital preservation, a number of components, tools and techniques are being created in order to provide a broadly applicable infrastructure to allow the spreading of the burden of preserving the understandability and usability of digitally encoded information. In the process the limits of the applicability of these OAIS concepts are themselves being tested. Most importantly a number of validation metrics have been produced. Further details are available from the CASPAR web site http://www.casparpreserves.eu. (authors)

Giaretta, D. [STFC, Rutherford Appleton Laboratory, Didcot, Oxon OX11 0QX (United Kingdom)

2008-07-01

98

Tree preserving embedding  

PubMed Central

The goal of dimensionality reduction is to embed high-dimensional data in a low-dimensional space while preserving structure in the data relevant to exploratory data analysis such as clusters. However, existing dimensionality reduction methods often either fail to separate clusters due to the crowding problem or can only separate clusters at a single resolution. We develop a new approach to dimensionality reduction: tree preserving embedding. Our approach uses the topological notion of connectedness to separate clusters at all resolutions. We provide a formal guarantee of cluster separation for our approach that holds for finite samples. Our approach requires no parameters and can handle general types of data, making it easy to use in practice and suggesting new strategies for robust data visualization. PMID:21949369

Shieh, Albert D.; Hashimoto, Tatsunori B.; Airoldi, Edoardo M.

2011-01-01

99

National Film Preservation Board  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

What do The Big Sleep, The Great Dictator, Harold and Maude, Knute Rockne, All American, and Wings have in common? They, along with 20 other films, have been selected to the National Film Registry of the National Film Preservation Board. The NFPB is a "public advisory group to the Librarian of Congress...that...works to ensure the survival, conservation and increased public availability of America's film heritage, including: advising the Librarian on the annual selection of films to the National Film Registry." In addition to the 1997 list, users can find a comprehensive list of titles added to the registry between 1989-1997, a list of NFPB members, and links from the 1989-96 National Film Registry to their credits as they appear in the Internet Movie Database. The NFPB also recently released a report and three public testimonies on the state of television and video preservation.

100

Privacy-preserving data mining  

E-print Network

, design principles, and implementation techniques for privacy-preserving data mining systems. We then discuss the key components of privacy-preserving data mining systems which include three protocols: data collection, inference control, and information...

Zhang, Nan

2009-05-15

101

Plato: A Preservation Planning Tool Integrating Preservation Action Services  

E-print Network

Abstract. The creation of a concrete plan for preserving a collection of digital objects of a specific institution necessitates the evaluation of available solutions against clearly defined and measurable criteria. This process is called preservation planning and aids in the decision making process to find the most suitable preservation strategy considering the institutions requirements, the planning context and available actions applicable to the objects contained in the repository. Performed manually, this evaluation promises to be hard and tedious work, inasmuch as there exist numerous potential preservation action tools of different quality. In this demonstration, we present Plato [4], an interactive software tool aimed at creating preservation plans.

Hannes Kulovits; Christoph Becker; Michael Kraxner; Florian Motlik; Kevin Stadler; Andreas Rauber

102

Volume Correction Method Full Character Volume Preservation  

E-print Network

Volume Correction Method Full Character Volume Preservation Results Local Volume Preservation Pacific Graphics 2008, Tokyo, Japan D. Rohmer, S. Hahmann, M.-P. Cani Local Volume Preservation for Skinned Characters #12;Volume Correction Method Full Character Volume Preservation Results Motivations

Hahmann, Stefanie

103

A Widening Circle: Preservation Literature Review, 1992.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Examines preservation literature from 1992 that focused on the integration of preservation strategies within the organization. Highlights include foreign preservation programs; collection development and preservation; government programs; deacidification; paper requirements; disaster recovery techniques; mutilation; microform issues; nonbook

Drewes, Jeanne M.

1993-01-01

104

Format-Preserving Encryption  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Format-preserving encryption (FPE) encrypts a plaintext of some specified format into a ciphertext of identical formatfor example, encrypting a valid credit-card number into a valid credit-card number. The problem has been known for some time, but it has lacked a fully general and rigorous treatment. We provide one, starting off by formally defining FPE and security goals for it. We investigate the natural approach for achieving FPE on complex domains, the rank-then-encipher approach, and explore what it can and cannot do. We describe two flavors of unbalanced Feistel networks that can be used for achieving FPE, and we prove new security results for each. We revisit the cycle-walking approach for enciphering on a non-sparse subset of an encipherable domain, showing that the timing information that may be divulged by cycle walking is not a damaging thing to leak.

Bellare, Mihir; Ristenpart, Thomas; Rogaway, Phillip; Stegers, Till

105

Advances in corneal preservation.  

PubMed Central

The functional status of the endothelium and sustained corneal deturgescence after corneal preservation are of great clinical importance and have been primary goals in the development of corneal storage media. In our investigational studies we have specifically addressed the improvement of the quality of donor tissue after 4 degrees C storage, the extension of corneal preservation time, the enhancement of corneal wound healing, and the reduction of the normal progressive loss of endothelial cells postkeratoplasty. Specifically we have developed in vitro HCE cell and epithelial cell culture models that can accurately reflect the response of human corneal tissue in vivo. These models have been utilized to study the effects of growth factors and medium components in relation to their biocompatibility and efficacy in the development of improved corneal preservation solutions. Our laboratory investigated in vitro conditions that allowed human corneal endothelium to shift from a nonproliferative state, in which they remain viable and metabolically active, to a proliferative, mitotically active state. Isolation techniques developed in our laboratory have enabled the establishment of primary and subsequent subcultures of human corneal endothelium that retain the attributes of native endothelium. These in vitro conditions maintain HCE cells in a proliferative state, actively undergoing mitosis. A quantitative bioassay has been developed to determine the effects of various test medium in the stimulation or inhibition of DNA synthesis. In attempting to learn more about the events that occur during in vitro endothelial cell isolation, cell reattachment, extracellular matrix interaction and migrating during subculture, SEM was done on isolated HCE cells incubated in CSM. These studies suggest that the components of the extracellular matrix modulate the growth response of HCE cells, and play a role in regulating proliferation and migration. These observations are important in view of the fact that anterior chamber environment limits cell regeneration of the endothelium, and supports wound healing via cell migration. In vivo, it is the complex interaction of the HCE cell and the extracellular matrix that signal the cell to respond to cell loss in this manner. As our knowledge of human corneal endothelium has increased so has our anticipation of developing the "optimum" medium. Thus additional components have been added to this basic medium to address specific complications encountered with 4 degrees C corneal preservation. Antioxidants, additional energy sources, and other nutritive substrates have been used to supplement and further define a chondroitin sulfate-based medium. These changes have been a part of our new awareness that, even at 4 degrees C, the cornea is metabolically active.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 400 WORDS) Images FIGURE 5 FIGURE 6 FIGURE 7 FIGURE 8 FIGURE 9 A FIGURE 9 B FIGURE 9 C FIGURE 9 D FIGURE 9 E FIGURE 11 FIGURE 12 A FIGURE 12 B FIGURE 12 C FIGURE 12 D FIGURE 12 E FIGURE 12 F FIGURE 13 FIGURE 17 FIGURE 18 A FIGURE 18 B FIGURE 18 C FIGURE 18 D FIGURE 20 FIGURE 23 A FIGURE 23 B FIGURE 24 A FIGURE 24 B FIGURE 24 C FIGURE 24 D FIGURE 24 E FIGURE 28 FIGURE 29 FIGURE 33 A FIGURE 33 B PMID:1710084

Lindstrom, R L

1990-01-01

106

Degradation, cyclic adenosine monophosphate production, insulin secretion, and glycemic effects of two novel N-terminal Ala 2-substituted analogs of glucose-dependent insulinotropic polypeptide with preserved biological activity in vivo  

Microsoft Academic Search

Glucose-dependent insulinotropic polypeptide (GIP) has significant potential in diabetes therapy due to its ability to serve as a glucose-dependent activator of insulin secretion. However, its biological activity is severely compromised by the ubiquitous enzyme dipeptidylpeptidase IV (DPP IV), which removes the N-terminal Tyr1-Ala2 dipeptide from GIP. Therefore, 2 novel N-terminal Ala2-substituted analogs of GIP, with Ala substituted by 2-aminobutyric acid

Victor A Gault; Finbarr P. M OHarte; Patrick Harriott; Peter R Flatt

2003-01-01

107

Practical Preservation: The PREMIS Experience  

Microsoft Academic Search

In 2003 the Online Computer Library Center (OCLC) and Research Libraries Group (RLG) established an international working group to develop a common, implementable core set of metadata ele-ments for digital preservation. Most published specifi cations for preservation-related metadata are either implementation specifi c or broadly theoretical. PREMIS (Preservation Metadata: Implementa-tion Strategies) was charged to defi ne a set of semantic

Priscilla Caplan; Rebecca Guenther

2005-01-01

108

Biology 494 Biology Internship  

E-print Network

Biology 494 Biology Internship Guidelines The Biology Program encourages students to seek out and participate in internship opportunities that have a clear biological focus. Internships may be arranged may receive credit in Biology 494 (Biology Internship) for participation in internships, regardless

Wurtele, Eve Syrkin

109

Wood preservative leachates from docks in an estuarine environment  

Microsoft Academic Search

Environmental concentrations and biological effects of certain metals and organic compounds found in wood preservatives were examined. The study focused on leachates from private residential docks in South Carolina tidal creeks. Copper, chromium, arsenic, and polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) were measured in composite samples of surficial sediments and naturally occurring oyster populations (Crassostrea virginica) from creeks with high densities of

P. H. Wendt; R. E Van Dolah; M. Y. Bobo; T. D. Mathews; M. V. Levisen

1996-01-01

110

NEW APPROACHES TO THE PRESERVATION OF CONTAMINANTS IN WATER SAMPLES  

EPA Science Inventory

The potential of antibiotics, chemical biocides and lytic enzymes in preserving nutrients, biological oxygen demand and oil and grease in water and sewage effluents was studied. Preliminary studies concerning the effect of drugs on cell growth and oxygen utilization in samples st...

111

Historic Preservation in Art Education  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The Blue Grass Trust in Lexington, Kentucky sponsors the annual visual art contest for historic preservation, one of the many events they sponsor as part of the celebrations planned for Historic Preservation Month each May. When the announcement concerning the Blue Grass Trust visual art competition is released, area high school art teachers

Guilfoil, Joanne K.

2004-01-01

112

Fitting Preservation into Your Life  

Microsoft Academic Search

Basic preservation information for serialists with little or no preservation experience is stressed. From serials issued in print format (particularly periodicals and newspapers) to those issued in microform, CD-ROM and electronic format, the major issues associated with prolonging the useful life of publications in these formats will be discussed. Topics include commercial binding, protective enclosures, selection of paper and microfilm,

F. Ann Dykas Recorder

1998-01-01

113

A Black Hole Life Preserver  

Microsoft Academic Search

Since no one lives forever, all a life preserver can really do is prolong life for longer than would have otherwise been the case. With this rather limited definition in mind we explore in this paper whether in principle you can take a life preserver with you to protect you (for a while at least) against the tidal forces encountered

J. Richard Gott; Deborah L. Freedman

2003-01-01

114

The Divine Library Function: Preservation.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Discusses the importance of preservation as a priority for all librarians and explains the basics of controlling environmental factors, disaster planning, book repair, educating students, selection and preservation, ephemera, and library binding in the context of school libraries. Specific examples in the school library environment are included.

Watson, Duane A.

1986-01-01

115

Entanglement preservation by continuous distillation  

SciTech Connect

We study the two-qubit entanglement preservation for a system in the presence of independent thermal baths. We use a combination of filtering operations and distillation protocols as a series of frequent measurements on the system. It is shown that a small fraction of the total amount of available copies of the system preserves or even improves its initial entanglement during the evolution.

Mundarain, D. [Departmento de Fisica, Seccion de Fenomenos Opticos, Universidad Simon Bolivar, Apartado Postal 89000, Caracas 1080A (Venezuela, Bolivarian Republic of); Orszag, M. [Facultad de Fisica, Pontificia Universidad Catolica de Chile, Casilla 306, Santiago 22 (Chile)

2009-05-15

116

Preferences, information and biodiversity preservation  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper considers the nature of preferences for the preservation of biodiversity, and the extent to which individuals are well-informed about biodiversity. We present evidence that the elicitation of monetary bids to pay for biodiversity preservation, as required for cost-benefit analysis, fails as a measure of welfare changes due to the prevalence of preferences which neoclassical economics defines as lexicographic.

Clive L. Spash; Nick Hanley

1995-01-01

117

User Experience and Heritage Preservation  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In considering the heritage preservation of higher education campus buildings, much of the attention gravitates toward issues of selection, cost, accuracy, and value, but the model for most preservation projects does not have a clear method of achieving the best solutions for meeting these targets. Instead, it simply relies on the design team and

Orfield, Steven J.; Chapman, J. Wesley; Davis, Nathan

2011-01-01

118

Ridge preservation/decoronation.  

PubMed

Dentoalveolar ankylosis of a tooth is a serious complication in growing individuals. The ankylosed root is continuously resorbed and replaced by bone, and an infraposition of the damaged tooth will develop. The normal alveolar development will be disrupted in this way, and prosthetic treatment will be compromised. Therefore, an ankylosed tooth should be removed before future orthodontic and/or prosthetic therapy is jeopardized. This article will present a method, decoronation, to remove an ankylosed tooth in such a way that the alveolar ridge is preserved and give guidelines for the timing to intervene. The decoronation method is described, and a possible explanation for the favorable outcome is discussed. Different aids to decide the time for intervention are presented. The alveolar ridge was maintained in buccal/palatinal direction, and the bone level increased after decoronation in patients treated before or during pubertal growth periods. The bone level also increased in those treated after this period but not at the same rate, and in a few patients it was unchanged. The clinical finding that decoronation can maintain or reestablish normal alveolar conditions is important for successful implant insertion later. PMID:23439048

Malmgren, Barbro

2013-03-01

119

Ridge preservation/decoronation.  

PubMed

Dentoalveolar ankylosis of a tooth is a serious complication in growing individuals. The ankylosed root is continuously resorbed and replaced by bone, and an infraposition of the damaged tooth will develop. The normal alveolar development will be disrupted in this way, and prosthetic treatment will be compromised. Therefore, an ankylosed tooth should be removed before future orthodontic and/or prosthetic therapy is jeopardized. This article will present a method, decoronation, to remove an ankylosed tooth in such a way that the alveolar ridge is preserved and give guidelines for the timing to intervene. The decoronation method is described, and a possible explanation for the favorable outcome is discussed. Different aids to decide the time for intervention are presented. The alveolar ridge was maintained in buccal/palatinal direction, and the bone level increased after decoronation in patients treated before or during pubertal growth periods. The bone level also increased in those treated after this period but not at the same rate, and in a few patients it was unchanged. The clinical finding that decoronation can maintain or reestablish normal alveolar conditions is important for successful implant insertion later. PMID:23635985

Malmgren, Barbro

2013-01-01

120

UCLA Preserved Silent Animation  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

UCLA's film and television archive of animated silent films from the pre-1930s is relatively small, but considering the rarity of any silent films, it is still an impressive collection. Some of the films offered up on this website include "Felix the Cat", the "Inkwell Imps", and "Aesop's Film Fables". Visitors are lucky enough to be able to view online or download 11 animated films from the library's collection. While watching the films, visitors can listen to the preservation commentary, or listened to the music for each film composed by Michael D. Mortilla, who has played music for silent films for the Silent Society. Visitors can learn more about Michael D. Mortilla by reading the "About the Music" link. There are also film notes and an historical overview that visitors can read for each film. Researchers or interested parties will find a 15-page study guide of films and works about silent films available as a PDF. This helpful document is conveniently located at the bottom of the homepage.

121

Contact dermatitis caused by preservatives.  

PubMed

Preservatives are biocidal chemicals added to food, cosmetics, and industrial products to prevent the growth of microorganisms. They are usually nontoxic and inexpensive and have a long shelf life. Unfortunately, they commonly cause contact dermatitis. This article reviews the most important classes of preservatives physicians are most likely to encounter in their daily practice, specifically isothiazolinones, formaldehyde and formaldehyde-releasers, iodopropynyl butylcarbamate, methyldibromoglutaronitrile, and parabens. For each preservative mentioned, the prevalence of sensitization, clinical presentation of contact dermatitis, patch testing concentrations, cross reactions, and related legislation will be discussed. Mandatory labeling of preservatives is required in some countries, but not required in others. Until policies are made, physicians and patients must be proactive in identifying potential sensitizers and removing their use. We hope that this article will serve as a guide for policy makers in creating legislation and future regulations on the use and concentration of certain preservatives in cosmetics and industrial products. PMID:25207684

Yim, Elizabeth; Baquerizo Nole, Katherine L; Tosti, Antonella

2014-01-01

122

Food Preservation and Home Canning  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The harvest season is upon us, and home canning fever has begun. The following websites share resources and wisdom regarding home canning, food preservation, and accompanying safety measures. From Clemson University, the first site (1) is a Food Safety and Preservation section housed in the university's online Home and Garden Information Center. This site is stocked full of online and downloadable information sheets regarding canning, freezing, drying, pickling, food borne illnesses, and much more. The site even contains documents addressing food safety after hurricanes, tornados, fires, and power outages. The second website (2), from the University of Georgia, links to numerous food preservation publications like Canning Pumpkin Butter and Mashed or Pureed Squashes; Making Apple Cider; Preserving Food: Using Boiling Water Canners; and Preserving Food: Freezing Animal Products-just to name a few. Hosted by Michigan State University-Extension, the third site (3) contains a comprehensive, alphabetized database on freezing, canning, and drying food (that was based on the USDA Complete Guide to Home Canning). The fourth (4) site-hosted by the National Center for Home Food Preservation-contains the aforementioned USDA Complete Guide to Home Canning in downloadable units. From Penn State University, the fifth (5) site features a food preservation database, which connects site visitors to numerous links regarding safe home processing methods. The sixth site (6-) site contains a publication about home canning of fruit and fruit products. Notably, the publication provides processing times for different contents, amounts, and altitudes.

123

76 FR 74721 - Preserving the Open Internet  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...Report No. 2936] Preserving the Open Internet AGENCY: Federal Communications Commission...broadband service to preserve and reinforce Internet freedom and openness. DATES: Oppositions...In the Matter of Preserving the Open Internet, Broadband Industry Practices,...

2011-12-01

124

Decreasing the leachibility of boron wood preservatives  

E-print Network

The use of boron in wood preservatives has been growing since the 1930s, primarily in various boric acid/borax mixtures. Boron preservatives have several advantages for application as wood preservatives including a broad spectrum of activity...

Gezer, Engin Derya

1996-01-01

125

Correctness-preserving program transformations  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper extends the predicate calculus formalization of the partial correctness properties of programs (Ki, Go) to include the preservation of correctness under program transformations. The general notion of \\

Susan L. Gerhart

1975-01-01

126

Preserve Staff Help with Installation  

USGS Multimedia Gallery

In 2013,installation ofmacroinvertebrate sampling devices at seven sites on the Silver Creek Preserve. The sampling devices provide artificial substrate that aquatic insects such as mayflies, caddisflies, and stoneflies can colonize....

127

Cultural Preservation Program for Alaska  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In this technical report, an innovative cultural preservation program for implementation in Athabascan villages is presented. The parameters for success in implementing such a project is discussed based on a workshop with Athabascan elders.

Barbaran, Francisco Ramon

2011-01-01

128

Fertility preservation in cancer survivors.  

PubMed

Due to the increasing number of long-term cancer survivors, physicians of all specialties are confronted with the need to prevent side effects of the applied oncologic treatments. In the field of reproductive medicine fertility preservation has gained importance as most oncologic treatments have detrimental immediate or long-term impacts on male and female fertility. The American Society of Clinical Oncology and the American Society for Reproductive Medicine, as well as the recently founded International Society for Fertility Preservation propose several established and investigational options for fertility preservation. This review aims to summarize currently available techniques for fertility preservation and future perspectives in this field, as well as to provide recommendations for patient follow-up after cancer and during pregnancy. PMID:25614989

Winkler-Crepaz, K; Ayuandari, S; Ziehr, S C; Hofer, S; Wildt, L

2015-06-01

129

Treatment of Wood Preserving Wastewater  

E-print Network

The wastewater produced by the wood preserving industry presents a difficult problem to treat economically. A review of the literature indicates the size of the industry has limited the pursuit of an orderly and economic solution. Atmospheric...

Reynolds, T. D.; Shack, P. A.

130

Montana State Historic Preservation Office  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Montana State Historic Preservation Office works with dozens of partners across Big Sky country to preserve the state's cultural and historic places. The website for the Office contains information about their staff, historic architecture, archaeological projects, and cultural records. Visitors can click on the State-owned Heritage Properties link, located at the bottom of the page, to find a list of historic properties owned and managed by Montana. They can also look over technical reports and documents about these properties. Visitors should not miss the report titled "Montana Modernism." This gem offers information and commentary on recently identified properties in Montana (such as the Safeway Grocery in Butte) built in the two decades after World War II. Finally, visitors with a interest in preservation policy can browse through the Preservation Law section.

2012-03-09

131

NONCONVEX REGULARIZATION FOR SHAPE PRESERVATION  

SciTech Connect

The authors show that using a nonconvex penalty term to regularize image reconstruction can substantially improve the preservation of object shapes. The commonly-used total-variation regularization, {integral}|{del}u|, penalizes the length of the object edges. They show that {integral}|{del}u|{sup p}, 0 < p < 1, only penalizes edges of dimension at least 2-p, and thus finite-length edges not at all. We give numerical examples showing the resulting improvement in shape preservation.

CHARTRAND, RICK [Los Alamos National Laboratory

2007-01-16

132

A Black Hole Life Preserver  

E-print Network

Since no one lives forever, all a life preserver can really do is prolong life for longer than would have otherwise been the case. With this rather limited definition in mind we explore in this paper whether in principle you can take a life preserver with you to protect you (for a while at least) against the tidal forces encountered on a trip inside a black hole.

J. Richard Gott; Deborah L. Freedman

2003-08-19

133

A Black Hole Life Preserver  

Microsoft Academic Search

Since no one lives forever, all a life preserver can really do is prolong\\u000alife for longer than would have otherwise been the case. With this rather\\u000alimited definition in mind we explore in this paper whether in principle you\\u000acan take a life preserver with you to protect you (for a while at least)\\u000aagainst the tidal forces encountered

J. Richard Gott; Deborah L. Freedman

2003-01-01

134

Identifying and Preserving Wildlife Tracks  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This site is an article by Jon C. Boren, Extension Wildlife Specialist and Byron D. Wright, Agricultural Specialist both from the University of New Mexico entitled Identifying and Preserving Wildlife Tracks. It contains information about identifying animal tracks, including those of deer, elk, antelope, and mountain lions. Also, there is a helpful guide to preserving animal tracks by making track casts, including the procedure and materials needed. A recommended reading list is also presented to give visitors a starting point for more information.

135

Separating Palaeoproductivity and Preservation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Understanding climate related changes in concentration and isotopic composition of the atmospheric carbon pool, is a prerequisite for understanding anthropogenic or natural climate forcing. The deep ocean includes the largest pool of carbon and has major influence on the atmosphere on decadal and longer time scales. Its carbon budget depends on export production rate and ventilation steered organic matter (OM) degradation. However, its influence over time is poorly quantified mainly since current proxies for productivity often suffer from modification e.g., dissolution, aerobic decay, or migration. This is often neglected, resulting in misleading interpretations and forcing-mechanism propositions. Separating diagenesis from productivity forms a key question in world-wide operating research programs such as IMAGES (International Marine Global Change Study), JGOFS (Joint Global Ocean Flux Studies) and WCRP (World Climate Research Program). Here we circumvent such modifications by using recognizable OM particles that remain at a stable position within the sediments and for which the degradation rates for various environments are known. Compilation of data on postdepositional aerobic OM degradation at natural oxidation fronts in sediments of the late Quaternary Madeira Abyssal Plain f-turbidite and the last eastern Mediterranean sapropel (S1) reveals a stable ranking of the OM components with respect to their degree of degradation. In contrast to previous work, which mainly emphasises the effects of decay, we use this to separate degradation from bioproductivity. Application of our method will be documented by a reconstruction of past export productivity and deep ocean ventilation of the eastern South Atlantic Ocean and the Southern Ocean (Atlantic sector) since 145,000 BP. We will show that export productivity is regionally defined whereas ventilation and oxygen content variations of the deep ocean occur basin-wide. We indicate that a more active working "biological pump" as a cause for lower glacial atmospheric [CO2], might have been overestimated and address possible effects of ventilation changes and post depositional aerobic OM decay on the atmospheric \\Delta14C

Versteegh, G. J.; Zonneveld, K. A.

2004-12-01

136

Marine Biology  

E-print Network

this door. Marine Biology I joined the military RIVERSIDE Marine Biology A Thesis submitted in partialBiology

Zaffino, Kyle

2013-01-01

137

Cryobiology: preservation of mammalian embryos.  

PubMed

The preservation of mammalian embryos has become a routine procedure. Thousands of live offspring have been produced from frozen-thawed embryos transferred into recipient foster mothers. Species whose embryos have been successfully preserved include mouse, rat, rabbit, sheep, goat, cattle, horse, antelope, baboon, and human. During the past few years, novel procedures have been introduced that permit embryos to be frozen and thawed rapidly, and to be transferred into recipients under field conditions almost immediately upon thawing. Thus, the transfer of frozen-thawed embryos of domestic animals is becoming almost as efficient as is artificial insemination using frozen-thawed semen. Because of both the inherent fundamental interest and the practical applications of embryo freezing, a substantial understanding of the mechanisms responsible for freezing damage of embryos has been achieved. To survive freezing, embryos must be exposed to protective compounds; to function after thawing, embryos must be washed free of these compounds. Based on fundamental physiology, efficient methods to accomplish such washing have been developed. Furthermore, to survive freezing, embryos must be cooled under conditions in which intracellular ice does not form. This can be accomplished either by pretreating the embryo or by cooling it in such a way as to cause it to dehydrate during freezing. Maximum survival of embryos appears to be achieved when intracellular water does not crystallize during cooling or during warming. As a result of the growing efficiency of embryo preservation, this method is being applied to a variety of practical situations. For example, large banks of frozen embryos of laboratory animals are being established to preserve valuable research resources. The freezing of cattle embryos is being used with increasing frequency as an adjunct to commercial embryo transfer. Preservation of endangered species by embryo preservation is beginning. And finally, the preservation of human embryos is finding application in the field of in vitro fertilization. PMID:3707493

Leibo, S P

1986-01-01

138

National Film Preservation Foundation: The Film Preservation Guide  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

No doubt many organizations and institutions have a canister of 16MM film lying around someplace and some diligent member of their organization might ask: "How can we preserve this item?" A very astute question, and this helpful guide from the National Film Preservation Foundation provides substantial guidance and assistance. The 121-page guide describes methods for handling, duplicating, making available, and storing film, which are practical for nonprofit and public organizations with limited resources. Visitors to this site can download all of the sections in this report, which include chapters like "Legal Context for Film Preservation" and "Understanding Film and How it Decays". The report also includes case studies, illustrations, charts, glossary, and a bibliography.

139

Preservation Impacts on Educational Facilities Planning.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper examines the significance of facilities preservation for educational facilities planning and identifies various forms of facilities preservation applicable to educational facilities. It analyzes why educational facilities planners need to be aware of preservation considerations, reviews the relevant literature for preservation

Shultz, James A.

140

Preservation at Stony Brook. Preservation Planning Program. Study Report.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This final report is a product of a Preservation Planning Program (PPP) self-study conducted by the State University of New York (SUNY), Stony Brook, working with the Association of Research Libraries' (ARL) Office of Management Studies (OMS). The PPP is designed to put self-help tools into the hands of library staff responsible for developing

Cook, Donald C.; And Others

141

Hybrid Food Preservation Program Improves Food Preservation and Food Safety Knowledge  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The growing trend in home food preservation raises concerns about whether the resulting food products will be safe to eat. The increased public demand for food preservation information led to the development of the comprehensive food preservation program, Preserve the Taste of Summer (PTTS). PTTS is a comprehensive hybrid food preservation program

Francis, Sarah L.

2014-01-01

142

UCI Ecological Preserve Published Papers  

E-print Network

UCI Ecological Preserve Published Papers Berschauer, D.P. 1992. Is the "Endangered Species Act" endangered? Southwestern University Law Review 21 (3): 991 ­ 1017. Bowler, P.A. 1990. Riparian Woodland: An Endangered Habitat in Southern California. Pp. 80-97 in Schoenherr, A. (Eds.). Endangered Plant Communities

Rose, Michael R.

143

Breast cancer and fertility preservation  

PubMed Central

Objective To review the benefits of adjuvant systemic therapy given to women with breast cancer of reproductive age, its effects on fertility, and options for fertility preservation. Design Publications relevant to fertility preservation and breast cancer were identified through a PubMed database search. Conclusion(s) Most women who develop invasive breast cancer under age 40 will be advised to undergo adjuvant chemotherapy with or without extended antihormonal therapy to reduce the risk of recurrence and death from breast cancer. Adjuvant chemotherapy particularly with alkylating agents such as cyclophosphamide is gonadotoxic and markedly accelerates the rate of age-related ovarian follicle loss. Although loss of fertility is an important issue for young cancer survivors, there is often little discussion about fertility preservation before initiation of adjuvant therapy. Greater familiarity with prognosis and effects of different types of adjuvant therapy on the part of infertility specialists and fertility preservation options such cryopreservation of embryos, oocytes, and ovarian tissue on the part of oncologists would facilitate these discussions. Establishment of rapid fertility consultation links within cancer survivorship programs can help ensure that every young woman who is likely to undergo gonadotoxic cancer treatment is counseled about the effects of therapy and options available to her to increase the likelihood of childbearing after cancer treatment. PMID:21272867

Kim, S. Samuel; Klemp, Jennifer; Fabian, Carol

2014-01-01

144

STEPLENGTH THRESHOLDS FOR INVARIANCE PRESERVING ...  

E-print Network

be obtained by finding the first positive zeros of a finite number of polynomial ... Euler method, the largest steplength threshold for invariance preserving can ... to derive valid thresholds of the steplength in terms of explicit form or ... general rational function type discretization methods, i.e., the coefficient .... The basic ideas.

2014-06-25

145

The Preservation of Sound Recordings  

Microsoft Academic Search

For more than 130 years, our sounds have been recorded and those recordings have become vital to our collective history and memory. Much of this is not available commercially, and the only way for those recordings to be saved for future generations of researchers and scholars is for libraries and archives to make every effort to preserve them. History and

V. Elizabeth Hill

2012-01-01

146

Art Education through Historic Preservation.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

An art/historic preservation program involving elementary and junior high school students working with college students is described. Each year the students interpret and document a local architectural landmark. Students are involved in a number of activities, including research, oral history interviews, title searches, role playing, and

Sensat, Lloyd; Cizek, Eugene D.

1985-01-01

147

Digital Imagery, Preservation and Access.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

These two reports published by the Commission on Preservation and Access (CPA) include a comparison of digital and microfilm imagery, as well as discussions of chemical deacidification; ASCII (nonimage) files; and storage, conversion, and transmission considerations. A structured glossary of terms relating to media conversion and digital computer

Lesk, Michael; Lynn, M. Stuart

1990-01-01

148

Preservation of Library Materials: 1981.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Reviews the preservation literature of 1981, with specific sections devoted to general articles and literature guides, association activities, collection surveys, conferences and workshops, conservation techniques, deacidification, exhibits, grants, national and local programs, nonbook materials, and paper. A 135-item bibliography is included. (JL)

Byrnes, Margaret M.

1982-01-01

149

SAMPLE PRESERVATION: A PROGRESS REPORT  

EPA Science Inventory

The primary objective of this study is to evaluate chemical preservatives which can be added to the sample bottle before collection which will be effective in stabilizing the coliform density for not less than 48 hours using current methodology for detecting coliform organisms. T...

150

A Capital Assets Preservation Program.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

New York State officials have created an efficient capital planning system that is a prescribed set of procedures and actions within a program planning manual and two software modules. The program is a series of logical steps that school districts must take to successfully implement their preservation plans. (MLF)

Heiman, Ralph

1989-01-01

151

Preserving the legacy: Biological treatment technologies (ptl0501). (video). Audiovisual  

SciTech Connect

Aerobic, anaeorbic and facultative treatments as well as bioremediation (land farming, air sparging, bio-cell, bio-reactor and phytoremediation) are explored with the aid of animation and electron microscope imagery.

NONE

1996-12-31

152

Intervertebral disc transplantation: a biological approach to motion preservation  

PubMed Central

Intervertebral disc transplantation was developed in a bipedal animal model through the stages of autograft, fresh allograft and fresh frozen allograft. Results showed that the allografts were able to survive through a deep freezing protocol and maintain cell viability after transplantation without significant immunoreaction. Although degeneration of the allograft appeared to be inevitable, it was able to maintain stability and mobility of the functional spinal unit. These findings were similarly reproduced in the human clinical trial with excellent mid-term clinical results at 5years. The process of evolution and findings were summarized in this review. PMID:19005699

Ruan, D. K.

2008-01-01

153

Preserving Digital Media: Towards a Preservation Solution Evaluation Metric  

Microsoft Academic Search

http:\\/\\/www.ifs.tuwien.ac.at\\/ifs\\/ Abstract. With an increasing amount of information being digitized or directly created and subsequently existing only electronically, and coupled with an ever increasing variety of file formats and integrated document functionalities, long- term preservation solutions become crucial. While different approaches, such as Emulation, Migration, or Computer Museums were developed, neither of them excels in all circumstances, and the selection

Carl Rauch; Andreas Rauber

2004-01-01

154

Preserving Access to Digital Information  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The growing concern over how best to preserve information in digital form continues to be of special interest to a number of federal library systems around the world, and the National Library of Australia is no exception. On its Preserving Access to Digital Information homepage, interested parties will find a very diverse set of materials related to these challenges, and a fairly broad set of topics are also covered here, including digital libraries, data documentation, digitization, and content management. Clicking on any of these topics from the homepage reveals a brief topical essay, which is followed by a number of timely articles culled from various sources for general consideration. The site also offers a number of annotated resource lists which include coverage of glossaries, digital projects, and electronic mailing lists of note.

155

Bioencapsulation Technology in Meat Preservation  

Microsoft Academic Search

The fermentation process has long been used as a method of meat preservation. In order to eliminate batch to batch variation\\u000a the fermentation process must be standardised. This, combined with problems associated with emerging pathogens such as enterohaemorrhagic\\u000a Escherichia coli has led to a re-examination of the process of fermented meat production in order to ensure the production of a

S. M. Cahill; M. E. Upton; A. J. Mcloughlin

156

Technical Information/Website Preservation  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This document reviews the work of the author in NASA's Motivating Undergraduates in Science and Technology (MUST) internship. The intern worked on the Space Shuttles hydraulic systems (i.e., Auxiliary Power Units (APU's) and Hydraulic Pump Units (HPU's)), and website preservation of the hydraulic technology captured in websites relating to the coming.the Space Shuttle Retirement. Several figures and pictures show an overview of the orbiter's hydraulic systems

PintoRey, Christian R.

2010-01-01

157

Security Preserving Amplification of Hardness  

Microsoft Academic Search

We consider the task of transforming a weak one-way function (which may be easily inverted on all but a polynomial fraction of the range) into a strong one-way function (which can be easily inverted only on a negligible fraction of the range). The previous known transformation (Yao 82) does not preserve the security (i.e., the running-time of the inverting algorithm)

Oded Goldreich; Russell Impagliazzo; Leonid A. Levin; Ramarathnam Venkatesan; David Zuckerman

1990-01-01

158

Quantum channels that preserve entanglement  

Microsoft Academic Search

Let M and N be full matrix algebras. A unital completely positive (UCP) map $${\\\\phi:M\\\\to N}$$ is said to preserve entanglement if its inflation $${\\\\phi\\\\otimes {\\\\rm id}_N : M\\\\otimes N\\\\to N\\\\otimes N}$$ has the following property: for every maximally entangled pure state ? of $${N\\\\otimes N}$$, $${\\\\rho\\\\circ(\\\\phi\\\\otimes {\\\\rm id}_N)}$$ is an entangled state of $${M\\\\otimes N}$$ . We show that

William Arveson

2009-01-01

159

Update on Dark Sky Preservation  

Microsoft Academic Search

The efforts to protect dark skies for astronomy and for the public are accelerating. An increasing number of cities and states are considering and enacting outdoor lighting control ordinances. Examples of such lighting codes and a model code are available from the International Dark-Sky Association's Web page, at www.darksky.org. There will be a major meeting on Preserving the Astronomical Environment,

D. L. Crawford

1998-01-01

160

Privacy preserving mining of association rules  

Microsoft Academic Search

We present a framework for mining association rules from transactions consisting of categorical items where the data has been randomized to preserve privacy of individual transactions. While it is feasible to recover association rules and preserve privacy using a straightforward \\

Alexandre V. Evfimievski; Ramakrishnan Srikant; Rakesh Agrawal; Johannes Gehrke

2002-01-01

161

SYNERGISTIC WOOD PRESERVATIVES FOR REPLACEMENT OF CCA  

EPA Science Inventory

The objective of this project was to evaluate the potential synergistic combinations of environmentally-safe biocides as wood preservatives. These wood preservatives could be potential replacements for the heavy-metal based CCA. Didecyldimethylammonium chloride [DDAC] was...

162

76 FR 60754 - Preserving the Open Internet  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...FCC 10-201] Preserving the Open Internet AGENCY: Federal Communications Commission...establishing rules to preserve the open Internet. Inadvertently the wrong paragraph was...complaints alleging violations of the open Internet rules. Federal Communications...

2011-09-30

163

Phase-preserved optical elevator  

PubMed Central

The unique superiority of transformation optics devices designed from coordinate transformation is their capability of recovering both ray trajectory and optical path length in light manipulation. However, very few experiments have been done so far to verify this dual-recovery property from viewpoints of both ray trajectory and optical path length simultaneously. The experimental difficulties arise from the fact that most previous optical transformation optics devices only work at the nano-scale; the lack of intercomparison between data from both optical path length and ray trajectory measurement in these experiments obscured the fact that the ray path was subject to a subwavelength lateral shift that was otherwise not easily perceivable and, instead, was pointed out theoretically [B. Zhang et al. Phys. Rev. Lett. 104, 233903, (2010)]. Here, we use a simple macroscopic transformation optics device of phase-preserved optical elevator, which is a typical birefringent optical phenomenon that can virtually lift an optical image by a macroscopic distance, to demonstrate decisively the unique optical path length preservation property of transformation optics. The recovery of ray trajectory is first determined with no lateral shift in the reflected ray. The phase preservation is then verified with incoherent white-light interferometry without ambiguity and phase unwrapping. PMID:23546046

Luo, Yuan; Zhang, Baile; Han, Tiancheng; Chen, Zhi; Duan, Yubo; Chu, Chia-Wei; Barbastathis, George; Qiu, Cheng Wei

2013-01-01

164

Biological decontamination by nonthermal plasmas  

Microsoft Academic Search

Nonthermal gaseous discharges have been found to be effective agents for biological decontamination\\/sterilization. The ability to generate these discharges at atmospheric pressure makes the decontamination process practical and inexpensive. In addition, the fact that the plasmas generated by such discharges are cold makes their use suitable for applications where medium preservation is desired. To fully understand the biophysical and biochemical

Mounir Laroussi; Igor Alexeff; Weng L. Kang

2000-01-01

165

Preservation of Library Materials. SPEC Kit 35.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This Association of Research Libraries (ARL) kit on preservation of library materials contains: (1) descriptions of preservation programs and objectives from Boston University, the University of Michigan, University of Wisconsin, and University of California at Los Angeles; (2) a description of the Library of Congress' National Preservation

Association of Research Libraries, Washington, DC. Office of Management Studies.

166

7 CFR 782.14 - Identity preservation.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Identity preservation. 782.14 Section 782...End-Use Certificate Program 782.14 Identity preservation. (a) The importer...the imported wheat shall preserve the identity of the Canadian-produced...

2012-01-01

167

7 CFR 782.14 - Identity preservation.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Identity preservation. 782.14 Section 782...End-Use Certificate Program 782.14 Identity preservation. (a) The importer...the imported wheat shall preserve the identity of the Canadian-produced...

2010-01-01

168

7 CFR 782.14 - Identity preservation.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Identity preservation. 782.14 Section 782...End-Use Certificate Program 782.14 Identity preservation. (a) The importer...the imported wheat shall preserve the identity of the Canadian-produced...

2013-01-01

169

7 CFR 782.14 - Identity preservation.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Identity preservation. 782.14 Section 782...End-Use Certificate Program 782.14 Identity preservation. (a) The importer...the imported wheat shall preserve the identity of the Canadian-produced...

2011-01-01

170

7 CFR 782.14 - Identity preservation.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Identity preservation. 782.14 Section 782...End-Use Certificate Program 782.14 Identity preservation. (a) The importer...the imported wheat shall preserve the identity of the Canadian-produced...

2014-01-01

171

Privacy-preserving logistic regression Kamalika Chaudhuri  

E-print Network

Privacy-preserving logistic regression Kamalika Chaudhuri Information Theory and Applications on privacy-preserving logistic regression. First we apply an idea of Dwork et al. [6] to design a privacy-preserving logistic regression algorithm. This involves bound- ing the sensitivity of regularized logistic regression

Smith, Adam D.

172

Preservation Assessment and Disaster Response Plan.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper addresses the preservation needs unique to small libraries, where the majority of special collections exist. A preservation survey of the Herrick Memorial Library (Wellington, OH) was conducted to ascertain the condition of its 45,000 holdings and develop a practical low-cost disaster plan. Using accepted preservation survey criteria,

Wisdom, Mark

173

Preservation in New York State Public Libraries  

Microsoft Academic Search

The issues facing New York State public libraries regarding preservation of materials are discussed. Much research has been conducted regarding preservation in research and academic libraries, but very little in the public library sector. The researchers examined what has been written in terms of the history, preservation methods, control of the library environment, education, organization, and government involvement. In order

Jean Pinckney; Marie McQuade; Dorothy Forde; Janine Williams; Lisa Kooper

1995-01-01

174

Local control of area-preserving maps  

E-print Network

We present a method of control of chaos in area-preserving maps. This method gives an explicit expression of a control term which is added to a given area-preserving map. The resulting controlled map which is a small and suitable modification of the original map, is again area-preserving and has an invariant curve whose equation is explicitly known.

Cristel Chandre; Michel Vittot; Guido Ciraolo

2008-09-01

175

Commission on Preservation and Access Newsletter, 1996.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The Commission on Preservation and Access was established to foster and support collaboration among libraries and allied organizations in order to ensure the preservation of the published and documentary record in all formats and to provide enhanced access to scholarly information. The Commission's newsletter keeps preservation and access

Commission on Preservation and Access Newsletter, 1996

1996-01-01

176

The Preservation of Paper Collections in Archives.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The preservation methods used for paper collections in archives were studied through a survey of archives in the metropolitan Atlanta (Georgia) area. The preservation policy or program was studied, and the implications for conservators and preservation officers were noted. Twelve of 15 archives responded (response rate of 80 percent). Basic

Adams, Cynthia Ann

177

1 Biological Sciences BIOLOGICAL SCIENCES  

E-print Network

biology of plants and animals. Laboratory fee. (Fall). BISC 1112. Introductory Biology: The Biology biology; diversity of plants, animals, fungi, and microorganisms; ecology and behavior; and animal1 Biological Sciences BIOLOGICAL SCIENCES As one of the natural science departments in GW

Vertes, Akos

178

A Microfluidic Device for Dry Sample Preservation in Remote Settings  

PubMed Central

Summary This paper describes a microfluidic device for dry preservation of biological specimens at room temperature that incorporates chemical stabilization matrices. Long-term stabilization of samples is crucial for remote medical analysis, biosurveillance, and archiving, but the current paradigm for transporting remotely obtained samples relies on the costly cold chain to preserve analytes within biospecimens. We propose an alternative approach that involves the use of microfluidics to preserve samples in the dry state with stabilization matrices, developed by others, that are based on self-preservation chemistries found in nature. We describe a SlipChip-based device that allows minimally trained users to preserve samples with the three simple steps of placing a sample at an inlet, closing a lid, and slipping one layer of the device. The device fills automatically, and a pre-loaded desiccant dries the samples. Later, specimens can be rehydrated and recovered for analysis in a laboratory. This device is portable, compact, and self-contained, so it can be transported and operated by untrained users even in limited-resource settings. Features such as dead-end and sequential filling, combined with a pumping lid mechanism, enable precise quantification of the original samples volume while avoiding overfilling. In addition, we demonstrated that the device can be integrated with a plasma filtration module, and we validated device operations and capabilities by testing the stability of purified RNA solutions. These features and the modularity of this platform (which facilitates integration and simplifies operation) would be applicable to other microfluidic devices beyond this application. We envision that as the field of stabilization matrices develops, microfluidic devices will be useful for cost-effectively facilitating remote analysis and biosurveillance while also opening new opportunities for diagnostics, drug development, and other medical fields. PMID:24056744

Begolo, Stefano; Shen, Feng; Ismagilov, Rustem F.

2013-01-01

179

Genographic's Legacy: Preservation and Projections  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this lesson, the fourth in a set of lessons exploring migration, genetic markers, markers in context, and the Genographic Project (a five-year study of human origins and migration based on genetic markers), students will learn what the Genographic Project will leave for future generations, both in cultural preservation and knowledge of our common ancestry and make educated projections about our common future. They will examine why the timing of the project is critical. Students will consider ways in which the project is impacted by scientific and technological advancements, which make such a study feasible for the first time in human history. They will consider the impact of increasing globalization, which makes collecting and interpreting the project data more challenging. Students will assume the role of a researcher in the project tasked with documenting the contributions indigenous groups have made to the story of the human journey. They will understand why indigenous communities play such a crucial role in unlocking the secrets of our common ancestry, examine how those communities are being threatened, make projections about future challenges to their ways of life, and consider how research such as the Genograhic Project can play a role in preserving them.

180

The inverse problem in mathematical biology.  

PubMed

Biological systems present particular challengers to model for the purposes of formulating predictions of generating biological insight. These systems are typically multi-scale, complex, and empirical observations are often sparse and subject to variability and uncertainty. This manuscript will review some of these specific challenges and introduce current methods used by modelers to construct meaningful solutions, in the context of preserving biological relevance. Opportunities to expand these methods are also discussed. PMID:25445734

Clermont, Gilles; Zenker, Sven

2015-02-01

181

Virtual Environments for Data Preservation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Data preservation in a wider sense includes also the ability to analyse data of past experiments. Because operation systems, such as Linux and Windows, are evolving rapidly, software packages can be outdated and not usable anymore already a few years after they have been written. Creating an image of the operation system is a way to be able to launch the analysis software on a computing infrastructure independent on the local operation system used. At the same time, virtualization also allows to launch the same software in collaborations across several institutes with very different computing infrastructure. At the Franois Arago Centre of the APC in Paris we provide user support for virtualization and computing environment access to the scientific community

Beckmann, Volker

182

Preservation Management of Digital Materials  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The World Wide Web gives us an unprecedented opportunity to provide people around the globe with access to significant historical and cultural works. However, the Web, by its very nature, requires those works to be in some electronically transmittable form before they can be made available, and most historical documents, by their very nature, are in a form well-removed from the computerized world of today. So how can this gap be bridged? And once a bridge is built, how can we be assured that it will stand over the decades and centuries to come? Preservation Management of Digital Materials, published by the UK's Joint Information Systems Committee (JISC), provides in-depth coverage of the procedures and issues encountered in the course of creating and storing digital documents. This publication provides easily-accessible information that should be of increasing interest to anyone involved with digital publication and archiving of existing works.

183

City of Seattle Historic Preservation  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In 2000, the city of Seattle began an ambitious project to survey and inventory historic resources across the entire municipality. The last such project took place in 1979 and taken together, these efforts offer excellent documentation of the built environment. The database here includes over 5,000 properties and visitors can search through the entire collection by address, parcel number, property attribute (such as date of construction), and a number of other fields. The Context Statements area is a great way to learn about the methodologies and basic findings utilized to cover each neighborhood. Historic preservation specialists will find that the statements are extremely detailed in terms of resources used to create such a narrative profile. The site also includes a Glossary of Terms that covers "acquisition type" to "year of construction."

184

Biological Technicians  

MedlinePLUS

... MAP | EN ESPAOL Life, Physical, and Social Science > Biological Technicians PRINTER-FRIENDLY EN ESPAOL Summary What They ... of workers and occupations. What They Do -> What Biological Technicians Do About this section Biological technicians prepare ...

185

English stress preservation and Stratal Optimality Theory  

E-print Network

Since Chomsky & Halle (1968), English stress preservation orginal -> orginlity, bvious -> bviousness has been important in generative discussions of morphophonological interaction. This thesis carries out empirical ...

Collie, Sarah

2008-01-01

186

Personal care product preservatives: Risk assessment and mixture toxicities with an industrial wastewater.  

PubMed

The aquatic toxicity of eight preservatives frequently used in personal care products (PCPs) (iodopropynyl butylcarbamate, bronopol, diazolidinyl urea, benzalkonium chloride, zinc pyrithione, propylparaben, triclosan and a mixture of methylchloroisothiazolinone and methylisothiazolinone) was assessed by means of two different approaches: a battery of bioassays composed of single species tests of bacteria (Vibrio fischeri and Pseudomonas putida) and protozoa (Tetrahymena thermophila), and a whole biological community resazurin-based assay using activated sludge. The tested preservatives showed considerable toxicity in the studied bioassays, but with a marked difference in potency. In fact, all biocides except propylparaben and diazolidinyl urea had EC50 values lower than 1mgL(-1) in at least one assay. Risk quotients for zinc pyrithione, benzalkonium chloride, iodopropynyl butylcarbamate and triclosan as well as the mixture of the studied preservatives exceeded 1, indicating a potential risk for the process performance and efficiency of municipal sewage treatment plants (STPs). These four single biocides explained more than 95% of the preservative mixture risk in all bioassays. Each individual preservative was also tested in combination with an industrial wastewater (IWW) from a cosmetics manufacturing facility. The toxicity assessment was performed on binary mixtures (preservative+IWW) and carried out using the median-effect principle, which is a special case of the concept of Concentration Addition (CA). Almost 70% of all experiments resulted in EC50 values within a factor of 2 of the values predicted by the median-effect principle (CI values between 0.5 and 2). The rest of the mixtures whose toxicity was mispredicted by CA were assessed with the alternative concept of Independent Action (IA), which showed higher predictive power for the biological community assay. Therefore, the concept used to accurately predict the toxicity of mixtures of a preservative with a complex industrial wastewater depends on degree of biological complexity. PMID:25585550

Carbajo, Jose B; Perdign-Meln, Jose A; Petre, Alice L; Rosal, Roberto; Letn, Pedro; Garca-Calvo, Eloy

2015-04-01

187

Retrieval analysis of motion preserving spinal devices and periprosthetic tissues  

PubMed Central

This article reviews certain practical aspects of retrieval analysis for motion preserving spinal implants and periprosthetic tissues as an essential component of the overall revision strategy for these implants. At our institution, we established an international repository for motion-preserving spine implants in 2004. Our repository is currently open to all spine surgeons, and is intended to be inclusive of all cervical and lumbar implant designs such as artificial discs and posterior dynamic stabilization devices. Although a wide range of alternative materials is being investigated for nonfusion spine implants, many of the examples in this review are drawn from our existing repository of metal-on-polyethylene, metal-on-metal lumbar total disc replacements (TDRs), and polyurethane-based dynamic motion preservation devices. These devices are already approved or nearing approval for use in the United States, and hence are the most clinically relevant at the present time. This article summarizes the current literature on the retrieval analysis of these implants and concludes with recommendations for the development of new test methods that are based on the current state of knowledge of in vivo wear and damage mechanisms. Furthermore, the relevance and need to evaluate the surrounding tissue to obtain a complete understanding of the biological reaction to implant component corrosion and wear is reviewed.

Kurtz, Steven M.; Steinbeck, Marla; Ianuzzi, Allyson; van Ooij, Andr; Punt, Ilona M.; Isaza, Jorge; Ross, E.R.S.

2009-01-01

188

Preservation Planning for Digital Information: Final Report of the HVC2 Digital Preservation Task Force  

E-print Network

Digital preservation is the ongoing process of managing data for continuing access and use. The University of Kansas Digital Preservation Task Force was charged in October 2003 to explore the implications of a University ...

Fyffe, Richard; Ludwig, Deborah; Roach, Mary; Schulte, Becky; Warner, Beth Forrest

2004-11-11

189

Preservation in the Age of Google: Digitization, Digital Preservation, and Dilemmas  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The cultural heritage preservation community now functions largely within the environment of digital technologies. This article begins by juxtaposing definitions of the terms "digitization for preservation" and "digital preservation" within a sociotechnical environment for which Google serves as a relevant metaphor. It then reviews two reports

Conway, Paul

2010-01-01

190

Preservation Film: Platform for Digital Access Systems.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Preservation efforts for an increasingly digitally oriented future have turned to advanced and improved methods of preservation on microfilm, which has a life expectancy of more than 500 years when properly prepared, stored, and managed, and can support a wide range of digital access systems. Computer controlled cameras can provide significantly

Jones, C. Lee

191

Congestive Heart Failure With Preserved Systolic Function  

E-print Network

Article Congestive Heart Failure With Preserved Systolic Function: Is It a Woman's Disease? Roshni Congestive heart failure with preserved systolic function is increased in prevalence with advancing age (CHF) is a major cause of morbidity and mortality. In recent years, congestive heart failure

192

New preservation technologies: Possibilities and limitations  

Microsoft Academic Search

A lot of research in the field of food science has focused on new preservation technologies but very few of these methods have been implemented by the food industry until now. This article describes the most intensively investigated new preservation methods with their possibilities and especially their limitations, often hampering their implementation by the food industry. Many alternative non-thermal treatments

Frank Devlieghere; Lieve Vermeiren; Johan Debevere

2004-01-01

193

WOOD PRESERVING INDUSTRY MULTIMEDIA EMISSION INVENTORY  

EPA Science Inventory

Restriction of the discharge of wastewater generated during the preservation of wood has resulted in the increased use of evaporation techniques by the wood preserving industry. This report discusses emissions that may occur during evaporation and projects the pollutant burden on...

194

Spi Calculus Translated to -Calculus Preserving  

E-print Network

Spi Calculus Translated to -Calculus Preserving May-Testing Michael Baldamus, Joachim Parrow, Bj Technical report 2003-063 December 2003 ISSN 1404-3203 #12;Spi Calculus Translated to -Calculus Preserving of the spi- calculus into the more basic -calculus and establish its correctness with respect to a formal

Parrow, Joachim

195

Preservation of Mohave History and Culture.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This report represents a project required by the Americans for Indian Opportunity Ambassador Program. The project involved the preservation of Mohave culture for the Mohave tribe, one of four tribes of the Colorado River Indian Tribes reservation. Preservation requires equal access to information as well as the freedom to disseminate information

Tsosie, Michael

196

Wilderness Preservation Act, U.S.A.  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This online article, from "The Biodiversity Crisis: Losing What Counts", takes a look at the Wilderness Preservation Act. It covers the criteria for inclusion in the National Wilderness Preservation System, the protections that "wilderness status" offers and the ecological importance of wilderness areas.

197

Tools for privacy preserving distributed data mining  

Microsoft Academic Search

Privacy preserving mining of distributed data has numerous applications. Each application poses different constraints: What is meant by privacy, what are the desired results, how is the data distributed, what are the constraints on collaboration and cooperative computing, etc. We suggest that the solution to this is a toolkit of components that can be combined for specific privacy-preserving data mining

Chris Clifton; Murat Kantarcioglu; Jaideep Vaidya; Xiaodong Lin; Michael Y. Zhu

2002-01-01

198

GUIDES TO POLLUTION PREVENTION: WOOD PRESERVING INDUSTRY  

EPA Science Inventory

This guide provides an overview of the wood preserving industry and presents options for minimizing waste generation through source,reduction and recycling. reatment with both oilborne and waterborne preservatives is discussed in this guide. owever, because in the United States, ...

199

Emerging concepts in liver graft preservation  

PubMed Central

The urgent need to expand the donor pool in order to attend to the growing demand for liver transplantation has obliged physicians to consider the use of suboptimal liver grafts and also to redefine the preservation strategies. This review examines the different methods of liver graft preservation, focusing on the latest advances in both static cold storage and machine perfusion (MP). The new strategies for static cold storage are mainly designed to increase the fatty liver graft preservation via the supplementation of commercial organ preservation solutions with additives. In this paper we stress the importance of carrying out effective graft washout after static cold preservation, and present a detailed discussion of the future perspectives for dynamic graft preservation using MP at different temperatures (hypothermia at 4?C, normothermia at 37?C and subnormothermia at 20?C-25?C). Finally, we highlight some emerging applications of regenerative medicine in liver graft preservation. In conclusion, this review discusses the state of the art and future perspectives in static and dynamic liver graft preservation in order to improve graft viability. PMID:25593455

Bejaoui, Mohamed; Pantazi, Eirini; Folch-Puy, Emma; Baptista, Pedro M; Garca-Gil, Agustn; Adam, Ren; Rosell-Catafau, Joan

2015-01-01

200

Home Food Preservation Training for Extension Educators  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

During times of economic downturn, there has been an increased interest in home food preservation. As the primary resource for current research-based recommendations, a team of Extension Family and Consumer Sciences educators with specialization in food safety and food preservation responded to this demand by developing a standardized food

Goard, Linnette Mizer; Hill, Melinda; Shumaker, Katharine; Warrix, Marisa

2013-01-01

201

Emerging concepts in liver graft preservation.  

PubMed

The urgent need to expand the donor pool in order to attend to the growing demand for liver transplantation has obliged physicians to consider the use of suboptimal liver grafts and also to redefine the preservation strategies. This review examines the different methods of liver graft preservation, focusing on the latest advances in both static cold storage and machine perfusion (MP). The new strategies for static cold storage are mainly designed to increase the fatty liver graft preservation via the supplementation of commercial organ preservation solutions with additives. In this paper we stress the importance of carrying out effective graft washout after static cold preservation, and present a detailed discussion of the future perspectives for dynamic graft preservation using MP at different temperatures (hypothermia at 4?C, normothermia at 37?C and subnormothermia at 20?C-25?C). Finally, we highlight some emerging applications of regenerative medicine in liver graft preservation. In conclusion, this review discusses the "state of the art" and future perspectives in static and dynamic liver graft preservation in order to improve graft viability. PMID:25593455

Bejaoui, Mohamed; Pantazi, Eirini; Folch-Puy, Emma; Baptista, Pedro M; Garca-Gil, Agustn; Adam, Ren; Rosell-Catafau, Joan

2015-01-14

202

Whale Preservation. Grades Five to Nine.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Dedicated to the conservation and preservation of whales, dolphins, and porpoises through public education, this instructional unit for grades 5-9 provides current (1993) facts, lesson plans, activities, and conservation and preservation techniques. Interdisciplinary activities involve students in debates, critical thinking, research, and

Racicot, Darlene

203

A dynamic model of biodiversity preservation  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper attempts to develop a dynamic model of optimal biodiversity preservation in a stylized ecosystem. Species richness (number of species) is used as a measure of diversity and its interactions with the resource stock, consumptive extraction and preservation efforts are explored using a two-state variable optimal control model. The analysis extends to the implications of a random threshold in

CHUAN-ZHONG LI; KARL-GUSTAF L FGREN

1998-01-01

204

Boric Acid Preservation of Urine Samples  

PubMed Central

Comparison of the results of bacteriological culture and microscopic examination of urine samples transported over a distance by the dip-inoculum transport medium, ice-box, and boric acid preservation with natural urine specimens showed that the last, in a final concentration of 18%, gives satisfactory preservation. PMID:5768462

Porter, I. A.; Brodie, J.

1969-01-01

205

A Big Problem for Magellan: Food Preservation  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In this paper, we present data related to how a Portuguese teacher developed the module "A big problem for Magellan: Food preservation." Students were asked to plan an investigation in order to identify which were the best food preservation methods in the XV and XVI centuries of Portuguese overseas navigation, and then establish a parallel between

Galvao, Cecilia; Reis, Pedro; Freire, Sofia

2008-01-01

206

Long-term preservation of Anammox bacteria  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Deposit of useful microorganisms in culture collections requires long-term preservation and successful reactivation techniques. The goal of this study was to develop a simple preservation protocol for the long-term storage and reactivation of the anammox biomass. To achieve this, anammox biomass w...

207

Block structure preserving model order reduction  

Microsoft Academic Search

We propose a block structure preserving model reduction (BSMOR), which generalizes the structure preserving model order reduction (SPRIM). The blocks can be derived based on specific applications such as block current characterization of the substrate. Increasing block numbers leads to more matched poles or moments using the same Krylov space and also increases the sparse ratio of the state matrices

Hao Yu; Lei He; Sheldon X. D. Tan

2005-01-01

208

Data compression preserving statistical independence  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The purpose of this study was to determine the optimum points of evaluation of data compressed by means of polynomial smoothing. It is shown that a set y of m statistically independent observations Y(t sub 1), Y(t sub 2), ... Y(t sub m) of a quantity X(t), which can be described by a (n-1)th degree polynomial in time, may be represented by a set Z of n statistically independent compressed observations Z (tau sub 1), Z (tau sub 2),...Z (tau sub n), such that The compressed set Z has the same information content as the observed set Y. the times tau sub 1, tau sub 2,.. tau sub n are the zeros of an nth degree polynomial P sub n, to whose definition and properties the bulk of this report is devoted. The polynomials P sub n are defined as functions of the observation times t sub 1, t sub 2,.. t sub n, and it is interesting to note that if the observation times are continuously distributed the polynomials P sub n degenerate to legendre polynomials. The proposed data compression scheme is a little more complex than those usually employed, but has the advantage of preserving all the information content of the original observations.

Morduch, G. E.; Rice, W. M.

1973-01-01

209

[Adverse reactions to food preservatives].  

PubMed

We relate our experiences about the number of exacerbations that certain food preservatives such as sorbic acid, benzoic acid, sodium benzoate, metabisulfite and sodium nitrate can provoke in 62 patients affected with ASA-triad in steroid dependent intrinsic asthma with nasal polyps and acute bronchospasm caused by aspirin ingestion, and in 80 patients with chronic urticaria (C.U.) as well as the first assays of the possible usefulness of the HRT (Histamine release test automatized using whole blood) for the etiologic diagnosis process. In the cases of ASA-triad, and after the ingestion of aspirin (alternating with lactose in identical capsule), we consider the result as positive when the reduction of FEV1 is superior to 20% from its baseline value. Regarding the cases of C.U., the symptoms always exacerbate twice as much with the same substance within 24 hours of its administration. We have performed the HRT on 59 patients (14 with ASA-triad, 11 with steroid dependent intrinsic asthma; 20 with C.U. were negative to oral intake of analgesics/additives and 14 with C.U. showed positive results). Successive dilutions were incubated for 30 minutes using: pyrazolones, acetylsalicylate of lysine, sodium salicylate, sodium benzoate and 4-hydroxybenzoic acid which did not produce liberation of histamine in 100 controlled individuals. All the determinations were done in duplicate, considering positive those superior to 20% of the difference between total and basal histamine. We have not observed any significant descent of the FEV1 with benzoate and salicylate in our group of 62 patients with ASA-triad, nor any manifestations presented with sodium metabisulfite, sodium nitrate and sorbic acid.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:2421566

Hernndez Garca, J; Negro Alvarez, J M; Garca Sells, F J; Pagn Alemn, J A

1986-01-01

210

Preservation methodology for Rosellinia species.  

PubMed

Many small (temporary) collections of fungi maintained by plant pathologists during their research receive inadequate attention to ensure stability. Maintaining collections of fungi in pure and viable conditions, minimising physiological and morphological changes is, however, a necessity. The objective of this study was to find preservation techniques for three Rosellinia isolates used in our plant pathogenic research. Various inert and nutritious carriers, solid as well as liquid, were used to test their suitability for conserving these Rosellinia isolates. Different cryoprotectants, cooling rates and thawing rates were tested to optimise liquid nitrogen storage procedures. Survival and/or growth rate were assessed over time. Rosellinia bunodes was the most difficult to store with survival not exceeding six to nine months using traditional storage methods in mineral oil and silica gel. Storage of Rosellinia necatrix and Rosellinia pepo was successful for periods up to at least 16 months in several carriers and for up to two years for R. necatrix in silica gel. Storage in liquid nitrogen proved no problem for R. necatrix or R. pepo with a 100% survival in all cases, although radial growth rates after recuperation were affected by cryoprotectant and thawing rates. Storage of R. bunodes was more difficult and survival as well as growth rates were affected by cryoprotectant and thawing rates. Cooling rates did not affect radial growth in any of the isolates. The results showed that development of a generalised procedure for storage of our Rosellinia species was not possible and successful storage protocols had to be developed for individual isolates. PMID:15185978

ten Hoopen, G Martijn; Ortz, Juan Luis; Aguilar, Maria Elena; Krauss, Ulrike

2004-03-01

211

Digital Preservation: A Time Bomb for Digital Libraries  

Microsoft Academic Search

Abstract. The difficulty and expense of preserving digital information is a potential impediment to digital library development. Preservation of traditional materials became,more,successful and systematic after libraries and archives integrated preservation into overall planning and resource allocation. Digital preservation is largely experimental and replete with the risks associated with untested methods. Digital preservation strategies are shaped by the needs and constraints

Margaret Hedstrom

1998-01-01

212

Fertility preservation in female classic galactosemia patients  

PubMed Central

Almost every female classic galactosemia patient develops primary ovarian insufficiency (POI) as a diet-independent complication of the disease. This is a major concern for patients and their parents, and physicians are often asked about possible options to preserve fertility. Unfortunately, there are no recommendations on fertility preservation in this group. The unique pathophysiology of classic galactosemia with a severely reduced follicle pool at an early age requires an adjusted approach. In this article recommendations for physicians based on current knowledge concerning galactosemia and fertility preservation are made. Fertility preservation is only likely to be successful in very young prepubertal patients. In this group, cryopreservation of ovarian tissue is currently the only available technique. However, this technique is not ready for clinical application, it is considered experimental and reduces the ovarian reserve. Fertility preservation at an early age also raises ethical questions that should be taken into account. In addition, spontaneous conception despite POI is well described in classic galactosemia. The uncertainty surrounding fertility preservation and the significant chance of spontaneous pregnancy warrant counseling towards conservative application of these techniques. We propose that fertility preservation should only be offered with appropriate institutional research ethics approval to classic galactosemia girls at a young prepubertal age. PMID:23866841

2013-01-01

213

Preservation and transplantation of porcine testis tissue  

PubMed Central

Grafting of immature mammalian testis tissue to mouse hosts can preserve the male germline. To make this approach applicable to a clinical or field situation, it is imperative that the testis tissue and/or spermatozoa harvested from grafted tissue are preserved successfully. The aim of the present study was to evaluate protocols for the preservation of testis tissue in a porcine model. Testis tissue was stored at 4C for short-term preservation or cryopreserved by slow-freezing, automated slow-freezing or vitrification for long-term storage. Preserved tissue was transplanted ectopically to mouse hosts and recovered xenografts were analysed histologically. In addition, spermatozoa were harvested from xenografts and cryopreserved. Total cell viability and germ cell viability remained high after tissue preservation. Complete spermatogenesis occurred in xenografts preserved by cooling up to 48 h, whereas spermatogenesis progressed to round spermatids in the xenografts that were frozenthawed before grafting. Approximately 50% of spermatozoa harvested from xenografts remained viable after freezing and thawing. The in vivo developmental potential of cryopreserved tissue was reduced despite high post-thaw viability. Therefore, it is important to evaluate germ cell differentiation in vivo in addition to cell viability in vitro when optimising freezing protocols for testis tissue. PMID:19261226

Zeng, W.; Snedaker, A. K.; Megee, S.; Rathi, R.; Chen, F.; Honaramooz, A.; Dobrinski, I.

2009-01-01

214

Scientific Data Preservation, Copyright and Open Science  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The purpose of this paper is to sum up the terms of a discussion about the legal aspects of scientific data preservation. This discussion was presented at the Marseille workshop organized on November 14th. This paper is only a basis for forthcoming works about the main project of preserving scientific data (PREDONx). The paper is focused on intellectual property rights, such as copyright or patent, and their effect on the use of scientific data. Open Science appears to be the best way to ensure the preservation, but also the publication, of scientific data.

Mouron, Philippe

215

Preservation Methods Utilized for Space Food  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Food for manned space flight has been provided by NASA-Johnson Space Center since 1962. The various mission scenarios and space craft designs dictated the type of food preservation methodologies required to meet mission objectives. The preservation techniques used in space flight include freeze-dehydration, thermostabilization, irradiation, freezing and moisture adjustment. Innovative packaging material and techniques enhanced the shelf-stability of the food items. Future space voyages may include extended duration exploration missions requiring new packaging materials and advanced preservation techniques to meet mission goals of up to 5-year shelf-life foods.

Vodovotz, Yael; Bourland, Charles

2000-01-01

216

Biology Online  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Biology Online is a community-run web site that provides access to resources on many aspects of biological and life sciences. The site includes a discussion board with forums on cell biology, molecular biology, evolution, bioinformatics, and many other topics. The Wiki dictionary features user-editable content and links to articles on a wide variety of topics in biology. There is also a book catalog with information on biology-related books, including author and content descriptions, product details, and customer reviews; and a directory of links to other websites with related content in the life and Earth sciences.

217

Preservation for science: the ecological society of america and the campaign for glacier bay national monument.  

PubMed

Between 1917 and 1945, the Ecological Society of America (ESA) housed a Committee for the Preservation of Natural Conditions specifically charged with identifying and taking political action toward the preservation of wilderness sites for scientific study. While several historians have analyzed the social and political contexts of the Preservation Committee, none has addressed the scientific context that gave rise to the Committee and to political activism by ESA members. Among the Preservation Committee's lobbying efforts, the naming of Glacier Bay, Alaska, as a national monument in 1925 stands out as a unique success. I argue that the campaign for the preservation of Glacier Bay reveals the methodological ambitions ecologists had for their science in the 1920s and 1930s and demonstrates how ecologists understood the role of place in biological field studies. It represented preservation for science. Most of the political activities undertaken by the ESA in the interwar years, however, turned out to be science for conservation, which rarely involved lobbying for the protection of active research sites. In conjunction with changes in ecological methodology in the 1940s, the Committee's unclear scientific mission contributed to its being disbanded in 1945. PMID:21956385

Rumore, Gina

2012-01-01

218

36 CFR 79.5 - Management and preservation of collections.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

... false Management and preservation of collections. 79.5...79.5 Management and preservation of collections. The...long-term management and preservation of preexisting and new...collection that is from Indian lands, the Federal Agency...

2010-07-01

219

76 FR 78021 - Description of Boundary Addition, Noatak National Preserve  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...INFORMATION: Noatak National Preserve and Wilderness...1980 by the Alaska National Interest Lands Conservation Act. The boundaries of the Park, Preserve and Wilderness...acre addition to Noatak National Preserve and...

2011-12-15

220

4 CFR 201.15 - Preservation of records.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-01-01 false Preservation of records. 201.15 Section 201.15 Accounts RECOVERY ACCOUNTABILITY AND TRANSPARENCY BOARD PUBLIC INFORMATION AND REQUESTS 201.15 Preservation of records. The Board shall preserve all...

2010-01-01

221

21 CFR 146.152 - Orange juice with preservative.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

... 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Orange juice with preservative. 146.152 Section...Canned Fruit Juices and Beverages 146.152 Orange juice with preservative. (a) Orange juice with preservative is the food...

2010-04-01

222

21 CFR 146.154 - Concentrated orange juice with preservative.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Concentrated orange juice with preservative. 146.154 Section...and Beverages 146.154 Concentrated orange juice with preservative. (a) Concentrated orange juice with preservative complies with...

2010-04-01

223

Biological Agents  

MedlinePLUS

... Statistics Training Publications Newsroom Small Business Anti-Retaliation Biological Agents Safety and Health Topics A-Z Index What's New Biological agents include bacteria, viruses, fungi, other microorganisms and ...

224

Biological Filters.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Presents the 1978 literature review of wastewater treatment. The review is concerned with biological filters, and it covers: (1) trickling filters; (2) rotating biological contractors; and (3) miscellaneous reactors. A list of 14 references is also presented. (HM)

Klemetson, S. L.

1978-01-01

225

Patterns of Behavior in Endangered Species Preservation  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper analyzes statistically the main determinants of government decisions about the preservation of endangered species. As explanatory variables, we use proxies that include 'scientific' species characteristics, such as \\

Andrew Metrick; Martin L. Weitzman

1996-01-01

226

PREMIS Data Dictionary for Preservation Metadata  

E-print Network

The Repositories Support Project Briefing Paper on Metadata examines how metadata standards can be used to make it easier to find, use and manage digital objects stored in an institutional repository. Long-term preservation ...

Higgins, Sarah

227

US nuclear test data preservation. Instruction  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Instruction establishes policy, assigns responsibilities, and prescribes procedures to preserve irreplaceable scientific data and technical information acquired during past U.S. and other nuclear weapons effects test exercises.

Young

1987-01-01

228

Concise review: fertility preservation: an update.  

PubMed

Fertility preservation is an emerging field in medicine that enables men, women, and children to maintain reproductive health when it is threatened by gonadotoxic treatment. Patients affected by other nononcologic malignancies that can impair spermatogenesis and ovogenesis can also benefit from fertility preservation treatments. Age-related infertility can also be overcome by cryopreserving gametes or embryos. The only established methods for fertility preservation in male patients are sperm cryopreservation in postpubertal age and experimental testicular tissue cryopreservation in prepubertal age. In adult women, oocyte cryopreservation is the preferred option, whereas ovarian tissue cryopreservation is the only possibility for prepubertal girls. Fertility preservation treatments must be addressed through a multidisciplinary approach that involves gynecologists, urologists, oncologists, pediatricians, and professionals in the field of medically assisted reproduction to work in coordination to provide patients with counseling and comprehensive information about fertility issues. PMID:23197873

Gonzlez, Clara; Boada, Montserrat; Devesa, Marta; Veiga, Anna

2012-09-01

229

National Center for Home Food Preservation  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Home canning and food preservation is very much alive in parts of the United States, and the National Center for Home Food Preservation at the University of Georgia Cooperative Extension Service has canners', picklers', and curers'/smokers' interests at heart. The Center advises people on how to can foods safely, along with offering recipes for how to make delicious foods. The most notable freebie the website offers visitors is "Preserving Food at Home: A Self-Study." It is a self-paced, online course that teaches "Introduction to Food Preservation," "General Canning," "Canning Acid Foods," and "Canning Low-Acid Foods." The "Multimedia" section has "Videos," "Slideshows," "Graphics Galleries," and "Tutorials" to make the process of canning, pickling, drying, and freezing come to life. The "Graphics Galleries" are for those who give presentations, papers, lectures, etc., for educational and not-for-profit purposes. Some of the galleries include a "Drying Gallery," "Equipment Gallery," "Pickling Gallery," and a "Raw Foods Gallery."

230

Color-preserving daytime radiative cooling  

SciTech Connect

We introduce a general approach to radiatively lower the temperature of a structure, while preserving its color under sunlight. The cooling effect persists in the presence of considerable convective and conductive heat exchange and for different solar absorptances.

Zhu, Linxiao [Department of Applied Physics, Stanford University, Stanford, California 94305 (United States)] [Department of Applied Physics, Stanford University, Stanford, California 94305 (United States); Raman, Aaswath; Fan, Shanhui, E-mail: shanhui@stanford.edu [Department of Electrical Engineering, Ginzton Laboratory, Stanford University, Stanford, California 94305 (United States)] [Department of Electrical Engineering, Ginzton Laboratory, Stanford University, Stanford, California 94305 (United States)

2013-11-25

231

Exact Volume Preserving Skinning with Shape Control  

E-print Network

Exact Volume Preserving Skinning with Shape Control Damien ROHMER, Stefanie HAHMANN, Marie, Cani (Grenoble) Constant Volume Skinning SCA'09 1 / 22 #12;Classical character animation pipeline (Grenoble) Constant Volume Skinning SCA'09 2 / 22 #12;Motivations: character animation Fits

Hahmann, Stefanie

232

Distributed Shuffling for Preserving Access Confidentiality  

E-print Network

Distributed Shuffling for Preserving Access Confidentiality Sabrina De Capitani di Vimercati1 confidentiality of data whose management is outsourced to the cloud [8]. Complementing data confidentiality, more recent approaches have also considered protection of access and pattern confidentiality, which require

Samarati, Pierangela

233

COLEMAN-EVANS WOOD PRESERVING, WHITEHOUSE, FLORIDA  

EPA Science Inventory

The Coleman-Evans Wood Preserving facility in Whitehouse, Florida, required technical support to reassure the local citizens that the selected remediation technology (thermal desorption) would be feasable and safe. Later technical support was required to help the contractor fix...

234

TREATABILITY STUDIES FOR WOOD PRESERVING SITES  

EPA Science Inventory

The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), National Risk Management Research Laboratory (NRMRL), Site Management Support Branch, conducted a comprehensive treatability project for wood preserving sites in 1995 and 1996. This is a compilation report on the treatability studi...

235

Utility Roles in Preserving the Industrial Base  

E-print Network

, and Florida as examples; these observations are related to a framework of roles a utility or public utility commission can play. The conclusion is that utilities must exercise caution yet take appropriate action in preserving the industrial base....

Gilbert, J. S.

236

Preserving electronic records: Not the easiest task  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The National Archives and Records Administration has had a program for accessioning, describing, preserving and providing reference service to the electronic records (machine-readable records) created by Federal agencies for more than twenty years. Although there have been many changes in the name of the office, its basic mission has remained the same: to preserve and make available those records created by Federal agencies that the National Archives has determined to have value beyond the short-term need of the originating agency. A phrase that was once coined for a preservation conference still applies: the National Archives, when it decides to accept the transfer of records into its custody, is committing itself to preserving these records for perpetuity.

Eaton, Fynnette

1993-01-01

237

Touring Colorado Geology: Parfet Prehistoric Preserve  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This site contains several outcrop photos of the Upper Cretaceous Laramie Formation from the Parfet Prehistoric Preserve. Exceptionally-preserved, 70 Million year-old dinosaur tracks, palm frond impressions and raindrop impressions are featured on this site. Specific topics include Cretaceous climate, vertebrates, ceratopsian and hadrosaur footprints, burrows, mudrock, sandstone and cast formation. Additional information and photographs are obtained by clicking on the top page photos.

John Ghist

238

Preservative activity in diluted corticosteroid creams.  

PubMed

The preservative efficacy of both 'Betnovate' and 'Synalar' creams diluted 1:1 with 'Unguentum Merck' was investigated. Each formulation was challenged with Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus and Pseudomonas aeruginosa at an initial inoculum level of approximately 1 X 10(6) viable organisms per gram of cream. All formulations tested were found to be effectively preserved against the organisms used and no viable bacteria were detected 7 days after inoculation. PMID:6208253

Hugo, W B; Denyer, S P; York, H L; Tucker, J D

1984-09-01

239

Preservation methods for kidney and liver  

PubMed Central

With the successful testing of the immunosuppressive effects of cyclosporine in transplant patients in 1978, the field of organ transplants began an exponential growth. With that, the field of organ preservation became increasingly important as the need to increase preservation time and improve graft function became paramount. However, for every patient that receives a transplanted organ, there are four more on the waiting list. In addition, a patient dies from the lack of a transplant almost every 1 hour. To alleviate this donor crisis, there is a need to expand the donor pool to marginal donor organs. The main reason these organs are underutilized is because the current method of static preservation, simple cold storage, is ineffective. This article will provide a general review of the methods of preservation including simple cold storage, hypothermic machine perfusion, normothermic machine perfusion, and oxygen persufflation. In addition, the article will provide a review of how these dynamic preservation methods have improved the recovery and preservation of marginal donor organs including Donation after Cardiac Death and Fatty livers. PMID:20046672

Mangino, Martin J

2009-01-01

240

Microbiological preservation of cucumbers for bulk storage using acetic acid and food preservatives.  

PubMed

Microbial growth did not occur when cucumbers were preserved without a thermal process by storage in solutions containing acetic acid, sodium benzoate, and calcium chloride to maintain tissue firmness. The concentrations of acetic acid and sodium benzoate required to ensure preservation were low enough so that stored cucumbers could be converted to the finished product without the need to wash out and discard excess acid or preservative. Since no thermal process was required, this method of preservation would be applicable for storing cucumbers in bulk containers. Acid tolerant pathogens died off in less than 24 h with the pH, acetic acid, and sodium benzoate concentrations required to assure the microbial stability of cucumbers stored at 30 degrees C. Potassium sorbate as a preservative in this application was not effective. Yeast growth was observed when sulfite was used as a preservative. PMID:19241560

Prez-Daz, I M; McFeeters, R F

2008-08-01

241

36 CFR 60.6 - Nominations by the State Historic Preservation Officer under approved State Historic Preservation...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...supervision of the State Historic Preservation Officer. The State Historic Preservation Officer establishes...approved State historic preservation plan. (b) The State...obtained from either official land recordation records...

2010-07-01

242

On single qubit quantum process tomography for trace-preserving and nontrace-preserving maps  

E-print Network

We review single-qubit quantum process tomography for trace-preserving and nontrace-preserving processes, and derive explicit forms of the general constraints for fitting experimental data. These forms provide additional insight into the structure of the process matrix as well as reveal a tighter bound on the trace of a nontrace-preserving process than has been previously stated. We also describe, for completeness, how to incorporate measured imperfect input states.

Ramesh Bhandari; Nicholas A. Peters

2015-02-03

243

Biological markers from Green River kerogen decomposition  

Microsoft Academic Search

Isoprenoid and other carbon skeletons that are formed in living organisms and preserved essentially intact in ancient sediments are often called biological markers. The purpose of this paper is to develop improved methods of using isoprenoid hydrocarbons to relate petroleum or shale oil to its source rock. It is demonstrated that most, but not all, of the isoprenoid hydrocarbon structures

A. K. Burnham; J. E. Clarkson; M. F. Singleton; C. M. Wong; R. W. Crawford

1982-01-01

244

[Biological weapons].  

PubMed

Biological weapons are weapons of mass destruction that use pathogens (bacteria, viruses) or the toxins produced by them to target living organisms or to contaminate non-living substances. In the past, biological warfare has been repeatedly used. Anthrax, plague and smallpox are regarded as the most dangerous biological weapons by various institutions. Nowadays it seems quite unlikely that biological warfare will be employed in any military campaigns. However, the possibility remains that biological weapons may be used in acts of bioterrorism. In addition all diseases caused by biological weapons may also occur naturally or as a result of a laboratory accident. Risk assessment with regard to biological danger often proves to be difficult. In this context, an early identification of a potentially dangerous situation through experts is essential to limit the degree of damage. PMID:20717866

Kerwat, K; Becker, S; Wulf, H; Densow, D

2010-08-01

245

BIOLOGY PROGRAMME ADVISORS BIOLOGY MAJOR  

E-print Network

5076 494.1853 Bill.Pohajdak@dal.ca Jonathan Wright LSC 6088 494-6468 J.M.Wright@dal.ca MARINE BIOLOGYBIOLOGY PROGRAMME ADVISORS BIOLOGY MAJOR (20 credit or 15 credit concentration) Todd Bishop LSC.Welsh@dal.ca BIOLOGY CO-OP (Majors and Honours) Mindy McCarville LSC 7017 494-7072 Mindy.McCarville@dal.ca BIOLOGY

Gunawardena, Arunika

246

Oxygen uptake rates associated with biological treatment of pentachlorophenol wastewater  

Microsoft Academic Search

This research examined the biodegradability of a recalcitrant or inhibitory waste stream with the use of an electrotytic respirometer. Specifically, it addressed the oxygen uptake rates associated with biological treatment of pentachlorophenol waste?water from a wood preserving operation. Results indicated that the respirometer can be successfully used to develop an acclimatization program for biological treatment of inhabitory waste streams. Based

Mary Madden; Marty Tittlebaum

1984-01-01

247

Ridge Preservation for Implant Therapy: a Review of the Literature  

PubMed Central

Healing of the extraction socket after tooth removal involves retention of the blood clot followed by a sequence of events that lead to changes in the alveolar process in a three dimensional fashion. This normal healing event results in a minimal loss of vertical height (around 1 mm), but a substantial loss of width in the buccal-lingual plane (4-6 mm). During the first three months following extraction that loss has been shown to be significant and may result in both a hard tissue and soft tissue deformity affecting the ability to restore the site with acceptable esthetics. Procedures that reduce the resorptive process have been shown to be predictable and potentially capable of eliminating secondary surgery for site preparation when implant therapy is planned. The key element is prior planning by the dental therapist to act at the time of extraction to prevent the collapse of the ridge due to the loss of the alveolus. Several techniques have been employed as ridge preservation procedures involving the use of bone grafts, barrier membranes and biologics to provide a better restorative outcome. This review will explore the evidence behind each technique and their efficacy in accomplishing site preparation. The literature does not identify a single technique as superior to others; however, all accepted therapeutic procedures for ridge preservation have been shown to be more effective than blood clot alone in randomized controlled studies. PMID:24893595

Tomlin, Elizabeth M; Nelson, Shelby J; Rossmann, Jeffrey A

2014-01-01

248

Kidney preservation: review of present and future perspective.  

PubMed

One of the main problems in transplant surgery is the preservation of the organ during the cold ischemic time. The interrupted blood supply triggers a cascade of biological modifications resulting in cell death, which predisposes to discharge of a large quantity of toxic metabolites at the moment of organ reperfusion. Many approaches have been studied to prevent the toxic processes. Immediately after procurement, kidneys are flushed with these solutions. Two main: techniques of organ preservation are cold static storage and hypothermic machine perfusion (HMP). Based on age and comorbidities, individuals can be generally divided into 2 groups: ideal and marginal donors. Characteristics of organs from marginal donors are associated with an increased rate of delayed graft function and primary graft nonfunction (PNF), which reduce transplant survival and increase the acute rejection risk. In the last 20 years, the United Network of Organ Sharing has reported a 170% increase in deceased donors older than 50 years of age. Techniques of perfusion have been demonstrated to play a pivotal role in graft function after transplantation. Some studies suggest that HMP may improve outcomes after transplantation. PMID:24182779

Catena, F; Coccolini, F; Montori, G; Vallicelli, C; Amaduzzi, A; Ercolani, G; Ravaioli, M; Del Gaudio, M; Schiavina, R; Brunocilla, E; Liviano, G; Feliciangeli, G; Pinna, A D

2013-11-01

249

Oxygen absorbers in food preservation: a review.  

PubMed

The preservation of packaged food against oxidative degradation is essential to establish and improve food shelf life, customer acceptability, and increase food security. Oxygen absorbers have an important role in the removal of dissolved oxygen, preserving the colour, texture and aroma of different food products, and importantly inhibition of food spoilage microbes. Active packaging technology in food preservation has improved over decades mostly due to the sealing of foods in oxygen impermeable package material and the quality of oxygen absorber. Ferrous iron oxides are the most reliable and commonly used oxygen absorbers within the food industry. Oxygen absorbers have been transformed from sachets of dried iron-powder to simple self-adhesive patches to accommodate any custom size, capacity and application. Oxygen concentration can be effectively lowered to 100ppm, with applications spanning a wide range of food products and beverages across the world (i.e. bread, meat, fish, fruit, and cheese). Newer molecules that preserve packaged food materials from all forms of degradation are being developed, however oxygen absorbers remain a staple product for the preservation of food and pharmaceutical products to reduce food wastage in developed nations and increased food security in the developing & third world. PMID:25829570

Cichello, Simon Angelo

2015-04-01

250

Constrained Graph Optimization: Interdiction and Preservation Problems  

SciTech Connect

The maximum flow, shortest path, and maximum matching problems are a set of basic graph problems that are critical in theoretical computer science and applications. Constrained graph optimization, a variation of these basic graph problems involving modification of the underlying graph, is equally important but sometimes significantly harder. In particular, one can explore these optimization problems with additional cost constraints. In the preservation case, the optimizer has a budget to preserve vertices or edges of a graph, preventing them from being deleted. The optimizer wants to find the best set of preserved edges/vertices in which the cost constraints are satisfied and the basic graph problems are optimized. For example, in shortest path preservation, the optimizer wants to find a set of edges/vertices within which the shortest path between two predetermined points is smallest. In interdiction problems, one deletes vertices or edges from the graph with a particular cost in order to impede the basic graph problems as much as possible (for example, delete edges/vertices to maximize the shortest path between two predetermined vertices). Applications of preservation problems include optimal road maintenance, power grid maintenance, and job scheduling, while interdiction problems are related to drug trafficking prevention, network stability assessment, and counterterrorism. Computational hardness results are presented, along with heuristic methods for approximating solutions to the matching interdiction problem. Also, efficient algorithms are presented for special cases of graphs, including on planar graphs. The graphs in many of the listed applications are planar, so these algorithms have important practical implications.

Schild, Aaron V [Los Alamos National Laboratory

2012-07-30

251

Cancer and fertility: strategies to preserve fertility.  

PubMed

Fertility preservation is a key component of cancer management in young people. The Fourth Evian Annual Reproduction Workshop Meeting was held in April 2009 to discuss cancer and fertility in young adults. Specialists in oncology, assisted reproduction, embryology and clinical genetics presented published data and ongoing research on cancer and fertility, with particular focus on strategies to preserve fertility. This report is based on the expert presentations and group discussions, supplemented with publications from literature searches and the authors' knowledge. Fertility preservation should be considered for all young people undergoing potentially gonadotoxic cancer treatment. A variety of options are required to facilitate safe and effective fertility preservation for individual patients. Sperm banking is a simple and low-cost intervention. Embryo cryopreservation is the only established method of female fertility preservation. Oocyte cryopreservation offers a useful option for women without a male partner. Emergency ovarian stimulation and cryopreservation of ovarian tissue (followed by tissue transplantation or in-vitro maturation of oocytes) are experimental techniques for women who require urgent cancer treatment. Further prospective studies are required to validate cryopreservation of oocytes and ovarian tissue, in-vitro maturation of oocytes and new vitrification techniques and to identify any long-term sequelae of slow freezing of embryos. PMID:21269884

Diedrich, K; Fauser, B C J M; Devroey, P

2011-03-01

252

Comparison of State-Preserving vs. Non-State-Preserving Leakage Control Dharmesh Parikh  

E-print Network

to recalculate leakage currents dynamically as temperature and voltage change at runtime due to operating- eration, static power--caused by leakage current even when cir- cuits are not switching--is gainingComparison of State-Preserving vs. Non-State-Preserving Leakage Control in Caches Dharmesh Parikh

Skadron, Kevin

253

Comparison of StatePreserving vs. NonStatePreserving Leakage Control in Caches \\Lambda  

E-print Network

to recalculate leakage currents dynamically as temperature and voltage change at runtime due to operating­ eration, static power---caused by leakage current even when cir­ cuits are not switching---is gainingComparison of State­Preserving vs. Non­State­Preserving Leakage Control in Caches \\Lambda Dharmesh

Skadron, Kevin

254

Preservation Concerns in Construction and Remodeling of Libraries: Planning for Preservation.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

To help libraries and other holdings institutions better incorporate preservation concerns in construction, renovation, and routine maintenance, various techniques are presented that allow preservation concerns to be integrated. The following topics are considered: (1) site selection; (2) design of the building envelope; (3) the library interior;

Trinkley, Michael

255

Microbiological preservation of cucumbers for bulk storage by the use of acetic acid and food preservatives  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Microbial growth did not occur when cucumbers were preserved without a thermal process by storage in solutions containing acetic acid, sodium benzoate, and calcium chloride to maintain tissue firmness. The concentrations of acetic acid and sodium benzoate required to assure preservation were low en...

256

Closed Loop Recycling of PreservativeClosed Loop Recycling of Preservative Treated WoodTreated Wood  

E-print Network

Closed Loop Recycling of PreservativeClosed Loop Recycling of Preservative Treated WoodTreated WoodDisposal problem Recycling potentialRecycling potential ValueValue--added productsadded products Closed loop recyclingClosed loop recycling #12;Major Current Disposal OptionsMajor Current Disposal Options Incineration

257

PRESERVING TREES IN CONSTRUCTION PROJECTS: IDENTIFYING INCENTIVES AND BARRIERS  

Microsoft Academic Search

Two surveys of individuals from three professions instrumental in preserving trees in construction projects (profes- sions related to tree care, site design, and construction) revealed their level of knowledge and use of tree preservation practices and identified some of the incentives and barriers to preserving trees. Many tree preservation practices have low frequencies of use, despite knowledge that they are

David Despot; Henry Gerhold

2003-01-01

258

Automating Logical Preservation for Small Institutions with Hoppla  

E-print Network

and outsources digital preservation expertise. This paper presents the automated logical preservation process of the Hoppla archiving system in detail. It describes the recommendation process for appropriate preservation of automating logical preservation by outsourcing expertise. 1 Introduction Digital information form essential

259

43 CFR 15.12 - Closing of Preserve.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...Preserve. 15.12 Section 15.12 Public Lands: Interior Office of the Secretary of the Interior KEY LARGO CORAL REEF PRESERVE 15.12 Closing of Preserve. The Preserve may be closed to public use in the event of emergency...

2011-10-01

260

43 CFR 15.12 - Closing of Preserve.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...Preserve. 15.12 Section 15.12 Public Lands: Interior Office of the Secretary of the Interior KEY LARGO CORAL REEF PRESERVE 15.12 Closing of Preserve. The Preserve may be closed to public use in the event of emergency...

2010-10-01

261

43 CFR 15.12 - Closing of Preserve.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...Preserve. 15.12 Section 15.12 Public Lands: Interior Office of the Secretary of the Interior KEY LARGO CORAL REEF PRESERVE 15.12 Closing of Preserve. The Preserve may be closed to public use in the event of emergency...

2012-10-01

262

43 CFR 15.12 - Closing of Preserve.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...Preserve. 15.12 Section 15.12 Public Lands: Interior Office of the Secretary of the Interior KEY LARGO CORAL REEF PRESERVE 15.12 Closing of Preserve. The Preserve may be closed to public use in the event of emergency...

2013-10-01

263

43 CFR 15.12 - Closing of Preserve.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...Preserve. 15.12 Section 15.12 Public Lands: Interior Office of the Secretary of the Interior KEY LARGO CORAL REEF PRESERVE 15.12 Closing of Preserve. The Preserve may be closed to public use in the event of emergency...

2014-10-01

264

Technical Bulletin Number 6 Aquaculture within Aquatic Preserves  

E-print Network

Technical Bulletin Number 6 Aquaculture within Aquatic Preserves Revised January 4, 2011 Preserve Aquatic Preserves are home to aquaculture activities: Alligator Harbor, Big Bend Seagrasses, Terra Ceia this bulletin: Aquaculture & Aquatic Preserves ADAM H. PUTNAM COMMISSIONER OF AGRICULTURE Nineteen of Florida

Florida, University of

265

29 CFR 1915.33 - Chemical paint and preservative removers.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Chemical paint and preservative removers. 1915.33...and Preservation 1915.33 Chemical paint and preservative removers. (a) Employees...the handling and application of chemical paint and preservative removers and shall...

2011-07-01

266

29 CFR 1915.33 - Chemical paint and preservative removers.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Chemical paint and preservative removers. 1915.33...and Preservation 1915.33 Chemical paint and preservative removers. (a) Employees...the handling and application of chemical paint and preservative removers and shall...

2010-07-01

267

29 CFR 1915.33 - Chemical paint and preservative removers.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Chemical paint and preservative removers. 1915.33...and Preservation 1915.33 Chemical paint and preservative removers. (a) Employees...the handling and application of chemical paint and preservative removers and shall...

2012-07-01

268

29 CFR 1915.33 - Chemical paint and preservative removers.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Chemical paint and preservative removers. 1915.33...and Preservation 1915.33 Chemical paint and preservative removers. (a) Employees...the handling and application of chemical paint and preservative removers and shall...

2013-07-01

269

29 CFR 1915.33 - Chemical paint and preservative removers.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Chemical paint and preservative removers. 1915.33...and Preservation 1915.33 Chemical paint and preservative removers. (a) Employees...the handling and application of chemical paint and preservative removers and shall...

2014-07-01

270

Preservation of Newspapers: Theoretical Approaches and Practical Achievements  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The preservation of newspapers is the main topic of this paper. A theoretical overview of newspaper preservation is given, with an emphasis on the importance of a systematic and comprehensive approach. Efficient newspaper preservation implies understanding the meaning of preservation in general, as well as understanding specific approaches,

Hasenay, Damir; Krtalic, Maja

2010-01-01

271

Computational Biology  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Dr. Jeff Krause, computational biologist and educator at Shodor Foundation Inc explores the changing face of contemporary biology and addresses these concepts: How has biology changed in recent history? How do computational models and tools help us to view biomolecular structures and motion? How do computational models relate to the shift towards systems thinking and study in biology? Shodor Foundation Inc is the leading partner for the NSDL Pathway for Computational Science (CSERD).This seminar was recorded live on December 11, 2007.

Robert Payo

272

Biological Engineering  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This page, presented by MIT and made available online via the university's Open Courseware site, presents a series of materials on biological engineering. Topics include introduction to biological engineering design, systems microbiology, computation for biological engineers and molecular principles of biomaterials. Materials are at both the undergraduate and graduate school levels. OpenCourseWare is free educational material online. Video lectures, assignments and exams are included. No registration or enrollment is required to use the materials.

273

Organ preservation surgery for laryngeal cancer  

PubMed Central

The principles of management of the laryngeal cancer have evolved over the recent past with emphasis on organ preservation. These developments have paralleled technological advancements as well as refinement in the surgical technique. The surgeons are able to maintain physiological functions of larynx namely speech, respiration and swallowing without compromising the loco-regional control of cancer in comparison to the more radical treatment modalities. A large number of organ preservation surgeries are available to the surgeon; however, careful assessment of the stage of the cancer and selection of the patient is paramount to a successful outcome. A comprehensive review of various organ preservation techniques in vogue for the management of laryngeal cancer is presented. PMID:19442314

Chawla, Sharad; Carney, Andrew Simon

2009-01-01

274

Exceptionally preserved jellyfishes from the Middle Cambrian.  

PubMed

Cnidarians represent an early diverging animal group and thus insight into their origin and diversification is key to understanding metazoan evolution. Further, cnidarian jellyfish comprise an important component of modern marine planktonic ecosystems. Here we report on exceptionally preserved cnidarian jellyfish fossils from the Middle Cambrian (approximately 505 million years old) Marjum Formation of Utah. These are the first described Cambrian jellyfish fossils to display exquisite preservation of soft part anatomy including detailed features of structures interpreted as trailing tentacles and subumbrellar and exumbrellar surfaces. If the interpretation of these preserved characters is correct, their presence is diagnostic of modern jellyfish taxa. These new discoveries may provide insight into the scope of cnidarian diversity shortly after the Cambrian radiation, and would reinforce the notion that important taxonomic components of the modern planktonic realm were in place by the Cambrian period. PMID:17971881

Cartwright, Paulyn; Halgedahl, Susan L; Hendricks, Jonathan R; Jarrard, Richard D; Marques, Antonio C; Collins, Allen G; Lieberman, Bruce S

2007-01-01

275

Exceptionally Preserved Jellyfishes from the Middle Cambrian  

PubMed Central

Cnidarians represent an early diverging animal group and thus insight into their origin and diversification is key to understanding metazoan evolution. Further, cnidarian jellyfish comprise an important component of modern marine planktonic ecosystems. Here we report on exceptionally preserved cnidarian jellyfish fossils from the Middle Cambrian (?505 million years old) Marjum Formation of Utah. These are the first described Cambrian jellyfish fossils to display exquisite preservation of soft part anatomy including detailed features of structures interpreted as trailing tentacles and subumbrellar and exumbrellar surfaces. If the interpretation of these preserved characters is correct, their presence is diagnostic of modern jellyfish taxa. These new discoveries may provide insight into the scope of cnidarian diversity shortly after the Cambrian radiation, and would reinforce the notion that important taxonomic components of the modern planktonic realm were in place by the Cambrian period. PMID:17971881

Cartwright, Paulyn; Halgedahl, Susan L.; Hendricks, Jonathan R.; Jarrard, Richard D.; Marques, Antonio C.; Collins, Allen G.; Lieberman, Bruce S.

2007-01-01

276

Exceptionally preserved jellyfishes from the Middle Cambrian  

E-print Network

Cnidarians represent an early diverging animal group and thus insight into their origin and diversification is key to understanding metazoan evolution. Further, cnidarian jellyfish comprise an important component of modern marine planktonic ecosystems. Here we report on exceptionally preserved cnidarian jellyfish fossils from the Middle Cambrian (,505 million years old) Marjum Formation of Utah. These are the first described Cambrian jellyfish fossils to display exquisite preservation of soft part anatomy including detailed features of structures interpreted as trailing tentacles and subumbrellar and exumbrellar surfaces. If the interpretation of these preserved characters is correct, their presence is diagnostic of modern jellyfish taxa. These new discoveries may provide insight into the scope of cnidarian diversity shortly after the Cambrian radiation, and would reinforce the notion that important taxonomic components of the modern planktonic realm were in place by the Cambrian period.

Paulyn Cartwright; Susan L. Halgedahl; Jonathan R. Hendricks; Richard D. Jarrard; Antonio C. Marques; Allen G. Collins; Bruce S

2007-01-01

277

Data Preservation in High Energy Physics  

SciTech Connect

Data from high-energy physics (HEP) experiments are collected with significant financial and human effort and are mostly unique. At the same time, HEP has no coherent strategy for data preservation and re-use. An inter-experimental Study Group on HEP data preservation and long-term analysis was convened at the end of 2008 and held two workshops, at DESY (January 2009) and SLAC (May 2009). This document is an intermediate report to the International Committee for Future Accelerators (ICFA) of the reflections of this Study Group. Large data sets accumulated during many years of detector operation at particle accelerators are the heritage of experimental HEP. These data sets offer unique opportunities for future scientific studies, sometimes long after the shut-down of the actual experiments: new theoretical input; new experimental results and analysis techniques; the quest for high-sensitivity combined analyses; the necessity of cross checks. In many cases, HEP data sets are unique; they cannot and most likely will not be superseded by data from newer generations of experiments. Once lost, or in an unusable state, HEP data samples cannot be reasonably recovered. The cost of conserving this heritage through a collaborative, target-oriented long-term data preservation program would be small, compared to the costs of past experimental projects or to the efforts to re-do experiments. However, this cost is not negligible, especially for collaborations close or past their end-date. The preservation of HEP data would provide today's collaborations with a secure way to complete their data analysis and enable them to seize new scientific opportunities in the coming years. The HEP community will benefit from preserved data samples through reanalysis, combination, education and outreach. Funding agencies would receive more scientific return, and a positive image, from their initial investment leading to the production and the first analysis of preserved data.

Mount, Richard; Brooks, Travis; /SLAC; Le Diberder, Francois; /Orsay, LAL; Dubois-Felsmann, Gregory; Neal, Homer; /SLAC; Bellis, Matt; /Stanford U.; Boehnlein, Amber; Votava, Margaret; White, Vicky; Wolbers, Stephen; /Fermilab; Konigsberg, Jacobo; /Florida U.; Roser, Robert; Snider, Rick; /Fermilab; Lucchesi, Donatella; /INFN, Padua; Denisov, Dmitri; /Fermilab; Soldner-Rembold, Stefan; /Manchester U.; Li, Qizhong; /Fermilab; Varnes, Erich; /Arizona U.; Jonckheere, Alan; /Fermilab; Gasthuber, Martin; Gulzow, Volker; /DESY /Marseille, CPPM /Dortmund U. /DESY /Gent U. /DESY, Zeuthen /KEK, Tsukuba /CC, Villeurbanne /CERN /INFN, Bari /Gjovik Coll. Engineering /Karlsruhe, Forschungszentrum /Beijing, Inst. High Energy Phys. /Carleton U. /Cornell U. /Rutherford

2012-04-03

278

JPEG 2000 standards in digital preservation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Although JPEG 2000 is now a preferred format for archival image preservation, its use still requires care and consideration. This paper addresses how some of these issues can be addressed from a pragmatic perspective, and also looks at how the technology and file formats are developing to provide a full and consistent architecture for handling and searching large visual archives. New methods of addressing perceptual quality are discussed, showing that JPEG 2000 offers the best quality compression, although the metrics indicate that lower compression rates are recommended for preservation formats than might be assumed from previous simple metrics such as PSNR.

Clark, Richard

2010-06-01

279

Geology Fieldnotes: Ice Age National Scientific Preserve  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This National Park Service (NPS) site gives information on the Ice Age National Scientific Preserve in Wisconsin, including geology, park maps, a photo album, and other media (books, videos, CDs). There is also a selection of links to other geologic and conservation organizations, and to information for visitors. This preserve contains a wealth of glacial features associated with the most recent Pleistocene continental glaciation including drumlins, kames, kettles, moraines, erratics, and eskers. It also contains a segment of the Ice Age National Scenic Trail, a 1000-plus mile hiking and backpacking trail that passes through this unique glacial landscape.

280

Formation and preservation of raindrop imprints  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Students work in groups to study some aspect of formation and/or preservation of raindrop imprints. They start by generating a list of variables that might affect formation or preservation of this sedimentary structure. Using this list, they propose testable hypotheses and then focus their study on one hypothesis. They collect materials needed to carry out their study and then do it. They need to document what they did and how they did it. The groups present their study to the class orally and in writing.

Carol Mankiewicz

281

Privacy-Preserving Restricted Boltzmann Machine  

PubMed Central

With the arrival of the big data era, it is predicted that distributed data mining will lead to an information technology revolution. To motivate different institutes to collaborate with each other, the crucial issue is to eliminate their concerns regarding data privacy. In this paper, we propose a privacy-preserving method for training a restricted boltzmann machine (RBM). The RBM can be got without revealing their private data to each other when using our privacy-preserving method. We provide a correctness and efficiency analysis of our algorithms. The comparative experiment shows that the accuracy is very close to the original RBM model. PMID:25101139

Li, Yu

2014-01-01

282

An edge preserving differential image coding scheme  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Differential encoding techniques are fast and easy to implement. However, a major problem with the use of differential encoding for images is the rapid edge degradation encountered when using such systems. This makes differential encoding techniques of limited utility especially when coding medical or scientific images, where edge preservation is of utmost importance. We present a simple, easy to implement differential image coding system with excellent edge preservation properties. The coding system can be used over variable rate channels which makes it especially attractive for use in the packet network environment.

Rost, Martin C.; Sayood, Khalid

1991-01-01

283

An edge preserving differential image coding scheme  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Differential encoding techniques are fast and easy to implement. However, a major problem with the use of differential encoding for images is the rapid edge degradation encountered when using such systems. This makes differential encoding techniques of limited utility, especially when coding medical or scientific images, where edge preservation is of utmost importance. A simple, easy to implement differential image coding system with excellent edge preservation properties is presented. The coding system can be used over variable rate channels, which makes it especially attractive for use in the packet network environment.

Rost, Martin C.; Sayood, Khalid

1992-01-01

284

Avian artificial insemination and semen preservation  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Summary: Artificial insemination is a practical propagation tool that has been successful with a variety of birds. Cooperative, massage, and electroejaculation and modifications of these three basic methods of semen collection are described for a variety of birds. Semen color and consistency and sperm number, moti!ity, and morphology, as discussed, are useful indicators of semen quality, but the most reliable test of semen quality is the production of fertile eggs. Successful cryogenic preservation of avian semen with DMSO or glycerol as the cryoprotectant has been possible. Although the methods for preservation require special equipment, use of frozen semen requires only simple insemination supplies

Gee, G.F.

1983-01-01

285

Polynomial projectors preserving homogeneous partial differential equations  

Microsoft Academic Search

A polynomial projector ? of degree d on H(Cn) is said to preserve homogeneous partial differential equations (HPDE) of degree k if for every f?H(Cn) and every homogeneous polynomial of degree k, q(z)=?|?|=ka?z?, there holds the implication: q(D)f=0?q(D)?(f)=0. We prove that a polynomial projector ? preserves HPDE of degree k,1?k?d, if and only if there are analytic functionals ?k,?k+1,,?d?H?(Cn) with

Dinh-D?ng; Jean-paul Calvi; Nguyn Tin Trung

2005-01-01

286

BIOLOGY PROGRAMME ADVISORS BIOLOGY MAJOR  

E-print Network

5076B 494-1853 Bill.Pohajdak@dal.ca Jonathan Wright LSC 6087 494-6468 J.M.Wright@dal.ca MARINE BIOLOGYBIOLOGY PROGRAMME ADVISORS BIOLOGY MAJOR (20 credit or 15 credit concentration) Todd Bishop LSC.Welsh@dal.ca BIOLOGY CO-OP (Majors and Honours) Mindy McCarville LSC 7017 494-7072 Mindy.McCarville@dal.ca BIOLOGY

Gunawardena, Arunika

287

Biology Notes.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes laboratory procedures, demonstrations, and classroom activities/materials, including chi-square tests on a microcomputer, an integrated biology game, microscope slides of leaf stomata, culturing soil nematodes, technique for watering locust egg-laying tubes, hazards of biological chemicals (such as benzene, benzidene, calchicine,

School Science Review, 1983

1983-01-01

288

Biology Notes.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Presents experiments, demonstrations, activities and ideas relating to various fields of biology to be used in biology courses in secondary schools. Among those experiments presented are demonstrating the early stages of ferns and mosses and simple culture methods for fern prothalli. (HM)

School Science Review, 1978

1978-01-01

289

Biology Notes.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes laboratory procedures, demonstrations, and classroom activities/materials, including use of dwarf cichlids (fishes) in secondary school biology, teaching edge effects on stomatal diffusion, computer program on effects of selection on gene frequencies, biological oxidation/reduction reactions, short cuts with Drosophila, computer program

School Science Review, 1982

1982-01-01

290

Biology Notes.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Presents procedures, exercises, demonstrations, and information on a variety of biology topics including labeling systems, biological indicators of stream pollution, growth of lichens, reproductive capacity of bulbous buttercups, a straw balance to measure transpiration, interaction of fungi, osmosis, and nitrogen fixation and crop production. (DC)

School Science Review, 1982

1982-01-01

291

Biological robustness  

Microsoft Academic Search

Robustness is a ubiquitously observed property of biological systems. It is considered to be a fundamental feature of complex evolvable systems. It is attained by several underlying principles that are universal to both biological organisms and sophisticated engineering systems. Robustness facilitates evolvability and robust traits are often selected by evolution. Such a mutually beneficial process is made possible by specific

Hiroaki Kitano

2004-01-01

292

On Preservation Notarization of E-Contract  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the Internet economy, more and more transactions are carryoing out by means of conclusion of the electronic contracts which result in all kinds of special risks in electronic contracts, and which need to be controlled by the law. Preservation notarization builds security barrier for electronic contracts through its legal power and notarization technology, effectively reducing the legal risks of

Peiying Wang

2011-01-01

293

[Heritage Education: Teaching a Preservation Ethic.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This issue focuses on heritage education, the goal of which is to introduce the historic built environment directly into elementary and secondary school curriculums. Kathlyn Hatch discusses how heritage education's linkage with historic preservation can help students relate to society. Earl Jones assesses the status of heritage education,

Schell, Suzanne B., Ed.

1988-01-01

294

WoodChemistry Wood Degradation & Preservation  

E-print Network

31 WoodChemistry Wood Degradation & Preservation Chemical Utilization of Wood Pulp & Paper bagasse to pro- duce paper pulps, value added biopolymers and bioethanol. The possibility to integrate pre and consumption in the pulp mill, ex- pressed as tons of timber required per ton of pulp produced. The contri

Geldenhuys, Jaco

295

Why We Should Preserve the Manhattan Project  

Microsoft Academic Search

For all the buildings and artifacts that we preserve, thousands are lost forever. In this special Bulletin essay, Pulitzer Prize-winner Richard Rhodes examines the value of protecting the physical legacy of the U.S. nuclear enterprise and what its loss would tell us about ourselves.

Richard Rhodes

2007-01-01

296

Robust detail-preserving signal extraction  

Microsoft Academic Search

We discuss robust filtering procedures for signal extraction from noisy time series. Particular attention is paid to the preservation of relevant signal details like abrupt shifts. moving averages and running medians are widely used but have shortcomings when large spikes (outliers) or trends occur. Modifications like modified trimmed means and linear median hybrid filters combine advantages of both approaches, but

Ursula Gather; Roland Fried; Vivian Lanius

2005-01-01

297

Preserving the Colors of Early Cinema  

E-print Network

Preserving the Colors of Early Cinema through the Davide Turconi Film Frame Collection Joshua as well as Kinetoscope films were colored. Color has thus existed in the cinema since its inception, yet its early history in the cinema has for the most part remained obscured, due in part to natural

Zanibbi, Richard

298

Privacy-Preserving Smart Metering Alfredo Rial  

E-print Network

patterns. To alleviate such concerns, privacy impact assessments (PIA) are included in ongoingPrivacy-Preserving Smart Metering Alfredo Rial K.U.Leuven, ESAT/COSIC & IBBT Leuven, Belgium Smart grid proposals threaten user privacy by potentially disclosing fine-grained consumption data

Bernstein, Phil

299

Planning for Preservation during Mass Digitization Projects  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In anticipation of current and future mass digitization projects in which the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign's Library will participate, the Library's Conservation Unit began to gather data on the "scannability" of our general book collections to anticipate potential effects on conservation and preservation work flows. The findings

Teper, Jennifer Hain; Shaw, Emily F.

2011-01-01

300

Preserving Privacy in RFID Deployment RVSOcc0401  

E-print Network

Preserving Privacy in RFID Deployment RVS­Occ­04­01 RVS, Faculty of Technology, University of Bielefeld Jan E. Hennig # Bielefeld, 2004­03­23 Radio Frequency Identification, RFID, is an item­tagging technology which in­ terests suppliers and retailers. RFID has potential to revolutionise supply chain

Ladkin, Peter B.

301

Preserving the 'Athens of Indiana' through Digitization.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes a digitization project at the public library in Crawfordsville, Indiana that was designed to preserve their local history collection. Highlights include damage to the collection from fire, termites, use, and age; selecting a scanner and software; creating databases; and making information accessible on the Web. (LRW)

Helling, Bill

2003-01-01

302

Adnostic: Privacy Preserving Targeted Advertising Vincent Toubiana  

E-print Network

Adnostic: Privacy Preserving Targeted Advertising Vincent Toubiana vincent.toubiana@nyu.edu Arvind advertising (OBA), also called online behavioral ad targeting, is not a new practice. In the late 1990s solon@nyu.edu Abstract Online behavioral advertising (OBA) refers to the practice of tracking users

Nissenbaum, Helen

303

Great Sand Dunes National Monument and Preserve  

E-print Network

inventory program, the National Park Service (NPS) contracted the Colorado Natural Heritage Program (CNHPGreat Sand Dunes National Monument and Preserve 2003 Vascular Plant Inventory Susan Spackman) in 2001-2004 to conduct a field inventory of vascular plants of Great Sand Dunes National Monument

304

Mojave National Preserve Joshua Tree National Park  

E-print Network

Death Valley Mojave National Preserve Joshua Tree National Park National Park National Training Los Angeles San Diego Needles Blythe Salton Sea Anza- Borrego State Park San Bernardino National Contingent Corridor Deleted Corridor Land Status BLM National Park Service Forest Service Military USFWS

Laughlin, Robert B.

305

Survey of colourings and preservatives in drugs.  

PubMed Central

OBJECTIVE--To assess the prevalence of colourings and preservatives in drug formulations in the United Kingdom. DESIGN--Postal survey. PARTICIPANTS--All pharmaceutical manufacturers in the United Kingdom were requested to supply data on drug formulations with particular regard to the content of colourings and preservatives. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURE--Prevalence in proprietary drugs of colourings or preservatives, or both, that have been implicated in adverse reactions. Computation of a list of formulations of bronchodilators, antihistamines, and antibiotics that are free of such additives. RESULTS--A total of 118 out of 120 pharmaceutical companies supplied the data requested. In all, 2204 drug formulations were analysed and found to contain 419 different additives, of which 52 were colourings and preservatives that have been implicated in adverse reactions; 930 formulations contained such an additive. Tartrazine was the fourth most commonly occurring colouring, being present in 124 drug formulations. CONCLUSION--Many drugs contain additives that help to identify them and prolong their shelf life but are implicated in adverse reactions in some people. Some form of labelling of drug additives would enable these people to avoid drugs containing such additives. PMID:2508849

Pollock, I.; Young, E.; Stoneham, M.; Slater, N.; Wilkinson, J. D.; Warner, J. O.

1989-01-01

306

Spurious caustics of Dispersion Relation Preserving schemes  

E-print Network

Spurious caustics of Dispersion Relation Preserving schemes Claire David , Pierre Sagaut is identified. This local error pile-up corresponds to the existence of spurious caustics, which are allowed by the dispersive nature of the numerical error. From the mathematical point of view, spurious caustics are related

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

307

Privacy-Preserving Location-Based Services  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Location-based services (LBS for short) providers require users' current locations to answer their location-based queries, e.g., range and nearest-neighbor queries. Revealing personal location information to potentially untrusted service providers could create privacy risks for users. To this end, our objective is to design a privacy-preserving

Chow, Chi Yin

2010-01-01

308

Entanglement preservation on two coupled cavities  

E-print Network

The dynamics of two coupled modes sharing one excitation is considered. A scheme to inhibit the evolution of any initial state in subspace $\\{|1_{a},0_{b} >, |0_{a},1_{b}>\\}$ is presented. The scheme is based on the unitary interactions with an auxiliary subsystem, and it can be used to preserve the initial entanglement of the system.

R. Rossi Jr

2009-10-27

309

Preserving Privacy in Locationbased Mobile Social Applications  

E-print Network

­enabled smartphones, location­ based mobile social applications (LBSAs) have seen wide­spread adoptionPreserving Privacy in Location­based Mobile Social Applications Krishna P. N. Puttaswamy and Ben Y. Zhao Computer Science Department, U. C. Santa Barbara ABSTRACT Location­based social applications

Zhao, Ben Y.

310

Preserving History in a Digital World  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Stanford University's (California) Julie Sweetkind-Singer is a recognized authority on digital preservation, and has been honored by the Library of Congress for her work in the field. She currently serves as both the assistant director of Stanford's Geospatial, Cartographic and Scientific Data and Services and as head of the Branner Earth Sciences

Baumann, Jim

2012-01-01

311

Cardioplegia and myocardial preservation during cardiopulmonary bypass.  

PubMed

A standard experimental protocol was developed to explore the role of hypothermia and potassium cardioplegia in myocardial preservation during 120 minutes of ischemic arrest followed by 30 minutes of reperfusion. Seven different experimental groups of six animals each were evaluated using an in-vivo pig heart preparation. Hypothermic arrest without cardioplegia and cardioplegic arrest at normothermia were each compared to hypothermic cardioplegia. In addition, the use of an asanguineous hypothermic coronary perfusate without cardioplegia was compared to both multidose cardioplegia and single-dose cardioplegia followed by the same asanguineous perfusate. The parameters measured included: myocardial contractility and compliance, myocardial blood flow, endocardial/epicardial blood flow ratio, and electron microscopic studies. Myocardial preservation was inadequate with hypothermic arrest alone (without cardioplegia; and with cardioplegia at normothermia. In both experimental groups, myocardial contractility and compliance were so depressed that the) could not be accurately measured following ischemia and reperfusion while coronary blood flow remained significantly elevated. Preservation was improved but still inadequate following myocardial washout with a normokalemic or hypokalemic perfusate and following single dose cardioplegia plus myocardial washout. In the latter four groups, contractility ranged from 42 to 78% of control, and there was a decrease in compliance of 16 to 78%. Adequate preservation was found only after hypothermia and multidose potassium (35 mEq/L) cardioplegia. In this group, contractility was 129 +/- 13% of control and compliance increased by 21 +/- 24% compared to that of the control. PMID:14740689

Engelman, R M; Levitsky, S; O'Donoghue, M J; Auvil, J

1978-09-01

312

Public Demand for Preserving Local Open Space  

Microsoft Academic Search

Increased development results in the loss of forest, farm, range, and other open space lands that contribute to the quality of life of U.S. residents. I describe an economic rationale for growing public support for preserving local open space, based the growing scarcity of open space lands. I test the rationale empirically by correlating the prevalence of open space referenda

Jeffrey D. Kline

2006-01-01

313

Role of anorectal sensation in preserving continence  

Microsoft Academic Search

The role of anal sensation in preserving continence was studied in nine healthy volunteers. Objective assessment of sphincter function by manometry and rectal saline infusion was carried out during topical anaesthesia of the anal canal using 5% lignocaine gel and during lubrication with the same amount of inert gel. Anaesthesia successfully abolished anal sensation and reduced both the amplitude and

M G Read; N W Read

1982-01-01

314

Exceptionally Preserved Jellyfishes from the Middle Cambrian  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cnidarians represent an early diverging animal group and thus insight into their origin and diversification is key to understanding metazoan evolution. Further, cnidarian jellyfish comprise an important component of modern marine planktonic ecosystems. Here we report on exceptionally preserved cnidarian jellyfish fossils from the Middle Cambrian (?505 million years old) Marjum Formation of Utah. These are the first described Cambrian

Paulyn Cartwright; Susan L. Halgedahl; Jonathan R. Hendricks; Richard D. Jarrard; Antonio C. Marques; Allen G. Collins; Bruce S. Lieberman; Stuart Humphries

2007-01-01

315

Coatings Preserve Metal, Stone, Tile, and Concrete  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

John B. Schutt, a chemist at Goddard Space Flight Center, created a coating for spacecraft that could resist corrosion and withstand high heat. After retiring from NASA, Schutt used his expertise to create new formulations for Daytona Beach, Florida-based Adsil Corporation, which now manufactures a family of coatings to preserve various surfaces. Adsil has created 150 jobs due to the products.

2014-01-01

316

Fossil avian eggshell preserves ancient DNA  

PubMed Central

Owing to exceptional biomolecule preservation, fossil avian eggshell has been used extensively in geochronology and palaeodietary studies. Here, we show, to our knowledge, for the first time that fossil eggshell is a previously unrecognized source of ancient DNA (aDNA). We describe the successful isolation and amplification of DNA from fossil eggshell up to 19 ka old. aDNA was successfully characterized from eggshell obtained from New Zealand (extinct moa and ducks), Madagascar (extinct elephant birds) and Australia (emu and owl). Our data demonstrate excellent preservation of the nucleic acids, evidenced by retrieval of both mitochondrial and nuclear DNA from many of the samples. Using confocal microscopy and quantitative PCR, this study critically evaluates approaches to maximize DNA recovery from powdered eggshell. Our quantitative PCR experiments also demonstrate that moa eggshell has approximately 125 times lower bacterial load than bone, making it a highly suitable substrate for high-throughput sequencing approaches. Importantly, the preservation of DNA in Pleistocene eggshell from Australia and Holocene deposits from Madagascar indicates that eggshell is an excellent substrate for the long-term preservation of DNA in warmer climates. The successful recovery of DNA from this substrate has implications in a number of scientific disciplines; most notably archaeology and palaeontology, where genotypes and/or DNA-based species identifications can add significantly to our understanding of diets, environments, past biodiversity and evolutionary processes. PMID:20219731

Oskam, Charlotte L.; Haile, James; McLay, Emma; Rigby, Paul; Allentoft, Morten E.; Olsen, Maia E.; Bengtsson, Camilla; Miller, Gifford H.; Schwenninger, Jean-Luc; Jacomb, Chris; Walter, Richard; Baynes, Alexander; Dortch, Joe; Parker-Pearson, Michael; Gilbert, M. Thomas P.; Holdaway, Richard N.; Willerslev, Eske; Bunce, Michael

2010-01-01

317

Salient video stills: content and context preserved  

Microsoft Academic Search

A new class of images called salient stills is demonstrated and a software development platform for their creation is discussed. These images do not represent one discrete moment of time, as do a photograph or single video frame. Rather, one image reflects the aggregate of the temporal changes that occur in a moving image sequence with the salient features preserved.

Laura Teodosio; Walter Bender

1993-01-01

318

Mechanism for Burgess Shale-type preservation  

PubMed Central

Exceptionally preserved fossil biotas of the Burgess Shale and a handful of other similar Cambrian deposits provide rare but critical insights into the early diversification of animals. The extraordinary preservation of labile tissues in these geographically widespread but temporally restricted soft-bodied fossil assemblages has remained enigmatic since Walcotts initial discovery in 1909. Here, we demonstrate the mechanism of Burgess Shale-type preservation using sedimentologic and geochemical data from the Chengjiang, Burgess Shale, and five other principal Burgess Shale-type deposits. Sulfur isotope evidence from sedimentary pyrites reveals that the exquisite fossilization of organic remains as carbonaceous compressions resulted from early inhibition of microbial activity in the sediments by means of oxidant deprivation. Low sulfate concentrations in the global ocean and low-oxygen bottom water conditions at the sites of deposition resulted in reduced oxidant availability. Subsequently, rapid entombment of fossils in fine-grained sediments and early sealing of sediments by pervasive carbonate cements at bed tops restricted oxidant flux into the sediments. A permeability barrier, provided by bed-capping cements that were emplaced at the seafloor, is a feature that is shared among Burgess Shale-type deposits, and resulted from the unusually high alkalinity of Cambrian oceans. Thus, Burgess Shale-type preservation of soft-bodied fossil assemblages worldwide was promoted by unique aspects of early Paleozoic seawater chemistry that strongly impacted sediment diagenesis, providing a fundamentally unique record of the immediate aftermath of the Cambrian explosion. PMID:22392974

Gaines, Robert R.; Hammarlund, Emma U.; Hou, Xianguang; Qi, Changshi; Gabbott, Sarah E.; Zhao, Yuanlong; Peng, Jin; Canfield, Donald E.

2012-01-01

319

Mechanism for Burgess Shale-type preservation.  

PubMed

Exceptionally preserved fossil biotas of the Burgess Shale and a handful of other similar Cambrian deposits provide rare but critical insights into the early diversification of animals. The extraordinary preservation of labile tissues in these geographically widespread but temporally restricted soft-bodied fossil assemblages has remained enigmatic since Walcott's initial discovery in 1909. Here, we demonstrate the mechanism of Burgess Shale-type preservation using sedimentologic and geochemical data from the Chengjiang, Burgess Shale, and five other principal Burgess Shale-type deposits. Sulfur isotope evidence from sedimentary pyrites reveals that the exquisite fossilization of organic remains as carbonaceous compressions resulted from early inhibition of microbial activity in the sediments by means of oxidant deprivation. Low sulfate concentrations in the global ocean and low-oxygen bottom water conditions at the sites of deposition resulted in reduced oxidant availability. Subsequently, rapid entombment of fossils in fine-grained sediments and early sealing of sediments by pervasive carbonate cements at bed tops restricted oxidant flux into the sediments. A permeability barrier, provided by bed-capping cements that were emplaced at the seafloor, is a feature that is shared among Burgess Shale-type deposits, and resulted from the unusually high alkalinity of Cambrian oceans. Thus, Burgess Shale-type preservation of soft-bodied fossil assemblages worldwide was promoted by unique aspects of early Paleozoic seawater chemistry that strongly impacted sediment diagenesis, providing a fundamentally unique record of the immediate aftermath of the "Cambrian explosion." PMID:22392974

Gaines, Robert R; Hammarlund, Emma U; Hou, Xianguang; Qi, Changshi; Gabbott, Sarah E; Zhao, Yuanlong; Peng, Jin; Canfield, Donald E

2012-04-01

320

Language Preservation and Human Resources Development.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Those who work in the field of preserving Native American languages are an assortment of individuals who come to the work as a central career (linguists), through family heritage (fluent speakers), or through a developed passion (language learners). This paper examines the field from the perspective of R. Wayne Pace, Phillip C. Smith, and Gordon

Silverthorne, Joyce A.

321

Matching Preservation Decisions with Collection Development Policy.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Based on communication with librarians from Russia, Mongolia, the Baltic States, Bulgaria, Slovenia, the Czech Republic, and Romania, this paper discusses library collection development and preservation policies. Highlights include: mission statements of national and regional libraries; availability of a formal structure responsible for collection

Khislovskaya, Galina

322

Dignity-preserving dementia care: a metasynthesis.  

PubMed

Research indicates the essentiality of dignity as a vital component for quality of life, reconfirming the emphasis on dignity preservation in the international code of nursing ethics. Applying Noblit and Hare's meta-ethnography, the aim of the study was to develop a theory model by synthesizing 10 qualitative articles from various cultural contexts, exploring nurse and allied healthcare professional perception/practice concerning dignity-preserving dementia care. "Advocating the person's autonomy and integrity," which involves "having compassion for the person," "confirming the person's worthiness and sense of self," and "creating a humane and purposeful environment," was identified as a primary foundation for dignity-preserving dementia care. "Balancing individual choices among persons no longer able to make sound decisions, against the duty of making choices on behalf of the person," which involves "persuasion" and/or "mild restraint," was considered a crucial aspect in certain situations. "Sheltering human worth-remembering those who forget" was identified as a comprehensive motive and core value within dignity-preserving dementia care. PMID:23715554

Tranvg, Oscar; Petersen, Karin A; Nden, Dagfinn

2013-12-01

323

Archiving Innovations Preserve Essential Historical Records  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Apollo 11 mission left on the Moon a silicon disc inscribed with microscopic recreations of messages from 73 countries. NanoArk Corporation of Fairport, New York, built on that NASA technology to develop a fire and water resistant archiving innovation that provides cost savings and security in preserving documents. Since its launch, NanoArk has grown from 2 to 10 employees.

2013-01-01

324

Hybrid Abstractions that Preserve Timed Languages  

E-print Network

Hybrid Abstractions that Preserve Timed Languages Paulo Tabuada1 and George J. Pappas2 1 Instituto@ee.upenn.edu Abstract. In this paper we consider the problem of extracting an ab- straction from a hybrid control system that determine when trajectories of the original hybrid system can be generated by the abstracted hybrid system

Pappas, George J.

325

Protecting Children by Preserving Their Families.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Provides the historical background and policy framework of child protection and family preservation approaches. Examines the complementarity between these efforts as exemplified by family reunification as a major component of the service delivery system in child welfare. Suggests that family reunification protects children and families to the

Maluccio, Anthony N.; And Others

1994-01-01

326

Imaging Methods Applied to Recorded Sound Preservation  

E-print Network

Imaging Methods Applied to Recorded Sound Preservation and Access Carl Haber Senior Scientist Science Sound was first recorded and reproduced by Thomas Edison in 1877. Until about 1950, most will begin with a discussion of the history and technical basis of sound recording. Recently, optical

Zanibbi, Richard

327

Smithsonian Directive 418 HISTORIC PRESERVATION POLICY STANDARDS  

E-print Network

, arches, columns, windows and finishes. Historic elements that define the character of the building may in a new use that requires minimal change to the defining characteristics of the building and its site and environment. · The historic character of a property shall be retained and preserved. The removal of historic

Mathis, Wayne N.

328

Smithsonian Directive 418 HISTORIC PRESERVATION TERMS  

E-print Network

pertain to historic preservation terminology: Building: Principally shelters any form of human activity. Buildings eligible for the National Register of Historic Places must include all of their structural elements. Character: Defined by form, proportion, structure, plan, style or material. General character

Mathis, Wayne N.

329

Dry Preserving the Green Sea Urchin.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes a project for junior high and senior high school students designed to safely preserve hard-bodied marine invertebrates. Details the materials and procedures used in this technique. Stresses the use of non-toxic solutions and producing a lifelike specimen. (CW)

Stimson, Cheryl D.

1987-01-01

330

BIOREMEDIATION AT WOOD-PRESERVING SITES  

EPA Science Inventory

The removal of organic compounds from ground water during bioremediation at wood-preserving sites is a function of the stoichiometric demand for electron acceptors (oxygen, nitrate, and sulfate) to metabolize the organic contaminants and the supply of the electron acceptors in th...

331

Personalized Privacy Preservation Xiaokui Xiao Yufei Tao  

E-print Network

methods focus on a universal approach that exerts the same amount of preservation for all persons, with to valuable insight into the behavior of alternative solutions. In particular, our analysis mathematically the superiority of the proposed solutions. The theoretical findings are verified with extensive experiments. 1

Tao, Yufei

332

Personalized Privacy Preservation Xiaokui Xiao Yufei Tao  

E-print Network

approach that exerts the same amount of preservation for all persons, with- out catering for their concrete of alternative solutions. In particular, our analysis mathematically reveals the circumstances where the previous work fails to protect privacy, and establishes the superiority of the proposed solutions

Tian, Qi

333

Organ-Preserving Surgery for Penile Carcinoma  

PubMed Central

Introduction. Penile carcinoma has traditionally been treated by either surgical amputation or radical radiotherapy, both associated with devastating anatomical, functional, and psychological impact on the patient's life. Innovative surgical techniques have focused on penile preservation in well-selected patients to minimize physical disfigurement and consequently maximize quality of life. The objective of this article is to define the current status of these organ-preserving surgical options for penile carcinoma. Materials and Methods. An extensive review of the Pubmed literature was performed to find articles discussing only reconstructive surgery which have contributed significantly to change traditional, frequently mutilating treatments, to develop less disfiguring surgery, and to improve patients' quality of life over the last two decades. Results. Several articles were included in this analysis in which a major contribution to the change in therapy was thought to have occurred and was documented as beneficial. Some articles reported novel techniques of less-mutilating surgery involving different forms of glans reconstruction with the use of flaps or grafts. The issue of safe surgical margins was also addressed. Conclusion. The development of less-disfiguring techniques allowing phallus preservation has reduced the negative impact on functional and cosmetic outcomes of amputation without sacrificing oncological objectives in appropriately selected patients based on stage, grade, and location of the tumour. Until more prospective studies are available and solid evidence is documented, organ preservation should be offered with caution. PMID:19009032

Martins, Francisco E.; Rodrigues, Raul N.; Lopes, Tom M.

2008-01-01

334

Building Digital Audio Preservation Infrastructure and Workflows  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In 2009 the University of Washington (UW) Libraries special collections received funding for the digital preservation of its audio indigenous language holdings. The university libraries, where the authors work in various capacities, had begun digitizing image and text collections in 1997. Because of this, at the onset of the project, workflows (a

Young, Anjanette; Olivieri, Blynne; Eckler, Karl; Gerontakos, Theodore

2010-01-01

335

Endothelium Preserving Microwave Treatment for Atherosclerosis  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This slide presentation reviews the use of microwave technology for treating Atherosclerosis while preserving the endothelium. The system uses catheter antennas as part of the system that is intended to treat atherosclerosis. The concept is to use a microwave catheter for heating the atherosclerotic lesions, and reduce constriction in the artery.

Fink, Patrick; Arndt, G. D.; Ngo, Phong

2003-01-01

336

Today's Trend in Forest Preserve Management  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A description is presented of the "Unit Management Plan" for the Adirondak Forest Preserve which involves inventorying the resources of this well-defined unit of land and defining goals and objectives for which management schedules and criteria are established and met. (MDR)

Shearer, Thomas D.; Coggeshall, Almy D.

1978-01-01

337

Preservation of Mercury in Polyethylene Containers.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Reports results of experiments favoring use of 0.5 percent nitric acid with an oxidant (potassium dichromate or potassium permanganate) to preserve samples in polyethylene containers for mercury analysis. Includes procedures used and statistical data obtained from the experiments. (JN)

Piccolino, Samuel Paul

1983-01-01

338

Privacy-Preserving Gradient-Descent Methods  

Microsoft Academic Search

Gradient descent is a widely used paradigm for solving many optimization problems. Gradient descent aims to minimize a target function in order to reach a local minimum. In machine learning or data mining, this function corresponds to a decision model that is to be discovered. In this paper, we propose a preliminary formulation of gradient descent with data privacy preservation.

Shuguo Han; Wee Keong Ng; Li Wan; Vincent C. S. Lee

2010-01-01

339

Long-Term Information Preservation and Access  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

An unprecedented amount of information encompassing almost every facet of human activities across the world is generated daily in the form of zeros and ones, and that is often the only form in which such information is recorded. A good fraction of this information needs to be preserved for periods of time ranging from a few years to centuries.

Song, Sang Chul

2010-01-01

340

DAITSS, an OAIS-based preservation repository  

Microsoft Academic Search

DAITSS is a preservation repository application developed by the Florida Center for Library Automation (FCLA) for use by the Florida Digital Archive (FDA), a digital repository shared by the eleven universities in the Florida public university system. DAITSS is strictly modeled on the Reference Model for an Open Archival Information System (OAIS). DAITSS can accept a Submission Information Package (SIP),

Priscilla Caplan

2010-01-01

341

Micro-Preservation: Conserving the Small Library.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Offers suggestions and outlines procedures for the preservation of the resources of a small library. Brief sections discuss environment (temperature, humidity, housekeeping, light); library binding; simple in-house repairs; other protective measures (enclosures, microfilming); the care of unique objects; and disaster planning. A 21-item

DeCandido, Robert; DeCandido, GraceAnne A.

1985-01-01

342

Sustainability: Preserving Choice for the Army  

E-print Network

Sustainability: Preserving Choice for the Army Friday, October 19, 2012 12:00 - 1:30 p.m. (lunch will be provided) Wrigley Hall, Room 481 Richard Kidd Deputy Assistant of the Army, Energy and Sustainability infrastructure. The development of Army-wide sustainability principles coupled with investments, training

Hall, Sharon J.

343

INTERVENTION TECHNOLOGIES FOR FOOD SAFETY AND PRESERVATION  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Food preservations with several different technologies, including irradiation, retort, aseptic processing, microwave and hydrostatic high pressure, are discussed in this chapter. Some of the methods are considered relatively mature technologies, e.g. retort and liquid aseptic; however, most of them...

344

Natural Hypothermic Preservation: The Mammalian Hibernator  

Microsoft Academic Search

Hibernators offers a natural models of mammalian organs systems that can withstand long term hypothermia and ischemia. The biochemical mechanisms that regulate and stabilize metabolism to assure long term viability during torpor can be applied in methodologies that could improve the hypothermic preservation of human organs removed for transplant and substantially both the time that organs can be maintained in

Kenneth B. Storey

2002-01-01

345

Current Trends in Preservation Research and Development.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Overview of current trends in the preservation of library materials discusses collections conservation and management; climate control; insect and mold control; fire control; the effects of compact shelving; freezing and freeze-drying; space drying; alkaline paper; recycled paper; mass deacidification; and paper strengthening. (27 notes and

Cunha, George Martin

1990-01-01

346

Hearing Preservation in Cochlear Implant Surgery  

PubMed Central

In the past, it was thought that hearing loss patients with residual low-frequency hearing would not be good candidates for cochlear implantation since insertion was expected to induce inner ear trauma. Recent advances in electrode design and surgical techniques have made the preservation of residual low-frequency hearing achievable and desirable. The importance of preserving residual low-frequency hearing cannot be underestimated in light of the added benefit of hearing in noisy atmospheres and in music quality. The concept of electrical and acoustic stimulation involves electrically stimulating the nonfunctional, high-frequency region of the cochlea with a cochlear implant and applying a hearing aid in the low-frequency range. The principle of preserving low-frequency hearing by a soft surgery cochlear implantation could also be useful to the population of children who might profit from regenerative hair cell therapy in the future. Main aspects of low-frequency hearing preservation surgery are discussed in this review: its brief history, electrode design, principles and advantages of electric-acoustic stimulation, surgical technique, and further implications of this new treatment possibility for hearing impaired patients. PMID:25276136

Sampaio, Andr Luiz Lopes; Lopes, Rafaela Aquino Fernandes; Ramos Venosa, Alessandra; de Oliveira, Carlos Augusto Costa Pires

2014-01-01

347

Effects of ethanol preservation on otolith microchemistry  

E-print Network

Effects of ethanol preservation on otolith microchemistry K. J. HEDGES*, S. A. LUDSIN*§ AND B. J coupled plasma-mass spectrometry was used to examine the effects of exposure time to ethanol (0, 1, 3, 9, 27 and 81 days) and ethanol quality (ACS- v. HPLC- grade) on strontium (Sr) and barium (Ba

348

Conservation, Preservation and Restoration in Nigerian Libraries.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Addresses problems involved with the conservation, preservation, and restoration of library materials in Nigeria. Topics discussed include insect pests; light, heat, and humidity; atmospheric pollution and dust; natural disasters including fire and floods; theft and vandalism; acidity of paper; binding and mending; and trained personnel. (15

Ojo-Igbinoba, M. E.

1991-01-01

349

More than Ten Years After: Identity and Direction in Library Preservation.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Reviews the literature of preservation for 1990. Topics addressed include preservation in original format; conservation treatment; pest management; deterioration of paper, deacidification, and paper strengthening; preservation replacement; newer reformatting technologies; the management of preservation programs; education for preservation

Jones, Maralyn

1991-01-01

350

Locality-preserved maximum information projection.  

PubMed

Dimensionality reduction is usually involved in the domains of artificial intelligence and machine learning. Linear projection of features is of particular interest for dimensionality reduction since it is simple to calculate and analytically analyze. In this paper, we propose an essentially linear projection technique, called locality-preserved maximum information projection (LPMIP), to identify the underlying manifold structure of a data set. LPMIP considers both the within-locality and the between-locality in the processing of manifold learning. Equivalently, the goal of LPMIP is to preserve the local structure while maximize the out-of-locality (global) information of the samples simultaneously. Different from principal component analysis (PCA) that aims to preserve the global information and locality-preserving projections (LPPs) that is in favor of preserving the local structure of the data set, LPMIP seeks a tradeoff between the global and local structures, which is adjusted by a parameter alpha, so as to find a subspace that detects the intrinsic manifold structure for classification tasks. Computationally, by constructing the adjacency matrix, LPMIP is formulated as an eigenvalue problem. LPMIP yields orthogonal basis functions, and completely avoids the singularity problem as it exists in LPP. Further, we develop an efficient and stable LPMIP/QR algorithm for implementing LPMIP, especially, on high-dimensional data set. Theoretical analysis shows that conventional linear projection methods such as (weighted) PCA, maximum margin criterion (MMC), linear discriminant analysis (LDA), and LPP could be derived from the LPMIP framework by setting different graph models and constraints. Extensive experiments on face, digit, and facial expression recognition show the effectiveness of the proposed LPMIP method. PMID:18390305

Wang, H; Chen, S; Hu, Z; Zheng, W

2008-04-01

351

Quantum Biology  

E-print Network

A critical assessment of the recent developments of molecular biology is presented. The thesis that they do not lead to a conceptual understanding of life and biological systems is defended. Maturana and Varela's concept of autopoiesis is briefly sketched and its logical circularity avoided by postulating the existence of underlying {\\it living processes}, entailing amplification from the microscopic to the macroscopic scale, with increasing complexity in the passage from one scale to the other. Following such a line of thought, the currently accepted model of condensed matter, which is based on electrostatics and short-ranged forces, is criticized. It is suggested that the correct interpretation of quantum dispersion forces (van der Waals, hydrogen bonding, and so on) as quantum coherence effects hints at the necessity of including long-ranged forces (or mechanisms for them) in condensed matter theories of biological processes. Some quantum effects in biology are reviewed and quantum mechanics is acknowledged as conceptually important to biology since without it most (if not all) of the biological structures and signalling processes would not even exist. Moreover, it is suggested that long-range quantum coherent dynamics, including electron polarization, may be invoked to explain signal amplification process in biological systems in general.

Alessandro Sergi

2009-07-11

352

Event sedimentation, bioturbation, and preserved sedimentary fabric: Field and model comparisons in three contrasting marine settings  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A model for the emplacement, bioturbation, and preservation of fine-scaled sedimentary strata has been used to evaluate the impact of interacting physical and biological sedimentary processes on preserved sedimentary fabric in three depositional settings. The settings, which have contrasting hydrodynamic, geological, and biological characteristics, are Eckernfrde Bay, German Baltic Sea; the Eel Shelf, northern California, USA; and the northern Gulf of Alaska continental shelf, USA. We have compared field measurements of sedimentation and bioturbation (from 7Be, 234Th, 210Pb, and 137Cs measurements), and observations of sedimentary fabric derived from core X-radiographs with model predictions of preserved sedimentary fabric. The one-dimensional model is forced by fluctuations in the instantaneous sedimentation rate, which deposits sediment with primary sedimentary fabric. Primary sedimentary fabric is then modified by bioturbation, which is represented as a first-order depth-limited reaction term, the rate of which is derived from radioisotopic and time-series estimates of bioturbation depth and intensity. Model output includes depth in seabed and corresponding preservation quotient, a measure of relative primary versus biogenic fabric. Although measured rates and depth scales of sedimentation and bioturbation vary across the three study areas by more than a factor of ten, model results strongly resemble actual sedimentary fabric in core X-radiographs in each case. Our results support and expand on concepts that invoke episodic sedimentation and depth-dependent bioturbation as important competing factors in the preservation or destruction of primary depositional fabric, and also suggest that radioisotopic estimates of bioturbation rates can adequately portray natural conditions.

Bentley, Samuel J.; Sheremet, Alexandru; Jaeger, John M.

2006-11-01

353

Morphological preservation of carbonaceous plant fossils in blueschist metamorphic rocks from New Zealand.  

PubMed

Morphological and chemical evidence of ancient life is widespread in sedimentary rocks retrieved from shallow depths in the Earth's crust. Metamorphism is highly detrimental to the preservation of biological information in rocks, thus limiting the geological record in which traces of life might be found. Deformation and increasing pressure/temperature during deep burial may alter the morphology as well as the composition and structure of both the organic and mineral constituents of fossils. However, microspore fossils have been previously observed in intensely metamorphosed rocks. It has been suggested that their small size, and/or the nature of the polymer composing their wall, and/or the mineralogy of their surrounding matrix were key parameters explaining their exceptional preservation. Here, we describe the remarkable morphological preservation of plant macrofossils in blueschist metamorphic rocks from New Zealand containing lawsonite. Leaves and stems can be easily identified at the macroscale. At the microscale, polygonal structures with walls mineralized by micas within the leaf midribs and blades may derive from the original cellular ultrastructure or, alternatively, from the shrinkage during burial of the gelified remnants of the leaves in an abiotic process. Processes and important parameters involved in the remarkable preservation of these fossils during metamorphism are discussed. Despite the excellent morphological preservation, the initial biological polymers have been completely transformed to graphitic carbonaceous matter down to the nanometer scale. This occurrence demonstrates that plant macrofossils may experience major geodynamic processes such as metamorphism and exhumation involving deep changes and homogenization of their carbon chemistry and structure but still retain their morphology with remarkable integrity even if they are not shielded by any hard-mineralized concretion. PMID:22299653

Galvez, M E; Beyssac, O; Benzerara, K; Bernard, S; Menguy, N; Cox, S C; Martinez, I; Johnston, M R; Brown, G E

2012-03-01

354

Achieving convergence, causality preservation, and intention preservation in real-time cooperative editing systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

Real-time cooperative editing systems allow multiple users to view and edit the same text\\/graphic\\/image\\/multimedia document at the same time for multiple sites connected by communication networks. Consistency maintenance is one of the most significant challenges in designing and implementing real-time cooperative editing systems. In this article, a consistency model, with properties of convergence, causality preservation, and intention preservation, is proposed

Chengzheng Sun; Xiaohua Jia; Yanchun Zhang; Yun Yang; David Chen

1998-01-01

355

Biology Notes  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Ten ideas that have been tried out by the authors in schools are presented for biology teachers. The areas covered include genetics, dispersal of seeds, habituation in earthworms, respiration, sensory neurons, fats and oils. A reading list is provided. (PS)

School Science Review, 1972

1972-01-01

356

Hair Biology  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

If you�ve ever had a question about the biological make-up of your hair or anyone else�s, then this website is the place to go for answers. The Hair Biology portion of the Keratin web page gives incredible detail on hair fiber, follicles, growth cycle stages, hair length and density. These are just a few of the biological aspects of hair and much more is addressed and covered in great detail on the site. Hair Biology also features photography of different stages of hair growth along with a FAQ section which may answer some commonly asked (and not so commonly) questions about hair. Overall, this site would be an invaluable tool for anyone in the industry or anyone aspiring to join.

357

Computational Biology  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Basic Chemistry and Molecular Biology; Introduction to Genomics. Data Mining (NCBI Bookshelf, OMIM, PubMed, NCBI databases). Introductions to Sequence similarity searches and BLAST, Multiple Alignments and Phylogenetic Analysis, Protein Structure databases and 3D viewers.

William S. Barnes

358

MOSQUITO BIOLOGY  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

This article summarizes current knowledge of mosquito biology. It presents basic information on mosquito morphology, geographic distribution, systematic classification, life cycles, host preference, and public and veterinary health importance. Mosquitoes belong to the order Diptera, family Culicid...

359

Biology Notes  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Twelve new experiments in biology are described by teachers for use in classrooms. Broad areas covered include enzyme action, growth regulation, microscopy, respiration, germination, plant succession, leaf structure and blood structure. Explanations are detailed. (PS)

School Science Review, 1972

1972-01-01

360

Biological Thermodynamics  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Biological Thermodynamics provides an introduction to the study of energy transformations for students of the biological sciences. Donald Haynie uses an informal writing style to introduce this core subject in a manner that will appeal to biology and biochemistry undergraduate students. The emphasis of the text is placed on understanding basic concepts and developing problem-solving skills throughout the text. The level of mathematical complexity is kept to a minimum. Each chapter provides numerous examples taken from different areas of biochemistry, as well as extensive exercises to aid understanding. Topics covered include energy and its transformation, the First Law of Thermodynamics, the Second Law of Thermodynamics, Gibbs Free Energy, statistical thermodynamics, binding equilibria and reaction kinetics, and a survey of the most exciting areas of biological thermodynamics today, particularly the origin of life on Earth.

Haynie, Donald T.

2001-03-01

361

Amber: Using "Tree Tears Turned to Stone" to Teach Biology, Ecology, and More!  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Amber is a fossil by itself, and can also contain plants and animals that lived millions of years ago. Some of these perfectly preserved specimens give scientists a convenient window to past environments, including the biology, ecology, geology, and chemi

James H. Wandersee

2009-11-01

362

Irradiation preservation of seafood: Literature review  

SciTech Connect

The application of gamma-irradiation for extending the shelf life of seafood has been of interest for many years. This report reviews a number of studies on seafood irradiation conducted over the past several years. Topics covered include seafood irradiation techniques and dosages, species applicability and differences, the effects of packaging on seafood preservation, and changes in organoleptic acceptability as a result of irradiation. Particular attention is given to radiation effects (likely and unlikely) of concern to the public. These include the potential for generation of toxic chemical products, botulinum toxin production, and other health concerns. No scientifically defensible evidence of any kind was found for any harmful effect of irradiation of seafoods at the doses being considered (less than 300 krad), and all indications are that irradiation is an acceptable and needed additional tool for seafood preservation. 49 refs., 14 figs., 14 tabs.

Molton, P.M.

1987-10-01

363

Contact allergy to preservatives--II.  

PubMed

To determine whether the prevalence of allergic reactions to certain preservatives warrants their inclusion in a routine series for patch testing, a tray of 14 preservatives was tested in 501 consecutive suspected contact dermatitis patients. More than 1% positive reactions were found with DMDM hydantoin, Kathon CG, and alkyl trimethyl ammonium chloride only. The concentration of alkyl trimethyl ammonium chloride (0.1% aqua) was considered too high. Of 6 patients reacting to the formaldehyde releaser DMDM hydantoin, 4 were positive to formaldehyde. Kathon CG may be an important allergen in the Netherlands, and it is worthwhile for dermatologists there to add it to the standard test series. The recent inclusion of quaternium-15 in the ICDRG standard series appears to be of little value to them. PMID:3492332

de Groot, A C; Bos, J D; Jagtman, B A; Bruynzeel, D P; van Joost, T; Weyland, J W

1986-10-01

364

[Contact allergies to recently introduced preservatives].  

PubMed

Preservatives have come under fire due to their possible detrimental properties and the high rate of contact allergies some of them cause. Therefore, the pharmaceutical industry is searching for alternatives that will be effective, safe and economical. The present paper introduces a selection of new or revived biocides (Kathon CG, benzisothiazolinone, Euxyl K 400, Biobans, Grotans, Bronopol, Germall II), and the range of application and the sensitization potency of each are discussed. Test concentrations for patch tests are recommended. Kathon CG is the most commonly used preservative among these biocides, although it has a high sensitization potency and is a frequently encountered contact allergen. To make discovery of a new allergen easier and to reduce the risk of side effects, manufacturers should be required to specify the ingredients of their products on the labels. PMID:1830567

Senff, H; Kllner, A; Tholen, S; Frosch, P J

1991-04-01

365

Privacy Preserving RBF Kernel Support Vector Machine  

PubMed Central

Data sharing is challenging but important for healthcare research. Methods for privacy-preserving data dissemination based on the rigorous differential privacy standard have been developed but they did not consider the characteristics of biomedical data and make full use of the available information. This often results in too much noise in the final outputs. We hypothesized that this situation can be alleviated by leveraging a small portion of open-consented data to improve utility without sacrificing privacy. We developed a hybrid privacy-preserving differentially private support vector machine (SVM) model that uses public data and private data together. Our model leverages the RBF kernel and can handle nonlinearly separable cases. Experiments showed that this approach outperforms two baselines: (1) SVMs that only use public data, and (2) differentially private SVMs that are built from private data. Our method demonstrated very close performance metrics compared to nonprivate SVMs trained on the private data. PMID:25013805

Xiong, Li; Ohno-Machado, Lucila

2014-01-01

366

Preservation of cycad and Ginkgo pollen  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Pollen grains of Ginkgo, Cycas, and Encephalartos were chemically treated together with pollen of Quercus, Alnus, and Pinus, the latter three genera being used as standards. The experiments showed that: (1) boiling the pollen for 8-10 hours in 10% KOH had little if any effect on any of the grains; (2) lengthy acetolysis treatment produced some degradation or corrosion, particularly in Ginkgo and Cycas, but the grains of even these genera remained easily recognizable; (3) oxidation with KMnO4 followed by H2O2 showed that pollen of Ginkgo, Cycas, and Encephalartos remains better preserved than that of Quercus and Alnus, and although Ginkgo and Encephalartos probably are slightly less resistant to oxidation than Pinus, no great differences exists between these monosulcate types and Pinus. Thus the experiments show that, at least for sediments low in bacteria, cycad and Ginkgo pollen should be well represented in the fossil record as far as their preservational capabilities are concerned. ?? 1978.

Frederiksen, N.O.

1978-01-01

367

Comparison of Several Methods for Preserving Bacteriophages  

PubMed Central

A wide variety of bacteriophages were processed and stored under different conditions to compare methods for long-term preservation. Specimens were stored for 2 years at room temperature (24 to 28 C) and at 4 C as broth lysates in 50% glycerol, dried, and freeze-dried. Titers determined after processing indicated that, of the broth, glycerol, and freeze-dry methods, freeze-drying was most damaging to the phages tested, glycerol less damaging, and the broth method least damaging. After 2 years, titers of broth lysates were generally higher than those of glycerol or freeze-dried preparations. Dried preparations generally did not prove satisfactory. Preparations stored at 4 C showed better titers than those kept at room temperature. All titers declined with time regardless of the conditions of preservation. PMID:14021544

Clark, William A.

1962-01-01

368

Digital Preservation: A Campus-Wide Perspective  

E-print Network

;? migration of digital information to technologies from which they are accessible, emulation of obsolete systems, and encapsulation?the preservation of obsolete technologies. Migration 3 The migration of digital information refers to the ?periodic transfer... developed out of a print-on-paper environment. Print endures with relatively modest upkeep and can be read without intermediary technology. We can set aside a paper document and reasonably expect to find it readable years later. As a consequence, formal...

Fyffe, Richard; Ludwig, Deborah; Warner, Beth Forrest

2005-08-30

369

Mass Preserving Registration for Heart MR Images  

PubMed Central

This paper presents a new algorithm for non-rigid registration between two doubly-connected regions. Our algorithm is based on harmonic analysis and the theory of optimal mass transport. It assumes an underlining continuum model, in which the total amount of mass is exactly preserved during the transformation of tissues. We use a finite element approach to numerically implement the algorithm. PMID:16685954

Zhu, Lei; Haker, Steven; Tannenbaum, Allen

2013-01-01

370

Mass preserving registration for heart MR images.  

PubMed

This paper presents a new algorithm for non-rigid registration between two doubly-connected regions. Our algorithm is based on harmonic analysis and the theory of optimal mass transport. It assumes an underlining continuum model, in which the total amount of mass is exactly preserved during the transformation of tissues. We use a finite element approach to numerically implement the algorithm. PMID:16685954

Zhu, Lei; Haker, Steven; Tannenbaum, Allen

2005-01-01

371

Analysis of preservatives in cosmeticsMethylisothiazolones  

Microsoft Academic Search

SummaryAntimicrobially active formulations based on 2-methyl-3(2H)-isothiazolone and 5-chloro-2-methyl-3(2H)-isothiazolone (Kathon CG, Euxyl K 100) are incorporated into manufactured cosmetics as preservatives. In this paper we report on the analysis of these active components by means of liquid chromatography. It is conventional for the original methylisothiazolone components in cosmetics to be analyzed by reversed phase high-performance liquid chromatography after column chromatographic separation

R. Matissek

1989-01-01

372

Survey of Preservation Efforts in Law Libraries  

Microsoft Academic Search

Ms. Turpening conducted on-site surveys of the preservation efforts and prior- ities of thirty law libraries during 2000-2001. She analyzes the results of these surveys, discusses her observations, and makes recommendations for individ- ual libraries and the leadership of the American Association of Law Libraries. 1 Librarians have taken care of the books in their institutions for hundreds of years.1

Patricia K. Turpening

373

Working Group Proposed to Preserve Archival Records  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The AAS and AIP co-hosted a Workshop in April 2012 with NSF support (AST-1110231) that recommends establishing a Working Group on Time Domain Astronomy (WGTDA) to encourage and advise on preserving historical observations in a form meaningful for future scientific analysis. Participants specifically considered archival observations that could describe how astronomical objects change over time. Modern techniques and increased storage capacity enable extracting additional information from older media. Despite the photographic plate focus, other formats also concerned participants. To prioritize preservation efforts, participants recommended considering the information density, the amount of previously published data, their format and associated materials, their current condition, and their expected deterioration rate. Because the best digitization still produces an observation of an observation, the originals should be retained. For accessibility, participants recommended that observations and their metadata be available digitally and on-line. Standardized systems for classifying, organizing, and listing holdings should enable discovery of historical observations through the Virtual Astronomical Observatory. Participants recommended pilot projects that produce scientific results, demonstrate the dependence of some advances on heritage data, and open new avenues of exploration. Surveying a broad region of the sky with a long time-base and high cadence should reveal new phenomena and improve statistics for rare events. Adequate financial support is essential. While their capacity to produce new science is the primary motivation for preserving astronomical records, their potential for historical research and citizen science allows targeting cultural institutions and other private sources. A committee was elected to prepare the WGTDA proposal. The WGTDA executive committee should be composed of ~10 members representing modern surveys, heritage materials, data management, data standardization and integration, follow-up of time-domain discoveries, and virtual observatories. The Working Group on the Preservation of Astronomical Heritage Web page includes a full report.

Bartlett, Jennifer L.

2013-01-01

374

Fertility preservation for boys with cancer  

Microsoft Academic Search

Childhood cancer is a curable disease due to the development of chemo- and radiation therapies, but long-term survivors suffer\\u000a late side-effects including infertility. Cytotoxic agents and radiation impair spermatogenesis and cause oligospermia or azoospermia\\u000a as well as genetic damage in sperm. To date, the only established option to preserve fertility is cryopreservation of sperm\\u000a before treatment and artificial reproduction techniques,

Kazutoshi Fujita; Akira Tsujimura

2010-01-01

375

Xylan chitosan conjugate - A potential food preservative  

Microsoft Academic Search

Xylan, a hemicellulose extracted from corn cobs, was co-heated with chitosan to prepare a polysaccharide-based food preservative. UV absorbance, browning and fluorescence changes indicated the presence of Maillard reaction between the two reactants. Antioxidant capacities, including 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical-scavenging activity and reducing power, showed that the xylan-chitosan conjugates possessed excellent antioxidant activity depending on the heating time while chitosan or

Xiaoxia Li; Xiaowen Shi; Miao Wang; Yumin Du

2011-01-01

376

43 CFR 3.17 - Preservation of collection.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

43 Public Lands: Interior 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Preservation of collection. 3.17 Section 3.17 Public Lands: Interior Office of the Secretary of the Interior PRESERVATION OF AMERICAN ANTIQUITIES...

2010-10-01

377

36 CFR 13.35 - Preservation of natural features.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-07-01 false Preservation of natural features. 13.35 Section 13.35...Provisions 13.35 Preservation of natural features. (a) This section applies...Monument. (b) Gathering or collecting natural products is prohibited except as...

2013-07-01

378

DCC Digital Curation Manual: Preservation Strategies for Digital Libraries  

E-print Network

Ensuring that digital data remain accessible and reusable over time requires the implementation of proactive, scalable and sustainable preservation strategies. To be of greatest effect, preservation issues must be ...

Holdsworth, David

2007-11-01

379

10 CFR 1303.115 - Preservation of records.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

... 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Preservation of records. 1303.115 Section 1303.115 Energy NUCLEAR WASTE TECHNICAL REVIEW BOARD PUBLIC INFORMATION AND REQUESTS 1303.115 Preservation of records. The Board...

2014-01-01

380

10 CFR 1303.115 - Preservation of records.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

... 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Preservation of records. 1303.115 Section 1303.115 Energy NUCLEAR WASTE TECHNICAL REVIEW BOARD PUBLIC INFORMATION AND REQUESTS 1303.115 Preservation of records. The Board...

2011-01-01

381

10 CFR 1303.115 - Preservation of records.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

... 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Preservation of records. 1303.115 Section 1303.115 Energy NUCLEAR WASTE TECHNICAL REVIEW BOARD PUBLIC INFORMATION AND REQUESTS 1303.115 Preservation of records. The Board...

2010-01-01

382

36 CFR 7.85 - Big Thicket National Preserve.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...chapter. (c) Hunting and Trapping Permits. In addition to...is required for hunting or trapping on Preserve lands. Permits will be available, free of charge, at Preserve headquarters...1) During open hunting or trapping seasons, the possession...

2012-07-01

383

36 CFR 7.85 - Big Thicket National Preserve.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...chapter. (c) Hunting and Trapping Permits. In addition to...is required for hunting or trapping on Preserve lands. Permits will be available, free of charge, at Preserve headquarters...1) During open hunting or trapping seasons, the possession...

2014-07-01

384

36 CFR 7.85 - Big Thicket National Preserve.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...chapter. (c) Hunting and Trapping Permits. In addition to...is required for hunting or trapping on Preserve lands. Permits will be available, free of charge, at Preserve headquarters...1) During open hunting or trapping seasons, the possession...

2013-07-01

385

36 CFR 7.85 - Big Thicket National Preserve.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...chapter. (c) Hunting and Trapping Permits. In addition to...is required for hunting or trapping on Preserve lands. Permits will be available, free of charge, at Preserve headquarters...1) During open hunting or trapping seasons, the possession...

2011-07-01

386

History Preserving Process Graphs R.J. van Glabbeek*  

E-print Network

History Preserving Process Graphs R.J. van a class of process graphs obeying the restriction * *that any state not only uniquely characterizes graph can be unfolded into such a graph. These histor* *y preserving process graphs capture

Pratt, Vaughan

387

14 CFR 136.9 - Life preservers for over water.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Life preservers for over water...Section 136.9 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION...Safety Standards 136.9 Life preservers for over...

2014-01-01

388

14 CFR 136.9 - Life preservers for over water.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Life preservers for over water...Section 136.9 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION...Safety Standards 136.9 Life preservers for over...

2013-01-01

389

Variant of Usher Syndrome Gene Preserves Vision and Balance  

MedlinePLUS

... preserves vision and balance Variant of Usher Syndrome Gene Preserves Vision and Balance Usher syndrome, an inherited, ... mutant copy of any one of several different genes. But surprisingly, some mutations of the same genes ...

390

Riverscape and Groundwater Preservation: A Choice Experiment  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This study presents a quantitative approach to support policy decision making for the preservation of riverscapes, taking into account the EC Water Framework Directive (2000/60/EC) and the EC Nitrates Directive (91/676/EEC) concerning the protection of waters against nitrate pollution from agricultural sources. A choice experiment was applied to evaluate the benefits, as perceived by inhabitants, of the implementation of policies aiming to reduce the concentration of nitrates in groundwater, preserve the riverscape by maintaining a minimum water flow and increasing hedges and woods along the Serio River in central northern Italy. Findings suggested that people were particularly concerned about groundwater quality, probably because it is strongly linked to human health. Nevertheless, it was interesting to observe that people expressed a high willingness to pay for actions that affect the riverscape as a whole (such as the minimum water flow maintenance plus reforestation). This is probably due to the close connection between the riverscape and the functions of the river area for recreation, health purposes, and biodiversity preservation.

Tempesta, T.; Vecchiato, D.

2013-12-01

391

Lattice-preserving Flower Constellations under perturbations  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

2D Lattice Flower Constellations (2D-LFCs) are stable in the Keplerian model. This means that a flower constellation maintains its structure (the lattice) at any instant of time. However, this is not necessarily true when the harmonic is included in the gravitational potential of the Earth. This paper deals with the new theory of Lattice-preserving Flower Constellations, which shows how 2D-LFC can be designed in such a way that the relative displacement of the orbital parameters of its satellites is invariant even under the presence of the effect. This is achieved following two different procedures: the first consists of the modification of the semi-major axis of all the satellites in a 2D-LFC slightly to control their orbital period, and the second consists of the modification of the values for the eccentricity and inclination, so that the perturbations result in motion that still preserves the lattice of the flower constellation. The proposed theory of Lattice-preserving Flower Constellations validates the theory of 3D Lattice Flower Constellations and has a wide range of potential applications.

Casanova, Daniel; Avendao, Martn; Tresaco, Eva

2015-01-01

392

Mass preserving registration for lung CT  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this paper, we evaluate a novel image registration method on a set of expiratory-inspiratory pairs of computed tomography (CT) lung scans. A free-form multi resolution image registration technique is used to match two scans of the same subject. To account for the differences in the lung intensities due to differences in inspiration level, we propose to adjust the intensity of lung tissue according to the local expansion or compression. An image registration method without intensity adjustment is compared to the proposed method. Both approaches are evaluated on a set of 10 pairs of expiration and inspiration CT scans of children with cystic fibrosis lung disease. The proposed method with mass preserving adjustment results in significantly better alignment of the vessel trees. Analysis of local volume change for regions with trapped air compared to normally ventilated regions revealed larger differences between these regions in the case of mass preserving image registration, indicating that mass preserving registration is better at capturing localized differences in lung deformation.

Gorbunova, Vladlena; Lo, Pechin; Loeve, Martine; Tiddens, Harm A.; Sporring, Jon; Nielsen, Mads; de Bruijne, Marleen

2009-02-01

393

SYSTEM BIOLOGY: Biological Systems Theory  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Robustness, a widely used concept in biology, has so far not been well defined. This perspective discusses the theorem formulated by Shinar and Feinberg which shows when a biochemical network exhibits ??absolute concentration robustness.?

Jeremy Gunawardena (Harvard Medical School; Department of Systems Biology)

2010-04-30

394

NASA Biological Specimen Repository  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The NASA Biological Specimen Repository (NBSR) was established in 2006 to collect, process, preserve and distribute spaceflight-related biological specimens from long duration ISS astronauts. This repository provides unique opportunities to study longitudinal changes in human physiology spanning may missions. The NBSR collects blood and urine samples from all participating ISS crewmembers who have provided informed consent. These biological samples are collected once before flight, during flight scheduled on flight days 15, 30, 60, 120 and within 2 weeks of landing. Postflight sessions are conducted 3 and 30 days after landing. The number of in-flight sessions is dependent on the duration of the mission. Specimens are maintained under optimal storage conditions in a manner that will maximize their integrity and viability for future research The repository operates under the authority of the NASA/JSC Committee for the Protection of Human Subjects to support scientific discovery that contributes to our fundamental knowledge in the area of human physiological changes and adaptation to a microgravity environment. The NBSR will institute guidelines for the solicitation, review and sample distribution process through establishment of the NBSR Advisory Board. The Advisory Board will be composed of representatives of all participating space agencies to evaluate each request from investigators for use of the samples. This process will be consistent with ethical principles, protection of crewmember confidentiality, prevailing laws and regulations, intellectual property policies, and consent form language. Operations supporting the NBSR are scheduled to continue until the end of U.S. presence on the ISS. Sample distribution is proposed to begin with selections on investigations beginning in 2017. The availability of the NBSR will contribute to the body of knowledge about the diverse factors of spaceflight on human physiology.

McMonigal, K. A.; Pietrzyk, R. A.; Sams, C. F.; Johnson, M. A.

2010-01-01

395

Gravitational Biology Facility on Space Station: Meeting the needs of space biology  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Gravitational Biology Facility (GBF) is a set of generic laboratory equipment needed to conduct research on Space Station Freedom (SSF), focusing on Space Biology Program science (Cell and Developmental Biology and Plant Biology). The GBF will be functional from the earliest utilization flights through the permanent manned phase. Gravitational biology research will also make use of other Life Sciences equipment on the space station as well as existing equipment developed for the space shuttle. The facility equipment will be developed based on requirements derived from experiments proposed by the scientific community to address critical questions in the Space Biology Program. This requires that the facility have the ability to house a wide variety of species, various methods of observation, and numerous methods of sample collection, preservation, and storage. The selection of the equipment will be done by the members of a scientific working group (5 members representing cell biology, 6 developmental biology, and 6 plant biology) who also provide requirements to design engineers to ensure that the equipment will meet scientific needs. All equipment will undergo extensive ground based experimental validation studies by various investigators addressing a variety of experimental questions. Equipment will be designed to be adaptable to other space platforms. The theme of the Gravitational Biology Facility effort is to provide optimal and reliable equipment to answer the critical questions in Space Biology as to the effects of gravity on living systems.

Allen, Katherine; Wade, Charles

1992-01-01

396

Biologic agents in islet transplantation.  

PubMed

Islet transplantation is today an accepted modality for treating selected patients with frequent hypoglycemic events or severe glycemic lability. Despite tremendous progress in islet isolation, culture, and preservation, clinical use is still restricted to a limited subset, and lifelong immunosuppression is required. Issues surrounding limited islet revascularization and immune destruction remain. One of the major challenges is to prevent alloreactivity and recurrence of autoimmunity against ?-cells. These two hurdles can be effectively reduced by immunosuppressive therapy combining induction and maintenance treatments. The introduction of highly potent and selective biologic agents has significantly reduced the frequency of acute rejection and has prolonged graft survival, while minimizing the complications of this therapeutic scheme. This review will address the most important biological agents used in islet transplantation. We provide a historical perspective of their introduction into clinical practice and their role in current clinical protocols, aiming at improved engraftment efficiency, increased long-term survival, and better overall results of clinical islet transplantation. PMID:23918618

Gala-Lopez, Boris; Pepper, Andrew R; Shapiro, A M James

2013-10-01

397

Convexity Preserving Jump Diffusion Models for Option Pricing  

E-print Network

with using the notion of locally convexity preserving (LCP) operators. This concept was introduced that M = A+B is LCP at all points is necessary for convexity to be preserved. We also show that M is LCP if and only if both A and B are LCP, i.e. The model is convexity preserving = M is LCP at all points

Sidorov, Nikita

398

Preservation of Electronic Scholarly Publishing: An Analysis of Three Approaches  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Scholars publish in journals to preserve their work and to make sure that it is available for current and future researchers. More and more of this publishing is done in electronic format. Libraries, the institutions that have traditionally overseen the preservation of print publications, are now struggling with the preservation of digital

Honey, Sadie L.

2005-01-01

399

Preserving Referential Integrity Constraints in XML Data Transformation  

Microsoft Academic Search

We study the transformation and preservation of XML referential integrity constraints in XML data transformation for integration\\u000a purposes in this paper. In transformation and preservation, we consider XML inclusion dependency and XML foreign key. We show\\u000a how XML referential constraints should be transformed and preserved using important transformation operations with sufficient\\u000a conditions.

Jixue Liu

400

Report on the Preservation Planning Project: University of Pennsylvania Libraries.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The University of Pennsylvania Libraries' Preservation Planning Project was designed to explore new ideas for planning and operating a preservation program for the Penn Library. The first goal of the project was to study the feasibility of an organizational plan that would put the preservation effort under the direction of a small internal staff

Sparks, Peter G., Comp.

401

TREATABILITY OF SPF FRAMING LUMBER WITH CCA AND BORATE PRESERVATIVES  

Microsoft Academic Search

There is increasing interest in preservative pressure-treatment of framing lumber to prevent attack by decay fungi and insects. However, the Spruce - Pine - Fir species group that is often used in framing construction can be difficult to penetrate with preservatives. We compared solution uptake and penetration of boron and copper from a borax - copper (BC) preservative to that

Stan Lebow; Cherilyn Hatfield; William Abbott

1997-01-01

402

7. COMPLETING THE JIGSAW: MANAGING THE DIGITAL PRESERVATION PROCESS  

E-print Network

7. COMPLETING THE JIGSAW: MANAGING THE DIGITAL PRESERVATION PROCESS 7.1 Drawing the strands piece of the jigsaw. However, to achieve the ultimate goal--the long-term preservation of the cultural preservation must complete their part of the jigsaw in as efficient a manner as possible. The following

Carr, Leslie

403

Changes in Parental Depression Symptoms during Family Preservation Services  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Objectives: Parental depression symptoms often change over the course of child welfare family preservation and parenting services. This raises the question of whether certain processes in family preservation services might be associated with depression symptom change. This study tests three correlational models of change among family preservation

Chaffin, Mark; Bard, David

2011-01-01

404

Protected trees A guide to tree preservation procedures  

E-print Network

Protected trees A guide to tree preservation procedures #12;Protected trees A guide to tree trees: A guide to tree preservation procedures Introduction This leaflet is written for tree owners, their neighbours and local community groups, and answers some of the most common questions about tree preservation

405

Leaching of chromated copper arsenate wood preservatives: a review  

Microsoft Academic Search

Recent studies have generated conflicting data regarding the bioaccumulation and toxicity of leachates from preservative-treated wood. Due to the scale of the wood preserving industry, timber treated with the most common preservative, chromated copper arsenate (CCA), may form a significant source of metals in the aquatic environment. The existing literature on leaching of CCA is reviewed, and the numerous factors

J. A Hingston; C. D Collins; R. J Murphy; J. N Lester

2001-01-01

406

21 CFR 150.160 - Fruit preserves and jams.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...JELLIES, PRESERVES, AND RELATED PRODUCTS Requirements for Specific...Jellies, Preserves, and Related Products 150.160 Fruit preserves... (ii) Any combination of apple and one, two, three, or...one-fifth and the weight of apple is not more than...

2010-04-01

407

Video Preservation and Digital Reformatting: Pain and Possibility  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The digital library community is increasingly concerned with long-term preservation of digital materials. This concern presents an opportunity for strategic alliances between digital library units and preservation departments confronting the difficulties inherent in preservation reformatting of moving image materials. However, successful

McDonough, Jerome; Jimenez, Mona

2006-01-01

408

The Commission on Preservation and Access Newsletter. 1994.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The Commission on Preservation and Access was established in 1986 to foster and support collaboration among libraries and allied organizations in order to ensure the preservation of the published and documentary record in all formats and to provide enhanced access to scholarly information. The Commission's newsletter keeps the preservation and

Commission on Preservation and Access Newsletter, 1994

1994-01-01

409

The Future of the Past: Preservation in American Research Libraries.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This report summarizes the challenges and accomplishments in preservation efforts since the early 1960s. The paper gives an overview of the preservation and management of research collections and describes the context in which decisions are made by researchers and librarians about what to preserve and how. By examining how librarians and scholars

Smith, Abby

410

36 CFR 60.6 - Nominations by the State Historic Preservation Officer under approved State Historic Preservation...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

... 2013-07-01 false Nominations by the State Historic Preservation Officer under... NATIONAL PARK SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR NATIONAL REGISTER OF HISTORIC PLACES 60.6 Nominations by the State Historic Preservation Officer...

2013-07-01

411

36 CFR 60.6 - Nominations by the State Historic Preservation Officer under approved State Historic Preservation...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

... 2012-07-01 false Nominations by the State Historic Preservation Officer under... NATIONAL PARK SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR NATIONAL REGISTER OF HISTORIC PLACES 60.6 Nominations by the State Historic Preservation Officer...

2012-07-01

412

36 CFR 60.6 - Nominations by the State Historic Preservation Officer under approved State Historic Preservation...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

... 2014-07-01 false Nominations by the State Historic Preservation Officer under... NATIONAL PARK SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR NATIONAL REGISTER OF HISTORIC PLACES 60.6 Nominations by the State Historic Preservation Officer...

2014-07-01

413

36 CFR 60.6 - Nominations by the State Historic Preservation Officer under approved State Historic Preservation...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

... 2011-07-01 false Nominations by the State Historic Preservation Officer under... NATIONAL PARK SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR NATIONAL REGISTER OF HISTORIC PLACES 60.6 Nominations by the State Historic Preservation Officer...

2011-07-01

414

Doing Biology  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Scientists Joel Hagen, Douglas Allchin, and Fred Singers created the "Doing Biology" book and its accompanying website. They are concerned with reforming science education, and their goal is to have students learn more "about the history and nature of science, about science in practice-about doing biology." The first iteration of their book, which appeared in 1996, contained over a dozen historical case studies arranged in a guided inquiry format. The version on this site contains seventeen different chapters, organized into themes such as cellular biology, evolution, and diversity. Each chapter contains a biography of a scientist, along with a discussion about their work and area of inquiry. The online chapters include "Nettie Stevens & Sex Discrimination," "Peter Mitchell & How Cells Make ATP," and "Lynn Margulis & How Cells Evolved." Additionally, at the conclusion of each chapter, questions and activities can be found.

Allchin, Douglas, 1956-

415

Molecular Biology  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

As more academic institutions seek to incorporate Internet technology into their courses, many instructors must work in a medium that is unfamiliar, with lots of cluttered information, and precious little time. Numerous examples of well-designed course homepages exist and can be used as templates for constructing a course Webpage. Dr. Malcolm Campbell of Davidson College in North Carolina is an award-winning teacher who has produced a logical and interesting new homepage for an upper-level undergraduate Molecular Biology course (Molecular Biology 304). With a syllabus, daily-, and laboratory-schedules, the straightforward site guides students (and anyone else) through the course, building on previous course work, and teaching such concepts as critical thinking, data collection and analysis, and the writing of review papers. Some information at the site is restricted to registered students only, but the accessible information is worthy on its own. A good list of biology (organismal and micro) sites is also provided.

416

Biological Oceanography  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Within the framework of global biogeochemical cycles and ocean productivity, there are two areas that will be of particular interest to biological oceanography in the 1990s. The first is the mapping in space time of the biomass and productivity of phytoplankton in the world ocean. The second area is the coupling of biological and physical processes as it affects the distribution and growth rate of phytoplankton biomass. Certainly other areas will be of interest to biological oceanographers, but these two areas are amenable to observations from satellites. Temporal and spatial variability is a regular feature of marine ecosystems. The temporal and spatial variability of phytoplankton biomass and productivity which is ubiquitous at all time and space scales in the ocean must be characterized. Remote sensing from satellites addresses these problems with global observations of mesocale (2 to 20 days, 10 to 200 km) features over a long period of time.

Abbott, M. R.

1984-01-01

417

Biological preconcentrator  

DOEpatents

A biological preconcentrator comprises a stimulus-responsive active film on a stimulus-producing microfabricated platform. The active film can comprise a thermally switchable polymer film that can be used to selectively absorb and desorb proteins from a protein mixture. The biological microfabricated platform can comprise a thin membrane suspended on a substrate with an integral resistive heater and/or thermoelectric cooler for thermal switching of the active polymer film disposed on the membrane. The active polymer film can comprise hydrogel-like polymers, such as poly(ethylene oxide) or poly(n-isopropylacrylamide), that are tethered to the membrane. The biological preconcentrator can be fabricated with semiconductor materials and technologies.

Manginell, Ronald P. (Albuquerque, NM); Bunker, Bruce C. (Albuquerque, NM); Huber, Dale L. (Albuquerque, NM)

2008-09-09

418

Biological Imaging  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

From investigating development to tracking cancer to nailing down the intricate mechanisms of cell division, scientists are using a bevy of new imaging techniques -- as well as new twists on some old standbys -- to push out the frontiers of biological knowledge. Science explores the state of the art in the field in its 4 April 2003 special issue on biological imaging. This slide show touches on some imaging highlights featured in that issue, as well as some notable accomplishments in bioimaging that have appeared recently in other issues of the journal.

C.L. Rieder (AAAS; )

2003-04-04

419

Quantum biology  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Recent evidence suggests that a variety of organisms may harness some of the unique features of quantum mechanics to gain a biological advantage. These features go beyond trivial quantum effects and may include harnessing quantum coherence on physiologically important timescales. In this brief review we summarize the latest results for non-trivial quantum effects in photosynthetic light harvesting, avian magnetoreception and several other candidates for functional quantum biology. We present both the evidence for and arguments against there being a functional role for quantum coherence in these systems.

Lambert, Neill; Chen, Yueh-Nan; Cheng, Yuan-Chung; Li, Che-Ming; Chen, Guang-Yin; Nori, Franco

2013-01-01

420

Optimization of preservation and storage time of sponge tissues to obtain quality mRNA for next-generation sequencing.  

PubMed

Transcriptome sequencing with next-generation sequencing technologies has the potential for addressing many long-standing questions about the biology of sponges. Transcriptome sequence quality depends on good cDNA libraries, which requires high-quality mRNA. Standard protocols for preserving and isolating mRNA often require optimization for unusual tissue types. Our aim was assessing the efficiency of two preservation modes, (i) flash freezing with liquid nitrogen (LN?) and (ii) immersion in RNAlater, for the recovery of high-quality mRNA from sponge tissues. We also tested whether the long-term storage of samples at -80 C affects the quantity and quality of mRNA. We extracted mRNA from nine sponge species and analysed the quantity and quality (A260/230 and A260/280 ratios) of mRNA according to preservation method, storage time, and taxonomy. The quantity and quality of mRNA depended significantly on the preservation method used (LN?) outperforming RNAlater), the sponge species, and the interaction between them. When the preservation was analysed in combination with either storage time or species, the quantity and A260/230 ratio were both significantly higher for LN?-preserved samples. Interestingly, individual comparisons for each preservation method over time indicated that both methods performed equally efficiently during the first month, but RNAlater lost efficiency in storage times longer than 2 months compared with flash-frozen samples. In summary, we find that for long-term preservation of samples, flash freezing is the preferred method. If LN? is not available, RNAlater can be used, but mRNA extraction during the first month of storage is advised. PMID:22136287

Riesgo, Ana; Prez-Porro, Alicia R; Carmona, Susana; Leys, Sally P; Giribet, Gonzalo

2012-03-01

421

X-ray imaging of biological specimens  

SciTech Connect

I compared alternative techniques for x-ray imaging of biological specimens on the basis of (1) transverse and longitudinal resolution, (2) depth of field, (3) choice of recording medium, and (4) recording efficiency. For all imaging techniques, the dosages received by specimens were so high that the living state cannot be preserved, nor the structural integrity of the specimen be maintained in the usual sense.

Solem, J.C.

1983-01-01

422

An International View of National Biological Surveys  

E-print Network

, beans, chile, and other species to be d, not to mention mapped or un- that used for food. Still, non-utilitarian reasons derstood (May, 1990; Groombridge, 1992; Stork, for preserving biological diversity are expressed 1988... of the surface of the planet and an important versidad (CONABIO). First, we will present argu- part of its waters. Therefore, the information these ments for inventorying existing collections and specimens provide should represent the base...

Soberó n, Jorge; Llorente, Jorge; Benitez, Hesiquio

1996-01-01

423

Anatomical ontologies: names and places in biology  

PubMed Central

Ontology has long been the preserve of philosophers and logicians. Recently, ideas from this field have been picked up by computer scientists as a basis for encoding knowledge and with the hope of achieving interoperability and intelligent system behavior. In bioinformatics, ontologies might allow hitherto impossible query and data-mining activities. We review the use of anatomy ontologies to represent space in biological organisms, specifically mouse and human. PMID:15833128

Baldock, Richard; Burger, Albert

2005-01-01

424

Selection for preservation: considerations for the health sciences.  

PubMed Central

Just as no health sciences library can afford to collect every work on a subject, neither can any health sciences library afford to preserve every item that is added to its collection. In decision making for collection development, health sciences libraries apply a set of selection criteria. Those same criteria have direct application in selection for preservation decisions. This paper summarizes the literature of selection for preservation, describes the scholarly record of biomedicine, and presents criteria for selection for preservation decisions. The preservation priorities statement for microfilming of monographs and serials in the National Library of Medicine collection is included as an appendix. PMID:2758182

Richards, D T; McClure, L W

1989-01-01

425

Specimen Sample Preservation for Cell and Tissue Cultures  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The era of the International Space Station with its longer duration missions will pose unique challenges to microgravity life sciences research. The Space Station Biological Research Project (SSBRP) is responsible for addressing these challenges and defining the science requirements necessary to conduct life science research on-board the International Space Station. Space Station will support a wide range of cell and tissue culture experiments for durations of 1 to 30 days. Space Shuttle flights to bring experimental samples back to Earth for analyses will only occur every 90 days. Therefore, samples may have to be retained for periods up to 60 days. This presents a new challenge in fresh specimen sample storage for cell biology. Fresh specimen samples are defined as samples that are preserved by means other than fixation and cryopreservation. The challenge of long-term storage of fresh specimen samples includes the need to suspend or inhibit proliferation and metabolism pending return to Earth-based laboratories. With this challenge being unique to space research, there have not been any ground based studies performed to address this issue. It was decided hy SSBRP that experiment support studies to address the following issues were needed: Fixative Solution Management; Media Storage Conditions; Fresh Specimen Sample Storage of Mammalian Cell/Tissue Cultures; Fresh Specimen Sample Storage of Plant Cell/Tissue Cultures; Fresh Specimen Sample Storage of Aquatic Cell/Tissue Cultures; and Fresh Specimen Sample Storage of Microbial Cell/Tissue Cultures. The objective of these studies was to derive a set of conditions and recommendations that can be used in a long duration microgravity environment such as Space Station that will permit extended storage of cell and tissue culture specimens in a state consistent with zero or minimal growth, while at the same time maintaining their stability and viability.

Meeker, Gabrielle; Ronzana, Karolyn; Schibner, Karen; Evans, Robert

1996-01-01

426

EBV Immortalization of human B lymphocytes separated from small volumes of cryo-preserved whole blood.  

PubMed

EBV immortalized B lymphocyte cell lines have been extensively used as a source of biological material for functional and molecular studies and represent a potentially limitless source of genomic DNA. Current technologies for EBV transformation are costly and use relatively large volumes of peripheral blood. Alternative methods were examined to determine whether smaller volumes of cryo-preserved whole blood could be subsequently transformed and which could provide a more cost-effective strategy for large population-based studies such as UK Biobank. A successful method was established where viable B cells were positively selected from 0.5 ml cryo-preserved whole blood samples. These were EBV transformed in microtitre plates and subsequently expanded in culture. A pilot study within UK Biobank was performed, which confirmed its potential usefulness for this study. PMID:18381392

Amoli, M M; Carthy, D; Platt, H; Ollier, W E R

2008-04-01

427

Sperm Preservation by Freeze-Drying for the Conservation of Wild Animals  

PubMed Central

Sperm preservation is a useful technique for the maintenance of biological resources in experimental and domestic animals, and in wild animals. A new preservation method has been developed that enables sperm to be stored for a long time in a refrigerator at 4C. Sperm are freeze-dried in a solution containing 10 mM Tris and 1 mM EDTA. Using this method, liquid nitrogen is not required for the storage and transportation of sperm. We demonstrate that chimpanzee, giraffe, jaguar, weasel and the long-haired rat sperm remain viable after freeze-drying. In all species, pronuclei were formed after the injection of freeze-dried sperm into the mouse oocytes. Although preliminary, these results may be useful for the future establishment of freeze-drying zoo to conserve wild animals. PMID:25409172

Kaneko, Takehito; Ito, Hideyuki; Sakamoto, Hidefusa; Onuma, Manabu; Inoue-Murayama, Miho

2014-01-01

428

Sperm preservation by freeze-drying for the conservation of wild animals.  

PubMed

Sperm preservation is a useful technique for the maintenance of biological resources in experimental and domestic animals, and in wild animals. A new preservation method has been developed that enables sperm to be stored for a long time in a refrigerator at 4 C. Sperm are freeze-dried in a solution containing 10 mM Tris and 1 mM EDTA. Using this method, liquid nitrogen is not required for the storage and transportation of sperm. We demonstrate that chimpanzee, giraffe, jaguar, weasel and the long-haired rat sperm remain viable after freeze-drying. In all species, pronuclei were formed after the injection of freeze-dried sperm into the mouse oocytes. Although preliminary, these results may be useful for the future establishment of "freeze-drying zoo" to conserve wild animals. PMID:25409172

Kaneko, Takehito; Ito, Hideyuki; Sakamoto, Hidefusa; Onuma, Manabu; Inoue-Murayama, Miho

2014-01-01

429

Biological Semiconductors  

Cancer.gov

Fabrication using printing technologies of electrical percolation biological semiconductors (BSC) can facilitate assembly of numerous types of gates containing various ligands (e.g., antibodies, DNA, etc.) and can be used to assemble many of such gates on the same chip.

430

Field Biology  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This field biology class uses a service-learning project instead of a course term paper. The students worked with 4th and 5th graders at a local school to teach them skills in wildflower and fern identification, and then to help them implement a nature trail, which will be accessible to the greater community.

Course taught by Nancy Prentiss, University of Maine-Farmington, prentiss@maine.edu. Example compiled by Suzanne Savanick, Science Education Resource Center, ssavanic@carleton.edu.

431

Biology Notes.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes equipment, activities, and experiments useful in biology and environmental education instruction, including, among others, sampling in ecology using an overhead projector, the slide finder as an aid to microscopy, teaching kidney function, and teaching wildlife conservation-sand dune systems. (SK)

School Science Review, 1980

1980-01-01

432

Biology Notes.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Organized by topic is a reading list for A- and S-level biology. Described are experiments for measuring rate of water uptake in a shoot; questions to aid students in designing experiments; rise of overhead projection to demonstrate osmosis and blood cell counting; and microbial manufacture of vinegar. (CS)

School Science Review, 1979

1979-01-01

433

Biology Notes  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes nine biology experiments, including osmosis, genetics; oxygen content of blood, enzymes in bean seedlings, preparation of bird skins, vascularization in bean seedlings, a game called "sequences" (applied to review situations), crossword puzzle for human respiration, and physiology of the woodlouse. (CS)

School Science Review, 1976

1976-01-01

434

Biology Notes.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Presents information on the teaching of nutrition (including new information relating to many current O-level syllabi) and part 16 of a reading list for A- and S-level biology. Also includes a note on using earthworms as a source of material for teaching meiosis. (JN)

School Science Review, 1984

1984-01-01

435

(Biological dosimetry)  

SciTech Connect

The traveler attended the 1st International Conference on Biological Dosimetry in Madrid, Spain. This conference was organized to provide information to a general audience of biologists, physicists, radiotherapists, industrial hygiene personnel and individuals from related fields on the current ability of cytogenetic analysis to provide estimates of radiation dose in cases of occupational or environmental exposure. There is a growing interest in Spain in biological dosimetry because of the increased use of radiation sources for medical and occupational uses, and with this the anticipated and actual increase in numbers of overexposure. The traveler delivered the introductory lecture on Biological Dosimetry: Mechanistic Concepts'' that was intended to provide a framework by which the more applied lectures could be interpreted in a mechanistic way. A second component of the trip was to provide advice with regard to several recent cases of overexposure that had been or were being assessed by the Radiopathology and Radiotherapy Department of the Hospital General Gregorio Maranon'' in Madrid. The traveler had provided information on several of these, and had analyzed cells from some exposed or purportedly exposed individuals. The members of the biological dosimetry group were referred to individuals at REACTS at Oak Ridge Associated Universities for advice on follow-up treatment.

Preston, R.J.

1990-12-17

436

Marine Biology  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A variety of informational material for a course in marine biology or oceanology at the secondary level is presented. Among the topics discussed are: food webs and pyramids, planktonic blooms, marine life, plankton nets, food chains, phytoplankton, zooplankton, larval plankton and filter feeders. (BT)

Dewees, Christopher M.; Hooper, Jon K.

1976-01-01

437

Cancer Biology  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

University of Colorado's Virtual Student Fellowship available at and developed by Bakemeier, Richard F. This website is designed to give students applying for a fellowship an overview of basic topics in biology and how they are used by cancer researchers to develop new treatments.

Dominiecki, Mary E.

2004-01-01

438

Biological Molecules  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Paul Anderson describes the four major biological molecules found in living things. He begins with a brief discussion of polymerization. Dehydration synthesis is used to connect monomers into polymers and hydrolysis breaks them down again. The major characteristics of nucleic acids are described as well as there directionality from 3' to 5' end.

Paul Anderson

2013-03-12

439

Biologic Vaccines  

PubMed Central

The threat of new disease pandemics has spurred the development of biologic vaccines, which promise tremendous improvements in global and local health. Several lend themselves to the prevention or treatment of chronic diseases. But the uncertainties of whom to vaccinate raise the question of whether the health care system can make these promising products viable. PMID:22478749

ADAMS, KATHERINE T.

2009-01-01

440

Fertility preservation and breast cancer: a review  

PubMed Central

Breast cancer is the most common malignancy in women, and its incidence increases with age, with the majority of patients diagnosed after menopause. However, in 1525% of cases, patients are premenopausal at the time of diagnosis, and about 7% of them are below the age of 40. Therefore, a considerable amount of young women are diagnosed with breast cancer during their reproductive life. Within this group, most cancer cases require cytotoxic chemotherapy and/or hormone therapy, which are responsible for a decrease in the patients reproductive function, along with their age. The efficacy of such treatments, among other factors, has led to a high five-year-survival rate, which results in an increasing number of young women who survive breast cancer before having fulfilled their reproductive wishes, especially considering the current trend to delay pregnancy until the late 30s or early 40s in developed countries. The combination of these factors justifies the importance of fertility preservation and reproductive counselling at the time of breast cancer diagnosis in young women. A wide range of fertility preservation techniques has been developed, such as ovarian suppression, oocyte and embryo cryopreservation, immature oocyte retrieval and in vitro maturation, and ovarian tissue cryopreservation. Early counselling and referral of these patients to fertility specialists are fundamental factors in order to maximise their chances of pregnancy. This review aims to update the knowledge about the influence of breast cancer in fertility, the influence of pregnancy and fertility preservation techniques in breast cancer patients and assessment of ovarian reserve for a better treatment choice. A special section dedicated to BRCA-mutation carriers has been included because of their specific features. A comprehensive literature search has been conducted, including publications from the last five years. PMID:25729416

de Pedro, Mara; Otero, Borja; Martn, Beln

2015-01-01

441

Fertility preservation and breast cancer: a review.  

PubMed

Breast cancer is the most common malignancy in women, and its incidence increases with age, with the majority of patients diagnosed after menopause. However, in 15-25% of cases, patients are premenopausal at the time of diagnosis, and about 7% of them are below the age of 40. Therefore, a considerable amount of young women are diagnosed with breast cancer during their reproductive life. Within this group, most cancer cases require cytotoxic chemotherapy and/or hormone therapy, which are responsible for a decrease in the patients' reproductive function, along with their age. The efficacy of such treatments, among other factors, has led to a high five-year-survival rate, which results in an increasing number of young women who survive breast cancer before having fulfilled their reproductive wishes, especially considering the current trend to delay pregnancy until the late 30s or early 40s in developed countries. The combination of these factors justifies the importance of fertility preservation and reproductive counselling at the time of breast cancer diagnosis in young women. A wide range of fertility preservation techniques has been developed, such as ovarian suppression, oocyte and embryo cryopreservation, immature oocyte retrieval and in vitro maturation, and ovarian tissue cryopreservation. Early counselling and referral of these patients to fertility specialists are fundamental factors in order to maximise their chances of pregnancy. This review aims to update the knowledge about the influence of breast cancer in fertility, the influence of pregnancy and fertility preservation techniques in breast cancer patients and assessment of ovarian reserve for a better treatment choice. A special section dedicated to BRCA-mutation carriers has been included because of their specific features. A comprehensive literature search has been conducted, including publications from the last five years. PMID:25729416

de Pedro, Mara; Otero, Borja; Martn, Beln

2015-01-01

442

Simplified field preservation of tissues for subsequent DNA analyses.  

PubMed

Successful DNA-based identification of mass disaster victims depends on acquiring tissues that are not highly degraded. In this study, multiple protocols for field preservation of tissues for later DNA analysis were tested. Skin and muscle samples were collected from decaying pig carcasses. Tissues were preserved using cold storage, desiccation, or room temperature storage in preservative solutions for up to 6 months. DNA quality was assessed through amplification of successively larger segments of nuclear DNA. Solution-based storage, including a DMSO/NaCl/EDTA mixture, alcohols, and RNAlater preserved DNA of the highest quality, refrigeration was intermediate, and desiccation was least effective. Tissue type and extent of decomposition significantly affected stored DNA quality. Overall, the results indicate that any tissue preservation attempt is far superior to delaying or forgoing preservation efforts, and that simple, inexpensive methods can be highly effective in preserving DNA, thus should be initiated as quickly as possible. PMID:21480896

Michaud, Corinne L; Foran, David R

2011-07-01

443

Pennsylvania Historical & Museum Commission: State Historic Preservation Office  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Most states have some type of historic preservation office to coordinate preservation activities. The Commonwealth of Pennsylvania has a very active preservation office and this website brings together a number of their publications and resources. Near the top of the page visitors will find two key items: the state's long-term preservation plan and the document titled "Economic Benefits of Historic Preservation Activities in Pennsylvania." The preservation plan may serve to inspire and edify those working in the field and it's a nice roadmap for those working in related fields, such as museum management. The second document highlights some of the long- and short-term benefits of sustained historic preservation activities from Philadelphia to Erie. Moving along, the site includes areas like Programs, Resources, and Initiatives. This last area is a real gem, as it features a tool designed to protect agricultural resources and a very fine field guide to the architectural types and styles that prevail throughout the Keystone State.

2012-08-31

444

Non-Markovian environments and entanglement preservation  

SciTech Connect

Using the Shabani-Lidar post-Markovian master equation, we derive non-Markovian generalizations of important quantum decohering operations on single qubits. When environmental memory effects are being taken into account, both single-qubit coherence and two-qubit entanglement may be preserved over a longer period of time, in contrast to the corresponding situations where these are totally neglected. We argue that recognizing the fact that every environment is inherently non-Markovian could be the key to the resolution of the issue of entanglement sudden death.

Tan, Jackson; Kyaw, Thi Ha; Yeo, Ye [Department of Physics, National University of Singapore, 10 Kent Ridge Crescent, Singapore 119260 (Singapore)

2010-06-15

445

Data Preservation in High Energy Physics  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The quest for matter intimate structure have required increasingly powerful experimental devices, stimulated by the experimental discoveries and technological advances. In most cases the next generation collider operates at a higher energy frontier or intensity than the previous one. With the increasing costs and complexity of the experimental installation, the produced data became unique and non-reproducible. In turn, the re-use of old data may lead to original results when new paradigms and hypothesis can be cross-checked against the previous experimental conditions. The data preservation in high energy physics appears to be a complicated though necessary task and an international effort is being developed since a several years.

Diaconu, Cristinel; Kraml, Sabine

446

Plasma Technology as a New Preservation Technique  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The preliminary results of using the surface wave discharge at the atmospheric pressure on groups of lentils and sherry Fino wine samples are presented. In this research, the capability of active species and UV radiation from the plasma, has been assessed on preservation of food. Besides, the generation and emission of both excited molecules in a metastable state N2}(B3? {g-> A3}? u{+) and the de-excitation of species NO(A2}? {+) producing UV radiation have been also studied.

Rincn, R.; Calzada, M. D.

447

Preserved Musical Semantic Memory in Semantic Dementia  

PubMed Central

Objective To understand the scope of semantic impairment in semantic dementia. Design Case study. Setting Academic medical center. Patient A man with semantic dementia, as demonstrated by clinical, neuropsychological, and imaging studies. Main Outcome Measures Music performance and magnetic resonance imaging results. Results Despite profoundly impaired semantic memory for words and objects due to left temporal lobe atrophy, this semiprofessional musician was creative and expressive in demonstrating preserved musical knowledge. Conclusion Long-term representations of words and objects in semantic memory may be dissociated from meaningful knowledge in other domains, such as music. PMID:21320991

Weinstein, Jessica; Koenig, Phyllis; Gunawardena, Delani; McMillan, Corey; Bonner, Michael; Grossman, Murray

2012-01-01

448

Biological Warfare  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The following Web sites offer reliable information resources addressing biological warfare and related issues. The first Web site, from the Mayo Clinic, provides a brief overview of the agents commonly used in biological and chemical warfare -- such as anthrax, tularemia, and ricin (1). Links to related Mayo or CDC Web pages are also provided for further information. The next site contains a collection of articles on bioterrorism and bioweapons from the science news magazine NewScientist, spanning a range of about 4 years (2). Geneticists have determined which genes code for virulence in anthrax bacteria; the online version of Scientific American offers a recent article on this discovery (3). The Genetics Learning Center at the Eccles Institute of Human Genetics (University of Utah) takes a look a common misconceptions about biological warfare and provides and interesting overview of biological warfare programs in the US and beyond (4). The site also introduces Dark Winter, a fictional smallpox attack scenario staged by a collaboration of research organizations in June of 2001. Readers can find out more about Dark Winter in the following Web site from the Center for Civilian Biodefense Studies at John Hopkins University, one of the participating organizations (5). Biosecurity and Bioterrorism, a recently launched quarterly peer-reviewed journal, may be accessed online for free (6). The journal offers "multidisciplinary analyses and a vigorous exchange of perspectives that are essential to the formulation and implementation of successful strategies to diminish the threat of bioweapons." The last two sites are from MEDLINEplus, offering detailed information and numerous links of biological (7) and chemical (8) warfare.

Sohmer, Rachel.

2003-01-01

449

Ceramic adhesive restorations and biomimetic dentistry: tissue preservation and adhesion.  

PubMed

Thanks to sophisticated adhesive techniques in contemporary dentistry, and the development of composite and ceramic materials, it is possible to reproduce a biomimetic match between substitution materials and natural teeth substrates. Biomimetics or bio-emulation allows for the association of two fundamental parameters at the heart of current therapeutic treatments: tissue preservation and adhesion. This contemporary concept makes the retention of the integrity of the maximum amount of dental tissue possible, while offering exceptional clinical longevity, and maximum esthetic results. It permits the conservation of the biological, esthetic, biomechanical and functional properties of enamel and dentin. Today, it is clearly possible to develop preparations allowing for the conservation of the enamel and dentin in order to bond partial restorations in the anterior and posterior sectors therefore limiting, as Professor Urs Belser from Geneva indicates, "the replacement of previous deficient crowns and devitalized teeth whose conservation are justified but whose residual structural state are insufficient for reliable bonding."1 This article not only addresses ceramic adhesive restoration in the anterior area, the ambassadors of biomimetic dentistry, but also highlights the possibility of occasionally integrating one or two restorations at the heart of the smile as a complement to extensive rehabilitations that require more invasive treatment. PMID:25126616

Tirlet, Gil; Crescenzo, Hlne; Crescenzo, Dider; Bazos, Panaghiotis

2014-01-01

450

Ancient dna from pleistocene fossils: Preservation, recovery, and utility of ancient genetic information for quaternary research  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Until recently, recovery and analysis of genetic information encoded in ancient DNA sequences from Pleistocene fossils were impossible. Recent advances in molecular biology offered technical tools to obtain ancient DNA sequences from well-preserved Quaternary fossils and opened the possibilities to directly study genetic changes in fossil species to address various biological and paleontological questions. Ancient DNA studies involving Pleistocene fossil material and ancient DNA degradation and preservation in Quaternary deposits are reviewed. The molecular technology applied to isolate, amplify, and sequence ancient DNA is also presented. Authentication of ancient DNA sequences and technical problems associated with modern and ancient DNA contamination are discussed. As illustrated in recent studies on ancient DNA from proboscideans, it is apparent that fossil DNA sequence data can shed light on many aspects of Quaternary research such as systematics and phylogeny. conservation biology, evolutionary theory, molecular taphonomy, and forensic sciences. Improvement of molecular techniques and a better understanding of DNA degradation during fossilization are likely to build on current strengths and to overcome existing problems, making fossil DNA data a unique source of information for Quaternary scientists.

Yang, Hong

451

Molecular Cell Biology Cell Biology and Anatomy ----------------------------------------------------------------------------  

E-print Network

Molecular Cell Biology A G C T 14 Cell Biology and Anatomy associated proteins (MAPs) using molecular cell biology, biophysics, structural biology, and molecular genetics. ·Molecular cell biological study of KIFs ·Studies of the mechanism for recognition of and binding

Miyashita, Yasushi

452

Biological Sequence Analysis 1 Biological Sequence Analysis  

E-print Network

Biological Sequence Analysis 1 Biological Sequence Analysis and Motif Discovery Introductory University http://www.fas.harvard.edu/~junliu jliu@stat.harvard.edu #12;Biological Sequence Analysis 2 Topics to be covered · Basic Biology: DNA, RNA, Protein; genetic code. · Biological Sequence Analysis ­ Pairwise

Liu, Jun

453

Human Retinal Progenitor Cell Transplantation Preserves Vision*  

PubMed Central

Cell transplantation is a potential therapeutic strategy for retinal degenerative diseases involving the loss of photoreceptors. However, it faces challenges to clinical translation due to safety concerns and a limited supply of cells. Human retinal progenitor cells (hRPCs) from fetal neural retina are expandable in vitro and maintain an undifferentiated state. This study aimed to investigate the therapeutic potential of hRPCs transplanted into a Royal College of Surgeons (RCS) rat model of retinal degeneration. At 12 weeks, optokinetic response showed that hRPC-grafted eyes had significantly superior visual acuity compared with vehicle-treated eyes. Histological evaluation of outer nuclear layer (ONL) characteristics such as ONL thickness, spread distance, and cell count demonstrated a significantly greater preservation of the ONL in hRPC-treated eyes compared with both vehicle-treated and control eyes. The transplanted hRPCs arrested visual decline over time in the RCS rat and rescued retinal morphology, demonstrating their potential as a therapy for retinal diseases. We suggest that the preservation of visual acuity was likely achieved through host photoreceptor rescue. We found that hRPC transplantation into the subretinal space of RCS rats was well tolerated, with no adverse effects such as tumor formation noted at 12 weeks after treatment. PMID:24407289

Luo, Jing; Baranov, Petr; Patel, Sherrina; Ouyang, Hong; Quach, John; Wu, Frances; Qiu, Austin; Luo, Hongrong; Hicks, Caroline; Zeng, Jing; Zhu, Jing; Lu, Jessica; Sfeir, Nicole; Wen, Cindy; Zhang, Meixia; Reade, Victoria; Patel, Sara; Sinden, John; Sun, Xiaodong; Shaw, Peter; Young, Michael; Zhang, Kang

2014-01-01

454

Privacy-preserving heterogeneous health data sharing  

PubMed Central

Objective Privacy-preserving data publishing addresses the problem of disclosing sensitive data when mining for useful information. Among existing privacy models, ?-differential privacy provides one of the strongest privacy guarantees and makes no assumptions about an adversary's background knowledge. All existing solutions that ensure ?-differential privacy handle the problem of disclosing relational and set-valued data in a privacy-preserving manner separately. In this paper, we propose an algorithm that considers both relational and set-valued data in differentially private disclosure of healthcare data. Methods The proposed approach makes a simple yet fundamental switch in differentially private algorithm design: instead of listing all possible records (ie, a contingency table) for noise addition, records are generalized before noise addition. The algorithm first generalizes the raw data in a probabilistic way, and then adds noise to guarantee ?-differential privacy. Results We showed that the disclosed data could be used effectively to build a decision tree induction classifier. Experimental results demonstrated that the proposed algorithm is scalable and performs better than existing solutions for classification analysis. Limitation The resulting utility may degrade when the output domain size is very large, making it potentially inappropriate to generate synthetic data for large health databases. Conclusions Unlike existing techniques, the proposed algorithm allows the disclosure of health data containing both relational and set-valued data in a differentially private manner, and can retain essential information for discriminative analysis. PMID:23242630

Mohammed, Noman; Jiang, Xiaoqian; Chen, Rui; Fung, Benjamin C M; Ohno-Machado, Lucila

2013-01-01

455

Topology preserving thinning of cell complexes.  

PubMed

A topology preserving skeleton is a synthetic representation of an object that retains its topology and many of its significant morphological properties. The process of obtaining the skeleton, referred to as skeletonization or thinning, is a very active research area. It plays a central role in reducing the amount of information to be processed during image analysis and visualization, computer-aided diagnosis, or by pattern recognition algorithms. This paper introduces a novel topology preserving thinning algorithm, which removes simple cells-a generalization of simple points-of a given cell complex. The test for simple cells is based on acyclicity tables automatically produced in advance with homology computations. Using acyclicity tables render the implementation of thinning algorithms straightforward. Moreover, the fact that tables are automatically filled for all possible configurations allows to rigorously prove the generality of the algorithm and to obtain fool-proof implementations. The novel approach enables, for the first time, according to our knowledge, to thin a general unstructured simplicial complex. Acyclicity tables for cubical and simplicial complexes and an open source implementation of the thinning algorithm are provided as an additional material to allow their immediate use in the vast number of applications arising in medical imaging and beyond. PMID:25137728

Dlotko, Pawel; Specogna, Ruben

2014-10-01

456

Endothelium Preserving Microwave Treatment for Atherosclerosis  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Method and apparatus are provided to treat atherosclerosis wherein the artery is partially closed by dilating the artery while preserving the vital and sensitive endothelial layer thereof. Microwave energy having a frequency from 3 GHz to 300 GHz is propagated into the arterial wall to produce a desired temperature profile therein at tissue depths sufficient for thermally necrosing connective tissue and softening fatty and waxy plaque while limiting heating of surrounding tissues including the endothelial layer and/or other healthy tissue, organs, and blood. The heating period for raising the temperature a potentially desired amount, about 20 C. within the atherosclerotic lesion may be less than about one second. In one embodiment of the invention, a radically beveled waveguide antenna is used to deliver microwave energy at frequencies from 25 GHz or 30 GHz to about 300 GHz and is focused towards a particular radial sector of the artery. Because the atherosclerotic lesions are often asymmetrically disposed directable or focussed heating preserves healthy sectors of the artery and applies energy to the asymmetrically positioned lesion faster than a non-directed beam. A computer simulation predicts isothermic temperature profiles for the given conditions and may be used in selecting power, pulse duration, beam width, and frequency of operation to maximize energy deposition and control heat rise within the atherosclerotic lesion without harming healthy tissues or the sensitive endothelium cells.

Carl, James R. (Inventor); Arndt, G. Dickey (Inventor); Fink, Patrick W. (Inventor); Beer, N. Reginald (Inventor); Henry, Phillip D. (Inventor); Pacifico, Antonio (Inventor); Raffoul, George W. (Inventor)

2001-01-01

457

Endothelium Preserving Microwave Treatment for Atherosclerosis  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Method and apparatus are provided to treat atherosclerosis wherein the artery is partially closed by dilating the artery while preserving the vital and sensitive endothelial layer thereof Microwave energy having a frequency from 3 GHz to 300 GHz is propagated into the arterial wall to produce a desired temperature profile therein at tissue depths sufficient for thermally necrosing connective tissue and softening fatty and waxy plaque while limiting heating of surrounding tissues including the endothelial laser and/or other healthy tissue, organs, and blood. The heating period for raising the temperature a potentially desired amount, about 20 C., within the atherosclerotic lesion may be less than about one second. In one embodiment of the invention, a radically beveled waveguide antenna is used to deliver microwave energy at frequencies from 25 GHz or 30 GHz to about 300 GHz and is focused towards a particular radial sector of the artery. Because the atherosclerotic lesions are often asymmetrically disposed, directable of focussed heating preserves healthy sectors of the artery and applies energy to the asymmetrically positioned lesion faster than a non-directed beam. A computer simulation predicts isothermic temperature profiles for the given conditions and man be used in selecting power, pulse duration, beam width, and frequency of operation to maximize energy deposition and control heat rise within the atherosclerotic lesion without harming healthy tissues or the sensitive endothelium cells.

Carl, James R. (Inventor); Arndt, G. Dickey (Inventor); Fink, Patrick W. (Inventor); Beer, N. Reginald (Inventor); Henry, Phillip D. (Inventor); Pacifico, Antonio (Inventor); Raffoul, George W. (Inventor)

2000-01-01

458

Salient region preservation for image deformation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We present an interactive image deformation method which preserves the local shapes of salient objects in the concerned image during the deformation. The proposed method falls into the moving least squares (MLS) framework, but notably differs from the original MLS deformation method. First, a saliency-related distance is developed to replace the original Euclidean distance in the weight definition. Second, the original affine matrix is decomposed into a single rotation matrix and a symmetric matrix by using a singular value decomposition, then the free parameters of these matrices are interpolated according to the saliency information. Furthermore, for the line-based MLS deformation, the closed-form solution of weight cannot be found directly when using the proposed saliency-based distance. To address this problem, we propose a method using an exponential transformation to regulate the weight where the regulation factor is also correlated to saliency information. All these revisions lead a saliency-sensitive mapping which creates a deformation change in the nonvital parts of image while preserving the local shapes of salient parts. Experimental results show that the proposed deformation outperforms the original MLS deformation in terms of visual performance.

Zhang, Yong; Lai, Jianhuang; Yuen, Pong C.; Xie, Xiaohua

2014-11-01

459

Preservation of Microbial Lipids in Geothermal Sinters  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Lipid biomarkers are widely used to study the earliest life on Earth and have been invoked as potential astrobiological markers, but few studies have assessed their survival and persistence in geothermal settings. Here, we investigate lipid preservation in active and inactive geothermal silica sinters, with ages of up to 900 years, from Champagne Pool, Waiotapu, New Zealand. Analyses revealed a wide range of bacterial biomarkers, including free and bound fatty acids, 1,2-di-O-alkylglycerols (diethers), and various hopanoids. Dominant archaeal lipids include archaeol and glycerol dialkyl glycerol tetraethers (GDGTs). The predominance of generally similar biomarker groups in all sinters suggests a stable microbial community throughout Champagne Pool's history and indicates that incorporated lipids can be well preserved. Moreover, subtle differences in lipid distributions suggest that past changes in environmental conditions can be elucidated. In this case, higher archaeol abundances relative to the bacterial diethers, a greater proportion of cyclic GDGTs, the high average chain length of the bacterial diethers, and greater concentrations of hopanoic acids in the older sinters all suggest hotter conditions at Champagne Pool in the past.

Kaur, Gurpreet; Mountain, Bruce W.; Hopmans, Ellen C.; Pancost, Richard D.

2011-04-01

460

Carbonaceous preservation of Cambrian hexactinellid sponge spicules  

PubMed Central

Early fossil sponges offer a direct window onto the evolutionary emergence of animals, but insights are limited by the paucity of characters preserved in the conventional fossil record. Here, a new preservational mode for sponge spicules is reported from the lower Cambrian Forteau Formation (Newfoundland, Canada), prompting a re-examination of proposed homologies and sponge inter-relationships. The spicules occur as wholly carbonaceous films, and are interpreted as the remains of robust organic spicule sheaths. Comparable sheaths are restricted among living taxa to calcarean sponges, although the symmetries of the fossil spicules are characteristic of hexactinellid sponges. A similar extinct character combination has been documented in the Burgess Shale fossil Eiffelia. Interpreting the shared characters as homologous implies complex patterns of spicule evolution, but an alternative interpretation as convergent autapomorphies is more parsimonious. In light of the mutually exclusive distributions of these same characters among the crown groups, this result suggests that sponges exhibited an early episode of disparity expansion followed by comparatively constrained evolution, a pattern shared with many other metazoans but obscured by the conventional fossil record of sponges. PMID:20554559

Harvey, Thomas H. P.

2010-01-01

461

Nested Krylov methods and preserving the orthogonality  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Recently the GMRESR inner-outer iteraction scheme for the solution of linear systems of equations was proposed by Van der Vorst and Vuik. Similar methods have been proposed by Axelsson and Vassilevski and Saad (FGMRES). The outer iteration is GCR, which minimizes the residual over a given set of direction vectors. The inner iteration is GMRES, which at each step computes a new direction vector by approximately solving the residual equation. However, the optimality of the approximation over the space of outer search directions is ignored in the inner GMRES iteration. This leads to suboptimal corrections to the solution in the outer iteration, as components of the outer iteration directions may reenter in the inner iteration process. Therefore we propose to preserve the orthogonality relations of GCR in the inner GMRES iteration. This gives optimal corrections; however, it involves working with a singular, non-symmetric operator. We will discuss some important properties, and we will show by experiments that, in terms of matrix vector products, this modification (almost) always leads to better convergence. However, because we do more orthogonalizations, it does not always give an improved performance in CPU-time. Furthermore, we will discuss efficient implementations as well as the truncation possibilities of the outer GCR process. The experimental results indicate that for such methods it is advantageous to preserve the orthogonality in the inner iteration. Of course we can also use iteration schemes other than GMRES as the inner method; methods with short recurrences like GICGSTAB are of interest.

Desturler, Eric; Fokkema, Diederik R.

1993-01-01

462

Endothelium Preserving Microwave Treatment for Atherosclerosis  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Method and apparatus are provided to treat atherosclerosis wherein the artery is partially closed by dilating the artery while preserving the vital and sensitive endothelial layer thereof. Microwave energy having a frequency from 3 GHz to 300 GHz is propagated into the arterial wall to produce a desired temperature profile therein at tissue depths sufficient for thermally necrosing connective tissue and softening fatty and waxy plaque while limiting heating of surrounding tissues including the endothelial layer and/or other healthy tissue, organs, and blood. The heating period for raising the temperature a potentially desired amount, about 20 C. within the atherosclerotic lesion may be less than about one second. In one embodiment of the invention, a radically beveled waveguide antenna is used to deliver microwave energy at frequencies from 25 GHz or 30 GHz to about 300 GHz and is focused towards a particular radial sector of the artery. Because the atherosclerotic lesions are often asymmetrically disposed, directable or focussed heating preserves healthy sectors or the artery and applies energy to the asymmetrically positioned lesion faster than a non-directed bean. A computer simulation predicts isothermic temperature profiles for the given conditions and may be used in selecting power, pulse duration, beam width, and frequency of operation to maximize energy deposition and control heat rise within the atherosclerotic lesion without harming healthy tissues or the sensitive endothelium cells.

Carl, James R. (Inventor); Arndt, Dickey (Inventor); Fink, Patrick W. (Inventor); Beer, Reginald (Inventor); Henry, Phillip D. (Inventor); Pacifico, Antonio (Inventor); Raffoul, George W. (Inventor)

2002-01-01

463

BIOLOGICAL SCIENCES Contemporary biological science  

E-print Network

-equipped research laboratories, including core laboratories for protein analysis, molecular biology, microscopic imaging and cell culture work. Major instrumentation is available for protein sequencing, amino acid analysis, peptide synthesis, DNA sequencing and synthesis, PCR and carbohydrate analysis, as well as state

464

BIOLOGICAL SCIENCES Contemporary biological science  

E-print Network

-equipped research laboratories, including core laboratories for protein analysis, molecular biology, microscopic imaging and cell culture work. Major instrumentation is available for protein sequencing, amino acid analysis, peptide synthesis, PCR and carbohydrate analysis, as well as state-of-the-art cell culture

465

Preservation Conditions, Practices, and Needs in the General Libraries. A Report by the Preservation Committee.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The survey documented in this report was conducted in 1981 to investigate the preservation conditions, practices, and needs of the units of the University of Texas at Austin General Libraries. The report is divided into six major portions. The first five sections report the responses to questionnaires on specific formats: books and serials;

Texas Univ., Austin. General Libraries.

466

Germplasm Preservation of Vegetatively-propagated Crops at the National Center for Genetic Resources Preservation  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Out of 476,049 germplasm accessions maintained by the USDA, ARS, National Plant Germplasm System (NPS), ca. 30,000 are vegetatively-propagated and as such require preservation as non seed propagules. Numerous research reports have demonstrated the advantages of long-term storage of plant tissues in ...

467

American Society for Quality Edge-Preserving and Peak-Preserving Smoothing  

E-print Network

-PreservingandPeak-PreservingSmoothing PeterHall CentreforMathematicsand itsApplications AustralianNationalUniversity Canberra,Australia and DMathematicsand Statistics CSIRO Sydney,Australia An alternativeprocedureisdevelopedtothesmoothedlinearfittingmethodof,computergraphics,signalprocessing,image processing,pattern recognition,geology, tomog- raphy,remote sensing,etc." (p. 321). Statistical

Hoover, Adam

468

To preserve or not to preserve the orbit in paranasal sinus neoplasms: a meta-analysis.  

PubMed

Context?The effect on survival of orbital evisceration on patients with paranasal sinus neoplasms has not been well established. Objective?To review systematically the available literature concerning survival in patients who undergo surgery for paranasal sinus neoplasm with and without preservation of the eye. Data Source?A retrospective meta-analysis of English and non-English articles using Medline and the Cochrane database. Eligibility Criteria?Studies analyzing 5-year survival rates in patients who had orbital evisceration compared with orbital preservation for the treatment of paranasal sinus neoplasms were included in the final analysis. Data Extraction?Independent review by two authors using predefined data fields. Data Synthesis?A meta-analysis of four articles involving 443 patients was performed using the DerSimonian-Laird random-effects method. Results?Our analysis revealed a total effect size of 0.964 in favor of preservation of the eye; however, these results are not robust, having a true effect size anywhere from 0.785 to 1.142 with a 95% confidence interval. Limitations?Only retrospective observational studies were included because a prospective randomized study cannot be performed in this population. Conclusion?Our study supports the notion that in select patients preservation of the eye may yield a different outcome when compared with orbital evisceration. PMID:25844298

Reyes, Camilo; Mason, Eric; Solares, C Arturo; Bush, Carrie; Carrau, Ricardo

2015-03-01

469

Germplasm Preservation of Vegetatively-propagated Crops at the National Center for Genetic Resources Preservation  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Out of 476,049 germpaslm accessions maintained by the USDA, ARS, National Plant Germplasm System (NPGS), ca. 30,000 are vegetaively-propagated and as such require preservation as non seed propagules. Numerous research reports demonstrated the advantages of long term storage of plant tissues in liqui...

470

Biological Remediation  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This week's Topic In Depth focuses on the use of biological organisms to reduce environmental contamination.From the US Geological Survey, the first site (1) is a general introduction to bioremediation and includes links to several examples of successful bioremediation projects. Next (2) is a glossary of terms related to biological remediation. The third site is an educational resource (3) developed to teach high school students about environmental contamination and the use of plants to remove pollutants. The Bioremediation Discussion Group (4) includes a useful "archive of technical papers on bioremediation." The next two Web sites are specific to the process of phytoremediation, which uses plants to remediate contamination (5) (6 ). The next site (7) gives an example of an application using microbes from chicken compost to reduce air pollution. Lastly, this fact sheet (8) from the Ohio State University Extension Service focuses on bioremediation specific to wastewater treatment.

Lee, Amy.

471

Computational Biology  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Terrific progress has taken place in the last decade identifying many of the key components of signaling pathways that control a wide range of biologically and medically important physiological functions. STKE's Connections Map database (http://stke.sciencemag.org/cm/) is in part a tribute to the amount and complexity of the accumulated information. The pathways and their interactions are sufficiently elaborate that such an organizational aid is widely thought to be useful and informative.

L. Bryan Ray (American Association for the Advancement of Science; Editor of Science's STKE and a Senior Editor of Science REV)

2002-09-03

472

Marine biology  

SciTech Connect

This book discusses both taxonomic and ecological topics on marine biology. Full coverage of marine organisms of all five kingdoms is provided, along with interesting and thorough discussion of all major marine habitats. Organization into six major parts allows flexibility. It also provides insight into important topics such as disposal of nuclear waste at sea, the idea that life began on the ocean floor, and how whales, krill, and people interact. A full-color photo chapter reviews questions, and exercises. The contents are: an overview marine biology: fundamental concepts/investigating life in the ocean; the physical ocean, the ocean floor, the nature of water, the nature and motion of ocean water; general ecology, conditions for life in the sea, biological productivity and energy transfer; marine organisms; monera, protista, mycota and metaphyta; the smaller marine animals, the large animals marine habitats, the intertidal zone/benthos of the continental shelf, the photic zone, the deep ocean, the ocean under stress, marine pollution, appendix a: the metric system and conversion factors/ appendix b: prefixes and suffixes/ appendix c: taxonomic classification of common marine organisms, and glossary, and index.

Thurman, H.V.; Webber, H.H.

1984-01-01

473

PLANET TOPERS: Planets, Tracing the Transfer, Origin, Preservation, and Evolution of their ReservoirS  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The PLANET TOPERS (Planets, Tracing the Transfer, Origin, Preservation, and Evolution of their ReservoirS) group is an Inter-university attraction pole (IAP) addressing the question of habitability in our Solar System. Based on the only known example of Earth, the concept refers to whether environmental conditions are available that could eventually support life, even if life does not currently exist. Life is believed to require liquid water, but important geodynamic processes affect the habitability conditions of a planet. The PLANET TOPERS group develops and closely integrates the geophysical, geological, and biological aspects of habitability with a particular focus on Earth neighboring planets, Mars and Venus.

Dehant, V.; Breuer, D.; Claeys, P.; Debaille, V.; De Keyser, J.; Javaux, E.; Goderis, S.; Karatekin, O.; Mattielli, N.; Noack, L.; Spohn, T.; Vandaele, A. C.; Vanhaecke, F.; Van Hoolst, T.; Wilquet, V.

2013-09-01

474

Bomb pulse biology  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The past decade has seen an explosion in use of the 14C bomb pulse to do fundamental cell biology. Studies in the 1960s used decay counting to measure tissue turnover when the atmospheric 14C/C concentration was changing rapidly. Today bulk tissue measurements are of marginal interest since most of the carbon in the tissue resides in proteins, lipids and carbohydrates that turn over rapidly. Specific cell types with specialized functions are the focus of cell turnover investigations. Tissue samples need to be fresh or frozen. Fixed or preserved samples contain petroleum-derived carbon that has not been successfully removed. Cell or nuclear surface markers are used to sort specific cell types, typically by fluorescence-activated cell sorting (FACS). Specific biomolecules need to be isolated with high purity and accelerator mass spectrometry (AMS) measurements must accommodate samples that generally contain less than 40 ?g of carbon. Furthermore, all separations must not add carbon to the sample. Independent means such as UV absorbance must be used to confirm molecule purity. Approaches for separating specific proteins and DNA and combating contamination of undesired molecules are described.

Falso, Miranda J. Sarachine; Buchholz, Bruce A.

2013-01-01

475

[The biological plate osteosynthesis].  

PubMed

The continually evolving understanding of bone biology and the analysis of clinical complications have led to a modified approach in internal fixation using plates. Anatomical reduction of the fragments in comminuted diaphyseal and metaphyseal fractures itself is no longer a goal. Important reduction aims are the correct length of the bone, and axial and torsional alignment. The preservation of the viability of the bone fragments is the key to unimpaired fracture healing. The primary stability of an osteosynthesis seems to be of minor importance for bone healing. More important is the rapid integration of unreduced but vital fragments into the fracture callus which buttresses the fracture area opposite the plate reducing the risk for overload and fatigue failure of the implant. Additional primary bone grafting leeds to local vascular disturbance of the bone and is rarely indicated. Indirect reduction technique with the aid of the fracture table or the distractor and a minimal but optimal use of implant material is the new concept to achieve undisturbed fracture repair in metaphyseal and diaphyseal fractures. In articular fractures the anatomic restoration of the articular surface can be obtained by the combination of indirect reduction technique (ligamentotaxis, soft tissue taxis) and accurate direct reduction of certain strategic fragments. Modifications of the plate design (limited contact, point contact) which minimize additional vascular damage to the bone help to accomplish this new concept. PMID:7975946

Gautier, E; Ganz, R

1994-01-01

476

Bomb Pulse Biology  

PubMed Central

The past decade has seen an explosion in use of the 14C bomb-pulse to do fundamental cell biology. Studies in the 1960s used decay counting to measure tissue turnover when the atmospheric 14C/C concentration was changing rapidly. Today bulk tissue measurements are of marginal interest since most of the carbon in the tissue resides in proteins, lipids and carbohydrates that turn over rapidly. Specific cell types with specialized functions are the focus of cell turnover investigations. Tissue samples need to be fresh or frozen. Fixed or preserved samples contain petroleum-derived carbon that has not been successfully removed. Cell or nuclear surface markers are used to sort specific cell types, typically by fluorescence-activated cell sorting (FACS). Specific biomolecules need to be isolated with high purity and accelerator mass spectrometry (AMS) measurements must accommodate samples that generally contain less than 40 micrograms of carbon. Furthermore, all separations must not add carbon to the sample. Independent means such as UV absorbance must be used to confirm molecule purity. Approaches for separating specific proteins and DNA and combating contamination of undesired molecules are described. PMID:23359559

Sarachine Falso, Miranda J.; Buchholz, Bruce A.

2012-01-01

477

Consciousness and biological evolution.  

PubMed

It has been suggested that if the preservation and development of consciousness in the biological evolution is a result of natural selection, it is plausible that consciousness not only has been influenced by neural processes, but has had a survival value itself; and it could only have had this, if it had also been efficacious. This argument for mind-brain interaction is examined, both as the argument has been developed by William James and Karl Popper and as it has been discussed by C.D. Broad. The problem of identifying mental phenomena with certain neural phenomena is also addressed. The main conclusion of the analysis is that an explanation of the evolution of consciousness in Darwinian terms of natural selection does not rule out that consciousness may have evolved as a mere causally inert effect of the evolution of the nervous system, or that mental phenomena are identical with certain neural phenomena. However, the interactionistic theory still seems, more plausible and more fruitful for other reasons brought up in the discussion. PMID:9299304

Lindahl, B I

1997-08-21

478

Oncologic approaches to pediatric limb preservation.  

PubMed

Preservation of limb function in the pediatric oncology patient is uniquely challenging. Treatment must be strictly prioritized in terms of the patient's life, the limb, its function, length equalization, and cosmetic appearance. At the same time, social, socioeconomic, and cultural factors must be understood and respected to achieve the most advantageous outcome for both the patient and family. Given these considerations, as well as the relative rarity of many oncologic diagnoses and the myriad of presentation scenarios, drafting generalized treatment recommendations is difficult. Instead, orthopaedic intervention in the care of children and young adults with oncologic conditions must be individualized, with the broad goal being optimization of limb function rather than rigid advocacy of limb salvage. PMID:16330516

Weisstein, Jason S; Goldsby, Robert E; O'Donnell, Richard J

2005-12-01

479

Admissible transverse surgery does not preserve tightness  

E-print Network

We produce the first examples of closed, tight contact 3-manifolds which become overtwisted after performing admissible transverse surgeries. Along the way, we clarify the relationship between admissible transverse surgery and Legendrian surgery. We use this clarification to study a new invariant of transverse knots - namely, the range of slopes on which admissible transverse surgery preserves tightness - and to provide some new examples of knot types which are not uniformly thick. Our examples also illuminate several interesting new phenomena, including the existence of hyperbolic, universally tight contact 3-manifolds whose Heegaard Floer contact invariants vanish (and which are not weakly fillable); the existence of open books with arbitrarily high fractional Dehn twist coefficients whose compatible contact structures are not deformations of co-orientable taut foliations; and the existence of (tight) contact manifolds with non-vanishing contact homologies which are strongly symplectically cobordant to over...

Baldwin, John A

2012-01-01

480

Quaternary coral reef refugia preserved fish diversity.  

PubMed

The most prominent pattern in global marine biogeography is the biodiversity peak in the Indo-Australian Archipelago. Yet the processes that underpin this pattern are still actively debated. By reconstructing global marine paleoenvironments over the past 3 million years on the basis of sediment cores, we assessed the extent to which Quaternary climate fluctuations can explain global variation in current reef fish richness. Comparing global historical coral reef habitat availability with the present-day distribution of 6316 reef fish species, we find that distance from stable coral reef habitats during historical periods of habitat loss explains 62% of the variation in fish richness, outweighing present-day environmental factors. Our results highlight the importance of habitat persistence during periods of climate change for preserving marine biodiversity. PMID:24876495

Pellissier, Loc; Leprieur, Fabien; Parravicini, Valeriano; Cowman, Peter F; Kulbicki, Michel; Litsios, Glenn; Olsen, Steffen M; Wisz, Mary S; Bellwood, David R; Mouillot, David

2014-05-30

481

Fertility preservation in men with cancer.  

PubMed

During the past decade, advances in cancer treatment have increased survival rates of both boys and men. However, cancer treatment itself can compromise fertility, especially exposure to alkylating agents and whole body irradiation, which cause substantial germ cell loss. Children and adolescents with testicular cancer, leukaemia, and Ewing sarcomas are at the highest risk of developing permanent sterility from cancer treatment. Consequently, various strategies to preserve fertility are necessary. Sperm cryopreservation is an effective but underused method to safeguard spermatozoa. In the past few years, large advances have been made in prepubertal germ cell storage aimed at subsequent transplantation of testicular tissue and associated stem cells. Although still experimental, these approaches offer hope to many men in whom germ cell loss is associated with sterility. The derivation of male gametes from stem cells also holds much promise; however, data are only available in animals, and the use of this method in human beings is probably many years away. PMID:25283570

Tournaye, Herman; Dohle, Gert R; Barratt, Christopher L R

2014-10-01

482

Preserving Symmetry in Preconditioned Krylov Subspace Methods  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

We consider the problem of solving a linear system Ax = b when A is nearly symmetric and when the system is preconditioned by a symmetric positive definite matrix M. In the symmetric case, one can recover symmetry by using M-inner products in the conjugate gradient (CG) algorithm. This idea can also be used in the nonsymmetric case, and near symmetry can be preserved similarly. Like CG, the new algorithms are mathematically equivalent to split preconditioning, but do not require M to be factored. Better robustness in a specific sense can also be observed. When combined with truncated versions of iterative methods, tests show that this is more effective than the common practice of forfeiting near-symmetry altogether.

Chan, Tony F.; Chow, E.; Saad, Y.; Yeung, M. C.

1996-01-01

483

Preserving neural function under extreme scaling.  

PubMed

Important brain functions need to be conserved throughout organisms of extremely varying sizes. Here we study the scaling properties of an essential component of computation in the brain: the single neuron. We compare morphology and signal propagation of a uniquely identifiable interneuron, the HS cell, in the blowfly (Calliphora) with its exact counterpart in the fruit fly (Drosophila) which is about four times smaller in each dimension. Anatomical features of the HS cell scale isometrically and minimise wiring costs but, by themselves, do not scale to preserve the electrotonic behaviour. However, the membrane properties are set to conserve dendritic as well as axonal delays and attenuation as well as dendritic integration of visual information. In conclusion, the electrotonic structure of a neuron, the HS cell in this case, is surprisingly stable over a wide range of morphological scales. PMID:23977069

Cuntz, Hermann; Forstner, Friedrich; Schnell, Bettina; Ammer, Georg; Raghu, Shamprasad Varija; Borst, Alexander

2013-01-01

484

Preserving Neural Function under Extreme Scaling  

PubMed Central

Important brain functions need to be conserved throughout organisms of extremely varying sizes. Here we study the scaling properties of an essential component of computation in the brain: the single neuron. We compare morphology and signal propagation of a uniquely identifiable interneuron, the HS cell, in the blowfly (Calliphora) with its exact counterpart in the fruit fly (Drosophila) which is about four times smaller in each dimension. Anatomical features of the HS cell scale isometrically and minimise wiring costs but, by themselves, do not scale to preserve the electrotonic behaviour. However, the membrane properties are set to conserve dendritic as well as axonal delays and attenuation as well as dendritic integration of visual information. In conclusion, the electrotonic structure of a neuron, the HS cell in this case, is surprisingly stable over a wide range of morphological scales. PMID:23977069

Cuntz, Hermann; Forstner, Friedrich; Schnell, Bettina; Ammer, Georg; Raghu, Shamprasad Varija; Borst, Alexander

2013-01-01

485

Manifold Learning by Preserving Distance Orders  

PubMed Central

Nonlinear dimensionality reduction is essential for the analysis and the interpretation of high dimensional data sets. In this manuscript, we propose a distance order preserving manifold learning algorithm that extends the basic mean-squared error cost function used mainly in multidimensional scaling (MDS)-based methods. We develop a constrained optimization problem by assuming explicit constraints on the order of distances in the low-dimensional space. In this optimization problem, as a generalization of MDS, instead of forcing a linear relationship between the distances in the high-dimensional original and low-dimensional projection space, we learn a non-decreasing relation approximated by radial basis functions. We compare the proposed method with existing manifold learning algorithms using synthetic datasets based on the commonly used residual variance and proposed percentage of violated distance orders metrics. We also perform experiments on a retinal image dataset used in Retinopathy of Prematurity (ROP) diagnosis. PMID:25045195

Akcakaya, Murat; Orhan, Umut; Erdogmus, Deniz

2014-01-01

486

The challenge of improving donor heart preservation.  

PubMed

Heart transplantation has in recent years become the treatment of choice for end stage heart failure. However while the waiting list for transplantation is growing steadily, the donor pool is not increasing. Therefore, in order to meet demand, transplant programs are using older, "marginal donors" and accepting longer ischaemic times for their donor hearts. As donor organs are injured as a consequence of brain death, during the period of donor management, at organ harvest, preservation, implantation and reperfusion, expansion of acceptance criteria places a great burden on achieving optimal long-term outcomes. However, at each step in the process of transplantation strategies can be employed to reduce the injury suffered by the donor organs. In this review, we set out what steps can be taken to improve the quality of donor organs. PMID:16352173

McCrystal, Graham D; Pepe, Salvatore; Esmore, Donald S; Rosenfeldt, Franklin L

2004-03-01

487

The Wisconsin Oneida Language Preservation Project  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Offered as part of the University of Wisconsin Digital Collections, the Wisconsin Oneida Language Preservation Project brings together original stories and curriculum with accompanying audio that teaches the Wisconsin Oneida language. Visitors can start by clicking on the About area to learn more about these unique items. The materials here are divided into curriculum levels (grades kindergarten through sixth) and include some songs as well. One unique feature happens to be the stories about Oneida culture collected as part of the Works Progress Administration project in the late 1930s and early 1940s. As this particular language is in steep decline, this project is an integral part of keeping these words, traditions, syntaxes, and so on alive for future generations.

2012-01-01

488

Preserving Native American petroglyphs on porous sandstone  

USGS Publications Warehouse

A new method of chemical treatment is proposed to improve the durability of soft, porous sandstones onto which Native American petroglyphs have been carved. Cores of Dakota Sandstone from the Faris Cave site, located along the Smoky Hill River in Ellsworth County, Kansas, were treated with ethyl silicate dissolved in a lightweight ketone carrier, and some cores were subsequently treated with a combination of ethyl silicate and silane using the same solvent. Measurement of the resulting physical properties, when compared to untreated cores, indicate the treatments substantially increased the compressive strength and freeze-thaw resistance of the stone without discoloring the stone or completely sealing the pore system. The treatment increases the durability of the stone and provides a method for preserving the petroglyphs at the site. After treating test panels at the site, the petroglyphs were treated in like manner.

Grisafe, D.A.

1996-01-01

489

Memory preservation made prestigious but easy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Preserving memories combined with story-telling using either photo books for multiple images or high quality products such as one or a few images printed on canvas or images mounted on acryl to create high-quality wall decorations are gradually becoming more popular than classical 4*6 prints and classical silver halide posters. Digital printing via electro photography and ink jet is increasingly replacing classical silver halide technology as the dominant production technology for these kinds of products. Maintaining a consistent and comparable quality of output is becoming more challenging than using silver halide paper for both, prints and posters. This paper describes a unique approach of combining both desktop based software to initiate a compelling project and the use of online capabilities in order to finalize and optimize that project in an online environment in a community process. A comparison of the consumer behavior between online and desktop based solutions for generating photo books will be presented.

Fageth, Reiner; Debus, Christina; Sandhaus, Philipp

2011-01-01

490

Fertility preservation in young patients' with cancer.  

PubMed

Preservation of fertility is an important issue in the management of young cancer patients. Though embryo cryostorage is a well-established procedure, it can only be availed by couples. Recent studies have indicated increasing success rates with mature and immature oocyte cryopreservation. Cryostorage induces injuries on the human oocytes which can be minimized by slow freezing and vitrification. Selection of candiidates is crucial so that the most suitable technique can be offered without any delay in initiation of cancer therapy. Factors affecting suitability are age of patient, assessment of ovarian reserve, hormonal status and type and stage of neoplastic disease. Encouraging results have been obtained with oocyte in vitro maturation (IVM) followed by vitrification for cryostorage. Data on the use of vitrified eggs in routine in vitro fertilization (IVF) show that pregnancy rates can be comparable to those achieved with fresh oocytes. PMID:25540565

Dudani, Sharmila; Gupta, Apurva

2014-10-01

491

Fertility preservation in young patients with cancer  

PubMed Central

Preservation of fertility is an important issue in the management of young cancer patients. Though embryo cryostorage is a well-established procedure, it can only be availed by couples. Recent studies have indicated increasing success rates with mature and immature oocyte cryopreservation. Cryostorage induces injuries on the human oocytes which can be minimized by slow freezing and vitrification. Selection of candiidates is crucial so that the most suitable technique can be offered without any delay in initiation of cancer therapy. Factors affecting suitability are age of patient, assessment of ovarian reserve, hormonal status and type and stage of neoplastic disease. Encouraging results have been obtained with oocyte in vitro maturation (IVM) followed by vitrification for cryostorage. Data on the use of vitrified eggs in routine in vitro fertilization (IVF) show that pregnancy rates can be comparable to those achieved with fresh oocytes. PMID:25540565

Dudani, Sharmila; Gupta, Apurva

2014-01-01

492

Biological Sciences http://www.clas.wayne.edu/biology/  

E-print Network

Biological Sciences http://www.clas.wayne.edu/biology/ Divisions: Evolutionary and Organismal Biology Molecular Biology and Biotechnology Cellular, Developmental, and Neurobiology #12;Biological Sciences http://www.clas.wayne.edu/biology/ · Cell Biology and Cytogenetics (Beningo, Tucker, Greenberg

Berdichevsky, Victor

493

Privacy preserving interactive record linkage (PPIRL)  

PubMed Central

Objective Record linkage to integrate uncoordinated databases is critical in biomedical research using Big Data. Balancing privacy protection against the need for high quality record linkage requires a humanmachine hybrid system to safely manage uncertainty in the ever changing streams of chaotic Big Data. Methods In the computer science literature, private record linkage is the most published area. It investigates how to apply a known linkage function safely when linking two tables. However, in practice, the linkage function is rarely known. Thus, there are many data linkage centers whose main role is to be the trusted third party to determine the linkage function manually and link data for research via a master population list for a designated region. Recently, a more flexible computerized third-party linkage platform, Secure Decoupled Linkage (SDLink), has been proposed based on: (1) decoupling data via encryption, (2) obfuscation via chaffing (adding fake data) and universe manipulation; and (3) minimum information disclosure via recoding. Results We synthesize this literature to formalize a new framework for privacy preserving interactive record linkage (PPIRL) with tractable privacy and utility properties and then analyze the literature using this framework. Conclusions Human-based third-party linkage centers for privacy preserving record linkage are the accepted norm internationally. We find that a computer-based third-party platform that can precisely control the information disclosed at the micro level and allow frequent human interaction during the linkage process, is an effective humanmachine hybrid system that significantly improves on the linkage center model both in terms of privacy and utility. PMID:24201028

Kum, Hye-Chung; Krishnamurthy, Ashok; Machanavajjhala, Ashwin; Reiter, Michael K; Ahalt, Stanley

2014-01-01

494

Preserving noble gases in a convecting mantle.  

PubMed

High (3)He/(4)He ratios sampled at many ocean islands are usually attributed to an essentially undegassed lower-mantle reservoir with high (3)He concentrations. A large and mostly undegassed mantle reservoir is also required to balance the Earth's (40)Ar budget, because only half of the (40)Ar produced from the radioactive decay of (40)K is accounted for by the atmosphere and upper mantle. However, geophysical and geochemical observations suggest slab subduction into the lower mantle, implying that most or all of Earth's mantle should have been processed by partial melting beneath mid-ocean ridges and hotspot volcanoes. This should have left noble gases in both the upper and the lower mantle extensively outgassed, contrary to expectations from (3)He/(4)He ratios and the Earth's (40)Ar budget. Here we suggest a simple solution: recycling and mixing of noble-gas-depleted slabs dilutes the concentrations of noble gases in the mantle, thereby decreasing the rate of mantle degassing and leaving significant amounts of noble gases in the processed mantle. As a result, even when the mass flux across the 660-km seismic discontinuity is equivalent to approximately one lower-mantle mass over the Earth's history, high (3)He contents, high (3)He/(4)He ratios and (40)Ar concentrations high enough to satisfy the (40)Ar mass balance of the Earth can be preserved in the lower mantle. The differences in (3)He/(4)He ratios between mid-ocean-ridge basalts and ocean island basalts, as well as high concentrations of (3)He and (40)Ar in the mantle source of ocean island basalts, can be explained within the framework of different processing rates for the upper and the lower mantle. Hence, to preserve primitive noble gas signatures, we find no need for hidden reservoirs or convective isolation of the lower mantle for any length of time. PMID:19478782

Gonnermann, Helge M; Mukhopadhyay, Sujoy

2009-05-28

495

Steeping preservation of cauliflower with hurdle concept.  

PubMed

Cauliflower is a rich source of proteins, carbohydrates, vitamins and minerals and also a very important vegetable having maximum availability in tropical climate from November to February which causes glut in the market and consequently producers do not get remunerative prices. The partially blanched cauliflower pieces of 3-4cm long having stalk upto 2cm in length are steeped in different levels of sodium chloride (NaCl, 2-6%) and acetic acid (1-2%) along with 350ppm sulphur dioxide (SO2) using modified response surface methodology (RSM). The cauliflower samples steeped in 4% NaCl, 1% acetic acid and 350ppm SO2 were rated best with maximum mean overall acceptability (OAA) score (6.90) and minimum mean preference (6.25) to the experimental run consisting of 6% NaCl, 2% acetic acid and 350ppm SO2 was noted after 120days of storage. There has been sharp decrease in pH values after 15days of storage in all the experimental run of preserved cauliflower samples. The maximum mean decrease in hardness values (15.20-0.55g.cm) was obtained in steeped cauliflower samples consisting of 6% NaCl, 2% acetic acid and 350ppm SO2 during storage for 120days at room temperature. The decrease in extent of browning, ascorbic acid and total carotenoids content in cauliflower samples was reported in all the experimental runs during 120days of storage at room temperature. The optimum concentration for maximum desirability in the preservation of cauliflower consisted of 3.5% sodium chloride and 1.1% acetic acid and 350ppm SO2. PMID:25745203

Singh, Sudhir; Singh, Archana; Singh, Vinti; Khemariya, Priti; Rai, Ashutosh; Pandey, A K

2015-03-01

496

BUREAU COWf.sf-X'AL FISHERIES BIOLOGICAL LAiJOfw-.TCRY LIBRARY  

E-print Network

. December 1943, 33 p., 1 fig.. Stables. S43. Care of aquarium fishes. By Branch of Fishery Biology. May 1950;.sr:rX'AL FISHERIES BIOLOGICAL LAou.vVrORY LIBRARY GALVESTON. TEXAS #12;No. Title S12. Fertilization of fish ponds. By Branch of Game-fish and Hatcheries. February 1951, 13 p., 6 figs. 18. Home preservation of fishery

497

Dual-porosity model of solute diffusion in biological tissue modified by electroporation  

E-print Network

24], or food preservation [2527]; as well as in environmental sciences for waste water treatment [28Dual-porosity model of solute diffusion in biological tissue modified by electroporation Samo transport in biological tissue is of primary concern. This paper presents a theoretical advancement

Ljubljana, University of

498

Fishery Biology Graduate Programs  

E-print Network

: Fisheries Biology, Marine Biology, Oceanography http://www.sfos.uaf.edu:8000/academicsFishery Biology Graduate Programs University of Alaska Fairbanks, Alaska 997750820 Program State University Fort Collins, Colorado 805230015 Programs: Fishery Biology http

499

Cinelectures for Introductory Biology  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Cinelectures for Introductory Biology is a YouTube channel containing a series of online, cinematic lectures covering basic chemistry for biology, metabolism, cell biology, genetics, and molecular biology. Many of these cinelectures incorporate videos, illustrations, and animations.

David Marcey

500

Practical Issues on Privacy-Preserving Health Data Mining  

Microsoft Academic Search

Abstract. Privacy-preserving data mining techniques could encourage health data custodians to provide accurate information for mining by ensuring that the data mining procedures and results cannot, with any reasonable degree of certainty, violate data privacy. We outline privacypreserving data mining techniques\\/systems in the literature and in industry. They range from privacy-preserving data publishing, privacypreserving (distributed) computation to privacy-preserving data mining

Huidong Jin

2007-01-01