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1

Preservation of Liquid Biological Samples  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The present invention related to the preservation of a liquid biological sample. The biological sample is exposed to a preservative containing at least about 0.15 g of sodium benzoate and at least about 0.025 g of citric acid per 100 ml of sample. The biological sample may be collected in a vessel or an absorbent mass. The biological sample may also be exposed to a substrate and/or a vehicle.

Putcha, Lakshmi (Inventor); Nimmagudda, Ramalingeshwara (Inventor)

2004-01-01

2

Preservation of Liquid Biological Samples  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The present invention provides a method of preserving a liquid biological sample, comprising the step of: contacting said liquid biological sample with a preservative comprising, sodium benzoate in an amount of at least about 0.15% of the sample (weight/volume) and citric acid in an amount of at least about 0.025% of the sample (weight/volume).

Putcha, Lakshmi (Inventor); Nimmagudda, Ramalingeshwara R. (Inventor)

2000-01-01

3

Jasper Ridge Biological Preserve Annual Report 200405  

E-print Network

Jasper Ridge Biological Preserve Annual Report 2004­05 #12;The mission of Jasper Ridge Biological, and protection of the preserve's resources. #12;1 T HIS IS THE BEGINNING of a new era for me and for Jasper Ridge. 2006 is the start of my fourth decade of association with the preserve. For 30 years, Jasper Ridge has

4

Jasper Ridge Biological Preserve Annual Report 200809  

E-print Network

Jasper Ridge Biological Preserve Annual Report 2008­09 #12;Contents From the Faculty Director.....................27 Staff, endnotes, and credits......................29 The mission of Jasper Ridge Biological, and protection of the preserve's resources. #12;1 Jasper Ridge is a remarkable treasure. I know I speak

Fukami, Tadashi

5

Jasper Ridge Biological Preserve Annual Report 200506  

E-print Network

Jasper Ridge Biological Preserve Annual Report 2005­06 #12;Contents From the Faculty Director In Memoriam............................................33 The mission of Jasper Ridge Biological Preserve to this very special place. My primary connection with Jasper Ridge is still as a researcher, but in the past

6

Jasper Ridge Biological Preserve Annual Report 200708  

E-print Network

Jasper Ridge Biological Preserve Annual Report 2007­08 #12;Contents From the Faculty Director In Memoriam............................................33 The mission of Jasper Ridge Biological Preserve, and all of us need skills and information, as well as the ability Jasper Ridge is justifiably famous

7

Mosquito Report for Jasper Ridge Biological Preserve  

E-print Network

Page 1 Mosquito Report for Jasper Ridge Biological Preserve S a n M a t e o C o u n t y M o s q u i t o A b a t e m e n t D i s t r i c t December 2006 The San Mateo County Mosquito Abatement District mosquitoes arising from the cattail marshes surround- ing Searsville Lake. This report is a summary

8

Jasper Ridge Biological Preserve Annual Report 2000 -01 Stanford University  

E-print Network

Jasper Ridge Biological Preserve Annual Report 2000 - 01 · Stanford University #12;The mission of Jasper Ridge Biological Preserve is to contribute to the understanding of the Earth's natural sys- tems previously unmet Jasper Ridge needs, but also represents our ef- fort to lighten the load we place

9

28 CFR 28.22 - The requirement to preserve biological evidence.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...The requirement to preserve biological evidence. 28.22 Section 28.22 Judicial Administration DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE DNA IDENTIFICATION SYSTEM Preservation of Biological Evidence 28.22 The requirement to preserve biological...

2011-07-01

10

28 CFR 28.22 - The requirement to preserve biological evidence.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...The requirement to preserve biological evidence. 28.22 Section 28.22 Judicial Administration DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE DNA IDENTIFICATION SYSTEM Preservation of Biological Evidence 28.22 The requirement to preserve biological...

2014-07-01

11

28 CFR 28.22 - The requirement to preserve biological evidence.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...The requirement to preserve biological evidence. 28.22 Section 28.22 Judicial Administration DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE DNA IDENTIFICATION SYSTEM Preservation of Biological Evidence 28.22 The requirement to preserve biological...

2012-07-01

12

28 CFR 28.22 - The requirement to preserve biological evidence.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...The requirement to preserve biological evidence. 28.22 Section 28.22 Judicial Administration DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE DNA IDENTIFICATION SYSTEM Preservation of Biological Evidence 28.22 The requirement to preserve biological...

2013-07-01

13

28 CFR 28.22 - The requirement to preserve biological evidence.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...The requirement to preserve biological evidence. 28.22 Section 28.22 Judicial Administration DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE DNA IDENTIFICATION SYSTEM Preservation of Biological Evidence 28.22 The requirement to preserve biological...

2010-07-01

14

Jasper Ridge Biological Preserve Annual Report 2009-10  

E-print Network

Jasper Ridge Biological Preserve Annual Report 2009-10 #12;Contents From the Faculty Director;1 Jasper Ridge is an amazing asset -- not only for Stanford, but also for the local community and the scientific world. Combin- ing aspects of laboratory, classroom, nature preserve, park, and spiritual retreat,Jasper

Fukami, Tadashi

15

Technical Working Group on Biological Evidence Preservation  

E-print Network

through post-conviction proceedings. #12;TWG Members Sue Ballou, Program Manager, Forensics Program, NIST Phylis Bamberger Retired Judge, Taskforce for Wrongful Convictions, New York State Bar Association of Forensic Science (AAFS) Annual Meeting Thursday, February 20, 2014 #12;The State of Biological Evidence

Perkins, Richard A.

16

Preservation of viable biological samples for experiments in space laboratories.  

PubMed

Standard viable preservation methods for biological samples using low temperatures have been investigated concerning their storage capabilities under higher temperature levels than usual. For a representative set of organism classes (plants, mammalian cells, arthropods and aquatic invertebrates), the minimum appropriate storage conditions have been identified by screening storage temperatures at -196 degrees, -80 degrees, -20 degrees, +4 degrees, +20 degrees/25 degrees C for periods from 2 days to 4 weeks. For storage below 0 degree C, as a typical cryopreservative, dimethylsulfoxide (DMSO) was used. For some samples, the addition of trehalose (as cryopreservative) and the use of a nitrogen atmosphere were investigated. After storage, the material was tested for vitality. The findings demonstrated that acceptable preservation can be achieved under higher storage temperatures than are typically applied. Small, dense cultured plant cells survive for 21 d when moderately cooled (+4 degrees to -20 degrees C); addition of trehalose enhances viability at -20 degrees C. For mammalian cells, the results show that human lymphocytes can be preserved for 3 d at 25 degrees C, 7 d at 4 degrees C and 28 d at -80 degrees C. Friend leukaemia virus transformed cells can be stored for 3 d at 25 degrees C, 14 d at 4 degrees C and 28 d at -80 degrees C. Hybridoma cells can be kept 7 d at 4 degrees C and 28 d at -20 degrees C or -80 degrees C. Model arthropod systems are well preserved for 2 weeks if maintained at lower temperatures that vary depending on the species and/or stage of development; e.g., 12 degrees C for Drosophila imagoes and 4-6 degrees C for Artemia nauplii. For aquatic invertebrates such as sea urchins, embryonic and larval stages can be preserved for several weeks at +6 degrees C, whereas sperm and eggs can best be stored at + 4 degrees C for up to 5 d at maximum. These results enhance the range of feasible space experiments with biological systems. Moreover, for typical terrestrial preservation methods, considerable modification potential is identified. PMID:8987576

Anthony, P; Ausseil, J; Bechler, B; Bengura, A; Blackhall, N; Briarty, L G; Cogoli, A; Davey, M R; Garesse, R; Hager, R; Loddenkemper, R; Marchant, R; Marco, R; Marthy, H J; Perry, M; Power, J B; Schiller, P; Ugalde, C; Volkmann, D; Wardrop, J

1996-06-27

17

Jasper Ridge Biological Preserve Annual Report 2001-02 Stanford University  

E-print Network

Jasper Ridge Biological Preserve Annual Report 2001-02 · Stanford University #12;Those who at Jasper Ridge Biological Preserve reflects and is inspired by such concerns. In many respects the Preserve. With the con- tinued support of the University, the Jasper Ridge community, and many generous people, I can

18

Anterior Cruciate Ligament Reconstruction and Preservation: The SingleAnteromedial Bundle Biological Augmentation (SAMBBA) Technique  

PubMed Central

Preservation of the anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) remnant during ACL reconstruction has the advantages of improved vascularity and synovial encircling of the graft tendon. We describe a technique called singleanteromedial bundle biological augmentation (SAMBBA) using complete preservation of the ACL remnant, as well as preservation of the semitendinosus tibial insertion, that uses standard portals and equipment.

Sonnery-Cottet, Bertrand; Freychet, Benjamin; Murphy, Colin G.; Pupim, Barbara H.B.; Thaunat, Mathieu

2014-01-01

19

Journal of Theoretical Biology 238 (2006) 683693 Turing pattern with proportion preservation  

E-print Network

Journal of Theoretical Biology 238 (2006) 683­693 Turing pattern with proportion preservation Shuji the wavelength of the pattern is invariant. It fails to preserve the proportionality of the pattern, i this problem, we show that the Turing pattern can preserve proportionality by introducing a catalytic chemical

Kaneko, Kunihiko

20

Leslie Shao-ming Sun Field Station at Jasper Ridge Biological Preserve  

E-print Network

Leslie Shao-ming Sun Field Station at Jasper Ridge Biological Preserve A CASE STUDY IN SUSTAINABLE to build a new field station at Jasper Ridge Biological Preserve presented intrinsic conflicts (http://www.recycleworks. org/greenbuilding/gbsanmateo_ jasper.html/) 1 2 3 4 #12;· Solar heating system

Straight, Aaron

21

Geologic nature of the Jasper Ridge Biological Preserve, San Francisco Peninsula, California  

USGS Publications Warehouse

This short report attempts to illuminate the geological features that contributed to making the Jasper Ridge Biological Preserve (JRBP) a unique research island within the rapidly urbanized San Francisco Peninsula. Written in the rocks of the Preserve is a history of continental growth that extends back to the Jurassic (???150 Ma) as the California continental margin grew by subduction and accretion. Movement along the San Andreas fault system has left an indelible mark on the topography by uplift and faulting, and is even now changing the landscape by measurable increments. The sediments of Searsville Lake preserve a chronology of logging in the last century and housing development in more recent decades. Continued multidisciplinary study of this dynamic island of preserved interlocking biological, geological, and hydrogeological records will enhance student, faculty, and docent research, and our understanding of this complex area. ?? 2004 by V. H. Winston and Son, Inc. All rights reserved.

Coleman, R.G.

2004-01-01

22

Organ preservation at low temperature: a physical and biological problem  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Before reporting the preliminary results obtained by our group, we first review the main problems to be solved in the preservation of organs at very low temperature, before being transplanted. This cryopreservation is being presently explored in order to increase the preservation tiine of transplants and to contribute to a better control of the donor recipient compatibility. We recall that, for the isolated cells to be preserved at nitrogen liquid temperatures, as now successfully performed at industrial scale, it is necessary to immerse the cells in a solution containing more or less t,oxical additives (so-called cryopro tect ants). Furthermore cooling and warming rates must be specific of each type of cells. We then show that cryo preservation could be extrapolated to whole organs by means of vitrification, the only way to avoid any ice crystallization. This vitrification will be the result of two directions of research, the one on the elaboration of cryoprotective solutions, the least toxic possible, the other on the obtention of high enough and homogeneous cooling and warming rates. After having briefly summarized the state of research on the heart and kidneys of small mammals, we present the first results that we have obtained on perfusion at 4 ^{circ}C and the auto-transplantation of rabbit kidneys, on the toxicity of a new cryoprotectant, 2,3-butanediol, on the heart rate, and on the cooling of experimental models of organs. Avant de prsenter les rsultats prliminaires obtenus par notre groupe, nous passons d'abord en revue les principaux problmes rsoudre pour conserver trs basse temprature des organes en vue de leur transplantation. Cette cryoprservation est une voie de recherche actuellement explore pour augmenter la dure de conservation des greffons et permettre ainsi de mieux contrler la compatibilit donneur-receveur. Nous rappelons que la conservation des cellules isoles la temprature de l'azote liquide, actuellement ralise avec succs l'chelle industrielle, ne peut se faire qu'en prsence de substances plus ou moins toxiques dites cryoprotectrices, et condition de respecter des vitesses de refroidissement et de rchauffement adaptes chaque type de cellule. Nous montrons ensuite que l'extension de la cryoprservation au cas des organes entiers ne pourra se faire qu'au moyen de la vitrification, seule solution pour viter toute formation de glace. Cette vitrification sera l'aboutissement de 2 axes de recherche, l'un sur l'laboration de solutions cryoprotectrices les moins toxiques possibles, l'autre sur l'obtention de vitesses de refroidissement et de rchauffement suffisamment leves et homognes. Aprs avoir brivement rsum l'tat des recherches sur le coeur et le rein de petits mammifres, nous prsentons les premiers rsultats que nous avons obtenus sur la perfusion 4 ^{circ}C et l'autotransplantation de reins de lapin, sur la toxicit sur le coeur de rat d'un nouveau cryoprotecteur le 2,3-butanediol, et sur le refroidissement de systmes modles exprimentaux d'organes.

Aussedat, J.; Boutron, P.; Coquilhat, P.; Descotes, J. L.; Faure, G.; Ferrari, M.; Kay, L.; Mazuer, J.; Monod, P.; Odin, J.; Ray, A.

1993-02-01

23

Synthetic fossilization of soft biological tissues and their shape-preserving transformation into silica or electron-conductive replicas  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Structural preservation of complex biological systems from the subcellular to whole organism level in robust forms, enabling dissection and imaging while preserving 3D context, represents an enduring grand challenge in biology. Here we report a simple immersion method for structurally preserving intact organisms via conformal stabilization within silica. This self-limiting process, which we refer to as silica bioreplication, occurs by condensation of water-soluble silicic acid proximally to biomolecular interfaces throughout the organism. Conformal nanoscopic silicification of all biomolecular features imparts structural rigidity enabling the preservation of shape and nano-to-macroscale dimensional features upon drying to form a biocomposite and further high temperature oxidative calcination to form silica replicas or reductive pyrolysis to form electrically conductive carbon replicas of complete organisms. The simplicity and generalizability of this approach should facilitate efforts in biological preservation and analysis and could enable the development of new classes of biomimetic composite materials.

Townson, Jason L.; Lin, Yu-Shen; Chou, Stanley S.; Awad, Yasmine H.; Coker, Eric N.; Brinker, C. Jeffrey; Kaehr, Bryan

2014-12-01

24

Synthetic fossilization of soft biological tissues and their shape-preserving transformation into silica or electron-conductive replicas  

PubMed Central

Structural preservation of complex biological systems from the subcellular to whole organism level in robust forms, enabling dissection and imaging while preserving 3D context, represents an enduring grand challenge in biology. Here we report a simple immersion method for structurally preserving intact organisms via conformal stabilization within silica. This self-limiting process, which we refer to as silica bioreplication, occurs by condensation of water-soluble silicic acid proximally to biomolecular interfaces throughout the organism. Conformal nanoscopic silicification of all biomolecular features imparts structural rigidity enabling the preservation of shape and nano-to-macroscale dimensional features upon drying to form a biocomposite and further high temperature oxidative calcination to form silica replicas or reductive pyrolysis to form electrically conductive carbon replicas of complete organisms. The simplicity and generalizability of this approach should facilitate efforts in biological preservation and analysis and could enable the development of new classes of biomimetic composite materials. PMID:25482611

Townson, Jason L.; Lin, Yu-Shen; Chou, Stanley S.; Awad, Yasmine H.; Coker, Eric N.; Brinker, C. Jeffrey; Kaehr, Bryan

2014-01-01

25

Biological treatment of wood-preserving-site ground-water by Biotrol, Inc. Applications analysis report  

SciTech Connect

The report is an evaluation of the BioTrol, Inc. Aqueous Treatment System (BATS), a fixed-film, aerobic biological treatment process for contaminated groundwaters and other wastewaters. It summarizes and analyzes the results of the Superfund Innovative Technology Evaluation (SITE) Program's six week demonstration at the MacGillis and Gibbs Company wood preserving site in New Brighton, MN. The conclusions from the pilot scale demonstration study and other available data are: (1) the fixed film aerobic process is capable of degrading pentachlorophenol (PCP) and other organic pollutants to more than 95% removal.

Skovronek, H.S.; Hahn, W.

1991-09-01

26

Integrating Surgery Into Treatment Paradigms for Organ Preservation: Tailoring Treatment to Biology Improves Outcomes  

SciTech Connect

Purpose: Neoadjuvant chemotherapy was introduced into treatment paradigms for curable head and neck cancer in the early 1970s in an effort to reduce the magnitude of mutilating surgery and to provide a rationale for adjuvant systemic chemotherapy in patients who responded to initial chemotherapy. The large number of trials that followed failed to demonstrate improved survival when neoadjuvant chemotherapy was added to conventional surgery or radiation. Importantly, a consistent observation in these neoadjuvant trials was the significant association of clinical tumor response to neoadjuvant therapy and favorable prognosis. Results: The findings led to development of a new treatment paradigm that was based on the hypothesis that the biology of an individual cancer is more predictive of response to specific therapy and overall outcome than is anatomic tumor site or extent, and on the corollary that matching treatment modality to biology will improve overall survival rates. Conclusions: This report identifies key findings that are important in the design and analysis of organ preservation trials and biologic markers predictive of response and outcomes. Ongoing studies incorporating biomarkers such as p53, Bcl-xL, HPV, EGFR, COX-2, and tumor promoter gene methylation are underway and will identify new targets for molecular manipulation, response monitoring, and tumor imaging that could allow real-time changes in how we integrate the various components of multi-modal therapy.

Wolf, Gregory T. [Department of Otolaryngology-Head and Neck Surgery, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI (United States)], E-mail: gregwolf@umich.edu

2007-10-01

27

The Preservation of "Non-Biological" Environments in the Solar System  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Nature preservation will be a central element of the exploration of the Solar System, whether this emphasis is initially planned for or not. Exploration of extraterrestrial environments will generate images and scientific information that will excite the imagination of the general public throughout the world and be supportive of more funding for exploration. However, damage to the environments visited, once made public, will likely generate a backlash against exploration programs that could inhibit exploration or even bring it completely to an end. The exploration in the nineteenth century of the western United States, with landscapes aesthetically very different from those found in Europe but very similar to those existing on the Moon and on Mars, provides an excellent indication of what will happen in off-planet exploration. Nearly every place painted by a major artist or photographed by a photographer on a geological survey during that time period is today a national park or national monument. If extraterrestrial environments are not protected, the major space societies that are currently enthusiastically supportive of space agencies around the world could become political opponents, much as the Sierra Club evolved into a serious and effective critic of the U.S. Forest Service and National Park Service in the United States. At a minimum, space agencies must be protective of the historical landing sites on the Moon, avoid strip mining on the Moon that may draw criticism, and protect major features on Mars from damage, such as the Cydonian Face on Mars, Valles Marineris, the grand canyon of Mars, and Olympus Mons, a mountain three times as tall as Mount Everest. A good first step might be to establish a world-heritage-style site to protect the visible side of the Moon. Although extraterrestrial sites may initially be labeled "non-biological," caution must be taken to be protective of possible extraterrestrial life, active or dormant, even in the most unlikely places. Such concern will not pose a great burden, given that such life will most likely be microbial, and the concern will be for the preservation of species, not for the protection of the individual members of those species (eliminating any need to deal with the animal liberation and animal rights movements). The battle cry will be about the "wanton destruction" of species, not about the "unnecessary suffering" of animals. Because nature preservation has been a political reality for nearly two centuries, concern for the preservation of off-planet environments can be expected to be more intense than it was in the late nineteenth and early twentieth centuries and more effective in its impact once it begins.

Hargrove, Eugene

28

High throughput extraction of plant, marine and fungal specimens for preservation of biologically active molecules.  

PubMed

The Developmental Therapeutics Program (DTP) of the U.S. National Cancer Institute (NCI), at its NCI-Frederick facility, has built perhaps the largest and most diverse natural products screening library in the world for drug discovery. Composed of plant, marine organism and microbial extracts, it currently contains in excess of 230,000 unique materials. From the inception of this program to identify new anticancer chemotherapeutics from natural products sources in 1987, two extracts have been sequentially prepared from each specimen: one produced by organic solvent extraction, which yields a complex material that contains non- to moderately polar small molecules, and a water-soluble extract, a milieu largely unexplored for useful drugs in earlier years, which contains polar small to medium-sized molecules. Plant specimens and microbial ferments are extracted by modified traditional methods, while the method developed to produce extracts from marine organisms is unique and very different from that used by marine natural products chemists previously, but again yields both an organic solvent soluble and a water soluble material for inclusion into the screening library. Details of high throughput extract production for preservation of biologically active molecules are presented. PMID:20657375

McCloud, Thomas G

2010-07-01

29

Nuclear magnetic resonance studies of biological systems: Applications to liver preservation and metabolism in cultured pituitary tumor cells  

SciTech Connect

This study centers on applications of both {sup 31}P and {sup 13}C nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy to two different biological systems. The first application utilizes {sup 31}P NMR to study mobile phospholipids in the MMQ cell line, a pituitary tumor cell line. These measurements characterize membrane phospholipids thought to be part of a RNA-proteolipid complex unique to cellular transformation. The second application utilizes both {sup 31}P and {sup 13}C spectroscopy to study liver preservation and transplantation an a rat model. In this work, several questions were addressed: (1) to what extent do successful preservation solutions slow ATP breakdown (2) can clinically successful preservation conditions ameliorate total nucleotide breakdown (3) to what extent is energy reconstitution following cold storage correlated with transport success and (4) can any spectroscopic parameter be used as a diagnostic indicator of tissue viability

Fralix, T.A.

1989-01-01

30

Evolutionary and preservational constraints on origins of biologic groups: divergence times of eutherian mammals  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Some molecular clock estimates of divergence times of taxonomic groups undergoing evolutionary radiation are much older than the groups' first observed fossil record. Mathematical models of branching evolution are used to estimate the maximal rate of fossil preservation consistent with a postulated missing history, given the sum of species durations implied by early origins under a range of species origination and extinction rates. The plausibility of postulated divergence times depends on origination, extinction, and preservation rates estimated from the fossil record. For eutherian mammals, this approach suggests that it is unlikely that many modern orders arose much earlier than their oldest fossil records.

Foote, M.; Hunter, J. P.; Janis, C. M.; Sepkoski, J. J. Jr

1999-01-01

31

DataONE: Preserving Data and Enabling Data-Intensive Biological and Environmental Research  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Addressing grand environmental science challenges requires unprecedented access to easily understood data that cross the breadth of temporal, spatial, and thematic scales. From a scientist's perspective, the challenges lie in discovering the relevant data, dealing with data heterogeneity, and converting data to information and knowledge. Solving these challenges requires new approaches for managing, preserving, sharing and analyzing data. DataONE (Observation Network for Earth) represents a virtual organization whose goal is to enable new science and knowledge creation through preservation and access to data about life on Earth and the environment that sustains it. DataONE supports science through facilitating easy, secure, and persistent storage of data and disseminating integrated and user-friendly tools for data discovery, analysis, visualization, and decision-making. DataONE engages its community of partners through working groups focused on identifying and implementing the DataONE cyberinfrastructure, governance, and sustainability models. These working groups, which consist of a diverse group of graduate students, educators, government representatives, and leading computer, information, and library scientists: (1) adapt interoperability standards; (2) create value-added technologies (e.g., semantic mediation, scientific workflow, and visualization) that facilitate data integration, analysis, and understanding; (3) address socio-cultural barriers to sustainable data preservation and data sharing; and (4) promote the adoption of best practices for managing the full data life cycle.

Cook, R. B.; DataONE Leadership Team

2011-12-01

32

APPLICATIONS ANALYSIS REPORT: BIOLOGICAL TREATMENT OF WOOD PRESERVING SITE GROUNDWATER BY BIOTROL, INC.  

EPA Science Inventory

This report is an evaluation of the Biotrol, Inc. Aqueous Treatment System (BATS), a fixed-film, aerobic biological treatment process for contaminated groundwaters and other wastewaters. t summarizes and analyzes the results of the Superfund Innovative Technology Evaluation (SITE...

33

Antigen recovery and preservation using the microwave irradiation of biological samples for transmission electron microscopy analysis.  

PubMed

Most studies using microwave irradiation (MWI) for the preparation of tissue samples have reported an improvement in structural integrity. However, there have been few studies on the effect of microwave (MW) on antigen preservation during sample preparation prior to immunolocalization. This report documents our experience of specimen preparation using an automatic microwave apparatus to obtain antigen preservation and retrieval. We tested the effects of MW processing vs. conventional procedures on the morphology and antigenicity of two different tissues: the brain and mammary gland, whose chemical composition and anatomical organization are quite different. We chose to locate the transcription factor PPAR?/? using immunocytochemistry on brain tissue sections from hamsters. Antigen retrieval protocols involving MWI were used to restore immunoreactivity. We also studied the efficiency of the ultrastructural immunolocalization of both PPAR? and caveolin-1 following MWI vs. conventional treatment, on mammary gland tissue from mice at 10 days of lactation. Our findings showed that the treatment of tissue samples with MWI, in the context of a process lasting just a few hours from fixation to immunolocalization, enabled similar, or even better, results than conventional protocols. The quantification of immunolabeling for cav-1 indicated an increase in density of up to three-fold in tissues processed in the microwave oven. Furthermore, MW treatment permitted the localization of PPAR?/? in glutaraldehyde-fixed specimens, which was impossible in the absence of MWI. This study thus showed that techniques involving the use of microwaves could largely improve both ultrastructure and immunodetection. PMID:23962686

Aoun, Josiane; Chat, Sophie; Bordat, Christian; Pchoux, Christine

2013-01-01

34

Biophysical and biological factors determining the ability to achieve long-term cryobiological preservation  

SciTech Connect

The BESTCapsule will maintain appropriate biological specimens for decades or centuries at cryogenic temperatures in the living state. Maintenance at temperatures below {approximately} {minus}140 C is not a problem. No ordinary chemical reactions in aqueous solutions can occur. The only source of damage will be the slow accumulation of physical damage to DNA from background ionizing radiation. But this source of damage should not become serious in less than a millennium. Rather, the main problem in cryopreservation is to devise procedures for cooling the biological specimens to {minus}196 C and returning them to normal temperatures without inflicting lethal injury. Regardless of the cell type, there are certain encompassing biophysical factors and constraints that determine whether they will survive or die during freezing and thawing. Superimposed on these may be special biological factors that apply to specific cell types. This paper will emphasize the former and give illustrative examples of the latter.

Mazur, P. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States). Life Sciences Div.

1997-12-01

35

Collecting and preserving biological samples from challenging environments for DNA analysis.  

PubMed

Biological materials collected in harsh environments such as archaeological excavations, at crime scenes, after mass disasters, in museums, or non-invasively in the field constitute a highly valuable source of genetic information. However, poor quality and limited quantity of the DNA extracted from these samples can be extremely challenging during further analyses. Here we have reviewed how degradation, decomposition, and contamination can affect DNA analysis, and how correct sample collection and storage methods will ensure the best possible conditions for further genetic analysis. Furthermore, highly efficient protocols for collection, decontamination, and extraction of DNA from minute amounts of biological material are presented. PMID:24620766

Bu?, Magdalena M; Allen, Marie

2014-02-01

36

TECHNOLOGY EVALUATION REPORT: BIOLOGICAL TREATMENT OF WOOD PRESERVING SITE GROUNDWATER BY BIOTROL, INC.  

EPA Science Inventory

This report provides the in-depth data analysis from the SITE Program's six-week demonstration of BioTrol's Aqueous Treatment System (BATS) at the MacGillis and Gibbs Company wood treatment facility in New Brighton, Minnesota. he pilot scale (5gpm), fixed-film biological system u...

37

Simulated-Physiological Loading Conditions Preserve Biological and Mechanical Properties of Caprine Lumbar Intervertebral Discs in Ex Vivo Culture  

PubMed Central

Low-back pain (LBP) is a common medical complaint and associated with high societal costs. Degeneration of the intervertebral disc (IVD) is assumed to be an important causal factor of LBP. IVDs are continuously mechanically loaded and both positive and negative effects have been attributed to different loading conditions. In order to study mechanical loading effects, degeneration-associated processes and/or potential regenerative therapies in IVDs, it is imperative to maintain the IVDs' structural integrity. While in vivo models provide comprehensive insight in IVD biology, an accompanying organ culture model can focus on a single factor, such as loading and may serve as a prescreening model to reduce life animal testing. In the current study we examined the feasibility of organ culture of caprine lumbar discs, with the hypothesis that a simulated-physiological load will optimally preserve IVD properties. Lumbar caprine IVDs (n?=?175) were cultured in a bioreactor up to 21 days either without load, low dynamic load (LDL), or with simulated-physiological load (SPL). IVD stiffness was calculated from measurements of IVD loading and displacement. IVD nucleus, inner- and outer annulus were assessed for cell viability, cell density and gene expression. The extracellular matrix (ECM) was analyzed for water, glycosaminoglycan and total collagen content. IVD biomechanical properties did not change significantly with loading conditions. With SPL, cell viability, cell density and gene expression were preserved up to 21 days. Both unloaded and LDL resulted in decreased cell viability, cell density and significant changes in gene expression, yet no differences in ECM content were observed in any group. In conclusion, simulated-physiological loading preserved the native properties of caprine IVDs during a 21-day culture period. The characterization of caprine IVD response to culture in the LDCS under SPL conditions paves the way for controlled analysis of degeneration- and regeneration-associated processes in the future. PMID:22427972

Paul, Cornelis P. L.; Zuiderbaan, Hendrik A.; Zandieh Doulabi, Behrouz; van der Veen, Albert J.; van de Ven, Peter M.; Smit, Theo H.; Helder, Marco N.; van Royen, Barend J.; Mullender, Margriet G.

2012-01-01

38

Structural data and biological properties of almond gum oligosaccharide: Application to beef meat preservation.  

PubMed

Enzymatic hydrolysis of almond gum generates low molecular weight oligosaccharides (OAG) with a yield of 33.5%. The generated oligosaccharides were purified and identified. OAG analyses show that the most prominent residues were galactose and arabinose with traces of xylose, rhamnose, glucose and mannose. The glycosyl linkage positions were analyzed using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry showing a main chain composed of galactose units [?3)-Gal-(1?] branched mainly with arabinose residues [Ara-(1?]. The antioxidant and antimicrobial activities of OAG were investigated. As regards the in vitro antioxidant activities, the OAG showed a high total antioxidant activity (347?g ascorbic acid equivalent/mL), an important DPPH (1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl) scavenging activity (IC50=0.64mg/mL) and a high reducing capacity (RP0.5AU=3.6mg/mL). Furthermore, OAG had a high antimicrobial activity against Salmonella thyphimirium, Bacillus cereus, Actinomycetes sp, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Escherichia coli, Alternaria alternate and Candidat albicans. Finally, OAG efficiency was tested using 0.5%; 0.75% and 1% concentrations in beef meat preservation. Microbial growth and lipid oxidation were monitored during 9 days at 4C. The results showed significant inhibitions (p<0.05) of lipid oxidation and microbial growth in ground beef meat containing OAG. PMID:25195541

Bouaziz, Fatma; Helbert, Claire Boisset; Romdhane, Molka Ben; Koubaa, Mohamed; Bhiri, Fatma; Kallel, Fatma; Chaari, Fatma; Driss, Dorra; Buon, Laurine; Chaabouni, Semia Ellouz

2015-01-01

39

Production, preservation, and biological processing of mass-independent sulfur isotope fractionation in the Archean surface environment.  

PubMed

Mass-independent fractionation of sulfur isotopes (S MIF) in Archean and Paleoproterozoic rocks provides strong evidence for an anoxic atmosphere before ~2,400 Ma. However, the origin of this isotopic anomaly remains unclear, as does the identity of the molecules that carried it from the atmosphere to Earth's surface. Irrespective of the origin of S MIF, processes in the biogeochemical sulfur cycle modify the primary signal and strongly influence the S MIF preserved and observed in the geological record. Here, a detailed model of the marine sulfur cycle is used to propagate and distribute atmospherically derived S MIF from its delivery to the ocean to its preservation in the sediment. Bulk pyrite in most sediments carries weak S MIF because of microbial reduction of most sulfur compounds to form isotopically homogeneous sulfide. Locally, differential incorporation of sulfur compounds into pyrite leads to preservation of S MIF, which is predicted to be most highly variable in nonmarine and shallow-water settings. The Archean ocean is efficient in diluting primary atmospheric S MIF in the marine pools of sulfate and elemental sulfur with inputs from SO2 and H2S, respectively. Preservation of S MIF with the observed range of magnitudes requires the S MIF production mechanism to be moderately fractionating ( 20-40). Constraints from the marine sulfur cycle allow that either elemental sulfur or organosulfur compounds (or both) carried S MIF to the surface, with opposite sign to S MIF in SO2 and H2SO4. Optimal progress requires observations from nonmarine and shallow-water environments and experimental constraints on the reaction of photoexcited SO2 with atmospheric hydrocarbons. PMID:23572589

Halevy, Itay

2013-10-29

40

Production, preservation, and biological processing of mass-independent sulfur isotope fractionation in the Archean surface environment  

PubMed Central

Mass-independent fractionation of sulfur isotopes (S MIF) in Archean and Paleoproterozoic rocks provides strong evidence for an anoxic atmosphere before ?2,400 Ma. However, the origin of this isotopic anomaly remains unclear, as does the identity of the molecules that carried it from the atmosphere to Earths surface. Irrespective of the origin of S MIF, processes in the biogeochemical sulfur cycle modify the primary signal and strongly influence the S MIF preserved and observed in the geological record. Here, a detailed model of the marine sulfur cycle is used to propagate and distribute atmospherically derived S MIF from its delivery to the ocean to its preservation in the sediment. Bulk pyrite in most sediments carries weak S MIF because of microbial reduction of most sulfur compounds to form isotopically homogeneous sulfide. Locally, differential incorporation of sulfur compounds into pyrite leads to preservation of S MIF, which is predicted to be most highly variable in nonmarine and shallow-water settings. The Archean ocean is efficient in diluting primary atmospheric S MIF in the marine pools of sulfate and elemental sulfur with inputs from SO2 and H2S, respectively. Preservation of S MIF with the observed range of magnitudes requires the S MIF production mechanism to be moderately fractionating (2040). Constraints from the marine sulfur cycle allow that either elemental sulfur or organosulfur compounds (or both) carried S MIF to the surface, with opposite sign to S MIF in SO2 and H2SO4. Optimal progress requires observations from nonmarine and shallow-water environments and experimental constraints on the reaction of photoexcited SO2 with atmospheric hydrocarbons. PMID:23572589

Halevy, Itay

2013-01-01

41

The Effects of Computer Animated Dissection versus Preserved Animal Dissection on the Student Achievement in a High School Biology Class.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The purpose of this study was to examine the effectiveness of computer-animated dissection techniques versus the effectiveness of traditional dissection techniques as related to student achievement. The sample used was 104 general biology students from a small, rural high school in Northeast Tennessee. Random selection was used to separate the

Kariuki, Patrick; Paulson, Ronda

42

Preservation Directory  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Persons with a penchant for preservation will find that this clearinghouse website is a top-notch resource for materials on historic preservation, preservation-based tourism, and downtown revitalization projects across the United States and Canada. The site was created in 1999 by Tim Cannan, a native of the Finger Lakes region with a professional and academic background in historic and cultural preservation. The materials on the site are divided into topical areas that include "Preservation Events & Conferences", "Grants & Funding Sources" and nine other headings. Visitors who might be less familiar with the world of historic preservation will want to look over the "Video Library". Here they will find clips of restoration projects in progress, preservation walking tours, and endangered places. Also, it is worth noting that the site contains listings and links for over 7000 history museums, 1000 downtown and main street groups, and 4500 historical societies in North America.

43

Structural plasticity of calmodulin on the surface of CaF2 nanoparticles preserves its biological function  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Nanoparticles are increasingly used in biomedical applications and are especially attractive as biocompatible and biodegradable protein delivery systems. Herein, the interaction between biocompatible 25 nm CaF2 nanoparticles and the ubiquitous calcium sensor calmodulin has been investigated in order to assess the potential of these particles to serve as suitable surface protein carriers. Calmodulin is a multifunctional messenger protein that activates a wide variety of signaling pathways in eukaryotic cells by changing its conformation in a calcium-dependent manner. Isothermal titration calorimetry and circular dichroism studies have shown that the interaction between calmodulin and CaF2 nanoparticles occurs with physiologically relevant affinity and that the binding process is fully reversible, occurring without significant alterations in protein secondary and tertiary structures. Experiments performed with a mutant form of calmodulin having an impaired Ca2+-binding ability in the C-terminal lobe suggest that the EF-hand Ca2+-binding motifs are directly involved in the binding of calmodulin to the CaF2 matrix. The residual capability of nanoparticle-bound calmodulin to function as a calcium sensor protein, binding to and altering the activity of a target protein, was successfully probed by biochemical assays. Even if efficiently carried by CaF2 nanoparticles, calmodulin may dissociate, thus retaining the ability to bind the peptide encompassing the putative C-terminal calmodulin-binding domain of glutamate decarboxylase and activate the enzyme. We conclude that the high flexibility and structural plasticity of calmodulin are responsible for the preservation of its function when bound in high amounts to a nanoparticle surface.Nanoparticles are increasingly used in biomedical applications and are especially attractive as biocompatible and biodegradable protein delivery systems. Herein, the interaction between biocompatible 25 nm CaF2 nanoparticles and the ubiquitous calcium sensor calmodulin has been investigated in order to assess the potential of these particles to serve as suitable surface protein carriers. Calmodulin is a multifunctional messenger protein that activates a wide variety of signaling pathways in eukaryotic cells by changing its conformation in a calcium-dependent manner. Isothermal titration calorimetry and circular dichroism studies have shown that the interaction between calmodulin and CaF2 nanoparticles occurs with physiologically relevant affinity and that the binding process is fully reversible, occurring without significant alterations in protein secondary and tertiary structures. Experiments performed with a mutant form of calmodulin having an impaired Ca2+-binding ability in the C-terminal lobe suggest that the EF-hand Ca2+-binding motifs are directly involved in the binding of calmodulin to the CaF2 matrix. The residual capability of nanoparticle-bound calmodulin to function as a calcium sensor protein, binding to and altering the activity of a target protein, was successfully probed by biochemical assays. Even if efficiently carried by CaF2 nanoparticles, calmodulin may dissociate, thus retaining the ability to bind the peptide encompassing the putative C-terminal calmodulin-binding domain of glutamate decarboxylase and activate the enzyme. We conclude that the high flexibility and structural plasticity of calmodulin are responsible for the preservation of its function when bound in high amounts to a nanoparticle surface. Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available: Supplementary methods and figures. See DOI: 10.1039/c4nr04368e

Astegno, Alessandra; Maresi, Elena; Marino, Valerio; Dominici, Paola; Pedroni, Marco; Piccinelli, Fabio; Dell'Orco, Daniele

2014-11-01

44

Complex Recombination Patterns Arising during Geminivirus Coinfections Preserve and Demarcate Biologically Important Intra-Genome Interaction Networks  

PubMed Central

Genetic recombination is an important process during the evolution of many virus species and occurs particularly frequently amongst begomoviruses in the single stranded DNA virus family, Geminiviridae. As in many other recombining viruses it is apparent that non-random recombination breakpoint distributions observable within begomovirus genomes sampled from nature are the product of variations both in basal recombination rates across genomes and in the over-all viability of different recombinant genomes. Whereas factors influencing basal recombination rates might include local degrees of sequence similarity between recombining genomes, nucleic acid secondary structures and genomic sensitivity to nuclease attack or breakage, the viability of recombinant genomes could be influenced by the degree to which their co-evolved protein-protein and protein-nucleotide and nucleotide-nucleotide interactions are disreputable by recombination. Here we investigate patterns of recombination that occur over 120 day long experimental infections of tomato plants with the begomoviruses Tomato yellow leaf curl virus and Tomato leaf curl Comoros virus. We show that patterns of sequence exchange between these viruses can be extraordinarily complex and present clear evidence that factors such as local degrees of sequence similarity but not genomic secondary structure strongly influence where recombination breakpoints occur. It is also apparent from our experiment that over-all patterns of recombination are strongly influenced by selection against individual recombinants displaying disrupted intra-genomic interactions such as those required for proper protein and nucleic acid folding. Crucially, we find that selection favoring the preservation of co-evolved longer-range protein-protein and protein DNA interactions is so strong that its imprint can even be used to identify the exact sequence tracts involved in these interactions. PMID:21949649

Martin, Darren P.; Lefeuvre, Pierre; Varsani, Arvind; Hoareau, Murielle; Semegni, Jean-Yves; Dijoux, Betty; Vincent, Claire; Reynaud, Bernard; Lett, Jean-Michel

2011-01-01

45

Mostly Plants. Individualized Biology Activities on: I. Investigating Bread Mold; II. Transpiration; III. Botany Project; IV. Collecting/Preserving/Identifying Leaves; [and] V. Student Science Laboratory Write-Ups.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Individualized biology activities for secondary students are presented in this teaching guide. The guide is divided into five sections: (1) investigating bread mold; (2) investigating transpiration; (3) completing a botany project; (4) collecting, preserving, and identifying leaves; and (5) writing up science laboratory investigations. The

Gibson, Paul R.

46

Effective application of the methanol-based PreservCyt() fixative and the Cellient() automated cell block processor to diagnostic cytopathology, immunocytochemistry, and molecular biology.  

PubMed

We studied the feasibility of immunocytochemistry (ICC), in situ hybridization (ISH), and polymerase chain reaction (PCR) after Cellient() automated cell block processing, and tested whether methanol-based PreservCyt() fixation could replace formalin fixation, in an attempt to eliminate toxic formaldehyde vapors. Immunostaining with 30 different antibodies was performed on cell blocks from 73 FNA specimens and 42 body cavity fluid specimens prepared by Cellient() automated processing that uses the methanol-based fixative (PreservCyt() ). For each antibody we evaluated ICC in at least three different cell block specimens and compared it with immunohistochemistry (IHC) in formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded (FFPE) histological sections from the corresponding tumors. The quality of DNA and RNA in Cellient() blocks was analyzed by ISH, applying a SYT gene break-apart assay and EBER probes, respectively. Moreover, DNA quality was analyzed by PCR by using primer sets for DNA products of 100, 200, 300, 400, 500, and 600 base pairs, and evaluated by gel electrophoresis. When compared with IHC results in corresponding FFPE tumor tissue from the same patient, 24 out of 30 antibodies showed concordant ICC results. With FISH, distinctive hybridization signals were observed for SYT DNA sequences and EB virus RNA sequences. With PCR, DNA products, up to 600 base pairs in size, were readily observed after gel electrophoresis. The antibodies that showed concordant immunostaining in Cellient() blocks could be applied to diagnostic algorithms that proved to be helpful in the discrimination of major tumor types (carcinoma, lymphoma, melanoma, and germ cell tumors), discrimination of carcinoma subtypes, and determination of primary tumor site in cases of metastatic carcinoma. In a separate study, we found that the application of ICC to this cell block technique provided additional diagnostic and clinically important information in 24% of 100 consecutive cases. The high quality of DNA and RNA in Cellient() cell blocks allowed sensitive and specific molecular biologic analysis, in particular FISH and PCR. PMID:23444168

van Hemel, Bettien M; Suurmeijer, Albert J H

2013-08-01

47

Preservation Environments  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The long-term preservation of digital entities requires mechanisms to manage the authenticity of massive data collections that are written to archival storage systems. Preservation environments impose authenticity constraints and manage the evolution of the storage system technology by building infrastructure independent solutions. This seeming paradox, the need for large archives, while avoiding dependence upon vendor specific solutions, is resolved through use of data grid technology. Data grids provide the storage repository abstractions that make it possible to migrate collections between vendor specific products, while ensuring the authenticity of the archived data. Data grids provide the software infrastructure that interfaces vendor-specific storage archives to preservation environments.

Moore, Reagan W.

2004-01-01

48

Heritage Preservation  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Heritage Preservation: The National Institute for Conservation is a 30-year-old non-profit in Washington, DC, that is concerned with preserving the treasures of the United States that are already in institutions, such as museums, historical societies, and libraries, as well as those historical treasures that are in people's homes, basements, and attics. Their website is comprehensive, and lists the programs they run to help accomplish this monumental task. Under the "Programs" tab visitors will find links to the "Conservation Assessment Program" and "Heritage Emergency National Task Force", which is like FEMA for historical objects. "Rescue Public Murals" and "Save Outdoor Sculpture!" are also programs the Heritage Preservation runs. Visitors can see photographs of "Murals That Have Been Lost" and "Murals That Have Been Saved". Finally, the link under "Programs" to the "Heritage Health Index" provides a full online report of the "first comprehensive survey to assess the condition and preservation needs of U.S. collections".

49

Urine Preservative  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Disclosed is CPG, a combination of a chlorhexidine salt (such as chlorhexidine digluconate, chlorhexidine diacetate, or chlorhexidine dichloride) and n-propyl gallate that can be used at ambient temperatures as a urine preservative.

Smith, Scott M. (Inventor); Nillen, Jeannie (Inventor)

2001-01-01

50

Preservation Matters  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

One must undertake multi-institutional efforts that include universities, archives, museums, libraries and community-based arts organizations and the artists to preserve Latino art history. Arts infrastructure can be strengthened by various Chicano Studies Research Center projects that are concerned with archive building and scholarship, and with

Noriega, Chon A.

2005-01-01

51

Preservation & Restoration.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This theme issue on preservation and restoration presents selected resources for elementary and secondary education that include Web sites, CD-ROM and software, videos, books, magazines, and professional resources as well as classroom activities. Age levels are specified for most materials. I Sidebars discuss restoring a masterpiece, a bug's life,

Online-Offline, 2000

2000-01-01

52

Records Preservation  

USGS Multimedia Gallery

Older materials and recently arrived items in the Field Records Collection are in various states of preservation and documentation. In the current reorganization project, items are inventoried for content, transferred to archival storage containers, and archived as shelf items (notebooks and file fo...

53

BIOLOG  

EPA Science Inventory

BIOLOG contains more than 43,000 citations to literature on microbial degradation and toxicity of more than 6,000 chemicals. Records are organized by CAS Registry Number and by 6 categories (i.e., biodegradation/toxicity; oxygen condition (anaerobic/aerobic); culture type (pure e...

54

Preservation of Digital Objects.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Presents a literature review that covers the following topics related to preservation of digital objects: practical examples; stakeholders; recordkeeping standards; genre-specific problems; trusted repository standards; preservation methods; preservation metadata standards; and future directions. (Contains 82 references.) (MES)

Galloway, Patricia

2004-01-01

55

Clinical and biological efficacy of preservative?free NAAGA eye?drops versus levocabastine eye?drops in vernal keratoconjunctivitis patients  

PubMed Central

Aims This comparative and randomised pilot study assessed the clinical and biological efficacy of Naaxia Sine eye?drops versus levocabastine eye?drops in the treatment of vernal keratoconjunctivitis (VKC). Methods Twenty?three VKC patients were randomised and treated bilaterally for 28?days with N?acetyl?aspartyl?glutamate (NAAGA) or levocabastine (LEVO) eye?drops. The primary efficacy variable, overall evolution of eosinophil cationic protein (ECP) tear concentrations, was assessed in a masked fashion on D0, D7 and D28. Clinical symptoms and signs were reported at the same time points. Biological parameters were analysed with a non?parametric rank?based approach. Global tolerance was assessed by the investigator and patient. Results At all time points, ECP tear levels were significantly reduced in the NAAGA compared with the LEVO group (p?=?0.023). Reduction of eosinophil leucocytes and tear lymphocytes was higher not significant in the NAAGA group. The same trend was observed for the evolution of total ocular symptom score. There were no significant differences between treatment groups in the occurrence of adverse effects, except for burning which was more frequent in the LEVO group (p?=?0.002). Conclusion The anti?eosinophilic actions of NAAGA were shown by a significant reduction of ECP tear concentrations. A decreased lymphocyte count and an overall improvement of the symptomatology were also noted. Moreover, the tolerability of NAAGA appeared to be better. PMID:17585003

Leonardi, A; Bremond?Gignac, D; Bortolotti, M; Violato, D; Pouliquen, P; Delval, L; Grouin, J M; Fregona, I A

2007-01-01

56

The Silver Creek Preserve  

USGS Multimedia Gallery

Before The Nature Conservancy established the Silver Creek Preserve, the watershed had been degraded by years of livestock grazing and overfishing. Preserve managers have been concerned about sedimentation, increasing stream temperatures, and invasive species. To measure the effectiveness of their ...

57

Formax Preserved Birds  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A quick, simple method for preserving bird specimens using borax and a formalin solution is described. Procedures for injecting and mounting the specimens are given along with certain restrictions on preserving specimens. (MA)

Sheridan, Philip

1978-01-01

58

A History Worth Preserving  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Manhattan Project transformed the course of American and world history, science, politics and society. If we can read about this in books and watch History Channel documentaries, why do we need to preserve some of the properties of this enormous undertaking? The presentation, ``A History Worth Preserving,'' will address why some of the physical properties need to be preserved

Cynthia Kelly

2008-01-01

59

NISTIR 7928 The Biological Evidence Preservation Handbook  

E-print Network

Enforcement Standards Office Office of Special Programs Phylis S. Bamberger Task Force on Wrongful Convictions Bureau of Investigation Gerry LaPorte Office of Investigative and Forensic Sciences National Institute Forensics Brian E. Ostrom Portland Metro Forensic Laboratory Oregon State Police Lisa Schwind Office

Magee, Joseph W.

60

Jasper Ridge Biological Preserve Annual Report 200607  

E-print Network

awarding of the 2007 Nobel Peace Prize to the Intergovern- mental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) and to Al on which the reports of the IPCC are built. Nobel Prizes in the sciences typically reward a single discovery, something like elucidating the structure of DNA. But this year's Nobel Prize for Peace differs

61

PRESERVING BIODIVERSITY: SPECIES, ECOSYSTEMS, OR LANDSCAPES?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Efforts to preserve biological diversity must focus increasingly at the ecosystem level because of the immense number of species, the majority of which are currently unknown. An ecosystem approach is also the only way to conserve processes and habitats (such as forest canopies, belowground habitats, and hyporheic zones) that, with their constituent species, are poorly known. Continued concern with species

JERRY F. FRANKLIN

1993-01-01

62

Modes of fossil preservation  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The processes of geologic preservation are important for understanding the organisms represented by fossils. Some fossil differences are due to basic differences in organization of animals and plants, but the interpretation of fossils has also tended to be influenced by modes of preservation. Four modes of preservation generally can be distinguished: (1) Cellular permineralization ("petrifaction") preserves anatomical detail, and, occasionally, even cytologic structures. (2) Coalified compression, best illustrated by structures from coal but characteristic of many plant fossils in shale, preserves anatomical details in distorted form and produces surface replicas (impressions) on enclosing matrix. (3) Authigenic preservation replicates surface form or outline (molds and casts) prior to distortion by compression and, depending on cementation and timing, may intergrade with fossils that have been subject to compression. (4) Duripartic (hard part) preservation is characteristic of fossil skeletal remains, predominantly animal. Molds, pseudomorphs, or casts may form as bulk replacements following dissolution of the original fossil material, usually by leaching. Classification of the kinds of preservation in fossils will aid in identifying the processes responsible for modifying the fossil remains of both animals and plants. ?? 1975.

Schopf, J.M.

1975-01-01

63

Protein Preservation BIOMATERIALS  

E-print Network

Protein Preservation BIOMATERIALS Our goal is to develop measurements for characterizing sugar-based glasses with respect to their ability to serve as preservation media for therapeutic proteins to the stability of proteins in stabilizing sugar-based glass. This property had been completely overlooked

64

Why Preserve Biodiversity?  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This lesson plan stresses the importance of maintaining ecosystems and explores the various arguments in favor of preserving the biodiversity of Earth. Students will view photos of endangered species and discuss why these animals are threatened and why they should be protected; learn the meaning of biodiversity, ecosystem, and extinction; explain why all members of an ecosystem are important; list the reasons why biodiversity should be preserved; read articles on various arguments in favor of preserving biodiversity; and write essays in which they explain what they feel are the most compelling reasons for preserving biodiversity and also describe the arguments they think would be most likely to convince the general public that biodiversity should be preserved.

65

Mojave National Preserve  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This National Park Service site contains sections on: desert ecology, with explanations of the desert types (rain shadow deserts, coastal deserts, and remote interior basins), and data on desert population growth; desert plants and animals; history of the preserve including Mojave Indian and Black homesteaders history; recreational information; education, with a list of rangers to call or email for curriculum programs; management issues, including a Final Environmental Impact Statement and General Management Plan; and maps of the preserve. There is also an online story book for kids about desert tortoises and links to information on the geology (as well as geological maps) of the preserve.

66

Preservation Map of Europe  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In an effort to stimulate international information exchange, cooperative projects, and research, the European Commission on Preservation and Access (ECPA) has created an online directory of European organizations working in the preservation field. This directory is based on a survey conducted over the past year. For each of the twenty-five countries currently listed there is a section on national policy as it relates to preservation in libraries and archives, followed by background information on individual organizations, projects, and training courses. Background information includes contacts, email or web access if available, and a brief description of activities. Users can search the preservation map database by organization name, project focus, training availability, or by keyword.

67

Jellies, Jams and Preserves  

E-print Network

Many people prepare home-preserved jellies, jams, preserves and fruit spreads to enhance and complement meals. Most of these jellied or thickened products are made from fruit or fruit juice, although in some locales, unusual products such as cactus... Jellies and jams Jellies are clear jellied products usually made by cooking fruit juice with sugar. These prod- ucts should be clear and firm enough to hold their shape when taken from the container, and they should be tender when cut. Jellies can...

Van Laanen, Peggy

2000-08-16

68

Food Preservation beyond the Season.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Examines how current scientific knowledge of food preservation emerged from traditions handed down through the generations. Discusses various methods of preservation, their history, and current application. (LZ)

Hanes, Phyllis

1992-01-01

69

PreserveNet  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Internet allows many interested communities that may be spread across great distances to share information, and PreserveNet is just such a community. Since 1994, preservationists have had a fine resource to draw on at the PreserveNet website. The site has been redesigned several times since its creation, and currently visitors to the site can find out about funding sources for projects, employment opportunities, and upcoming conferences and related events. Along with these sections, visitors may also wish to take a look through the Legal section, which offers links to summaries of court cases related to historic preservation and also to the codes of federal regulation. Finally, the site also has a links area, which contains numerous links categorized by theme, such as cultural studies, sprawl, and maritime resources.

70

National Preservation Institute  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The National Preservation Institute (NPI) "offers continuing education and professional training for those involved in the management, preservation, and stewardship of cultural heritage." The NPI website is a treasure trove of material for people interested in such matters, along with information on scholarships, online resources, and the Institute's upcoming seminars. The Resources area includes a set of useful links to Internet resources and a very nice set of tools for cultural resource managers. These tools include technical documents designed to be used in the formal transfer of historic properties, along with key documents about the National Environmental Policy Act. In the Scholarships area, visitors can learn about scholarships offered by the NPI and the National Endowment for the Arts dealing with historic preservation. Additionally, visitors can sign up for the NPI mailing list and learn more about seminars on cultural and natural resources management.

2012-06-08

71

A History Worth Preserving  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Manhattan Project transformed the course of American and world history, science, politics and society. If we can read about this in books and watch History Channel documentaries, why do we need to preserve some of the properties of this enormous undertaking? The presentation, ``A History Worth Preserving,'' will address why some of the physical properties need to be preserved and which ones we are struggling to maintain for future generations. The story of this effort begins in 1997 as the Department of Energy was posed to demolish the last remaining Manhattan Project properties at the Los Alamos laboratory. Located deep behind security fences, the ``V Site's'' asbestos-shingled wooden buildings looked like humble garages with over-sized wooden doors. The ``V Site'' properties were almost lost twice, first to bulldozers and then the Cerro Grande fire of 2000. Now, visitors can stand inside the building where J. Robert Oppenheimer and his crew once worked and imagine the Trinity ``gadget'' hanging from its hoist shortly before it ushered in the Atomic Age on July 16, 1945. As Richard Rhodes has commented, we preserve what we value of the physical past because it specifically embodies our social past. But many challenge whether the Manhattan Project properties ought to be preserved. Rather than recognize the Manhattan Project as a great achievement worthy of commemoration, some see it as a regrettable event, producing an instrument to take man's inhumanity to man to extremes. While these divergent views will no doubt persist, the significance of the Manhattan Project in producing the world's first atomic bombs is irrefutable. Preserving some of its tangible remains is essential so that future generations can understand what the undertaking entailed from its humble wooden sheds to enormous first-of-a-kind industrial plants with 125,000 people working in secret and living in frontier-like communities. With continuing pressure for their demolition, what progress has been made in preserving some properties of the Manhattan Project? The presentation will share the handful of remaining properties that we believe are needed to tell the story of the Manhattan Project. It will share our successes, what is still at risk, and the on-going struggle to preserve this history.

Kelly, Cynthia

2008-04-01

72

Preservation: Issues and Planning.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A reference guide from leading experts in the field, this book covers the repair, maintenance, and preservation of library or archive collections, providing a definitive and authoritative analysis of how to plan for and ensure the long-term health of an institution's collection in this digital age. Chapters include: (1) "Defining the Library

Banks, Paul N., Ed.; Pilette, Roberta, Ed.

73

Privacy Preserving Data Mining  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper we address the issue of privacy preserving data mining. Specifically, we consider a scenario in which two parties owning confidential databases wish to run a data mining algorithm on the union of their databases, without revealing any unnecessary information. Our work is motivated by the need to both protect privileged information and enable its use for research

Yehuda Lindell; Benny Pinkas

2000-01-01

74

Preserve a Snowflake  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this activity, students capture snowflakes in a manner that preserves their shape. Afterwards, students can study the ice crystal shapes and then hang their snowflakes up as art. There is information about how snowflakes are formed and simple steps to conduct the activity.

75

Sharing the Preservation Burden  

SciTech Connect

Preserving digitally encoded information which is not just to be rendered, as a document, but which must processed, like data, is even harder than one might think, because understandability of the information which is encoded in the digital object(s) is what is required. Information about Nuclear Waste will include both documents as well as data. Moreover one must be able to understand the relationship between the many individual pieces of information. Furthermore the volume of information involved will require us to allow automated processing of such information. Preserving the ability to understand and process digitally encoded information over long periods of time is especially hard when so many things will change, including hardware, software, environment and the tacit and implicit knowledge that people have. Since we cannot predict these changes this cannot be just a one-off action; continued effort is required. However it seems reasonable to say that no organization, project or person can ever say for certain that their ability to provide this effort is going to last forever. What can be done? Can anything be guaranteed? Probably not guaranteed - but at least one can try to reduce the risk of losing the information. We argue that if no single organization, project or person can guarantee funding or effort (or even interest), then somehow we must share the 'preservation load', and this is more than a simple chain of preservation consisting of handing on the collection of bits from one holder to the next. Clearly the bits must be passed on (but may be transformed along the way), however something more is required - because of the need to maintain understandability, not just access. This paper describes the tools, techniques and infrastructure components which the CASPAR project is producing to help in sharing the preservation burden. In summary: CASPAR is attempting to use OAIS concepts rigorously and to the fullest extent possible, supplementing these where appropriate. Based on these fundamental ideas about digital preservation, a number of components, tools and techniques are being created in order to provide a broadly applicable infrastructure to allow the spreading of the burden of preserving the understandability and usability of digitally encoded information. In the process the limits of the applicability of these OAIS concepts are themselves being tested. Most importantly a number of validation metrics have been produced. Further details are available from the CASPAR web site http://www.casparpreserves.eu. (authors)

Giaretta, D. [STFC, Rutherford Appleton Laboratory, Didcot, Oxon OX11 0QX (United Kingdom)

2008-07-01

76

The Signal: Digital Preservation  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Librarians, information technology specialists, and others will find much to enjoy on this excellent collaborative blog created by the Library of Congress. Called "The Signal," it covers "exciting new developments that have an impact on digital preservation and access." There are 12 experts who contribute posts to the blog on a regular basis and there are well over 400 posts to browse through here. First-time visitors can look through the Categories area, which collects posts into themes such as Digital Content, Outreach and Events, and Tools and Infrastructure. Recent posts include "Hardware Matters," "What Do Researchers Want From Institutions that Preserve Digital Content?" and "Reality Check: What Most People Actually Do with Their Personal Digital Archives." Users are also encouraged to add their own comments and thoughts on each post or suggest materials for possible coverage by the site. [KMG

2013-06-05

77

Digital Preservation Tools Showcase  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The National Digital Information Infrastructure and Preservation Program works with the Library of Congress to craft high-quality solutions to the problems facing a wide array of digital management initiatives across different sectors. Part of their work includes compiling a list of helpful tools for persons within the digital preservation community. On this site, visitors can examine over 40 tools and services that have been identified as of late. Sortable categories include Tool Type, Usage, and Content Domain. Within each of these, visitors will find a brief description, information about the intended user audience, and the basic function of each resource. Some of the items here include Recollection, the Simile Exhibit, and Voyeur, which is a web-based text analysis environment that can use texts in a variety of formats.

78

Tree preserving embedding  

PubMed Central

The goal of dimensionality reduction is to embed high-dimensional data in a low-dimensional space while preserving structure in the data relevant to exploratory data analysis such as clusters. However, existing dimensionality reduction methods often either fail to separate clusters due to the crowding problem or can only separate clusters at a single resolution. We develop a new approach to dimensionality reduction: tree preserving embedding. Our approach uses the topological notion of connectedness to separate clusters at all resolutions. We provide a formal guarantee of cluster separation for our approach that holds for finite samples. Our approach requires no parameters and can handle general types of data, making it easy to use in practice and suggesting new strategies for robust data visualization. PMID:21949369

Shieh, Albert D.; Hashimoto, Tatsunori B.; Airoldi, Edoardo M.

2011-01-01

79

Life Jackets and Life Preservers  

MedlinePLUS

... Life Jackets and Life Preservers Safety & Prevention Listen Life Jackets and Life Preservers Article Body If your family enjoys boating, ... weight. Check the user weight on the label. Life Jackets TYPE 1: This jacket floats the best. ...

80

A study of simplified porcine skin preservation.  

PubMed

The study of preserved porcine skin was done by using split-thickness skin grafts of pigs weighing approximately 25 to 30 kg. The harvesting of split-thickness skin grafts was performed under aseptic and antiseptic conditions. The povidone-iodine solution and 0.25% acidified sodium hypochlorite solution were used before immersion of the skin in 90% glycerine solution. Prepared skin graft was stored in the freezer compartment of a home refrigerator. Serial studies of the bacteriology and the histology of specimens were performed monthly for 12 months. No bacterial organisms were found during the study. The integrity of the skin lasted up to 5 months, however, the property of the preserved skin was as good as the other biological dressing even after 6 months. This simple, low-cost procedure is useful for restoring allografts or even autografts in a hospital without conveniences or adequate facilities. PMID:8512290

Visuthikosol, V; Punyahotra, N; Navykarn, T; Kruavit, A; Boonpucknavig, V

1993-04-01

81

Fertility Preservation in Girls  

PubMed Central

Children that undergo treatment for cancer are at risk of suffering from subfertility or hormonal dysfunction due to the detrimental effects of radiotherapy and chemotherapeutic agents on the gonads. Cryopreservation of ovarian tissue prior to treatment offers the possibility of restoring gonadal function after resumption of therapy. Effective counseling and management of pediatric patients is crucial for preserving their future reproductive potential. The purpose of this article is to review recent literature and to revise recommendations we made in a 2007 article. Pediatric hemato-oncology, reproductive endocrinology, surgery, anesthesia and bioethics perspectives are discussed and integrated to propose guidelines for offering ovarian cryopreservation to premenarcheal girls with cancer. PMID:22496695

Michaeli, Jennia; Weintraub, Michael; Gross, Eitan; Ginosar, Yehuda; Ravitsky, Vardit; Eizenman, Einat; Mitrani, Eduardo; Lebovich, Meital; Laufer, Neri; Kennedy, Stephen; Revel, Ariel

2012-01-01

82

Fertility preservation in women.  

PubMed

In women, ?10% of cancers occur in those <45 years old. Chemotherapy, radiotherapy and bone marrow transplantation can cure >90% of girls and young women with diseases that require such treatments. However, these treatments can result in premature ovarian failure, depending on the follicular reserve, the age of the patient and the type and dose of drugs used. This article discusses the different fertility preservation strategies: medical therapy before chemotherapy; ovarian transposition; embryo cryopreservation; oocyte vitrification; and ovarian tissue cryopreservation. The indications, results and risks of these options are discussed. Whether medical therapy should be used to protect the gonads during chemotherapy remains a source of debate. Fertility preservation needs to be completed before chemotherapy and/or irradiation is started and might take 2-3 weeks with established techniques such as embryo or oocyte cryopreservation. Further studies are needed in patients with cancer to confirm the excellent outcomes obtained in patients without cancer or in egg donation programmes. For prepubertal girls or cases where immediate therapy is required, cryopreservation of ovarian tissue is the only available option. Finally, possible future approaches are reviewed, including in vitro maturation of nonantral follicles, the artificial ovary, oogonial stem cells and drugs to prevent follicle loss. PMID:24166000

Donnez, Jacques; Dolmans, Marie-Madeleine

2013-12-01

83

Preserving Perishables (Dormavac)  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A new commercial product that can preserve perishable commodities for weeks without freezing, so that they can be shipped fresh without the cost of air freight, has been developed by Grumman Corporation, Bethpage, Long Island, New York. The development benefited from the company's experience in developing the environmental control system for the Lunar Module, which delivered Apollo astronauts to the surface of the moon. Called Dormavac, the system provides a commodity-preserving environment within an aluminum container that can be transported by truck, rail or ship. Dormavac creates a cold-but above freezing-environment with high relative humidity and very low air pressure. The saturated air minimizes commodity weight loss and the air is automatically changed several times an hour to flush away odors and harmful gases released by the commodities. According to company literature, Dormavac significantly extends the transportation life of perishables. For example, pork has a normal cold storage life of about seven days, beef two weeks and tomatoes three weeks; with Dormavac, pork remains fresh for three weeks, beef more than six weeks and tomatoes seven weeks or more. Dormavac is manufactured and marketed by Grumman Allied Industries, Woodbury, New York. In developing the system, Grumman Allied drew upon the technological resources of another company subsidiary, Grumman Aerospace. Engineers who had earlier worked on Lunar Module environmental control brought their know-how and experience to the Dormavac development.

1979-01-01

84

Preservation and Library Management : A Reconsideration  

Microsoft Academic Search

Discusses the results of a questionnaire survey into preservation policies and practice in British libraries, focusing on responsibility for preservation, preservation policies, disaster control planning, staff training and user education, co-operative initiatives, factors inhibiting preservation activity and spending on preservation. Findings indicate that preservation is considered most applicable to special collections and to rare or valuable items, and that funding

Paul Eden; John Feather; Graham Matthews

1994-01-01

85

Biology 494 Biology Internship  

E-print Network

Biology 494 Biology Internship Guidelines The Biology Program encourages students to seek out and participate in internship opportunities that have a clear biological focus. Internships may be arranged may receive credit in Biology 494 (Biology Internship) for participation in internships, regardless

Wurtele, Eve Syrkin

86

Advances in corneal preservation.  

PubMed Central

The functional status of the endothelium and sustained corneal deturgescence after corneal preservation are of great clinical importance and have been primary goals in the development of corneal storage media. In our investigational studies we have specifically addressed the improvement of the quality of donor tissue after 4 degrees C storage, the extension of corneal preservation time, the enhancement of corneal wound healing, and the reduction of the normal progressive loss of endothelial cells postkeratoplasty. Specifically we have developed in vitro HCE cell and epithelial cell culture models that can accurately reflect the response of human corneal tissue in vivo. These models have been utilized to study the effects of growth factors and medium components in relation to their biocompatibility and efficacy in the development of improved corneal preservation solutions. Our laboratory investigated in vitro conditions that allowed human corneal endothelium to shift from a nonproliferative state, in which they remain viable and metabolically active, to a proliferative, mitotically active state. Isolation techniques developed in our laboratory have enabled the establishment of primary and subsequent subcultures of human corneal endothelium that retain the attributes of native endothelium. These in vitro conditions maintain HCE cells in a proliferative state, actively undergoing mitosis. A quantitative bioassay has been developed to determine the effects of various test medium in the stimulation or inhibition of DNA synthesis. In attempting to learn more about the events that occur during in vitro endothelial cell isolation, cell reattachment, extracellular matrix interaction and migrating during subculture, SEM was done on isolated HCE cells incubated in CSM. These studies suggest that the components of the extracellular matrix modulate the growth response of HCE cells, and play a role in regulating proliferation and migration. These observations are important in view of the fact that anterior chamber environment limits cell regeneration of the endothelium, and supports wound healing via cell migration. In vivo, it is the complex interaction of the HCE cell and the extracellular matrix that signal the cell to respond to cell loss in this manner. As our knowledge of human corneal endothelium has increased so has our anticipation of developing the "optimum" medium. Thus additional components have been added to this basic medium to address specific complications encountered with 4 degrees C corneal preservation. Antioxidants, additional energy sources, and other nutritive substrates have been used to supplement and further define a chondroitin sulfate-based medium. These changes have been a part of our new awareness that, even at 4 degrees C, the cornea is metabolically active.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 400 WORDS) Images FIGURE 5 FIGURE 6 FIGURE 7 FIGURE 8 FIGURE 9 A FIGURE 9 B FIGURE 9 C FIGURE 9 D FIGURE 9 E FIGURE 11 FIGURE 12 A FIGURE 12 B FIGURE 12 C FIGURE 12 D FIGURE 12 E FIGURE 12 F FIGURE 13 FIGURE 17 FIGURE 18 A FIGURE 18 B FIGURE 18 C FIGURE 18 D FIGURE 20 FIGURE 23 A FIGURE 23 B FIGURE 24 A FIGURE 24 B FIGURE 24 C FIGURE 24 D FIGURE 24 E FIGURE 28 FIGURE 29 FIGURE 33 A FIGURE 33 B PMID:1710084

Lindstrom, R L

1990-01-01

87

Format-Preserving Encryption  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Format-preserving encryption (FPE) encrypts a plaintext of some specified format into a ciphertext of identical formatfor example, encrypting a valid credit-card number into a valid credit-card number. The problem has been known for some time, but it has lacked a fully general and rigorous treatment. We provide one, starting off by formally defining FPE and security goals for it. We investigate the natural approach for achieving FPE on complex domains, the rank-then-encipher approach, and explore what it can and cannot do. We describe two flavors of unbalanced Feistel networks that can be used for achieving FPE, and we prove new security results for each. We revisit the cycle-walking approach for enciphering on a non-sparse subset of an encipherable domain, showing that the timing information that may be divulged by cycle walking is not a damaging thing to leak.

Bellare, Mihir; Ristenpart, Thomas; Rogaway, Phillip; Stegers, Till

88

Two-temperature formalin fixation preserves activation States efficiently.  

PubMed

Modern pathology is built around the principle of preserving tissues such that the in vivo molecular status is maintained at levels representative of the disease state. Tissues are immersed in a solution of fixative which slowly inactivates biological activities, thus preserving the sample. Further processing ultimately allows the tissue to be embedded into wax for thin sectioning and staining for interpretation microscopically. Every year, around 7billion tissue samples are submitted for processing in the United States alone. With this huge workload, histology laboratories are looking for faster methods of performing fixation, which currently require from several hours to days to complete. Ideally, this procedure could be standardized and would be quicker with better preservation over a wide range of biologically relevant molecules. PMID:25636434

Chafin, David

2015-01-01

89

NEW APPROACHES TO THE PRESERVATION OF CONTAMINANTS IN WATER SAMPLES  

EPA Science Inventory

The potential of antibiotics, chemical biocides and lytic enzymes in preserving nutrients, biological oxygen demand and oil and grease in water and sewage effluents was studied. Preliminary studies concerning the effect of drugs on cell growth and oxygen utilization in samples st...

90

What controls opal preservation in tropical deep-sea sediments?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Measurements of opal preservation in deep sea sediment cores have been presented in three ways: the opal concentration as a fraction of total dry weight (%opaltot), the opal concentration normalized to calcite-free dry weight (%opalcalcite-free), and the opal accumulation rate (opal MAR). It is tempting to interpret changes in these indices as indicators of rates of biological production in past

D. Archer; M. Lyle; K. Rodgers; P. Froelich

1993-01-01

91

Historic Preservation in Art Education  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The Blue Grass Trust in Lexington, Kentucky sponsors the annual visual art contest for historic preservation, one of the many events they sponsor as part of the celebrations planned for Historic Preservation Month each May. When the announcement concerning the Blue Grass Trust visual art competition is released, area high school art teachers

Guilfoil, Joanne K.

2004-01-01

92

Preferences, information and biodiversity preservation  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper considers the nature of preferences for the preservation of biodiversity, and the extent to which individuals are well-informed about biodiversity. We present evidence that the elicitation of monetary bids to pay for biodiversity preservation, as required for cost-benefit analysis, fails as a measure of welfare changes due to the prevalence of preferences which neoclassical economics defines as lexicographic.

Clive L. Spash; Nick Hanley

1995-01-01

93

User Experience and Heritage Preservation  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In considering the heritage preservation of higher education campus buildings, much of the attention gravitates toward issues of selection, cost, accuracy, and value, but the model for most preservation projects does not have a clear method of achieving the best solutions for meeting these targets. Instead, it simply relies on the design team and

Orfield, Steven J.; Chapman, J. Wesley; Davis, Nathan

2011-01-01

94

Food preservation by hurdle technology  

Microsoft Academic Search

Hurdle technology was developed several years ago as a new concept for the production of safe, stable, nutritious, tasty and economical foods. It advocates the intelligent use of combinations of different preservation factors or techniques (hurdles) in order to achieve multi-target, mild but reliable preservation effects. Attractive applications have been identified in many food areas. The present article briefly introduces

Lothar Leistner; Leon G. M. Gorris

1995-01-01

95

Privacy Preservation through Data Generation  

E-print Network

Privacy Preservation through Data Generation Jilles Vreeken, Matthijs van Leeuwen & Arno Siebes.cs.uu.nl ISSN: 0924-3275 #12;Privacy Preservation through Data Generation 1 Jilles Vreeken, Matthijs van Leeuwen, or that many patterns are lost. In this paper we show that generating new data is an inherently safer

Utrecht, Universiteit

96

UCLA Preserved Silent Animation  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

UCLA's film and television archive of animated silent films from the pre-1930s is relatively small, but considering the rarity of any silent films, it is still an impressive collection. Some of the films offered up on this website include "Felix the Cat", the "Inkwell Imps", and "Aesop's Film Fables". Visitors are lucky enough to be able to view online or download 11 animated films from the library's collection. While watching the films, visitors can listen to the preservation commentary, or listened to the music for each film composed by Michael D. Mortilla, who has played music for silent films for the Silent Society. Visitors can learn more about Michael D. Mortilla by reading the "About the Music" link. There are also film notes and an historical overview that visitors can read for each film. Researchers or interested parties will find a 15-page study guide of films and works about silent films available as a PDF. This helpful document is conveniently located at the bottom of the homepage.

97

What is Tribal Historic Preservation? A GUIDE TO TRIBAL HISTORIC PRESERVATION IN INDIAN COUNTRY  

E-print Network

What is Tribal Historic Preservation? A GUIDE TO TRIBAL HISTORIC PRESERVATION IN INDIAN COUNTRY of Contents What is Tribal Historic Preservation.................................................................4 What does a Tribal Historic Preservation Officer Do. ..........................................4

Sheridan, Jennifer

98

76 FR 74721 - Preserving the Open Internet  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...Report No. 2936] Preserving the Open Internet AGENCY: Federal Communications Commission...broadband service to preserve and reinforce Internet freedom and openness. DATES: Oppositions...In the Matter of Preserving the Open Internet, Broadband Industry Practices,...

2011-12-01

99

Montana State Historic Preservation Office  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Montana State Historic Preservation Office works with dozens of partners across Big Sky country to preserve the state's cultural and historic places. The website for the Office contains information about their staff, historic architecture, archaeological projects, and cultural records. Visitors can click on the State-owned Heritage Properties link, located at the bottom of the page, to find a list of historic properties owned and managed by Montana. They can also look over technical reports and documents about these properties. Visitors should not miss the report titled "Montana Modernism." This gem offers information and commentary on recently identified properties in Montana (such as the Safeway Grocery in Butte) built in the two decades after World War II. Finally, visitors with a interest in preservation policy can browse through the Preservation Law section.

2012-03-09

100

Treatment of Wood Preserving Wastewater  

E-print Network

The wastewater produced by the wood preserving industry presents a difficult problem to treat economically. A review of the literature indicates the size of the industry has limited the pursuit of an orderly and economic solution. Atmospheric...

Reynolds, T. D.; Shack, P. A.

101

Preserve Staff Help with Installation  

USGS Multimedia Gallery

In 2013,installation ofmacroinvertebrate sampling devices at seven sites on the Silver Creek Preserve. The sampling devices provide artificial substrate that aquatic insects such as mayflies, caddisflies, and stoneflies can colonize....

102

Transformations Preserving the Hankel Transform  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We classify all polynomial transformations of integer sequences which preserve the Hankel transform, thus generalizing examples due to Layman and Spivey & Steil. We also show that such transformations form a group under composition.

French, Christopher

2007-07-01

103

Marine Biology  

E-print Network

this door. Marine Biology I joined the military RIVERSIDE Marine Biology A Thesis submitted in partialBiology

Zaffino, Kyle

2013-01-01

104

Mouse IPK: A Powerful Tool to Partially Characterize Renal Reperfusion and Preservation Injury  

PubMed Central

Main Problem The molecular basis of renal preservation injury is not well understood. Since mouse kidney transplantation models are not useful in this setting, a mouse Isolated Perfused Kidney (IPK) model was developed to take advantage of mouse genetic design capabilities for testing complex biological hypothesis regarding mechanisms of preservation injury in transplanted kidneys. Methods Mouse kidneys were recovered, preserved, and reperfused in-vitro with an acellular physiological crystalloid buffer containing hypo-physiological oncotic pressure. Outcome variables were measured to predict preservation injury. These included perfusate flow, vascular resistance, VO2, urine output, GFR, proteinuria, LDH release, and edema. The model was tested by subjecting mouse kidneys to cold storage in University of Wisconsin (UW) solution for 24, 48, or 72 hours (time-dependent preservation injury), cold storage in Euro-Collins Solution (solution dependent preservation injury), and exposure to prior warm ischemia (DCD dependent preservation injury). Results The model accurately predicted the qualitative and quantitative changes in the readouts based on known responses to preservation injury in kidney transplants in large animals and humans. Conclusion The mouse IPK accurately predicts many of the variables associated with renal organ preservation injury in the very early phases of reperfusion and may provide an attractive model for studying the molecular basis of renal preservation injury. PMID:24932317

Lindell, Susanne L.; Williams, Natascha; Brusilovsky, Ilia; Mangino, Martin J.

2013-01-01

105

Preservation Impacts on Educational Facilities Planning.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper examines the significance of facilities preservation for educational facilities planning and identifies various forms of facilities preservation applicable to educational facilities. It analyzes why educational facilities planners need to be aware of preservation considerations, reviews the relevant literature for preservation

Shultz, James A.

106

Privacy-Preserving Classifier Learning  

Microsoft Academic Search

We present an ecient protocol for the privacy-preserving, distributed learning of decision-tree classiers. Our protocol allows a user to construct a classier on a database held by a remote server with- out learning any additional information about the records held in the database. The server does not learn anything about the constructed clas- sier, not even the user's choice of

Justin Brickell; Vitaly Shmatikov

2009-01-01

107

A Phase Preserving Sar Processor  

Microsoft Academic Search

Synthetic aperture radar (SAR) image phase information IS necessary to support many advanced SAR applications. The phase information in the complex image for conventional range Doppler processors is not a robust estimate of scene phase . A SAR processor specifically designed to preserve phase informa tion is being developed at the Canada Centre for Remote Sens ing (CCRS). In addition

R. Keith Raney; Paris W. Vachon

1989-01-01

108

Preserving and Restoring Furniture Coatings  

E-print Network

the appearance of the surface. That is, coatings serve some aesthetic purpose. Second, coatings offer protectionPreserving and Restoring Furniture Coatings http://www.si.edu/mci/english/learn_more/taking_care/coatings.html INTRODUCTION COATING MATERIALS Waxes Oils Natural Resins and Gums Vegetable Resins Animal Resin Synthetic

Mathis, Wayne N.

109

UCI Ecological Preserve Published Papers  

E-print Network

UCI Ecological Preserve Published Papers Berschauer, D.P. 1992. Is the "Endangered Species Act" endangered? Southwestern University Law Review 21 (3): 991 ­ 1017. Bowler, P.A. 1990. Riparian Woodland: An Endangered Habitat in Southern California. Pp. 80-97 in Schoenherr, A. (Eds.). Endangered Plant Communities

Rose, Michael R.

110

Rheologic Considerations in Organ Preservation  

Microsoft Academic Search

n the process of harvesting an organ for transplanta- tion, flushing the organ with various perfusates, and, ultimately, implanting the organ into the recipient, a number of abnormal hemodynamic forces have an im- pact on the microvasculature of the graft. First, the microvasculature can be acutely overdistended by the preservation solution infused at the time of organ harvest from the

Edward M. Boyle; Edward D. Verrier

2010-01-01

111

Commercial farmland preservation in Oregon  

Microsoft Academic Search

Oregon's agricultural land preservation program emphasizes the importance of commercial agriculture to the state's economy. Statewide zoning requirements and farm use incentives are designed to protect commercial agriculture from fragmentation and conflicting uses. While the state has invested significant staff and funding commitments over nearly a decade, the program's long-term effectiveness still faces difficult tests.

J. R. Pease

1982-01-01

112

Preserving the legacy: Biological treatment technologies (ptl0501). (video). Audiovisual  

SciTech Connect

Aerobic, anaeorbic and facultative treatments as well as bioremediation (land farming, air sparging, bio-cell, bio-reactor and phytoremediation) are explored with the aid of animation and electron microscope imagery.

NONE

1996-12-31

113

New Developments in Wood-Destroying Organisms from the International Research Group on Wood Preservation (IRG)1  

E-print Network

New Developments in Wood-Destroying Organisms from the International Research Group on Wood Preservation (IRG)1 Elmer L. Schmidt2 Abstract: New developments in wood-destroying organisms and in wood Group on Wood Preservation (IRG) are highlighted in the areas of biological control of fungi, dry rot

Standiford, Richard B.

114

Economic impact and preservation: a case study of the Big Thicket National Preserve in east Texas  

E-print Network

The Big Thicket National Preserve provides an excellent backdrop to test whether there is a correlation between economic impact and preservation. Conflicts over resources and land use blocked the preservation of the park for over forty years...

Powis, Jennifer

2013-02-22

115

Update on Dark Sky Preservation  

Microsoft Academic Search

The efforts to protect dark skies for astronomy and for the public are accelerating. An increasing number of cities and states are considering and enacting outdoor lighting control ordinances. Examples of such lighting codes and a model code are available from the International Dark-Sky Association's Web page, at www.darksky.org. There will be a major meeting on Preserving the Astronomical Environment,

D. L. Crawford

1998-01-01

116

Phase-preserved optical elevator  

PubMed Central

The unique superiority of transformation optics devices designed from coordinate transformation is their capability of recovering both ray trajectory and optical path length in light manipulation. However, very few experiments have been done so far to verify this dual-recovery property from viewpoints of both ray trajectory and optical path length simultaneously. The experimental difficulties arise from the fact that most previous optical transformation optics devices only work at the nano-scale; the lack of intercomparison between data from both optical path length and ray trajectory measurement in these experiments obscured the fact that the ray path was subject to a subwavelength lateral shift that was otherwise not easily perceivable and, instead, was pointed out theoretically [B. Zhang et al. Phys. Rev. Lett. 104, 233903, (2010)]. Here, we use a simple macroscopic transformation optics device of phase-preserved optical elevator, which is a typical birefringent optical phenomenon that can virtually lift an optical image by a macroscopic distance, to demonstrate decisively the unique optical path length preservation property of transformation optics. The recovery of ray trajectory is first determined with no lateral shift in the reflected ray. The phase preservation is then verified with incoherent white-light interferometry without ambiguity and phase unwrapping. PMID:23546046

Luo, Yuan; Zhang, Baile; Han, Tiancheng; Chen, Zhi; Duan, Yubo; Chu, Chia-Wei; Barbastathis, George; Qiu, Cheng Wei

2013-01-01

117

SYNERGISTIC WOOD PRESERVATIVES FOR REPLACEMENT OF CCA  

EPA Science Inventory

The objective of this project was to evaluate the potential synergistic combinations of environmentally-safe biocides as wood preservatives. These wood preservatives could be potential replacements for the heavy-metal based CCA. Didecyldimethylammonium chloride [DDAC] was...

118

Privacy preserving mining of association rules  

Microsoft Academic Search

We present a framework for mining association rules from transactions consisting of categorical items where the data has been randomized to preserve privacy of individual transactions. While it is feasible to recover association rules and preserve privacy using a straightforward \\

Alexandre V. Evfimievski; Ramakrishnan Srikant; Rakesh Agrawal; Johannes Gehrke

2002-01-01

119

Evaluating Hydrology Preservation of Simplified Terrain Representations  

E-print Network

Evaluating Hydrology Preservation of Simplified Terrain Representations Jonathan Muckella , Marcus network. A quan- titative measurement of how accurately a drainage network captures the hydrology to preserve the important hydrology features. This method and other simplification schemes are then evaluated

Franklin, W. Randolph

120

76 FR 60754 - Preserving the Open Internet  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...FCC 10-201] Preserving the Open Internet AGENCY: Federal Communications Commission...establishing rules to preserve the open Internet. Inadvertently the wrong paragraph was...complaints alleging violations of the open Internet rules. Federal Communications...

2011-09-30

121

Biological decontamination by nonthermal plasmas  

Microsoft Academic Search

Nonthermal gaseous discharges have been found to be effective agents for biological decontamination\\/sterilization. The ability to generate these discharges at atmospheric pressure makes the decontamination process practical and inexpensive. In addition, the fact that the plasmas generated by such discharges are cold makes their use suitable for applications where medium preservation is desired. To fully understand the biophysical and biochemical

Mounir Laroussi; Igor Alexeff; Weng L. Kang

2000-01-01

122

PREDON Scientific Data Preservation 2014  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Scientific data collected with modern sensors or dedicated detectors exceed very often the perimeter of the initial scientific design. These data are obtained more and more frequently with large material and human efforts. A large class of scientific experiments are in fact unique because of their large scale, with very small chances to be repeated and to superseded by new experiments in the same domain: for instance high energy physics and astrophysics experiments involve multi-annual developments and a simple duplication of efforts in order to reproduce old data is simply not affordable. Other scientific experiments are in fact unique by nature: earth science, medical sciences etc. since the collected data is "time-stamped" and thereby non-reproducible by new experiments or observations. In addition, scientific data collection increased dramatically in the recent years, participating to the so-called "data deluge" and inviting for common reflection in the context of "big data" investigations. The new knowledge obtained using these data should be preserved long term such that the access and the re-use are made possible and lead to an enhancement of the initial investment. Data observatories, based on open access policies and coupled with multi-disciplinary techniques for indexing and mining may lead to truly new paradigms in science. It is therefore of outmost importance to pursue a coherent and vigorous approach to preserve the scientific data at long term. The preservation remains nevertheless a challenge due to the complexity of the data structure, the fragility of the custom-made software environments as well as the lack of rigorous approaches in workflows and algorithms. To address this challenge, the PREDON project has been initiated in France in 2012 within the MASTODONS program: a Big Data scientific challenge, initiated and supported by the Interdisciplinary Mission of the National Centre for Scientific Research (CNRS). PREDON is a study group formed by researchers from different disciplines and institutes. Several meetings and workshops lead to a rich exchange in ideas, paradigms and methods. The present document includes contributions of the participants to the PREDON Study Group, as well as invited papers, related to the scientific case, methodology and technology. This document should be read as a "facts finding" resource pointing to a concrete and significant scientific interest for long term research data preservation, as well as to cutting edge methods and technologies to achieve this goal. A sustained, coherent and long term action in the area of scientific data preservation would be highly beneficial.

Diaconu, C.; Kraml, S.; Surace, C.; Chateigner, D.; Libourel, T.; Laurent, A.; Lin, Y.; Schaming, M.; Benbernou, S.; Lebbah, M.; Boucon, D.; Crin, C.; Azzag, H.; Mouron, P.; Nief, J.-Y.; Coutin, S.; Beckmann, V.

123

Commission on Preservation and Access Newsletter, 1995.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The Commission on Preservation and Access was established to foster and support collaboration among libraries and allied organizations in order to ensure the preservation of the published and documentary records in all formats and to provide enhanced access to scholarly information. The Commission's newsletter keeps preservation and access

Commission on Preservation and Access Newsletter, 1995

1995-01-01

124

Closed Loop Recycling of PreservativeClosed Loop Recycling of Preservative Treated WoodTreated Wood  

E-print Network

Closed Loop Recycling of PreservativeClosed Loop Recycling of Preservative Treated WoodTreated Wood estimated that about 5 million tons of spent preservative treated wood istons of spent preservative treated wood is disposed of annually into landfills in thedisposed of annually into landfills in the United

125

1 Biological Sciences BIOLOGICAL SCIENCES  

E-print Network

biology of plants and animals. Laboratory fee. (Fall). BISC 1112. Introductory Biology: The Biology biology; diversity of plants, animals, fungi, and microorganisms; ecology and behavior; and animal1 Biological Sciences BIOLOGICAL SCIENCES As one of the natural science departments in GW

Vertes, Akos

126

Emittance preservation in the LHC  

E-print Network

Emittance measurements during the LHC proton run 2011 indicated a blow - up of 20 % to 30 % from LHC injection to collisions. At the LHC design stage the total allowed emittance increase from SPS extraction to colliding beams was set to 7 %. This presentation will show the emittance preservation throughout the different parts of the LHC cycle and discuss the current limitations on emittance determination. Possible sources and cures for the observed blow - up will be presented. Possible improvements of emittance diagnostics and analysis tools together with a list of machine development tests in 2012 will also be shown.

Kain, V; Goddard, B; Holzer, B J; Jowett, J M; Meddahi, M; Mertens, T; Roncarolo, F; Schaumann, M; Versteegen, R; Wenninger, J

2012-01-01

127

Polarization preserving quantum nondemolition photodetector  

E-print Network

A polarization preserving quantum nondemolition photodetector is proposed based on nonlinearities obtainable through quantum coherence effects. An atomic level scheme is devised such that in the presence of strong linearly polarized drive field a coherent weak probe field acquires a phase proportional to the number of photons in the signal mode immaterial of its polarization state. It is also shown that the unavoidable phase-kicks resulting due to the measurement process are insensitive to the polarization state of the incoming signal photon. It is envisioned that such a device would have tremendous applicability in photonic quantum information proposals where quantum information in the polarization qubit is to be protected.

K. T. Kapale

2006-03-30

128

Chemical stability of preserved oligotrophic water samples  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Tests were conducted to determine whether changes that may occur in the chemical characteristics of stored oligotrophic waters collected on 15 sites in northeastern Minnesota were affected by chloroforming. Chloroform was added on site to one of each pair of samples to stabilize the organic content of the water by preventing biological decomposition. The samples were subsequently stored at 25 deg.C, and pH and specific conductivity were measured at intervals for a period of 13 months at which time nine additional chemical parameters (total dissolved solids, total alkalinity, chloride, sulfate, silica, calcium, magnesium, sodium and potassium) were measured.pH increased and specific conductivity decreased. Average changes occurring in time from the original levels were not influenced by treatment, and first differed significantly (P0.05). Sodium and potassium levels were too low to provide meaningful comparisons. It was concluded that chloroform may be advantageous in preserving oligothrophic waters with respect to total dissolved solids, sulfate and calcium.

Adomaitis, V.A.; Shoesmith, J.A.; Swanson, G.A.

1973-01-01

129

A Microfluidic Device for Dry Sample Preservation in Remote Settings  

PubMed Central

Summary This paper describes a microfluidic device for dry preservation of biological specimens at room temperature that incorporates chemical stabilization matrices. Long-term stabilization of samples is crucial for remote medical analysis, biosurveillance, and archiving, but the current paradigm for transporting remotely obtained samples relies on the costly cold chain to preserve analytes within biospecimens. We propose an alternative approach that involves the use of microfluidics to preserve samples in the dry state with stabilization matrices, developed by others, that are based on self-preservation chemistries found in nature. We describe a SlipChip-based device that allows minimally trained users to preserve samples with the three simple steps of placing a sample at an inlet, closing a lid, and slipping one layer of the device. The device fills automatically, and a pre-loaded desiccant dries the samples. Later, specimens can be rehydrated and recovered for analysis in a laboratory. This device is portable, compact, and self-contained, so it can be transported and operated by untrained users even in limited-resource settings. Features such as dead-end and sequential filling, combined with a pumping lid mechanism, enable precise quantification of the original samples volume while avoiding overfilling. In addition, we demonstrated that the device can be integrated with a plasma filtration module, and we validated device operations and capabilities by testing the stability of purified RNA solutions. These features and the modularity of this platform (which facilitates integration and simplifies operation) would be applicable to other microfluidic devices beyond this application. We envision that as the field of stabilization matrices develops, microfluidic devices will be useful for cost-effectively facilitating remote analysis and biosurveillance while also opening new opportunities for diagnostics, drug development, and other medical fields. PMID:24056744

Begolo, Stefano; Shen, Feng; Ismagilov, Rustem F.

2013-01-01

130

The inverse problem in mathematical biology.  

PubMed

Biological systems present particular challengers to model for the purposes of formulating predictions of generating biological insight. These systems are typically multi-scale, complex, and empirical observations are often sparse and subject to variability and uncertainty. This manuscript will review some of these specific challenges and introduce current methods used by modelers to construct meaningful solutions, in the context of preserving biological relevance. Opportunities to expand these methods are also discussed. PMID:25445734

Clermont, Gilles; Zenker, Sven

2014-10-18

131

Allergic contact dermatitis to preservatives.  

PubMed

In summary, a wide variety of skin care products contain preservatives. Patients who are allergic to one of these preservatives may have either localized or widespread dermatitis. Affected patients may find it difficult to avoid thimerosal without the help of the health care provider because the use of these allergens is so widespread. Patch testing is an invaluable tool for patients who struggle with dermatitis. Antigen-avoidance lists that facilitate patient education about what products to avoid are available from the manufacturers of patch test allergens (for example, TRUE Test or Chemotechnique). These lists are helpful starting points for patients in that they provide general categories (for example, shampoos, soaps, or creams) of products that the patient should avoid. With these printed guidelines alone, patients must read skin care product labels carefully, looking for the names of their allergens as identified by patch tests as well as for any synonyms and cross-reactors of these allergens. Thus, patients may feel overwhelmed by hearing the names of allergens that are long and complex. After an allergen has been identified, the nurse can play a key role in helping patients understand their dermatitis and its management. Nurses are in a unique position to spend time educating patients about how to uncover the sources of specific allergens and, subsequently, how to avoid them. The Contact Allergen Replacement Database can help in this educational process by giving patients a shopping list of specific items that are free of the specific allergens causing their allergic contact dermatitis. PMID:16708674

Timm-Knudson, Vickie L; Johnson, Janis S; Ortiz, Karel J; Yiannias, James A

2006-04-01

132

Enhanced cellular preservation by clay minerals in 1 billion-year-old lakes.  

PubMed

Organic-walled microfossils provide the best insights into the composition and evolution of the biosphere through the first 80 percent of Earth history. The mechanism of microfossil preservation affects the quality of biological information retained and informs understanding of early Earth palaeo-environments. We here show that 1 billion-year-old microfossils from the non-marine Torridon Group are remarkably preserved by a combination of clay minerals and phosphate, with clay minerals providing the highest fidelity of preservation. Fe-rich clay mostly occurs in narrow zones in contact with cellular material and is interpreted as an early microbially-mediated phase enclosing and replacing the most labile biological material. K-rich clay occurs within and exterior to cell envelopes, forming where the supply of Fe had been exhausted. Clay minerals inter-finger with calcium phosphate that co-precipitated with the clays in the sub-oxic zone of the lake sediments. This type of preservation was favoured in sulfate-poor environments where Fe-silicate precipitation could outcompete Fe-sulfide formation. This work shows that clay minerals can provide an exceptionally high fidelity of microfossil preservation and extends the known geological range of this fossilization style by almost 500?Ma. It also suggests that the best-preserved microfossils of this time may be found in low-sulfate environments. PMID:25068404

Wacey, David; Saunders, Martin; Roberts, Malcolm; Menon, Sarath; Green, Leonard; Kong, Charlie; Culwick, Timothy; Strother, Paul; Brasier, Martin D

2014-01-01

133

Digital Creation and Preservation Working Group Plan and oversee implementation for the Libraries' digital preservation program, particularly in relation  

E-print Network

Digital Creation and Preservation Working Group Charge: Plan and oversee implementation content creation and preservation. · Inventory current practices related to digital preservation for creation of digital content in various formats. · Develop policy framework for digital preservation. · Make

Schweik, Charles M.

134

Preservation Management of Digital Materials  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The World Wide Web gives us an unprecedented opportunity to provide people around the globe with access to significant historical and cultural works. However, the Web, by its very nature, requires those works to be in some electronically transmittable form before they can be made available, and most historical documents, by their very nature, are in a form well-removed from the computerized world of today. So how can this gap be bridged? And once a bridge is built, how can we be assured that it will stand over the decades and centuries to come? Preservation Management of Digital Materials, published by the UK's Joint Information Systems Committee (JISC), provides in-depth coverage of the procedures and issues encountered in the course of creating and storing digital documents. This publication provides easily-accessible information that should be of increasing interest to anyone involved with digital publication and archiving of existing works.

135

City of Seattle Historic Preservation  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In 2000, the city of Seattle began an ambitious project to survey and inventory historic resources across the entire municipality. The last such project took place in 1979 and taken together, these efforts offer excellent documentation of the built environment. The database here includes over 5,000 properties and visitors can search through the entire collection by address, parcel number, property attribute (such as date of construction), and a number of other fields. The Context Statements area is a great way to learn about the methodologies and basic findings utilized to cover each neighborhood. Historic preservation specialists will find that the statements are extremely detailed in terms of resources used to create such a narrative profile. The site also includes a Glossary of Terms that covers "acquisition type" to "year of construction."

136

Saliva Preservative for Diagnostic Purposes  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Saliva is an important body fluid for diagnostic purposes. Glycoproteins, glucose, steroids, DNA, and other molecules of diagnostic value are found in saliva. It is easier to collect as compared to blood or urine. Unfortunately, saliva also contains large numbers of bacteria that can release enzymes, which can degrade proteins and nucleic acids. These degradative enzymes destroy or reduce saliva s diagnostic value. This innovation describes the formulation of a chemical preservative that prevents microbial growth and inactivates the degradative enzymes. This extends the time that saliva can be stored or transported without losing its diagnostic value. Multiple samples of saliva can be collected if needed without causing discomfort to the subject and it does not require any special facilities to handle after it is collected.

Pierson, Duane L.; Mehta, Satish K.

2012-01-01

137

Biological Threats  

MedlinePLUS

... for Disease Control and Prevention . Before Before a Biological Threat Unlike an explosion, a biological attack may ... will not filter chemical agents During During a Biological Threat The first evidence of an attack may ...

138

English stress preservation and Stratal Optimality Theory  

E-print Network

Since Chomsky & Halle (1968), English stress preservation orginal -> orginlity, bvious -> bviousness has been important in generative discussions of morphophonological interaction. This thesis carries out empirical ...

Collie, Sarah

2008-01-01

139

Preservation Film: Platform for Digital Access Systems.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Preservation efforts for an increasingly digitally oriented future have turned to advanced and improved methods of preservation on microfilm, which has a life expectancy of more than 500 years when properly prepared, stored, and managed, and can support a wide range of digital access systems. Computer controlled cameras can provide significantly

Jones, C. Lee

140

Preservation of Kefir Grains, a Comparative Study  

Microsoft Academic Search

The microflora of kefir grains of household origin was isolated and identified. At least two lactococci, two lactobacilli, two yeast and one mould were detected.Different methods for kefir grain preservation were studied. Metabolic activity of grains preserved frozen at ?20 C and ?80 C and grains stored at 4 C was evaluated.Grains stored at ?20 C and ?80 C maintained

G. L. Garrote; A. G. Abraham; G. L. De Antoni

1997-01-01

141

Wilderness Preservation Act, U.S.A.  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This online article, from "The Biodiversity Crisis: Losing What Counts", takes a look at the Wilderness Preservation Act. It covers the criteria for inclusion in the National Wilderness Preservation System, the protections that "wilderness status" offers and the ecological importance of wilderness areas.

142

High Order Strong Stability Preserving Time Discretizations  

Microsoft Academic Search

Strong stability preserving (SSP) high order time discretizations were developed to ensure nonlinear stability properties necessary in the numerical solution of hyperbolic par- tial differential equations with discontinuous solutions. SSP methods preserve the strong sta- bility properties---in any norm, seminorm or convex functional---of the spatial discretization coupled with first order Euler time stepping. This paper describes the development of SSP

Sigal Gottlieb; David I. Ketcheson; Chi-Wang Shu

2009-01-01

143

GUIDES TO POLLUTION PREVENTION: WOOD PRESERVING INDUSTRY  

EPA Science Inventory

This guide provides an overview of the wood preserving industry and presents options for minimizing waste generation through source,reduction and recycling. reatment with both oilborne and waterborne preservatives is discussed in this guide. owever, because in the United States, ...

144

The preservation of some oral liquid preparations  

Microsoft Academic Search

Chloroform should be considered as an obsolete preservative for pharmaceutical preparations, because of its toxicological implications and its physical instability. The effectiveness of possible alternatives for chloroform in three oral liquid pharmaceutical preparations was investigated, using a microbiological challenge test. Magnesium trisilicate mixture (British Pharmacopoeia) can be adequately preserved with methylparaben (2 g\\/l). Only insignificant amounts of methylparaben were absorbed

H. van Doorne; J. B. Leijen

1994-01-01

145

Emerging concepts in liver graft preservation  

PubMed Central

The urgent need to expand the donor pool in order to attend to the growing demand for liver transplantation has obliged physicians to consider the use of suboptimal liver grafts and also to redefine the preservation strategies. This review examines the different methods of liver graft preservation, focusing on the latest advances in both static cold storage and machine perfusion (MP). The new strategies for static cold storage are mainly designed to increase the fatty liver graft preservation via the supplementation of commercial organ preservation solutions with additives. In this paper we stress the importance of carrying out effective graft washout after static cold preservation, and present a detailed discussion of the future perspectives for dynamic graft preservation using MP at different temperatures (hypothermia at 4?C, normothermia at 37?C and subnormothermia at 20?C-25?C). Finally, we highlight some emerging applications of regenerative medicine in liver graft preservation. In conclusion, this review discusses the state of the art and future perspectives in static and dynamic liver graft preservation in order to improve graft viability. PMID:25593455

Bejaoui, Mohamed; Pantazi, Eirini; Folch-Puy, Emma; Baptista, Pedro M; Garca-Gil, Agustn; Adam, Ren; Rosell-Catafau, Joan

2015-01-01

146

Problems in the Preservation of Electronic Records.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Discusses issues related to the preservation of electronic records. Highlights include differences between physical and electronic records; volume of electronic records; physical media; authenticity; migration of electronic records; metadata; legal issues; improved storage media; and projects for preservation of electronic records. (LRW)

Lin, Lim Siew; Ramaiah, Chennupati K.; Wal, Pitt Kuan

2003-01-01

147

WOOD PRESERVING INDUSTRY MULTIMEDIA EMISSION INVENTORY  

EPA Science Inventory

Restriction of the discharge of wastewater generated during the preservation of wood has resulted in the increased use of evaporation techniques by the wood preserving industry. This report discusses emissions that may occur during evaporation and projects the pollutant burden on...

148

Emerging concepts in liver graft preservation.  

PubMed

The urgent need to expand the donor pool in order to attend to the growing demand for liver transplantation has obliged physicians to consider the use of suboptimal liver grafts and also to redefine the preservation strategies. This review examines the different methods of liver graft preservation, focusing on the latest advances in both static cold storage and machine perfusion (MP). The new strategies for static cold storage are mainly designed to increase the fatty liver graft preservation via the supplementation of commercial organ preservation solutions with additives. In this paper we stress the importance of carrying out effective graft washout after static cold preservation, and present a detailed discussion of the future perspectives for dynamic graft preservation using MP at different temperatures (hypothermia at 4?C, normothermia at 37?C and subnormothermia at 20?C-25?C). Finally, we highlight some emerging applications of regenerative medicine in liver graft preservation. In conclusion, this review discusses the "state of the art" and future perspectives in static and dynamic liver graft preservation in order to improve graft viability. PMID:25593455

Bejaoui, Mohamed; Pantazi, Eirini; Folch-Puy, Emma; Baptista, Pedro M; Garca-Gil, Agustn; Adam, Ren; Rosell-Catafau, Joan

2015-01-14

149

Privacy-Preserving Heterogeneous Health Data Sharing  

E-print Network

that these privacy safeguards hamper biomedical research, and that observing them may preclude meaningful studiesPrivacy-Preserving Heterogeneous Health Data Sharing Noman Mohammed1 , Xiaoqian Jiang2 , Rui Chen1: Privacy-preserving data publishing addresses the problem of disclosing sensitive data when mining

Fung, Benjamin C. M.

150

Building a New Historic Preservation Trades Program  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article describes the experiences of the program coordinator of a new two-year preservation trades program at Harford Community College in Bel Air, Maryland. The two-year associate in applied sciences degree offered at Harford Community College (HCC) is a Technical Professional Studies program in Building Preservation and Restoration (BPR).

Deeg, Rhonda L.

2005-01-01

151

Biological Safety Cabinets Biological Safety  

E-print Network

Biological Safety Cabinets Biological Safety General Biosafety Practices (GBP) Why You Should Care The Biological Safety Cabinet (BSC) protects you (the user), your research materials and your colleagues through whenever you anticipate these activities while working with potentially infectious biological materials

Pawlowski, Wojtek

152

Digital Preservation: A Time Bomb for Digital Libraries  

Microsoft Academic Search

Abstract. The difficulty and expense of preserving digital information is a potential impediment to digital library development. Preservation of traditional materials became,more,successful and systematic after libraries and archives integrated preservation into overall planning and resource allocation. Digital preservation is largely experimental and replete with the risks associated with untested methods. Digital preservation strategies are shaped by the needs and constraints

Margaret Hedstrom

1998-01-01

153

Biology Online  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Biology Online is a community-run web site that provides access to resources on many aspects of biological and life sciences. The site includes a discussion board with forums on cell biology, molecular biology, evolution, bioinformatics, and many other topics. The Wiki dictionary features user-editable content and links to articles on a wide variety of topics in biology. There is also a book catalog with information on biology-related books, including author and content descriptions, product details, and customer reviews; and a directory of links to other websites with related content in the life and Earth sciences.

154

Scientific Data Preservation, Copyright and Open Science  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The purpose of this paper is to sum up the terms of a discussion about the legal aspects of scientific data preservation. This discussion was presented at the Marseille workshop organized on November 14th. This paper is only a basis for forthcoming works about the main project of preserving scientific data (PREDONx). The paper is focused on intellectual property rights, such as copyright or patent, and their effect on the use of scientific data. Open Science appears to be the best way to ensure the preservation, but also the publication, of scientific data.

Mouron, Philippe

155

Jellies, Jams, Preserves, Marmalades, and Butters.  

E-print Network

. Tomato Preserves (without added pectin) 1 pound prepared tomatoes 3f4 pound sugar % cup water 114 lemon, thinly sliced 1 piece gingerroot To prepare fruit. Select small, firm, yellow or red tomatoes. Wash and drain. If a tomato preserve without... skins is desired, dip the tomatoes into boiling water, then into cold water and remove the skins. Handle the tomatoes carefully. To prepare preserves. Boil the lemon 5 minutes in V4 cup of water. Boil the remainder of the water with the sugar for 5...

Sweeten, Mary K.

1979-01-01

156

Cracks preserve kimberlite melt composition  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The chemical composition of kimberlite melts has previously been estimated by measuring aphanitic intrusive rocks (deposit composition) or by partial melting experiments on carbonated lherzolites (source composition). Pervasively altered, degassed and contaminated material preclude the determination of the primitive melt composition. Here we present data on melt compositions trapped in unaltered olivine cracks that have been healed and overgrown prior to shallow level emplacement. During the ascent of kimberlite magma the prograding crack tip samples mantle peridotite xenoliths. Xenoliths rapidly disaggregate over the first few kilometers of transport producing a population of olivine xenocrysts that are released to the fluid-rich melt. Rapid ascent of the kimberlite magma causes depressurization and creates internal elastic stresses in the olivine crystals that can only be alleviated by volumetric expansion or brittle failure. On the time scales operative during kimberlite ascent volume expansion is negligible and brittle failure occurs. Small wetting angles between the fluid-rich melt and olivine allow infiltration of the melt into the crack. These very thin cracks (<5 m) heal rapidly and preserve primary kimberlitic material en route to the surface. We use the electron microprobe with a focused beam (interaction volume less than 2 m) to analyze the small volumes of material found in the healed cracks of the olivine. We analyzed for 18 elements including oxygen, which we obtained by utilizing a non-linear time dependent intensity acquisition and empirically determined mass absorption coefficients. By accurately knowing the amount of oxygen in a sample, we assign oxygen molecules to all other analyzed elements (e.g. MgO, Al2O3) and the remaining oxygen is assigned to hydrogen and carbon. The analysis total is used as a constraint on the proportion of each species. Mg/Ca ratios of the cracks vary from 0.6-5 indicating a compositional continuum between alkali-poor, carbonate-rich melt and Mg-rich silicate melt. OH/CO2 ratios (0-7) and other volatiles (S, F, Cl) are variable and do not correlate with any of the other major elements, consistent with a variably degassed fluid phase. Element associations indicated that Ca, Ni, Ba and Sr co-vary and are inversely related to Mg, Si, Fe, (and several other minor elements). In summary, crack-filling material is Ca and Mg-rich (up to 55 wt.% CaO+MgO), silica-poor (11-32 wt.% SiO2) and are volatile rich ( up to 28 wt.%).

Brett, R. C.; Vigouroux-Caillibot, N.; Donovan, J. J.; Russell, K.

2009-12-01

157

Biological Agents  

MedlinePLUS

... Statistics Training Publications Newsroom Small Business Anti-Retaliation Biological Agents Safety and Health Topics A-Z Index What's New Biological agents include bacteria, viruses, fungi, other microorganisms and ...

158

48 CFR 5231.205-90 - Shipbuilding capability preservation agreements.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-10-01 false Shipbuilding capability preservation agreements. 5231.205-90...Organizations 5231.205-90 Shipbuilding capability preservation agreements. (a) Scope...the Navy may enter into a shipbuilding capability preservation agreement with a...

2011-10-01

159

48 CFR 5231.205-90 - Shipbuilding capability preservation agreements.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-10-01 false Shipbuilding capability preservation agreements. 5231.205-90...Organizations 5231.205-90 Shipbuilding capability preservation agreements. (a) Scope...the Navy may enter into a shipbuilding capability preservation agreement with a...

2010-10-01

160

Lipid Biomarker Preservation in Silica-Depositing Hydrothermal Analogs  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The discovery of extensive silica-rich deposits at Home Plate in the Columbia Hills indicates that hydrothermal conditions once existed on Mars (Squyres et al. 2008). Two types of environments could have been responsible for forming these materials: fumaroles or hydrothermal springs. Examples of both types of these thermal features are found throughout Yellowstone National Park (YNP). The discovery of bona fide microfossils in ancient cherts indicates that silica deposition was an excellent mechanism for organic preservation on the early Earth. Given the importance that organic biomarkers have played in identifying some of the earliest microbial life on Earth and the potential for a similar habitable period on Mars, examination of the preservation of organic biomarkers within various hydrothermal, silica-rich modern analogs is essential for future interpretation of Martian organics. Cyanobacterial mats and biofilms are common inhabitants of hydrothermal spring systems worldwide, at temperatures below 73C and over a broad range of pH, from acidic to alkaline. Bacteriohopanepolyols (BHPs) are the biological precursors for the abundant fossil hopanes recovered from sedimentary rock (Brocks et al. 1999; Summons et al. 1999). The 2-methyl homologs are generally considered a biomarker for cyanobacterial-dominated paleoecosystems. Some evidence exists that the complex molecular structure of BHP is retained upon entombment in hydrothermal silica and that rapid incorporation into the silica matrix may enhance preservation (Gibson et al. 2008). Here we report on the preservation of microbial lipids in several alkaline and acidic, silica-depositing hotsprings in YNP with particular emphasis on the potential for BHP preservation. Brocks JJ et al (1999) Archaean molecular fossils and the early rise of the eukaryotes. Science 185: 1033-1036 Gibson RA et al (2008) Bacteriohopanepolyol signatures of cyanobacterial and methanotrophic bacterial populations recorded in a geothermal vent sinter. Organic Geochemistry 39: 1020-1023 Squyres SW et al (2008) Detection of silica-rich deposits on Mars. Science 320: 1063-1067 Summons RE et al (1999) 2-Methylhopanoids as biomarkers for cyanobacterial oxygenic photosynthesis. Nature 400: 554-557

Jahnke, L. L.; Parenteau, M. N.; Farmer, J. D.

2010-12-01

161

Updates in biological therapies for knee injuries: anterior cruciate ligament.  

PubMed

There have been many advances in anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction (ACLR) techniques incorporating biological treatment. The aim of this review is to discuss the recent contributions that may enlighten our understanding of biological therapies for anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) injuries and improve management decisions involving these enhancement options. Three main biological procedures will be analyzed: bio-enhanced ACL repair, bio-enhanced ACLR scrutinized under the four basic principles of tissue engineering (scaffolds, cell sources, growth factors/cytokines including platelet-rich plasma, and mechanical stimuli), and remnant-preserving ACLR. There is controversial information regarding remnant-preserving ACLR, since different procedures are grouped under the same designation. A new definition for remnant-preserving ACLR surgery is proposed, dividing it into its three major procedures (selective bundle augmentation, augmentation, and nonfunctional remnant preservation); also, an ACL lesion pattern classification and a treatment algorithm, which will hopefully standardize these terms and procedures for future studies, are presented. PMID:25070265

da Silveira Franciozi, Carlos Eduardo; Ingham, Sheila Jean McNeill; Gracitelli, Guilherme Conforto; Luzo, Marcus Vinicius Malheiros; Fu, Freddie H; Abdalla, Rene Jorge

2014-09-01

162

Patterns of Behavior in Endangered Species Preservation  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper analyzes statistically the main determinants of government decisions about the preservation of endangered species. As explanatory variables, we use proxies that include 'scientific' species characteristics, such as \\

Andrew Metrick; Martin L. Weitzman

1996-01-01

163

Color-preserving daytime radiative cooling  

SciTech Connect

We introduce a general approach to radiatively lower the temperature of a structure, while preserving its color under sunlight. The cooling effect persists in the presence of considerable convective and conductive heat exchange and for different solar absorptances.

Zhu, Linxiao [Department of Applied Physics, Stanford University, Stanford, California 94305 (United States)] [Department of Applied Physics, Stanford University, Stanford, California 94305 (United States); Raman, Aaswath; Fan, Shanhui, E-mail: shanhui@stanford.edu [Department of Electrical Engineering, Ginzton Laboratory, Stanford University, Stanford, California 94305 (United States)] [Department of Electrical Engineering, Ginzton Laboratory, Stanford University, Stanford, California 94305 (United States)

2013-11-25

164

Exact Volume Preserving Skinning with Shape Control  

E-print Network

Exact Volume Preserving Skinning with Shape Control Damien ROHMER, Stefanie HAHMANN, Marie, Cani (Grenoble) Constant Volume Skinning SCA'09 1 / 22 #12;Classical character animation pipeline (Grenoble) Constant Volume Skinning SCA'09 2 / 22 #12;Motivations: character animation Fits

Hahmann, Stefanie

165

Preserving electronic records: Not the easiest task  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The National Archives and Records Administration has had a program for accessioning, describing, preserving and providing reference service to the electronic records (machine-readable records) created by Federal agencies for more than twenty years. Although there have been many changes in the name of the office, its basic mission has remained the same: to preserve and make available those records created by Federal agencies that the National Archives has determined to have value beyond the short-term need of the originating agency. A phrase that was once coined for a preservation conference still applies: the National Archives, when it decides to accept the transfer of records into its custody, is committing itself to preserving these records for perpetuity.

Eaton, Fynnette

1993-01-01

166

TREATABILITY STUDIES FOR WOOD PRESERVING SITES  

EPA Science Inventory

The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), National Risk Management Research Laboratory (NRMRL), Site Management Support Branch, conducted a comprehensive treatability project for wood preserving sites in 1995 and 1996. This is a compilation report on the treatability studi...

167

Preservation of tracheal mucus by nonaqueous fixative.  

PubMed

Two nonaqueous fixatives, composed of fluorocarbon solvents with dissolved osmium tetroxide, were used to determine the feasibility of preserving the mucous coat in bovine and rat trachea for light and electron microscopy. Aqueous fixatives, while providing excellent cytological preservation, wash away the mucous lining, precluding ultrastructural analysis. Inclusion of ruthenium red or alcian blue within aqueous fixative improved retention of mucus, but provided incomplete, patchy results. Fixation with nonaqueous fluorocarbon solvent and dissolved osmium tetroxide preserved a continuous mucous epiphase layer above a clear hypophase layer. Subcomponents of the mucus included an electron dense surface layer, interrupted patches of mucus above the surface layer and electron dense membrane-like material within the mucus. This method of fixation will preserve mucus for light, scanning and transmission electron microscopy, using either intratracheal or immersion methods of fixation. The latter would enable use of materials from large animal models, autopsy or an abattoir. PMID:1832970

Sims, D E; Westfall, J A; Kiorpes, A L; Horne, M M

1991-01-01

168

Concise Review: Fertility Preservation: An Update  

PubMed Central

Fertility preservation is an emerging field in medicine that enables men, women, and children to maintain reproductive health when it is threatened by gonadotoxic treatment. Patients affected by other nononcologic malignancies that can impair spermatogenesis and ovogenesis can also benefit from fertility preservation treatments. Age-related infertility can also be overcome by cryopreserving gametes or embryos. The only established methods for fertility preservation in male patients are sperm cryopreservation in postpubertal age and experimental testicular tissue cryopreservation in prepubertal age. In adult women, oocyte cryopreservation is the preferred option, whereas ovarian tissue cryopreservation is the only possibility for prepubertal girls. Fertility preservation treatments must be addressed through a multidisciplinary approach that involves gynecologists, urologists, oncologists, pediatricians, and professionals in the field of medically assisted reproduction to work in coordination to provide patients with counseling and comprehensive information about fertility issues. PMID:23197873

Gonzlez, Clara; Boada, Montserrat; Devesa, Marta

2012-01-01

169

Utility Roles in Preserving the Industrial Base  

E-print Network

, and Florida as examples; these observations are related to a framework of roles a utility or public utility commission can play. The conclusion is that utilities must exercise caution yet take appropriate action in preserving the industrial base....

Gilbert, J. S.

170

Substructure Topology Preserving Simplification of Tetrahedral Meshes  

E-print Network

the power of our system with real world scientific datasets from electromagnetism simulations. 1. Our system combines this topological validity test with simple geometric and numeric error measuresSubstructure Topology Preserving Simplification of Tetrahedral Meshes Fabien Vivodtzev1, Georges

Boyer, Edmond

171

Evaluating Hydrology Preservation of Simplified Terrain Representations  

E-print Network

Evaluating Hydrology Preservation of Simplified Terrain Representations Ph. D. Student: Christopher captures the hydrology is important for determining the effectiveness of a terrain simplification technique also present a novel ter- rain simplification algorithm based on the compression of hydrology features

Varela, Carlos

172

Bi-exponential edge-preserving smoother.  

PubMed

Edge-preserving smoothers need not be taxed by a severe computational cost. We present, in this paper, a lean algorithm that is inspired by the bi-exponential filter and preserves its structure-a pair of one-tap recursions. By a careful but simple local adaptation of the filter weights to the data, we are able to design an edge-preserving smoother that has a very low memory and computational footprint while requiring a trivial coding effort. We demonstrate that our filter (a bi-exponential edge-preserving smoother, or BEEPS) has formal links with the traditional bilateral filter. On a practical side, we observe that the BEEPS also produces images that are similar to those that would result from the bilateral filter, but at a much-reduced computational cost. The cost per pixel is constant and depends neither on the data nor on the filter parameters, not even on the degree of smoothing. PMID:22645271

Thvenaz, Philippe; Sage, Daniel; Unser, Michael

2012-09-01

173

Decreasing the leachibility of boron wood preservatives  

E-print Network

the leachability of boron preservatives using water repellents. Southern pine (Pinus spp.) test samples were impregnated with several types and at different concentrations of borax/boric acid and PEG (Polyethylene glycol) mixture. Leachability performance...

Gezer, Engin Derya

2012-06-07

174

PREMIS Data Dictionary for Preservation Metadata  

E-print Network

The Repositories Support Project Briefing Paper on Metadata examines how metadata standards can be used to make it easier to find, use and manage digital objects stored in an institutional repository. Long-term preservation ...

Higgins, Sarah

175

Digital-Preservation Announcement and Information List  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This new moderated low-traffic announcement and current awareness mailing list will post announcements and information on activities relevant to the preservation and management of digital materials in the UK. "Topics will include: digital archiving, management and preservation; electronic records management; emulation; migration; long-term access; research projects; national, international and institutional initiatives in relevant areas." Information on joining the list and message logs are available at the URL above.

176

Touring Colorado Geology: Parfet Prehistoric Preserve  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This site contains several outcrop photos of the Upper Cretaceous Laramie Formation from the Parfet Prehistoric Preserve. Exceptionally-preserved, 70 Million year-old dinosaur tracks, palm frond impressions and raindrop impressions are featured on this site. Specific topics include Cretaceous climate, vertebrates, ceratopsian and hadrosaur footprints, burrows, mudrock, sandstone and cast formation. Additional information and photographs are obtained by clicking on the top page photos.

Ghist, John; School, Platte C.

177

Preserving Rivera and Kahlo: Photography and Reconstruction  

Microsoft Academic Search

:This article analyzes the complicated relationship between photography and preservation, using the studio-residence of Frida Kahlo and Diego Rivera in Mexico City as a case study. The house, designed by architect Juan O'Gorman in the early 1930s, was documented in celebrated photographs, and these photographs have become a major and often contradictory preservation tool against surviving architectural records, which function

2009-01-01

178

Preserving Rivera and Kahlo: Photography and Reconstruction  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article analyzes the complicated relationship between photography and preservation, using the studio-residence of Frida Kahlo and Diego Rivera in Mexico City as a case study. The house, designed by architect Juan O'Gorman in the early 1930s, was documented in celebrated photographs, and these photographs have become a major and often contradictory preservation tool against surviving architectural records, which function

2009-01-01

179

Managed forest reserves: preserving diversity  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Background As part of the Northwest Forest Plan, large areas have been designated on many federal forests in western Oregon to provide critical habitat for plants and animals that are associated with old-growth habitat. Some of the structural characteristics often considered typical of old forests include large-diameter overstory trees, large standing and fallen dead trees, and one or more understory layers (Figure 1). However, not all of these areas are currently in old-growth conditions. Many of them contain young (<40 years), uniformly dense Douglas-fir stands that regenerated after timber harvest. The original management goal for these stands was to produce high yields of timber and associated wood products. With implementation of the Northwest Forest Plan in 1994, the management objective shifted to accelerating development of old-growth characteristics by enhancing structural and biological diversity of these areas. A major challenge today is how to promote these structural characteristics in younger stands. Researchers have been asking if lessons can be learned from the development of our current old growth and applied to management of younger stands. Dr. John Tappeiner and his university and agency research partners are helping to answer this question by examining the differences in development between old-growth and young stands in western Oregon. Understanding how the structure of these old forests developed may provide a model for management of young stands, especially when the management goal is to provide habitat for species associated with older forests.

Tappeiner, John; Poage, Nathan; Erickson, Janet L.

2003-01-01

180

Data preservation in High Energy Physics  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Data from high-energy physics experiments are collected with significant financial and human effort and are mostly unique. However, until recently no coherent strategy existed for data preservation and re-use, and many important and complex data sets have simply been lost. While the current focus is on the LHC at CERN, in the current period several important and unique experimental programs at other facilities are coming to an end, including those at HERA, b-factories and the Tevatron. To address this issue, an inter-experimental study group on HEP data preservation and long-term analysis (DPHEP) was convened at the end of 2008. The group now aims to publish a full and detailed review of the present status of data preservation in high energy physics. This contribution summarises the results of the DPHEP study group, describing the challenges of data preservation in high energy physics and the group's first conclusions and recommendations. The physics motivation for data preservation, generic computing and preservation models, technological expectations and governance aspects at local and international levels are examined.

Kogler, R.; South, D. M.; Steder, M.; ICFA DPHEP Study Group

2012-06-01

181

Microbiological preservation of cucumbers for bulk storage using acetic acid and food preservatives.  

PubMed

Microbial growth did not occur when cucumbers were preserved without a thermal process by storage in solutions containing acetic acid, sodium benzoate, and calcium chloride to maintain tissue firmness. The concentrations of acetic acid and sodium benzoate required to ensure preservation were low enough so that stored cucumbers could be converted to the finished product without the need to wash out and discard excess acid or preservative. Since no thermal process was required, this method of preservation would be applicable for storing cucumbers in bulk containers. Acid tolerant pathogens died off in less than 24 h with the pH, acetic acid, and sodium benzoate concentrations required to assure the microbial stability of cucumbers stored at 30 degrees C. Potassium sorbate as a preservative in this application was not effective. Yeast growth was observed when sulfite was used as a preservative. PMID:19241560

Prez-Daz, I M; McFeeters, R F

2008-08-01

182

On single qubit quantum process tomography for trace-preserving and nontrace-preserving maps  

E-print Network

We review single-qubit quantum process tomography for trace-preserving and nontrace-preserving processes, and derive explicit forms of the general constraints for fitting experimental data. These forms provide additional insight into the structure of the process matrix as well as reveal a tighter bound on the trace of a nontrace-preserving process than has been previously stated. We also describe, for completeness, how to incorporate measured imperfect input states.

Ramesh Bhandari; Nicholas A. Peters

2015-02-03

183

Music biology: all this useful beauty.  

PubMed

Some healthy people fail to derive pleasure from music despite otherwise preserved perceptual and reward responses. Such 'musical anhedonia' implies the existence of music-specific brain reward mechanisms, which could provide a substrate for music to acquire biological value. PMID:24650910

Clark, Camilla N; Downey, Laura E; Warren, Jason D

2014-03-17

184

BIOLOGY PROGRAMME ADVISORS BIOLOGY MAJOR  

E-print Network

5076 494.1853 Bill.Pohajdak@dal.ca Jonathan Wright LSC 6088 494-6468 J.M.Wright@dal.ca MARINE BIOLOGYBIOLOGY PROGRAMME ADVISORS BIOLOGY MAJOR (20 credit or 15 credit concentration) Todd Bishop LSC.Welsh@dal.ca BIOLOGY CO-OP (Majors and Honours) Mindy McCarville LSC 7017 494-7072 Mindy.McCarville@dal.ca BIOLOGY

Gunawardena, Arunika

185

Selective preservation of organic matter in marine environments - processes and impact on the fossil record  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The present paper is the result of a workshop sponsored by the Research Centre Ocean Margins, the International Graduate College EUROPROX and the Alfred Wegener Institute for Polar Research. The workshop brought together specialists on organic matter degradation and on proxy-based environmental reconstruction. The paper deals with the main theme of the workshop, understanding the impact of selective degradation/preservation of organic matter (OM) in marine sediments on the interpretation of the fossil record. Special attention is paid to (A) the influence of the molecular composition of OM in relation to the biological and physical depositional environment, including new methods for determining complex organic biomolecules, (B) the impact of selective OM preservation on the interpretation of proxies for marine palaeoceanographic and palaeoclimatic reconstruction, and (C) past marine productivity and selective preservation in sediments.

Zonneveld, K. A. F.; Versteegh, G. J. M.; Kasten, S.; Eglinton, T. I.; Emeis, K.-C.; Huguet, C.; Koch, B. P.; de Lange, G. J.; de Leeuw, J. W.; Middelburg, J. J.; Mollenhauer, G.; Prahl, F. G.; Rethemeyer, J.; Wakeham, S. G.

2009-07-01

186

Microbial bioavailability regulates organic matter preservation in marine sediments  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Burial of organic matter (OM) plays an important role in marine sediments, linking the short-term, biological carbon cycle with the long-term, geological subsurface cycle. It is well established that low-oxygen conditions promote organic carbon burial in marine sediments. However, the mechanism remains enigmatic. Here we report biochemical quality, microbial degradability, OM preservation and accumulation along an oxygen gradient in the Indian Ocean. Our results show that more OM, with biochemically higher quality, accumulates under low oxygen conditions. Nevertheless, microbial degradability does not correlate with the biochemical quality of OM. This decoupling of OM biochemical quality and microbial degradability, or bioavailability, violates the ruling paradigm that higher quality implies higher microbial processing. The inhibition of bacterial OM remineralisation may play an important role in the burial of organic matter in marine sediments and formation of oil source rocks.

Koho, K. A.; Nierop, K. G. J.; Moodley, L.; Middelburg, J. J.; Pozzato, L.; Soetaert, K.; van der Plicht, J.; Reichart, G.-J.

2013-02-01

187

Microbial bioavailability regulates organic matter preservation in marine sediments  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Burial of organic matter (OM) plays an important role in marine sediments, linking the short-term, biological carbon cycle with the long-term, geological subsurface cycle. It is well established that low-oxygen conditions promote organic carbon burial in marine sediments. However, the mechanism remains enigmatic. Here we report biochemical quality, microbial degradability, OM preservation and accumulation along an oxygen gradient in the Indian Ocean. Our results show that more OM, and of biochemically higher quality, accumulates under low oxygen conditions. Nevertheless, microbial degradability does not correlate with the biochemical quality of OM. This decoupling of OM biochemical quality and microbial degradability, or bioavailability, violates the ruling paradigm that higher quality implies higher microbial processing. The inhibition of bacterial OM remineralisation may play an important role in the burial of organic matter in marine sediments and formation of oil source rocks.

Koho, K. A.; Nierop, K. G. J.; Moodley, L.; Middelburg, J. J.; Pozzato, L.; Soetaert, K.; van der Plicht, J.; Reichart, G.-J.

2012-09-01

188

Constrained Graph Optimization: Interdiction and Preservation Problems  

SciTech Connect

The maximum flow, shortest path, and maximum matching problems are a set of basic graph problems that are critical in theoretical computer science and applications. Constrained graph optimization, a variation of these basic graph problems involving modification of the underlying graph, is equally important but sometimes significantly harder. In particular, one can explore these optimization problems with additional cost constraints. In the preservation case, the optimizer has a budget to preserve vertices or edges of a graph, preventing them from being deleted. The optimizer wants to find the best set of preserved edges/vertices in which the cost constraints are satisfied and the basic graph problems are optimized. For example, in shortest path preservation, the optimizer wants to find a set of edges/vertices within which the shortest path between two predetermined points is smallest. In interdiction problems, one deletes vertices or edges from the graph with a particular cost in order to impede the basic graph problems as much as possible (for example, delete edges/vertices to maximize the shortest path between two predetermined vertices). Applications of preservation problems include optimal road maintenance, power grid maintenance, and job scheduling, while interdiction problems are related to drug trafficking prevention, network stability assessment, and counterterrorism. Computational hardness results are presented, along with heuristic methods for approximating solutions to the matching interdiction problem. Also, efficient algorithms are presented for special cases of graphs, including on planar graphs. The graphs in many of the listed applications are planar, so these algorithms have important practical implications.

Schild, Aaron V [Los Alamos National Laboratory

2012-07-30

189

New Strategies and Concepts in Organ Preservation.  

PubMed

Organ transplantation is still affected by a notable degree of preservation-associated ischemia and reperfusion injury, which can seriously hamper early graft function. The increasing extension of the criteria for donor organ acceptance, especially for organs that have suffered from periods of warm ischemic injury prior to graft retrieval, results in even higher demands on preserving these ischemia-sensitive grafts. Growing attention is thus directed towards more dynamic preservation methods instead of simple static storage. Particularly in grafts that are retrieved after cardiac standstill of the donor, provision of oxygen to enable some kind of regenerative metabolism appears to be desirable, although the optimal temperature for oxygenated preservation/revitalization is still under debate. Hybrid solutions, comprising conventional cold storage for ease of graft procurement and transportation together with more sophisticated 'in-house' reconditioning protocols after arrival at the implantation clinic, might help to minimize graft injury during the critical transition from preservation to reperfusion. 2014 S. Karger AG, Basel. PMID:25472712

Hoffmann, Tanja; Minor, Thomas

2014-12-01

190

Advancing the preservation of cellular therapy products.  

PubMed

Cell therapies are typically collected in one location, processed in a second location, and then administered in a third location. The ability to preserve the cells is critical to their clinical application. It improves patient access to therapies by increasing the genetic diversity of cells available. In addition, the ability to preserve cells improves the "manufacturability" of a cell therapy product by permitting the cells to be stored until the patient is ready for administration of the therapy, permitting inventory control of products, and improving management of staffing at cell therapy facilities. Finally, the ability to preserve cell therapies improves the safety of cell therapy products by extending the shelf life of a product and permitting completion of safety and quality control testing before release of the product for use. The support of the National Blood Foundation has been critical to our work on improving the quality of frozen and thawed cell therapy products through the development of a microfluidic device to remove dimethlysulfoxide (DMSO). We are also involved in research to replace DMSO with other agents that are less toxic to cells and patients. Finally, the need to advance the preservation of cell therapies was a driving force behind the development of the Biopreservation Core Resource (http://www.biocor.net), a national resource in biopreservation. New interest in translation of cell therapies from the bench to the patient's bedside has the potential to drive the transformation of preservation science, technology, and practice. PMID:22074631

Hubel, Allison

2011-11-01

191

Preserving Digital Public Television: Not Just an Archive, but a New Attitude to Preserve Public Broadcasting  

Microsoft Academic Search

Television production has shifted rapidly from an analog process to one where virtually all programs are created and finalized as digital files. Such productions in public television are at great risk of being lost, because practices for long-term preservation of digital video are just now emerging, and because there is no mandate for preservation within the public broadcasting system. NDIIPP

Nan Rubin

2009-01-01

192

Microbiological preservation of cucumbers for bulk storage by the use of acetic acid and food preservatives  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Microbial growth did not occur when cucumbers were preserved without a thermal process by storage in solutions containing acetic acid, sodium benzoate, and calcium chloride to maintain tissue firmness. The concentrations of acetic acid and sodium benzoate required to assure preservation were low en...

193

Carboxymethylation of polysaccharides from Tremella fuciformis for antioxidant and moisture-preserving activities.  

PubMed

The carboxymethylated polysaccharide (CATP), which derived from water-insoluble crude Tremella fuciformis polysaccharide (ATP), was prepared. And then the antioxidant and moisture-preserving activities of the samples were investigated. The results of chemical composition and FT-IR analysis showed the carboxymethylated modifications of polysaccharide were successful. The degree of substitution (DS) of four carboxymethylated derivatives were different with the molar of monochloroacetic acid. Their water solubility and biological activities were improved with the increase of DS. And moreover, a high antioxidant and moisture-preserving activities of CATPs was observed, so this derivative needs to be attention and studied in further. Results proved that the carboxymethylation could effectively enhance their potential biological properties of the polysaccharide. PMID:25194971

Wang, Xiaomei; Zhang, Zhongshan; Zhao, Mingxing

2015-01-01

194

Technical Bulletin Number 6 Aquaculture within Aquatic Preserves  

E-print Network

Technical Bulletin Number 6 Aquaculture within Aquatic Preserves Revised January 4, 2011 Preserve Aquatic Preserves are home to aquaculture activities: Alligator Harbor, Big Bend Seagrasses, Terra Ceia this bulletin: Aquaculture & Aquatic Preserves ADAM H. PUTNAM COMMISSIONER OF AGRICULTURE Nineteen of Florida

Florida, University of

195

TEXAS PAVEMENT PRESERVATION CENTER FOUR-YEAR SUMMARY REPORT  

E-print Network

TEXAS PAVEMENT PRESERVATION CENTER FOUR-YEAR SUMMARY REPORT Dr. Yetkin Yildirim, P.E., TPPC Director E-mail: yetkin@mail.utexas.edu Mailing address: Texas Pavement Preservation Center Center................................................................................................ 100 #12;#12;TEXAS PAVEMENT PRESERVATION CENTER (TPPC) About the Center The Texas Pavement Preservation

Texas at Austin, University of

196

29 CFR 1915.33 - Chemical paint and preservative removers.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Chemical paint and preservative removers. 1915.33...and Preservation 1915.33 Chemical paint and preservative removers. (a) Employees...the handling and application of chemical paint and preservative removers and shall...

2010-07-01

197

29 CFR 1915.33 - Chemical paint and preservative removers.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Chemical paint and preservative removers. 1915.33...and Preservation 1915.33 Chemical paint and preservative removers. (a) Employees...the handling and application of chemical paint and preservative removers and shall...

2012-07-01

198

29 CFR 1915.33 - Chemical paint and preservative removers.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Chemical paint and preservative removers. 1915.33...and Preservation 1915.33 Chemical paint and preservative removers. (a) Employees...the handling and application of chemical paint and preservative removers and shall...

2013-07-01

199

29 CFR 1915.33 - Chemical paint and preservative removers.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Chemical paint and preservative removers. 1915.33...and Preservation 1915.33 Chemical paint and preservative removers. (a) Employees...the handling and application of chemical paint and preservative removers and shall...

2014-07-01

200

29 CFR 1915.33 - Chemical paint and preservative removers.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Chemical paint and preservative removers. 1915.33...and Preservation 1915.33 Chemical paint and preservative removers. (a) Employees...the handling and application of chemical paint and preservative removers and shall...

2011-07-01

201

North Bay Historic Preservation Digital Collection  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The North Bay Historic Preservation Digital Collection is just one of the online offerings from the Sonoma State University Library. It's a fascinating collection, bringing together photographs and planning documents related to buildings and landscapes in and around this historically rich area. The photographs were taken by students enrolled in the institution's historic preservation program in the 1970s. A good place to start is by taking a look at the photos of the historic Stone House, which is the oldest building in Lake County. Visitors can also search the entire archive by keyword or look over the technical reports like the "Sonoma County General Plan for Historic Preservation." As a whole, it's a great way to learn about the rich cultural and architectural landscape of the area.

202

Collinearity-preserving functions between Desarguesian planes  

PubMed Central

Using concepts from valuation theory, we obtain a characterization of all collinearity-preserving functions from one affine or projective Desarguesian plane into another. The case in which the planes are projective and the range contains a quadrangle has been treated previously in the literature. Our results permit one or both planes to be affine and include cases in which the range contains a triangle but no quadrangle. A key theorem is that, with the exception of certain embeddings defined on planes of order 2 and 3, every collinearity-preserving function from one affine Desarguesian plane into another can be extended to a collinearity-preserving function between enveloping projective planes. PMID:16592845

Carter, David S.; Vogt, Andrew

1980-01-01

203

Privacy-preserving backpropagation neural network learning.  

PubMed

With the development of distributed computing environment , many learning problems now have to deal with distributed input data. To enhance cooperations in learning, it is important to address the privacy concern of each data holder by extending the privacy preservation notion to original learning algorithms. In this paper, we focus on preserving the privacy in an important learning model, multilayer neural networks. We present a privacy-preserving two-party distributed algorithm of backpropagation which allows a neural network to be trained without requiring either party to reveal her data to the other. We provide complete correctness and security analysis of our algorithms. The effectiveness of our algorithms is verified by experiments on various real world data sets. PMID:19709975

Chen, Tingting; Zhong, Sheng

2009-10-01

204

Exceptionally Preserved Jellyfishes from the Middle Cambrian  

PubMed Central

Cnidarians represent an early diverging animal group and thus insight into their origin and diversification is key to understanding metazoan evolution. Further, cnidarian jellyfish comprise an important component of modern marine planktonic ecosystems. Here we report on exceptionally preserved cnidarian jellyfish fossils from the Middle Cambrian (?505 million years old) Marjum Formation of Utah. These are the first described Cambrian jellyfish fossils to display exquisite preservation of soft part anatomy including detailed features of structures interpreted as trailing tentacles and subumbrellar and exumbrellar surfaces. If the interpretation of these preserved characters is correct, their presence is diagnostic of modern jellyfish taxa. These new discoveries may provide insight into the scope of cnidarian diversity shortly after the Cambrian radiation, and would reinforce the notion that important taxonomic components of the modern planktonic realm were in place by the Cambrian period. PMID:17971881

Cartwright, Paulyn; Halgedahl, Susan L.; Hendricks, Jonathan R.; Jarrard, Richard D.; Marques, Antonio C.; Collins, Allen G.; Lieberman, Bruce S.

2007-01-01

205

Exceptionally preserved jellyfishes from the Middle Cambrian.  

PubMed

Cnidarians represent an early diverging animal group and thus insight into their origin and diversification is key to understanding metazoan evolution. Further, cnidarian jellyfish comprise an important component of modern marine planktonic ecosystems. Here we report on exceptionally preserved cnidarian jellyfish fossils from the Middle Cambrian (approximately 505 million years old) Marjum Formation of Utah. These are the first described Cambrian jellyfish fossils to display exquisite preservation of soft part anatomy including detailed features of structures interpreted as trailing tentacles and subumbrellar and exumbrellar surfaces. If the interpretation of these preserved characters is correct, their presence is diagnostic of modern jellyfish taxa. These new discoveries may provide insight into the scope of cnidarian diversity shortly after the Cambrian radiation, and would reinforce the notion that important taxonomic components of the modern planktonic realm were in place by the Cambrian period. PMID:17971881

Cartwright, Paulyn; Halgedahl, Susan L; Hendricks, Jonathan R; Jarrard, Richard D; Marques, Antonio C; Collins, Allen G; Lieberman, Bruce S

2007-01-01

206

Environmental preservation demand: Altruistic, bequest, and intrinsic motives  

SciTech Connect

When the demand for environmental preservation is not explicitly revealed in markets, motivating attitudes toward environmental preservation become important. A survey approach allows revelation and measurement of demand for environmental preservation. Indices which measure the altruistic, bequest, intrinsic, and option to use motives and other attitudes are utilized as determinants in a model that measures the demand for environmental preservation. Demand is more likely with greater preservation motives. Preservation demand also depends on individual preferences for economic development, perceptions of affordability and responsibility for preservation of the wetlands. 17 refs., 3 tabs.

Whitehead, J.C.; Thompson, C.Y. (East Carolina Univ., Greenville, NC (United States))

1993-01-01

207

Imaging Mass Spectrometry of Intact Proteins from Alcohol-Preserved Tissue Specimens: Bypassing Formalin Fixation  

PubMed Central

Imaging mass spectrometry is becoming a key technology for the investigation of the molecular content of biological tissue sections in direct correlation with the underlying histology. Much of our work has been done with fresh-frozen tissue sections that has undergone minimal protein degradation between the time a tissue biopsy is sampled and the time it is snap-frozen so that no preserving or fixing agents need to be added to the frozen biopsy. However, in many sampling environments, immediate flash freezing may not be possible and so we have explored the use of ethanol-preserved, paraffin-embedded tissue specimens for proteomic analyses. Solvent-only preserved tissue specimens provide long-term preservation at room temperature, generation of high quality histological sections and little if any chemical alteration of the proteins. Using mouse organs, several key steps involved in the tissue dehydration process have been investigated to assess the potential of such preserved specimens for profiling and imaging mass spectrometry investigations. PMID:18613713

Chaurand, Pierre; Latham, Joey C.; Lane, Kirk B.; Mobley, James A.; Polosukhin, Vasiliy V.; Wirth, Pamela S.; Nanney, Lillian B.; Caprioli, Richard M.

2010-01-01

208

Exceptional fossil preservation and the cambrian explosion.  

PubMed

Exceptionally preserved, non-biomineralizing fossils contribute importantly to resolving details of the Cambrian explosion, but little to its overall patterns. Six distinct "types" of exceptional preservation are identified for the terminal Proterozoic-Cambrian interval, each of which is dependent on particular taphonomic circumstances, typically restricted both in space and time. Taphonomic pathways yielding exceptional preservation were particularly variable through the Proterozoic-Cambrian transition, at least in part a consequence of contemporaneous evolutionary innovations. Combined with the reasonably continuous record of "Doushantuo-type preservation," and the fundamentally more robust records of shelly fossils, phytoplankton cysts and trace fossils, these taphonomic perturbations contribute to the documentation of major evolutionary and biogeochemical shifts through the terminal Proterozoic and early Cambrian.Appreciation of the relationship between taphonomic pathway and fossil expression serves as a useful tool for interpreting exceptionally preserved, often problematic, early Cambrian fossils. In shale facies, for example, flattened non-biomineralizing structures typically represent the remains of degradation-resistant acellular and extracellular "tissues" such as chaetae and cuticles, whereas three-dimensional preservation represents labile cellular tissues with a propensity for attracting and precipitating early diagenetic minerals. Such distinction helps to identify the acuticular integument of hyolithids, the chaetae-like nature of Wiwaxia sclerites, the chaetognath-like integument of Amiskwia, the midgut glands of various Burgess Shale arthropods, and the misidentification of deposit-feeding arthropods in the Chengjiang biota. By the same reasoning, putative lobopods in the Sirius Passet biota and putative deuterostomes in the Chengiang biota are better interpreted as arthropods. PMID:21680421

Butterfield, Nicholas J

2003-02-01

209

Data Preservation in High Energy Physics  

SciTech Connect

Data from high-energy physics (HEP) experiments are collected with significant financial and human effort and are mostly unique. At the same time, HEP has no coherent strategy for data preservation and re-use. An inter-experimental Study Group on HEP data preservation and long-term analysis was convened at the end of 2008 and held two workshops, at DESY (January 2009) and SLAC (May 2009). This document is an intermediate report to the International Committee for Future Accelerators (ICFA) of the reflections of this Study Group. Large data sets accumulated during many years of detector operation at particle accelerators are the heritage of experimental HEP. These data sets offer unique opportunities for future scientific studies, sometimes long after the shut-down of the actual experiments: new theoretical input; new experimental results and analysis techniques; the quest for high-sensitivity combined analyses; the necessity of cross checks. In many cases, HEP data sets are unique; they cannot and most likely will not be superseded by data from newer generations of experiments. Once lost, or in an unusable state, HEP data samples cannot be reasonably recovered. The cost of conserving this heritage through a collaborative, target-oriented long-term data preservation program would be small, compared to the costs of past experimental projects or to the efforts to re-do experiments. However, this cost is not negligible, especially for collaborations close or past their end-date. The preservation of HEP data would provide today's collaborations with a secure way to complete their data analysis and enable them to seize new scientific opportunities in the coming years. The HEP community will benefit from preserved data samples through reanalysis, combination, education and outreach. Funding agencies would receive more scientific return, and a positive image, from their initial investment leading to the production and the first analysis of preserved data.

Mount, Richard; Brooks, Travis; /SLAC; Le Diberder, Francois; /Orsay, LAL; Dubois-Felsmann, Gregory; Neal, Homer; /SLAC; Bellis, Matt; /Stanford U.; Boehnlein, Amber; Votava, Margaret; White, Vicky; Wolbers, Stephen; /Fermilab; Konigsberg, Jacobo; /Florida U.; Roser, Robert; Snider, Rick; /Fermilab; Lucchesi, Donatella; /INFN, Padua; Denisov, Dmitri; /Fermilab; Soldner-Rembold, Stefan; /Manchester U.; Li, Qizhong; /Fermilab; Varnes, Erich; /Arizona U.; Jonckheere, Alan; /Fermilab; Gasthuber, Martin; Gulzow, Volker; /DESY /Marseille, CPPM /Dortmund U. /DESY /Gent U. /DESY, Zeuthen /KEK, Tsukuba /CC, Villeurbanne /CERN /INFN, Bari /Gjovik Coll. Engineering /Karlsruhe, Forschungszentrum /Beijing, Inst. High Energy Phys. /Carleton U. /Cornell U. /Rutherford

2012-04-03

210

[Nisin, a potential preservative for topical preparations].  

PubMed

The lantibiotic compound nisin has a bacterial effect on gram positive bacteria and was investigated for the possible use as a preservative in topical formulations. For this reason, its minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC) was determined in different types of ointments. Beside its effect on gram positive bacteria it had also a bactericidal activity on gram negative bacteria in concentrations of 0.06% (W/W). Within the first month there was no detectable reduction of nisin activity in different dermatological preparations. We conclude from these results that the combination of nisin with fungicidal substances represents a possible alternative to well known preservatives. PMID:8720808

Valenta, C; Bernkop-Schnrch, A; Teltscher, C

1996-02-01

211

Geology Fieldnotes: Ice Age National Scientific Preserve  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This National Park Service (NPS) site gives information on the Ice Age National Scientific Preserve in Wisconsin, including geology, park maps, a photo album, and other media (books, videos, CDs). There is also a selection of links to other geologic and conservation organizations, and to information for visitors. This preserve contains a wealth of glacial features associated with the most recent Pleistocene continental glaciation including drumlins, kames, kettles, moraines, erratics, and eskers. It also contains a segment of the Ice Age National Scenic Trail, a 1000-plus mile hiking and backpacking trail that passes through this unique glacial landscape.

212

Privacy-Preserving Restricted Boltzmann Machine  

PubMed Central

With the arrival of the big data era, it is predicted that distributed data mining will lead to an information technology revolution. To motivate different institutes to collaborate with each other, the crucial issue is to eliminate their concerns regarding data privacy. In this paper, we propose a privacy-preserving method for training a restricted boltzmann machine (RBM). The RBM can be got without revealing their private data to each other when using our privacy-preserving method. We provide a correctness and efficiency analysis of our algorithms. The comparative experiment shows that the accuracy is very close to the original RBM model. PMID:25101139

Li, Yu

2014-01-01

213

Formation and preservation of raindrop imprints  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Students work in groups to study some aspect of formation and/or preservation of raindrop imprints. They start by generating a list of variables that might affect formation or preservation of this sedimentary structure. Using this list, they propose testable hypotheses and then focus their study on one hypothesis. They collect materials needed to carry out their study and then do it. They need to document what they did and how they did it. The groups present their study to the class orally and in writing.

Mankiewicz, Carol

214

BIOLOGY PROGRAMME ADVISORS BIOLOGY MAJOR  

E-print Network

5076B 494-1853 Bill.Pohajdak@dal.ca Jonathan Wright LSC 6087 494-6468 J.M.Wright@dal.ca MARINE BIOLOGYBIOLOGY PROGRAMME ADVISORS BIOLOGY MAJOR (20 credit or 15 credit concentration) Todd Bishop LSC.Welsh@dal.ca BIOLOGY CO-OP (Majors and Honours) Mindy McCarville LSC 7017 494-7072 Mindy.McCarville@dal.ca BIOLOGY

Gunawardena, Arunika

215

Biology Notes.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Presents experiments, demonstrations, activities and ideas relating to various fields of biology to be used in biology courses in secondary schools. Among those experiments presented are demonstrating the early stages of ferns and mosses and simple culture methods for fern prothalli. (HM)

School Science Review, 1978

1978-01-01

216

Biology Notes.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes laboratory procedures, demonstrations, and classroom activities/materials, including use of dwarf cichlids (fishes) in secondary school biology, teaching edge effects on stomatal diffusion, computer program on effects of selection on gene frequencies, biological oxidation/reduction reactions, short cuts with Drosophila, computer program

School Science Review, 1982

1982-01-01

217

Biology Notes.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Presents procedures, exercises, demonstrations, and information on a variety of biology topics including labeling systems, biological indicators of stream pollution, growth of lichens, reproductive capacity of bulbous buttercups, a straw balance to measure transpiration, interaction of fungi, osmosis, and nitrogen fixation and crop production. (DC)

School Science Review, 1982

1982-01-01

218

Preserving Biodiversity in Forest Ecosystems: Case studies from Asia and Latin America hold lessons for a global  

E-print Network

mangroves and coral reefs ­ makes a compelling case for immediate action. Scientists now estimate by additional research. #12;2 "To halt the galloping extinction of other species, which has devastating), and that some 34,000 plants and 5,200 animal species currently face extinction.4 In short, preserving biological

Mauzerall, Denise

219

INTERVENTION TECHNOLOGIES FOR FOOD SAFETY AND PRESERVATION  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Food preservations with several different technologies, including irradiation, retort, aseptic processing, microwave and hydrostatic high pressure, are discussed in this chapter. Some of the methods are considered relatively mature technologies, e.g. retort and liquid aseptic; however, most of them...

220

Role of anorectal sensation in preserving continence  

Microsoft Academic Search

The role of anal sensation in preserving continence was studied in nine healthy volunteers. Objective assessment of sphincter function by manometry and rectal saline infusion was carried out during topical anaesthesia of the anal canal using 5% lignocaine gel and during lubrication with the same amount of inert gel. Anaesthesia successfully abolished anal sensation and reduced both the amplitude and

M G Read; N W Read

1982-01-01

221

Preservation Microfiche: A Matter of Standards.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Discusses standards for converting library materials to a microfiche format and addresses the question of whether microfiche standards take preservation concerns into account. Reformatting, layout, corrections, additions, and bibliographic guides in microfiche are considered, and standards activities of the American Library Association (ALA) and

Chace, Myron B.

1991-01-01

222

Natural Hypothermic Preservation: The Mammalian Hibernator  

Microsoft Academic Search

Hibernators offers a natural models of mammalian organs systems that can withstand long term hypothermia and ischemia. The biochemical mechanisms that regulate and stabilize metabolism to assure long term viability during torpor can be applied in methodologies that could improve the hypothermic preservation of human organs removed for transplant and substantially both the time that organs can be maintained in

Kenneth B. Storey

2002-01-01

223

Digitizing Technologies for Preservation. SPEC Kit 214.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The Association of Research Libraries distributed a survey to its 119 member libraries to assess the use of state-of-the-art digital technologies as a preservation method. Libraries were asked to report detailed data on all projects designed specifically to: (1) enhance images of faded or brittle originals, (2) provide access to digital images

Kellerman, L. Suzanne, Comp.; Wilson, Rebecca, Comp.

224

BIOREMEDIATION AT WOOD-PRESERVING SITES  

EPA Science Inventory

The removal of organic compounds from ground water during bioremediation at wood-preserving sites is a function of the stoichiometric demand for electron acceptors (oxygen, nitrate, and sulfate) to metabolize the organic contaminants and the supply of the electron acceptors in th...

225

WoodChemistry Wood Degradation & Preservation  

E-print Network

31 WoodChemistry Wood Degradation & Preservation Chemical Utilization of Wood Pulp & Paper and carbohydrates is of considerable interest in connection with a number of issues in wood chemistry, such as the reactions taking place during the formation of wood, the natural molecular weight distribution of lignin

Geldenhuys, Jaco

226

Books and Bytes: Preserving Documents for Posterity.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes some of the problems in documentation work rising from the habit of detaching information from any physical support, as a prevailing notion in an electronic environment. Points to the necessity of regarding information as something closely connected with preservation. Suggests a clearer distinction in information science between

Larsen, Poul Steen

1999-01-01

227

Long-Term Information Preservation and Access  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

An unprecedented amount of information encompassing almost every facet of human activities across the world is generated daily in the form of zeros and ones, and that is often the only form in which such information is recorded. A good fraction of this information needs to be preserved for periods of time ranging from a few years to centuries.

Song, Sang Chul

2010-01-01

228

Is memory purely preservative?* Jrme Dokic  

E-print Network

1 Is memory purely preservative?* Jérôme Dokic (University of Rouen and CREA, Paris) In C. Hoerl & T. McCormack (eds), Time and Memory, Oxford: OUP. §1 Two forms of memory and Goethe's Problem Let us start with a familiar distinction between two forms of memory: episodic memory (remembering a thing

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

229

Conservation, Preservation and Restoration in Nigerian Libraries.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Addresses problems involved with the conservation, preservation, and restoration of library materials in Nigeria. Topics discussed include insect pests; light, heat, and humidity; atmospheric pollution and dust; natural disasters including fire and floods; theft and vandalism; acidity of paper; binding and mending; and trained personnel. (15

Ojo-Igbinoba, M. E.

1991-01-01

230

Preserving History in a Digital World  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Stanford University's (California) Julie Sweetkind-Singer is a recognized authority on digital preservation, and has been honored by the Library of Congress for her work in the field. She currently serves as both the assistant director of Stanford's Geospatial, Cartographic and Scientific Data and Services and as head of the Branner Earth Sciences

Baumann, Jim

2012-01-01

231

Preservation Treatment for Wood Bridge Application  

Microsoft Academic Search

Timber can often be a cost-effective construction material for new bridges. The durability of the bridge greatly depends on proper attention to construction details and fabrication, as well as proper preservative treatment before, during, and after construction. Material repair and replacement costs for bridges are a considerable expense for highway agencies. To address these needs, the objectives of an investigation

Jake Bigelow; Stan Lebow; Carol A. Clausen; Lowell Greimann; Terry J. Wipf

2009-01-01

232

The preservation of Lanette Wax Cream (FNA)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Factors influencing the free concentration methylparaben in Lanette Wax Cream (fna) were studied. These factors are the partitioning of the preservative between oil and water phase and solubilisation by the micelles of emulsifier, sodium lauryl sulphate. Solubilisation could be described as simple partitioning provided that the free concentration of methylparaben did not exceed 0.1% (w\\/v). The influence of propylene glycol

H. Van Doorne; F. L. Dubois

1980-01-01

233

Planning for Preservation during Mass Digitization Projects  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In anticipation of current and future mass digitization projects in which the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign's Library will participate, the Library's Conservation Unit began to gather data on the "scannability" of our general book collections to anticipate potential effects on conservation and preservation work flows. The findings

Teper, Jennifer Hain; Shaw, Emily F.

2011-01-01

234

Sustainability: Preserving Choice for the Army  

E-print Network

Sustainability: Preserving Choice for the Army Friday, October 19, 2012 12:00 - 1:30 p.m. (lunch will be provided) Wrigley Hall, Room 481 Richard Kidd Deputy Assistant of the Army, Energy and Sustainability infrastructure. The development of Army-wide sustainability principles coupled with investments, training

Hall, Sharon J.

235

Salient video stills: content and context preserved  

Microsoft Academic Search

A new class of images called salient stills is demonstrated and a software development platform for their creation is discussed. These images do not represent one discrete moment of time, as do a photograph or single video frame. Rather, one image reflects the aggregate of the temporal changes that occur in a moving image sequence with the salient features preserved.

Laura Teodosio; Walter Bender

1993-01-01

236

Imaging Methods Applied to Recorded Sound Preservation  

E-print Network

Imaging Methods Applied to Recorded Sound Preservation and Access Carl Haber Senior Scientist Science Sound was first recorded and reproduced by Thomas Edison in 1877. Until about 1950, most will begin with a discussion of the history and technical basis of sound recording. Recently, optical

Zanibbi, Richard

237

Dry Preserving the Green Sea Urchin.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes a project for junior high and senior high school students designed to safely preserve hard-bodied marine invertebrates. Details the materials and procedures used in this technique. Stresses the use of non-toxic solutions and producing a lifelike specimen. (CW)

Stimson, Cheryl D.

1987-01-01

238

Why We Should Preserve the Manhattan Project  

Microsoft Academic Search

For all the buildings and artifacts that we preserve, thousands are lost forever. In this special Bulletin essay, Pulitzer Prize-winner Richard Rhodes examines the value of protecting the physical legacy of the U.S. nuclear enterprise and what its loss would tell us about ourselves.

Richard Rhodes

2007-01-01

239

Preserving the 'Athens of Indiana' through Digitization.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes a digitization project at the public library in Crawfordsville, Indiana that was designed to preserve their local history collection. Highlights include damage to the collection from fire, termites, use, and age; selecting a scanner and software; creating databases; and making information accessible on the Web. (LRW)

Helling, Bill

2003-01-01

240

Substructure Topology Preserving Simplification of Tetrahedral Meshes  

E-print Network

the power of our system with real world scientific datasets from electromagnetism simulations. 1 the topology of the mesh and of its substructures. Our system combines this topological validity testSubstructure Topology Preserving Simplification of Tetrahedral Meshes Fabien Vivodtzev1, Georges

Hahmann, Stefanie

241

Privacy-Preserving Location-Based Services  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Location-based services (LBS for short) providers require users' current locations to answer their location-based queries, e.g., range and nearest-neighbor queries. Revealing personal location information to potentially untrusted service providers could create privacy risks for users. To this end, our objective is to design a privacy-preserving

Chow, Chi Yin

2010-01-01

242

Archiving Innovations Preserve Essential Historical Records  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Apollo 11 mission left on the Moon a silicon disc inscribed with microscopic recreations of messages from 73 countries. NanoArk Corporation of Fairport, New York, built on that NASA technology to develop a fire and water resistant archiving innovation that provides cost savings and security in preserving documents. Since its launch, NanoArk has grown from 2 to 10 employees.

2013-01-01

243

Endothelium Preserving Microwave Treatment for Atherosclerosis  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This slide presentation reviews the use of microwave technology for treating Atherosclerosis while preserving the endothelium. The system uses catheter antennas as part of the system that is intended to treat atherosclerosis. The concept is to use a microwave catheter for heating the atherosclerotic lesions, and reduce constriction in the artery.

Fink, Patrick; Arndt, G. D.; Ngo, Phong

2003-01-01

244

Fossil avian eggshell preserves ancient DNA  

PubMed Central

Owing to exceptional biomolecule preservation, fossil avian eggshell has been used extensively in geochronology and palaeodietary studies. Here, we show, to our knowledge, for the first time that fossil eggshell is a previously unrecognized source of ancient DNA (aDNA). We describe the successful isolation and amplification of DNA from fossil eggshell up to 19 ka old. aDNA was successfully characterized from eggshell obtained from New Zealand (extinct moa and ducks), Madagascar (extinct elephant birds) and Australia (emu and owl). Our data demonstrate excellent preservation of the nucleic acids, evidenced by retrieval of both mitochondrial and nuclear DNA from many of the samples. Using confocal microscopy and quantitative PCR, this study critically evaluates approaches to maximize DNA recovery from powdered eggshell. Our quantitative PCR experiments also demonstrate that moa eggshell has approximately 125 times lower bacterial load than bone, making it a highly suitable substrate for high-throughput sequencing approaches. Importantly, the preservation of DNA in Pleistocene eggshell from Australia and Holocene deposits from Madagascar indicates that eggshell is an excellent substrate for the long-term preservation of DNA in warmer climates. The successful recovery of DNA from this substrate has implications in a number of scientific disciplines; most notably archaeology and palaeontology, where genotypes and/or DNA-based species identifications can add significantly to our understanding of diets, environments, past biodiversity and evolutionary processes. PMID:20219731

Oskam, Charlotte L.; Haile, James; McLay, Emma; Rigby, Paul; Allentoft, Morten E.; Olsen, Maia E.; Bengtsson, Camilla; Miller, Gifford H.; Schwenninger, Jean-Luc; Jacomb, Chris; Walter, Richard; Baynes, Alexander; Dortch, Joe; Parker-Pearson, Michael; Gilbert, M. Thomas P.; Holdaway, Richard N.; Willerslev, Eske; Bunce, Michael

2010-01-01

245

Adaptive algorithm for discontinuity preserving image restoration  

Microsoft Academic Search

Conventional adaptive algorithms for image restoration tend to blur the image by smoothing over discontinuities. To overcome this, a discontinuity preserving adaptive algorithm (DPAA) for image restoration is developed. The basic idea is to combine the continuous line field model with the usual linear finite impulse response (FIR) model used for image restoration. The constructed cost function is minimized using

K. Sunil Kumar; Uday B. Desai

1993-01-01

246

Bacteriocins: safe, natural antimicrobials for food preservation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Bacteriocins are antibacterial proteins produced by bacteria that kill or inhibit the growth of other bacteria. Many lactic acid bacteria (LAB) produce a high diversity of different bacteriocins. Though these bacteriocins are produced by LAB found in numerous fermented and non-fermented foods, nisin is currently the only bacteriocin widely used as a food preservative. Many bacteriocins have been characterized biochemically

Jennifer Cleveland; Thomas J. Montville; Ingolf F. Nes; Michael L. Chikindas

2001-01-01

247

Protecting & Preserving a Vital Natural Resource  

E-print Network

Protecting & Preserving a Vital Natural Resource C h e s a p e a k e B ay R e s e a R C h #12;The natural resources. The Chesapeake Bay watershed stretches across 64,000 square miles in six states and antimicrobials, such as Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA), that may remain in treated wastewater. amy R. sapkota

Hill, Wendell T.

248

Coatings Preserve Metal, Stone, Tile, and Concrete  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

John B. Schutt, a chemist at Goddard Space Flight Center, created a coating for spacecraft that could resist corrosion and withstand high heat. After retiring from NASA, Schutt used his expertise to create new formulations for Daytona Beach, Florida-based Adsil Corporation, which now manufactures a family of coatings to preserve various surfaces. Adsil has created 150 jobs due to the products.

2014-01-01

249

Mechanism for Burgess Shale-type preservation.  

PubMed

Exceptionally preserved fossil biotas of the Burgess Shale and a handful of other similar Cambrian deposits provide rare but critical insights into the early diversification of animals. The extraordinary preservation of labile tissues in these geographically widespread but temporally restricted soft-bodied fossil assemblages has remained enigmatic since Walcott's initial discovery in 1909. Here, we demonstrate the mechanism of Burgess Shale-type preservation using sedimentologic and geochemical data from the Chengjiang, Burgess Shale, and five other principal Burgess Shale-type deposits. Sulfur isotope evidence from sedimentary pyrites reveals that the exquisite fossilization of organic remains as carbonaceous compressions resulted from early inhibition of microbial activity in the sediments by means of oxidant deprivation. Low sulfate concentrations in the global ocean and low-oxygen bottom water conditions at the sites of deposition resulted in reduced oxidant availability. Subsequently, rapid entombment of fossils in fine-grained sediments and early sealing of sediments by pervasive carbonate cements at bed tops restricted oxidant flux into the sediments. A permeability barrier, provided by bed-capping cements that were emplaced at the seafloor, is a feature that is shared among Burgess Shale-type deposits, and resulted from the unusually high alkalinity of Cambrian oceans. Thus, Burgess Shale-type preservation of soft-bodied fossil assemblages worldwide was promoted by unique aspects of early Paleozoic seawater chemistry that strongly impacted sediment diagenesis, providing a fundamentally unique record of the immediate aftermath of the "Cambrian explosion." PMID:22392974

Gaines, Robert R; Hammarlund, Emma U; Hou, Xianguang; Qi, Changshi; Gabbott, Sarah E; Zhao, Yuanlong; Peng, Jin; Canfield, Donald E

2012-04-01

250

Mechanism for Burgess Shale-type preservation  

PubMed Central

Exceptionally preserved fossil biotas of the Burgess Shale and a handful of other similar Cambrian deposits provide rare but critical insights into the early diversification of animals. The extraordinary preservation of labile tissues in these geographically widespread but temporally restricted soft-bodied fossil assemblages has remained enigmatic since Walcotts initial discovery in 1909. Here, we demonstrate the mechanism of Burgess Shale-type preservation using sedimentologic and geochemical data from the Chengjiang, Burgess Shale, and five other principal Burgess Shale-type deposits. Sulfur isotope evidence from sedimentary pyrites reveals that the exquisite fossilization of organic remains as carbonaceous compressions resulted from early inhibition of microbial activity in the sediments by means of oxidant deprivation. Low sulfate concentrations in the global ocean and low-oxygen bottom water conditions at the sites of deposition resulted in reduced oxidant availability. Subsequently, rapid entombment of fossils in fine-grained sediments and early sealing of sediments by pervasive carbonate cements at bed tops restricted oxidant flux into the sediments. A permeability barrier, provided by bed-capping cements that were emplaced at the seafloor, is a feature that is shared among Burgess Shale-type deposits, and resulted from the unusually high alkalinity of Cambrian oceans. Thus, Burgess Shale-type preservation of soft-bodied fossil assemblages worldwide was promoted by unique aspects of early Paleozoic seawater chemistry that strongly impacted sediment diagenesis, providing a fundamentally unique record of the immediate aftermath of the Cambrian explosion. PMID:22392974

Gaines, Robert R.; Hammarlund, Emma U.; Hou, Xianguang; Qi, Changshi; Gabbott, Sarah E.; Zhao, Yuanlong; Peng, Jin; Canfield, Donald E.

2012-01-01

251

Adnostic: Privacy Preserving Targeted Advertising Vincent Toubiana  

E-print Network

some of the key players in this space. Although behavioral advertising promises an improvement overAdnostic: Privacy Preserving Targeted Advertising Vincent Toubiana vincent.toubiana@nyu.edu Arvind solon@nyu.edu Abstract Online behavioral advertising (OBA) refers to the practice of tracking users

Nissenbaum, Helen

252

Quantum Biology  

E-print Network

A critical assessment of the recent developments of molecular biology is presented. The thesis that they do not lead to a conceptual understanding of life and biological systems is defended. Maturana and Varela's concept of autopoiesis is briefly sketched and its logical circularity avoided by postulating the existence of underlying {\\it living processes}, entailing amplification from the microscopic to the macroscopic scale, with increasing complexity in the passage from one scale to the other. Following such a line of thought, the currently accepted model of condensed matter, which is based on electrostatics and short-ranged forces, is criticized. It is suggested that the correct interpretation of quantum dispersion forces (van der Waals, hydrogen bonding, and so on) as quantum coherence effects hints at the necessity of including long-ranged forces (or mechanisms for them) in condensed matter theories of biological processes. Some quantum effects in biology are reviewed and quantum mechanics is acknowledged as conceptually important to biology since without it most (if not all) of the biological structures and signalling processes would not even exist. Moreover, it is suggested that long-range quantum coherent dynamics, including electron polarization, may be invoked to explain signal amplification process in biological systems in general.

Alessandro Sergi

2009-07-11

253

Biological Oceanography  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The ocean is arguably the largest habitat on the planet, and it houses an astounding array of life, from microbes to whales. As a testament to this diversity and its importance, the discipline of biological oceanography spans studies of all levels of biological organization, from that of single genes, to organisms, to their population dynamics. Biological oceanography also includes studies on how organisms interact with, and contribute to, essential global processes. Students of biological oceanography are often as comfortable looking at satellite images as they are electron micrographs. This diversity of perspective begins the textbook Biological Oceanography, with cover graphics including a Coastal Zone Color Scanner image representing chlorophyll concentration, an electron micrograph of a dinoflagellate, and a photograph of a copepod. These images instantly capture the reader's attention and illustrate some of the different scales on which budding oceanographers are required to think. Having taught a core graduate course in biological oceanography for many years, Charlie Miller has used his lecture notes as the genesis for this book. The text covers the subject of biological oceanography in a manner that is targeted to introductory graduate students, but it would also be appropriate for advanced undergraduates.

Dyhrman, Sonya

2004-10-01

254

BIOLOGICAL WARFARE  

PubMed Central

The use of biological agents as controlled weapons of war is practical although uncertain. Three types of agents are feasible, including pathogenic organisms and biological pests, toxins, and synthetic hormones regulating plant growth. These agents may be chosen for selective effects varying from prolonged incipient illness to death of plants, man and domestic animals. For specific preventive and control measures required to combat these situations, there must be careful and detailed planning. The nucleus of such a program is available within the existing framework of public health activities. Additional research and expansion of established activities in time of attack are necessary parts of biological warfare defense. PMID:13059641

Beeston, John

1953-01-01

255

Morphological preservation of carbonaceous plant fossils in blueschist metamorphic rocks from New Zealand.  

PubMed

Morphological and chemical evidence of ancient life is widespread in sedimentary rocks retrieved from shallow depths in the Earth's crust. Metamorphism is highly detrimental to the preservation of biological information in rocks, thus limiting the geological record in which traces of life might be found. Deformation and increasing pressure/temperature during deep burial may alter the morphology as well as the composition and structure of both the organic and mineral constituents of fossils. However, microspore fossils have been previously observed in intensely metamorphosed rocks. It has been suggested that their small size, and/or the nature of the polymer composing their wall, and/or the mineralogy of their surrounding matrix were key parameters explaining their exceptional preservation. Here, we describe the remarkable morphological preservation of plant macrofossils in blueschist metamorphic rocks from New Zealand containing lawsonite. Leaves and stems can be easily identified at the macroscale. At the microscale, polygonal structures with walls mineralized by micas within the leaf midribs and blades may derive from the original cellular ultrastructure or, alternatively, from the shrinkage during burial of the gelified remnants of the leaves in an abiotic process. Processes and important parameters involved in the remarkable preservation of these fossils during metamorphism are discussed. Despite the excellent morphological preservation, the initial biological polymers have been completely transformed to graphitic carbonaceous matter down to the nanometer scale. This occurrence demonstrates that plant macrofossils may experience major geodynamic processes such as metamorphism and exhumation involving deep changes and homogenization of their carbon chemistry and structure but still retain their morphology with remarkable integrity even if they are not shielded by any hard-mineralized concretion. PMID:22299653

Galvez, M E; Beyssac, O; Benzerara, K; Bernard, S; Menguy, N; Cox, S C; Martinez, I; Johnston, M R; Brown, G E

2012-03-01

256

Legal authority to preserve organs in cases of uncontrolled cardiac death: preserving family choice.  

PubMed

The gap between the number of organs available for transplant and the number of individuals who need transplanted organs continues to increase. At the same time, thousands of transplantable organs are needlessly overlooked every year for the single reason that they come from individuals who were declared dead according to cardio pulmonary criteria. Expanding the donor population to individuals who die uncontrolled cardiac deaths will reduce this disparity, but only if organ preservation efforts are utilized. Concern about potential legal liability for temporary preservation of organs pending a search for family members appears to be one of the impediments to wider use of donation in cases of uncontrolled cardiac death in states without statutes explicitly authorizing such action. However, we think that the risk of liability for organ preservation under these circumstances is de minimis, and that concerns about legal impediments to preservation should yield to the ethical imperative of undertaking it. PMID:19094002

Bonnie, Richard J; Wright, Stephanie; Dineen, Kelly K

2008-01-01

257

Biology Notes  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Some helpful ideas are proposed for use by biology teachers. Topics included are Food Webs,'' Key to Identification of Families,'' Viruses,'' Sieve Tube,'' Woodlice,'' Ecology of Oak Leaf Roller Moth,'' and Model Making.'' (PS)

School Science Review, 1973

1973-01-01

258

Biological monitoring  

SciTech Connect

Biological monitoring is defined as the measurement and assessment of workplace agents or their metabolites in tissues, secreta, excreta, expired air, or any combination of these to evaluate exposure and health risk compared to an appropriate reference. Biological monitoring offers several advantages: it takes into account individual variability in biological activity resulting from a chemical insult. It takes into account the effects of personal physical activity and individual life styles. It is a valuable adjunct to ambient monitoring and health surveillance. The importance of chemical speciation in the toxicity of pollutants is discussed. Basic protocols for lead, aluminum, cadmium, mercury, selenium, and nickel are presented. Basic criteria for biological monitoring methods are presented. 11 references, 1 table.

Ho, M.H.; Dillon, H.K.

1986-02-01

259

Biology Notes  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Ten ideas that have been tried out by the authors in schools are presented for biology teachers. The areas covered include genetics, dispersal of seeds, habituation in earthworms, respiration, sensory neurons, fats and oils. A reading list is provided. (PS)

School Science Review, 1972

1972-01-01

260

Biological Thermodynamics  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Biological Thermodynamics provides an introduction to the study of energy transformations for students of the biological sciences. Donald Haynie uses an informal writing style to introduce this core subject in a manner that will appeal to biology and biochemistry undergraduate students. The emphasis of the text is placed on understanding basic concepts and developing problem-solving skills throughout the text. The level of mathematical complexity is kept to a minimum. Each chapter provides numerous examples taken from different areas of biochemistry, as well as extensive exercises to aid understanding. Topics covered include energy and its transformation, the First Law of Thermodynamics, the Second Law of Thermodynamics, Gibbs Free Energy, statistical thermodynamics, binding equilibria and reaction kinetics, and a survey of the most exciting areas of biological thermodynamics today, particularly the origin of life on Earth.

Haynie, Donald T.

2001-03-01

261

Hair Biology  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

If you�ve ever had a question about the biological make-up of your hair or anyone else�s, then this website is the place to go for answers. The Hair Biology portion of the Keratin web page gives incredible detail on hair fiber, follicles, growth cycle stages, hair length and density. These are just a few of the biological aspects of hair and much more is addressed and covered in great detail on the site. Hair Biology also features photography of different stages of hair growth along with a FAQ section which may answer some commonly asked (and not so commonly) questions about hair. Overall, this site would be an invaluable tool for anyone in the industry or anyone aspiring to join.

262

Computational Biology  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Basic Chemistry and Molecular Biology; Introduction to Genomics. Data Mining (NCBI Bookshelf, OMIM, PubMed, NCBI databases). Introductions to Sequence similarity searches and BLAST, Multiple Alignments and Phylogenetic Analysis, Protein Structure databases and 3D viewers.

William S. Barnes

263

[Biological activity of Spirulina].  

PubMed

In this review information of Spirulina platensis (SP), a blue-green alga (photosynthesizing cyanobacterium) having diverse biological activity is presented. Due to high content of highly valuable proteins, indispensable amino acids, vitamins, beta-carotene and other pigments, mineral substances, indispensable fatty acids and polysaccharides, PS has been found suitable for use as bioactive additive. SP produces an immunostimulating effect by enhancing the resistance of humans, mammals, chickens and fish to infections, the capacity of influencing hemopoiesis, stimulating the production of antibodies and cytokines. Under the influence of SP macrophages, T and B cells are activated. SP sulfolipids have proved to be effective against HIV. Preparations obtained from SP biomass have also been found active against herpesvirus, cytomegalovirus, influenza virus, etc. SP extracts are capable in inhibiting cancerogenesis. SP preparations are regarded as functional products contributing to the preservation of the resident intestinal microflora, especially lactic acid bacilli and bifidobacteria, and to a decrease in the level of Candida albicans. The biological activity of SP with respect to microorganisms holds good promise for using these microalgae as components of culture media. PMID:11548244

Blinkova, L P; Gorobets, O B; Baturo, A P

2001-01-01

264

Achieving convergence, causality preservation, and intention preservation in real-time cooperative editing systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

Real-time cooperative editing systems allow multiple users to view and edit the same text\\/graphic\\/image\\/multimedia document at the same time for multiple sites connected by communication networks. Consistency maintenance is one of the most significant challenges in designing and implementing real-time cooperative editing systems. In this article, a consistency model, with properties of convergence, causality preservation, and intention preservation, is proposed

Chengzheng Sun; Xiaohua Jia; Yanchun Zhang; Yun Yang; David Chen

1998-01-01

265

Cardiac preservation is enhanced in a heterotopic rat transplant model by supplementing the nitric oxide pathway.  

PubMed Central

Nitric oxide (NO) is a novel biologic messenger with diverse effects but its role in organ transplantation remains poorly understood. Using a porphyrinic microsensor, the first direct measurements of coronary vascular and endocardial NO production were made. NO was measured directly in the effluent of preserved, heterotopically transplanted rat hearts stimulated with L-arginine and bradykinin; NO concentrations fell from 2.1 +/- 0.4 microM for freshly explanted hearts to 0.7 +/- 0.2 and 0.2 +/- 0.08 microM for hearts preserved for 19 and 38 h, respectively. NO levels were increased by SOD, suggesting a role for superoxide-mediated destruction of NO. Consistent with these data, addition of the NO donor nitroglycerin (NTG) to a balanced salt preservation solution enhanced graft survival in a time- and dose-dependent manner, with 92% of hearts supplemented with NTG surviving 12 h of preservation versus only 17% in its absence. NTG similarly enhanced preservation of hearts stored in University of Wisconsin solution, the clinical standard for preservation. Other stimulators of the NO pathway, including nitroprusside, L-arginine, or 8-bromoguanosine 3',5' monophosphate, also enhanced graft survival, whereas the competitive NO synthase antagonist NG-monomethyl-L-arginine was associated with poor preservation. Likely mechanisms whereby supplementation of the NO pathway enhanced preservation included increased blood flow to the reperfused graft and decreased graft leukostasis. NO was also measured in endothelial cells subjected to hypoxia/reoxygenation and detected based on its ability to inhibit thrombin-mediated platelet aggregation and serotonin release. NO became undetectable in endothelial cells exposed to hypoxia followed by reoxygenation and was restored to normoxic levels on addition of SOD. These studies suggest that the NO pathway fails during preservation/transplantation because of formation of oxygen free radicals during reperfusion, which quench available NO. Augmentation of NO/cGMP-dependent mechanisms enhances vascular function after ischemia and reperfusion and provides a new strategy for transplantation of vascular organs. Images PMID:7514195

Pinsky, D J; Oz, M C; Koga, S; Taha, Z; Broekman, M J; Marcus, A J; Liao, H; Naka, Y; Brett, J; Cannon, P J

1994-01-01

266

Islet cryopreservation using intracellular preservation solutions.  

PubMed

Cryopreservation of islets adds great flexibility to clinical islet transplant programs. Methods of islet cryopreservation have traditionally utilized permeating cryoprotectants contained within isotonic solutions without specifically addressing issues of ionic balances, buffering capacity, or oxygen free radicals that occur during hypothermic stresses. These factors may become significant issues during low-temperature storage and during the freezing and thawing process. Since its development in the early 1980s, the University of Wisconsin (UW) organ preservation solution has become the standard vascular flush and preservation solution. Recently, Hypothermosol preservation solution (HTS) was developed as a hypothermic blood substitute. The unique characteristics and composition of these preservation solutions may be important when developing solutions specific for the cryopreservation of cells and tissues. It was the aim of this study to evaluate these two hypothermic preservation solutions as the media used in cryopreservation of islets. Groups of canine islets [5000 islet equivalents (IE)/group] were cryopreserved using the standard protocol of stepwise addition of dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) to 2 M, controlled nucleation, slow cooling (0.25 degrees C/min), and rapid thawing (200 degrees C/min). The cryopreservation solutions were made with 1) UW solution, 2) HTS solution, or 3) Medium 199 solution with 10% fetal calf serum (FCS). Additional control groups included islets cryopreserved using 4) HTS, 5) UW solution, and 6) Medium 199 alone, without DMSO. Recovery of islets immediately following thawing was equivalent between the groups with the exception of the islets cryopreserved without DMSO (groups 4-6, p < 0.05). After 48 h of postcryopreservation tissue culture, islet recovery was highest in the groups frozen with UW and HTS (mean +/- SEM) (79.8 +/- 1.9% and 82.5 +/- 1.5%, p < 0.05 vs. group 3, 69.1 +/- 3.3%, p < 0.05, ANOVA). Less than 15% of the islets were recovered when they were cryopreserved without the cryoprotectant DMSO (groups 4-6). Functional viability was assessed by measuring the glucose-stimulated insulin secretion during static incubation after 48-h culture. The stimulation indexes were 4.6 +/- 1.0, 4.2 +/- 0.8, 3.6 +/- 1.2, 0.6 +/- 0.5, and 0.4 +/- 0.2 for islets in groups 1-5, respectively. This study demonstrates that postcryopreservation survival can be improved using intracellular-based preservation solutions, including UW or HTS, in conjunction with DMSO. PMID:11714192

Lakey, J R; Rajotte, R V; Fedorow, C A; Taylor, M J

2001-01-01

267

Preservation of steatotic livers: a comparison between cold storage and machine perfusion preservation.  

PubMed

Liver grafts are frequently discarded due to steatosis. Steatotic livers can be classified as suboptimal and deteriorate rapidly during hypothermic static preservation, often resulting in graft nonfunction. Hypothermic machine perfusion (MP) has been introduced for preservation of donor livers instead of cold storage (CS), resulting in superior preservation outcomes. The aim of this study was to compare CS and MP for preservation of the steatotic donor rat liver. Liver steatosis was induced in male Wistar rats by a choline-methionine-deficient diet. After 24 hours hypothermic CS using the University of Wisconsin solution (UW) or MP using UW-Gluconate (UW-G), liver damage (liver enzymes, perfusate flow, and hyaluronic acid clearance) and liver function (bile production, ammonia clearance, urea production, oxygen consumption, adenosine triphosphate [ATP] levels) were assessed in an isolated perfused rat liver model. Furthermore, liver biopsies were visualized by hematoxylin and eosin staining. Animals developed 30 to 60% steatosis. Livers preserved by CS sustained significantly more damage as compared to MP. Bile production, ammonia clearance, urea production, oxygen consumption, and ATP levels were significantly higher after MP as compared to CS. These results were confirmed by histology. In conclusion, MP improves preservation results of the steatotic rat liver, as compared to CS. PMID:17394146

Bessems, Maud; Doorschodt, Benedict M; Kolkert, Joe L P; Vetelainen, Reeta L; van Vliet, Arlene K; Vreeling, Heleen; van Marle, Jan; van Gulik, Thomas M

2007-04-01

268

Translational environmental biology: cell biology informing conservation  

E-print Network

Translational environmental biology: cell biology informing conservation Nikki Traylor 93950, USA Typically, findings from cell biology have been beneficial for preventing human disease. However, translational applications from cell biology can also be applied to conservation efforts

Palumbi, Stephen

269

Irradiation preservation of seafood: Literature review  

SciTech Connect

The application of gamma-irradiation for extending the shelf life of seafood has been of interest for many years. This report reviews a number of studies on seafood irradiation conducted over the past several years. Topics covered include seafood irradiation techniques and dosages, species applicability and differences, the effects of packaging on seafood preservation, and changes in organoleptic acceptability as a result of irradiation. Particular attention is given to radiation effects (likely and unlikely) of concern to the public. These include the potential for generation of toxic chemical products, botulinum toxin production, and other health concerns. No scientifically defensible evidence of any kind was found for any harmful effect of irradiation of seafoods at the doses being considered (less than 300 krad), and all indications are that irradiation is an acceptable and needed additional tool for seafood preservation. 49 refs., 14 figs., 14 tabs.

Molton, P.M.

1987-10-01

270

Preservation of proteins in mummified tissues.  

PubMed

Protein material was extracted from the dessicated tissues of several Egyptian mummies and a frozen Eskimo. The distribution and degree of preservation of high molecular weight protein was analyzed by gel filtration, protein assays, amino acid analysis, and polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. The protein has undergone considerable degradation although some high molecular weight protein (C. 130,000 daltons) remains intact. Amino acid analysis of the extracted protein indicates the basic amino acids have undergone a chemical modification and may represent a point of preferential breakdown in the polypeptide chain. Atomic absorption spectrophotometry of tissue cations suggests a correlation between degree of preservation of mummified tissue and levels of sodium salts (natron) in the tissue. PMID:655269

Barraco, R A

1978-05-01

271

Preservation of cycad and Ginkgo pollen  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Pollen grains of Ginkgo, Cycas, and Encephalartos were chemically treated together with pollen of Quercus, Alnus, and Pinus, the latter three genera being used as standards. The experiments showed that: (1) boiling the pollen for 8-10 hours in 10% KOH had little if any effect on any of the grains; (2) lengthy acetolysis treatment produced some degradation or corrosion, particularly in Ginkgo and Cycas, but the grains of even these genera remained easily recognizable; (3) oxidation with KMnO4 followed by H2O2 showed that pollen of Ginkgo, Cycas, and Encephalartos remains better preserved than that of Quercus and Alnus, and although Ginkgo and Encephalartos probably are slightly less resistant to oxidation than Pinus, no great differences exists between these monosulcate types and Pinus. Thus the experiments show that, at least for sediments low in bacteria, cycad and Ginkgo pollen should be well represented in the fossil record as far as their preservational capabilities are concerned. ?? 1978.

Frederiksen, N.O.

1978-01-01

272

Privacy Preserving RBF Kernel Support Vector Machine  

PubMed Central

Data sharing is challenging but important for healthcare research. Methods for privacy-preserving data dissemination based on the rigorous differential privacy standard have been developed but they did not consider the characteristics of biomedical data and make full use of the available information. This often results in too much noise in the final outputs. We hypothesized that this situation can be alleviated by leveraging a small portion of open-consented data to improve utility without sacrificing privacy. We developed a hybrid privacy-preserving differentially private support vector machine (SVM) model that uses public data and private data together. Our model leverages the RBF kernel and can handle nonlinearly separable cases. Experiments showed that this approach outperforms two baselines: (1) SVMs that only use public data, and (2) differentially private SVMs that are built from private data. Our method demonstrated very close performance metrics compared to nonprivate SVMs trained on the private data. PMID:25013805

Xiong, Li; Ohno-Machado, Lucila

2014-01-01

273

Mode field diameter preserving fiber tapers.  

PubMed

An approach for preserving the mode field diameter (MFD) in fiber tapers is demonstrated. The approach utilizes concentric dual-core fibers, which couple light from an inner core to an outer core through a taper. Fibers with a 6 ?m MFD feedthrough and a 15 ?m polarization maintaining feedthrough are demonstrated experimentally. Simulations of the MFD in the tapered dual-core fibers are also presented. PMID:22139230

Noordegraaf, D; Maack, M D; Skovgaard, P M W; Srensen, M H; Broeng, J; Lgsgaard, J

2011-12-01

274

Fertility preservation in the female cancer patient.  

PubMed

Hundreds of thousands of young women are diagnosed with cancer each year, but due to advances in screening, diagnosis, and treatment, survival rates have improved dramatically. With improved survival, long-term effects of cancer treatment including infertility need to be addressed and should be discussed as soon as possible. Oncologists should be familiar with their patients' risks of infertility and available options for fertility preservation and future reproduction. J. Surg. Oncol. 2014; 110:907-911. 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:25284123

Ross, Lauren; Chung, Karine; Macdonald, Heather

2014-12-01

275

Privacy Preserving k Secure Sum Protocol  

Microsoft Academic Search

Secure Multiparty Computation (SMC) allows parties to know the result of\\u000acooperative computation while preserving privacy of individual data. Secure sum\\u000acomputation is an important application of SMC. In our proposed protocols\\u000aparties are allowed to compute the sum while keeping their individual data\\u000asecret with increased computation complexity for hacking individual data. In\\u000athis paper the data of individual

Rashid Sheikh; Beerendra Kumar; Durgesh Kumar Mishra

2009-01-01

276

Exceptionally Preserved Jellyfishes from the Middle Cambrian  

E-print Network

Exceptionally Preserved Jellyfishes from the Middle Cambrian Paulyn Cartwright1, Susan L. Halgedahl2, Jonathan R. Hendricks3, Richard D. Jarrard2, Antonio C. Marques4, Allen G. Collins5, Bruce S. Lieberman3* 1Department of Ecology and Evolutionary... Paleontol 53: 494500. 15. Fedonkin MA, Runnegar BN (1992) Proterozoic metazoan trace fossils. In: Schopf JW, Klein C, eds. The Proterozoic Biosphere: A Multidisciplinary Study. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. pp 389395. 16. Gehling JG, Narbonne GM...

Cartwright, Paulyn; Halgedahl, Susan L.; Hendricks, Jonathan R.; Jarrard, Richard D.; Marques, Antonio; Collins, Allen G.; Lieberman, Bruce S.

2007-10-01

277

Information preserving compression of medical images  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a A state-of-the-art report on information preserving (or lossless, or error free, or reversible) compression of medical images\\u000a is presented. Reversible compression consists of two steps, decorrelation and coding. Methods for intraframe decorrelation\\u000a of 2D images can be divided into three classes, viz. transform, predictive, and multiresolution decorrelation. A method from\\u000a the latter class, hierarchical interpolation (HINT), provides for optimum decorrelation.

Max A. Viergever; Paul Roos

278

Efficient Privacy-Preserving Face Recognition  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a Automatic recognition of human faces is becoming increasingly popular in civilian and law enforcement applications that require\\u000a reliable recognition of humans. However, the rapid improvement and widespread deployment of this technology raises strong\\u000a concerns regarding the violation of individuals privacy. A typical application scenario for privacy-preserving face recognition\\u000a concerns a client who privately searches for a specific face image in

Ahmad-Reza Sadeghi; Thomas Schneider; Immo Wehrenberg

2009-01-01

279

Bacteriocin: safest approach to preserve food products  

Microsoft Academic Search

Start of the 21st century with its universal call to feed the hungry is an appropriate time to refocus attention on food security\\u000a and especially the impact of biopatenting on poor communities who are the primary victims of hunger in our world. Antibacterial\\u000a metabolites of lactic acid bacteria and Bacillus spp have potential as natural preservatives to control the growth

Neha Gautam; Nivedita Sharma

2009-01-01

280

Preservation of Earth's resources focus for forum  

Microsoft Academic Search

A more efficient use of the Earths resources to preserve the environment for future generations was the focus of a forum held on climate change at Notre Dames Fremantle Campus in October.\\u000aDr Lucy Morris, Chief Executive Officer of Baptistcare; Jim Smith, Project Manager Western Australia of Catholic Earthcare Australia and Dr Michael OLeary, Lecturer in Geography at The University

Leigh Dawson

2011-01-01

281

Preserved Tissue Allografts in Reconstructive Surgery  

Microsoft Academic Search

Results of treatment with three various kinds of allografts: lyophilized bone, deep frozen bone and cartilage preserved in\\u000a physiological solution, all of them radiation-sterilized are presented. We believe that this presentation may be helpful in\\u000a estimating the tissue bank's allografts and in establishing indications and contraindications in the application of allografts\\u000a in surgery.\\u000a \\u000a The indices of coincidence were compared in

J. Komender; W. Marczynski; D. Tylman; Hanna Malczewska; A. Komender; D. Sladowski

2001-01-01

282

Factors determining successful liver preservation for transplantation.  

PubMed Central

Auxiliary liver allotransplants will survive for relatively long periods of time after 24 hour hypothermic (10-12C), pulsatile perfusion. The best perfusate was a silica gel fraction of dog plasma with added potassium chloride gel made hyperosmolar with glucose. Further improvement could be achieved with added allopurinol and methylprednisolone. Nonpulsatile flow or lower temperatures were less effective preservation techniques. Images Fig. 1. Fig. 5. Fig. 8. PMID:165789

Toledo-Pereyra, L H; Simmons, R L; Najarian, J S

1975-01-01

283

Working Group Proposed to Preserve Archival Records  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The AAS and AIP co-hosted a Workshop in April 2012 with NSF support (AST-1110231) that recommends establishing a Working Group on Time Domain Astronomy (WGTDA) to encourage and advise on preserving historical observations in a form meaningful for future scientific analysis. Participants specifically considered archival observations that could describe how astronomical objects change over time. Modern techniques and increased storage capacity enable extracting additional information from older media. Despite the photographic plate focus, other formats also concerned participants. To prioritize preservation efforts, participants recommended considering the information density, the amount of previously published data, their format and associated materials, their current condition, and their expected deterioration rate. Because the best digitization still produces an observation of an observation, the originals should be retained. For accessibility, participants recommended that observations and their metadata be available digitally and on-line. Standardized systems for classifying, organizing, and listing holdings should enable discovery of historical observations through the Virtual Astronomical Observatory. Participants recommended pilot projects that produce scientific results, demonstrate the dependence of some advances on heritage data, and open new avenues of exploration. Surveying a broad region of the sky with a long time-base and high cadence should reveal new phenomena and improve statistics for rare events. Adequate financial support is essential. While their capacity to produce new science is the primary motivation for preserving astronomical records, their potential for historical research and citizen science allows targeting cultural institutions and other private sources. A committee was elected to prepare the WGTDA proposal. The WGTDA executive committee should be composed of ~10 members representing modern surveys, heritage materials, data management, data standardization and integration, follow-up of time-domain discoveries, and virtual observatories. The Working Group on the Preservation of Astronomical Heritage Web page includes a full report.

Bartlett, Jennifer L.

2013-01-01

284

NASA Biological Specimen Repository  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The NASA Biological Specimen Repository (NBSR) was established in 2006 to collect, process, preserve and distribute spaceflight-related biological specimens from long duration ISS astronauts. This repository provides unique opportunities to study longitudinal changes in human physiology spanning may missions. The NBSR collects blood and urine samples from all participating ISS crewmembers who have provided informed consent. These biological samples are collected once before flight, during flight scheduled on flight days 15, 30, 60, 120 and within 2 weeks of landing. Postflight sessions are conducted 3 and 30 days after landing. The number of in-flight sessions is dependent on the duration of the mission. Specimens are maintained under optimal storage conditions in a manner that will maximize their integrity and viability for future research The repository operates under the authority of the NASA/JSC Committee for the Protection of Human Subjects to support scientific discovery that contributes to our fundamental knowledge in the area of human physiological changes and adaptation to a microgravity environment. The NBSR will institute guidelines for the solicitation, review and sample distribution process through establishment of the NBSR Advisory Board. The Advisory Board will be composed of representatives of all participating space agencies to evaluate each request from investigators for use of the samples. This process will be consistent with ethical principles, protection of crewmember confidentiality, prevailing laws and regulations, intellectual property policies, and consent form language. Operations supporting the NBSR are scheduled to continue until the end of U.S. presence on the ISS. Sample distribution is proposed to begin with selections on investigations beginning in 2017. The availability of the NBSR will contribute to the body of knowledge about the diverse factors of spaceflight on human physiology.

McMonigal, K. A.; Pietrzyk, R. A.; Sams, C. F.; Johnson, M. A.

2010-01-01

285

Mass preserving registration for lung CT  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this paper, we evaluate a novel image registration method on a set of expiratory-inspiratory pairs of computed tomography (CT) lung scans. A free-form multi resolution image registration technique is used to match two scans of the same subject. To account for the differences in the lung intensities due to differences in inspiration level, we propose to adjust the intensity of lung tissue according to the local expansion or compression. An image registration method without intensity adjustment is compared to the proposed method. Both approaches are evaluated on a set of 10 pairs of expiration and inspiration CT scans of children with cystic fibrosis lung disease. The proposed method with mass preserving adjustment results in significantly better alignment of the vessel trees. Analysis of local volume change for regions with trapped air compared to normally ventilated regions revealed larger differences between these regions in the case of mass preserving image registration, indicating that mass preserving registration is better at capturing localized differences in lung deformation.

Gorbunova, Vladlena; Lo, Pechin; Loeve, Martine; Tiddens, Harm A.; Sporring, Jon; Nielsen, Mads; de Bruijne, Marleen

2009-02-01

286

Lattice-preserving Flower Constellations under perturbations  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

2D Lattice Flower Constellations (2D-LFCs) are stable in the Keplerian model. This means that a flower constellation maintains its structure (the lattice) at any instant of time. However, this is not necessarily true when the harmonic is included in the gravitational potential of the Earth. This paper deals with the new theory of Lattice-preserving Flower Constellations, which shows how 2D-LFC can be designed in such a way that the relative displacement of the orbital parameters of its satellites is invariant even under the presence of the effect. This is achieved following two different procedures: the first consists of the modification of the semi-major axis of all the satellites in a 2D-LFC slightly to control their orbital period, and the second consists of the modification of the values for the eccentricity and inclination, so that the perturbations result in motion that still preserves the lattice of the flower constellation. The proposed theory of Lattice-preserving Flower Constellations validates the theory of 3D Lattice Flower Constellations and has a wide range of potential applications.

Casanova, Daniel; Avendao, Martn; Tresaco, Eva

2015-01-01

287

Methods to preserve potentially toxigenic fungi  

PubMed Central

Microorganisms are a source of many high-value compounds which are useful to every living being, such as humans, plants and animals. Since the process of isolating and improving a microorganism can be lengthy and expensive, preserving the obtained characteristic is of paramount importance, so the process does not need to be repeated. Fungi are eukaryotic, achlorophyllous, heterotrophic organisms, usually filamentous, absorb their food, can be either macro or microscopic, propagate themselves by means of spores and store glycogen as a source of storage. Fungi, while infesting food, may produce toxic substances such as mycotoxins. The great genetic diversity of the Kingdom Fungi renders the preservation of fungal cultures for many years relevant. Several international reference mycological culture collections are maintained in many countries. The methodologies that are most fit for preserving microorganisms for extended periods are based on lowering the metabolism until it reaches a stage of artificial dormancy. The goal of this study was to analyze three methods for potentially toxigenic fungal conservation (Castellanis, continuous subculture and lyophilization) and to identify the best among them. PMID:24948912

Guimares, Lucas Costa; Fernandes, Ana Paula; Chalfoun, Sara Maria; Batista, Lus Roberto

2014-01-01

288

Scalable similarity search with topology preserving hashing.  

PubMed

Hashing-based similarity search techniques is becoming increasingly popular in large data sets. To capture meaningful neighbors, the topology of a data set, which represents the neighborhood relationships between its subregions and the relative proximities between the neighbors of each subregion, e.g., the relative neighborhood ranking of each subregion, should be exploited. However, most existing hashing methods are developed to preserve neighborhood relationships while ignoring the relative neighborhood proximities. Moreover, most hashing methods lack in providing a good result ranking, since there are often lots of results sharing the same Hamming distance to a query. In this paper, we propose a novel hashing method to solve these two issues jointly. The proposed method is referred to as topology preserving hashing (TPH). TPH is distinct from prior works by also preserving the neighborhood ranking. Based on this framework, we present three different TPH methods, including linear unsupervised TPH, semisupervised TPH, and kernelized TPH. Particularly, our unsupervised TPH is capable of mining semantic relationship between unlabeled data without supervised information. Extensive experiments on four large data sets demonstrate the superior performances of the proposed methods over several state-of-the-art unsupervised and semisupervised hashing techniques. PMID:24860034

Zhang, Lei; Zhang, Yongdong; Gu, Xiaoguang; Tang, Jinhui; Tian, Qi

2014-07-01

289

Riverscape and groundwater preservation: a choice experiment.  

PubMed

This study presents a quantitative approach to support policy decision making for the preservation of riverscapes, taking into account the EC Water Framework Directive (2000/60/EC) and the EC Nitrates Directive (91/676/EEC) concerning the protection of waters against nitrate pollution from agricultural sources. A choice experiment was applied to evaluate the benefits, as perceived by inhabitants, of the implementation of policies aiming to reduce the concentration of nitrates in groundwater, preserve the riverscape by maintaining a minimum water flow and increasing hedges and woods along the Serio River in central northern Italy. Findings suggested that people were particularly concerned about groundwater quality, probably because it is strongly linked to human health. Nevertheless, it was interesting to observe that people expressed a high willingness to pay for actions that affect the riverscape as a whole (such as the minimum water flow maintenance plus reforestation). This is probably due to the close connection between the riverscape and the functions of the river area for recreation, health purposes, and biodiversity preservation. PMID:24085155

Tempesta, T; Vecchiato, D

2013-12-01

290

78 FR 46374 - Minority Depository Institution Preservation Program  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...UNION ADMINISTRATION RIN 3133-AE16 Minority Depository Institution Preservation Program...NCUA) recognizes the importance of minority credit unions and the unique challenges...communities. NCUA is establishing a Minority Depository Institution Preservation...

2013-07-31

291

Variant of Usher Syndrome Gene Preserves Vision and Balance  

MedlinePLUS

... preserves vision and balance Variant of Usher Syndrome Gene Preserves Vision and Balance Usher syndrome, an inherited, ... mutant copy of any one of several different genes. But surprisingly, some mutations of the same genes ...

292

The Issues and Management of Historic Preservation Projects  

E-print Network

Historic preservation is a topic that is well known throughout the United States today and many people believe that they completely understand it in full. However, historic preservation is much more detailed and confusing than most people realize...

Sengelmann, Heather

2012-04-20

293

36 CFR 13.35 - Preservation of natural features.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...Preservation of natural features. 13.35 Section 13.35 Parks...Preservation of natural features. (a) This section applies to...Gathering or collecting natural products is prohibited...allowed by this section, 2.1 of...

2012-07-01

294

36 CFR 13.35 - Preservation of natural features.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...Preservation of natural features. 13.35 Section 13.35 Parks...Preservation of natural features. (a) This section applies to...Gathering or collecting natural products is prohibited...allowed by this section, 2.1 of...

2013-07-01

295

36 CFR 13.35 - Preservation of natural features.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...Preservation of natural features. 13.35 Section 13.35 Parks...Preservation of natural features. (a) This section applies to...Gathering or collecting natural products is prohibited...allowed by this section, 2.1 of...

2011-07-01

296

36 CFR 13.35 - Preservation of natural features.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...Preservation of natural features. 13.35 Section 13.35 Parks...Preservation of natural features. (a) This section applies to...Gathering or collecting natural products is prohibited...allowed by this section, 2.1 of...

2014-07-01

297

Gravitational Biology Facility on Space Station: Meeting the needs of space biology  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Gravitational Biology Facility (GBF) is a set of generic laboratory equipment needed to conduct research on Space Station Freedom (SSF), focusing on Space Biology Program science (Cell and Developmental Biology and Plant Biology). The GBF will be functional from the earliest utilization flights through the permanent manned phase. Gravitational biology research will also make use of other Life Sciences equipment on the space station as well as existing equipment developed for the space shuttle. The facility equipment will be developed based on requirements derived from experiments proposed by the scientific community to address critical questions in the Space Biology Program. This requires that the facility have the ability to house a wide variety of species, various methods of observation, and numerous methods of sample collection, preservation, and storage. The selection of the equipment will be done by the members of a scientific working group (5 members representing cell biology, 6 developmental biology, and 6 plant biology) who also provide requirements to design engineers to ensure that the equipment will meet scientific needs. All equipment will undergo extensive ground based experimental validation studies by various investigators addressing a variety of experimental questions. Equipment will be designed to be adaptable to other space platforms. The theme of the Gravitational Biology Facility effort is to provide optimal and reliable equipment to answer the critical questions in Space Biology as to the effects of gravity on living systems.

Allen, Katherine; Wade, Charles

1992-01-01

298

Strategies for fertility preservation in young patients with cancer: a comprehensive approach.  

PubMed

As a result of treatment innovations, the survival rates of young people with cancer have increased substantially. The cancers most frequently diagnosed in adults aged 25-49years include breast, colorectal and cervical cancer and malignant melanoma (Cancer Research UK, 2009). The 5-year survival rates of over 90% for many malignancies are now reported in young people. But the diagnosis and treatment of cancer often poses a threat to fertility. Methods of fertility preservation are evolving quickly and awareness needs to grow in the medical community regarding these methods. Studies suggest that the ability to have biological children is of great importance to many people. The possible future effects of chemotherapy or radiotherapy on fertility should be discussed with all cancer patients who have reproductive potential. Moreover, fertility preservation should be considered for all young people undergoing potentially gonadotoxic treatment. This article covers the various methods of fertility preserving options in young men and women with respect to the various treatment modalities that they may be subjected to. Sperm banking is a simple and low cost intervention. Embryo cryopreservation is the only established method of female fertility preservation. Oocyte cryopreservation offers a useful option for women without a male partner. Emergency ovarian stimulation and cryopreservation of ovarian tissue (followed by tissue transplantation or in-vitro maturation of oocytes) are experimental techniques for women who require urgent cancer treatment. Large, well-controlled studies are also required to identify any unexpected long-term sequelae of cryopreservation of oocytes and ovarian tissue. PMID:24669162

Gunasheela, Devika; Gunasheela, Sulochana

2014-03-01

299

Methanol fixation of plant tissue for Scanning Electron Microscopy improves preservation of tissue morphology and dimensions  

PubMed Central

Background It is well known that preparation of biological (plant and animal) tissues for Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) by chemical fixation and critical point drying results in shrinkage of tissues, often by up to 20-30%, depending on the tissue type and fixation protocol used. We sought to identify a protocol that would preserve tissue size and morphology better than standard chemical fixatives and dehydration regimes. We compared a range of processing techniques by quantifying changes in tissue size and recording details of surface morphology using leaf tissues from three commonly studied species; Arabidopsis thaliana, barley and cotton. Results All processing protocols altered tissue dimensions. Methanol fixation and dehydration, followed by a further short (1h) dehydration step in ethanol and critical point drying (which was based on a previously published method), preserved tissue dimensions most consistently of all protocols tested, although it did cause 8% shrinkage in all three species. This protocol was also best for preservation of surface morphology in all three species. We outline a recommended protocol and advise that the method is best trialled for different tissues, especially thicker or larger samples. Conclusions This study shows that simultaneous fixation and dehydration in methanol followed by ethanol results in better preservation of dimensions and morphology of critical point dried plant tissues than other fixation and dehydration procedures. It is a quick and simple method, and requires standard SEM preparation equipment. PMID:24083940

2013-01-01

300

Changes in Parental Depression Symptoms during Family Preservation Services  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Objectives: Parental depression symptoms often change over the course of child welfare family preservation and parenting services. This raises the question of whether certain processes in family preservation services might be associated with depression symptom change. This study tests three correlational models of change among family preservation

Chaffin, Mark; Bard, David

2011-01-01

301

21 CFR 178.3800 - Preservatives for wood.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2009-04-01 true Preservatives for wood. 178.3800 Section 178.3800 Food...Aids 178.3800 Preservatives for wood. Preservatives may be safely used...the technical effect of protecting the wood from decay, mildew, and water...

2010-04-01

302

21 CFR 178.3800 - Preservatives for wood.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-04-01 false Preservatives for wood. 178.3800 Section 178.3800 Food...Aids 178.3800 Preservatives for wood. Preservatives may be safely used...the technical effect of protecting the wood from decay, mildew, and water...

2013-04-01

303

21 CFR 178.3800 - Preservatives for wood.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-04-01 false Preservatives for wood. 178.3800 Section 178.3800 Food...Aids 178.3800 Preservatives for wood. Preservatives may be safely used...the technical effect of protecting the wood from decay, mildew, and water...

2012-04-01

304

21 CFR 178.3800 - Preservatives for wood.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...2014-04-01 false Preservatives for wood. 178.3800 Section 178.3800 Food...Aids 178.3800 Preservatives for wood. Preservatives may be safely used...the technical effect of protecting the wood from decay, mildew, and water...

2014-04-01

305

21 CFR 178.3800 - Preservatives for wood.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-04-01 false Preservatives for wood. 178.3800 Section 178.3800 Food...Aids 178.3800 Preservatives for wood. Preservatives may be safely used...the technical effect of protecting the wood from decay, mildew, and water...

2011-04-01

306

Preservation of Electronic Scholarly Publishing: An Analysis of Three Approaches  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Scholars publish in journals to preserve their work and to make sure that it is available for current and future researchers. More and more of this publishing is done in electronic format. Libraries, the institutions that have traditionally overseen the preservation of print publications, are now struggling with the preservation of digital

Honey, Sadie L.

2005-01-01

307

Protected trees A guide to tree preservation procedures  

E-print Network

Protected trees A guide to tree preservation procedures #12;Protected trees A guide to tree trees: A guide to tree preservation procedures Introduction This leaflet is written for tree owners, their neighbours and local community groups, and answers some of the most common questions about tree preservation

308

Secure Multiparty Computation for Privacy-Preserving Data Mining  

E-print Network

Secure Multiparty Computation for Privacy-Preserving Data Mining Yehuda Lindell Benny Pinkas May 6 and discuss their relevance to the field of privacy-preserving data mining. In addition to re- viewing to privacy-preserving data mining. Finally, we discuss the relationship between secure multiparty computation

309

Doing Biology  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Scientists Joel Hagen, Douglas Allchin, and Fred Singers created the "Doing Biology" book and its accompanying website. They are concerned with reforming science education, and their goal is to have students learn more "about the history and nature of science, about science in practice-about doing biology." The first iteration of their book, which appeared in 1996, contained over a dozen historical case studies arranged in a guided inquiry format. The version on this site contains seventeen different chapters, organized into themes such as cellular biology, evolution, and diversity. Each chapter contains a biography of a scientist, along with a discussion about their work and area of inquiry. The online chapters include "Nettie Stevens & Sex Discrimination," "Peter Mitchell & How Cells Make ATP," and "Lynn Margulis & How Cells Evolved." Additionally, at the conclusion of each chapter, questions and activities can be found.

Allchin, Douglas, 1956-; Hagen, Joel; Singer, Fred, 1952-

2012-06-15

310

Molecular Biology  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

As more academic institutions seek to incorporate Internet technology into their courses, many instructors must work in a medium that is unfamiliar, with lots of cluttered information, and precious little time. Numerous examples of well-designed course homepages exist and can be used as templates for constructing a course Webpage. Dr. Malcolm Campbell of Davidson College in North Carolina is an award-winning teacher who has produced a logical and interesting new homepage for an upper-level undergraduate Molecular Biology course (Molecular Biology 304). With a syllabus, daily-, and laboratory-schedules, the straightforward site guides students (and anyone else) through the course, building on previous course work, and teaching such concepts as critical thinking, data collection and analysis, and the writing of review papers. Some information at the site is restricted to registered students only, but the accessible information is worthy on its own. A good list of biology (organismal and micro) sites is also provided.

311

Biological preconcentrator  

DOEpatents

A biological preconcentrator comprises a stimulus-responsive active film on a stimulus-producing microfabricated platform. The active film can comprise a thermally switchable polymer film that can be used to selectively absorb and desorb proteins from a protein mixture. The biological microfabricated platform can comprise a thin membrane suspended on a substrate with an integral resistive heater and/or thermoelectric cooler for thermal switching of the active polymer film disposed on the membrane. The active polymer film can comprise hydrogel-like polymers, such as poly(ethylene oxide) or poly(n-isopropylacrylamide), that are tethered to the membrane. The biological preconcentrator can be fabricated with semiconductor materials and technologies.

Manginell, Ronald P. (Albuquerque, NM); Bunker, Bruce C. (Albuquerque, NM); Huber, Dale L. (Albuquerque, NM)

2008-09-09

312

Biological photocathodes.  

PubMed Central

Biological surfaces emit electrons when subjected to UV light. This emission is increased greatly after exposure to cesium vapor. Increases from 2 to 3 orders of magnitude are observed, depending on the biochemicals present. Heme and chlorophyll exhibit unusually high photoemission currents, which are increased further after cesiation. Photoemission from proteins and lipids is much less but also is increased by exposure to cesium. The formation of photocathodes with cesium greatly increases the practical magnifications attainable in photoelectron microscopy of organic and biological specimens. Photoelectron micrographs taken at magnifications greater than or equal to X 100,000 of chlorophyll-rich thylakoid membranes and of colloidal gold-labeled cytoskeleton preparations of cultured epithelial cells demonstrate the improvement in magnification. The selectivity and stability of the photocathodes suggest the possibility of detecting chromophore binding proteins in membranes and the design of photoelectron labels for tagging specific sites on biological surfaces. Images PMID:2928305

Griffith, O H; Habliston, D L; Birrell, G B; Skoczylas, W P; Hedberg, K K

1989-01-01

313

Biological Oceanography  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Within the framework of global biogeochemical cycles and ocean productivity, there are two areas that will be of particular interest to biological oceanography in the 1990s. The first is the mapping in space time of the biomass and productivity of phytoplankton in the world ocean. The second area is the coupling of biological and physical processes as it affects the distribution and growth rate of phytoplankton biomass. Certainly other areas will be of interest to biological oceanographers, but these two areas are amenable to observations from satellites. Temporal and spatial variability is a regular feature of marine ecosystems. The temporal and spatial variability of phytoplankton biomass and productivity which is ubiquitous at all time and space scales in the ocean must be characterized. Remote sensing from satellites addresses these problems with global observations of mesocale (2 to 20 days, 10 to 200 km) features over a long period of time.

Abbott, M. R.

1984-01-01

314

36 CFR 60.6 - Nominations by the State Historic Preservation Officer under approved State Historic Preservation...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

... 2014-07-01 false Nominations by the State Historic Preservation Officer under... NATIONAL PARK SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR NATIONAL REGISTER OF HISTORIC PLACES 60.6 Nominations by the State Historic Preservation Officer...

2014-07-01

315

Transplantation biology.  

PubMed

A variety of hemopoietic tissues are now being used as a source of stem cells for clinical transplantation. These tissues all have different biological properties, which are not yet fully understood, as well as particular clinical applications, advantages, and disadvantages. The development of protocols for the manipulation of stem cells prior to infusion into patients will, it is hoped, lead to the further improvement of stem cell replacement therapy including the use of stem cells as vectors for expressing transduced genes. Success in these efforts will depend on an improved understanding of the biological principles underlying hemopoietic stem cell transplantation. PMID:9371312

Gordon, M Y

1994-11-01

316

Biological Imaging  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

From investigating development to tracking cancer to nailing down the intricate mechanisms of cell division, scientists are using a bevy of new imaging techniques -- as well as new twists on some old standbys -- to push out the frontiers of biological knowledge. Science explores the state of the art in the field in its 4 April 2003 special issue on biological imaging. This slide show touches on some imaging highlights featured in that issue, as well as some notable accomplishments in bioimaging that have appeared recently in other issues of the journal.

C.L. Rieder (AAAS; )

2003-04-04

317

X-ray imaging of biological specimens  

SciTech Connect

I compared alternative techniques for x-ray imaging of biological specimens on the basis of (1) transverse and longitudinal resolution, (2) depth of field, (3) choice of recording medium, and (4) recording efficiency. For all imaging techniques, the dosages received by specimens were so high that the living state cannot be preserved, nor the structural integrity of the specimen be maintained in the usual sense.

Solem, J.C.

1983-01-01

318

Digital Creation & Preservation Working Group Activity Summary for (Prepared by Meghan Banach, Chair of Digital Creation & Preservation Working Group)  

E-print Network

Digital Creation & Preservation Working Group Activity Summary for 2009-2010 (Prepared by Meghan Banach, Chair of Digital Creation & Preservation Working Group) The following report summarizes the Digital Creation & Preservation Working Group's (DCPWG) activities from June 2009 to the present and lists

Schweik, Charles M.

319

Optimization of preservation and storage time of sponge tissues to obtain quality mRNA for next-generation sequencing.  

PubMed

Transcriptome sequencing with next-generation sequencing technologies has the potential for addressing many long-standing questions about the biology of sponges. Transcriptome sequence quality depends on good cDNA libraries, which requires high-quality mRNA. Standard protocols for preserving and isolating mRNA often require optimization for unusual tissue types. Our aim was assessing the efficiency of two preservation modes, (i) flash freezing with liquid nitrogen (LN?) and (ii) immersion in RNAlater, for the recovery of high-quality mRNA from sponge tissues. We also tested whether the long-term storage of samples at -80 C affects the quantity and quality of mRNA. We extracted mRNA from nine sponge species and analysed the quantity and quality (A260/230 and A260/280 ratios) of mRNA according to preservation method, storage time, and taxonomy. The quantity and quality of mRNA depended significantly on the preservation method used (LN?) outperforming RNAlater), the sponge species, and the interaction between them. When the preservation was analysed in combination with either storage time or species, the quantity and A260/230 ratio were both significantly higher for LN?-preserved samples. Interestingly, individual comparisons for each preservation method over time indicated that both methods performed equally efficiently during the first month, but RNAlater lost efficiency in storage times longer than 2 months compared with flash-frozen samples. In summary, we find that for long-term preservation of samples, flash freezing is the preferred method. If LN? is not available, RNAlater can be used, but mRNA extraction during the first month of storage is advised. PMID:22136287

Riesgo, Ana; Prez-Porro, Alicia R; Carmona, Susana; Leys, Sally P; Giribet, Gonzalo

2012-03-01

320

Field Biology  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This field biology class uses a service-learning project instead of a course term paper. The students worked with 4th and 5th graders at a local school to teach them skills in wildflower and fern identification, and then to help them implement a nature trail, which will be accessible to the greater community.

Course taught by Nancy Prentiss, University of Maine-Farmington, prentiss@maine.edu. Example compiled by Suzanne Savanick, Science Education Resource Center, ssavanic@carleton.edu.

321

(Biological dosimetry)  

SciTech Connect

The traveler attended the 1st International Conference on Biological Dosimetry in Madrid, Spain. This conference was organized to provide information to a general audience of biologists, physicists, radiotherapists, industrial hygiene personnel and individuals from related fields on the current ability of cytogenetic analysis to provide estimates of radiation dose in cases of occupational or environmental exposure. There is a growing interest in Spain in biological dosimetry because of the increased use of radiation sources for medical and occupational uses, and with this the anticipated and actual increase in numbers of overexposure. The traveler delivered the introductory lecture on Biological Dosimetry: Mechanistic Concepts'' that was intended to provide a framework by which the more applied lectures could be interpreted in a mechanistic way. A second component of the trip was to provide advice with regard to several recent cases of overexposure that had been or were being assessed by the Radiopathology and Radiotherapy Department of the Hospital General Gregorio Maranon'' in Madrid. The traveler had provided information on several of these, and had analyzed cells from some exposed or purportedly exposed individuals. The members of the biological dosimetry group were referred to individuals at REACTS at Oak Ridge Associated Universities for advice on follow-up treatment.

Preston, R.J.

1990-12-17

322

Cancer Biology  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

University of Colorado's Virtual Student Fellowship available at and developed by Bakemeier, Richard F. This website is designed to give students applying for a fellowship an overview of basic topics in biology and how they are used by cancer researchers to develop new treatments.

Dominiecki, Mary E.

2004-01-01

323

Bottle Biology.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes activities which utilize plastic drink bottles and are designed to foster the development of a wide range of biological and ecological concepts. Includes instructions for making a model compost column and presents a model that illustrates open versus closed ecosystems. (DDR)

Jager, Peter

1993-01-01

324

Biology Notes.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Presents information on the teaching of nutrition (including new information relating to many current O-level syllabi) and part 16 of a reading list for A- and S-level biology. Also includes a note on using earthworms as a source of material for teaching meiosis. (JN)

School Science Review, 1984

1984-01-01

325

Biologic Vaccines  

PubMed Central

The threat of new disease pandemics has spurred the development of biologic vaccines, which promise tremendous improvements in global and local health. Several lend themselves to the prevention or treatment of chronic diseases. But the uncertainties of whom to vaccinate raise the question of whether the health care system can make these promising products viable. PMID:22478749

ADAMS, KATHERINE T.

2009-01-01

326

Biological Molecules  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Paul Anderson describes the four major biological molecules found in living things. He begins with a brief discussion of polymerization. Dehydration synthesis is used to connect monomers into polymers and hydrolysis breaks them down again. The major characteristics of nucleic acids are described as well as there directionality from 3' to 5' end.

Anderson, Paul

2013-03-12

327

Biology Notes  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes nine biology experiments, including osmosis, genetics; oxygen content of blood, enzymes in bean seedlings, preparation of bird skins, vascularization in bean seedlings, a game called "sequences" (applied to review situations), crossword puzzle for human respiration, and physiology of the woodlouse. (CS)

School Science Review, 1976

1976-01-01

328

Biology Notes.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Organized by topic is a reading list for A- and S-level biology. Described are experiments for measuring rate of water uptake in a shoot; questions to aid students in designing experiments; rise of overhead projection to demonstrate osmosis and blood cell counting; and microbial manufacture of vinegar. (CS)

School Science Review, 1979

1979-01-01

329

Biology Notes.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes laboratory procedures, demonstrations, and classroom activities/materials, including water relation exercise on auxin-treated artichoke tuber tissue; aerobic respiration in yeast; an improved potometer; use of mobiles in biological classification, and experiments on powdery mildews and banana polyphenol oxidase. Includes reading lists

School Science Review, 1983

1983-01-01

330

Biology Notes.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes equipment, activities, and experiments useful in biology and environmental education instruction, including, among others, sampling in ecology using an overhead projector, the slide finder as an aid to microscopy, teaching kidney function, and teaching wildlife conservation-sand dune systems. (SK)

School Science Review, 1980

1980-01-01

331

Biology Notes.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Outlines a variety of laboratory procedures, techniques, and materials including construction of a survey frame for field biology, a simple tidal system, isolation and applications of plant protoplasts, tropisms, teaching lung structure, and a key to statistical methods for biologists. (DS)

School Science Review, 1981

1981-01-01

332

Marine Biology  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A variety of informational material for a course in marine biology or oceanology at the secondary level is presented. Among the topics discussed are: food webs and pyramids, planktonic blooms, marine life, plankton nets, food chains, phytoplankton, zooplankton, larval plankton and filter feeders. (BT)

Dewees, Christopher M.; Hooper, Jon K.

1976-01-01

333

Specimen Sample Preservation for Cell and Tissue Cultures  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The era of the International Space Station with its longer duration missions will pose unique challenges to microgravity life sciences research. The Space Station Biological Research Project (SSBRP) is responsible for addressing these challenges and defining the science requirements necessary to conduct life science research on-board the International Space Station. Space Station will support a wide range of cell and tissue culture experiments for durations of 1 to 30 days. Space Shuttle flights to bring experimental samples back to Earth for analyses will only occur every 90 days. Therefore, samples may have to be retained for periods up to 60 days. This presents a new challenge in fresh specimen sample storage for cell biology. Fresh specimen samples are defined as samples that are preserved by means other than fixation and cryopreservation. The challenge of long-term storage of fresh specimen samples includes the need to suspend or inhibit proliferation and metabolism pending return to Earth-based laboratories. With this challenge being unique to space research, there have not been any ground based studies performed to address this issue. It was decided hy SSBRP that experiment support studies to address the following issues were needed: Fixative Solution Management; Media Storage Conditions; Fresh Specimen Sample Storage of Mammalian Cell/Tissue Cultures; Fresh Specimen Sample Storage of Plant Cell/Tissue Cultures; Fresh Specimen Sample Storage of Aquatic Cell/Tissue Cultures; and Fresh Specimen Sample Storage of Microbial Cell/Tissue Cultures. The objective of these studies was to derive a set of conditions and recommendations that can be used in a long duration microgravity environment such as Space Station that will permit extended storage of cell and tissue culture specimens in a state consistent with zero or minimal growth, while at the same time maintaining their stability and viability.

Meeker, Gabrielle; Ronzana, Karolyn; Schibner, Karen; Evans, Robert

1996-01-01

334

Biological Warfare  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The following Web sites offer reliable information resources addressing biological warfare and related issues. The first Web site, from the Mayo Clinic, provides a brief overview of the agents commonly used in biological and chemical warfare -- such as anthrax, tularemia, and ricin (1). Links to related Mayo or CDC Web pages are also provided for further information. The next site contains a collection of articles on bioterrorism and bioweapons from the science news magazine NewScientist, spanning a range of about 4 years (2). Geneticists have determined which genes code for virulence in anthrax bacteria; the online version of Scientific American offers a recent article on this discovery (3). The Genetics Learning Center at the Eccles Institute of Human Genetics (University of Utah) takes a look a common misconceptions about biological warfare and provides and interesting overview of biological warfare programs in the US and beyond (4). The site also introduces Dark Winter, a fictional smallpox attack scenario staged by a collaboration of research organizations in June of 2001. Readers can find out more about Dark Winter in the following Web site from the Center for Civilian Biodefense Studies at John Hopkins University, one of the participating organizations (5). Biosecurity and Bioterrorism, a recently launched quarterly peer-reviewed journal, may be accessed online for free (6). The journal offers "multidisciplinary analyses and a vigorous exchange of perspectives that are essential to the formulation and implementation of successful strategies to diminish the threat of bioweapons." The last two sites are from MEDLINEplus, offering detailed information and numerous links of biological (7) and chemical (8) warfare.

Sohmer, Rachel.

2003-01-01

335

Color to gray: visual cue preservation.  

PubMed

Both commercial and scientific applications often need to transform color images into gray-scale images, e.g., to reduce the publication cost in printing color images or to help color blind people see visual cues of color images. However, conventional color to gray algorithms are not ready for practical applications because they encounter the following problems: 1) Visual cues are not well defined so it is unclear how to preserve important cues in the transformed gray-scale images; 2) some algorithms have extremely high time cost for computation; and 3) some require human-computer interactions to have a reasonable transformation. To solve or at least reduce these problems, we propose a new algorithm based on a probabilistic graphical model with the assumption that the image is defined over a Markov random field. Thus, color to gray procedure can be regarded as a labeling process to preserve the newly well--defined visual cues of a color image in the transformed gray-scale image. Visual cues are measurements that can be extracted from a color image by a perceiver. They indicate the state of some properties of the image that the perceiver is interested in perceiving. Different people may perceive different cues from the same color image and three cues are defined in this paper, namely, color spatial consistency, image structure information, and color channel perception priority. We cast color to gray as a visual cue preservation procedure based on a probabilistic graphical model and optimize the model based on an integral minimization problem. We apply the new algorithm to both natural color images and artificial pictures, and demonstrate that the proposed approach outperforms representative conventional algorithms in terms of effectiveness and efficiency. In addition, it requires no human-computer interactions. PMID:20634551

Song, Mingli; Tao, Dacheng; Chen, Chun; Li, Xuelong; Chen, Chang Wen

2010-09-01

336

Pennsylvania Historical & Museum Commission: State Historic Preservation Office  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Most states have some type of historic preservation office to coordinate preservation activities. The Commonwealth of Pennsylvania has a very active preservation office and this website brings together a number of their publications and resources. Near the top of the page visitors will find two key items: the state's long-term preservation plan and the document titled "Economic Benefits of Historic Preservation Activities in Pennsylvania." The preservation plan may serve to inspire and edify those working in the field and it's a nice roadmap for those working in related fields, such as museum management. The second document highlights some of the long- and short-term benefits of sustained historic preservation activities from Philadelphia to Erie. Moving along, the site includes areas like Programs, Resources, and Initiatives. This last area is a real gem, as it features a tool designed to protect agricultural resources and a very fine field guide to the architectural types and styles that prevail throughout the Keystone State.

2012-08-31

337

Comparison of methods of preserving tissues for pesticide analysis  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Formalin preservation, freezing, spoiling followed by freezing, and phenoxyethanol were compared in terms of concentrations of DDT, DDD, DDE, endrin, and hepatachlor epoxide measured in brain, liver and carcass of birds fed dietary dosages of pesticides and in spiked egg homogenate. Phenoxyethanol proved to be an unsatisfactory preservative; the amount of 'extractable lipid' was excessive, and measurements of concentrations in replicates were erratic. Concentrations of residues in formalin-preserved and frozen samples did not differ significantly in any tissue. Percentage lipid in brains and eggs, however, were significantly lower in formalin-preserved samples. Samples of muscle and liver that had been spoiled before freezing yielded less DDD, and muscle samples yielded more DDT than formalin-preserved samples. The authors conclude that formalin preservation is a satisfactory method for preservation of field samples and that the warming and spoiling of samples that may occur unavoidably in the field will not result in misleading analytical results.

Stickel, W.H.; Stickel, L.F.; Dyrland, R.A.; Hughes, D.L.

1984-01-01

338

Comparison of methods of preserving tissues for pesticide analysis.  

PubMed

Formalin preservation, freezing, spoiling followed by freezing, and phenoxyethanol were compared in terms of concentrations of DDT, DDD, DDE, endrin, and heptachlor epoxide measured in brain, liver and carcass of birds fed dietary dosages of pesticides and in spiked egg homogenate. Phenoxyethanol proved to be an unsatisfactory preservative; the amount of 'extractable lipid' was excessive, and measurements of concentrations in replicates were erratic. Concentrations of residues in formalin-preserved and frozen samples did not differ significantly in any tissue. Percentage lipid in brains and eggs, however, were significantly lower in formalin-preserved samples. Samples of muscle and liver that had been spoiled before freezing yielded less DDD, and muscle samples yielded more DDT than formalin-preserved samples. We conclude that formalin preservation is a satisfactory method for preservation of field samples and that the warming and spoiling of samples that may occur unavoidably in the field will not result in misleading analytical results. PMID:24259216

Stickel, W H; Stickel, L F; Dyrland, R A; Hughes, D L

1984-06-01

339

Summary report on transverse emittance preservation  

SciTech Connect

During the past years, significant progress has been made in understanding the beam transverse emittance blow-up and its preservation. However, one often finds him-/herself ignorant when he/she tries to explain what was observed in an existing machine or to predict what will happen in a machine under design. There are a number of such examples given in this report. Some of them are even fundamental. These are the challenges. But they are also the directions leading to new achievements. The workshop gladly acknowledged them and promised to work on them.

Chou, W.; Vos, L. [European Organization for Nuclear Research, Geneva (Switzerland)

1997-12-01

340

Review: Heart failure with preserved ejection fraction in African Americans.  

PubMed

Heart failure (HF) affects 5,700 000 people in the United States, with heart failure with preserved ejection fraction (HFPEF) being responsible for between 30%-50% of acute admissions. Epidemiological studies and HF registries have found HFPEF patients to be older, hypertensive and to have a history of atrial fibrillation. These findings, however, may not be fully applicable to African Americans, as they have been poorly studied making up only a minority of the test subjects. This review article is intended to discuss the pathophysiology and epidemiology of HFPEF within African Americans, highlight the differences compared to Caucasian populations and review current treatment guidelines. Studies looking at African Americans in particular have shown them to be younger, female and have worse diastolic dysfunction compared to Caucasian populations. African Americans also have been shown to have a worse mortality outcome especially in patients without coronary artery disease. The treatment of HFPEF is primarily symptomatic with no survival benefit seen in randomized controlled trials. Mechanisms postulated for the worse prognosis in African Americans with HFPEF include: greater incidence of hypertension and diastolic dysfunction, undefined race-driven genetic predispositions or relative resistance to medications that treat HF in general. The biological predispositions may also be compounded by inequality of healthcare access; something still felt to exist today. Prospective studies and randomized controlled trials need to be conducted with particular emphasis on African American populations to fully elucidate this disease and to formulate race specific treatment outcomes for the future. PMID:23140073

Shah, Sachil

2012-01-01

341

Molecular Cell Biology Cell Biology and Anatomy ----------------------------------------------------------------------------  

E-print Network

Molecular Cell Biology A G C T 14 Cell Biology and Anatomy associated proteins (MAPs) using molecular cell biology, biophysics, structural biology, and molecular genetics. ·Molecular cell biological study of KIFs ·Studies of the mechanism for recognition of and binding

Miyashita, Yasushi

342

Glycosylated proteins preserved over millennia: N-glycan analysis of Tyrolean Iceman, Scythian Princess and Warrior.  

PubMed

An improved understanding of glycosylation will provide new insights into many biological processes. In the analysis of oligosaccharides from biological samples, a strict regime is typically followed to ensure sample integrity. However, the fate of glycans that have been exposed to environmental conditions over millennia has not yet been investigated. This is also true for understanding the evolution of the glycosylation machinery in humans as well as in any other biological systems. In this study, we examined the glycosylation of tissue samples derived from four mummies which have been naturally preserved: - the 5,300 year old "Iceman called Oetzi", found in the Tyrolean Alps; the 2,400 year old "Scythian warrior" and "Scythian Princess", found in the Altai Mountains; and a 4 year old apartment mummy, found in Vienna/Austria. The number of N-glycans that were identified varied both with the age and the preservation status of the mummies. More glycan structures were discovered in the contemporary sample, as expected, however it is significant that glycan still exists in the ancient tissue samples. This discovery clearly shows that glycans persist for thousands of years, and these samples provide a vital insight into ancient glycosylation, offering us a window into the distant past. PMID:24831691

Ozcan, Sureyya; Kim, Bum Jin; Ro, Grace; Kim, Jae-Han; Bereuter, Thomas L; Reiter, Christian; Dimapasoc, Lauren; Garrido, Daniel; Mills, David A; Grimm, Rudolf; Lebrilla, Carlito B; An, Hyun Joo

2014-01-01

343

Biology 2108 Foundations of Biology  

E-print Network

is to facilitate the development of critical thinking through application of the scientific method, experience by research biologists, methods used to answer such questions, and current literature on specific subtopics with scientific experimentation in biology. The agenda of this course will adhere strictly to scientific concepts

Frantz, Kyle J.

344

Approaches to preserve human osteochondral allografts.  

PubMed

Osteochondral defects may progress to osteoarthritis. Many attempts have been developed to overcome this issue, including osteochondral autografts and allografts. The goal of this study was to develop a new protocol for storage of human osteochondral allografts. Osteochondral plugs were randomly allocated in the following groups: control, immediate freezing up to -70C, cooling at 4C, and storage at 37C. Samples from the cooling at 4C and storage at 37C groups were stored in tubes containing medium plus human albumin and analyzed after 1, 3, and 14days. The frozen groups' samples were cryopreserved for 1year in cryotubes containing medium only (FM), medium plus human albumin (FA), and medium plus human albumin and glucose (FG) and were then analyzed. Analysis involved histological study with hematoxylin-eosin and Safranin O and a modified Live/Dead assay. In samples stored both at 37 and 4C, analysis showed statistically significant higher cellular mortality at 14days compared to 1 and 3days, but mortality in the 4C group was lower. In the freezing protocols, the FA group showed less cellular mortality than the FM and FG groups. Cooling at 4C offers better preservation capacity than storage at 37C, but both offer the capacity for preservation for 14days. Adding human albumin to the storage medium is useful in reducing cellular mortality in samples frozen for 1year. PMID:25479814

de Sousa, Eduardo Branco; Aguiar, Diego Pinheiro; Barcelos, Jos Fernando Marques; Duarte, Maria Eugnia Leite; Olej, Beni

2014-12-01

345

Selective locality preserving projections for face recognition  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Recently, a graph-based method was proposed for Linear Dimensionality Reduction (LDR). It is based on Locality Preserving Projections (LPP). LPP is a typical linear graph-based dimensionality reduction (DR) method that has been successfully applied in many practical problems such as face recognition. LPP is essentially a linearized version of Laplacian Eigenmaps. When dealing with face recognition problems, LPP is preceded by a Principal Component Analysis (PCA) step in order to avoid possible singularities. Both PCA and LPP are computed by solving an eigen decomposition problem. In this paper, we propose a novel approach called "Selective Locality Preserving Projections" that performs an eigenvector selection associated with LPP. Consequently, the problem of dimension estimation for LPP is solved. Moreover, we propose a selective approach that performs eigenvector selection for the case where the mapped samples are formed by concatenating the output of PCA and LPP. We have tested our proposed approaches on several public face data sets. Experiments on ORL, UMIST, and YALE Face Databases show significant performance improvements in recognition over the classical LPP. The proposed approach lends itself nicely to many biometric applications.

Dornaika, F.; Assoum, A.

2011-01-01

346

Doushantuo embryos preserved inside diapause egg cysts.  

PubMed

Phosphatized microfossils in the Ediacaran (635-542 Myr ago) Doushantuo Formation, south China, have been interpreted as the embryos of early animals. Despite experimental demonstration that embryos can be preserved, microstructural evidence that the Doushantuo remains are embryonic and an unambiguous record of fossil embryos in Lower Cambrian rocks, questions about the phylogenetic relationships of these fossils remain. Most recently, some researchers have proposed that Doushantuo microfossils may be giant sulphur-oxidizing bacteria comparable to extant Thiomargarita sp. Here we report new observations that provide a test of the bacterial hypothesis. The discovery of embryo-like Doushantuo fossils inside large, highly ornamented organic vesicles (acritarchs) indicates that these organisms were eukaryotic, and most probably early cleavage stage embryos preserved within diapause egg cysts. Large acanthomorphic microfossils of the type observed to contain fossil embryos first appear in rocks just above a 632.5 +/- 0.5-Myr-old ash bed, suggesting that at least stem-group animals inhabited shallow seas in the immediate aftermath of global Neoproterozoic glaciation. PMID:17410174

Yin, Leiming; Zhu, Maoyan; Knoll, Andrew H; Yuan, Xunlai; Zhang, Junming; Hu, Jie

2007-04-01

347

Male fertility preservation before gonadotoxic therapies  

PubMed Central

Background: Recent advances in cancer therapy have resulted in an increased number of long-term cancer survivors. Unfortunately, aggressive chemotherapy, radiotherapy and preparative regimens for bone marrow transplantation can severely affect male germ cells, including spermatogonial stem cells (SSCs), and lead to permanent loss of fertility. Different options for fertility preservation are dependent on the pubertal state of the patient. Methods: Relevant studies were identified by an extensive Medline search of English and French language articles. Results: Sperm cryopreservation prior to gonadotoxic treatment is a well established method after puberty. In case of ejaculation failure by masturbation, assisted ejaculation methods or testicular tissue sampling should be considered. Although no effective gonadoprotective drug is yet available for in vivo spermatogonial stem cell (SSC) protection in humans, current evidence supports the feasibility of immature testicular tissue (ITT) cryopreservation. The different cryopreservation protocols and available fertility restoration options from frozen tissue, i.e. cell suspension transplantation, tissue grafting and in vitro maturation, are presented. Results obtained in humans are discussed in the light of lessons learned from animal studies. Conclusion: Advances in reproductive technology have made fertility preservation a real possibility in young patients whose gonadal function is threatened by gonadotoxic therapies. The putative indications for such techniques, as well as their limitations according to disease, are outlined. PMID:25302103

Wyns, C.

2010-01-01

348

Salient region preservation for image deformation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We present an interactive image deformation method which preserves the local shapes of salient objects in the concerned image during the deformation. The proposed method falls into the moving least squares (MLS) framework, but notably differs from the original MLS deformation method. First, a saliency-related distance is developed to replace the original Euclidean distance in the weight definition. Second, the original affine matrix is decomposed into a single rotation matrix and a symmetric matrix by using a singular value decomposition, then the free parameters of these matrices are interpolated according to the saliency information. Furthermore, for the line-based MLS deformation, the closed-form solution of weight cannot be found directly when using the proposed saliency-based distance. To address this problem, we propose a method using an exponential transformation to regulate the weight where the regulation factor is also correlated to saliency information. All these revisions lead a saliency-sensitive mapping which creates a deformation change in the nonvital parts of image while preserving the local shapes of salient parts. Experimental results show that the proposed deformation outperforms the original MLS deformation in terms of visual performance.

Zhang, Yong; Lai, Jianhuang; Yuen, Pong C.; Xie, Xiaohua

2014-11-01

349

Topology preserving thinning of cell complexes.  

PubMed

A topology preserving skeleton is a synthetic representation of an object that retains its topology and many of its significant morphological properties. The process of obtaining the skeleton, referred to as skeletonization or thinning, is a very active research area. It plays a central role in reducing the amount of information to be processed during image analysis and visualization, computer-aided diagnosis, or by pattern recognition algorithms. This paper introduces a novel topology preserving thinning algorithm, which removes simple cells-a generalization of simple points-of a given cell complex. The test for simple cells is based on acyclicity tables automatically produced in advance with homology computations. Using acyclicity tables render the implementation of thinning algorithms straightforward. Moreover, the fact that tables are automatically filled for all possible configurations allows to rigorously prove the generality of the algorithm and to obtain fool-proof implementations. The novel approach enables, for the first time, according to our knowledge, to thin a general unstructured simplicial complex. Acyclicity tables for cubical and simplicial complexes and an open source implementation of the thinning algorithm are provided as an additional material to allow their immediate use in the vast number of applications arising in medical imaging and beyond. PMID:25137728

Dlotko, Pawel; Specogna, Ruben

2014-10-01

350

Crusts: biological  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Biological soil crusts, a community of cyanobacteria, lichens, mosses, and fungi, are an essential part of dryland ecosystems. They are critical in the stabilization of soils, protecting them from wind and water erosion. Similarly, these soil surface communities also stabilized soils on early Earth, allowing vascular plants to establish. They contribute nitrogen and carbon to otherwise relatively infertile dryland soils, and have a strong influence on hydrologic cycles. Their presence can also influence vascular plant establishment and nutrition.

Belnap, Jayne

2013-01-01

351

Preservation Decisions: Terms and Conditions Apply Challenges, Misperceptions and Lessons Learned in Preservation Planning  

E-print Network

in Preservation Planning Christoph Becker Vienna University of Technology Vienna, Austria www with the evolving technology of the day. This article explores the decision space in digital preser- vation.ifs.tuwien.ac.at/~becker Andreas Rauber Vienna University of Technology Vienna, Austria www.ifs.tuwien.ac.at/~andi ABSTRACT

352

Systematic planning for digital preservation: evaluating potential strategies and building preservation plans  

Microsoft Academic Search

A number of approaches have been proposed for the problem of digital preservation, and the number of tools offering solutions is steadily increasing. However, the decision making procedures are still largely ad-hoc actions. Especially, the process of selecting the most suitable pres- ervation action tool as one of the key issues in preser- vation planning has not been sufficiently standardised

Christoph Becker; Hannes Kulovits; Mark Guttenbrunner; Stephan Strodl; Andreas Rauber; Hans Hofman

2009-01-01

353

Bomb Pulse Biology.  

PubMed

The past decade has seen an explosion in use of the (14)C bomb-pulse to do fundamental cell biology. Studies in the 1960's used decay counting to measure tissue turnover when the atmospheric (14)C/C concentration was changing rapidly. Today bulk tissue measurements are of marginal interest since most of the carbon in the tissue resides in proteins, lipids and carbohydrates that turn over rapidly. Specific cell types with specialized functions are the focus of cell turnover investigations. Tissue samples need to be fresh or frozen. Fixed or preserved samples contain petroleum-derived carbon that has not been successfully removed. Cell or nuclear surface markers are used to sort specific cell types, typically by fluorescence-activated cell sorting (FACS). Specific biomolecules need to be isolated with high purity and accelerator mass spectrometry (AMS) measurements must accommodate samples that generally contain less than 40 micrograms of carbon. Furthermore, all separations must not add carbon to the sample. Independent means such as UV absorbance must be used to confirm molecule purity. Approaches for separating specific proteins and DNA and combating contamination of undesired molecules are described. PMID:23359559

Sarachine Falso, Miranda J; Buchholz, Bruce A

2013-01-01

354

Participation in Investigational Fertility Preservation Research: A Feminist Research Ethics Approach  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a The goals and rhetoric of The Oncofertility Consortium (National Institutes of Health. NIH Roadmap for Medical Research. Funded\\u000a Research: Interdisciplinary Research, Interdisciplinary Research Consortium. http:\\/\\/nihroadmap.nih.gov\\/interdisciplinary\\/fundedresearch.asp.\\u000a Accessed August 25, 2009) are aimed toward preserving cancer patients reproductive choices and facilitating their reproductive\\u000a autonomy after cancer. While the end goals of oncofertility research are oriented toward safeguarding the possibility of biological\\u000a reproduction

Michelle L. McGowan

355

Preservation of fertility in nature and ART.  

PubMed

Individuals may regard reproduction as optional but sufficient number of them must be productive to perpetuate the species. The reproductive system is surprisingly vulnerable and depends, among other things, on a limited endowment of oocytes, controlled proliferation of spermatogonial stem cells and the genetic integrity of both. The developmental competence of oocytes and spermatogonial stem cells is maintained by evolved mechanisms for cellular detoxification and genomic stability, and excess or damaged cells are eliminated by apoptosis. Gonadal failure as a result of germ cell depletion can occur at any age, and from the effects of chemical cytotoxicity, disease and infection as well as genetic predisposition. Among extrinsic factors, alkylating agents and ionizing radiation are important causes of iatrogenic gonadal failure in young women and men. In animal models, there is evidence that hormonal manipulation, deletion of genes involved in apoptotic pathways and dietary manipulation can protect against natural and induced germ cell loss, but evidence in humans is absent or unclear. Assisted reproductive technologies (ARTs) provide an ensemble of strategies for preserving fertility in patients and commercially valuable or endangered species. Semen cryopreservation was the first technology for preserving male fertility, but this cannot serve prepubertal boys, for whom banking of testicular biopsies may provide a future option. In sterilized rodents, cryopreserved spermatogonial stem cells can recolonize seminiferous tubules and reinitiate spermatogenesis, and subcutaneous implantation of intact tubules can generate spermatozoa for fertilization in vitro by intracytoplasmic sperm injection. Transplantation of frozen-banked ovarian tissue is well-established for restoring cyclicity and fertility and is currently undergoing clinical evaluation for cancer patients. When restoration of natural fertility is unnecessary or reimplantation is unsafe, it is desirable to culture the germ cells from thawed tissue in vitro until they reach the stage at which they can be fertilized. Low temperature banking of immature germ cells is potentially very versatile, but storage of embryos and, to a lesser extent, mature oocytes is already practised in a number of species, including humans, and is likely to remain a mainstay for fertility preservation. PMID:11869181

Gosden, Roger; Nagano, Makoto

2002-01-01

356

Preserving Plutonium-244 as a National Asset  

SciTech Connect

Plutonium-244 (244 Pu) is an extremely rare and long-lived isotope of plutonium with a half-life of 80 million years. Measureable amounts of 244 Pu are found in neither reactor-grade nor weapons-grade plutonium. Production of this isotope requires a very high thermal flux to permit the two successive neutron captures that convert 242 Pu to 243 Pu to 244 Pu, particularly given the short (about 5 hour) half-life of 243 Pu. Such conditions simply do not exist in plutonium production processes. Therefore, 244 Pu is ideal for precise radiochemical analyses measuring plutonium material properties and isotopic concentrations in items containing plutonium. Isotope dilution mass spectrometry is about ten times more sensitive when using 244 Pu rather than 242 Pu for determining plutonium isotopic content. The isotope can also be irradiated in small quantities to produce superheavy elements. The majority of the existing global inventory of 244 Pu is contained in the outer housing of Mark-18A targets at the Savannah River Site (SRS). The total inventory is about 20 grams of 244 Pu in about 400 grams of plutonium distributed among the 65 targets. Currently, there are no specific plans to preserve these targets. Although the cost of separating and preserving this material would be considerable, it is trivial in comparison to new production costs. For all practical purposes, the material is irreplaceable, because new production would cost billions of dollars and require a series of irradiation and chemical separation cycles spanning up to 50 years. This paper will discuss a set of options for overcoming the significant challenges to preserve the 244 Pu as a National Asset: (1) the need to relocate the material from SRS in a timely manner, (2) the need to reduce the volume of material to the extent possible for storage, and (3) the need to establish an operational capability to enrich the 244 Pu in significant quantities. This paper suggests that if all the Mark-18A plutonium is separated, it would occupy a small volume and would be inexpensive to store while an enrichment capability is developed. Very small quantities could be enriched in existing mass separators to support critical needs.

Patton, Bradley D [ORNL; Alexander, Charles W [ORNL; Benker, Dennis [ORNL; Collins, Emory D [ORNL; Romano, Catherine E [ORNL; Wham, Robert M [ORNL

2011-01-01

357

CUSO workshop MANAGING ADAPTIVE GENETIC VARIATION IN CONSERVATION BIOLOGY  

E-print Network

CUSO workshop MANAGING ADAPTIVE GENETIC VARIATION IN CONSERVATION BIOLOGY La Fouly (VS 18:00 Arati Iyengar (Univ. Central Lancashire, UK) Remnants of ancient genetic diversity preserved breeding and reproductive success: A salmon genetics perspective 18:30 Break 19:00 Wines of the world

Alvarez, Nadir

358

Classical biological control for the protection of natural ecosystems  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

We review the contribution, at a world level, of classical biological control of invasive insects and plants to the preservation of wildlands, including their biodiversity, their natural resources, and the ecosystems services that they provide. We include both older projects with demonstrated benef...

359

RESEARCH Open Access Coupling groundwater modeling and biological  

E-print Network

RESEARCH Open Access Coupling groundwater modeling and biological indicators for identifying river,3 and Laurent Cadilhac4 Abstract Future climate changes and the resulting modifications in anthropogenic change, the preservation of water and the functions that are asso- ciated with groundwater/surface water

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

360

NEW SIGNIFICANCE FOR ANTARCTIC BIOLOGICAL COLLECTIONS AND TAXONOMIC RESEARCH  

Microsoft Academic Search

Collections of preserved terrestrial and freshwater plants and animals, made since the earliest expeditions to the Antarctic and sub-Antarctic, have been the basis of our understanding of the biological composition of individual areas as well as of ecosystems in general. Systematic studies of these collections have elucidated patterns of evolution, dispersal and community structure in these southern polar biomes. During

Shaun RUSSELL; R. I. Lewis SMITH

1993-01-01

361

Similarity-preserving Metrics for Aminoacid Sequences  

Microsoft Academic Search

Sequence alignments and sequence similarity scores derived from them are the most common tools for comparing amino acid and DNA sequences. Different scoring schemes, from simple +6\\/-1 to PAM and BLOSUM scoring matrices have been devised for highlighting particular biological or evolutionary properties of the sequences to compare. However, most methods of classical, as well as of non-parametrical statistics, including

Igor Fischer

362

Biological Sciences http://www.clas.wayne.edu/biology/  

E-print Network

Biological Sciences http://www.clas.wayne.edu/biology/ Divisions: Evolutionary and Organismal Biology Molecular Biology and Biotechnology Cellular, Developmental, and Neurobiology #12;Biological Sciences http://www.clas.wayne.edu/biology/ · Cell Biology and Cytogenetics (Beningo, Tucker, Greenberg

Berdichevsky, Victor

363

Cinelectures for Introductory Biology  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Cinelectures for Introductory Biology is a YouTube channel containing a series of online, cinematic lectures covering basic chemistry for biology, metabolism, cell biology, genetics, and molecular biology. Many of these cinelectures incorporate videos, illustrations, and animations.

Marcey, David

364

Fishery Biology Graduate Programs  

E-print Network

: Fisheries Biology, Marine Biology, Oceanography http://www.sfos.uaf.edu:8000/academicsFishery Biology Graduate Programs University of Alaska Fairbanks, Alaska 997750820 Program State University Fort Collins, Colorado 805230015 Programs: Fishery Biology http

365

Creating biological nanomaterials using synthetic biology  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Synthetic biology is a new discipline that combines science and engineering approaches to precisely control biological networks. These signaling networks are especially important in fields such as biomedicine and biochemical engineering. Additionally, biological networks can also be critical to the production of naturally occurring biological nanomaterials, and as a result, synthetic biology holds tremendous potential in creating new materials. This review introduces the field of synthetic biology, discusses how biological systems naturally produce materials, and then presents examples and strategies for incorporating synthetic biology approaches in the development of new materials. In particular, strategies for using synthetic biology to produce both organic and inorganic nanomaterials are discussed. Ultimately, synthetic biology holds the potential to dramatically impact biological materials science with significant potential applications in medical systems.

Rice, MaryJoe K.; Ruder, Warren C.

2014-02-01

366

Preserving Symmetry in Preconditioned Krylov Subspace Methods  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

We consider the problem of solving a linear system Ax = b when A is nearly symmetric and when the system is preconditioned by a symmetric positive definite matrix M. In the symmetric case, one can recover symmetry by using M-inner products in the conjugate gradient (CG) algorithm. This idea can also be used in the nonsymmetric case, and near symmetry can be preserved similarly. Like CG, the new algorithms are mathematically equivalent to split preconditioning, but do not require M to be factored. Better robustness in a specific sense can also be observed. When combined with truncated versions of iterative methods, tests show that this is more effective than the common practice of forfeiting near-symmetry altogether.

Chan, Tony F.; Chow, E.; Saad, Y.; Yeung, M. C.

1996-01-01

367

The Wisconsin Oneida Language Preservation Project  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Offered as part of the University of Wisconsin Digital Collections, the Wisconsin Oneida Language Preservation Project brings together original stories and curriculum with accompanying audio that teaches the Wisconsin Oneida language. Visitors can start by clicking on the About area to learn more about these unique items. The materials here are divided into curriculum levels (grades kindergarten through sixth) and include some songs as well. One unique feature happens to be the stories about Oneida culture collected as part of the Works Progress Administration project in the late 1930s and early 1940s. As this particular language is in steep decline, this project is an integral part of keeping these words, traditions, syntaxes, and so on alive for future generations.

2012-01-01

368

Noise in phase-preserving linear amplifiers  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The purpose of a phase-preserving linear amplifier is to make a small signal larger, so that it can be perceived by instruments incapable of resolving the original signal, while sacrificing as little as possible in signal-to-noise. Quantum mechanics limits how well this can be done: the noise added by the amplifier, referred to the input, must be at least half a quantum at the operating frequency. This well-known quantum limit only constrains the second moments of the added noise. Here we provide the quantum constraints on the entire distribution of added noise: any phasepreserving linear amplifier is equivalent to a parametric amplifier with a physical state ? for the ancillary mode; ? determines the properties of the added noise.

Pandey, Shashank; Jiang, Zhang; Combes, Joshua; Caves, Carlton M.

2014-12-01

369

The Star-Spangled Banner Preservation Project  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This recently expanded site from the Smithsonian National Museum of American History is intended to serve as "the most comprehensive on-line resource about the 186-year-old banner, which inspired the words to the National Anthem." The site offers a number of illustrated short essays, tracing the history of the flag and the national anthem and preservation efforts over the years. It also features several mysteries surrounding the flag that users can try to solve using primary sources and then read a historian's opinion. Educator information and teaching materials, and an online quiz round out the site. Users can browse the site's content via a menu on the left or access selected sections by scrolling over the flag on the main page.

370

Fertility preservation in young patients' with cancer.  

PubMed

Preservation of fertility is an important issue in the management of young cancer patients. Though embryo cryostorage is a well-established procedure, it can only be availed by couples. Recent studies have indicated increasing success rates with mature and immature oocyte cryopreservation. Cryostorage induces injuries on the human oocytes which can be minimized by slow freezing and vitrification. Selection of candiidates is crucial so that the most suitable technique can be offered without any delay in initiation of cancer therapy. Factors affecting suitability are age of patient, assessment of ovarian reserve, hormonal status and type and stage of neoplastic disease. Encouraging results have been obtained with oocyte in vitro maturation (IVM) followed by vitrification for cryostorage. Data on the use of vitrified eggs in routine in vitro fertilization (IVF) show that pregnancy rates can be comparable to those achieved with fresh oocytes. PMID:25540565

Dudani, Sharmila; Gupta, Apurva

2014-10-01

371

Fertility preservation in young patients with cancer  

PubMed Central

Preservation of fertility is an important issue in the management of young cancer patients. Though embryo cryostorage is a well-established procedure, it can only be availed by couples. Recent studies have indicated increasing success rates with mature and immature oocyte cryopreservation. Cryostorage induces injuries on the human oocytes which can be minimized by slow freezing and vitrification. Selection of candiidates is crucial so that the most suitable technique can be offered without any delay in initiation of cancer therapy. Factors affecting suitability are age of patient, assessment of ovarian reserve, hormonal status and type and stage of neoplastic disease. Encouraging results have been obtained with oocyte in vitro maturation (IVM) followed by vitrification for cryostorage. Data on the use of vitrified eggs in routine in vitro fertilization (IVF) show that pregnancy rates can be comparable to those achieved with fresh oocytes. PMID:25540565

Dudani, Sharmila; Gupta, Apurva

2014-01-01

372

Privacy-preserving Kruskal-Wallis test.  

PubMed

Statistical tests are powerful tools for data analysis. Kruskal-Wallis test is a non-parametric statistical test that evaluates whether two or more samples are drawn from the same distribution. It is commonly used in various areas. But sometimes, the use of the method is impeded by privacy issues raised in fields such as biomedical research and clinical data analysis because of the confidential information contained in the data. In this work, we give a privacy-preserving solution for the Kruskal-Wallis test which enables two or more parties to coordinately perform the test on the union of their data without compromising their data privacy. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first work that solves the privacy issues in the use of the Kruskal-Wallis test on distributed data. PMID:23871682

Guo, Suxin; Zhong, Sheng; Zhang, Aidong

2013-10-01

373

Memory preservation made prestigious but easy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Preserving memories combined with story-telling using either photo books for multiple images or high quality products such as one or a few images printed on canvas or images mounted on acryl to create high-quality wall decorations are gradually becoming more popular than classical 4*6 prints and classical silver halide posters. Digital printing via electro photography and ink jet is increasingly replacing classical silver halide technology as the dominant production technology for these kinds of products. Maintaining a consistent and comparable quality of output is becoming more challenging than using silver halide paper for both, prints and posters. This paper describes a unique approach of combining both desktop based software to initiate a compelling project and the use of online capabilities in order to finalize and optimize that project in an online environment in a community process. A comparison of the consumer behavior between online and desktop based solutions for generating photo books will be presented.

Fageth, Reiner; Debus, Christina; Sandhaus, Philipp

2011-01-01

374

Structure-preserving desynchronization of minority games  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Perfect synchronicity in N-player games is a useful theoretical dream, but communication delays are inevitable and may result in asynchronous interactions. Some systems such as financial markets are asynchronous by design, and yet most theoretical models assume perfectly synchronized actions. We propose a general method to transform standard models of adaptive agents into asynchronous systems while preserving their global structure under some conditions. Using the minority game as an example, we find that the phase and fluctuations structure of the standard game subsists even in maximally asynchronous deterministic case, but that it disappears if too much stochasticity is added to the temporal structure of interaction. Allowing for heterogeneous communication speeds and activity patterns gives rise to a new information ecology that we study in details. in here

Mosetti, G.; Challet, D.; Solomon, S.

2009-10-01

375

Biological ESTEEM  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Introducing students to different software packages and applications for use in biology and math courses can be quite a challenge. With that in mind, teachers in these areas will definitely appreciate this rather helpful site from the people at the Mathematical Sciences Digital Library. These particular simulations and tools draw heavily on Microsoft Excel, so users will need to make sure that they also have this program installed. Visitors can click on the "Resources By Category" to access modules that deal with chemical equations in biochemistry, protein analysis, biodiversity, and island biogeography. It is worth noting that other subjects are covered here, including genetics, epidemiology, and ecology.

Jungck, John R.

376

Muscle torque preservation and physical activity in individuals with stroke  

PubMed Central

Background A greater percent loss of concentric versus eccentric muscle torque (i.e., relative eccentric muscle torque preservation) has been reported in the paretic limb of individuals with stroke and has been attributed to hypertonia and/or co-contractions. Stroke provides a unique condition for examining mechanisms underlying eccentric muscle preservation because both limbs experience similar amounts of general physical activity, but the paretic side is impaired directly by the brain lesion. Purpose The purpose of this study was to determine 1) whether eccentric preservation also exists in the nonparetic limb and 2) the relationship of eccentric or concentric torque preservation with physical activity in stroke. We hypothesized that the nonparetic muscles would demonstrate eccentric muscle preservation, which would suggest that non-neural mechanisms may also contribute to its relative preservation. Methods Eighteen stroke and 18 healthy control subjects (age and sex matched) completed a physical activity questionnaire. Maximum voluntary concentric and eccentric joint torques of the ankle, knee and hip flexors and extensors were measured using an isokinetic dynamometer at 30/s for the paretic and nonparetic muscles. Relative concentric and eccentric peak torque preservation were expressed as a percentage of control subject torque. Results Relative eccentric torque was higher (more preserved) than relative concentric torque for paretic, as well as nonparetic muscles. Physical activity correlated with paretic (r=0.640, p=0.001) and nonparetic concentric torque preservation (r=0.508, p=0.009), but not with eccentric torque preservation for either leg. Conclusions The relative preservation of eccentric torque in the nonparetic muscles suggest a role of non-neural mechanisms and could also explain the preservation observed in other chronic health conditions. Loss of concentric, but not eccentric muscle torque was related to physical inactivity in stroke. PMID:19516167

Eng, Janice J.; Lomaglio, Melanie J.; MacIntyre, Donna L.

2011-01-01

377

On positivity preserving finite volume schemes for compressible Euler equations  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Positivity preserving property of first and higher order finite volume schemes for one and two dimensional compressible Euler equations of gas dynamics is considered. A general framework is established which shows the positivity of density and pressure whenever the underlying one dimensional first order building block based on exact or approximate Riemann solver and the reconstruction are both positivity preserving. Appropriate limitation to achieve high order positivity preserving reconstruction is described.

Perthame, Benoit; Shu, Chi-Wang

1993-01-01

378

Molecular preservation in Late Cretaceous sauropod dinosaur eggshells  

PubMed Central

Exceptionally preserved sauropod eggshells discovered in Upper Cretaceous (Campanian) deposits in Patagonia, Argentina, contain skeletal remains and soft tissues of embryonic Titanosaurid dinosaurs. To preserve these labile embryonic remains, the rate of mineral precipitation must have superseded post-mortem degradative processes, resulting in virtually instantaneous mineralization of soft tissues. If so, mineralization may also have been rapid enough to retain fragments of original biomolecules in these specimens. To investigate preservation of biomolecular compounds in these well-preserved sauropod dinosaur eggshells, we applied multiple analytical techniques. Results demonstrate organic compounds and antigenic structures similar to those found in extant eggshells. PMID:15888409

Schweitzer, M.H; Chiappe, L; Garrido, A.C; Lowenstein, J.M; Pincus, S.H

2005-01-01

379

How to preserve Frozen asparagus retains both color and  

E-print Network

, color, national origin, gender, gender identity, religion, age, height, weight, disability, political or bias against those not mentioned. This bulletin replaces WO1046 Food Preservation Series ­ Asparagus

380

Protecting endangered species under future climate change: From single-species preservation to an anticipatory policy approach  

SciTech Connect

Anthropogenic climate change presents a unique challenge for endangered species policy and an opportunity for policy makers to develop a more predictive and robust approach to preserving the nation`s biological resources. Biological and ecological reactions to shifting climate conditions and the potential feedbacks and synergistic effects of such changes may threaten the well-being of many species, particularly of those already in jeopardy of extinction. The United States Endangered Species Act of 1973 will fail to keep pace with increasing numbers of species needing protection as long as it remains focused on protecting species individually. The act must not be abandoned, however; it holds tremendous promise for preserving biological diversity through a more proactive, anticipatory perspective. The current Endangered Species Act should be reinforced and improved by better integration of scientific expertise into habitat and community preservation listing decisions and recovery plan development. Given the uncertainties surrounding long-term environmental consequences of human activities and resource use, a longer-term perspective must be integrated into all efforts to protect our biotic resources. 55 refs.

Bloomgarden, C.A. [Cornell Univ., Ithaca, NY (United States)

1995-09-01

381

Protecting endangered species under future climate change: From single-species preservation to an anticipatory policy approach  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Anthropogenic climate climate change presents a unique challenge for endangered species policy and an opportunity for policy makers to develop a more predictive and robust approach to preserving the nation's biological resources. Biological and ecological reactions to shifting climate conditions and the potential feedbacks and synergistic effects of such changes may threaten the well-being of many species, particularly of those already in jeopardy of extinction. The United States Endangered Species Act of 1973 will fail to keep pace with increasing numbers of species needing protection as long as it remains focused on protecting species individually. The act must not be abandoned, however; it holds tremendous promise for preserving biological diversity through a more proactive, anticipatory perspective. The current Endangered Species Act should be reinforced and improved by better integration of scientific expertise into habitat and community preservation listing decisions and recovery plan devlopment. Given the uncertainties surrounding long-term environmental consequences of human activities and resource use, a longer-term perspective must be integrated into all efforts to protect our biotic resources.

Bloomgarden, Carol A.

1995-09-01

382

Effects of benzalkonium chloride-preserved, polyquad-preserved, and sofZia-preserved topical glaucoma medications on human ocular epithelial cells.  

PubMed

INTRODUCTION|: To investigate potentially adverse effects of different topical glaucoma medications and preservatives on cultured ocular epithelial cells. METHODS|: Confluent cultures of human corneal (10.014 pRSV-T) and conjunctival cells (1-5c-4) were assayed with 100 ?L of different glaucoma medications for 25 minutes at 37C and 5% CO?. We also tested the preservative sofZia (Alcon Laboratories, Fort Worth, TX, USA), as well as a range of concentrations of the preservative benzalkonium chloride (BAK; 0.001% to 0.050%). Balanced salt solution was used as the "live" control and a solution containing 70% methanol and 0.2% saponin was used as a "dead" control. The LIVE/DEAD viability/cytotoxicity kit (Invitrogen, Carlsbad, CA, USA) was used to determine the percentage of dead and live cells via ethidium homodimer and calcein fluorescence, respectively. RESULTS|: The toxicity of the prostaglandin analogs latanoprost, tafluprost and travoprost preserved with BAK was similar to the toxicity observed in their respective BAK concentrations. The prostaglandin analog travoprost (0.004%) preserved with the oxidizing preservative sofZia had much greater corneal and conjunctival cell survival than travoprost preserved with BAK. Travoprost (0.004%) containing polyquad also performed statistically better than its BAK-preserved formulation. CONCLUSION|: Ocular surface side effects have previously been demonstrated with chronic, long-term exposure to intraocular pressure-lowering medications containing the common preservative BAK. BAK alone has significant in-vitro cytotoxicity to cultured ocular epithelial cells. Substitution of BAK with polyquad or sofZia resulted in significantly higher percentages of live conjunctival and corneal cells. Further studies are needed to understand the- clinical implications of these findings. PMID:20931366

Ammar, David A; Noecker, Robert J; Kahook, Malik Y

2010-11-01

383

Information and Knowledge in Biology  

PubMed Central

The second law of thermodynamics accounts for irreversibility of processes in the universe. As a statement about increasing disorder, it also plays a central role in creating order. Structuring is a way of how to increase the rate of dissipation of matter and energy. This is the reason why chemical reactions on Earth have produced a profusion of structures. Chemical structures with particularly high stability, maintained by continual dissipation, are designated, somewhat arbitrarily, as living systems. To preserve stability, organisms are unceasingly performing ontic work, assisted by epistemic work. Biological evolution is a progressing process of knowledge acquisition (cognition) and, correspondingly, of growth of complexity. The acquired knowledge represents epistemic complexity. Biological species are the main bookkeepers of acquired knowledge, with individual members of the species functioning as explorers of novelty. Science, a human species-specific mode of acquiring knowledge, abounds in metaphors no less than art. In the postgenomic era, the metaphor of information, along with the related metaphor of selfish genes, may need reconsideration and/or complementation. The world of great complexity, which is becoming the focus of studies of contemporary biology, may requiresimilarly as is the case of quantum physicsdescriptions based on the principle of complementarity. Embodied knowledge, molecular engine, ontic and epistemic work, and triggering may become parts of a new conceptual armory. PMID:19516970

2007-01-01

384

Simulating Biological and Non-Biological Motion  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

It is widely accepted that the brain processes biological and non-biological movements in distinct neural circuits. Biological motion, in contrast to non-biological motion, refers to active movements of living beings. Aim of our experiment was to investigate the mechanisms underlying mental simulation of these two movement types. Subjects had to

Bruzzo, Angela; Gesierich, Benno; Wohlschlager, Andreas

2008-01-01

385

BIOLOGY 3020.03 ADVANCED CELL BIOLOGY  

E-print Network

BIOLOGY 3020.03 ADVANCED CELL BIOLOGY COURSE INFORMATION Professor: Patrice Côté DALHOUSIE UNIVERSITY #12;BIOL 3020.03 Advanced Cell Biology Syllabus Page 2 Course description For a cell to function research papers, students must possess a fairly strong base in cell biology. Professor Patrice Côté, Ph

Adl, Sina

386

BIOLOGY 3020.03 ADVANCED CELL BIOLOGY  

E-print Network

BIOLOGY 3020.03 ADVANCED CELL BIOLOGY COURSE INFORMATION 2009 Professor: Patrice Côté DALHOUSIE UNIVERSITY #12;BIOL 3020.03 Advanced Cell Biology 2009 Syllabus Page 2 Course description For a cell original research papers, students must possess a fairly strong base in cell biology. Professor Patrice

Adl, Sina

387

BIOLOGY MINOR WORKSHEET REQUIRED BIOLOGY COURSES  

E-print Network

________ Ecology/Evolutionary Biology BIOL 346 Plant Geography 3 ________ BIOL 331 Marine Biology 3 ________ BIOL 404* Conservation Biology 5 ________ BIOL 4xx Epidemiology 3 ________ BIOL 415 Marine Ecology 3 ________ BIOL 435 Marine Conservation Biology 3 ________ BIOL 442* Marine Ecology Laboratory 2 ________ BIOL 443

388

The influence of vegetation cover on soil organic matter preservation in Antarctica during the Mesozoic  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A possible biological component of the explanation for the lack of substantial coal formation on Antarctica between the Late Jurassic and Late Cretaceous is hypothesised. Forcing a process-based terrestrial biogeochemistry model with climate model simulations for three successive intervals of the Mesozoic [Late Jurassic (150 Ma), mid-Cretaceous (100 Ma) and Late Cretaceous (65 Ma)], predicts the establishment of productive terrestrial ecosystems with substantial soil carbon pools throughout the land surface of Antarctica between 150 and 65 million years ago. Sensitivity analyses indicate the annual land surface hydrological budget of Antarctica 150-65 Ma was largely balanced due to the effects of canopy transpiration on soil moisture. Post-depositional erosion and tectonic setting must have played an important role in determining coal preservation on the continent. However, the model results indicate that an active vegetated land surface precluded the preservation of the substantial soil organic carbon inputs by minimising the potential for anaerobic preservation (i.e. water logging).

Beerling, D. J.

2000-01-01

389

Improving oral rehabilitation through the preservation of the tissues through alveolar preservation  

PubMed Central

When performing a tooth extraction, imminent collapse of the tissue by resorption and remodeling of the socket is a natural occurrence. The procedure for the preservation of the alveolar ridge has been widely described in the dental literatures and aims to maintain hard and soft tissues in the extraction site for optimal rehabilitation either with conventional fixed or removable prosthetics or implant-supported prosthesis. PMID:22977727

Kurtzman, Gregori Michael; Mahesh, Lanka

2012-01-01

390

High order parametrized maximum-principle-preserving and positivity-preserving WENO schemes on unstructured meshes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this paper, we generalize the maximum-principle-preserving (MPP) flux limiting technique developed by Xu (2013) [20] to a class of high order finite volume weighted essentially non-oscillatory (WENO) schemes for scalar conservation laws and the compressible Euler system on unstructured meshes in one and two dimensions. The key idea of this parameterized limiting technique is to limit the high order numerical flux with a first order flux which preserves the MPP or positivity-preserving (PP) property. The main purpose of this paper is to investigate the flux limiting approach with high order finite volume method on unstructured meshes which are often needed for solving some important problems on irregular domains. Truncation error analysis based on one-dimensional nonuniform meshes is presented to justify that the proposed MPP schemes can maintain third order accuracy in space and time. We also demonstrate through smooth test problems that the proposed third order MPP/PP WENO schemes coupled with a third order Runge-Kutta (RK) method attain the desired order of accuracy. Several test problems containing strong shocks and complex domain geometries are also presented to assess the performance of the schemes.

Christlieb, Andrew J.; Liu, Yuan; Tang, Qi; Xu, Zhengfu

2015-01-01

391

Factors influencing organic carbon preservation in marine sediments  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The organic matter that escapes decomposition is buried and preserved in marine sediments, with much debate as to whether the amount depends on bottom-water O2 concentration. One group argues that decomposition is more efficient with O2, and hence, organic carbon will be preferentially oxidized in its presence, and preserved in its absence. Another group argues that the kinetics of organic matter decomposition are similar in the presence and absence of O2, and there should be no influence of O2 on preservation. A compilation of carbon preservation shows that both groups are right, depending on the circumstances of deposition. At high rates of deposition, such as near continental margins, little difference in preservation is found with varying bottom-water O2. It is important that most carbon in these sediments decomposes by anaerobic pathways regardless of bottom-water O2. Hence, little influence of bottom-water O2 on preservation would, in fact, be expected. As sedimentation rate drops, sediments deposited under oxygenated bottom water become progressively more aerobic, while euxinic sediments remain anaerobic. Under these circumstances, the relative efficiencies of aerobic and anaerobic decomposition could affect preservation. Indeed, enhanced preservation is observed in low-O2 and euxinic environments. To explore in detail the factors contributing to this enhanced carbon preservation, aspects of the biochemistries of the aerobic and anaerobic process are reviewed. Other potential influences on preservation are also explored. Finally, a new model for organic carbon decomposition, the "pseudo-G" model, is developed. This model couples the degradation of refractory organic matter to the overall metabolic activity of the sediment, and has consequences for carbon preservation due to the mixing together of labile and refractory organic matter by bioturbation.

Canfield, D. E.

1994-01-01

392

Limitations of heart preservation by cold storage.  

PubMed

Clinical heart preservation is currently limited to only 4-6 hr, while the kidney, liver, and pancreas can tolerate 24-48 hr of cold ischemia. A fundamental difference between these organs is that the heart is contractile, containing large quantities of actin and myosin, and is susceptible to contracture-induced injury caused by energy deprivation. We have quantified and correlated the onset of contracture with levels of ATP and glycogen during cold storage in rabbit hearts flushed with UW solution, with and without 1 mM calcium (Ca), or 3 mM iodoacetate (IAA). A fluid-filled left ventricular balloon was used to generate pressure-volume curves (compliance) at 1, 6, 12, 18, and 24 hr of cold storage. Onset of contracture occurred in UW stored hearts at 18 hr, contracture in hearts exposed to Ca occurred between 6 and 12 hr. Compliance was significantly less in hearts exposed to Ca at 12, 18, and 24 hr (P less than .01) than in hearts without Ca. ATP levels were well maintained for up to 18 hr in the hearts preserved in UW solution (78%), but fell more rapidly in the presence of Ca at 12 hr (P less than .005), 18 hr (P less than .005), and 24 hr (P less than .05). In comparison, the ATP supply of the liver and kidney was exhausted by only 4 hr of cold storage. Onset of myocardial contracture correlated with a decrease in ATP to less than 80% of control, and contracture accelerated ATP decline 3-6-fold. IAA caused nearly complete myocardial contracture and ATP depletion within 2 hr. Isolated heart function was 77% and 73% at 6 and 12 hr of storage, but fell to 54% and 42% at 18 and 24 hr, respectively, coinciding with development of contracture. We conclude that ischemic contracture in this model is a major cause of myocardial damage during cold storage, and is accelerated by the presence of Ca. Other organs can be successfully stored despite exhaustion of ATP reserves. Thus successful cold-storage of the heart is highly ATP-dependent. Since cold storage inevitably leads to ATP depletion, extension of myocardial ischemic tolerance will depend on either reversible inhibition of ATP hydrolysis during storage, reversible uncoupling of contracture development from ATP depletion, or maintaining ATP production by continuous hypothermic perfusion. PMID:1738922

Stringham, J C; Southard, J H; Hegge, J; Triemstra, L; Fields, B L; Belzer, F O

1992-02-01

393

Knowledge Preservation for Design of Rocket Systems  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

An engineer at NASA Lewis RC presented a challenge to us at Southern University. Our response to that challenge, stated circa 1993, has evolved into the Knowledge Preservation Project which is here reported. The stated problem was to capture some of the knowledge of retiring NASA engineers and make it useful to younger engineers via computers. We evolved that initial challenge to this - design a system of tools such that, with this system, people might efficiently capture and make available via commonplace computers, deep knowledge of retiring NASA engineers. In the process of proving some of the concepts of this system, we would (and did) capture knowledge from some specific engineers and, so, meet the original challenge along the way to meeting the new. Some of the specific knowledge acquired, particularly that on the RL- 10 engine, was directly relevant to design of rocket engines. We considered and rejected some of the techniques popular in the days we began - specifically "expert systems" and "oral histories". We judged that these old methods had too high a cost per sentence preserved. That cost could be measured in hours of labor of a "knowledge professional". We did spend, particularly in the grant preceding this one, some time creating a couple of "concept maps", one of the latest ideas of the day, but judged this also to be costly in time of a specially trained knowledge-professional. We reasoned that the cost in specialized labor could be lowered if less time were spent being selective about sentences from the engineers and in crafting replacements for those sentences. The trade-off would seem to be that our set of sentences would be less dense in information, but we found a computer-based way around this seeming defect. Our plan, details of which we have been carrying out, was to find methods of extracting information from experts which would be capable of gaining cooperation, and interest, of senior engineers and using their time in a way they would find worthy (and, so, they would give more of their time and recruit time of other engineers as well). We studied these four ways of creating text: 1) the old way, via interviews and discussions - one of our team working with one expert, 2) a group-discussion led by one of the experts themselves and on a topic which inspires interaction of the experts, 3) a spoken dissertation by one expert practiced in giving talks, 4) expropriating, and modifying for our system, some existing reports (such as "oral histories" from the Smithsonian Institution).

Moreman, Douglas

2002-01-01

394

The forensiX Evidence Collection Tube and Its Impact on DNA Preservation and Recovery  

PubMed Central

Biological samples are vulnerable to degradation from the time they are collected until they are analysed at the laboratory. Biological contaminants, such as bacteria, fungi, and enzymes, as well as environmental factors, such as sunlight, heat, and humidity, can increase the rate of DNA degradation. Currently, DNA samples are normally dried or frozen to limit their degradation prior to their arrival at the laboratory. In this study, the effect of the sample drying rate on DNA preservation was investigated, as well as a comparison between drying and freezing methods. The drying performances of two commercially available DNA collection tools (swab and drying tube) with different drying rates were evaluated. The swabs were used to collect human saliva, placed into the drying tubes, and stored in a controlled environment at 25C and 60% relative humidity, or frozen at ?20C, for 2 weeks. Swabs that were stored in fast sample drying tubes yielded 95% recoverable DNA, whereas swabs stored in tubes with slower sample drying rates yielded only 12% recoverable DNA; saliva stored in a microtube at ?20C was used as a control. Thus, DNA sampling tools that offer rapid drying can significantly improve the preservation of DNA collected on a swab, increasing the quantity of DNA available for subsequent analysis. PMID:24288659

Garvin, Alex M.

2013-01-01

395

Switching patients from preserved prostaglandin-analog monotherapy to preservative-free tafluprost  

PubMed Central

Purpose: Efficacy, tolerability and safety of the novel preservative-free prostaglandin tafluprost 0.0015% were investigated for the treatment of patients with glaucoma or ocular hypertension in a clinical setting. Patients and methods: Data were collected in a non-interventional, prospective, multi-center, observational, open label study. 118 patients were treated with a prostaglandin analog (PGA) monotherapy (preserved formulations of latanoprost, travoprost or bimatoprost) prior to baseline. Intraocular pressure (IOP) readings were recorded for each eye at baseline (previous therapy), 46 weeks, and 12 weeks after changing medical treatment to preservative-free tafluprost once-daily. We analyzed the change in IOP over the study period for all patients as well as for a subgroup of patients with prior PGA monotherapy. Subjective symptoms and objective ocular signs were determined. Comfort was measured using a 4 step scale. All adverse events were recorded. Paired t-tests were conducted to compare IOP values at baseline to IOP values after treatment with tafluprost 0.0015%. Bowkers test of symmetry was used for statistical evaluation of changes of clinical signs (hyperemia). Results: In total 118 patients were eligible for evaluation. In these patients with prior PGA monotherapy (n = 118) IOP decreased significantly from 16.2 4.3 mm Hg (95% CI: 0.55) at treated baseline to 14.8 3.2 mm Hg (95% CI: 0.43; P < 0.001) at final visit on tafluprost. In a subset of patients with prior latanoprost monotherapy (n = 68) mean IOP at baseline (SD) was reduced from 16.2 4.6 mm Hg (95% CI: 0.77) 14.8 3.1 mm Hg at final visit (95% CI: 0.54, P < 0.001), in patients with prior travoprost monotherapy (n = 32) from 16.2 4.3 mm Hg (95% CI: 1.05) to 14.9 3.3 mm Hg (95% CI: 0.91; P < 0.05) and in patients with prior bimatoprost monotherapy (n = 18) from 16.4 3.5 mm Hg (95% CI: 1.14) to 15.0 3.3 mm Hg (95% CI: 1.14; P = 0.252). Both, objective clinical signs and subjective symptoms improved after changing medication to preservative-free tafluprost until final visit. The number of patients with moderate and severe hyperemia decreased from 51 (43.2%) at baseline to 2 (1.9%) at final visit. Conclusion: Preservative-free tafluprost 0.0015% was effective, well tolerated and safe. IOP was controlled effectively and ocular symptoms and clinical signs were improved after changing medication to a monotherapy with preservative-free tafluprost in patients previously treated with a preserved latanoprost, travoprost or bimatoprost monotherapy. PMID:21629567

Hommer, Anton; Kimmich, Friedemann

2011-01-01

396

A Condensation Approach to Privacy Preserving Data Mining  

Microsoft Academic Search

In recent years, privacy preserving data mining has become an important problem because of the large amount of personal data which is tracked by many business applications. In many cases, users are unwilling to provide personal information unless the privacy of sensitive information is guaranteed. In this paper, we propose a new framework for privacy preserving data mining of multi-dimensional

Charu C. Aggarwal; Philip S. Yu

2004-01-01

397

2012FallFoods&Nutritionand FoodsPreservationAdultVolunteer&  

E-print Network

, national origin, race, religion, sex, sexual orientation, or veteran's status. Oregon State University-737-1332 2012 4-H Foods & Nutrition and Food Preservation Volunteer Leader, Teen Leader, Judges, and Staff to become a 4-H food preservation judge I am a parent I am a 4-H agent I am a teen leader Other

Tullos, Desiree

398

Preservation of viable Francisella tularensis for forensic analysis  

SciTech Connect

As a preservation solution, (1%) ammonium chloride may be preferred over other conventionally used storage solutions because of its compatibility with analytical techniques such as Mass Spectrometry. In this study, ammonium chloride performed as well or better than phosphate buffered saline with Tween or Butterfields/Tween for preserving Francisella tularensis novicida.

Valentine, Nancy B.; Wunschel, Sharon C.; Valdez, Catherine O.; Kreuzer-Martin, Helen W.; Bartholomew, Rachel A.; Straub, Tim M.; Wahl, Karen L.

2011-01-01

399

On preserving passivity in sampled-data linear systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

Passivity is a well known phenomenon in several engineering areas. Due to its interesting properties, it is used in several areas of control engineering. Generally, this property is lost under direct discretization. In this work a new methodology which allows preserving continuous-time passivity is presented. This methodology is based on choosing a proper output, which preserves the passivity structure, while

Ramon Costa-Castello; Enric Fossas

2006-01-01

400

Sedimentary organic matter preservation: an assessment and speculative synthesis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Throughout Earth history, almost all preserved organic matter has been incorporated in marine sediments deposited under oxygenated waters along continental margins. Given modern oceanic productivity and sediment burial rates of 50 1015 and 0.16 1015 gC yr?1, respectively, organic preservation in the marine environment is < 0.5% efficient. Although correlative information is often used to suggest that productivity,

John I. Hedges; Richard G. Keil

1995-01-01

401

CONNECTING PRESERVATION PLANNING AND PLATO WITH DIGITAL REPOSITORY INTERFACES  

E-print Network

CONNECTING PRESERVATION PLANNING AND PLATO WITH DIGITAL REPOSITORY INTERFACES Steve Hitchcock and possibly complex approach, supported by the Plato preservation planning tool developed by the Planets Plato can be integrated with digital repository software, in this case EPrints, to enable this powerful

Southampton, University of

402

Fast Volume Preservation for Realistic Muscle Deformation Sunhwa Jung  

E-print Network

Fast Volume Preservation for Realistic Muscle Deformation Min Hong * Sunhwa Jung Min-Hyung Choi volume preservation is essential to achieve the realistic simulation of human muscle structure because approximately 75% of the human body is water and the overall volume is well maintained even during a large

Choi, Min-Hyung

403

Volume-preserving Mesh Skinning Wolfram von Funck1  

E-print Network

Volume-preserving Mesh Skinning Wolfram von Funck1 , Holger Theisel2 , Hans-Peter Seidel1 1 MPI,hpseidel}@mpi-inf.mpg.de, theisel@isg.cs.uni-magdeburg.de Abstract We present a straightforward, yet effective approach to volume-preserving mesh skinning. After each skinned mesh deformation, a volume correction is applied which moves

404

National Center for Preservation Technology and Training (NCPTT)  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The National Center for Preservation Technology and Training (NCPTT) site is designed for people interested in archeology, historic architecture, historic landscapes, materials conservation or history. It contains information about NCPTT programs; announcements of jobs, conferences, grants, and workshops; and a lot of links to other preservation-related Internet resources.

1998-01-01

405

Polyhedral simplification preserving character lines extracted from images  

Microsoft Academic Search

Visualisation, assembling\\/disassembling simulation, reverse engineering, or finite element analyses are so many applications where a polyhedral simplification can be mandatory. In most of the configurations, such an operation must preserve the significant shapes of the original model. This paper addresses the way these simplifications can be performed while preserving character lines, i.e. those lines which affect significantly the object visual

Minica Panchetti; Jean-philippe Pernot; Philippe Vron

2007-01-01

406

Alternative mounting media for preservation of some protozoa.  

PubMed

Protozoa resistant stages are disintegrated when mounted in toluene-based media. To overcome such problem, three toluene-free mountants were tested on preserve Acanthamoeba spp and gregarines. Two commercial glues based on cyanoacrylate or trimethoxysilane were suitable for preserving both cysts and trophozoites. Hoyer's medium showed good results for mounting gregarine oocysts. PMID:25091186

Criado-Fornelio, A; Heredero-Bermejo, I; Prez-Serrano, J

2014-10-01

407

Prioritizing farmland preservation cost- effectively for multiple objectives  

Microsoft Academic Search

American society derives many benefits from farmland and is often willing to pay to preserve it from urbanization. We present an innovative framework to support farmland preservation programs in prioritizing conservation investments. The framework considers the full range of social benefits of farmland and improves the application of decision analysis methods to the process. Key factors for ranking farms are:

E. A. Machado; D. M. Stoms; F. W. Davis; J. Kreitler

408

Fixed Space of Positive Trace-Preserving Super-Operators  

E-print Network

We examine the fixed space of positive trace-preserving super-operators. We describe a specific structure that this space must have and what the projection onto it must look like. We show how these results, in turn, lead to an alternative proof of the complete characterization of the fixed space of completely positive trace-preserving super-operators.

Ansis Rosmanis

2011-09-15

409

APPROACHES FOR REMEDIATION OF UNCONTROLLED WOOD PRESERVING SITES  

EPA Science Inventory

This document provides an overview of remediation of uncontrolled wood preserving sites. It is, in part, a distillation of discussions that took place at a Forum on Wood Preserving Waste that was held in San Francisco, California, in October 1988. Information from this workshop h...

410

BIOREMEDIATION FIELD INITIATIVE SITE PROFILE: ESCAMBIA WOOD PRESERVING SITE - BROOKHAVEN  

EPA Science Inventory

The Escambia Wood Preserving Site?Brookhaven in Brookhaven, Mississippi, is a former wood preserving facility that used pentachlo- rophenol (PCP) and creosote to treat wooden poles. The site contains two pressure treatment cylinders, a wastewater treatment system, five bulk pr...

411

Preserving Privacy and Fairness in Peer Data Management Systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

Peer Data Management Systems (PDMSs) promise to extend the classical data integration approach to the Internet scale. Unfortunately, some challenges remain before realizing this promise. One of the biggest challenges is preserving the privacy of the exchanged data while passing through several intermediate peers. Another challenge is protecting the mappings used for data translation. Achieving privacy preservation without being unfair

Hazen Elmeleegy; Ahmed Abusalah; Mourad Ouzzani; Ahmed K. Elmagarmid

2008-01-01

412

Forward to the Past: Historical Preservation in Globalizing Shanghai  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article examines the role of historical preservation in the spatial restructuring of postindustrial cities through a detailed case study of Xintiandi, a preservation-based redevelopment project in the inner city of Shanghai. At Xintiandi, two blocks of Shikumen houses, Shanghainese tenements built by Western landlords for Chinese tenants in the colonial period, were turned into a posh entertainment quarter by

2008-01-01

413

Preservation and Conservation Online Resources for Training and Research  

E-print Network

Preservation and Conservation Online Resources for Training and Research AIC ­ American Institute as well as online courses (we'll have more on this later) and publishes the Journal of the American activities of ALCTS relating to the preservation and reformatting of library materials in all types

Stowell, Michael

414

Preserving Our Wildlife Heritage: The Concerned Citizen is Essential  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Reviews conservationists efforts in preserving wildlife. Concern is expressed that current public attitude is waning and that unless all concerned citizens continue to work for conservation that present laws will not be adequate to preserve the environment and its wildlife. (SL)

Kimball, Thomas L.

1976-01-01

415

Preserving the Heritage of a Profession through Oral History Projects.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The legacy of reading professionals should be preserved through recollections, memories, or life stories of classroom reading teachers and university professors of reading education. The oral history project serves as the appropriate methodology for such an undertaking. The memories that comprise the human library, when preserved through oral

Stahl, Norman A.; King, James R.

416

Scalable RFID Systems: a Privacy-Preserving Protocol with  

E-print Network

1 Scalable RFID Systems: a Privacy-Preserving Protocol with Constant-Time Identification Basel.washington.edu Abstract. In RFID literature, most "privacy-preserving" protocols require the reader to search all tags approach to address time-complexity of private identification in large-scale RFID systems. We utilize

Poovendran, Radha

417

Object Video Streams: A Framework for Preserving Privacy in Video  

E-print Network

Object Video Streams: A Framework for Preserving Privacy in Video Surveillance Faisal Z. Qureshi Abstract Here we introduce a framework for preserving privacy in video surveil- lance. Raw video footage is decomposed into a background and one or more object- video streams. Such object-centric decomposition

Qureshi, Faisal Z.

418

Edge preserving reconstruction using adaptive smoothing in wavelet domain  

Microsoft Academic Search

An edge preserving image reconstruction approach for emission tomography is presented, in which the image x is modeled by a space-variant prior distribution P(x) based on anisotropic diffusion. By adaptively smoothing pixels in regions with small intensity fluctuations while preserving sharp edges, anisotropic diffusion works well in extracting boundaries for images which comprise smooth regions separated by discontinuities. This boundary

Zhenya Wu; Gabor T. Herman; J. A. Browne

1993-01-01

419

15 CFR 923.22 - Areas for preservation or restoration.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Areas for preservation or restoration. 923.22 Section 923.22 Commerce and Foreign Trade...Management Areas 923.22 Areas for preservation or restoration. The management program must include procedures...

2012-01-01

420

15 CFR 923.22 - Areas for preservation or restoration.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Areas for preservation or restoration. 923.22 Section 923.22 Commerce and Foreign Trade...Management Areas 923.22 Areas for preservation or restoration. The management program must include procedures...

2014-01-01

421

15 CFR 923.22 - Areas for preservation or restoration.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Areas for preservation or restoration. 923.22 Section 923.22 Commerce and Foreign Trade...Management Areas 923.22 Areas for preservation or restoration. The management program must include procedures...

2013-01-01

422

Dissertation Secure and Privacy-Preserving Distributed Data Release  

E-print Network

privacy, we introduce a few different strategies and an adaptive algorithm to select and run the most effiDissertation Defense Secure and Privacy-Preserving Distributed Data Release Slawomir Goryczka Emory- preserving data descriptions can be still used. It remains a challenge, however, to ensure that adapted

Garibaldi, Skip

423

Target-Based Maintenance of Privacy Preserving Association Rules  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In the context of association rule mining, the state-of-the-art in privacy preserving data mining provides solutions for categorical and Boolean association rules but not for quantitative association rules. This research fills this gap by describing a method based on discrete wavelet transform (DWT) to protect input data privacy while preserving

Ahluwalia, Madhu V.

2011-01-01

424

Preservativity logic An analogue of interpretability logic for constructive  

E-print Network

Preservativity logic An analogue of interpretability logic for constructive theories Rosalie Iemho for classical superarithmetical theories. We explain the connection between the princi- ples of this logic that the intuitionistic modal logic given by the preservativity principles of HA known so far, is complete with respect

Iemhoff, Rosalie

425

Media for preservative resistant yeasts: a collaborative study  

Microsoft Academic Search

An international collaborative study was carried out to determine the most effective medium for selective isolation and enumeration of preservative resistant yeasts. Such a medium should prevent the growth of other yeasts such as Saccharomyces cerevisiae that are tolerant to lower levels of commonly used food preservatives, and sensitive yeasts such as Rhodotomla species. The study compared two non-selective media

Ailsa D. Hocking

1996-01-01

426

Compressibility-Aware Media Retargeting With Structure Preserving  

Microsoft Academic Search

A number of algorithms have been proposed for in- telligent image\\/video retargeting with image content retained as much as possible. However, they usually suffer from some artifacts in the results, such as ridge or structure twist. In this paper, we present a structure-preserving media retargeting technique that preserves the content and image structure as best as possible. Dif- ferent from

Shu-Fan Wang; Shang-Hong Lai

2011-01-01

427

Edge-Preserving Laplacian Pyramid Stella X. Yu  

E-print Network

Edge-Preserving Laplacian Pyramid Stella X. Yu Computer Science Department Boston College, Chestnut, Nov 30 - Dec 2, 2009 The Laplacian pyramid recursively splits an image into lo- cal averages and local preserves the edge at a single scale as much as possible. We demonstrate that our average pyramid retains

Yu, Stella X.

428

Preservation and analysis of footprint evidence within the archaeological record: examples from Valsequillo and Cuatrocienegas, Mexico.  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Human footprints provide a direct record of human occupation and can be used to make a range of biometric inferences about the individuals which left them. In this paper we describe the application of three-dimensional optical laser scanning in the preservation and analysis both human and animal footprints. Optical laser scanning provides a digital elevation model of a print or surface with a vertical accuracy typically less than + 0.01 mm. Not only does this provide a procedure for recording fragile footprint evidence but allows digital measurements to be made. It is also possible to use the techniques developed for rapid proto-typing to recreate the print as solid models for visualisation. The role of optical laser scanning in the preservation of footprint evidence is explored with specific reference to the controversial footprints of the Valsequillo Basin in Central Mexico which may provide some of the earliest evidence of human colonization of the Americas. More importantly, digital footprint scans provide a basis for the numerical analysis of footprints allowing the tools of geometric morphometrics to be applied. These tools have been widely developed in the fields of biology and physical anthropology and used to explore the anatomical significance of shape. One key question that can be addressed using this approach is to develop a statistical approach to the objective recognition of a human footprint thereby helping to verify their interpretation and archaeological significance. Using footprint data from sites across the World a statistical model for the recognition of human footprints is presented and used to evaluate the controversial footprint site of Valsequillo, (Puebla State) preserved in volcanic ash and those in the Cuatrocienegas Basin, (Coahuila State) preserved in travertine.

Bennett, M.; Huddart, D.; Gonzalez, S.

2008-05-01

429

Sedimentary Parameters Controlling Occurrence and Preservation of Microbial Mats in Siliciclastic Depositional Systems  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Shallow-marine, siliciclastic depositional systems are governed by physical sedimentary processes. Mineral precipitation or penecontemporaneous cementation play minor roles. Today, coastal siliciclastic environments may be colonized by a variety of epibenthic, mat-forming cyanobacteria. Studies on microbial mats showed that they are not randomly distributed in modern tidal environments. Distribution and abundancy is mainly function of a particular sedimentary facies. Fine-grained sands composed of "clear" (translucent) quartz particles constitute preferred substrates for cyanobacteria. Mat-builders also favor sites characterized by moderate hydrodynamic flow regimes, which permit biomass enrichment and construction of mat fabrics without lethal burial of mat populations by fine sediments. A comparable facies relationship can be observed in ancient siliciclastic shelf successions from the terminal Neoproterozoic Nama Group, Namibia. Wrinkle structures that record microbial mats are present but sparsely distributed in mid- to inner shelf sandstones of the Nudaus Formation. The sporadic distribution of these structures reflects both the narrow ecological window that governs mat development and the distinctive taphonomic conditions needed to preserve the structures. These observations caution that statements about changing mat abundance across the Proterozoic-Cambrian boundary must be firmly rooted in paleoenvironmental and taphonomic analysis. Understanding the factors that influence the formation and preservation of microbial structures in siliciclastic regimes can facilitate exploration for biological signatures in Earth's oldest rocks. Moreover, insofar as these structures can be preserved on bedding surfaces and are not easily mimicked by physical processes, they constitute a set of biological markers that can be searched for on Mars by remotely controlled rovers.

Noffke, Nora; Knoll, Andrew H.

2001-01-01

430

The preservation of low emittance flat beams  

SciTech Connect

Many future linear collider designs require beams with very small transverse emittances and large emittance ratios {epsilon}{sub x} {much_gt} {epsilon}{sub y}. In this paper, we will discuss issues associated with the preservation of these small emittances during the acceleration of the beams. The primary sources of transverse emittance dilution in a high energy linear accelerator are the transverse wakefields, the dispersive errors, RF deflections, and betatron coupling. We will discuss the estimation of these effects and the calculation of tolerances that will limit the emittance dilution with a high degree of confidence. Since the six-dimensional emittance is conserved and only the projected emittances are increased, these dilutions can be corrected if the beam has not filamented (phase mixed). We discuss methods of correcting the dilutions and easing the tolerances with beam-based alignment and steering techniques, and non-local trajectory bumps. Finally, we discuss another important source of luminosity degradation, namely, pulse-to-pulse jitter.

Raubenheimer, T.O.

1993-04-01

431

Preserving SSC Design Function Using RCM Principles  

SciTech Connect

Reliability-Centered Maintenance (RCM) can be defined as an approach that employs preventive, predictive, proactive, and reactive maintenance practices and strategies in an integrated manner to increase the probability that a Structure, System, or Component (SSC) will function as designed over its life cycle with optimum maintenance. The goal of RCM is to preserve the SSC intended design function at the lowest cost by developing a maintenance strategy that is supported by sound technical and economic justification. RCM has been used extensively by the aircraft, space, defense, power generation, and manufacturing industries where functional failures of SSCs can have the potential to compromise worker or public safety, cause adverse environmental impact, cause loss of production, and/or result in excessive damage to critical SSCs. This paper provides a framework for performing an RCM analysis in support of DOE Order 430.1A (Life Cycle Asset Management) and DOE Order 420.1B (Facility Safety). The influence of RCM on the various aspects of the maintenance program including the work control process is also discussed.

Mohammadi, K

2009-02-04

432

Energy Preserved Sampling for Compressed Sensing MRI  

PubMed Central

The sampling patterns, cost functions, and reconstruction algorithms play important roles in optimizing compressed sensing magnetic resonance imaging (CS-MRI). Simple random sampling patterns did not take into account the energy distribution in k-space and resulted in suboptimal reconstruction of MR images. Therefore, a variety of variable density (VD) based samplings patterns had been developed. To further improve it, we propose a novel energy preserving sampling (ePRESS) method. Besides, we improve the cost function by introducing phase correction and region of support matrix, and we propose iterative thresholding algorithm (ITA) to solve the improved cost function. We evaluate the proposed ePRESS sampling method, improved cost function, and ITA reconstruction algorithm by 2D digital phantom and 2D in vivo MR brains of healthy volunteers. These assessments demonstrate that the proposed ePRESS method performs better than VD, POWER, and BKO; the improved cost function can achieve better reconstruction quality than conventional cost function; and the ITA is faster than SISTA and is competitive with FISTA in terms of computation time. PMID:24971155

Peterson, Bradley S.; Ji, Genlin; Dong, Zhengchao

2014-01-01

433

Edge and color preserving single image superresolution  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Most existing superresolution (SR) techniques focus primarily on improving the quality in the luminance component of SR images, while paying less attention to the chrominance component. We present an edge and color preserving image SR approach. First, for the luminance channel, a heavy-tailed gradient distribution of natural images is investigated as an image prior. Then, an efficient optimization algorithm is developed to recover the latent high-resolution (HR) luminance component. Second, for the chrominance channels, we propose a two-stage framework for luminance-guided chrominance SR. In the first stage, since most of the shape and structural information is contained in the luminance channel, a simple Markov random field formulation is introduced to search the optimal direction for color local interpolation guided by HR luminance components. To further improve the quality of the chrominance channels, in the second stage, a nonlocal auto regression model is utilized to refine the initial HR chrominance. Finally, we combine the SR reconstructed luminance components with the generated HR chrominance maps to get the final SR color image. Systematic experimental results demonstrated that our method outperforms some state-of-the-art methods in terms of the peak signal-to-noise ratio, structural similarity, feature similarity, and the mean color errors.

Tang, Songze; Xiao, Liang; Liu, Pengfei; Zhang, Jun; Huang, Lili

2014-05-01

434

A diffuse interface model with immiscibility preservation  

SciTech Connect

A new, simple, and computationally efficient interface capturing scheme based on a diffuse interface approach is presented for simulation of compressible multiphase flows. Multi-fluid interfaces are represented using field variables (interface functions) with associated transport equations that are augmented, with respect to an established formulation, to enforce a selected interface thickness. The resulting interface region can be set just thick enough to be resolved by the underlying mesh and numerical method, yet thin enough to provide an efficient model for dynamics of well-resolved scales. A key advance in the present method is that the interface regularization is asymptotically compatible with the thermodynamic mixture laws of the mixture model upon which it is constructed. It incorporates first-order pressure and velocity non-equilibrium effects while preserving interface conditions for equilibrium flows, even within the thin diffused mixture region. We first quantify the improved convergence of this formulation in some widely used one-dimensional configurations, then show that it enables fundamentally better simulations of bubble dynamics. Demonstrations include both a spherical-bubble collapse, which is shown to maintain excellent symmetry despite the Cartesian mesh, and a jetting bubble collapse adjacent a wall. Comparisons show that without the new formulation the jet is suppressed by numerical diffusion leading to qualitatively incorrect results.

Tiwari, Arpit, E-mail: atiwari2@illinois.edu [Department of Mechanical Science and Engineering, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, Urbana, IL 61801 (United States)] [Department of Mechanical Science and Engineering, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, Urbana, IL 61801 (United States); Freund, Jonathan B., E-mail: jbfreund@illinois.edu [Department of Mechanical Science and Engineering, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, Urbana, IL 61801 (United States); Department of Aerospace Engineering, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, Urbana, IL 61801 (United States); Pantano, Carlos [Department of Mechanical Science and Engineering, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, Urbana, IL 61801 (United States)] [Department of Mechanical Science and Engineering, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, Urbana, IL 61801 (United States)

2013-11-01

435

Biomass preservation in impact melt ejecta  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Meteorites can have played a role in the delivery of the building blocks of life to Earth only if organic compounds are able to survive the high pressures and temperatures of an impact event. Although experimental impact studies have reported the survival of organic compounds, there are uncertainties in scaling experimental conditions to those of a meteorite impact on Earth and organic matter has not been found in highly shocked impact materials in a natural setting. Impact glass linked to the 1.2-km-diameter Darwin crater in western Tasmania is strewn over an area exceeding 400km2 and is thought to have been ejected by a meteorite impact about 800kyr ago into terrain consisting of rainforest and swamp. Here we use pyrolysis-gas chromatography-mass spectrometry to show that biomarkers representative of plant species in the local ecosystem--including cellulose, lignin, aliphatic biopolymer and protein remnants--survived the Darwin impact. We find that inside the impact glass the organic components are trapped in porous carbon spheres. We propose that the organic material was captured within impact melt and preserved when the melt quenched to glass, preventing organic decomposition since the impact. We suggest that organic material can survive capture and transport in products of extreme impact processing, at least for a Darwin-sized impact event.

Howard, Kieren Torres; Bailey, Melanie J.; Berhanu, Deborah; Bland, Phil A.; Cressey, Gordon; Howard, Lauren E.; Jeynes, Chris; Matthewman, Richard; Martins, Zita; Sephton, Mark A.; Stolojan, Vlad; Verchovsky, Sasha

2013-12-01

436

Heart failure with preserved ejection fraction  

PubMed Central

Abstract Heart failure with preserved ejection fraction (HFpEF) has recently emerged as a major cause of cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. Contrary to initial beliefs, HFpEF is now known to be as common as heart failure with reduced ejection fraction (HFrEF) and carries an unacceptably high mortality rate. With a prevalence that has been steadily rising over the past two decades, it is very likely that HFpEF will represent the dominant heart failure phenotype over the coming few years. The scarcity of trials in this semi-discrete form of heart failure and lack of unified enrolment criteria in the studies conducted to date might have contributed to the current absence of specific therapies. Understanding the epidemiological, pathophysiological and molecular differences (and similarities) between these two forms of heart failure is cornerstone to the development of targeted therapies. Carefully designed studies that adhere to unified diagnostic criteria with the recruitment of appropriate controls and adoption of practical end-points are urgently needed to help identify effective treatment strategies.

ElGuindy, Ahmed; Yacoub, Magdi H

2012-01-01

437

Primordial lightning: Evidence preserved in chondrites  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

An increasing body of evidence suggests that transient heating events were important in forming or modifying many constituents of chondritic meteorites. For example, chondrule compositions and textures imply high cooling rates (approximately 5 to greater than 2000 C/hr) with only limited exposure to elevated temperatures (greater than 1200 C). Similarly, experimental studies of CAI's exhibiting igneous textures suggest cooling rates from 0.5 to 1000 C/hr, and thermal pulses as short as milliseconds may be responsible for CAI rim formation. Additionally, the spectrum of organic compounds observed in chondrites suggests that transient heating may also have played an important role in their formation. The exact nature of these transient events is less clear. A variety of mechanisms have been proposed (e.g., shock melting, drag heating, volcanism, electric discharges, and magnetic reconnection). However, a consensus is lacking as to which or what combination of these mechanisms was responsible for the range of features we observe in chondrites today. Much of the difficulty lies in the inability to identify features unique to any given process. Here we discuss electric discharges ('lightning') as a transient heat source and describe its unique signature preserved in chondrites.

Eisenhour, D.; Buseck, P. R.

1993-01-01

438

Preserving the Pyramid of STI Using Buckets  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The product of research projects is information. Through the life cycle of a project, information comes from many sources and takes many forms. Traditionally, this body of information is summarized in a formal publication, typically a journal article. While formal publications enjoy the benefits of peer review and technical editing, they are also often compromises in media format and length. As such, we consider a formal publication to represent an abstract to a larger body of work: a pyramid of scientific and technical information (STI). While this abstract may be sufficient for some applications, an in-depth use or analysis is likely to require the supporting layers from the pyramid. We have developed buckets to preserve this pyramid of STI. Buckets provide an archive- and protocol-independent container construct in which all related information objects can be logically grouped together, archived, and manipulated as a single object. Furthermore, buckets are active archival objects and can communicate with each other, people, or arbitrary network services. Buckets are an implementation of the Smart Object, Dumb Archive (SODA) DL model. In SODA, data objects are more important than the archives that hold them. Much of the functionality traditionally associated with archives is pushed down into the objects, such as enforcing terms and conditions, negotiating display, and content maintenance. In this paper, we discuss the motivation, design, and implication of bucket use in DLs with respect to grey literature.

Nelson, Michael L.; Maly, Kurt

2004-01-01

439

Working memory is partially preserved during sleep.  

PubMed

Although several cognitive processes, including speech processing, have been studied during sleep, working memory (WM) has never been explored up to now. Our study assessed the capacity of WM by testing speech perception when the level of background noise and the sentential semantic length (SSL) (amount of semantic information required to perceive the incongruence of a sentence) were modulated. Speech perception was explored with the N400 component of the event-related potentials recorded to sentence final words (50% semantically congruent with the sentence, 50% semantically incongruent). During sleep stage 2 and paradoxical sleep: (1) without noise, a larger N400 was observed for (short and long SSL) sentences ending with a semantically incongruent word compared to a congruent word (i.e. an N400 effect); (2) with moderate noise, the N400 effect (observed at wake with short and long SSL sentences) was attenuated for long SSL sentences. Our results suggest that WM for linguistic information is partially preserved during sleep with a smaller capacity compared to wake. PMID:23236418

Daltrozzo, Jrme; Claude, La; Tillmann, Barbara; Bastuji, Hlne; Perrin, Fabien

2012-01-01

440

Digital Data Preservation for Astronomy Journals  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Astronomers are producing and analyzing data at ever more prodigious rates. NASA's Great Observatories, ground-based national observatories, and major survey projects have archive and data distribution systems in place to manage their standard data products, and these are now interlinked through the protocols and metadata standards agreed upon in the Virtual Observatory. However, the digital data associated with peer-reviewed publications is only rarely archived. Most often, astronomers publish graphical representations of their data but not the data themselves. Other astronomers cannot readily inspect the data to either confirm the interpretation presented in a paper or extend the analysis. Highly processed data sets reside on departmental servers and the personal computers of astronomers, and may or may not be available a few years hence. We are investigating ways to preserve and curate the digital data associated with peer-reviewed journals in astronomy. The technology and standards of the VO provide one component of the necessary technology. A variety of underlying systems can be used to physically host a data repository, and indeed this repository need not be centralized. The repository, however, must be managed and data must be documented through high quality, curated metadata. Multiple access portals must be available: the original journal, the host data center, the Virtual Observatory, or any number of topically-oriented data services utilizing VO-standard access mechanisms.

Hanisch, R. J.

2006-08-01

441

Preserving & Serving 150 years of KNMI data  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Royal Netherlands Meteorological Institute (KNMI) has over 150 years of knowledge and gathered information related to weather, Climate and Seismology. A huge part of this information is from numerical models, insitu sensor networks and remote sensing satellites. This digital collection is mostly internal only available and is a collection of non searchable , non standardized file formats, lacking documentation and has no references to scientific publications. With the Dutch funded KNMI Data Centre (KDC) project we aim to tackle al these issues. In the project a user driven development approach with SCRUM is chosen to get maximum user involvement in a relative short development timeframe. Building on open standards and proven opensource technology (which includes in-house developed software like ADAGUC WMS and Portal) should result in a solid first release in 2012-Q3. This presentation will focus on the aspects of developing the KDC relating to its technical challenges, the human factor and the development strategy to come to a future-proof centre that will preserve our data en make it usable for the community.

van de Vegte, J.; Som de Cerff, W. J.

2012-04-01

442

Energy preserved sampling for compressed sensing MRI.  

PubMed

The sampling patterns, cost functions, and reconstruction algorithms play important roles in optimizing compressed sensing magnetic resonance imaging (CS-MRI). Simple random sampling patterns did not take into account the energy distribution in k-space and resulted in suboptimal reconstruction of MR images. Therefore, a variety of variable density (VD) based samplings patterns had been developed. To further improve it, we propose a novel energy preserving sampling (ePRESS) method. Besides, we improve the cost function by introducing phase correction and region of support matrix, and we propose iterative thresholding algorithm (ITA) to solve the improved cost function. We evaluate the proposed ePRESS sampling method, improved cost function, and ITA reconstruction algorithm by 2D digital phantom and 2D in vivo MR brains of healthy volunteers. These assessments demonstrate that the proposed ePRESS method performs better than VD, POWER, and BKO; the improved cost function can achieve better reconstruction quality than conventional cost function; and the ITA is faster than SISTA and is competitive with FISTA in terms of computation time. PMID:24971155

Zhang, Yudong; Peterson, Bradley S; Ji, Genlin; Dong, Zhengchao

2014-01-01

443

Fossil oak galls preserve ancient multitrophic interactions  

PubMed Central

Trace fossils of insect feeding have contributed substantially to our understanding of the evolution of insectplant interactions. The most complex phenotypes of herbivory are galls, whose diagnostic morphologies often allow the identification of the gall inducer. Although fossil insect-induced galls over 300?Myr old are known, most are two-dimensional impressions lacking adequate morphological detail either for the precise identification of the causer or for detection of the communities of specialist parasitoids and inquilines inhabiting modern plant galls. Here, we describe the first evidence for such multitrophic associations in Pleistocene fossil galls from the Eemian interglacial (130?000115?000 years ago) of The Netherlands. The exceptionally well-preserved fossils can be attributed to extant species of Andricus gallwasps (Hymenoptera: Cynipidae) galling oaks (Quercus), and provide the first fossil evidence of gall attack by herbivorous inquiline gallwasps. Furthermore, phylogenetic placement of one fossil in a lineage showing obligate host plant alternation implies the presence of a second oak species, Quercus cerris, currently unknown from Eemian fossils in northwestern Europe. This contrasts with the southern European native range of Q. cerris in the current interglacial and suggests that gallwasp invasions following human planting of Q. cerris in northern Europe may represent a return to preglacial distribution limits. PMID:18559323

Stone, Graham N; van der Ham, Raymond W.J.M; Brewer, Jan G

2008-01-01

444

Fossil oak galls preserve ancient multitrophic interactions.  

PubMed

Trace fossils of insect feeding have contributed substantially to our understanding of the evolution of insect-plant interactions. The most complex phenotypes of herbivory are galls, whose diagnostic morphologies often allow the identification of the gall inducer. Although fossil insect-induced galls over 300Myr old are known, most are two-dimensional impressions lacking adequate morphological detail either for the precise identification of the causer or for detection of the communities of specialist parasitoids and inquilines inhabiting modern plant galls. Here, we describe the first evidence for such multitrophic associations in Pleistocene fossil galls from the Eemian interglacial (130000-115000 years ago) of The Netherlands. The exceptionally well-preserved fossils can be attributed to extant species of Andricus gallwasps (Hymenoptera: Cynipidae) galling oaks (Quercus), and provide the first fossil evidence of gall attack by herbivorous inquiline gallwasps. Furthermore, phylogenetic placement of one fossil in a lineage showing obligate host plant alternation implies the presence of a second oak species, Quercus cerris, currently unknown from Eemian fossils in northwestern Europe. This contrasts with the southern European native range of Q. cerris in the current interglacial and suggests that gallwasp invasions following human planting of Q. cerris in northern Europe may represent a return to preglacial distribution limits. PMID:18559323

Stone, Graham N; van der Ham, Raymond W J M; Brewer, Jan G

2008-10-01

445

Heart failure with preserved ejection fraction.  

PubMed

Many patients with heart failure (HF) have a normal left ventricular ejection fraction, and are labelled as having HF with preserved left ventricular ejection fraction (HFPEF). Hypertension, atrial fibrillation and age are important contributors to the development of HFPEF and, therefore, its prevalence is likely to increase in the next few decades. The pathophysiology of HFPEF is heterogeneous but with a final common pathway leading to congestion. HF remains a clinical diagnosis but the plasma concentration of B-type natriuretic peptide (eg BNP/N-terminal prohormone BNP (NT-proBNP)), a marker of congestion, is an essential component. Imaging, usually by echocardiography, is required to determine the cardiac phenotype (ie valve disease, left ventricular ejection fraction) underlying HF. A superficially normal echocardiogram does not exclude a diagnosis of HF. No treatment has been shown conclusively to alter the prognosis of HFPEF. However, treatments directed at congestion and hypertension, such as diuretics, mineralocorticoid receptor antagonists (MRAs) and angiotensin converting-enzyme inhibitors, may improve symptoms and probably do improve outcomes. No treatment has yet been shown to reverse the underlying myocardial pathology of HFPEF, although there is some hope that MRAs might. PMID:25468914

Pellicori, Pierpaolo; Cleland, John Gf

2014-12-01

446

Preserving Ultra-Pure Uranium-233  

SciTech Connect

Uranium-233 ({sup 233}U) is a synthetic isotope of uranium formed under reactor conditions during neutron capture by natural thorium ({sup 232}Th). At high purities, this synthetic isotope serves as a crucial reference material for accurately quantifying and characterizing uranium-bearing materials assays and isotopic distributions for domestic and international nuclear safeguards. Separated, high purity {sup 233}U is stored in vaults at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL). These materials represent a broad spectrum of {sup 233}U from the standpoint of isotopic purity - the purest being crucial for precise analyses in safeguarding uranium. All {sup 233}U at ORNL is currently scheduled to be disposed of by down-blending with depleted uranium beginning in 2015. This will reduce safety concerns and security costs associated with storage. Down-blending this material will permanently destroy its potential value as a certified reference material for use in uranium analyses. Furthermore, no credible options exist for replacing {sup 233}U due to the lack of operating production capability and the high cost of restarting currently shut down capabilities. A study was commissioned to determine the need for preserving high-purity {sup 233}U. This study looked at the current supply and the historical and continuing domestic need for this crucial isotope. It examined the gap in supplies and uses to meet domestic needs and extrapolated them in the context of international safeguards and security activities - superimposed on the recognition that existing supplies are being depleted while candidate replacement material is being prepared for disposal. This study found that the total worldwide need by this projection is at least 850 g of certified {sup 233}U reference material over the next 50 years. This amount also includes a strategic reserve. To meet this need, 18 individual items totaling 959 g of {sup 233}U were identified as candidates for establishing a lasting supply of certified reference materials (CRM), all having an isotopic purity of at least 99.4% {sup 233}U and including materials up to 99.996% purity. Current plans include rescuing the purest {sup 233}U materials during a 3-year project beginning in FY 2012 in three phases involving preparations, handling preserved materials, and cleanup. The first year will involve preparations for handling the rescued material for sampling, analysis, distribution, and storage. Such preparations involve modifying or developing work control documents and physical preparations in the laboratory, which include preparing space for new material-handling equipment and procuring and (in some cases) refurbishing equipment needed for handling {sup 233}U or qualifying candidate CRM. Once preparations are complete, an evaluation of readiness will be conducted by independent reviewers to verify that the equipment, work controls, and personnel are ready for operations involving handling radioactive materials with nuclear criticality safety as well as radiological control requirements. The material-handling phase will begin in FY 2013 and be completed early in FY 2014, as currently scheduled. Material handling involves retrieving candidate CRM items from the ORNL storage facility and shipping them to another laboratory at ORNL; receiving and handling rescued items at the laboratory (including any needed initial processing, acquisition and analysis of samples from each item, and preparation for shipment); and shipping bulk material to destination labs or to a yet-to-be-designated storage location. There are seven groups of {sup 233}U identified for handling based on isotopic purity that require the utmost care to prevent cross-contamination. The last phase, cleanup, also will be completed in 2014. It involves cleaning and removing the equipment and material-handling boxes and characterizing, documenting, and disposing of waste. As part of initial planning, the cost of rescuing candidate {sup 233}U items was estimated roughly. The annualized costs were found to be $1,228K in FY 2012, $1,375K in FY 2013,

Krichinsky, Alan M [ORNL; Goldberg, Dr. Steven A. [DOE SC - Chicago Office; Hutcheon, Dr. Ian D. [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL)

2011-10-01

447

Preservation of adobe buildings. Study of materials  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Adobe buildings are common in the central region of Portugal due to the lack of natural stone in the surrounding area. This type of construction technique lasted until the 20th Century, at which time cementitious materials, with faster hardening and greater structural capacity substituted traditional materials and techniques. Currently, a significant percentage of these buildings is vacant and many are degraded and in need of conservation actions. Adobes from central Portugal are distinctive as they are lightly coloured and made from air lime and quarry sand. Although some adobes were manufactured locally, most were produced almost 'industrially' and sold to nearby regions. In order to preserve this heritage, conservation actions must be undertaken. So as to ensure the adequacy of these actions and compatibility between original materials and new ones, a thorough study of adobe compostion is mandatory. The current study is an initial step in the characterization of earth based construction materials from central Portugal. Adobe samples were collected from residential buildings in two different locations. The determination of the composition of adobe blocks encompassed the determination of the binder fraction and of their chemical composition and also the particle size analysis of the aggregate. For this purpose FRX analysis, acid dissolution and dry sieving were performed. Methylene blue test was also executed in order to determine the clay fraction. Additionally, the mineral composition of powder samples and oriented samples was performed using XRD analysis in order to determine the clay minerals present in the blocks. As adobe blocks are extremely prone to the action of water the Geelong test was undertaken in order to provide information in terms of durability. It was concluded that air lime was generally used in adobe compositions. However, the clay content varies in adobes from different regions, providing distinct durability characteristics to these materials.

Velosa, A.; Rocha, F.; Costa, C.; Varum, H.

2012-04-01

448

Preserving health in the Marcellus region.  

PubMed

Community health nurses (CHNs) have an opportunity and responsibility to address potential environmental health issues related to shale drilling, even in the face of scientific uncertainty. Potential health impacts to air and water quality related to shale drilling are addressed within the context of the CHNs role of educator, case finder, advocate and researcher. Since 2005, an estimated 5,500 unconventional natural gas wells have been drilled in Pennsylvania's Marcellus Shale (Pennsylvania Department of Environmental Protection [PA DEP], n.d.), resulting in tremendous controversy throughout the state regarding impacts to human health and the environment. Although there are numerous anecdotal reports of illnesses in humans and animals living in drilling areas, there is a notable lack of peer-reviewed research on the impacts. Research efforts are underway to study these issues, including a proposed retrospective study of hospital and clinic data by Geisinger Health System's Weis Center for Research (Begos, 2012). However, CHNs have the opportunity and the responsibility to help address potential environmental health issues related to shale drilling, even in the face of scientific uncertainty. This responsibility is highlighted by the American Nurses Association's (ANA) (2003, p. 2) adoption of the Precautionary Principle, which states that "when an activity raises threats of harm to human health or the environment, precautionary measures should be taken even if some cause and effect relationships are not fully established scientifically." CHN practice includes the promotion and preservation of health, and the prevention of disease, as well as assisting people in their response to illness (Maurer & Smith, 2009). In Pennsylvania's Marcellus Shale regions, CHNs must assume the critical nursing roles of educator, case finder, advocate and researcher when addressing the health needs in shale drilling communities. Unfortunately, CHNs practicing within these regions may feel unprepared to take on these roles related to unconventional gas extraction. The following discusses these CHN roles in the context of environmental health impacts of shale drilling on air and water quality. PMID:23155825

McDermott-Levy, Ruth; Kaktins, Nina

2012-09-01

449

Preservation versus non-preservation of mitral valve apparatus during mitral valve replacement: a meta-analysis of 3835 patients  

PubMed Central

Resection of the chordopapillary apparatus during mitral valve replacement has been associated with a negative impact on survival. Mitral valve replacement with the preservation of the mitral valve apparatus has been associated with better outcomes, but surgeons remain refractory to its use. To determine if there is any real difference in preservation vs non-preservation of mitral valve apparatus during mitral valve replacement in terms of outcomes, we performed a systematic review and meta-analysis using MEDLINE, EMBASE, CENTRAL/CCTR, SciELO, LILACS, Google Scholar and reference lists of relevant articles to search for clinical studies that compared outcomes (30-day mortality, postoperative low cardiac output syndrome or 5-year mortality) between preservation vs non-preservation during mitral valve replacement from 1966 to 2011. The principal summary measures were odds ratios (ORs) with 95% confidence interval and P-values (that will be considered statistically significant when <0.05). The ORs were combined across studies using a weighted DerSimonianLaird random-effects model. The meta-analysis was completed using the software Comprehensive Meta-Analysis version 2 (Biostat Inc., Englewood, NJ, USA). Twenty studies (3 randomized and 17 non-randomized) were identified and included a total of 3835 patients (1918 for mitral valve replacement preservation and 1917 for mitral valve replacement non-preservation). There was significant difference between mitral valve replacement preservation and mitral valve replacement non-preservation groups in the risk of 30-day mortality (OR 0.418, P<0.001), postoperative low cardiac output syndrome (OR 0.299, P<0.001) or 5-year mortality (OR 0.380, P<0.001). No publication bias or important heterogeneity of effects on any outcome was observed. In conclusion, we found evidence that argues in favour of the preservation of mitral valve apparatus during mitral valve replacement. PMID:23027596

S, Michel Pompeu Barros de Oliveira; Ferraz, Paulo Ernando; Escobar, Rodrigo Renda; Martins, Wendell Santos; de Arajo e S, Frederico Browne Correia; Lustosa, Pablo Csar; Vasconcelos, Frederico Pires; Lima, Ricardo Carvalho

2012-01-01

450

Clinical guide to fertility preservation in hematopoietic cell transplant recipients.  

PubMed

With broadening indications, more options for hematopoietic cell transplantation (HCT) and improvement in survival, the number of long-term HCT survivors is expected to increase steadily. Infertility is a frequent problem that long-term HCT survivors and their partners face and it can negatively impact on the quality of life. The most optimal time to address fertility issues is before the onset of therapy for the underlying disease; however, fertility preservation should also be addressed before HCT in all children and patients of reproductive age, with referral to a reproductive specialist for patients interested in fertility preservation. In vitro fertilization (IVF) and embryo cryopreservation, oocyte cryopreservation and ovarian tissue banking are acceptable methods for fertility preservation in adult women/pubertal females. Sperm banking is the preferred method for adult men/pubertal males. Frequent barriers to fertility preservation in HCT recipients may include the perception of lack of time to preserve fertility given an urgency to move ahead with transplant, lack of patient-physician discussion because of several factors (for example, time constraints, lack of knowledge), inadequate access to reproductive specialists, and costs and lack of insurance coverage for fertility preservation. There is a need to raise awareness in the medical community about fertility preservation in HCT recipients. PMID:24419521

Joshi, S; Savani, B N; Chow, E J; Gilleece, M H; Halter, J; Jacobsohn, D A; Pidala, J; Quinn, G P; Cahn, J-Y; Jakubowski, A A; Kamani, N R; Lazarus, H M; Rizzo, J D; Schouten, H C; Socie, G; Stratton, P; Sorror, M L; Warwick, A B; Wingard, J R; Loren, A W; Majhail, N S

2014-04-01

451

Current status of function-preserving surgery for gastric cancer  

PubMed Central

Recent advances in diagnostic techniques have allowed the diagnosis of gastric cancer (GC) at an early stage. Due to the low incidence of lymph node metastasis and favorable prognosis in early GC, function-preserving surgery which improves postoperative quality of life may be possible. Pylorus-preserving gastrectomy (PPG) is one such function-preserving procedure, which is expected to offer advantages with regards to dumping syndrome, bile reflux gastritis, and the frequency of flatus, although PPG may induce delayed gastric emptying. Proximal gastrectomy (PG) is another function-preserving procedure, which is thought to be advantageous in terms of decreased duodenogastric reflux and good food reservoir function in the remnant stomach, although the incidence of heartburn or gastric fullness associated with this procedure is high. However, these disadvantages may be overcome by the reconstruction method used. The other important problem after PG is remnant GC, which was reported to occur in approximately 5% of patients. Therefore, the reconstruction technique used with PG should facilitate postoperative endoscopic examinations for early detection and treatment of remnant gastric carcinoma. Oncologic safety seems to be assured in both procedures, if the preoperative diagnosis is accurate. Patient selection should be carefully considered. Although many retrospective studies have demonstrated the utility of function-preserving surgery, no consensus on whether to adopt function-preserving surgery as the standard of care has been reached. Further prospective randomized controlled trials are necessary to evaluate survival and postoperative quality of life associated with function-preserving surgery. PMID:25516640

Saito, Takuro; Kurokawa, Yukinori; Takiguchi, Shuji; Mori, Masaki; Doki, Yuichiro

2014-01-01

452

Hydrogen Supplementation of Preservation Solution Improves Viability of Osteochondral Grafts  

PubMed Central

Allogenic osteochondral tissue (OCT) is used for the treatment of large cartilage defects. Typically, OCTs collected during the disease-screening period are preserved at 4C; however, the gradual reduction in cell viability during cold preservation adversely affects transplantation outcomes. Therefore, improved storage methods that maintain the cell viability of OCTs are needed to increase the availability of high-quality OCTs and improve treatment outcomes. Here, we evaluated whether long-term hydrogen delivery to preservation solution improved the viability of rat OCTs during cold preservation. Hydrogen-supplemented Dulbecco's Modified Eagles Medium (DMEM) and University of Wisconsin (UW) solution both significantly improved the cell viability of OCTs during preservation at 4C for 21 days compared to nonsupplemented media. However, the long-term cold preservation of OCTs in DMEM containing hydrogen was associated with the most optimal maintenance of chondrocytes with respect to viability and morphology. Our findings demonstrate that OCTs preserved in DMEM supplemented with hydrogen are a promising material for the repair of large cartilage defects in the clinical setting. PMID:25506061

Yamada, Takuya; Onuma, Kenji; Kuzuno, Jun; Ujihira, Masanobu; Kurokawa, Ryosuke; Sakai, Rina; Takaso, Masashi

2014-01-01

453

Questions about Biological Parents  

MedlinePLUS

... About Biological Parents Family Life Listen Questions About Biological Parents Article Body As you raise your adopted ... to her lifethe fact that she has biological parents elsewherethat may make it necessary for ...

454

Journal of Theoretical Biology ] (  

E-print Network

The threat of biological warfare and the emergence of new infectious agents spreading at a global scale have The global health, threatened by emerging infectious diseases, pandemic influenza, and biological warfareJournal of Theoretical Biology ] (

Szolovits, Peter

455

Biological preservation of plant derived animal feed with antifungal microorganisms: safety and formulation aspects  

Microsoft Academic Search

During storage of moist animal feed, growth of detrimental fungi causing spoilage, or being mycotoxigenic or pathogenic, is\\u000a a severe problem. Addition of biopreservative yeasts or lactic acid bacteria can significantly reduce this problem. However,\\u000a their use requires several careful considerations. One is the safety to the animal, humans and the environment, tightly connected\\u000a to legal aspects and the need

Petter Melin; Ingvar Sundh; Sebastian Hkansson; Johan Schnrer

2007-01-01

456

Molecular mechanisms of tolerance in tardigrades: New perspectives for preservation and stabilization of biological material  

Microsoft Academic Search

Certain organisms found across a range of taxa, including bacteria, yeasts, plants and many invertebrates such as nematodes and tardigrades are able to survive almost complete loss of body water. The dry organisms may remain in this state, which is known as anhydrobiosis, for decades without apparent damage. When water again becomes available, they rapidly rehydrate and resume active life.

Ralph O. Schill; Brahim Mali; Thomas Dandekar; Martina Schnlzer; Dirk Reuter; Marcus Frohme

2009-01-01

457

Thanksgiving Biology  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The first Web site (1) is an article from State University of New York College of Environmental Sciences and Forestry. It provides a short, readable introduction to the biology and natural history of wild turkeys in the US. Wild or domesticated, turkey meat is well know for its soporific power. Visitors to the Web site from International Anti-aging Systems (2) can learn all about tryptophan, the amino acid responsible for the post-Thanksgiving dinner nap. Also found in turkey (but much less appealing) is the Salmonella bacteria, which can cause debilitating illness in humans. The third Web site (3), from Centers for Disease Control Division of Bacterial and Mycotic Diseases, offers a reliable source of information about salmonellosis. Environmental Health and Safety Online offers some facts and figures about contaminated turkeys, citing studies from the Center for Science in the Public Interest (4). The wild turkey would have become the national bird of the US if Benjamin Franklin had his way, but North America isn't the only continent that's home to wild turkeys. The fifth Web site (5) from the University of New South Wales introduces the Australian Brush Turkey. The cranberry, another Thanksgiving staple, is one of the few native fruits grown commercially in North America. The Cranberry Institute offers a brief introduction to the history, botany, and harvest of cranberries (6). The University of Illinois Extension provides an in-depth Web site devoted to nothing but pumpkins, including a recipe for Traditional Pumpkin Pie (7). The final Web site, from iVillage, clears up in a brief explanation the confusion about yams and sweet potatoes (8).

Sohmer, Rachel.

2002-01-01

458

Fossil preservation and the stratigraphic ranges of taxa  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The incompleteness of the fossil record hinders the inference of evolutionary rates and patterns. Here, we derive relationships among true taxonomic durations, preservation probability, and observed taxonomic ranges. We use these relationships to estimate original distributions of taxonomic durations, preservation probability, and completeness (proportion of taxa preserved), given only the observed ranges. No data on occurrences within the ranges of taxa are required. When preservation is random and the original distribution of durations is exponential, the inference of durations, preservability, and completeness is exact. However, reasonable approximations are possible given non-exponential duration distributions and temporal and taxonomic variation in preservability. Thus, the approaches we describe have great potential in studies of taphonomy, evolutionary rates and patterns, and genealogy. Analyses of Upper Cambrian-Lower Ordovician trilobite species, Paleozoic crinoid genera, Jurassic bivalve species, and Cenozoic mammal species yield the following results: (1) The preservation probability inferred from stratigraphic ranges alone agrees with that inferred from the analysis of stratigraphic gaps when data on the latter are available. (2) Whereas median durations based on simple tabulations of observed ranges are biased by stratigraphic resolution, our estimates of median duration, extinction rate, and completeness are not biased.(3) The shorter geologic ranges of mammalian species relative to those of bivalves cannot be attributed to a difference in preservation potential. However, we cannot rule out the contribution of taxonomic practice to this difference. (4) In the groups studied, completeness (proportion of species [trilobites, bivalves, mammals] or genera [crinoids] preserved) ranges from 60% to 90%. The higher estimates of completeness at smaller geographic scales support previous suggestions that the incompleteness of the fossil record reflects loss of fossiliferous rock more than failure of species to enter the fossil record in the first place.

Foote, M.; Raup, D. M.

1996-01-01

459

ROBOTICS AND BIOLOGY ROBOTICS AND BIOLOGY  

E-print Network

ROBOTICS AND BIOLOGY LABORATORY ROBOTICS AND BIOLOGY LABORATORY A Compliance-centric View of Grasping Clemens EPPNER Georg BARTELS Oliver BROCK TECHNICAL REPORT RBO-2012-01 of the Robotics and Biology robotic hand. We present a simple characterization of the relationship between hand com- pliance, object

460

Biological warfare agents.  

PubMed

Biological warfare agents are a group of pathogens and toxins of biological origin that can be potentially misused for military or criminal purposes. The present review attempts to summarize necessary knowledge about biological warfare agents. The historical aspects, examples of applications of these agents such as anthrax letters, biological weapons impact, a summary of biological warfare agents and epidemiology of infections are described. The last section tries to estimate future trends in research on biological warfare agents. PMID:20358696

Pohanka, Miroslav; Kuca, Kamil

2010-01-01

461

Volumepreserving Fields and Reeb Fields on 3manifolds  

Microsoft Academic Search

Volumepreserving field\\u000a X on a 3manifold is the one that satisfies L\\u000a \\u000a X\\u000a ? ? 0 for some\\u000a volume ?. The Reeb vector field of a contact form is of volumepreserving, but not conversely. On\\u000a the basis of GeigesGonzalos parallelization results, we obtain a volumepreserving sphere, which is\\u000a a triple of everywhere linearly independent vector fields such that all their

Hong Jun Li

2006-01-01

462

Male fertility preservation, where are we in 2014?  

PubMed

Male fertility preservation receives growing attention in the field of reproductive medicine. The first clinical programs were established to preserve reproductive potential in men needing gonadotoxic treatment. Sperm cryopreservation is now a standard procedure. Since a few years, several centres offer testicular tissue cryopreservation to prepubertal boys. This method is still experimental and further research is needed to implement the transplantation techniques in the clinic. With the aim to preserve or restore fertility in patients affected by other diseases (Klinefelter syndrome, Sertoli cell only syndrome), techniques for in vitro spermatogenesis are being developed. PMID:24793992

Goossens, Ellen; Tournaye, Herman

2014-05-01

463

Isothiazolinone preservative: cause of a continuing epidemic of cosmetic dermatitis.  

PubMed

A preservative system for cosmetics and toiletries containing as active ingredients a mixture of methylisothiazolinone and methylchloroisothiazolinone (1.5%) is an important cause of cosmetic allergy in many European countries. Most cases have been caused by products of the "leave-on" variety, such as moisturising creams. The use of isothiazolinone preservative in such products should be abandoned. More critical evaluation of its sensitising potential before marketing might have prevented the continuing epidemic of allergic cosmetic dermatitis due to this preservative. New chemicals should undergo extensive toxicological evaluation before their use in cosmetics is allowed. Ingredient labelling should be made a legal requirement. PMID:2563466

de Groot, A C; Herxheimer, A

1989-02-11

464

Wildlife resources in creating the new Alaskan Parks and preserves  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Legislation settling the Alaska Native Lands Claims also resulted in the establishment of ten new parks and preserves in Alaska. This settlement was the result of a long and often bitter legislative struggle between pro- and antidevelopment groups. The planning history of the Wrangell-St. Elias National Park and Preserve is used as a case example of this debate. One particular source of conflict was the curtailment of sport hunting that would result under national park classification. A preserve classification was introduced to resolve this conflict. Data on wildlife resources and sport hunting were instrumental in defining the areas so classified.

Wright, R. Gerald

1984-03-01

465

Scaling brain size, keeping timing: evolutionary preservation of brain rhythms.  

PubMed

Despite the several-thousand-fold increase of brain volume during the course of mammalian evolution, the hierarchy of brain oscillations remains remarkably preserved, allowing for multiple-time-scale communication within and across neuronal networks at approximately the same speed, irrespective of brain size. Deployment of large-diameter axons of long-range neurons could be a key factor in the preserved time management in growing brains. We discuss the consequences of such preserved network constellation in mental disease, drug discovery, and interventional therapies. PMID:24183025

Buzski, Gyrgy; Logothetis, Nikos; Singer, Wolf

2013-10-30

466

Effect of distance on the preservation value of water quality  

SciTech Connect

In the past dozen years, an extensive body of literature has developed on the willingness to pay for water quality, in particular, its recreation use and nonuse preservation values. This paper illustrates a procedure for estimating the effect of distance on the preservation value of environmental quality using the contingent valuation approach. The case considered is the potential degradation of water quality due to coal mining activity in the Flathead River drainage system, Montana. The analysis supports a negative association for this particular study area. The effect of distance on preservation value was considered both directly and indirectly through its effect on visits. 36 references, 2 tables.

Sutherland, R.J.; Walsh, R.G.

1985-08-01

467

Self-Renewal and Differentiation Capacity of Urine-Derived Stem Cells after Urine Preservation for 24 Hours  

PubMed Central

Despite successful approaches to preserve organs, tissues, and isolated cells, the maintenance of stem cell viability and function in body fluids during storage for cell distribution and transportation remains unexplored. The aim of this study was to characterize urine-derived stem cells (USCs) after optimal preservation of urine specimens for up to 24 hours. A total of 415 urine specimens were collected from 12 healthy men (age range 2054 years old). About 6104 cells shed off from the urinary tract system in 24 hours. At least 100 USC clones were obtained from the stored urine specimens after 24 hours and maintained similar biological features to fresh USCs. The stored USCs had a rice grain shape in primary culture, and expressed mesenchymal stem cell surface markers, high telomerase activity, and normal karyotypes. Importantly, the preserved cells retained bipotent differentiation capacity. Differentiated USCs expressed myogenic specific proteins and contractile function when exposed to myogenic differentiation medium, and they expressed urothelial cell-specific markers and barrier function when exposed to urothelial differentiation medium. These data demonstrated that up to 75% of fresh USCs can be safely persevered in urine for 24 hours and that these cells stored in urine retain their original stem cell properties, indicating that preserved USCs could be available for potential use in cell-based therapy or clinical diagnosis. PMID:23349776

Shi, Yingai; Bharadwaj, Shantaram; Leng, Xiaoyan; Zhou, Xiaobo; Liu, Hong; Atala, Anthony; Zhang, Yuanyuan

2013-01-01

468

Synthetic biology: a Jewish view.  

PubMed

The discipline of synthetic biology may be one of the most dramatic advances of the past few decades. It represents a radical upgrading of humankind's ability to manipulate the world in which we live. The potential for benefits to society is enormous, but the risks for deliberate abuse or dangerous miscalculations are no less great. There are serious ethical issues, legitimate concerns for biosafety, and fears of bioterrorism. The ethical dilemmas posed are new and challenging and are being addressed by various groups and commissions. The present paper presents a Jewish approach to some of the ethical issues posed by this new technology. Judaism traditionally looks favorably on man as a co-creator with God and encourages research for the benefit of humankind. Thus it would have a positive attitude towards the current goals of synthetic biology. But in the Jewish tradition man is also charged with stewardship over nature and is admonished to preserve and nurture, not just to exploit and destroy. In line with the Presidential Commission on Bioethics, it would support a carefully weighed balance between the precautionary and the "proactionary" approaches. PMID:23502565

Glick, Shimon

2012-01-01

469

75 FR 62108 - Certain Preserved Mushrooms From the People's Republic of China: Notice of Initiation of...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...Administration [A-570-851] Certain Preserved Mushrooms From the People's Republic of China...antidumping duty order on certain preserved mushrooms from the People's Republic of China...Antidumping Duty Order: Certain Preserved Mushrooms From the People's Republic of...

2010-10-07

470

77 FR 22800 - Wilderness Eligibility Reclassifications, Wrangell-St. Elias National Park and Preserve  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...Eligibility Reclassifications, Wrangell-St. Elias National Park and Preserve AGENCY: National...Eligibility Reclassification, Wrangell-St. Elias National Park and Preserve...SUMMARY: Wrangell-St. Elias National Park and Preserve has...

2012-04-17

471

46 CFR 160.055-5 - Construction-standard life preservers.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-10-01 false Construction-standard life preservers. 160.055-5 Section...SPECIFICATIONS AND APPROVAL LIFESAVING EQUIPMENT Life Preservers, Unicellular Plastic Foam...160.055-5 Constructionstandard life preservers. (a) General. This...

2011-10-01

472

46 CFR 160.055-6 - Construction-nonstandard, life preservers.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

... false Construction-nonstandard, life preservers. 160.055-6 Section...SPECIFICATIONS AND APPROVAL LIFESAVING EQUIPMENT Life Preservers, Unicellular Plastic Foam...055-6 Constructionnonstandard, life preservers. (a) General. The...

2010-10-01

473

46 CFR 160.055-9 - Procedure for approval-standard and nonstandard life preservers.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...Procedure for approval-standard and nonstandard life preservers. 160.055-9 Section...SPECIFICATIONS AND APPROVAL LIFESAVING EQUIPMENT Life Preservers, Unicellular Plastic Foam...for approvalstandard and nonstandard life preservers. (a) General....

2013-10-01

474

46 CFR 25.25-5 - Life preservers and other lifesaving equipment required.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Life preservers and other lifesaving equipment...SECURITY UNINSPECTED VESSELS REQUIREMENTS Life Preservers and Other Lifesaving Equipment 25.25-5 Life preservers and other lifesaving...

2012-10-01

475

46 CFR 25.25-5 - Life preservers and other lifesaving equipment required.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Life preservers and other lifesaving equipment...SECURITY UNINSPECTED VESSELS REQUIREMENTS Life Preservers and Other Lifesaving Equipment 25.25-5 Life preservers and other lifesaving...

2010-10-01

476

46 CFR 160.055-5 - Construction-standard life preservers.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...2014-10-01 false Construction-standard life preservers. 160.055-5 Section...SPECIFICATIONS AND APPROVAL LIFESAVING EQUIPMENT Life Preservers, Unicellular Plastic Foam...160.055-5 Constructionstandard life preservers. (a) General. This...

2014-10-01

477

46 CFR 160.055-5 - Construction-standard life preservers.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-10-01 false Construction-standard life preservers. 160.055-5 Section...SPECIFICATIONS AND APPROVAL LIFESAVING EQUIPMENT Life Preservers, Unicellular Plastic Foam...160.055-5 Constructionstandard life preservers. (a) General. This...

2010-10-01

478

46 CFR 160.001-2 - General characteristics of life preservers.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...2014-10-01 false General characteristics of life preservers. 160.001-2 Section...SPECIFICATIONS AND APPROVAL LIFESAVING EQUIPMENT Life Preservers, General 160.001-2 General characteristics of life preservers. (a) A life...

2014-10-01

479

46 CFR 160.055-5 - Construction-standard life preservers.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-10-01 false Construction-standard life preservers. 160.055-5 Section...SPECIFICATIONS AND APPROVAL LIFESAVING EQUIPMENT Life Preservers, Unicellular Plastic Foam...160.055-5 Constructionstandard life preservers. (a) General. This...

2013-10-01

480

46 CFR 160.055-5 - Construction-standard life preservers.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-10-01 false Construction-standard life preservers. 160.055-5 Section...SPECIFICATIONS AND APPROVAL LIFESAVING EQUIPMENT Life Preservers, Unicellular Plastic Foam...160.055-5 Constructionstandard life preservers. (a) General. This...

2012-10-01

481

46 CFR 160.001-2 - General characteristics of life preservers.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-10-01 false General characteristics of life preservers. 160.001-2 Section...SPECIFICATIONS AND APPROVAL LIFESAVING EQUIPMENT Life Preservers, General 160.001-2 General characteristics of life preservers. (a) A life...

2013-10-01

482

46 CFR 160.055-9 - Procedure for approval-standard and nonstandard life preservers.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...Procedure for approval-standard and nonstandard life preservers. 160.055-9 Section...SPECIFICATIONS AND APPROVAL LIFESAVING EQUIPMENT Life Preservers, Unicellular Plastic Foam...for approvalstandard and nonstandard life preservers. (a) General....

2010-10-01

483

46 CFR 160.055-3 - Materials-standard life preservers.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-10-01 false Materials-standard life preservers. 160.055-3 Section...SPECIFICATIONS AND APPROVAL LIFESAVING EQUIPMENT Life Preservers, Unicellular Plastic Foam... 160.055-3 Materialsstandard life preservers. (a) General. All...

2012-10-01

484

46 CFR 160.055-4 - Materials-nonstandard life preservers.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-10-01 false Materials-nonstandard life preservers. 160.055-4 Section...SPECIFICATIONS AND APPROVAL LIFESAVING EQUIPMENT Life Preservers, Unicellular Plastic Foam...160.055-4 Materialsnonstandard life preservers. All materials used in...

2013-10-01

485

46 CFR 160.055-4 - Materials-nonstandard life preservers.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-10-01 false Materials-nonstandard life preservers. 160.055-4 Section...SPECIFICATIONS AND APPROVAL LIFESAVING EQUIPMENT Life Preservers, Unicellular Plastic Foam...160.055-4 Materialsnonstandard life preservers. All materials used in...

2010-10-01

486

46 CFR 160.055-3 - Materials-standard life preservers.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-10-01 false Materials-standard life preservers. 160.055-3 Section...SPECIFICATIONS AND APPROVAL LIFESAVING EQUIPMENT Life Preservers, Unicellular Plastic Foam... 160.055-3 Materialsstandard life preservers. (a) General. All...

2011-10-01

487

46 CFR 160.055-3 - Materials-standard life preservers.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-10-01 false Materials-standard life preservers. 160.055-3 Section...SPECIFICATIONS AND APPROVAL LIFESAVING EQUIPMENT Life Preservers, Unicellular Plastic Foam... 160.055-3 Materialsstandard life preservers. (a) General. All...

2013-10-01

488

46 CFR 25.25-5 - Life preservers and other lifesaving equipment required.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Life preservers and other lifesaving equipment...SECURITY UNINSPECTED VESSELS REQUIREMENTS Life Preservers and Other Lifesaving Equipment 25.25-5 Life preservers and other lifesaving...

2013-10-01

489

46 CFR 160.001-2 - General characteristics of life preservers.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-10-01 false General characteristics of life preservers. 160.001-2 Section...SPECIFICATIONS AND APPROVAL LIFESAVING EQUIPMENT Life Preservers, General 160.001-2 General characteristics of life preservers. (a) A life...

2012-10-01

490

46 CFR 160.055-6 - Construction-nonstandard, life preservers.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

... false Construction-nonstandard, life preservers. 160.055-6 Section...SPECIFICATIONS AND APPROVAL LIFESAVING EQUIPMENT Life Preservers, Unicellular Plastic Foam...055-6 Constructionnonstandard, life preservers. (a) General. The...

2013-10-01

491

46 CFR 160.055-4 - Materials-nonstandard life preservers.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-10-01 false Materials-nonstandard life preservers. 160.055-4 Section...SPECIFICATIONS AND APPROVAL LIFESAVING EQUIPMENT Life Preservers, Unicellular Plastic Foam...160.055-4 Materialsnonstandard life preservers. All materials used in...

2011-10-01

492

46 CFR 160.055-4 - Materials-nonstandard life preservers.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...2014-10-01 false Materials-nonstandard life preservers. 160.055-4 Section...SPECIFICATIONS AND APPROVAL LIFESAVING EQUIPMENT Life Preservers, Unicellular Plastic Foam...160.055-4 Materialsnonstandard life preservers. All materials used in...

2014-10-01

493

46 CFR 160.055-6 - Construction-nonstandard, life preservers.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

... false Construction-nonstandard, life preservers. 160.055-6 Section...SPECIFICATIONS AND APPROVAL LIFESAVING EQUIPMENT Life Preservers, Unicellular Plastic Foam...055-6 Constructionnonstandard, life preservers. (a) General. The...

2011-10-01

494

46 CFR 160.055-6 - Construction-nonstandard, life preservers.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

... false Construction-nonstandard, life preservers. 160.055-6 Section...SPECIFICATIONS AND APPROVAL LIFESAVING EQUIPMENT Life Preservers, Unicellular Plastic Foam...055-6 Constructionnonstandard, life preservers. (a) General. The...

2012-10-01

495

46 CFR 25.25-5 - Life preservers and other lifesaving equipment required.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Life preservers and other lifesaving equipment...SECURITY UNINSPECTED VESSELS REQUIREMENTS Life Preservers and Other Lifesaving Equipment 25.25-5 Life preservers and other lifesaving...

2011-10-01

496

46 CFR 160.055-6 - Construction-nonstandard, life preservers.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

... false Construction-nonstandard, life preservers. 160.055-6 Section...SPECIFICATIONS AND APPROVAL LIFESAVING EQUIPMENT Life Preservers, Unicellular Plastic Foam...055-6 Constructionnonstandard, life preservers. (a) General. The...

2014-10-01

497

46 CFR 160.055-3 - Materials-standard life preservers.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...2014-10-01 false Materials-standard life preservers. 160.055-3 Section...SPECIFICATIONS AND APPROVAL LIFESAVING EQUIPMENT Life Preservers, Unicellular Plastic Foam... 160.055-3 Materialsstandard life preservers. (a) General. All...

2014-10-01

498

46 CFR 160.055-9 - Procedure for approval-standard and nonstandard life preservers.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...Procedure for approval-standard and nonstandard life preservers. 160.055-9 Section...SPECIFICATIONS AND APPROVAL LIFESAVING EQUIPMENT Life Preservers, Unicellular Plastic Foam...for approvalstandard and nonstandard life preservers. (a) General....

2012-10-01

499

46 CFR 160.055-4 - Materials-nonstandard life preservers.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-10-01 false Materials-nonstandard life preservers. 160.055-4 Section...SPECIFICATIONS AND APPROVAL LIFESAVING EQUIPMENT Life Preservers, Unicellular Plastic Foam...160.055-4 Materialsnonstandard life preservers. All materials used in...

2012-10-01

500

46 CFR 160.055-9 - Procedure for approval-standard and nonstandard life preservers.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...Procedure for approval-standard and nonstandard life preservers. 160.055-9 Section...SPECIFICATIONS AND APPROVAL LIFESAVING EQUIPMENT Life Preservers, Unicellular Plastic Foam...for approvalstandard and nonstandard life preservers. (a) General....

2011-10-01