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1

Preservation of Liquid Biological Samples  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The present invention related to the preservation of a liquid biological sample. The biological sample is exposed to a preservative containing at least about 0.15 g of sodium benzoate and at least about 0.025 g of citric acid per 100 ml of sample. The biological sample may be collected in a vessel or an absorbent mass. The biological sample may also be exposed to a substrate and/or a vehicle.

Putcha, Lakshmi (Inventor); Nimmagudda, Ramalingeshwara (Inventor)

2004-01-01

2

Preservation of Liquid Biological Samples  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The present invention provides a method of preserving a liquid biological sample, comprising the step of: contacting said liquid biological sample with a preservative comprising, sodium benzoate in an amount of at least about 0.15% of the sample (weight/volume) and citric acid in an amount of at least about 0.025% of the sample (weight/volume).

Putcha, Lakshmi (Inventor); Nimmagudda, Ramalingeshwara R. (Inventor)

2000-01-01

3

Survey of techniques used to preserve biological materials  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The techniques used to preserve biological materials are documented and summarized. The report is presented in a handbook format that categorizes the most important preservation techniques available, and includes a representative sampling of the thousands of applications of these techniques to biological materials and organisms. Details of the information coverage and method of approach are outlined. Data are given in tabular form, and an index and extensive bibliography are included.

Feinler, E. J.; Hubbard, R. W.

1972-01-01

4

28 CFR 28.22 - The requirement to preserve biological evidence.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...The requirement to preserve biological evidence. 28.22 Section 28.22 Judicial Administration DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE DNA IDENTIFICATION SYSTEM Preservation of Biological Evidence § 28.22 The requirement to preserve biological...

2013-07-01

5

Postextraction Alveolar Ridge Preservation: Biological Basis and Treatments  

PubMed Central

Following tooth extraction, the alveolar ridge undergoes an inevitable remodeling process that influences implant therapy of the edentulous area. Socket grafting is a commonly adopted therapy for the preservation of alveolar bone structures in combination or not with immediate implant placement although the biological bases lying behind this treatment modality are not fully understood and often misinterpreted. This review is intended to clarify the literature support to socket grafting in order to provide practitioners with valid tools to make a conscious decision of when and why to recommend this therapy.

Pagni, Giorgio; Pellegrini, Gaia; Giannobile, William V.; Rasperini, Giulio

2012-01-01

6

28 CFR 28.22 - The requirement to preserve biological evidence.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...section 3600A to preserve biological evidence does not apply at...imprisonment of a defendant. Biological evidence may be collected...3600A does not govern these activities. (2) Inapplicability...section 3600A to preserve biological evidence does not apply...

2010-07-01

7

28 CFR 28.22 - The requirement to preserve biological evidence.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...section 3600A to preserve biological evidence does not apply at...imprisonment of a defendant. Biological evidence may be collected...3600A does not govern these activities. (2) Inapplicability to...section 3600A to preserve biological evidence does not apply...

2009-07-01

8

Investigation of Exposure to Formaldehyde from Preserved Biological Specimens. Status Report.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This investigation of formaldehyde exposure in school laboratories, where its principal source is from preserved biological specimens, was undertaken because of concern over exposure levels reported in the literature. Information was obtained in two ways. A limited survey of schools was conducted to determine extent of students' use of preserved

Consumer Product Safety Commission, Washington, DC.

9

Organ preservation at low temperature: a physical and biological problem  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Before reporting the preliminary results obtained by our group, we first review the main problems to be solved in the preservation of organs at very low temperature, before being transplanted. This cryopreservation is being presently explored in order to increase the preservation tiine of transplants and to contribute to a better control of the donor recipient compatibility. We recall that, for the isolated cells to be preserved at nitrogen liquid temperatures, as now successfully performed at industrial scale, it is necessary to immerse the cells in a solution containing more or less t,oxical additives (so-called cryopro tect ants). Furthermore cooling and warming rates must be specific of each type of cells. We then show that cryo preservation could be extrapolated to whole organs by means of vitrification, the only way to avoid any ice crystallization. This vitrification will be the result of two directions of research, the one on the elaboration of cryoprotective solutions, the least toxic possible, the other on the obtention of high enough and homogeneous cooling and warming rates. After having briefly summarized the state of research on the heart and kidneys of small mammals, we present the first results that we have obtained on perfusion at 4 ^{circ}C and the auto-transplantation of rabbit kidneys, on the toxicity of a new cryoprotectant, 2,3-butanediol, on the heart rate, and on the cooling of experimental models of organs. Avant de présenter les résultats préliminaires obtenus par notre groupe, nous passons d'abord en revue les principaux problèmes à résoudre pour conserver à très basse température des organes en vue de leur transplantation. Cette cryopréservation est une voie de recherche actuellement explorée pour augmenter la durée de conservation des greffons et permettre ainsi de mieux contrôler la compatibilité donneur-receveur. Nous rappelons que la conservation des cellules isolées à la température de l'azote liquide, actuellement réalisée avec succès à l'échelle industrielle, ne peut se faire qu'en présence de substances plus ou moins toxiques dites cryoprotectrices, et à condition de respecter des vitesses de refroidissement et de réchauffement adaptées à chaque type de cellule. Nous montrons ensuite que l'extension de la cryopréservation au cas des organes entiers ne pourra se faire qu'au moyen de la vitrification, seule solution pour éviter toute formation de glace. Cette vitrification sera l'aboutissement de 2 axes de recherche, l'un sur l'élaboration de solutions cryoprotectrices les moins toxiques possibles, l'autre sur l'obtention de vitesses de refroidissement et de réchauffement suffisamment élevées et homogènes. Après avoir brièvement résumé l'état des recherches sur le coeur et le rein de petits mammifères, nous présentons les premiers résultats que nous avons obtenus sur la perfusion à 4 ^{circ}C et l'autotransplantation de reins de lapin, sur la toxicité sur le coeur de rat d'un nouveau cryoprotecteur le 2,3-butanediol, et sur le refroidissement de systèmes modèles expérimentaux d'organes.

Aussedat, J.; Boutron, P.; Coquilhat, P.; Descotes, J. L.; Faure, G.; Ferrari, M.; Kay, L.; Mazuer, J.; Monod, P.; Odin, J.; Ray, A.

1993-02-01

10

Geologic nature of the Jasper Ridge Biological Preserve, San Francisco Peninsula, California  

USGS Publications Warehouse

This short report attempts to illuminate the geological features that contributed to making the Jasper Ridge Biological Preserve (JRBP) a unique research island within the rapidly urbanized San Francisco Peninsula. Written in the rocks of the Preserve is a history of continental growth that extends back to the Jurassic (???150 Ma) as the California continental margin grew by subduction and accretion. Movement along the San Andreas fault system has left an indelible mark on the topography by uplift and faulting, and is even now changing the landscape by measurable increments. The sediments of Searsville Lake preserve a chronology of logging in the last century and housing development in more recent decades. Continued multidisciplinary study of this dynamic island of preserved interlocking biological, geological, and hydrogeological records will enhance student, faculty, and docent research, and our understanding of this complex area. ?? 2004 by V. H. Winston and Son, Inc. All rights reserved.

Coleman, R. G.

2004-01-01

11

The biological correction is the new way of preservation of the Face of the Earth  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The major links of terrestrial ecosystems functioning are: composted organic material with mull humus type, nitrogen-fixing microorganisms and litholytic organisms, which capable of active biological weathering of minerals and/or rock in the soil. Now the main ways of influence on plant-soil system functioning are physical and chemical correction. Physical correction is the system of different soil cultivation and land reclamation. It directed on creation and maintenance of favorable water, thermal and air regimes and also the biological activity of soils for crops. Although the general tendency of agriculture is minimized of tillage (strip-till, mini-till and no-till), nevertheless the intensive cultivation is widely used in modern agriculture. Chemical correction is the agriculture chemicalixation. It directed on regulation of plant producing by replenishment of plant, mineral nutrition elements in soils, by foliar nutrition using water solutions of macro- and microelements, and by regulation of acidic and salt soil regimes. In this case the plant protection against the pests and infections is carried out by various pesticides. This way of correction is completely realized in agriculture, but it doesn't consider the natural laws due to plants together with the soil from the interconnected and interdependent system. The continuing increase of agriculture chemicalixation simultaneously with a repeated tillage is led to loss of the major links of plant-soil systems functioning and to the degradation of a soil cover. Such way of plant productivity is a deadlock. New evolutionary way of preservation of the Face of the Earth is biological correction of plant-soil system functioning. A gist of this correction is the replenishment of the lost plant-soil system links. Biological correction leans on scientific achievements of modern biotechnologies, such as: vermicomposting, microbiologic specimens, physiologically active substances, biological agents of plant protection, etc. Methods of biological correction are exact biological analogs of natural links and so they can't cause the negative phenomena of plant growth and development. The principle of biological interrelationship is the base of these methods. At the heart of these methods the principle of biological compliance lies. Herewith, physiological features of plants are considered necessary. There are following main biological correction methods of plant productivity: (i) biological amelioration of soils (using of vermicomposts, earthworms, microbiologic specimens, organic and green manure, etc.); (ii) infection of plants by cultures of living microorganisms (for plant nutrition and protection); (iii) inputting of biological insecticides into plants (allows to fight even against larvae of mining insects successfully); (iv) influence on a plant metabolism by physiologically active substances (such as solutions of humic substances in particular); (v) creation of multilayered mats for gardening of deserts. The field experiments in working conditions, which were carried out in different climatic zones, bear evidence of efficiency of biological correction methods. In our opinion biological correction methods are capable to support and/or restore land-cover, to stop a degradation, and by that to prevent a disfigurement of the Face of the Earth.

Popov, Alexander

2014-05-01

12

The Preservation of "Non-Biological" Environments in the Solar System  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Nature preservation will be a central element of the exploration of the Solar System, whether this emphasis is initially planned for or not. Exploration of extraterrestrial environments will generate images and scientific information that will excite the imagination of the general public throughout the world and be supportive of more funding for exploration. However, damage to the environments visited, once made public, will likely generate a backlash against exploration programs that could inhibit exploration or even bring it completely to an end. The exploration in the nineteenth century of the western United States, with landscapes aesthetically very different from those found in Europe but very similar to those existing on the Moon and on Mars, provides an excellent indication of what will happen in off-planet exploration. Nearly every place painted by a major artist or photographed by a photographer on a geological survey during that time period is today a national park or national monument. If extraterrestrial environments are not protected, the major space societies that are currently enthusiastically supportive of space agencies around the world could become political opponents, much as the Sierra Club evolved into a serious and effective critic of the U.S. Forest Service and National Park Service in the United States. At a minimum, space agencies must be protective of the historical landing sites on the Moon, avoid strip mining on the Moon that may draw criticism, and protect major features on Mars from damage, such as the Cydonian Face on Mars, Valles Marineris, the grand canyon of Mars, and Olympus Mons, a mountain three times as tall as Mount Everest. A good first step might be to establish a world-heritage-style site to protect the visible side of the Moon. Although extraterrestrial sites may initially be labeled "non-biological," caution must be taken to be protective of possible extraterrestrial life, active or dormant, even in the most unlikely places. Such concern will not pose a great burden, given that such life will most likely be microbial, and the concern will be for the preservation of species, not for the protection of the individual members of those species (eliminating any need to deal with the animal liberation and animal rights movements). The battle cry will be about the "wanton destruction" of species, not about the "unnecessary suffering" of animals. Because nature preservation has been a political reality for nearly two centuries, concern for the preservation of off-planet environments can be expected to be more intense than it was in the late nineteenth and early twentieth centuries and more effective in its impact once it begins.

Hargrove, Eugene

13

Assessment of the biological properties of human split skin allografts disinfected with peracetic acid and preserved in glycerol.  

PubMed

Skin allografts derived from cadaveric human donors are widely used in the treatment of serious burn injuries and other conditions, such as ulcers. In order to render these allografts safe for clinical use, and to enable them to be preserved and banked for long periods, effective methods of decontamination and preservation are required. These methods must not adversely affect graft properties essential for clinical performance. We have investigated the application of a peracetic acid (PAA) disinfection protocol, coupled with preservation in either glycerol or propylene glycol to achieve these goals. An effective decontamination procedure, comprising of a 3h exposure to 0.1% (v/v) PAA in phosphate buffered saline (PBS) at pH 7.0, was developed and had no significant detrimental effects on the structure of skin. Cadaveric skin allografts were then treated with this disinfection protocol and subsequently preserved in either 85% (v/v) glycerol or propylene glycol in PBS, and the biological properties of the allografts thought to be essential to successful clinical performance were assessed. The cytotoxicity of the grafts was assessed using both extract and contact assays; damage to the skin collagen was assessed using a collagenase susceptibility assay and the capacity of the grafts to elicit an inflammatory response in vitro was assessed by quantifying the production of the pro-inflammatory cytokine TNF-alpha by human peripheral blood mononuclear phagocytes. Neither the disinfection protocol nor either of the preservation techniques rendered the grafts cytotoxic or pro-inflammatory. The PAA disinfection and glycerol preservation protocol had no effects on collagenase susceptibility, whereas the disinfection protocol in combination with propylene glycol rendered some of the test samples significantly more susceptible to collagenase digestion. Therefore, this study has demonstrated that PAA disinfection combined with glycerol preservation is suitable for skin allografts. The use of propylene glycol as a preservation agent for skin requires further development. PMID:12927974

Lomas, R J; Cruse-Sawyer, J E; Simpson, C; Ingham, E; Bojar, R; Kearney, J N

2003-09-01

14

Preservation of biological markers in clasts within impact melt breccias from the Haughton impact structure, Devon Island.  

PubMed

The 39 +/- 2 Ma Haughton impact structure on Devon Island comprises a thick target succession of sedimentary rocks, mainly carbonates. The carbonates contain pre-impact organic matter, including fossil biological markers. Haughton is located in an area where no major thermal event has affected the sedimentary succession after heating caused by impact. This makes Haughton uniquely suitable for studies concerning the preservation of fossil biological markers following an impact event. Melt breccia is the most common impactite at Haughton. It is composed of clasts of the target, mainly carbonates, embedded in a fine groundmass. The groundmass is composed of material that was melted during impact. In this study, fossil biological marker maturity parameters (tricyclic terpane-hopane ratio and pregnane-sterane ratio) and an aromatic maturity parameter [methylphenanthrene ratio (MPR)] were used to compare the degree of thermal alteration in different size fractions of carbonate clasts (<0.5-4 cm in diameter) and between edges and centers of large carbonate clasts (15-20 cm in diameter). The data show that fossil biological markers can be preserved and detected in isolated large and small fractions of carbonate clasts that are embedded in an impact melt. The results also indicate that there is a thermal gradient from the center of a clast to the edge of a clast, which suggests that biological markers are more likely to be found preserved in the center of a clast. The thermal maturity values point to a higher degree of thermal alteration in the melt breccia carbonate clasts than in the coherent carbonate bedrock. PMID:19519214

Lindgren, Paula; Parnell, John; Bowden, Stephen; Taylor, Colin; Osinski, Gordon R; Lee, Pascal

2009-05-01

15

DataONE: Preserving Data and Enabling Data-Intensive Biological and Environmental Research  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Addressing grand environmental science challenges requires unprecedented access to easily understood data that cross the breadth of temporal, spatial, and thematic scales. From a scientist's perspective, the challenges lie in discovering the relevant data, dealing with data heterogeneity, and converting data to information and knowledge. Solving these challenges requires new approaches for managing, preserving, sharing and analyzing data. DataONE (Observation Network for Earth) represents a virtual organization whose goal is to enable new science and knowledge creation through preservation and access to data about life on Earth and the environment that sustains it. DataONE supports science through facilitating easy, secure, and persistent storage of data and disseminating integrated and user-friendly tools for data discovery, analysis, visualization, and decision-making. DataONE engages its community of partners through working groups focused on identifying and implementing the DataONE cyberinfrastructure, governance, and sustainability models. These working groups, which consist of a diverse group of graduate students, educators, government representatives, and leading computer, information, and library scientists: (1) adapt interoperability standards; (2) create value-added technologies (e.g., semantic mediation, scientific workflow, and visualization) that facilitate data integration, analysis, and understanding; (3) address socio-cultural barriers to sustainable data preservation and data sharing; and (4) promote the adoption of best practices for managing the full data life cycle.

Cook, R. B.; DataONE Leadership Team

2011-12-01

16

APPLICATIONS ANALYSIS REPORT: BIOLOGICAL TREATMENT OF WOOD PRESERVING SITE GROUNDWATER BY BIOTROL, INC.  

EPA Science Inventory

This report is an evaluation of the Biotrol, Inc. Aqueous Treatment System (BATS), a fixed-film, aerobic biological treatment process for contaminated groundwaters and other wastewaters. t summarizes and analyzes the results of the Superfund Innovative Technology Evaluation (SITE...

17

Simulated-Physiological Loading Conditions Preserve Biological and Mechanical Properties of Caprine Lumbar Intervertebral Discs in Ex Vivo Culture  

PubMed Central

Low-back pain (LBP) is a common medical complaint and associated with high societal costs. Degeneration of the intervertebral disc (IVD) is assumed to be an important causal factor of LBP. IVDs are continuously mechanically loaded and both positive and negative effects have been attributed to different loading conditions. In order to study mechanical loading effects, degeneration-associated processes and/or potential regenerative therapies in IVDs, it is imperative to maintain the IVDs' structural integrity. While in vivo models provide comprehensive insight in IVD biology, an accompanying organ culture model can focus on a single factor, such as loading and may serve as a prescreening model to reduce life animal testing. In the current study we examined the feasibility of organ culture of caprine lumbar discs, with the hypothesis that a simulated-physiological load will optimally preserve IVD properties. Lumbar caprine IVDs (n?=?175) were cultured in a bioreactor up to 21 days either without load, low dynamic load (LDL), or with simulated-physiological load (SPL). IVD stiffness was calculated from measurements of IVD loading and displacement. IVD nucleus, inner- and outer annulus were assessed for cell viability, cell density and gene expression. The extracellular matrix (ECM) was analyzed for water, glycosaminoglycan and total collagen content. IVD biomechanical properties did not change significantly with loading conditions. With SPL, cell viability, cell density and gene expression were preserved up to 21 days. Both unloaded and LDL resulted in decreased cell viability, cell density and significant changes in gene expression, yet no differences in ECM content were observed in any group. In conclusion, simulated-physiological loading preserved the native properties of caprine IVDs during a 21-day culture period. The characterization of caprine IVD response to culture in the LDCS under SPL conditions paves the way for controlled analysis of degeneration- and regeneration-associated processes in the future.

Paul, Cornelis P. L.; Zuiderbaan, Hendrik A.; Zandieh Doulabi, Behrouz; van der Veen, Albert J.; van de Ven, Peter M.; Smit, Theo H.; Helder, Marco N.; van Royen, Barend J.; Mullender, Margriet G.

2012-01-01

18

Technology evaluation report: Biological treatment of wood-preserving-site ground-water by Bbiotrol, Iinc  

SciTech Connect

The report provides the in-depth data analysis from the SITE Program's six-week demonstration of BioTrol's Aqueous Treatment System (BATS) at the MacGillis and Gibbs Company wood treatment facility in New Brighton, Minnesota. The pilot scale (5gpm), fixed-film biological system using a pentachlorophenol-specific bacterium was evaluated at three groundwater throughput rates. Operational and analytical data were carefully monitored throughout to establish a database to use in evaluating the vendor's claims for pentachlorophenol (PCP) and polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) removal. It was concluded that the system achieves over 95% PCP removal (vendor's claim: 90%), probably by mineralization to carbon dioxide water and chloride ion. Because of unexpectedly low concentrations in the groundwater, removal of PAH's could not be determined.

Hahn, W.; Skovronek, H.S.

1991-10-01

19

Edge-Preserving Regularization for the Deconvolution of Biological Images in Nanoscopy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper deals with reconstructions of density images from data with Poisson statistics, with particular focus on cartoon reconstructions. We propose a total variation (TV) based regularization technique adapted to the case of Poisson data and use a forward-backward (FB) splitting strategy to create a numerical scheme that alternates a standard Expectation-Maximization (EM) reconstruction step with a TV correction step, which is realized by a modified version of the Rudin-Osher-Fatemi (ROF) model. We illustrate our technique at a synthetic object simulating optical nanoscopy measurements. Inspired by the high redundancy of information in a typical biological image, we give an outlook for an extension of the FB-EM-TV method to a nonlocal TV (NL-TV) regularization. NL-TV uses a nonlocal graph regularization, which allows to take advantage of the high degree of redundancy of natural images. Furthermore, we discuss the main challenges of the nonlocal regularization to create efficient numerical solvers which occurs automatically due to the high structure of complexity of the nonlocal regularization graph.

Sawatzky, Alex; Burger, Martin

2010-09-01

20

Biological Diversity.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Contents: Material benefits of biological diversity; The psychological and philosophical basis for preserving biological diversity; Human reduction of biological diversity; Strategies for conserving biological diversity; U.S. policies on biological divers...

1980-01-01

21

Production, preservation, and biological processing of mass-independent sulfur isotope fractionation in the Archean surface environment  

PubMed Central

Mass-independent fractionation of sulfur isotopes (S MIF) in Archean and Paleoproterozoic rocks provides strong evidence for an anoxic atmosphere before ?2,400 Ma. However, the origin of this isotopic anomaly remains unclear, as does the identity of the molecules that carried it from the atmosphere to Earth’s surface. Irrespective of the origin of S MIF, processes in the biogeochemical sulfur cycle modify the primary signal and strongly influence the S MIF preserved and observed in the geological record. Here, a detailed model of the marine sulfur cycle is used to propagate and distribute atmospherically derived S MIF from its delivery to the ocean to its preservation in the sediment. Bulk pyrite in most sediments carries weak S MIF because of microbial reduction of most sulfur compounds to form isotopically homogeneous sulfide. Locally, differential incorporation of sulfur compounds into pyrite leads to preservation of S MIF, which is predicted to be most highly variable in nonmarine and shallow-water settings. The Archean ocean is efficient in diluting primary atmospheric S MIF in the marine pools of sulfate and elemental sulfur with inputs from SO2 and H2S, respectively. Preservation of S MIF with the observed range of magnitudes requires the S MIF production mechanism to be moderately fractionating (20–40‰). Constraints from the marine sulfur cycle allow that either elemental sulfur or organosulfur compounds (or both) carried S MIF to the surface, with opposite sign to S MIF in SO2 and H2SO4. Optimal progress requires observations from nonmarine and shallow-water environments and experimental constraints on the reaction of photoexcited SO2 with atmospheric hydrocarbons.

Halevy, Itay

2013-01-01

22

THE EFFECTS OF COPPER-BASED PRESERVATIVE TECHNOLOGIES ON THE RESISTANCE OF ASPEN STRANDBOARDS TO BIOLOGICAL DEGRADATION  

Microsoft Academic Search

Mold and decay resistance of aspen strandboards treated with various copper-based preservative systems were evaluated in laboratory tests. Five copper-based chemicals or zinc borate were blended into the aspen furnish at three retention levels. Tebuconazole or 4,5-dichloro-2-N-octyl-4-isothiazolin-3-one (DCOI) were added as cobiocides to selected copper-based treatments. Panels were inoculated with four common molds and subjected to high temperature and humidity

Cheney Vidrine; Viance LLC; Frederick Kamke; Alan Preston; Jeffrey J. Morrell

23

Clinical and biometrical evaluation of socket preservation using demineralized freeze-dried bone allograft with and without the palatal connective tissue as a biologic membrane  

PubMed Central

Background: Alveolar ridge preservation following tooth extraction has the ability to maintain the ridge dimensions and allow the implant placement in an ideal position fulfilling both functional and aesthetic results. The aim of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of the palatal connective tissue as a biological membrane for socket preservation with demineralized freeze-dried bone allograft (DFDBA). Materials and Methods: Twelve extraction sites were treated with DFDBA with (case group) and without (control group) using autogenous palatal connective tissue membrane before placement of implants. Alveolar width and height, amount of keratinized tissue, and gingival level were measured at pre-determined points using a surgical stent at two times, the time of socket preservation surgery Results: In both groups a decrease in all socket dimensions was found. The average decrease in socket width, height, keratinized tissue, and gingival level in case group was 1.16, 0.72, 3.58, and 1.27 mm, and in control group was 2.08, 0.86, 4.52, and 1.58 mm respectively. Statistical analysis showed that decrease in socket width (P = 0.012), keratinized tissue (P ? 0.001), and gingival level (P = 0.031) in case group was significantly lower than that of the control group. Results showed no meaningful difference in socket height changes when compared with case and control groups (P = 0.148). Conclusion: Under the limits of this study, connective tissue membrane could preserve socket width, amount of keratinized tissue, and the gingival level more effectively than DFDBA alone.

Moghaddas, Hamid; Amjadi, Mohammad Reza; Naghsh, Narges

2012-01-01

24

The Effects of Computer Animated Dissection versus Preserved Animal Dissection on the Student Achievement in a High School Biology Class.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The purpose of this study was to examine the effectiveness of computer-animated dissection techniques versus the effectiveness of traditional dissection techniques as related to student achievement. The sample used was 104 general biology students from a small, rural high school in Northeast Tennessee. Random selection was used to separate the…

Kariuki, Patrick; Paulson, Ronda

25

Preservation Environments.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The long-term preservation of digital entities requires mechanisms to manage the authenticity of massive data collections that are written to archival storage systems. Preservation environments impose authenticity constraints and manage the evolution of t...

R. W. Moore

2004-01-01

26

Complex Recombination Patterns Arising during Geminivirus Coinfections Preserve and Demarcate Biologically Important Intra-Genome Interaction Networks  

PubMed Central

Genetic recombination is an important process during the evolution of many virus species and occurs particularly frequently amongst begomoviruses in the single stranded DNA virus family, Geminiviridae. As in many other recombining viruses it is apparent that non-random recombination breakpoint distributions observable within begomovirus genomes sampled from nature are the product of variations both in basal recombination rates across genomes and in the over-all viability of different recombinant genomes. Whereas factors influencing basal recombination rates might include local degrees of sequence similarity between recombining genomes, nucleic acid secondary structures and genomic sensitivity to nuclease attack or breakage, the viability of recombinant genomes could be influenced by the degree to which their co-evolved protein-protein and protein-nucleotide and nucleotide-nucleotide interactions are disreputable by recombination. Here we investigate patterns of recombination that occur over 120 day long experimental infections of tomato plants with the begomoviruses Tomato yellow leaf curl virus and Tomato leaf curl Comoros virus. We show that patterns of sequence exchange between these viruses can be extraordinarily complex and present clear evidence that factors such as local degrees of sequence similarity but not genomic secondary structure strongly influence where recombination breakpoints occur. It is also apparent from our experiment that over-all patterns of recombination are strongly influenced by selection against individual recombinants displaying disrupted intra-genomic interactions such as those required for proper protein and nucleic acid folding. Crucially, we find that selection favoring the preservation of co-evolved longer-range protein-protein and protein DNA interactions is so strong that its imprint can even be used to identify the exact sequence tracts involved in these interactions.

Martin, Darren P.; Lefeuvre, Pierre; Varsani, Arvind; Hoareau, Murielle; Semegni, Jean-Yves; Dijoux, Betty; Vincent, Claire; Reynaud, Bernard; Lett, Jean-Michel

2011-01-01

27

[Biological activities of the coagulation factor VIII, IX in platelet concentrates collected by platelet apheresis during preservation].  

PubMed

The study was to explore the change of coagulation factor VIII and IX activities in the platelet suspension collected by platelet apheresis during storage at 22 degrees C. 18 samples of platelet concentrates were collected by the cs-3000 plus and stored at 22 degrees C and then FVIII: C, FIX: C activities were detected at 0, 12, 24, 48, 72, 96, 120 hours respectively by SYSMEX CA-1500. The results showed that FVIII: C activity was (100.51 + 44.02)% at 0 hour, and then decreased dramatically to 10% - 40% of primary level from 12 to 120 hours, while FIX: C activity was (120.93 +/- 20.50)% at 0 hour and decreased to 10% - 35% of primary level from 24 to 120 hours. In conclusion, FVIII and FIX in the platelet concentrates stored at 22 degrees C could keep their biological activities at physiologically high levels. PMID:16584615

Yang, Jiang-Cun; Li, Feng-Qin; Li, Mang-Hui; Ren, Jian-Kang

2006-02-01

28

Preservation Directory  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Persons with a penchant for preservation will find that this clearinghouse website is a top-notch resource for materials on historic preservation, preservation-based tourism, and downtown revitalization projects across the United States and Canada. The site was created in 1999 by Tim Cannan, a native of the Finger Lakes region with a professional and academic background in historic and cultural preservation. The materials on the site are divided into topical areas that include "Preservation Events & Conferences", "Grants & Funding Sources" and nine other headings. Visitors who might be less familiar with the world of historic preservation will want to look over the "Video Library". Here they will find clips of restoration projects in progress, preservation walking tours, and endangered places. Also, it is worth noting that the site contains listings and links for over 7000 history museums, 1000 downtown and main street groups, and 4500 historical societies in North America.

29

Water quality, organic chemistry of sediment, and biological conditions of streams near an abandoned wood-preserving plant site at Jackson, Tennessee  

USGS Publications Warehouse

An investigation of water quality, organic sediment chemistry, and biological conditions of streams near an abandoned wood-preserving plant site at Jackson, Tennessee, was conducted during December 1990. The study was designed to assess the extent of possible contamination of water and biota in the streams from creosote-related discharge originating at this Superfund site. Central Creek, adjacent to the plant, had degraded water quality and biological conditions. Water samples from the most downstream station on Central Creek contained 30 micrograms per liter of pentachlorophenol, which exceeds the State's criterion maximum concentrations of 9 micrograms per liter for fish and aquatic life. Bottom-sediment samples from stations on Central Creek contained concentrations of acenaphthene, napthalene, and phenanthrene ranging from 1,400 to 2,500 micrograms per kilogram. Chronic or acute toxicity resulted during laboratory experiments using test organisms exposed to creosote-related contaminants. Sediment elutriate samples from Central Creek caused slightly to highly toxic effects on Ceriodaphnia dubia. Pimephales promelas, and Photobacterium phosphoreum. Fish-tissue samples from this station contained concentrations of naphthalene. dibenzofuran, fluorene, and phenanthrene ranging from 1.5 to 3.9 micrograms per kilogram Blue-green algae at this station represented about 79 percent of the organisms counted, whereas diatoms accounted for only 11 percent. Benthic invertebrate and fish samples from Central Creek had low diversity and density. Sediment samples from a station on the South Fork Forked Deer River downstream from its confluence with Central Creek contained concentrations of acenaphthene, anthracene, chrysene, fluoranthene, fluorene, pyrere, and phenanthrene ranging from 2,800 to 69,000 micrograms per kilogram. Sediment elutriate samples using water as elutriate from this station contained concentrations of extractable organic compounds ranging from an estimated 43 to 420 micrograms per liter. Sediment elutriate samples were toxic to Ceriodaphnia dubta, Pimephales promelas, Photobacterium phosphoreum, and Salenastrum capricornulum.

Bradfield, A. D.; Flexner, N. M.; Webster, D. A.

1993-01-01

30

Preservation Online  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The National Trust for Historic Preservation has received a number of awards for its magazine, Preservation, and their online version is well worth a look. The site is quite nice, and it contains brief profiles of current preservation stories written especially for this website. Recent stories have included profiles of neon signs in Los Angeles, brewery renovations in Milwaukee, and a list of the ten most endangered Civil War battlefields. The site is rounded out by an online archive which allows visitors to search back issues from 1992 to 2006.

31

Preservation Environments  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The long-term preservation of digital entities requires mechanisms to manage the authenticity of massive data collections that are written to archival storage systems. Preservation environments impose authenticity constraints and manage the evolution of the storage system technology by building infrastructure independent solutions. This seeming paradox, the need for large archives, while avoiding dependence upon vendor specific solutions, is resolved through use of data grid technology. Data grids provide the storage repository abstractions that make it possible to migrate collections between vendor specific products, while ensuring the authenticity of the archived data. Data grids provide the software infrastructure that interfaces vendor-specific storage archives to preservation environments.

Moore, Reagan W.

2004-01-01

32

Urine Preservative  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Disclosed is CPG, a combination of a chlorhexidine salt (such as chlorhexidine digluconate, chlorhexidine diacetate, or chlorhexidine dichloride) and n-propyl gallate that can be used at ambient temperatures as a urine preservative.

Smith, Scott M. (Inventor); Nillen, Jeannie (Inventor)

2001-01-01

33

Heritage Preservation  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Heritage Preservation: The National Institute for Conservation is a 30-year-old non-profit in Washington, DC, that is concerned with preserving the treasures of the United States that are already in institutions, such as museums, historical societies, and libraries, as well as those historical treasures that are in people's homes, basements, and attics. Their website is comprehensive, and lists the programs they run to help accomplish this monumental task. Under the "Programs" tab visitors will find links to the "Conservation Assessment Program" and "Heritage Emergency National Task Force", which is like FEMA for historical objects. "Rescue Public Murals" and "Save Outdoor Sculpture!" are also programs the Heritage Preservation runs. Visitors can see photographs of "Murals That Have Been Lost" and "Murals That Have Been Saved". Finally, the link under "Programs" to the "Heritage Health Index" provides a full online report of the "first comprehensive survey to assess the condition and preservation needs of U.S. collections".

34

Preservation Leaflets  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Available for the first time in electronic format, this third edition of Preservation of Library and Archival Materials: A Manual from the Northeast Document Conservation Center (NEDCC) is a valuable addition to the professional literature for librarians, archivists, and conservators. Founded in 1973, NEDCC is the largest conservation center for paper-based materials in the United States. Since its founding, NEDCC has disseminated preservation information via its series of technical leaflets. The Manual is a compilation of these leaflets, newly revised and updated. The Manual format, consisting of short leaflets with bibliographies, arranged in six browseable sections that can also be searched quickly by subject, is perfect for electronic distribution.

Ogden, Sherelyn

2005-11-09

35

Preserving Biodiversity  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This website is part of National Geographic's Xpeditions Hall and includes lesson plans and activities related to the topic of biodiversity. The site covers ecosystems, endangered species, why preserving biodiversity is necessary, and how captive breeding has been used to try and save some species from extinction. These lesson plans were written by educators and have been tested in the classroom.

36

Records Preservation  

USGS Multimedia Gallery

Older materials and recently arrived items in the Field Records Collection are in various states of preservation and documentation. In the current reorganization project, items are inventoried for content, transferred to archival storage containers, and archived as shelf items (notebooks and file fo...

2009-04-09

37

Preservation & Restoration.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This theme issue on preservation and restoration presents selected resources for elementary and secondary education that include Web sites, CD-ROM and software, videos, books, magazines, and professional resources as well as classroom activities. Age levels are specified for most materials. I Sidebars discuss restoring a masterpiece, a bug's life,…

Online-Offline, 2000

2000-01-01

38

Preserving Fertility  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a Negative impact of modern cancer treatment methods on human reproduction has been recognized. In this chapter, we first summarize\\u000a the facts about cancer and treatment-related adverse outcomes in female reproductive function, then discuss the needs, and\\u000a outline the current strategies and the future directions of fertility preservation and ovarian cryopreservation and transplantation\\u000a in adult and adolescent female patients whose fertility

Kutluk Oktay; Ozgur Oktem

39

Radiation Preservation of Biological Tissues with Special Emphasis on Immunological Alterations. Part of a Coordinated Program on Radiosterilization of Medical Products and Biological Tissues. Final Report for the Period 15 March 1973--30 September 1976.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A method suitable for clinical use and preparations of tendon and skin preserved by lyophilization and radiosterilization were investigated. The fate of the graft was detected by histological and electronmicroscopical investigations. The authors demonstra...

I. Feher

1977-01-01

40

BIOLOG  

EPA Science Inventory

BIOLOG contains more than 43,000 citations to literature on microbial degradation and toxicity of more than 6,000 chemicals. Records are organized by CAS Registry Number and by 6 categories (i.e., biodegradation/toxicity; oxygen condition (anaerobic/aerobic); culture type (pure e...

41

Salt drying: a low-cost, simple and efficient method for storing plants in the field and preserving biological repositories for DNA diversity research.  

PubMed

Although a variety of methods have been optimized for the collection and storage of plant specimens, most of these are not suited for field expeditions for a variety of logistic reasons. Drying specimens with silica gel in polyethylene bags is currently the standard for field-sampling methods that are suitable for subsequent DNA extraction. However, silica-gel repositories are not readily available in remote areas, and its use is not very cost-effective for the long-term storage of collections or in developing countries with limited research budgets. Salting is an ancient and traditional drying process that preserves food samples by dehydrating tissues and inhibiting water-dependent cellular metabolism. We compared salt and silica-gel drying methods with respect to dehydration rates overtime, DNA quality and polymerase chain reaction(PCR) success to assess whether dry salting can be used as an effective plant preservation method for DNA analysis. Specimens from eleven plant species covering a variety of leaf structures, leaf thicknesses and water contents were analysed. Experimental work indicated that (i) levels of dehydration in sodium chloride were usually comparable to those obtained when silica gel was used, (ii) no spoilage, fungal or bacterial growth was observed for any of the species with all drying treatments and (iii) good yields of quality genomic DNA suitable for PCR applications were obtained in the salt-drying treatments. The preservation of plant tissues in commercial table salt appears to be a satisfactory, and versatile method that may be suitable in remote areas where cryogenic resources and silica repositories are not available. PMID:24103361

Carrió, Elena; Rosselló, Josep A

2014-03-01

42

9 CFR 114.10 - Antibiotics as preservatives.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

... 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Antibiotics as preservatives. 114.10 Section 114...REQUIREMENTS FOR BIOLOGICAL PRODUCTS § 114.10 Antibiotics as preservatives. Antibiotics are authorized for use as...

2010-01-01

43

9 CFR 114.10 - Antibiotics as preservatives.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

... 2009-01-01 2009-01-01 false Antibiotics as preservatives. 114.10 Section 114...REQUIREMENTS FOR BIOLOGICAL PRODUCTS § 114.10 Antibiotics as preservatives. Antibiotics are authorized for use as...

2009-01-01

44

Esophageal Preservation in Five Male Patients After Endoscopic Inner-Layer Circumferential Resection in the Setting of Superficial Cancer: A Regenerative Medicine Approach with a Biologic Scaffold  

PubMed Central

As a result of injury caused by chronic gastroesophageal reflux, Barrett's esophagus with high-grade dysplasia and esophageal adenocarcinoma are rapidly increasing problems in the United States. The current standard of care involves esophagectomy, a procedure associated with a high morbidity, a negative impact on long term quality of life, and a mortality rate of 1–6 percent. An entirely endoscopic technique for circumferential, long segment en bloc removal of the mucosa and submucosa with subsequent placement of a biologic scaffold material that promotes a constructive remodeling response and minimizes stricture is described herein. The results of this approach are reported for five patients with 4–24-month follow-up. Restoration of normal mature, K4+/K14+, squamous epithelium, and return to a normal diet without significant dysphagia is reported for all patients. Two of five patients show a small focus of recurrent Barrett's esophagus at the gastroesophageal junction, but the entire length and circumference of the reconstituted esophageal mucosa remains free of disease. This experience provides evidence that a regenerative medicine approach may, for the first time, enable aggressive endoscopic resection of early stage neoplasia without the need for esophagectomy and its associated complications.

Hoppo, Toshitaka; Nieponice, Alejandro; Gilbert, Thomas W.; Davison, Jon M.; Jobe, Blair A.

2011-01-01

45

Degradation, cyclic adenosine monophosphate production, insulin secretion, and glycemic effects of two novel N-terminal Ala2-substituted analogs of glucose-dependent insulinotropic polypeptide with preserved biological activity in vivo.  

PubMed

Glucose-dependent insulinotropic polypeptide (GIP) has significant potential in diabetes therapy due to its ability to serve as a glucose-dependent activator of insulin secretion. However, its biological activity is severely compromised by the ubiquitous enzyme dipeptidylpeptidase IV (DPP IV), which removes the N-terminal Tyr(1)-Ala(2) dipeptide from GIP. Therefore, 2 novel N-terminal Ala(2)-substituted analogs of GIP, with Ala substituted by 2-aminobutyric acid (Abu) or sarcosine (Sar), were synthesized and tested for metabolic stability and biological activity both in vitro and in vivo. Incubation with DPP IV gave half-lives for degradation of native GIP, (Abu(2))GIP, and (Sar(2))GIP to be 2.3, 1.9, and 1.6 hours, respectively, while in human plasma, the half-lives were 6.2, 7.6, and 5.4 hours, respectively. In Chinese hamster lung (CHL) cells expressing the cloned human GIP receptor, native GIP, (Abu(2))GIP, and (Sar(2))GIP dose-dependently stimulated cyclic adenosine monophosphate (camp) production with EC(50) values of 18.2, 38.5, and 54.6 nmol/L, respectively. In BRIN-BD11 cells, both (Abu(2))GIP and (Sar(2))GIP (10(-13) to 10(-8) mol/L) dose-dependently stimulated insulin secretion with significantly enhanced effects at 16.7 mmol/L compared with 5.6 mmol/L glucose. In obese diabetic (ob/ob) mice, GIP and (Sar(2))GIP significantly increased (1.4-fold to 1.5-fold; P <.05) plasma insulin concentrations, whereas (Abu(2))GIP exerted only minor effects. Changes in plasma glucose were small reflecting the severe insulin resistance of this mutant. The present data show that substitution of the penultimate N-terminal Ala(2) in GIP by Abu or Sar results in analogs with moderately reduced metabolic stability and biological activity in vitro, but with preserved biological activity in vivo. PMID:12800091

Gault, Victor A; O'Harte, Finbarr P M; Harriott, Patrick; Flatt, Peter R

2003-06-01

46

Tissue Preservation Media.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Tissue preservation media comprising a polyoxyethylene/polyoxypropylene copolymer are used to preserve tissues and organs for storage and transplantation. In particular embodiments, the polyoxyethylene/polyoxypr- opylene copolymer is Pluronic F68 or FLOCO...

R. A. Steinhardt

2004-01-01

47

Formax Preserved Birds  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A quick, simple method for preserving bird specimens using borax and a formalin solution is described. Procedures for injecting and mounting the specimens are given along with certain restrictions on preserving specimens. (MA)

Sheridan, Philip

1978-01-01

48

Planning for Cooperative Preservation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Preservation planning efforts in Wisconsin, particularly those pertaining to microfilming, began as early as the 1930s. This article outlines those efforts, but focuses on the development of a coordinated state preservation program, the Wisconsin Plan for Preservation (WISPPR), which was carried out in the 1980s. It outlines the evolution of WISPPR from the activities of the original planning committee to

Louis A Pitschmann

1989-01-01

49

A History Worth Preserving  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Manhattan Project transformed the course of American and world history, science, politics and society. If we can read about this in books and watch History Channel documentaries, why do we need to preserve some of the properties of this enormous undertaking? The presentation, ``A History Worth Preserving,'' will address why some of the physical properties need to be preserved

Cynthia Kelly

2008-01-01

50

Biological glasses: nature's way to preserve life  

Microsoft Academic Search

As a result of drying, the cytoplasm of desiccation-tolerant organisms, such as seed and pollen, enters into a highly viscous, solid-like, semi-equilibrium state: the glassy state. The work in this dissertation is focussed on the function and characteristics of intracellular glasses in these organisms.It was established that intracellular glasses are formed in both desiccation-tolerant and -intolerant pollen (chapter 1). However,

J. Buitink; F. A. Hoekstra

2000-01-01

51

[Preservatives in ophthalmology].  

PubMed

Preservatives are a legal requirement for eye drops in multidose containers. Moreover, they are necessary for stabilization and intraocular penetration for a number of ophthalmic preparations. Most preservatives act in a relatively unspecific manner as detergents or by oxidative mechanisms and thereby cause side effects at the ocular surface. They may also affect the lens, trabecular meshwork and the retina. Benzalkonium chloride is the most commonly used preservative in ophthalmology and is more toxic than other or newer preservatives, such as polyquaternium-1 (Polyquad), sodium perborate, oxychloro-complex (Purite®) and SofZia. Preservative-free topical medication is highly recommended for patients with ocular surface disease, frequent eye drop administration, proven allergy to preservatives and contact lens wear. PMID:23179809

Messmer, E M

2012-11-01

52

National Film Preservation Foundation  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Created by the United States Congress, the National Film Preservation Foundation provides nationwide support to the preservation of American films of cultural and historical significance, along with improving film access for study, education, and exhibition. Located in San Francisco, the Foundation also awards grants to various film archives and preservations agencies who are also dedicated to preserving important landmarks in American cinematic history. Information on the site includes Preservation Basics, which talks about the importance of film preservation and the nature and chemistry of film decay. A grants and projects section offers information about applying for a film preservation grant from the Foundation and about ongoing preservation projects, like the Saving the Silents: The American Silent Fiction Film Project. In addition, the site contains a complete listing (by title, date, and archive) of the 500 films helped preserved by the Foundation. Film researchers and scholars will find a map of the United States that lists existing film archives and study centers around the country both helpful and a useful tool for determining the direction of their research.

53

Bistability preserving model reduction in apoptosis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Biological systems are typically very complex and need to be reduced before they are amenable to a thorough analysis. Also, they often possess functionally important dynamic features like bistability. In model reduction, it is sometimes more desirable to preserve the dynamic features only than to recover a good quantitative approximation. We present an approach to reduce the order of a

Steffen Waldherr; Thomas Eissing; Madalena Chaves; Frank Allgower

2007-01-01

54

PRESERVING BIODIVERSITY: SPECIES, ECOSYSTEMS, OR LANDSCAPES?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Efforts to preserve biological diversity must focus increasingly at the ecosystem level because of the immense number of species, the majority of which are currently unknown. An ecosystem approach is also the only way to conserve processes and habitats (such as forest canopies, belowground habitats, and hyporheic zones) that, with their constituent species, are poorly known. Continued concern with species

JERRY F. FRANKLIN

1993-01-01

55

Why Preserve Biodiversity?  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This lesson plan stresses the importance of maintaining ecosystems and explores the various arguments in favor of preserving the biodiversity of Earth. Students will view photos of endangered species and discuss why these animals are threatened and why they should be protected; learn the meaning of biodiversity, ecosystem, and extinction; explain why all members of an ecosystem are important; list the reasons why biodiversity should be preserved; read articles on various arguments in favor of preserving biodiversity; and write essays in which they explain what they feel are the most compelling reasons for preserving biodiversity and also describe the arguments they think would be most likely to convince the general public that biodiversity should be preserved.

56

Mojave National Preserve  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This National Park Service site contains sections on: desert ecology, with explanations of the desert types (rain shadow deserts, coastal deserts, and remote interior basins), and data on desert population growth; desert plants and animals; history of the preserve including Mojave Indian and Black homesteaders history; recreational information; education, with a list of rangers to call or email for curriculum programs; management issues, including a Final Environmental Impact Statement and General Management Plan; and maps of the preserve. There is also an online story book for kids about desert tortoises and links to information on the geology (as well as geological maps) of the preserve.

57

New Approaches to the Preservation of Contaminants in Water Samples.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The potential of antibiotics, chemical biocides and lytic enzymes in preserving nutrients, biological oxygen demand and oil and grease in water and sewage effluents was studied. Preliminary studies concerning the effect of drugs on cell growth and oxygen ...

J. Saxena E. Nies

1979-01-01

58

Preserving Historic Landscapes.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The bibliography focusses on historic landscape preservation, including the essential tools necessary to understand and evaluate the resource, as well as examples of specific treatments such as restoration, reconstruction, and rehabilitation. In order to ...

L. Meier B. Chittenden

1990-01-01

59

Minnesota system corneal preservation.  

PubMed Central

The clinical and laboratory results with a modified Minnesota system of organ culture corneal preservation are presented. A refinement of our preservation technique using a closed system, as well as the addition of chondroitin sulphate to the medium is presented. Laboratory results show preservation of corneal endothelial integrity for at least 21 days with maintenance of normal corneal thickness. In addition, a 10-day quarantine system reduces the risk of donor contamination and secondary endophthalmitis. Preliminary results of the 34 degrees C and 4 degrees C closed Minnesota corneal preservation system using chondroitin sulphate show that it is safe and efficacious and allows intermediate to long-term maintenance of sterile thin tissue prior to corneal transplantation. Images

Lindstrom, R. L.; Doughman, D. J.; Skelnik, D. L.; Mindrup, E. A.

1986-01-01

60

Mechanism of entanglement preservation  

SciTech Connect

We study the entanglement preservation of two qubits locally interacting with their reservoirs. We show that the existence of a bound state of the qubit and its reservoir and the non-Markovian effect are two essential ingredients and their interplay plays a crucial role in preserving the entanglement in the steady state. When the non-Markovian effect is neglected, the entanglement sudden death (ESD) is reproduced. On the other hand, when the non-Markovian is significantly strong but the bound state is absent, the phenomenon of the ESD and its revival is recovered. Our formulation presents a unified picture about the entanglement preservation and provides a clear clue on how to preserve the entanglement in quantum information processing.

Tong Qingjun [Center for Interdisciplinary Studies, Lanzhou University, Lanzhou 730000 (China); Department of Modern Physics, Lanzhou University, Lanzhou 730000 (China); An Junhong [Center for Interdisciplinary Studies, Lanzhou University, Lanzhou 730000 (China); Department of Physics, National University of Singapore, 3 Science Drive 2, Singapore 117543 (Singapore); Luo Honggang [Center for Interdisciplinary Studies, Lanzhou University, Lanzhou 730000 (China); Key Laboratory for Magnetism and Magnetic Materials of MOE, Lanzhou University, Lanzhou 730000 (China); Oh, C. H. [Department of Physics, National University of Singapore, 3 Science Drive 2, Singapore 117543 (Singapore)

2010-05-15

61

Tifft Farm Nature Preserve.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Described are the creation, development, activities, and programs of Tifft Farm, a 264-acre nature preserve and environmental education center in Buffalo, New York, constructed on a sanitary landfill. (BT)

Benjamin, Thomas B.; Gannon, David J.

1980-01-01

62

Advances in lung preservation.  

PubMed

After a brief review of conventional lung preservation, this article discusses the rationale behind ex vivo lung perfusion and how it has shifted the paradigm of organ preservation from conventional static cold ischemia to the utilization of functional normothermia, restoring the lung's own metabolism and its reparative processes. Technical aspects and previous clinical experience as well as opportunities to address specific donor organ injuries in a personalized medicine approach are also reviewed. PMID:24206857

Machuca, Tiago N; Cypel, Marcelo; Keshavjee, Shaf

2013-12-01

63

Shape preserving spline interpolation  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A rational spline solution to the problem of shape preserving interpolation is discussed. The rational spline is represented in terms of first derivative values at the knots and provides an alternative to the spline-under-tension. The idea of making the shape control parameters dependent on the first derivative unknowns is then explored. The monotonic or convex shape of the interpolation data can then be preserved automatically through the solution of the resulting non-linear consistency equations of the spline.

Gregory, J. A.

1985-01-01

64

A History Worth Preserving  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Manhattan Project transformed the course of American and world history, science, politics and society. If we can read about this in books and watch History Channel documentaries, why do we need to preserve some of the properties of this enormous undertaking? The presentation, ``A History Worth Preserving,'' will address why some of the physical properties need to be preserved and which ones we are struggling to maintain for future generations. The story of this effort begins in 1997 as the Department of Energy was posed to demolish the last remaining Manhattan Project properties at the Los Alamos laboratory. Located deep behind security fences, the ``V Site's'' asbestos-shingled wooden buildings looked like humble garages with over-sized wooden doors. The ``V Site'' properties were almost lost twice, first to bulldozers and then the Cerro Grande fire of 2000. Now, visitors can stand inside the building where J. Robert Oppenheimer and his crew once worked and imagine the Trinity ``gadget'' hanging from its hoist shortly before it ushered in the Atomic Age on July 16, 1945. As Richard Rhodes has commented, we preserve what we value of the physical past because it specifically embodies our social past. But many challenge whether the Manhattan Project properties ought to be preserved. Rather than recognize the Manhattan Project as a great achievement worthy of commemoration, some see it as a regrettable event, producing an instrument to take man's inhumanity to man to extremes. While these divergent views will no doubt persist, the significance of the Manhattan Project in producing the world's first atomic bombs is irrefutable. Preserving some of its tangible remains is essential so that future generations can understand what the undertaking entailed from its humble wooden sheds to enormous first-of-a-kind industrial plants with 125,000 people working in secret and living in frontier-like communities. With continuing pressure for their demolition, what progress has been made in preserving some properties of the Manhattan Project? The presentation will share the handful of remaining properties that we believe are needed to tell the story of the Manhattan Project. It will share our successes, what is still at risk, and the on-going struggle to preserve this history.

Kelly, Cynthia

2008-04-01

65

Moving Image Preservation in Libraries.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Examines the current practices of film and video preservation in libraries and examines barriers that have hindered the development of full-fledged preservation programs for them. Topics include advances in education and training; preservation paradigms; and mechanics of film production that affect preservation. (Author/LRW)

De Stefano, Paula

2003-01-01

66

Electronic Technologies and Preservation.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Digital imaging technology, which is used to take a computer picture of documents at the page level, has significant potential as a tool for preserving deteriorating library materials. Multiple reproductions can be made without loss of quality; the end product is compact; reproductions can be made in paper, microfilm, or CD-ROM; and access over…

Waters, Donald J.

67

Preserve a Snowflake  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this activity, students capture snowflakes in a manner that preserves their shape. Afterwards, students can study the ice crystal shapes and then hang their snowflakes up as art. There is information about how snowflakes are formed and simple steps to conduct the activity.

68

Privacy Preserving Data Mining  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper we address the issue of privacy preserving data mining. Specifically, we consider a scenario in which two parties owning confidential databases wish to run a data mining algorithm on the union of their databases, without revealing any unnecessary information. Our work is motivated by the need to both protect privileged information and enable its use for research

Yehuda Lindell; Benny Pinkas

2000-01-01

69

Preservation: Issues and Planning.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A reference guide from leading experts in the field, this book covers the repair, maintenance, and preservation of library or archive collections, providing a definitive and authoritative analysis of how to plan for and ensure the long-term health of an institution's collection in this digital age. Chapters include: (1) "Defining the Library…

Banks, Paul N., Ed.; Pilette, Roberta, Ed.

70

Splenic preservation in children  

Microsoft Academic Search

The diagnosis of splenic injury can be made with almost 100% certainty by physical examination and nuclear imaging or computerized axial tomography, eliminating the need for surgical exploration in children who are stable and have no evidence of an associated intra-abdominal injury. The nonoperative approach of treatment has been successful in over 95% of selected cases. Operative splenic preservation methods,

Robert J. Touloukian

1985-01-01

71

The Preservation of  

Microsoft Academic Search

Nature preservation will be a central element of the exploration of the Solar System, whether this emphasis is initially planned for or not. Exploration of extraterrestrial environments will generate images and scientific information that will excite the imagination of the general public throughout the world and be supportive of more funding for exploration. However, damage to the environments visited, once

Eugene Hargrove

2010-01-01

72

Sharing the Preservation Burden  

SciTech Connect

Preserving digitally encoded information which is not just to be rendered, as a document, but which must processed, like data, is even harder than one might think, because understandability of the information which is encoded in the digital object(s) is what is required. Information about Nuclear Waste will include both documents as well as data. Moreover one must be able to understand the relationship between the many individual pieces of information. Furthermore the volume of information involved will require us to allow automated processing of such information. Preserving the ability to understand and process digitally encoded information over long periods of time is especially hard when so many things will change, including hardware, software, environment and the tacit and implicit knowledge that people have. Since we cannot predict these changes this cannot be just a one-off action; continued effort is required. However it seems reasonable to say that no organization, project or person can ever say for certain that their ability to provide this effort is going to last forever. What can be done? Can anything be guaranteed? Probably not guaranteed - but at least one can try to reduce the risk of losing the information. We argue that if no single organization, project or person can guarantee funding or effort (or even interest), then somehow we must share the 'preservation load', and this is more than a simple chain of preservation consisting of handing on the collection of bits from one holder to the next. Clearly the bits must be passed on (but may be transformed along the way), however something more is required - because of the need to maintain understandability, not just access. This paper describes the tools, techniques and infrastructure components which the CASPAR project is producing to help in sharing the preservation burden. In summary: CASPAR is attempting to use OAIS concepts rigorously and to the fullest extent possible, supplementing these where appropriate. Based on these fundamental ideas about digital preservation, a number of components, tools and techniques are being created in order to provide a broadly applicable infrastructure to allow the spreading of the burden of preserving the understandability and usability of digitally encoded information. In the process the limits of the applicability of these OAIS concepts are themselves being tested. Most importantly a number of validation metrics have been produced. Further details are available from the CASPAR web site http://www.casparpreserves.eu. (authors)

Giaretta, D. [STFC, Rutherford Appleton Laboratory, Didcot, Oxon OX11 0QX (United Kingdom)

2008-07-01

73

Organic Entrainment and Preservation in Volcanic Glasses  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Unaltered pyroclastic deposits have previously been deemed to have "low" potential for the formation, concentration and preservation of organic material on the Martian surface. Yet volcanic glasses that have solidified very quickly after an eruption may be good candidates for containment and preservation of refractory organic material that existed in a biologic system pre-eruption due to their impermeability and ability to attenuate UV radiation. Analysis using NanoSIMS of volcanic glass could then be performed to both deduce carbon isotope ratios that indicate biologic origin and confirm entrainment during eruption. Terrestrial contamination is one of the biggest barriers to definitive Martian organic identification in soil and rock samples. While there is a greater potential to concentrate organics in sedimentary strata, volcanic glasses may better encapsulate and preserve organics over long time scales, and are widespread on Mars. If volcanic glass from many sites on Earth could be shown to contain biologically derived organics from the original environment, there could be significant implications for the search for biomarkers in ancient Martian environments.

Wilhelm, Mary Beth; Ojha, Lujendra; Brunner, Anna E.; Dufek, Josef D.; Wray, James Joseph

2014-01-01

74

Tree preserving embedding  

PubMed Central

The goal of dimensionality reduction is to embed high-dimensional data in a low-dimensional space while preserving structure in the data relevant to exploratory data analysis such as clusters. However, existing dimensionality reduction methods often either fail to separate clusters due to the crowding problem or can only separate clusters at a single resolution. We develop a new approach to dimensionality reduction: tree preserving embedding. Our approach uses the topological notion of connectedness to separate clusters at all resolutions. We provide a formal guarantee of cluster separation for our approach that holds for finite samples. Our approach requires no parameters and can handle general types of data, making it easy to use in practice and suggesting new strategies for robust data visualization.

Shieh, Albert D.; Hashimoto, Tatsunori B.; Airoldi, Edoardo M.

2011-01-01

75

Poweshiek History Preservation Project  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Poweshiek History Preservation Project is a joint effort between the Grinnell College Libraries and the Drake Community Library to preserve the history of the people and places of Poweshiek County. Over the years, dozens of community members have brought in letters, photographs, scrapbooks, ledgers, and other documents that tell the area's history. This site contains over 120 items, including photos of roadwork construction, local churches, museums, and portraits of prominent community members. Most of the items here date from the late 19th and early 20th century and they provide a remarkable look into the changes throughout the community during this period. Additionally, the site contains several oral histories from locals who have lived here for decades. Visitors can search through the offering by date, type, or geographic coverage.

76

Development of new preservatives  

Microsoft Academic Search

Preservative-stamping oil Volgol-131 has been developed on the basis of a mixture of high-purity mineral oil and a group of\\u000a additives that impart the desired service properties to the given product. The oil can be used in stamping operations and\\u000a to provide long-term corrosion protection to cold-rolled products that have undergone electrolytic or hot galvanizing. The\\u000a oil can be applied

T. A. Bliznetsov

2006-01-01

77

What Are Tooth Preservation Kits?  

MedlinePLUS

... or Allergies? Find Out Signing Kids Up for Sports Breastfeeding FAQs Pregnant? Your Baby's Growth What Are Tooth Preservation Kits? KidsHealth > Parents > Sports Medicine Center > Q&As > What Are Tooth Preservation ...

78

Plato: a preservation planning tool  

Microsoft Academic Search

Creating a concrete plan for preserving an institution's collection of digital objects requires the evaluation of available solutions against clearly defined and measurable criteria. Preservation planning aids in this decision making process to find the best preservation strategy considering the institution's requirements, the planning context and possible actions applicable to the objects contained in the repository. Performed manually, this evaluation

Hannes Kulovits; Christoph Becker; Michael Kraxner; Florian Motlik; Kevin Stadler; Andreas Rauber

2008-01-01

79

Preservation of Passion Fruit Juice  

Microsoft Academic Search

Production and preservation of Passion Fruit Juice was examined to reduce the spoilage and to increase the shelf life of the juice using chemical preservatives. The preservation of the juice was carried out using sugar, benzoic acid, citric and a combination of citric and benzoic acid under room temperature. The result revealed that the juice maintained its color, aroma and

U. G. AKPAN; A. S. KOVO

80

Fertility Preservation in Girls  

PubMed Central

Children that undergo treatment for cancer are at risk of suffering from subfertility or hormonal dysfunction due to the detrimental effects of radiotherapy and chemotherapeutic agents on the gonads. Cryopreservation of ovarian tissue prior to treatment offers the possibility of restoring gonadal function after resumption of therapy. Effective counseling and management of pediatric patients is crucial for preserving their future reproductive potential. The purpose of this article is to review recent literature and to revise recommendations we made in a 2007 article. Pediatric hemato-oncology, reproductive endocrinology, surgery, anesthesia and bioethics perspectives are discussed and integrated to propose guidelines for offering ovarian cryopreservation to premenarcheal girls with cancer.

Michaeli, Jennia; Weintraub, Michael; Gross, Eitan; Ginosar, Yehuda; Ravitsky, Vardit; Eizenman, Einat; Mitrani, Eduardo; Lebovich, Meital; Laufer, Neri; Kennedy, Stephen; Revel, Ariel

2012-01-01

81

Preserving Perishables (Dormavac)  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A new commercial product that can preserve perishable commodities for weeks without freezing, so that they can be shipped fresh without the cost of air freight, has been developed by Grumman Corporation, Bethpage, Long Island, New York. The development benefited from the company's experience in developing the environmental control system for the Lunar Module, which delivered Apollo astronauts to the surface of the moon. Called Dormavac, the system provides a commodity-preserving environment within an aluminum container that can be transported by truck, rail or ship. Dormavac creates a cold-but above freezing-environment with high relative humidity and very low air pressure. The saturated air minimizes commodity weight loss and the air is automatically changed several times an hour to flush away odors and harmful gases released by the commodities. According to company literature, Dormavac significantly extends the transportation life of perishables. For example, pork has a normal cold storage life of about seven days, beef two weeks and tomatoes three weeks; with Dormavac, pork remains fresh for three weeks, beef more than six weeks and tomatoes seven weeks or more. Dormavac is manufactured and marketed by Grumman Allied Industries, Woodbury, New York. In developing the system, Grumman Allied drew upon the technological resources of another company subsidiary, Grumman Aerospace. Engineers who had earlier worked on Lunar Module environmental control brought their know-how and experience to the Dormavac development.

1979-01-01

82

Degradation, cyclic adenosine monophosphate production, insulin secretion, and glycemic effects of two novel N-terminal Ala 2-substituted analogs of glucose-dependent insulinotropic polypeptide with preserved biological activity in vivo  

Microsoft Academic Search

Glucose-dependent insulinotropic polypeptide (GIP) has significant potential in diabetes therapy due to its ability to serve as a glucose-dependent activator of insulin secretion. However, its biological activity is severely compromised by the ubiquitous enzyme dipeptidylpeptidase IV (DPP IV), which removes the N-terminal Tyr1-Ala2 dipeptide from GIP. Therefore, 2 novel N-terminal Ala2-substituted analogs of GIP, with Ala substituted by 2-aminobutyric acid

Victor A Gault; Finbarr P. M O’Harte; Patrick Harriott; Peter R Flatt

2003-01-01

83

Plato: A Preservation Planning Tool Integrating Preservation Action Services  

Microsoft Academic Search

The creation of a concrete plan for preserving a collection of digital objects of a specific institution necessitates the\\u000a evaluation of available solutions against clearly defined and measurable criteria. This process is called preservation planning\\u000a and aids in the decision making process to find the most suitable preservation strategy considering the institution’s requirements,\\u000a the planning context and available actions applicable

Hannes Kulovits; Christoph Becker; Michael Kraxner; Florian Motlik; Kevin Stadler; Andreas Rauber

2008-01-01

84

Advances in corneal preservation.  

PubMed Central

The functional status of the endothelium and sustained corneal deturgescence after corneal preservation are of great clinical importance and have been primary goals in the development of corneal storage media. In our investigational studies we have specifically addressed the improvement of the quality of donor tissue after 4 degrees C storage, the extension of corneal preservation time, the enhancement of corneal wound healing, and the reduction of the normal progressive loss of endothelial cells postkeratoplasty. Specifically we have developed in vitro HCE cell and epithelial cell culture models that can accurately reflect the response of human corneal tissue in vivo. These models have been utilized to study the effects of growth factors and medium components in relation to their biocompatibility and efficacy in the development of improved corneal preservation solutions. Our laboratory investigated in vitro conditions that allowed human corneal endothelium to shift from a nonproliferative state, in which they remain viable and metabolically active, to a proliferative, mitotically active state. Isolation techniques developed in our laboratory have enabled the establishment of primary and subsequent subcultures of human corneal endothelium that retain the attributes of native endothelium. These in vitro conditions maintain HCE cells in a proliferative state, actively undergoing mitosis. A quantitative bioassay has been developed to determine the effects of various test medium in the stimulation or inhibition of DNA synthesis. In attempting to learn more about the events that occur during in vitro endothelial cell isolation, cell reattachment, extracellular matrix interaction and migrating during subculture, SEM was done on isolated HCE cells incubated in CSM. These studies suggest that the components of the extracellular matrix modulate the growth response of HCE cells, and play a role in regulating proliferation and migration. These observations are important in view of the fact that anterior chamber environment limits cell regeneration of the endothelium, and supports wound healing via cell migration. In vivo, it is the complex interaction of the HCE cell and the extracellular matrix that signal the cell to respond to cell loss in this manner. As our knowledge of human corneal endothelium has increased so has our anticipation of developing the "optimum" medium. Thus additional components have been added to this basic medium to address specific complications encountered with 4 degrees C corneal preservation. Antioxidants, additional energy sources, and other nutritive substrates have been used to supplement and further define a chondroitin sulfate-based medium. These changes have been a part of our new awareness that, even at 4 degrees C, the cornea is metabolically active.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 400 WORDS) Images FIGURE 5 FIGURE 6 FIGURE 7 FIGURE 8 FIGURE 9 A FIGURE 9 B FIGURE 9 C FIGURE 9 D FIGURE 9 E FIGURE 11 FIGURE 12 A FIGURE 12 B FIGURE 12 C FIGURE 12 D FIGURE 12 E FIGURE 12 F FIGURE 13 FIGURE 17 FIGURE 18 A FIGURE 18 B FIGURE 18 C FIGURE 18 D FIGURE 20 FIGURE 23 A FIGURE 23 B FIGURE 24 A FIGURE 24 B FIGURE 24 C FIGURE 24 D FIGURE 24 E FIGURE 28 FIGURE 29 FIGURE 33 A FIGURE 33 B

Lindstrom, R L

1990-01-01

85

Stabilization-Preserving Atomicity Refinement  

Microsoft Academic Search

Program refinements from an abstract to a concrete model empower designers to reason effectively in the abstract and architects to implement effectively in the concrete.For refinements to be useful, they must not only preserve functionality properties but also dependability properties.In this paper, we focus our attention on refinements that preserve the dependability property of stabilization.Specifically, we present a stabilization-preserving refinement

Mikhail Nesterenko; Anish Arora

1999-01-01

86

UCLA Preserved Silent Animation  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

UCLA's film and television archive of animated silent films from the pre-1930s is relatively small, but considering the rarity of any silent films, it is still an impressive collection. Some of the films offered up on this website include "Felix the Cat", the "Inkwell Imps", and "Aesop's Film Fables". Visitors are lucky enough to be able to view online or download 11 animated films from the library's collection. While watching the films, visitors can listen to the preservation commentary, or listened to the music for each film composed by Michael D. Mortilla, who has played music for silent films for the Silent Society. Visitors can learn more about Michael D. Mortilla by reading the "About the Music" link. There are also film notes and an historical overview that visitors can read for each film. Researchers or interested parties will find a 15-page study guide of films and works about silent films available as a PDF. This helpful document is conveniently located at the bottom of the homepage.

87

User Experience and Heritage Preservation  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In considering the heritage preservation of higher education campus buildings, much of the attention gravitates toward issues of selection, cost, accuracy, and value, but the model for most preservation projects does not have a clear method of achieving the best solutions for meeting these targets. Instead, it simply relies on the design team and…

Orfield, Steven J.; Chapman, J. Wesley; Davis, Nathan

2011-01-01

88

Privacy Preserving Spatial Outlier Detection  

Microsoft Academic Search

Spatial outlier detection can be applied in the finding of terrorist activities and the forecast of abnormal climate activity etc. For protecting privacy information and mining spatial outliers, we presented privacy preserving spatial outlier mining algorithm. By the definition and application of secure multiparty computation protocols based on semi-honest model, we realized the preserving of the privacy information. We utilized

Anrong Xue; Xiqiang Duan; Handa Ma; Weihe Chen; Shiguang Ju

2008-01-01

89

Stabilization-Preserving Atomicity Refinement  

Microsoft Academic Search

Program refinements from an abstract to a concrete model empower designers to reason effectively in the abstract and architects to implement effectively in the concrete. For refinements to be useful, they must not only preserve functionality properties but also dependability properties. In this paper, we focus our attention on refinements that preserve the dependability property of stabilization. Specifically, we present

Mikhail Nesterenko; Anish Arora

2002-01-01

90

Integrating Preservation Activities. SPEC Kit.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This SPEC (Systems and Procedures Exchange Center) Kit presents the results of a survey of Association of Research Libraries (ARL) member libraries designed to explore to what extent preservation activities have been integrated into research library operations by examining the many facets of mature preservation programs and determining how much…

Brown, Karen, Comp.; Holmes, Emily, Comp.

2002-01-01

91

Entanglement preservation by continuous distillation  

SciTech Connect

We study the two-qubit entanglement preservation for a system in the presence of independent thermal baths. We use a combination of filtering operations and distillation protocols as a series of frequent measurements on the system. It is shown that a small fraction of the total amount of available copies of the system preserves or even improves its initial entanglement during the evolution.

Mundarain, D. [Departmento de Fisica, Seccion de Fenomenos Opticos, Universidad Simon Bolivar, Apartado Postal 89000, Caracas 1080A (Venezuela, Bolivarian Republic of); Orszag, M. [Facultad de Fisica, Pontificia Universidad Catolica de Chile, Casilla 306, Santiago 22 (Chile)

2009-05-15

92

Preferences, information and biodiversity preservation  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper considers the nature of preferences for the preservation of biodiversity, and the extent to which individuals are well-informed about biodiversity. We present evidence that the elicitation of monetary bids to pay for biodiversity preservation, as required for cost-benefit analysis, fails as a measure of welfare changes due to the prevalence of preferences which neoclassical economics defines as lexicographic.

Clive L. Spash; Nick Hanley

1995-01-01

93

Collections Security: The Preservation Perspective.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Provides a brief review of the basic elements of library security and preservation programs as a background for an exploration of security/preservation issues, problems, and policies. Discusses environmental control, disaster preparedness, fire protection, storage and handling, and controlling access to collections. (AEF)

Patkus, Beth L.

1998-01-01

94

Preservation in the Digital World.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper seeks to provide an intellectual rationale for maintaining the centrality of preservation concepts and ethics in an increasingly digital information environment; in other words, while some long-held principles of preservation management may no longer apply, many others are still viable in high-tech situations. Libraries are rearranging…

Conway, Paul

95

Historic Preservation in Art Education  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The Blue Grass Trust in Lexington, Kentucky sponsors the annual visual art contest for historic preservation, one of the many events they sponsor as part of the celebrations planned for Historic Preservation Month each May. When the announcement concerning the Blue Grass Trust visual art competition is released, area high school art teachers…

Guilfoil, Joanne K.

2004-01-01

96

Monitoring Survival and Preservation of Recent Cyanobacterial Mats  

Microsoft Academic Search

Through geobiological evolution cyanobacterial mats have played a fundamental role through the development of early microbial carbonate ecosystems and through the sustainment of major biogeochemical cycling in the biosphere; nonetheless their sedimentary record is relatively modest in comparison with their biological impact; this apparent under-representation in the fossil record may be due to their intrinsic poor preservation potential but also

Elizabeth Chacon; Alicia Negron-Mendoza; Claudia Camargo

2010-01-01

97

Wood preservative leachates from docks in an estuarine environment  

Microsoft Academic Search

Environmental concentrations and biological effects of certain metals and organic compounds found in wood preservatives were examined. The study focused on leachates from private residential docks in South Carolina tidal creeks. Copper, chromium, arsenic, and polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) were measured in composite samples of surficial sediments and naturally occurring oyster populations (Crassostrea virginica) from creeks with high densities of

P. H. Wendt; R. E Van Dolah; M. Y. Bobo; T. D. Mathews; M. V. Levisen

1996-01-01

98

NEW APPROACHES TO THE PRESERVATION OF CONTAMINANTS IN WATER SAMPLES  

EPA Science Inventory

The potential of antibiotics, chemical biocides and lytic enzymes in preserving nutrients, biological oxygen demand and oil and grease in water and sewage effluents was studied. Preliminary studies concerning the effect of drugs on cell growth and oxygen utilization in samples st...

99

Food Preservation and Home Canning  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The harvest season is upon us, and home canning fever has begun. The following websites share resources and wisdom regarding home canning, food preservation, and accompanying safety measures. From Clemson University, the first site (1) is a Food Safety and Preservation section housed in the university's online Home and Garden Information Center. This site is stocked full of online and downloadable information sheets regarding canning, freezing, drying, pickling, food borne illnesses, and much more. The site even contains documents addressing food safety after hurricanes, tornados, fires, and power outages. The second website (2), from the University of Georgia, links to numerous food preservation publications like Canning Pumpkin Butter and Mashed or Pureed Squashes; Making Apple Cider; Preserving Food: Using Boiling Water Canners; and Preserving Food: Freezing Animal Products-just to name a few. Hosted by Michigan State University-Extension, the third site (3) contains a comprehensive, alphabetized database on freezing, canning, and drying food (that was based on the USDA Complete Guide to Home Canning). The fourth (4) site-hosted by the National Center for Home Food Preservation-contains the aforementioned USDA Complete Guide to Home Canning in downloadable units. From Penn State University, the fifth (5) site features a food preservation database, which connects site visitors to numerous links regarding safe home processing methods. The sixth site (6-) site contains a publication about home canning of fruit and fruit products. Notably, the publication provides processing times for different contents, amounts, and altitudes.

100

ALGORITHMS FOR AREA PRESERVING FLOWS  

PubMed Central

We propose efficient and accurate algorithms for computing certain area preserving geometric motions of curves in the plane, such as area preserving motion by curvature. These schemes are based on a new class of diffusion generated motion algorithms using signed distance functions. In particular, they alternate two very simple and fast operations, namely convolution with the Gaussian kernel and construction of the distance function, to generate the desired geometric flow in an unconditionally stable manner. We present applications of these area preserving flows to large scale simulations of coarsening.

KUBLIK, CATHERINE; ESEDOGLU, SELIM; FESSLER, JEFFREY A.

2012-01-01

101

Vegetation Survey and Preliminary Ecological Assessment of Valles Caldera National Preserve, New Mexico.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

With the acquisition of the Valles Caldera National Preserve (VCNP) has come the need for comprehensive biological inventories to support sound natural resources management. Fundamental components of this effort are the development of a vegetation map and...

E. Muldavin P. Tonne

2003-01-01

102

Geobiology of Acid Saline Systems: Implications for the Development and Preservation of Mineralogic Biosignatures on Mars  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This study investigates 1) the role of biology in acid-saline mineral weathering and 2) biosignature preservation to document biosignatures present in terrestrial gossans that can aid in interpreting features observed by Mars Science Laboratory.

Williams, A. J.; Sumner, D. Y.

2011-03-01

103

Preserved Fascia and Tendon Homografts.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A discussion is presented on the practical use of preserved fascia and tendon homografts. Clinical observations on 58 patients treated at the clinic of traumatology and orthopedics at the Military Medical Academy are reviewed.

I. L. Krupko S. S. Tkachenko

1966-01-01

104

Cultural Preservation Program for Alaska  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In this technical report, an innovative cultural preservation program for implementation in Athabascan villages is presented. The parameters for success in implementing such a project is discussed based on a workshop with Athabascan elders.

Barbaran, Francisco Ramon

2011-01-01

105

Food Preservation (Except by Irradiation).  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The bibliography lists 213 reports and translations on food preservation (except by irradiation) added to the CFSTI collection from June 1962 through February 1965. It includes research on additives, sterilization, pasteurization, biochemical treatment, s...

1965-01-01

106

Organ Preservation and Tissue Banking.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The shortage of donor organs for liver transplantation both in Europe and in the US prompted a number of papers on liver preservation. The debate surrounding surface cooling versus continued hypothermic pulsatile perfusion was evident during the workshop....

S. B. Leapman S. L. Kountz K. W. Sell

1977-01-01

107

Fluctuation-Preserving Coarse Graining for Biochemical Systems  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Finite stochastic Markov models play a major role in modeling biological systems. Such models are a coarse-grained description of the underlying microscopic dynamics and can be considered mesoscopic. The level of coarse-graining is to a certain extent arbitrary since it depends on the resolution of accommodating measurements. Here we present a systematic way to simplify such stochastic descriptions which preserves both the meso-micro and the meso-macro connections. The former is achieved by demanding locality, the latter by considering cycles on the network of states. Our method preserves fluctuations of observables much better than naïve approaches.

Altaner, Bernhard; Vollmer, Jürgen

2012-06-01

108

National Film Preservation Foundation: The Film Preservation Guide  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

No doubt many organizations and institutions have a canister of 16MM film lying around someplace and some diligent member of their organization might ask: "How can we preserve this item?" A very astute question, and this helpful guide from the National Film Preservation Foundation provides substantial guidance and assistance. The 121-page guide describes methods for handling, duplicating, making available, and storing film, which are practical for nonprofit and public organizations with limited resources. Visitors to this site can download all of the sections in this report, which include chapters like "Legal Context for Film Preservation" and "Understanding Film and How it Decays". The report also includes case studies, illustrations, charts, glossary, and a bibliography.

109

Manual for Analysis of Ethanol in Biological Liquids.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This manual covers selected aspects of the analysis of ethanol in biological liquids and the interpretation of the results of such analyses. Recommendations are made concerning the selection, collection, identification, and preservation of suitable biolog...

K. M. Dubowski

1977-01-01

110

Leaf metallome preserved over 50 million years.  

PubMed

Large-scale Synchrotron Rapid Scanning X-ray Fluorescence (SRS-XRF) elemental mapping and X-ray absorption spectroscopy are applied here to fossil leaf material from the 50 Mya Green River Formation (USA) in order to improve our understanding of the chemistry of fossilized plant remains. SRS-XRF of fossilized animals has previously shown that bioaccumulated trace metals and sulfur compounds may be preserved in their original distributions and these elements can also act as biomarkers for specific biosynthetic pathways. Similar spatially resolved chemical data for fossilized plants is sparsely represented in the literature despite the multitude of other chemical studies performed. Here, synchrotron data from multiple specimens consistently show that fossil leaves possess chemical inventories consisting of organometallic and organosulfur compounds that: (1) map discretely within the fossils, (2) resolve fine scale biological structures, and (3) are distinct from embedding sedimentary matrices. Additionally, the chemical distributions in fossil leaves are directly comparable to those of extant leaves. This evidence strongly suggests that a significant fraction of the chemical inventory of the examined fossil leaf material is derived from the living organisms and that original bioaccumulated elements have been preserved in situ for 50 million years. Chemical information of this kind has so far been unknown for fossilized plants and could for the first time allow the metallome of extinct flora to be studied. PMID:24804302

Edwards, N P; Manning, P L; Bergmann, U; Larson, P L; van Dongen, B E; Sellers, W I; Webb, S M; Sokaras, D; Alonso-Mori, R; Ignatyev, K; Barden, H E; van Veelen, A; Anné, J; Egerton, V M; Wogelius, R A

2014-04-01

111

Leaf metallome preserved over 50 million years.  

PubMed

Large-scale Synchrotron Rapid Scanning X-ray Fluorescence (SRS-XRF) elemental mapping and X-ray absorption spectroscopy are applied here to fossil leaf material from the ?50 Mya Green River Formation (USA) in order to improve our understanding of the chemistry of fossilized plant remains. SRS-XRF of fossilized animals has previously shown that bioaccumulated trace metals and sulfur compounds may be preserved in their original distributions and these elements can also act as biomarkers for specific biosynthetic pathways. Similar spatially resolved chemical data for fossilized plants is sparsely represented in the literature despite the multitude of other chemical studies performed. Here, synchrotron data from multiple specimens consistently show that fossil leaves possess chemical inventories consisting of organometallic and organosulfur compounds that: (1) map discretely within the fossils, (2) resolve fine scale biological structures, and (3) are distinct from embedding sedimentary matrices. Additionally, the chemical distributions in fossil leaves are directly comparable to those of extant leaves. This evidence strongly suggests that a significant fraction of the chemical inventory of the examined fossil leaf material is derived from the living organisms and that original bioaccumulated elements have been preserved in situ for 50 million years. Chemical information of this kind has so far been unknown for fossilized plants and could for the first time allow the metallome of extinct flora to be studied. PMID:24668317

Edwards, N P; Manning, P L; Bergmann, U; Larson, P L; van Dongen, B E; Sellers, W I; Webb, S M; Sokaras, D; Alonso-Mori, R; Ignatyev, K; Barden, H E; van Veelen, A; Anné, J; Egerton, V M; Wogelius, R A

2014-04-26

112

Preserving the legacy: Biological treatment technologies (ptl0501). (video). Audiovisual  

SciTech Connect

Aerobic, anaeorbic and facultative treatments as well as bioremediation (land farming, air sparging, bio-cell, bio-reactor and phytoremediation) are explored with the aid of animation and electron microscope imagery.

NONE

1996-12-31

113

Preservation at Stony Brook. Preservation Planning Program. Study Report.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This final report is a product of a Preservation Planning Program (PPP) self-study conducted by the State University of New York (SUNY), Stony Brook, working with the Association of Research Libraries' (ARL) Office of Management Studies (OMS). The PPP is designed to put self-help tools into the hands of library staff responsible for developing…

Cook, Donald C.; And Others

114

Cryobiological preservation of Drosophila embryos  

SciTech Connect

The inability to cryobiologically preserve the fruit fly Drosophila melanogaster has required that fly stocks be maintained by frequent transfer of adults. This method is costly in terms of time and can lead to loss of stocks. Traditional slow freezing methods do not succeed because the embryos are highly sensitive to chilling. With the procedures described here, 68 percent of precisely staged 15-hour Oregon R (wild-type) embryos hatch after vitrification at -205[degree]C, and 40 percent of the resulting larvae develop into normal adult flies. These embryos are among the most complex organisms successfully preserved by cryobiology.

Mazur, P.; Schreuders, P.D.; Cole, K.W.; Hall, J.W. (Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States)); Mahowald, A.P. (Univ. of Chicago, IL (United States))

1992-12-18

115

Geology of Mojave National Preserve  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This website of the United States Geological Survey (USGS) and the National Park Service (NPS) highlights the geology of the Mojave National Preserve in California. It includes a field trip describing areas of interest at the preserve, as well as a geologic time scale describing the history and development of this area. Processes that shaped this region include volcanism, tectonics, faulting, erosion, deposition, spreading, intrusions, and glaciation. There is a geologic map of the area with units and a legend, and links to maps and technical papers.

116

Laparoscopic pylorus-preserving pancreatoduodenectomy  

Microsoft Academic Search

A case of chronic pancreatitis localized in the head of the pancreas with pancreas divisum was treated by laparoscopic pylorus-preserving pancreatoduodenectomy. The laparoscopic technique of resection and reconstruction with a gastrojejunostomy, hepaticojejunostomy, and pancreaticojejunostomy is described. The postoperative period was complicated by a jejunal ulcer and delayed gastric emptying necessitating a prolonged hospitalization and intravenous hyperalimentation. No fistulas occurred, a

M. Gagner; A. Pomp

1994-01-01

117

Digital Imagery, Preservation and Access.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

These two reports published by the Commission on Preservation and Access (CPA) include a comparison of digital and microfilm imagery, as well as discussions of chemical deacidification; ASCII (nonimage) files; and storage, conversion, and transmission considerations. A structured glossary of terms relating to media conversion and digital computer…

Lesk, Michael; Lynn, M. Stuart

1990-01-01

118

Ultrasonic studies of preserved peaches  

Microsoft Academic Search

A conventional clinical ultrasonic B-scanner has been successfully used to image preserved (canned) peaches, with a view to assessing the method's potential for detecting stone pits embedded in the peach flesh. In addition, it is suggested from the pictures obtained that the grey scale texture arising from the peach flesh may be indicative of variations in the degree of ripeness

R. C. Chivers; Helen Russell; L. W. Anson

1995-01-01

119

Privacy preservation for data cubes  

Microsoft Academic Search

A range query finds the aggregated values over all selected cells of an online analyt- ical processing (OLAP) data cube where the selection is specified by the ranges of contiguous values for each dimension. An important issue in reality is how to preserve the confidential in- formation in individual data cells while still providing an accurate estimation of the original

Sam Yuan Sung; Yao Liu; Hui Xiong; Peter A. Ng

2006-01-01

120

Breast cancer and fertility preservation  

PubMed Central

Objective To review the benefits of adjuvant systemic therapy given to women with breast cancer of reproductive age, its effects on fertility, and options for fertility preservation. Design Publications relevant to fertility preservation and breast cancer were identified through a PubMed database search. Conclusion(s) Most women who develop invasive breast cancer under age 40 will be advised to undergo adjuvant chemotherapy with or without extended antihormonal therapy to reduce the risk of recurrence and death from breast cancer. Adjuvant chemotherapy particularly with alkylating agents such as cyclophosphamide is gonadotoxic and markedly accelerates the rate of age-related ovarian follicle loss. Although loss of fertility is an important issue for young cancer survivors, there is often little discussion about fertility preservation before initiation of adjuvant therapy. Greater familiarity with prognosis and effects of different types of adjuvant therapy on the part of infertility specialists and fertility preservation options such cryopreservation of embryos, oocytes, and ovarian tissue on the part of oncologists would facilitate these discussions. Establishment of rapid fertility consultation links within cancer survivorship programs can help ensure that every young woman who is likely to undergo gonadotoxic cancer treatment is counseled about the effects of therapy and options available to her to increase the likelihood of childbearing after cancer treatment.

Kim, S. Samuel; Klemp, Jennifer; Fabian, Carol

2014-01-01

121

Preservation and Archives in Vietnam.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This report, based on visits to Vietnamese libraries and archives between 1987 and 1997, examines the largely unexplored corpus of Vietnamese textual resources in research institutions and libraries there and elsewhere, the associated problems of bibliographic control, and issues of preservation. The following topics are addressed: the history of…

Henchy, Judith

122

Preservation: past, present and future.  

PubMed

Foods deteriorate in quality due to a wide range of reactions including some that are physical, some that are chemical, some enzymic and some microbiological. The various forms of spoilage and food poisoning caused by micro-organisms are preventable to a large degree by a number of preservation techniques, most of which act by preventing or slowing microbial growth. These include freezing, chilling, drying, curing, conserving, vacuum packing, modified atmosphere packing, acidifying, fermenting, and adding preservatives. In contrast, a smaller number of techniques act by inactivating micro-organisms, predominantly heating (pasteurization and sterilization). Complementary techniques restrict access of micro-organisms to food products, e.g. aseptic processing and packaging. New and 'emerging' preservation techniques include more that act by inactivation. They include the application of ionizing radiation, high hydrostatic pressure, high voltage electric discharges, high intensity light, ultrasonication in combination with heat and slightly raised pressure ('manothermosonication'), and the addition to foods of bacteriolytic enzymes, bacteriocins, and other naturally-occurring antimicrobials. Major trends, reacting to consumers' needs, are towards the use of procedures that deliver food products that are less 'heavily' preserved, higher quality, more convenient, more 'natural', freer from additives, nutritionally healthier, and still with high assurance of microbiological safety. PMID:10885107

Gould, G W

2000-01-01

123

A Capital Assets Preservation Program.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

New York State officials have created an efficient capital planning system that is a prescribed set of procedures and actions within a program planning manual and two software modules. The program is a series of logical steps that school districts must take to successfully implement their preservation plans. (MLF)

Heiman, Ralph

1989-01-01

124

A Review of Skin Preservation.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The history of skin preservation for clinical application is confined to a relatively short period (the last 65 years) during which time three methods or techniques have been developed. The use of refrigeration temperatures (above 0C.) offered to the phys...

V. P. Perry

1965-01-01

125

Visualization of data preserving monotonicity  

Microsoft Academic Search

A rational cubic function [M. Tian, Y. Zhang, J. Zhu, Q. Duan, Convexity-preserving piecewise rational cubic interpolation, ISCIAS, Hefei, China, 2005] has been used to visualize monotone data in the view of monotone curves by making constraints on free parameters in the description of rational cubic function. The rational cubic function is extended to rational bicubic partially blended function (Coons

Malik Zawwar Hussain; Maria Hussain

2007-01-01

126

Low-level efficacy of cosmetic preservatives.  

PubMed

Preservation using combinations of preservatives has several advantages. This study shows that the concentration of some of the most frequently used allergenic preservatives can be markedly lowered when they are combined with phenoxyethanol. The antimicrobial efficacy of cosmetic preservatives and known allergens of various potency [diazolidinyl urea, methylchloroisothiazolinone/methylisothiazolinone (MCI/MI), methylisothiazolinone (MI) and phenoxyethanol] was tested alone and in various combinations of two or three preservatives together. The preservatives were tested for minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) values and possible synergy using fractional inhibitory concentration. MCI/MI was the only preservative showing low-level MIC against all four tested microorganisms: Staphylococcus aureus, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Candida albicans and Aspergillus niger. Different combinations of the preservatives indicated additive effects against the microorganisms. No combination of preservatives showed any inhibitory action on each other. Challenge tests with different concentrations and combinations were performed in a cosmetic cream. Diazolidinyl urea and MCI/MI alone were ineffective against C. albicans in a challenge test at concentrations up to 16 times higher than the observed MIC values. When combining phenoxyethanol with either one of the allergenic preservatives diazolidinyl urea, MCI/MI or MI, the cosmetic cream was adequately preserved at concentrations well below the preservatives' MIC values as well as 10-20 times below the maximum permitted concentrations. By using combinations of preservatives, effective preservation can be achieved with lower concentrations of allergenic preservatives. PMID:21272037

Lundov, M D; Johansen, J D; Zachariae, C; Moesby, L

2011-04-01

127

Biological Pollutants  

MedlinePLUS

... Pollutants An Introduction to Indoor Air Quality (IAQ) Biological Pollutants Basic Information on Pollutants and Sources of ... collects may accumulate biological contaminants. Health Effects From Biological Contaminants Some biological contaminants trigger allergic reactions, including ...

128

Eye preservation tectonic graft using glycerol-preserved donor cornea  

PubMed Central

Aims To report the surgical outcome of tectonic graft using glycerol-preserved donor corneas to treat perforated keratitis. Methods The medical records were reviewed of all patients treated for perforated keratitis using glycerol-preserved corneas at a single institution between 1 July 2004 and 31 June 2010. The clinical features, precipitating factors, adjuvant therapies, and therapeutic outcomes were analyzed. Success was defined as re-epithelialization of the ocular surface without evisceration. Results Fourteen eyes from 14 patients (6 male and 8 female) were included. Age ranged from 58 to 84 years (average, 70.71±8.52 years) and the follow-up time ranged from 7 to 56 months (mean, 25.35±16.84 months). The culture results showed five bacterial infections, five cases of fungal keratitis, and one mixed infection; the culture results were negative for three patients. Satisfactory anatomical integrity was obtained in eight grafts (57.14%) that healed with neovascularization. Six grafts (48.85%) showed delayed re-epithelialization and were repaired with conjunctival flaps to maintain ocular surface integrity. Three patients developed secondary glaucoma and received trans-scleral cyclophotocoagulation. Thirteen patients had satisfactory anatomical integrity without evisceration or exenteration, while one patient received evisceration at 39-month follow-up because of intractable glaucoma. Conclusions Glycerol-preserved donor corneas combined with anterior vitrectomy with or without conjunctival flaps may be effective substitutes for evisceration surgery in patients with perforated keratitis.

Lin, H-C; Ong, S J; Chao, A-N

2012-01-01

129

Cell preservation in reparative and regenerative medicine: evolution of individualized solution composition.  

PubMed

The expanding complexity of biologics banked for therapeutic applications necessitates the development of improved preservation technologies for support of the emerging fields of reparative and regenerative medicine. Currently, a number of media or "solutions" are utilized for the preservation of biologics. Given the diversity of cell systems utilized in the regenerative medicine arena, we hypothesized that the development of unique (individualized) preservation solutions designed to meet the distinct molecular biological requirements of individual systems would provide for enhanced and extended preservation. To evaluate this hypothesis, coronary artery smooth muscle cells (CASMCs), coronary artery endothelial cells (CAECs), hepatic cells (C3A), and skeletal muscle cells (SKMCs) were hypothermically preserved for 2 to 7 days at 4 degrees C in either cell culture medium, University of Wisconsin Solution (UW or ViaSpan), or HypoThermosol (HTS) variants. Cells were then assayed for viability, using the alamarBlue assay as well as calcein-AM, subsequent to their return to normothermic (37 degrees C) temperatures for up to 5 days. CASMC viability was best maintained when preserved in HTS plus Trolox/EDTA, CAEC viability was highest when preserved in HTS plus Trolox, SKMCs stored in HTS plus Trolox/RGD demonstrated enhanced viability, and C3A cells were best preserved in HTS plus FK041. The data suggest that solution compositions that address the differences in cell death mechanisms limiting preservation efficacy can result in targeted improvement matched to specific cell types. These observations support the custom solution hypothesis of cell and tissue preservation. PMID:15684675

Mathew, Aby J; Baust, John M; Van Buskirk, Robert G; Baust, John G

2004-01-01

130

Biology Online  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Biology Online provides a dictionary of biological terms, tutorials, and biology-related links categorized into dozens of subfields. The tutorials cover the following topics: adaptation, cell biology, developmental biology, freshwater ecology, genetics and evolution, neurology, regulation in biological systems, and the origin and evolution of life.

Lees, Richard

131

Quantum channels that preserve entanglement  

Microsoft Academic Search

Let M and N be full matrix algebras. A unital completely positive (UCP) map $${\\\\phi:M\\\\to N}$$ is said to preserve entanglement if its inflation $${\\\\phi\\\\otimes {\\\\rm id}_N : M\\\\otimes N\\\\to N\\\\otimes N}$$ has the following property: for every maximally entangled pure state ? of $${N\\\\otimes N}$$, $${\\\\rho\\\\circ(\\\\phi\\\\otimes {\\\\rm id}_N)}$$ is an entangled state of $${M\\\\otimes N}$$ . We show that

William Arveson

2009-01-01

132

Biological decontamination by nonthermal plasmas  

Microsoft Academic Search

Nonthermal gaseous discharges have been found to be effective agents for biological decontamination\\/sterilization. The ability to generate these discharges at atmospheric pressure makes the decontamination process practical and inexpensive. In addition, the fact that the plasmas generated by such discharges are cold makes their use suitable for applications where medium preservation is desired. To fully understand the biophysical and biochemical

Mounir Laroussi; Igor Alexeff; Weng L. Kang

2000-01-01

133

Privacy preserving mining of association rules  

Microsoft Academic Search

We present a framework for mining association rules from transactions consisting of categorical items where the data has been randomized to preserve privacy of individual transactions. While it is feasible to recover association rules and preserve privacy using a straightforward \\

Alexandre V. Evfimievski; Ramakrishnan Srikant; Rakesh Agrawal; Johannes Gehrke

2002-01-01

134

Perspectives on Archeological Site Protection and Preservation.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This report consists of papers from two symposia that focused on issues related to cultural site protection and preservation topics. Topics discussed in the papers include preservation of sites and protection planning and implementation, Federal and State...

P. R. Nickens

1991-01-01

135

Fertility Preservation Options After Gonadotoxic Chemotherapy  

PubMed Central

Chemotherapy has the potential to deplete and destroy a woman’s reproductive potential. Although many oncologists are referring women for fertility preservation before chemotherapy, in many cases there is limited time for fertility preservation. This review provides an overview of the impact of cancer and chemotherapy on the ovarian reserve, a summary of methods of fertility preservation prior to chemotherapy, and current knowledge of fertility preservation techniques after gonadotoxic chemotherapy.

Hyman, Jordana Hadassah; Tulandi, Togas

2013-01-01

136

Privacy-Preserving Linear Fisher Discriminant Analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Privacy-preserving data mining enables two or more parties to collaboratively perform data mining while preserving the data\\u000a privacy of the participating parties. So far, various data mining and machine learning algorithms have been enhanced to incorporate\\u000a privacy preservation. In this paper, we propose privacy-preserving solutions for Fisher Discriminant Analysis (FDA) over horizontally\\u000a and vertically partitioned data. FDA is one of

Shuguo Han; Wee Keong Ng

2008-01-01

137

Quantifying Neighbourhood Preservation in Topographic Mappings  

Microsoft Academic Search

Mappings that preserve neighbourhood relationships are relevant in both practical and biologicalcontexts. It is important to be clear about precisely what preserving neighbourhoods couldmean. We give a definition of a "perfectly neighbourhood preserving" map, which we call atopographic homeomorphism, and prove that this has certain desirable properties. When atopographic homeomorphism does not exist (the usual case), many choices are available

Geoffrey J. Goodhill; Steven Finch; Terrence J. Sejnowski

1995-01-01

138

Polarimetric signature preservation in SAR speckle filtering  

Microsoft Academic Search

Current polarimetric SAR speckle filtering algorithms emphasize speckle reduction, but their preservation of polarimetric information and the statistical properties between channels have never been examined. This paper analyzes the existing algorithms for their effectiveness in preserving polarimetric properties, and proposes an algorithm that is effective in both speckle filtering and the preservation of polarimetric properties

J. S. Lee; G. De Grandi; M. R. Grunes; E. Nezry

1996-01-01

139

Commission on Preservation and Access Newsletter, 1996.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The Commission on Preservation and Access was established to foster and support collaboration among libraries and allied organizations in order to ensure the preservation of the published and documentary record in all formats and to provide enhanced access to scholarly information. The Commission's newsletter keeps preservation and access…

Commission on Preservation and Access Newsletter, 1996

1996-01-01

140

Exploiting side information in locality preserving projection  

Microsoft Academic Search

Even if the class label information is unknown, side in- formation represents some equivalence constraints between pairs of patterns, indicating whether pairs originate from the same class. Exploiting side information, we develop al- gorithms to preserve both the intra-class and inter-class local structures. This new type of locality preserving pro- jection (LPP), called LPP with side information (LPPSI), preserves the

An Senjian; Wanquan Liu; Svetha Venkatesh

2008-01-01

141

Prospects for analyzing ancient RNA in preserved materials.  

PubMed

An ever increasing wealth of ancient biological material is providing opportunities to study biomolecules. Animal, plant, and microbial samples dating back hundreds, thousands, and even millions of years have been preserved in a dry state under climatic conditions ranging from the arctic to hot deserts. Various small molecules, often crystalized or polymerized, have improved preservation. Modern methods such as polymerase chain reaction (PCR), mass spectrometry, and shotgun sequencing have detected and characterized ancient biomolecules. Modern sequencing has the capacity not only to assemble the whole genome of the target host but also those of the host's parasites, mutualists, and commensals. The study of ancient RNA has barely begun. Several studies show that RNA has been preserved for decades to hundreds of years and the germination of ancient seeds implies that messenger RNA can be preserved for thousands of years. This review briefly examines the types of ancient materials available and assesses their suitability for the study of ancient RNA. Sequencing RNA from this material has the potential not only to illuminate the target host's transcriptome and small RNAs but also to characterize the host's RNA parasites: viruses and viroids. PMID:24343860

Guy, Paul L

2014-01-01

142

Preservation of sweet sorghum biomass  

SciTech Connect

Sweet sorghum stalks (42% sugar, dry basis (d.b.)) and bagasse (10% sugar, d.b.) from a cane mill were stored to preserve sugar. Bagasse and stalks were stored outdoors in sealed containers (anaerobic conditions). Treatments included using carbon dioxide or sulfur dioxide atmospheres or surface spraying with propionic acid or aqueous ammonia. Stalks were also stored outdoors under aerobic conditions. Treatments included drying the stalks or spraying with propionic acid. After 200 days, propionic acid (anaerobic) and SO/sub 2/-treated stalks had 34% and 19% of the original sugar remaining, respectively. No other samples had more than 3% of the original sugar remaining. 28 references, 6 tables.

Jasberg, B.K.; Montgomery, R.R.; Anderson, R.A.

1983-01-01

143

Biological Technicians  

MedlinePLUS

... MAP | EN ESPAÑOL Life, Physical, and Social Science > Biological Technicians PRINTER-FRIENDLY EN ESPAÑOL Summary What They ... of workers and occupations. What They Do -> What Biological Technicians Do About this section Biological technicians prepare ...

144

Fertility Preservation in Gynecological Cancers  

PubMed Central

For cancers of reproductive system in women, fertility preservation is complex. Fertility is also affected by therapies, however prevention is possible. Radiotherapy affects gonads, uterus, and subsequent pregnancy outcomes in all ages. However, degree and damage depend on dose, irradiation field, and age at the time of exposure. Ovarian transposition is considered if ovarian involvement is unlikely. Gonadotoxic effects of chemotherapy are related to agent’s type, cumulative doses, age, and ovarian reserve. Some agents are highly toxic. Rendering follicular development quiescent by suppression of gonadotropins does reduce the ovarian damage. Simple or radical trachelectomy can be used in early cervical cancer. Fertility saving surgery is possible only in early stage low grade epithelial cancers of the ovary, however, in germ cell tumors even in advanced stages it may be possible to preserve fertility. There are no standard recommendations for endometrial cancer. Embryo, oocyte, and ovarian tissue cryopreservation are possible. The human embryo is very resistant to damage. In view of these possibilities, it is advocated that attention to long term health and quality of life in gonadotoxic therapy must be incorporated into plans as early as possible.

Chhabra, Shakuntala; Kutchi, Imran

2013-01-01

145

Hydrological processes in microbial preservation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Extreme environments, such as aqueous, high temperature, mineralizing systems (thermal springs) are the focus of the search for evidence of life on early Earth or on Mars. Mineral deposition from saturated waters potentially entombs these organisms complicating hydrological control of the fossilization process. Near-surface and subsurface hydrology of these systems is governed by the porosity and continuity of pore spaces in microbial mats and associated sinter deposits. Herein we examine the evolution of pore space in microbial mats with emphasis on the relationship between pore size and geometry, and silica deposition. Microbial mats living in the outflow channels of silica-rich thermal springs in Yellowstone National Park, WY, and Steamboat Springs, NV are best preserved under conditions of intermittent inundation and drying and/or cooling. This leads to periodic deposition of silica initially as a coating on the cells and eventually as an infilling in the cells. As a consequence, pore spaces between microbial filaments retain characteristic configurations and are filled with silica crystals of different size and morphology than that of the coatings or fillings. The nature of the pore-filling silica is controlled by the temperature and chemistry of the water flowing through the sinter mound and is indicative of the environment of preservations.

Hinman, Nancy W.

1997-07-01

146

Genographic's Legacy: Preservation and Projections  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this lesson, the fourth in a set of lessons exploring migration, genetic markers, markers in context, and the Genographic Project (a five-year study of human origins and migration based on genetic markers), students will learn what the Genographic Project will leave for future generations, both in cultural preservation and knowledge of our common ancestry and make educated projections about our common future. They will examine why the timing of the project is critical. Students will consider ways in which the project is impacted by scientific and technological advancements, which make such a study feasible for the first time in human history. They will consider the impact of increasing globalization, which makes collecting and interpreting the project data more challenging. Students will assume the role of a researcher in the project tasked with documenting the contributions indigenous groups have made to the story of the human journey. They will understand why indigenous communities play such a crucial role in unlocking the secrets of our common ancestry, examine how those communities are being threatened, make projections about future challenges to their ways of life, and consider how research such as the Genograhic Project can play a role in preserving them.

147

Chemical stability of preserved oligotrophic water samples  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Tests were conducted to determine whether changes that may occur in the chemical characteristics of stored oligotrophic waters collected on 15 sites in northeastern Minnesota were affected by chloroforming. Chloroform was added on site to one of each pair of samples to stabilize the organic content of the water by preventing biological decomposition. The samples were subsequently stored at 25 deg.C, and pH and specific conductivity were measured at intervals for a period of 13 months at which time nine additional chemical parameters (total dissolved solids, total alkalinity, chloride, sulfate, silica, calcium, magnesium, sodium and potassium) were measured.pH increased and specific conductivity decreased. Average changes occurring in time from the original levels were not influenced by treatment, and first differed significantly (P0.05). Sodium and potassium levels were too low to provide meaningful comparisons. It was concluded that chloroform may be advantageous in preserving oligothrophic waters with respect to total dissolved solids, sulfate and calcium.

Adomaitis, V. A.; Shoesmith, J. A.; Swanson, G. A.

1973-01-01

148

Maintenance and preservation of ectomycorrhizal and arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi.  

PubMed

Short- to long-term preservation of mycorrhizal fungi is essential for their in-depth study and, in the case of culture collections, for safeguarding their biodiversity. Many different maintenance/preservation methods have been developed in the last decades, from soil- and substrate-based maintenance to preservation methods that reduce (e.g., storage under water) or arrest (e.g., cryopreservation) growth and metabolism; all have advantages and disadvantages. In this review, the principal methods developed so far for ectomycorrhizal and arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi are reported and described given their distinct biology/ecology/evolutionary history. Factors that are the most important for their storage are presented and a protocol proposed which is applicable, although not generalizable, for the long-term preservation at ultra-low temperature of a large panel of these organisms. For ECM fungi, isolates should be grown on membranes or directly in cryovials until the late stationary growth phase. The recommended cryopreservation conditions are: a cryoprotectant of 10 % glycerol, applied 1-2 h prior to cryopreservation, a slow cooling rate (1 °C min(-1)) until storage below -130 °C, and fast thawing by direct plunging in a water bath at 35-37 °C. For AMF, propagules (i.e., spores/colonized root pieces) isolated from cultures in the late or stationary phase of growth should be used and incorporated in a carrier (i.e., soil or alginate beads), preferably dried, before cryopreservation. For in vitro-cultured isolates, 0.5 M trehalose should be used as cryoprotectant, while isolates produced in vivo can be preserved in dried soil without cryoprotectant. A fast cryopreservation cooling rate should be used (direct immersion in liquid nitrogen or freezing at temperatures below -130 °C), as well as fast thawing by direct immersion in a water bath at 35 °C. PMID:24292254

Lalaymia, Ismahen; Cranenbrouck, Sylvie; Declerck, Stéphane

2014-07-01

149

Saliva Preservative for Diagnostic Purposes  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Saliva is an important body fluid for diagnostic purposes. Glycoproteins, glucose, steroids, DNA, and other molecules of diagnostic value are found in saliva. It is easier to collect as compared to blood or urine. Unfortunately, saliva also contains large numbers of bacteria that can release enzymes, which can degrade proteins and nucleic acids. These degradative enzymes destroy or reduce saliva s diagnostic value. This innovation describes the formulation of a chemical preservative that prevents microbial growth and inactivates the degradative enzymes. This extends the time that saliva can be stored or transported without losing its diagnostic value. Multiple samples of saliva can be collected if needed without causing discomfort to the subject and it does not require any special facilities to handle after it is collected.

Pierson, Duane L.; Mehta, Satish K.

2012-01-01

150

Biological Resources Branch  

Cancer.gov

This material was aseptically re-vialed in aliquots of 100 micrograms. Please note that this sample contains no preservatives, and hence should be handled aseptically (eg. open container in a biological safety cabinet). The activity of the pure protein is stable at 4oC (if kept sterile and not exposed to protease), at -20oC, to lyophilization, and to several cycles of freezing and thawing. Heating the diluted sample at 100oC for 60 minutes will destroy most of its IL-1 bioactivity.

151

The scientific bases for preservation of the Mariana crow  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The Panel recently released the report and recommendations resulting from its work over the last six months. Although primarily focused on the Mariana Crow, the report highlights that this is a matter potentially far more serious than the preservation of the crow on Guam and Rota. The report includes major sections dealing with the need to intensify research and control activities on the Brown Tree Snake both on Guam and in all appropriate areas to which the snake could spread if uncontained and on the population biology and behavior of the Mariana Crow on Guam and Rota.

National Research Council, Committee on the Scientific Bases for the Preservation of the Mariana Crow; Duckworth, W.D.; Beissinger, S.R.; Derrickson, S.R.; Fritts, T.H.; Haig, S.M.; James, F.C.; Marsluff, J.M.; Rideout, B.A.

1997-01-01

152

Preservation, Packaging and Packing for Space Systems.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The document establishes the general requirements for preparation for delivery including cleaning, preservation, packaging, packing, and marking for shipment and storage of deliverable material items for space systems.

1966-01-01

153

Enhanced cellular preservation by clay minerals in 1 billion-year-old lakes.  

PubMed

Organic-walled microfossils provide the best insights into the composition and evolution of the biosphere through the first 80 percent of Earth history. The mechanism of microfossil preservation affects the quality of biological information retained and informs understanding of early Earth palaeo-environments. We here show that 1 billion-year-old microfossils from the non-marine Torridon Group are remarkably preserved by a combination of clay minerals and phosphate, with clay minerals providing the highest fidelity of preservation. Fe-rich clay mostly occurs in narrow zones in contact with cellular material and is interpreted as an early microbially-mediated phase enclosing and replacing the most labile biological material. K-rich clay occurs within and exterior to cell envelopes, forming where the supply of Fe had been exhausted. Clay minerals inter-finger with calcium phosphate that co-precipitated with the clays in the sub-oxic zone of the lake sediments. This type of preservation was favoured in sulfate-poor environments where Fe-silicate precipitation could outcompete Fe-sulfide formation. This work shows that clay minerals can provide an exceptionally high fidelity of microfossil preservation and extends the known geological range of this fossilization style by almost 500?Ma. It also suggests that the best-preserved microfossils of this time may be found in low-sulfate environments. PMID:25068404

Wacey, David; Saunders, Martin; Roberts, Malcolm; Menon, Sarath; Green, Leonard; Kong, Charlie; Culwick, Timothy; Strother, Paul; Brasier, Martin D

2014-01-01

154

Protecting endangered species under future climate change: From single-species preservation to an anticipatory policy approach  

Microsoft Academic Search

Anthropogenic climate climate change presents a unique challenge for endangered species policy and an opportunity for policy makers to develop a more predictive and robust approach to preserving the nation's biological resources. Biological and ecological reactions to shifting climate conditions and the potential feedbacks and synergistic effects of such changes may threaten the well-being of many species, particularly of those

Carol A. Bloomgarden

1995-01-01

155

Preservation potential of microorganism morphologies in tufas, sinters, and travertines through geologic time  

Microsoft Academic Search

Microscopically, modern tufas, sinters, and travertines (TSTs) may contain filaments, spirilla, clotted micrite (peloids and\\/or\\u000a grumeleuse), tubules, coccoids, or spheres that suggest a biological component to their constitution. However, examination\\u000a of progressively older TST deposits reveals that the preservation of primary depositional features, including biological morphologies,\\u000a is commonly obscured by diagenetic overprinting that may mask or obliterate original features. In

Carol B. de Wet; Katherine Davis

2010-01-01

156

[The study of fatty acid composition of terpug during preserve's production].  

PubMed

The results of research of fatty acids composition of Terpug, during the producing of preserves in souses and aspics, which are got using the method of gas liquid chromatography. It is known that during the marinating process of Terpug there is no the oxidizing destruction of lipids of muscular tissue of fish. The kind of aspic influences on fatty acids composition of preserves of Terpug. The process of ripening and storing of preserves of fish leads to the diffusion, in particular the sorption of components of aspic with fish. This process increases nutrient density, proportion W3 cem/W6 cem acids it is close to optimal meaning, testifies to high biological value of preserves. PMID:12872659

Cherevan, E I; Tsybul'ko, E I

2003-01-01

157

Wilderness Preservation Act, U.S.A.  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This online article, from "The Biodiversity Crisis: Losing What Counts", takes a look at the Wilderness Preservation Act. It covers the criteria for inclusion in the National Wilderness Preservation System, the protections that "wilderness status" offers and the ecological importance of wilderness areas.

158

Cancer and fertility: strategies to preserve fertility  

Microsoft Academic Search

Fertility preservation is a key component of cancer management in young people. The Fourth Evian Annual Reproduction Workshop Meeting was held in April 2009 to discuss cancer and fertility in young adults. Specialists in oncology, assisted reproduction, embryology and clinical genetics presented published data and ongoing research on cancer and fertility, with particular focus on strategies to preserve fertility. This

K. Diedrich; B. C. J. M. Fauser; P. Devroey

2011-01-01

159

Problems in the Preservation of Electronic Records.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Discusses issues related to the preservation of electronic records. Highlights include differences between physical and electronic records; volume of electronic records; physical media; authenticity; migration of electronic records; metadata; legal issues; improved storage media; and projects for preservation of electronic records. (LRW)

Lin, Lim Siew; Ramaiah, Chennupati K.; Wal, Pitt Kuan

2003-01-01

160

Preservation Organization and Staffing. SPEC Kit 160.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This document examines the changes in organization and staffing of preservation programs since SPEC (the Systems and Procedures Exchange Center) surveyed members of the Association of Research Libraries (ARL) in 1985. It is based on responses of 109 ARL libraries to ARL preservation surveys, and additional contacts with 21 ARL libraries that have…

Reed-Scott, Jutta

161

Cliffwood Beach Fossil Preserve Environmental Assessment.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The Fossil Preserve built as part of the Cliffwood Beach Shore Protection project in the mid 1970's is important to scientists. The Township of Aberdeen now wants the Preserve filled to halt further cliff erosion and avoid safety problems. Before filling ...

1982-01-01

162

Boric Acid Preservation of Urine Samples  

Microsoft Academic Search

Comparison of the results of bacteriological culture and microscopic examination of urine samples transported over a distance by the dip-inoculum transport medium, ice-box, and boric acid preservation with “natural” urine specimens showed that the last, in a final concentration of 1·8%, gives satisfactory preservation.

I. A. Porter; J. Brodie

1969-01-01

163

A Review of Natural Stone Preservation.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

With increased interest in stone preservation, it is desirable to know what causes stone to decay, and what materials can be used to preserve stone. This review covers the following topics: causes of stone decay, including faults in the stone, salts, natu...

G. A. Sleater

1973-01-01

164

Historic Preservation Vocabulary, Designations, and Resources  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Preservationists use a common language that had its beginnings in the National Historic Preservation Act of 1966. This act created the Secretary of the Interior's Standards for the Treatment of Historic Properties, which defined the terms and treatments that have become the standard for preservation projects and plans. These terms have been used…

Williams, Stacy D.

2011-01-01

165

Polarimetric property preservation in SAR speckle filtering  

Microsoft Academic Search

Speckle reduction of polarimetric SAR imagery has been studied using several different approaches. All these approaches exploited the degree of independence between HH, HV and VV channels. The statistical characteristics, such as correlation between channels, and polarimetric property preservation, were not addressed. This paper proposes a new approach in polarimetric SAR filtering. The new approach emphasizes not introducing cross-talk, preserving

Jong-Sen Lee; Mitchell R. Grunes; Wolfgang-Martin Boerner

1997-01-01

166

PRESERVATION OF TRACE METALS IN WATER SAMPLES  

EPA Science Inventory

Questions about trace metal preservation are resurfacing because the health effect risks associated with certain metals continue to drive the required reporting limits lower. Inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry was used in this study to analyze preservation of samples co...

167

A Big Problem for Magellan: Food Preservation  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In this paper, we present data related to how a Portuguese teacher developed the module "A big problem for Magellan: Food preservation." Students were asked to plan an investigation in order to identify which were the best food preservation methods in the XV and XVI centuries of Portuguese overseas navigation, and then establish a parallel between…

Galvao, Cecilia; Reis, Pedro; Freire, Sofia

2008-01-01

168

Preservation of Kefir Grains, a Comparative Study  

Microsoft Academic Search

The microflora of kefir grains of household origin was isolated and identified. At least two lactococci, two lactobacilli, two yeast and one mould were detected.Different methods for kefir grain preservation were studied. Metabolic activity of grains preserved frozen at ?20 °C and ?80 °C and grains stored at 4 °C was evaluated.Grains stored at ?20 °C and ?80 °C maintained

G. L. Garrote; A. G. Abraham; G. L. De Antoni

1997-01-01

169

Preservation Film: Platform for Digital Access Systems.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Preservation efforts for an increasingly digitally oriented future have turned to advanced and improved methods of preservation on microfilm, which has a life expectancy of more than 500 years when properly prepared, stored, and managed, and can support a wide range of digital access systems. Computer controlled cameras can provide significantly…

Jones, C. Lee

170

Biological Agents  

MedlinePLUS

... Statistics Training Publications Newsroom Small Business Anti-Retaliation Biological Agents Safety and Health Topics A-Z Index What's New Biological agents include bacteria, viruses, fungi, other microorganisms and ...

171

Biological Filters.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Presents the 1978 literature review of wastewater treatment. The review is concerned with biological filters, and it covers: (1) trickling filters; (2) rotating biological contractors; and (3) miscellaneous reactors. A list of 14 references is also presented. (HM)

Klemetson, S. L.

1978-01-01

172

Preserving Biodiversity in Costa Rica: The Case of the Merck-INBio Agreement  

Microsoft Academic Search

Compensation for biological samples and information obtained from developing countries is now embodied in contractual relationships between nongovernmental organizations such as Costa Rica's National Biodiversity Institute (INBio) and the Merck pharmaceutical company. This article discusses the innovative partnership between INBio and Merck. This agreement may serve as a model for sustainable development and preserving biodiversity in Costa Rica and elsewhere.

Michele Zebich-Knos

1997-01-01

173

Comparative assessment of the strength of tendons preserved by different means  

Microsoft Academic Search

In clinical practice the plastic surgery of tendons with the use of various materials, biological as well as synthetic, is carded out relatively frequently. Data available in the literature [ 1-10] show that allo- and xenotendon tissue is a promising plastic material for this purpose. An analysis of the literature on the preservation of tendon tissue in liquid media [9,

L. N. Shesternina; E. P. Pashkov; L. A. Yagoda

1979-01-01

174

Numerical simulations of pulsed electric fields for food preservation: A review  

Microsoft Academic Search

The application of pulsed electric fields is a novel technique to preserve foods in a non-thermal way. One key component of this technology is the treatment chamber, in which the food is exposed to a pulsed electric field to induce permeabilization of biological cells, e.g. to inactivate microorganisms. For a high efficiency of the method and a high product quality

D. Gerlach; N. Alleborn; A. Baars; A. Delgado; J. Moritz; D. Knorr

2008-01-01

175

The role of DOM sorption to mineral surfaces in the preservation of organic matter in soils  

Microsoft Academic Search

Sorption of dissolved organic matter (DOM) is considered to be a major process in the preservation of organic matter (OM) in marine sediments. Evidence for this hypothesis includes the close relationship between sediment surface area (SA) and organic carbon (OC) concentrations and the strongly reduced biological degradability after DOM has sorbed to mineral surfaces. The aim of this study was

Klaus Kaiser; Georg Guggenberger

2000-01-01

176

Monitoring Survival and Preservation of Recent Cyanobacterial Mats  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Through geobiological evolution cyanobacterial mats have played a fundamental role through the development of early microbial carbonate ecosystems and through the sustainment of major biogeochemical cycling in the biosphere; nonetheless their sedimentary record is relatively modest in comparison with their biological impact; this apparent under-representation in the fossil record may be due to their intrinsic poor preservation potential but also to our inability to recognize some subtle microbial signatures. Modern studies on cyanobacterial mats involve high-tech molecular approaches to identify, analyze and even quantify the genetic diversity of ancient and modern microbial mats, yet the physical changes of mats, their survival and preservation potential, remain almost unknown and experimentally poorly explored. If we are going to succeed in the astrobiological quest for traces of life we should develop integrated methods and diagnostic features to address biosignatures at both, the phenotypic and genotypic levels when possible. The correct recognition and interpretation of biosignatures in this emerging field needs, aside these fine molecular tools, plain experimental approaches to test microbial resistance, survival and preservation potential of microbial mats after exposure to diagenetic changes. In this work we study some effects on fresh slices of cyanobacterial mats and cultures of specific external simulated agents that normally occur during diagenesis such as dehydratation, heat, abrasion or pressure among others. Samples from different cyanobacterial communities associated to carbonates collected from different rivers and falls around Mexico were subjected to same lab procedures. Physical and textural changes were monitored through microscopic analysis where cell integrity and mat cohesiveness were analyzed before and after treatment. Preliminary results show that mats enriched in halite and clay sediments were preferentially preserved; however those mats subjected to a rapid dehydration technique retained their original textural characteristics but their overall integrity was lost. Simple and direct observations like these help to get a better idea as to what to expect as biosignatures according to a specific environment, bridging the gap between the observer and the different types and scales of evidences.

Chacon, Elizabeth; Negron-Mendoza, Alicia; Camargo, Claudia

2010-05-01

177

Fertility preservation in female classic galactosemia patients  

PubMed Central

Almost every female classic galactosemia patient develops primary ovarian insufficiency (POI) as a diet-independent complication of the disease. This is a major concern for patients and their parents, and physicians are often asked about possible options to preserve fertility. Unfortunately, there are no recommendations on fertility preservation in this group. The unique pathophysiology of classic galactosemia with a severely reduced follicle pool at an early age requires an adjusted approach. In this article recommendations for physicians based on current knowledge concerning galactosemia and fertility preservation are made. Fertility preservation is only likely to be successful in very young prepubertal patients. In this group, cryopreservation of ovarian tissue is currently the only available technique. However, this technique is not ready for clinical application, it is considered experimental and reduces the ovarian reserve. Fertility preservation at an early age also raises ethical questions that should be taken into account. In addition, spontaneous conception despite POI is well described in classic galactosemia. The uncertainty surrounding fertility preservation and the significant chance of spontaneous pregnancy warrant counseling towards conservative application of these techniques. We propose that fertility preservation should only be offered with appropriate institutional research ethics approval to classic galactosemia girls at a young prepubertal age.

2013-01-01

178

Cracks preserve kimberlite melt composition  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The chemical composition of kimberlite melts has previously been estimated by measuring aphanitic intrusive rocks (deposit composition) or by partial melting experiments on carbonated lherzolites (source composition). Pervasively altered, degassed and contaminated material preclude the determination of the primitive melt composition. Here we present data on melt compositions trapped in unaltered olivine cracks that have been healed and overgrown prior to shallow level emplacement. During the ascent of kimberlite magma the prograding crack tip samples mantle peridotite xenoliths. Xenoliths rapidly disaggregate over the first few kilometers of transport producing a population of olivine xenocrysts that are released to the fluid-rich melt. Rapid ascent of the kimberlite magma causes depressurization and creates internal elastic stresses in the olivine crystals that can only be alleviated by volumetric expansion or brittle failure. On the time scales operative during kimberlite ascent volume expansion is negligible and brittle failure occurs. Small wetting angles between the fluid-rich melt and olivine allow infiltration of the melt into the crack. These very thin cracks (<5 µm) heal rapidly and preserve primary kimberlitic material en route to the surface. We use the electron microprobe with a focused beam (interaction volume less than 2 µm) to analyze the small volumes of material found in the healed cracks of the olivine. We analyzed for 18 elements including oxygen, which we obtained by utilizing a non-linear time dependent intensity acquisition and empirically determined mass absorption coefficients. By accurately knowing the amount of oxygen in a sample, we assign oxygen molecules to all other analyzed elements (e.g. MgO, Al2O3) and the remaining oxygen is assigned to hydrogen and carbon. The analysis total is used as a constraint on the proportion of each species. Mg/Ca ratios of the cracks vary from 0.6-5 indicating a compositional continuum between alkali-poor, carbonate-rich melt and Mg-rich silicate melt. OH/CO2 ratios (0-7) and other volatiles (S, F, Cl) are variable and do not correlate with any of the other major elements, consistent with a variably degassed fluid phase. Element associations indicated that Ca, Ni, Ba and Sr co-vary and are inversely related to Mg, Si, Fe, (and several other minor elements). In summary, crack-filling material is Ca and Mg-rich (up to 55 wt.% CaO+MgO), silica-poor (11-32 wt.% SiO2) and are volatile rich ( up to 28 wt.%).

Brett, R. C.; Vigouroux-Caillibot, N.; Donovan, J. J.; Russell, K.

2009-12-01

179

Collinearity-preserving functions between Desarguesian planes  

PubMed Central

Using concepts from valuation theory, we obtain a characterization of all collinearity-preserving functions from one affine or projective Desarguesian plane into another. The case in which the planes are projective and the range contains a quadrangle has been treated previously in the literature. Our results permit one or both planes to be affine and include cases in which the range contains a triangle but no quadrangle. A key theorem is that, with the exception of certain embeddings defined on planes of order 2 and 3, every collinearity-preserving function from one affine Desarguesian plane into another can be extended to a collinearity-preserving function between enveloping projective planes.

Carter, David S.; Vogt, Andrew

1980-01-01

180

Postextraction ridge preservation using a synthetic alloplast.  

PubMed

Ridge preservation is the prevention of the 40% to 60% jaw-bone atrophy that normally takes place 2 to 3 years postextraction and continues at a rate of 0.25% to 0.5% per year until death. It is achieved by the immediate grafting of the extraction socket with or without the use of an immediate implant. It offers the dentist the ability to preserve the alveolar ridge for future implant and restorative dentistry, to achieve anterior esthetics, and to prevent postoperative pain and bleeding. The practice of ridge preservation involves advanced extraction therapy and replacement therapy. PMID:11307396

Ashman, A

2000-01-01

181

Preservation Methods Utilized for Space Food  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Food for manned space flight has been provided by NASA-Johnson Space Center since 1962. The various mission scenarios and space craft designs dictated the type of food preservation methodologies required to meet mission objectives. The preservation techniques used in space flight include freeze-dehydration, thermostabilization, irradiation, freezing and moisture adjustment. Innovative packaging material and techniques enhanced the shelf-stability of the food items. Future space voyages may include extended duration exploration missions requiring new packaging materials and advanced preservation techniques to meet mission goals of up to 5-year shelf-life foods.

Vodovotz, Yael; Bourland, Charles

2000-01-01

182

Digital Preservation: A Time Bomb for Digital Libraries  

Microsoft Academic Search

Abstract. The difficulty and expense of preserving digital information is a potential impediment to digital library development. Preservation of traditional materials became,more,successful and systematic after libraries and archives integrated preservation into overall planning and resource allocation. Digital preservation is largely experimental and replete with the risks associated with untested methods. Digital preservation strategies are shaped by the needs and constraints

Margaret Hedstrom

1998-01-01

183

Managed forest reserves: preserving diversity  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Background As part of the Northwest Forest Plan, large areas have been designated on many federal forests in western Oregon to provide critical habitat for plants and animals that are associated with old-growth habitat. Some of the structural characteristics often considered typical of old forests include large-diameter overstory trees, large standing and fallen dead trees, and one or more understory layers (Figure 1). However, not all of these areas are currently in old-growth conditions. Many of them contain young (<40 years), uniformly dense Douglas-fir stands that regenerated after timber harvest. The original management goal for these stands was to produce high yields of timber and associated wood products. With implementation of the Northwest Forest Plan in 1994, the management objective shifted to accelerating development of old-growth characteristics by enhancing structural and biological diversity of these areas. A major challenge today is how to promote these structural characteristics in younger stands. Researchers have been asking if lessons can be learned from the development of our current old growth and applied to management of younger stands. Dr. John Tappeiner and his university and agency research partners are helping to answer this question by examining the differences in development between old-growth and young stands in western Oregon. Understanding how the structure of these old forests developed may provide a model for management of young stands, especially when the management goal is to provide habitat for species associated with older forests.

Tappeiner, John; Poage, Nathan; Erickson, Janet L.

2003-01-01

184

Biological Engineering  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This page, presented by MIT and made available online via the university's Open Courseware site, presents a series of materials on biological engineering. Topics include introduction to biological engineering design, systems microbiology, computation for biological engineers and molecular principles of biomaterials. Materials are at both the undergraduate and graduate school levels. OpenCourseWare is free educational material online. Video lectures, assignments and exams are included. No registration or enrollment is required to use the materials.

2011-05-13

185

Biological Clocks  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This lesson, from Science NetLinks, will challenge students to consider the idea of biological clocks. By first observing the opening and closing of a Morning Glory flower, students will be introduced to the concept of biological clocks in a tangible, hands-on way. The teacher will then lead them to identify internal clues they experience at different times of the day and talk about their own biological clocks.

Science Netlinks;

2002-08-05

186

Computational Biology  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Dr. Jeff Krause, computational biologist and educator at Shodor Foundation Inc explores the changing face of contemporary biology and addresses these concepts: How has biology changed in recent history? How do computational models and tools help us to view biomolecular structures and motion? How do computational models relate to the shift towards systems thinking and study in biology? Shodor Foundation Inc is the leading partner for the NSDL Pathway for Computational Science (CSERD).This seminar was recorded live on December 11, 2007.

Payo, Robert

187

Patterns of Behavior in Endangered Species Preservation  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper analyzes statistically the main determinants of government decisions about the preservation of endangered species. As explanatory variables, we use proxies that include 'scientific' species characteristics, such as \\

Andrew Metrick; Martin L. Weitzman

1996-01-01

188

Viability and Function of Preserved Red Cells.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Various in vitro manipulations of red cells produce a so-called 'preservation injury' that manifests itself in the form of severely and irreversibly damaged red cells that are removed from the recipient's circulation at an accelerated rate usually during ...

C. R. Valeri

1970-01-01

189

COLEMAN-EVANS WOOD PRESERVING, WHITEHOUSE, FLORIDA  

EPA Science Inventory

The Coleman-Evans Wood Preserving facility in Whitehouse, Florida, required technical support to reassure the local citizens that the selected remediation technology (thermal desorption) would be feasable and safe. Later technical support was required to help the contractor fix...

190

36 CFR 910.32 - Historic preservation.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...GENERAL GUIDELINES AND UNIFORM STANDARDS FOR URBAN PLANNING AND DESIGN OF DEVELOPMENT WITHIN THE PENNSYLVANIA AVENUE DEVELOPMENT AREA...be acomplished (a) in accordance with the Secretary of the Interior's âStandards for Historic Preservation...

2013-07-01

191

TREATABILITY STUDIES FOR WOOD PRESERVING SITES  

EPA Science Inventory

The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), National Risk Management Research Laboratory (NRMRL), Site Management Support Branch, conducted a comprehensive treatability project for wood preserving sites in 1995 and 1996. This is a compilation report on the treatability studi...

192

Entanglement preservation: The Sleeping Beauty approach  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Two-qubit entanglement can be preserved by partially measuring the qubits to leave them in a 'lethargic' state. The original state is restored using quantum measurement reversal after the qubits have travelled through a decoherence channel.

Korotkov, Alexander N.

2012-02-01

193

Sequence Compaction to Preserve Transition Frequencies.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Simulation-based power estimation is commonly used for its high accuracy despite excessive computation times. Techniques have been proposed to speed it up by compacting an input sequence while preserving its power-consumption characteristics; We propose a...

A. Pinar C. L. Liu

2002-01-01

194

Systems Biology  

SciTech Connect

The biology revolution over the last 50 years has been driven by the ascendancy of molecular biology. This was enthusiastically embraced by most biologists because it took us into increasingly familiar territory. It took mysterious processes, such as the replication of genetic material and assigned them parts that could be readily understood by the human mind. When we think of ''molecular machines'' as being the underlying basis of life, we are using a paradigm derived from everyday experience. However, the price that we paid was a relentless drive towards reductionism and the attendant balkanization of biology. Now along comes ''systems biology'' that promises us a solution to the problem of ''knowing more and more about less and less''. Unlike molecular biology, systems biology appears to be taking us into unfamiliar intellectual territory, such as statistics, mathematics and computer modeling. Not surprisingly, systems biology has met with widespread skepticism and resistance. Why do we need systems biology anyway and how does this new area of research promise to change the face of biology in the next couple of decades?

Wiley, H S.

2006-06-01

195

Discovering significant relaxed order-preserving submatrices  

Microsoft Academic Search

Mining order-preserving submatrix (OPSM) patterns has received much attention from researchers, since in many scientific applications, such as those involving gene expression data, it is natural to express the data in a matrix and also important to find the order-preserving submatrix patterns. However, most current work assumes the noise-free OPSM model and thus is not practical in many real situations

Qiong Fang; Wilfred Ng; Jianlin Feng

2010-01-01

196

Digital-Preservation Announcement and Information List  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This new moderated low-traffic announcement and current awareness mailing list will post announcements and information on activities relevant to the preservation and management of digital materials in the UK. "Topics will include: digital archiving, management and preservation; electronic records management; emulation; migration; long-term access; research projects; national, international and institutional initiatives in relevant areas." Information on joining the list and message logs are available at the URL above.

197

Donor Heart Preservation by Continuous Perfusion  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a Cardiac transplantation is the best option for end-stage heart failure (Taylor et al. 2008). Transplantation techniques, immunosuppressive\\u000a protocols and a better understanding of short and long-term complications have increased survival significantly over the last\\u000a 40 years; however, graft preservation has changed little during that period. Hearts are still preserved by flushing them with\\u000a cold potassium-based crystalloid solution, with subsequent storage

Andreas Zuckerman; Arezu Aliabadi; Gernot Seebacher

198

Touring Colorado Geology: Parfet Prehistoric Preserve  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This site contains several outcrop photos of the Upper Cretaceous Laramie Formation from the Parfet Prehistoric Preserve. Exceptionally-preserved, 70 Million year-old dinosaur tracks, palm frond impressions and raindrop impressions are featured on this site. Specific topics include Cretaceous climate, vertebrates, ceratopsian and hadrosaur footprints, burrows, mudrock, sandstone and cast formation. Additional information and photographs are obtained by clicking on the top page photos.

Ghist, John; School, Platte C.

199

Pancreas preservation for pancreas and islet transplantation  

PubMed Central

Purpose of review To summarize advances and limitations in pancreas procurement and preservation for pancreas and islet transplantation, and review advances in islet protection and preservation. Recent findings Pancreases procured after cardiac death, with in-situ regional organ cooling, have been successfully used for islet transplantation. Colloid-free Celsior and histidine-tryptophan-ketoglutarate preservation solutions are comparable to University of Wisconsin solution when used for cold storage before pancreas transplantation. Colloid-free preservation solutions are inferior to University of Wisconsin solution for pancreas preservation prior to islet isolation and transplantation. Clinical reports on pancreas and islet transplants suggest that the two-layer method may not offer significant benefits over cold storage with the University of Wisconsin solution: improved oxygenation may depend on the graft size; benefits in experimental models may not translate to human organs. Improvements in islet yield and quality occurred from pancreases treated with inhibitors of stress-induced apoptosis during procurement, storage, isolation or culture. Pancreas perfusion may be desirable before islet isolation and transplantation and may improve islet yields and quality. Methods for real-time, noninvasive assessment of pancreas quality during preservation have been implemented and objective islet potency assays have been developed and validated. These innovations should contribute to objective evaluation and establishment of improved pancreas preservation and islet isolation strategies. Summary Cold storage may be adequate for preservation before pancreas transplants, but insufficient when pancreases are processed for islets or when expanded donors are used. Supplementation of cold storage solutions with cytoprotective agents and perfusion may improve pancreas and islet transplant outcomes.

Iwanaga, Yasuhiro; Sutherland, David E.R.; Harmon, James V.; Papas, Klearchos K.

2010-01-01

200

Laparoscopic distal pancreatectomy with splenic preservation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background  The technique of distal pancreatectomy has been well described, both with en bloc resection of the spleen and with splenic\\u000a preservation. Splenic preservation during pancreatic tail resection is desirable when oncologically appropriate, yet it is\\u000a technically challenging, particularly with laparoscopic approaches. Skeletonization of the splenic artery and vein is associated\\u000a with longer operative times and greater potential for bleeding. The

A. Pryor; J. R. Means; T. N. Pappas

2007-01-01

201

Preservation methods for kidney and liver  

PubMed Central

With the successful testing of the immunosuppressive effects of cyclosporine in transplant patients in 1978, the field of organ transplants began an exponential growth. With that, the field of organ preservation became increasingly important as the need to increase preservation time and improve graft function became paramount. However, for every patient that receives a transplanted organ, there are four more on the waiting list. In addition, a patient dies from the lack of a transplant almost every 1½ hour. To alleviate this donor crisis, there is a need to expand the donor pool to marginal donor organs. The main reason these organs are underutilized is because the current method of static preservation, simple cold storage, is ineffective. This article will provide a general review of the methods of preservation including simple cold storage, hypothermic machine perfusion, normothermic machine perfusion, and oxygen persufflation. In addition, the article will provide a review of how these dynamic preservation methods have improved the recovery and preservation of marginal donor organs including Donation after Cardiac Death and Fatty livers.

Mangino, Martin J

2009-01-01

202

48 CFR 211.272 - Alternate preservation, packaging, and packing.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...Alternate preservation, packaging, and packing. 211.272 Section 211.272 Federal...Alternate preservation, packaging, and packing. Use the provision at 252.211-7004, Alternate Preservation, Packaging, and Packing, in solicitations which include...

2013-10-01

203

48 CFR 552.211-75 - Preservation, Packaging and Packing.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

... false Preservation, Packaging and Packing. 552.211-75 Section 552.211-75...211-75 Preservation, Packaging and Packing. As prescribed in 511.204(b...clause: Preservation, Packaging, and Packing (FEB 1996) Unless otherwise...

2013-10-01

204

48 CFR 211.272 - Alternate preservation, packaging, and packing.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-10-01 false Alternate preservation, packaging, and packing. 211... 211.272 Alternate preservation, packaging, and packing. Use...211-7004, Alternate Preservation, Packaging, and Packing, in...

2010-10-01

205

48 CFR 552.211-75 - Preservation, Packaging and Packing.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-10-01 false Preservation, Packaging and Packing. 552.211-75...Clauses 552.211-75 Preservation, Packaging and Packing. As prescribed...the following clause: Preservation, Packaging, and Packing (FEB...

2010-10-01

206

36 CFR 79.5 - Management and preservation of collections.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

... false Management and preservation of collections. 79.5...79.5 Management and preservation of collections. The...long-term management and preservation of preexisting and new...cataloging, stabilizing and packaging) has been completed,...

2009-07-01

207

48 CFR 211.272 - Alternate preservation, packaging, and packing.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2009-10-01 false Alternate preservation, packaging, and packing. 211... 211.272 Alternate preservation, packaging, and packing. Use...211-7004, Alternate Preservation, Packaging, and Packing, in...

2009-10-01

208

36 CFR 79.5 - Management and preservation of collections.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

... false Management and preservation of collections. 79.5...79.5 Management and preservation of collections. The...long-term management and preservation of preexisting and new...cataloging, stabilizing and packaging) has been completed,...

2010-07-01

209

48 CFR 552.211-75 - Preservation, Packaging and Packing.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2009-10-01 false Preservation, Packaging and Packing. 552.211-75...Clauses 552.211-75 Preservation, Packaging and Packing. As prescribed...the following clause: Preservation, Packaging, and Packing (FEB...

2009-10-01

210

Database Design for Preservation Project Management: The California Newspaper Project.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes a database designed to manage a serials preservation project in which issues from multiple repositories are gathered and collated for preservation microfilming. Management information, added to bibliographic and holdings records, supports the production of reports tracking preservation activity. (Author)

Hayman, Lynne M.

1997-01-01

211

Microbiological preservation of cucumbers for bulk storage using acetic acid and food preservatives.  

PubMed

Microbial growth did not occur when cucumbers were preserved without a thermal process by storage in solutions containing acetic acid, sodium benzoate, and calcium chloride to maintain tissue firmness. The concentrations of acetic acid and sodium benzoate required to ensure preservation were low enough so that stored cucumbers could be converted to the finished product without the need to wash out and discard excess acid or preservative. Since no thermal process was required, this method of preservation would be applicable for storing cucumbers in bulk containers. Acid tolerant pathogens died off in less than 24 h with the pH, acetic acid, and sodium benzoate concentrations required to assure the microbial stability of cucumbers stored at 30 degrees C. Potassium sorbate as a preservative in this application was not effective. Yeast growth was observed when sulfite was used as a preservative. PMID:19241560

Pérez-Díaz, I M; McFeeters, R F

2008-08-01

212

Biologically inspired embodied evolution of survival  

Microsoft Academic Search

Embodied evolution is a methodology for evo- lutionary robotics that mimics the distributed, asyn- chronous and autonomous properties of biological evo- lution. The evaluation, selection and reproduction are carried out by and between the robots, without any need for human intervention. In this paper we propose a bio- logically inspired embodied evolution framework, which fully integrates self-preservation, recharging from exter-

Stefan Elfwing; Eiji Uchibe; Kenji Doya; Henrik I. Christensen

2005-01-01

213

Biology Notes.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Presents procedures, exercises, demonstrations, and information on a variety of biology topics including labeling systems, biological indicators of stream pollution, growth of lichens, reproductive capacity of bulbous buttercups, a straw balance to measure transpiration, interaction of fungi, osmosis, and nitrogen fixation and crop production. (DC)

School Science Review, 1982

1982-01-01

214

Biological Therapy  

Cancer.gov

Biological therapy (BYE-o-loj-ee-cal THER-ah-py) is a type of treatment that works with your immune system. It can help fight cancer or help control side effects (how your body reacts to the drugs you are taking) from other cancer treatments like chemotherapy. What is the difference between biological therapy and chemotherapy?

215

Biology Notes.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes laboratory procedures, demonstrations, and classroom activities/materials, including use of dwarf cichlids (fishes) in secondary school biology, teaching edge effects on stomatal diffusion, computer program on effects of selection on gene frequencies, biological oxidation/reduction reactions, short cuts with Drosophila, computer program…

School Science Review, 1982

1982-01-01

216

Quantum Biology  

Microsoft Academic Search

A critical assessment of the recent developments of molecular biology is presented. The thesis that they do not lead to a conceptual understanding of life and biological systems is defended. Maturana and Varela's concept of autopoiesis is briefly sketched and its logical circularity avoided by postulating the existence of underlying {\\\\it living processes}, entailing amplification from the microscopic to the

Alessandro Sergi

2009-01-01

217

Quantum biology  

Microsoft Academic Search

A critical assessment of the recent developments of molecular biology is pre- sented. The thesis that they do not lead to a conceptual understanding of life and biological systems is defended. Maturana and Varela's concept of autopoiesis is briefly sketched and its logical circularity avoided by postulating the existence of underlying living processes, entailing amplification from the microscopic to the

ALESSANDRO SERGI

1966-01-01

218

Synthetic biology  

Microsoft Academic Search

Synthetic biologists come in two broad classes. One uses unnatural molecules to reproduce emergent behaviours from natural biology, with the goal of creating artificial life. The other seeks interchangeable parts from natural biology to assemble into systems that function unnaturally. Either way, a synthetic goal forces scientists to cross uncharted ground to encounter and solve problems that are not easily

A. Michael Sismour; Steven A. Benner

2005-01-01

219

Advancing the preservation of cellular therapy products.  

PubMed

Cell therapies are typically collected in one location, processed in a second location, and then administered in a third location. The ability to preserve the cells is critical to their clinical application. It improves patient access to therapies by increasing the genetic diversity of cells available. In addition, the ability to preserve cells improves the "manufacturability" of a cell therapy product by permitting the cells to be stored until the patient is ready for administration of the therapy, permitting inventory control of products, and improving management of staffing at cell therapy facilities. Finally, the ability to preserve cell therapies improves the safety of cell therapy products by extending the shelf life of a product and permitting completion of safety and quality control testing before release of the product for use. The support of the National Blood Foundation has been critical to our work on improving the quality of frozen and thawed cell therapy products through the development of a microfluidic device to remove dimethlysulfoxide (DMSO). We are also involved in research to replace DMSO with other agents that are less toxic to cells and patients. Finally, the need to advance the preservation of cell therapies was a driving force behind the development of the Biopreservation Core Resource (http://www.biocor.net), a national resource in biopreservation. New interest in translation of cell therapies from the bench to the patient's bedside has the potential to drive the transformation of preservation science, technology, and practice. PMID:22074631

Hubel, Allison

2011-11-01

220

Ridge Preservation for Implant Therapy: a Review of the Literature  

PubMed Central

Healing of the extraction socket after tooth removal involves retention of the blood clot followed by a sequence of events that lead to changes in the alveolar process in a three dimensional fashion. This normal healing event results in a minimal loss of vertical height (around 1 mm), but a substantial loss of width in the buccal-lingual plane (4-6 mm). During the first three months following extraction that loss has been shown to be significant and may result in both a hard tissue and soft tissue deformity affecting the ability to restore the site with acceptable esthetics. Procedures that reduce the resorptive process have been shown to be predictable and potentially capable of eliminating secondary surgery for site preparation when implant therapy is planned. The key element is prior planning by the dental therapist to act at the time of extraction to prevent the collapse of the ridge due to the loss of the alveolus. Several techniques have been employed as ridge preservation procedures involving the use of bone grafts, barrier membranes and biologics to provide a better restorative outcome. This review will explore the evidence behind each technique and their efficacy in accomplishing site preparation. The literature does not identify a single technique as superior to others; however, all accepted therapeutic procedures for ridge preservation have been shown to be more effective than blood clot alone in randomized controlled studies.

Tomlin, Elizabeth M; Nelson, Shelby J; Rossmann, Jeffrey A

2014-01-01

221

Cospar needs for recommendations for sample preservation dedicated to exobiology  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The present COSPAR Planetary Protection policy has been established in order to conduct scientific investigations of possible extraterrestrial life forms, precursors and remnants avoiding to jeopardize such investigations. This policy has led to emit Planetary Protection recommendations in order to control, limit or avoid the biological contamination of other world. Their goal is also to protect the Earth from the potential hazard posed by extraterrestrial matter carried by a spacecraft returning from another planet. Policy and recommendations are built upon scientific opinions and, if availaible, using scientific results coming from exobiological investigations. If sample preservation is not ensured, inducing contamination or change in sample material properties, some material characteristics can be affected and may induce false results concerning presence of life or biohazard. It concerns in-situ investigations as well as analysis of extraterrestrial samples on Earth. False results could lead to propose unappropriate Planetary Protection requirements. This paper will propose recommendations and requirements for sample preservation in order to ensure the validity of exobiological science in order to consolidate COSPAR policy, giving tne best assurance to requirements for forward and back-contamination .

Debus, A.; Viso, M.

222

Biological markets.  

PubMed

In biological markets, two classes of traders exchange commodities to their mutual benefit. Characteristics of markets are: competition within trader classes by contest or outbidding; preference for partners offering the highest value; and conflicts over the exchange value of commodities. Biological markets are currently studied under at least three different headings: sexual selection, intraspecific cooperation and interspecific mutualism. The time is ripe for the development of game theoretic models that describe the common core of biological markets and integrate existing knowledge from the separate fields. PMID:21237061

Noë, R; Hammerstein, P

1995-08-01

223

Urgent preservation of boreal carbon stocks and biodiversity.  

PubMed

Containing approximately one-third of all remaining global forests, the boreal ecosystem is a crucial store of carbon and a haven for diverse biological communities. Historically, fire and insects primarily drove the natural dynamics of this biome. However, human-mediated disturbances have increased in these forests during recent years, resulting in extensive forest loss for some regions, whereas others face heavy forest fragmentation or threat of exploitation. Current management practices are not likely to maintain the attendant boreal forest communities, nor are they adequate to mitigate climate change effects. There is an urgent need to preserve existing boreal forests and restore degraded areas if we are to avoid losing this relatively intact biodiversity haven and major global carbon sink. PMID:19679372

Bradshaw, Corey J A; Warkentin, Ian G; Sodhi, Navjot S

2009-10-01

224

Nodes, networks, and MUMs: Preserving diversity at all scales  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The present focus of practical conservation efforts is limited in scope. This narrowness results in an inability to evaluate and manage phenomena that operate at large spatiotemporal scales. Whereas real ecological phenomena function in a space-time mosaic across a full hierarchy of biological entities and processes, current conservation strategies address a limited spectrum of this complexity. Conservation typically is static (time-limited), concentrates on the habitat content rather than the landscape context of protected areas, evaluates relatively homogeneous communities instead of heterogeneous landscapes, and directs attention to particular species populations and/or the aggregate statistic of species diversity. Insufficient attention has been given to broad ecological patterns and processes and to the conservation of species in natural relative abundance patterns (native diversity). The authors present a conceptual scheme that evaluates not only habitat content within protected areas, but also the landscape context in which each preserve exists. Nodes of concentrated ecological value exist in each landscape at all levels in the biological hierarchy. Integration of these high-quality nodes into a functional network is possible through the establishment of a system of interconnected multiple-use modules (MUMs). The MUM network protects and buffers important ecological entities and phenomena, while encouraging movement of individuals, species, nutrients, energy, and even habitat patches across space and time. An example is presented for the southeastern USA (south Georgia-north Florida), that uses riparian and coastal corridors to interconnect existing protected areas. This scheme will facilitate reintroduction and preservation of wide-ranging species such as the Florida panther, and help reconcile species-level and ecosystem-level conservation approaches.

Noss, Reed F.; Harris, Larry D.

1986-05-01

225

Wood preservative leachates from docks in an estuarine environment.  

PubMed

Environmental concentrations and biological effects of certain metals and organic compounds found in wood preservatives were examined. The study focused on leachates from private residential docks in South Carolina tidal creeks. Copper, chromium, arsenic, and polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) were measured in composite samples of surficial sediments and naturally occurring oyster populations (Crassostrea virginica) from creeks with high densities of docks, and from nearby reference creeks with no docks. In some cases, metal concentrations in sediments and oysters were higher immediately adjacent to dock pilings than they were elsewhere in the same creek. Sediments from most sites had concentrations of metals and total PAHs which were below levels reported to cause biological effects, however. Solid-phase Microtox(R) bioassays using whole sediments and rotifer bioassays using sediment pore water showed no significant differences in acute toxicity between creeks with and without docks. Oysters growing directly on dock pilings had significantly higher concentrations of copper than oysters growing at least 10 m away; however, there was no significant difference in the physiological condition of these oysters. Four-day field bioassays measuring percent survival of mummichogs (Fundulus heteroclitus), mud snails (Ilyanassa obsoleta), juvenile red drum (Sciaenops ocellatus), and juvenile white shrimp (Penaeus setiferus) showed no significant differences between sites near to and distant from newly constructed docks. Hatchery-reared oysters showed no significant differences between dock and reference sites in percent survival, growth, or bioaccumulation of metals after six weeks of exposure. The results suggest that, in estuarine environments with a moderate tidal range (1.5-2.0 m), wood preservative leachates from dock pilings have no acutely toxic effects on four common estuarine species, nor do they affect the short-term survival or growth of juvenile oysters. PMID:8687987

Wendt, P H; Van Dolah, R F; Bobo, M Y; Mathews, T D; Levisen, M V

1996-07-01

226

Oscillator Model Reduction Preserving the Phase Response: Application to the Circadian Clock  

PubMed Central

Mathematical model reduction is a long-standing technique used both to gain insight into model subprocesses and to reduce the computational costs of simulation and analysis. A reduced model must retain essential features of the full model, which, traditionally, have been the trajectories of certain state variables. For biological clocks, timing, or phase, characteristics must be preserved. A key performance criterion for a clock is the ability to adjust its phase correctly in response to external signals. We present a novel model reduction technique that removes components from a single-oscillator clock model and discover that four feedback loops are redundant with respect to its phase response behavior. Using a coupled multioscillator model of a circadian clock, we demonstrate that by preserving the phase response behavior of a single oscillator, we preserve timing behavior at the multioscillator level.

Taylor, Stephanie R.; Doyle, Francis J.; Petzold, Linda R.

2008-01-01

227

Organ preservation surgery for laryngeal cancer  

PubMed Central

The principles of management of the laryngeal cancer have evolved over the recent past with emphasis on organ preservation. These developments have paralleled technological advancements as well as refinement in the surgical technique. The surgeons are able to maintain physiological functions of larynx namely speech, respiration and swallowing without compromising the loco-regional control of cancer in comparison to the more radical treatment modalities. A large number of organ preservation surgeries are available to the surgeon; however, careful assessment of the stage of the cancer and selection of the patient is paramount to a successful outcome. A comprehensive review of various organ preservation techniques in vogue for the management of laryngeal cancer is presented.

Chawla, Sharad; Carney, Andrew Simon

2009-01-01

228

Main requirements for extra terrestrial sample preservation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Returning extraterrestrial samples on Earth for scientific investigations imposes to comply with two major requirements: - At first, COSPAR Planetary Protection recommendations ask for the protectionof Earth biosphere and consequently to be sure, before the release of samples tothe scientific community, that no risk exis t, particularly biohazard. - Secondly, the sample properties must be preserved in order to ensure thevalidity of scientific results. The preservation of such samples is not limited tothe curation facility design and working conditions, and is also not limited tocleanliness, but begins with the design of spacecrafts and probes and has to betaken into account at every level of the project development and during thewhole mission. The paper will describe the main requirements for planetary protection and sample preservation in order particularly to point out that project teams need clear scientific specifications very early in the development and the design of a sample return mission.

Debus, A.

229

Biological Threats  

MedlinePLUS

... treatment. In a declared biological emergency or developing epidemic, there may be reason to stay away from ... possible, practice good hygiene and cleanliness to avoid spreading germs and seek medical advice. A temperature of ...

230

Biology Notes  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Ten ideas that have been tried out by the authors in schools are presented for biology teachers. The areas covered include genetics, dispersal of seeds, habituation in earthworms, respiration, sensory neurons, fats and oils. A reading list is provided. (PS)

School Science Review, 1972

1972-01-01

231

Biological monitoring  

SciTech Connect

Biological monitoring is defined as the measurement and assessment of workplace agents or their metabolites in tissues, secreta, excreta, expired air, or any combination of these to evaluate exposure and health risk compared to an appropriate reference. Biological monitoring offers several advantages: it takes into account individual variability in biological activity resulting from a chemical insult. It takes into account the effects of personal physical activity and individual life styles. It is a valuable adjunct to ambient monitoring and health surveillance. The importance of chemical speciation in the toxicity of pollutants is discussed. Basic protocols for lead, aluminum, cadmium, mercury, selenium, and nickel are presented. Basic criteria for biological monitoring methods are presented. 11 references, 1 table.

Ho, M.H.; Dillon, H.K.

1986-02-01

232

Hair Biology  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

If you�ve ever had a question about the biological make-up of your hair or anyone else�s, then this website is the place to go for answers. The Hair Biology portion of the Keratin web page gives incredible detail on hair fiber, follicles, growth cycle stages, hair length and density. These are just a few of the biological aspects of hair and much more is addressed and covered in great detail on the site. Hair Biology also features photography of different stages of hair growth along with a FAQ section which may answer some commonly asked (and not so commonly) questions about hair. Overall, this site would be an invaluable tool for anyone in the industry or anyone aspiring to join.

2006-11-24

233

Biologic Dressings.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Cutaneous biologic dressings have been useful and versatile in wound management of severely burned patients. Availability, relative costs, patient acceptability, and similarities to human skin have made porcine skin a satisfactory skin substitute. Porcine...

J. M. Shuck O. H. Payne

1983-01-01

234

Bottle Biology.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Provides hands-on biology activities using plastic bottles that allow students to become engaged in asking questions, creating experiments, testing hypotheses, and generating answers. Activities explore terrestrial and aquatic systems. (MKR)

CSTA Journal, 1995

1995-01-01

235

Petri net modelling of biological networks.  

PubMed

Mathematical modelling is increasingly used to get insights into the functioning of complex biological networks. In this context, Petri nets (PNs) have recently emerged as a promising tool among the various methods employed for the modelling and analysis of molecular networks. PNs come with a series of extensions, which allow different abstraction levels, from purely qualitative to more complex quantitative models. Noteworthily, each of these models preserves the underlying graph, which depicts the interactions between the biological components. This article intends to present the basics of the approach and to foster the potential role PNs could play in the development of the computational systems biology. PMID:17626066

Chaouiya, Claudine

2007-07-01

236

Biologic therapy.  

PubMed

Biologic therapy includes a diverse group of drugs that act directly on the immune system. Sometimes referred to as "targeted therapy," the biologics include cytokines and monoclonal antibodies. These agents can be genetically engineered versions of naturally occurring substances, or novel compounds used for the treatment of cancer and for nononcology diagnoses. This article provides information on the general types of biotherapy, an overview of how these drugs interact within the body, specific side effects, and nursing management. PMID:22955152

Eisenberg, Seth

2012-01-01

237

Data Preservation in High Energy Physics  

SciTech Connect

Data from high-energy physics (HEP) experiments are collected with significant financial and human effort and are mostly unique. At the same time, HEP has no coherent strategy for data preservation and re-use. An inter-experimental Study Group on HEP data preservation and long-term analysis was convened at the end of 2008 and held two workshops, at DESY (January 2009) and SLAC (May 2009). This document is an intermediate report to the International Committee for Future Accelerators (ICFA) of the reflections of this Study Group. Large data sets accumulated during many years of detector operation at particle accelerators are the heritage of experimental HEP. These data sets offer unique opportunities for future scientific studies, sometimes long after the shut-down of the actual experiments: new theoretical input; new experimental results and analysis techniques; the quest for high-sensitivity combined analyses; the necessity of cross checks. In many cases, HEP data sets are unique; they cannot and most likely will not be superseded by data from newer generations of experiments. Once lost, or in an unusable state, HEP data samples cannot be reasonably recovered. The cost of conserving this heritage through a collaborative, target-oriented long-term data preservation program would be small, compared to the costs of past experimental projects or to the efforts to re-do experiments. However, this cost is not negligible, especially for collaborations close or past their end-date. The preservation of HEP data would provide today's collaborations with a secure way to complete their data analysis and enable them to seize new scientific opportunities in the coming years. The HEP community will benefit from preserved data samples through reanalysis, combination, education and outreach. Funding agencies would receive more scientific return, and a positive image, from their initial investment leading to the production and the first analysis of preserved data.

Mount, Richard; Brooks, Travis; /SLAC; Le Diberder, Francois; /Orsay, LAL; Dubois-Felsmann, Gregory; Neal, Homer; /SLAC; Bellis, Matt; /Stanford U.; Boehnlein, Amber; Votava, Margaret; White, Vicky; Wolbers, Stephen; /Fermilab; Konigsberg, Jacobo; /Florida U.; Roser, Robert; Snider, Rick; /Fermilab; Lucchesi, Donatella; /INFN, Padua; Denisov, Dmitri; /Fermilab; Soldner-Rembold, Stefan; /Manchester U.; Li, Qizhong; /Fermilab; Varnes, Erich; /Arizona U.; Jonckheere, Alan; /Fermilab; Gasthuber, Martin; Gulzow, Volker; /DESY /Marseille, CPPM /Dortmund U. /DESY /Gent U. /DESY, Zeuthen /KEK, Tsukuba /CC, Villeurbanne /CERN /INFN, Bari /Gjovik Coll. Engineering /Karlsruhe, Forschungszentrum /Beijing, Inst. High Energy Phys. /Carleton U. /Cornell U. /Rutherford

2012-04-03

238

Geology Fieldnotes: Ice Age National Scientific Preserve  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This National Park Service (NPS) site gives information on the Ice Age National Scientific Preserve in Wisconsin, including geology, park maps, a photo album, and other media (books, videos, CDs). There is also a selection of links to other geologic and conservation organizations, and to information for visitors. This preserve contains a wealth of glacial features associated with the most recent Pleistocene continental glaciation including drumlins, kames, kettles, moraines, erratics, and eskers. It also contains a segment of the Ice Age National Scenic Trail, a 1000-plus mile hiking and backpacking trail that passes through this unique glacial landscape.

239

Heart failure with preserved ejection fraction.  

PubMed

Heart failure with preserved ejection fraction accounts for up to 50% of hospitalized heart failure patients and is associated with significant mortality and morbidity. The pathophysiology is heterogeneous and not very well defined, which explains the lack of disease-specific therapies. The principles of treating heart failure with preserved ejection fraction are controlling volume with diuretics and diet, and controlling the comorbidities, mainly the hypertension. Further research is encouraged to ascertain the key components of the disease that will serve as targets for therapy. PMID:24746061

Alsamara, Mershed; Alharethi, Rami

2014-06-01

240

Partial preservation of frequencies in KAM theory  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We consider perturbations of moderately degenerate integrable or partially integrable Hamiltonian systems, so that unperturbed invariant n-tori with prescribed frequencies or frequency ratios do not persist, but there is preservation of, say, the first d < n frequencies or their ratios. Lagrangian and lower dimensional tori are treated in a unified way. The proofs are very simple and follow Herman's idea of 1990: we introduce external parameters to remove degeneracies and then eliminate these parameters making use of a suitable number-theoretical lemma concerning Diophantine approximations of dependent quantities. Parallel results for reversible, volume preserving and dissipative systems are also presented.

Sevryuk, Mikhail B.

2006-05-01

241

Avian artificial insemination and semen preservation  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Summary: Artificial insemination is a practical propagation tool that has been successful with a variety of birds. Cooperative, massage, and electroejaculation and modifications of these three basic methods of semen collection are described for a variety of birds. Semen color and consistency and sperm number, moti!ity, and morphology, as discussed, are useful indicators of semen quality, but the most reliable test of semen quality is the production of fertile eggs. Successful cryogenic preservation of avian semen with DMSO or glycerol as the cryoprotectant has been possible. Although the methods for preservation require special equipment, use of frozen semen requires only simple insemination supplies

Gee, G.F.

1983-01-01

242

[Hearing Preservation: Better Hearing with advanced Technology].  

PubMed

Preservation of residual hearing after cochlear implantation allows patients the synergetic use of electric and acoustic stimulation (EAS). The application of specific surgical and therapeutic techniques enables the reduction of inner ear trauma, which leads otherwise to complete hearing loss. Due to simultaneous electric and acoustic stimulation, speech understanding is improved especially in noise. EAS is a well-accepted therapeutic treatment for subjects with profound hearing loss in the higher frequencies and no or mild hearing loss in the low frequencies. Several Manufacturers offer individual soft electrodes specially designed for hearing preservation as well as combined electric-acoustic audio processors. PMID:24782208

Rader, T; Helbig, S; Stöver, T; Baumann, U

2014-05-01

243

An edge preserving differential image coding scheme  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Differential encoding techniques are fast and easy to implement. However, a major problem with the use of differential encoding for images is the rapid edge degradation encountered when using such systems. This makes differential encoding techniques of limited utility especially when coding medical or scientific images, where edge preservation is of utmost importance. We present a simple, easy to implement differential image coding system with excellent edge preservation properties. The coding system can be used over variable rate channels which makes it especially attractive for use in the packet network environment.

Rost, Martin C.; Sayood, Khalid

1991-01-01

244

An edge preserving differential image coding scheme  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Differential encoding techniques are fast and easy to implement. However, a major problem with the use of differential encoding for images is the rapid edge degradation encountered when using such systems. This makes differential encoding techniques of limited utility, especially when coding medical or scientific images, where edge preservation is of utmost importance. A simple, easy to implement differential image coding system with excellent edge preservation properties is presented. The coding system can be used over variable rate channels, which makes it especially attractive for use in the packet network environment.

Rost, Martin C.; Sayood, Khalid

1992-01-01

245

Cryptogenic fibrosing alveolitis with preserved lung volumes  

PubMed Central

BACKGROUND: Cryptogenic fibrosing alveolitis (CFA) is an uncommon disorder of unknown aetiology characterised by interstitial fibrosis which typically shows a restrictive pattern on pulmonary function testing. Some patients with CFA and relative preservation of lung volumes have been described and it has been suggested that their volume preservation may be due to concomitant emphysema. In a retrospective study the relative frequency of preserved lung volumes in CFA, its relationship to emphysema determined by CT scanning, its clinical features, and its subsequent natural history were investigated. METHODS: Using predefined characteristics 48 patients with CFA were identified from pulmonary function records over a three year period. Volume preservation was defined as a forced vital capacity (FVC) of > 80% predicted at presentation. Patients with relative volume preservation were compared with those with more typical pulmonary restriction and clinical data at presentation, and details of their subsequent prognosis, treatment and loss of lung function with time were obtained. Where available, computed tomographic (CT) scans for the two groups were compared in a blinded fashion to score the extent of fibrosis and the presence of concomitant emphysema. RESULTS: Twenty one (44%) of the patients with CFA had a FVC of > 80% predicted. They were more likely to be male (76% versus 48%) and to be current smokers (57% versus 22%) with a heavier life time cigarette consumption than the restricted patients (mean (SE) 38 (4.6) versus 25 (4.5) pack years). There were no significant differences in prognosis and subsequent treatment between the groups. Comparable HRCT scans were available in 23 subjects (seven preserved, 16 restricted). They showed no difference in extent of the pulmonary fibrosis but patients with volume preservation were more likely to show concomitant emphysema (86% versus 19%). Patients with emphysema on HRCT scans were heavier smokers (41(10) versus 21(17) pack years) than those without emphysema but there was no difference in the extent of CFA score between the two groups. CONCLUSIONS: In this area of high smoking prevalence a significant number of patients with CFA presented with relative preservation of lung volumes and FEV1/FVC ratio. In many of these subjects this appears to reflect coincidental emphysema. This may make interpretation of gas transfer factor used to monitor progression in CFA difficult. However, there was no evidence that lung volumes at presentation were of prognostic significance. ???

Doherty, M. J.; Pearson, M. G.; O'Grady, E. A.; Pellegrini, V.; Calverley, P. M.

1997-01-01

246

Sustainable ecotourism in Costa Rica: the Monteverde Cloud Forest Preserve  

Microsoft Academic Search

The paper discusses the sustainability of the Monteverde Cloud Forest Preserve in the context of Costa Rican ecotourism. While the history of the Preserve is somewhat unique, the analysis of visitation, financial, ecological and economic factors provides a convincing case that tourism at the Preserve is sustainable. The experience of the Preserve is also put in the context of Costa

Bruce Aylward; Katie Allen; Jaime Echeverría; Joseph Tosi

1996-01-01

247

43 CFR 15.12 - Closing of Preserve.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...Preserve. 15.12 Section 15.12 Public Lands: Interior Office of the Secretary of the Interior KEY LARGO CORAL REEF PRESERVE § 15.12 Closing of Preserve. The Preserve may be closed to public use in the event of emergency...

2013-10-01

248

Environmental preservation demand: Altruistic, bequest, and intrinsic motives  

SciTech Connect

When the demand for environmental preservation is not explicitly revealed in markets, motivating attitudes toward environmental preservation become important. A survey approach allows revelation and measurement of demand for environmental preservation. Indices which measure the altruistic, bequest, intrinsic, and option to use motives and other attitudes are utilized as determinants in a model that measures the demand for environmental preservation. Demand is more likely with greater preservation motives. Preservation demand also depends on individual preferences for economic development, perceptions of affordability and responsibility for preservation of the wetlands. 17 refs., 3 tabs.

Whitehead, J.C.; Thompson, C.Y. (East Carolina Univ., Greenville, NC (United States))

1993-01-01

249

Local structure-preserving algorithms for the "good" Boussinesq equation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this paper, we derive a series of local structure-preserving algorithms for the "good" Boussinesq equation, including multisymplectic geometric structure-preserving algorithms, local energy-preserving algorithms and local momentum-preserving algorithms. The outstanding advantage of the proposed algorithms is that they conserve these local structures in any time-space region exactly. For example, the proposed local energy-preserving algorithms preserve the local energy conservation law in any local domain. Therefore, the local structure-preserving algorithms overcome the shortage of global structure-preserving algorithms on the boundary conditions. Especially, with suitable boundary conditions such as periodic or homogeneous boundary conditions, the local structure-preserving algorithms will be global structure-preserving algorithms. Numerical results verify the theoretical analysis.

Cai, Jiaxiang; Wang, Yushun

2013-04-01

250

SYSTEM BIOLOGY: Biological Systems Theory  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Robustness, a widely used concept in biology, has so far not been well defined. This perspective discusses the theorem formulated by Shinar and Feinberg which shows when a biochemical network exhibits âÂÂabsolute concentration robustness.âÂÂ

Jeremy Gunawardena (Harvard Medical School;Department of Systems Biology)

2010-04-30

251

Dermal preservation using the Versajet hydrosurgery system for debridement of paediatric burns.  

PubMed

Loss of dermis is one of the principal factors that contributes to poor scar outcome after severe burn. Dermal loss may be due to the primary injury, surgical management or as a result of infection. Strategies for dermal preservation are therefore important to improve scar quality. We report our early experience using the Versajet hydrosurgery system, to preserve dermal tissues, both directly during surgical debridement and indirectly by reducing infection and optimising the use of biological dressings. In deep partial thickness burns softer necrotic dermis can be removed with the Versajet sparing the underlying tougher viable dermis. In superficial burns the Versajet cleans and removes loose epidermal elements providing an optimal wound surface for the application of biological dressings, even a number of days after injury. Versajet is most useful when the tissue to be removed is softer than that to be left behind. PMID:16849034

Cubison, Tania C S; Pape, Sarah A; Jeffery, Steven L A

2006-09-01

252

Linear Preservers in Nonclassical Correlation Theories:. AN Introduction  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Linear preserver classes used in recent quantum information science are briefly introduced. It has been fifteen years since linear positivity preservers that are not completely positivity preserving were employed in entanglement detection and quantification. Recently we have introduced the class of eigenvalue preservers that are not completely eigenvalue preserving to detect and quantify nonclassical correlation. Their concepts and an example of their usages are presented.

Saitoh, Akira; Rahimi, Robabeh; Nakahara, Mikio

2013-09-01

253

Preservation of Mercury in Polyethylene Containers.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Reports results of experiments favoring use of 0.5 percent nitric acid with an oxidant (potassium dichromate or potassium permanganate) to preserve samples in polyethylene containers for mercury analysis. Includes procedures used and statistical data obtained from the experiments. (JN)

Piccolino, Samuel Paul

1983-01-01

254

Two Ponds Wetland Preserve: Land Protection Plan.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

In late 1990, Two Ponds Preservation Foundation, a nonprofit citizens' group, contacted and solicited U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service (Service) involvement in acquiring a small site in Arvada, Colorado--a city within the Denver-Boulder Metropolitan area. S...

1992-01-01

255

Document Clustering Using Locality Preserving Indexing  

Microsoft Academic Search

We propose a novel document clustering method which aims to cluster the documents into different semantic classes. The document space is generally of high dimensionality and clustering in such a high dimensional space is often infeasible due to the curse of dimensionality. By using Locality Preserving Indexing (LPI), the documents can be projected into a lower-dimensional semantic space in which

Deng Cai; Xiaofei He; Jiawei Han

2005-01-01

256

Preservation Microfiche: A Matter of Standards.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Discusses standards for converting library materials to a microfiche format and addresses the question of whether microfiche standards take preservation concerns into account. Reformatting, layout, corrections, additions, and bibliographic guides in microfiche are considered, and standards activities of the American Library Association (ALA) and…

Chace, Myron B.

1991-01-01

257

Comparison of Wood Preservatives in Stake Tests.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The results of an international termite exposure test have indicated that pine sapwood stakes 2 by 4 by 18 inches furnish an effective means for testing the protection provided against decay and termite attack by various wood preservatives. The Forest Pro...

J. O. Blew

1967-01-01

258

Conservation, Preservation and Restoration in Nigerian Libraries.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Addresses problems involved with the conservation, preservation, and restoration of library materials in Nigeria. Topics discussed include insect pests; light, heat, and humidity; atmospheric pollution and dust; natural disasters including fire and floods; theft and vandalism; acidity of paper; binding and mending; and trained personnel. (15…

Ojo-Igbinoba, M. E.

1991-01-01

259

Preserving History in a Digital World  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Stanford University's (California) Julie Sweetkind-Singer is a recognized authority on digital preservation, and has been honored by the Library of Congress for her work in the field. She currently serves as both the assistant director of Stanford's Geospatial, Cartographic and Scientific Data and Services and as head of the Branner Earth Sciences…

Baumann, Jim

2012-01-01

260

Resource Use in Glacier Bay National Preserve.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The report is a baseline description of resource use in the Dry Bay area, which in 1981 became Glacier Bay National Preserve. The study involved the joint cooperation of the NPS and the Subsistence Division of the Alaska Dept. of Fish and Game. The main p...

G. Gmelch

1982-01-01

261

Preservation and Conservation in the School Library.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Discusses the necessity of preservation and conservation activities in school libraries to save materials such as school newspapers, programs of events, censorship records, board activities, yearbooks, and student projects. Topics discussed include brittle, deteriorating paper; monitoring the physical environment, including heat, light, humidity,…

Sedinger, Theresa

1992-01-01

262

Endothelium Preserving Microwave Treatment for Atherosclerosis  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This slide presentation reviews the use of microwave technology for treating Atherosclerosis while preserving the endothelium. The system uses catheter antennas as part of the system that is intended to treat atherosclerosis. The concept is to use a microwave catheter for heating the atherosclerotic lesions, and reduce constriction in the artery.

Fink, Patrick; Arndt, G. D.; Ngo, Phong

2003-01-01

263

Contact sensitivity to preservatives in Turkey.  

PubMed

This study was designed to evaluate the frequency of contact sensitivity to 14 common preservatives among patients with contact dermatitis in Turkey. From 2000 to 2004, 308 patients with the diagnosis of contact dermatitis were patch tested in the Department of Dermatology, Ankara University School of Medicine. All patients were patch tested with European standard series. In addition to the four preservatives included in the standard series, patients were also tested with DMDM hydantoin, imidazolidinyl urea, bromonitropropane diol, diazolidinyl urea, thimerosal, propylene glycol, chlorocresol, chloroxylenol, methyldibromoglutaronitrile/phenoxyethanol (MDBGN/PE) and benzalkonium chloride. Out of the 308 patients suspected of having contact dermatitis, 23 patients were found to have positive reactions to one or more preservatives. Preservatives that were the most frequent cause of positive reactions were thimerosal (1.6%), benzalkonium chloride (1.6%), formaldehyde (1.3%) and MDBGN/PE (0.9%). In our study, 65% of the positive reactions were caused by allergens not present in the standard series, such as thimerosal, benzalkonium chloride and MDBGN/PE. Although thimerosal caused a high rate of contact sensitivity, it may not be considered as an important allergen, because clinical relevance could not be found in any of the patients. PMID:15932584

Boyvat, Ayse; Akyol, Aynur; Gürgey, Erbak

2005-06-01

264

Feature preserving consolidation for unorganized point clouds  

Microsoft Academic Search

We introduce a novel method for the consolidation of unorganized point clouds with noise, outliers, non-uniformities as well as sharp features. This method is feature preserving, in the sense that given an initial estimation of normal, it is able to recover the sharp features contained in the original geometric data which are usually contaminated during the acquisition. The key ingredient

Bao Li; Wei Jiang; Zhiquan Cheng; Gang Dang; Shiyao Jin

2010-01-01

265

Polarization-Preserving Single Mode Fiber Coupler.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A polarization-preserving single mode fiber coupler, fabricated by a method which does not require mutually aligning the fiber polarization axes provided the actual misalignment angle is not close to 90 degrees. The protective jackets from two or more pol...

M. Abebe W. K. Burns C. A. Villarruel

1983-01-01

266

Preserving the 'Athens of Indiana' through Digitization.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes a digitization project at the public library in Crawfordsville, Indiana that was designed to preserve their local history collection. Highlights include damage to the collection from fire, termites, use, and age; selecting a scanner and software; creating databases; and making information accessible on the Web. (LRW)

Helling, Bill

2003-01-01

267

Eliminating go to's while preserving program structure  

Microsoft Academic Search

Suppose we want to eliminate the local go to statements of a Pascal program by replacing them with multilevel loop exit statements. The standard ground rules for eliminating go to's require that we preserve the flow graph of the program, but they allow us to completely rewrite the control structures that glue together the program's atomic tests and actions. The

Lyle Ramshaw

1988-01-01

268

Mass preserving image registration for lung CT.  

PubMed

This paper presents a mass preserving image registration algorithm for lung CT images. To account for the local change in lung tissue intensity during the breathing cycle, a tissue appearance model based on the principle of preservation of total lung mass is proposed. This model is incorporated into a standard image registration framework with a composition of a global affine and several free-form B-Spline transformations with increasing grid resolution. The proposed mass preserving registration method is compared to registration using the sum of squared intensity differences as a similarity function on four groups of data: 44 pairs of longitudinal inspiratory chest CT scans with small difference in lung volume; 44 pairs of longitudinal inspiratory chest CT scans with large difference in lung volume; 16 pairs of expiratory and inspiratory CT scans; and 5 pairs of images extracted at end exhale and end inhale phases of 4D-CT images. Registration errors, measured as the average distance between vessel tree centerlines in the matched images, are significantly lower for the proposed mass preserving image registration method in the second, third and fourth group, while there is no statistically significant difference between the two methods in the first group. Target registration error, assessed via a set of manually annotated landmarks in the last group, was significantly smaller for the proposed registration method. PMID:22336692

Gorbunova, Vladlena; Sporring, Jon; Lo, Pechin; Loeve, Martine; Tiddens, Harm A; Nielsen, Mads; Dirksen, Asger; de Bruijne, Marleen

2012-05-01

269

Digital Storytelling: Preserving a Cultural Tradition  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In this article, the author shows how digital photography could be an effective cultural preservation enabler. On July 1, 2007, with initial funding from Research in Motion and Merit Travel and support of more than 300 family and friends, the author and his team arrived in the small town of Monduli, Tanzania with the purpose of teaching digital…

Young, Jeff

2010-01-01

270

Soundness-Preserving Refinements of Service Compositions  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Soundness is one of the well-studied properties of processes; it denotes that a final state can be reached from every state that is reachable from the initial state. Soundness-preserving refinements are important for enabling the compositional design of systems.

van Hee, Kees M.; Mooij, Arjan J.; Sidorova, Natalia; van der Werf, Jan Martijn

271

Why We Should Preserve the Manhattan Project  

Microsoft Academic Search

For all the buildings and artifacts that we preserve, thousands are lost forever. In this special Bulletin essay, Pulitzer Prize-winner Richard Rhodes examines the value of protecting the physical legacy of the U.S. nuclear enterprise and what its loss would tell us about ourselves.

Richard Rhodes

2007-01-01

272

Long Term Preservation of Digital Information.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The preservation of digital data for the long term presents a variety of challenges from technical to social and organizational. The technical challenge is to ensure that the information, generated today, can survive long term changes in storage media, devices, and data formats. This paper presents a novel approach to the problem. It distinguishes…

Lorie, Raymond A.

273

Archiving Innovations Preserve Essential Historical Records  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Apollo 11 mission left on the Moon a silicon disc inscribed with microscopic recreations of messages from 73 countries. NanoArk Corporation of Fairport, New York, built on that NASA technology to develop a fire and water resistant archiving innovation that provides cost savings and security in preserving documents. Since its launch, NanoArk has grown from 2 to 10 employees.

2013-01-01

274

Accurate monotonicity-preserving cubic interpolation  

SciTech Connect

A simple and effective algorithm to construct a monotonicity-preserving cubic Hermite interpolant for data with rapid variations is presented. Constraining the derivatives of the interpolant according to geometric considerations makes the interpolant consistent with local monotonicity properties of the data. Numerical examples are given that compare the quality and accuracy of the proposed interpolation method with other standard interpolants.

Hyman, J. M.

1982-02-01

275

Irradiation in combination with other preservation techniques  

Microsoft Academic Search

Irradiation has the potential to improve the microbiological safety and quality of many foods. However the dose which can be applied, and hence the extent of microbial kill, can be limited by undesirable changes in flavour, appearance and texture. Low dose irradiation in combination with other preservation techniques can be a practical solution in these cases and some would argue

Margaret Patterson

1996-01-01

276

The H1 Data Preservation Project  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The H1 data preservation project was started in 2009 as part of the global data preservation initiative in high-energy physics, DPHEP. In order to retain the full potential for future improvements, the H1 Collaboration aims for level 4 of the DPHEP recommendations, which requires the full simulation and reconstruction chain as well as the data to be preserved for future analysis. A major goal of the H1 project is therefore to provide secure, long-lived and validated access to the H1 data and analysis software, which is realised in collaboration with DESY-IT using virtualisation techniques. By implementing such a system, it is hoped that the lifetime of the unique ep collision data from HERA will be extended, providing the possibility for novel analysis in the future. The preservation of the data and software is performed alongside a consolidation programme of digital and non-digital documentation, some of which dates back to the early 1980s. A new organisational model of the H1 Collaboration, reflecting the change to the long term phase, is to be adopted in July 2012.

South, D. M.; Steder, M.

2012-12-01

277

Cardioplegia and myocardial preservation during cardiopulmonary bypass.  

PubMed

A standard experimental protocol was developed to explore the role of hypothermia and potassium cardioplegia in myocardial preservation during 120 minutes of ischemic arrest followed by 30 minutes of reperfusion. Seven different experimental groups of six animals each were evaluated using an in-vivo pig heart preparation. Hypothermic arrest without cardioplegia and cardioplegic arrest at normothermia were each compared to hypothermic cardioplegia. In addition, the use of an asanguineous hypothermic coronary perfusate without cardioplegia was compared to both multidose cardioplegia and single-dose cardioplegia followed by the same asanguineous perfusate. The parameters measured included: myocardial contractility and compliance, myocardial blood flow, endocardial/epicardial blood flow ratio, and electron microscopic studies. Myocardial preservation was inadequate with hypothermic arrest alone (without cardioplegia; and with cardioplegia at normothermia. In both experimental groups, myocardial contractility and compliance were so depressed that the) could not be accurately measured following ischemia and reperfusion while coronary blood flow remained significantly elevated. Preservation was improved but still inadequate following myocardial washout with a normokalemic or hypokalemic perfusate and following single dose cardioplegia plus myocardial washout. In the latter four groups, contractility ranged from 42 to 78% of control, and there was a decrease in compliance of 16 to 78%. Adequate preservation was found only after hypothermia and multidose potassium (35 mEq/L) cardioplegia. In this group, contractility was 129 +/- 13% of control and compliance increased by 21 +/- 24% compared to that of the control. PMID:14740689

Engelman, R M; Levitsky, S; O'Donoghue, M J; Auvil, J

1978-09-01

278

Review of Red Cell Preservation (Liquid State).  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The evaluation of supplemented preservative media used for extending the shelf-life of red cells is based on a considerable amount of in vitro biochemical and in vivo post-transfusion survival data. Since the essential information for maintaining a satisf...

A. Chanutin

1972-01-01

279

Digitizing Technologies for Preservation. SPEC Kit 214.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The Association of Research Libraries distributed a survey to its 119 member libraries to assess the use of state-of-the-art digital technologies as a preservation method. Libraries were asked to report detailed data on all projects designed specifically to: (1) enhance images of faded or brittle originals, (2) provide access to digital images…

Kellerman, L. Suzanne, Comp.; Wilson, Rebecca, Comp.

280

CABLE NETS FOR BAT HABITAT PRESERVATION  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cable-supported structures have been used in architectural and engineering practice for long spans, such as suspension bridges, and to cover large areas with a minimum of support columns, such as sports arenas and aviaries. Similarly, in bat habitat preservation in underground mines and caves, use of cable nets is particularly well adapted to large span, usually vertical, openings. Nets also

John A. Kretzmann

281

Orbital Preservation in Patients with Esthesioneuroblastoma  

PubMed Central

Objectives Surgical resection in addition to adjuvant radiation with or without chemotherapy is the mainstay of treatment for esthesioneuroblastoma (ENB). However, management of patients with orbital involvement remains controversial. Historically, orbital exenteration has been advocated when there is evidence of periorbital invasion. Recently, the indications for orbital exenteration have become more selective and orbital preservation has been advocated. We report our experience with anterior craniofacial resection and orbital preservation in patients with ENB. Design Retrospective review of all patients diagnosed with esthesioneuroblastoma who underwent traditional open anterior craniofacial resection at the Massachusetts General Hospital/Massachusetts Eye and Ear Infirmary Cranial Base Center from 1997 to 2008. Results Sixteen patients were identified with a mean follow-up of 76 months. All patients underwent anterior craniofacial resection via an open approach and adjuvant proton beam radiation. Six of the 16 patients had evidence of either periorbital or lacrimal sac involvement at the time of surgery. All of these patients underwent periorbital resection to negative histologic margins with preservation of the orbit. Conclusion In our study, patients with ENB and periorbital invasion—who were treated with anterior craniofacial resection and periorbital resection with orbital preservation—had no evidence of decreased survival. In all patients, negative histologic margins of the periorbital resection were achieved.

Herr, Marc W.; Gray, Stacey T.; Erman, Audrey B.; Curry, William T.; Deschler, Daniel G.; Lin, Derrick T.

2013-01-01

282

Energy Preservation in Environmental Monitoring WSN  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper addresses support for energy efficient single-hop communications in Environmental Monitoring Wireless Sensor Networks (WSN). The main contributions are twofold firstly; the identification of scenarios where single hop communication, between multiple sensors and a base station is both feasible and offers benefits with respect to power preservation. Secondly, the design implementation and evaluation of the Power and Reliability Aware

Ittipong Khemapech; Ishbel Duncan; Alan Miller

2010-01-01

283

Coatings Preserve Metal, Stone, Tile, and Concrete  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

John B. Schutt, a chemist at Goddard Space Flight Center, created a coating for spacecraft that could resist corrosion and withstand high heat. After retiring from NASA, Schutt used his expertise to create new formulations for Daytona Beach, Florida-based Adsil Corporation, which now manufactures a family of coatings to preserve various surfaces. Adsil has created 150 jobs due to the products.

2014-01-01

284

Privacy-Preserving Location-Based Services  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Location-based services (LBS for short) providers require users' current locations to answer their location-based queries, e.g., range and nearest-neighbor queries. Revealing personal location information to potentially untrusted service providers could create privacy risks for users. To this end, our objective is to design a privacy-preserving

Chow, Chi Yin

2010-01-01

285

Current Trends in Preservation Research and Development.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Overview of current trends in the preservation of library materials discusses collections conservation and management; climate control; insect and mold control; fire control; the effects of compact shelving; freezing and freeze-drying; space drying; alkaline paper; recycled paper; mass deacidification; and paper strengthening. (27 notes and…

Cunha, George Martin

1990-01-01

286

Dignity-preserving dementia care: a metasynthesis.  

PubMed

Research indicates the essentiality of dignity as a vital component for quality of life, reconfirming the emphasis on dignity preservation in the international code of nursing ethics. Applying Noblit and Hare's meta-ethnography, the aim of the study was to develop a theory model by synthesizing 10 qualitative articles from various cultural contexts, exploring nurse and allied healthcare professional perception/practice concerning dignity-preserving dementia care. "Advocating the person's autonomy and integrity," which involves "having compassion for the person," "confirming the person's worthiness and sense of self," and "creating a humane and purposeful environment," was identified as a primary foundation for dignity-preserving dementia care. "Balancing individual choices among persons no longer able to make sound decisions, against the duty of making choices on behalf of the person," which involves "persuasion" and/or "mild restraint," was considered a crucial aspect in certain situations. "Sheltering human worth-remembering those who forget" was identified as a comprehensive motive and core value within dignity-preserving dementia care. PMID:23715554

Tranvåg, Oscar; Petersen, Karin A; Nåden, Dagfinn

2013-12-01

287

Columbia River: protein, power, preservation, and politics  

Microsoft Academic Search

Increasing demands on the Columbia River for power generation, irrigation, wilderness preservation, and other uses have put competing users in an adversary position when the river, itself, is a uniting force. It is important to recognize and accept the fact that the river is a limited resource and take the appropriate institutional approaches to management and allocation. The interstate compact

Haggard

2009-01-01

288

Organ-Preserving Surgery for Penile Carcinoma  

PubMed Central

Introduction. Penile carcinoma has traditionally been treated by either surgical amputation or radical radiotherapy, both associated with devastating anatomical, functional, and psychological impact on the patient's life. Innovative surgical techniques have focused on penile preservation in well-selected patients to minimize physical disfigurement and consequently maximize quality of life. The objective of this article is to define the current status of these organ-preserving surgical options for penile carcinoma. Materials and Methods. An extensive review of the Pubmed literature was performed to find articles discussing only reconstructive surgery which have contributed significantly to change traditional, frequently mutilating treatments, to develop less disfiguring surgery, and to improve patients' quality of life over the last two decades. Results. Several articles were included in this analysis in which a major contribution to the change in therapy was thought to have occurred and was documented as beneficial. Some articles reported novel techniques of less-mutilating surgery involving different forms of glans reconstruction with the use of flaps or grafts. The issue of safe surgical margins was also addressed. Conclusion. The development of less-disfiguring techniques allowing phallus preservation has reduced the negative impact on functional and cosmetic outcomes of amputation without sacrificing oncological objectives in appropriately selected patients based on stage, grade, and location of the tumour. Until more prospective studies are available and solid evidence is documented, organ preservation should be offered with caution.

Martins, Francisco E.; Rodrigues, Raul N.; Lopes, Tome M.

2008-01-01

289

Isolated total RNA and protein are preserved after thawing for more than twenty-four hours  

PubMed Central

OBJECTIVE: The preservation of biological samples at a low temperature is important for later biochemical and/or histological analyses. However, the molecular viability of thawed samples has not been studied sufficiently in depth. The present study was undertaken to evaluate the viability of intact tissues, tissue homogenates, and isolated total RNA after defrosting for more than twenty-four hours. METHODS: The molecular viability of the thawed samples (n?=?82) was assessed using the A260/A280 ratio, the RNA concentration, the RNA integrity, the level of intact mRNA determined by reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction, the protein level determined by Western blotting, and an examination of the histological structure. RESULTS: The integrity of the total RNA was not preserved in the thawed intact tissue, but the RNA integrity and level of mRNA were perfectly preserved in isolated defrosted samples of total RNA. Additionally, the level of ?-actin protein was preserved in both thawed intact tissue and homogenates. CONCLUSION: Isolated total RNA does not undergo degradation due to thawing for at least 24 hours, and it is recommended to isolate the total RNA as soon as possible after tissue collection. Moreover, the protein level is preserved in defrosted tissues.

de Oliveira, Ivone Braga; Ramos, Debora Rothstein; Lopes, Karen Lucasechi; de Souza, Regiane Machado; Heimann, Joel Claudio; Furukawa, Luzia Naoko Shinohara

2012-01-01

290

Preservation of the properties of elastic plasma protein plus platelet film for wound dressing.  

PubMed

Experimental results have previously been reported for a new biological dressing consisting of concentrated plasma proteins and platelet-rich plasma (PRP), which is named Platelet-Protein film (PPF). Based on the results of this experimental study, a clinical trial was begun to examine the usefulness of PPF. Although fresh autologous PPF is being used in the clinical trial, it is considered that the use of a preserved material prepared in advance would enable more convenient application. To verify the usefulness of preserved PPF, this preliminary study was conducted to examine the effects of fresh PPF, preserved PPF or blood clot, as control, applied to excisional skin defects in healing-impaired mice. The wound area and vascular density were analysed on day 9 after wound creation. Significant decrease of the wound size was observed in the preserved PPF and fresh PPF groups (4.2 (3.7), 2.2 (0.53)%) in comparison with that in the control group (38.5 (18.6)%, p < 0.05). Furthermore, a significant increase of the vascular density was also observed in the preserved PPF and fresh PPF groups (0.055 (0.021), 0.050 (0.019) mm(2)/mm(2)) as compared with that in the control group (0.016 (0.010) mm(2), p < 0.01). There was no significant difference in the effect on the wound size or vascular density between the preserved PPF and fresh PPF groups. The results showed that the properties of PPFs could be maintained for at least 1 week under appropriate storage conditions. The possibility of preservation of PPF for future use could be of practical advantage in actual clinical situations. PMID:23848423

Sano, Hitomi; Ichioka, Shigeru; Minamimura, Ai; Tanaka, Ryuhei; Ikebuchi, Kenji; Suzuki, Miho

2013-12-01

291

Biotechnological efforts for preserving and enhancing temperate hardwood tree biodiversity, health, and productivity  

Microsoft Academic Search

Hardwood tree species in forest, plantation, and urban environments (temperate regions of the world) are important biological\\u000a resources that play a significant role in the economy and the ecology of terrestrial ecosystems, and they have aesthetic and\\u000a spiritual value. Because of these many values of hardwood tree species, preserving forest tree biodiversity through the use\\u000a of biotechnological approaches should be

Paula M. Pijut; Shaneka S. Lawson; Charles H. Michler

2011-01-01

292

Protecting endangered species under future climate change: From single-species preservation to an anticipatory policy approach  

Microsoft Academic Search

Anthropogenic climate climate change presents a unique challenge for endangered species policy and an opportunity for policy\\u000a makers to develop a more predictive and robust approach to preserving the nation's biological resources. Biological and ecological\\u000a reactions to shifting climate conditions and the potential feedbacks and synergistic effects of such changes may threaten\\u000a the well-being of many species, particularly of those

Carol A. Bloomgarden

1995-01-01

293

Biological preconcentrator  

DOEpatents

A biological preconcentrator comprises a stimulus-responsive active film on a stimulus-producing microfabricated platform. The active film can comprise a thermally switchable polymer film that can be used to selectively absorb and desorb proteins from a protein mixture. The biological microfabricated platform can comprise a thin membrane suspended on a substrate with an integral resistive heater and/or thermoelectric cooler for thermal switching of the active polymer film disposed on the membrane. The active polymer film can comprise hydrogel-like polymers, such as poly(ethylene oxide) or poly(n-isopropylacrylamide), that are tethered to the membrane. The biological preconcentrator can be fabricated with semiconductor materials and technologies.

Manginell, Ronald P. (Albuquerque, NM); Bunker, Bruce C. (Albuquerque, NM); Huber, Dale L. (Albuquerque, NM)

2008-09-09

294

Biological photocathodes.  

PubMed Central

Biological surfaces emit electrons when subjected to UV light. This emission is increased greatly after exposure to cesium vapor. Increases from 2 to 3 orders of magnitude are observed, depending on the biochemicals present. Heme and chlorophyll exhibit unusually high photoemission currents, which are increased further after cesiation. Photoemission from proteins and lipids is much less but also is increased by exposure to cesium. The formation of photocathodes with cesium greatly increases the practical magnifications attainable in photoelectron microscopy of organic and biological specimens. Photoelectron micrographs taken at magnifications greater than or equal to X 100,000 of chlorophyll-rich thylakoid membranes and of colloidal gold-labeled cytoskeleton preparations of cultured epithelial cells demonstrate the improvement in magnification. The selectivity and stability of the photocathodes suggest the possibility of detecting chromophore binding proteins in membranes and the design of photoelectron labels for tagging specific sites on biological surfaces. Images

Griffith, O H; Habliston, D L; Birrell, G B; Skoczylas, W P; Hedberg, K K

1989-01-01

295

Molecular Biology  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

As more academic institutions seek to incorporate Internet technology into their courses, many instructors must work in a medium that is unfamiliar, with lots of cluttered information, and precious little time. Numerous examples of well-designed course homepages exist and can be used as templates for constructing a course Webpage. Dr. Malcolm Campbell of Davidson College in North Carolina is an award-winning teacher who has produced a logical and interesting new homepage for an upper-level undergraduate Molecular Biology course (Molecular Biology 304). With a syllabus, daily-, and laboratory-schedules, the straightforward site guides students (and anyone else) through the course, building on previous course work, and teaching such concepts as critical thinking, data collection and analysis, and the writing of review papers. Some information at the site is restricted to registered students only, but the accessible information is worthy on its own. A good list of biology (organismal and micro) sites is also provided.

296

Biological Imaging  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

From investigating development to tracking cancer to nailing down the intricate mechanisms of cell division, scientists are using a bevy of new imaging techniques -- as well as new twists on some old standbys -- to push out the frontiers of biological knowledge. Science explores the state of the art in the field in its 4 April 2003 special issue on biological imaging. This slide show touches on some imaging highlights featured in that issue, as well as some notable accomplishments in bioimaging that have appeared recently in other issues of the journal.

C.L. Rieder (AAAS;); A. Khodjakov (AAAS;)

2003-04-04

297

Biological clocks  

PubMed Central

Circadian rhythms describe biological phenomena that oscillate with an ?24-hour cycle. These rhythms include blood pressure, body temperature, hormone levels, the number of immune cells in blood, and the sleep-wake cycle. In this paper, we will focus on common genes between species that are responsible for determining the circadian behavior, especially some transcription factors (i.e., switch genes) that serve to regulate many circadian rhythm genes. The intent of this summary is to introduce the common molecular mechanism of biological clocks between flies and humans and then to describe the research from three laboratories that was presented in the session.

Ishida, Norio; Kaneko, Maki; Allada, Ravi

1999-01-01

298

Biological rhythms  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

An overview is given of basic features of biological rhythms. The classification of periodic behavior of physical and psychological characteristics as circadian, circannual, diurnal, and ultradian is discussed, and the notion of relativistic time as it applies in biology is examined. Special attention is given to circadian rhythms which are dependent on the adrenocortical cycle. The need for adequate understanding of circadian variations in the basic physiological indicators of an individual (heart rate, body temperature, systolic and diastolic blood pressure, etc.) to ensure the effectiveness of prophylactic and therapeutic measures is stressed.

Halberg, F.

1975-01-01

299

NASA Biological Specimen Repository  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The NASA Biological Specimen Repository (NBSR) was established in 2006 to collect, process, preserve and distribute spaceflight-related biological specimens from long duration ISS astronauts. This repository provides unique opportunities to study longitudinal changes in human physiology spanning may missions. The NBSR collects blood and urine samples from all participating ISS crewmembers who have provided informed consent. These biological samples are collected once before flight, during flight scheduled on flight days 15, 30, 60, 120 and within 2 weeks of landing. Postflight sessions are conducted 3 and 30 days after landing. The number of in-flight sessions is dependent on the duration of the mission. Specimens are maintained under optimal storage conditions in a manner that will maximize their integrity and viability for future research The repository operates under the authority of the NASA/JSC Committee for the Protection of Human Subjects to support scientific discovery that contributes to our fundamental knowledge in the area of human physiological changes and adaptation to a microgravity environment. The NBSR will institute guidelines for the solicitation, review and sample distribution process through establishment of the NBSR Advisory Board. The Advisory Board will be composed of representatives of all participating space agencies to evaluate each request from investigators for use of the samples. This process will be consistent with ethical principles, protection of crewmember confidentiality, prevailing laws and regulations, intellectual property policies, and consent form language. Operations supporting the NBSR are scheduled to continue until the end of U.S. presence on the ISS. Sample distribution is proposed to begin with selections on investigations beginning in 2017. The availability of the NBSR will contribute to the body of knowledge about the diverse factors of spaceflight on human physiology.

McMonigal, K. A.; Pietrzyk, R. A.; Sams, C. F.; Johnson, M. A.

2010-01-01

300

Distribution of Dichromate in Preserved Milk – toward Utilization of Spent Milk Samples from Centralized Testing Laboratories[1] and [2  

Microsoft Academic Search

The emergence of centralized milk testing laboratories has brought with it the problem of disposing of large num- bers of spent milk samples containing po- tassium dichromate preservative. Reduc- tion of laboratory effluent biological oxy- gen demand and conversion of this milk to a food or feed would be desirable. Edibility and safety of any recovered food or feed depend

J. C. Weaver; M. Kroger; R. D. McCarthy

1977-01-01

301

Cancer Biology  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

University of Colorado's Virtual Student Fellowship available at and developed by Bakemeier, Richard F. This website is designed to give students applying for a fellowship an overview of basic topics in biology and how they are used by cancer researchers to develop new treatments.

Dominiecki, Mary E.

2004-01-01

302

Biology Notes.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes laboratory procedures, demonstrations, and classroom activities/materials, including water relation exercise on auxin-treated artichoke tuber tissue; aerobic respiration in yeast; an improved potometer; use of mobiles in biological classification, and experiments on powdery mildews and banana polyphenol oxidase. Includes reading lists…

School Science Review, 1983

1983-01-01

303

Biology Notes.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Presents content information and/or laboratory procedures and experiments on different biology topics including small-scale cultivation of watercress and its use in water-culture experiments, microbiology of the phylloplane, use of mouthbrooders in science class, and the gene. (DC)

School Science Review, 1981

1981-01-01

304

Biologic Vaccines  

PubMed Central

The threat of new disease pandemics has spurred the development of biologic vaccines, which promise tremendous improvements in global and local health. Several lend themselves to the prevention or treatment of chronic diseases. But the uncertainties of whom to vaccinate raise the question of whether the health care system can make these promising products viable.

ADAMS, KATHERINE T.

2009-01-01

305

Bottle Biology.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes activities which utilize plastic drink bottles and are designed to foster the development of a wide range of biological and ecological concepts. Includes instructions for making a model compost column and presents a model that illustrates open versus closed ecosystems. (DDR)

Jager, Peter

1993-01-01

306

Biology Notes.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes equipment, activities, and experiments useful in biology and environmental education instruction, including, among others, sampling in ecology using an overhead projector, the slide finder as an aid to microscopy, teaching kidney function, and teaching wildlife conservation-sand dune systems. (SK)

School Science Review, 1980

1980-01-01

307

Biology Notes  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes nine biology experiments, including osmosis, genetics; oxygen content of blood, enzymes in bean seedlings, preparation of bird skins, vascularization in bean seedlings, a game called "sequences" (applied to review situations), crossword puzzle for human respiration, and physiology of the woodlouse. (CS)

School Science Review, 1976

1976-01-01

308

Biology Notes.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Organized by topic is a reading list for A- and S-level biology. Described are experiments for measuring rate of water uptake in a shoot; questions to aid students in designing experiments; rise of overhead projection to demonstrate osmosis and blood cell counting; and microbial manufacture of vinegar. (CS)

School Science Review, 1979

1979-01-01

309

Biological Semiconductors  

Cancer.gov

Fabrication using printing technologies of electrical percolation biological semiconductors (BSC) can facilitate assembly of numerous types of gates containing various ligands (e.g., antibodies, DNA, etc.) and can be used to assemble many of such gates on the same chip.

310

(Biological dosimetry)  

SciTech Connect

The traveler attended the 1st International Conference on Biological Dosimetry in Madrid, Spain. This conference was organized to provide information to a general audience of biologists, physicists, radiotherapists, industrial hygiene personnel and individuals from related fields on the current ability of cytogenetic analysis to provide estimates of radiation dose in cases of occupational or environmental exposure. There is a growing interest in Spain in biological dosimetry because of the increased use of radiation sources for medical and occupational uses, and with this the anticipated and actual increase in numbers of overexposure. The traveler delivered the introductory lecture on Biological Dosimetry: Mechanistic Concepts'' that was intended to provide a framework by which the more applied lectures could be interpreted in a mechanistic way. A second component of the trip was to provide advice with regard to several recent cases of overexposure that had been or were being assessed by the Radiopathology and Radiotherapy Department of the Hospital General Gregorio Maranon'' in Madrid. The traveler had provided information on several of these, and had analyzed cells from some exposed or purportedly exposed individuals. The members of the biological dosimetry group were referred to individuals at REACTS at Oak Ridge Associated Universities for advice on follow-up treatment.

Preston, R.J.

1990-12-17

311

Biology Notes.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Presents information on the teaching of nutrition (including new information relating to many current O-level syllabi) and part 16 of a reading list for A- and S-level biology. Also includes a note on using earthworms as a source of material for teaching meiosis. (JN)

School Science Review, 1984

1984-01-01

312

Biological Molecules  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Paul Anderson describes the four major biological molecules found in living things. He begins with a brief discussion of polymerization. Dehydration synthesis is used to connect monomers into polymers and hydrolysis breaks them down again. The major characteristics of nucleic acids are described as well as there directionality from 3' to 5' end.

Anderson, Paul

2013-03-12

313

Islet cryopreservation using intracellular preservation solutions.  

PubMed

Cryopreservation of islets adds great flexibility to clinical islet transplant programs. Methods of islet cryopreservation have traditionally utilized permeating cryoprotectants contained within isotonic solutions without specifically addressing issues of ionic balances, buffering capacity, or oxygen free radicals that occur during hypothermic stresses. These factors may become significant issues during low-temperature storage and during the freezing and thawing process. Since its development in the early 1980s, the University of Wisconsin (UW) organ preservation solution has become the standard vascular flush and preservation solution. Recently, Hypothermosol preservation solution (HTS) was developed as a hypothermic blood substitute. The unique characteristics and composition of these preservation solutions may be important when developing solutions specific for the cryopreservation of cells and tissues. It was the aim of this study to evaluate these two hypothermic preservation solutions as the media used in cryopreservation of islets. Groups of canine islets [5000 islet equivalents (IE)/group] were cryopreserved using the standard protocol of stepwise addition of dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) to 2 M, controlled nucleation, slow cooling (0.25 degrees C/min), and rapid thawing (200 degrees C/min). The cryopreservation solutions were made with 1) UW solution, 2) HTS solution, or 3) Medium 199 solution with 10% fetal calf serum (FCS). Additional control groups included islets cryopreserved using 4) HTS, 5) UW solution, and 6) Medium 199 alone, without DMSO. Recovery of islets immediately following thawing was equivalent between the groups with the exception of the islets cryopreserved without DMSO (groups 4-6, p < 0.05). After 48 h of postcryopreservation tissue culture, islet recovery was highest in the groups frozen with UW and HTS (mean +/- SEM) (79.8 +/- 1.9% and 82.5 +/- 1.5%, p < 0.05 vs. group 3, 69.1 +/- 3.3%, p < 0.05, ANOVA). Less than 15% of the islets were recovered when they were cryopreserved without the cryoprotectant DMSO (groups 4-6). Functional viability was assessed by measuring the glucose-stimulated insulin secretion during static incubation after 48-h culture. The stimulation indexes were 4.6 +/- 1.0, 4.2 +/- 0.8, 3.6 +/- 1.2, 0.6 +/- 0.5, and 0.4 +/- 0.2 for islets in groups 1-5, respectively. This study demonstrates that postcryopreservation survival can be improved using intracellular-based preservation solutions, including UW or HTS, in conjunction with DMSO. PMID:11714192

Lakey, J R; Rajotte, R V; Fedorow, C A; Taylor, M J

2001-01-01

314

Biology Is Life  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This website is dedicated to learning. You can learn about Biology, Music, and Me. BIOLOGY To check out the Biology Department at Utah State University visit Biology At USU Here you can use interactive activities to learn more about Biology. ...

Mitchell, Kelli

2006-04-18

315

Preservation of cycad and Ginkgo pollen  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Pollen grains of Ginkgo, Cycas, and Encephalartos were chemically treated together with pollen of Quercus, Alnus, and Pinus, the latter three genera being used as standards. The experiments showed that: (1) boiling the pollen for 8-10 hours in 10% KOH had little if any effect on any of the grains; (2) lengthy acetolysis treatment produced some degradation or corrosion, particularly in Ginkgo and Cycas, but the grains of even these genera remained easily recognizable; (3) oxidation with KMnO4 followed by H2O2 showed that pollen of Ginkgo, Cycas, and Encephalartos remains better preserved than that of Quercus and Alnus, and although Ginkgo and Encephalartos probably are slightly less resistant to oxidation than Pinus, no great differences exists between these monosulcate types and Pinus. Thus the experiments show that, at least for sediments low in bacteria, cycad and Ginkgo pollen should be well represented in the fossil record as far as their preservational capabilities are concerned. ?? 1978.

Frederiksen, N. O.

1978-01-01

316

Angle-preserving quantized phase embeddings  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We demonstrate that the phase of randomized complex-valued projections of real-valued signals preserves information about the angle, i.e., the correlation, between those signals. This information can be exploited to design quantized angle-preserving embeddings, which represent such correlations using a nite bit-rate. The proposed embeddings generalize known results on binary embeddings and 1-bit compressive sensing and allow us to explore the trade-o between number of measurements and number of bits per measurement, given the bit rate. The freedom provided by this trade-off, which has also been observed in quantized Johnson-Lindenstrauss embeddings, can improve performance at reduced rate in a number of applications.

Boufounos, Petros T.

2013-09-01

317

Privacy Preserving RBF Kernel Support Vector Machine  

PubMed Central

Data sharing is challenging but important for healthcare research. Methods for privacy-preserving data dissemination based on the rigorous differential privacy standard have been developed but they did not consider the characteristics of biomedical data and make full use of the available information. This often results in too much noise in the final outputs. We hypothesized that this situation can be alleviated by leveraging a small portion of open-consented data to improve utility without sacrificing privacy. We developed a hybrid privacy-preserving differentially private support vector machine (SVM) model that uses public data and private data together. Our model leverages the RBF kernel and can handle nonlinearly separable cases. Experiments showed that this approach outperforms two baselines: (1) SVMs that only use public data, and (2) differentially private SVMs that are built from private data. Our method demonstrated very close performance metrics compared to nonprivate SVMs trained on the private data.

Xiong, Li; Ohno-Machado, Lucila

2014-01-01

318

Preparation and preservation of hypoxia UW solution  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary  In order to explore the method to prepare hypoxia UW solution and the stability and preservation of hypoxia UW solution, UW\\u000a solution was purged by argon or air for 15 min or 60 at a flow rate of 0.8 or 2 L\\/min, and the oxygen partial pressure of\\u000a UW solution was detected. The hypoxia UW solution was exposed to the

Chidang Wan; Chunyou Wang; Tao Liu; Rui Cheng; Zhiyong Yang

2007-01-01

319

Fertility preservation for boys with cancer  

Microsoft Academic Search

Childhood cancer is a curable disease due to the development of chemo- and radiation therapies, but long-term survivors suffer\\u000a late side-effects including infertility. Cytotoxic agents and radiation impair spermatogenesis and cause oligospermia or azoospermia\\u000a as well as genetic damage in sperm. To date, the only established option to preserve fertility is cryopreservation of sperm\\u000a before treatment and artificial reproduction techniques,

Kazutoshi Fujita; Akira Tsujimura

2010-01-01

320

Working Group Proposed to Preserve Archival Records  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The AAS and AIP co-hosted a Workshop in April 2012 with NSF support (AST-1110231) that recommends establishing a Working Group on Time Domain Astronomy (WGTDA) to encourage and advise on preserving historical observations in a form meaningful for future scientific analysis. Participants specifically considered archival observations that could describe how astronomical objects change over time. Modern techniques and increased storage capacity enable extracting additional information from older media. Despite the photographic plate focus, other formats also concerned participants. To prioritize preservation efforts, participants recommended considering the information density, the amount of previously published data, their format and associated materials, their current condition, and their expected deterioration rate. Because the best digitization still produces an observation of an observation, the originals should be retained. For accessibility, participants recommended that observations and their metadata be available digitally and on-line. Standardized systems for classifying, organizing, and listing holdings should enable discovery of historical observations through the Virtual Astronomical Observatory. Participants recommended pilot projects that produce scientific results, demonstrate the dependence of some advances on heritage data, and open new avenues of exploration. Surveying a broad region of the sky with a long time-base and high cadence should reveal new phenomena and improve statistics for rare events. Adequate financial support is essential. While their capacity to produce new science is the primary motivation for preserving astronomical records, their potential for historical research and citizen science allows targeting cultural institutions and other private sources. A committee was elected to prepare the WGTDA proposal. The WGTDA executive committee should be composed of ~10 members representing modern surveys, heritage materials, data management, data standardization and integration, follow-up of time-domain discoveries, and virtual observatories. The Working Group on the Preservation of Astronomical Heritage Web page includes a full report.

Bartlett, Jennifer L.

2013-01-01

321

Preservation of polyclonal antibody production by hybridization  

Microsoft Academic Search

The fusion of unimmunized (Balb\\/c SJL)F1, mouse spleen cells in which a polyclonal response had been induced by bacterial lipopolysaccharide with a myeloma cell line\\u000a resulted in hybrid cell populations. The hybrid populations obtained elaborated antibody activity to human hemoglobin A, Keyhole\\u000a Limpet hemocyanin, the dinitrophenyl (DNP) hapten, and human erythrocytes, Thus, hybridization allowed preservation of the\\u000a normally transitory polyclonal

Richard A. Goldsby; Barbara A. Osborne; Dipa Suri; Joann Williams; Adrian D. Mandelw

1979-01-01

322

Diffusion Tensor Regularization with Constraints Preservation  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper deals with the problem of regularizing noisy fields of diffusion tensors, considered as symmetric and semi-positive definite matrices (as for instance 2D structure tensors or DT-MRI medical images). We first propose a simple anisotropic PDE-based scheme that acts directly on the matrix coefficients and preserve the semi- positive constraint thanks to a specific reprojection step. The limitations of

David Tschumperlé; Rachid Deriche

2001-01-01

323

Cryogenic preservation of fish and mammalian spermatozoa  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary. Various combinations of sucrose, reduced glutathione and potassium bi- carbonate were tested for the cryogenic preservation of salmon spermatozoa. When a fast freezing procedure was followed, the extender that gave the best results was composed of 1 part ofdimethyl sulphoxide (DMSO), as a protective agent, and 7 parts of a medium containing 125 mM-sucrose, 6.50 mM-reduced glutathione and 100

M. S. Mounib

1978-01-01

324

Identity Preservation Systems for Genetically Modified Potatoes  

Microsoft Academic Search

In spite of benefits to growers, processors, consumers and the environment, genetically modified (GM) potatoes were a market\\u000a failure in North America. Contributing to the failure was the lack of an identity preservation (IP) system that could have\\u000a prevented unapproved GM potato products from entering export markets. We interviewed 26 industry experts to identify recommended\\u000a practices for GM potato IP

Elliot A. Toevs; Joseph F. Guenthner; Aaron J. Johnson; Christopher S. McIntosh; Michael K. Thornton

325

HERA Data Preservation plans and activities  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

An international inter-experimental study group on data preservation and long-term analysis in HEP (DPHEP) was convened at the end of 2008 and held a series of workshops during 2009. The HERA experiments H1, ZEUS, HERMES as well as the IT division and the Library are well represented in DPHEP and efforts are now being made to form a coherent approach at DESY. Various options for preservation are explored, from permanent evolution (H1) to the use of virtualisation techniques (ZEUS). Both experiments have planned the computing and the associated resources until 2013 and now explore possibilities to ensure the maintenance of the data analysis capabilities beyond 2013. A common effort and additional resources may lead to longer viability of data analysis. Technical solutions have been investigated by DESY-IT and involve virtualisation systems tailored for long term software preservation as well as systems for self consistent data archiving and migration. The communication between experiments, DESY-IT and the Library have put forward the possibility for further common developments related to documentation scanning and storage as well as pilot projects within the HEP documentation system INSPIRE. The evaluation of such projects is ongoing and concrete proposals to ensure HERA data analysis after 2013 are expected in 2010.

Szuba, J.; DESY Data Preservation Group

2011-12-01

326

Topology Preserving SOM with Transductive Confidence Machine  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We propose a novel topology preserving self-organized map (SOM) classifier with transductive confidence machine (TPSOM-TCM). Typically, SOM acts as a dimension reduction tool for mapping training samples from a high-dimensional input space onto a neuron grid. However, current SOM-based classifiers can not provide degrees of classification reliability for new unlabeled samples so that they are difficult to be used in risk-sensitive applications where incorrect predictions may result in serious consequences. Our method extends a typical SOM classifier to allow it to supply such reliability degrees. To achieve this objective, we define a nonconformity measurement with which a randomness test can predict how nonconforming a new unlabeled sample is with respect to the training samples. In addition, we notice that the definition of nonconformity measurement is more dependent on the quality of topology preservation than that of quantization error reduction. We thus incorporate the grey relation coefficient (GRC) into the calculation of neighborhood radii to improve the topology preservation without increasing the quantization error. Our method is able to improve the time efficiency of a previous method kNN-TCM, when the number of samples is large. Extensive experiments on both the UCI and KDDCUP 99 data sets show the effectiveness of our method.

Tong, Bin; Qin, Zhiguang; Suzuki, Einoshin

327

Riverscape and groundwater preservation: a choice experiment.  

PubMed

This study presents a quantitative approach to support policy decision making for the preservation of riverscapes, taking into account the EC Water Framework Directive (2000/60/EC) and the EC Nitrates Directive (91/676/EEC) concerning the protection of waters against nitrate pollution from agricultural sources. A choice experiment was applied to evaluate the benefits, as perceived by inhabitants, of the implementation of policies aiming to reduce the concentration of nitrates in groundwater, preserve the riverscape by maintaining a minimum water flow and increasing hedges and woods along the Serio River in central northern Italy. Findings suggested that people were particularly concerned about groundwater quality, probably because it is strongly linked to human health. Nevertheless, it was interesting to observe that people expressed a high willingness to pay for actions that affect the riverscape as a whole (such as the minimum water flow maintenance plus reforestation). This is probably due to the close connection between the riverscape and the functions of the river area for recreation, health purposes, and biodiversity preservation. PMID:24085155

Tempesta, T; Vecchiato, D

2013-12-01

328

Methods to preserve potentially toxigenic fungi  

PubMed Central

Microorganisms are a source of many high-value compounds which are useful to every living being, such as humans, plants and animals. Since the process of isolating and improving a microorganism can be lengthy and expensive, preserving the obtained characteristic is of paramount importance, so the process does not need to be repeated. Fungi are eukaryotic, achlorophyllous, heterotrophic organisms, usually filamentous, absorb their food, can be either macro or microscopic, propagate themselves by means of spores and store glycogen as a source of storage. Fungi, while infesting food, may produce toxic substances such as mycotoxins. The great genetic diversity of the Kingdom Fungi renders the preservation of fungal cultures for many years relevant. Several international reference mycological culture collections are maintained in many countries. The methodologies that are most fit for preserving microorganisms for extended periods are based on lowering the metabolism until it reaches a stage of artificial dormancy. The goal of this study was to analyze three methods for potentially toxigenic fungal conservation (Castellani’s, continuous subculture and lyophilization) and to identify the best among them.

Guimaraes, Lucas Costa; Fernandes, Ana Paula; Chalfoun, Sara Maria; Batista, Luis Roberto

2014-01-01

329

Renal preservation therapy for renal cell carcinoma.  

PubMed

Renal preservation therapy has been a promising concept for the treatment of localized renal cell carcinoma (RCC) for 20 years. Nowadays partial nephrectomy (PN) is well accepted to treat the localized RCC and the oncological control is proved to be the same as the radical nephrectomy (RN). Under the result of well oncological control, minimal invasive method gains more popularity than the open PN, like laparoscopic partial nephrectomy (LPN) and robot assisted laparoscopic partial nephrectomy (RPN). On the other hand, thermoablative therapy and cryoablation also play an important role in the renal preservation therapy to improve the patient procedural tolerance. Novel modalities, but limited to small number of patients, include high-intensity ultrasound (HIFU), radiosurgery, microwave therapy (MWT), laser interstitial thermal therapy (LITT), and pulsed cavitational ultrasound (PCU). Although initial results are encouraging, their real clinical roles are still under evaluation. On the other hand, active surveillance (AS) has also been advocated by some for patients who are unfit for surgery. It is reasonable to choose the best therapeutic method among varieties of treatment modalities according to patients' age, physical status, and financial aid to maximize the treatment effect among cancer control, patient morbidity, and preservation of renal function. PMID:22957251

Chiu, Yichun; Chiu, Allen W

2012-01-01

330

Scalable similarity search with topology preserving hashing.  

PubMed

Hashing-based similarity search techniques is becoming increasingly popular in large data sets. To capture meaningful neighbors, the topology of a data set, which represents the neighborhood relationships between its subregions and the relative proximities between the neighbors of each subregion, e.g., the relative neighborhood ranking of each subregion, should be exploited. However, most existing hashing methods are developed to preserve neighborhood relationships while ignoring the relative neighborhood proximities. Moreover, most hashing methods lack in providing a good result ranking, since there are often lots of results sharing the same Hamming distance to a query. In this paper, we propose a novel hashing method to solve these two issues jointly. The proposed method is referred to as topology preserving hashing (TPH). TPH is distinct from prior works by also preserving the neighborhood ranking. Based on this framework, we present three different TPH methods, including linear unsupervised TPH, semisupervised TPH, and kernelized TPH. Particularly, our unsupervised TPH is capable of mining semantic relationship between unlabeled data without supervised information. Extensive experiments on four large data sets demonstrate the superior performances of the proposed methods over several state-of-the-art unsupervised and semisupervised hashing techniques. PMID:24860034

Zhang, Lei; Zhang, Yongdong; Gu, Xiaoguang; Tang, Jinhui; Tian, Qi

2014-07-01

331

Riverscape and Groundwater Preservation: A Choice Experiment  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This study presents a quantitative approach to support policy decision making for the preservation of riverscapes, taking into account the EC Water Framework Directive (2000/60/EC) and the EC Nitrates Directive (91/676/EEC) concerning the protection of waters against nitrate pollution from agricultural sources. A choice experiment was applied to evaluate the benefits, as perceived by inhabitants, of the implementation of policies aiming to reduce the concentration of nitrates in groundwater, preserve the riverscape by maintaining a minimum water flow and increasing hedges and woods along the Serio River in central northern Italy. Findings suggested that people were particularly concerned about groundwater quality, probably because it is strongly linked to human health. Nevertheless, it was interesting to observe that people expressed a high willingness to pay for actions that affect the riverscape as a whole (such as the minimum water flow maintenance plus reforestation). This is probably due to the close connection between the riverscape and the functions of the river area for recreation, health purposes, and biodiversity preservation.

Tempesta, T.; Vecchiato, D.

2013-12-01

332

Polarimetric property preservation in SAR speckle filtering  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Speckle reduction of polarimetric SAR imagery has been studied using several different approaches. All these approaches exploited the degree of independence between HH, HV and VV channels. The statistical characteristics, such as correlation between channels, and polarimetric property preservation, were not addressed. This paper proposes a new approach in polarimetric SAR filtering. The new approach emphasizes not introducing cross-talk, preserving polarimetric information and statistical correlation between channels, and not degrading the image quality. To avoid cross-talk, each element of the covariance matrix has to be filtered independently. This rules out current methods of polarimetric SAR filtering. To preserve the polarimetric signature, each element of the covariance matrix should be filtered in a way similar to multi-look processing by averaging the covariance matrix of neighboring pixels, but without the deficiency of smearing edges, or degrading image quality. The proposed polarimetric SAR filter uses edge- directed non-square windows and applies the local statistics filter. The impact of using this polarimetric speckle filtering on terrain classification is also studied. NASA/JPL Les Landes polarimetric P-Band and C-Band SAR data is used for illustration.

Lee, Jong-Sen; Grunes, Mitchell R.; Boerner, Wolfgang-Martin

1997-12-01

333

Mass preserving registration for lung CT  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this paper, we evaluate a novel image registration method on a set of expiratory-inspiratory pairs of computed tomography (CT) lung scans. A free-form multi resolution image registration technique is used to match two scans of the same subject. To account for the differences in the lung intensities due to differences in inspiration level, we propose to adjust the intensity of lung tissue according to the local expansion or compression. An image registration method without intensity adjustment is compared to the proposed method. Both approaches are evaluated on a set of 10 pairs of expiration and inspiration CT scans of children with cystic fibrosis lung disease. The proposed method with mass preserving adjustment results in significantly better alignment of the vessel trees. Analysis of local volume change for regions with trapped air compared to normally ventilated regions revealed larger differences between these regions in the case of mass preserving image registration, indicating that mass preserving registration is better at capturing localized differences in lung deformation.

Gorbunova, Vladlena; Lo, Pechin; Loeve, Martine; Tiddens, Harm A.; Sporring, Jon; Nielsen, Mads; de Bruijne, Marleen

2009-02-01

334

Cardiac preservation is enhanced in a heterotopic rat transplant model by supplementing the nitric oxide pathway.  

PubMed Central

Nitric oxide (NO) is a novel biologic messenger with diverse effects but its role in organ transplantation remains poorly understood. Using a porphyrinic microsensor, the first direct measurements of coronary vascular and endocardial NO production were made. NO was measured directly in the effluent of preserved, heterotopically transplanted rat hearts stimulated with L-arginine and bradykinin; NO concentrations fell from 2.1 +/- 0.4 microM for freshly explanted hearts to 0.7 +/- 0.2 and 0.2 +/- 0.08 microM for hearts preserved for 19 and 38 h, respectively. NO levels were increased by SOD, suggesting a role for superoxide-mediated destruction of NO. Consistent with these data, addition of the NO donor nitroglycerin (NTG) to a balanced salt preservation solution enhanced graft survival in a time- and dose-dependent manner, with 92% of hearts supplemented with NTG surviving 12 h of preservation versus only 17% in its absence. NTG similarly enhanced preservation of hearts stored in University of Wisconsin solution, the clinical standard for preservation. Other stimulators of the NO pathway, including nitroprusside, L-arginine, or 8-bromoguanosine 3',5' monophosphate, also enhanced graft survival, whereas the competitive NO synthase antagonist NG-monomethyl-L-arginine was associated with poor preservation. Likely mechanisms whereby supplementation of the NO pathway enhanced preservation included increased blood flow to the reperfused graft and decreased graft leukostasis. NO was also measured in endothelial cells subjected to hypoxia/reoxygenation and detected based on its ability to inhibit thrombin-mediated platelet aggregation and serotonin release. NO became undetectable in endothelial cells exposed to hypoxia followed by reoxygenation and was restored to normoxic levels on addition of SOD. These studies suggest that the NO pathway fails during preservation/transplantation because of formation of oxygen free radicals during reperfusion, which quench available NO. Augmentation of NO/cGMP-dependent mechanisms enhances vascular function after ischemia and reperfusion and provides a new strategy for transplantation of vascular organs. Images

Pinsky, D J; Oz, M C; Koga, S; Taha, Z; Broekman, M J; Marcus, A J; Liao, H; Naka, Y; Brett, J; Cannon, P J

1994-01-01

335

Biological Remediation  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This week's Topic In Depth focuses on the use of biological organisms to reduce environmental contamination.From the US Geological Survey, the first site (1) is a general introduction to bioremediation and includes links to several examples of successful bioremediation projects. Next (2) is a glossary of terms related to biological remediation. The third site is an educational resource (3) developed to teach high school students about environmental contamination and the use of plants to remove pollutants. The Bioremediation Discussion Group (4) includes a useful "archive of technical papers on bioremediation." The next two Web sites are specific to the process of phytoremediation, which uses plants to remediate contamination (5) (6 ). The next site (7) gives an example of an application using microbes from chicken compost to reduce air pollution. Lastly, this fact sheet (8) from the Ohio State University Extension Service focuses on bioremediation specific to wastewater treatment.

Lee, Amy.

2002-01-01

336

Computational Biology  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Terrific progress has taken place in the last decade identifying many of the key components of signaling pathways that control a wide range of biologically and medically important physiological functions. STKE's Connections Map database (http://stke.sciencemag.org/cm/) is in part a tribute to the amount and complexity of the accumulated information. The pathways and their interactions are sufficiently elaborate that such an organizational aid is widely thought to be useful and informative.

L. Bryan Ray (American Association for the Advancement of Science;Editor of Science's STKE and a Senior Editor of Science REV); Lisa D. Chong (American Association for the Advancement of Science;Associate Editor of Science's STKE and Associate Editor of Science REV); Nancy R. Gough (American Association for the Advancement of Science;Managing Editor of Science's STKE REV)

2002-09-03

337

Crusts: biological  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Biological soil crusts, a community of cyanobacteria, lichens, mosses, and fungi, are an essential part of dryland ecosystems. They are critical in the stabilization of soils, protecting them from wind and water erosion. Similarly, these soil surface communities also stabilized soils on early Earth, allowing vascular plants to establish. They contribute nitrogen and carbon to otherwise relatively infertile dryland soils, and have a strong influence on hydrologic cycles. Their presence can also influence vascular plant establishment and nutrition.

Belnap, Jayne

2013-01-01

338

Biological Dosimetry  

Microsoft Academic Search

Chromosome analysis is the method of choice in case of biological dosimetry, used for the quantification of exposures to ionising\\u000a radiation. The advantages and disadvantages of dicentric chromosomes and symmetrical translocations are described. In general,\\u000a confounding factors on the lower detectable dose limit and scoring criteria for symmetrical translocations are discussed.\\u000a In the case of acute exposures, scoring of dicentric

Günter Stephan; Ursula Oestreicher; Horst Romm

339

Marine biology  

SciTech Connect

This book discusses both taxonomic and ecological topics on marine biology. Full coverage of marine organisms of all five kingdoms is provided, along with interesting and thorough discussion of all major marine habitats. Organization into six major parts allows flexibility. It also provides insight into important topics such as disposal of nuclear waste at sea, the idea that life began on the ocean floor, and how whales, krill, and people interact. A full-color photo chapter reviews questions, and exercises. The contents are: an overview marine biology: fundamental concepts/investigating life in the ocean; the physical ocean, the ocean floor, the nature of water, the nature and motion of ocean water; general ecology, conditions for life in the sea, biological productivity and energy transfer; marine organisms; monera, protista, mycota and metaphyta; the smaller marine animals, the large animals marine habitats, the intertidal zone/benthos of the continental shelf, the photic zone, the deep ocean, the ocean under stress, marine pollution, appendix a: the metric system and conversion factors/ appendix b: prefixes and suffixes/ appendix c: taxonomic classification of common marine organisms, and glossary, and index.

Thurman, H.V.; Webber, H.H.

1984-01-01

340

Gravitational Biology Facility on Space Station: Meeting the needs of space biology  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Gravitational Biology Facility (GBF) is a set of generic laboratory equipment needed to conduct research on Space Station Freedom (SSF), focusing on Space Biology Program science (Cell and Developmental Biology and Plant Biology). The GBF will be functional from the earliest utilization flights through the permanent manned phase. Gravitational biology research will also make use of other Life Sciences equipment on the space station as well as existing equipment developed for the space shuttle. The facility equipment will be developed based on requirements derived from experiments proposed by the scientific community to address critical questions in the Space Biology Program. This requires that the facility have the ability to house a wide variety of species, various methods of observation, and numerous methods of sample collection, preservation, and storage. The selection of the equipment will be done by the members of a scientific working group (5 members representing cell biology, 6 developmental biology, and 6 plant biology) who also provide requirements to design engineers to ensure that the equipment will meet scientific needs. All equipment will undergo extensive ground based experimental validation studies by various investigators addressing a variety of experimental questions. Equipment will be designed to be adaptable to other space platforms. The theme of the Gravitational Biology Facility effort is to provide optimal and reliable equipment to answer the critical questions in Space Biology as to the effects of gravity on living systems.

Allen, Katherine; Wade, Charles

1992-01-01

341

Amber: Using "Tree Tears Turned to Stone" to Teach Biology, Ecology, and More!  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Amber is a fossil by itself, and can also contain plants and animals that lived millions of years ago. Some of these perfectly preserved specimens give scientists a convenient window to past environments, including the biology, ecology, geology, and chemi

Wandersee, James H.; Clary, Renee M.

2009-11-01

342

21 CFR 178.3800 - Preservatives for wood.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

... § 178.3800 Preservatives for wood. Preservatives may be safely...technical effect of protecting the wood from decay, mildew, and water absorption...exceed 50 p.p.m. in the treated wood, calculated as...

2009-04-01

343

21 CFR 178.3800 - Preservatives for wood.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

... § 178.3800 Preservatives for wood. Preservatives may be safely...technical effect of protecting the wood from decay, mildew, and water absorption...exceed 50 p.p.m. in the treated wood, calculated as...

2010-01-01

344

4 CFR 201.15 - Preservation of records.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-01-01 false Preservation of records. 201.15 Section 201.15 Accounts RECOVERY ACCOUNTABILITY AND TRANSPARENCY BOARD PUBLIC INFORMATION AND REQUESTS § 201.15 Preservation of records. The Board shall...

2011-01-01

345

System and Method for Distributed Privacy Preserving Data Mining.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Distributed privacy preserving data mining techniques are provided. A first entity of a plurality of entities in a distributed computing environment exchanges summary information with a second entity of the plurality of entities via a privacy-preserving d...

C. C. Aggarwal P. Shi-Lung Yu

2004-01-01

346

21 CFR 1305.27 - Preservation of electronic orders.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-04-01 false Preservation of electronic orders. 1305.27 Section 1305...SCHEDULE I AND II CONTROLLED SUBSTANCES Electronic Orders § 1305.27 Preservation of electronic orders. (a) A purchaser...

2013-04-01

347

Local Cooperatives' Role in the Identity-Preserved Grain Industry.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This study examines how locally owned cooperatives have responded to the transition from commodity to identity-preserved grain marketing. Survey results showed locals' overall commitment to identity-preserved grains was determined more by a cultural recep...

J. A. Hogeland

2001-01-01

348

Microbial Trace Fossils Preserved in Impact Materials  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Meteorite impact events create unique microbial niches that may have been significant habitats on early Earth and astrobiological targets on other rocky bodies. Here we critique studies reporting evidence of biological activity in impact systems.

Sapers, H. M.; Osinski, G. R.; Banerjee, N. R.

2013-08-01

349

Changes in Parental Depression Symptoms during Family Preservation Services  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Objectives: Parental depression symptoms often change over the course of child welfare family preservation and parenting services. This raises the question of whether certain processes in family preservation services might be associated with depression symptom change. This study tests three correlational models of change among family preservation

Chaffin, Mark; Bard, David

2011-01-01

350

Does warm blood retrograde cardioplegia preserve right ventricular function?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background. Efficacy of warm blood retrograde cardioplegia in preserving right heart function remains controversial. The current study was conducted to gauge the preservation of right ventricular function after warm blood retrograde cardioplegia.Methods. We studied 75 consecutive patients undergoing isolated heart valve procedures with warm blood retrograde cardioplegia as the exclusive mode of preservation. Right ventricular radionuclide ejection fraction and hemodynamic

Pankaj Kulshrestha; John A. Rousou; Richard M. Engelman; Joseph E. Flack; David W. Deaton; Richard B. Wait; Heather M. Hampf

2001-01-01

351

Advanced image analysis for the preservation of cultural heritage  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Library of Congress' Preservation Research and Testing Division has established an advanced preservation studies scientific program for research and analysis of the diverse range of cultural heritage objects in its collection. Using this system, the Library is currently developing specialized integrated research methodologies for extending preservation analytical capacities through non-destructive hyperspectral imaging of cultural objects. The research program has

Fenella G. France; William Christens-Barry; Michael B. Toth; Kenneth Boydston

2010-01-01

352

Video Preservation and Digital Reformatting: Pain and Possibility  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The digital library community is increasingly concerned with long-term preservation of digital materials. This concern presents an opportunity for strategic alliances between digital library units and preservation departments confronting the difficulties inherent in preservation reformatting of moving image materials. However, successful…

McDonough, Jerome; Jimenez, Mona

2006-01-01

353

Comparison of Celsior and UW Solution in Experimental Pancreas Preservation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background. The University of Wisconsin solution (UW) is the gold standard for pancreas preservation. Celsior (CEL) was formulated specifically for heart preservation. Recently, experimental and clinical experience has been reported on the application of CEL to abdominal organs. In this animal study, pancreas preservation with CEL was compared with that in UW solution.Patients and Materials. Heterotopic, allogeneic pancreaticoduodenal transplantation was

Dirk Uhlmann; Barbara Armann; Stefan Ludwig; Evelyn Escher; Uta-Carolin Pietsch; Andrea Tannapfel; Daniel Teupser; Johann Hauss; Helmut Witzigmann

2002-01-01

354

Selection for Preservation in the Digital Age: An Overview.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Considers whether conversion to digital form is a preservation action, the contrasts between selection for digital conversion and selection for traditional preservation, and the potential effects on the field of preservation. Topics include value and demand; intellectual property rights; added value; and costs. (LRW)

Gertz, Janet

2001-01-01

355

Portfolio selection under the condition of value preservation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Besides risk and return, investors often are interested in choosing a portfolio such that the portfolio value is preserved. However, the traditional utility-maximizing approach generally fails to provide such a solution. As a different approach value preservation is formulated as an equilibrium problem. Following this approach it is shown that under reasonable assumptions a value preserving solution exists. The solution

Klaus Hellwig

1996-01-01

356

X-ray imaging of biological specimens  

SciTech Connect

I compared alternative techniques for x-ray imaging of biological specimens on the basis of (1) transverse and longitudinal resolution, (2) depth of field, (3) choice of recording medium, and (4) recording efficiency. For all imaging techniques, the dosages received by specimens were so high that the living state cannot be preserved, nor the structural integrity of the specimen be maintained in the usual sense.

Solem, J.C.

1983-01-01

357

Biological ESTEEM  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Introducing students to different software packages and applications for use in biology and math courses can be quite a challenge. With that in mind, teachers in these areas will definitely appreciate this rather helpful site from the people at the Mathematical Sciences Digital Library. These particular simulations and tools draw heavily on Microsoft Excel, so users will need to make sure that they also have this program installed. Visitors can click on the "Resources By Category" to access modules that deal with chemical equations in biochemistry, protein analysis, biodiversity, and island biogeography. It is worth noting that other subjects are covered here, including genetics, epidemiology, and ecology.

Jungck, John R.

2008-09-15

358

Biological ESTEEM  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Introducing students to different software packages and applications for use in biology and math courses can be quite a challenge. With that in mind, teachers in these areas will definitely appreciate this rather helpful site from the people at the Mathematical Sciences Digital Library. These particular simulations and tools draw heavily on Microsoft Excel, so users will need to make sure that they also have this program installed. Visitors can click on the "Resources By Category" to access modules that deal with chemical equations in biochemistry, protein analysis, biodiversity, and island biogeography. It is worth noting that other subjects are covered here, including genetics, epidemiology, and ecology.

Jungck, John R.

359

Biological Research Collections (BRC)  

NSF Publications Database

... thereafter SUMMARY OF PROGRAM REQUIREMENTS General Information Program Title: Biological Research ... in particular, and to biological sciences in general. II. PROGRAM DESCRIPTIONThe Biological ...

360

Biological Research Collections  

NSF Publications Database

... THEREAFTER SUMMARY OF PROGRAM REQUIREMENTS General Information Program Title: Biological Research ... in particular, and to biological sciences in general. II. PROGRAM DESCRIPTION The Biological ...

361

Summary report on transverse emittance preservation  

SciTech Connect

During the past years, significant progress has been made in understanding the beam transverse emittance blow-up and its preservation. However, one often finds him-/herself ignorant when he/she tries to explain what was observed in an existing machine or to predict what will happen in a machine under design. There are a number of such examples given in this report. Some of them are even fundamental. These are the challenges. But they are also the directions leading to new achievements. The workshop gladly acknowledged them and promised to work on them.

Chou, W.; Vos, L. [European Organization for Nuclear Research, Geneva (Switzerland)

1997-12-01

362

Bomb Pulse Biology  

PubMed Central

The past decade has seen an explosion in use of the 14C bomb-pulse to do fundamental cell biology. Studies in the 1960’s used decay counting to measure tissue turnover when the atmospheric 14C/C concentration was changing rapidly. Today bulk tissue measurements are of marginal interest since most of the carbon in the tissue resides in proteins, lipids and carbohydrates that turn over rapidly. Specific cell types with specialized functions are the focus of cell turnover investigations. Tissue samples need to be fresh or frozen. Fixed or preserved samples contain petroleum-derived carbon that has not been successfully removed. Cell or nuclear surface markers are used to sort specific cell types, typically by fluorescence-activated cell sorting (FACS). Specific biomolecules need to be isolated with high purity and accelerator mass spectrometry (AMS) measurements must accommodate samples that generally contain less than 40 micrograms of carbon. Furthermore, all separations must not add carbon to the sample. Independent means such as UV absorbance must be used to confirm molecule purity. Approaches for separating specific proteins and DNA and combating contamination of undesired molecules are described.

Sarachine Falso, Miranda J.; Buchholz, Bruce A.

2012-01-01

363

Bomb pulse biology  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The past decade has seen an explosion in use of the 14C bomb pulse to do fundamental cell biology. Studies in the 1960s used decay counting to measure tissue turnover when the atmospheric 14C/C concentration was changing rapidly. Today bulk tissue measurements are of marginal interest since most of the carbon in the tissue resides in proteins, lipids and carbohydrates that turn over rapidly. Specific cell types with specialized functions are the focus of cell turnover investigations. Tissue samples need to be fresh or frozen. Fixed or preserved samples contain petroleum-derived carbon that has not been successfully removed. Cell or nuclear surface markers are used to sort specific cell types, typically by fluorescence-activated cell sorting (FACS). Specific biomolecules need to be isolated with high purity and accelerator mass spectrometry (AMS) measurements must accommodate samples that generally contain less than 40 ?g of carbon. Furthermore, all separations must not add carbon to the sample. Independent means such as UV absorbance must be used to confirm molecule purity. Approaches for separating specific proteins and DNA and combating contamination of undesired molecules are described.

Falso, Miranda J. Sarachine; Buchholz, Bruce A.

2013-01-01

364

Selection for preservation: considerations for the health sciences.  

PubMed Central

Just as no health sciences library can afford to collect every work on a subject, neither can any health sciences library afford to preserve every item that is added to its collection. In decision making for collection development, health sciences libraries apply a set of selection criteria. Those same criteria have direct application in selection for preservation decisions. This paper summarizes the literature of selection for preservation, describes the scholarly record of biomedicine, and presents criteria for selection for preservation decisions. The preservation priorities statement for microfilming of monographs and serials in the National Library of Medicine collection is included as an appendix.

Richards, D T; McClure, L W

1989-01-01

365

Backyard Biology  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

There may be some who erroneously think that to learn about biology "in the field" it is necessary to travel to exotic locales. This fine site from the National Zoo in Washington, D.C., effectively dismisses that notion soundly by using its own grounds as a lens for learning about the "backyard biology" that is present right within this major metropolitan area. The right-hand side of the site is well worth starting with, as it contains three thematic areas: "Celebrate", "Study", and "Protect". In each area, visitors may browse through a set of resources dedicated to science articles, identification guides, and other such materials. For those who are drawn to live webcams, the homepage also has a "Backyard Cam", where users may check out the live action in and around the birdfeeder on the grounds. Finally, visitors may also want to look through the online photo gallery, take a look through the "Urban Nature Watch" area, and learn about the plant of the month.

366

Specimen Sample Preservation for Cell and Tissue Cultures  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The era of the International Space Station with its longer duration missions will pose unique challenges to microgravity life sciences research. The Space Station Biological Research Project (SSBRP) is responsible for addressing these challenges and defining the science requirements necessary to conduct life science research on-board the International Space Station. Space Station will support a wide range of cell and tissue culture experiments for durations of 1 to 30 days. Space Shuttle flights to bring experimental samples back to Earth for analyses will only occur every 90 days. Therefore, samples may have to be retained for periods up to 60 days. This presents a new challenge in fresh specimen sample storage for cell biology. Fresh specimen samples are defined as samples that are preserved by means other than fixation and cryopreservation. The challenge of long-term storage of fresh specimen samples includes the need to suspend or inhibit proliferation and metabolism pending return to Earth-based laboratories. With this challenge being unique to space research, there have not been any ground based studies performed to address this issue. It was decided hy SSBRP that experiment support studies to address the following issues were needed: Fixative Solution Management; Media Storage Conditions; Fresh Specimen Sample Storage of Mammalian Cell/Tissue Cultures; Fresh Specimen Sample Storage of Plant Cell/Tissue Cultures; Fresh Specimen Sample Storage of Aquatic Cell/Tissue Cultures; and Fresh Specimen Sample Storage of Microbial Cell/Tissue Cultures. The objective of these studies was to derive a set of conditions and recommendations that can be used in a long duration microgravity environment such as Space Station that will permit extended storage of cell and tissue culture specimens in a state consistent with zero or minimal growth, while at the same time maintaining their stability and viability.

Meeker, Gabrielle; Ronzana, Karolyn; Schibner, Karen; Evans, Robert

1996-01-01

367

Comparison of methods of preserving tissues for pesticide analysis  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Formalin preservation, freezing, spoiling followed by freezing, and phenoxyethanol were compared in terms of concentrations of DDT, DDD, DDE, endrin, and hepatachlor epoxide measured in brain, liver and carcass of birds fed dietary dosages of pesticides and in spiked egg homogenate. Phenoxyethanol proved to be an unsatisfactory preservative; the amount of 'extractable lipid' was excessive, and measurements of concentrations in replicates were erratic. Concentrations of residues in formalin-preserved and frozen samples did not differ significantly in any tissue. Percentage lipid in brains and eggs, however, were significantly lower in formalin-preserved samples. Samples of muscle and liver that had been spoiled before freezing yielded less DDD, and muscle samples yielded more DDT than formalin-preserved samples. The authors conclude that formalin preservation is a satisfactory method for preservation of field samples and that the warming and spoiling of samples that may occur unavoidably in the field will not result in misleading analytical results.

Stickel, W.H.; Stickel, L.F.; Dyrland, R.A.; Hughes, D.L.

1984-01-01

368

Pennsylvania Historical & Museum Commission: State Historic Preservation Office  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Most states have some type of historic preservation office to coordinate preservation activities. The Commonwealth of Pennsylvania has a very active preservation office and this website brings together a number of their publications and resources. Near the top of the page visitors will find two key items: the state's long-term preservation plan and the document titled "Economic Benefits of Historic Preservation Activities in Pennsylvania." The preservation plan may serve to inspire and edify those working in the field and it's a nice roadmap for those working in related fields, such as museum management. The second document highlights some of the long- and short-term benefits of sustained historic preservation activities from Philadelphia to Erie. Moving along, the site includes areas like Programs, Resources, and Initiatives. This last area is a real gem, as it features a tool designed to protect agricultural resources and a very fine field guide to the architectural types and styles that prevail throughout the Keystone State.

2012-08-31

369

Creating biological nanomaterials using synthetic biology  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Synthetic biology is a new discipline that combines science and engineering approaches to precisely control biological networks. These signaling networks are especially important in fields such as biomedicine and biochemical engineering. Additionally, biological networks can also be critical to the production of naturally occurring biological nanomaterials, and as a result, synthetic biology holds tremendous potential in creating new materials. This review introduces the field of synthetic biology, discusses how biological systems naturally produce materials, and then presents examples and strategies for incorporating synthetic biology approaches in the development of new materials. In particular, strategies for using synthetic biology to produce both organic and inorganic nanomaterials are discussed. Ultimately, synthetic biology holds the potential to dramatically impact biological materials science with significant potential applications in medical systems.

Rice, MaryJoe K.; Ruder, Warren C.

2014-02-01

370

[Sphincter-preserving radiotherapy of anal carcinoma].  

PubMed

During the last decade radiotherapy, in combination with chemotherapy, has become the treatment of choice in cure of anal carcinoma with preservation of anal function, and has replaced abdominoperineal resection (APR). From 1979-1990 54 patients with anal carcinoma were treated by radiotherapy. 24 patients received radiotherapy after APR (12 adjuvant, 12 after recurrence). 11 received palliative radiotherapy without prior APR. 19 patients were treated curatively, 17 of whom received a combination of external irradiation followed by interstitial iridium implantation in a split course regimen. 11 of the 19 patients received short simultaneous chemotherapy (mitomycin C and 5-fluorouracil). All 19 patients had a complete remission. 18/19 patients had no local recurrence after mean 14 months' follow-up. 2 patients developed regional recurrence. 3 patients died of other causes. Colostomy was necessary in 5/19 patients with anal necrosis which was dose-related. The maximum tolerated dose was 71.4 Gy. Our results support the recommendation in the literature of primary, curative, radiotherapy and chemotherapy of anal carcinoma with preservation of the anal sphincter. PMID:1439687

Thöni, A F; Greiner, R; Peyer, T; Leicht, E; Lampret, T; Feuz, J

1992-10-31

371

Privacy-preserving heterogeneous health data sharing  

PubMed Central

Objective Privacy-preserving data publishing addresses the problem of disclosing sensitive data when mining for useful information. Among existing privacy models, ?-differential privacy provides one of the strongest privacy guarantees and makes no assumptions about an adversary's background knowledge. All existing solutions that ensure ?-differential privacy handle the problem of disclosing relational and set-valued data in a privacy-preserving manner separately. In this paper, we propose an algorithm that considers both relational and set-valued data in differentially private disclosure of healthcare data. Methods The proposed approach makes a simple yet fundamental switch in differentially private algorithm design: instead of listing all possible records (ie, a contingency table) for noise addition, records are generalized before noise addition. The algorithm first generalizes the raw data in a probabilistic way, and then adds noise to guarantee ?-differential privacy. Results We showed that the disclosed data could be used effectively to build a decision tree induction classifier. Experimental results demonstrated that the proposed algorithm is scalable and performs better than existing solutions for classification analysis. Limitation The resulting utility may degrade when the output domain size is very large, making it potentially inappropriate to generate synthetic data for large health databases. Conclusions Unlike existing techniques, the proposed algorithm allows the disclosure of health data containing both relational and set-valued data in a differentially private manner, and can retain essential information for discriminative analysis.

Mohammed, Noman; Jiang, Xiaoqian; Chen, Rui; Fung, Benjamin C M; Ohno-Machado, Lucila

2013-01-01

372

Selective locality preserving projections for face recognition  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Recently, a graph-based method was proposed for Linear Dimensionality Reduction (LDR). It is based on Locality Preserving Projections (LPP). LPP is a typical linear graph-based dimensionality reduction (DR) method that has been successfully applied in many practical problems such as face recognition. LPP is essentially a linearized version of Laplacian Eigenmaps. When dealing with face recognition problems, LPP is preceded by a Principal Component Analysis (PCA) step in order to avoid possible singularities. Both PCA and LPP are computed by solving an eigen decomposition problem. In this paper, we propose a novel approach called "Selective Locality Preserving Projections" that performs an eigenvector selection associated with LPP. Consequently, the problem of dimension estimation for LPP is solved. Moreover, we propose a selective approach that performs eigenvector selection for the case where the mapped samples are formed by concatenating the output of PCA and LPP. We have tested our proposed approaches on several public face data sets. Experiments on ORL, UMIST, and YALE Face Databases show significant performance improvements in recognition over the classical LPP. The proposed approach lends itself nicely to many biometric applications.

Dornaika, F.; Assoum, A.

2011-01-01

373

Endothelium Preserving Microwave Treatment for Atherosclerosis  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Method and apparatus are provided to treat atherosclerosis wherein the artery is partially closed by dilating the artery while preserving the vital and sensitive endothelial layer thereof. Microwave energy having a frequency from 3 GHz to 300 GHz is propagated into the arterial wall to produce a desired temperature profile therein at tissue depths sufficient for thermally necrosing connective tissue and softening fatty and waxy plaque while limiting heating of surrounding tissues including the endothelial layer and/or other healthy tissue, organs, and blood. The heating period for raising the temperature a potentially desired amount, about 20 C. within the atherosclerotic lesion may be less than about one second. In one embodiment of the invention, a radically beveled waveguide antenna is used to deliver microwave energy at frequencies from 25 GHz or 30 GHz to about 300 GHz and is focused towards a particular radial sector of the artery. Because the atherosclerotic lesions are often asymmetrically disposed, directable or focussed heating preserves healthy sectors or the artery and applies energy to the asymmetrically positioned lesion faster than a non-directed bean. A computer simulation predicts isothermic temperature profiles for the given conditions and may be used in selecting power, pulse duration, beam width, and frequency of operation to maximize energy deposition and control heat rise within the atherosclerotic lesion without harming healthy tissues or the sensitive endothelium cells.

Carl, James R. (Inventor); Arndt, Dickey (Inventor); Fink, Patrick W. (Inventor); Beer, Reginald (Inventor); Henry, Phillip D. (Inventor); Pacifico, Antonio (Inventor); Raffoul, George W. (Inventor)

2002-01-01

374

Chlorhexidine Preserves Dentin Bond in vitro  

PubMed Central

Loss of hybrid layer integrity compromises resin-dentin bond stability. Matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) may be partially responsible for hybrid layer degradation. Since chlorhexidine inhibits MMPs, we hypothesized that chlorhexidine would decelerate the loss of resin-dentin bonds. Class I preparations in extracted third molars were sectioned into two halves. One half was customarily restored (etch-and-rinse adhesive/resin composite), and the other was treated with 2% chlorhexidine after being acid-etched before restoration. Specimens were stored in artificial saliva with/without protease inhibitors. Microtensile bond strengths and failure mode distribution under SEM were analyzed immediately after specimens' preparation and 6 months later. With chlorhexidine, significantly better preservation of bond strength was observed after 6 months; protease inhibitors in the storage medium had no effect. Failure analysis showed significantly less failure in the hybrid layer with chlorhexidine, compared with controls after 6 months. In conclusion, this in vitro study suggests that chlorhexidine might be useful for the preservation of dentin bond strength.

Carrilho, M. R. O.; Carvalho, R. M.; de Goes, M. F.; di Hipolito, V.; Geraldeli, S.; Tay, F. R.; Pashley, D. H.; Tjaderhane, L.

2008-01-01

375

Preservation of ATP in Hypersaline Environments  

PubMed Central

High concentrations of particulate ATP were found in the anoxic brines of the Orca Basin and East Flower Garden, Gulf of Mexico. Other measurements indicative of growth and respiration suggested that the microbial community in the brines was inactive, but somehow the ATP associated with the cells persisted. Conceivably, when cells growing just above the interface sank into the brine, the increased osmotic stress could elicit an osmoregulatory response resulting in increased ATP. It was also possible that hydrolytic enzymes were inactivated, resulting in the preservation of ATP. Experiments in which a culture of marine bacteria was suspended in menstrua of different salinities comparable to those found across the Orca Basin interface revealed that as salinity increased, ATP increased three- to sixfold. Within 24 h the ATP fell to its initial level and remained at that concentration for 3 days, at which time the experiment was terminated. In contrast, the control suspensions, at a salinity of 28% (grams per liter) had 1/10th of the initial ATP concentration when the experiment was ended. Cells were also exposed to killing UV irradiation, enabling us to demonstrate with absolute certainty that cellular ATP could be preserved. At the end of the experiment, the viable component of the population was reduced by orders of magnitude by UV irradiation, but the ATP levels of the cells suspended in brine did not decrease. In certain environments it appears that the conventional analytical tools of the microbial ecologist must be interpreted with caution.

Tuovila, Bruce J.; Dobbs, Fred C.; LaRock, Paul A.; Siegel, B. Z.

1987-01-01

376

Human retinal progenitor cell transplantation preserves vision.  

PubMed

Cell transplantation is a potential therapeutic strategy for retinal degenerative diseases involving the loss of photoreceptors. However, it faces challenges to clinical translation due to safety concerns and a limited supply of cells. Human retinal progenitor cells (hRPCs) from fetal neural retina are expandable in vitro and maintain an undifferentiated state. This study aimed to investigate the therapeutic potential of hRPCs transplanted into a Royal College of Surgeons (RCS) rat model of retinal degeneration. At 12 weeks, optokinetic response showed that hRPC-grafted eyes had significantly superior visual acuity compared with vehicle-treated eyes. Histological evaluation of outer nuclear layer (ONL) characteristics such as ONL thickness, spread distance, and cell count demonstrated a significantly greater preservation of the ONL in hRPC-treated eyes compared with both vehicle-treated and control eyes. The transplanted hRPCs arrested visual decline over time in the RCS rat and rescued retinal morphology, demonstrating their potential as a therapy for retinal diseases. We suggest that the preservation of visual acuity was likely achieved through host photoreceptor rescue. We found that hRPC transplantation into the subretinal space of RCS rats was well tolerated, with no adverse effects such as tumor formation noted at 12 weeks after treatment. PMID:24407289

Luo, Jing; Baranov, Petr; Patel, Sherrina; Ouyang, Hong; Quach, John; Wu, Frances; Qiu, Austin; Luo, Hongrong; Hicks, Caroline; Zeng, Jing; Zhu, Jing; Lu, Jessica; Sfeir, Nicole; Wen, Cindy; Zhang, Meixia; Reade, Victoria; Patel, Sara; Sinden, John; Sun, Xiaodong; Shaw, Peter; Young, Michael; Zhang, Kang

2014-03-01

377

Preservation of microbial lipids in geothermal sinters.  

PubMed

Lipid biomarkers are widely used to study the earliest life on Earth and have been invoked as potential astrobiological markers, but few studies have assessed their survival and persistence in geothermal settings. Here, we investigate lipid preservation in active and inactive geothermal silica sinters, with ages of up to 900 years, from Champagne Pool, Waiotapu, New Zealand. Analyses revealed a wide range of bacterial biomarkers, including free and bound fatty acids, 1,2-di-O-alkylglycerols (diethers), and various hopanoids. Dominant archaeal lipids include archaeol and glycerol dialkyl glycerol tetraethers (GDGTs). The predominance of generally similar biomarker groups in all sinters suggests a stable microbial community throughout Champagne Pool's history and indicates that incorporated lipids can be well preserved. Moreover, subtle differences in lipid distributions suggest that past changes in environmental conditions can be elucidated. In this case, higher archaeol abundances relative to the bacterial diethers, a greater proportion of cyclic GDGTs, the high average chain length of the bacterial diethers, and greater concentrations of hopanoic acids in the older sinters all suggest hotter conditions at Champagne Pool in the past. PMID:21476896

Kaur, Gurpreet; Mountain, Bruce W; Hopmans, Ellen C; Pancost, Richard D

2011-04-01

378

Carbonaceous preservation of Cambrian hexactinellid sponge spicules  

PubMed Central

Early fossil sponges offer a direct window onto the evolutionary emergence of animals, but insights are limited by the paucity of characters preserved in the conventional fossil record. Here, a new preservational mode for sponge spicules is reported from the lower Cambrian Forteau Formation (Newfoundland, Canada), prompting a re-examination of proposed homologies and sponge inter-relationships. The spicules occur as wholly carbonaceous films, and are interpreted as the remains of robust organic spicule sheaths. Comparable sheaths are restricted among living taxa to calcarean sponges, although the symmetries of the fossil spicules are characteristic of hexactinellid sponges. A similar extinct character combination has been documented in the Burgess Shale fossil Eiffelia. Interpreting the shared characters as homologous implies complex patterns of spicule evolution, but an alternative interpretation as convergent autapomorphies is more parsimonious. In light of the mutually exclusive distributions of these same characters among the crown groups, this result suggests that sponges exhibited an early episode of disparity expansion followed by comparatively constrained evolution, a pattern shared with many other metazoans but obscured by the conventional fossil record of sponges.

Harvey, Thomas H. P.

2010-01-01

379

Preserving and Archiving Astronomical Photographic Plates  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Astronomical objects change with time. New observations complement past observations recorded on photographic plates. Analyses of changes provide essential routes to information about an object's formation, constitution and evolution. Preserving a century of photographic plate observations is thus of paramount importance. Plate collections are presently widely dispersed; plates may be stored in poor conditions, and are effectively inaccessible to both researchers and historians. We describe a planned project at Pisgah Astronomical Research Institute to preserve the collections of astronomical plates in the United States by gathering them into a single storage location. Collections will be sorted, cleaned, and cataloged on-line so as to provide access to researchers. Full scientific and historic use of the material then requires the observations themselves to be accessible digitally. The project's goal will be the availability of these data as a unique, fully-maintained scientific and educational resource. The new archive will support trans-disciplinary research such as the chemistry of the Earth's atmosphere, library information science, trends in local weather patterns, and impacts of urbanization on telescope use, while the hand-written observatory logs will be a valuable resource for science historians and biographers.

Castelaz, M. W.; Cline, J. D.

2005-05-01

380

Nested Krylov methods and preserving the orthogonality  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Recently the GMRESR inner-outer iteraction scheme for the solution of linear systems of equations was proposed by Van der Vorst and Vuik. Similar methods have been proposed by Axelsson and Vassilevski and Saad (FGMRES). The outer iteration is GCR, which minimizes the residual over a given set of direction vectors. The inner iteration is GMRES, which at each step computes a new direction vector by approximately solving the residual equation. However, the optimality of the approximation over the space of outer search directions is ignored in the inner GMRES iteration. This leads to suboptimal corrections to the solution in the outer iteration, as components of the outer iteration directions may reenter in the inner iteration process. Therefore we propose to preserve the orthogonality relations of GCR in the inner GMRES iteration. This gives optimal corrections; however, it involves working with a singular, non-symmetric operator. We will discuss some important properties, and we will show by experiments that, in terms of matrix vector products, this modification (almost) always leads to better convergence. However, because we do more orthogonalizations, it does not always give an improved performance in CPU-time. Furthermore, we will discuss efficient implementations as well as the truncation possibilities of the outer GCR process. The experimental results indicate that for such methods it is advantageous to preserve the orthogonality in the inner iteration. Of course we can also use iteration schemes other than GMRES as the inner method; methods with short recurrences like GICGSTAB are of interest.

Desturler, Eric; Fokkema, Diederik R.

1993-01-01

381

Preserving the evolutionary potential of floras in biodiversity hotspots.  

PubMed

One of the biggest challenges for conservation biology is to provide conservation planners with ways to prioritize effort. Much attention has been focused on biodiversity hotspots. However, the conservation of evolutionary process is now also acknowledged as a priority in the face of global change. Phylogenetic diversity (PD) is a biodiversity index that measures the length of evolutionary pathways that connect a given set of taxa. PD therefore identifies sets of taxa that maximize the accumulation of 'feature diversity'. Recent studies, however, concluded that taxon richness is a good surrogate for PD. Here we show taxon richness to be decoupled from PD, using a biome-wide phylogenetic analysis of the flora of an undisputed biodiversity hotspot--the Cape of South Africa. We demonstrate that this decoupling has real-world importance for conservation planning. Finally, using a database of medicinal and economic plant use, we demonstrate that PD protection is the best strategy for preserving feature diversity in the Cape. We should be able to use PD to identify those key regions that maximize future options, both for the continuing evolution of life on Earth and for the benefit of society. PMID:17301791

Forest, Félix; Grenyer, Richard; Rouget, Mathieu; Davies, T Jonathan; Cowling, Richard M; Faith, Daniel P; Balmford, Andrew; Manning, John C; Proche?, Serban; van der Bank, Michelle; Reeves, Gail; Hedderson, Terry A J; Savolainen, Vincent

2007-02-15

382

Cinelectures for Introductory Biology  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Cinelectures for Introductory Biology is a YouTube channel containing a series of online, cinematic lectures covering basic chemistry for biology, metabolism, cell biology, genetics, and molecular biology. Many of these cinelectures incorporate videos, illustrations, and animations.

Marcey, David

383

Simulating Biological and Non-Biological Motion  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

It is widely accepted that the brain processes biological and non-biological movements in distinct neural circuits. Biological motion, in contrast to non-biological motion, refers to active movements of living beings. Aim of our experiment was to investigate the mechanisms underlying mental simulation of these two movement types. Subjects had to…

Bruzzo, Angela; Gesierich, Benno; Wohlschlager, Andreas

2008-01-01

384

Preserving Plutonium-244 as a National Asset  

SciTech Connect

Plutonium-244 (244 Pu) is an extremely rare and long-lived isotope of plutonium with a half-life of 80 million years. Measureable amounts of 244 Pu are found in neither reactor-grade nor weapons-grade plutonium. Production of this isotope requires a very high thermal flux to permit the two successive neutron captures that convert 242 Pu to 243 Pu to 244 Pu, particularly given the short (about 5 hour) half-life of 243 Pu. Such conditions simply do not exist in plutonium production processes. Therefore, 244 Pu is ideal for precise radiochemical analyses measuring plutonium material properties and isotopic concentrations in items containing plutonium. Isotope dilution mass spectrometry is about ten times more sensitive when using 244 Pu rather than 242 Pu for determining plutonium isotopic content. The isotope can also be irradiated in small quantities to produce superheavy elements. The majority of the existing global inventory of 244 Pu is contained in the outer housing of Mark-18A targets at the Savannah River Site (SRS). The total inventory is about 20 grams of 244 Pu in about 400 grams of plutonium distributed among the 65 targets. Currently, there are no specific plans to preserve these targets. Although the cost of separating and preserving this material would be considerable, it is trivial in comparison to new production costs. For all practical purposes, the material is irreplaceable, because new production would cost billions of dollars and require a series of irradiation and chemical separation cycles spanning up to 50 years. This paper will discuss a set of options for overcoming the significant challenges to preserve the 244 Pu as a National Asset: (1) the need to relocate the material from SRS in a timely manner, (2) the need to reduce the volume of material to the extent possible for storage, and (3) the need to establish an operational capability to enrich the 244 Pu in significant quantities. This paper suggests that if all the Mark-18A plutonium is separated, it would occupy a small volume and would be inexpensive to store while an enrichment capability is developed. Very small quantities could be enriched in existing mass separators to support critical needs.

Patton, Bradley D [ORNL; Alexander, Charles W [ORNL; Benker, Dennis [ORNL; Collins, Emory D [ORNL; Romano, Catherine E [ORNL; Wham, Robert M [ORNL

2011-01-01

385

Glycosylated proteins preserved over millennia: N-glycan analysis of Tyrolean Iceman, Scythian Princess and Warrior.  

PubMed

An improved understanding of glycosylation will provide new insights into many biological processes. In the analysis of oligosaccharides from biological samples, a strict regime is typically followed to ensure sample integrity. However, the fate of glycans that have been exposed to environmental conditions over millennia has not yet been investigated. This is also true for understanding the evolution of the glycosylation machinery in humans as well as in any other biological systems. In this study, we examined the glycosylation of tissue samples derived from four mummies which have been naturally preserved: - the 5,300 year old "Iceman called Oetzi", found in the Tyrolean Alps; the 2,400 year old "Scythian warrior" and "Scythian Princess", found in the Altai Mountains; and a 4 year old apartment mummy, found in Vienna/Austria. The number of N-glycans that were identified varied both with the age and the preservation status of the mummies. More glycan structures were discovered in the contemporary sample, as expected, however it is significant that glycan still exists in the ancient tissue samples. This discovery clearly shows that glycans persist for thousands of years, and these samples provide a vital insight into ancient glycosylation, offering us a window into the distant past. PMID:24831691

Ozcan, Sureyya; Kim, Bum Jin; Ro, Grace; Kim, Jae-Han; Bereuter, Thomas L; Reiter, Christian; Dimapasoc, Lauren; Garrido, Daniel; Mills, David A; Grimm, Rudolf; Lebrilla, Carlito B; An, Hyun Joo

2014-01-01

386

The challenge of improving donor heart preservation.  

PubMed

Heart transplantation has in recent years become the treatment of choice for end stage heart failure. However while the waiting list for transplantation is growing steadily, the donor pool is not increasing. Therefore, in order to meet demand, transplant programs are using older, "marginal donors" and accepting longer ischaemic times for their donor hearts. As donor organs are injured as a consequence of brain death, during the period of donor management, at organ harvest, preservation, implantation and reperfusion, expansion of acceptance criteria places a great burden on achieving optimal long-term outcomes. However, at each step in the process of transplantation strategies can be employed to reduce the injury suffered by the donor organs. In this review, we set out what steps can be taken to improve the quality of donor organs. PMID:16352173

McCrystal, Graham D; Pepe, Salvatore; Esmore, Donald S; Rosenfeldt, Franklin L

2004-03-01

387

Precambrian organic geochemistry - Preservation of the record  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A review of earlier studies is presented, and new results in Precambrian organic geochemistry are discussed. It is pointed out that two lines of evidence can be developed. One is based on structural organic chemistry, while the other is based on isotopic analyses. In the present investigation, the results of both structural and isotopic investigations of Precambrian organic matter are discussed. Processes and products related to organic geochemistry are examined, taking into account the carbon cycle, an approximate view of the principal pathways of carbon cycling associated with organic matter in the present global ecosystem, processes affecting sedimentary organic matter, and distribution and types of organic matter. Attention is given to chemical fossils in Precambrian sediments, kerogen analyses, the determination of the structural characteristics of kerogen, and data concerning the preservation of the Precambrian organic geochemical record.

Hayes, J. M.; Wedeking, K. W.; Kaplan, I. R.

1983-01-01

388

Preserving Symmetry in Preconditioned Krylov Subspace Methods  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

We consider the problem of solving a linear system Ax = b when A is nearly symmetric and when the system is preconditioned by a symmetric positive definite matrix M. In the symmetric case, one can recover symmetry by using M-inner products in the conjugate gradient (CG) algorithm. This idea can also be used in the nonsymmetric case, and near symmetry can be preserved similarly. Like CG, the new algorithms are mathematically equivalent to split preconditioning, but do not require M to be factored. Better robustness in a specific sense can also be observed. When combined with truncated versions of iterative methods, tests show that this is more effective than the common practice of forfeiting near-symmetry altogether.

Chan, Tony F.; Chow, E.; Saad, Y.; Yeung, M. C.

1996-01-01

389

Bacteriocins: safe, natural antimicrobials for food preservation.  

PubMed

Bacteriocins are antibacterial proteins produced by bacteria that kill or inhibit the growth of other bacteria. Many lactic acid bacteria (LAB) produce a high diversity of different bacteriocins. Though these bacteriocins are produced by LAB found in numerous fermented and non-fermented foods, nisin is currently the only bacteriocin widely used as a food preservative. Many bacteriocins have been characterized biochemically and genetically, and though there is a basic understanding of their structure-function, biosynthesis, and mode of action, many aspects of these compounds are still unknown. This article gives an overview of bacteriocin applications, and differentiates bacteriocins from antibiotics. A comparison of the synthesis. mode of action, resistance and safety of the two types of molecules is covered. Toxicity data exist for only a few bacteriocins, but research and their long-time intentional use strongly suggest that bacteriocins can be safely used. PMID:11764886

Cleveland, J; Montville, T J; Nes, I F; Chikindas, M L

2001-12-01

390

Structure-preserving desynchronization of minority games  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Perfect synchronicity in N-player games is a useful theoretical dream, but communication delays are inevitable and may result in asynchronous interactions. Some systems such as financial markets are asynchronous by design, and yet most theoretical models assume perfectly synchronized actions. We propose a general method to transform standard models of adaptive agents into asynchronous systems while preserving their global structure under some conditions. Using the minority game as an example, we find that the phase and fluctuations structure of the standard game subsists even in maximally asynchronous deterministic case, but that it disappears if too much stochasticity is added to the temporal structure of interaction. Allowing for heterogeneous communication speeds and activity patterns gives rise to a new information ecology that we study in details. in here

Mosetti, G.; Challet, D.; Solomon, S.

2009-10-01

391

Quaternary coral reef refugia preserved fish diversity.  

PubMed

The most prominent pattern in global marine biogeography is the biodiversity peak in the Indo-Australian Archipelago. Yet the processes that underpin this pattern are still actively debated. By reconstructing global marine paleoenvironments over the past 3 million years on the basis of sediment cores, we assessed the extent to which Quaternary climate fluctuations can explain global variation in current reef fish richness. Comparing global historical coral reef habitat availability with the present-day distribution of 6316 reef fish species, we find that distance from stable coral reef habitats during historical periods of habitat loss explains 62% of the variation in fish richness, outweighing present-day environmental factors. Our results highlight the importance of habitat persistence during periods of climate change for preserving marine biodiversity. PMID:24876495

Pellissier, Loïc; Leprieur, Fabien; Parravicini, Valeriano; Cowman, Peter F; Kulbicki, Michel; Litsios, Glenn; Olsen, Steffen M; Wisz, Mary S; Bellwood, David R; Mouillot, David

2014-05-30

392

Memory preservation made prestigious but easy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Preserving memories combined with story-telling using either photo books for multiple images or high quality products such as one or a few images printed on canvas or images mounted on acryl to create high-quality wall decorations are gradually becoming more popular than classical 4*6 prints and classical silver halide posters. Digital printing via electro photography and ink jet is increasingly replacing classical silver halide technology as the dominant production technology for these kinds of products. Maintaining a consistent and comparable quality of output is becoming more challenging than using silver halide paper for both, prints and posters. This paper describes a unique approach of combining both desktop based software to initiate a compelling project and the use of online capabilities in order to finalize and optimize that project in an online environment in a community process. A comparison of the consumer behavior between online and desktop based solutions for generating photo books will be presented.

Fageth, Reiner; Debus, Christina; Sandhaus, Philipp

2011-01-01

393

Organic solderability preservation evaluation. Topical report  

SciTech Connect

An evaluation was conducted to determine the possible replacement of the hot air solder leveling (HASL) process used in the Allied Signal Federal Manufacturing & Technologies (FM&T) Printed Wiring Board Facility with an organic solderability preservative (OSP). The drivers for replacing HASL include (1) Eliminating lead from PWB fabrication processes; (2) Potential legislation restricting use of lead, (3) Less expensive processing utilizing OSP rather than HASL processing; (4) Avoiding solder dross disposal inherent with HASL processing, (5) OSP provides flat, planar surface required for surface mount technology product, and (6) Trend to thinner PWB designs. A reduction in the cost of nonconformance (CONC) due to HASL defects (exposed copper, solderability, dewetting and non-wetting) would be realized with the incorporation of the OSP process. Several supplier HASL replacement candidates were initially evaluated. One supplier chemistry was chosen for potential use in the FM&T PWB and assembly areas.

Becka, G.A.; McHenry, M.R.; Slanina, J.T.

1997-03-01

394

Preserving the humanities in medical education.  

PubMed

Patients are frequently unhappy with medical care because physicians fail to demonstrate humanistic qualities. Immersion in science is a necessary part of medical education but not sufficient. Courses in the history of medicine, the medical narrative in literature, bioethics, medicine and art, and spirituality and medicine will train physicians who will temper technological medicine with a humanistic touch. The rapid growth in biomedical knowledge and the growing demands upon medical students' time threaten to crowd out time for the humanities. Furthermore, the financing of medical humanities programmes is often tenuous. Medical students must come to understand that much of medical knowledge is a function of time and place, that medicine is a profoundly social enterprise and that the practice of medicine is a value-laden undertaking. The preservation of programmes in the medical humanities will reinforce the social responsibility that should be inherent in medical education. PMID:20095779

Halperin, Edward C

2010-01-01

395

Preserving Native American petroglyphs on porous sandstone  

USGS Publications Warehouse

A new method of chemical treatment is proposed to improve the durability of soft, porous sandstones onto which Native American petroglyphs have been carved. Cores of Dakota Sandstone from the Faris Cave site, located along the Smoky Hill River in Ellsworth County, Kansas, were treated with ethyl silicate dissolved in a lightweight ketone carrier, and some cores were subsequently treated with a combination of ethyl silicate and silane using the same solvent. Measurement of the resulting physical properties, when compared to untreated cores, indicate the treatments substantially increased the compressive strength and freeze-thaw resistance of the stone without discoloring the stone or completely sealing the pore system. The treatment increases the durability of the stone and provides a method for preserving the petroglyphs at the site. After treating test panels at the site, the petroglyphs were treated in like manner.

Grisafe, D. A.

1996-01-01

396

14 CFR 249.20 - Preservation of records by certificated air carriers.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

... Preservation of records by certificated air carriers. 249.20 Section 249.20... ECONOMIC REGULATIONS PRESERVATION OF AIR CARRIER RECORDS Preservation of Records... Preservation of records by certificated air carriers. Each certificated air...

2014-01-01

397

Preserving noble gases in a convecting mantle.  

PubMed

High (3)He/(4)He ratios sampled at many ocean islands are usually attributed to an essentially undegassed lower-mantle reservoir with high (3)He concentrations. A large and mostly undegassed mantle reservoir is also required to balance the Earth's (40)Ar budget, because only half of the (40)Ar produced from the radioactive decay of (40)K is accounted for by the atmosphere and upper mantle. However, geophysical and geochemical observations suggest slab subduction into the lower mantle, implying that most or all of Earth's mantle should have been processed by partial melting beneath mid-ocean ridges and hotspot volcanoes. This should have left noble gases in both the upper and the lower mantle extensively outgassed, contrary to expectations from (3)He/(4)He ratios and the Earth's (40)Ar budget. Here we suggest a simple solution: recycling and mixing of noble-gas-depleted slabs dilutes the concentrations of noble gases in the mantle, thereby decreasing the rate of mantle degassing and leaving significant amounts of noble gases in the processed mantle. As a result, even when the mass flux across the 660-km seismic discontinuity is equivalent to approximately one lower-mantle mass over the Earth's history, high (3)He contents, high (3)He/(4)He ratios and (40)Ar concentrations high enough to satisfy the (40)Ar mass balance of the Earth can be preserved in the lower mantle. The differences in (3)He/(4)He ratios between mid-ocean-ridge basalts and ocean island basalts, as well as high concentrations of (3)He and (40)Ar in the mantle source of ocean island basalts, can be explained within the framework of different processing rates for the upper and the lower mantle. Hence, to preserve primitive noble gas signatures, we find no need for hidden reservoirs or convective isolation of the lower mantle for any length of time. PMID:19478782

Gonnermann, Helge M; Mukhopadhyay, Sujoy

2009-05-28

398

Organ preservation using a photosynthetic solution  

PubMed Central

Background Organs harvested from a body lapsing into circulatory deficit are exposed to low O2/high CO2, and reach a critical point where original functionality after transplantation is unlikely. The present study evaluates the effect of respiratory assistance using Chlorella photosynthesis on preservation of the rat pancreas from the viewpoint of donation after cardiac death (DCD). Methods Gas was exchanged through the peritoneum of rats under controlled ventilation with or without Chlorella photosynthetic respiratory assistance. A gas permeable pouch containing Chlorella in solution was placed in the peritoneum and then the space between the pouch and the peritoneum was filled with an emulsified perfluorocarbon gas carrier. Rat DCD pancreases procured 3?h after cardiac arrest were preserved for 30?min in a cold or mildly hypothermic environment or in a mildly hypothermic environment with photosynthetic respiratory support. The pancreases were then heterotopically transplanted into rats with STZ-induced diabetes. Results Levels of blood oxygen (PaO2) and carbon dioxide (PaCO2) increased and significantly decreased, respectively, in rats with mechanically reduced ventilation and rats given intraperitoneal photosynthetic respiratory support when compared with those without such support. Transplantation with DCD pancreases that had been stored under photosynthetic respiratory support resulted in the survival of all rats, which is impossible to achieve using pancreases that have been maintained statically in cold storage. Conclusion Respiratory assistance using photosynthesis helps to improve not only blood gas status in the event of respiratory insufficiency, but also graft recovery after pancreas transplantation with a DCD pancreas that has been damaged by prolonged warm ischemia.

2012-01-01

399

Colicin Biology  

PubMed Central

Colicins are proteins produced by and toxic for some strains of Escherichia coli. They are produced by strains of E. coli carrying a colicinogenic plasmid that bears the genetic determinants for colicin synthesis, immunity, and release. Insights gained into each fundamental aspect of their biology are presented: their synthesis, which is under SOS regulation; their release into the extracellular medium, which involves the colicin lysis protein; and their uptake mechanisms and modes of action. Colicins are organized into three domains, each one involved in a different step of the process of killing sensitive bacteria. The structures of some colicins are known at the atomic level and are discussed. Colicins exert their lethal action by first binding to specific receptors, which are outer membrane proteins used for the entry of specific nutrients. They are then translocated through the outer membrane and transit through the periplasm by either the Tol or the TonB system. The components of each system are known, and their implication in the functioning of the system is described. Colicins then reach their lethal target and act either by forming a voltage-dependent channel into the inner membrane or by using their endonuclease activity on DNA, rRNA, or tRNA. The mechanisms of inhibition by specific and cognate immunity proteins are presented. Finally, the use of colicins as laboratory or biotechnological tools and their mode of evolution are discussed.

Cascales, Eric; Buchanan, Susan K.; Duche, Denis; Kleanthous, Colin; Lloubes, Roland; Postle, Kathleen; Riley, Margaret; Slatin, Stephen; Cavard, Daniele

2007-01-01

400

Advances in radiation biology: Radiosensitization in DNA and living cells  

Microsoft Academic Search

One fundamental goal of radiation biology is the evolution of concepts and methods for the elaboration of new approaches and protocols for the treatment of cancers. In this context, the use of fast ions as ionizing particles offers the advantage of optimizing cell killing inside the tumor whilst preserving the surrounding healthy tissues. One extremely promising strategy investigated recently is

S. Lacombe; C. Le Sech

2009-01-01

401

The study on privacy preserving data mining for information security  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Privacy preserving data mining have a rapid development in a short year. But it still faces many challenges in the future. Firstly, the level of privacy has different definitions in different filed. Therefore, the measure of privacy preserving data mining technology protecting private information is not the same. So, it's an urgent issue to present a unified privacy definition and measure. Secondly, the most of research in privacy preserving data mining is presently confined to the theory study.

Li, Xiaohui

2012-04-01

402

Buyer-Type Effects in Conservation and Preservation Property Values  

Microsoft Academic Search

Properties can be bought by government agencies, land trusts, or private entities for conservation and preservation purposes,\\u000a such as farmland preservation, wildlife refuges, other conservation, and cultural and historical preservation. There is variation\\u000a in the dollars paid per acre across properties and across buyer type. An option value model based on future potential land\\u000a uses is used to explain much

Jason A. Winfree; Jill J. McCluskey; Ron C. Mittelhammer

2006-01-01

403

Optimization of preservation conditions of As (III) bioreporter bacteria  

Microsoft Academic Search

Long-term preservation of bioreporter bacteria is essential for the functioning of cell-based detection devices, particularly\\u000a when field application, e.g., in developing countries, is intended. We varied the culture conditions (i.e., the NaCl content\\u000a of the medium), storage protection media, and preservation methods (vacuum drying vs. encapsulation gels remaining hydrated)\\u000a in order to achieve optimal preservation of the activity of As

Anke Kuppardt; Antonis Chatzinotas; Uta Breuer; Jan Roelof van der Meer; Hauke Harms

2009-01-01

404

On positivity preserving finite volume schemes for compressible Euler equations  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Positivity preserving property of first and higher order finite volume schemes for one and two dimensional compressible Euler equations of gas dynamics is considered. A general framework is established which shows the positivity of density and pressure whenever the underlying one dimensional first order building block based on exact or approximate Riemann solver and the reconstruction are both positivity preserving. Appropriate limitation to achieve high order positivity preserving reconstruction is described.

Perthame, Benoit; Shu, Chi-Wang

1993-01-01

405

Thanksgiving Biology  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The first Web site (1) is an article from State University of New York College of Environmental Sciences and Forestry. It provides a short, readable introduction to the biology and natural history of wild turkeys in the US. Wild or domesticated, turkey meat is well know for its soporific power. Visitors to the Web site from International Anti-aging Systems (2) can learn all about tryptophan, the amino acid responsible for the post-Thanksgiving dinner nap. Also found in turkey (but much less appealing) is the Salmonella bacteria, which can cause debilitating illness in humans. The third Web site (3), from Centers for Disease Control Division of Bacterial and Mycotic Diseases, offers a reliable source of information about salmonellosis. Environmental Health and Safety Online offers some facts and figures about contaminated turkeys, citing studies from the Center for Science in the Public Interest (4). The wild turkey would have become the national bird of the US if Benjamin Franklin had his way, but North America isn't the only continent that's home to wild turkeys. The fifth Web site (5) from the University of New South Wales introduces the Australian Brush Turkey. The cranberry, another Thanksgiving staple, is one of the few native fruits grown commercially in North America. The Cranberry Institute offers a brief introduction to the history, botany, and harvest of cranberries (6). The University of Illinois Extension provides an in-depth Web site devoted to nothing but pumpkins, including a recipe for Traditional Pumpkin Pie (7). The final Web site, from iVillage, clears up in a brief explanation the confusion about yams and sweet potatoes (8).

Sohmer, Rachel.

2002-01-01

406

Antimicrobial preservative use in parenteral products: past and present.  

PubMed

The following review provides a comprehensive summary of antimicrobial preservatives that are commonly used in licensed parenteral products to date. The information reviewed includes the general properties of the preservatives, the doses and frequency of their use, the classes of the preserved products (peptide, protein, vaccine, and small molecule products), the interactions with other formulation components, and the criteria commonly used for their selection in parental product formulations. It was revealed that phenol and benzyl alcohol are the two most common antimicrobial preservatives used in peptide and protein products, while phenoxyethanol is the most frequently used preservative in vaccines. Benzyl alcohol or a combination of methylparaben and propylparaben are generally found in small molecule parenteral formulations. The key criteria for antimicrobial preservative selection are the preservative's dose, antimicrobial functionality, and effect on the active ingredient. Additionally, the use of spectroscopic techniques (circular dicroism (CD) and fluorescence) and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) were identified as common techniques used in evaluating an antimicrobial preservative for its impact on the conformational stability of peptide, protein, and vaccine antigens. The future use of preservatives is also discussed, including antimicrobial agents such as peptides, and regulatory requirements for antimicrobial effectiveness testing. PMID:17722087

Meyer, Brian K; Ni, Alex; Hu, Binghua; Shi, Li

2007-12-01

407

Molecular preservation in Late Cretaceous sauropod dinosaur eggshells  

PubMed Central

Exceptionally preserved sauropod eggshells discovered in Upper Cretaceous (Campanian) deposits in Patagonia, Argentina, contain skeletal remains and soft tissues of embryonic Titanosaurid dinosaurs. To preserve these labile embryonic remains, the rate of mineral precipitation must have superseded post-mortem degradative processes, resulting in virtually instantaneous mineralization of soft tissues. If so, mineralization may also have been rapid enough to retain fragments of original biomolecules in these specimens. To investigate preservation of biomolecular compounds in these well-preserved sauropod dinosaur eggshells, we applied multiple analytical techniques. Results demonstrate organic compounds and antigenic structures similar to those found in extant eggshells.

Schweitzer, M.H; Chiappe, L; Garrido, A.C; Lowenstein, J.M; Pincus, S.H

2005-01-01

408

Effects of benzalkonium chloride-preserved, polyquad-preserved, and sofZia-preserved topical glaucoma medications on human ocular epithelial cells.  

PubMed

INTRODUCTION|: To investigate potentially adverse effects of different topical glaucoma medications and preservatives on cultured ocular epithelial cells. METHODS|: Confluent cultures of human corneal (10.014 pRSV-T) and conjunctival cells (1-5c-4) were assayed with 100 ?L of different glaucoma medications for 25 minutes at 37°C and 5% CO?. We also tested the preservative sofZia® (Alcon Laboratories, Fort Worth, TX, USA), as well as a range of concentrations of the preservative benzalkonium chloride (BAK; 0.001% to 0.050%). Balanced salt solution was used as the "live" control and a solution containing 70% methanol and 0.2% saponin was used as a "dead" control. The LIVE/DEAD viability/cytotoxicity kit (Invitrogen, Carlsbad, CA, USA) was used to determine the percentage of dead and live cells via ethidium homodimer and calcein fluorescence, respectively. RESULTS|: The toxicity of the prostaglandin analogs latanoprost, tafluprost and travoprost preserved with BAK was similar to the toxicity observed in their respective BAK concentrations. The prostaglandin analog travoprost (0.004%) preserved with the oxidizing preservative sofZia had much greater corneal and conjunctival cell survival than travoprost preserved with BAK. Travoprost (0.004%) containing polyquad also performed statistically better than its BAK-preserved formulation. CONCLUSION|: Ocular surface side effects have previously been demonstrated with chronic, long-term exposure to intraocular pressure-lowering medications containing the common preservative BAK. BAK alone has significant in-vitro cytotoxicity to cultured ocular epithelial cells. Substitution of BAK with polyquad or sofZia resulted in significantly higher percentages of live conjunctival and corneal cells. Further studies are needed to understand the- clinical implications of these findings. PMID:20931366

Ammar, David A; Noecker, Robert J; Kahook, Malik Y

2010-11-01

409

[Biologic artifacts in quantitative EEG].  

PubMed

We studied the influence of five biologic artifacts sources on quantitative EEG (blinking, forced eyes closure, forced jaw closure, tongue movements and pursuit eyes movements) through both visual and spectral analysis, with the purpose of verifying how do these artifacts can be seen in a cartographic way. We found that the spectrums potentials showed the same topographic display that was found through visual analysis. Visual analysis was superior than the quantitative evaluation to recognise the artifacts, as the former preserved the morphological display of the paroxysms. However it is important know how do the potentials are represented in quantitative maps, so that they can be identified as artifacts and not as pathologic EEG activity. PMID:16791367

Anghinah, Renato; Basile, Luis I; Schmidt, Magali T; Sameshima, Koichi; Gattaz, Wagner Farid

2006-06-01

410

Soil preservation by afforestation in changing climate  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Observed climate changes in Vojvodina (northern part of Republic Serbia) are reflected in the increasing of average annual air temperature and decrasing of precipitation. The data suggest that the increase of average annual air temperature in the period 1998-2008 compared to period 1960-1991 was higher for 1°C. Reduction of rainfall was recorded for December, January, February and May. These decreasing of rainfall with an increase of average air temperature in the vegetation period (July 1.2°C and 1.7°C in August) leading to longer and more frequent dry periods. Forest aridity index (FAI) increase from period 1960-1991 continuously. In period 1960-1991 FAI for Vojvodina was 5,74 and in period from 2000-2010 the average FAI was 7,57. This increasing FAI means warmer and dryer weather in the main growth cycle and in the critical month. Longer and more frequent dry periods lead to unfavorable conditions for the growth of many tree species in region like Vojvodina. Soil erosion leads to the degradation of fertile soils in Vojvodina (about 83.24% of soils are used for agricultural production). The main soil type is chernozem. A significant role of chernozem protection and conservation is attributed to different forms of forest and non-forest greenery, such as protection forests, shelterbelts, tree rows, hunting preserves and other forms of amenity and ornamental greenery. This paper analyses the possibility of afforestation of tree and shurb species in different forms of protection forests, shelterbelts, tree rows, hunting preserves and other forms of amenity and ornamental greenery in Vojvodina considering future climate change. The selection of tree species is the base of establishment of different forms of «greenery» aimed at the prevention of destructive processes in future. Key words: climate change, soil degradation, afforestation Acknowledgement This paper was realized as a part of the project "Studying climate change and its influence on the environment: impacts, adaptation and mitigation" (43007) financed by the Ministry of Education and Science of the Republic of Serbia within the framework of integrated and interdisciplinary research for the period 2011-2014.

Galic, Z.; Orlovic, S.

2012-04-01

411

Models for synthetic biology  

Microsoft Academic Search

Synthetic biological engineering is emerging from biology as a distinct discipline based on quantification. The technologies propelling synthetic biology are not new, nor is the concept of designing novel biological molecules. What is new is the emphasis on system behavior. The objective is the design and construction of new biological devices and systems to deliver useful applications. Numerous synthetic gene

Yiannis N Kaznessis

2007-01-01

412

Factors influencing organic carbon preservation in marine sediments  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The organic matter that escapes decomposition is buried and preserved in marine sediments, with much debate as to whether the amount depends on bottom-water O2 concentration. One group argues that decomposition is more efficient with O2, and hence, organic carbon will be preferentially oxidized in its presence, and preserved in its absence. Another group argues that the kinetics of organic matter decomposition are similar in the presence and absence of O2, and there should be no influence of O2 on preservation. A compilation of carbon preservation shows that both groups are right, depending on the circumstances of deposition. At high rates of deposition, such as near continental margins, little difference in preservation is found with varying bottom-water O2. It is important that most carbon in these sediments decomposes by anaerobic pathways regardless of bottom-water O2. Hence, little influence of bottom-water O2 on preservation would, in fact, be expected. As sedimentation rate drops, sediments deposited under oxygenated bottom water become progressively more aerobic, while euxinic sediments remain anaerobic. Under these circumstances, the relative efficiencies of aerobic and anaerobic decomposition could affect preservation. Indeed, enhanced preservation is observed in low-O2 and euxinic environments. To explore in detail the factors contributing to this enhanced carbon preservation, aspects of the biochemistries of the aerobic and anaerobic process are reviewed. Other potential influences on preservation are also explored. Finally, a new model for organic carbon decomposition, the "pseudo-G" model, is developed. This model couples the degradation of refractory organic matter to the overall metabolic activity of the sediment, and has consequences for carbon preservation due to the mixing together of labile and refractory organic matter by bioturbation.

Canfield, D. E.

1994-01-01

413

Preservation of organic matter in the STONE 6 artificial meteorite experiment  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The exposure of a carbonaceous siltstone sample to atmospheric entry, as part of the STONE 6 artificial meteorite experiment, has allowed a controlled investigation of the effect of heat shock during atmospheric entry on organic matter in carbonaceous meteorites and, potentially, sedimentary martian meteorites containing carbonaceous biomolecules. Thermal alteration is evident in an increase in structural order of the carbon (i.e. degree of graphitisation), preferential loss of thermally unstable compounds and substantial loss of extractable organic matter. There is a gradient of increasing alteration towards the outer, exposed margin of the rock, and also an increase in hydrocarbons that suggests outward migration following thermally-induced generation. The carbon has not been completely graphitised, and sufficient biomarker compounds survive to prove the biological origin of the organic matter. The experiment implies that meteorites of appropriate size could preserve evidence of biological activity on their parent body.

Parnell, John; Bowden, Stephen A.; Muirhead, David; Blamey, Nigel; Westall, Frances; Demets, René; Verchovsky, Sasha; Brandstätter, Franz; Brack, André

2011-03-01

414

Fossil oak galls preserve ancient multitrophic interactions.  

PubMed

Trace fossils of insect feeding have contributed substantially to our understanding of the evolution of insect-plant interactions. The most complex phenotypes of herbivory are galls, whose diagnostic morphologies often allow the identification of the gall inducer. Although fossil insect-induced galls over 300Myr old are known, most are two-dimensional impressions lacking adequate morphological detail either for the precise identification of the causer or for detection of the communities of specialist parasitoids and inquilines inhabiting modern plant galls. Here, we describe the first evidence for such multitrophic associations in Pleistocene fossil galls from the Eemian interglacial (130000-115000 years ago) of The Netherlands. The exceptionally well-preserved fossils can be attributed to extant species of Andricus gallwasps (Hymenoptera: Cynipidae) galling oaks (Quercus), and provide the first fossil evidence of gall attack by herbivorous inquiline gallwasps. Furthermore, phylogenetic placement of one fossil in a lineage showing obligate host plant alternation implies the presence of a second oak species, Quercus cerris, currently unknown from Eemian fossils in northwestern Europe. This contrasts with the southern European native range of Q. cerris in the current interglacial and suggests that gallwasp invasions following human planting of Q. cerris in northern Europe may represent a return to preglacial distribution limits. PMID:18559323

Stone, Graham N; van der Ham, Raymond W J M; Brewer, Jan G

2008-10-01

415

Heart failure with preserved ejection fraction.  

PubMed

Progressive aging of the population and prolongation of life expectancy have led to the rising prevalence of heart failure (HF). Despite the improvements in medical therapy, the mortality rate of this condition has remained unacceptably high, becoming the primary cause of death in the elderly population. Almost half of patients with signs and symptoms of HF are found to have a nearly normal ejection fraction, which delineates a distinct clinical syndrome, known as HF with preserved ejection fraction (HF-PEF). While early research focused on the importance of diastolic dysfunction, more recent studies reported the pathophysiological complexity of the disease with multiple cardiovascular abnormalities contributing to its development and progression. HF-PEF is a challenging major health problem with yet no solution as there is no evidence-based treatment which improves clinical outcomes. This review summarizes the state of current knowledge on diagnosis, prognosis and treatment of HF-PEF, with particular insights on the pathological characteristics in the elderly population. PMID:24454331

Rigolli, Marzia; Whalley, Gillian A

2013-12-01

416

Fossil oak galls preserve ancient multitrophic interactions  

PubMed Central

Trace fossils of insect feeding have contributed substantially to our understanding of the evolution of insect–plant interactions. The most complex phenotypes of herbivory are galls, whose diagnostic morphologies often allow the identification of the gall inducer. Although fossil insect-induced galls over 300?Myr old are known, most are two-dimensional impressions lacking adequate morphological detail either for the precise identification of the causer or for detection of the communities of specialist parasitoids and inquilines inhabiting modern plant galls. Here, we describe the first evidence for such multitrophic associations in Pleistocene fossil galls from the Eemian interglacial (130?000–115?000 years ago) of The Netherlands. The exceptionally well-preserved fossils can be attributed to extant species of Andricus gallwasps (Hymenoptera: Cynipidae) galling oaks (Quercus), and provide the first fossil evidence of gall attack by herbivorous inquiline gallwasps. Furthermore, phylogenetic placement of one fossil in a lineage showing obligate host plant alternation implies the presence of a second oak species, Quercus cerris, currently unknown from Eemian fossils in northwestern Europe. This contrasts with the southern European native range of Q. cerris in the current interglacial and suggests that gallwasp invasions following human planting of Q. cerris in northern Europe may represent a return to preglacial distribution limits.

Stone, Graham N; van der Ham, Raymond W.J.M; Brewer, Jan G

2008-01-01

417

Fertility preservation after chemotherapy for Hodgkin lymphoma.  

PubMed

Treatment for Hodgkin lymphoma can negatively affect fertility. This review summarizes data on fertility after chemotherapy in adult patients. Alkylating chemotherapy, especially if containing procarbazine and/or cyclophosphamide, is most harmful to gonadal functioning. Alkylating regimens cause prolonged azoospermia in 90-100% of men and ovarian failure in 5-25% of women under the age of 30. Non-alkylating chemotherapy, like ABVD, is much less harmful: one-third of male patients develop transient azoospermia, and almost no female patients experience ovarian failure. Age is an important factor for women: females over 30 years have a much higher risk of acute ovarian failure. However, with long-term follow-up the cumulative risk of menopause before the age of 40 becomes the same irrespective of treatment age. In males, semen cryopreservation before start of treatment should be offered to all (post)pubertal patients. For females with a partner, IVF followed by embryo cryopreservation is a widely available method, but this necessitates postponement of lymphoma therapy for at least a month. Oocyte cryopreservation and ovarian tissue cryopreservation are experimental techniques showing great promise. GnRH-analogues are being investigated as possible means to preserve fertility in women, but effectiveness has not yet been proven conclusively. PMID:20232475

van der Kaaij, Marleen A E; van Echten-Arends, Jannie; Simons, Arnold H M; Kluin-Nelemans, Hanneke C

2010-12-01

418

Radiation preservation of low nitrite bacon  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Sodium nitrite, a key ingredient of the mix used to cure bacon and other meats, promotes and fixes bacon's characteristic pink color, inhibits lipid peroxidation and prevents growth of microorganisms, particularly Clostridium botulinum spores. Unfortunately, nitrite leads to the formation of carcinogenic nitrosamines in bacon. This has led to a search for alternatives to the use of nitrite. Irradiation with reduced level of nitrite is a promising alternative. Radurization of bacon containing 20 to 40 mg/kg of nitrite in evacuated packages, irradiated and stored at 4°C, gives a product with good organoleptic qualities and extended shelf life of ? 90 days, as opposed to ˜ 30 days for the conventionally treated bacon. Radappertization of bacon containing 20 mg/kg of nitrite at a dose of about 30 kGy, irradiated at temperature of -20° or lower in evacuated packages, results in a product that is shelf stable at room temperature for months to years. It has organoleptic qualities comparable to commercial bacon in terms of color, flavor, odor and texture. Irradiation also reduces the nitrite and preformed nitrosamines present in bacon. Various aspects of preservation of bacon are reviewed in this report with emphasis on radiation processing.

Singh, Harwant

419

Energy Preserved Sampling for Compressed Sensing MRI  

PubMed Central

The sampling patterns, cost functions, and reconstruction algorithms play important roles in optimizing compressed sensing magnetic resonance imaging (CS-MRI). Simple random sampling patterns did not take into account the energy distribution in k-space and resulted in suboptimal reconstruction of MR images. Therefore, a variety of variable density (VD) based samplings patterns had been developed. To further improve it, we propose a novel energy preserving sampling (ePRESS) method. Besides, we improve the cost function by introducing phase correction and region of support matrix, and we propose iterative thresholding algorithm (ITA) to solve the improved cost function. We evaluate the proposed ePRESS sampling method, improved cost function, and ITA reconstruction algorithm by 2D digital phantom and 2D in vivo MR brains of healthy volunteers. These assessments demonstrate that the proposed ePRESS method performs better than VD, POWER, and BKO; the improved cost function can achieve better reconstruction quality than conventional cost function; and the ITA is faster than SISTA and is competitive with FISTA in terms of computation time.

Peterson, Bradley S.; Ji, Genlin; Dong, Zhengchao

2014-01-01

420

Discontinuity preserving depth estimation using distance transform  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Image interpolation methods at arbitrary view positions have become quite important due to the development of threedimensional multi-view image display devices. Accurate depth information is required for natural image generation. Over the past several decades, a variety of stereo-image-based depth estimation methods have been developed to obtain high-quality depth data. However, obtaining accurate depth information still remains problematic due to difficult correspondence matching in image occlusion regions. In particular, for the discontinuous depth edge region, unclear color values exist, which lead to ineffective of corresponding matching. Thus, we propose a discontinuity preserving depth estimation method to solve the problem. The distance transform (DT) calculates the distance to the closest edge for each pixel of the input image. By controlling the color weighting term using DT values of stereo images, we carry out better correspondence matching in discontinuous regions. Experimental results indicate that the proposed method outperforms other methods. Visual comparison of the experimental results demonstrates that the proposed stereo-imagebased depth estimation method improves the quality of the depth map in discontinuous edge regions.

Jang, Woo-Seok; Ho, Yo-Sung

2014-03-01

421

Biomass preservation in impact melt ejecta  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Meteorites can have played a role in the delivery of the building blocks of life to Earth only if organic compounds are able to survive the high pressures and temperatures of an impact event. Although experimental impact studies have reported the survival of organic compounds, there are uncertainties in scaling experimental conditions to those of a meteorite impact on Earth and organic matter has not been found in highly shocked impact materials in a natural setting. Impact glass linked to the 1.2-km-diameter Darwin crater in western Tasmania is strewn over an area exceeding 400km2 and is thought to have been ejected by a meteorite impact about 800kyr ago into terrain consisting of rainforest and swamp. Here we use pyrolysis-gas chromatography-mass spectrometry to show that biomarkers representative of plant species in the local ecosystem--including cellulose, lignin, aliphatic biopolymer and protein remnants--survived the Darwin impact. We find that inside the impact glass the organic components are trapped in porous carbon spheres. We propose that the organic material was captured within impact melt and preserved when the melt quenched to glass, preventing organic decomposition since the impact. We suggest that organic material can survive capture and transport in products of extreme impact processing, at least for a Darwin-sized impact event.

Howard, Kieren Torres; Bailey, Melanie J.; Berhanu, Deborah; Bland, Phil A.; Cressey, Gordon; Howard, Lauren E.; Jeynes, Chris; Matthewman, Richard; Martins, Zita; Sephton, Mark A.; Stolojan, Vlad; Verchovsky, Sasha

2013-12-01

422

Primordial lightning: Evidence preserved in chondrites  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

An increasing body of evidence suggests that transient heating events were important in forming or modifying many constituents of chondritic meteorites. For example, chondrule compositions and textures imply high cooling rates (approximately 5 to greater than 2000 C/hr) with only limited exposure to elevated temperatures (greater than 1200 C). Similarly, experimental studies of CAI's exhibiting igneous textures suggest cooling rates from 0.5 to 1000 C/hr, and thermal pulses as short as milliseconds may be responsible for CAI rim formation. Additionally, the spectrum of organic compounds observed in chondrites suggests that transient heating may also have played an important role in their formation. The exact nature of these transient events is less clear. A variety of mechanisms have been proposed (e.g., shock melting, drag heating, volcanism, electric discharges, and magnetic reconnection). However, a consensus is lacking as to which or what combination of these mechanisms was responsible for the range of features we observe in chondrites today. Much of the difficulty lies in the inability to identify features unique to any given process. Here we discuss electric discharges ('lightning') as a transient heat source and describe its unique signature preserved in chondrites.

Eisenhour, D.; Buseck, P. R.

1993-01-01

423

Preserving & Serving 150 years of KNMI data  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Royal Netherlands Meteorological Institute (KNMI) has over 150 years of knowledge and gathered information related to weather, Climate and Seismology. A huge part of this information is from numerical models, insitu sensor networks and remote sensing satellites. This digital collection is mostly internal only available and is a collection of non searchable , non standardized file formats, lacking documentation and has no references to scientific publications. With the Dutch funded KNMI Data Centre (KDC) project we aim to tackle al these issues. In the project a user driven development approach with SCRUM is chosen to get maximum user involvement in a relative short development timeframe. Building on open standards and proven opensource technology (which includes in-house developed software like ADAGUC WMS and Portal) should result in a solid first release in 2012-Q3. This presentation will focus on the aspects of developing the KDC relating to its technical challenges, the human factor and the development strategy to come to a future-proof centre that will preserve our data en make it usable for the community.

van de Vegte, J.; Som de Cerff, W. J.

2012-04-01

424

Viability of preserved Cryptosporidium baileyi oocysts  

PubMed Central

The present study was undertaken to determine the viability and infectivity of oocysts of Cryptosporidium baileyi that had been stored from 1 to 40 months at 4? preserved in 2.5% potassium dichromate solution. Oocysts of C. baileyi were purified from the feces of experimentally infected chickens using discontinuous sucrose gradients. Subsequently, the purified oocysts were suspended in 2.5% potassium dichromate solution at a concentration of 1 × 107 organism/ml, and their viabilities were assessed by nucleic acid staining, histologic examination, and infectivity to 2-day-old chickens. All chickens inoculated with oocysts that had been stored for 1-18 months developed patent infections, while chickens infected with older oocysts remained uninfected. Between 5.8% and 82.2% of the oocysts, stored at 4? in 2.5% potassium dichromate solution, were found to be viable, as determined by nucleic acid staining. Parasite colonization in the bursa of Fabricius was detected in the microvillus border of bursal epithelium. The finding that C. baileyi oocysts remain infective to chickens for at least 18 months offers important time-saving advantages to investigators who frequently require large numbers of oocysts.

Surl, Chan-Gu; Kim, Se-Min

2003-01-01

425

A diffuse interface model with immiscibility preservation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A new, simple, and computationally efficient interface capturing scheme based on a diffuse interface approach is presented for simulation of compressible multiphase flows. Multi-fluid interfaces are represented using field variables (interface functions) with associated transport equations that are augmented, with respect to an established formulation, to enforce a selected interface thickness. The resulting interface region can be set just thick enough to be resolved by the underlying mesh and numerical method, yet thin enough to provide an efficient model for dynamics of well-resolved scales. A key advance in the present method is that the interface regularization is asymptotically compatible with the thermodynamic mixture laws of the mixture model upon which it is constructed. It incorporates first-order pressure and velocity non-equilibrium effects while preserving interface conditions for equilibrium flows, even within the thin diffused mixture region. We first quantify the improved convergence of this formulation in some widely used one-dimensional configurations, then show that it enables fundamentally better simulations of bubble dynamics. Demonstrations include both a spherical-bubble collapse, which is shown to maintain excellent symmetry despite the Cartesian mesh, and a jetting bubble collapse adjacent a wall. Comparisons show that without the new formulation the jet is suppressed by numerical diffusion leading to qualitatively incorrect results.

Tiwari, Arpit; Freund, Jonathan B.; Pantano, Carlos

2013-11-01

426

What have we learned about patients with heart failure and preserved ejection fraction from DIG-PEF, CHARM-preserved, and I-PRESERVE?  

PubMed

Examination of patients with reduced and preserved ejection fraction in the DIG (Digitalis Investigation Group) trials and the CHARM (Candesartan in Heart Failure: Assessment of Reduction in Mortality and Morbidity) trials provides comparisons of outcomes in each of these types of heart failure. Comparison of the patients in these trials, along with the I-PRESERVE (Irbesartan in Heart Failure with Preserved Systolic Function Trial), with patients of similar age, sex distribution, and comorbidity in trials of hypertension, diabetes mellitus, angina pectoris, and atrial fibrillation provides even more interesting insights into the relation between phenotype and rates of death and heart failure hospitalization. The poor clinical outcomes in patients with heart failure and preserved ejection fraction do not seem easily explained on the basis of age, sex, comorbidity, blood pressure, or left ventricular structural remodeling but do seem to be explained by the presence of the syndrome of heart failure. PMID:23141494

Campbell, Ross T; Jhund, Pardeep S; Castagno, Davide; Hawkins, Nathaniel M; Petrie, Mark C; McMurray, John J V

2012-12-11

427

Double bundle arthroscopic Anterior Cruciate Ligament reconstruction with remnant preserving technique using a hamstring autograft  

PubMed Central

Background Preservation of the Anterior Cruciate Ligament (ACL) remnant is important from the biological point of view as it enhances revascularization, and preserves the proprioceptive function of the graft construct. Additionally, it may have a useful biomechanical function. Double bundle ACL reconstruction has been shown to better replicate the native ACL anatomy and results in better restoration of the rotational stability than single bundle reconstruction. Methods We used the far anteromedial (FAM) portal for creation of the femoral tunnels, with a special technique for its preoperative localization using three dimensional (3D) CT. The central anteromedial (AM) portal was used to make a longitudinal slit in the ACL remnant to allow visualization of the tips of the guide pins during anatomical creation of the tibial tunnels within the native ACL tibial foot print. The use of curved hemostat allow retrieval of the wire loop from the apertures of the femoral tunnels through the longitudinal slit in the ACL remnant thereby, guarding against impingement of the reconstruction graft against the ACL remnant as well as the roof of the intercondylar notch. Conclusion Our technique allows for anatomical double bundle reconstruction of the ACL while maximally preserving the ACL remnant without the use of intra-operative image intensifier.

2011-01-01

428

Protecting endangered species under future climate change: From single-species preservation to an anticipatory policy approach  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Anthropogenic climate climate change presents a unique challenge for endangered species policy and an opportunity for policy makers to develop a more predictive and robust approach to preserving the nation's biological resources. Biological and ecological reactions to shifting climate conditions and the potential feedbacks and synergistic effects of such changes may threaten the well-being of many species, particularly of those already in jeopardy of extinction. The United States Endangered Species Act of 1973 will fail to keep pace with increasing numbers of species needing protection as long as it remains focused on protecting species individually. The act must not be abandoned, however; it holds tremendous promise for preserving biological diversity through a more proactive, anticipatory perspective. The current Endangered Species Act should be reinforced and improved by better integration of scientific expertise into habitat and community preservation listing decisions and recovery plan devlopment. Given the uncertainties surrounding long-term environmental consequences of human activities and resource use, a longer-term perspective must be integrated into all efforts to protect our biotic resources.

Bloomgarden, Carol A.

1995-09-01

429

Protecting endangered species under future climate change: From single-species preservation to an anticipatory policy approach  

SciTech Connect

Anthropogenic climate change presents a unique challenge for endangered species policy and an opportunity for policy makers to develop a more predictive and robust approach to preserving the nation`s biological resources. Biological and ecological reactions to shifting climate conditions and the potential feedbacks and synergistic effects of such changes may threaten the well-being of many species, particularly of those already in jeopardy of extinction. The United States Endangered Species Act of 1973 will fail to keep pace with increasing numbers of species needing protection as long as it remains focused on protecting species individually. The act must not be abandoned, however; it holds tremendous promise for preserving biological diversity through a more proactive, anticipatory perspective. The current Endangered Species Act should be reinforced and improved by better integration of scientific expertise into habitat and community preservation listing decisions and recovery plan development. Given the uncertainties surrounding long-term environmental consequences of human activities and resource use, a longer-term perspective must be integrated into all efforts to protect our biotic resources. 55 refs.

Bloomgarden, C.A. [Cornell Univ., Ithaca, NY (United States)

1995-09-01

430

Questions about Biological Parents  

MedlinePLUS

... About Biological Parents Family Life Listen Questions About Biological Parents Article Body As you raise your adopted ... to her life—the fact that she has biological parents elsewhere—that may make it necessary for ...

431

Biological Interactions of Nanomaterials.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The Biological Interactions of Nanomaterials project focuses on biological characterization of nanomaterials of particular interest to the Air Force. This report describes the basic mechanism of biological interactions of engineered nanomaterials, and exp...

A. M. Schrand J. L. Speshock K. O. Yu L. K. Braydich-Stolle S. M. Hussain

2008-01-01

432

Preserving Our Wildlife Heritage: The Concerned Citizen is Essential  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Reviews conservationists efforts in preserving wildlife. Concern is expressed that current public attitude is waning and that unless all concerned citizens continue to work for conservation that present laws will not be adequate to preserve the environment and its wildlife. (SL)

Kimball, Thomas L.

1976-01-01

433

Target-Based Maintenance of Privacy Preserving Association Rules  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In the context of association rule mining, the state-of-the-art in privacy preserving data mining provides solutions for categorical and Boolean association rules but not for quantitative association rules. This research fills this gap by describing a method based on discrete wavelet transform (DWT) to protect input data privacy while preserving

Ahluwalia, Madhu V.

2011-01-01

434

36 CFR 7.86 - Big Cypress National Preserve.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2009-07-01 2009-07-01 false Big Cypress National Preserve. 7.86 Section...OF THE NATIONAL PARK SYSTEM § 7.86 Big Cypress National Preserve. (a) Motorized...authorized oil and gas companies. (B) Big Cypress Florida Trail, Section 1,...

2009-07-01

435

36 CFR 7.85 - Big Thicket National Preserve.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...Public Property 1 2009-07-01 2009-07-01 false Big Thicket National Preserve. 7.85 Section 7.85 Parks...SPECIAL REGULATIONS, AREAS OF THE NATIONAL PARK SYSTEM § 7.85 Big Thicket National Preserve. (a) Hunting. Except as...

2009-07-01

436

36 CFR 7.86 - Big Cypress National Preserve.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Big Cypress National Preserve. 7.86 Section...OF THE NATIONAL PARK SYSTEM § 7.86 Big Cypress National Preserve. (a) Motorized...authorized oil and gas companies. (B) Big Cypress Florida Trail, Section 1,...

2010-07-01

437

BIOREMEDIATION FIELD INITIATIVE SITE PROFILE: ESCAMBIA WOOD PRESERVING SITE - BROOKHAVEN  

EPA Science Inventory

The Escambia Wood Preserving Site?Brookhaven in Brookhaven, Mississippi, is a former wood preserving facility that used pentachlo- rophenol (PCP) and creosote to treat wooden poles. The site contains two pressure treatment cylinders, a wastewater treatment system, five bulk pr...

438

AFRICAN AMERICAN THEATERS IN GEORGIA: PRESERVING AN ENTERTAINMENT LEGACY  

Microsoft Academic Search

Many African American theaters built in the early twentieth century have been destroyed. This thesis looks at four African American theaters in Georgia that have been preserved or are in the process of being preserved. It looks at the history of the theaters and at how preservationists took, or are taking, the initiative to restore these entertainment palaces. The restoration

JASON L. ELLERBEE

439

Multivariate statistical process control based on multiway locality preserving projections  

Microsoft Academic Search

An approach for multivariate statistical process control based on multiway locality preserving projections (LPP) is presented. The recently developed LPP is a linear dimensionality reduction technique for preserving the neighborhood structure of the data set. It is characterized by capturing the intrinsic structure of the observed data and finding more meaningful low-dimensional information hidden in the high-dimensional observations compared with

Kunlun Hu; Jingqi Yuan

2008-01-01

440

THE ECONOMICS OF NON-GMO SEGREGATION AND IDENTITY PRESERVATION  

Microsoft Academic Search

We survey grain and soybean handlers and producers in the U.S. and EU to estimate costs of preserving the identities of GMO and non-GMO crops in marketing channels. We introduce our estimates into the IFPRI IMPACT model to simulate the effects of identity preservation on farm incomes and consumer well-being.

David S. Bullock; Marion Desquilbet; Elisavet I. Nitsi

2000-01-01

441

Forward to the Past: Historical Preservation in Globalizing Shanghai  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article examines the role of historical preservation in the spatial restructuring of postindustrial cities through a detailed case study of Xintiandi, a preservation-based redevelopment project in the inner city of Shanghai. At Xintiandi, two blocks of Shikumen houses, Shanghainese tenements built by Western landlords for Chinese tenants in the colonial period, were turned into a posh entertainment quarter by

2008-01-01

442

Retrieval analysis of motion preserving spinal devices and periprosthetic tissues  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article reviews certain practical aspects of retrieval analysis for motion preserving spinal implants and periprosthetic tissues as an essential component of the overall revision strategy for these implants. At our institution, we established an international repository for motion-preserving spine implants in 2004. Our repository is currently open to all spine surgeons, and is intended to be inclusive of all

Steven M. Kurtz; Marla Steinbeck; Allyson Ianuzzi; André van Ooij; Ilona M. Punt; Jorge Isaza; E. R. S. Ross

2009-01-01

443

Preservation of Materials in Science and Technology Libraries  

Microsoft Academic Search

Preservation and conservation are important issues in science and technology libraries, but not many programs are reported in the literature. There are reports on the preservation, restoration and care of many types of material of importance in general library literature. A summary of some of the most recent materials commonly found in sci-tech libraries is reported, including sources for information

Beatrice Kovacs

1987-01-01

444

14 CFR 136.9 - Life preservers for over water.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2014-01-01 false Life preservers for over water. 136.9 Section 136.9 Aeronautics... § 136.9 Life preservers for over water. (a) Except as provided in paragraphs...in command of commercial air tours over water beyond the shoreline must ensure...

2014-01-01

445

Intestinal Neuromuscular Function after Preservation and Transplantation1  

PubMed Central

While it is well known that prolonged preservation of the intestinal graft causes severe mucosal damage after transplantation, little is known about the effect on neuromuscular function. The entire small intestine of adult hound dogs was flushed and preserved with cold lactated Ringer’s solution and autotransplanted either immediately (n = 6) or after 24 hr (n = 6). Animals undergoing sham operation (n = 4) were used as a control. Fasting motility and the response of the intestinal smooth muscle and enteric nerves to bethanechol (100 ?g/kg/0.5 hr, iv) and cisapride (0.5 mg/kg, iv) were determined by a multiple strain gauge method on Postoperative Days 2, 4, 7, 14, 21, and 28. Compared to the control, immediately transplanted grafts and those preserved for 24 hr developed delayed reappearance of migrating myoelectric complexes (MMC), hypercontractile activity, and reduced response to bethanechol and cisapride administration. Animals in the preservation group developed more abnormal fasting motility after transplantation, but responses to bethanechol and cisapride stimulation were not markedly different from those of the immediate group. The reappearance of MMC occurred 3 weeks postoperatively in the preservation group compared to 2 days in the immediate group. The results of our study indicate that intestinal dysmotility is augmented in prolonged-preservation grafts compared to those with brief preservation. The dysmotility was transient and normalized 3 to 4 weeks after surgery. Preservation and reperfusion injury to the neuromuscular system of intestinal grafts are reversible and are attenuated by simple hypothermia.

Hamada, Nobuo; Hutson, William R.; Nakada, Koji; Ikoma, Akira; Suzuki, Tomomi; Zhu, Yue; Starzl, Thomas E.; Todo, Satoru

2010-01-01

446

Report of the Task Force on Preservation Practices.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This task force report discusses preservation practices in the University of Wyoming Library and presents recommendations for developing a more cohesive library material preservation program with a timeline for implementation. Recommendations deal with the specific areas of staffing the conservation program; condition of library materials;…

Hanscom, Martha; And Others

447

A Study on the Preservation of Exhumed Mummies by Plastination  

Microsoft Academic Search

Due to the great importance of mummies for archeological research, methods have to be developed to preserve these specimens. Two preserved mummies (died 410 and 380 years ago) were exhumed and plastinated to avoid deterioration from exposure. They were first re-fixed with formalin and dehydrated at room temperature in a graded series of acetone solutions. The corpses were then pre-

Zheng Tianzhong; You Xuegui; Liu Jingren; Zhu Kerming

1998-01-01

448

Neighborhood Preserving Projections (NPP): A Novel Linear Dimension Reduction Method  

Microsoft Academic Search

Dimension reduction is a crucial step for pattern recognition and information retrieval tasks to overcome the curse of dimensionality. In this paper a novel unsupervised linear dimension reduction method, Neighborhood Preserving Projections (NPP), is proposed. In contrast to traditional linear dimension reduction method, such as principal com- ponent analysis (PCA), the proposed method has good neighborhood- preserving property. The central

Yanwei Pang; Lei Zhang; Zhengkai Liu; Nenghai Yu; Houqiang Li

2005-01-01

449

APPROACHES FOR REMEDIATION OF UNCONTROLLED WOOD PRESERVING SITES  

EPA Science Inventory

This document provides an overview of remediation of uncontrolled wood preserving sites. It is, in part, a distillation of discussions that took place at a Forum on Wood Preserving Waste that was held in San Francisco, California, in October 1988. Information from this workshop h...

450

National Center for Preservation Technology and Training (NCPTT)  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The National Center for Preservation Technology and Training (NCPTT) site is designed for people interested in archeology, historic architecture, historic landscapes, materials conservation or history. It contains information about NCPTT programs; announcements of jobs, conferences, grants, and workshops; and a lot of links to other preservation-related Internet resources.

1998-01-01

451

Hepatitis B viral breakthrough associated with inappropriate preservation of entecavir.  

PubMed

If virologic breakthrough is observed during chronic hepatitis B treatment, drug resistance or compliance problem should be considered. But in some cases, breakthrough depends on drug preservation conditions. We report the case of a 30-years-old man, who experienced viral breakthrough due to wrong preservation conditions of the drug. PMID:22345891

Karabay, Oguz; Tuna, Nazan; Yahyaoglu, Mehmet

2012-01-01

452

Hepatitis B viral breakthrough associated with inappropriate preservation of entecavir  

PubMed Central

If virologic breakthrough is observed during chronic hepatitis B treatment, drug resistance or compliance problem should be considered. But in some cases, breakthrough depends on drug preservation conditions. We report the case of a 30-years-old man, who experienced viral breakthrough due to wrong preservation conditions of the drug.

Karabay, Oguz; Tuna, Nazan; Yahyaoglu, Mehmet

2012-01-01

453

A Review of the Preservation Issues Associated with Digital Documents.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Reviews issues associated with the preservation of digital documents and their long-term viability. Topics include characteristics of digital information; physical deterioration of digital documents; life spans of digital media; technological obsolescence; digital artifacts versus digital objects; access versus preservation; intellectual…

Parkes, Mitchell

1999-01-01

454

Preserving Our Legacy for Future Generations of Educators  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Preserving dance history for future generations includes documenting and maintaining the life and work of dance pioneers who today's dance educators can learn from and imitate. This article offers basic guidelines for conducting interviews; preserving valuable documentation, including photographs and recordings; and unearthing forgotten stories…

Hearn, Colleen Porter; Crabtree, Kacy E.

2008-01-01

455

Biomats, biofilms, and bioglue as preservational agents for arthropod trackways  

Microsoft Academic Search

Due to divergent taphonomic selection, corresponding body and trace fossils are rarely found in the same rocks. In addition to this general rule, arthropod trackways are preferentially preserved in particular settings: (1) lithographic limestones, where toxic bottom waters account for the exceptional preservation of body fossils at the end of their “mortichnial” trackways; (2) estuarine and lacustrine biolaminites that yield

Adolf Seilacher

2008-01-01

456

Confidentiality Preserving Security Properties for Cyber-Physical Systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

The work in this paper presents recent ad- vances in developing a theory of information flow security specifically geared towards preserving the event confiden- tiality in Cyber-Physical Systems (CPSs). Preserving the confidentiality of sensitive internal actions is a unique challenge in CPSs due to the inherent external observability of such systems and the tight coupling between their cyber and physical

Thoshitha T. Gamage; Thomas P. Roth; Bruce M. McMillin

2011-01-01

457

Orthogonal Discriminant Neighborhood Preserving Projections for Face Recognition  

Microsoft Academic Search

Subspace learning is one of the main directions for face recognition. In this paper, a novel subspace learning approach, called Orthogonal Discriminant Neighborhood Preserving Projections (ODNPP), is proposed for robust face recognition. The aim of ODNPP is to preserve the within-class geometric structure, while maximizing the between-class scatter. In order to improve the discriminating power, Schur decomposition is used to

Guoqiang Wang; Xiaojing Hou

2009-01-01

458

A Framework for High-Accuracy Privacy-Preserving Mining  

Microsoft Academic Search

To preserve client privacy in the data mining process, a variety of techniques based on random perturbation of individual data records have been proposed recently. In this paper, we present FRAPP, a generalized matrix-theoretic framework of random perturbation, which facilitates a systematic approach to the design of perturbation mechanisms for privacy-preserving mining. Specifically, FRAPP is used to demonstrate that (a)

Shipra Agrawal; Jayant R. Haritsa

2005-01-01

459

A Framework for High-Accuracy Privacy-Preserving Mining  

Microsoft Academic Search

To preserve client privacy in the data mining process, a variety of techniques based on random perturbation of in- dividual data records have been proposed recently. In this paper, we present FRAPP, a generalized matrix-theoretic framework of random perturbation, which facilitates a sys- tematic approach to the design of perturbation mechanisms for privacy-preserving mining. Specifically, FRAPP is used to demonstrate

Shipra Agrawal; Jayant R. Haritsa

2004-01-01

460

On the Privacy Preserving Properties of Random Data Perturbation Techniques  

Microsoft Academic Search

Privacy is becoming an increasingly important issue in many data mining applications. This has triggered the de- velopment of many privacy-preserving data mining tech- niques. A large fraction of them use randomized data dis- tortion techniques to mask the data for preserving the pri- vacy of sensitive data. This methodology attempts to hide the sensitive data by randomly modifying the

Hillol Kargupta; Souptik Datta; Qi Wang; Krishnamoorthy Sivakumar

2003-01-01

461

Persufflation (gaseous oxygen perfusion) as a method of heart preservation.  

PubMed

Persufflation (PSF; gaseous oxygen perfusion) is an organ preservation technique with a potential for use in donor heart preservation. Improved heart preservation with PSF may improve outcomes by maintaining cardiac tissue quality in the setting of longer cold ischemia times and possibly increasing the number of donor hearts available for allotransplant. Published data suggests that PSF is able to extend the cold storage times for porcine hearts up to 14 hours without compromising viability and function, and has been shown to resuscitate porcine hearts following donation after cardiac death. This review summarizes key published work on heart PSF, including prospective implications and future directions for PSF in heart transplantation. We emphasize the potential impact of extending preservation times and expanding donor selection criteria in heart allotransplant. Additionally, the key issues that need to be addressed before PSF were to become a widely utilized preservation strategy prior to clinical heart transplantation are summarized and discussed. PMID:23607734

Suszynski, Thomas M; Rizzari, Michael D; Scott, William E; Eckman, Peter M; Fonger, James D; John, Ranjit; Chronos, Nicolas; Tempelman, Linda A; Sutherland, David E R; Papas, Klearchos K

2013-01-01

462

Persufflation (gaseous oxygen perfusion) as a method of heart preservation  

PubMed Central

Persufflation (PSF; gaseous oxygen perfusion) is an organ preservation technique with a potential for use in donor heart preservation. Improved heart preservation with PSF may improve outcomes by maintaining cardiac tissue quality in the setting of longer cold ischemia times and possibly increasing the number of donor hearts available for allotransplant. Published data suggests that PSF is able to extend the cold storage times for porcine hearts up to 14 hours without compromising viability and function, and has been shown to resuscitate porcine hearts following donation after cardiac death. This review summarizes key published work on heart PSF, including prospective implications and future directions for PSF in heart transplantation. We emphasize the potential impact of extending preservation times and expanding donor selection criteria in heart allotransplant. Additionally, the key issues that need to be addressed before PSF were to become a widely utilized preservation strategy prior to clinical heart transplantation are summarized and discussed.

2013-01-01

463

Noise-resistant structure-preserving multiscale image decomposition  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A challenge for current edge-preserving image decompositions is to deal with noisy images. Gradient- or magnitude difference-based techniques regard the noise boundary as edges, while the local extrema-based method suffers from averaging noisy envelops. We introduce local anisotropy derived from nonlinear local structure tensor to differentiate edges from fine-scale details and noises. Providing low smoothness weights to the places with large local anisotropy rather than a large gradient under the improved weighted least squares optimization framework, we present a noise-resistant, structure-preserving smoothing operator. By either progressively or recursively applying this operator we construct our structure-preserving multiscale image decomposition. Based on the key property of our algorithm, noise resistance, we compare our results with existing edge-preserving image decomposition methods and demonstrate the effectiveness and robustness of our structure-preserving decompositions in the context of image restoration, noisy image abstraction, and noisy image dehazing.

Jin, Xin; Wang, Xiaotong; Xu, Xiaogang; Xu, Guanlei; Shao, Chengyong

2012-08-01

464

Dear Colleague Letter - Biology  

NSF Publications Database

... in the Directorate for Biological Sciences (BIO). Currently the target dates for submission of ... Division of Biological Infrastructure and other BIO Special Competitions are variable. See specific ...

465

A uniquely preserved Ediacaran fossil with direct evidence for a quilted bodyplan  

PubMed Central

Ediacara fossils are among the oldest known macroscopic and complex life forms. Their bodyplan, ecology, and phylogenetic affinities have been controversial. On the basis of taphonomic observations, Seilacher [Seilacher, A. (1989) Lethaia 22, 229–239] proposed that the core elements of the Ediacara biota, the vendobionts, were constructed with serially or fractally arranged quilts or tube-like units. However, anatomy of quilt walls has been rarely reported, because most Ediacara fossils are preserved as casts and molds in siliciclastic rocks with inadequate morphological resolution. Here, we report an Ediacara form, uniquely preserved in situ and in three dimensions with its organic walls cast by early diagenetic calcite, from bituminous limestone of the 551- to 542-mega-annum Dengying Formation of South China. Despite diagenetic tampering, serial sections show that the Dengying form consists of biserially arranged, tube-like quilts, each with two vertical side walls, a floor, a roof, and an open distal end. Three-dimensional morphological complexity of the Dengying form excludes a microbial interpretation but is broadly consistent with vendobionts. Unlike classic frondose vendobionts sensu Seilacher, however, the Dengying form probably lacked a smooth margin and had distally open quilts. It probably lived procumbently at or near the water–sediment interface and shows evidence for substrate utilization. Despite its uncertain phylogeny, ontogeny, and functional biology, the Dengying form adds to Ediacaran biodiversity, places key constraints on the ecology and extinction of Ediacara organisms, and points to the need to explore an alternative taphonomic window for Ediacara biology.

Xiao, Shuhai; Shen, Bing; Zhou, Chuanming; Xie, Guwei; Yuan, Xunlai

2005-01-01

466

The forensiX Evidence Collection Tube and Its Impact on DNA Preservation and Recovery  

PubMed Central

Biological samples are vulnerable to degradation from the time they are collected until they are analysed at the laboratory. Biological contaminants, such as bacteria, fungi, and enzymes, as well as environmental factors, such as sunlight, heat, and humidity, can increase the rate of DNA degradation. Currently, DNA samples are normally dried or frozen to limit their degradation prior to their arrival at the laboratory. In this study, the effect of the sample drying rate on DNA preservation was investigated, as well as a comparison between drying and freezing methods. The drying performances of two commercially available DNA collection tools (swab and drying tube) with different drying rates were evaluated. The swabs were used to collect human saliva, placed into the drying tubes, and stored in a controlled environment at 25°C and 60% relative humidity, or frozen at ?20°C, for 2 weeks. Swabs that were stored in fast sample drying tubes yielded 95% recoverable DNA, whereas swabs stored in tubes with slower sample drying rates yielded only 12% recoverable DNA; saliva stored in a microtube at ?20°C was used as a control. Thus, DNA sampling tools that offer rapid drying can significantly improve the preservation of DNA collected on a swab, increasing the quantity of DNA available for subsequent analysis.

Garvin, Alex M.

2013-01-01

467

Artemisinin Antimalarials: Preserving the "Magic Bullet"  

PubMed Central

The artemisinins are the most effective antimalarial drugs known. They possess a remarkably wide therapeutic index. These agents have been used in traditional Chinese herbal medicine for more than 2,000 years but were not subjected to scientific scrutiny until the 1970s. The first formal clinical trials of the artemisinins, and the development of methods for their industrial scale production, followed rapidly. A decade later, Chinese scientists shared their findings with the rest of the world; since then, a significant body of international trial evidence has confirmed these drugs to be far superior to any available alternatives. In particular, they have the ability to rapidly kill a broad range of asexual parasite stages at safe concentrations that are consistently achievable via standard dosing regimens. As their half-life is very short, there was also thought to be a low risk of resistance. These discoveries coincided with the appearance and spread of resistance to all the other major classes of antimalarials. As a result, the artemisinins now form an essential element of recommended first-line antimalarial treatment regimens worldwide. To minimize the risk of artemisinin resistance, they are recommended to be used to treat uncomplicated malaria in combination with other antimalarials as artemisinin combination therapies (ACTs). Their rollout has resulted in documented reductions in malaria prevalence in a number of African and Asian countries. Unfortunately, there are already worrisome early signs of artemisinin resistance appearing in western Cambodia. If this resistance were to spread, it would be disastrous for malaria control efforts worldwide. The enormous challenge for the international community is how to avert this catastrophe and preserve the effectiveness of this antimalarial “magic bullet”. Drug Dev Res 71: 12–19, 2010. © 2009 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

Maude, Richard J; Woodrow, Charles J; White, Lisa J

2010-01-01

468

Autoperfusing ectothermic heart-lung preservation system.  

PubMed

A portable heart-lung preservation system was developed to enable distant organ procurement. In 8 dogs, a functioning heart-lung system was isolated, cannulated in situ, removed en bloc, and placed into a Plasmalyte-filled, temperature-controlled (15-38 degrees C) chamber. The perfusion circuit consisted of an adjustable-height, autologous-blood reservoir. The heart ejected through the aortic cannula with venous return (VR) into the superior vena cava. Respiration was maintained with a positive pressure ventilator. Intramyocardial tissue pressure (IMP), tissue pH, right atrial (RAP), aortic pressure (AOP), and cardiac output (CO) were monitored. Autoperfusion at normothermia and CO of 50 mL/min/kg resulted in early (3 h) deterioration of pulmonary function with progressive interstitial lung edema. Pulmonary dysfunction always preceded changes in regional myocardial contractile viability (peak IMP and d(IMP)/dt) and global function (CO, AOP). When tissue pH was regulated ectothermically (as in cold-blooded animals) (delta pH/degrees C = -0.015) the heart maintained a stable pumping mode (greater than 6 h) at myocardial temperatures of 17-28 degrees C, pH = 7.70-7.55, and heart rate of 25-50 bpm, respectively. The results indicate that a viable (greater than 6 h) autoperfused, working heart-lung system can be achieved by reducing the circulating blood flow to 30-50% of normal CO. More significantly, ectothermic alpha-stat modulation of perfusate pH and pCO2 allows a substantial reduction in organ temperature and metabolic demand without endangering induction of fibrillation and ultimate allograft failure. PMID:2487257

Kresh, J Y; Brockman, S K

1989-01-01

469

Preserving health in the Marcellus region.  

PubMed

Community health nurses (CHNs) have an opportunity and responsibility to address potential environmental health issues related to shale drilling, even in the face of scientific uncertainty. Potential health impacts to air and water quality related to shale drilling are addressed within the context of the CHNs role of educator, case finder, advocate and researcher. Since 2005, an estimated 5,500 unconventional natural gas wells have been drilled in Pennsylvania's Marcellus Shale (Pennsylvania Department of Environmental Protection [PA DEP], n.d.), resulting in tremendous controversy throughout the state regarding impacts to human health and the environment. Although there are numerous anecdotal reports of illnesses in humans and animals living in drilling areas, there is a notable lack of peer-reviewed research on the impacts. Research efforts are underway to study these issues, including a proposed retrospective study of hospital and clinic data by Geisinger Health System's Weis Center for Research (Begos, 2012). However, CHNs have the opportunity and the responsibility to help address potential environmental health issues related to shale drilling, even in the face of scientific uncertainty. This responsibility is highlighted by the American Nurses Association's (ANA) (2003, p. 2) adoption of the Precautionary Principle, which states that "when an activity raises threats of harm to human health or the environment, precautionary measures should be taken even if some cause and effect relationships are not fully established scientifically." CHN practice includes the promotion and preservation of health, and the prevention of disease, as well as assisting people in their response to illness (Maurer & Smith, 2009). In Pennsylvania's Marcellus Shale regions, CHNs must assume the critical nursing roles of educator, case finder, advocate and researcher when addressing the health needs in shale drilling communities. Unfortunately, CHNs practicing within these regions may feel unprepared to take on these roles related to unconventional gas extraction. The following discusses these CHN roles in the context of environmental health impacts of shale drilling on air and water quality. PMID:23155825

McDermott-Levy, Ruth; Kaktins, Nina

2012-09-01

470

A Physiological Permeability Study of Third Molar Dentine with Odontoblasts Preserved and Odontoblasts Free Preparations  

PubMed Central

Introduction Dentine a viable biological tissue forms an intimately related complex with the odontoblasts. Much has been question of the barrier properties of dentine within teeth and between teeth.. In human adults the odontoblasts are fully differentiated post-mitotic cells, which send its cytoplasmic processes into the dentinal tubules, yet various studies in the physic of fluid flow in dentine takes little recognition of its presence. The permeability of dentine has been implicated in a possible hydrodynamic mechanism by which rapid fluid movement in the tubules is thought to depolarise the nerve endings. Objective The innovative aim from this pilot investigation is to contribute to the understanding of the influence of odontoblasts on the permeability of human dentine. Methodology This study describes the permeability in odontoblast preserved and odontoblast free preparations in vitro i.e. comparing fluid flow across dentine in human third molars. The pulp tissues were removed from human third molars leaving the odontoblasts attached to the walls of the chamber. The specimens were then either fixed chemically (odontoblast-preserved specimens) or immersed in NaOH (odontoblast free specimens). Occlusal dentine was exposed by removing the enamel. The exposed dentine was placed in contact with water and the ingress of water into the pulp chamber was observed with a binocular microscope. A microlitre syringe was used to measure the volume of water accumulated at time intervals of several hours for up to 70 hours or more. Results The results showed that spontaneous flow continued in both preparations until equilibrium was reached. The relative final volumes were greater in the odontoblast free preparations than in the odontoblast preserved. Conclusion Water movement through odontoblast free dentine was believed to be driven by capillarity and through odontoblast preserved dentine by capillarity and osmotic pressure.

Ghazali, Farid Che

2000-01-01

471

Sedimentary Parameters Controlling Occurrence and Preservation of Microbial Mats in Siliciclastic Depositional Systems  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Shallow-marine, siliciclastic depositional systems are governed by physical sedimentary processes. Mineral precipitation or penecontemporaneous cementation play minor roles. Today, coastal siliciclastic environments may be colonized by a variety of epibenthic, mat-forming cyanobacteria. Studies on microbial mats showed that they are not randomly distributed in modern tidal environments. Distribution and abundancy is mainly function of a particular sedimentary facies. Fine-grained sands composed of "clear" (translucent) quartz particles constitute preferred substrates for cyanobacteria. Mat-builders also favor sites characterized by moderate hydrodynamic flow regimes, which permit biomass enrichment and construction of mat fabrics without lethal burial of mat populations by fine sediments. A comparable facies relationship can be observed in ancient siliciclastic shelf successions from the terminal Neoproterozoic Nama Group, Namibia. Wrinkle structures that record microbial mats are present but sparsely distributed in mid- to inner shelf sandstones of the Nudaus Formation. The sporadic distribution of these structures reflects both the narrow ecological window that governs mat development and the distinctive taphonomic conditions needed to preserve the structures. These observations caution that statements about changing mat abundance across the Proterozoic-Cambrian boundary must be firmly rooted in paleoenvironmental and taphonomic analysis. Understanding the factors that influence the formation and preservation of microbial structures in siliciclastic regimes can facilitate exploration for biological signatures in Earth's oldest rocks. Moreover, insofar as these structures can be preserved on bedding surfaces and are not easily mimicked by physical processes, they constitute a set of biological markers that can be searched for on Mars by remotely controlled rovers.

Noffke, Nora; Knoll, Andrew H.

2001-01-01

472

Preservation of New Technology. A Report of the Technology Assessment Advisory Committee to the Commission on Preservation and Access.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Intended to stimulate discussion rather than present solutions, this report summarizes how digital technology applies to preservation problems beyond the preservation of print materials. Specifically it describes the problems new kinds of media such as audio and videotape and computer disks pose to librarians and archivists in terms of long-term…

Lesk, Michael

473

Synthetic biology: a Jewish view.  

PubMed

The discipline of synthetic biology may be one of the most dramatic advances of the past few decades. It represents a radical upgrading of humankind's ability to manipulate the world in which we live. The potential for benefits to society is enormous, but the risks for deliberate abuse or dangerous miscalculations are no less great. There are serious ethical issues, legitimate concerns for biosafety, and fears of bioterrorism. The ethical dilemmas posed are new and challenging and are being addressed by various groups and commissions. The present paper presents a Jewish approach to some of the ethical issues posed by this new technology. Judaism traditionally looks favorably on man as a co-creator with God and encourages research for the benefit of humankind. Thus it would have a positive attitude towards the current goals of synthetic biology. But in the Jewish tradition man is also charged with stewardship over nature and is admonished to preserve and nurture, not just to exploit and destroy. In line with the Presidential Commission on Bioethics, it would support a carefully weighed balance between the precautionary and the "proactionary" approaches. PMID:23502565

Glick, Shimon

2012-01-01

474

Preservation versus non-preservation of mitral valve apparatus during mitral valve replacement: a meta-analysis of 3835 patients.  

PubMed

Resection of the chordopapillary apparatus during mitral valve replacement has been associated with a negative impact on survival. Mitral valve replacement with the preservation of the mitral valve apparatus has been associated with better outcomes, but surgeons remain refractory to its use. To determine if there is any real difference in preservation vs non-preservation of mitral valve apparatus during mitral valve replacement in terms of outcomes, we performed a systematic review and meta-analysis using MEDLINE, EMBASE, CENTRAL/CCTR, SciELO, LILACS, Google Scholar and reference lists of relevant articles to search for clinical studies that compared outcomes (30-day mortality, postoperative low cardiac output syndrome or 5-year mortality) between preservation vs non-preservation during mitral valve replacement from 1966 to 2011. The principal summary measures were odds ratios (ORs) with 95% confidence interval and P-values (that will be considered statistically significant when <0.05). The ORs were combined across studies using a weighted DerSimonian-Laird random-effects model. The meta-analysis was completed using the software Comprehensive Meta-Analysis version 2 (Biostat Inc., Englewood, NJ, USA). Twenty studies (3 randomized and 17 non-randomized) were identified and included a total of 3835 patients (1918 for mitral valve replacement preservation and 1917 for mitral valve replacement non-preservation). There was significant difference between mitral valve replacement preservation and mitral valve replacement non-preservation groups in the risk of 30-day mortality (OR 0.418, P <0.001), postoperative low cardiac output syndrome (OR 0.299, P <0.001) or 5-year mortality (OR 0.380, P <0.001). No publication bias or important heterogeneity of effects on any outcome was observed. In conclusion, we found evidence that argues in favour of the preservation of mitral valve apparatus during mitral valve replacement. PMID:23027596

Sá, Michel Pompeu Barros de Oliveira; Ferraz, Paulo Ernando; Escobar, Rodrigo Renda; Martins, Wendell Santos; de Araújo e Sá, Frederico Browne Correia; Lustosa, Pablo César; Vasconcelos, Frederico Pires; Lima, Ricardo Carvalho

2012-12-01

475

Incorporating Fertility Preservation into the Care of Young Oncology Patients  

PubMed Central

As the number of cancer survivors continues to increase, oncologists are faced with the challenge of providing cancer therapy to patients who may one day want to have children. Yet gonadotoxic cancer treatments can compromise future fertility, either temporarily or permanently. There are established means of preserving fertility prior to cancer treatment, specifically, sperm cryopreservation for men and in vitro fertilization and embryo cryopreservation for women. Several innovative techniques are being actively investigated, including oocyte and ovarian follicle cryopreservation, ovarian tissue transplantation, and in vitro follicle maturation, which may expand the number of fertility preservation choices for young cancer patients. Fertility preservation may also require some modification of cancer therapy, and thus patients’ wishes regarding future fertility and the available fertility preservation alternatives should be discussed prior to the initiation of therapy. This commentary provides an overview of the range of fertility preservation options currently available and under development, and utilizes case-based discussions to illustrate ways in which fertility preservation can be incorporated into oncology care. Cases involving breast cancer, testicular cancer, and rectal cancer are described to illustrate fertility issues experienced by male and female patients, as well as to provide examples of strategies for modifying surgical, medical, and radiation therapy in order to spare fertility. Current guidelines in oncology and reproductive medicine are also reviewed to underscore the importance of communicating fertility preservation options to young patients with cancer.

Redig, Amanda J.; Brannigan, Robert; Stryker, Steven J.; Woodruff, Teresa K.; Jeruss, Jacqueline S.

2010-01-01

476

Morphological and functional alterations in glycerol preserved rat aortic allografts.  

PubMed

Glycerol preservation is an effective method for long-term preservation of skin allografts and has a potential use in preserving arterial allografts. We evaluated the effect of glycerol concentration and incubation period on vessel-wall integrity of rat aortic allografts. No significant differences were measured in breaking strength (2.3 +/- 0.3 N) and bursting pressure (223 +/- 32 kPa) between standard glycerolized and control segments (1.7 +/- 0.3 N, 226 +/- 17 kPa). Isometric tension measurements showed complete lack of functional contraction and relaxation capacity in allograft segments prepared according to all preservation protocols. Morphologically, thickness of the vessel-wall media diminished after preservation using low (30/50/75%) or high (70/85/98%) concentrations of glycerol, as compared to control segments (i.e. 81 +/- 2.4 microm, 95 +/- 5.6 microm and 125 +/- 3.5 microm, respectively). Confocal microscopy and Fourier analysis demonstrated that vascular collagen and elastin bundle orientation had remained unaltered. Electron microscopy showed defragmentation of luminal endothelial cells. In conclusion, glycerol preservation of rat aorta resulted in an acellular tissue matrix, which maintained biomechanical integrity and extracellular matrix characteristics. The next step in the investigation will be to test the concept of glycerol preservation of arterial allografts in a vascular transplantation model. PMID:15636056

Fahner, P J; Idu, M M; Legemate, D A; Vanbavel, E; Borstlap, J; Pfaffendorf, M; van Marle, J; van Gulik, T M

2004-11-01

477

Systems Chemical Biology  

PubMed Central

The increasing availability of data related to genes, proteins and their modulation by small molecules, paralleled by the emergence of simulation tools in systems biology, has provided a vast amount of biological information. However, there is a critical need to develop cheminformatics tools that can integrate chemical knowledge with these biological databases, with the goal of creating systems chemical biology.

Oprea, Tudor I.; Tropsha, Alexander; Faulon, Jean-Loup; Rintoul, Mark D.

2009-01-01

478

Learning Biology by Designing  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

According to a century-old tradition in biological thinking, organisms can be considered as being optimally designed. In modern biology this idea still has great heuristic value. In evolutionary biology a so-called design heuristic has been formulated which provides guidance to researchers in the generation of knowledge about biological systems.…

Janssen, Fred; Waarlo, Arend Jan

2010-01-01

479

Etanercept Enhances Preservation of Osteochondral Allograft Viability  

PubMed Central

BACKGROUND Osteochondral allografts are an increasingly popular treatment for the repair of articular cartilage lesions. Current tissue bank protocols require bacteriological testing that takes from 21 to 28 days to process. During this time, tumor necrosis factor-alpha TNF-? (a pro-apoptotic cytokine) is upregulated resulting in loss of chondrocyte viability. To date, etanercept (a cytokine inhibitor) has not been studied in the current storage paradigm with the intention of preserving cell viability. HYPOTHESIS/PURPOSE To assess whether or not the addition of Etanercept can improve the chondrocytic viability of osteochondral allograft during storage. STUDY DESIGN Controlled, randomized and blinded in vitro laboratory study. METHODS Osteochondral allografts were harvested from eight Boer goat femurs and placed into storage media and stored at 4°C for 28 days. The experimental group was supplemented with 10 µg/mL of Etanercept. After storage, cell viability was assessed by live/dead staining and confocal microscopy. Specimens were also analyzed histologically and underwent histomorphological analysis. TNF-? expression was measured with semi-quantitative PCR. RESULTS At 28 days, the percent viability of the superficial zone in etanercept-treated allografts was maintained at significantly higher levels than those measured in the untreated group (69.3 ± 9.4 compared to 47.8 ± 19.1, p=0.01). No difference was found histologically between the etanercept and the untreated group (i.e. safranin-O staining for GAG expression). Histomorphologic assessment showed no difference in inden