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Sample records for preservation biological

  1. Preservation of Liquid Biological Samples

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Putcha, Lakshmi (Inventor); Nimmagudda, Ramalingeshwara (Inventor)

    2004-01-01

    The present invention related to the preservation of a liquid biological sample. The biological sample is exposed to a preservative containing at least about 0.15 g of sodium benzoate and at least about 0.025 g of citric acid per 100 ml of sample. The biological sample may be collected in a vessel or an absorbent mass. The biological sample may also be exposed to a substrate and/or a vehicle.

  2. Preservation of Liquid Biological Samples

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Putcha, Lakshmi (Inventor); Nimmagudda, Ramalingeshwara R. (Inventor)

    2000-01-01

    The present invention provides a method of preserving a liquid biological sample, comprising the step of: contacting said liquid biological sample with a preservative comprising, sodium benzoate in an amount of at least about 0.15% of the sample (weight/volume) and citric acid in an amount of at least about 0.025% of the sample (weight/volume).

  3. Retention of Preservative Levels of Formaldehyde in Desiccated Biological Products

    PubMed Central

    Pemberton, John R.

    1975-01-01

    Concentrations ranging from 8 to 100% of the preservative level of formalin (37% formaldehyde solution) were retained by desiccated biologics, with most products retaining about 50% regardless of the amount originally present. PMID:972183

  4. Survey of techniques used to preserve biological materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Feinler, E. J.; Hubbard, R. W.

    1972-01-01

    The techniques used to preserve biological materials are documented and summarized. The report is presented in a handbook format that categorizes the most important preservation techniques available, and includes a representative sampling of the thousands of applications of these techniques to biological materials and organisms. Details of the information coverage and method of approach are outlined. Data are given in tabular form, and an index and extensive bibliography are included.

  5. 28 CFR 28.22 - The requirement to preserve biological evidence.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false The requirement to preserve biological evidence. 28.22 Section 28.22 Judicial Administration DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE DNA IDENTIFICATION SYSTEM Preservation of Biological Evidence § 28.22 The requirement to preserve biological evidence. (a)...

  6. 28 CFR 28.22 - The requirement to preserve biological evidence.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false The requirement to preserve biological evidence. 28.22 Section 28.22 Judicial Administration DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE DNA IDENTIFICATION SYSTEM Preservation of Biological Evidence § 28.22 The requirement to preserve biological evidence. (a)...

  7. 28 CFR 28.22 - The requirement to preserve biological evidence.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false The requirement to preserve biological evidence. 28.22 Section 28.22 Judicial Administration DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE DNA IDENTIFICATION SYSTEM Preservation of Biological Evidence § 28.22 The requirement to preserve biological evidence. (a)...

  8. 28 CFR 28.22 - The requirement to preserve biological evidence.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false The requirement to preserve biological evidence. 28.22 Section 28.22 Judicial Administration DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE DNA IDENTIFICATION SYSTEM Preservation of Biological Evidence § 28.22 The requirement to preserve biological evidence. (a)...

  9. 28 CFR 28.22 - The requirement to preserve biological evidence.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false The requirement to preserve biological evidence. 28.22 Section 28.22 Judicial Administration DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE DNA IDENTIFICATION SYSTEM Preservation of Biological Evidence § 28.22 The requirement to preserve biological evidence. (a)...

  10. Technology Evaluation Report: Biological Treatment of Wood Preserving Site Groundwater by Biotrol, Inc

    EPA Science Inventory

    Biological Treatment of Wood Preserving SITE Groundwater by Biotrol, Inc. BioTrol's pilot-scale, fixed-film biological treatment system was evaluated for its effectiveness at removing pentachlorophenol from groundwater. The system employs indigenous microorganisms amended wit...

  11. Anterior Cruciate Ligament Reconstruction and Preservation: The SingleAnteromedial Bundle Biological Augmentation (SAMBBA) Technique

    PubMed Central

    Sonnery-Cottet, Bertrand; Freychet, Benjamin; Murphy, Colin G.; Pupim, Barbara H.B.; Thaunat, Mathieu

    2014-01-01

    Preservation of the anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) remnant during ACL reconstruction has the advantages of improved vascularity and synovial encircling of the graft tendon. We describe a technique called singleanteromedial bundle biological augmentation (SAMBBA) using complete preservation of the ACL remnant, as well as preservation of the semitendinosus tibial insertion, that uses standard portals and equipment. PMID:25685675

  12. Retention of Mercurial Preservatives in Desiccated Biological Products

    PubMed Central

    Pemberton, John R.

    1975-01-01

    A variety of bacterins, vaccines, and antisera retained greater than 90% of their original level of mercurial preservative after lyophilization, and this might influence certain uses of these products. PMID:1420

  13. TREATING WOOD PRESERVING PLANT WASTEWATER BY CHEMICAL AND BIOLOGICAL METHODS

    EPA Science Inventory

    A completely mixed activated sludge system was designed for a wood preserving plant with an average daily wastewater flow of 27,000 l/day (7,150 gal/day), a BOD concentration of 1,100 mg/l, and a phenol concentration of 120 mg/l. Included in the design were capabilities for pre- ...

  14. Investigation of Exposure to Formaldehyde from Preserved Biological Specimens. Status Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Consumer Product Safety Commission, Washington, DC.

    This investigation of formaldehyde exposure in school laboratories, where its principal source is from preserved biological specimens, was undertaken because of concern over exposure levels reported in the literature. Information was obtained in two ways. A limited survey of schools was conducted to determine extent of students' use of preserved

  15. Ecosystem management: Controlling biological invasion in an Illinois nature preserve

    SciTech Connect

    Thelen, C.S.; Schulz, K.E.

    1995-12-01

    Understanding the nature and effects of human interaction with the landscape is an important aspect of environmental decisionmaking. Often, human action alters the composition and distribution of organisms. In the North American central Midwest, human occupation has decimated native woodlands, which endure as habitat islands in a highly fragmented natural landscape dominated by intensive agriculture and permeated by invasive exotic species. The alterations in the landscape have affected the structure and function of the few remaining intact forests by altering the environment experienced by tree and herb species. A frequent invader of forest understories throughout the central Midwest is Vinca minor, a horticultural groundcover, yet this species has not previously been studied as a woodland invader. We tested the hypothesis that native understory species were excluded from colonized areas, and that tree seedling growth was suppressed. Using study plots in Knobeloch Woods Nature Preserve, St. Clair County, Illinois, we measured the effect of Vinca colonization on understory composition and diversity, by comparing colonized and uncolonized plots. We also related understory characteristics to soil and canopy properties. Finally, to evaluate an ongoing program to control the invasion in the field, we tested the hypothesis that simultaneous cutting and herbicide treatment had increased the diversity of native understory species. We hope with this study to provide fact-based recommendations for management of midwestern nature preserves experiencing exotic plant invasions.

  16. Organ preservation at low temperature: a physical and biological problem

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aussedat, J.; Boutron, P.; Coquilhat, P.; Descotes, J. L.; Faure, G.; Ferrari, M.; Kay, L.; Mazuer, J.; Monod, P.; Odin, J.; Ray, A.

    1993-02-01

    Before reporting the preliminary results obtained by our group, we first review the main problems to be solved in the preservation of organs at very low temperature, before being transplanted. This cryopreservation is being presently explored in order to increase the preservation tiine of transplants and to contribute to a better control of the donor recipient compatibility. We recall that, for the isolated cells to be preserved at nitrogen liquid temperatures, as now successfully performed at industrial scale, it is necessary to immerse the cells in a solution containing more or less t,oxical additives (so-called cryopro tect ants). Furthermore cooling and warming rates must be specific of each type of cells. We then show that cryo preservation could be extrapolated to whole organs by means of vitrification, the only way to avoid any ice crystallization. This vitrification will be the result of two directions of research, the one on the elaboration of cryoprotective solutions, the least toxic possible, the other on the obtention of high enough and homogeneous cooling and warming rates. After having briefly summarized the state of research on the heart and kidneys of small mammals, we present the first results that we have obtained on perfusion at 4 ^{circ}C and the auto-transplantation of rabbit kidneys, on the toxicity of a new cryoprotectant, 2,3-butanediol, on the heart rate, and on the cooling of experimental models of organs. Avant de prsenter les rsultats prliminaires obtenus par notre groupe, nous passons d'abord en revue les principaux problmes rsoudre pour conserver trs basse temprature des organes en vue de leur transplantation. Cette cryoprservation est une voie de recherche actuellement explore pour augmenter la dure de conservation des greffons et permettre ainsi de mieux contrler la compatibilit donneur-receveur. Nous rappelons que la conservation des cellules isoles la temprature de l'azote liquide, actuellement ralise avec succs l'chelle industrielle, ne peut se faire qu'en prsence de substances plus ou moins toxiques dites cryoprotectrices, et condition de respecter des vitesses de refroidissement et de rchauffement adaptes chaque type de cellule. Nous montrons ensuite que l'extension de la cryoprservation au cas des organes entiers ne pourra se faire qu'au moyen de la vitrification, seule solution pour viter toute formation de glace. Cette vitrification sera l'aboutissement de 2 axes de recherche, l'un sur l'laboration de solutions cryoprotectrices les moins toxiques possibles, l'autre sur l'obtention de vitesses de refroidissement et de rchauffement suffisamment leves et homognes. Aprs avoir brivement rsum l'tat des recherches sur le coeur et le rein de petits mammifres, nous prsentons les premiers rsultats que nous avons obtenus sur la perfusion 4 ^{circ}C et l'autotransplantation de reins de lapin, sur la toxicit sur le coeur de rat d'un nouveau cryoprotecteur le 2,3-butanediol, et sur le refroidissement de systmes modles exprimentaux d'organes.

  17. Geologic nature of the Jasper Ridge Biological Preserve, San Francisco Peninsula, California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Coleman, R.G.

    2004-01-01

    This short report attempts to illuminate the geological features that contributed to making the Jasper Ridge Biological Preserve (JRBP) a unique research island within the rapidly urbanized San Francisco Peninsula. Written in the rocks of the Preserve is a history of continental growth that extends back to the Jurassic (???150 Ma) as the California continental margin grew by subduction and accretion. Movement along the San Andreas fault system has left an indelible mark on the topography by uplift and faulting, and is even now changing the landscape by measurable increments. The sediments of Searsville Lake preserve a chronology of logging in the last century and housing development in more recent decades. Continued multidisciplinary study of this dynamic island of preserved interlocking biological, geological, and hydrogeological records will enhance student, faculty, and docent research, and our understanding of this complex area. ?? 2004 by V. H. Winston and Son, Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Preservation of Biological Signature Within Impact Melt Breccias, Haughton Impact Structure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lindgren, P.; Parnell, J.; Bowden, S. A.; Taylor, C.; Osinski, G. R.; Lee, P.

    2006-03-01

    Our study shows preservation of biological signatures in clasts of the target carbonate bedrock embedded in melt breccias, Haughton impact crater. The results also indicate that an increase in heating can be detected from the centre to the edge of a clast.

  19. Synthetic fossilization of soft biological tissues and their shape-preserving transformation into silica or electron-conductive replicas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Townson, Jason L.; Lin, Yu-Shen; Chou, Stanley S.; Awad, Yasmine H.; Coker, Eric N.; Brinker, C. Jeffrey; Kaehr, Bryan

    2014-12-01

    Structural preservation of complex biological systems from the subcellular to whole organism level in robust forms, enabling dissection and imaging while preserving 3D context, represents an enduring grand challenge in biology. Here we report a simple immersion method for structurally preserving intact organisms via conformal stabilization within silica. This self-limiting process, which we refer to as silica bioreplication, occurs by condensation of water-soluble silicic acid proximally to biomolecular interfaces throughout the organism. Conformal nanoscopic silicification of all biomolecular features imparts structural rigidity enabling the preservation of shape and nano-to-macroscale dimensional features upon drying to form a biocomposite and further high temperature oxidative calcination to form silica replicas or reductive pyrolysis to form electrically conductive carbon replicas of complete organisms. The simplicity and generalizability of this approach should facilitate efforts in biological preservation and analysis and could enable the development of new classes of biomimetic composite materials.

  20. Synthetic fossilization of soft biological tissues and their shape-preserving transformation into silica or electron-conductive replicas.

    PubMed

    Townson, Jason L; Lin, Yu-Shen; Chou, Stanley S; Awad, Yasmine H; Coker, Eric N; Brinker, C Jeffrey; Kaehr, Bryan

    2014-01-01

    Structural preservation of complex biological systems from the subcellular to whole organism level in robust forms, enabling dissection and imaging while preserving 3D context, represents an enduring grand challenge in biology. Here we report a simple immersion method for structurally preserving intact organisms via conformal stabilization within silica. This self-limiting process, which we refer to as silica bioreplication, occurs by condensation of water-soluble silicic acid proximally to biomolecular interfaces throughout the organism. Conformal nanoscopic silicification of all biomolecular features imparts structural rigidity enabling the preservation of shape and nano-to-macroscale dimensional features upon drying to form a biocomposite and further high temperature oxidative calcination to form silica replicas or reductive pyrolysis to form electrically conductive carbon replicas of complete organisms. The simplicity and generalizability of this approach should facilitate efforts in biological preservation and analysis and could enable the development of new classes of biomimetic composite materials. PMID:25482611

  1. Synthetic fossilization of soft biological tissues and their shape-preserving transformation into silica or electron-conductive replicas

    PubMed Central

    Townson, Jason L.; Lin, Yu-Shen; Chou, Stanley S.; Awad, Yasmine H.; Coker, Eric N.; Brinker, C. Jeffrey; Kaehr, Bryan

    2014-01-01

    Structural preservation of complex biological systems from the subcellular to whole organism level in robust forms, enabling dissection and imaging while preserving 3D context, represents an enduring grand challenge in biology. Here we report a simple immersion method for structurally preserving intact organisms via conformal stabilization within silica. This self-limiting process, which we refer to as silica bioreplication, occurs by condensation of water-soluble silicic acid proximally to biomolecular interfaces throughout the organism. Conformal nanoscopic silicification of all biomolecular features imparts structural rigidity enabling the preservation of shape and nano-to-macroscale dimensional features upon drying to form a biocomposite and further high temperature oxidative calcination to form silica replicas or reductive pyrolysis to form electrically conductive carbon replicas of complete organisms. The simplicity and generalizability of this approach should facilitate efforts in biological preservation and analysis and could enable the development of new classes of biomimetic composite materials. PMID:25482611

  2. Biologically mediated isotope fractionations - Biochemistry, geochemical significance and preservation in the earth's oldest sediments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schidlowski, M.

    1983-01-01

    Preferential metabolization of isotopically light carbon and sulfur has resulted in a fractionation of the stable isotopes of these elements on a global scale, with the light species (C-12, S-32) markedly concentrated in biogenic materials. Since the biological effects are basically retained when carbon and sulfur are incorporated in sediments, the respective fractionations are propagated into the rock section of the geochemical cycle, this having consequently caused a characteristic bipartition of both elements between 'light' and 'heavy' crustal reservoirs. Preservation of the biological isotope effects in sedimentary rocks makes it possible to trace the underlying biochemical processes back over most of the geological record. According to the available evidence, biological (autotrophic) carbon fixation arose prior to 3.5(if not 3.8) billion years ago, while the emergence of dissimilatory sulfate reduction antedates the appearance of the oldest presumably bacteriogenic sulfur isotope patterns in rocks between 2.7 and 2.8 billion years old. Hence, biological control of the terrestrial carbon and sulfur cycles has been established very early in the earth's history.

  3. The biological correction is the new way of preservation of the Face of the Earth

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Popov, Alexander

    2014-05-01

    The major links of terrestrial ecosystems functioning are: composted organic material with mull humus type, nitrogen-fixing microorganisms and litholytic organisms, which capable of active biological weathering of minerals and/or rock in the soil. Now the main ways of influence on plant-soil system functioning are physical and chemical correction. Physical correction is the system of different soil cultivation and land reclamation. It directed on creation and maintenance of favorable water, thermal and air regimes and also the biological activity of soils for crops. Although the general tendency of agriculture is minimized of tillage (strip-till, mini-till and no-till), nevertheless the intensive cultivation is widely used in modern agriculture. Chemical correction is the agriculture chemicalixation. It directed on regulation of plant producing by replenishment of plant, mineral nutrition elements in soils, by foliar nutrition using water solutions of macro- and microelements, and by regulation of acidic and salt soil regimes. In this case the plant protection against the pests and infections is carried out by various pesticides. This way of correction is completely realized in agriculture, but it doesn't consider the natural laws due to plants together with the soil from the interconnected and interdependent system. The continuing increase of agriculture chemicalixation simultaneously with a repeated tillage is led to loss of the major links of plant-soil systems functioning and to the degradation of a soil cover. Such way of plant productivity is a deadlock. New evolutionary way of preservation of the Face of the Earth is biological correction of plant-soil system functioning. A gist of this correction is the replenishment of the lost plant-soil system links. Biological correction leans on scientific achievements of modern biotechnologies, such as: vermicomposting, microbiologic specimens, physiologically active substances, biological agents of plant protection, etc. Methods of biological correction are exact biological analogs of natural links and so they can't cause the negative phenomena of plant growth and development. The principle of biological interrelationship is the base of these methods. At the heart of these methods the principle of biological compliance lies. Herewith, physiological features of plants are considered necessary. There are following main biological correction methods of plant productivity: (i) biological amelioration of soils (using of vermicomposts, earthworms, microbiologic specimens, organic and green manure, etc.); (ii) infection of plants by cultures of living microorganisms (for plant nutrition and protection); (iii) inputting of biological insecticides into plants (allows to fight even against larvae of mining insects successfully); (iv) influence on a plant metabolism by physiologically active substances (such as solutions of humic substances in particular); (v) creation of multilayered mats for gardening of deserts. The field experiments in working conditions, which were carried out in different climatic zones, bear evidence of efficiency of biological correction methods. In our opinion biological correction methods are capable to support and/or restore land-cover, to stop a degradation, and by that to prevent a disfigurement of the Face of the Earth.

  4. Integrating Surgery Into Treatment Paradigms for Organ Preservation: Tailoring Treatment to Biology Improves Outcomes

    SciTech Connect

    Wolf, Gregory T.

    2007-10-01

    Purpose: Neoadjuvant chemotherapy was introduced into treatment paradigms for curable head and neck cancer in the early 1970s in an effort to reduce the magnitude of mutilating surgery and to provide a rationale for adjuvant systemic chemotherapy in patients who responded to initial chemotherapy. The large number of trials that followed failed to demonstrate improved survival when neoadjuvant chemotherapy was added to conventional surgery or radiation. Importantly, a consistent observation in these neoadjuvant trials was the significant association of clinical tumor response to neoadjuvant therapy and favorable prognosis. Results: The findings led to development of a new treatment paradigm that was based on the hypothesis that the biology of an individual cancer is more predictive of response to specific therapy and overall outcome than is anatomic tumor site or extent, and on the corollary that matching treatment modality to biology will improve overall survival rates. Conclusions: This report identifies key findings that are important in the design and analysis of organ preservation trials and biologic markers predictive of response and outcomes. Ongoing studies incorporating biomarkers such as p53, Bcl-xL, HPV, EGFR, COX-2, and tumor promoter gene methylation are underway and will identify new targets for molecular manipulation, response monitoring, and tumor imaging that could allow real-time changes in how we integrate the various components of multi-modal therapy.

  5. Mapping the Metal Uptake in Plants from Jasper Ridge Biological Preserve - Oral Presentation

    SciTech Connect

    Lo, Allison

    2015-08-24

    Serpentine soil originates in the Earth’s mantle and contains high concentrations of potentially toxic transition metals. Although serpentine soil limits plant growth, endemic and adapted plants at Jasper Ridge Biological Preserve, located behind SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory, can tolerate these conditions. Serpentine soil and seeds belonging to native California and invasive plants were collected at Jasper Ridge. The seeds were grown hydroponically and on serpentine and potting soil to examine the uptake and distribution of ions in the roots and shoots using synchrotron micro-focused X-ray fluorescence spectroscopy. The results were used to determine differences between serpentinetolerant plants. Rye grown on potting soil was enriched in Ni, Fe, Mn, and Cr compared to purple needlegrass grown on serpentine soil. Serpentine vegetation equally suppressed the uptake of Mn, Ni, and Fe in the roots and shoots. The uptake of Ca and Mg affected the uptake of other elements such as K, S, and P.

  6. The Preservation of "Non-Biological" Environments in the Solar System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hargrove, Eugene

    Nature preservation will be a central element of the exploration of the Solar System, whether this emphasis is initially planned for or not. Exploration of extraterrestrial environments will generate images and scientific information that will excite the imagination of the general public throughout the world and be supportive of more funding for exploration. However, damage to the environments visited, once made public, will likely generate a backlash against exploration programs that could inhibit exploration or even bring it completely to an end. The exploration in the nineteenth century of the western United States, with landscapes aesthetically very different from those found in Europe but very similar to those existing on the Moon and on Mars, provides an excellent indication of what will happen in off-planet exploration. Nearly every place painted by a major artist or photographed by a photographer on a geological survey during that time period is today a national park or national monument. If extraterrestrial environments are not protected, the major space societies that are currently enthusiastically supportive of space agencies around the world could become political opponents, much as the Sierra Club evolved into a serious and effective critic of the U.S. Forest Service and National Park Service in the United States. At a minimum, space agencies must be protective of the historical landing sites on the Moon, avoid strip mining on the Moon that may draw criticism, and protect major features on Mars from damage, such as the Cydonian Face on Mars, Valles Marineris, the grand canyon of Mars, and Olympus Mons, a mountain three times as tall as Mount Everest. A good first step might be to establish a world-heritage-style site to protect the visible side of the Moon. Although extraterrestrial sites may initially be labeled "non-biological," caution must be taken to be protective of possible extraterrestrial life, active or dormant, even in the most unlikely places. Such concern will not pose a great burden, given that such life will most likely be microbial, and the concern will be for the preservation of species, not for the protection of the individual members of those species (eliminating any need to deal with the animal liberation and animal rights movements). The battle cry will be about the "wanton destruction" of species, not about the "unnecessary suffering" of animals. Because nature preservation has been a political reality for nearly two centuries, concern for the preservation of off-planet environments can be expected to be more intense than it was in the late nineteenth and early twentieth centuries and more effective in its impact once it begins.

  7. Environmental quality and preservation; bedrock beneath reefs; the importance of geology in understanding biological decline in a modern reef ecosystem

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lidz, Barbara H.

    2000-01-01

    Environmental Quality and Preservation-Bedrock Beneath Reefs: the Importance of Geology in Understanding Biological Decline in a Modern Ecosystem' is a four-page and one-plate full-color discussion of the geologic framework and evolutionary history of the coral reef ecosystem that lines the outer shelf off the Florida Keys.

  8. Assessment of the biological properties of human split skin allografts disinfected with peracetic acid and preserved in glycerol.

    PubMed

    Lomas, R J; Cruse-Sawyer, J E; Simpson, C; Ingham, E; Bojar, R; Kearney, J N

    2003-09-01

    Skin allografts derived from cadaveric human donors are widely used in the treatment of serious burn injuries and other conditions, such as ulcers. In order to render these allografts safe for clinical use, and to enable them to be preserved and banked for long periods, effective methods of decontamination and preservation are required. These methods must not adversely affect graft properties essential for clinical performance. We have investigated the application of a peracetic acid (PAA) disinfection protocol, coupled with preservation in either glycerol or propylene glycol to achieve these goals. An effective decontamination procedure, comprising of a 3h exposure to 0.1% (v/v) PAA in phosphate buffered saline (PBS) at pH 7.0, was developed and had no significant detrimental effects on the structure of skin. Cadaveric skin allografts were then treated with this disinfection protocol and subsequently preserved in either 85% (v/v) glycerol or propylene glycol in PBS, and the biological properties of the allografts thought to be essential to successful clinical performance were assessed. The cytotoxicity of the grafts was assessed using both extract and contact assays; damage to the skin collagen was assessed using a collagenase susceptibility assay and the capacity of the grafts to elicit an inflammatory response in vitro was assessed by quantifying the production of the pro-inflammatory cytokine TNF-alpha by human peripheral blood mononuclear phagocytes. Neither the disinfection protocol nor either of the preservation techniques rendered the grafts cytotoxic or pro-inflammatory. The PAA disinfection and glycerol preservation protocol had no effects on collagenase susceptibility, whereas the disinfection protocol in combination with propylene glycol rendered some of the test samples significantly more susceptible to collagenase digestion. Therefore, this study has demonstrated that PAA disinfection combined with glycerol preservation is suitable for skin allografts. The use of propylene glycol as a preservation agent for skin requires further development. PMID:12927974

  9. Preservation of biological markers in clasts within impact melt breccias from the Haughton impact structure, Devon Island.

    PubMed

    Lindgren, Paula; Parnell, John; Bowden, Stephen; Taylor, Colin; Osinski, Gordon R; Lee, Pascal

    2009-05-01

    The 39 +/- 2 Ma Haughton impact structure on Devon Island comprises a thick target succession of sedimentary rocks, mainly carbonates. The carbonates contain pre-impact organic matter, including fossil biological markers. Haughton is located in an area where no major thermal event has affected the sedimentary succession after heating caused by impact. This makes Haughton uniquely suitable for studies concerning the preservation of fossil biological markers following an impact event. Melt breccia is the most common impactite at Haughton. It is composed of clasts of the target, mainly carbonates, embedded in a fine groundmass. The groundmass is composed of material that was melted during impact. In this study, fossil biological marker maturity parameters (tricyclic terpane-hopane ratio and pregnane-sterane ratio) and an aromatic maturity parameter [methylphenanthrene ratio (MPR)] were used to compare the degree of thermal alteration in different size fractions of carbonate clasts (<0.5-4 cm in diameter) and between edges and centers of large carbonate clasts (15-20 cm in diameter). The data show that fossil biological markers can be preserved and detected in isolated large and small fractions of carbonate clasts that are embedded in an impact melt. The results also indicate that there is a thermal gradient from the center of a clast to the edge of a clast, which suggests that biological markers are more likely to be found preserved in the center of a clast. The thermal maturity values point to a higher degree of thermal alteration in the melt breccia carbonate clasts than in the coherent carbonate bedrock. PMID:19519214

  10. Preservation of Biological Markers in Clasts Within Impact Melt Breccias from the Haughton Impact Structure, Devon Island

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lindgren, Paula; Parnell, John; Bowden, Stephen; Taylor, Colin; Osinski, Gordon R.; Lee, Pascal

    2009-05-01

    The 392 Ma Haughton impact structure on Devon Island comprises a thick target succession of sedimentary rocks, mainly carbonates. The carbonates contain pre-impact organic matter, including fossil biological markers. Haughton is located in an area where no major thermal event has affected the sedimentary succession after heating caused by impact. This makes Haughton uniquely suitable for studies concerning the preservation of fossil biological markers following an impact event. Melt breccia is the most common impactite at Haughton. It is composed of clasts of the target, mainly carbonates, embedded in a fine groundmass. The groundmass is composed of material that was melted during impact. In this study, fssil biological marker maturity p arameters (tricyclic terpane-hopane ratio and pregnane-sterane ratio) and an aromatic maturity parameter [methylphenanthrene ratio (MPR)] were used to c ompare the degree of thermal alteration in different size fractions of carbonate clasts (<0.5-4 cm in diameter) and between edges and centers of large carbonate clasts (15-20 cm in diameter). The data show that fossil biological markers can be preserved and detected in isolated large and small fractions of carbonate clasts that are embedded in an impact melt. The results also indicate that there is a thermal gradient from the center of a clast to the edge of a clast, which suggests that biological markers are more likely to be found preserved in the center of a clast. The thermal maturity values point to a higher degree of thermal alteration in the melt breccia carbonate clasts than in the coherent carbonate bedrock.

  11. Evolutionary and preservational constraints on origins of biologic groups: divergence times of eutherian mammals

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Foote, M.; Hunter, J. P.; Janis, C. M.; Sepkoski, J. J. Jr

    1999-01-01

    Some molecular clock estimates of divergence times of taxonomic groups undergoing evolutionary radiation are much older than the groups' first observed fossil record. Mathematical models of branching evolution are used to estimate the maximal rate of fossil preservation consistent with a postulated missing history, given the sum of species durations implied by early origins under a range of species origination and extinction rates. The plausibility of postulated divergence times depends on origination, extinction, and preservation rates estimated from the fossil record. For eutherian mammals, this approach suggests that it is unlikely that many modern orders arose much earlier than their oldest fossil records.

  12. DataONE: Preserving Data and Enabling Data-Intensive Biological and Environmental Research

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cook, R. B.; DataONE Leadership Team

    2011-12-01

    Addressing grand environmental science challenges requires unprecedented access to easily understood data that cross the breadth of temporal, spatial, and thematic scales. From a scientist's perspective, the challenges lie in discovering the relevant data, dealing with data heterogeneity, and converting data to information and knowledge. Solving these challenges requires new approaches for managing, preserving, sharing and analyzing data. DataONE (Observation Network for Earth) represents a virtual organization whose goal is to enable new science and knowledge creation through preservation and access to data about life on Earth and the environment that sustains it. DataONE supports science through facilitating easy, secure, and persistent storage of data and disseminating integrated and user-friendly tools for data discovery, analysis, visualization, and decision-making. DataONE engages its community of partners through working groups focused on identifying and implementing the DataONE cyberinfrastructure, governance, and sustainability models. These working groups, which consist of a diverse group of graduate students, educators, government representatives, and leading computer, information, and library scientists: (1) adapt interoperability standards; (2) create value-added technologies (e.g., semantic mediation, scientific workflow, and visualization) that facilitate data integration, analysis, and understanding; (3) address socio-cultural barriers to sustainable data preservation and data sharing; and (4) promote the adoption of best practices for managing the full data life cycle.

  13. APPLICATIONS ANALYSIS REPORT: BIOLOGICAL TREATMENT OF WOOD PRESERVING SITE GROUNDWATER BY BIOTROL, INC.

    EPA Science Inventory

    This report is an evaluation of the Biotrol, Inc. Aqueous Treatment System (BATS), a fixed-film, aerobic biological treatment process for contaminated groundwaters and other wastewaters. t summarizes and analyzes the results of the Superfund Innovative Technology Evaluation (SITE...

  14. uShuffle: A useful tool for shuffling biological sequences while preserving the k-let counts

    PubMed Central

    Jiang, Minghui; Anderson, James; Gillespie, Joel; Mayne, Martin

    2008-01-01

    Background Randomly shuffled sequences are routinely used in sequence analysis to evaluate the statistical significance of a biological sequence. In many cases, biologists need sophisticated shuffling tools that preserve not only the counts of distinct letters but also higher-order statistics such as doublet counts, triplet counts, and, in general, k-let counts. Results We present a sequence analysis tool (named uShuffle) for generating uniform random permutations of biological sequences (such as DNAs, RNAs, and proteins) that preserve the exact k-let counts. The uShuffle tool implements the latest variant of the Euler algorithm and uses Wilson's algorithm in the crucial step of arborescence generation. It is carefully engineered and extremely efficient. The uShuffle tool achieves maximum flexibility by allowing arbitrary alphabet size and let size. It can be used as a command-line program, a web application, or a utility library. Source code in C, Java, and C#, and integration instructions for Perl and Python are provided. Conclusion The uShuffle tool surpasses existing implementation of the Euler algorithm in both performance and flexibility. It is a useful tool for the bioinformatics community. PMID:18405375

  15. Antigen recovery and preservation using the microwave irradiation of biological samples for transmission electron microscopy analysis.

    PubMed

    Aïoun, Josiane; Chat, Sophie; Bordat, Christian; Péchoux, Christine

    2013-01-01

    Most studies using microwave irradiation (MWI) for the preparation of tissue samples have reported an improvement in structural integrity. However, there have been few studies on the effect of microwave (MW) on antigen preservation during sample preparation prior to immunolocalization. This report documents our experience of specimen preparation using an automatic microwave apparatus to obtain antigen preservation and retrieval. We tested the effects of MW processing vs. conventional procedures on the morphology and antigenicity of two different tissues: the brain and mammary gland, whose chemical composition and anatomical organization are quite different. We chose to locate the transcription factor PPARβ/δ using immunocytochemistry on brain tissue sections from hamsters. Antigen retrieval protocols involving MWI were used to restore immunoreactivity. We also studied the efficiency of the ultrastructural immunolocalization of both PPARγ and caveolin-1 following MWI vs. conventional treatment, on mammary gland tissue from mice at 10 days of lactation. Our findings showed that the treatment of tissue samples with MWI, in the context of a process lasting just a few hours from fixation to immunolocalization, enabled similar, or even better, results than conventional protocols. The quantification of immunolabeling for cav-1 indicated an increase in density of up to three-fold in tissues processed in the microwave oven. Furthermore, MW treatment permitted the localization of PPARβ/δ in glutaraldehyde-fixed specimens, which was impossible in the absence of MWI. This study thus showed that techniques involving the use of microwaves could largely improve both ultrastructure and immunodetection. PMID:23962686

  16. Biophysical and biological factors determining the ability to achieve long-term cryobiological preservation

    SciTech Connect

    Mazur, P.

    1997-12-01

    The BESTCapsule will maintain appropriate biological specimens for decades or centuries at cryogenic temperatures in the living state. Maintenance at temperatures below {approximately} {minus}140 C is not a problem. No ordinary chemical reactions in aqueous solutions can occur. The only source of damage will be the slow accumulation of physical damage to DNA from background ionizing radiation. But this source of damage should not become serious in less than a millennium. Rather, the main problem in cryopreservation is to devise procedures for cooling the biological specimens to {minus}196 C and returning them to normal temperatures without inflicting lethal injury. Regardless of the cell type, there are certain encompassing biophysical factors and constraints that determine whether they will survive or die during freezing and thawing. Superimposed on these may be special biological factors that apply to specific cell types. This paper will emphasize the former and give illustrative examples of the latter.

  17. Collecting and preserving biological samples from challenging environments for DNA analysis.

    PubMed

    Bu?, Magdalena M; Allen, Marie

    2014-02-01

    Biological materials collected in harsh environments such as archaeological excavations, at crime scenes, after mass disasters, in museums, or non-invasively in the field constitute a highly valuable source of genetic information. However, poor quality and limited quantity of the DNA extracted from these samples can be extremely challenging during further analyses. Here we have reviewed how degradation, decomposition, and contamination can affect DNA analysis, and how correct sample collection and storage methods will ensure the best possible conditions for further genetic analysis. Furthermore, highly efficient protocols for collection, decontamination, and extraction of DNA from minute amounts of biological material are presented. PMID:24620766

  18. Biologically based fertilizer recommendations to meet yield expectations and preserve water quality

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Corn is one of the most demanding crops for N and therefore often requires a high rate of N fertilizer to achieve high productivity. Cost of N fertilizer has risen dramatically during the past decade. Our goal was to develop a biologically based tool to improve N management in high N demanding cer...

  19. TECHNOLOGY EVALUATION REPORT: BIOLOGICAL TREATMENT OF WOOD PRESERVING SITE GROUNDWATER BY BIOTROL, INC.

    EPA Science Inventory

    This report provides the in-depth data analysis from the SITE Program's six-week demonstration of BioTrol's Aqueous Treatment System (BATS) at the MacGillis and Gibbs Company wood treatment facility in New Brighton, Minnesota. he pilot scale (5gpm), fixed-film biological system u...

  20. New and unconventional approaches for advancing resolution in biological transmission electron microscopy by improving macromolecular specimen preparation and preservation.

    SciTech Connect

    Massover, W.; Materials Science Division

    2011-02-01

    Resolution in transmission electron microscopy (TEM) now is limited by the properties of specimens, rather than by those of instrumentation. The long-standing difficulties in obtaining truly high-resolution structure from biological macromolecules with TEM demand the development, testing, and application of new ideas and unconventional approaches. This review concisely describes some new concepts and innovative methodologies for TEM that deal with unsolved problems in the preparation and preservation of macromolecular specimens. The selected topics include use of better support films, a more protective multi-component matrix surrounding specimens for cryo-TEM and negative staining, and, several quite different changes in microscopy and micrography that should decrease the effects of electron radiation damage; all these practical approaches are non-traditional, but have promise to advance resolution for specimens of biological macromolecules beyond its present level of 3-10 {angstrom} (0.3-1.0 nm). The result of achieving truly high resolution will be a fulfillment of the still unrealized potential of transmission electron microscopy for directly revealing the structure of biological macromolecules down to the atomic level.

  1. Structural data and biological properties of almond gum oligosaccharide: application to beef meat preservation.

    PubMed

    Bouaziz, Fatma; Helbert, Claire Boisset; Romdhane, Molka Ben; Koubaa, Mohamed; Bhiri, Fatma; Kallel, Fatma; Chaari, Fatma; Driss, Dorra; Buon, Laurine; Chaabouni, Semia Ellouz

    2015-01-01

    Enzymatic hydrolysis of almond gum generates low molecular weight oligosaccharides (OAG) with a yield of 33.5%. The generated oligosaccharides were purified and identified. OAG analyses show that the most prominent residues were galactose and arabinose with traces of xylose, rhamnose, glucose and mannose. The glycosyl linkage positions were analyzed using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry showing a main chain composed of galactose units [ ? 3)-Gal-(1 ? ] branched mainly with arabinose residues [Ara-(1 ? ]. The antioxidant and antimicrobial activities of OAG were investigated. As regards the in vitro antioxidant activities, the OAG showed a high total antioxidant activity (347 ?g ascorbic acid equivalent/mL), an important DPPH (1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl) scavenging activity (IC50 = 0.64 mg/mL) and a high reducing capacity (RP0.5AU = 3.6 mg/mL). Furthermore, OAG had a high antimicrobial activity against Salmonella thyphimirium, Bacillus cereus, Actinomycetes sp, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Escherichia coli, Alternaria alternate and Candidat albicans. Finally, OAG efficiency was tested using 0.5%; 0.75% and 1% concentrations in beef meat preservation. Microbial growth and lipid oxidation were monitored during 9 days at 4 C. The results showed significant inhibitions (p < 0.05) of lipid oxidation and microbial growth in ground beef meat containing OAG. PMID:25195541

  2. Advantage of ForensiX Swabs in Retrieving and Preserving Biological Fluids.

    PubMed

    Mawlood, Shakhawan K; Alrowaithi, Majid; Watson, Nigel

    2015-05-01

    This study compares two novel swabs (forensiX) with a standard cotton swab (EUROTUBE) for the collection of saliva stains on glass slide for STR analysis. ForensiX collection tubes are a standard cotton swab in an "active drying" tube, where swab sample is soon dried by its innovative tube surface of the wall. The other is forensiX Nylon Flocked Swab. The study is two phases: The first "phase" assesses swab types regarding to retrieve ability of saliva. The second "phase" compares the drying ability of each swab to assess how crime samples would fare when left in storage. The main result showed that "active drying" is effective to store swabbed sample. The forensiX swabs generally are effective for higher (twofold to fourfold) DNA yield compared to delta lab swab (around 750 pg and 250 pg from 0.5 μL of saliva), respectively. These findings demonstrate the importance of drying performance in the preservation of DNA and swab selection. PMID:25684353

  3. The role of natural antioxidants in preserving the biological activity of endothelium-derived nitric oxide.

    PubMed

    Carr, A; Frei, B

    2000-06-15

    Endothelium-derived nitric oxide (EDNO) is a pivotal molecule in the regulation of vascular tone via the stimulation of vascular smooth muscle cell relaxation and concomitant vasodilation. In addition, EDNO exerts a number of other potent antiatherogenic effects, including inhibition of leukocyte-endothelial interactions, smooth muscle cell proliferation, and platelet aggregation. Endothelial vasodilator dysfunction has been observed in patients with CAD or coronary risk factors such as hypercholesterolemia, hyperhomocysteinemia, essential hypertension, diabetes mellitus, smoking, and aging. Most of these conditions are associated with increased oxidative stress, particularly increased production of superoxide radicals and elevated levels of oxidized LDL, both of which can attenuate the biological activity of EDNO. The levels of superoxide and oxidized LDL can be decreased by administering the small molecule antioxidants vitamins E and C. Vitamin C also spares intracellular thiols, which in turn can stabilize EDNO through the formation of biologically active S-nitrosothiols. Here we review the role that vitamins E and C and thiol compounds play in endothelium-dependent vasodilation. Understanding the mechanisms of the reversal of endothelial dysfunction by natural antioxidants will lead to successful therapeutic interventions of CAD and its clinical sequelae. PMID:10946222

  4. Biologic determinants of dystrophic calcification and osteocalcin deposition in glutaraldehyde-preserved porcine aortic valve leaflets implanted subcutaneously in rats.

    PubMed Central

    Levy, R. J.; Schoen, F. J.; Levy, J. T.; Nelson, A. C.; Howard, S. L.; Oshry, L. J.

    1983-01-01

    Bioprosthetic cardiac valve calcification is a frequent complication after long-term valve replacement. In this study the authors sought to examine the biologic determinants of this type of dystrophic calcification using subcutaneous implants of glutaraldehyde-preserved porcine aortic valve leaflets (GPVs) in rats. GPVs and clinical valvular bioprostheses were prepared identically. Retrieved implants were examined for calcification and the deposition of osteocalcin (OC), a vitamin K-dependent, bone-derived protein, that is found in other dystrophic and ectopic calcifications. GPVs implanted in 3-week-old rats calcified progressively (GPV Ca2+, 122.9 +/- 6.0 micrograms/mg) after 21 days, with mineral deposition occurring in a morphologic pattern comparable to that noted in clinical retrievals. Calcified GPVs accumulated osteocalcin (OC, 183.4 +/- 19.4 ng/mg); Nonpreserved porcine aortic leaflet implants did not calcify (Ca2+ + 5.6 +/- 1.0 micrograms/mg). Millipore diffusion chamber (0.45-mu pore size enclosed GPV implants accumulated calcium and adsorbed osteocalcin despite the absence of attached host cells. GPVs implanted for 21 days in 8-month-old rats calcified less (GPV Ca2+, 22.4 +/- 5.0 micrograms/mg) than did GPVs implanted in 3-week-old rats (see above). High-dose warfarin therapy (80 mg/kg) did not alter GPV calcification (GPV Ca2+, 39.6 +/- 2.9 micrograms/mg) in 72-hour subcutaneous implants in 3-week-old male rats, compared with control rats (GPV Ca2+, 40.8 +/- 4.8 micrograms/mg). Images Figure 3 Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 4 Figure 6 Figure 7 PMID:6605687

  5. Production, preservation, and biological processing of mass-independent sulfur isotope fractionation in the Archean surface environment

    PubMed Central

    Halevy, Itay

    2013-01-01

    Mass-independent fractionation of sulfur isotopes (S MIF) in Archean and Paleoproterozoic rocks provides strong evidence for an anoxic atmosphere before ?2,400 Ma. However, the origin of this isotopic anomaly remains unclear, as does the identity of the molecules that carried it from the atmosphere to Earths surface. Irrespective of the origin of S MIF, processes in the biogeochemical sulfur cycle modify the primary signal and strongly influence the S MIF preserved and observed in the geological record. Here, a detailed model of the marine sulfur cycle is used to propagate and distribute atmospherically derived S MIF from its delivery to the ocean to its preservation in the sediment. Bulk pyrite in most sediments carries weak S MIF because of microbial reduction of most sulfur compounds to form isotopically homogeneous sulfide. Locally, differential incorporation of sulfur compounds into pyrite leads to preservation of S MIF, which is predicted to be most highly variable in nonmarine and shallow-water settings. The Archean ocean is efficient in diluting primary atmospheric S MIF in the marine pools of sulfate and elemental sulfur with inputs from SO2 and H2S, respectively. Preservation of S MIF with the observed range of magnitudes requires the S MIF production mechanism to be moderately fractionating (2040). Constraints from the marine sulfur cycle allow that either elemental sulfur or organosulfur compounds (or both) carried S MIF to the surface, with opposite sign to S MIF in SO2 and H2SO4. Optimal progress requires observations from nonmarine and shallow-water environments and experimental constraints on the reaction of photoexcited SO2 with atmospheric hydrocarbons. PMID:23572589

  6. Clinical and biometrical evaluation of socket preservation using demineralized freeze-dried bone allograft with and without the palatal connective tissue as a biologic membrane

    PubMed Central

    Moghaddas, Hamid; Amjadi, Mohammad Reza; Naghsh, Narges

    2012-01-01

    Background: Alveolar ridge preservation following tooth extraction has the ability to maintain the ridge dimensions and allow the implant placement in an ideal position fulfilling both functional and aesthetic results. The aim of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of the palatal connective tissue as a biological membrane for socket preservation with demineralized freeze-dried bone allograft (DFDBA). Materials and Methods: Twelve extraction sites were treated with DFDBA with (case group) and without (control group) using autogenous palatal connective tissue membrane before placement of implants. Alveolar width and height, amount of keratinized tissue, and gingival level were measured at pre-determined points using a surgical stent at two times, the time of socket preservation surgery Results: In both groups a decrease in all socket dimensions was found. The average decrease in socket width, height, keratinized tissue, and gingival level in case group was 1.16, 0.72, 3.58, and 1.27 mm, and in control group was 2.08, 0.86, 4.52, and 1.58 mm respectively. Statistical analysis showed that decrease in socket width (P = 0.012), keratinized tissue (P ≤ 0.001), and gingival level (P = 0.031) in case group was significantly lower than that of the control group. Results showed no meaningful difference in socket height changes when compared with case and control groups (P = 0.148). Conclusion: Under the limits of this study, connective tissue membrane could preserve socket width, amount of keratinized tissue, and the gingival level more effectively than DFDBA alone. PMID:23559955

  7. The Effects of Computer Animated Dissection versus Preserved Animal Dissection on the Student Achievement in a High School Biology Class.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kariuki, Patrick; Paulson, Ronda

    The purpose of this study was to examine the effectiveness of computer-animated dissection techniques versus the effectiveness of traditional dissection techniques as related to student achievement. The sample used was 104 general biology students from a small, rural high school in Northeast Tennessee. Random selection was used to separate the

  8. Grafts for Ridge Preservation

    PubMed Central

    Jamjoom, Amal; Cohen, Robert E.

    2015-01-01

    Alveolar ridge bone resorption is a biologic phenomenon that occurs following tooth extraction and cannot be prevented. This paper reviews the vertical and horizontal ridge dimensional changes that are associated with tooth extraction. It also provides an overview of the advantages of ridge preservation as well as grafting materials. A Medline search among English language papers was performed in March 2015 using alveolar ridge preservation, ridge augmentation, and various graft types as search terms. Additional papers were considered following the preliminary review of the initial search that were relevant to alveolar ridge preservation. The literature suggests that ridge preservation methods and augmentation techniques are available to minimize and restore available bone. Numerous grafting materials, such as autografts, allografts, xenografts, and alloplasts, currently are used for ridge preservation. Other materials, such as growth factors, also can be used to enhance biologic outcome. PMID:26262646

  9. Protective effects of melatonin in reducing oxidative stress and in preserving the fluidity of biological membranes: a review.

    PubMed

    Garca, Joaqun J; Lpez-Pingarrn, Laura; Almeida-Souza, Priscilla; Tres, Alejandro; Escudero, Pilar; Garca-Gil, Francisco A; Tan, Dun-Xian; Reiter, Russel J; Ramrez, Jose M; Bernal-Prez, Milagros

    2014-04-01

    Free radicals generated within subcellular compartments damage macromolecules which lead to severe structural changes and functional alterations of cellular organelles. A manifestation of free radical injury to biological membranes is the process of lipid peroxidation, an autooxidative chain reaction in which polyunsaturated fatty acids in the membrane are the substrate. There is considerable evidence that damage to polyunsaturated fatty acids tends to reduce membrane fluidity. However, adequate levels of fluidity are essential for the proper functioning of biological membranes. Thus, there is considerable interest in antioxidant molecules which are able to stabilize membranes because of their protective effects against lipid peroxidation. Melatonin is an indoleamine that modulates a wide variety of endocrine, neural and immune functions. Over the last two decades, intensive research has proven this molecule, as well as its metabolites, to possess substantial antioxidant activity. In addition to their ability to scavenge several reactive oxygen and nitrogen species, melatonin increases the activity of the glutathione redox enzymes, that is, glutathione peroxidase and reductase, as well as other antioxidant enzymes. These beneficial effects of melatonin are more significant because of its small molecular size and its amphipathic behaviour, which facilitates ease of melatonin penetration into every subcellular compartment. In the present work, we review the current information related to the beneficial effects of melatonin in maintaining the fluidity of biological membranes against free radical attack, and further, we discuss its implications for ageing and disease. PMID:24571249

  10. Mapping the metal uptake in plants from Jasper Ridge Biological Preserve using synchrotron micro-focused X-ray fluorescence spectroscopy

    SciTech Connect

    Lo, Allison

    2015-08-20

    Serpentine soil originates in the Earth’s mantle and contains high concentrations of potentially toxic transition metals. Although serpentine soil limits plant growth, endemic and adapted plants at Jasper Ridge Biological Preserve, located behind SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory, can tolerate these conditions. Serpentine soil and seeds belonging to native California and invasive plants were collected at Jasper Ridge. The seeds were grown hydroponically and on serpentine and potting soil to examine the uptake and distribution of ions in the roots and shoots using synchrotron micro-focused X-ray fluorescence spectroscopy. The results were used to determine differences between serpentine-tolerant plants. Rye grown on potting soil was enriched in Ni, Fe, Mn, and Cr compared to purple needlegrass grown on serpentine soil. Serpentine vegetation equally suppressed the uptake of Mn, Ni, and Fe in the roots and shoots. The uptake of Ca and Mg affected the uptake of other elements such as K, S, and P.

  11. Structural plasticity of calmodulin on the surface of CaF2 nanoparticles preserves its biological function

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Astegno, Alessandra; Maresi, Elena; Marino, Valerio; Dominici, Paola; Pedroni, Marco; Piccinelli, Fabio; Dell'Orco, Daniele

    2014-11-01

    Nanoparticles are increasingly used in biomedical applications and are especially attractive as biocompatible and biodegradable protein delivery systems. Herein, the interaction between biocompatible 25 nm CaF2 nanoparticles and the ubiquitous calcium sensor calmodulin has been investigated in order to assess the potential of these particles to serve as suitable surface protein carriers. Calmodulin is a multifunctional messenger protein that activates a wide variety of signaling pathways in eukaryotic cells by changing its conformation in a calcium-dependent manner. Isothermal titration calorimetry and circular dichroism studies have shown that the interaction between calmodulin and CaF2 nanoparticles occurs with physiologically relevant affinity and that the binding process is fully reversible, occurring without significant alterations in protein secondary and tertiary structures. Experiments performed with a mutant form of calmodulin having an impaired Ca2+-binding ability in the C-terminal lobe suggest that the EF-hand Ca2+-binding motifs are directly involved in the binding of calmodulin to the CaF2 matrix. The residual capability of nanoparticle-bound calmodulin to function as a calcium sensor protein, binding to and altering the activity of a target protein, was successfully probed by biochemical assays. Even if efficiently carried by CaF2 nanoparticles, calmodulin may dissociate, thus retaining the ability to bind the peptide encompassing the putative C-terminal calmodulin-binding domain of glutamate decarboxylase and activate the enzyme. We conclude that the high flexibility and structural plasticity of calmodulin are responsible for the preservation of its function when bound in high amounts to a nanoparticle surface.Nanoparticles are increasingly used in biomedical applications and are especially attractive as biocompatible and biodegradable protein delivery systems. Herein, the interaction between biocompatible 25 nm CaF2 nanoparticles and the ubiquitous calcium sensor calmodulin has been investigated in order to assess the potential of these particles to serve as suitable surface protein carriers. Calmodulin is a multifunctional messenger protein that activates a wide variety of signaling pathways in eukaryotic cells by changing its conformation in a calcium-dependent manner. Isothermal titration calorimetry and circular dichroism studies have shown that the interaction between calmodulin and CaF2 nanoparticles occurs with physiologically relevant affinity and that the binding process is fully reversible, occurring without significant alterations in protein secondary and tertiary structures. Experiments performed with a mutant form of calmodulin having an impaired Ca2+-binding ability in the C-terminal lobe suggest that the EF-hand Ca2+-binding motifs are directly involved in the binding of calmodulin to the CaF2 matrix. The residual capability of nanoparticle-bound calmodulin to function as a calcium sensor protein, binding to and altering the activity of a target protein, was successfully probed by biochemical assays. Even if efficiently carried by CaF2 nanoparticles, calmodulin may dissociate, thus retaining the ability to bind the peptide encompassing the putative C-terminal calmodulin-binding domain of glutamate decarboxylase and activate the enzyme. We conclude that the high flexibility and structural plasticity of calmodulin are responsible for the preservation of its function when bound in high amounts to a nanoparticle surface. Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available: Supplementary methods and figures. See DOI: 10.1039/c4nr04368e

  12. Complex Recombination Patterns Arising during Geminivirus Coinfections Preserve and Demarcate Biologically Important Intra-Genome Interaction Networks

    PubMed Central

    Martin, Darren P.; Lefeuvre, Pierre; Varsani, Arvind; Hoareau, Murielle; Semegni, Jean-Yves; Dijoux, Betty; Vincent, Claire; Reynaud, Bernard; Lett, Jean-Michel

    2011-01-01

    Genetic recombination is an important process during the evolution of many virus species and occurs particularly frequently amongst begomoviruses in the single stranded DNA virus family, Geminiviridae. As in many other recombining viruses it is apparent that non-random recombination breakpoint distributions observable within begomovirus genomes sampled from nature are the product of variations both in basal recombination rates across genomes and in the over-all viability of different recombinant genomes. Whereas factors influencing basal recombination rates might include local degrees of sequence similarity between recombining genomes, nucleic acid secondary structures and genomic sensitivity to nuclease attack or breakage, the viability of recombinant genomes could be influenced by the degree to which their co-evolved protein-protein and protein-nucleotide and nucleotide-nucleotide interactions are disreputable by recombination. Here we investigate patterns of recombination that occur over 120 day long experimental infections of tomato plants with the begomoviruses Tomato yellow leaf curl virus and Tomato leaf curl Comoros virus. We show that patterns of sequence exchange between these viruses can be extraordinarily complex and present clear evidence that factors such as local degrees of sequence similarity but not genomic secondary structure strongly influence where recombination breakpoints occur. It is also apparent from our experiment that over-all patterns of recombination are strongly influenced by selection against individual recombinants displaying disrupted intra-genomic interactions such as those required for proper protein and nucleic acid folding. Crucially, we find that selection favoring the preservation of co-evolved longer-range protein-protein and protein DNA interactions is so strong that its imprint can even be used to identify the exact sequence tracts involved in these interactions. PMID:21949649

  13. Preservation of biological information in thermal spring deposits: developing a strategy for the search for fossil life on Mars.

    PubMed

    Walter, M R; Des Marais, D J

    1993-01-01

    Current interpretations of the early history of Mars suggest many similarities with the early Earth and therefore raise the possibility that the Archean and Proterozoic history of life on Earth could have a counterpart on Mars. Terrestrial experience suggests that, with techniques that can be employed remotely, ancient springs, including thermal springs, could well yield important information. By delivering water and various dissolved species to the sunlit surface of Mars, springs very likely created an environment suitable for life, which could have been difficult, if not impossible, to attain elsewhere. The chemical and temperature gradients associated with thermal springs sort organisms into sharply delineated, distinctive and different communities, and so diverse organisms are concentrated into relatively small areas in a predictable and informative fashion. A wide range of metabolic strategies are concentrated into small areas, thus furnishing a useful and representative sampling of the existing biota. Mineral-charged springwaters frequently deposit chemical precipitates of silica and/or carbonate which incorporate microorganisms and preserve them as fossils. The juxtaposition of stream valley headwaters with volcanoes and impact craters on Mars strongly implies that subsurface heating of groundwater created thermal springs. On Earth, thermal springs create distinctive geomorphic features and chemical signatures which can be detected by remote sensing. Spring deposits can be quite different chemically from adjacent rocks. Individual springs can be hundreds of meters wide, and complexes of springs occupy areas up to several kilometers wide. Benthic microbial mats and the resultant stromatolites occupy a large fraction of the available area. The relatively high densities of fossils and microbial mat fabrics within these deposits make them highly prospective in any search for morphological evidence of life, and there are examples of microbial fossils in spring deposits as old as 300 Myr. PMID:11536937

  14. Mostly Plants. Individualized Biology Activities on: I. Investigating Bread Mold; II. Transpiration; III. Botany Project; IV. Collecting/Preserving/Identifying Leaves; [and] V. Student Science Laboratory Write-Ups.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gibson, Paul R.

    Individualized biology activities for secondary students are presented in this teaching guide. The guide is divided into five sections: (1) investigating bread mold; (2) investigating transpiration; (3) completing a botany project; (4) collecting, preserving, and identifying leaves; and (5) writing up science laboratory investigations. The

  15. Mostly Plants. Individualized Biology Activities on: I. Investigating Bread Mold; II. Transpiration; III. Botany Project; IV. Collecting/Preserving/Identifying Leaves; [and] V. Student Science Laboratory Write-Ups.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gibson, Paul R.

    Individualized biology activities for secondary students are presented in this teaching guide. The guide is divided into five sections: (1) investigating bread mold; (2) investigating transpiration; (3) completing a botany project; (4) collecting, preserving, and identifying leaves; and (5) writing up science laboratory investigations. The…

  16. Water quality, organic chemistry of sediment, and biological conditions of streams near an abandoned wood-preserving plant site at Jackson, Tennessee

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bradfield, A.D.; Flexner, N.M.; Webster, D.A.

    1993-01-01

    An investigation of water quality, organic sediment chemistry, and biological conditions of streams near an abandoned wood-preserving plant site at Jackson, Tennessee, was conducted during December 1990. The study was designed to assess the extent of possible contamination of water and biota in the streams from creosote-related discharge originating at this Superfund site. Central Creek, adjacent to the plant, had degraded water quality and biological conditions. Water samples from the most downstream station on Central Creek contained 30 micrograms per liter of pentachlorophenol, which exceeds the State's criterion maximum concentrations of 9 micrograms per liter for fish and aquatic life. Bottom-sediment samples from stations on Central Creek contained concentrations of acenaphthene, napthalene, and phenanthrene ranging from 1,400 to 2,500 micrograms per kilogram. Chronic or acute toxicity resulted during laboratory experiments using test organisms exposed to creosote-related contaminants. Sediment elutriate samples from Central Creek caused slightly to highly toxic effects on Ceriodaphnia dubia. Pimephales promelas, and Photobacterium phosphoreum. Fish-tissue samples from this station contained concentrations of naphthalene. dibenzofuran, fluorene, and phenanthrene ranging from 1.5 to 3.9 micrograms per kilogram Blue-green algae at this station represented about 79 percent of the organisms counted, whereas diatoms accounted for only 11 percent. Benthic invertebrate and fish samples from Central Creek had low diversity and density. Sediment samples from a station on the South Fork Forked Deer River downstream from its confluence with Central Creek contained concentrations of acenaphthene, anthracene, chrysene, fluoranthene, fluorene, pyrere, and phenanthrene ranging from 2,800 to 69,000 micrograms per kilogram. Sediment elutriate samples using water as elutriate from this station contained concentrations of extractable organic compounds ranging from an estimated 43 to 420 micrograms per liter. Sediment elutriate samples were toxic to Ceriodaphnia dubta, Pimephales promelas, Photobacterium phosphoreum, and Salenastrum capricornulum.

  17. Preservation Environments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Moore, Reagan W.

    2004-01-01

    The long-term preservation of digital entities requires mechanisms to manage the authenticity of massive data collections that are written to archival storage systems. Preservation environments impose authenticity constraints and manage the evolution of the storage system technology by building infrastructure independent solutions. This seeming paradox, the need for large archives, while avoiding dependence upon vendor specific solutions, is resolved through use of data grid technology. Data grids provide the storage repository abstractions that make it possible to migrate collections between vendor specific products, while ensuring the authenticity of the archived data. Data grids provide the software infrastructure that interfaces vendor-specific storage archives to preservation environments.

  18. Urine Preservative

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, Scott M. (Inventor); Nillen, Jeannie (Inventor)

    2001-01-01

    Disclosed is CPG, a combination of a chlorhexidine salt (such as chlorhexidine digluconate, chlorhexidine diacetate, or chlorhexidine dichloride) and n-propyl gallate that can be used at ambient temperatures as a urine preservative.

  19. Fertility Preservation

    PubMed Central

    Jensen, Jani R.; Morbeck, Dean E.; Coddington, Charles C.

    2011-01-01

    Of the estimated 1.5 million men and women who were diagnosed as having cancer in 2010, approximately 10% are younger than 45 years. For these individuals, cancer treatment can be lifesaving but can permanently affect reproductive capacity. The American Society of Clinical Oncology has recommended that oncologists discuss the possibility of infertility with reproductive-age cancer patients and offer referral for fertility preservation consultation and therapy. Fertility preservation is an emerging field that offers treatment aimed at protecting future reproductive ability for individuals with cancer or other serious illnesses. Although fertility preservation strategies vary by patient age and sex, many allow patients to store gametes or reproductive tissues for potential future use to create offspring. As an emerging discipline, many questions remain about the role of fertility preservation. We performed a MEDLINE search from 1950 to June 2010 using the following MeSH terms: amenorrhea; antineoplastic agents; ovarian failure; premature; infertility, female; fertility preservation; infertility, male; adolescent and cancer; child and cancer; cryopreservation; and reproductive technologies, assisted. Studies considered for inclusion included those written in English and published before June 2010. PMID:21193655

  20. Preservation Matters

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Noriega, Chon A.

    2005-01-01

    One must undertake multi-institutional efforts that include universities, archives, museums, libraries and community-based arts organizations and the artists to preserve Latino art history. Arts infrastructure can be strengthened by various Chicano Studies Research Center projects that are concerned with archive building and scholarship, and with…

  1. Preservation Matters

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Noriega, Chon A.

    2005-01-01

    One must undertake multi-institutional efforts that include universities, archives, museums, libraries and community-based arts organizations and the artists to preserve Latino art history. Arts infrastructure can be strengthened by various Chicano Studies Research Center projects that are concerned with archive building and scholarship, and with

  2. Preservation & Restoration.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Online-Offline, 2000

    2000-01-01

    This theme issue on preservation and restoration presents selected resources for elementary and secondary education that include Web sites, CD-ROM and software, videos, books, magazines, and professional resources as well as classroom activities. Age levels are specified for most materials. I Sidebars discuss restoring a masterpiece, a bug's life,

  3. Digital Preservation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yakel, Elizabeth

    2001-01-01

    Reviews research on digital preservation issues, including born-digital and digitally recreated documents. Discusses electronic records research; metadata and other standards; electronic mail; Web-based documents; moving images media; selection of materials for digitization, including primary sources; administrative issues; media stability…

  4. Records Preservation

    USGS Multimedia Gallery

    Older materials and recently arrived items in the Field Records Collection are in various states of preservation and documentation. In the current reorganization project, items are inventoried for content, transferred to archival storage containers, and archived as shelf items (notebooks and file fo...

  5. Plant cytoplasm preserved by lightning.

    PubMed

    Wang, X

    2004-10-01

    Usually only an organism with hard parts may be preserved in the fossil record. Cytoplasm, which is a physiologically active part of a plant, is rarely seen in the fossil record. Two Cretaceous plant fossils older than 100 million years with exceptional preservation of cytoplasm are reported here. Some cytoplasm is well preserved with subcellular details while other cytoplasm is highly hydrolyzed in the cortex of the same fossil even though both of preservations may be less than 2 microm away. The unique preservation pattern, sharp contrast of preservation in adjacent cells and the exceptional preservation of cytoplasm in the cortex suggest that lightning should play an important role in the preservation of cytoplasm and that cytoplasmic membranes may be more stable than the cell contents. Interpreting the preservation needs knowledge scattering in several formerly unrelated fields of science, including geophysics, botany, biophysics, cytology and microwave fixation technology. This new interpretation of fossilization will shed new light on preservation of cytoplasm and promote cytoplasm fossils from a position of rarity to a position of common research objects available for biological research. The importance of the identification of cytoplasm in fossil lies not in itself but in how much it influences the future research in paleobotany. PMID:15385151

  6. Salt drying: a low-cost, simple and efficient method for storing plants in the field and preserving biological repositories for DNA diversity research.

    PubMed

    Carri, Elena; Rossell, Josep A

    2014-03-01

    Although a variety of methods have been optimized for the collection and storage of plant specimens, most of these are not suited for field expeditions for a variety of logistic reasons. Drying specimens with silica gel in polyethylene bags is currently the standard for field-sampling methods that are suitable for subsequent DNA extraction. However, silica-gel repositories are not readily available in remote areas, and its use is not very cost-effective for the long-term storage of collections or in developing countries with limited research budgets. Salting is an ancient and traditional drying process that preserves food samples by dehydrating tissues and inhibiting water-dependent cellular metabolism. We compared salt and silica-gel drying methods with respect to dehydration rates overtime, DNA quality and polymerase chain reaction(PCR) success to assess whether dry salting can be used as an effective plant preservation method for DNA analysis. Specimens from eleven plant species covering a variety of leaf structures, leaf thicknesses and water contents were analysed. Experimental work indicated that (i) levels of dehydration in sodium chloride were usually comparable to those obtained when silica gel was used, (ii) no spoilage, fungal or bacterial growth was observed for any of the species with all drying treatments and (iii) good yields of quality genomic DNA suitable for PCR applications were obtained in the salt-drying treatments. The preservation of plant tissues in commercial table salt appears to be a satisfactory, and versatile method that may be suitable in remote areas where cryogenic resources and silica repositories are not available. PMID:24103361

  7. Comparative study of biological activities and phytochemical composition of two rose hips and their preserves: Rosa canina L. and Rosa arvensis Huds.

    PubMed

    Na?pal, Jelena D; Lesjak, Marija M; ibul, Filip S; Ana?kov, Goran T; ?etojevi?-Simin, Dragana D; Mimica-Duki?, Neda M; Beara, Ivana N

    2016-02-01

    The aim of this study was to compare phenolic profile, vitamin C content, antioxidant, anti-inflammatory and cytotoxic activity of rose hips and the preserves (pure and jam) of two Rosa species: renowned Rosa canina L. and unexplored Rosa arvensis Huds. The liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry analysis of 45 phenolics resulted in quantification of 14 compounds, with quercitrin, gallic and protocatechuic acids as the most dominant. High antioxidant potential of R. canina and a moderate activity of R. arvensis extracts were determined through several assays. Pure of both species and methanol extract of air-dried R. canina hips showed some anti-inflammatory (cyclooxygenase-1 and 12-lipooxygense inhibition potency) activity. Pure of R. canina exerted cytotoxic activity only against the HeLa cell line among several others (HeLa, MCF7, HT-29 and MRC-5). The presented results support traditional use of rose hips and their fruit preserves as food with health and nutritional benefits. PMID:26304428

  8. Preservation of Digital Objects.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Galloway, Patricia

    2004-01-01

    Presents a literature review that covers the following topics related to preservation of digital objects: practical examples; stakeholders; recordkeeping standards; genre-specific problems; trusted repository standards; preservation methods; preservation metadata standards; and future directions. (Contains 82 references.) (MES)

  9. Esophageal Preservation in Five Male Patients After Endoscopic Inner-Layer Circumferential Resection in the Setting of Superficial Cancer: A Regenerative Medicine Approach with a Biologic Scaffold

    PubMed Central

    Hoppo, Toshitaka; Nieponice, Alejandro; Gilbert, Thomas W.; Davison, Jon M.; Jobe, Blair A.

    2011-01-01

    As a result of injury caused by chronic gastroesophageal reflux, Barrett's esophagus with high-grade dysplasia and esophageal adenocarcinoma are rapidly increasing problems in the United States. The current standard of care involves esophagectomy, a procedure associated with a high morbidity, a negative impact on long term quality of life, and a mortality rate of 16 percent. An entirely endoscopic technique for circumferential, long segment en bloc removal of the mucosa and submucosa with subsequent placement of a biologic scaffold material that promotes a constructive remodeling response and minimizes stricture is described herein. The results of this approach are reported for five patients with 424-month follow-up. Restoration of normal mature, K4+/K14+, squamous epithelium, and return to a normal diet without significant dysphagia is reported for all patients. Two of five patients show a small focus of recurrent Barrett's esophagus at the gastroesophageal junction, but the entire length and circumference of the reconstituted esophageal mucosa remains free of disease. This experience provides evidence that a regenerative medicine approach may, for the first time, enable aggressive endoscopic resection of early stage neoplasia without the need for esophagectomy and its associated complications. PMID:21306292

  10. The effects of different preservation processes on the total protein and growth factor content in a new biological product developed from human amniotic membrane.

    PubMed

    Russo, Alessandra; Bonci, Paola; Bonci, Paolo

    2012-06-01

    The aim of this work is to quantify the total protein and growth factors content in a tissue-suspension obtained from processed human amniotic membrane (hAM). hAM was collected, frozen, freeze dried, powdered and sterilized by ?-irradiation. At each step of the process, samples were characterized for the total protein amounts by a Bradford protein assay and for the growth factor concentrations by ELISA test of the tissue suspensions. Frozen-hAM samples show higher release of total proteins and specific growth factors in the tissue suspension in comparison with freeze-dried hAM. We observed that even if the protein extraction is hindered once the tissue is dried, the powdering process allows a greater release in the tissue suspension of total proteins and growth factors after tissue re-solubilization in comparison with only the freeze-drying process (+9113% for EGF, +164% for HGF, +115% for FGF, +169% for TGF-?1), and a greater release of EGF (8510%) in comparison with only the freezing process, because proteins become much readily solubilized in the solution. According with these results, we describe a protocol to obtain a new sterile biological product from hAM tissue, with well-known effects of thermal, mechanical and physical processes on the total protein and grow factors contents. PMID:21681392

  11. Organizing Preservation Activities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cloonan, Michele

    This resource guide considers issues in the staffing and organization of preservation activities. It provides guidance in implementing a systematic preservation program and evaluates the structures of various types of preservation programs. The following articles complement the discussion of program models and implementation: (1) "Preservation

  12. Soft Tissue Preservation in Terrestrial Mesozoic Vertebrates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schweitzer, Mary Higby

    2011-05-01

    Exceptionally preserved fossils -- i.e., those that retain, in some manner, labile components of organisms that are normally degraded far too quickly to enter the fossil record -- hold the greatest potential for understanding aspects of the biology of long-extinct animals and are the best targets for the search for endogenous biomolecules. Yet the modes of preservation of these labile components, and exactly what remains of the original composition, are not well understood. Here, I review a selection of cases of soft tissue preservation in Mesozoic vertebrates, examine chemical and environmental factors that may influence such preservation, explore the potential of these fossils for high-resolution analytical studies, and suggest clarification of terminologies and criteria for determining the endogeneity of source and the degree of preservation of these well-preserved tissues.

  13. The Silver Creek Preserve

    USGS Multimedia Gallery

    Before The Nature Conservancy established the Silver Creek Preserve, the watershed had been degraded by years of livestock grazing and overfishing. Preserve managers have been concerned about sedimentation, increasing stream temperatures, and invasive species. To measure the effectiveness of their ...

  14. 2004 WOOD PRESERVERS INITIATIVE

    EPA Science Inventory

    SESD is supporting the 2004 Wood Preservers Initiative by conducting Case Development Investigations/Evaluations (CDIEs) at selected facilities in EPA Region 4. The objectives of these investigations are: 1)to sample wood preserving wastestreams that might be currently mismanage...

  15. Formax Preserved Birds

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sheridan, Philip

    1978-01-01

    A quick, simple method for preserving bird specimens using borax and a formalin solution is described. Procedures for injecting and mounting the specimens are given along with certain restrictions on preserving specimens. (MA)

  16. Preservation--Everybody's Job.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schobernd, Elizabeth M.

    1999-01-01

    Outlines concepts essential for library material preservation. Describes the following components of a formal preservation program: (1) environmental control; (2) repair; (3) binding; (4) deacidification; (5) reformatting; (6) disaster preparedness; (7) education; and (8) administration. Suggests that libraries can improve their preservation

  17. Colourings and preservatives in food.

    PubMed

    Denner, W H

    1984-12-01

    Colours and preservatives are only two of the many classes of additives in food but they are of interest because many reported cases of sensitivity involve these two groups of substances. Preservatives present the greatest potential health hazard being, by definition, biologically active. Colours and other additives are required to perform a technological function whilst remaining as biologically inert as possible. Food additives are controlled by the Food and Drugs Act 1955 on the basis of advice from the Food Advisory Committee (FAC). Lists of the permitted preservatives and colourings are available, together with details of restrictions on their uses; this information is continually being updated. Food labelling regulations mean that some information about additives can be determined from the labelling--but even if an additive is not listed on the package, one cannot always assume that it is not present in the product, since additives coming through in the original ingredients need not always be listed. Other exemptions also exist, so there can be no absolute certainty about the presence, or absence, of a specific additive. That information can only be obtained by contacting the manufacturer. PMID:6526689

  18. On orthogonality preserving quadratic stochastic operators

    SciTech Connect

    Mukhamedov, Farrukh; Taha, Muhammad Hafizuddin Mohd

    2015-05-15

    A quadratic stochastic operator (in short QSO) is usually used to present the time evolution of differing species in biology. Some quadratic stochastic operators have been studied by Lotka and Volterra. In the present paper, we first give a simple characterization of Volterra QSO in terms of absolutely continuity of discrete measures. Further, we introduce a notion of orthogonal preserving QSO, and describe such kind of operators defined on two dimensional simplex. It turns out that orthogonal preserving QSOs are permutations of Volterra QSO. The associativity of genetic algebras generated by orthogonal preserving QSO is studied too.

  19. Modes of fossil preservation

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Schopf, J.M.

    1975-01-01

    The processes of geologic preservation are important for understanding the organisms represented by fossils. Some fossil differences are due to basic differences in organization of animals and plants, but the interpretation of fossils has also tended to be influenced by modes of preservation. Four modes of preservation generally can be distinguished: (1) Cellular permineralization ("petrifaction") preserves anatomical detail, and, occasionally, even cytologic structures. (2) Coalified compression, best illustrated by structures from coal but characteristic of many plant fossils in shale, preserves anatomical details in distorted form and produces surface replicas (impressions) on enclosing matrix. (3) Authigenic preservation replicates surface form or outline (molds and casts) prior to distortion by compression and, depending on cementation and timing, may intergrade with fossils that have been subject to compression. (4) Duripartic (hard part) preservation is characteristic of fossil skeletal remains, predominantly animal. Molds, pseudomorphs, or casts may form as bulk replacements following dissolution of the original fossil material, usually by leaching. Classification of the kinds of preservation in fossils will aid in identifying the processes responsible for modifying the fossil remains of both animals and plants. ?? 1975.

  20. Fertility preservation during cancer treatment: clinical guidelines

    PubMed Central

    Rodriguez-Wallberg, Kenny A; Oktay, Kutluk

    2014-01-01

    The majority of children, adolescents, and young adults diagnosed with cancer today will become long-term survivors. The threat to fertility that cancer treatments pose to young patients cannot be prevented in many cases, and thus research into methods for fertility preservation is developing, aiming at offering cancer patients the ability to have biologically related children in the future. This paper discusses the current status of fertility preservation methods when infertility risks are related to surgical oncologic treatments, radiation therapy, or chemotherapy. Several scientific groups and societies have developed consensus documents and guidelines for fertility preservation. Decisions about fertility and imminent potentially gonadotoxic therapies must be made rapidly. Timely and complete information on the impact of cancer treatment on fertility and fertility preservation options should be presented to all patients when a cancer treatment is planned. PMID:24623991

  1. Preservative tolerance and resistance.

    PubMed

    Chapman, J S; Diehl, M A; Fearnside, K B

    1998-02-01

    Preservative tolerance is defined as a situation in which a formerly effective preservative system no longer controls microbial growth. Tolerance can have several potential causes: destabilization of the preservative, establishment of biofilms in the manufacturing system, and the development of resistance. As part of an effort to understand and control tolerance, a collection of preservative-resistant bacteria was established. Pseudomonas and related genera constitute 92% of the isolates in the collection. The collection includes bacteria isolated from products preserved with dimethoxy dimethyl hydantoin (DMDMH), dibromodicyanobutane (DBCB), glutaraldehyde (GLUT), benzisothiazolone (BIT), and methylchloroisothiazolone/methylisothiazolone (MCI/MI). Several isolates were also obtained from products preserved with combinations of DMDMH/iodopropargyl butylcarbamate (IPBC) and DMDMH/IBPC/MCI/MI. Bacteria were deemed resistant if they were isolated from a matrix in which the preservative was stable, and their minimal inhibitory concentrations (MIC) were significantly elevated as compared to a group of conspecific strains from the American Type Culture Collection. Isolates resistant to DMDMH, DBCB, or GLUT had normal outer membrane protein (OMP) profiles, and were cross-resistant to formaldehyde (FA) and several other FA-releasing preservatives, a pattern typical of strains producing elevated levels of FA dehydrogenase. The BIT-resistant isolates were cross-resistant to a number of structurally dissimilar preservatives but retained susceptibility to MCI. MCI-resistant isolates had altered OMP profiles, displayed reduced uptake of MCI, and were cross-resistant to some other preservatives. Restoration of sensitivity to MCI by treatment with EDTA confirmed the role of the outer membrane in MCI resistance. PMID:18505487

  2. Analysis Preservation in ATLAS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cranmer, Kyle; Heinrich, Lukas; Jones, Roger; South, David M.

    2015-12-01

    Long before data taking, ATLAS established a policy that all analyses need to be preserved. In the initial data-taking period, this has been achieved by various tools and techniques. ATLAS is now reviewing the analysis preservation with the aim of bringing coherence and robustness to the process and with a clearer view of the level of reproducibility that is reasonably achievable. The secondary aim is to reduce the load on the analysts. Once complete, this will serve for our internal preservation needs but also provide a basis for any subsequent sharing of analysis results with external parties.

  3. Tifft Farm Nature Preserve.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Benjamin, Thomas B.; Gannon, David J.

    1980-01-01

    Described are the creation, development, activities, and programs of Tifft Farm, a 264-acre nature preserve and environmental education center in Buffalo, New York, constructed on a sanitary landfill. (BT)

  4. Preserving nuclear weapons information

    SciTech Connect

    1997-05-01

    This report describes the Nuclear Weapons Information Project (NWIP). The NWIP was initiated in an effort to document and preserve information from scientists who have worked with the nuclear weapons projects and are near retirement age.

  5. Advances in lung preservation.

    PubMed

    Machuca, Tiago N; Cypel, Marcelo; Keshavjee, Shaf

    2013-12-01

    After a brief review of conventional lung preservation, this article discusses the rationale behind ex vivo lung perfusion and how it has shifted the paradigm of organ preservation from conventional static cold ischemia to the utilization of functional normothermia, restoring the lung's own metabolism and its reparative processes. Technical aspects and previous clinical experience as well as opportunities to address specific donor organ injuries in a personalized medicine approach are also reviewed. PMID:24206857

  6. Desert Varnish -- Preservation of Biofabrics and Implications for Mars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Probst, L. W.; Allen, C. C.; Thomas-Keprta, K. L.; Clemett, S. J.; Longazo, T. G.; Nelman-Gonzalez, M. A.; Sams, C.

    2002-03-01

    Preliminary data suggest that biofabrics are preserved by Mn and Fe minerals (birnessite and hematite) in desert varnish. A martian hematite-rich deposit with indications of biological activity may prove to be a prime site for future sample return.

  7. [Larynx preservation: nonsurgical approaches].

    PubMed

    Bourhis, J; Lefebvre, J L; Temam, S; Lusinchi, A; Janot, F; Wibault, P; Pignon, J P

    2004-11-01

    The question of larynx preservation is central in the management of patients with a carcinoma of the larynx or hypopharynx, especially to preserve the main functions of the larynx. In early stages (T1-earlyT2) Larynx preservation can generally be obtained with partial surgery or radiotherapy. Some other approaches such as exclusive chemotherapy require further investigations. In locally advanced and infiltrating larynx/hypopharynx carcinomas, (advancedT2-T3), several ways have been used to preserve the larynx including exclusive radiotherapy which can be improved by modified fractionation and acceleration. The efficacy of radiotherapy can be also markedly increased by adding concomitant cisplatin based chemotherapy, as reported recently in a large randomized trial. An alternative approach consisted in using induction chemotherapy (cisplatin-5FU) and followed by a local treatment adapted to the response to chemotherapy. The combined analysis of 3 such randomized trials (GETTEC, Veteran et EORTC) showed that this approach has to be used with caution, and could be safer in good responders to induction chemotherapy. Finally, larynx preservation is generally not proposed in patients with deeply infiltrating tumors and or tumor invading the cartilage or soft tissue in the neck (T4). PMID:15679243

  8. [Function preserving gastrectomy].

    PubMed

    Xu, Danhua; Xu, Jia; Zhu, Chunchao; Li, Maoran; Zhao, Enhao; Yu, Fengrong; Zhao, Gang; Cao, Hui

    2016-02-25

    Under the premise of radical resection in the treatment, it is of great significance to preserve partial gastric function so that the early gastric cancer (EGC) patients' postoperative quality of life (QOL) can be improved. In the patients with EGC in the upper third of the stomach, the emphasis is on the prevention of reflux esophagitis caused by bile and gastric juice reflux. Pylorus-preserving gastrectomy (PPG) is applicable to the patients with EGC in the middle third of the stomach. In the patients with EGC in the lower third of the stomach, distal gastrectomy (DG) is performed in general. Various anastomosis ways are applied to reduce the negative impact of pylorus resection after DG. Furthermore, it should also be considered that reasonable vagal nerves preservation and lymph node dissection are both important for function preserving gastrectomy of EGC. Rational use of laparoscopy-assisted gastrectomy has advantages of lower invasiveness, faster recovery, etc. And the amplification effect of laparoscope can contribute to preserving nerves and gastric function. PMID:26831890

  9. Preserving information in neural transmission

    PubMed Central

    Sincich, Lawrence C.; Horton, Jonathan C.; Sharpee, Tatyana O.

    2009-01-01

    Along most neural pathways, the spike trains transmitted from one neuron to the next are altered. In the process, neurons can either achieve a more efficient stimulus representation, or extract some biologically important stimulus parameter, or succeed at both. We recorded the inputs from single retinal ganglion cells and the outputs from connected lateral geniculate neurons in the macaque to examine how visual signals are relayed from retina to cortex. We found that geniculate neurons re-encoded multiple temporal stimulus features to yield output spikes that carried more information about stimuli than was available in each input spike. The coding transformation of some relay neurons occurred with no decrement in information rate, despite output spike rates that averaged half the input spike rates. This preservation of transmitted information was achieved by the short-term summation of inputs that geniculate neurons require to spike. A reduced model of the retinal and geniculate visual responses, based on two stimulus features and their associated nonlinearities, could account for more than 85% of the total information available in the spike trains and the preserved information transmission. These results apply to neurons operating on a single time-varying input, suggesting that synaptic temporal integration can alter the temporal receptive field properties to create a more efficient representation of visual signals in the thalamus than the retina. PMID:19439598

  10. A History Worth Preserving

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kelly, Cynthia

    2008-04-01

    The Manhattan Project transformed the course of American and world history, science, politics and society. If we can read about this in books and watch History Channel documentaries, why do we need to preserve some of the properties of this enormous undertaking? The presentation, ``A History Worth Preserving,'' will address why some of the physical properties need to be preserved and which ones we are struggling to maintain for future generations. The story of this effort begins in 1997 as the Department of Energy was posed to demolish the last remaining Manhattan Project properties at the Los Alamos laboratory. Located deep behind security fences, the ``V Site's'' asbestos-shingled wooden buildings looked like humble garages with over-sized wooden doors. The ``V Site'' properties were almost lost twice, first to bulldozers and then the Cerro Grande fire of 2000. Now, visitors can stand inside the building where J. Robert Oppenheimer and his crew once worked and imagine the Trinity ``gadget'' hanging from its hoist shortly before it ushered in the Atomic Age on July 16, 1945. As Richard Rhodes has commented, we preserve what we value of the physical past because it specifically embodies our social past. But many challenge whether the Manhattan Project properties ought to be preserved. Rather than recognize the Manhattan Project as a great achievement worthy of commemoration, some see it as a regrettable event, producing an instrument to take man's inhumanity to man to extremes. While these divergent views will no doubt persist, the significance of the Manhattan Project in producing the world's first atomic bombs is irrefutable. Preserving some of its tangible remains is essential so that future generations can understand what the undertaking entailed from its humble wooden sheds to enormous first-of-a-kind industrial plants with 125,000 people working in secret and living in frontier-like communities. With continuing pressure for their demolition, what progress has been made in preserving some properties of the Manhattan Project? The presentation will share the handful of remaining properties that we believe are needed to tell the story of the Manhattan Project. It will share our successes, what is still at risk, and the on-going struggle to preserve this history.

  11. Fertility preservation in the male with cancer.

    PubMed

    Williams, Daniel H

    2013-08-01

    This article reviews the current concepts, recommendations, and principles of fertility preservation in men with cancer. Obstacles to sperm banking are addressed, as well as future directions for fertility-preserving technologies. All cancer therapies--chemotherapy, radiation, and surgery--are potential threats to a man's reproductive potential. Additionally, cancer itself can impair spermatogenesis. Thus, sperm cryopreservation prior to initiating life-saving cancer treatment offers men and their families the best chances to father biologically-related children and should be offered to all men with cancer before treatment. Better patient and provider education, as well as deliberate, coordinated strategies at comprehensive cancer care centers, are necessary to make fertility preservation for male cancer patients a priority during pre-treatment planning. PMID:23812951

  12. Volume-preserving integrators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wuispel, G. R. W.

    1995-02-01

    We obtain a novel family of general n-dimensional volume-preserving integrators which can be used to numerically integrate divergence free vector fields. The ABC map and the method of Thyagaraja and Haas [Phys. Fluids 28 (1985) 1005] occur as special cases.

  13. Paints and Preservatives.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Powell, Larry E.; Miller, Larry E.

    The publication contains an outline for use by agriculture teachers in developing a teaching plan for a unit on paints and preservatives. The topics included are (1) recognizing, solving, and preventing paint problems and (2) operating and using power spray painting equipment. Items presented for each topic are: the situation, (intended to inform

  14. Sharing the Preservation Burden

    SciTech Connect

    Giaretta, D.

    2008-07-01

    Preserving digitally encoded information which is not just to be rendered, as a document, but which must processed, like data, is even harder than one might think, because understandability of the information which is encoded in the digital object(s) is what is required. Information about Nuclear Waste will include both documents as well as data. Moreover one must be able to understand the relationship between the many individual pieces of information. Furthermore the volume of information involved will require us to allow automated processing of such information. Preserving the ability to understand and process digitally encoded information over long periods of time is especially hard when so many things will change, including hardware, software, environment and the tacit and implicit knowledge that people have. Since we cannot predict these changes this cannot be just a one-off action; continued effort is required. However it seems reasonable to say that no organization, project or person can ever say for certain that their ability to provide this effort is going to last forever. What can be done? Can anything be guaranteed? Probably not guaranteed - but at least one can try to reduce the risk of losing the information. We argue that if no single organization, project or person can guarantee funding or effort (or even interest), then somehow we must share the 'preservation load', and this is more than a simple chain of preservation consisting of handing on the collection of bits from one holder to the next. Clearly the bits must be passed on (but may be transformed along the way), however something more is required - because of the need to maintain understandability, not just access. This paper describes the tools, techniques and infrastructure components which the CASPAR project is producing to help in sharing the preservation burden. In summary: CASPAR is attempting to use OAIS concepts rigorously and to the fullest extent possible, supplementing these where appropriate. Based on these fundamental ideas about digital preservation, a number of components, tools and techniques are being created in order to provide a broadly applicable infrastructure to allow the spreading of the burden of preserving the understandability and usability of digitally encoded information. In the process the limits of the applicability of these OAIS concepts are themselves being tested. Most importantly a number of validation metrics have been produced. Further details are available from the CASPAR web site http://www.casparpreserves.eu. (authors)

  15. A Mathematical Model of Evolutionary Pressures Regulating Self-Preservation and Self-Destruction.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    de Catanzaro, Denys

    1986-01-01

    Focuses upon self-preservation, as it pervades the general patterns of behavior of all organisms, over the totality of biological evolution. Asserts that self-preservation has definable limitations that can be modeled mathematically. Suggests natural selection does not invariably favor tendencies toward self-preservation. Argues that reproduction

  16. Organic Entrainment and Preservation in Volcanic Glasses

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wilhelm, Mary Beth; Ojha, Lujendra; Brunner, Anna E.; Dufek, Josef D.; Wray, James Joseph

    2014-01-01

    Unaltered pyroclastic deposits have previously been deemed to have "low" potential for the formation, concentration and preservation of organic material on the Martian surface. Yet volcanic glasses that have solidified very quickly after an eruption may be good candidates for containment and preservation of refractory organic material that existed in a biologic system pre-eruption due to their impermeability and ability to attenuate UV radiation. Analysis using NanoSIMS of volcanic glass could then be performed to both deduce carbon isotope ratios that indicate biologic origin and confirm entrainment during eruption. Terrestrial contamination is one of the biggest barriers to definitive Martian organic identification in soil and rock samples. While there is a greater potential to concentrate organics in sedimentary strata, volcanic glasses may better encapsulate and preserve organics over long time scales, and are widespread on Mars. If volcanic glass from many sites on Earth could be shown to contain biologically derived organics from the original environment, there could be significant implications for the search for biomarkers in ancient Martian environments.

  17. Tree preserving embedding.

    PubMed

    Shieh, Albert D; Hashimoto, Tatsunori B; Airoldi, Edoardo M

    2011-10-11

    The goal of dimensionality reduction is to embed high-dimensional data in a low-dimensional space while preserving structure in the data relevant to exploratory data analysis such as clusters. However, existing dimensionality reduction methods often either fail to separate clusters due to the crowding problem or can only separate clusters at a single resolution. We develop a new approach to dimensionality reduction: tree preserving embedding. Our approach uses the topological notion of connectedness to separate clusters at all resolutions. We provide a formal guarantee of cluster separation for our approach that holds for finite samples. Our approach requires no parameters and can handle general types of data, making it easy to use in practice and suggesting new strategies for robust data visualization. PMID:21949369

  18. Order Preserving Sparse Coding.

    PubMed

    Ni, Bingbing; Moulin, Pierre; Yan, Shuicheng

    2015-08-01

    In this paper, we investigate order-preserving sparse coding for classifying structured data whose atomic features possess ordering relationships. Examples include time sequences where individual frame-wise features are temporally ordered, as well as still images (landscape, street view, etc.) where different regions of the image are spatially ordered. Classification of these structured data is often tackled by first decomposing the input data into individual atomic features, then performing sparse coding or other processing for each atomic feature vector independently, and finally aggregating individual responses to classify the input data. However, this heuristic approach ignores the underlying order of the individual atomic features within the input data, and results in suboptimal discriminative capability. In this work, we introduce an order preserving regularizer which aims to preserve the ordering structure of the reconstruction coefficients within the sparse coding framework. An efficient Nesterov-type smooth approximation method is developed for optimization of the new regularization criterion, with theoretically guaranteed error bound. We perform extensive experiments for time series classification on a synthetic dataset, several machine learning benchmarks, and an RGB-D human activity dataset. We also report experiments for scene classification on a benchmark image dataset. The encoded representation is discriminative and robust, and our classifier outperforms state-of-the-art methods on these tasks. PMID:26352999

  19. Preserving a Lunar Legacy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    O'Leary, B.; Brown, L. F.; Gibson, R. A.; Versluis, J.

    2000-12-01

    With the first Russian flyby mission in 1959, the quest for robotic, and eventually, manned exploration of the moon became fact rather than fiction. Since then there have been innumerable spacecraft impacts and landers which have left artifacts and created archaeological sites on the lunar surface. One of the most significant events in lunar exploration came with the successful landing of the manned Apollo 11 mission in the Sea of Tranquillity (July 20, 1969). Missions such as these form a transcript of the world's quest to explore space and are evidence of humanity's first steps in this ultimate journey. One would think that, given the historic nature of these endeavors, some process would have been established to preserve sites for future generations. There is certainly little disagreement within the astronomical and archeological communities that lunar landing and impact sites are precious cultural resources containing irreplaceable artifacts that attest to humanity's initial efforts to explore other worlds. But, in fact, there are no federal preservation laws, nor international criteria, which directly address preservation procedures and decisions on other solar system bodies. Although the moon's remoteness and isolation have protected lunar sites to date, recent commercial interests in development, and in private robotic exploration, of the moon, make preservation of these historic sites even more timely. This preliminary study, funded in part by NASA, has begun to document the Apollo 11 landing site by making the first complete inventory of artifacts, and features, and completing an archeological site map of Tranquillity Base. We will discuss the issues in obtaining accurate lists of the cultural resources left behind, in documenting their historic context, and in the problems of selenographic mapping. Detailed information is needed to document the integrity historical importance of any location with the eventual aim of having it listed as a UNESCO World Heritage Site. Although we began this work with Apollo 11 and the Tranquillity Base location, we feel that the Russian landing and impact areas, and the remaining Apollo sites should be similarly studied and protected. Documenting these sites is the first step in preserving the technological and historical legacy of early lunar exploration, and in understanding the roots of international cooperation in space.

  20. Preserving the Manhattan Project

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kelly, Cynthia

    2014-03-01

    When future generations look back on the 20th century, few events will rival the harnessing of nuclear energy as a turning point in world history, science and society. Yet, the Department of Energy has not always embraced its Manhattan Project origins. The presentation will focus on the progress made over the last 20 years to preserve the properties and first-hand accounts that for decades have been threatened with demolition and indifference. Since the mid-1950s, most remaining Manhattan Project properties at the Los Alamos National Laboratory had been abandoned. Among them was a cluster of wooden buildings called the ``V Site.'' This is where scientists assembled the ``Gadget,'' the world's first atomic device tested on July 16, 1945. Regardless of its significance, the ``V Site'' buildings like all the rest were slated for demolition. The Advisory Council on Historic Preservation (ACHP) toured the properties in November 1998. Most could not believe that the world's first atomic bomb was designed in such humble structures. The properties were declared to be ``monumental in their lack of monumentality.'' A Save America's Treasures grant for 700,000 was awarded to restore the properties. To raise the required matching funds, I left the Federal government and soon founded the Atomic Heritage Foundation. The presentation will trace the progress made over the last decade to generate interest and support nationwide to preserve the Manhattan Project heritage. Saving both the physical properties and first-hand accounts of the men and women have been a priority. Perhaps our most significant achievement may be legislation now under consideration by Congress to create a Manhattan Project National Historical Park. Seventy years later, the Manhattan Project is finally getting the recognition it deserves.

  1. Fertility Preservation in Girls

    PubMed Central

    Michaeli, Jennia; Weintraub, Michael; Gross, Eitan; Ginosar, Yehuda; Ravitsky, Vardit; Eizenman, Einat; Mitrani, Eduardo; Lebovich, Meital; Laufer, Neri; Kennedy, Stephen; Revel, Ariel

    2012-01-01

    Children that undergo treatment for cancer are at risk of suffering from subfertility or hormonal dysfunction due to the detrimental effects of radiotherapy and chemotherapeutic agents on the gonads. Cryopreservation of ovarian tissue prior to treatment offers the possibility of restoring gonadal function after resumption of therapy. Effective counseling and management of pediatric patients is crucial for preserving their future reproductive potential. The purpose of this article is to review recent literature and to revise recommendations we made in a 2007 article. Pediatric hemato-oncology, reproductive endocrinology, surgery, anesthesia and bioethics perspectives are discussed and integrated to propose guidelines for offering ovarian cryopreservation to premenarcheal girls with cancer. PMID:22496695

  2. ATLAS Data Preservation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jones, RWL; South, DM; Cranmer, KS

    2015-12-01

    Complementary to parallel open access and analysis preservation initiatives, ATLAS is taking steps to ensure that the data taken by the experiment during Run-1 remain accessible and available for future analysis by the collaboration. An evaluation of what is required to achieve this is underway, examining the ATLAS data production chain to establish the effort required and potential problems. Several alternatives are explored, but the favoured solution is to bring the Run 1 data and software in line with the equivalent to that which will be used for Run 2. This will result in a coherent ATLAS dataset for the data already taken and that to come in the future.

  3. Fluorochemical emulsion APE-LM substantially improves cardiac preservation.

    PubMed

    Segel, L D; Minten, J M; Schweighardt, F K

    1992-09-01

    We determined the efficacy of a novel fluorochemical emulsion for long-term hypothermic preservation of hearts. Rat hearts were preserved for 12 h at 12 degrees C with use of continuous low-pressure coronary perfusion with one of three oxygenated media (n = 6 hearts/groups): an "extracellular" crystalloid solution; APE-LM, a novel fluorochemical emulsion of perfluoroperhydrophenanthrene in egg yolk phospholipid; and FC-43, the Fluosol-43 (Oxypherol) fluorochemical emulsion of perfluorotributylamine in Pluronic F68. The emulsion media contained the same components as the crystalloid medium. All three media contained 0.5% albumin. An isolated working heart perfusion system was used to quantify the function of preserved hearts and controls (fresh hearts, n = 6). The APE-LM-preserved hearts were not significantly different from control hearts in contractile function, output, and energetics during a 4-h 37 degrees C reperfusion period. The control and APE-LM-preserved hearts had significantly better performance than crystalloid- and FC-43-preserved hearts. All preserved hearts gained fluid during preservation. The edema of APE-LM-preserved hearts, but not that of the other two preserved groups, was reversed during 37 degrees C reperfusion. These data provide the first evidence that a unique fluorochemical emulsion improves long-term preservation of cardiac tissue and produces significantly better recovery of cardiac function after preservation. This salutary effect was specifically associated with APE-LM emulsion and may result from its high O2 capacity, its biologically compatible emulsifier, and its superior physical properties, which include very small emulsion particle size (0.1-0.15 micron), low viscosity, and minimal toxicity. PMID:1415597

  4. Preserving Perishables (Dormavac)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1979-01-01

    A new commercial product that can preserve perishable commodities for weeks without freezing, so that they can be shipped fresh without the cost of air freight, has been developed by Grumman Corporation, Bethpage, Long Island, New York. The development benefited from the company's experience in developing the environmental control system for the Lunar Module, which delivered Apollo astronauts to the surface of the moon. Called Dormavac, the system provides a commodity-preserving environment within an aluminum container that can be transported by truck, rail or ship. Dormavac creates a cold-but above freezing-environment with high relative humidity and very low air pressure. The saturated air minimizes commodity weight loss and the air is automatically changed several times an hour to flush away odors and harmful gases released by the commodities. According to company literature, Dormavac significantly extends the transportation life of perishables. For example, pork has a normal cold storage life of about seven days, beef two weeks and tomatoes three weeks; with Dormavac, pork remains fresh for three weeks, beef more than six weeks and tomatoes seven weeks or more. Dormavac is manufactured and marketed by Grumman Allied Industries, Woodbury, New York. In developing the system, Grumman Allied drew upon the technological resources of another company subsidiary, Grumman Aerospace. Engineers who had earlier worked on Lunar Module environmental control brought their know-how and experience to the Dormavac development.

  5. Preserving Humanity's Memory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Meyer, Jim

    1978-01-01

    Four kinds of processes (biological, photochemical, oxidative, and acidic) can cause books to deteriorate, resulting in substantial problems for libraries. Methods for preventing such deterioration are reviewed, included a treatment developed at the University of Chicago called the "Chicago Process." (LBH)

  6. Advances in corneal preservation.

    PubMed Central

    Lindstrom, R L

    1990-01-01

    The functional status of the endothelium and sustained corneal deturgescence after corneal preservation are of great clinical importance and have been primary goals in the development of corneal storage media. In our investigational studies we have specifically addressed the improvement of the quality of donor tissue after 4 degrees C storage, the extension of corneal preservation time, the enhancement of corneal wound healing, and the reduction of the normal progressive loss of endothelial cells postkeratoplasty. Specifically we have developed in vitro HCE cell and epithelial cell culture models that can accurately reflect the response of human corneal tissue in vivo. These models have been utilized to study the effects of growth factors and medium components in relation to their biocompatibility and efficacy in the development of improved corneal preservation solutions. Our laboratory investigated in vitro conditions that allowed human corneal endothelium to shift from a nonproliferative state, in which they remain viable and metabolically active, to a proliferative, mitotically active state. Isolation techniques developed in our laboratory have enabled the establishment of primary and subsequent subcultures of human corneal endothelium that retain the attributes of native endothelium. These in vitro conditions maintain HCE cells in a proliferative state, actively undergoing mitosis. A quantitative bioassay has been developed to determine the effects of various test medium in the stimulation or inhibition of DNA synthesis. In attempting to learn more about the events that occur during in vitro endothelial cell isolation, cell reattachment, extracellular matrix interaction and migrating during subculture, SEM was done on isolated HCE cells incubated in CSM. These studies suggest that the components of the extracellular matrix modulate the growth response of HCE cells, and play a role in regulating proliferation and migration. These observations are important in view of the fact that anterior chamber environment limits cell regeneration of the endothelium, and supports wound healing via cell migration. In vivo, it is the complex interaction of the HCE cell and the extracellular matrix that signal the cell to respond to cell loss in this manner. As our knowledge of human corneal endothelium has increased so has our anticipation of developing the "optimum" medium. Thus additional components have been added to this basic medium to address specific complications encountered with 4 degrees C corneal preservation. Antioxidants, additional energy sources, and other nutritive substrates have been used to supplement and further define a chondroitin sulfate-based medium. These changes have been a part of our new awareness that, even at 4 degrees C, the cornea is metabolically active.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 400 WORDS) Images FIGURE 5 FIGURE 6 FIGURE 7 FIGURE 8 FIGURE 9 A FIGURE 9 B FIGURE 9 C FIGURE 9 D FIGURE 9 E FIGURE 11 FIGURE 12 A FIGURE 12 B FIGURE 12 C FIGURE 12 D FIGURE 12 E FIGURE 12 F FIGURE 13 FIGURE 17 FIGURE 18 A FIGURE 18 B FIGURE 18 C FIGURE 18 D FIGURE 20 FIGURE 23 A FIGURE 23 B FIGURE 24 A FIGURE 24 B FIGURE 24 C FIGURE 24 D FIGURE 24 E FIGURE 28 FIGURE 29 FIGURE 33 A FIGURE 33 B PMID:1710084

  7. Format-Preserving Encryption

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bellare, Mihir; Ristenpart, Thomas; Rogaway, Phillip; Stegers, Till

    Format-preserving encryption (FPE) encrypts a plaintext of some specified format into a ciphertext of identical format—for example, encrypting a valid credit-card number into a valid credit-card number. The problem has been known for some time, but it has lacked a fully general and rigorous treatment. We provide one, starting off by formally defining FPE and security goals for it. We investigate the natural approach for achieving FPE on complex domains, the “rank-then-encipher” approach, and explore what it can and cannot do. We describe two flavors of unbalanced Feistel networks that can be used for achieving FPE, and we prove new security results for each. We revisit the cycle-walking approach for enciphering on a non-sparse subset of an encipherable domain, showing that the timing information that may be divulged by cycle walking is not a damaging thing to leak.

  8. Cancer and fertility preservation: fertility preservation in breast cancer patients

    PubMed Central

    Maltaris, Theodoros; Weigel, Michael; Mueller, Andreas; Schmidt, Marcus; Seufert, Rudolf; Fischl, Franz; Koelbl, Heinz; Dittrich, Ralf

    2008-01-01

    Aggressive chemotherapy has improved the life expectancy for reproductive-age women with breast cancer, but it often causes infertility or premature ovarian failure due to destruction of the ovarian reserve. Many questions concerning fertility preservation in breast cancer patients remain unanswered for example, whether fertility preservation methods interfere with chemotherapy, and whether subsequent pregnancy has negative effects on the prognosis. Fertility preservation is a critical factor in decision-making for younger breast cancer patients, however, and clinicians should address this. The present article reviews the incidence of chemotherapy-induced amenorrhea, and discusses fertility-preservation options and the prognosis for patients who become pregnant after breast cancer. PMID:18492214

  9. Exploring principles of hibernation for organ preservation.

    PubMed

    Ratigan, Emmett D; McKay, Dianne B

    2016-01-01

    Interest in mimicking hibernating states has led investigators to explore the biological mechanisms that permit hibernating mammals to survive for months at extremely low ambient temperatures, with no food or water, and awaken from their hibernation without apparent organ injury. Hibernators have evolved mechanisms to adapt to dramatic reductions in core body temperature and metabolic rate, accompanied by prolonged periods without nutritional intake and at the same time tolerate the metabolic demands of arousal. This review discusses the inherent resilience of hibernators to kidney injury and provides a potential framework for new therapies targeting ex vivo preservation of kidneys for transplantation. PMID:26613668

  10. Preservation technologies for fresh meat - a review.

    PubMed

    Zhou, G H; Xu, X L; Liu, Y

    2010-09-01

    Fresh meat is a highly perishable product due to its biological composition. Many interrelated factors influence the shelf life and freshness of meat such as holding temperature, atmospheric oxygen (O(2)), endogenous enzymes, moisture, light and most importantly, micro-organisms. With the increased demand for high quality, convenience, safety, fresh appearance and an extended shelf life in fresh meat products, alternative non-thermal preservation technologies such as high hydrostatic pressure, superchilling, natural biopreservatives and active packaging have been proposed and investigated. Whilst some of these technologies are efficient at inactivating the micro-organisms most commonly related to food-borne diseases, they are not effective against spores. To increase their efficacy against vegetative cells, a combination of several preservation technologies under the so-called hurdle concept has also been investigated. The objective of this review is to describe current methods and developing technologies for preserving fresh meat. The benefits of some new technologies and their industrial limitations is presented and discussed. PMID:20605688

  11. Effectiveness of Family Preservation Services.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fraser, Mark W.; Nelson, Kristine E.; Rivard, Jeanne C.

    1997-01-01

    Reviews recent studies of family preservation and related family-strengthening programs. Estimates the effect sizes of outcomes in studies with control or comparison conditions. Also identifies a set of core services that characterize innovative family preservation programs in child welfare, multisystemic family treatment in juvenile justice, and

  12. Historic Preservation in Art Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Guilfoil, Joanne K.

    2004-01-01

    The Blue Grass Trust in Lexington, Kentucky sponsors the annual visual art contest for historic preservation, one of the many events they sponsor as part of the celebrations planned for Historic Preservation Month each May. When the announcement concerning the Blue Grass Trust visual art competition is released, area high school art teachers

  13. User Experience and Heritage Preservation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Orfield, Steven J.; Chapman, J. Wesley; Davis, Nathan

    2011-01-01

    In considering the heritage preservation of higher education campus buildings, much of the attention gravitates toward issues of selection, cost, accuracy, and value, but the model for most preservation projects does not have a clear method of achieving the best solutions for meeting these targets. Instead, it simply relies on the design team and

  14. Integrating Preservation Activities. SPEC Kit.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, Karen, Comp.; Holmes, Emily, Comp.

    2002-01-01

    This SPEC (Systems and Procedures Exchange Center) Kit presents the results of a survey of Association of Research Libraries (ARL) member libraries designed to explore to what extent preservation activities have been integrated into research library operations by examining the many facets of mature preservation programs and determining how much

  15. Entanglement preservation by continuous distillation

    SciTech Connect

    Mundarain, D.; Orszag, M.

    2009-05-15

    We study the two-qubit entanglement preservation for a system in the presence of independent thermal baths. We use a combination of filtering operations and distillation protocols as a series of frequent measurements on the system. It is shown that a small fraction of the total amount of available copies of the system preserves or even improves its initial entanglement during the evolution.

  16. Preservation in the Digital World.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Conway, Paul

    This paper seeks to provide an intellectual rationale for maintaining the centrality of preservation concepts and ethics in an increasingly digital information environment; in other words, while some long-held principles of preservation management may no longer apply, many others are still viable in high-tech situations. Libraries are rearranging

  17. Preservation Methods for Digital Library

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rajendran, L.; Venkatesan, M.; Kanthimathi, S.

    2005-01-01

    Going digital is the way to minimize handling of damaged materials, but the imaging process is demanding and must be done with oversight by preservation staff and with a high enough level of quality to ensure the reusability of the archival electronic file for as long as possible. This paper focuses on the scope and needs of digital preservation,

  18. The Preservation of Digital Content

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cloonan, Michele Valerie; Sanett, Shelby

    2005-01-01

    The authors are conducting a three-part study to evaluate current trends in the preservation of digital content, with an emphasis on electronic records. The study emanated from the authors' work on the Preservation Task Force of the International Research on Permanent Authentic Records in Electronic Systems (InterPARES) project. This article…

  19. Preservation Methods for Digital Library

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rajendran, L.; Venkatesan, M.; Kanthimathi, S.

    2005-01-01

    Going digital is the way to minimize handling of damaged materials, but the imaging process is demanding and must be done with oversight by preservation staff and with a high enough level of quality to ensure the reusability of the archival electronic file for as long as possible. This paper focuses on the scope and needs of digital preservation,…

  20. Preservation Needs in State Archives.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Association of Government Archives and Records Administrators, Albany, NY.

    Data were gathered by circulating questionnaires to each state archive, making site visits to representative archives, and holding discussions with key state archives and preservation leaders. The 2-year study concludes that no state archive currently approaches the goal of providing total preservation care for its holdings. Comprehensive and…

  1. Collections Security: The Preservation Perspective.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Patkus, Beth L.

    1998-01-01

    Provides a brief review of the basic elements of library security and preservation programs as a background for an exploration of security/preservation issues, problems, and policies. Discusses environmental control, disaster preparedness, fire protection, storage and handling, and controlling access to collections. (AEF)

  2. Contact dermatitis caused by preservatives.

    PubMed

    Yim, Elizabeth; Baquerizo Nole, Katherine L; Tosti, Antonella

    2014-01-01

    Preservatives are biocidal chemicals added to food, cosmetics, and industrial products to prevent the growth of microorganisms. They are usually nontoxic and inexpensive and have a long shelf life. Unfortunately, they commonly cause contact dermatitis. This article reviews the most important classes of preservatives physicians are most likely to encounter in their daily practice, specifically isothiazolinones, formaldehyde and formaldehyde-releasers, iodopropynyl butylcarbamate, methyldibromoglutaronitrile, and parabens. For each preservative mentioned, the prevalence of sensitization, clinical presentation of contact dermatitis, patch testing concentrations, cross reactions, and related legislation will be discussed. Mandatory labeling of preservatives is required in some countries, but not required in others. Until policies are made, physicians and patients must be proactive in identifying potential sensitizers and removing their use. We hope that this article will serve as a guide for policy makers in creating legislation and future regulations on the use and concentration of certain preservatives in cosmetics and industrial products. PMID:25207684

  3. NEW APPROACHES TO THE PRESERVATION OF CONTAMINANTS IN WATER SAMPLES

    EPA Science Inventory

    The potential of antibiotics, chemical biocides and lytic enzymes in preserving nutrients, biological oxygen demand and oil and grease in water and sewage effluents was studied. Preliminary studies concerning the effect of drugs on cell growth and oxygen utilization in samples st...

  4. Storage Technology for Data Preservation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nief, Jean-Yves

    Preservation of scientific data aims at storing data for many years or even decades. This is a challenge as hardware and software technologies are changing at a high rate with respect to the time scale involved in data preservation. Moreover, scientific data can be preserved in a distributed and heterogeneous environment involving several data centers. Storage and data policy virtualizations are strongly needed in such an environment, in order to achieve this endeavor. We will show that iRODS middleware can provide a suitable solution to the data storage and policy virtualization.

  5. Fertility preservation in cancer survivors.

    PubMed

    Winkler-Crepaz, K; Ayuandari, S; Ziehr, S C; Hofer, S; Wildt, L

    2015-06-01

    Due to the increasing number of long-term cancer survivors, physicians of all specialties are confronted with the need to prevent side effects of the applied oncologic treatments. In the field of reproductive medicine fertility preservation has gained importance as most oncologic treatments have detrimental immediate or long-term impacts on male and female fertility. The American Society of Clinical Oncology and the American Society for Reproductive Medicine, as well as the recently founded International Society for Fertility Preservation propose several established and investigational options for fertility preservation. This review aims to summarize currently available techniques for fertility preservation and future perspectives in this field, as well as to provide recommendations for patient follow-up after cancer and during pregnancy. PMID:25614989

  6. Cultural Preservation Program for Alaska

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barbaran, Francisco Ramon

    2011-01-01

    In this technical report, an innovative cultural preservation program for implementation in Athabascan villages is presented. The parameters for success in implementing such a project is discussed based on a workshop with Athabascan elders.

  7. Preserve Staff Help with Installation

    USGS Multimedia Gallery

    In 2013, installation of macroinvertebrate sampling devices at seven sites on the Silver Creek Preserve. The sampling devices provide artificial substrate that aquatic insects such as mayflies, caddisflies, and stoneflies can colonize....

  8. NONCONVEX REGULARIZATION FOR SHAPE PRESERVATION

    SciTech Connect

    CHARTRAND, RICK

    2007-01-16

    The authors show that using a nonconvex penalty term to regularize image reconstruction can substantially improve the preservation of object shapes. The commonly-used total-variation regularization, {integral}|{del}u|, penalizes the length of the object edges. They show that {integral}|{del}u|{sup p}, 0 < p < 1, only penalizes edges of dimension at least 2-p, and thus finite-length edges not at all. We give numerical examples showing the resulting improvement in shape preservation.

  9. Yeasts preservation: alternatives for lyophilisation.

    PubMed

    Nyanga, Loveness K; Nout, Martinus J R; Smid, Eddy J; Boekhout, Teun; Zwietering, Marcel H

    2012-11-01

    The aim of the study was to compare the effect of two low-cost, low technology traditional methods for drying starter cultures with standard lyophilisation. Lyophilised yeast cultures and yeast cultures preserved in dry rice cakes and dry plant fibre strands were examined for viable cell counts during 6months storage at 4 and 25C. None of the yeast cultures showed a significant loss in viable cell count during 6months of storage at 4C upon lyophilisation and preservation in dry rice cakes. During storage at 25C in the dark, yeast cultures preserved in dry rice cakes, and lyophilised cultures of Saccharomyces cerevisiae and Issatchenkia orientalis showed no significant loss of viable cells up to 4months of storage. Yeast cultures preserved in dry plant fibre strands had the greatest loss of viable count during the 6months of storage at 25C. Preservation of yeasts cultures in dry rice cakes provided better survival during storage at 4C than lyophilisation. The current study demonstrated that traditional methods can be useful and effective for starter culture preservation in small-scale, low-tech applications. PMID:22806747

  10. Fertility preservation in Turner syndrome.

    PubMed

    Grynberg, Michaël; Bidet, Maud; Benard, Julie; Poulain, Marine; Sonigo, Charlotte; Cédrin-Durnerin, Isabelle; Polak, Michel

    2016-01-01

    Premature ovarian insufficiency is a relatively rare condition that can appear early in life. In a non-negligible number of cases the ovarian dysfunction results from genetic diseases. Turner syndrome (TS), the most common sex chromosome abnormality in females, is associated with an inevitable premature exhaustion of the follicular stockpile. The possible or probable infertility is a major concern for TS patients and their parents, and physicians are often asked about possible options to preserve fertility. Unfortunately, there are no recommendations on fertility preservation in this group. The severely reduced follicle pool even during prepubertal life represents the major limit for fertility preservation and is the root of numerous questions regarding the competence of gametes or ovarian tissue crybanked. In addition, patients suffering from TS show higher than usual rates of spontaneous abortion, fetal anomaly, and maternal morbidity and mortality, which should be considered at the time of fertility preservation and before reutilization of the cryopreserved gametes. Apart from fulfillment of the desire of becoming genetic parents, TS patients may be potential candidates for egg donation, gestational surrogacy, and adoption. The present review discusses the different options for preserving female fertility in TS and the ethical questions raised by these approaches. PMID:26677790

  11. Optimum arousal level preservation system using biosignals.

    PubMed

    Takahashi, Issey; Ohashi, Hayato; Yokoyama, Kiyoko

    2011-12-01

    The purpose of this study is to develop a driver's optimum arousal level preservation system while driving. The important point of developing this system is how we keep a driver's adequate conditions on driving. Most of the systems, which have been already put to practical use, are using audible sound or warning messages on a display to urge driver to take a rest. However, arousal levels are strongly related to the balance of autonomic modulations; therefore we need the stimulation that preserves a driver's adequate condition physiologically. Some preceding studies reported that the stimulation using the biological rhythms especially heart beating rhythms are influential to human body. We gave a consideration to this fact and made a course of using driver's heartbeat rhythm for the feedback stimulation to realize the demand. In this paper, we examined the stimulation from two points of views. The one is to investigate the possibilities of controlling a driver's heartbeat rhythms by making synchronization between the driver's heartbeat and a vibratory stimulation. The other one is to find out the stimulation that induces RSA (Respiratory Sinus Arrhythmia) in order to adjust the parasympathetic modulations. The result of the experiment indicated that the 1 [s] constant beat stimulation has an effect of inducing RSA, and the stimulation using a rhythm of heartbeat has a possibility of controlling driver's heart rate variability, and its' efficiency might be possible to be improved by adjusting the rhythm of the stimulation to the driver's heartbeat rhythms. PMID:25665216

  12. New alternatives to cosmetics preservation.

    PubMed

    Papageorgiou, S; Varvaresou, A; Tsirivas, E; Demetzos, C

    2010-01-01

    In recent years, there is a considerable interest in the development of preservative-free or self-preserving cosmetics. The aim of our work was to develop new cosmetic formulations by replacing chemical preservatives with ingredients with antimicrobial properties that are not legislated as preservatives according to Annex VI of Commission Directive 76/768/EEC. This paper describes the preservative efficacy of the well-known antimicrobial extracts of Lonicera caprifoleum and Lonicera japonica in combination with glyceryl caprylate and/or levulinic acid, p-anisic acid, and ethanol. We prepared a series of acidic (pH = 5.5) aqueous and O/W formulations, i.e., tonic lotion, shampoo, shower gel, conditioning cream, anticellulite cream, cleansing milk and peeling cream, containing (0.2% w/w) Lonicera extracts, alone in the case of tonic lotion and in combination with (1% w/w) glyceryl caprylate in the other products, and we performed challenge tests according to the European Pharmacopoeia procedures and criteria. Formulations such as shampoo, shower gel, and conditioning cream fulfilled criterion A, while tonic lotion, anticellulite cream, cleansing milk, and peeling cream fulfilled criterion B, in regard to contamination from A. niger. Furthermore, we evaluated the efficacy of the antimicrobial systems in two states of use: the intact product and after three weeks of consumer use. The results showed that A. niger was also detected during use by consumers in the products that satisfied only criterion B in challenge tests. The addition of antimicrobial fragrance ingredients such (< or = 0.3% w/w) levulinic acid or (0.1% w/w) p-anisic acid and/or (5% w/w) ethanol afforded products that met criterion A in challenge tests and were also microbiologically safe during use. The small quantity (5% w/w) of ethanol gave an important assistance in order to boost the self-preserving system and to produce stable and safe products. PMID:20447363

  13. Biological Threats

    MedlinePLUS

    ... RDD) Workplace Plans School Emergency Plans Main Content Biological Threats Biological agents are organisms or toxins that ... Centers for Disease Control and Prevention . Before a Biological Threat Unlike an explosion, a biological attack may ...

  14. Fibres and cellular structures preserved in 75-million–year-old dinosaur specimens

    PubMed Central

    Bertazzo, Sergio; Maidment, Susannah C. R.; Kallepitis, Charalambos; Fearn, Sarah; Stevens, Molly M.; Xie, Hai-nan

    2015-01-01

    Exceptionally preserved organic remains are known throughout the vertebrate fossil record, and recently, evidence has emerged that such soft tissue might contain original components. We examined samples from eight Cretaceous dinosaur bones using nano-analytical techniques; the bones are not exceptionally preserved and show no external indication of soft tissue. In one sample, we observe structures consistent with endogenous collagen fibre remains displaying ∼67 nm banding, indicating the possible preservation of the original quaternary structure. Using ToF-SIMS, we identify amino-acid fragments typical of collagen fibrils. Furthermore, we observe structures consistent with putative erythrocyte remains that exhibit mass spectra similar to emu whole blood. Using advanced material characterization approaches, we find that these putative biological structures can be well preserved over geological timescales, and their preservation is more common than previously thought. The preservation of protein over geological timescales offers the opportunity to investigate relationships, physiology and behaviour of long extinct animals. PMID:26056764

  15. Fibres and cellular structures preserved in 75-million-year-old dinosaur specimens.

    PubMed

    Bertazzo, Sergio; Maidment, Susannah C R; Kallepitis, Charalambos; Fearn, Sarah; Stevens, Molly M; Xie, Hai-nan

    2015-01-01

    Exceptionally preserved organic remains are known throughout the vertebrate fossil record, and recently, evidence has emerged that such soft tissue might contain original components. We examined samples from eight Cretaceous dinosaur bones using nano-analytical techniques; the bones are not exceptionally preserved and show no external indication of soft tissue. In one sample, we observe structures consistent with endogenous collagen fibre remains displaying ∼ 67 nm banding, indicating the possible preservation of the original quaternary structure. Using ToF-SIMS, we identify amino-acid fragments typical of collagen fibrils. Furthermore, we observe structures consistent with putative erythrocyte remains that exhibit mass spectra similar to emu whole blood. Using advanced material characterization approaches, we find that these putative biological structures can be well preserved over geological timescales, and their preservation is more common than previously thought. The preservation of protein over geological timescales offers the opportunity to investigate relationships, physiology and behaviour of long extinct animals. PMID:26056764

  16. Breast cancer and fertility preservation

    PubMed Central

    Kim, S. Samuel; Klemp, Jennifer; Fabian, Carol

    2014-01-01

    Objective To review the benefits of adjuvant systemic therapy given to women with breast cancer of reproductive age, its effects on fertility, and options for fertility preservation. Design Publications relevant to fertility preservation and breast cancer were identified through a PubMed database search. Conclusion(s) Most women who develop invasive breast cancer under age 40 will be advised to undergo adjuvant chemotherapy with or without extended antihormonal therapy to reduce the risk of recurrence and death from breast cancer. Adjuvant chemotherapy particularly with alkylating agents such as cyclophosphamide is gonadotoxic and markedly accelerates the rate of age-related ovarian follicle loss. Although loss of fertility is an important issue for young cancer survivors, there is often little discussion about fertility preservation before initiation of adjuvant therapy. Greater familiarity with prognosis and effects of different types of adjuvant therapy on the part of infertility specialists and fertility preservation options such cryopreservation of embryos, oocytes, and ovarian tissue on the part of oncologists would facilitate these discussions. Establishment of rapid fertility consultation links within cancer survivorship programs can help ensure that every young woman who is likely to undergo gonadotoxic cancer treatment is counseled about the effects of therapy and options available to her to increase the likelihood of childbearing after cancer treatment. PMID:21272867

  17. Art Education through Historic Preservation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sensat, Lloyd; Cizek, Eugene D.

    1985-01-01

    An art/historic preservation program involving elementary and junior high school students working with college students is described. Each year the students interpret and document a local architectural landmark. Students are involved in a number of activities, including research, oral history interviews, title searches, role playing, and

  18. Preservation and Archives in Vietnam.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Henchy, Judith

    This report, based on visits to Vietnamese libraries and archives between 1987 and 1997, examines the largely unexplored corpus of Vietnamese textual resources in research institutions and libraries there and elsewhere, the associated problems of bibliographic control, and issues of preservation. The following topics are addressed: the history of

  19. Preservation: past, present and future.

    PubMed

    Gould, G W

    2000-01-01

    Foods deteriorate in quality due to a wide range of reactions including some that are physical, some that are chemical, some enzymic and some microbiological. The various forms of spoilage and food poisoning caused by micro-organisms are preventable to a large degree by a number of preservation techniques, most of which act by preventing or slowing microbial growth. These include freezing, chilling, drying, curing, conserving, vacuum packing, modified atmosphere packing, acidifying, fermenting, and adding preservatives. In contrast, a smaller number of techniques act by inactivating micro-organisms, predominantly heating (pasteurization and sterilization). Complementary techniques restrict access of micro-organisms to food products, e.g. aseptic processing and packaging. New and 'emerging' preservation techniques include more that act by inactivation. They include the application of ionizing radiation, high hydrostatic pressure, high voltage electric discharges, high intensity light, ultrasonication in combination with heat and slightly raised pressure ('manothermosonication'), and the addition to foods of bacteriolytic enzymes, bacteriocins, and other naturally-occurring antimicrobials. Major trends, reacting to consumers' needs, are towards the use of procedures that deliver food products that are less 'heavily' preserved, higher quality, more convenient, more 'natural', freer from additives, nutritionally healthier, and still with high assurance of microbiological safety. PMID:10885107

  20. Safety aspects of food preservatives.

    PubMed

    Parke, D V; Lewis, D F

    1992-01-01

    The use of food preservatives, such as benzoic acid, nitrites, and sulphites, as antimicrobials, and butylated hydroxyanisole (BHA), butylated hydroxytoluene (BHT), ascorbic acid and tocopherols, as antioxidants, has probably changed food production patterns and eating habits more than has the use of any other class of food additive. These food preservative chemicals confer substantial benefits on man, not only by the preservation and increased palatability of food, but also by affording protection against the pathological effects of reactive oxygen species (ROS) which are associated with cancer, cardiovascular disease and aging. Nevertheless, although most preservatives are now considered to be without potential adverse effects and are classified as GRAS, there have been problems concerning the safety of some of these chemicals, including the possibility of allergies from benzoic acid and sulphites, the formation of carcinogenic nitrosamines from nitrites, and the possible rodent carcinogenicity of BHA and BHT. The mechanisms of this toxicity at high dosage, the roles of the cytochromes P450, and the generation and scavenging of ROS in the toxicity of these chemicals, are reviewed and discussed. PMID:1298662

  1. SAMPLE PRESERVATION: A PROGRESS REPORT

    EPA Science Inventory

    The primary objective of this study is to evaluate chemical preservatives which can be added to the sample bottle before collection which will be effective in stabilizing the coliform density for not less than 48 hours using current methodology for detecting coliform organisms. T...

  2. Hybrid Food Preservation Program Improves Food Preservation and Food Safety Knowledge

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Francis, Sarah L.

    2014-01-01

    The growing trend in home food preservation raises concerns about whether the resulting food products will be safe to eat. The increased public demand for food preservation information led to the development of the comprehensive food preservation program, Preserve the Taste of Summer (PTTS). PTTS is a comprehensive hybrid food preservation program…

  3. Hybrid Food Preservation Program Improves Food Preservation and Food Safety Knowledge

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Francis, Sarah L.

    2014-01-01

    The growing trend in home food preservation raises concerns about whether the resulting food products will be safe to eat. The increased public demand for food preservation information led to the development of the comprehensive food preservation program, Preserve the Taste of Summer (PTTS). PTTS is a comprehensive hybrid food preservation program

  4. Remembering Preservation in Hippocampal Amnesia.

    PubMed

    Clark, Ian A; Maguire, Eleanor A

    2016-01-01

    The lesion-deficit model dominates neuropsychology. This is unsurprising given powerful demonstrations that focal brain lesions can affect specific aspects of cognition. Nowhere is this more evident than in patients with bilateral hippocampal damage. In the past 60 years, the amnesia and other impairments exhibited by these patients have helped to delineate the functions of the hippocampus and shape the field of memory. We do not question the value of this approach. However, less prominent are the cognitive processes that remain intact following hippocampal lesions. Here, we collate the piecemeal reports of preservation of function following focal bilateral hippocampal damage, highlighting a wealth of information often veiled by the field's focus on deficits. We consider how a systematic understanding of what is preserved as well as what is lost could add an important layer of precision to models of memory and the hippocampus. PMID:26361051

  5. Technical Information/Website Preservation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    PintoRey, Christian R.

    2010-01-01

    This document reviews the work of the author in NASA's Motivating Undergraduates in Science and Technology (MUST) internship. The intern worked on the Space Shuttles hydraulic systems (i.e., Auxiliary Power Units (APU's) and Hydraulic Pump Units (HPU's)), and website preservation of the hydraulic technology captured in websites relating to the coming.the Space Shuttle Retirement. Several figures and pictures show an overview of the orbiter's hydraulic systems

  6. Nutritional aspects of food preservatives.

    PubMed

    Quattrucci, E; Masci, V

    1992-01-01

    Despite the benefits attributed to food preservatives, some concern still remains regarding their safety and possible influence on nutrients. Surprisingly, there is quite a lack of scientific knowledge in this field. In order to describe a few examples, the effects of the extensively used sulphite on thiamine, folates, pyridoxal and other nutrients have been reported. Among its antibrowning effects, inhibition of ascorbic acid browning is also considered. As far as sorbic acid is concerned, notwithstanding its easy reaction with protein, probably the acid environment of the stomach determines the breakdown of the sorbic-protein adducts. Detoxication of nitrite by tocopherol and ascorbic acid leads, in the last case, to dehydroascorbic acid and its oxidative products with loss of vitamin activity. Any oxidizing substance destroys ascorbic acid, vitamin E and free vitamin A. Phosphates are largely used with different aims, including preservation, in food processing. Their antimicrobial activity is due to both a direct effect and an interaction with other antimicrobials. Sequestering capacity of phosphates and its nutritional implications are discussed. Also mechanisms of action of organic acids are reported, focusing on sorbic acid effects on single amino acids and proteins. Finally, the little information available about the potential impact of food preservatives on nutritional functions is presented. PMID:1298657

  7. The ZEUS data preservation project

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Malka, Janusz; Wichmann, Katarzyna

    2012-12-01

    A project to allow long term access and physics analysis of ZEUS data (ZEUS data preservation) has been established in collaboration with the DESY-IT group. In the ZEUS approach the analysis model is based on the Common Ntuple project, under development since 2006. The real data and all presently available Monte Carlo samples are being preserved in a flat ROOT ntuple format. There is ongoing work to provide the ability to simulate new, additional Monte Carlo samples also in the future. The validation framework of such a scheme using virtualisation techniques is being explored. The goal is to validate the frozen ZEUS software against future changes in hardware and operating system. A cooperation between ZEUS, DESY-IT and the library was established for document digitisation and long-term preservation of collaboration web pages. Part of the ZEUS internal documentation has already been stored within the HEP documentation system INSPIRE. Existing digital documentation, needed to perform physics analysis also in the future, is being centralised and completed.

  8. Privacy Preserving Nearest Neighbor Search

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shaneck, Mark; Kim, Yongdae; Kumar, Vipin

    Data mining is frequently obstructed by privacy concerns. In many cases data is distributed, and bringing the data together in one place for analysis is not possible due to privacy laws (e.g. HIPAA) or policies. Privacy preserving data mining techniques have been developed to address this issue by providing mechanisms to mine the data while giving certain privacy guarantees. In this chapter we address the issue of privacy preserving nearest neighbor search, which forms the kernel of many data mining applications. To this end, we present a novel algorithm based on secure multiparty computation primitives to compute the nearest neighbors of records in horizontally distributed data. We show how this algorithm can be used in three important data mining algorithms, namely LOF outlier detection, SNN clustering, and kNN classification. We prove the security of these algorithms under the semi-honest adversarial model, and describe methods that can be used to optimize their performance. Keywords: Privacy Preserving Data Mining, Nearest Neighbor Search, Outlier Detection, Clustering, Classification, Secure Multiparty Computation

  9. Phase-preserved optical elevator

    PubMed Central

    Luo, Yuan; Zhang, Baile; Han, Tiancheng; Chen, Zhi; Duan, Yubo; Chu, Chia-Wei; Barbastathis, George; Qiu, Cheng Wei

    2013-01-01

    The unique superiority of transformation optics devices designed from coordinate transformation is their capability of recovering both ray trajectory and optical path length in light manipulation. However, very few experiments have been done so far to verify this dual-recovery property from viewpoints of both ray trajectory and optical path length simultaneously. The experimental difficulties arise from the fact that most previous optical transformation optics devices only work at the nano-scale; the lack of intercomparison between data from both optical path length and ray trajectory measurement in these experiments obscured the fact that the ray path was subject to a subwavelength lateral shift that was otherwise not easily perceivable and, instead, was pointed out theoretically [B. Zhang et al. Phys. Rev. Lett. 104, 233903, (2010)]. Here, we use a simple macroscopic transformation optics device of phase-preserved optical elevator, which is a typical birefringent optical phenomenon that can virtually lift an optical image by a macroscopic distance, to demonstrate decisively the unique optical path length preservation property of transformation optics. The recovery of ray trajectory is first determined with no lateral shift in the reflected ray. The phase preservation is then verified with incoherent white-light interferometry without ambiguity and phase unwrapping. PMID:23546046

  10. PREDON Scientific Data Preservation 2014

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Diaconu, C.; Kraml, S.; Surace, C.; Chateigner, D.; Libourel, T.; Laurent, A.; Lin, Y.; Schaming, M.; Benbernou, S.; Lebbah, M.; Boucon, D.; Cérin, C.; Azzag, H.; Mouron, P.; Nief, J.-Y.; Coutin, S.; Beckmann, V.

    Scientific data collected with modern sensors or dedicated detectors exceed very often the perimeter of the initial scientific design. These data are obtained more and more frequently with large material and human efforts. A large class of scientific experiments are in fact unique because of their large scale, with very small chances to be repeated and to superseded by new experiments in the same domain: for instance high energy physics and astrophysics experiments involve multi-annual developments and a simple duplication of efforts in order to reproduce old data is simply not affordable. Other scientific experiments are in fact unique by nature: earth science, medical sciences etc. since the collected data is "time-stamped" and thereby non-reproducible by new experiments or observations. In addition, scientific data collection increased dramatically in the recent years, participating to the so-called "data deluge" and inviting for common reflection in the context of "big data" investigations. The new knowledge obtained using these data should be preserved long term such that the access and the re-use are made possible and lead to an enhancement of the initial investment. Data observatories, based on open access policies and coupled with multi-disciplinary techniques for indexing and mining may lead to truly new paradigms in science. It is therefore of outmost importance to pursue a coherent and vigorous approach to preserve the scientific data at long term. The preservation remains nevertheless a challenge due to the complexity of the data structure, the fragility of the custom-made software environments as well as the lack of rigorous approaches in workflows and algorithms. To address this challenge, the PREDON project has been initiated in France in 2012 within the MASTODONS program: a Big Data scientific challenge, initiated and supported by the Interdisciplinary Mission of the National Centre for Scientific Research (CNRS). PREDON is a study group formed by researchers from different disciplines and institutes. Several meetings and workshops lead to a rich exchange in ideas, paradigms and methods. The present document includes contributions of the participants to the PREDON Study Group, as well as invited papers, related to the scientific case, methodology and technology. This document should be read as a "facts finding" resource pointing to a concrete and significant scientific interest for long term research data preservation, as well as to cutting edge methods and technologies to achieve this goal. A sustained, coherent and long term action in the area of scientific data preservation would be highly beneficial.

  11. Acid preservation systems for food products

    SciTech Connect

    Tiberio, J. E.; Cirigiano, M. C.

    1984-10-16

    Fumaric acid is used in combination with critical amounts of acetic acid to preserve acid containing food products from microbiological spoilage in the absence of or at reduced levels of chemical preservative.

  12. Fertility Preservation Options After Gonadotoxic Chemotherapy

    PubMed Central

    Hyman, Jordana Hadassah; Tulandi, Togas

    2013-01-01

    Chemotherapy has the potential to deplete and destroy a womans reproductive potential. Although many oncologists are referring women for fertility preservation before chemotherapy, in many cases there is limited time for fertility preservation. This review provides an overview of the impact of cancer and chemotherapy on the ovarian reserve, a summary of methods of fertility preservation prior to chemotherapy, and current knowledge of fertility preservation techniques after gonadotoxic chemotherapy. PMID:24453520

  13. Preservation Planning Program. Resource Notebook. Revised Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Darling, Pamela W., Comp.

    Designed to be used with the Association of Research Libraries (ARL) "Preservation Planning Program Manual," this notebook provides access to background and technical information needed for planning and carrying out a variety of preservation programs and activities. Its contents, all drawn from the body of preservation literature available in late

  14. Preservation Assessment and Disaster Response Plan.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wisdom, Mark

    This paper addresses the preservation needs unique to small libraries, where the majority of special collections exist. A preservation survey of the Herrick Memorial Library (Wellington, OH) was conducted to ascertain the condition of its 45,000 holdings and develop a practical low-cost disaster plan. Using accepted preservation survey criteria,

  15. Basic Preservation Procedures. SPEC Kit 70.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Association of Research Libraries, Washington, DC. Office of Management Studies.

    A March 1980 Systems and Procedures Exchange Center (SPEC) survey on preservation indicated that more than half the Association of Research Libraries (ARL) membership were operating some type of active preservation program. This kit on basic preservation procedures contains policy statements, guidelines, and procedural instructions (many…

  16. Preserving mobility in older adults.

    PubMed Central

    Buchner, D M

    1997-01-01

    Age-related loss of strength contributes to impaired mobility and increases the risk of falls. Recent research has focused on 2 approaches to preventing age-related loss of strength--promoting physical activity and exercise (especially strength training) and using trophic factors to enhance muscle performance. Epidemiologic evidence strongly supports a role of regular physical activity in successful aging by preserving muscle performance, promoting mobility, and reducing fall risk. Randomized controlled trials provide convincing evidence that strength and endurance training improve muscle performance in older adults. Evidence is rapidly accumulating from randomized trials that endurance, strength, and balance training promote mobility and reduce fall risk, though exercise effects differ according to the type of exercise, details of the exercise program, and the target group of older adults. Because lifetime regular physical activity is recommended for all older adults, a reasonable strategy (especially for weak adults) is an activity program that includes strength training. In contrast, insufficient evidence exists to recommend the long-term use of trophic factors to preserve muscular performance. An intervention that merits additional study is avoiding the use of psychoactive drugs because drugs like benzodiazepines appear to be risk factors for inactivity and may have unrecognized direct effects on muscular performance. Because chronic illness is a risk factor for inactivity and disuse muscle atrophy, randomized trials comparing strength training with other interventions would be useful in understanding whether strength training has advantages in preserving muscle performance and improving health-related quality of life in a variety of chronic illnesses such as depressive illness. PMID:9348757

  17. Preservation of sweet sorghum biomass

    SciTech Connect

    Jasberg, B.K.; Montgomery, R.R.; Anderson, R.A.

    1983-01-01

    Sweet sorghum stalks (42% sugar, dry basis (d.b.)) and bagasse (10% sugar, d.b.) from a cane mill were stored to preserve sugar. Bagasse and stalks were stored outdoors in sealed containers (anaerobic conditions). Treatments included using carbon dioxide or sulfur dioxide atmospheres or surface spraying with propionic acid or aqueous ammonia. Stalks were also stored outdoors under aerobic conditions. Treatments included drying the stalks or spraying with propionic acid. After 200 days, propionic acid (anaerobic) and SO/sub 2/-treated stalks had 34% and 19% of the original sugar remaining, respectively. No other samples had more than 3% of the original sugar remaining. 28 references, 6 tables.

  18. Fertility Preservation in Gynecological Cancers

    PubMed Central

    Chhabra, Shakuntala; Kutchi, Imran

    2013-01-01

    For cancers of reproductive system in women, fertility preservation is complex. Fertility is also affected by therapies, however prevention is possible. Radiotherapy affects gonads, uterus, and subsequent pregnancy outcomes in all ages. However, degree and damage depend on dose, irradiation field, and age at the time of exposure. Ovarian transposition is considered if ovarian involvement is unlikely. Gonadotoxic effects of chemotherapy are related to agents type, cumulative doses, age, and ovarian reserve. Some agents are highly toxic. Rendering follicular development quiescent by suppression of gonadotropins does reduce the ovarian damage. Simple or radical trachelectomy can be used in early cervical cancer. Fertility saving surgery is possible only in early stage low grade epithelial cancers of the ovary, however, in germ cell tumors even in advanced stages it may be possible to preserve fertility. There are no standard recommendations for endometrial cancer. Embryo, oocyte, and ovarian tissue cryopreservation are possible. The human embryo is very resistant to damage. In view of these possibilities, it is advocated that attention to long term health and quality of life in gonadotoxic therapy must be incorporated into plans as early as possible. PMID:24453519

  19. Psychological Counseling of Female Fertility Preservation Patients.

    PubMed

    Lawson, Angela K; Klock, Susan C; Pavone, Mary Ellen; Hirshfeld-Cytron, Jennifer; Smith, Kristin N; Kazer, Ralph R

    2015-01-01

    Young cancer patients are increasingly interested in preserving their fertility prior to undergoing gonadotoxic therapies. Although the medical safety and treatment protocols for fertility preservation have been well documented, limited research has addressed the emotional issues that arise in fertility preservation patients. We briefly review the literature on the psychosocial issues in adult female fertility preservation treatment and describe our experiences within this patient population. Our findings suggest that several important issues to be addressed during the psychological counseling of adult female fertility preservation patients include: (1) preexisting psychological distress in patients undergoing treatment, (2) choice of fertility preservation strategy in the face of an uncertain relationship future, (3) decision making regarding use of third-party reproduction (e.g., sperm/egg donation, gestational surrogacy), (4) treatment expectations regarding pregnancy and miscarriage, (5) ethical issues related to treatment including the creation, cryopreservation, and disposition of embryos/oocytes, and (6) decision regret from patients who declined fertility preservation. PMID:25996581

  20. Chemical stability of preserved oligotrophic water samples

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Adomaitis, V.A.; Shoesmith, J.A.; Swanson, G.A.

    1973-01-01

    Tests were conducted to determine whether changes that may occur in the chemical characteristics of stored oligotrophic waters collected on 15 sites in northeastern Minnesota were affected by chloroforming. Chloroform was added on site to one of each pair of samples to stabilize the organic content of the water by preventing biological decomposition. The samples were subsequently stored at 25 deg.C, and pH and specific conductivity were measured at intervals for a period of 13 months at which time nine additional chemical parameters (total dissolved solids, total alkalinity, chloride, sulfate, silica, calcium, magnesium, sodium and potassium) were measured.pH increased and specific conductivity decreased. Average changes occurring in time from the original levels were not influenced by treatment, and first differed significantly (P0.05). Sodium and potassium levels were too low to provide meaningful comparisons. It was concluded that chloroform may be advantageous in preserving oligothrophic waters with respect to total dissolved solids, sulfate and calcium.

  1. Update on Dark Sky Preservation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Crawford, D. L.

    1998-12-01

    The efforts to protect dark skies for astronomy and for the public are accelerating. An increasing number of cities and states are considering and enacting outdoor lighting control ordinances. Examples of such lighting codes and a model code are available from the International Dark-Sky Association's Web page, at www.darksky.org. There will be a major meeting on Preserving the Astronomical Environment, IAU Symposium #196, co-sponsored by the United Nations, IDA, and others, to be held the week of 12 July 1999 in Vienna, Austria. Further information on this meeting (and others) can also be found on the IDA Web site, which also contains many other resources (and links to other web sites) for those interested in the issues.

  2. [Chemotherapy and women fertility preservation].

    PubMed

    Gauthier, Tristan; Piver, Pascal; Durand, Lise-Marie; Donadel, Lorne; Pech, Jean-Christophe; Roux, Christophe; Aubard, Yves

    2010-01-01

    Agressive chemotherapy can lead to premature ovarian failure and loss of fertility in women and children. Embryo cryopreservation is an established clinical procedure of fertility preservation but with several limitations. Others options are available. Cryopreservation ovarian cortex tissu have to be suggested in case of high gonadotoxic treatment. It doesn't require puberty and delay in initiation of chemotherapy. The first birth in France after orthotopic graft of ovarian tissu thawed have been recently described with a promising process. Oocyte cryopreservation is available for women without partner but the experience is limited. Gonadotrophin-releasing hormone (GnRH) agonist therapy as ovarian protectants seem interesting. Follicular growth and maturation in vitro are still experimental. PMID:20472381

  3. Boundary Preserving Dense Local Regions.

    PubMed

    Kim, Jaechul; Grauman, Kristen

    2015-05-01

    We propose a dense local region detector to extract features suitable for image matching and object recognition tasks. Whereas traditional local interest operators rely on repeatable structures that often cross object boundaries (e.g., corners, scale-space blobs), our sampling strategy is driven by segmentation, and thus preserves object boundaries and shape. At the same time, whereas existing region-based representations are sensitive to segmentation parameters and object deformations, our novel approach to robustly sample dense sites and determine their connectivity offers better repeatability. In extensive experiments, we find that the proposed region detector provides significantly better repeatability and localization accuracy for object matching compared to an array of existing feature detectors. In addition, we show our regions lead to excellent results on two benchmark tasks that require good feature matching: weakly supervised foreground discovery and nearest neighbor-based object recognition. PMID:26353319

  4. Saliva Preservative for Diagnostic Purposes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pierson, Duane L.; Mehta, Satish K.

    2012-01-01

    Saliva is an important body fluid for diagnostic purposes. Glycoproteins, glucose, steroids, DNA, and other molecules of diagnostic value are found in saliva. It is easier to collect as compared to blood or urine. Unfortunately, saliva also contains large numbers of bacteria that can release enzymes, which can degrade proteins and nucleic acids. These degradative enzymes destroy or reduce saliva s diagnostic value. This innovation describes the formulation of a chemical preservative that prevents microbial growth and inactivates the degradative enzymes. This extends the time that saliva can be stored or transported without losing its diagnostic value. Multiple samples of saliva can be collected if needed without causing discomfort to the subject and it does not require any special facilities to handle after it is collected.

  5. Integrative radiation systems biology

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Maximisation of the ratio of normal tissue preservation and tumour cell reduction is the main concept of radiotherapy alone or combined with chemo-, immuno- or biologically targeted therapy. The foremost parameter influencing this ratio is radiation sensitivity and its modulation towards a more efficient killing of tumour cells and a better preservation of normal tissue at the same time is the overall aim of modern therapy schemas. Nevertheless, this requires a deep understanding of the molecular mechanisms of radiation sensitivity in order to identify its key players as potential therapeutic targets. Moreover, the success of conventional approaches that tried to statistically associate altered radiation sensitivity with any molecular phenotype such as gene expression proofed to be somewhat limited since the number of clinically used targets is rather sparse. However, currently a paradigm shift is taking place from pure frequentistic association analysis to the rather holistic systems biology approach that seeks to mathematically model the system to be investigated and to allow the prediction of an altered phenotype as the function of one single or a signature of biomarkers. Integrative systems biology also considers the data from different molecular levels such as the genome, transcriptome or proteome in order to partially or fully comprehend the causal chain of molecular mechanisms. An example for the application of this concept currently carried out at the Clinical Cooperation Group Personalized Radiotherapy in Head and Neck Cancer of the Helmholtz-Zentrum Mnchen and the LMU Munich is described. This review article strives for providing a compact overview on the state of the art of systems biology, its actual challenges, potential applications, chances and limitations in radiation oncology research working towards improved personalised therapy concepts using this relatively new methodology. PMID:24411063

  6. Biological Filters.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Klemetson, S. L.

    1978-01-01

    Presents the 1978 literature review of wastewater treatment. The review is concerned with biological filters, and it covers: (1) trickling filters; (2) rotating biological contractors; and (3) miscellaneous reactors. A list of 14 references is also presented. (HM)

  7. Biological Agents

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Español A to Z Index Contact Us FAQs Biological Agents This page requires that javascript be enabled ... and Health Topics A-Z Index What's New Biological agents include bacteria, viruses, fungi, other microorganisms and ...

  8. Preservation of the biomedical literature: an overview.

    PubMed Central

    Byrnes, M M

    1989-01-01

    The National Library of Medicine began to preserve its collection many years ago. This article presents a brief review of NLM's early conservation and microfilming programs, and describes the current activities of the library's new Preservation Section. Also mentioned are the complementary efforts of NLM staff who are involved in research into electronic imaging and the campaign to increase the use of alkaline paper in medical and scientific publishing. Goals of the National Preservation Plan for the Biomedical Literature are summarized and a report on progress in implementing the plan is provided. Results of the preservation needs assessment described in the accompanying article by Kirkpatrick are briefly analyzed. Recent efforts of the Commission on Preservation and Access, the National Endowment for the Humanities, the Research Libraries Group, and several international associations are described in terms of their potential benefit to preservation of the biomedical literature. The need to monitor new preservation technologies and preserve materials in audiovisual and electronic formats is emphasized. It is argued that with enough coordination, cooperation, and willingness among health sciences libraries to share the costs, the goal of preserving all of the important biomedical literature can be accomplished. PMID:2758180

  9. Preservation of the biomedical literature: an overview.

    PubMed

    Byrnes, M M

    1989-07-01

    The National Library of Medicine began to preserve its collection many years ago. This article presents a brief review of NLM's early conservation and microfilming programs, and describes the current activities of the library's new Preservation Section. Also mentioned are the complementary efforts of NLM staff who are involved in research into electronic imaging and the campaign to increase the use of alkaline paper in medical and scientific publishing. Goals of the National Preservation Plan for the Biomedical Literature are summarized and a report on progress in implementing the plan is provided. Results of the preservation needs assessment described in the accompanying article by Kirkpatrick are briefly analyzed. Recent efforts of the Commission on Preservation and Access, the National Endowment for the Humanities, the Research Libraries Group, and several international associations are described in terms of their potential benefit to preservation of the biomedical literature. The need to monitor new preservation technologies and preserve materials in audiovisual and electronic formats is emphasized. It is argued that with enough coordination, cooperation, and willingness among health sciences libraries to share the costs, the goal of preserving all of the important biomedical literature can be accomplished. PMID:2758180

  10. Fertility Preservation in Children and Adolescents.

    PubMed

    Estes, Stephanie J

    2015-12-01

    Fertility preservation is the process by which either oocytes (eggs) or sperm undergo an intervention to preserve their use for future attempts at conception. Consideration of fertility preservation in the pediatric and adolescent population is important, as future childbearing is usually a central life goal. For postpubertal girls, both oocyte and embryo cryopreservation are standard of care and for postpubertal boys, sperm cryopreservation continues to be recommended. Although all the risks are unknown, it appears that fertility preservation in most cases does not worsen prognosis, allows for the birth of healthy children, and does not increase the chance of recurrence. PMID:26568494

  11. Biological Technicians

    MedlinePLUS

    ... physiology. In addition to taking courses in biology, students must study chemistry, mathematics, and physics. Computer science courses are helpful for learning how to model and simulate biological processes and for learning how ... students should take biology courses that emphasize laboratory work. ...

  12. Feature-Preserving Noise Removal.

    PubMed

    Youssef, Khalid; Jarenwattananon, Nanette N; Bouchard, Louis-S

    2015-09-01

    Conventional image restoration algorithms use transform-domain filters, which separate the noise from the sparse signal among the transform components or apply spatial smoothing filters in real space whose design relies on prior assumptions about the noise statistics. These filters also reduce the information content of the image by suppressing spatial frequencies or by recognizing only a limited set of shapes. Here we show that denoising can be efficiently done using a nonlinear filter, which operates along patch neighborhoods and multiple copies of the original image. The use of patches enables the algorithm to account for spatial correlations in the random field whereas the multiple copies are used to recognize the noise statistics. The nonlinear filter, which is implemented by a hierarchical multistage system of multilayer perceptrons, outperforms state-of-the-art denoising algorithms such as those based on collaborative filtering and total variation. Compared to conventional denoising algorithms, our filter can restore images without blurring them, making it attractive for use in medical imaging where the preservation of anatomical details is critical. PMID:25769149

  13. [Biological weapons].

    PubMed

    Kerwat, K; Becker, S; Wulf, H; Densow, D

    2010-08-01

    Biological weapons are weapons of mass destruction that use pathogens (bacteria, viruses) or the toxins produced by them to target living organisms or to contaminate non-living substances. In the past, biological warfare has been repeatedly used. Anthrax, plague and smallpox are regarded as the most dangerous biological weapons by various institutions. Nowadays it seems quite unlikely that biological warfare will be employed in any military campaigns. However, the possibility remains that biological weapons may be used in acts of bioterrorism. In addition all diseases caused by biological weapons may also occur naturally or as a result of a laboratory accident. Risk assessment with regard to biological danger often proves to be difficult. In this context, an early identification of a potentially dangerous situation through experts is essential to limit the degree of damage. PMID:20717866

  14. Enhanced cellular preservation by clay minerals in 1 billion-year-old lakes.

    PubMed

    Wacey, David; Saunders, Martin; Roberts, Malcolm; Menon, Sarath; Green, Leonard; Kong, Charlie; Culwick, Timothy; Strother, Paul; Brasier, Martin D

    2014-01-01

    Organic-walled microfossils provide the best insights into the composition and evolution of the biosphere through the first 80 percent of Earth history. The mechanism of microfossil preservation affects the quality of biological information retained and informs understanding of early Earth palaeo-environments. We here show that 1 billion-year-old microfossils from the non-marine Torridon Group are remarkably preserved by a combination of clay minerals and phosphate, with clay minerals providing the highest fidelity of preservation. Fe-rich clay mostly occurs in narrow zones in contact with cellular material and is interpreted as an early microbially-mediated phase enclosing and replacing the most labile biological material. K-rich clay occurs within and exterior to cell envelopes, forming where the supply of Fe had been exhausted. Clay minerals inter-finger with calcium phosphate that co-precipitated with the clays in the sub-oxic zone of the lake sediments. This type of preservation was favoured in sulfate-poor environments where Fe-silicate precipitation could outcompete Fe-sulfide formation. This work shows that clay minerals can provide an exceptionally high fidelity of microfossil preservation and extends the known geological range of this fossilization style by almost 500 Ma. It also suggests that the best-preserved microfossils of this time may be found in low-sulfate environments. PMID:25068404

  15. Retrieval analysis of motion preserving spinal devices and periprosthetic tissues

    PubMed Central

    Kurtz, Steven M.; Steinbeck, Marla; Ianuzzi, Allyson; van Ooij, Andr; Punt, Ilona M.; Isaza, Jorge; Ross, E.R.S.

    2009-01-01

    This article reviews certain practical aspects of retrieval analysis for motion preserving spinal implants and periprosthetic tissues as an essential component of the overall revision strategy for these implants. At our institution, we established an international repository for motion-preserving spine implants in 2004. Our repository is currently open to all spine surgeons, and is intended to be inclusive of all cervical and lumbar implant designs such as artificial discs and posterior dynamic stabilization devices. Although a wide range of alternative materials is being investigated for nonfusion spine implants, many of the examples in this review are drawn from our existing repository of metal-on-polyethylene, metal-on-metal lumbar total disc replacements (TDRs), and polyurethane-based dynamic motion preservation devices. These devices are already approved or nearing approval for use in the United States, and hence are the most clinically relevant at the present time. This article summarizes the current literature on the retrieval analysis of these implants and concludes with recommendations for the development of new test methods that are based on the current state of knowledge of in vivo wear and damage mechanisms. Furthermore, the relevance and need to evaluate the surrounding tissue to obtain a complete understanding of the biological reaction to implant component corrosion and wear is reviewed. PMID:25802641

  16. GUIDES TO POLLUTION PREVENTION: WOOD PRESERVING INDUSTRY

    EPA Science Inventory

    This guide provides an overview of the wood preserving industry and presents options for minimizing waste generation through source,reduction and recycling. reatment with both oilborne and waterborne preservatives is discussed in this guide. owever, because in the United States, ...

  17. Corn, alfalfa and grass silage preservation principles

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Ensiling is the primary means of preserving moist forages for feeding livestock. In ensiling, the crop is stored anaerobically, and sugars in the crop are fermented by lactic acid bacteria naturally on the crop. The crop is preserved by the combination of the acids produced by the lactic acid bacter...

  18. Emerging concepts in liver graft preservation.

    PubMed

    Bejaoui, Mohamed; Pantazi, Eirini; Folch-Puy, Emma; Baptista, Pedro M; Garca-Gil, Agustn; Adam, Ren; Rosell-Catafau, Joan

    2015-01-14

    The urgent need to expand the donor pool in order to attend to the growing demand for liver transplantation has obliged physicians to consider the use of suboptimal liver grafts and also to redefine the preservation strategies. This review examines the different methods of liver graft preservation, focusing on the latest advances in both static cold storage and machine perfusion (MP). The new strategies for static cold storage are mainly designed to increase the fatty liver graft preservation via the supplementation of commercial organ preservation solutions with additives. In this paper we stress the importance of carrying out effective graft washout after static cold preservation, and present a detailed discussion of the future perspectives for dynamic graft preservation using MP at different temperatures (hypothermia at 4?C, normothermia at 37?C and subnormothermia at 20?C-25?C). Finally, we highlight some emerging applications of regenerative medicine in liver graft preservation. In conclusion, this review discusses the "state of the art" and future perspectives in static and dynamic liver graft preservation in order to improve graft viability. PMID:25593455

  19. Historic Preservation Vocabulary, Designations, and Resources

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Williams, Stacy D.

    2011-01-01

    Preservationists use a common language that had its beginnings in the National Historic Preservation Act of 1966. This act created the Secretary of the Interior's Standards for the Treatment of Historic Properties, which defined the terms and treatments that have become the standard for preservation projects and plans. These terms have been used

  20. Home Food Preservation Training for Extension Educators

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goard, Linnette Mizer; Hill, Melinda; Shumaker, Katharine; Warrix, Marisa

    2013-01-01

    During times of economic downturn, there has been an increased interest in home food preservation. As the primary resource for current research-based recommendations, a team of Extension Family and Consumer Sciences educators with specialization in food safety and food preservation responded to this demand by developing a standardized food…

  1. Library Preservation in 1986: An Annotated Bibliography.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Montori, Carla J.

    1987-01-01

    This extensive annotated bibliography of publications on library materials preservation lists conference proceedings, program reports, and articles on a broad spectrum of topics including: (1) standards; (2) selection for preservation; (3) commercial library binding; (4) conservation treatments; (5) reformatting; (6) research; (7) emergencies; (8)

  2. Digital Imaging and a Balanced Preservation Program.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bruer, John Michael

    1998-01-01

    Examines digital imaging and preservation (i.e., activities associated with maintaining library, archival, or museum materials for use, either in original physical form or in some other format); discusses problems and underlying causes associated with incorporating digital imaging as a preservation methodology; and lists questions to answer before

  3. Working Together: Case Studies in Cooperative Preservation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stevenson, Condict Gaye

    This report examines regional and/or state cooperative preservation programs and related activities. The major part of the report is given over to case studies that present a synopsis of the key structural and program elements of cooperative preservation initiatives. These case studies include the: Office of Library and Archival Materials

  4. WOOD PRESERVING INDUSTRY MULTIMEDIA EMISSION INVENTORY

    EPA Science Inventory

    Restriction of the discharge of wastewater generated during the preservation of wood has resulted in the increased use of evaporation techniques by the wood preserving industry. This report discusses emissions that may occur during evaporation and projects the pollutant burden on...

  5. SYNERGISTIC WOOD PRESERVATIVES FOR REPLACEMENT OF CCA

    EPA Science Inventory

    The objective of this project was to evaluate the potential synergistic combinations of environmentally-safe biocides as wood preservatives. These wood preservatives could be potential replacements for the heavy-metal based CCA.

    Didecyldimethylammonium chloride [DDAC] was...

  6. Positivity preserving rational cubic Ball constrained interpolation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tahat, Ayser Nasir Hassan; Mt Piah, Abd Rahni; Yahya, Zainor Ridzuan

    2014-07-01

    A smooth curve interpolation scheme for positive data is developed. Conditions have been incorporated into this scheme to preserve the shape of the data lying above a line. This scheme uses rational cubic Ball representation. Conditions are derived for preserving positivity and C1 continuity. The outputs from a number of numerical experiments are presented.

  7. Preservation of Mohave History and Culture.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tsosie, Michael

    This report represents a project required by the Americans for Indian Opportunity Ambassador Program. The project involved the preservation of Mohave culture for the Mohave tribe, one of four tribes of the Colorado River Indian Tribes reservation. Preservation requires equal access to information as well as the freedom to disseminate information…

  8. Whale Preservation. Grades Five to Nine.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Racicot, Darlene

    Dedicated to the conservation and preservation of whales, dolphins, and porpoises through public education, this instructional unit for grades 5-9 provides current (1993) facts, lesson plans, activities, and conservation and preservation techniques. Interdisciplinary activities involve students in debates, critical thinking, research, and

  9. A Big Problem for Magellan: Food Preservation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Galvao, Cecilia; Reis, Pedro; Freire, Sofia

    2008-01-01

    In this paper, we present data related to how a Portuguese teacher developed the module "A big problem for Magellan: Food preservation." Students were asked to plan an investigation in order to identify which were the best food preservation methods in the XV and XVI centuries of Portuguese overseas navigation, and then establish a parallel between…

  10. Long-term preservation of Anammox bacteria

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Deposit of useful microorganisms in culture collections requires long-term preservation and successful reactivation techniques. The goal of this study was to develop a simple preservation protocol for the long-term storage and reactivation of the anammox biomass. To achieve this, anammox biomass w...

  11. 20 CFR 638.304 - Historical preservation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 638.304 Historical preservation. The Job Corps Director shall review the National Register of... Register of Historic Places at 36 CFR part 800. ... 20 Employees' Benefits 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Historical preservation. 638.304 Section...

  12. 7 CFR 782.14 - Identity preservation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 782.14 Identity preservation. (a) The importer and all subsequent buyers of the imported wheat shall preserve the identity of the Canadian-produced wheat. (b) Canadian-produced wheat may only be commingled with U.S.-produced wheat by the end user, or when loaded onto a conveyance for direct delivery to...

  13. 7 CFR 782.14 - Identity preservation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 782.14 Identity preservation. (a) The importer and all subsequent buyers of the imported wheat shall preserve the identity of the Canadian-produced wheat. (b) Canadian-produced wheat may only be commingled with U.S.-produced wheat by the end user, or when loaded onto a conveyance for direct delivery to...

  14. 32 CFR 174.18 - Historic preservation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... the regulations implementing the National Historic Preservation Act (36 CFR 800.5(a)(2)(vii)). One way... real property interest in the form of a restrictive covenant or preservation easement) in any deed or... encumbering the property with such a covenant or easement. (b) Before including such a covenant or easement...

  15. 32 CFR 174.18 - Historic preservation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... the regulations implementing the National Historic Preservation Act (36 CFR 800.5(a)(2)(vii)). One way... real property interest in the form of a restrictive covenant or preservation easement) in any deed or... encumbering the property with such a covenant or easement. (b) Before including such a covenant or easement...

  16. 32 CFR 174.18 - Historic preservation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... the regulations implementing the National Historic Preservation Act (36 CFR 800.5(a)(2)(vii)). One way... real property interest in the form of a restrictive covenant or preservation easement) in any deed or... encumbering the property with such a covenant or easement. (b) Before including such a covenant or easement...

  17. 32 CFR 174.18 - Historic preservation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... the regulations implementing the National Historic Preservation Act (36 CFR 800.5(a)(2)(vii)). One way... real property interest in the form of a restrictive covenant or preservation easement) in any deed or... encumbering the property with such a covenant or easement. (b) Before including such a covenant or easement...

  18. 32 CFR 174.18 - Historic preservation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... the regulations implementing the National Historic Preservation Act (36 CFR 800.5(a)(2)(vii)). One way... real property interest in the form of a restrictive covenant or preservation easement) in any deed or... encumbering the property with such a covenant or easement. (b) Before including such a covenant or easement...

  19. Whale Preservation. Grades Five to Nine.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Racicot, Darlene

    Dedicated to the conservation and preservation of whales, dolphins, and porpoises through public education, this instructional unit for grades 5-9 provides current (1993) facts, lesson plans, activities, and conservation and preservation techniques. Interdisciplinary activities involve students in debates, critical thinking, research, and…

  20. Digital Preservation and Metadata: History, Theory, Practice.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lazinger, Susan S.

    This book addresses critical issues of digital preservation, providing guidelines for protecting resources from dealing with obsolescence, to responsibilities, methods of preservation, cost, and metadata formats. It also shows numerous national and international institutions that provide frameworks for digital libraries and archives. The first

  1. Home Food Preservation Training for Extension Educators

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goard, Linnette Mizer; Hill, Melinda; Shumaker, Katharine; Warrix, Marisa

    2013-01-01

    During times of economic downturn, there has been an increased interest in home food preservation. As the primary resource for current research-based recommendations, a team of Extension Family and Consumer Sciences educators with specialization in food safety and food preservation responded to this demand by developing a standardized food

  2. Building a New Historic Preservation Trades Program

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Deeg, Rhonda L.

    2005-01-01

    This article describes the experiences of the program coordinator of a new two-year preservation trades program at Harford Community College in Bel Air, Maryland. The two-year associate in applied sciences degree offered at Harford Community College (HCC) is a Technical Professional Studies program in Building Preservation and Restoration (BPR).

  3. Preservation of hides using low salt methods

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Effective, environmentally friendly, economical preservation of hides for shipping to hide processing plants is a major concern to the hides and skins industry. Raw hides are traditionally preserved with a high amount of salt before they are stored and shipped to tanneries to be processed into leat...

  4. Digital Preservation and Metadata: History, Theory, Practice.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lazinger, Susan S.

    This book addresses critical issues of digital preservation, providing guidelines for protecting resources from dealing with obsolescence, to responsibilities, methods of preservation, cost, and metadata formats. It also shows numerous national and international institutions that provide frameworks for digital libraries and archives. The first…

  5. 7 CFR 782.14 - Identity preservation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 782.14 Identity preservation. (a) The importer and all subsequent buyers of the imported wheat shall preserve the identity of the Canadian-produced wheat. (b) Canadian-produced wheat may only be commingled with U.S.-produced wheat by the end user, or when loaded onto a conveyance for direct delivery to...

  6. 78 FR 30810 - Paleontological Resources Preservation

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-05-23

    ...The U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA) is proposing to implement regulations under the Omnibus Public Land Management Act of 2009 paleontological resources preservation subtitle (the Act). This proposed rule would provide for the preservation, management, and protection of paleontological resources on Federal lands, and insure that these resources are available for current and future......

  7. Problems in the Preservation of Electronic Records.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lin, Lim Siew; Ramaiah, Chennupati K.; Wal, Pitt Kuan

    2003-01-01

    Discusses issues related to the preservation of electronic records. Highlights include differences between physical and electronic records; volume of electronic records; physical media; authenticity; migration of electronic records; metadata; legal issues; improved storage media; and projects for preservation of electronic records. (LRW)

  8. Emerging concepts in liver graft preservation

    PubMed Central

    Bejaoui, Mohamed; Pantazi, Eirini; Folch-Puy, Emma; Baptista, Pedro M; García-Gil, Agustín; Adam, René; Roselló-Catafau, Joan

    2015-01-01

    The urgent need to expand the donor pool in order to attend to the growing demand for liver transplantation has obliged physicians to consider the use of suboptimal liver grafts and also to redefine the preservation strategies. This review examines the different methods of liver graft preservation, focusing on the latest advances in both static cold storage and machine perfusion (MP). The new strategies for static cold storage are mainly designed to increase the fatty liver graft preservation via the supplementation of commercial organ preservation solutions with additives. In this paper we stress the importance of carrying out effective graft washout after static cold preservation, and present a detailed discussion of the future perspectives for dynamic graft preservation using MP at different temperatures (hypothermia at 4 °C, normothermia at 37 °C and subnormothermia at 20 °C-25 °C). Finally, we highlight some emerging applications of regenerative medicine in liver graft preservation. In conclusion, this review discusses the “state of the art” and future perspectives in static and dynamic liver graft preservation in order to improve graft viability. PMID:25593455

  9. 7 CFR 782.14 - Identity preservation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 782.14 Identity preservation. (a) The importer and all subsequent buyers of the imported wheat shall preserve the identity of the Canadian-produced wheat. (b) Canadian-produced wheat may only be commingled with U.S.-produced wheat by the end user, or when loaded onto a conveyance for direct delivery to...

  10. 7 CFR 782.14 - Identity preservation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 782.14 Identity preservation. (a) The importer and all subsequent buyers of the imported wheat shall preserve the identity of the Canadian-produced wheat. (b) Canadian-produced wheat may only be commingled with U.S.-produced wheat by the end user, or when loaded onto a conveyance for direct delivery to...

  11. Preservation in the Age of Google: Digitization, Digital Preservation, and Dilemmas

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Conway, Paul

    2010-01-01

    The cultural heritage preservation community now functions largely within the environment of digital technologies. This article begins by juxtaposing definitions of the terms "digitization for preservation" and "digital preservation" within a sociotechnical environment for which Google serves as a relevant metaphor. It then reviews two reports…

  12. Preservation in the Age of Google: Digitization, Digital Preservation, and Dilemmas

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Conway, Paul

    2010-01-01

    The cultural heritage preservation community now functions largely within the environment of digital technologies. This article begins by juxtaposing definitions of the terms "digitization for preservation" and "digital preservation" within a sociotechnical environment for which Google serves as a relevant metaphor. It then reviews two reports

  13. Fertility preservation in female cancer patients.

    PubMed

    Kim, Chung-Hoon; Jeon, Gyun-Ho

    2012-01-01

    With improved survival rates among cancer patients, fertility preservation is now being recognized as an issue of great importance. There are currently several methods of fertility preservation available in female cancer patients and the options and techniques via assisted reproduction and cryopreservation are increasing, but some are still experimental and continues to be evaluated. The established means of preserving fertility include embryo cryopreservation, gonadal shielding during radiation therapy, ovarian transposition, conservative gynecologic surgery such as radical trachelectomy, donor embryos/oocytes, gestational surrogacy, and adoption. The experimental methods include oocyte cryopreservation, ovarian cryopreservation and transplantation, in vitro maturation, and ovarian suppression. With advances in methods for the preservation of fertility, providing information about risk of infertility and possible options of fertility preservation to all young patients with cancer, and discussing future fertility with them should be also considered as one of the important parts of consultation at the time of cancer diagnosis. PMID:22462006

  14. Fertility Preservation in Female Cancer Patients

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Chung-Hoon; Jeon, Gyun-Ho

    2012-01-01

    With improved survival rates among cancer patients, fertility preservation is now being recognized as an issue of great importance. There are currently several methods of fertility preservation available in female cancer patients and the options and techniques via assisted reproduction and cryopreservation are increasing, but some are still experimental and continues to be evaluated. The established means of preserving fertility include embryo cryopreservation, gonadal shielding during radiation therapy, ovarian transposition, conservative gynecologic surgery such as radical trachelectomy, donor embryos/oocytes, gestational surrogacy, and adoption. The experimental methods include oocyte cryopreservation, ovarian cryopreservation and transplantation, in vitro maturation, and ovarian suppression. With advances in methods for the preservation of fertility, providing information about risk of infertility and possible options of fertility preservation to all young patients with cancer, and discussing future fertility with them should be also considered as one of the important parts of consultation at the time of cancer diagnosis. PMID:22462006

  15. Preservation of high resolution protein structure by cryo-electron microscopy of vitreous sections

    PubMed Central

    Sader, Kasim; Studer, Daniel; Zuber, Benot; Gnaegi, Helmut; Trinick, John

    2009-01-01

    We have quantitated the degree of structural preservation in cryo-sections of a vitrified biological specimen. Previous studies have used sections of periodic specimens to assess the resolution present, but preservation before sectioning was not assessed and so the damage due particularly to cutting was not clear. In this study large single crystals of lysozyme were vitrified and from these X-ray diffraction patterns extending to better than 2.1 were obtained. The crystals were high pressure frozen in 30% dextran, and cryo-sectioned using a diamond knife. In the best case, preservation to a resolution of 7.9 was shown by electron diffraction, the first observation of sub-nanometre structural preservation in a vitreous section. PMID:19819624

  16. [The study of fatty acid composition of terpug during preserve's production].

    PubMed

    Cherevan, E I; Tsybul'ko, E I

    2003-01-01

    The results of research of fatty acids composition of Terpug, during the producing of preserves in souses and aspics, which are got using the method of gas liquid chromatography. It is known that during the marinating process of Terpug there is no the oxidizing destruction of lipids of muscular tissue of fish. The kind of aspic influences on fatty acids composition of preserves of Terpug. The process of ripening and storing of preserves of fish leads to the diffusion, in particular the sorption of components of aspic with fish. This process increases nutrient density, proportion W3 cem/W6 cem acids it is close to optimal meaning, testifies to high biological value of preserves. PMID:12872659

  17. Anatomic Single-Bundle Anterior Cruciate Ligament Reconstruction With Remnant Preservation Using Outside-In Technique

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Byung-Ill; Kwon, Sai-Won; Choi, Hyung-Suk; Chun, Dong-Il; Kim, Yong-Beom; Kim, Byoung-Min

    2015-01-01

    This report describes a modified anatomic single-bundle anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) reconstruction technique using the FlipCutter guide pin (Arthrex, Naples, FL) as a retrograde drill and a cortical suspensory fixation device (TightRope; Arthrex) with an adjustable graft loop length. Preservation of the ACL remnant as a biological sleeve for the graft is an important issue from the viewpoints of acceleration of revascularization and ligamentization, preservation of the proprioceptive nerve fibers, enhancement of the biological environment for healing, and maintenance of the anchor point at the native tibial attachment, in addition to yielding a lower incidence of tibial bone tunnel enlargement. The goal of our technique is to obtain some advantages of the remnant-preserving technique through an anatomic single-bundle ACL reconstruction, which is performed to minimize damage to the ACL tibial remnant. PMID:26759771

  18. [Adverse reactions to food preservatives].

    PubMed

    Hernndez Garca, J; Negro Alvarez, J M; Garca Sells, F J; Pagn Alemn, J A

    1986-01-01

    We relate our experiences about the number of exacerbations that certain food preservatives such as sorbic acid, benzoic acid, sodium benzoate, metabisulfite and sodium nitrate can provoke in 62 patients affected with ASA-triad in steroid dependent intrinsic asthma with nasal polyps and acute bronchospasm caused by aspirin ingestion, and in 80 patients with chronic urticaria (C.U.) as well as the first assays of the possible usefulness of the HRT (Histamine release test automatized using whole blood) for the etiologic diagnosis process. In the cases of ASA-triad, and after the ingestion of aspirin (alternating with lactose in identical capsule), we consider the result as positive when the reduction of FEV1 is superior to 20% from its baseline value. Regarding the cases of C.U., the symptoms always exacerbate twice as much with the same substance within 24 hours of its administration. We have performed the HRT on 59 patients (14 with ASA-triad, 11 with steroid dependent intrinsic asthma; 20 with C.U. were negative to oral intake of analgesics/additives and 14 with C.U. showed positive results). Successive dilutions were incubated for 30 minutes using: pyrazolones, acetylsalicylate of lysine, sodium salicylate, sodium benzoate and 4-hydroxybenzoic acid which did not produce liberation of histamine in 100 controlled individuals. All the determinations were done in duplicate, considering positive those superior to 20% of the difference between total and basal histamine. We have not observed any significant descent of the FEV1 with benzoate and salicylate in our group of 62 patients with ASA-triad, nor any manifestations presented with sodium metabisulfite, sodium nitrate and sorbic acid.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:2421566

  19. Personal care product preservatives: risk assessment and mixture toxicities with an industrial wastewater.

    PubMed

    Carbajo, Jose B; Perdigón-Melón, Jose A; Petre, Alice L; Rosal, Roberto; Letón, Pedro; García-Calvo, Eloy

    2015-04-01

    The aquatic toxicity of eight preservatives frequently used in personal care products (PCPs) (iodopropynyl butylcarbamate, bronopol, diazolidinyl urea, benzalkonium chloride, zinc pyrithione, propylparaben, triclosan and a mixture of methylchloroisothiazolinone and methylisothiazolinone) was assessed by means of two different approaches: a battery of bioassays composed of single species tests of bacteria (Vibrio fischeri and Pseudomonas putida) and protozoa (Tetrahymena thermophila), and a whole biological community resazurin-based assay using activated sludge. The tested preservatives showed considerable toxicity in the studied bioassays, but with a marked difference in potency. In fact, all biocides except propylparaben and diazolidinyl urea had EC50 values lower than 1 mg L(-1) in at least one assay. Risk quotients for zinc pyrithione, benzalkonium chloride, iodopropynyl butylcarbamate and triclosan as well as the mixture of the studied preservatives exceeded 1, indicating a potential risk for the process performance and efficiency of municipal sewage treatment plants (STPs). These four single biocides explained more than 95% of the preservative mixture risk in all bioassays. Each individual preservative was also tested in combination with an industrial wastewater (IWW) from a cosmetics manufacturing facility. The toxicity assessment was performed on binary mixtures (preservative + IWW) and carried out using the median-effect principle, which is a special case of the concept of Concentration Addition (CA). Almost 70% of all experiments resulted in EC50 values within a factor of 2 of the values predicted by the median-effect principle (CI values between 0.5 and 2). The rest of the mixtures whose toxicity was mispredicted by CA were assessed with the alternative concept of Independent Action (IA), which showed higher predictive power for the biological community assay. Therefore, the concept used to accurately predict the toxicity of mixtures of a preservative with a complex industrial wastewater depends on degree of biological complexity. PMID:25585550

  20. Addressing the Problem of Poorly Preserved Zoological Specimens: A Case Study with Turtles

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thomas, Robert A.; Thomas, Aime K.

    2015-01-01

    We present a new use for a poorly preserved turtle specimen that teachers can easily use in demonstrating vertebrate anatomy or adaptive herpetology at the high school or college level. We give special attention to illustrating the sigmoid flexure of the neck as certain turtles withdraw their heads. This ability is anatomically and biologically

  1. Systems Biology

    SciTech Connect

    Wiley, H S.

    2006-06-01

    The biology revolution over the last 50 years has been driven by the ascendancy of molecular biology. This was enthusiastically embraced by most biologists because it took us into increasingly familiar territory. It took mysterious processes, such as the replication of genetic material and assigned them parts that could be readily understood by the human mind. When we think of ''molecular machines'' as being the underlying basis of life, we are using a paradigm derived from everyday experience. However, the price that we paid was a relentless drive towards reductionism and the attendant balkanization of biology. Now along comes ''systems biology'' that promises us a solution to the problem of ''knowing more and more about less and less''. Unlike molecular biology, systems biology appears to be taking us into unfamiliar intellectual territory, such as statistics, mathematics and computer modeling. Not surprisingly, systems biology has met with widespread skepticism and resistance. Why do we need systems biology anyway and how does this new area of research promise to change the face of biology in the next couple of decades?

  2. Preservation techniques for human semen.

    PubMed

    Thachil, J V; Jewett, M A

    1981-05-01

    Sperm banking with the relatively simple and economical biologic freezer (Linde BF-5; Union Carbide Corporation, Linde Division, New York, N.Y.) was compared with controlled-rate freezer (Linde CRF-1; Union Carbide), using different freezing rates and cryoprotective media. The results were assessed by comparing prefreeze and post-thaw sperm motility. Our results demonstrate a significant loss of sperm motility with both techniques; however (1) complex cryoprotective medium (CPM) containing egg yolk produced better results than did 10% glycerol, (2) the rate of freezing at 10 degrees C versus 1 degrees C/minute did not produce a significant difference, and (3) results with the controlled-rate freezer and BF-5 were similar. We therefore conclude that sperm banking can be accomplished in a relatively simple and reliable way by using the BF-5 and CPM. PMID:7227570

  3. Cracks preserve kimberlite melt composition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brett, R. C.; Vigouroux-Caillibot, N.; Donovan, J. J.; Russell, K.

    2009-12-01

    The chemical composition of kimberlite melts has previously been estimated by measuring aphanitic intrusive rocks (deposit composition) or by partial melting experiments on carbonated lherzolites (source composition). Pervasively altered, degassed and contaminated material preclude the determination of the primitive melt composition. Here we present data on melt compositions trapped in unaltered olivine cracks that have been healed and overgrown prior to shallow level emplacement. During the ascent of kimberlite magma the prograding crack tip samples mantle peridotite xenoliths. Xenoliths rapidly disaggregate over the first few kilometers of transport producing a population of olivine xenocrysts that are released to the fluid-rich melt. Rapid ascent of the kimberlite magma causes depressurization and creates internal elastic stresses in the olivine crystals that can only be alleviated by volumetric expansion or brittle failure. On the time scales operative during kimberlite ascent volume expansion is negligible and brittle failure occurs. Small wetting angles between the fluid-rich melt and olivine allow infiltration of the melt into the crack. These very thin cracks (<5 m) heal rapidly and preserve primary kimberlitic material en route to the surface. We use the electron microprobe with a focused beam (interaction volume less than 2 m) to analyze the small volumes of material found in the healed cracks of the olivine. We analyzed for 18 elements including oxygen, which we obtained by utilizing a non-linear time dependent intensity acquisition and empirically determined mass absorption coefficients. By accurately knowing the amount of oxygen in a sample, we assign oxygen molecules to all other analyzed elements (e.g. MgO, Al2O3) and the remaining oxygen is assigned to hydrogen and carbon. The analysis total is used as a constraint on the proportion of each species. Mg/Ca ratios of the cracks vary from 0.6-5 indicating a compositional continuum between alkali-poor, carbonate-rich melt and Mg-rich silicate melt. OH/CO2 ratios (0-7) and other volatiles (S, F, Cl) are variable and do not correlate with any of the other major elements, consistent with a variably degassed fluid phase. Element associations indicated that Ca, Ni, Ba and Sr co-vary and are inversely related to Mg, Si, Fe, (and several other minor elements). In summary, crack-filling material is Ca and Mg-rich (up to 55 wt.% CaO+MgO), silica-poor (11-32 wt.% SiO2) and are volatile rich ( up to 28 wt.%).

  4. Fertility preservation in female classic galactosemia patients

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Almost every female classic galactosemia patient develops primary ovarian insufficiency (POI) as a diet-independent complication of the disease. This is a major concern for patients and their parents, and physicians are often asked about possible options to preserve fertility. Unfortunately, there are no recommendations on fertility preservation in this group. The unique pathophysiology of classic galactosemia with a severely reduced follicle pool at an early age requires an adjusted approach. In this article recommendations for physicians based on current knowledge concerning galactosemia and fertility preservation are made. Fertility preservation is only likely to be successful in very young prepubertal patients. In this group, cryopreservation of ovarian tissue is currently the only available technique. However, this technique is not ready for clinical application, it is considered experimental and reduces the ovarian reserve. Fertility preservation at an early age also raises ethical questions that should be taken into account. In addition, spontaneous conception despite POI is well described in classic galactosemia. The uncertainty surrounding fertility preservation and the significant chance of spontaneous pregnancy warrant counseling towards conservative application of these techniques. We propose that fertility preservation should only be offered with appropriate institutional research ethics approval to classic galactosemia girls at a young prepubertal age. PMID:23866841

  5. Preservation and transplantation of porcine testis tissue

    PubMed Central

    Zeng, W.; Snedaker, A. K.; Megee, S.; Rathi, R.; Chen, F.; Honaramooz, A.; Dobrinski, I.

    2009-01-01

    Grafting of immature mammalian testis tissue to mouse hosts can preserve the male germline. To make this approach applicable to a clinical or field situation, it is imperative that the testis tissue and/or spermatozoa harvested from grafted tissue are preserved successfully. The aim of the present study was to evaluate protocols for the preservation of testis tissue in a porcine model. Testis tissue was stored at 4C for short-term preservation or cryopreserved by slow-freezing, automated slow-freezing or vitrification for long-term storage. Preserved tissue was transplanted ectopically to mouse hosts and recovered xenografts were analysed histologically. In addition, spermatozoa were harvested from xenografts and cryopreserved. Total cell viability and germ cell viability remained high after tissue preservation. Complete spermatogenesis occurred in xenografts preserved by cooling up to 48 h, whereas spermatogenesis progressed to round spermatids in the xenografts that were frozenthawed before grafting. Approximately 50% of spermatozoa harvested from xenografts remained viable after freezing and thawing. The in vivo developmental potential of cryopreserved tissue was reduced despite high post-thaw viability. Therefore, it is important to evaluate germ cell differentiation in vivo in addition to cell viability in vitro when optimising freezing protocols for testis tissue. PMID:19261226

  6. Is synthetic biology mechanical biology?

    PubMed

    Holm, Sune

    2015-12-01

    A widespread and influential characterization of synthetic biology emphasizes that synthetic biology is the application of engineering principles to living systems. Furthermore, there is a strong tendency to express the engineering approach to organisms in terms of what seems to be an ontological claim: organisms are machines. In the paper I investigate the ontological and heuristic significance of the machine analogy in synthetic biology. I argue that the use of the machine analogy and the aim of producing rationally designed organisms does not necessarily imply a commitment to mechanical biology. The ideal of applying engineering principles to biology is best understood as expressing recognition of the machine-unlikeness of natural organisms and the limits of human cognition. The paper suggests an interpretation of the identification of organisms with machines in synthetic biology according to which it expresses a strategy for representing, understanding, and constructing living systems that are more machine-like than natural organisms. PMID:26205204

  7. Fertility Preservation Methods in Breast Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Peccatori, Fedro A.; Pup, Lino Del; Salvagno, Francesca; Guido, Maurizio; Sarno, Maria A.; Revelli, Alberto; Piane, Luisa Delle; Dolfin, Elisabetta; Franchi, Dorella; Molinari, Emanuela; Immediata, Valentina; Chiavari, Leonora; Vucetich, Alessandra; Borini, Andrea

    2012-01-01

    Thanks to the recent advances in reproductive medicine, more and more young women with breast cancer may be offered the possibility of preserving their fertility. Fertility can be endangered by chemotherapy, by treatment duration and by patient's age at diagnosis. The currently available means to preserve a young woman's fertility are pharmacological protection with gonadotrophin-releasing hormone analogues during chemotherapy, and ovarian tissue or oocyte/embryo freezing before treatment. New future venues, including in vitro maturation, will improve the feasibility and efficacy of the fertility preservation methods in breast cancer patients. PMID:22872792

  8. Preservative cytotoxicity to cultured corneal epithelial cells.

    PubMed

    Neville, R; Dennis, P; Sens, D; Crouch, R

    1986-05-01

    Cultured human and rat corneal epithelial cells with 51Cr incorporated were used as a model to test the cytolytic action of four common preservatives. Benzalkonium chloride, chlorohexidine and thimerosol were all found to lyse greater than 40% cells when incubated for fifteen minutes at concentrations in clinical use in topical ophthalmic medications. Chlorobutanol is the only preservative tested which has a low level of cytotoxicity (10%) and which, under these conditions, can be considered a safe preservative using cytolytic activity as the means of criteria. PMID:3720343

  9. Preservation Methods Utilized for Space Food

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vodovotz, Yael; Bourland, Charles

    2000-01-01

    Food for manned space flight has been provided by NASA-Johnson Space Center since 1962. The various mission scenarios and space craft designs dictated the type of food preservation methodologies required to meet mission objectives. The preservation techniques used in space flight include freeze-dehydration, thermostabilization, irradiation, freezing and moisture adjustment. Innovative packaging material and techniques enhanced the shelf-stability of the food items. Future space voyages may include extended duration exploration missions requiring new packaging materials and advanced preservation techniques to meet mission goals of up to 5-year shelf-life foods.

  10. Scientific Data Preservation, Copyright and Open Science

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mouron, Philippe

    The purpose of this paper is to sum up the terms of a discussion about the legal aspects of scientific data preservation. This discussion was presented at the Marseille workshop organized on November 14th. This paper is only a basis for forthcoming works about the main project of preserving scientific data (PREDONx). The paper is focused on intellectual property rights, such as copyright or patent, and their effect on the use of scientific data. Open Science appears to be the best way to ensure the preservation, but also the publication, of scientific data.

  11. Biology Notes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    School Science Review, 1982

    1982-01-01

    Describes laboratory procedures, demonstrations, and classroom activities/materials, including use of dwarf cichlids (fishes) in secondary school biology, teaching edge effects on stomatal diffusion, computer program on effects of selection on gene frequencies, biological oxidation/reduction reactions, short cuts with Drosophila, computer program…

  12. Biology Notes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    School Science Review, 1982

    1982-01-01

    Describes laboratory procedures, demonstrations, and classroom activities/materials, including use of dwarf cichlids (fishes) in secondary school biology, teaching edge effects on stomatal diffusion, computer program on effects of selection on gene frequencies, biological oxidation/reduction reactions, short cuts with Drosophila, computer program

  13. Biology Notes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    School Science Review, 1983

    1983-01-01

    Describes laboratory procedures, demonstrations, and classroom activities/materials, including chi-square tests on a microcomputer, an integrated biology game, microscope slides of leaf stomata, culturing soil nematodes, technique for watering locust egg-laying tubes, hazards of biological chemicals (such as benzene, benzidene, calchicine,

  14. Biology Notes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    School Science Review, 1982

    1982-01-01

    Presents procedures, exercises, demonstrations, and information on a variety of biology topics including labeling systems, biological indicators of stream pollution, growth of lichens, reproductive capacity of bulbous buttercups, a straw balance to measure transpiration, interaction of fungi, osmosis, and nitrogen fixation and crop production. (DC)

  15. Biology Notes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    School Science Review, 1983

    1983-01-01

    Describes laboratory procedures, demonstrations, and classroom activities/materials, including chi-square tests on a microcomputer, an integrated biology game, microscope slides of leaf stomata, culturing soil nematodes, technique for watering locust egg-laying tubes, hazards of biological chemicals (such as benzene, benzidene, calchicine,…

  16. Biology Notes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    School Science Review, 1978

    1978-01-01

    Presents experiments, demonstrations, activities and ideas relating to various fields of biology to be used in biology courses in secondary schools. Among those experiments presented are demonstrating the early stages of ferns and mosses and simple culture methods for fern prothalli. (HM)

  17. TREATABILITY STUDIES FOR WOOD PRESERVING SITES

    EPA Science Inventory

    The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), National Risk Management Research Laboratory (NRMRL), Site Management Support Branch, conducted a comprehensive treatability project for wood preserving sites in 1995 and 1996. This is a compilation report on the treatability studi...

  18. Color-preserving daytime radiative cooling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhu, Linxiao; Raman, Aaswath; Fan, Shanhui

    2013-11-01

    We introduce a general approach to radiatively lower the temperature of a structure, while preserving its color under sunlight. The cooling effect persists in the presence of considerable convective and conductive heat exchange and for different solar absorptances.

  19. Preserving electronic records: Not the easiest task

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Eaton, Fynnette

    1993-01-01

    The National Archives and Records Administration has had a program for accessioning, describing, preserving and providing reference service to the electronic records (machine-readable records) created by Federal agencies for more than twenty years. Although there have been many changes in the name of the office, its basic mission has remained the same: to preserve and make available those records created by Federal agencies that the National Archives has determined to have value beyond the short-term need of the originating agency. A phrase that was once coined for a preservation conference still applies: the National Archives, when it decides to accept the transfer of records into its custody, is committing itself to preserving these records for perpetuity.

  20. Heart failure with preserved ejection fraction

    PubMed Central

    Gladden, James D.; Linke, Wolfgang A.

    2014-01-01

    As part of this series devoted to heart failure (HF), we review the epidemiology, diagnosis, pathophysiology, and treatment of HF with preserved ejection fraction (HFpEF). Gaps in knowledge and needed future research are discussed. PMID:24663384

  1. Color-preserving daytime radiative cooling

    SciTech Connect

    Zhu, Linxiao; Raman, Aaswath; Fan, Shanhui

    2013-11-25

    We introduce a general approach to radiatively lower the temperature of a structure, while preserving its color under sunlight. The cooling effect persists in the presence of considerable convective and conductive heat exchange and for different solar absorptances.

  2. 36 CFR 910.14 - Historic preservation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... GUIDELINES AND UNIFORM STANDARDS FOR URBAN PLANNING AND DESIGN OF DEVELOPMENT WITHIN THE PENNSYLVANIA AVENUE DEVELOPMENT AREA Urban Planning and Design Concerns § 910.14 Historic preservation. (a) The Development...

  3. 36 CFR 910.32 - Historic preservation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... GUIDELINES AND UNIFORM STANDARDS FOR URBAN PLANNING AND DESIGN OF DEVELOPMENT WITHIN THE PENNSYLVANIA AVENUE... with the Secretary of the Interior's “Standards for Historic Preservation Projects”: (36 CFR part...

  4. 36 CFR 910.14 - Historic preservation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... GUIDELINES AND UNIFORM STANDARDS FOR URBAN PLANNING AND DESIGN OF DEVELOPMENT WITHIN THE PENNSYLVANIA AVENUE DEVELOPMENT AREA Urban Planning and Design Concerns § 910.14 Historic preservation. (a) The Development...

  5. 36 CFR 910.32 - Historic preservation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... GUIDELINES AND UNIFORM STANDARDS FOR URBAN PLANNING AND DESIGN OF DEVELOPMENT WITHIN THE PENNSYLVANIA AVENUE... with the Secretary of the Interior's “Standards for Historic Preservation Projects”: (36 CFR part...

  6. 36 CFR 910.32 - Historic preservation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... GUIDELINES AND UNIFORM STANDARDS FOR URBAN PLANNING AND DESIGN OF DEVELOPMENT WITHIN THE PENNSYLVANIA AVENUE... with the Secretary of the Interior's “Standards for Historic Preservation Projects”: (36 CFR part...

  7. 36 CFR 910.14 - Historic preservation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... GUIDELINES AND UNIFORM STANDARDS FOR URBAN PLANNING AND DESIGN OF DEVELOPMENT WITHIN THE PENNSYLVANIA AVENUE DEVELOPMENT AREA Urban Planning and Design Concerns § 910.14 Historic preservation. (a) The Development...

  8. 36 CFR 910.32 - Historic preservation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... GUIDELINES AND UNIFORM STANDARDS FOR URBAN PLANNING AND DESIGN OF DEVELOPMENT WITHIN THE PENNSYLVANIA AVENUE... with the Secretary of the Interior's “Standards for Historic Preservation Projects”: (36 CFR part...

  9. 36 CFR 910.14 - Historic preservation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... GUIDELINES AND UNIFORM STANDARDS FOR URBAN PLANNING AND DESIGN OF DEVELOPMENT WITHIN THE PENNSYLVANIA AVENUE DEVELOPMENT AREA Urban Planning and Design Concerns § 910.14 Historic preservation. (a) The Development...

  10. Concise Review: Fertility Preservation: An Update

    PubMed Central

    Gonzlez, Clara; Boada, Montserrat; Devesa, Marta

    2012-01-01

    Fertility preservation is an emerging field in medicine that enables men, women, and children to maintain reproductive health when it is threatened by gonadotoxic treatment. Patients affected by other nononcologic malignancies that can impair spermatogenesis and ovogenesis can also benefit from fertility preservation treatments. Age-related infertility can also be overcome by cryopreserving gametes or embryos. The only established methods for fertility preservation in male patients are sperm cryopreservation in postpubertal age and experimental testicular tissue cryopreservation in prepubertal age. In adult women, oocyte cryopreservation is the preferred option, whereas ovarian tissue cryopreservation is the only possibility for prepubertal girls. Fertility preservation treatments must be addressed through a multidisciplinary approach that involves gynecologists, urologists, oncologists, pediatricians, and professionals in the field of medically assisted reproduction to work in coordination to provide patients with counseling and comprehensive information about fertility issues. PMID:23197873

  11. Laboratory Exercise to Evaluate Hay Preservatives.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McGraw, R. L.; And Others

    1990-01-01

    Presented is a laboratory exercise designed to demonstrate the effects of moisture on hay preservation products in a manner that does not require large amounts of equipment or instructor time. Materials, procedures, and probable results are discussed. (CW)

  12. COLEMAN-EVANS WOOD PRESERVING, WHITEHOUSE, FLORIDA

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Coleman-Evans Wood Preserving facility in Whitehouse, Florida, required technical support to reassure the local citizens that the selected remediation technology (thermal desorption) would be feasable and safe. Later technical support was required to help the contractor fix...

  13. Pancreas preservation for pancreas and islet transplantation

    PubMed Central

    Iwanaga, Yasuhiro; Sutherland, David E.R.; Harmon, James V.; Papas, Klearchos K.

    2010-01-01

    Purpose of review To summarize advances and limitations in pancreas procurement and preservation for pancreas and islet transplantation, and review advances in islet protection and preservation. Recent findings Pancreases procured after cardiac death, with in-situ regional organ cooling, have been successfully used for islet transplantation. Colloid-free Celsior and histidine-tryptophan-ketoglutarate preservation solutions are comparable to University of Wisconsin solution when used for cold storage before pancreas transplantation. Colloid-free preservation solutions are inferior to University of Wisconsin solution for pancreas preservation prior to islet isolation and transplantation. Clinical reports on pancreas and islet transplants suggest that the two-layer method may not offer significant benefits over cold storage with the University of Wisconsin solution: improved oxygenation may depend on the graft size; benefits in experimental models may not translate to human organs. Improvements in islet yield and quality occurred from pancreases treated with inhibitors of stress-induced apoptosis during procurement, storage, isolation or culture. Pancreas perfusion may be desirable before islet isolation and transplantation and may improve islet yields and quality. Methods for real-time, noninvasive assessment of pancreas quality during preservation have been implemented and objective islet potency assays have been developed and validated. These innovations should contribute to objective evaluation and establishment of improved pancreas preservation and islet isolation strategies. Summary Cold storage may be adequate for preservation before pancreas transplants, but insufficient when pancreases are processed for islets or when expanded donors are used. Supplementation of cold storage solutions with cytoprotective agents and perfusion may improve pancreas and islet transplant outcomes. PMID:18685343

  14. Preservation of methane hydrate at 1 atm

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Stern, L.A.; Circone, S.; Kirby, S.H.; Durham, W.B.

    2001-01-01

    A "pressure-release" method that enables reproducible bulk preservation of pure, porous, methane hydrate at conditions 50 to 75 K above its equilibrium T (193 K) at 1 atm is refined. The amount of hydrate preserved by this method appears to be greatly in excess of that reported in the previous citations, and is likely the result of a mechanism different from ice shielding.

  15. Preservation of food products by irradiation

    SciTech Connect

    McGivney, W.T.

    1988-01-01

    The use of irradiation to preserve food has the potential to significantly enhance our capacity to maximize the quality and quantity of the food we consume. In a world in which distribution of food occurs across continents and in which malnourished populations are in dire need of basic food products, any safe, effective, and efficient means of preserving food is more than welcome. Irradiation, as a method for food preservation, has been studied for more than 30 years. This discussion focuses on this most recent method for the preservation of food with particular emphasis on its effects on the safety, nutritive, and aesthetic values of the food preserved by irradiation. The use of ionizing radiation as a method to preserve foods is one that has been demonstrated to be effective for a variety of food classes. Irradiation offers a means to decontaminate, disinfest, and retard the spoilage of the food supply. At the same time, it appears that the wholesomeness of these food products is maintained. Nutritive value can be sustained by use of effective doses of radiation. Concerns over the safety of irradiated food are rooted in questions regarding the potential induction of radioactivity, harmful radiolytic products, and pathogenic radiation-resistant or mutant strains of microorganisms. Research findings have allayed concerns over safety. However, more research is necessary to conclusively resolve these safety issues. Food irradiation is a promising technology that has and will contribute to our ability to feed the people of this world. This technology is but one of many available ways to preserve our greatest natural resource, the food supply. Enhancement of the ability to preserve food by irradiation will facilitate the distribution of food from fertile developed regions to the malnourished peoples of underdeveloped countries. 21 references.

  16. Africa Holds Challenges for Biology Teachers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Merowit, Clement E.

    1973-01-01

    With the establishment of the United Nations environmental secretariat at Nairobi, many opportunities are possible for biology teachers to improve their teaching, especially in areas of wildlife management and preservation. A group of educators will travel to African countries and prepare audio-visual and other instructional materials. (PS)

  17. Fertility preservation options in breast cancer patients.

    PubMed

    Kasum, Miro; von Wolff, Michael; Franuli?, Daniela; ?ehi?, Ermin; Klepac-Pulani?, Tajana; Orekovi?, Slavko; Juras, Josip

    2015-11-01

    The purpose of this review is to analyse current options for fertility preservation in young women with breast cancer (BC). Considering an increasing number of BC survivors, owing to improvements in cancer treatment and delaying of childbearing, fertility preservation appears to be an important issue. Current fertility preservation options in BC survivors range from well-established standard techniques to experimental or investigational interventions. Among the standard options, random-start ovarian stimulation protocol represents a new technique, which significantly decreases the total time of the in vitro fertilisation cycle. However, in patients with oestrogen-sensitive tumours, stimulation protocols using aromatase inhibitors are currently preferred over tamoxifen regimens. Cryopreservation of embryos and oocytes are nowadays deemed the most successful techniques for fertility preservation in BC patients. GnRH agonists during chemotherapy represent an experimental method for fertility preservation due to conflicting long-term outcome results regarding its safety and efficacy. Cryopreservation of ovarian tissue, in vitro maturation of immature oocytes and other strategies are considered experimental and should only be offered within the context of a clinical trial. An early pretreatment referral to reproductive endocrinologists and oncologists should be suggested to young BC women at risk of infertility, concerning the risks and benefits of fertility preservation options. PMID:26370157

  18. Preservation methods for kidney and liver

    PubMed Central

    Mangino, Martin J

    2009-01-01

    With the successful testing of the immunosuppressive effects of cyclosporine in transplant patients in 1978, the field of organ transplants began an exponential growth. With that, the field of organ preservation became increasingly important as the need to increase preservation time and improve graft function became paramount. However, for every patient that receives a transplanted organ, there are four more on the waiting list. In addition, a patient dies from the lack of a transplant almost every 1 hour. To alleviate this donor crisis, there is a need to expand the donor pool to marginal donor organs. The main reason these organs are underutilized is because the current method of static preservation, simple cold storage, is ineffective. This article will provide a general review of the methods of preservation including simple cold storage, hypothermic machine perfusion, normothermic machine perfusion, and oxygen persufflation. In addition, the article will provide a review of how these dynamic preservation methods have improved the recovery and preservation of marginal donor organs including Donation after Cardiac Death and Fatty livers. PMID:20046672

  19. Selective monotonicity preservation in scalar advection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blossey, Peter N.; Durran, Dale R.

    2008-05-01

    An efficient method for scalar advection is developed that selectively preserves monotonicity. Monotonicity preservation is applied only where the scalar field is likely to contain discontinuities as indicated by significant grid-cell-to-grid-cell variations in a smoothness measure conceptually similar to that used in weighted essentially non-oscillatory (WENO) methods. In smooth regions, the numerical diffusion associated with monotonicity-preserving methods is avoided. The resulting method, while not globally monotonicity preserving, allows the full accuracy of the underlying advection scheme to be achieved in smooth regions. The violations of monotonicity that do occur are generally very small, as seen in the tests presented here. Strict positivity preservation may be effectively and efficiently obtained through an additional flux correction step. The underlying advection scheme used to test this methodology is a variant of the piecewise parabolic method (PPM) that may be applied to multi-dimensional problems using density-corrected dimensional splitting and permits stable semi-Lagrangian integrations using CFL numbers larger than one. Two methods for monotonicity preservation are used here: flux correction and modification of the underlying polynomial reconstruction.

  20. Biological post

    PubMed Central

    Kumar, B. Suresh; Kumar, Senthil; Mohan Kumar, N. S.; Karunakaran, J. V.

    2015-01-01

    Anterior tooth fracture as a result of traumatic injuries, is frequently encountered in endodontic practice. Proper reconstruction of extensively damaged teeth can be achieved through the fragment reattachment procedure known as “biological restoration.” This case report refers to the esthetics and functional recovery of extensively damaged maxillary central incisor through the preparation and adhesive cementation of “biological post” in a young patient. Biological post obtained through extracted teeth from another individual–represent a low-cost option and alternative technique for the morphofunctional recovery of extensively damaged anterior teeth. PMID:26538952

  1. Synthetic biology.

    PubMed

    Benner, Steven A; Sismour, A Michael

    2005-07-01

    Synthetic biologists come in two broad classes. One uses unnatural molecules to reproduce emergent behaviours from natural biology, with the goal of creating artificial life. The other seeks interchangeable parts from natural biology to assemble into systems that function unnaturally. Either way, a synthetic goal forces scientists to cross uncharted ground to encounter and solve problems that are not easily encountered through analysis. This drives the emergence of new paradigms in ways that analysis cannot easily do. Synthetic biology has generated diagnostic tools that improve the care of patients with infectious diseases, as well as devices that oscillate, creep and play tic-tac-toe. PMID:15995697

  2. Microbiological preservation of cucumbers for bulk storage using acetic acid and food preservatives.

    PubMed

    Prez-Daz, I M; McFeeters, R F

    2008-08-01

    Microbial growth did not occur when cucumbers were preserved without a thermal process by storage in solutions containing acetic acid, sodium benzoate, and calcium chloride to maintain tissue firmness. The concentrations of acetic acid and sodium benzoate required to ensure preservation were low enough so that stored cucumbers could be converted to the finished product without the need to wash out and discard excess acid or preservative. Since no thermal process was required, this method of preservation would be applicable for storing cucumbers in bulk containers. Acid tolerant pathogens died off in less than 24 h with the pH, acetic acid, and sodium benzoate concentrations required to assure the microbial stability of cucumbers stored at 30 degrees C. Potassium sorbate as a preservative in this application was not effective. Yeast growth was observed when sulfite was used as a preservative. PMID:19241560

  3. Lipid Biomarker Preservation in Silica-Depositing Hydrothermal Analogs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jahnke, L. L.; Parenteau, M. N.; Farmer, J. D.

    2010-12-01

    The discovery of extensive silica-rich deposits at Home Plate in the Columbia Hills indicates that hydrothermal conditions once existed on Mars (Squyres et al. 2008). Two types of environments could have been responsible for forming these materials: fumaroles or hydrothermal springs. Examples of both types of these thermal features are found throughout Yellowstone National Park (YNP). The discovery of bona fide microfossils in ancient cherts indicates that silica deposition was an excellent mechanism for organic preservation on the early Earth. Given the importance that organic biomarkers have played in identifying some of the earliest microbial life on Earth and the potential for a similar habitable period on Mars, examination of the preservation of organic biomarkers within various hydrothermal, silica-rich modern analogs is essential for future interpretation of Martian organics. Cyanobacterial mats and biofilms are common inhabitants of hydrothermal spring systems worldwide, at temperatures below 73C and over a broad range of pH, from acidic to alkaline. Bacteriohopanepolyols (BHPs) are the biological precursors for the abundant fossil hopanes recovered from sedimentary rock (Brocks et al. 1999; Summons et al. 1999). The 2-methyl homologs are generally considered a biomarker for cyanobacterial-dominated paleoecosystems. Some evidence exists that the complex molecular structure of BHP is retained upon entombment in hydrothermal silica and that rapid incorporation into the silica matrix may enhance preservation (Gibson et al. 2008). Here we report on the preservation of microbial lipids in several alkaline and acidic, silica-depositing hotsprings in YNP with particular emphasis on the potential for BHP preservation. Brocks JJ et al (1999) Archaean molecular fossils and the early rise of the eukaryotes. Science 185: 1033-1036 Gibson RA et al (2008) Bacteriohopanepolyol signatures of cyanobacterial and methanotrophic bacterial populations recorded in a geothermal vent sinter. Organic Geochemistry 39: 1020-1023 Squyres SW et al (2008) Detection of silica-rich deposits on Mars. Science 320: 1063-1067 Summons RE et al (1999) 2-Methylhopanoids as biomarkers for cyanobacterial oxygenic photosynthesis. Nature 400: 554-557

  4. Epithelial biology.

    PubMed

    Scully, C; Bagan, J-V; Black, M; Carrozzo, M; Eisen, D; Escudier, M; Farthing, P; Kuffer, R; Lo Muzio, L; Mignogna, M; Porter, S R

    2005-03-01

    The oral mucous membrane has features similar to skin but also differs in several ways. This paper reviews the aspects of epithelial biology necessary for an understanding of the vesiculoerosive disorders. PMID:15752078

  5. Biological Threats

    MedlinePLUS

    ... relatively safe level of protection from outside biological contaminants. HEPA filters will not filter chemical agents. During ... any dense-weave cotton material, can help filter contaminants in an emergency. It is very important that ...

  6. Biology Notes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    School Science Review, 1972

    1972-01-01

    Twelve new experiments in biology are described by teachers for use in classrooms. Broad areas covered include enzyme action, growth regulation, microscopy, respiration, germination, plant succession, leaf structure and blood structure. Explanations are detailed. (PS)

  7. Biology Notes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    School Science Review, 1972

    1972-01-01

    Ten ideas that have been tried out by the authors in schools are presented for biology teachers. The areas covered include genetics, dispersal of seeds, habituation in earthworms, respiration, sensory neurons, fats and oils. A reading list is provided. (PS)

  8. Biology Notes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    School Science Review, 1973

    1973-01-01

    Some helpful ideas are proposed for use by biology teachers. Topics included are Food Webs,'' Key to Identification of Families,'' Viruses,'' Sieve Tube,'' Woodlice,'' Ecology of Oak Leaf Roller Moth,'' and Model Making.'' (PS)

  9. Low-cost and low maintenance preservation of Agaricus brasiliensis cultures.

    PubMed

    Maia, Scheila C; Toledo, Rmulo C C; Almeida, Ana Paula M M; da Silva, Romildo; Rinker, Danny Lee; Dias, Eustquio S

    2012-06-01

    Agaricus brasiliensis cultures quickly lose viability when stored at cool temperatures, even for a short period of time. We evaluated several low-cost preservation methods using varied substrates, preservation solutions, and storage temperatures. Agaricus brasiliensis was intolerant to freezing temperatures, making liquid nitrogen use and deep-freezing methods impossible for its preservation. The best preservation conditions for the A. brasiliensis CS1 strain tested in this study were obtained by using rice as substrate and water as preservation solution, with storage at room temperature or when using soil, mushroom cultivation compost, or rice and stored at 10 C without preservation solution. Those cultures that were reactivated showed the same productivity attributes as the control. In addition, no effect on productivity or biological efficiency was observed through successive subculturing of the strain (CS1). Parboiled rice was successfully used for other A. brasiliensis strains (CS2, CS5, CS7, CS9, and CS10), and also for Pleurotus ostreatus, P. sajor-caju, and Lentinula edodes. PMID:22806115

  10. [Medium term preservation of corneas. Comparative study of 4 preservation media].

    PubMed

    Levaux, B; Weekers, J F; Lejeune, T

    1987-01-01

    A comparative study of four preservation medium was made (Corneal Storage Solution, K-Sol, RPMI Hepes buffer, RPMI bicarbonate buffer). After a five days preservation delay there is no statistical difference between the percentage of the endothelial cellular mortality amongst the three first medium. In the fourth medium the cellular mortality is statistically higher. For longer preservation delay between 5 and 15 days, only the corneas preserved in K-Sol medium have a cellular mortality under 20% and could be used for keratoplasty. PMID:3448122

  11. Fertility preservation in young patients with cancer

    PubMed Central

    Suhag, Virender; Sunita, B. S.; Sarin, Arti; Singh, A. K.; Dashottar, S.

    2015-01-01

    Infertility can arise as a consequence of treatment of oncological conditions. The parallel and continued improvement in both the management of oncology and fertility cases in recent times has brought to the forefront the potential for fertility preservation in patients being treated for cancer. Many survivors will maintain their reproductive potential after the successful completion of treatment for cancer. However total body irradiation, radiation to the gonads, and certain high dose chemotherapy regimens can place women at risk for acute ovarian failure or premature menopause and men at risk for temporary or permanent azoospermia. Providing information about risk of infertility and possible interventions to maintain reproductive potential are critical for the adolescent and young adult population at the time of diagnosis. There are established means of preserving fertility before cancer treatment; specifically, sperm cryopreservation for men and in vitro fertilization and embryo cryopreservation for women. Several innovative techniques are being actively investigated, including oocyte and ovarian follicle cryopreservation, ovarian tissue transplantation, and in vitro follicle maturation, which may expand the number of fertility preservation choices for young cancer patients. Fertility preservation may also require some modification of cancer therapy; thus, patients wishes regarding future fertility and available fertility preservation alternatives should be discussed before initiation of therapy. PMID:26942145

  12. Oxygen absorbers in food preservation: a review.

    PubMed

    Cichello, Simon Angelo

    2015-04-01

    The preservation of packaged food against oxidative degradation is essential to establish and improve food shelf life, customer acceptability, and increase food security. Oxygen absorbers have an important role in the removal of dissolved oxygen, preserving the colour, texture and aroma of different food products, and importantly inhibition of food spoilage microbes. Active packaging technology in food preservation has improved over decades mostly due to the sealing of foods in oxygen impermeable package material and the quality of oxygen absorber. Ferrous iron oxides are the most reliable and commonly used oxygen absorbers within the food industry. Oxygen absorbers have been transformed from sachets of dried iron-powder to simple self-adhesive patches to accommodate any custom size, capacity and application. Oxygen concentration can be effectively lowered to 100ppm, with applications spanning a wide range of food products and beverages across the world (i.e. bread, meat, fish, fruit, and cheese). Newer molecules that preserve packaged food materials from all forms of degradation are being developed, however oxygen absorbers remain a staple product for the preservation of food and pharmaceutical products to reduce food wastage in developed nations and increased food security in the developing & third world. PMID:25829570

  13. Constrained Graph Optimization: Interdiction and Preservation Problems

    SciTech Connect

    Schild, Aaron V

    2012-07-30

    The maximum flow, shortest path, and maximum matching problems are a set of basic graph problems that are critical in theoretical computer science and applications. Constrained graph optimization, a variation of these basic graph problems involving modification of the underlying graph, is equally important but sometimes significantly harder. In particular, one can explore these optimization problems with additional cost constraints. In the preservation case, the optimizer has a budget to preserve vertices or edges of a graph, preventing them from being deleted. The optimizer wants to find the best set of preserved edges/vertices in which the cost constraints are satisfied and the basic graph problems are optimized. For example, in shortest path preservation, the optimizer wants to find a set of edges/vertices within which the shortest path between two predetermined points is smallest. In interdiction problems, one deletes vertices or edges from the graph with a particular cost in order to impede the basic graph problems as much as possible (for example, delete edges/vertices to maximize the shortest path between two predetermined vertices). Applications of preservation problems include optimal road maintenance, power grid maintenance, and job scheduling, while interdiction problems are related to drug trafficking prevention, network stability assessment, and counterterrorism. Computational hardness results are presented, along with heuristic methods for approximating solutions to the matching interdiction problem. Also, efficient algorithms are presented for special cases of graphs, including on planar graphs. The graphs in many of the listed applications are planar, so these algorithms have important practical implications.

  14. Ridge Preservation for Implant Therapy: a Review of the Literature

    PubMed Central

    Tomlin, Elizabeth M; Nelson, Shelby J; Rossmann, Jeffrey A

    2014-01-01

    Healing of the extraction socket after tooth removal involves retention of the blood clot followed by a sequence of events that lead to changes in the alveolar process in a three dimensional fashion. This normal healing event results in a minimal loss of vertical height (around 1 mm), but a substantial loss of width in the buccal-lingual plane (4-6 mm). During the first three months following extraction that loss has been shown to be significant and may result in both a hard tissue and soft tissue deformity affecting the ability to restore the site with acceptable esthetics. Procedures that reduce the resorptive process have been shown to be predictable and potentially capable of eliminating secondary surgery for site preparation when implant therapy is planned. The key element is prior planning by the dental therapist to act at the time of extraction to prevent the collapse of the ridge due to the loss of the alveolus. Several techniques have been employed as ridge preservation procedures involving the use of bone grafts, barrier membranes and biologics to provide a better restorative outcome. This review will explore the evidence behind each technique and their efficacy in accomplishing site preparation. The literature does not identify a single technique as superior to others; however, all accepted therapeutic procedures for ridge preservation have been shown to be more effective than blood clot alone in randomized controlled studies. PMID:24893595

  15. Influence of sample preservation on endotoxin measurement in water.

    PubMed

    O'Toole, J; Sinclair, M; Jeavons, T; Leder, K

    2009-01-01

    Appropriate preservation of a range of water types prior to analysis for endotoxin was investigated, including sample storage and addition of sodium thiosulphate. Biologically active endotoxin in water samples was assayed using a chromogenic Limulus Amoebocyte Lysate (LAL) assay. Statistical analysis of measured mean endotoxin levels obtained for samples with and without sodium thiosulphate showed no significant difference in results. There was a 44% mean decline in the concentration of detectable endotoxin in water samples stored at -80 degrees C for 4 weeks compared with samples stored at 4 degrees C and analysed within 24 hours. Freezing of water samples at -80 degrees C in pyrogen-free containers for 4 weeks or longer, then thawing may lead to considerable endotoxin loss; however the addition of sodium thiosulphate to water samples interferes minimally with the LAL assay. These results provide methodological information that can be used to assist researchers in future water endotoxin monitoring studies. The validation and standardisation of water sample preservation protocols are necessary, given the likely increase in the quantification of endotoxin levels in a variety of water sources and the use of such results for health effect determinations. PMID:19759464

  16. New Advances in Fertility Preservation for Pediatric Cancer Patients

    PubMed Central

    Ginsberg, Jill P.

    2011-01-01

    Purpose of Review The number of pediatric cancer survivors is growing rapidly as treatments become more effective. However, many current regimens cause gonadotoxicity and permanent infertility, significantly impacting quality of life. The purpose of this review is to update pediatric oncologists on risk factors for cancer treatment-associated gonadotoxicity, current methods for fertility preservation and new scientific advances in this area. Research Findings Infertility is an enormous quality of life issue for pediatric cancer survivors and their families. Numerous treatment options are already available to prevent infertility in patients at risk. It is important to counsel patients at risk and initiate management for fertility preservation prior to beginning therapy. Preclinical research indicates that it may be possible to bank gonadal tissues from patients for subsequent re-implantation after therapy or expansion of germ cells in vitro. Further translational studies are required to advance these technologies into clinical use. Summary Pediatric cancer survivors are at risk for long-term treatment-related gonadal failure and infertility. Counseling and treatment should begin prior to initiating chemo or radiation therapy. Recent scientific advances in understanding germ cell biology should eventually generate new clinical strategies to maintain fertility in pediatric cancer patients. PMID:21157350

  17. C-14/I-29 Preservation and Hold Time Survey

    SciTech Connect

    Kitchen, S.

    2015-04-08

    Preservation and hold time of radionuclides must account for both nuclear half-lives and nonnuclear loss mechanisms, but variations in the latter are often neglected. Metals-based defaults are inappropriate for long-lived non-metals C-14 and I-129, which are vulnerable to chemical and biological volatilization. Non-acidification is already widely practiced for them. Recommended addition measures from radiological and chemical literature include glass containers where possible, water filtration where possible, headspace minimization, light shielding, cold (4°C) storage and unfiltered water hold time of 28 days. Soil hold time may need to be shortened when water-logged, excessively sandy, or still adjusting to significant new contamination.

  18. Nitrification preservation in activated sludge during curative bulking chlorination.

    PubMed

    Cotteux, E; Duchene, P

    2003-01-01

    The bulking that occurs in biological wastewater treatment plants using activated sludge is very often controlled by the injection of sodium hypochlorite into the return activated sludge (RAS) stream. In the present study undertaken at two pilot plants fed with synthetic wastewater, the impact of the pass frequency of the sludge at the chlorine dosing point on the nitrifying flora is analysed. The pass frequency is one for the pilot plant 1 and two for the pilot plant 2. A dose of chlorine of 4.85 +/- 0.05 g/kg/MLVSS per day was applied at both pilots. The preservative effect on nitrifying activity of the lowest concentration of chlorine at the dosing point and therefore of the highest pass frequency was evidenced. Among other tools, a simple method of measurement of the oxygen uptake rate enabled us to monitor the effect of chlorination on nitrification before recording an increase in the ammonia concentration in the bulking. PMID:12906275

  19. Microbiological preservation of cucumbers for bulk storage by the use of acetic acid and food preservatives

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Microbial growth did not occur when cucumbers were preserved without a thermal process by storage in solutions containing acetic acid, sodium benzoate, and calcium chloride to maintain tissue firmness. The concentrations of acetic acid and sodium benzoate required to assure preservation were low en...

  20. Preservation Concerns in Construction and Remodeling of Libraries: Planning for Preservation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Trinkley, Michael

    To help libraries and other holdings institutions better incorporate preservation concerns in construction, renovation, and routine maintenance, various techniques are presented that allow preservation concerns to be integrated. The following topics are considered: (1) site selection; (2) design of the building envelope; (3) the library interior;…

  1. Biological photocathodes.

    PubMed Central

    Griffith, O H; Habliston, D L; Birrell, G B; Skoczylas, W P; Hedberg, K K

    1989-01-01

    Biological surfaces emit electrons when subjected to UV light. This emission is increased greatly after exposure to cesium vapor. Increases from 2 to 3 orders of magnitude are observed, depending on the biochemicals present. Heme and chlorophyll exhibit unusually high photoemission currents, which are increased further after cesiation. Photoemission from proteins and lipids is much less but also is increased by exposure to cesium. The formation of photocathodes with cesium greatly increases the practical magnifications attainable in photoelectron microscopy of organic and biological specimens. Photoelectron micrographs taken at magnifications greater than or equal to X 100,000 of chlorophyll-rich thylakoid membranes and of colloidal gold-labeled cytoskeleton preparations of cultured epithelial cells demonstrate the improvement in magnification. The selectivity and stability of the photocathodes suggest the possibility of detecting chromophore binding proteins in membranes and the design of photoelectron labels for tagging specific sites on biological surfaces. Images PMID:2928305

  2. Biological preconcentrator

    DOEpatents

    Manginell, Ronald P. (Albuquerque, NM); Bunker, Bruce C. (Albuquerque, NM); Huber, Dale L. (Albuquerque, NM)

    2008-09-09

    A biological preconcentrator comprises a stimulus-responsive active film on a stimulus-producing microfabricated platform. The active film can comprise a thermally switchable polymer film that can be used to selectively absorb and desorb proteins from a protein mixture. The biological microfabricated platform can comprise a thin membrane suspended on a substrate with an integral resistive heater and/or thermoelectric cooler for thermal switching of the active polymer film disposed on the membrane. The active polymer film can comprise hydrogel-like polymers, such as poly(ethylene oxide) or poly(n-isopropylacrylamide), that are tethered to the membrane. The biological preconcentrator can be fabricated with semiconductor materials and technologies.

  3. [Biological agents].

    PubMed

    Amano, Koichi

    2009-03-01

    There are two types of biological agents for the treatment of rheumatoid arthritis (RA); monoclonal antibodies and recombinant proteins. Among the latter, etanercept, a recombinant fusion protein of soluble TNF receptor and IgG was approved in 2005 in Japan. The post-marketing surveillance of 13,894 RA patients revealed the efficacy and safety profiles of etanercept in the Japanese population, as well as overseas studies. Abatacept, a recombinant fusion protein of CTLA4 and IgG, is another biological agent for RA. Two clinical trials disclosed the efficacy of abatacept for difficult-to-treat patients: the AIM for MTX-resistant cases and the ATTAIN for patients who are resistant to anti-TNF. The ATTEST trial suggested abatacept might have more acceptable safety profile than infliximab. These biologics are also promising for the treatment of RA for not only relieving clinical symptoms and signs but retarding structural damage. PMID:19280938

  4. Biological Oceanography

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Abbott, M. R.

    1984-01-01

    Within the framework of global biogeochemical cycles and ocean productivity, there are two areas that will be of particular interest to biological oceanography in the 1990s. The first is the mapping in space time of the biomass and productivity of phytoplankton in the world ocean. The second area is the coupling of biological and physical processes as it affects the distribution and growth rate of phytoplankton biomass. Certainly other areas will be of interest to biological oceanographers, but these two areas are amenable to observations from satellites. Temporal and spatial variability is a regular feature of marine ecosystems. The temporal and spatial variability of phytoplankton biomass and productivity which is ubiquitous at all time and space scales in the ocean must be characterized. Remote sensing from satellites addresses these problems with global observations of mesocale (2 to 20 days, 10 to 200 km) features over a long period of time.

  5. Organ preservation surgery for laryngeal cancer

    PubMed Central

    Chawla, Sharad; Carney, Andrew Simon

    2009-01-01

    The principles of management of the laryngeal cancer have evolved over the recent past with emphasis on organ preservation. These developments have paralleled technological advancements as well as refinement in the surgical technique. The surgeons are able to maintain physiological functions of larynx namely speech, respiration and swallowing without compromising the loco-regional control of cancer in comparison to the more radical treatment modalities. A large number of organ preservation surgeries are available to the surgeon; however, careful assessment of the stage of the cancer and selection of the patient is paramount to a successful outcome. A comprehensive review of various organ preservation techniques in vogue for the management of laryngeal cancer is presented. PMID:19442314

  6. Cryopreservation for preservation of potato genetic resources

    PubMed Central

    Niino, Takao; Arizaga, Miriam Valle

    2015-01-01

    Cryopreservation is becoming a very important tool for the long-term storage of plant genetic resources and efficient cryopreservation protocols have been developed for a large number of plant species. Practical procedures, developed using in vitro tissue culture, can be a simple and reliable preservation option of potato genetic resources rather than maintaining by vegetative propagation in genebanks due their allogamous nature. Cryopreserved materials insure a long-term backup of field collections against loss of plant germplasm. Occurrence of genetic variation, in tissue culture cells during prolonged subcultures, can be avoided with suitable cryopreservation protocols that provide high regrowth, leading and facilitating a systematic and strategic cryo-banking of plant genetic resources. Cryopreservation protocols for potato reviewed here, can efficiently complement field and in vitro conservation, providing for preservation of genotypes difficult to preserve by other methods, wild types and other species decided as priority collections. PMID:25931979

  7. Exceptionally Preserved Jellyfishes from the Middle Cambrian

    PubMed Central

    Cartwright, Paulyn; Halgedahl, Susan L.; Hendricks, Jonathan R.; Jarrard, Richard D.; Marques, Antonio C.; Collins, Allen G.; Lieberman, Bruce S.

    2007-01-01

    Cnidarians represent an early diverging animal group and thus insight into their origin and diversification is key to understanding metazoan evolution. Further, cnidarian jellyfish comprise an important component of modern marine planktonic ecosystems. Here we report on exceptionally preserved cnidarian jellyfish fossils from the Middle Cambrian (?505 million years old) Marjum Formation of Utah. These are the first described Cambrian jellyfish fossils to display exquisite preservation of soft part anatomy including detailed features of structures interpreted as trailing tentacles and subumbrellar and exumbrellar surfaces. If the interpretation of these preserved characters is correct, their presence is diagnostic of modern jellyfish taxa. These new discoveries may provide insight into the scope of cnidarian diversity shortly after the Cambrian radiation, and would reinforce the notion that important taxonomic components of the modern planktonic realm were in place by the Cambrian period. PMID:17971881

  8. Exceptionally preserved jellyfishes from the Middle Cambrian.

    PubMed

    Cartwright, Paulyn; Halgedahl, Susan L; Hendricks, Jonathan R; Jarrard, Richard D; Marques, Antonio C; Collins, Allen G; Lieberman, Bruce S

    2007-01-01

    Cnidarians represent an early diverging animal group and thus insight into their origin and diversification is key to understanding metazoan evolution. Further, cnidarian jellyfish comprise an important component of modern marine planktonic ecosystems. Here we report on exceptionally preserved cnidarian jellyfish fossils from the Middle Cambrian (approximately 505 million years old) Marjum Formation of Utah. These are the first described Cambrian jellyfish fossils to display exquisite preservation of soft part anatomy including detailed features of structures interpreted as trailing tentacles and subumbrellar and exumbrellar surfaces. If the interpretation of these preserved characters is correct, their presence is diagnostic of modern jellyfish taxa. These new discoveries may provide insight into the scope of cnidarian diversity shortly after the Cambrian radiation, and would reinforce the notion that important taxonomic components of the modern planktonic realm were in place by the Cambrian period. PMID:17971881

  9. Antimicrobial preservative effectiveness of natural peptide antibiotics.

    PubMed

    Kamysz, Wojciech; Turecka, Katarzyna

    2005-01-01

    The constantly growing resistance of microbes to drugs and other substances which fight microbial infections leads to search for new antimicrobial substances. Among substances which attract the scientists attention are antimicrobial peptides. Such compounds are quite common in nature and belong to the most important elements of the innate immune system of all living organisms. Numerous antimicrobial peptides have been isolated from insects, amphibians, mammals, plants and bacterial species. In this study we investigated the in vitro activity of two animal peptides, citropin 1.1 and protegrin 1 alone and in combination against microbial strains proposed for the evaluation of preservatives: Escherichia coli ATCC 8739, Staphylococcus aureus ATCC 6538, Pseudomonas aeruginosa ATCC 9027, Candida albicans ATCC 10231, and Aspergillus niger ATCC 16404. The results of the antimicrobial preservative effectiveness were compared to the values received for benzalkonium chloride, popular preservative of medicines and cosmetics. PMID:16459482

  10. (Biological dosimetry)

    SciTech Connect

    Sega, G.A.

    1990-11-06

    The traveler participated in an International Symposium on Trends in Biological Dosimetry and presented an invited paper entitled, Adducts in sperm protamine and DNA vs mutation frequency.'' The purpose of the Symposium was to examine the applicability of new methods to study quantitatively the effects of xenobiotic agents (radiation and chemicals) on molecular, cellular and organ systems, with special emphasis on human biological dosimetry. The general areas covered at the meeting included studies on parent compounds and metabolites; protein adducts; DNA adducts; gene mutations; cytogenetic end-points and reproductive methods.

  11. Nodes, networks, and MUMs: Preserving diversity at all scales

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Noss, Reed F.; Harris, Larry D.

    1986-05-01

    The present focus of practical conservation efforts is limited in scope. This narrowness results in an inability to evaluate and manage phenomena that operate at large spatiotemporal scales. Whereas real ecological phenomena function in a space-time mosaic across a full hierarchy of biological entities and processes, current conservation strategies address a limited spectrum of this complexity. Conservation typically is static (time-limited), concentrates on the habitat content rather than the landscape context of protected areas, evaluates relatively homogeneous communities instead of heterogeneous landscapes, and directs attention to particular species populations and/or the aggregate statistic of species diversity. Insufficient attention has been given to broad ecological patterns and processes and to the conservation of species in natural relative abundance patterns (native diversity). The authors present a conceptual scheme that evaluates not only habitat content within protected areas, but also the landscape context in which each preserve exists. Nodes of concentrated ecological value exist in each landscape at all levels in the biological hierarchy. Integration of these high-quality nodes into a functional network is possible through the establishment of a system of interconnected multiple-use modules (MUMs). The MUM network protects and buffers important ecological entities and phenomena, while encouraging movement of individuals, species, nutrients, energy, and even habitat patches across space and time. An example is presented for the southeastern USA (south Georgia-north Florida), that uses riparian and coastal corridors to interconnect existing protected areas. This scheme will facilitate reintroduction and preservation of wide-ranging species such as the Florida panther, and help reconcile species-level and ecosystem-level conservation approaches.

  12. Data Preservation in High Energy Physics

    SciTech Connect

    Mount, Richard; Brooks, Travis; Le Diberder, Francois; Dubois-Felsmann, Gregory; Neal, Homer; Bellis, Matt; Boehnlein, Amber; Votava, Margaret; White, Vicky; Wolbers, Stephen; Konigsberg, Jacobo; Roser, Robert; Snider, Rick; Lucchesi, Donatella; Denisov, Dmitri; Soldner-Rembold, Stefan; Li, Qizhong; Varnes, Erich; Jonckheere, Alan; Gasthuber, Martin; Gulzow, Volker; /DESY /Marseille, CPPM /Dortmund U. /DESY /Gent U. /DESY, Zeuthen /KEK, Tsukuba /CC, Villeurbanne /CERN /INFN, Bari /Gjovik Coll. Engineering /Karlsruhe, Forschungszentrum /Beijing, Inst. High Energy Phys. /Carleton U. /Cornell U. /Rutherford

    2012-04-03

    Data from high-energy physics (HEP) experiments are collected with significant financial and human effort and are mostly unique. At the same time, HEP has no coherent strategy for data preservation and re-use. An inter-experimental Study Group on HEP data preservation and long-term analysis was convened at the end of 2008 and held two workshops, at DESY (January 2009) and SLAC (May 2009). This document is an intermediate report to the International Committee for Future Accelerators (ICFA) of the reflections of this Study Group. Large data sets accumulated during many years of detector operation at particle accelerators are the heritage of experimental HEP. These data sets offer unique opportunities for future scientific studies, sometimes long after the shut-down of the actual experiments: new theoretical input; new experimental results and analysis techniques; the quest for high-sensitivity combined analyses; the necessity of cross checks. In many cases, HEP data sets are unique; they cannot and most likely will not be superseded by data from newer generations of experiments. Once lost, or in an unusable state, HEP data samples cannot be reasonably recovered. The cost of conserving this heritage through a collaborative, target-oriented long-term data preservation program would be small, compared to the costs of past experimental projects or to the efforts to re-do experiments. However, this cost is not negligible, especially for collaborations close or past their end-date. The preservation of HEP data would provide today's collaborations with a secure way to complete their data analysis and enable them to seize new scientific opportunities in the coming years. The HEP community will benefit from preserved data samples through reanalysis, combination, education and outreach. Funding agencies would receive more scientific return, and a positive image, from their initial investment leading to the production and the first analysis of preserved data.

  13. Exceptional fossil preservation and the cambrian explosion.

    PubMed

    Butterfield, Nicholas J

    2003-02-01

    Exceptionally preserved, non-biomineralizing fossils contribute importantly to resolving details of the Cambrian explosion, but little to its overall patterns. Six distinct "types" of exceptional preservation are identified for the terminal Proterozoic-Cambrian interval, each of which is dependent on particular taphonomic circumstances, typically restricted both in space and time. Taphonomic pathways yielding exceptional preservation were particularly variable through the Proterozoic-Cambrian transition, at least in part a consequence of contemporaneous evolutionary innovations. Combined with the reasonably continuous record of "Doushantuo-type preservation," and the fundamentally more robust records of shelly fossils, phytoplankton cysts and trace fossils, these taphonomic perturbations contribute to the documentation of major evolutionary and biogeochemical shifts through the terminal Proterozoic and early Cambrian.Appreciation of the relationship between taphonomic pathway and fossil expression serves as a useful tool for interpreting exceptionally preserved, often problematic, early Cambrian fossils. In shale facies, for example, flattened non-biomineralizing structures typically represent the remains of degradation-resistant acellular and extracellular "tissues" such as chaetae and cuticles, whereas three-dimensional preservation represents labile cellular tissues with a propensity for attracting and precipitating early diagenetic minerals. Such distinction helps to identify the acuticular integument of hyolithids, the chaetae-like nature of Wiwaxia sclerites, the chaetognath-like integument of Amiskwia, the midgut glands of various Burgess Shale arthropods, and the misidentification of deposit-feeding arthropods in the Chengjiang biota. By the same reasoning, putative lobopods in the Sirius Passet biota and putative deuterostomes in the Chengiang biota are better interpreted as arthropods. PMID:21680421

  14. An edge preserving differential image coding scheme

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rost, Martin C.; Sayood, Khalid

    1992-01-01

    Differential encoding techniques are fast and easy to implement. However, a major problem with the use of differential encoding for images is the rapid edge degradation encountered when using such systems. This makes differential encoding techniques of limited utility, especially when coding medical or scientific images, where edge preservation is of utmost importance. A simple, easy to implement differential image coding system with excellent edge preservation properties is presented. The coding system can be used over variable rate channels, which makes it especially attractive for use in the packet network environment.

  15. [Glaucoma medications, preservatives and the ocular surface.

    PubMed

    Aptel, F; Labbé, A; Baudouin, C; Bron, A; Lachkar, Y; Sellem, E; Renard, J-P; Nordmann, J-P; Rouland, J-F; Denis, P

    2014-10-14

    Several clinical and experimental studies have demonstrated that ocular surface disease is common in glaucoma patients receiving chronic glaucoma drops, and that the preservatives in these drops play a major role in the occurrence of ocular surface disease. These ocular surface changes may induce both symptoms reported by the patients and anterior segment clinical signs, and should be systematically assessed by history and exam in all glaucoma patients. In these patients with ocular surface disease, reducing the amount of preservatives administered to the eye should be strived for, rather than adding additional eye drops to alleviate or mask the side effects of the glaucoma drops. PMID:25440185

  16. Privacy-preserving restricted boltzmann machine.

    PubMed

    Li, Yu; Zhang, Yuan; Ji, Yue

    2014-01-01

    With the arrival of the big data era, it is predicted that distributed data mining will lead to an information technology revolution. To motivate different institutes to collaborate with each other, the crucial issue is to eliminate their concerns regarding data privacy. In this paper, we propose a privacy-preserving method for training a restricted boltzmann machine (RBM). The RBM can be got without revealing their private data to each other when using our privacy-preserving method. We provide a correctness and efficiency analysis of our algorithms. The comparative experiment shows that the accuracy is very close to the original RBM model. PMID:25101139

  17. Statistics preserving formation of chaotic swarmers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oprea, Iuliana; Triandaf, Ioana; Schwartz, Ira

    2008-03-01

    We present a class of models for self-propelled multi-agent systems of autonomous vehicles that accomplish common tasks while preserving the formation moments of inertia. The models are based on simple, local interaction rules that create prescribed overall complex patterns in which coupling and communication are key elements. We use a statistics-preserving algorithm with a Duffing-like term added to the equations of motion to control the moments of the pattern formation. We concentrate on those parameters in the neighborhood of a resonant situation. This allows us to obtain interesting patterns of behavior similar to those observed in parametrically forced systems near resonance.

  18. Scalable Architecture for Coherence-Preserving Qubits

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weinstein, Yaakov S.; Hellberg, C. Stephen

    2007-03-01

    We propose scalable architectures for the coherence-preserving qubits introduced by Bacon, Brown, and Whaley [Phys. Rev. Lett. 87, 247902 (2001)PRLTAO0031-900710.1103/PhysRevLett.87.247902]. These architectures employ extra qubits providing additional degrees of freedom to the system. These extra degrees of freedom can be used to counter coupling strength errors within the coherence-preserving qubit and combat interactions with environmental qubits. Importantly, these architectures provide flexibility in qubit arrangement, allowing all physical qubits to be arranged in two spatial dimensions.

  19. Preservation and storage of prepared ballistic gelatine.

    PubMed

    Mattijssen, E J A T; Alberink, I; Jacobs, B; van den Boogaard, Y

    2016-02-01

    The use of ballistic gelatine, generally accepted as a human muscle tissue simulant in wound ballistic studies, might be improved by adding a preservative (Methyl 4-hydroxybenzoate) which inhibits microbial growth. This study shows that replacing a part of the gelatine powder by the preservative does not significantly alter the penetration depth of projectiles. Storing prepared blocks of ballistic gelatine over time decreased the penetration depth of projectiles. Storage of prepared gelatine for 4 week already showed a significant effect on the penetration depth of projectiles. PMID:26773228

  20. Avian artificial insemination and semen preservation

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Gee, G.F.

    1983-01-01

    Summary: Artificial insemination is a practical propagation tool that has been successful with a variety of birds. Cooperative, massage, and electroejaculation and modifications of these three basic methods of semen collection are described for a variety of birds. Semen color and consistency and sperm number, moti!ity, and morphology, as discussed, are useful indicators of semen quality, but the most reliable test of semen quality is the production of fertile eggs. Successful cryogenic preservation of avian semen with DMSO or glycerol as the cryoprotectant has been possible. Although the methods for preservation require special equipment, use of frozen semen requires only simple insemination supplies

  1. Preservation in American Public Libraries: A Contradiction in Terms?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tolbert, Susan L.

    1997-01-01

    Although preservation is typically considered a concern of academic and special libraries only, many inexpensive and cost-effective preservation methods exist that public librarians should implement. Discusses why and how public libraries should preserve and outlines preservation and disaster mitigation tips. Lists supplies for disaster

  2. Preservation of Newspapers: Theoretical Approaches and Practical Achievements

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hasenay, Damir; Krtalic, Maja

    2010-01-01

    The preservation of newspapers is the main topic of this paper. A theoretical overview of newspaper preservation is given, with an emphasis on the importance of a systematic and comprehensive approach. Efficient newspaper preservation implies understanding the meaning of preservation in general, as well as understanding specific approaches,

  3. 21 CFR 146.152 - Orange juice with preservative.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Orange juice with preservative. 146.152 Section... Fruit Juices and Beverages § 146.152 Orange juice with preservative. (a) Orange juice with preservative... of orange juice for manufacturing as provided for in § 146.151, except that a preservative is...

  4. 21 CFR 146.152 - Orange juice with preservative.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Orange juice with preservative. 146.152 Section... Fruit Juices and Beverages § 146.152 Orange juice with preservative. (a) Orange juice with preservative... of orange juice for manufacturing as provided for in § 146.151, except that a preservative is...

  5. 21 CFR 146.152 - Orange juice with preservative.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Orange juice with preservative. 146.152 Section... Fruit Juices and Beverages § 146.152 Orange juice with preservative. (a) Orange juice with preservative... of orange juice for manufacturing as provided for in § 146.151, except that a preservative is...

  6. 21 CFR 146.152 - Orange juice with preservative.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Orange juice with preservative. 146.152 Section... Fruit Juices and Beverages § 146.152 Orange juice with preservative. (a) Orange juice with preservative... of orange juice for manufacturing as provided for in § 146.151, except that a preservative is...

  7. 21 CFR 146.152 - Orange juice with preservative.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Orange juice with preservative. 146.152 Section... Fruit Juices and Beverages § 146.152 Orange juice with preservative. (a) Orange juice with preservative... of orange juice for manufacturing as provided for in § 146.151, except that a preservative is...

  8. 43 CFR 15.12 - Closing of Preserve.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Closing of Preserve. 15.12 Section 15.12 Public Lands: Interior Office of the Secretary of the Interior KEY LARGO CORAL REEF PRESERVE § 15.12 Closing of Preserve. The Preserve may be closed to public use in the event of emergency...

  9. 43 CFR 15.12 - Closing of Preserve.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 1 2012-10-01 2011-10-01 true Closing of Preserve. 15.12 Section 15.12 Public Lands: Interior Office of the Secretary of the Interior KEY LARGO CORAL REEF PRESERVE § 15.12 Closing of Preserve. The Preserve may be closed to public use in the event of emergency...

  10. 43 CFR 15.12 - Closing of Preserve.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Closing of Preserve. 15.12 Section 15.12 Public Lands: Interior Office of the Secretary of the Interior KEY LARGO CORAL REEF PRESERVE § 15.12 Closing of Preserve. The Preserve may be closed to public use in the event of emergency...

  11. 43 CFR 15.12 - Closing of Preserve.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Closing of Preserve. 15.12 Section 15.12 Public Lands: Interior Office of the Secretary of the Interior KEY LARGO CORAL REEF PRESERVE § 15.12 Closing of Preserve. The Preserve may be closed to public use in the event of emergency...

  12. 43 CFR 15.12 - Closing of Preserve.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Closing of Preserve. 15.12 Section 15.12 Public Lands: Interior Office of the Secretary of the Interior KEY LARGO CORAL REEF PRESERVE § 15.12 Closing of Preserve. The Preserve may be closed to public use in the event of emergency...

  13. Environmental preservation demand: Altruistic, bequest, and intrinsic motives

    SciTech Connect

    Whitehead, J.C.; Thompson, C.Y. )

    1993-01-01

    When the demand for environmental preservation is not explicitly revealed in markets, motivating attitudes toward environmental preservation become important. A survey approach allows revelation and measurement of demand for environmental preservation. Indices which measure the altruistic, bequest, intrinsic, and option to use motives and other attitudes are utilized as determinants in a model that measures the demand for environmental preservation. Demand is more likely with greater preservation motives. Preservation demand also depends on individual preferences for economic development, perceptions of affordability and responsibility for preservation of the wetlands. 17 refs., 3 tabs.

  14. Biology Notes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    School Science Review, 1983

    1983-01-01

    Describes laboratory procedures, demonstrations, and classroom activities/materials, including water relation exercise on auxin-treated artichoke tuber tissue; aerobic respiration in yeast; an improved potometer; use of mobiles in biological classification, and experiments on powdery mildews and banana polyphenol oxidase. Includes reading lists…

  15. Biology Notes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    School Science Review, 1984

    1984-01-01

    Presents information on the teaching of nutrition (including new information relating to many current O-level syllabi) and part 16 of a reading list for A- and S-level biology. Also includes a note on using earthworms as a source of material for teaching meiosis. (JN)

  16. Biology Notes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    School Science Review, 1979

    1979-01-01

    Organized by topic is a reading list for A- and S-level biology. Described are experiments for measuring rate of water uptake in a shoot; questions to aid students in designing experiments; rise of overhead projection to demonstrate osmosis and blood cell counting; and microbial manufacture of vinegar. (CS)

  17. Biology Notes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    School Science Review, 1976

    1976-01-01

    Describes nine biology experiments, including osmosis, genetics; oxygen content of blood, enzymes in bean seedlings, preparation of bird skins, vascularization in bean seedlings, a game called "sequences" (applied to review situations), crossword puzzle for human respiration, and physiology of the woodlouse. (CS)

  18. Biological Semiconductors

    Cancer.gov

    Fabrication using printing technologies of electrical percolation biological semiconductors (BSC) can facilitate assembly of numerous types of gates containing various ligands (e.g., antibodies, DNA, etc.) and can be used to assemble many of such gates on the same chip.

  19. Biology Notes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    School Science Review, 1980

    1980-01-01

    Describes equipment, activities, and experiments useful in biology and environmental education instruction, including, among others, sampling in ecology using an overhead projector, the slide finder as an aid to microscopy, teaching kidney function, and teaching wildlife conservation-sand dune systems. (SK)

  20. (Biological dosimetry)

    SciTech Connect

    Preston, R.J.

    1990-12-17

    The traveler attended the 1st International Conference on Biological Dosimetry in Madrid, Spain. This conference was organized to provide information to a general audience of biologists, physicists, radiotherapists, industrial hygiene personnel and individuals from related fields on the current ability of cytogenetic analysis to provide estimates of radiation dose in cases of occupational or environmental exposure. There is a growing interest in Spain in biological dosimetry because of the increased use of radiation sources for medical and occupational uses, and with this the anticipated and actual increase in numbers of overexposure. The traveler delivered the introductory lecture on Biological Dosimetry: Mechanistic Concepts'' that was intended to provide a framework by which the more applied lectures could be interpreted in a mechanistic way. A second component of the trip was to provide advice with regard to several recent cases of overexposure that had been or were being assessed by the Radiopathology and Radiotherapy Department of the Hospital General Gregorio Maranon'' in Madrid. The traveler had provided information on several of these, and had analyzed cells from some exposed or purportedly exposed individuals. The members of the biological dosimetry group were referred to individuals at REACTS at Oak Ridge Associated Universities for advice on follow-up treatment.

  1. Biologic Vaccines

    PubMed Central

    ADAMS, KATHERINE T.

    2009-01-01

    The threat of new disease pandemics has spurred the development of biologic vaccines, which promise tremendous improvements in global and local health. Several lend themselves to the prevention or treatment of chronic diseases. But the uncertainties of whom to vaccinate raise the question of whether the health care system can make these promising products viable. PMID:22478749

  2. Biology Notes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    School Science Review, 1981

    1981-01-01

    Presents content information and/or laboratory procedures and experiments on different biology topics including small-scale cultivation of watercress and its use in water-culture experiments, microbiology of the phylloplane, use of mouthbrooders in science class, and the gene. (DC)

  3. Cancer Biology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dominiecki, Mary E.

    2004-01-01

    University of Colorado's Virtual Student Fellowship available at and developed by Bakemeier, Richard F. This website is designed to give students applying for a fellowship an overview of basic topics in biology and how they are used by cancer researchers to develop new treatments.

  4. Biology Notes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    School Science Review, 1981

    1981-01-01

    Outlines a variety of laboratory procedures, techniques, and materials including construction of a survey frame for field biology, a simple tidal system, isolation and applications of plant protoplasts, tropisms, teaching lung structure, and a key to statistical methods for biologists. (DS)

  5. Bottle Biology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jager, Peter

    1993-01-01

    Describes activities which utilize plastic drink bottles and are designed to foster the development of a wide range of biological and ecological concepts. Includes instructions for making a model compost column and presents a model that illustrates open versus closed ecosystems. (DDR)

  6. Biology Notes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    School Science Review, 1983

    1983-01-01

    Describes laboratory procedures, demonstrations, and classroom activities/materials, including water relation exercise on auxin-treated artichoke tuber tissue; aerobic respiration in yeast; an improved potometer; use of mobiles in biological classification, and experiments on powdery mildews and banana polyphenol oxidase. Includes reading lists

  7. Marine Biology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dewees, Christopher M.; Hooper, Jon K.

    1976-01-01

    A variety of informational material for a course in marine biology or oceanology at the secondary level is presented. Among the topics discussed are: food webs and pyramids, planktonic blooms, marine life, plankton nets, food chains, phytoplankton, zooplankton, larval plankton and filter feeders. (BT)

  8. NASA Biological Specimen Repository

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    McMonigal, K. A.; Pietrzyk, R. A.; Sams, C. F.; Johnson, M. A.

    2010-01-01

    The NASA Biological Specimen Repository (NBSR) was established in 2006 to collect, process, preserve and distribute spaceflight-related biological specimens from long duration ISS astronauts. This repository provides unique opportunities to study longitudinal changes in human physiology spanning may missions. The NBSR collects blood and urine samples from all participating ISS crewmembers who have provided informed consent. These biological samples are collected once before flight, during flight scheduled on flight days 15, 30, 60, 120 and within 2 weeks of landing. Postflight sessions are conducted 3 and 30 days after landing. The number of in-flight sessions is dependent on the duration of the mission. Specimens are maintained under optimal storage conditions in a manner that will maximize their integrity and viability for future research The repository operates under the authority of the NASA/JSC Committee for the Protection of Human Subjects to support scientific discovery that contributes to our fundamental knowledge in the area of human physiological changes and adaptation to a microgravity environment. The NBSR will institute guidelines for the solicitation, review and sample distribution process through establishment of the NBSR Advisory Board. The Advisory Board will be composed of representatives of all participating space agencies to evaluate each request from investigators for use of the samples. This process will be consistent with ethical principles, protection of crewmember confidentiality, prevailing laws and regulations, intellectual property policies, and consent form language. Operations supporting the NBSR are scheduled to continue until the end of U.S. presence on the ISS. Sample distribution is proposed to begin with selections on investigations beginning in 2017. The availability of the NBSR will contribute to the body of knowledge about the diverse factors of spaceflight on human physiology.

  9. Privacy-Preserving Location-Based Services

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chow, Chi Yin

    2010-01-01

    Location-based services (LBS for short) providers require users' current locations to answer their location-based queries, e.g., range and nearest-neighbor queries. Revealing personal location information to potentially untrusted service providers could create privacy risks for users. To this end, our objective is to design a privacy-preserving

  10. Preserving History in a Digital World

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baumann, Jim

    2012-01-01

    Stanford University's (California) Julie Sweetkind-Singer is a recognized authority on digital preservation, and has been honored by the Library of Congress for her work in the field. She currently serves as both the assistant director of Stanford's Geospatial, Cartographic and Scientific Data and Services and as head of the Branner Earth Sciences…

  11. INTERVENTION TECHNOLOGIES FOR FOOD SAFETY AND PRESERVATION

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Food preservations with several different technologies, including irradiation, retort, aseptic processing, microwave and hydrostatic high pressure, are discussed in this chapter. Some of the methods are considered relatively mature technologies, e.g. retort and liquid aseptic; however, most of them...

  12. Hearing preservation in cochlear implant surgery.

    PubMed

    Miranda, Priscila Carvalho; Sampaio, Andr Luiz Lopes; Lopes, Rafaela Aquino Fernandes; Ramos Venosa, Alessandra; de Oliveira, Carlos Augusto Costa Pires

    2014-01-01

    In the past, it was thought that hearing loss patients with residual low-frequency hearing would not be good candidates for cochlear implantation since insertion was expected to induce inner ear trauma. Recent advances in electrode design and surgical techniques have made the preservation of residual low-frequency hearing achievable and desirable. The importance of preserving residual low-frequency hearing cannot be underestimated in light of the added benefit of hearing in noisy atmospheres and in music quality. The concept of electrical and acoustic stimulation involves electrically stimulating the nonfunctional, high-frequency region of the cochlea with a cochlear implant and applying a hearing aid in the low-frequency range. The principle of preserving low-frequency hearing by a "soft surgery" cochlear implantation could also be useful to the population of children who might profit from regenerative hair cell therapy in the future. Main aspects of low-frequency hearing preservation surgery are discussed in this review: its brief history, electrode design, principles and advantages of electric-acoustic stimulation, surgical technique, and further implications of this new treatment possibility for hearing impaired patients. PMID:25276136

  13. Preservation For and By the People

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rimberg, June

    1973-01-01

    The American the Beautiful Fund (ABF) has for the past eight years been supporting imaginative urban design, the preservation of green spaces, and the protection of the character of small towns and vanishing Americana through staff assistance and modest seed grants. (JA)

  14. Conservation, Preservation and Restoration in Nigerian Libraries.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ojo-Igbinoba, M. E.

    1991-01-01

    Addresses problems involved with the conservation, preservation, and restoration of library materials in Nigeria. Topics discussed include insect pests; light, heat, and humidity; atmospheric pollution and dust; natural disasters including fire and floods; theft and vandalism; acidity of paper; binding and mending; and trained personnel. (15…

  15. Preserving the 'Athens of Indiana' through Digitization.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Helling, Bill

    2003-01-01

    Describes a digitization project at the public library in Crawfordsville, Indiana that was designed to preserve their local history collection. Highlights include damage to the collection from fire, termites, use, and age; selecting a scanner and software; creating databases; and making information accessible on the Web. (LRW)

  16. Coatings Preserve Metal, Stone, Tile, and Concrete

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2014-01-01

    John B. Schutt, a chemist at Goddard Space Flight Center, created a coating for spacecraft that could resist corrosion and withstand high heat. After retiring from NASA, Schutt used his expertise to create new formulations for Daytona Beach, Florida-based Adsil Corporation, which now manufactures a family of coatings to preserve various surfaces. Adsil has created 150 jobs due to the products.

  17. Planning for Preservation during Mass Digitization Projects

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Teper, Jennifer Hain; Shaw, Emily F.

    2011-01-01

    In anticipation of current and future mass digitization projects in which the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign's Library will participate, the Library's Conservation Unit began to gather data on the "scannability" of our general book collections to anticipate potential effects on conservation and preservation work flows. The findings

  18. Preservation and Conservation in the School Library.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sedinger, Theresa

    1992-01-01

    Discusses the necessity of preservation and conservation activities in school libraries to save materials such as school newspapers, programs of events, censorship records, board activities, yearbooks, and student projects. Topics discussed include brittle, deteriorating paper; monitoring the physical environment, including heat, light, humidity,

  19. Knowledge Preservation and Web-tools

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Moreman, Douglas; Dyer, John; Ahmad, Rashed

    1998-01-01

    We propose a library of "netbooks" as part of a national effort, preserving the wisdom of the early Space Program. NASA is losing its rocket scientists who designed the great systems of the past. Few new systems of similar ambition are being built; much of the expertise that took us to the Moon is evaporating. With retiring NASA designers, we work to preserve something of the expertise of these individuals, developed at great national cost. We show others the tools that make preservation easy and cheap. Retiring engineers and scientists can be coached into speaking (without charge) into recording devices about ideas not widely appreciated but of potential future value. Transcripts of the recordings and the audio itself are combined (cheaply) in netbooks accessible via a standard web-browser (free). Selected netbooks are indexed into a rapidly searchable system, an electronic Library. We recruit support in establishing a standards committee for that Library. The system is to be a model for access by the blind as well as for preservation of important, technical knowledge.

  20. Preservation of Mercury in Polyethylene Containers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Piccolino, Samuel Paul

    1983-01-01

    Reports results of experiments favoring use of 0.5 percent nitric acid with an oxidant (potassium dichromate or potassium permanganate) to preserve samples in polyethylene containers for mercury analysis. Includes procedures used and statistical data obtained from the experiments. (JN)

  1. The H1 Data Preservation Project

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    South, D. M.; Steder, M.

    2012-12-01

    The H1 data preservation project was started in 2009 as part of the global data preservation initiative in high-energy physics, DPHEP. In order to retain the full potential for future improvements, the H1 Collaboration aims for level 4 of the DPHEP recommendations, which requires the full simulation and reconstruction chain as well as the data to be preserved for future analysis. A major goal of the H1 project is therefore to provide secure, long-lived and validated access to the H1 data and analysis software, which is realised in collaboration with DESY-IT using virtualisation techniques. By implementing such a system, it is hoped that the lifetime of the unique ep collision data from HERA will be extended, providing the possibility for novel analysis in the future. The preservation of the data and software is performed alongside a consolidation programme of digital and non-digital documentation, some of which dates back to the early 1980s. A new organisational model of the H1 Collaboration, reflecting the change to the long term phase, is to be adopted in July 2012.

  2. Building Digital Audio Preservation Infrastructure and Workflows

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Young, Anjanette; Olivieri, Blynne; Eckler, Karl; Gerontakos, Theodore

    2010-01-01

    In 2009 the University of Washington (UW) Libraries special collections received funding for the digital preservation of its audio indigenous language holdings. The university libraries, where the authors work in various capacities, had begun digitizing image and text collections in 1997. Because of this, at the onset of the project, workflows (a

  3. Current Trends in Preservation Research and Development.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cunha, George Martin

    1990-01-01

    Overview of current trends in the preservation of library materials discusses collections conservation and management; climate control; insect and mold control; fire control; the effects of compact shelving; freezing and freeze-drying; space drying; alkaline paper; recycled paper; mass deacidification; and paper strengthening. (27 notes and

  4. Mechanism for Burgess Shale-type preservation.

    PubMed

    Gaines, Robert R; Hammarlund, Emma U; Hou, Xianguang; Qi, Changshi; Gabbott, Sarah E; Zhao, Yuanlong; Peng, Jin; Canfield, Donald E

    2012-04-01

    Exceptionally preserved fossil biotas of the Burgess Shale and a handful of other similar Cambrian deposits provide rare but critical insights into the early diversification of animals. The extraordinary preservation of labile tissues in these geographically widespread but temporally restricted soft-bodied fossil assemblages has remained enigmatic since Walcott's initial discovery in 1909. Here, we demonstrate the mechanism of Burgess Shale-type preservation using sedimentologic and geochemical data from the Chengjiang, Burgess Shale, and five other principal Burgess Shale-type deposits. Sulfur isotope evidence from sedimentary pyrites reveals that the exquisite fossilization of organic remains as carbonaceous compressions resulted from early inhibition of microbial activity in the sediments by means of oxidant deprivation. Low sulfate concentrations in the global ocean and low-oxygen bottom water conditions at the sites of deposition resulted in reduced oxidant availability. Subsequently, rapid entombment of fossils in fine-grained sediments and early sealing of sediments by pervasive carbonate cements at bed tops restricted oxidant flux into the sediments. A permeability barrier, provided by bed-capping cements that were emplaced at the seafloor, is a feature that is shared among Burgess Shale-type deposits, and resulted from the unusually high alkalinity of Cambrian oceans. Thus, Burgess Shale-type preservation of soft-bodied fossil assemblages worldwide was promoted by unique aspects of early Paleozoic seawater chemistry that strongly impacted sediment diagenesis, providing a fundamentally unique record of the immediate aftermath of the "Cambrian explosion." PMID:22392974

  5. Dignity-preserving dementia care: a metasynthesis.

    PubMed

    Tranvg, Oscar; Petersen, Karin A; Nden, Dagfinn

    2013-12-01

    Research indicates the essentiality of dignity as a vital component for quality of life, reconfirming the emphasis on dignity preservation in the international code of nursing ethics. Applying Noblit and Hare's meta-ethnography, the aim of the study was to develop a theory model by synthesizing 10 qualitative articles from various cultural contexts, exploring nurse and allied healthcare professional perception/practice concerning dignity-preserving dementia care. "Advocating the person's autonomy and integrity," which involves "having compassion for the person," "confirming the person's worthiness and sense of self," and "creating a humane and purposeful environment," was identified as a primary foundation for dignity-preserving dementia care. "Balancing individual choices among persons no longer able to make sound decisions, against the duty of making choices on behalf of the person," which involves "persuasion" and/or "mild restraint," was considered a crucial aspect in certain situations. "Sheltering human worth-remembering those who forget" was identified as a comprehensive motive and core value within dignity-preserving dementia care. PMID:23715554

  6. Fertility preservation in young cancer patients

    PubMed Central

    Revel, Ariel; Revel-Vilk, Shoshana

    2010-01-01

    As a result of advances in treatment, almost 80% of children and adolescents who receive a diagnosis of cancer become long-term survivors. The increased survival rate of children and adolescents with cancer has resulted in a major interest in the long-term effects of cancer treatment on the possibility for future fertility. Currently established methods for the preservation of fertility are available only for pubertal males and females. Pubertal male cancer patients should be encouraged to freeze numerous sperm samples even when sperm count and motility are poor. In these cases, intracytoplasmic sperm injection is a powerful technique compared with intrauterine insemination since thawed sperm samples with poor parameters can produce relatively high fertilization rates resulting in normal pregnancies and deliveries. Married pubertal women should be proposed ovulation induction, follicular aspiration, and fertilization with husband sperm. Single women could benefit from vitrification of oocytes. This requires a delay of about 3 weeks in the commencement of chemotherapy to enable follicular growth. Fertility preservation for prepubertal patients is more of a problem. Young girls could be offered cryopreservation of gametes in the gonadal tissue. Cryopreservation of testicular tissue was suggested for fertility preservation for young boys, but this method is totally experimental and not currently offered. Discussing future fertility is part of the consultation of young female and male patients facing potentially gonadotoxic cancer therapy. It is the role of reproductive specialists to create various options in their laboratory to preserve fertility potential of cancer patients. PMID:20607000

  7. Current Trends in Preservation Research and Development.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cunha, George Martin

    1990-01-01

    Overview of current trends in the preservation of library materials discusses collections conservation and management; climate control; insect and mold control; fire control; the effects of compact shelving; freezing and freeze-drying; space drying; alkaline paper; recycled paper; mass deacidification; and paper strengthening. (27 notes and…

  8. The Newspaper Preservation Act: A Retrospective Analysis.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barwis, Gail Lund

    1980-01-01

    Charges that the Newspaper Preservation Act has allowed unnatural monopolistic practices to exist where the free marketplace might otherwise operate, has failed to truly save failing newspapers, and has opened the way for non-failing newspapers to gain special antitrust exemptions. Calls for a reassessment of policy. (RL)

  9. 36 CFR 910.14 - Historic preservation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Historic preservation. 910.14 Section 910.14 Parks, Forests, and Public Property PENNSYLVANIA AVENUE DEVELOPMENT CORPORATION GENERAL GUIDELINES AND UNIFORM STANDARDS FOR URBAN PLANNING AND DESIGN OF DEVELOPMENT WITHIN THE PENNSYLVANIA AVENUE DEVELOPMENT AREA Urban Planning...

  10. 36 CFR 910.32 - Historic preservation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Historic preservation. 910.32 Section 910.32 Parks, Forests, and Public Property PENNSYLVANIA AVENUE DEVELOPMENT CORPORATION GENERAL GUIDELINES AND UNIFORM STANDARDS FOR URBAN PLANNING AND DESIGN OF DEVELOPMENT WITHIN THE PENNSYLVANIA AVENUE DEVELOPMENT AREA Standards...

  11. Digital Storytelling: Preserving a Cultural Tradition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Young, Jeff

    2010-01-01

    In this article, the author shows how digital photography could be an effective cultural preservation enabler. On July 1, 2007, with initial funding from Research in Motion and Merit Travel and support of more than 300 family and friends, the author and his team arrived in the small town of Monduli, Tanzania with the purpose of teaching digital

  12. Mechanism for Burgess Shale-type preservation

    PubMed Central

    Gaines, Robert R.; Hammarlund, Emma U.; Hou, Xianguang; Qi, Changshi; Gabbott, Sarah E.; Zhao, Yuanlong; Peng, Jin; Canfield, Donald E.

    2012-01-01

    Exceptionally preserved fossil biotas of the Burgess Shale and a handful of other similar Cambrian deposits provide rare but critical insights into the early diversification of animals. The extraordinary preservation of labile tissues in these geographically widespread but temporally restricted soft-bodied fossil assemblages has remained enigmatic since Walcott’s initial discovery in 1909. Here, we demonstrate the mechanism of Burgess Shale-type preservation using sedimentologic and geochemical data from the Chengjiang, Burgess Shale, and five other principal Burgess Shale-type deposits. Sulfur isotope evidence from sedimentary pyrites reveals that the exquisite fossilization of organic remains as carbonaceous compressions resulted from early inhibition of microbial activity in the sediments by means of oxidant deprivation. Low sulfate concentrations in the global ocean and low-oxygen bottom water conditions at the sites of deposition resulted in reduced oxidant availability. Subsequently, rapid entombment of fossils in fine-grained sediments and early sealing of sediments by pervasive carbonate cements at bed tops restricted oxidant flux into the sediments. A permeability barrier, provided by bed-capping cements that were emplaced at the seafloor, is a feature that is shared among Burgess Shale-type deposits, and resulted from the unusually high alkalinity of Cambrian oceans. Thus, Burgess Shale-type preservation of soft-bodied fossil assemblages worldwide was promoted by unique aspects of early Paleozoic seawater chemistry that strongly impacted sediment diagenesis, providing a fundamentally unique record of the immediate aftermath of the “Cambrian explosion.” PMID:22392974

  13. Long-Term Information Preservation and Access

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Song, Sang Chul

    2010-01-01

    An unprecedented amount of information encompassing almost every facet of human activities across the world is generated daily in the form of zeros and ones, and that is often the only form in which such information is recorded. A good fraction of this information needs to be preserved for periods of time ranging from a few years to centuries.

  14. Archiving Innovations Preserve Essential Historical Records

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2013-01-01

    The Apollo 11 mission left on the Moon a silicon disc inscribed with microscopic recreations of messages from 73 countries. NanoArk Corporation of Fairport, New York, built on that NASA technology to develop a fire and water resistant archiving innovation that provides cost savings and security in preserving documents. Since its launch, NanoArk has grown from 2 to 10 employees.

  15. Building Digital Audio Preservation Infrastructure and Workflows

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Young, Anjanette; Olivieri, Blynne; Eckler, Karl; Gerontakos, Theodore

    2010-01-01

    In 2009 the University of Washington (UW) Libraries special collections received funding for the digital preservation of its audio indigenous language holdings. The university libraries, where the authors work in various capacities, had begun digitizing image and text collections in 1997. Because of this, at the onset of the project, workflows (a…

  16. Digital Preservation and the Cedars Project.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Russell, Kelly

    1998-01-01

    Defines and discusses strategies for digital preservation. Describes the United Kingdom's CURL (Consortium of University Research Libraries) exemplars in digital archives project "Cedars" led by the Universities of Oxford, Cambridge, and Leeds to address strategic, methodological, and practical issues, and to provide guidance in best practice for…

  17. Conservation, Preservation and Restoration in Nigerian Libraries.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ojo-Igbinoba, M. E.

    1991-01-01

    Addresses problems involved with the conservation, preservation, and restoration of library materials in Nigeria. Topics discussed include insect pests; light, heat, and humidity; atmospheric pollution and dust; natural disasters including fire and floods; theft and vandalism; acidity of paper; binding and mending; and trained personnel. (15

  18. Fossil avian eggshell preserves ancient DNA

    PubMed Central

    Oskam, Charlotte L.; Haile, James; McLay, Emma; Rigby, Paul; Allentoft, Morten E.; Olsen, Maia E.; Bengtsson, Camilla; Miller, Gifford H.; Schwenninger, Jean-Luc; Jacomb, Chris; Walter, Richard; Baynes, Alexander; Dortch, Joe; Parker-Pearson, Michael; Gilbert, M. Thomas P.; Holdaway, Richard N.; Willerslev, Eske; Bunce, Michael

    2010-01-01

    Owing to exceptional biomolecule preservation, fossil avian eggshell has been used extensively in geochronology and palaeodietary studies. Here, we show, to our knowledge, for the first time that fossil eggshell is a previously unrecognized source of ancient DNA (aDNA). We describe the successful isolation and amplification of DNA from fossil eggshell up to 19 ka old. aDNA was successfully characterized from eggshell obtained from New Zealand (extinct moa and ducks), Madagascar (extinct elephant birds) and Australia (emu and owl). Our data demonstrate excellent preservation of the nucleic acids, evidenced by retrieval of both mitochondrial and nuclear DNA from many of the samples. Using confocal microscopy and quantitative PCR, this study critically evaluates approaches to maximize DNA recovery from powdered eggshell. Our quantitative PCR experiments also demonstrate that moa eggshell has approximately 125 times lower bacterial load than bone, making it a highly suitable substrate for high-throughput sequencing approaches. Importantly, the preservation of DNA in Pleistocene eggshell from Australia and Holocene deposits from Madagascar indicates that eggshell is an excellent substrate for the long-term preservation of DNA in warmer climates. The successful recovery of DNA from this substrate has implications in a number of scientific disciplines; most notably archaeology and palaeontology, where genotypes and/or DNA-based species identifications can add significantly to our understanding of diets, environments, past biodiversity and evolutionary processes. PMID:20219731

  19. Long Term Preservation of Digital Information.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lorie, Raymond A.

    The preservation of digital data for the long term presents a variety of challenges from technical to social and organizational. The technical challenge is to ensure that the information, generated today, can survive long term changes in storage media, devices, and data formats. This paper presents a novel approach to the problem. It distinguishes

  20. Endothelium Preserving Microwave Treatment for Atherosclerosis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fink, Patrick; Arndt, G. D.; Ngo, Phong

    2003-01-01

    This slide presentation reviews the use of microwave technology for treating Atherosclerosis while preserving the endothelium. The system uses catheter antennas as part of the system that is intended to treat atherosclerosis. The concept is to use a microwave catheter for heating the atherosclerotic lesions, and reduce constriction in the artery.

  1. Digitizing Technologies for Preservation. SPEC Kit 214.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kellerman, L. Suzanne, Comp.; Wilson, Rebecca, Comp.

    The Association of Research Libraries distributed a survey to its 119 member libraries to assess the use of state-of-the-art digital technologies as a preservation method. Libraries were asked to report detailed data on all projects designed specifically to: (1) enhance images of faded or brittle originals, (2) provide access to digital images…

  2. Digital Preservation and the Cedars Project.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Russell, Kelly

    1998-01-01

    Defines and discusses strategies for digital preservation. Describes the United Kingdom's CURL (Consortium of University Research Libraries) exemplars in digital archives project "Cedars" led by the Universities of Oxford, Cambridge, and Leeds to address strategic, methodological, and practical issues, and to provide guidance in best practice for

  3. Dry Preserving the Green Sea Urchin.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stimson, Cheryl D.

    1987-01-01

    Describes a project for junior high and senior high school students designed to safely preserve hard-bodied marine invertebrates. Details the materials and procedures used in this technique. Stresses the use of non-toxic solutions and producing a lifelike specimen. (CW)

  4. Planning for Preservation during Mass Digitization Projects

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Teper, Jennifer Hain; Shaw, Emily F.

    2011-01-01

    In anticipation of current and future mass digitization projects in which the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign's Library will participate, the Library's Conservation Unit began to gather data on the "scannability" of our general book collections to anticipate potential effects on conservation and preservation work flows. The findings…

  5. Fossil avian eggshell preserves ancient DNA.

    PubMed

    Oskam, Charlotte L; Haile, James; McLay, Emma; Rigby, Paul; Allentoft, Morten E; Olsen, Maia E; Bengtsson, Camilla; Miller, Gifford H; Schwenninger, Jean-Luc; Jacomb, Chris; Walter, Richard; Baynes, Alexander; Dortch, Joe; Parker-Pearson, Michael; Gilbert, M Thomas P; Holdaway, Richard N; Willerslev, Eske; Bunce, Michael

    2010-07-01

    Owing to exceptional biomolecule preservation, fossil avian eggshell has been used extensively in geochronology and palaeodietary studies. Here, we show, to our knowledge, for the first time that fossil eggshell is a previously unrecognized source of ancient DNA (aDNA). We describe the successful isolation and amplification of DNA from fossil eggshell up to 19 ka old. aDNA was successfully characterized from eggshell obtained from New Zealand (extinct moa and ducks), Madagascar (extinct elephant birds) and Australia (emu and owl). Our data demonstrate excellent preservation of the nucleic acids, evidenced by retrieval of both mitochondrial and nuclear DNA from many of the samples. Using confocal microscopy and quantitative PCR, this study critically evaluates approaches to maximize DNA recovery from powdered eggshell. Our quantitative PCR experiments also demonstrate that moa eggshell has approximately 125 times lower bacterial load than bone, making it a highly suitable substrate for high-throughput sequencing approaches. Importantly, the preservation of DNA in Pleistocene eggshell from Australia and Holocene deposits from Madagascar indicates that eggshell is an excellent substrate for the long-term preservation of DNA in warmer climates. The successful recovery of DNA from this substrate has implications in a number of scientific disciplines; most notably archaeology and palaeontology, where genotypes and/or DNA-based species identifications can add significantly to our understanding of diets, environments, past biodiversity and evolutionary processes. PMID:20219731

  6. Survey of colourings and preservatives in drugs.

    PubMed Central

    Pollock, I.; Young, E.; Stoneham, M.; Slater, N.; Wilkinson, J. D.; Warner, J. O.

    1989-01-01

    OBJECTIVE--To assess the prevalence of colourings and preservatives in drug formulations in the United Kingdom. DESIGN--Postal survey. PARTICIPANTS--All pharmaceutical manufacturers in the United Kingdom were requested to supply data on drug formulations with particular regard to the content of colourings and preservatives. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURE--Prevalence in proprietary drugs of colourings or preservatives, or both, that have been implicated in adverse reactions. Computation of a list of formulations of bronchodilators, antihistamines, and antibiotics that are free of such additives. RESULTS--A total of 118 out of 120 pharmaceutical companies supplied the data requested. In all, 2204 drug formulations were analysed and found to contain 419 different additives, of which 52 were colourings and preservatives that have been implicated in adverse reactions; 930 formulations contained such an additive. Tartrazine was the fourth most commonly occurring colouring, being present in 124 drug formulations. CONCLUSION--Many drugs contain additives that help to identify them and prolong their shelf life but are implicated in adverse reactions in some people. Some form of labelling of drug additives would enable these people to avoid drugs containing such additives. PMID:2508849

  7. Micro-Preservation: Conserving the Small Library.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DeCandido, Robert; DeCandido, GraceAnne A.

    1985-01-01

    Offers suggestions and outlines procedures for the preservation of the resources of a small library. Brief sections discuss environment (temperature, humidity, housekeeping, light); library binding; simple in-house repairs; other protective measures (enclosures, microfilming); the care of unique objects; and disaster planning. A 21-item

  8. PRESERVATION OF MEDICINAL AND AROMATIC CROPS

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The NPGS is a cooperative effort by public (State and Federal) and private organizations to preserve the genetic diversity of plants by long-term storage of germplasm, primarily in the form of seeds. The mission of the NPGS includes: 1.) the conservation of diverse crop germplasm through collectio...

  9. Language Preservation and Human Resources Development.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Silverthorne, Joyce A.

    Those who work in the field of preserving Native American languages are an assortment of individuals who come to the work as a central career (linguists), through family heritage (fluent speakers), or through a developed passion (language learners). This paper examines the field from the perspective of R. Wayne Pace, Phillip C. Smith, and Gordon…

  10. Long-Term Information Preservation and Access

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Song, Sang Chul

    2010-01-01

    An unprecedented amount of information encompassing almost every facet of human activities across the world is generated daily in the form of zeros and ones, and that is often the only form in which such information is recorded. A good fraction of this information needs to be preserved for periods of time ranging from a few years to centuries.…

  11. Preserving History in a Digital World

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baumann, Jim

    2012-01-01

    Stanford University's (California) Julie Sweetkind-Singer is a recognized authority on digital preservation, and has been honored by the Library of Congress for her work in the field. She currently serves as both the assistant director of Stanford's Geospatial, Cartographic and Scientific Data and Services and as head of the Branner Earth Sciences

  12. [Preservatives and dental caries. Can preservatives in food and beverages influence oral health?].

    PubMed

    Leikanger, S; Bjertness, E; Scheie, A A; Eriksen, H M; von der Fehr, F R

    1990-10-30

    There has been a pronounced decline in dental caries in industrialized countries during the last decades. The most obvious explanation is exposure to fluorides. However, the decline started before fluorides were extensively used. Theoretically, a contributory factor may have been increased consumption of foods containing preservatives. The aims of the present study were to find out whether increased intake of preservatives has occurred, and to assess the effect of two commonly used preservatives, sorbic acid and benzoic acid, on bacterial growth and on plaque acidogenity in vivo. Results from five consumption reports from the Central Bureau of Statistics of Norway were used to estimate changes in consumption of basic foods containing the preservatives mentioned. A modified broth dilution method was used to determine the growth inhibitory effects on selected oral streptococci. Plaque-pH measurements were performed with a microelectrode to assess possible effects on acid production. Data pointed towards increased consumption of preservatives. Legal concentrations of preservatives inhibited bacterial growth. Similar concentrations of the preservatives had a negligible effect on acid production in dental plaque (0.4% W/V), whereas higher concentrations (2% W/V) had an inhibitory effect. PMID:2256063

  13. Isolation of Cortical Microglia with Preserved Immunophenotype and Functionality From Murine Neonates

    PubMed Central

    Daniele, Stefano G.; Edwards, Amanda A.; Maguire-Zeiss, Kathleen A.

    2014-01-01

    Isolation of microglia from CNS tissue is a powerful investigative tool used to study microglial biology ex vivo. The present method details a procedure for isolation of microglia from neonatal murine cortices by mechanical agitation with a rotary shaker. This microglia isolation method yields highly pure cortical microglia that exhibit morphological and functional characteristics indicative of quiescent microglia in normal, nonpathological conditions in vivo. This procedure also preserves the microglial immunophenotype and biochemical functionality as demonstrated by the induction of morphological changes, nuclear translocation of the p65 subunit of NF-?B (p65), and secretion of the hallmark proinflammatory cytokine, tumor necrosis factor-? (TNF-?), upon lipopolysaccharide (LPS) and Pam3CSK4 (Pam) challenges. Therefore, the present isolation procedure preserves the immunophenotype of both quiescent and activated microglia, providing an experimental method of investigating microglia biology in ex vivo conditions. PMID:24513797

  14. Carboxymethylation of polysaccharides from Tremella fuciformis for antioxidant and moisture-preserving activities.

    PubMed

    Wang, Xiaomei; Zhang, Zhongshan; Zhao, Mingxing

    2015-01-01

    The carboxymethylated polysaccharide (CATP), which derived from water-insoluble crude Tremella fuciformis polysaccharide (ATP), was prepared. And then the antioxidant and moisture-preserving activities of the samples were investigated. The results of chemical composition and FT-IR analysis showed the carboxymethylated modifications of polysaccharide were successful. The degree of substitution (DS) of four carboxymethylated derivatives were different with the molar of monochloroacetic acid. Their water solubility and biological activities were improved with the increase of DS. And moreover, a high antioxidant and moisture-preserving activities of CATPs was observed, so this derivative needs to be attention and studied in further. Results proved that the carboxymethylation could effectively enhance their potential biological properties of the polysaccharide. PMID:25194971

  15. Kinetic study of treatment of wastewater contains food preservative agent by anaerobic baffled reactor : An overview

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sumantri, Indro; Purwanto, Budiyono

    2015-12-01

    The characteristic of wastewater of food industries with preservative substances is high content of organic substances, degradable and high total suspended solid. High organic content in this waste forced the treatment is biologically and pointed out to anaerobic treatment. Anaerobic showed the better performance of degradation than aerobic for high content organic and also for toxic materials. During that day the treatment of food wastewater is aerobically which is high consume of energy required and high volume of sludge produced. The advantage of anaerobic is save high energy, less product of sludge, less requirement of nutrients of microorganism and high efficiency reduction of organic load. The high efficiency of reduction will reduce the load of further treatment, so that, the threshold limit based on the regulation would be easy to achieve. Research of treatment of wastewater of food industries would be utilized by both big scale industries and small industries using addition of preservative substances. The type reactor of anaerobic process is anaerobic baffled reactor that will give better contact between wastewater and microorganism in the sludge. The variables conducted in this research are the baffled configuration, sludge height, preservative agent contents, hydralic retention time and influence of micro nutrients. The respons of this research are the COD effluent, remaining preservative agent, pH, formation of volatile fatty acid and total suspended solid. The result of this research is kinetic model of the anaerobic baffled reactor, reaction kinetic of preservative agent degradation and technology of treatment wastewater contains preservative agent. The benefit of this research is to solve the treatment of wastewater of food industries with preservative substance in order to achieve wastewater limit regulation and also to prevent the environmental deterioration.

  16. Mesoscopic biology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shivashankar, G. V.

    2002-02-01

    In this paper we present a qualitative outlook of mesoscopic biology where the typical length scale is of the order of nanometers and the energy scales comparable to thermal energy. Novel biomolecular machines, governed by coded information at the level of DNA and proteins, operate at these length scales in biological systems. In recent years advances in technology have led to the study of some of the design principles of these machines; in particular at the level of an individual molecule. For example, the forces that operate in molecular interactions, the stochasticity involved in these interactions and their spatio-temporal dynamics are beginning to be explored. Understanding such design principles is opening new possibilities in mesoscopic physics with potential applications.

  17. Marine biology

    SciTech Connect

    Thurman, H.V.; Webber, H.H.

    1984-01-01

    This book discusses both taxonomic and ecological topics on marine biology. Full coverage of marine organisms of all five kingdoms is provided, along with interesting and thorough discussion of all major marine habitats. Organization into six major parts allows flexibility. It also provides insight into important topics such as disposal of nuclear waste at sea, the idea that life began on the ocean floor, and how whales, krill, and people interact. A full-color photo chapter reviews questions, and exercises. The contents are: an overview marine biology: fundamental concepts/investigating life in the ocean; the physical ocean, the ocean floor, the nature of water, the nature and motion of ocean water; general ecology, conditions for life in the sea, biological productivity and energy transfer; marine organisms; monera, protista, mycota and metaphyta; the smaller marine animals, the large animals marine habitats, the intertidal zone/benthos of the continental shelf, the photic zone, the deep ocean, the ocean under stress, marine pollution, appendix a: the metric system and conversion factors/ appendix b: prefixes and suffixes/ appendix c: taxonomic classification of common marine organisms, and glossary, and index.

  18. Corneal neovascularization and biological therapy

    PubMed Central

    Voiculescu, OB; Voinea, LM; Alexandrescu, C

    2015-01-01

    Corneal avascularity is necessary for the preservation of optimal vision. The cornea maintains a dynamic balance between pro- and antiangiogenic factors that allows it to remain avascular under normal homeostatic conditions. Corneal neovascularization (NV) is a condition that can develop in response to inflammation, hypoxia, trauma, or limbal stem cell deficiency and it is a significant cause of blindness. New therapeutic options for diseases of the cornea and ocular surface are now being explored in experimental animals and clinical trials. Antibody based biologics are being tested for their ability to reduce blood and lymphatic vessel ingrowth into the cornea, and to reduce inflammation. Numerous studies have shown that biologics with specificity for VEGF A such as bevacizumab and ranibizumab (a recombinant antibody and an antibody fragment, respectively) or anti-tumor necrosis factor-? microantibody, are effective in the treatment of corneal neovascularization. PMID:26664467

  19. Corneal neovascularization and biological therapy.

    PubMed

    Voiculescu, O B; Voinea, L M; Alexandrescu, C

    2015-01-01

    Corneal avascularity is necessary for the preservation of optimal vision. The cornea maintains a dynamic balance between pro- and antiangiogenic factors that allows it to remain avascular under normal homeostatic conditions. Corneal neovascularization (NV) is a condition that can develop in response to inflammation, hypoxia, trauma, or limbal stem cell deficiency and it is a significant cause of blindness. New therapeutic options for diseases of the cornea and ocular surface are now being explored in experimental animals and clinical trials. Antibody based biologics are being tested for their ability to reduce blood and lymphatic vessel ingrowth into the cornea, and to reduce inflammation. Numerous studies have shown that biologics with specificity for VEGF A such as bevacizumab and ranibizumab (a recombinant antibody and an antibody fragment, respectively) or anti-tumor necrosis factor-? microantibody, are effective in the treatment of corneal neovascularization. PMID:26664467

  20. Irradiation preservation of seafood: Literature review

    SciTech Connect

    Molton, P.M.

    1987-10-01

    The application of gamma-irradiation for extending the shelf life of seafood has been of interest for many years. This report reviews a number of studies on seafood irradiation conducted over the past several years. Topics covered include seafood irradiation techniques and dosages, species applicability and differences, the effects of packaging on seafood preservation, and changes in organoleptic acceptability as a result of irradiation. Particular attention is given to radiation effects (likely and unlikely) of concern to the public. These include the potential for generation of toxic chemical products, botulinum toxin production, and other health concerns. No scientifically defensible evidence of any kind was found for any harmful effect of irradiation of seafoods at the doses being considered (less than 300 krad), and all indications are that irradiation is an acceptable and needed additional tool for seafood preservation. 49 refs., 14 figs., 14 tabs.

  1. Preservation of cycad and Ginkgo pollen

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Frederiksen, N.O.

    1978-01-01

    Pollen grains of Ginkgo, Cycas, and Encephalartos were chemically treated together with pollen of Quercus, Alnus, and Pinus, the latter three genera being used as standards. The experiments showed that: (1) boiling the pollen for 8-10 hours in 10% KOH had little if any effect on any of the grains; (2) lengthy acetolysis treatment produced some degradation or corrosion, particularly in Ginkgo and Cycas, but the grains of even these genera remained easily recognizable; (3) oxidation with KMnO4 followed by H2O2 showed that pollen of Ginkgo, Cycas, and Encephalartos remains better preserved than that of Quercus and Alnus, and although Ginkgo and Encephalartos probably are slightly less resistant to oxidation than Pinus, no great differences exists between these monosulcate types and Pinus. Thus the experiments show that, at least for sediments low in bacteria, cycad and Ginkgo pollen should be well represented in the fossil record as far as their preservational capabilities are concerned. ?? 1978.

  2. Preserved Proactive Interference in Autism Spectrum Disorder.

    PubMed

    Carmo, Joana C; Duarte, Elsa; Pinho, Sandra; Filipe, Carlos N; Marques, J Frederico

    2016-01-01

    In this study, we aimed to evaluate further the functioning and structuring of the semantic system in autism spectrum disorders (ASD). We analyzed the performance of 19 high-functioning young adults with ASD and a group of 20 age-, verbal IQ- and education-matched individuals with the Proactive Interference (PI) Paradigm to evaluate semantic functioning in ASD (Experiment 1). In Experiment 2, we analyzed the performances of both groups in a PI paradigm with manipulation of the level of typicality. In both experiments, we observed significant effects of trial and group but no trial by group interactions, which we interpreted as robust evidence of preserved PI (build up effect) that indicated the preservation of semantic mechanisms of encoding and retrieval. PMID:26210518

  3. A Mesozoic bird from Gondwana preserving feathers.

    PubMed

    Carvalho, Ismar de Souza; Novas, Fernando E; Agnolín, Federico L; Isasi, Marcelo P; Freitas, Francisco I; Andrade, José A

    2015-01-01

    The fossil record of birds in the Mesozoic of Gondwana is mostly based on isolated and often poorly preserved specimens, none of which has preserved details on feather anatomy. We provide the description of a fossil bird represented by a skeleton with feathers from the Early Cretaceous of Gondwana (NE Brazil). The specimen sheds light on the homology and 3D structure of the rachis-dominated feathers, previously known from two-dimensional slabs. The rectrices exhibit a row of rounded spots, probably corresponding to some original colour pattern. The specimen supports the identification of the feather scapus as the rachis, which is notably robust and elliptical in cross-section. In spite of its juvenile nature, the tail plumage resembles the feathering of adult individuals of modern birds. Documentation of rachis-dominated tail in South American enantiornithines broadens the paleobiogeographic distribution of basal birds with this tail feather morphotype, up to now only reported from China. PMID:26035285

  4. [Organ preserving strategies for rectal cancer treatment].

    PubMed

    Vendrely, V; Denost, Q; Amestoy, F; Clrier, B; Smith, D; Rullier, A; Rullier,

    2015-10-01

    For rectal cancers, the current standard of care consists of chemoradiation followed by radical surgery with total mesorectal excision. Oncologic results are good, especially regarding local recurrence rates, but at the cost of high morbidity rates and poor anorectal, urinary and sexual function results. Since chemoradiation yields 15 to 25% pathological complete response, the role of radical surgery is questioned for patients presenting with good response after chemoradiation and two organ preservation strategies have been offered: watch and wait strategy and local excision strategy. The aim of this review is to give the results of organ preservation after chemoradiotherapy series and to highlight different questions regarding initial patient's selection, complete clinical response definition, risk of mesorectal nodal involvement, follow-up modalities as well as oncologic and functional results. PMID:26278990

  5. A Mesozoic bird from Gondwana preserving feathers

    PubMed Central

    de Souza Carvalho, Ismar; Novas, Fernando E.; Agnolín, Federico L.; Isasi, Marcelo P.; Freitas, Francisco I.; Andrade, José A.

    2015-01-01

    The fossil record of birds in the Mesozoic of Gondwana is mostly based on isolated and often poorly preserved specimens, none of which has preserved details on feather anatomy. We provide the description of a fossil bird represented by a skeleton with feathers from the Early Cretaceous of Gondwana (NE Brazil). The specimen sheds light on the homology and 3D structure of the rachis-dominated feathers, previously known from two-dimensional slabs. The rectrices exhibit a row of rounded spots, probably corresponding to some original colour pattern. The specimen supports the identification of the feather scapus as the rachis, which is notably robust and elliptical in cross-section. In spite of its juvenile nature, the tail plumage resembles the feathering of adult individuals of modern birds. Documentation of rachis-dominated tail in South American enantiornithines broadens the paleobiogeographic distribution of basal birds with this tail feather morphotype, up to now only reported from China. PMID:26035285

  6. Islet Culture/Preservation Before Islet Transplantation

    PubMed Central

    Noguchi, Hirofumi; Miyagi-Shiohira, Chika; Kurima, Kiyoto; Kobayashi, Naoya; Saitoh, Issei; Watanabe, Masami; Noguchi, Yasufumi; Matsushita, Masayuki

    2015-01-01

    Although islet culture prior to transplantation provides flexibility for the evaluation of isolated islets and the pretreatment of patients, it is well known that isolated islets deteriorate rapidly in culture. Human serum albumin (HSA) is used for medium supplementation instead of fetal bovine serum (FBS), which is typically used for islet culture research, to avoid the introduction of xenogeneic materials. However, FBS contains several factors that are beneficial to islet viability and which also neutralize the endogenous pancreatic enzymes or exogenous enzymes left over from the isolation process. Several groups have reported the comparison of cultures at 22°C and 37°C. Recent studies have demonstrated the superiority of 4°C preservation to 22°C and 37°C cultures. We herein review the current research on islet culture/preservation for clinical islet transplantation. PMID:26858905

  7. Islet Culture/Preservation Before Islet Transplantation.

    PubMed

    Noguchi, Hirofumi; Miyagi-Shiohira, Chika; Kurima, Kiyoto; Kobayashi, Naoya; Saitoh, Issei; Watanabe, Masami; Noguchi, Yasufumi; Matsushita, Masayuki

    2015-12-17

    Although islet culture prior to transplantation provides flexibility for the evaluation of isolated islets and the pretreatment of patients, it is well known that isolated islets deteriorate rapidly in culture. Human serum albumin (HSA) is used for medium supplementation instead of fetal bovine serum (FBS), which is typically used for islet culture research, to avoid the introduction of xenogeneic materials. However, FBS contains several factors that are beneficial to islet viability and which also neutralize the endogenous pancreatic enzymes or exogenous enzymes left over from the isolation process. Several groups have reported the comparison of cultures at 22C and 37C. Recent studies have demonstrated the superiority of 4C preservation to 22C and 37C cultures. We herein review the current research on islet culture/preservation for clinical islet transplantation. PMID:26858905

  8. Techniques and Results for Open Hip Preservation

    PubMed Central

    Levy, David M.; Hellman, Michael D.; Haughom, Bryan; Stover, Michael D.; Nho, Shane J.

    2015-01-01

    While hip arthroscopy grows in popularity, there are still many circumstances under which open hip preservation is the most appropriately indicated. This article specifically reviews open hip preservation procedures for a variety of hip conditions. Femoral acetabular impingement may be corrected using an open surgical hip dislocation. Acetabular dysplasia may be corrected using a periacetabular osteotomy. Acetabular protrusio may require surgical hip dislocation with rim trimming and a possible valgus intertrochanteric osteotomy. Legg–Calve–Perthes disease produces complex deformities that may be better served with osteotomies of the proximal femur and/or acetabulum. Chronic slipped capital femoral epiphysis may also benefit from a surgical hip dislocation and/or proximal femoral osteotomy. PMID:26649292

  9. Workshop on Preserving High Purity Uranium-233

    SciTech Connect

    Krichinsky, Alan M; Giaquinto, Joseph; Canaan, R Douglas {Doug}

    2016-01-01

    A workshop was held on at the MARC X conference to provide a forum for the scientific community to communicate needs for high-purity 233U and its by-products in order to preserve critical items otherwise slated for downblending and disposal. Currently, only a small portion of the U.S. holdings of separated 233U is being preserved. However, many additional kilograms of 233U (>97% pure) still are destined to be downblended which will permanently destroy their potential value for many other applications. It is not likely that this material will ever be replaced due to a lack of operating production capability. Summaries of information conveyed at the workshop and feedback obtained from the scientific community are presented herein.

  10. Cascaded phase-preserving multilevel amplitude regeneration.

    PubMed

    Roethlingshoefer, Tobias; Onishchukov, Georgy; Schmauss, Bernhard; Leuchs, Gerd

    2014-12-29

    The performance of cascaded in-line phase-preserving amplitude regeneration using nonlinear amplifying loop mirrors has been studied in numerical simulations. As an example of a spectrally efficient modulation format with two amplitude states and multiple phase states, the regeneration performance of a star-16QAM format, basically an 8PSK format with two amplitude levels, was evaluated. An increased robustness against amplified spontaneous emission and nonlinear phase noise was observed resulting in a significantly increased transmission distance. PMID:25607142

  11. Mode field diameter preserving fiber tapers.

    PubMed

    Noordegraaf, D; Maack, M D; Skovgaard, P M W; Sørensen, M H; Broeng, J; Lægsgaard, J

    2011-12-01

    An approach for preserving the mode field diameter (MFD) in fiber tapers is demonstrated. The approach utilizes concentric dual-core fibers, which couple light from an inner core to an outer core through a taper. Fibers with a 6 μm MFD feedthrough and a 15 μm polarization maintaining feedthrough are demonstrated experimentally. Simulations of the MFD in the tapered dual-core fibers are also presented. PMID:22139230

  12. Preserved Network Metrics across Translated Texts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cabatbat, Josephine Jill T.; Monsanto, Jica P.; Tapang, Giovanni A.

    2014-09-01

    Co-occurrence language networks based on Bible translations and the Universal Declaration of Human Rights (UDHR) translations in different languages were constructed and compared with random text networks. Among the considered network metrics, the network size, N, the normalized betweenness centrality (BC), and the average k-nearest neighbors, knn, were found to be the most preserved across translations. Moreover, similar frequency distributions of co-occurring network motifs were observed for translated texts networks.

  13. Working Group Proposed to Preserve Archival Records

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bartlett, Jennifer L.

    2013-01-01

    The AAS and AIP co-hosted a Workshop in April 2012 with NSF support (AST-1110231) that recommends establishing a Working Group on Time Domain Astronomy (WGTDA) to encourage and advise on preserving historical observations in a form meaningful for future scientific analysis. Participants specifically considered archival observations that could describe how astronomical objects change over time. Modern techniques and increased storage capacity enable extracting additional information from older media. Despite the photographic plate focus, other formats also concerned participants. To prioritize preservation efforts, participants recommended considering the information density, the amount of previously published data, their format and associated materials, their current condition, and their expected deterioration rate. Because the best digitization still produces an observation of an observation, the originals should be retained. For accessibility, participants recommended that observations and their metadata be available digitally and on-line. Standardized systems for classifying, organizing, and listing holdings should enable discovery of historical observations through the Virtual Astronomical Observatory. Participants recommended pilot projects that produce scientific results, demonstrate the dependence of some advances on heritage data, and open new avenues of exploration. Surveying a broad region of the sky with a long time-base and high cadence should reveal new phenomena and improve statistics for rare events. Adequate financial support is essential. While their capacity to produce new science is the primary motivation for preserving astronomical records, their potential for historical research and citizen science allows targeting cultural institutions and other private sources. A committee was elected to prepare the WGTDA proposal. The WGTDA executive committee should be composed of ~10 members representing modern surveys, heritage materials, data management, data standardization and integration, follow-up of time-domain discoveries, and virtual observatories. The Working Group on the Preservation of Astronomical Heritage Web page includes a full report.

  14. Mass preserving registration for heart MR images.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Lei; Haker, Steven; Tannenbaum, Allen

    2005-01-01

    This paper presents a new algorithm for non-rigid registration between two doubly-connected regions. Our algorithm is based on harmonic analysis and the theory of optimal mass transport. It assumes an underlining continuum model, in which the total amount of mass is exactly preserved during the transformation of tissues. We use a finite element approach to numerically implement the algorithm. PMID:16685954

  15. Mass Preserving Registration for Heart MR Images

    PubMed Central

    Zhu, Lei; Haker, Steven; Tannenbaum, Allen

    2013-01-01

    This paper presents a new algorithm for non-rigid registration between two doubly-connected regions. Our algorithm is based on harmonic analysis and the theory of optimal mass transport. It assumes an underlining continuum model, in which the total amount of mass is exactly preserved during the transformation of tissues. We use a finite element approach to numerically implement the algorithm. PMID:16685954

  16. Fertility Preservation for Cancer Patients: A Review

    PubMed Central

    Ajala, Tosin; Rafi, Junaid; Larsen-Disney, Peter; Howell, Richard

    2010-01-01

    Infertility can arise as a consequence of treatment of oncological conditions. The parallel and continued improvement in both the management of oncology and fertility cases in recent times has brought to the fore-front the potential for fertility preservation in patients being treated for cancer. Oncologists must be aware of situations where their treatment will affect fertility in patients who are being treated for cancer and they must also be aware of the pathways available for procedures such as cryopreservation of gametes and/or embryos. Improved cancer care associated with increased cure rates and long term survival, coupled with advances in fertility treatment means that it is now imperative that fertility preservation is considered as part of the care offered to these patients. This can only be approached within a multidisciplinary setting. There are obvious challenges that still remain to be resolved, especially in the area of fertility preservation in prepubertal patients. These include ethical issues, such as valid consent and research in the area of tissue retrieval, cryopreservation, and transplantation. PMID:20379357

  17. Methods to preserve potentially toxigenic fungi

    PubMed Central

    Guimares, Lucas Costa; Fernandes, Ana Paula; Chalfoun, Sara Maria; Batista, Lus Roberto

    2014-01-01

    Microorganisms are a source of many high-value compounds which are useful to every living being, such as humans, plants and animals. Since the process of isolating and improving a microorganism can be lengthy and expensive, preserving the obtained characteristic is of paramount importance, so the process does not need to be repeated. Fungi are eukaryotic, achlorophyllous, heterotrophic organisms, usually filamentous, absorb their food, can be either macro or microscopic, propagate themselves by means of spores and store glycogen as a source of storage. Fungi, while infesting food, may produce toxic substances such as mycotoxins. The great genetic diversity of the Kingdom Fungi renders the preservation of fungal cultures for many years relevant. Several international reference mycological culture collections are maintained in many countries. The methodologies that are most fit for preserving microorganisms for extended periods are based on lowering the metabolism until it reaches a stage of artificial dormancy. The goal of this study was to analyze three methods for potentially toxigenic fungal conservation (Castellanis, continuous subculture and lyophilization) and to identify the best among them. PMID:24948912

  18. Topology Preserving SOM with Transductive Confidence Machine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tong, Bin; Qin, Zhiguang; Suzuki, Einoshin

    We propose a novel topology preserving self-organized map (SOM) classifier with transductive confidence machine (TPSOM-TCM). Typically, SOM acts as a dimension reduction tool for mapping training samples from a high-dimensional input space onto a neuron grid. However, current SOM-based classifiers can not provide degrees of classification reliability for new unlabeled samples so that they are difficult to be used in risk-sensitive applications where incorrect predictions may result in serious consequences. Our method extends a typical SOM classifier to allow it to supply such reliability degrees. To achieve this objective, we define a nonconformity measurement with which a randomness test can predict how nonconforming a new unlabeled sample is with respect to the training samples. In addition, we notice that the definition of nonconformity measurement is more dependent on the quality of topology preservation than that of quantization error reduction. We thus incorporate the grey relation coefficient (GRC) into the calculation of neighborhood radii to improve the topology preservation without increasing the quantization error. Our method is able to improve the time efficiency of a previous method kNN-TCM, when the number of samples is large. Extensive experiments on both the UCI and KDDCUP 99 data sets show the effectiveness of our method.

  19. Mass preserving registration for lung CT

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gorbunova, Vladlena; Lo, Pechin; Loeve, Martine; Tiddens, Harm A.; Sporring, Jon; Nielsen, Mads; de Bruijne, Marleen

    2009-02-01

    In this paper, we evaluate a novel image registration method on a set of expiratory-inspiratory pairs of computed tomography (CT) lung scans. A free-form multi resolution image registration technique is used to match two scans of the same subject. To account for the differences in the lung intensities due to differences in inspiration level, we propose to adjust the intensity of lung tissue according to the local expansion or compression. An image registration method without intensity adjustment is compared to the proposed method. Both approaches are evaluated on a set of 10 pairs of expiration and inspiration CT scans of children with cystic fibrosis lung disease. The proposed method with mass preserving adjustment results in significantly better alignment of the vessel trees. Analysis of local volume change for regions with trapped air compared to normally ventilated regions revealed larger differences between these regions in the case of mass preserving image registration, indicating that mass preserving registration is better at capturing localized differences in lung deformation.

  20. Context preserving maps of tubular structures.

    PubMed

    Marino, Joseph; Zeng, Wei; Gu, Xianfeng; Kaufman, Arie

    2011-12-01

    When visualizing tubular 3D structures, external representations are often used for guidance and display, and such views in 2D can often contain occlusions. Virtual dissection methods have been proposed where the entire 3D structure can be mapped to the 2D plane, though these will lose context by straightening curved sections. We present a new method of creating maps of 3D tubular structures that yield a succinct view while preserving the overall geometric structure. Given a dominant view plane for the structure, its curve skeleton is first projected to a 2D skeleton. This 2D skeleton is adjusted to account for distortions in length, modified to remove intersections, and optimized to preserve the shape of the original 3D skeleton. Based on this shaped 2D skeleton, a boundary for the map of the object is obtained based on a slicing path through the structure and the radius around the skeleton. The sliced structure is conformally mapped to a rectangle and then deformed via harmonic mapping to match the boundary placement. This flattened map preserves the general geometric context of a 3D object in a 2D display, and rendering of this flattened map can be accomplished using volumetric ray casting. We have evaluated our method on real datasets of human colon models. PMID:22034317

  1. Degradation of Wood Preservatives by Fungi

    PubMed Central

    Duncan, Catherine G.; Deverall, Flora J.

    1964-01-01

    Wood-inhabiting fungi, not necessarily responsible for major decay, are shown to be capable of degrading a toxic compound into a less potent form, thus rendering it less effective in protecting wood from decay by less-tolerant basidiomycetous wood-destroyers. Sweetgum or pine sapwood blocks treated with preservatives (ammoniacal copper arsenate, fluor-chrome-arsenate-dinitrophenol, a creosote or pentachlorophenol) were exposed progressively to two different wood-inhabiting fungi with sterilization between the first and second exposure. The fungus in the first exposure was usually an Ascomycete or a Fungi ImperfectiChaetomium globosum, Phoma, Orbicula, Graphium, Pestalozzia, or Trichoderma species, isolated from wood below the ground. In one experiment, the fungus in the first exposure was a basidiomycete, Lenzites trabea or Polyporus versicolor. The second fungus, a prominent BasidiomyceteConiophora puteana, Lentinus lepideus, or Lenzites trabeawas the bioassay fungus, since its purpose was to show whether the first fungus had degraded the preservative. Generally, the treated block, except where exposed to another fungus, remained virtually untouched by the bioassay fungus. Clearly, therefore, the first fungus had rendered the preservative ineffective but without appreciably decaying the wood itself Chemical analyses of treated blocks indicated that in the first exposure the fungi had substantially depleted sodium arsenate and pentachlorophenol. PMID:16349644

  2. Lattice-preserving Flower Constellations under perturbations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Casanova, Daniel; Avendao, Martn; Tresaco, Eva

    2015-01-01

    2D Lattice Flower Constellations (2D-LFCs) are stable in the Keplerian model. This means that a flower constellation maintains its structure (the lattice) at any instant of time. However, this is not necessarily true when the harmonic is included in the gravitational potential of the Earth. This paper deals with the new theory of Lattice-preserving Flower Constellations, which shows how 2D-LFC can be designed in such a way that the relative displacement of the orbital parameters of its satellites is invariant even under the presence of the effect. This is achieved following two different procedures: the first consists of the modification of the semi-major axis of all the satellites in a 2D-LFC slightly to control their orbital period, and the second consists of the modification of the values for the eccentricity and inclination, so that the perturbations result in motion that still preserves the lattice of the flower constellation. The proposed theory of Lattice-preserving Flower Constellations validates the theory of 3D Lattice Flower Constellations and has a wide range of potential applications.

  3. Riverscape and Groundwater Preservation: A Choice Experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tempesta, T.; Vecchiato, D.

    2013-12-01

    This study presents a quantitative approach to support policy decision making for the preservation of riverscapes, taking into account the EC Water Framework Directive (2000/60/EC) and the EC Nitrates Directive (91/676/EEC) concerning the protection of waters against nitrate pollution from agricultural sources. A choice experiment was applied to evaluate the benefits, as perceived by inhabitants, of the implementation of policies aiming to reduce the concentration of nitrates in groundwater, preserve the riverscape by maintaining a minimum water flow and increasing hedges and woods along the Serio River in central northern Italy. Findings suggested that people were particularly concerned about groundwater quality, probably because it is strongly linked to human health. Nevertheless, it was interesting to observe that people expressed a high willingness to pay for actions that affect the riverscape as a whole (such as the minimum water flow maintenance plus reforestation). This is probably due to the close connection between the riverscape and the functions of the river area for recreation, health purposes, and biodiversity preservation.

  4. HERA Data Preservation plans and activities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Szuba, J.; DESY Data Preservation Group

    2011-12-01

    An international inter-experimental study group on data preservation and long-term analysis in HEP (DPHEP) was convened at the end of 2008 and held a series of workshops during 2009. The HERA experiments H1, ZEUS, HERMES as well as the IT division and the Library are well represented in DPHEP and efforts are now being made to form a coherent approach at DESY. Various options for preservation are explored, from permanent evolution (H1) to the use of virtualisation techniques (ZEUS). Both experiments have planned the computing and the associated resources until 2013 and now explore possibilities to ensure the maintenance of the data analysis capabilities beyond 2013. A common effort and additional resources may lead to longer viability of data analysis. Technical solutions have been investigated by DESY-IT and involve virtualisation systems tailored for long term software preservation as well as systems for self consistent data archiving and migration. The communication between experiments, DESY-IT and the Library have put forward the possibility for further common developments related to documentation scanning and storage as well as pilot projects within the HEP documentation system INSPIRE. The evaluation of such projects is ongoing and concrete proposals to ensure HERA data analysis after 2013 are expected in 2010.

  5. [Preservation of fertility in children with cancer].

    PubMed

    de Lambert, Guénolée; Poirot, Catherine; Guérin, Florent; Brugières, Laurence; Martelli, Héléne

    2015-05-01

    Preserving fertility is a requisite for any child undergoing gonadotoxic treatment for cancer. Techniques vary depending on the age, sex of the patient and nature of the treatment. Boys undergoing irradiation have testicular protection or transposition. Post-pubertal boys undergoing chemotherapy can have semen cryopreservation like adults. However, fertility preservation for pre-pubertal boys undergoing chemotherapy implies testicular tissue cryopreservation. Research concentrates on germ cell transplantation, autotransplantation of testicular tissue or in vitro spermatogonial maturation in order to later restore spermatogenesis. Ovarian transposition can be undergone in case of brachytherapy or external beam radiotherapy in girls and has published success rates of 80%. Ovarian cryopreservation has been developed since 1995 for pre-pubertal and post-pubertal girls undergoing chemotherapy. The ovary is retrieved surgically and ovarian cortical segments are frozen. Thawing and transplantation of gonadal tissue are the next steps to restoring fertility. However, immature oocytes will have to be matured either in vivo or in vitro in order to restore fertility. Fertility preservation must be offered to children with cancer even if maturation of immature germ cells is uncertain for research 20 to 30 years from now will probably enable fertility restoration. PMID:25818928

  6. Scalable similarity search with topology preserving hashing.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Lei; Zhang, Yongdong; Gu, Xiaoguang; Tang, Jinhui; Tian, Qi

    2014-07-01

    Hashing-based similarity search techniques is becoming increasingly popular in large data sets. To capture meaningful neighbors, the topology of a data set, which represents the neighborhood relationships between its subregions and the relative proximities between the neighbors of each subregion, e.g., the relative neighborhood ranking of each subregion, should be exploited. However, most existing hashing methods are developed to preserve neighborhood relationships while ignoring the relative neighborhood proximities. Moreover, most hashing methods lack in providing a good result ranking, since there are often lots of results sharing the same Hamming distance to a query. In this paper, we propose a novel hashing method to solve these two issues jointly. The proposed method is referred to as topology preserving hashing (TPH). TPH is distinct from prior works by also preserving the neighborhood ranking. Based on this framework, we present three different TPH methods, including linear unsupervised TPH, semisupervised TPH, and kernelized TPH. Particularly, our unsupervised TPH is capable of mining semantic relationship between unlabeled data without supervised information. Extensive experiments on four large data sets demonstrate the superior performances of the proposed methods over several state-of-the-art unsupervised and semisupervised hashing techniques. PMID:24860034

  7. Effects of wood preservative leachates from docks

    SciTech Connect

    Wendt, P.H.; Van Dolah, R.F.; Bobo, M.Y.; Mathews, T.D.

    1994-12-31

    Recent evidence indicates that the wood preservative commonly used in dock pilings (chromated copper arsenate or CCA) is highly toxic to several estuarine organisms in laboratory experiments. Increasing demand for residential docks prompted a field study intended to complement these earlier laboratory investigations. Objectives of the study were to: (1) examine concentrations of Cu, Cr, and As in sediments and oysters from intertidal locations in several creeks with and without high densities of docks; (2) examine the bioaccumulation of wood preservative leachates by laboratory-reared oysters transferred to field sites near and distant from newly constructed docks; and (3) investigate the acute toxicity of wood preservative leachates for several species of estuarine fishes and invertebrates exposed to these compounds in the field. Preliminary results indicate that sediment concentrations of all three metals were well below ER-L levels reported by Long and Morgan at all but one dock site. In an ancillary study, 24h LC{sub 50} bioassays were performed using rotifers (Brachionus plicatilis) which were exposed to pore water from sediments in creeks with and without docks. Toxicities of bulk sediments from the same sites were examined using Microtox which measures decreases in bioluminescence of marine bacteria (Photobacterium phosphoreum) as a function of sediment concentration. Neither the rotifer nor the Microtox bioassays showed any significant differences in toxicity between creeks with and without docks.

  8. Polarimetric property preservation in SAR speckle filtering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Jong-Sen; Grunes, Mitchell R.; Boerner, Wolfgang-Martin

    1997-12-01

    Speckle reduction of polarimetric SAR imagery has been studied using several different approaches. All these approaches exploited the degree of independence between HH, HV and VV channels. The statistical characteristics, such as correlation between channels, and polarimetric property preservation, were not addressed. This paper proposes a new approach in polarimetric SAR filtering. The new approach emphasizes not introducing cross-talk, preserving polarimetric information and statistical correlation between channels, and not degrading the image quality. To avoid cross-talk, each element of the covariance matrix has to be filtered independently. This rules out current methods of polarimetric SAR filtering. To preserve the polarimetric signature, each element of the covariance matrix should be filtered in a way similar to multi-look processing by averaging the covariance matrix of neighboring pixels, but without the deficiency of smearing edges, or degrading image quality. The proposed polarimetric SAR filter uses edge- directed non-square windows and applies the local statistics filter. The impact of using this polarimetric speckle filtering on terrain classification is also studied. NASA/JPL Les Landes polarimetric P-Band and C-Band SAR data is used for illustration.

  9. Gravitational Biology Facility on Space Station: Meeting the needs of space biology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Allen, Katherine; Wade, Charles

    1992-01-01

    The Gravitational Biology Facility (GBF) is a set of generic laboratory equipment needed to conduct research on Space Station Freedom (SSF), focusing on Space Biology Program science (Cell and Developmental Biology and Plant Biology). The GBF will be functional from the earliest utilization flights through the permanent manned phase. Gravitational biology research will also make use of other Life Sciences equipment on the space station as well as existing equipment developed for the space shuttle. The facility equipment will be developed based on requirements derived from experiments proposed by the scientific community to address critical questions in the Space Biology Program. This requires that the facility have the ability to house a wide variety of species, various methods of observation, and numerous methods of sample collection, preservation, and storage. The selection of the equipment will be done by the members of a scientific working group (5 members representing cell biology, 6 developmental biology, and 6 plant biology) who also provide requirements to design engineers to ensure that the equipment will meet scientific needs. All equipment will undergo extensive ground based experimental validation studies by various investigators addressing a variety of experimental questions. Equipment will be designed to be adaptable to other space platforms. The theme of the Gravitational Biology Facility effort is to provide optimal and reliable equipment to answer the critical questions in Space Biology as to the effects of gravity on living systems.

  10. Morphological preservation of carbonaceous plant fossils in blueschist metamorphic rocks from New Zealand.

    PubMed

    Galvez, M E; Beyssac, O; Benzerara, K; Bernard, S; Menguy, N; Cox, S C; Martinez, I; Johnston, M R; Brown, G E

    2012-03-01

    Morphological and chemical evidence of ancient life is widespread in sedimentary rocks retrieved from shallow depths in the Earth's crust. Metamorphism is highly detrimental to the preservation of biological information in rocks, thus limiting the geological record in which traces of life might be found. Deformation and increasing pressure/temperature during deep burial may alter the morphology as well as the composition and structure of both the organic and mineral constituents of fossils. However, microspore fossils have been previously observed in intensely metamorphosed rocks. It has been suggested that their small size, and/or the nature of the polymer composing their wall, and/or the mineralogy of their surrounding matrix were key parameters explaining their exceptional preservation. Here, we describe the remarkable morphological preservation of plant macrofossils in blueschist metamorphic rocks from New Zealand containing lawsonite. Leaves and stems can be easily identified at the macroscale. At the microscale, polygonal structures with walls mineralized by micas within the leaf midribs and blades may derive from the original cellular ultrastructure or, alternatively, from the shrinkage during burial of the gelified remnants of the leaves in an abiotic process. Processes and important parameters involved in the remarkable preservation of these fossils during metamorphism are discussed. Despite the excellent morphological preservation, the initial biological polymers have been completely transformed to graphitic carbonaceous matter down to the nanometer scale. This occurrence demonstrates that plant macrofossils may experience major geodynamic processes such as metamorphism and exhumation involving deep changes and homogenization of their carbon chemistry and structure but still retain their morphology with remarkable integrity even if they are not shielded by any hard-mineralized concretion. PMID:22299653

  11. Signal Preservation in Pulsing Turbidity Current Deposits

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Keevil, G. M.; Dorrell, R. M.; McCaffrey, W. D.

    2014-12-01

    Recent debate has focused on the potential preservation of the signal of seismic events in the sedimentary record via the initiation of large-scale turbidity current flows. The failure of a seismic zone lying across a series of submarine canyon systems may initiate multiple linked turbidity currents from each canyon head. Such events can be distinguished from locally triggered turbidity currents by their deposits. Canyon systems may be expected to become progressively interconnected with depth. Differing run out times of each interconnected channel is expected to result in pulsing flow behavior, a key feature of such turbidity currents. Thus, cyclical waxing to waning flow behavior preserved in the rock record may be a key indicator of a large-scale seismic trigger. Novel experimental research is presented that explores the dynamics of pulsed turbidity currents. The experimental study is used to quantitatively examine controls on the time and length scale of signal preservation in pulsing density driven flows. The experiments consisted of a multi gate lock box, with the gates remotely operated by pneumatic rams. Gate timers allow for accurate experimental repeatability and a careful investigation of the effect of time spacing between flows on pulsing flow dynamics. Parameters investigated include volumes of material released, effective flow density and viscosity (as a proxy of flow mud content). Full flow field visualization was made using an array of interlinked HD cameras. Dyeing separate components of the flow different colors enabled detailed analysis of flow dynamic behavior occurring between head and tail. The secondary pulsing flow was seen to rapidly overtake the first flow. Observations of flow velocity and density suggested that due to stratification the secondary flow was travelling along the density interface between the main body of the primary flow and its turbulent wake. As the pulsing flows created in the laboratory experiments rapidly merged, it suggests that it is difficult to preserve pulsing signals of interacting turbidity currents over long run out distance or times. However, these initial experiments have been carried out with solute currents on flat slopes. Particulate currents travelling over a pronounced gradient may have a significantly different signal preservation behavior.

  12. Bomb Pulse Biology

    PubMed Central

    Sarachine Falso, Miranda J.; Buchholz, Bruce A.

    2012-01-01

    The past decade has seen an explosion in use of the 14C bomb-pulse to do fundamental cell biology. Studies in the 1960s used decay counting to measure tissue turnover when the atmospheric 14C/C concentration was changing rapidly. Today bulk tissue measurements are of marginal interest since most of the carbon in the tissue resides in proteins, lipids and carbohydrates that turn over rapidly. Specific cell types with specialized functions are the focus of cell turnover investigations. Tissue samples need to be fresh or frozen. Fixed or preserved samples contain petroleum-derived carbon that has not been successfully removed. Cell or nuclear surface markers are used to sort specific cell types, typically by fluorescence-activated cell sorting (FACS). Specific biomolecules need to be isolated with high purity and accelerator mass spectrometry (AMS) measurements must accommodate samples that generally contain less than 40 micrograms of carbon. Furthermore, all separations must not add carbon to the sample. Independent means such as UV absorbance must be used to confirm molecule purity. Approaches for separating specific proteins and DNA and combating contamination of undesired molecules are described. PMID:23359559

  13. Bomb Pulse Biology.

    PubMed

    Sarachine Falso, Miranda J; Buchholz, Bruce A

    2013-01-01

    The past decade has seen an explosion in use of the (14)C bomb-pulse to do fundamental cell biology. Studies in the 1960's used decay counting to measure tissue turnover when the atmospheric (14)C/C concentration was changing rapidly. Today bulk tissue measurements are of marginal interest since most of the carbon in the tissue resides in proteins, lipids and carbohydrates that turn over rapidly. Specific cell types with specialized functions are the focus of cell turnover investigations. Tissue samples need to be fresh or frozen. Fixed or preserved samples contain petroleum-derived carbon that has not been successfully removed. Cell or nuclear surface markers are used to sort specific cell types, typically by fluorescence-activated cell sorting (FACS). Specific biomolecules need to be isolated with high purity and accelerator mass spectrometry (AMS) measurements must accommodate samples that generally contain less than 40 micrograms of carbon. Furthermore, all separations must not add carbon to the sample. Independent means such as UV absorbance must be used to confirm molecule purity. Approaches for separating specific proteins and DNA and combating contamination of undesired molecules are described. PMID:23359559

  14. Bomb pulse biology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Falso, Miranda J. Sarachine; Buchholz, Bruce A.

    2013-01-01

    The past decade has seen an explosion in use of the 14C bomb pulse to do fundamental cell biology. Studies in the 1960s used decay counting to measure tissue turnover when the atmospheric 14C/C concentration was changing rapidly. Today bulk tissue measurements are of marginal interest since most of the carbon in the tissue resides in proteins, lipids and carbohydrates that turn over rapidly. Specific cell types with specialized functions are the focus of cell turnover investigations. Tissue samples need to be fresh or frozen. Fixed or preserved samples contain petroleum-derived carbon that has not been successfully removed. Cell or nuclear surface markers are used to sort specific cell types, typically by fluorescence-activated cell sorting (FACS). Specific biomolecules need to be isolated with high purity and accelerator mass spectrometry (AMS) measurements must accommodate samples that generally contain less than 40 ?g of carbon. Furthermore, all separations must not add carbon to the sample. Independent means such as UV absorbance must be used to confirm molecule purity. Approaches for separating specific proteins and DNA and combating contamination of undesired molecules are described.

  15. Effect of preservation on the ?C value of dissolved inorganic carbon in different types of water samples.

    PubMed

    Li, Xiangzhong; Liu, Weiguo

    2011-09-01

    Recent studies have shown that the stable carbon isotope compositions of dissolved inorganic carbon (?(13)C(DIC)) of water samples preserved with HgCl(2) and CuSO(4) vary. Furthermore, mercury and cuprum compounds are toxic to the human or biological system and require proper waste disposal. To test the effect of preservation on the ?(13)C value of DIC in different types of water samples, a set of water samples with different DIC concentrations was preserved using different methods, including preserving with inhibitors (CuSO(4) or HgCl(2)), preserving under frozen conditions, filtering through a 0.4 ? m paper filter, and the DIC species precipitated in the form of solid BaCO(3). Our results show that ?(13)C(DIC) values of the samples preserved with CuSO(4) and HgCl(2) become more positive with increased storage time. The ?(13)C(DIC) of the water samples preserved under frozen conditions and the precipitated DIC as BaCO(3) are also more positive than original water samples. However, the ?(13)C values were relatively stable for up to 90 days in all water samples filtered through the 0.4 ? m paper filter and stored under cool conditions (0-4 C). Therefore, we suggest that the better method for the storage of water samples is to filter the samples through a 0.4 ? m paper filter while out in the field and preserve them under cool conditions, thereby avoiding the use of preservatives. PMID:21809940

  16. Biological membranes

    PubMed Central

    Watson, Helen

    2015-01-01

    Biological membranes allow life as we know it to exist. They form cells and enable separation between the inside and outside of an organism, controlling by means of their selective permeability which substances enter and leave. By allowing gradients of ions to be created across them, membranes also enable living organisms to generate energy. In addition, they control the flow of messages between cells by sending, receiving and processing information in the form of chemical and electrical signals. This essay summarizes the structure and function of membranes and the proteins within them, and describes their role in trafficking and transport, and their involvement in health and disease. Techniques for studying membranes are also discussed. PMID:26504250

  17. Creating biological nanomaterials using synthetic biology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rice, MaryJoe K.; Ruder, Warren C.

    2014-02-01

    Synthetic biology is a new discipline that combines science and engineering approaches to precisely control biological networks. These signaling networks are especially important in fields such as biomedicine and biochemical engineering. Additionally, biological networks can also be critical to the production of naturally occurring biological nanomaterials, and as a result, synthetic biology holds tremendous potential in creating new materials. This review introduces the field of synthetic biology, discusses how biological systems naturally produce materials, and then presents examples and strategies for incorporating synthetic biology approaches in the development of new materials. In particular, strategies for using synthetic biology to produce both organic and inorganic nanomaterials are discussed. Ultimately, synthetic biology holds the potential to dramatically impact biological materials science with significant potential applications in medical systems.

  18. 14 CFR 249.3 - Preservation of records.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Preservation of records. 249.3 Section 249.3 Aeronautics and Space OFFICE OF THE SECRETARY, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (AVIATION PROCEEDINGS) ECONOMIC REGULATIONS PRESERVATION OF AIR CARRIER RECORDS General Instructions 249.3 Preservation of records. (a) All records listed in ...

  19. 14 CFR 249.3 - Preservation of records.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Preservation of records. 249.3 Section 249.3 Aeronautics and Space OFFICE OF THE SECRETARY, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (AVIATION PROCEEDINGS) ECONOMIC REGULATIONS PRESERVATION OF AIR CARRIER RECORDS General Instructions 249.3 Preservation of records. (a) All records listed in ...

  20. 45 CFR 1171.12 - Preservation of records.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 3 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Preservation of records. 1171.12 Section 1171.12 Public Welfare Regulations Relating to Public Welfare (Continued) NATIONAL FOUNDATION ON THE ARTS AND THE... INFORMATION ACT 1171.12 Preservation of records. NEH will preserve all correspondence pertaining to...

  1. Report on the Preservation Planning Project: University of Pennsylvania Libraries.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sparks, Peter G., Comp.

    The University of Pennsylvania Libraries' Preservation Planning Project was designed to explore new ideas for planning and operating a preservation program for the Penn Library. The first goal of the project was to study the feasibility of an organizational plan that would put the preservation effort under the direction of a small internal staff

  2. The Commission on Preservation and Access Newsletter. 1994.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Commission on Preservation and Access Newsletter, 1994

    1994-01-01

    The Commission on Preservation and Access was established in 1986 to foster and support collaboration among libraries and allied organizations in order to ensure the preservation of the published and documentary record in all formats and to provide enhanced access to scholarly information. The Commission's newsletter keeps the preservation and

  3. 36 CFR 79.5 - Management and preservation of collections.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Management and preservation... Management and preservation of collections. The Federal Agency Official is responsible for the long-term management and preservation of preexisting and new collections subject to this part. Such collections...

  4. 15 CFR 270.330 - Moving and preserving evidence.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... NATIONAL INSTITUTE OF STANDARDS AND TECHNOLOGY, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE NATIONAL CONSTRUCTION SAFETY TEAMS NATIONAL CONSTRUCTION SAFETY TEAMS Collection and Preservation of Evidence; Information Created Pursuant to... preserving evidence. (a) A Team and NIST will take all necessary steps in moving and preserving...

  5. 15 CFR 270.330 - Moving and preserving evidence.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... NATIONAL INSTITUTE OF STANDARDS AND TECHNOLOGY, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE NATIONAL CONSTRUCTION SAFETY TEAMS NATIONAL CONSTRUCTION SAFETY TEAMS Collection and Preservation of Evidence; Information Created Pursuant to... preserving evidence. (a) A Team and NIST will take all necessary steps in moving and preserving...

  6. Video Preservation and Digital Reformatting: Pain and Possibility

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McDonough, Jerome; Jimenez, Mona

    2006-01-01

    The digital library community is increasingly concerned with long-term preservation of digital materials. This concern presents an opportunity for strategic alliances between digital library units and preservation departments confronting the difficulties inherent in preservation reformatting of moving image materials. However, successful

  7. 10 CFR 1303.115 - Preservation of records.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Preservation of records. 1303.115 Section 1303.115 Energy NUCLEAR WASTE TECHNICAL REVIEW BOARD PUBLIC INFORMATION AND REQUESTS 1303.115 Preservation of records. The Board shall preserve all correspondence pertaining to the requests that it receives under...

  8. 10 CFR 1303.115 - Preservation of records.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Preservation of records. 1303.115 Section 1303.115 Energy NUCLEAR WASTE TECHNICAL REVIEW BOARD PUBLIC INFORMATION AND REQUESTS 1303.115 Preservation of records. The Board shall preserve all correspondence pertaining to the requests that it receives under...

  9. 10 CFR 1303.115 - Preservation of records.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Preservation of records. 1303.115 Section 1303.115 Energy NUCLEAR WASTE TECHNICAL REVIEW BOARD PUBLIC INFORMATION AND REQUESTS 1303.115 Preservation of records. The Board shall preserve all correspondence pertaining to the requests that it receives under...

  10. 10 CFR 1303.115 - Preservation of records.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Preservation of records. 1303.115 Section 1303.115 Energy NUCLEAR WASTE TECHNICAL REVIEW BOARD PUBLIC INFORMATION AND REQUESTS 1303.115 Preservation of records. The Board shall preserve all correspondence pertaining to the requests that it receives under...

  11. 10 CFR 1303.115 - Preservation of records.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Preservation of records. 1303.115 Section 1303.115 Energy NUCLEAR WASTE TECHNICAL REVIEW BOARD PUBLIC INFORMATION AND REQUESTS 1303.115 Preservation of records. The Board shall preserve all correspondence pertaining to the requests that it receives under...

  12. 7 CFR 1.24 - Preservation of records.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Preservation of records. 1.24 Section 1.24 Agriculture Office of the Secretary of Agriculture ADMINISTRATIVE REGULATIONS Official Records § 1.24 Preservation of records. Agencies shall preserve all correspondence relating to the requests it receives under...

  13. 46 CFR 108.699 - Substitution of life preservers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Substitution of life preservers. 108.699 Section 108.699... AND EQUIPMENT Miscellaneous Equipment 108.699 Substitution of life preservers. A work vest may not be substituted for a required life preserver (a) For the life saving equipment requirements of...

  14. 46 CFR 108.699 - Substitution of life preservers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Substitution of life preservers. 108.699 Section 108.699... AND EQUIPMENT Miscellaneous Equipment 108.699 Substitution of life preservers. A work vest may not be substituted for a required life preserver (a) For the life saving equipment requirements of...

  15. 21 CFR 146.154 - Concentrated orange juice with preservative.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Concentrated orange juice with preservative. 146... Canned Fruit Juices and Beverages § 146.154 Concentrated orange juice with preservative. (a) Concentrated orange juice with preservative complies with the requirements for composition and labeling of...

  16. 21 CFR 146.154 - Concentrated orange juice with preservative.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Concentrated orange juice with preservative. 146... Canned Fruit Juices and Beverages § 146.154 Concentrated orange juice with preservative. (a) Concentrated orange juice with preservative complies with the requirements for composition and labeling of...

  17. 21 CFR 146.154 - Concentrated orange juice with preservative.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Concentrated orange juice with preservative. 146... Canned Fruit Juices and Beverages § 146.154 Concentrated orange juice with preservative. (a) Concentrated orange juice with preservative complies with the requirements for composition and labeling of...

  18. 21 CFR 146.154 - Concentrated orange juice with preservative.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Concentrated orange juice with preservative. 146... Canned Fruit Juices and Beverages § 146.154 Concentrated orange juice with preservative. (a) Concentrated orange juice with preservative complies with the requirements for composition and labeling of...

  19. 21 CFR 146.154 - Concentrated orange juice with preservative.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Concentrated orange juice with preservative. 146... Canned Fruit Juices and Beverages § 146.154 Concentrated orange juice with preservative. (a) Concentrated orange juice with preservative complies with the requirements for composition and labeling of...

  20. 29 CFR 1915.33 - Chemical paint and preservative removers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 7 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Chemical paint and preservative removers. 1915.33 Section... Preparation and Preservation § 1915.33 Chemical paint and preservative removers. (a) Employees shall be protected against skin contact during the handling and application of chemical paint and...

  1. 29 CFR 1915.33 - Chemical paint and preservative removers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 7 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Chemical paint and preservative removers. 1915.33 Section... Preparation and Preservation § 1915.33 Chemical paint and preservative removers. (a) Employees shall be protected against skin contact during the handling and application of chemical paint and...

  2. 29 CFR 1915.33 - Chemical paint and preservative removers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 7 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Chemical paint and preservative removers. 1915.33 Section... Preparation and Preservation § 1915.33 Chemical paint and preservative removers. (a) Employees shall be protected against skin contact during the handling and application of chemical paint and...

  3. 29 CFR 1915.33 - Chemical paint and preservative removers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 7 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Chemical paint and preservative removers. 1915.33 Section... Preparation and Preservation § 1915.33 Chemical paint and preservative removers. (a) Employees shall be protected against skin contact during the handling and application of chemical paint and...

  4. 29 CFR 1915.33 - Chemical paint and preservative removers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 7 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Chemical paint and preservative removers. 1915.33 Section... Preparation and Preservation § 1915.33 Chemical paint and preservative removers. (a) Employees shall be protected against skin contact during the handling and application of chemical paint and...

  5. Selection for Preservation in the Digital Age: An Overview.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gertz, Janet

    2000-01-01

    Considers three issues: whether conversion to digital form is a preservation action; the contrasts between selection for digital conversion and selection for traditional preservation; and the potential effects on the field of preservation. Includes an appendix listing cost elements of digital conversion. (AEF)

  6. Selection for Preservation in the Digital Age: An Overview.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gertz, Janet

    2001-01-01

    Considers whether conversion to digital form is a preservation action, the contrasts between selection for digital conversion and selection for traditional preservation, and the potential effects on the field of preservation. Topics include value and demand; intellectual property rights; added value; and costs. (LRW)

  7. Preservation of Electronic Scholarly Publishing: An Analysis of Three Approaches

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Honey, Sadie L.

    2005-01-01

    Scholars publish in journals to preserve their work and to make sure that it is available for current and future researchers. More and more of this publishing is done in electronic format. Libraries, the institutions that have traditionally overseen the preservation of print publications, are now struggling with the preservation of digital…

  8. Video Preservation and Digital Reformatting: Pain and Possibility

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McDonough, Jerome; Jimenez, Mona

    2006-01-01

    The digital library community is increasingly concerned with long-term preservation of digital materials. This concern presents an opportunity for strategic alliances between digital library units and preservation departments confronting the difficulties inherent in preservation reformatting of moving image materials. However, successful…

  9. Preservation Health Check: Monitoring Threats to Digital Repository Content

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kool, Wouter; van der Werf, Titia; Lavoie, Brian

    2014-01-01

    The Preservation Health Check (PHC) project, undertaken as a joint effort by Open Planets Foundation (OPF) and OCLC Research, aims to evaluate the usefulness of the preservation metadata created and maintained by operational repositories for assessing basic preservation properties. The PHC project seeks to develop an implementable logic to support…

  10. 14 CFR 136.9 - Life preservers for over water.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Life preservers for over water. 136.9... TOURS AND NATIONAL PARKS AIR TOUR MANAGEMENT National Air Tour Safety Standards § 136.9 Life preservers... is wearing a life preserver from before takeoff until flight is no longer over water. (b)...

  11. 14 CFR 136.9 - Life preservers for over water.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Life preservers for over water. 136.9... TOURS AND NATIONAL PARKS AIR TOUR MANAGEMENT National Air Tour Safety Standards § 136.9 Life preservers... is wearing a life preserver from before takeoff until flight is no longer over water. (b)...

  12. 7 CFR 1.24 - Preservation of records.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Preservation of records. 1.24 Section 1.24 Agriculture Office of the Secretary of Agriculture ADMINISTRATIVE REGULATIONS Official Records 1.24 Preservation of records. Agencies shall preserve all correspondence relating to the requests it receives under...

  13. Structural Biology Fact Sheet

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Home > Science Education > Structural Biology Fact Sheet Structural Biology Fact Sheet Tagline (Optional) Middle/Main Content Area What is structural biology? Structural biology is a field of science focused ...

  14. Hearing Preservation Among Patients Undergoing Cochlear Implantation

    PubMed Central

    Van Abel, Kathryn M.; Dunn, Camille C.; Sladen, Douglas P.; Oleson, Jacob J.; Beatty, Charles W.; Neff, Brian A.; Hansen, Marlan; Gantz, Bruce J.; Driscoll, Colin L. W.

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Despite successful preservation of low-frequency hearing in patients undergoing cochlear implantation (CI) with shorter electrode lengths, there is still controversy regarding which electrodes maximize hearing preservation (HP). The thin straight electrode array (TSEA) has been suggested as a full cochlear coverage option for HP. However, very little is known regarding its HP potential. Methods A retrospective review was performed at two tertiary academic medical centers, reviewing the electronic records for 52 patients (mean, 58.2 yr; range, 1185 yr) implanted with the Cochlear Nucleus CI422 Slim Straight (Centennial, CO, USA) electrode array, referred to herein as the thin straight electrode array or TSEA. All patients had a preoperative low-frequency pure-tone average (LFPTA) of 85 dB HL or less. Hearing thresholds were measured at initial activation (t1) and 6 months after activation (t2). HP was assessed by evaluating functional HP using a cutoff level of 85 dB HL PTA. Results At t1, 54% of the subjects had functional hearing; 33% of these subjects had an LFPTA between 71 and 85 dB HL, and 17% had an LFPTA between 56 and 70 dB HL. At t2, 47% of the patients had functional hearing, with 31% having an LFPTA between 71 and 85 dB HL. Discussion Preliminary research suggests that the TSEA has the potential to preserve functional hearing in 54% of patients at t1. However, 22% (n = 6) of the patients who had functional hearing at t1 (n = 28) lost their hearing between t1 and t2. Further studies are needed to evaluate factors that influence HP with the TSEA electrode and determine the speech perception benefits using electric and acoustic hearing over electric alone. PMID:25575373

  15. Fertility preservation and breast cancer: a review

    PubMed Central

    de Pedro, María; Otero, Borja; Martín, Belén

    2015-01-01

    Breast cancer is the most common malignancy in women, and its incidence increases with age, with the majority of patients diagnosed after menopause. However, in 15–25% of cases, patients are premenopausal at the time of diagnosis, and about 7% of them are below the age of 40. Therefore, a considerable amount of young women are diagnosed with breast cancer during their reproductive life. Within this group, most cancer cases require cytotoxic chemotherapy and/or hormone therapy, which are responsible for a decrease in the patients’ reproductive function, along with their age. The efficacy of such treatments, among other factors, has led to a high five-year-survival rate, which results in an increasing number of young women who survive breast cancer before having fulfilled their reproductive wishes, especially considering the current trend to delay pregnancy until the late 30s or early 40s in developed countries. The combination of these factors justifies the importance of fertility preservation and reproductive counselling at the time of breast cancer diagnosis in young women. A wide range of fertility preservation techniques has been developed, such as ovarian suppression, oocyte and embryo cryopreservation, immature oocyte retrieval and in vitro maturation, and ovarian tissue cryopreservation. Early counselling and referral of these patients to fertility specialists are fundamental factors in order to maximise their chances of pregnancy. This review aims to update the knowledge about the influence of breast cancer in fertility, the influence of pregnancy and fertility preservation techniques in breast cancer patients and assessment of ovarian reserve for a better treatment choice. A special section dedicated to BRCA-mutation carriers has been included because of their specific features. A comprehensive literature search has been conducted, including publications from the last five years. PMID:25729416

  16. [Constitution of a bank of biological material. Practical aspects].

    PubMed

    Henny, J

    2003-02-01

    A bank of biological materials (Biorepositories) aims to collect and preserve in a variable time period (from few days to several years) various biological samples (serum, plasma, cells, DNA, etc) with a view to make subsequent analysis associated with a powerful information management system, enabling the storage of data related to the biological specimens. The bioprocessing of Biorepositories is complex and include: specimen collection, processing issues, identification process, design equipment: liquid nitrogen and mechanical freezers, storage techniques, bioclinical information and biological specimens inventory management systems, quality assurance programs, ethical and legal problems. PMID:12684569

  17. Summary report on transverse emittance preservation

    SciTech Connect

    Chou, W.; Vos, L.

    1997-12-01

    During the past years, significant progress has been made in understanding the beam transverse emittance blow-up and its preservation. However, one often finds him-/herself ignorant when he/she tries to explain what was observed in an existing machine or to predict what will happen in a machine under design. There are a number of such examples given in this report. Some of them are even fundamental. These are the challenges. But they are also the directions leading to new achievements. The workshop gladly acknowledged them and promised to work on them.

  18. Action on preservatives in fresh pet food.

    PubMed

    1997-05-01

    In late 1995 and early 1996, Sydney vet Dr Bob Steel reported first-hand experience with a cat dying from thiamine deficiency. This deficiency was attributable to the presence of sulfur dioxide in fresh pet food which was fed to the cat over a period of time. The diagnosis was confirmed, as was the presence of sulfur dioxide in significant levels. Since that time, Dr Steel and the AVA have pursued the issue of preservatives (specifically those producing sulfur dioxide) in fresh pet food. An update on that work follows. PMID:9196834

  19. Controller reduction by preserving impulse response energy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Craig, Roy R., Jr.; Su, Tzu-Jeng

    1989-01-01

    A model order reduction algorithm based on a Krylov recurrence formulation is developed to reduce order of controllers. The reduced-order controller is obtained by projecting the full-order LQG controller onto a Krylov subspace in which either the controllability or the observability grammian is equal to the identity matrix. The reduced-order controller preserves the impulse response energy of the full-order controller and has a parameter-matching property. Two numerical examples drawn from other controller reduction literature are used to illustrate the efficacy of the proposed reduction algorithm.

  20. Plasma Technology as a New Preservation Technique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rincón, R.; Calzada, M. D.

    The preliminary results of using the surface wave discharge at the atmospheric pressure on groups of lentils and sherry Fino wine samples are presented. In this research, the capability of active species and UV radiation from the plasma, has been assessed on preservation of food. Besides, the generation and emission of both excited molecules in a metastable state N2}(B3Π {g-> A3}Σ u{+) and the de-excitation of species NO(A2}Σ {+) producing UV radiation have been also studied.

  1. Preserving Semantics in Automatically Created Ontology Alignments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Orsi, Giorgio; Tanca, Letizia

    In an open world such as the Internet, one of the most challenging tasks is ontology alignment, which is the process of finding relationships among their elements. Performing this work in an automated fashion is, however, subject to errors, because of the different semantics carried by the same concept in different application domains or because of different ontology design styles which often produce incompatible ontology structures. In this chapter, we relate the most important approaches to ontology mapping revision, proposing a revision technique which aims at preserving the semantics of the original ontologies.

  2. Groundwater remediation at a wood preservatives site

    SciTech Connect

    Mital, H.K.; Damera, R.

    1994-12-31

    A wood treatment facility in Pennsylvania allegedly discharged about a million gallons of spent wood preservatives containing pentachlorophenol into a well from 1947 to 1963. Contaminated water was noticed in a creek adjacent to the site and was reported by the residents in 1972. Subsequently this site was placed on the National Priorities List (NPL) by the EPA in 1982. Tetra Tech, Inc. has performed Remedial Investigations (RI), Feasibility Studies (FS), Remedial Designs (RD) and Remedial Action (RA) at this Superfund site, for five years. This paper presents an overview of RI, FS, RD and treatability studies related to groundwater remediation.

  3. Non-Markovian environments and entanglement preservation

    SciTech Connect

    Tan, Jackson; Kyaw, Thi Ha; Yeo, Ye

    2010-06-15

    Using the Shabani-Lidar post-Markovian master equation, we derive non-Markovian generalizations of important quantum decohering operations on single qubits. When environmental memory effects are being taken into account, both single-qubit coherence and two-qubit entanglement may be preserved over a longer period of time, in contrast to the corresponding situations where these are totally neglected. We argue that recognizing the fact that every environment is inherently non-Markovian could be the key to the resolution of the issue of entanglement sudden death.

  4. Simulating Biological and Non-Biological Motion

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bruzzo, Angela; Gesierich, Benno; Wohlschlager, Andreas

    2008-01-01

    It is widely accepted that the brain processes biological and non-biological movements in distinct neural circuits. Biological motion, in contrast to non-biological motion, refers to active movements of living beings. Aim of our experiment was to investigate the mechanisms underlying mental simulation of these two movement types. Subjects had to

  5. Simulating Biological and Non-Biological Motion

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bruzzo, Angela; Gesierich, Benno; Wohlschlager, Andreas

    2008-01-01

    It is widely accepted that the brain processes biological and non-biological movements in distinct neural circuits. Biological motion, in contrast to non-biological motion, refers to active movements of living beings. Aim of our experiment was to investigate the mechanisms underlying mental simulation of these two movement types. Subjects had to…

  6. Environmental effects of supplemental wood preservative treatments of electric utility poles. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Horn, M.E.

    1995-12-01

    A field study and associated risk assessment was conducted to evaluate the potential ecological and human health impacts related to the standard application of five supplemental wood preservatives to 20 electric utility transmission poles. Post-application monitoring for chemical residuals and microbiological effects was conducted over a 17 month post-application period (June 6, 1990--November 7, 1991). The utility wood poles in the study were located in wetland sites of the New York State Adirondack Park. All poles were western red cedar and all had been treated with pentachlorophenol (PCP) prior to installation. At the time supplemental preservatives were applied, the poles had been in service for approximately 40 years. Groundwater, surface water, and soil around each treated pole were monitored for release of active ingredients, organic carriers and subsequent degradation products of the commercial wood preservatives. The analytes were as follows: chlorpyrifos, 1,1,1-trichloroethane, creosote, 2,4-dinitrophenol, fluoride, chromium, arsenic, copper, naphthenate, sodium methyl dithiocarbamate and methyl isothiocyanate. Ecological response to chemical exposure was estimated by means of measuring soil gases (carbon dioxide and methane), soil macroinvertebrate populations and soil microbial biomass. Results from near-pole post-treatment sampling were compared to pre-treatment samples and reference plots used to establish preapplication biological conditions and background levels of wood preservative constituents.

  7. The surface of Mars: An unusual laboratory that preserves a record of catastrophic and unusual events

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Chapman, M.G.

    2009-01-01

    Catastrophic and unusual events on Earth such as bolide impacts, megafloods, supereruptions, flood volcanism, and subice volcanism may have devastating effects when they occur. Although these processes have unique characteristics and form distinctive features and deposits, we have diffi culties identifying them and measuring the magnitude of their effects. Our diffi culties with interpreting these processes and identifying their consequences are understandable considering their infrequency on Earth, combined with the low preservation potential of their deposits in the terrestrial rock record. Although we know these events do happen, they are infrequent enough that the deposits are poorly preserved on the geologically active face of the Earth, where erosion, volcanism, and tectonism constantly change the surface. Unlike the Earth, on Mars catastrophic and unusual features are well preserved because of the slow modifi cation of the surface. Signifi cant precipitation has not occurred on Mars for billions of years and there appears to be no discrete crustal plates to have undergone subduction and destruction. Therefore the ancient surface of Mars preserves geologic features and deposits that result from these extraordinary events. Also, unlike the other planets, Mars is the most similar to our own, having an atmosphere, surface ice, volcanism, and evidence of onceflowing water. So although our understanding of precursors, processes, and possible biological effects of catastrophic and unusual processes is limited on Earth, some of these mysteries may be better understood through investigating the surface of Mars. ?? 2009 The Geological Society of America.

  8. Fixation filter, device for the rapid in situ preservation of particulate samples

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Taylor, C. D.; Edgcomb, V. P.; Doherty, K. W.; Engstrom, I.; Shanahan, T.; Pachiadaki, M. G.; Molyneaux, S. J.; Honjo, S.

    2015-02-01

    Niskin bottle rosettes have for years been the workhorse technology for collection of water samples used in biological and chemical oceanography. Studies of marine microbiology and biogeochemical cycling that aim to analyze labile organic molecules including messenger RNA, must take into account factors associated with sampling methodology that obscure an accurate picture of in situ activities/processes. With Niskin sampling, the large and often variable times between sample collection and preservation on deck of a ship, and the sometimes significant physico-chemical changes (e.g., changes in pressure, light, temperature, redox state, etc.) that water samples and organisms are exposed to, are likely to introduce artifacts. These concerns are likely more significant when working with phototrophs, deep-sea microbes, and/or organisms inhabiting low-oxygen or anoxic environments. We report here the development of a new technology for the in situ collection and chemical preservation of particulate microbial samples for a variety of downstream analyses depending on preservative choice by the user. The Fixation Filter Unit, version 3 (FF3) permits filtration of water sample through 47 mm diameter filters of the user's choice and upon completion of filtration, chemically preserves the retained sample within 10's of seconds. The stand-alone devices can be adapted to hydrocasting or mooring-based platforms.

  9. Data Preservation, Information Preservation, and life-cyle of information management at NASA GES DISC

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khayat, M. G.; Deshong, B.; Esfandiari, A. E.; Gerasimov, I. V.; Johnson, J. E.; Kempler, S. J.; Wei, J. C.

    2014-12-01

    Data lifecycle management awareness is common today; planners are more likely to consider lifecycle issues at mission start. NASA remote sensing missions are typically subject to life cycle management plans of the Distributed Active Archive Center (DAAC), and NASA invests in these national centers for the long-term safeguarding and benefit of future generations. As stewards of older missions, it is incumbent upon us to ensure that a comprehensive enough set of information is being preserved to prevent the risk for "information loss". This risk is greater when the original data experts have moved on or are no longer available. Preservation of items like documentation related to processing algorithms, pre-flight calibration data, or input/output configuration parameters used in product generation, are examples of digital artifacts that are sometimes not fully preserved. This is the grey area of "information preservation"; the importance of these items is not always clear and requires careful consideration. Missing important "metadata" about intermediate steps used to derive a product could lead to serious challenges in the reproducibility of results or conclusions.Organizations are rapidly recognizing that the focus of life-cycle preservation needs to be enlarged from the strict raw data to the more encompassing arena of "information lifecycle management". By understanding what constitutes information, and the complexities involved, we are better equipped to deliver longer lasting value about the original data and derived knowledge (information) from them. The "NASA Earth Science Data Preservation Content Specification" is an attempt to define the content necessary for long-term preservation. It requires new lifecycle infrastructure approach along with content repositories to accommodate artifacts other than just raw data. The NASA Goddard Earth Sciences Data and Information Services Center (GES DISC) setup an open-source Preservation System capable of long-term archive of digital content to augment its raw data holding. This repository is being used for such missions as HIRDLS, UARS, TOMS, OMI, among others. We will provide a status of this implementation; report on challenges, lessons learned, and detail our plans for future evolution to include other missions and services.

  10. Data Preservation, Information Preservation, and Lifecyle of Information Management at NASA GES DISC

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Khayat, Mo; Kempler, Steve; Deshong, Barbara; Johnson, James; Gerasimov, Irina; Esfandiari, Ed; Berganski, Michael; Wei, Jennifer

    2014-01-01

    Data lifecycle management awareness is common today; planners are more likely to consider lifecycle issues at mission start. NASA remote sensing missions are typically subject to life cycle management plans of the Distributed Active Archive Center (DAAC), and NASA invests in these national centers for the long-term safeguarding and benefit of future generations. As stewards of older missions, it is incumbent upon us to ensure that a comprehensive enough set of information is being preserved to prevent the risk for information loss. This risk is greater when the original data experts have moved on or are no longer available. Preservation of items like documentation related to processing algorithms, pre-flight calibration data, or input-output configuration parameters used in product generation, are examples of digital artifacts that are sometimes not fully preserved. This is the grey area of information preservation; the importance of these items is not always clear and requires careful consideration. Missing important metadata about intermediate steps used to derive a product could lead to serious challenges in the reproducibility of results or conclusions. Organizations are rapidly recognizing that the focus of life-cycle preservation needs to be enlarged from the strict raw data to the more encompassing arena of information lifecycle management. By understanding what constitutes information, and the complexities involved, we are better equipped to deliver longer lasting value about the original data and derived knowledge (information) from them. The NASA Earth Science Data Preservation Content Specification is an attempt to define the content necessary for long-term preservation. It requires new lifecycle infrastructure approach along with content repositories to accommodate artifacts other than just raw data. The NASA Goddard Earth Sciences Data and Information Services Center (GES DISC) setup an open-source Preservation System capable of long-term archive of digital content to augment its raw data holding. This repository is being used for such missions as HIRDLS, UARS, TOMS, OMI, among others. We will provide a status of this implementation; report on challenges, lessons learned, and detail our plans for future evolution to include other missions and services.

  11. Selection for preservation: considerations for the health sciences.

    PubMed

    Richards, D T; McClure, L W

    1989-07-01

    Just as no health sciences library can afford to collect every work on a subject, neither can any health sciences library afford to preserve every item that is added to its collection. In decision making for collection development, health sciences libraries apply a set of selection criteria. Those same criteria have direct application in selection for preservation decisions. This paper summarizes the literature of selection for preservation, describes the scholarly record of biomedicine, and presents criteria for selection for preservation decisions. The preservation priorities statement for microfilming of monographs and serials in the National Library of Medicine collection is included as an appendix. PMID:2758182

  12. Specimen Sample Preservation for Cell and Tissue Cultures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Meeker, Gabrielle; Ronzana, Karolyn; Schibner, Karen; Evans, Robert

    1996-01-01

    The era of the International Space Station with its longer duration missions will pose unique challenges to microgravity life sciences research. The Space Station Biological Research Project (SSBRP) is responsible for addressing these challenges and defining the science requirements necessary to conduct life science research on-board the International Space Station. Space Station will support a wide range of cell and tissue culture experiments for durations of 1 to 30 days. Space Shuttle flights to bring experimental samples back to Earth for analyses will only occur every 90 days. Therefore, samples may have to be retained for periods up to 60 days. This presents a new challenge in fresh specimen sample storage for cell biology. Fresh specimen samples are defined as samples that are preserved by means other than fixation and cryopreservation. The challenge of long-term storage of fresh specimen samples includes the need to suspend or inhibit proliferation and metabolism pending return to Earth-based laboratories. With this challenge being unique to space research, there have not been any ground based studies performed to address this issue. It was decided hy SSBRP that experiment support studies to address the following issues were needed: Fixative Solution Management; Media Storage Conditions; Fresh Specimen Sample Storage of Mammalian Cell/Tissue Cultures; Fresh Specimen Sample Storage of Plant Cell/Tissue Cultures; Fresh Specimen Sample Storage of Aquatic Cell/Tissue Cultures; and Fresh Specimen Sample Storage of Microbial Cell/Tissue Cultures. The objective of these studies was to derive a set of conditions and recommendations that can be used in a long duration microgravity environment such as Space Station that will permit extended storage of cell and tissue culture specimens in a state consistent with zero or minimal growth, while at the same time maintaining their stability and viability.

  13. Male fertility preservation before gonadotoxic therapies

    PubMed Central

    Wyns, C.

    2010-01-01

    Background: Recent advances in cancer therapy have resulted in an increased number of long-term cancer survivors. Unfortunately, aggressive chemotherapy, radiotherapy and preparative regimens for bone marrow transplantation can severely affect male germ cells, including spermatogonial stem cells (SSCs), and lead to permanent loss of fertility. Different options for fertility preservation are dependent on the pubertal state of the patient. Methods: Relevant studies were identified by an extensive Medline search of English and French language articles. Results: Sperm cryopreservation prior to gonadotoxic treatment is a well established method after puberty. In case of ejaculation failure by masturbation, assisted ejaculation methods or testicular tissue sampling should be considered. Although no effective gonadoprotective drug is yet available for in vivo spermatogonial stem cell (SSC) protection in humans, current evidence supports the feasibility of immature testicular tissue (ITT) cryopreservation. The different cryopreservation protocols and available fertility restoration options from frozen tissue, i.e. cell suspension transplantation, tissue grafting and in vitro maturation, are presented. Results obtained in humans are discussed in the light of lessons learned from animal studies. Conclusion: Advances in reproductive technology have made fertility preservation a real possibility in young patients whose gonadal function is threatened by gonadotoxic therapies. The putative indications for such techniques, as well as their limitations according to disease, are outlined. PMID:25302103

  14. Preservation of Microbial Lipids in Geothermal Sinters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kaur, Gurpreet; Mountain, Bruce W.; Hopmans, Ellen C.; Pancost, Richard D.

    2011-04-01

    Lipid biomarkers are widely used to study the earliest life on Earth and have been invoked as potential astrobiological markers, but few studies have assessed their survival and persistence in geothermal settings. Here, we investigate lipid preservation in active and inactive geothermal silica sinters, with ages of up to 900 years, from Champagne Pool, Waiotapu, New Zealand. Analyses revealed a wide range of bacterial biomarkers, including free and bound fatty acids, 1,2-di-O-alkylglycerols (diethers), and various hopanoids. Dominant archaeal lipids include archaeol and glycerol dialkyl glycerol tetraethers (GDGTs). The predominance of generally similar biomarker groups in all sinters suggests a stable microbial community throughout Champagne Pool's history and indicates that incorporated lipids can be well preserved. Moreover, subtle differences in lipid distributions suggest that past changes in environmental conditions can be elucidated. In this case, higher archaeol abundances relative to the bacterial diethers, a greater proportion of cyclic GDGTs, the high average chain length of the bacterial diethers, and greater concentrations of hopanoic acids in the older sinters all suggest hotter conditions at Champagne Pool in the past.

  15. Hemosorption of restored long-preserved blood.

    PubMed

    Agronenko, V A; Belkin, A L; Tibilova, N N; Pendrak, K A; Povzhitkova, M S; Petrenko, S V; Tsisarenko, T A; Markova, N A; Platonova, O V; Ermolchuk, O N

    1987-01-01

    Incubation of long-preserved donor blood erythrocytes (over 21 days) with rejuvenating solution Erythropifaden resulted in an increased ATP concentration to 2.03 +/- 0.34 mmol/l; increased 2,3-DPG to 3.89 +/- 0.51 mmol/l, and the number of erythrocyte discoid forms was raised to 30%. Further blood perfusion through SKN-D hemosorbent allowed to reduce the following adenine level to zero; riboxine by 90; citrate and lactate by 50%. The plasma K+ was decreased from 29.8 +/- 1.25 to 13.0 +/- 0.87 mmol/l, while blood pH rose from 6.675 +/- 0.018 to 7.310 +/- 0.028. At the end of the perfusion, the ATP level was seen to further increase to 2.53 +/- 0.28 mmol/l, and 2,3-DPG to 4.99 +/- 0.7 mmol/l. The indices of osmotic resistance and deformability of erythrocytes were normalized. The discocyte number reached 40%. The amount of red blood cell irreversible forms declined from 26 to 13% without any increment plasma free hemoglobin. The data obtained confirm the high efficacy of the combination of the rejuvenating and hemosorption procedures when applied to stored long-preserved blood. PMID:3449140

  16. Applaying of high pressure to yoghurt preservation.

    PubMed

    Jankowska, A; Reps, A; Proszek, A; Krasowska, M

    2003-01-01

    Effects of the high pressure treatment in the range of 200 - 1000 MPa/15 min., at the room temperature, on survivability of Streptococcus thermophilus and Lactobacillus delbrueckii ssp. bulgaricus was investigated. Sensorial characteristics of yoghurt was conducted by a panel of experts. Influence of yoghurt acidity on the effect of pressurization was also determined. In the experiment, we also attempted to extend shelf-life of yoghurt, subjecting it to the pressure of 550 MPa/15 min. Pressure treated yoghurt was stored for 4-weeks at room and refrigerated temperature; every seven days microbial number, acidity and sensory attributes of the beverage was determined. Addition of fruit jam on the effect of pressurization was also checked. Survivability of microorganisms depends on the value of pressure used in the experiment. The research displayed that yoghurt acidity did not influence the effect of pressurization. During 4-weeks of storage, yoghurt processed at 550 MPa maintained its beneficial characteristics longer compared to the non-pressurized one. Addition of fruit jam beneficially affected consistency of the pressure treated yoghurt. The conducted studies showed that there was possibility of preserving yoghurt by the method of high pressures. Thus, to preserve yoghurt, the complete inactivation of microflora is not necessary. PMID:24757790

  17. Endothelium Preserving Microwave Treatment for Atherosclerois

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Carl, James R. (Inventor); Arndt, G. Dickey (Inventor); Fink, Patrick W. (Inventor); Beer, N. Reginald (Inventor); Henry, Phillip D. (Inventor); Pacifico, Antonio (Inventor); Raffoul, George W. (Inventor)

    2001-01-01

    Method and apparatus are provided to treat atherosclerosis wherein the artery is partially closed by dilating the artery while preserving the vital and sensitive endothelial layer thereof. Microwave energy having a frequency from 3 GHz to 300 GHz is propagated into the arterial wall to produce a desired temperature profile therein at tissue depths sufficient for thermally necrosing connective tissue and softening fatty and waxy plaque while limiting heating of surrounding tissues including the endothelial layer and/or other healthy tissue, organs, and blood. The heating period for raising the temperature a potentially desired amount about 20 C, with the atherosclerotic lesion may be less than about one second. In one embodiment of the invention, a radically beveled waveguide antenna is used to deliver microwave energy at frequencies from 25 GHz or 30 GHz to about 300 GHz and is focused towards a particular radical sector of the artery. Because the atherosclerotic lesions are often asymmetrically disposed, directable or focussed heating preserves healthy sectors of the artery and applies energy to the asymmetrically positioned lesion faster than a non-directed beam. A computer simulation predicts isothermic temperature profiles for the given conditions and may be used in selecting power, pulse duration, beam width, and frequency of operation to maximize energy deposition and control heat rise within the atherosclerotic lesion without harming healthy tissues or the sensitive endothelium cells.

  18. Endothelium Preserving Microwave Treatment for Atherosclerosis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Carl, James R. (Inventor); Arndt, G. Dickey (Inventor); Fink, Patrick W. (Inventor); Beer, N. Reginald (Inventor); Henry, Phillip D. (Inventor); Pacifico, Antonio (Inventor); Raffoul, George W. (Inventor)

    2001-01-01

    Method and apparatus are provided to treat atherosclerosis wherein the artery is partially closed by dilating the artery while preserving the vital and sensitive endothelial layer thereof. Microwave energy having a frequency from 3 GHz to 300 GHz is propagated into the arterial wall to produce a desired temperature profile therein at tissue depths sufficient for thermally necrosing connective tissue and softening fatty and waxy plaque while limiting heating of surrounding tissues including the endothelial layer and/or other healthy tissue, organs, and blood. The heating period for raising the temperature a potentially desired amount, about 20 C. within the atherosclerotic lesion may be less than about one second. In one embodiment of the invention, a radically beveled waveguide antenna is used to deliver microwave energy at frequencies from 25 GHz or 30 GHz to about 300 GHz and is focused towards a particular radial sector of the artery. Because the atherosclerotic lesions are often asymmetrically disposed directable or focussed heating preserves healthy sectors of the artery and applies energy to the asymmetrically positioned lesion faster than a non-directed beam. A computer simulation predicts isothermic temperature profiles for the given conditions and may be used in selecting power, pulse duration, beam width, and frequency of operation to maximize energy deposition and control heat rise within the atherosclerotic lesion without harming healthy tissues or the sensitive endothelium cells.

  19. Endothelium Preserving Microwave Treatment for Atherosclerosis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Carl, James R. (Inventor); Arndt, G. Dickey (Inventor); Fink, Patrick W. (Inventor); Beer, N. Reginald (Inventor); Henry, Phillip D. (Inventor); Pacifico, Antonio (Inventor); Raffoul, George W. (Inventor)

    2000-01-01

    Method and apparatus are provided to treat atherosclerosis wherein the artery is partially closed by dilating the artery while preserving the vital and sensitive endothelial layer thereof Microwave energy having a frequency from 3 GHz to 300 GHz is propagated into the arterial wall to produce a desired temperature profile therein at tissue depths sufficient for thermally necrosing connective tissue and softening fatty and waxy plaque while limiting heating of surrounding tissues including the endothelial laser and/or other healthy tissue, organs, and blood. The heating period for raising the temperature a potentially desired amount, about 20 C., within the atherosclerotic lesion may be less than about one second. In one embodiment of the invention, a radically beveled waveguide antenna is used to deliver microwave energy at frequencies from 25 GHz or 30 GHz to about 300 GHz and is focused towards a particular radial sector of the artery. Because the atherosclerotic lesions are often asymmetrically disposed, directable of focussed heating preserves healthy sectors of the artery and applies energy to the asymmetrically positioned lesion faster than a non-directed beam. A computer simulation predicts isothermic temperature profiles for the given conditions and man be used in selecting power, pulse duration, beam width, and frequency of operation to maximize energy deposition and control heat rise within the atherosclerotic lesion without harming healthy tissues or the sensitive endothelium cells.

  20. Privacy-preserving heterogeneous health data sharing

    PubMed Central

    Mohammed, Noman; Jiang, Xiaoqian; Chen, Rui; Fung, Benjamin C M; Ohno-Machado, Lucila

    2013-01-01

    Objective Privacy-preserving data publishing addresses the problem of disclosing sensitive data when mining for useful information. Among existing privacy models, ?-differential privacy provides one of the strongest privacy guarantees and makes no assumptions about an adversary's background knowledge. All existing solutions that ensure ?-differential privacy handle the problem of disclosing relational and set-valued data in a privacy-preserving manner separately. In this paper, we propose an algorithm that considers both relational and set-valued data in differentially private disclosure of healthcare data. Methods The proposed approach makes a simple yet fundamental switch in differentially private algorithm design: instead of listing all possible records (ie, a contingency table) for noise addition, records are generalized before noise addition. The algorithm first generalizes the raw data in a probabilistic way, and then adds noise to guarantee ?-differential privacy. Results We showed that the disclosed data could be used effectively to build a decision tree induction classifier. Experimental results demonstrated that the proposed algorithm is scalable and performs better than existing solutions for classification analysis. Limitation The resulting utility may degrade when the output domain size is very large, making it potentially inappropriate to generate synthetic data for large health databases. Conclusions Unlike existing techniques, the proposed algorithm allows the disclosure of health data containing both relational and set-valued data in a differentially private manner, and can retain essential information for discriminative analysis. PMID:23242630

  1. Transplacental passage of antimicrobial paraben preservatives.

    PubMed

    Towers, Craig V; Terry, Paul D; Lewis, David; Howard, Bobby; Chambers, Wesley; Armistead, Casey; Weitz, Beth; Porter, Stephanie; Borman, Christopher J; Kennedy, Rebekah C M; Chen, Jiangang

    2015-01-01

    Parabens are widely used preservatives suspected of being endocrine disruptors, with implications for human growth and development. The most common paraben found in consumer products is methylparaben. To date, no study has examined whether these substances cross the human placenta. A total of 100 study subjects (50 mother-child pairs) were enrolled at two medical institutions, serving primarily African-American and Caucasian women, respectively. A maternal blood sample was drawn on admission and a paired cord blood sample was obtained at delivery. Of the 50 mothers, 47 (94%) showed methylparaben in their blood (mean level 20.41?ng/l), and 47 in cords bloods (mean level 36.54?ng/l). There were 45 mother-child pairs where methylparaben was found in both samples. Of these, the fetal level was higher than the maternal level in 23 (51%). For butylparaben, only 4 mothers (8%) showed detectable levels (mean 40.54?ng/l), whereas 8 cord blood samples (16%) were positive (mean 32.5?ng/l). African-American mothers and infants showed higher prevalence of detectable levels (P=0.017). Methylparaben and butylparaben demonstrate transplacental passage. Additional studies are needed to examine potential differences in exposure by geography and demographics, what products are used by pregnant women that contain these preservatives, as well as any potential long-term effects in the growth and development of exposed children. PMID:25944699

  2. Human Retinal Progenitor Cell Transplantation Preserves Vision*

    PubMed Central

    Luo, Jing; Baranov, Petr; Patel, Sherrina; Ouyang, Hong; Quach, John; Wu, Frances; Qiu, Austin; Luo, Hongrong; Hicks, Caroline; Zeng, Jing; Zhu, Jing; Lu, Jessica; Sfeir, Nicole; Wen, Cindy; Zhang, Meixia; Reade, Victoria; Patel, Sara; Sinden, John; Sun, Xiaodong; Shaw, Peter; Young, Michael; Zhang, Kang

    2014-01-01

    Cell transplantation is a potential therapeutic strategy for retinal degenerative diseases involving the loss of photoreceptors. However, it faces challenges to clinical translation due to safety concerns and a limited supply of cells. Human retinal progenitor cells (hRPCs) from fetal neural retina are expandable in vitro and maintain an undifferentiated state. This study aimed to investigate the therapeutic potential of hRPCs transplanted into a Royal College of Surgeons (RCS) rat model of retinal degeneration. At 12 weeks, optokinetic response showed that hRPC-grafted eyes had significantly superior visual acuity compared with vehicle-treated eyes. Histological evaluation of outer nuclear layer (ONL) characteristics such as ONL thickness, spread distance, and cell count demonstrated a significantly greater preservation of the ONL in hRPC-treated eyes compared with both vehicle-treated and control eyes. The transplanted hRPCs arrested visual decline over time in the RCS rat and rescued retinal morphology, demonstrating their potential as a therapy for retinal diseases. We suggest that the preservation of visual acuity was likely achieved through host photoreceptor rescue. We found that hRPC transplantation into the subretinal space of RCS rats was well tolerated, with no adverse effects such as tumor formation noted at 12 weeks after treatment. PMID:24407289

  3. Endothelium Preserving Microwave Treatment for Atherosclerosis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Carl, James R. (Inventor); Arndt, Dickey (Inventor); Fink, Patrick W. (Inventor); Beer, Reginald (Inventor); Henry, Phillip D. (Inventor); Pacifico, Antonio (Inventor); Raffoul, George W. (Inventor)

    2002-01-01

    Method and apparatus are provided to treat atherosclerosis wherein the artery is partially closed by dilating the artery while preserving the vital and sensitive endothelial layer thereof. Microwave energy having a frequency from 3 GHz to 300 GHz is propagated into the arterial wall to produce a desired temperature profile therein at tissue depths sufficient for thermally necrosing connective tissue and softening fatty and waxy plaque while limiting heating of surrounding tissues including the endothelial layer and/or other healthy tissue, organs, and blood. The heating period for raising the temperature a potentially desired amount, about 20 C. within the atherosclerotic lesion may be less than about one second. In one embodiment of the invention, a radically beveled waveguide antenna is used to deliver microwave energy at frequencies from 25 GHz or 30 GHz to about 300 GHz and is focused towards a particular radial sector of the artery. Because the atherosclerotic lesions are often asymmetrically disposed, directable or focussed heating preserves healthy sectors or the artery and applies energy to the asymmetrically positioned lesion faster than a non-directed bean. A computer simulation predicts isothermic temperature profiles for the given conditions and may be used in selecting power, pulse duration, beam width, and frequency of operation to maximize energy deposition and control heat rise within the atherosclerotic lesion without harming healthy tissues or the sensitive endothelium cells.

  4. Influence of relief on permanent preservation areas.

    PubMed

    dos Santos, Alexandre Rosa; Chimalli, Tessa; Peluzio, João Batista Esteves; da Silva, Aderbal Gomes; dos Santos, Gleissy Mary Amaral Dino Alves; Lorenzon, Alexandre Simões; Teixeira, Thaisa Ribeiro; de Castro, Nero Lemos Martins; Soares Ribeiro, Carlos Antonio Alvares

    2016-01-15

    Many countries have environmental legislation to protecting natural resources on private property. In Brazil, the Brazilian Forestry Code determines specific areas to maintain with natural vegetation cover, known as areas of permanent preservation (APP). Currently, there are few studies that relate topographic variables on APP. In this context, we sought to evaluate the influence of relief on the conservation of areas of permanent preservation (APP) in the areas surrounding Caparaó National Park, Brazil. By using the chi-squared statistical test, we verified that the presence of forest cover is closely associated with altitude. The classes of APP in better conservation status are slopes in addition to hilltops and mountains, whereas APP streams and springs are among the areas most affected by human activities. The most deforested areas are located at altitudes below 1100.00 m and on slopes less than 45°. All orientations of the sides were significant for APP conservation status, with the southern, southeastern, and southwestern sides showing the lower degrees of impact. The methodology can be adjusted to environmental legislation to other countries. PMID:26476068

  5. Comparison of methods of preserving tissues for pesticide analysis

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Stickel, W.H.; Stickel, L.F.; Dyrland, R.A.; Hughes, D.L.

    1984-01-01

    Formalin preservation, freezing, spoiling followed by freezing, and phenoxyethanol were compared in terms of concentrations of DDT, DDD, DDE, endrin, and hepatachlor epoxide measured in brain, liver and carcass of birds fed dietary dosages of pesticides and in spiked egg homogenate. Phenoxyethanol proved to be an unsatisfactory preservative; the amount of 'extractable lipid' was excessive, and measurements of concentrations in replicates were erratic. Concentrations of residues in formalin-preserved and frozen samples did not differ significantly in any tissue. Percentage lipid in brains and eggs, however, were significantly lower in formalin-preserved samples. Samples of muscle and liver that had been spoiled before freezing yielded less DDD, and muscle samples yielded more DDT than formalin-preserved samples. The authors conclude that formalin preservation is a satisfactory method for preservation of field samples and that the warming and spoiling of samples that may occur unavoidably in the field will not result in misleading analytical results.

  6. Ceramic adhesive restorations and biomimetic dentistry: tissue preservation and adhesion.

    PubMed

    Tirlet, Gil; Crescenzo, Hlne; Crescenzo, Dider; Bazos, Panaghiotis

    2014-01-01

    Thanks to sophisticated adhesive techniques in contemporary dentistry, and the development of composite and ceramic materials, it is possible to reproduce a biomimetic match between substitution materials and natural teeth substrates. Biomimetics or bio-emulation allows for the association of two fundamental parameters at the heart of current therapeutic treatments: tissue preservation and adhesion. This contemporary concept makes the retention of the integrity of the maximum amount of dental tissue possible, while offering exceptional clinical longevity, and maximum esthetic results. It permits the conservation of the biological, esthetic, biomechanical and functional properties of enamel and dentin. Today, it is clearly possible to develop preparations allowing for the conservation of the enamel and dentin in order to bond partial restorations in the anterior and posterior sectors therefore limiting, as Professor Urs Belser from Geneva indicates, "the replacement of previous deficient crowns and devitalized teeth whose conservation are justified but whose residual structural state are insufficient for reliable bonding."1 This article not only addresses ceramic adhesive restoration in the anterior area, the ambassadors of biomimetic dentistry, but also highlights the possibility of occasionally integrating one or two restorations at the heart of the smile as a complement to extensive rehabilitations that require more invasive treatment. PMID:25126616

  7. Emerging therapeutic concepts for muscle and bone preservation/building.

    PubMed

    Compston, Juliet

    2015-11-01

    Loss of muscle or bone mass occurs with ageing, immobility and in association with a variety of systemic diseases. The interaction of these two processes is most evident in the major contribution of falls to the risk of fractures in the elderly population. Exercise and nutrition are key common physiological variables that allow for preservation or formation of greater muscle or bone mass. However, although several pharmacological approaches have the potential to benefit both muscle and bone health, for example vitamin D, selective androgen receptor modulators and ghrelin mimetics, clinical trials with appropriate primary outcomes are lacking. Conventional approaches to address muscle loss are being extended to include stem cell biology and conserved molecular mechanisms of atrophy/hypertrophy. Pharmacological interventions to reduce fracture risk are exploring new mechanisms of action, in particular the uncoupling of bone resorption and formation. Emerging key issues for clinical trial design include adequate phenotyping of patients (personalised medicine), optimisation of the physiological background (multimodal approach) and the use of meaningful and robust outcomes relevant to daily clinical practice. At present, effective treatments that combine beneficial effects on both muscle and bone are lacking, although this is an important target for the future. This review therefore considers current and developing strategies to improve muscle function and bone strength in separate sections. PMID:26453503

  8. Biomarkers in heart failure with preserved ejection fraction.

    PubMed

    Meijers, W C; van der Velde, A R; de Boer, R A

    2016-04-01

    Biomarkers are widely used and studied in heart failure. Most studies have described the utility and performance of biomarkers in sub-studies of randomised clinical trials, where the vast majority of the patients suffered from heart failure with reduced ejection fraction (HFrEF), and not with preserved ejection fraction (HFpEF). As a result, there is a scarcity of data describing the levels, dynamics, clinical and biochemical correlates, and biology of biomarkers in patients suffering from HFpEF, whereas HFpEF is in fact a very frequent clinical entity. This article discusses the value of different biomarkers in HFpEF. We describe various aspects of natriuretic peptide measurements in HFpEF patients, with a focus on diagnosis, prognosis and the risk prediction of developing heart failure. Further, we will discuss several emerging biomarkers such as galectin-3 and suppression of tumorigenicity 2, and recently discovered ones such as growth differentiation factor-15 and syndecan-1. PMID:26942916

  9. Preserving the evolutionary potential of floras in biodiversity hotspots.

    PubMed

    Forest, Flix; Grenyer, Richard; Rouget, Mathieu; Davies, T Jonathan; Cowling, Richard M; Faith, Daniel P; Balmford, Andrew; Manning, John C; Proche?, Serban; van der Bank, Michelle; Reeves, Gail; Hedderson, Terry A J; Savolainen, Vincent

    2007-02-15

    One of the biggest challenges for conservation biology is to provide conservation planners with ways to prioritize effort. Much attention has been focused on biodiversity hotspots. However, the conservation of evolutionary process is now also acknowledged as a priority in the face of global change. Phylogenetic diversity (PD) is a biodiversity index that measures the length of evolutionary pathways that connect a given set of taxa. PD therefore identifies sets of taxa that maximize the accumulation of 'feature diversity'. Recent studies, however, concluded that taxon richness is a good surrogate for PD. Here we show taxon richness to be decoupled from PD, using a biome-wide phylogenetic analysis of the flora of an undisputed biodiversity hotspot--the Cape of South Africa. We demonstrate that this decoupling has real-world importance for conservation planning. Finally, using a database of medicinal and economic plant use, we demonstrate that PD protection is the best strategy for preserving feature diversity in the Cape. We should be able to use PD to identify those key regions that maximize future options, both for the continuing evolution of life on Earth and for the benefit of society. PMID:17301791

  10. Geometry preserving projections algorithm for predicting membrane protein types.

    PubMed

    Wang, Tong; Xia, Tian; Hu, Xiao-ming

    2010-01-21

    Given a new uncharacterized protein sequence, a biologist may want to know whether it is a membrane protein or not? If it is, which membrane protein type it belongs to? Knowing the type of an uncharacterized membrane protein often provides useful clues for finding the biological function of the query protein, developing the computational methods to address these questions can be really helpful. In this study, a sequence encoding scheme based on combing pseudo position-specific score matrix (PsePSSM) and dipeptide composition (DC) is introduced to represent protein samples. However, this sequence encoding scheme would correspond to a very high dimensional feature vector. A dimensionality reduction algorithm, the so-called geometry preserving projections (GPP) is introduced to extract the key features from the high-dimensional space and reduce the original high-dimensional vector to a lower-dimensional one. Finally, the K-nearest neighbor (K-NN) and support vector machine (SVM) classifiers are employed to identify the types of membrane proteins based on their reduced low-dimensional features. Our jackknife and independent dataset test results thus obtained are quite encouraging, which indicate that the above methods are used effectively to deal with this complicated problem of predicting the membrane protein type. PMID:19800352

  11. Germplasm Preservation of Vegetatively-propagated Crops at the National Center for Genetic Resources Preservation

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Out of 476,049 germplasm accessions maintained by the USDA, ARS, National Plant Germplasm System (NPS), ca. 30,000 are vegetatively-propagated and as such require preservation as non seed propagules. Numerous research reports have demonstrated the advantages of long-term storage of plant tissues in ...

  12. Preservation Conditions, Practices, and Needs in the General Libraries. A Report by the Preservation Committee.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Texas Univ., Austin. General Libraries.

    The survey documented in this report was conducted in 1981 to investigate the preservation conditions, practices, and needs of the units of the University of Texas at Austin General Libraries. The report is divided into six major portions. The first five sections report the responses to questionnaires on specific formats: books and serials;

  13. Germplasm Preservation of Vegetatively-propagated Crops at the National Center for Genetic Resources Preservation

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Out of 476,049 germpaslm accessions maintained by the USDA, ARS, National Plant Germplasm System (NPGS), ca. 30,000 are vegetaively-propagated and as such require preservation as non seed propagules. Numerous research reports demonstrated the advantages of long term storage of plant tissues in liqui...

  14. Information and Knowledge in Biology

    PubMed Central

    2007-01-01

    The second law of thermodynamics accounts for irreversibility of processes in the universe. As a statement about increasing disorder, it also plays a central role in creating order. Structuring is a way of how to increase the rate of dissipation of matter and energy. This is the reason why chemical reactions on Earth have produced a profusion of structures. Chemical structures with particularly high stability, maintained by continual dissipation, are designated, somewhat arbitrarily, as living systems. To preserve stability, organisms are unceasingly performing ontic work, assisted by epistemic work. Biological evolution is a progressing process of knowledge acquisition (cognition) and, correspondingly, of growth of complexity. The acquired knowledge represents epistemic complexity. Biological species are the main bookkeepers of acquired knowledge, with individual members of the species functioning as explorers of novelty. Science, a human species-specific mode of acquiring knowledge, abounds in metaphors no less than art. In the postgenomic era, the metaphor of information, along with the related metaphor of selfish genes, may need reconsideration and/or complementation. The world of great complexity, which is becoming the focus of studies of contemporary biology, may requiresimilarly as is the case of quantum physicsdescriptions based on the principle of complementarity. Embodied knowledge, molecular engine, ontic and epistemic work, and triggering may become parts of a new conceptual armory. PMID:19516970

  15. Sperm Preservation by Freeze-Drying for the Conservation of Wild Animals

    PubMed Central

    Kaneko, Takehito; Ito, Hideyuki; Sakamoto, Hidefusa; Onuma, Manabu; Inoue-Murayama, Miho

    2014-01-01

    Sperm preservation is a useful technique for the maintenance of biological resources in experimental and domestic animals, and in wild animals. A new preservation method has been developed that enables sperm to be stored for a long time in a refrigerator at 4C. Sperm are freeze-dried in a solution containing 10 mM Tris and 1 mM EDTA. Using this method, liquid nitrogen is not required for the storage and transportation of sperm. We demonstrate that chimpanzee, giraffe, jaguar, weasel and the long-haired rat sperm remain viable after freeze-drying. In all species, pronuclei were formed after the injection of freeze-dried sperm into the mouse oocytes. Although preliminary, these results may be useful for the future establishment of freeze-drying zoo to conserve wild animals. PMID:25409172

  16. Sperm preservation by freeze-drying for the conservation of wild animals.

    PubMed

    Kaneko, Takehito; Ito, Hideyuki; Sakamoto, Hidefusa; Onuma, Manabu; Inoue-Murayama, Miho

    2014-01-01

    Sperm preservation is a useful technique for the maintenance of biological resources in experimental and domestic animals, and in wild animals. A new preservation method has been developed that enables sperm to be stored for a long time in a refrigerator at 4 °C. Sperm are freeze-dried in a solution containing 10 mM Tris and 1 mM EDTA. Using this method, liquid nitrogen is not required for the storage and transportation of sperm. We demonstrate that chimpanzee, giraffe, jaguar, weasel and the long-haired rat sperm remain viable after freeze-drying. In all species, pronuclei were formed after the injection of freeze-dried sperm into the mouse oocytes. Although preliminary, these results may be useful for the future establishment of "freeze-drying zoo" to conserve wild animals. PMID:25409172

  17. Exceptional preservation reveals gastrointestinal anatomy and evolution in early actinopterygian fishes.

    PubMed

    Argyriou, Thodoris; Clauss, Marcus; Maxwell, Erin E; Furrer, Heinz; Snchez-Villagra, Marcelo R

    2016-01-01

    Current knowledge about the evolutionary morphology of the vertebrate gastrointestinal tract (GIT) is hindered by the low preservation potential of soft tissues in fossils. Exceptionally preserved cololites of individual Saurichthys from the Middle Triassic of Switzerland provide unique insights into the evolutionary morphology of the GIT. The GIT of Saurichthys differed from that of other early actinopterygians, and was convergent to that of some living sharks and rays, in exhibiting up to 30 turns of the spiral valve. Dissections and literature review demonstrate the phylogenetic diversity of GIT features and signs of biological factors that influence its morphology. A phylogenetically informed analysis of a dataset containing 134 taxa suggests that body size and phylogeny are important factors affecting the spiral valve turn counts. The high number of turns in the spiral valve of Saurichthys and some recent sharks and rays reflect both energetically demanding lifestyles and the evolutionary histories of the groups. PMID:26732746

  18. Exceptional preservation reveals gastrointestinal anatomy and evolution in early actinopterygian fishes

    PubMed Central

    Argyriou, Thodoris; Clauss, Marcus; Maxwell, Erin E.; Furrer, Heinz; Sánchez-Villagra, Marcelo R.

    2016-01-01

    Current knowledge about the evolutionary morphology of the vertebrate gastrointestinal tract (GIT) is hindered by the low preservation potential of soft tissues in fossils. Exceptionally preserved cololites of individual †Saurichthys from the Middle Triassic of Switzerland provide unique insights into the evolutionary morphology of the GIT. The GIT of †Saurichthys differed from that of other early actinopterygians, and was convergent to that of some living sharks and rays, in exhibiting up to 30 turns of the spiral valve. Dissections and literature review demonstrate the phylogenetic diversity of GIT features and signs of biological factors that influence its morphology. A phylogenetically informed analysis of a dataset containing 134 taxa suggests that body size and phylogeny are important factors affecting the spiral valve turn counts. The high number of turns in the spiral valve of †Saurichthys and some recent sharks and rays reflect both energetically demanding lifestyles and the evolutionary histories of the groups. PMID:26732746

  19. Preserving Plutonium-244 as a National Asset

    SciTech Connect

    Patton, Bradley D; Alexander, Charles W; Benker, Dennis; Collins, Emory D; Romano, Catherine E; Wham, Robert M

    2011-01-01

    Plutonium-244 (244 Pu) is an extremely rare and long-lived isotope of plutonium with a half-life of 80 million years. Measureable amounts of 244 Pu are found in neither reactor-grade nor weapons-grade plutonium. Production of this isotope requires a very high thermal flux to permit the two successive neutron captures that convert 242 Pu to 243 Pu to 244 Pu, particularly given the short (about 5 hour) half-life of 243 Pu. Such conditions simply do not exist in plutonium production processes. Therefore, 244 Pu is ideal for precise radiochemical analyses measuring plutonium material properties and isotopic concentrations in items containing plutonium. Isotope dilution mass spectrometry is about ten times more sensitive when using 244 Pu rather than 242 Pu for determining plutonium isotopic content. The isotope can also be irradiated in small quantities to produce superheavy elements. The majority of the existing global inventory of 244 Pu is contained in the outer housing of Mark-18A targets at the Savannah River Site (SRS). The total inventory is about 20 grams of 244 Pu in about 400 grams of plutonium distributed among the 65 targets. Currently, there are no specific plans to preserve these targets. Although the cost of separating and preserving this material would be considerable, it is trivial in comparison to new production costs. For all practical purposes, the material is irreplaceable, because new production would cost billions of dollars and require a series of irradiation and chemical separation cycles spanning up to 50 years. This paper will discuss a set of options for overcoming the significant challenges to preserve the 244 Pu as a National Asset: (1) the need to relocate the material from SRS in a timely manner, (2) the need to reduce the volume of material to the extent possible for storage, and (3) the need to establish an operational capability to enrich the 244 Pu in significant quantities. This paper suggests that if all the Mark-18A plutonium is separated, it would occupy a small volume and would be inexpensive to store while an enrichment capability is developed. Very small quantities could be enriched in existing mass separators to support critical needs.

  20. Globalization and Localization of Heritage Preservation in Taiwan - an Analysis Perspective under the Cultural Heritage Preservation Act

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, C.-C.; Fu, C.-C.

    2015-08-01

    The key contribution to the legislation of heritage preservation in Taiwan primarily derived from the historical monument movements in the 1970s. Specific legislation results include the establishment of Council for Cultural Affairs and the implementation of the Cultural Heritage Preservation Act in 1982. Although the Cultural Heritage Preservation Act is the first subjective cultural act, its lack of structure during the initial commencement stages made it un-conducive to heritage preservation and thus unable to meet the people's expectations. Therefore, throughout the 33 years after the implementation of the Cultural Heritage Preservation Act, the Act has been amended 6 times. These amendments reflect the degree of importance that the society has attached to heritage preservation, and the innovative system also showcases the progress in preservation concepts and methods. These innovative orientations, such as emphasizing on the authenticity and integrity of heritage preservation, intangible cultural heritage, and cultural diversity, conform to the international preservation trends. They are also local trends such as encouraging community participation, adaptive-reuse, or enhancing the local governments' powers to implement local cultural governance. This is particularly true for the fifth comprehensive revision in 2005, which has symbolic significance because its contents epitomized the heritage preservation work while moving Taiwan's heritage preservation system towards globalization and localization. Therefore, we analyzed the Cultural Heritage Preservation Act amendment and revision processes over the past 33 years to highlight the innovations in Taiwan's cultural heritage work and illustrate their globalization and localization features. Finally, we proposed recommendations for Taiwan's preservation work in the future as the Cultural Heritage Preservation Act is about to undergo its seventh amendment in 2015.