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1

Medium for preserving biological materials  

US Patent & Trademark Office Database

The present invention relates to a medium allowing the preservation and cryopreservation of biological materials such as animal cells and viral particles that are directly injectable or reinjectable into an organism. A medium for preserving and/or freezing biological materials, including a saline solution, modified fluid gelatin and human serum albumin, is disclosed.

Crespo; Andre (Ormesson, FR); Soria; Henri Michel (Monts, FR)

2001-06-19

2

28 CFR 28.22 - The requirement to preserve biological evidence.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...The requirement to preserve biological evidence. 28.22 Section 28.22 Judicial Administration DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE DNA IDENTIFICATION SYSTEM Preservation of Biological Evidence § 28.22 The requirement to preserve biological...

2013-07-01

3

28 CFR 28.22 - The requirement to preserve biological evidence.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...JUSTICE] [Part 28 - DNA IDENTIFICATION SYSTEM...Preservation of Biological Evidence] [Sec. 28.22 - The...to preserve biological evidence.] 28 JUDICIAL ADMINISTRATION...DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE DNA IDENTIFICATION SYSTEM Preservation of Biological Evidence Sec. 28.22...

2009-07-01

4

28 CFR 28.22 - The requirement to preserve biological evidence.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...requirement to preserve biological evidence. 28.22 Section 28... DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE DNA IDENTIFICATION SYSTEM Preservation of Biological Evidence § 28.22 The requirement to preserve biological evidence. (a) Applicability...

2010-07-01

5

Plastination: Preservation Technology Enhances Biology Teaching.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Urges the use of plastinated specimens as an alternative to traditional dissection in biology classrooms. Suggests that plastinated biological specimens heighten student interest and enhance teaching. Interview responses of students, teachers, and administrators to the use of plastinated specimens in selected high schools were found to be very

Douglass, Claudia; Glover, Roy

2003-01-01

6

Preserving chaos: Control strategies to preserve complex dynamics with potential relevance to biological disorders  

SciTech Connect

This paper considers the situation in which an originally chaotic orbit would, in the absence of intervention, become periodic as a result of slow system drift through a bifurcation. In the biological context, such a bifurcation is often undesirable: there are many cases, occurring in a wide variety of different situations, where loss of complexity and the emergence of periodicity are associated with pathology (such situations have been called dynamical disease''). Motivated by this, we investigate the possibility of using small control perturbations to preserve chaotic motion past the point where it would otherwise bifurcate to periodicity.

Yang, W.; Ding, M. (Program in Brain Sciences and Complex Systems, Center for Complex Systems and Department of Mathematics, Florida Atlantic University, Boca Raton, Florida 33431 (United States)); Mandell, A.J. (Laboratory for Constructive Mathematics and Department of Mathematics, Florida Atlantic University, Boca Raton, Florida 33431 (United States)); Ott, E. (Institute for Plasma Research, Institute for Systems Research, Departments of Physics and of Electrical Engineering, University of Maryland, College Park, Maryland 20742 (United States))

1995-01-01

7

Postextraction Alveolar Ridge Preservation: Biological Basis and Treatments  

PubMed Central

Following tooth extraction, the alveolar ridge undergoes an inevitable remodeling process that influences implant therapy of the edentulous area. Socket grafting is a commonly adopted therapy for the preservation of alveolar bone structures in combination or not with immediate implant placement although the biological bases lying behind this treatment modality are not fully understood and often misinterpreted. This review is intended to clarify the literature support to socket grafting in order to provide practitioners with valid tools to make a conscious decision of when and why to recommend this therapy.

Pagni, Giorgio; Pellegrini, Gaia; Giannobile, William V.; Rasperini, Giulio

2012-01-01

8

Technology Evaluation Report: Biological Treatment of Wood Preserving Site Groundwater by Biotrol, Inc  

EPA Science Inventory

Biological Treatment of Wood Preserving SITE Groundwater by Biotrol, Inc. BioTrol's pilot-scale, fixed-film biological treatment system was evaluated for its effectiveness at removing pentachlorophenol from groundwater. The system employs indigenous microorganisms amended wit...

9

Potential of antagonistic microorganisms and bacteriocins for the biological preservation of foods  

Microsoft Academic Search

Interest in novel biological preservation methods has increased during recent years, supported by research indicating that antagonistic microorganisms or their antimicrobial metabolites may have some potential as natural preservatives to control the growth of pathogenic bacteria in foods, and also to control mycotoxinogenic fungi. To date, nisin is the only bacteriocin that has found practical application in some industrially processed

U. Schillinger; R. Geisen; W. H. Holzapfel

1996-01-01

10

Investigation of Exposure to Formaldehyde from Preserved Biological Specimens. Status Report.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This investigation of formaldehyde exposure in school laboratories, where its principal source is from preserved biological specimens, was undertaken because of concern over exposure levels reported in the literature. Information was obtained in two ways. A limited survey of schools was conducted to determine extent of students' use of preserved

Consumer Product Safety Commission, Washington, DC.

11

Preservatives  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a Preservatives are common ingredients indicated in allergic contact dermatitis (ACD). Health care practitioners should familiarize\\u000a themselves with those most frequently used in cosmetics, drugs, and occupational exposure so that they can provide adequate\\u000a care and education to affected patients. This chapter summarizes the preservatives used in the Standard Series Patch Test,\\u000a which are also common causes of ACD. We also

Sara Flores; Howard Maibach

12

Organ preservation at low temperature: a physical and biological problem  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Before reporting the preliminary results obtained by our group, we first review the main problems to be solved in the preservation of organs at very low temperature, before being transplanted. This cryopreservation is being presently explored in order to increase the preservation tiine of transplants and to contribute to a better control of the donor recipient compatibility. We recall that, for the isolated cells to be preserved at nitrogen liquid temperatures, as now successfully performed at industrial scale, it is necessary to immerse the cells in a solution containing more or less t,oxical additives (so-called cryopro tect ants). Furthermore cooling and warming rates must be specific of each type of cells. We then show that cryo preservation could be extrapolated to whole organs by means of vitrification, the only way to avoid any ice crystallization. This vitrification will be the result of two directions of research, the one on the elaboration of cryoprotective solutions, the least toxic possible, the other on the obtention of high enough and homogeneous cooling and warming rates. After having briefly summarized the state of research on the heart and kidneys of small mammals, we present the first results that we have obtained on perfusion at 4 ^{circ}C and the auto-transplantation of rabbit kidneys, on the toxicity of a new cryoprotectant, 2,3-butanediol, on the heart rate, and on the cooling of experimental models of organs. Avant de prsenter les rsultats prliminaires obtenus par notre groupe, nous passons d'abord en revue les principaux problmes rsoudre pour conserver trs basse temprature des organes en vue de leur transplantation. Cette cryoprservation est une voie de recherche actuellement explore pour augmenter la dure de conservation des greffons et permettre ainsi de mieux contrler la compatibilit donneur-receveur. Nous rappelons que la conservation des cellules isoles la temprature de l'azote liquide, actuellement ralise avec succs l'chelle industrielle, ne peut se faire qu'en prsence de substances plus ou moins toxiques dites cryoprotectrices, et condition de respecter des vitesses de refroidissement et de rchauffement adaptes chaque type de cellule. Nous montrons ensuite que l'extension de la cryoprservation au cas des organes entiers ne pourra se faire qu'au moyen de la vitrification, seule solution pour viter toute formation de glace. Cette vitrification sera l'aboutissement de 2 axes de recherche, l'un sur l'laboration de solutions cryoprotectrices les moins toxiques possibles, l'autre sur l'obtention de vitesses de refroidissement et de rchauffement suffisamment leves et homognes. Aprs avoir brivement rsum l'tat des recherches sur le coeur et le rein de petits mammifres, nous prsentons les premiers rsultats que nous avons obtenus sur la perfusion 4 ^{circ}C et l'autotransplantation de reins de lapin, sur la toxicit sur le coeur de rat d'un nouveau cryoprotecteur le 2,3-butanediol, et sur le refroidissement de systmes modles exprimentaux d'organes.

Aussedat, J.; Boutron, P.; Coquilhat, P.; Descotes, J. L.; Faure, G.; Ferrari, M.; Kay, L.; Mazuer, J.; Monod, P.; Odin, J.; Ray, A.

1993-02-01

13

A topology-preserving selection and clustering approach to multidimensional biological data.  

PubMed

Multidimensional genome-wide data (e.g., gene expression microarray data) provide rich information and widespread applications in integrative biology. However, little attention has been paid to the inherent relationships within these natural data. By simply viewing multidimensional microarray data scattered over hyperspace, the spatial properties (topological structure) of the data clouds may reveal the underlying relationships. Based on this idea, we herein make analytical improvements by introducing a topology-preserving selection and clustering (TPSC) approach to complex large-scale microarray data. Specifically, the integration of self-organizing map (SOM) and singular value decomposition allows genome-wide selection on sound foundations of statistical inference. Moreover, this approach is complemented with an SOM-based two-phase gene clustering procedure, allowing the topology-preserving identification of gene clusters. These gene clusters with highly similar expression patterns can facilitate many aspects of biological interpretations in terms of functional and regulatory relevance. As demonstrated by processing large and complex datasets of the human cell cycle, stress responses, and host cell responses to pathogen infection, our proposed method can yield better characteristic features from the whole datasets compared to conventional routines. We hence conclude that the topology-preserving selection and clustering without a priori assumption on data structure allow the in-depth mining of biological information in a more accurate and unbiased manner. A Web server ( http://www.cs.bris.ac.uk/?hfang/TPSC ) hosting a MATLAB package that implements the methodology is freely available to both academic and nonacademic users. These advances will expand the scope of omics applications. PMID:21699401

Fang, Hai; Du, Yanzhi; Xia, Lu; Li, Junmin; Zhang, Ji; Wang, Kankan

2011-06-23

14

Biological treatment of wood-preserving-site ground-water by Biotrol, Inc. Applications analysis report  

SciTech Connect

The report is an evaluation of the BioTrol, Inc. Aqueous Treatment System (BATS), a fixed-film, aerobic biological treatment process for contaminated groundwaters and other wastewaters. It summarizes and analyzes the results of the Superfund Innovative Technology Evaluation (SITE) Program's six week demonstration at the MacGillis and Gibbs Company wood preserving site in New Brighton, MN. The conclusions from the pilot scale demonstration study and other available data are: (1) the fixed film aerobic process is capable of degrading pentachlorophenol (PCP) and other organic pollutants to more than 95% removal.

Skovronek, H.S.; Hahn, W.

1991-09-01

15

Molecular mechanisms of tolerance in tardigrades: new perspectives for preservation and stabilization of biological material.  

PubMed

Certain organisms found across a range of taxa, including bacteria, yeasts, plants and many invertebrates such as nematodes and tardigrades are able to survive almost complete loss of body water. The dry organisms may remain in this state, which is known as anhydrobiosis, for decades without apparent damage. When water again becomes available, they rapidly rehydrate and resume active life. Research in anhydrobiosis has focused mainly on sugar metabolism and stress proteins. Despite the discovery of various molecules which are involved in desiccation and water stress, knowledge of the regulatory network governing the stability of the cellular architecture and the metabolic machinery during dehydration is still fragmentary and not well understood. A combination of transcriptional, proteomic and metabolic approaches with bioinformatics tools can provide a better understanding of gene regulation that underlie the biological functions and physiology related to anhydrobiosis. The development of this concept will raise exciting possibilities and techniques for the preservation and stabilization of biological materials in the dry state. PMID:19472511

Schill, Ralph O; Mali, Brahim; Dandekar, Thomas; Schnlzer, Martina; Reuter, Dirk; Frohme, Marcus

16

Preserving Biological Diversity in the United States: The Case for Moving to an Ecosystems Approach to Protect the Nation's Biological Wealth  

Microsoft Academic Search

Protecting the biodiversity of the planet from human impact is essential to maintaining the existing balance found throughout nature. This paper provides a general discussion of the reasons why biological diversity must be preserved. In addition to the need to ensure the survival of the planet, reasons for biodiversity protection are based on economic, spiritual, and moral concerns. The author

Julie B. Bloch

1992-01-01

17

Preservation of biological markers in clasts within impact melt breccias from the Haughton impact structure, Devon Island.  

PubMed

The 39 +/- 2 Ma Haughton impact structure on Devon Island comprises a thick target succession of sedimentary rocks, mainly carbonates. The carbonates contain pre-impact organic matter, including fossil biological markers. Haughton is located in an area where no major thermal event has affected the sedimentary succession after heating caused by impact. This makes Haughton uniquely suitable for studies concerning the preservation of fossil biological markers following an impact event. Melt breccia is the most common impactite at Haughton. It is composed of clasts of the target, mainly carbonates, embedded in a fine groundmass. The groundmass is composed of material that was melted during impact. In this study, fossil biological marker maturity parameters (tricyclic terpane-hopane ratio and pregnane-sterane ratio) and an aromatic maturity parameter [methylphenanthrene ratio (MPR)] were used to compare the degree of thermal alteration in different size fractions of carbonate clasts (<0.5-4 cm in diameter) and between edges and centers of large carbonate clasts (15-20 cm in diameter). The data show that fossil biological markers can be preserved and detected in isolated large and small fractions of carbonate clasts that are embedded in an impact melt. The results also indicate that there is a thermal gradient from the center of a clast to the edge of a clast, which suggests that biological markers are more likely to be found preserved in the center of a clast. The thermal maturity values point to a higher degree of thermal alteration in the melt breccia carbonate clasts than in the coherent carbonate bedrock. PMID:19519214

Lindgren, Paula; Parnell, John; Bowden, Stephen; Taylor, Colin; Osinski, Gordon R; Lee, Pascal

2009-05-01

18

Water Quality, Organic Chemistry of Sediment, and Biological Conditions of Streams Near an Abandoned Wood-Preserving Plant Site at Jackson, Tennessee.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

An investigation of the water quality, organic chemistry of sediment, and biological conditions of streams near an abandoned wood-preserving plant site at Jackson, Tennessee, was conducted by the U.S. Geological Survey during December 1990. The objectives...

A. D. Bradfield N. M. Flexner D. A. Webster

1993-01-01

19

Histologic comparison of biologic width around teeth versus implants: The effect on bone preservation  

Microsoft Academic Search

istological analysis of the biological width surrounding primate teeth offers insights into why the blood supply is reduced after tooth extraction and implant placement. This occurs because of the reduction of ridge width and height. The reduction in blood supply tends to be exacerbated as development of a new biologic width after implant placement causes facial bone to be lost

Kazuto Makigusa DDS

2009-01-01

20

uShuffle: A useful tool for shuffling biological sequences while preserving the k-let counts  

PubMed Central

Background Randomly shuffled sequences are routinely used in sequence analysis to evaluate the statistical significance of a biological sequence. In many cases, biologists need sophisticated shuffling tools that preserve not only the counts of distinct letters but also higher-order statistics such as doublet counts, triplet counts, and, in general, k-let counts. Results We present a sequence analysis tool (named uShuffle) for generating uniform random permutations of biological sequences (such as DNAs, RNAs, and proteins) that preserve the exact k-let counts. The uShuffle tool implements the latest variant of the Euler algorithm and uses Wilson's algorithm in the crucial step of arborescence generation. It is carefully engineered and extremely efficient. The uShuffle tool achieves maximum flexibility by allowing arbitrary alphabet size and let size. It can be used as a command-line program, a web application, or a utility library. Source code in C, Java, and C#, and integration instructions for Perl and Python are provided. Conclusion The uShuffle tool surpasses existing implementation of the Euler algorithm in both performance and flexibility. It is a useful tool for the bioinformatics community.

Jiang, Minghui; Anderson, James; Gillespie, Joel; Mayne, Martin

2008-01-01

21

APPLICATIONS ANALYSIS REPORT: BIOLOGICAL TREATMENT OF WOOD PRESERVING SITE GROUNDWATER BY BIOTROL, INC.  

EPA Science Inventory

This report is an evaluation of the Biotrol, Inc. Aqueous Treatment System (BATS), a fixed-film, aerobic biological treatment process for contaminated groundwaters and other wastewaters. t summarizes and analyzes the results of the Superfund Innovative Technology Evaluation (SITE...

22

Antigen recovery and preservation using the microwave irradiation of biological samples for transmission electron microscopy analysis.  

PubMed

Most studies using microwave irradiation (MWI) for the preparation of tissue samples have reported an improvement in structural integrity. However, there have been few studies on the effect of microwave (MW) on antigen preservation during sample preparation prior to immunolocalization. This report documents our experience of specimen preparation using an automatic microwave apparatus to obtain antigen preservation and retrieval. We tested the effects of MW processing vs. conventional procedures on the morphology and antigenicity of two different tissues: the brain and mammary gland, whose chemical composition and anatomical organization are quite different. We chose to locate the transcription factor PPAR?/? using immunocytochemistry on brain tissue sections from hamsters. Antigen retrieval protocols involving MWI were used to restore immunoreactivity. We also studied the efficiency of the ultrastructural immunolocalization of both PPAR? and caveolin-1 following MWI vs. conventional treatment, on mammary gland tissue from mice at 10 days of lactation. Our findings showed that the treatment of tissue samples with MWI, in the context of a process lasting just a few hours from fixation to immunolocalization, enabled similar, or even better, results than conventional protocols. The quantification of immunolabeling for cav-1 indicated an increase in density of up to three-fold in tissues processed in the microwave oven. Furthermore, MW treatment permitted the localization of PPAR?/? in glutaraldehyde-fixed specimens, which was impossible in the absence of MWI. This study thus showed that techniques involving the use of microwaves could largely improve both ultrastructure and immunodetection. PMID:23962686

Aoun, Josiane; Chat, Sophie; Bordat, Christian; Pchoux, Christine

2013-07-30

23

Biophysical and biological factors determining the ability to achieve long-term cryobiological preservation  

SciTech Connect

The BESTCapsule will maintain appropriate biological specimens for decades or centuries at cryogenic temperatures in the living state. Maintenance at temperatures below {approximately} {minus}140 C is not a problem. No ordinary chemical reactions in aqueous solutions can occur. The only source of damage will be the slow accumulation of physical damage to DNA from background ionizing radiation. But this source of damage should not become serious in less than a millennium. Rather, the main problem in cryopreservation is to devise procedures for cooling the biological specimens to {minus}196 C and returning them to normal temperatures without inflicting lethal injury. Regardless of the cell type, there are certain encompassing biophysical factors and constraints that determine whether they will survive or die during freezing and thawing. Superimposed on these may be special biological factors that apply to specific cell types. This paper will emphasize the former and give illustrative examples of the latter.

Mazur, P. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States). Life Sciences Div.

1997-12-01

24

TECHNOLOGY EVALUATION REPORT: BIOLOGICAL TREATMENT OF WOOD PRESERVING SITE GROUNDWATER BY BIOTROL, INC.  

EPA Science Inventory

This report provides the in-depth data analysis from the SITE Program's six-week demonstration of BioTrol's Aqueous Treatment System (BATS) at the MacGillis and Gibbs Company wood treatment facility in New Brighton, Minnesota. he pilot scale (5gpm), fixed-film biological system u...

25

Simulated-Physiological Loading Conditions Preserve Biological and Mechanical Properties of Caprine Lumbar Intervertebral Discs in Ex Vivo Culture  

PubMed Central

Low-back pain (LBP) is a common medical complaint and associated with high societal costs. Degeneration of the intervertebral disc (IVD) is assumed to be an important causal factor of LBP. IVDs are continuously mechanically loaded and both positive and negative effects have been attributed to different loading conditions. In order to study mechanical loading effects, degeneration-associated processes and/or potential regenerative therapies in IVDs, it is imperative to maintain the IVDs' structural integrity. While in vivo models provide comprehensive insight in IVD biology, an accompanying organ culture model can focus on a single factor, such as loading and may serve as a prescreening model to reduce life animal testing. In the current study we examined the feasibility of organ culture of caprine lumbar discs, with the hypothesis that a simulated-physiological load will optimally preserve IVD properties. Lumbar caprine IVDs (n?=?175) were cultured in a bioreactor up to 21 days either without load, low dynamic load (LDL), or with simulated-physiological load (SPL). IVD stiffness was calculated from measurements of IVD loading and displacement. IVD nucleus, inner- and outer annulus were assessed for cell viability, cell density and gene expression. The extracellular matrix (ECM) was analyzed for water, glycosaminoglycan and total collagen content. IVD biomechanical properties did not change significantly with loading conditions. With SPL, cell viability, cell density and gene expression were preserved up to 21 days. Both unloaded and LDL resulted in decreased cell viability, cell density and significant changes in gene expression, yet no differences in ECM content were observed in any group. In conclusion, simulated-physiological loading preserved the native properties of caprine IVDs during a 21-day culture period. The characterization of caprine IVD response to culture in the LDCS under SPL conditions paves the way for controlled analysis of degeneration- and regeneration-associated processes in the future.

Paul, Cornelis P. L.; Zuiderbaan, Hendrik A.; Zandieh Doulabi, Behrouz; van der Veen, Albert J.; van de Ven, Peter M.; Smit, Theo H.; Helder, Marco N.; van Royen, Barend J.; Mullender, Margriet G.

2012-01-01

26

Simulated-physiological loading conditions preserve biological and mechanical properties of caprine lumbar intervertebral discs in ex vivo culture.  

PubMed

Low-back pain (LBP) is a common medical complaint and associated with high societal costs. Degeneration of the intervertebral disc (IVD) is assumed to be an important causal factor of LBP. IVDs are continuously mechanically loaded and both positive and negative effects have been attributed to different loading conditions.In order to study mechanical loading effects, degeneration-associated processes and/or potential regenerative therapies in IVDs, it is imperative to maintain the IVDs' structural integrity. While in vivo models provide comprehensive insight in IVD biology, an accompanying organ culture model can focus on a single factor, such as loading and may serve as a prescreening model to reduce life animal testing. In the current study we examined the feasibility of organ culture of caprine lumbar discs, with the hypothesis that a simulated-physiological load will optimally preserve IVD properties.Lumbar caprine IVDs (n = 175) were cultured in a bioreactor up to 21 days either without load, low dynamic load (LDL), or with simulated-physiological load (SPL). IVD stiffness was calculated from measurements of IVD loading and displacement. IVD nucleus, inner- and outer annulus were assessed for cell viability, cell density and gene expression. The extracellular matrix (ECM) was analyzed for water, glycosaminoglycan and total collagen content.IVD biomechanical properties did not change significantly with loading conditions. With SPL, cell viability, cell density and gene expression were preserved up to 21 days. Both unloaded and LDL resulted in decreased cell viability, cell density and significant changes in gene expression, yet no differences in ECM content were observed in any group.In conclusion, simulated-physiological loading preserved the native properties of caprine IVDs during a 21-day culture period. The characterization of caprine IVD response to culture in the LDCS under SPL conditions paves the way for controlled analysis of degeneration- and regeneration-associated processes in the future. PMID:22427972

Paul, Cornelis P L; Zuiderbaan, Hendrik A; Zandieh Doulabi, Behrouz; van der Veen, Albert J; van de Ven, Peter M; Smit, Theo H; Helder, Marco N; van Royen, Barend J; Mullender, Margriet G

2012-03-13

27

Technology evaluation report: Biological treatment of wood-preserving-site ground-water by Bbiotrol, Iinc  

SciTech Connect

The report provides the in-depth data analysis from the SITE Program's six-week demonstration of BioTrol's Aqueous Treatment System (BATS) at the MacGillis and Gibbs Company wood treatment facility in New Brighton, Minnesota. The pilot scale (5gpm), fixed-film biological system using a pentachlorophenol-specific bacterium was evaluated at three groundwater throughput rates. Operational and analytical data were carefully monitored throughout to establish a database to use in evaluating the vendor's claims for pentachlorophenol (PCP) and polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) removal. It was concluded that the system achieves over 95% PCP removal (vendor's claim: 90%), probably by mineralization to carbon dioxide water and chloride ion. Because of unexpectedly low concentrations in the groundwater, removal of PAH's could not be determined.

Hahn, W.; Skovronek, H.S.

1991-10-01

28

Clinical and biometrical evaluation of socket preservation using demineralized freeze-dried bone allograft with and without the palatal connective tissue as a biologic membrane  

PubMed Central

Background: Alveolar ridge preservation following tooth extraction has the ability to maintain the ridge dimensions and allow the implant placement in an ideal position fulfilling both functional and aesthetic results. The aim of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of the palatal connective tissue as a biological membrane for socket preservation with demineralized freeze-dried bone allograft (DFDBA). Materials and Methods: Twelve extraction sites were treated with DFDBA with (case group) and without (control group) using autogenous palatal connective tissue membrane before placement of implants. Alveolar width and height, amount of keratinized tissue, and gingival level were measured at pre-determined points using a surgical stent at two times, the time of socket preservation surgery Results: In both groups a decrease in all socket dimensions was found. The average decrease in socket width, height, keratinized tissue, and gingival level in case group was 1.16, 0.72, 3.58, and 1.27 mm, and in control group was 2.08, 0.86, 4.52, and 1.58 mm respectively. Statistical analysis showed that decrease in socket width (P = 0.012), keratinized tissue (P ? 0.001), and gingival level (P = 0.031) in case group was significantly lower than that of the control group. Results showed no meaningful difference in socket height changes when compared with case and control groups (P = 0.148). Conclusion: Under the limits of this study, connective tissue membrane could preserve socket width, amount of keratinized tissue, and the gingival level more effectively than DFDBA alone.

Moghaddas, Hamid; Amjadi, Mohammad Reza; Naghsh, Narges

2012-01-01

29

Preservation of biological information in thermal spring deposits: developing a strategy for the search for fossil life on Mars.  

PubMed

Current interpretations of the early history of Mars suggest many similarities with the early Earth and therefore raise the possibility that the Archean and Proterozoic history of life on Earth could have a counterpart on Mars. Terrestrial experience suggests that, with techniques that can be employed remotely, ancient springs, including thermal springs, could well yield important information. By delivering water and various dissolved species to the sunlit surface of Mars, springs very likely created an environment suitable for life, which could have been difficult, if not impossible, to attain elsewhere. The chemical and temperature gradients associated with thermal springs sort organisms into sharply delineated, distinctive and different communities, and so diverse organisms are concentrated into relatively small areas in a predictable and informative fashion. A wide range of metabolic strategies are concentrated into small areas, thus furnishing a useful and representative sampling of the existing biota. Mineral-charged springwaters frequently deposit chemical precipitates of silica and/or carbonate which incorporate microorganisms and preserve them as fossils. The juxtaposition of stream valley headwaters with volcanoes and impact craters on Mars strongly implies that subsurface heating of groundwater created thermal springs. On Earth, thermal springs create distinctive geomorphic features and chemical signatures which can be detected by remote sensing. Spring deposits can be quite different chemically from adjacent rocks. Individual springs can be hundreds of meters wide, and complexes of springs occupy areas up to several kilometers wide. Benthic microbial mats and the resultant stromatolites occupy a large fraction of the available area. The relatively high densities of fossils and microbial mat fabrics within these deposits make them highly prospective in any search for morphological evidence of life, and there are examples of microbial fossils in spring deposits as old as 300 Myr. PMID:11536937

Walter, M R; Des Marais, D J

1993-01-01

30

Preservation of Biological Information in Thermal Spring Deposits: Developing a Strategy for the Search for Fossil Life on Mars  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Current interpretations of the early history of Mars suggest many similarities with the early Earth and therefore raise the possibility that the Archean and Proterozoic history of life on Earth could have a counterpart on Mars. Terrestrial experience suggests that, with techniques that can be employed remotely, ancient springs, including thermal springs, could well yield important information. By delivering water and various dissolved species to the sunlit surface of Mars, springs very likely created an environment suitable for life, which could have been difficult, if not impossible, to attain elsewhere. The chemical and temperature gradients associated with thermal springs sort organisms into sharply delineated, distinctive and different communities, and so diverse organisms are concentrated into relatively small areas in a predictable and informative fashion. A wide range of metabolic strategies are concentrated into small areas, thus furnishing a useful and representative sampling of the existing biota. Mineral-charged springwaters frequently deposit chemical precipitates of silica and/or carbonate which incorporate microorganisms and preserve them as fossils. The juxtaposition of stream valley headwaters with volcanoes and impact craters on Mars strongly implies that subsurface heating of groundwater created thermal springs. On Earth, thermal springs create distinctive geomorphic features and chemical signatures which can be detected by remote sensing. Spring deposits can be quite different chemically from adjacent rocks. Individual springs can be hundreds of meters wide, and complexes of springs occupy areas up to several kilometers wide. Benthic microbial mats and the resultant stromatolites occupy a large fraction of the available area. The relatively high densities of fossils and microbial mat fabrics within these deposits make them highly prospective in any search for morphological evidence of life, and there are examples of microbial fossils in spring deposits as old as 300 Myr.

Walter, M. R.; Des Marais, David J.

1993-01-01

31

Complex Recombination Patterns Arising during Geminivirus Coinfections Preserve and Demarcate Biologically Important Intra-Genome Interaction Networks  

PubMed Central

Genetic recombination is an important process during the evolution of many virus species and occurs particularly frequently amongst begomoviruses in the single stranded DNA virus family, Geminiviridae. As in many other recombining viruses it is apparent that non-random recombination breakpoint distributions observable within begomovirus genomes sampled from nature are the product of variations both in basal recombination rates across genomes and in the over-all viability of different recombinant genomes. Whereas factors influencing basal recombination rates might include local degrees of sequence similarity between recombining genomes, nucleic acid secondary structures and genomic sensitivity to nuclease attack or breakage, the viability of recombinant genomes could be influenced by the degree to which their co-evolved protein-protein and protein-nucleotide and nucleotide-nucleotide interactions are disreputable by recombination. Here we investigate patterns of recombination that occur over 120 day long experimental infections of tomato plants with the begomoviruses Tomato yellow leaf curl virus and Tomato leaf curl Comoros virus. We show that patterns of sequence exchange between these viruses can be extraordinarily complex and present clear evidence that factors such as local degrees of sequence similarity but not genomic secondary structure strongly influence where recombination breakpoints occur. It is also apparent from our experiment that over-all patterns of recombination are strongly influenced by selection against individual recombinants displaying disrupted intra-genomic interactions such as those required for proper protein and nucleic acid folding. Crucially, we find that selection favoring the preservation of co-evolved longer-range protein-protein and protein DNA interactions is so strong that its imprint can even be used to identify the exact sequence tracts involved in these interactions.

Martin, Darren P.; Lefeuvre, Pierre; Varsani, Arvind; Hoareau, Murielle; Semegni, Jean-Yves; Dijoux, Betty; Vincent, Claire; Reynaud, Bernard; Lett, Jean-Michel

2011-01-01

32

Mostly Plants. Individualized Biology Activities on: I. Investigating Bread Mold; II. Transpiration; III. Botany Project; IV. Collecting/Preserving/Identifying Leaves; [and] V. Student Science Laboratory Write-Ups.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Individualized biology activities for secondary students are presented in this teaching guide. The guide is divided into five sections: (1) investigating bread mold; (2) investigating transpiration; (3) completing a botany project; (4) collecting, preserving, and identifying leaves; and (5) writing up science laboratory investigations. The

Gibson, Paul R.

33

Effective Preservation Methods of the Asian Ladybird, Harmonia axyridis (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae), as an Application Strategy for the Biological Control of Aphids  

Microsoft Academic Search

After examining the effectiveness of preservation methods of the Asian ladybird, Harmonia axyridis, we were able to preserve the overwintering populations of ladybirds in Fabix plastic boxes or milk paper packs at 4C and 8C without food over 4 months with an 84% survival rate. Also, by preserving the 3rd and 4th instar larva with microwave popcorn, we were able

Mi Ja Seo; Young Nam Youn

2002-01-01

34

Water quality, organic chemistry of sediment, and biological conditions of streams near an abandoned wood-preserving plant site at Jackson, Tennessee  

USGS Publications Warehouse

An investigation of water quality, organic sediment chemistry, and biological conditions of streams near an abandoned wood-preserving plant site at Jackson, Tennessee, was conducted during December 1990. The study was designed to assess the extent of possible contamination of water and biota in the streams from creosote-related discharge originating at this Superfund site. Central Creek, adjacent to the plant, had degraded water quality and biological conditions. Water samples from the most downstream station on Central Creek contained 30 micrograms per liter of pentachlorophenol, which exceeds the State's criterion maximum concentrations of 9 micrograms per liter for fish and aquatic life. Bottom-sediment samples from stations on Central Creek contained concentrations of acenaphthene, napthalene, and phenanthrene ranging from 1,400 to 2,500 micrograms per kilogram. Chronic or acute toxicity resulted during laboratory experiments using test organisms exposed to creosote-related contaminants. Sediment elutriate samples from Central Creek caused slightly to highly toxic effects on Ceriodaphnia dubia. Pimephales promelas, and Photobacterium phosphoreum. Fish-tissue samples from this station contained concentrations of naphthalene. dibenzofuran, fluorene, and phenanthrene ranging from 1.5 to 3.9 micrograms per kilogram Blue-green algae at this station represented about 79 percent of the organisms counted, whereas diatoms accounted for only 11 percent. Benthic invertebrate and fish samples from Central Creek had low diversity and density. Sediment samples from a station on the South Fork Forked Deer River downstream from its confluence with Central Creek contained concentrations of acenaphthene, anthracene, chrysene, fluoranthene, fluorene, pyrere, and phenanthrene ranging from 2,800 to 69,000 micrograms per kilogram. Sediment elutriate samples using water as elutriate from this station contained concentrations of extractable organic compounds ranging from an estimated 43 to 420 micrograms per liter. Sediment elutriate samples were toxic to Ceriodaphnia dubta, Pimephales promelas, Photobacterium phosphoreum, and Salenastrum capricornulum.

Bradfield, A. D.; Flexner, N. M.; Webster, D. A.

1993-01-01

35

Preserving Health Through Biological Diversity  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Using the student E-Sheet, students will explore the benefits of biodiversity, particularly as it relates to human health. Once students have read the articles, they should write a paragraph in response to each of the questions. The students would then share their answers with the class. Discuss and review what students have learned is to follow with the instructors guidance. By the end of the lesson, the students should demonstrate that they can use explicitly stated information from grade-level texts to make and support interpretations, connect ideas within a text, identify and evaluate relevant information, and make simple inferences. Links are given to extend the lesson and for further inquiry.

American Association for the Advancement of Science (;)

2005-06-22

36

Preserving Biodiversity  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This website is part of National Geographic's Xpeditions Hall and includes lesson plans and activities related to the topic of biodiversity. The site covers ecosystems, endangered species, why preserving biodiversity is necessary, and how captive breeding has been used to try and save some species from extinction. These lesson plans were written by educators and have been tested in the classroom.

37

Digitizing Preservation.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Discussion of digital imaging technology focuses on its potential use for preservation of library materials. Topics addressed include converting microfilm to digital; the high cost of conversion from paper or microfilm; quality; indexing; database management issues; incompatibility among imaging systems; longevity; cooperative pilot projects; and

Conway, Paul

1994-01-01

38

Records Preservation  

USGS Multimedia Gallery

Older materials and recently arrived items in the Field Records Collection are in various states of preservation and documentation. In the current reorganization project, items are inventoried for content, transferred to archival storage containers, and archived as shelf items (notebooks and file fo...

2009-04-09

39

Preserving Fertility  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a Negative impact of modern cancer treatment methods on human reproduction has been recognized. In this chapter, we first summarize\\u000a the facts about cancer and treatment-related adverse outcomes in female reproductive function, then discuss the needs, and\\u000a outline the current strategies and the future directions of fertility preservation and ovarian cryopreservation and transplantation\\u000a in adult and adolescent female patients whose fertility

Kutluk Oktay; Ozgur Oktem

40

Gamete Preservation  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a With the increase in survivorship following cancer for women in their reproductive years, as well as an increase in survivorship\\u000a with childhood cancers, there is a demand for perfecting current fertility preservation methods and generating new options\\u000a for patients who are unable to pursue the conventional course of fertility treatments. Cryopreservation using a slow-cooling\\u000a method for embryos is currently the

Susan L. Barrett; Teresa K. Woodruff

41

Polarization preservation in diffusive scattering from in vivo turbid biological media: effects of tissue optical absorption in the exact backscattering direction  

Microsoft Academic Search

There is considerable recent interest in using polarized light to investigate turbid biological media. Although tissue multiple scattering randomizes incident polarization states, there are circumstances when appreciable degree of polarization can be observed in diffusive scattering. In this study, we use polarization modulation and synchronous detection to examine in the exact backscattering direction the polarization properties of diffusely reflected visible

I. Alex Vitkin; Ryan C. N. Studinski

2001-01-01

42

Ethical aspects of informed consent for the collection, preservation and use of cells and tissues in biological banks for research purposes.  

PubMed

This article explores the current and proposed requirements for informed consent for research with biological samples. The establishment of biobanks and the capabilities of collecting, storing, and using cells and tissues for research purposes have noticeably grown. With new abilities come new challenges to ethical questions of consent, specifically concerning genetic information, and unanticipated usage. This paper summarizes these issues in the context of levels of informed consent, subject risk, individual vs. societal benefits, anonymity, legal consensus. PMID:23115828

Petrini, Carlo

43

Preservation of Digital Objects.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Presents a literature review that covers the following topics related to preservation of digital objects: practical examples; stakeholders; recordkeeping standards; genre-specific problems; trusted repository standards; preservation methods; preservation metadata standards; and future directions. (Contains 82 references.) (MES)|

Galloway, Patricia

2004-01-01

44

Organizing Preservation Activities.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This resource guide considers issues in the staffing and organization of preservation activities. It provides guidance in implementing a systematic preservation program and evaluates the structures of various types of preservation programs. The following articles complement the discussion of program models and implementation: (1) "Preservation

Cloonan, Michele

45

The effects of different preservation processes on the total protein and growth factor content in a new biological product developed from human amniotic membrane.  

PubMed

The aim of this work is to quantify the total protein and growth factors content in a tissue-suspension obtained from processed human amniotic membrane (hAM). hAM was collected, frozen, freeze dried, powdered and sterilized by ?-irradiation. At each step of the process, samples were characterized for the total protein amounts by a Bradford protein assay and for the growth factor concentrations by ELISA test of the tissue suspensions. Frozen-hAM samples show higher release of total proteins and specific growth factors in the tissue suspension in comparison with freeze-dried hAM. We observed that even if the protein extraction is hindered once the tissue is dried, the powdering process allows a greater release in the tissue suspension of total proteins and growth factors after tissue re-solubilization in comparison with only the freeze-drying process (+9113% for EGF, +164% for HGF, +115% for FGF, +169% for TGF-?1), and a greater release of EGF (8510%) in comparison with only the freezing process, because proteins become much readily solubilized in the solution. According with these results, we describe a protocol to obtain a new sterile biological product from hAM tissue, with well-known effects of thermal, mechanical and physical processes on the total protein and grow factors contents. PMID:21681392

Russo, Alessandra; Bonci, Paola; Bonci, Paolo

2011-06-18

46

Assessing Preservation Needs.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Describes techniques for assessing the preservation needs of library collections and facilities to provide documentation for preservation program requests. The techniques described involve surveys of the physical facility, the storage environment, the condition of the collection, and preservation related incidents in the past. (nine references)

Walker, Gay

1989-01-01

47

A History Worth Preserving  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Manhattan Project transformed the course of American and world history, science, politics and society. If we can read about this in books and watch History Channel documentaries, why do we need to preserve some of the properties of this enormous undertaking? The presentation, ``A History Worth Preserving,'' will address why some of the physical properties need to be preserved

Cynthia Kelly

2008-01-01

48

An exceptionally preserved Lower Cretaceous ecosystem  

Microsoft Academic Search

Fieldwork in the Early Cretaceous Jehol Group, northeastern China has revealed a plethora of extraordinarily well-preserved fossils that are shaping some of the most contentious debates in palaeontology and evolutionary biology. These discoveries include feathered theropod dinosaurs and early birds, which provide additional, indisputable support for the dinosaurian ancestry of birds, and much new evidence on the evolution of feathers

Zhonghe Zhou; Paul M. Barrett; Jason Hilton

2003-01-01

49

PRESERVING BIODIVERSITY: SPECIES, ECOSYSTEMS, OR LANDSCAPES?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Efforts to preserve biological diversity must focus increasingly at the ecosystem level because of the immense number of species, the majority of which are currently unknown. An ecosystem approach is also the only way to conserve processes and habitats (such as forest canopies, belowground habitats, and hyporheic zones) that, with their constituent species, are poorly known. Continued concern with species

JERRY F. FRANKLIN

1993-01-01

50

Cadaver preservation and dissection  

Microsoft Academic Search

Postgraduate cadaver dissection is an unsurpassed method of maintaining and improving one's knowledge of anatomy. Since fresh cadavers are not always available, some form of preservation is often required especially for courses or workshops. A technique using glutaraldehyde is described and its pros and cons compared with the time honored formaldehyde-phenol technique. The method is particularly suitable for cadaver preservation

D. E. Tolhurst; J. Hart

1990-01-01

51

Perfection-Preserving Operation.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A new graph composition, called the g-amalgam, is described, and it is proved that it is perfection preserving. This composition unifies and generalizes operations known to preserve perfection such as join and 2-join, clique identification, amalgam and 2-...

A. Zemirline

1993-01-01

52

Milk Sample Preservation1  

Microsoft Academic Search

Potassium dichromate continues to be the most widely used milk sample pre- servative. Other such preservatives are discussed and the requirements for suitability are detailed. DISCUSSION The ideal means of preserving milk samples for several days prior to compositional analysis is refrigeration as near the freezing point as possible without freezing the milk. This prevents growth of bacteria and all

Manfred Kroger

1985-01-01

53

Preservation of Fungal Sporophores  

Microsoft Academic Search

DRYING in the frozen state has been reported as a method of preserving animal tissues, and the fact that the fleshy sporophores of the higher fungi are not visibly destroyed by frost, but only collapse with the ensuing thaw, suggested it might be possible to preserve their morphological characters by quick freezing followed by drying while still in the frozen

W. Neilson Jones

1950-01-01

54

Why Preserve Biodiversity?  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This lesson plan stresses the importance of maintaining ecosystems and explores the various arguments in favor of preserving the biodiversity of Earth. Students will view photos of endangered species and discuss why these animals are threatened and why they should be protected; learn the meaning of biodiversity, ecosystem, and extinction; explain why all members of an ecosystem are important; list the reasons why biodiversity should be preserved; read articles on various arguments in favor of preserving biodiversity; and write essays in which they explain what they feel are the most compelling reasons for preserving biodiversity and also describe the arguments they think would be most likely to convince the general public that biodiversity should be preserved.

55

Stabilization and Preservation of Lactobacillus acidophilus in Saccharide Matrices  

Microsoft Academic Search

Lyophilization and vacuum- or spray-drying are some of the most useful techniques for preserving foods, agricultural products, and pharmaceuticals. Biological materials, however, can be irreversibly damaged during these treatments. Therefore, it is essential to design protective agents to preserve protein activity and cell viability. In this paper we examine the use of ?,?-trehaloseborate systems as protectants for Lactobacillus acidophilus during

Paul B. Conrad; Danforth P. Miller; Peter R. Cielenski; Juan J. de Pablo

2000-01-01

56

DESIGN OF NATURAL AREA PRESERVES IN HAWAI'I  

Microsoft Academic Search

Preserves, especially in Hawai1!, must be protect- able and manageable. Elements in preserve design in- clude defining objectives, determining minimal area re- quirements, identifying external threats, and identify- ing management activities to be conducted. Biological, economic, and social priorities must be considered. There is no substitute for detailed ecological know- ledge and practical experience, but ecological com- promises are essential.

Jerry F. Franklin

57

New Approaches to the Preservation of Contaminants in Water Samples.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The potential of antibiotics, chemical biocides and lytic enzymes in preserving nutrients, biological oxygen demand and oil and grease in water and sewage effluents was studied. Preliminary studies concerning the effect of drugs on cell growth and oxygen ...

J. Saxena E. Nies

1979-01-01

58

Adjacency preserving mappings  

Microsoft Academic Search

In a certain class of point-line geometries, called locally projective near polygons, which includes dual polar spaces and generalised 2n-gons, surjective adjacency preserving mappings are already collineations.

Wen-ling Huang; Andreas E. Schroth

2003-01-01

59

Preservative treatments for building components  

Treesearch

... ground or fully exposed to the weather, but preservatives containing boron or organic ... wood biodegradation, wood deterioration, wood preservatives, exposure, ... preservatives, building materials, service life, durability, resistance to decay,...

60

Heat Preservation and Processing  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a Of the various means of preserving foods, the use of heat finds very wide application. The simple acts of cooking, frying,\\u000a broiling, or otherwise heating foods prior to consumption are forms of food preservation. In addition to making foods more\\u000a tender and palatable, cooking destroys a large proportion of the microorganisms and natural enzymes in foods; thus, cooked\\u000a foods generally

Dennis R. Heldman

61

Appearance-Preserving Simplification  

Microsoft Academic Search

We present a new algorithm for appearance-preserving simplif i- cation. Not only does it generate a low-polygon-co unt approx i- mation of a model, but it also preserves the appearance. This is accomplished for a particular display resolution in the sense that we properly sample the surface position, curvature, and color attributes of the input surface. We convert the input

Jonathan D. Cohen; Marc Olano; Dinesh Manocha

1998-01-01

62

PreserveNet  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Internet allows many interested communities that may be spread across great distances to share information, and PreserveNet is just such a community. Since 1994, preservationists have had a fine resource to draw on at the PreserveNet website. The site has been redesigned several times since its creation, and currently visitors to the site can find out about funding sources for projects, employment opportunities, and upcoming conferences and related events. Along with these sections, visitors may also wish to take a look through the “Legal” section, which offers links to summaries of court cases related to historic preservation and also to the codes of federal regulation. Finally, the site also has a links area, which contains numerous links categorized by theme, such as cultural studies, sprawl, and maritime resources.

63

Modern preservative materials  

Microsoft Academic Search

New preservative-stamping oil Volgol-131 has been developed by the company Volgokhimneft. The oil can be used for the long-term\\u000a corrosion protection of cold-rolled electrogalvanized or hot-galvanized rolled products and for stamping parts. The oil can\\u000a be applied to the surface of metal by immersion, rubbing, or spraying-including electrostatic spraying. One of the latest\\u000a inventions of Volgokhimneft is water-soluble preservative Volgol-500,

T. A. Bliznetsov

2007-01-01

64

A History Worth Preserving  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Manhattan Project transformed the course of American and world history, science, politics and society. If we can read about this in books and watch History Channel documentaries, why do we need to preserve some of the properties of this enormous undertaking? The presentation, ``A History Worth Preserving,'' will address why some of the physical properties need to be preserved and which ones we are struggling to maintain for future generations. The story of this effort begins in 1997 as the Department of Energy was posed to demolish the last remaining Manhattan Project properties at the Los Alamos laboratory. Located deep behind security fences, the ``V Site's'' asbestos-shingled wooden buildings looked like humble garages with over-sized wooden doors. The ``V Site'' properties were almost lost twice, first to bulldozers and then the Cerro Grande fire of 2000. Now, visitors can stand inside the building where J. Robert Oppenheimer and his crew once worked and imagine the Trinity ``gadget'' hanging from its hoist shortly before it ushered in the Atomic Age on July 16, 1945. As Richard Rhodes has commented, we preserve what we value of the physical past because it specifically embodies our social past. But many challenge whether the Manhattan Project properties ought to be preserved. Rather than recognize the Manhattan Project as a great achievement worthy of commemoration, some see it as a regrettable event, producing an instrument to take man's inhumanity to man to extremes. While these divergent views will no doubt persist, the significance of the Manhattan Project in producing the world's first atomic bombs is irrefutable. Preserving some of its tangible remains is essential so that future generations can understand what the undertaking entailed from its humble wooden sheds to enormous first-of-a-kind industrial plants with 125,000 people working in secret and living in frontier-like communities. With continuing pressure for their demolition, what progress has been made in preserving some properties of the Manhattan Project? The presentation will share the handful of remaining properties that we believe are needed to tell the story of the Manhattan Project. It will share our successes, what is still at risk, and the on-going struggle to preserve this history.

Kelly, Cynthia

2008-04-01

65

Radiation preservation of spices.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The use of gamma irradiation for preservation of red hot pepper has been explained in report, as it can kill the harmful organisms without altering the organolpetic properties. The sample were dried and reduced to pass through 20 mesh. The samples were ir...

A. Badshah A. Tasnim M. Khan A. Sattar I. Khan

1989-01-01

66

Preserve a Snowflake  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this activity, students capture snowflakes in a manner that preserves their shape. Afterwards, students can study the ice crystal shapes and then hang their snowflakes up as art. There is information about how snowflakes are formed and simple steps to conduct the activity.

67

Paints and Preservatives.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The publication contains an outline for use by agriculture teachers in developing a teaching plan for a unit on paints and preservatives. The topics included are (1) recognizing, solving, and preventing paint problems and (2) operating and using power spray painting equipment. Items presented for each topic are: the situation, (intended to inform

Powell, Larry E.; Miller, Larry E.

68

Preservation: Issues and Planning.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|A reference guide from leading experts in the field, this book covers the repair, maintenance, and preservation of library or archive collections, providing a definitive and authoritative analysis of how to plan for and ensure the long-term health of an institution's collection in this digital age. Chapters include: (1) "Defining the Library

Banks, Paul N., Ed.; Pilette, Roberta, Ed.

69

Preservation of Sheep Pelt.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Some aspects of preserving sheep pelt are discussed. They include short term curing by air drying, and wet and dry salting methods. Preparation methods for tanning are also given, i.e., soaking, liming, de-liming, bating, degreasing, and pickling. Tanning...

R. Lungrin

1985-01-01

70

Preserving Cultural Heritage: Introduction  

Microsoft Academic Search

When Library Trends devoted its first issue to preservation (Tauber, 1956), the state-of-the-art term was conservation, and the articles dealt with binding, treatments, stack maintenance, and discarding (weeding). The focus was almost entirely on libraries, except for an article by Hummel and Barrow on treatment for library and archival material (Hummel & Barrow, 1956). The next Library Trends issue devoted

Michle V. Cloonan; Ross Harvey

71

Historic Preservation Plan.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The report is Rhode Island's initial statewide plan for the preservation of its historic resources. It is based on previous historical inventories conducted in the state and on an extensive new survey still underway. The intent of the report is to fulfill...

1970-01-01

72

The Preservation of  

Microsoft Academic Search

Nature preservation will be a central element of the exploration of the Solar System, whether this emphasis is initially planned for or not. Exploration of extraterrestrial environments will generate images and scientific information that will excite the imagination of the general public throughout the world and be supportive of more funding for exploration. However, damage to the environments visited, once

Eugene Hargrove

2010-01-01

73

Paints and Preservatives.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The publication contains an outline for use by agriculture teachers in developing a teaching plan for a unit on paints and preservatives. The topics included are (1) recognizing, solving, and preventing paint problems and (2) operating and using power spray painting equipment. Items presented for each topic are: the situation, (intended to inform

Powell, Larry E.; Miller, Larry E.

74

Development of new preservatives  

Microsoft Academic Search

Preservative-stamping oil Volgol-131 has been developed on the basis of a mixture of high-purity mineral oil and a group of\\u000a additives that impart the desired service properties to the given product. The oil can be used in stamping operations and\\u000a to provide long-term corrosion protection to cold-rolled products that have undergone electrolytic or hot galvanizing. The\\u000a oil can be applied

T. A. Bliznetsov

2006-01-01

75

Training Development for Pavement Preservation.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This research project strives to help the Iowa Department of Transportation (DOT) fully achieve the full benefits of pavement preservation through training on proper selection, design, and application of pavement preservation treatments. In some cases, th...

A. Morandeira C. T. Jahren J. Mallen

2013-01-01

76

Plant cytoplasm preserved by lightning  

Microsoft Academic Search

Usually only an organism with hard parts may be preserved in the fossil record. Cytoplasm, which is a physiologically active part of a plant, is rarely seen in the fossil record. Two Cretaceous plant fossils older than 100 million years with exceptional preservation of cytoplasm are reported here. Some cytoplasm is well preserved with subcellular details while other cytoplasm is

X. Wang

2004-01-01

77

Fertility Preservation in Girls  

PubMed Central

Children that undergo treatment for cancer are at risk of suffering from subfertility or hormonal dysfunction due to the detrimental effects of radiotherapy and chemotherapeutic agents on the gonads. Cryopreservation of ovarian tissue prior to treatment offers the possibility of restoring gonadal function after resumption of therapy. Effective counseling and management of pediatric patients is crucial for preserving their future reproductive potential. The purpose of this article is to review recent literature and to revise recommendations we made in a 2007 article. Pediatric hemato-oncology, reproductive endocrinology, surgery, anesthesia and bioethics perspectives are discussed and integrated to propose guidelines for offering ovarian cryopreservation to premenarcheal girls with cancer.

Michaeli, Jennia; Weintraub, Michael; Gross, Eitan; Ginosar, Yehuda; Ravitsky, Vardit; Eizenman, Einat; Mitrani, Eduardo; Lebovich, Meital; Laufer, Neri; Kennedy, Stephen; Revel, Ariel

2012-01-01

78

Provincetown History Preservation Project  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The story of Provincetown, Massachusetts is part of the earliest European settlement of the United States. Stretching back almost four centuries, the tales of this town include whaling, artists, creative theater, and of course, the Pilgrims. This website was created to preserve the history of this unique place, and it is made possible by a generous donation from the Ken Weiss Schwab Charitable Fund. First-time visitors can get started by using the search engine here or by browsing the items by collection, format, or subject category. The collection includes annual town reports, glass plates, a history of the town department, and so on. The town reports date from 1870 to 1918 and they offer an interesting picture of what occupied the minds and attentions of local residents. Visitors shouldn't miss the "Artworks" area, as they will find beautiful oil canvases of waterfront scenes and watercolors depicting celebrated shipping vessels.

2012-01-06

79

Format-Preserving Encryption  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Format-preserving encryption (FPE) encrypts a plaintext of some specified format into a ciphertext of identical formatfor example, encrypting a valid credit-card number into a valid credit-card number. The problem has been known for some time, but it has lacked a fully general and rigorous treatment. We provide one, starting off by formally defining FPE and security goals for it. We investigate the natural approach for achieving FPE on complex domains, the rank-then-encipher approach, and explore what it can and cannot do. We describe two flavors of unbalanced Feistel networks that can be used for achieving FPE, and we prove new security results for each. We revisit the cycle-walking approach for enciphering on a non-sparse subset of an encipherable domain, showing that the timing information that may be divulged by cycle walking is not a damaging thing to leak.

Bellare, Mihir; Ristenpart, Thomas; Rogaway, Phillip; Stegers, Till

80

Current concepts of organ preservation in head and neck cancer  

Microsoft Academic Search

The treatment of laryngeal and hypopharyngel cancer nowadays is not limited by surgical resection. There are many interdisciplinary\\u000a approaches which we can offer these patients in our clinics. These include radiotherapy, chemotherapy, biologicals and surgery.\\u000a The combination of radiotherapy, chemotherapy, biologicals and surgery techniques more and more allows us to perform organ\\u000a and function preservation in a former often mutilating

C.-J. Wang; R. Knecht

2011-01-01

81

Preservation technologies for fresh meat - a review.  

PubMed

Fresh meat is a highly perishable product due to its biological composition. Many interrelated factors influence the shelf life and freshness of meat such as holding temperature, atmospheric oxygen (O(2)), endogenous enzymes, moisture, light and most importantly, micro-organisms. With the increased demand for high quality, convenience, safety, fresh appearance and an extended shelf life in fresh meat products, alternative non-thermal preservation technologies such as high hydrostatic pressure, superchilling, natural biopreservatives and active packaging have been proposed and investigated. Whilst some of these technologies are efficient at inactivating the micro-organisms most commonly related to food-borne diseases, they are not effective against spores. To increase their efficacy against vegetative cells, a combination of several preservation technologies under the so-called hurdle concept has also been investigated. The objective of this review is to describe current methods and developing technologies for preserving fresh meat. The benefits of some new technologies and their industrial limitations is presented and discussed. PMID:20605688

Zhou, G H; Xu, X L; Liu, Y

2010-04-29

82

Microbial fermented tea a potential source of natural food preservatives  

Microsoft Academic Search

Antimicrobial activities of microbial fermented tea are much less known than its health beneficial properties. These antimicrobial activities are generated in natural microbial fermentation process with tea leaves as substrates. The antimicrobial components produced during the fermentation process have shown inhibitory effects against several food-borne and pathogenic bacteria. With the trend of increasing use of natural and biological preservatives in

Haizhen Mo; Yang Zhu; Zongmao Chen

2008-01-01

83

NEW APPROACHES TO THE PRESERVATION OF CONTAMINANTS IN WATER SAMPLES  

EPA Science Inventory

The potential of antibiotics, chemical biocides and lytic enzymes in preserving nutrients, biological oxygen demand and oil and grease in water and sewage effluents was studied. Preliminary studies concerning the effect of drugs on cell growth and oxygen utilization in samples st...

84

What controls opal preservation in tropical deep-sea sediments?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Measurements of opal preservation in deep sea sediment cores have been presented in three ways: the opal concentration as a fraction of total dry weight (%opaltot), the opal concentration normalized to calcite-free dry weight (%opalcalcite-free), and the opal accumulation rate (opal MAR). It is tempting to interpret changes in these indices as indicators of rates of biological production in past

D. Archer; M. Lyle; K. Rodgers; P. Froelich

1993-01-01

85

Guayule as a wood preservative  

Microsoft Academic Search

Conventional wood preservatives used to protect wood from insect and microbial damage are presently of major concern to human health and the environment. Finding alternative and economical preservatives has not been successful. Studies have shown that the resin material extracted from the guayule plant (Parthenium argentatum, Gray) has both insect and microbial resistant properties. Unfortunately, this finding has not been

F. S Nakayama; S. H Vinyard; P Chow; D. S Bajwa; J. A Youngquist; J. H Muehl; A. M Krzysik

2001-01-01

86

User Experience and Heritage Preservation  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|In considering the heritage preservation of higher education campus buildings, much of the attention gravitates toward issues of selection, cost, accuracy, and value, but the model for most preservation projects does not have a clear method of achieving the best solutions for meeting these targets. Instead, it simply relies on the design team and

Orfield, Steven J.; Chapman, J. Wesley; Davis, Nathan

2011-01-01

87

Food preservation by hurdle technology  

Microsoft Academic Search

Hurdle technology was developed several years ago as a new concept for the production of safe, stable, nutritious, tasty and economical foods. It advocates the intelligent use of combinations of different preservation factors or techniques (hurdles) in order to achieve multi-target, mild but reliable preservation effects. Attractive applications have been identified in many food areas. The present article briefly introduces

Lothar Leistner; Leon G. M. Gorris

1995-01-01

88

Preferences, information and biodiversity preservation  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper considers the nature of preferences for the preservation of biodiversity, and the extent to which individuals are well-informed about biodiversity. We present evidence that the elicitation of monetary bids to pay for biodiversity preservation, as required for cost-benefit analysis, fails as a measure of welfare changes due to the prevalence of preferences which neoclassical economics defines as lexicographic.

Clive L. Spash; Nick Hanley

1995-01-01

89

Building Preservation Knowledge in Brazil.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The project to translate into Portuguese and disseminate preservation knowledge was part of a broader partnership between the Council on Library and Information Resources, which incorporates the former Commission on Preservation and Access, and a consortium of Brazilian archival, library, and museum institutions. The partnership was intended to

Beck, Ingrid

90

Acetone preservation: a practical technique for molecular analysis.  

PubMed

In attempts to establish a convenient and reliable method for field collection and archival preservation of insects and their endosymbiotic microorganisms for molecular analysis, acetone, ethanol, and other organic solvents were tested for DNA preservability of the pea aphid Acyrthosiphon pisum and its intracellular symbiotic bacterium Buchnera sp. After 6 months' storage, not only the band of high-molecular-size DNA but also the bands of rRNA were well preserved in acetone, ethanol, 2-propanol, diethyl ether and ethyl acetate. Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) assays confirmed that the DNA of both the insects and their symbionts was well preserved in these solvents. In contrast, methanol and chloroform showed poor DNA preservability. When water-containing series of acetone and ethanol were examined for DNA preservability, acetone was apparently more robust against water contamination than ethanol. Considering that most biological materials contain high amounts of water, acetone may be a more recommendable preservative for DNA analysis than ethanol which has been widely used for this purpose. The DNA of various insects could be preserved in acetone at room temperature in good condition for several years. In addition to the DNA of the host insects, the DNA of their endosymbionts, including Buchnera and other mycetocyte symbionts, Wolbachia, and gut bacteria, was amplified by PCR after several years of acetone storage. The RNA and protein of the pea aphid and its endosymbiont were also preserved for several years in acetone. After 2 years' storage in acetone, proteins of A. pisum could be analysed by sodium dodecyl sulphate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE) and immunoblotting, and the endosymbiotic bacteria were successfully detected by immunohistochemistry and in situ hybridization on the tissue sections. PMID:10620236

Fukatsu, T

1999-11-01

91

Principles of Low Temperature Cell Preservation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cell transplantation is becoming an important technique for treatment of heart failure. Preservation is an integral step in any procedure using cells. There are two primary modes of cell preservation at low temperature, hypothermic preservation at temperatures above freezing and cryogenic preservation at temperatures below freezing. Optimal preservation protocols require a fundamental understanding of the principles involved. This review briefly

Boris Rubinsky

2003-01-01

92

Cancer and fertility preservation: fertility preservation in breast cancer patients  

Microsoft Academic Search

Aggressive chemotherapy has improved the life expectancy for reproductive-age women with breast cancer, but it often causes\\u000a infertility or premature ovarian failure due to destruction of the ovarian reserve. Many questions concerning fertility preservation\\u000a in breast cancer patients remain unanswered for example, whether fertility preservation methods interfere with chemotherapy,\\u000a and whether subsequent pregnancy has negative effects on the prognosis.

Theodoros Maltaris; Michael Weigel; Andreas Mueller; Marcus Schmidt; Rudolf Seufert; Franz Fischl; Heinz Koelbl; Ralf Dittrich

2008-01-01

93

Preserved coastal lithosomes: Variations and preservation, east Texas continental shelf  

Microsoft Academic Search

Approximately 1,300 km of high-resolution seismic data, coupled with more than 400 sediment cores, were used to identify and map preserved coastal lithosomes on the east Texas inner to middle continental shelf. Discrete pods of tidal-inlet, tidal-inlet\\/spit, and tidal-delta facies occur within incised valleys. Tidal-delta facies also occur outside of incised valleys. Shoreface deposits are rare. The distribution of preserved

F. P. Siringan; J. B. Anderson

1993-01-01

94

Cultural Preservation Program for Alaska  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In this technical report, an innovative cultural preservation program for implementation in Athabascan villages is presented. The parameters for success in implementing such a project is discussed based on a workshop with Athabascan elders.

Barbaran, Francisco Ramon

2011-01-01

95

Correctness-preserving program transformations  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper extends the predicate calculus formalization of the partial correctness properties of programs (Ki, Go) to include the preservation of correctness under program transformations. The general notion of \\

Susan L. Gerhart

1975-01-01

96

Preserving Historic Lighthouses: An Annotated Bibliography.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The technical preservation bibliography has been developed to assist owners, architects and administrative officials with the planning, review, and implementation of preservation work on historic lighthouses. Preservation work funded by the Bicentennial L...

C. M. Martone L. McCroskey S. C. Park

1989-01-01

97

Quantitative analysis of preservatives in drug preparations by microbiological assay*  

PubMed Central

The stability of a preservative selected for incorporation into a drug preparation can only be determined by suitable tests applied at regular intervals, preferably over long periods. Chemical tests are available for a number of preservatives and some of them appear to be adequate but difficulties have occurred from time to time and studies were undertaken to develop microbiological tests. Chemical methods are usually more precise than biological assays but do not always measure the antimicrobial activity of the preservative as accurately. It is always possible that a preservative may break down, losing some of its effectiveness even though the chemical determinant upon which the test is based remains intact. Two assay methods were studied. One, a plate-diffusion procedure, was found suitable for assaying formol and preservatives containing mercury. Preservatives such as phenol, benzethonium chloride and others do not diffuse in an agar plate and a tubeplate bacterial count procedure was developed for this group. Procedures for both tests are described and some examples given. ImagesFIG. 2FIG. 4

Greenberg, L.; Naubert, J.

1970-01-01

98

NONCONVEX REGULARIZATION FOR SHAPE PRESERVATION  

SciTech Connect

The authors show that using a nonconvex penalty term to regularize image reconstruction can substantially improve the preservation of object shapes. The commonly-used total-variation regularization, {integral}|{del}u|, penalizes the length of the object edges. They show that {integral}|{del}u|{sup p}, 0 < p < 1, only penalizes edges of dimension at least 2-p, and thus finite-length edges not at all. We give numerical examples showing the resulting improvement in shape preservation.

CHARTRAND, RICK [Los Alamos National Laboratory

2007-01-16

99

Yeasts preservation: alternatives for lyophilisation.  

PubMed

The aim of the study was to compare the effect of two low-cost, low technology traditional methods for drying starter cultures with standard lyophilisation. Lyophilised yeast cultures and yeast cultures preserved in dry rice cakes and dry plant fibre strands were examined for viable cell counts during 6months storage at 4 and 25C. None of the yeast cultures showed a significant loss in viable cell count during 6months of storage at 4C upon lyophilisation and preservation in dry rice cakes. During storage at 25C in the dark, yeast cultures preserved in dry rice cakes, and lyophilised cultures of Saccharomyces cerevisiae and Issatchenkia orientalis showed no significant loss of viable cells up to 4months of storage. Yeast cultures preserved in dry plant fibre strands had the greatest loss of viable count during the 6months of storage at 25C. Preservation of yeasts cultures in dry rice cakes provided better survival during storage at 4C than lyophilisation. The current study demonstrated that traditional methods can be useful and effective for starter culture preservation in small-scale, low-tech applications. PMID:22806747

Nyanga, Loveness K; Nout, Martinus J R; Smid, Eddy J; Boekhout, Teun; Zwietering, Marcel H

2012-07-07

100

Preservatives in registered chemical products.  

PubMed

Preservatives are common causes of contact allergy and contact dermatitis. Exposure to cosmetics, personal care products, consumer products and occupationally used products often involve contact with the same range of preservatives. The aim of this study is to provide an overview on the occurrence of preservatives in registered chemical products. The studied preservatives included substances from standard patch test series and other preservatives relevant for registered chemical products. Data obtained from the Danish Product Register Database (PROBAS) in January 2005 were compared to similar data from January 2002. Paints/lacquers, cleaning agents and printing inks were the most frequently registered product categories, and the studied preservatives were registered in most of the product categories included in the study. For most product categories the total number of registered products was stable during the study period. Butylated hydroxytoluene, benzoic acid, isothiazolinones, Bronopol and formaldehyde showed an increase from 2002 to 2005. Most of these changes occurred in the product category paints/lacquers, for which a doubling mainly due to a change in registration practice was observed. The frequent registration of isothiazolinones (MCI/MI and benzisothiazolinone) in paints/lacquers may be a possible explanation for the relative high and stable frequency of positive patch test reactions to MCI/MI. PMID:15982228

Flyvholm, Mari-Ann

2005-07-01

101

Preserved coastal lithosomes: Variations and preservation, east Texas continental shelf  

SciTech Connect

Approximately 1,300 km of high-resolution seismic data, coupled with more than 400 sediment cores, were used to identify and map preserved coastal lithosomes on the east Texas inner to middle continental shelf. Discrete pods of tidal-inlet, tidal-inlet/spit, and tidal-delta facies occur within incised valleys. Tidal-delta facies also occur outside of incised valleys. Shoreface deposits are rare. The distribution of preserved coastal lithosomes mimics the along-strike variation of the present coastal system and supports a step-line nature of sea-level rise. In addition, the distribution of lithosomes defines six relative sea-level stillstands during the past 10.2 ky, including that of the present. The seismic architectures of the preserved lithosomes indicate that sediment supply and wave/current energies have not varied substantially during the past 8 ky. In contrast, pre-8 ka coastal lithosomes indicate greater tidal influence, greater accommodation space, and higher sedimentation rates. Preserved coastal lithosomes indicate that the depth of ravinement decreases with decreasing shelf gradient, increasing rate of sea-level rise, and increasing sediment supply. High preservation potential within incised valleys results from greater accommodation space and the soft valley-fill that allow incision of the inlets beyond the depth of shoreface ravinement.

Siringan, F.P.; Anderson, J.B. (Rice Univ., Houston, TX (United States). Dept. of Geology and Geophysics)

1993-03-01

102

Post-cremation taphonomy and artifact preservation.  

PubMed

Contemporary commercial cremation is a reductive taphonomic process that represents one of the most extreme examples of postmortem human alteration of bone. The thorough reduction and fragmentation of cremated human remains often leaves little biological evidence of diagnostic value. Instead, non-osseous artifacts often provide the best evidence of the origin of the cremated remains, the identity of the decedent, and commingling of the remains of more than one individual. Once human remains have been cremated they are most commonly placed into a processor and reduced into small fragments and fine ash suitable for inurnment or scattering. The type of processor determines the size and utility of the particulates and artifacts available for analysis. The newest type of processors have changed the manner and degree of postmortem bone modification and altered the preservation of diagnostic bone fragments and cremation artifacts. This paper addresses the impact of the newest cremation procedures on forensic analysis of cremated remains. PMID:12051357

Warren, Michael W; Schultz, John J

2002-05-01

103

Clathrate hydrates for ozone preservation.  

PubMed

We report the experimental evidence for the preservation of ozone (O(3)) encaged in a clathrate hydrate. Although ozone is an unstable substance and is apt to decay to oxygen (O(2)), it may be preserved for a prolonged time if it is encaged in hydrate cavities in the form of isolated molecules. This possibility was assessed using a hydrate formed from an ozone + oxygen gas mixture coexisting with carbon tetrachloride or xenon. Each hydrate sample was stored in an air-filled container at atmospheric pressure and a constant temperature in the range between -20 and 2 degrees C and was continually subjected to iodometric measurements of its fractional ozone content. Such chronological measurements and structure analysis using powder X-ray diffraction have revealed that ozone can be preserved in a hydrate-lattice structure for more than 20 days at a concentration on the order of 0.1% (hydrate-mass basis). PMID:20707330

Muromachi, Sanehiro; Ohmura, Ryo; Takeya, Satoshi; Mori, Yasuhiko H

2010-09-01

104

New alternatives to cosmetics preservation.  

PubMed

In recent years, there is a considerable interest in the development of preservative-free or self-preserving cosmetics. The aim of our work was to develop new cosmetic formulations by replacing chemical preservatives with ingredients with antimicrobial properties that are not legislated as preservatives according to Annex VI of Commission Directive 76/768/EEC. This paper describes the preservative efficacy of the well-known antimicrobial extracts of Lonicera caprifoleum and Lonicera japonica in combination with glyceryl caprylate and/or levulinic acid, p-anisic acid, and ethanol. We prepared a series of acidic (pH = 5.5) aqueous and O/W formulations, i.e., tonic lotion, shampoo, shower gel, conditioning cream, anticellulite cream, cleansing milk and peeling cream, containing (0.2% w/w) Lonicera extracts, alone in the case of tonic lotion and in combination with (1% w/w) glyceryl caprylate in the other products, and we performed challenge tests according to the European Pharmacopoeia procedures and criteria. Formulations such as shampoo, shower gel, and conditioning cream fulfilled criterion A, while tonic lotion, anticellulite cream, cleansing milk, and peeling cream fulfilled criterion B, in regard to contamination from A. niger. Furthermore, we evaluated the efficacy of the antimicrobial systems in two states of use: the intact product and after three weeks of consumer use. The results showed that A. niger was also detected during use by consumers in the products that satisfied only criterion B in challenge tests. The addition of antimicrobial fragrance ingredients such (< or = 0.3% w/w) levulinic acid or (0.1% w/w) p-anisic acid and/or (5% w/w) ethanol afforded products that met criterion A in challenge tests and were also microbiologically safe during use. The small quantity (5% w/w) of ethanol gave an important assistance in order to boost the self-preserving system and to produce stable and safe products. PMID:20447363

Papageorgiou, S; Varvaresou, A; Tsirivas, E; Demetzos, C

105

Cryobiological preservation of Drosophila embryos  

SciTech Connect

The inability to cryobiologically preserve the fruit fly Drosophila melanogaster has required that fly stocks be maintained by frequent transfer of adults. This method is costly in terms of time and can lead to loss of stocks. Traditional slow freezing methods do not succeed because the embryos are highly sensitive to chilling. With the procedures described here, 68 percent of precisely staged 15-hour Oregon R (wild-type) embryos hatch after vitrification at -205[degree]C, and 40 percent of the resulting larvae develop into normal adult flies. These embryos are among the most complex organisms successfully preserved by cryobiology.

Mazur, P.; Schreuders, P.D.; Cole, K.W.; Hall, J.W. (Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States)); Mahowald, A.P. (Univ. of Chicago, IL (United States))

1992-12-18

106

Emittance preservation in linear accelerators  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In linear colliders preservation of the phase space density of charged particles during acceleration to high energies is essential. In practice, the electromagnetic fields which govern the beam transport may not be sufficiently well understood. This may arise, for example, from magnet and structure alignment and/or manufacturing errors, time-varying electromagnetic fields due to component vibration or imperfect regulation, or at high beam currents, from beam-induced fields. These inadequacies may be overcome using measurements of the beam response. In this report we review such methods for preserving single-bunch beam emittances with experimental results from the Stanford Linear Collider. .

Minty, M.

2001-10-01

107

Ancient dna from pleistocene fossils: Preservation, recovery, and utility of ancient genetic information for quaternary research  

Microsoft Academic Search

Until recently, recovery and analysis of genetic information encoded in ancient DNA sequences from Pleistocene fossils were impossible. Recent advances in molecular biology offered technical tools to obtain ancient DNA sequences from well-preserved Quaternary fossils and opened the possibilities to directly study genetic changes in fossil species to address various biological and paleontological questions. Ancient DNA studies involving Pleistocene fossil

Hong Yang

1997-01-01

108

Low-level efficacy of cosmetic preservatives.  

PubMed

Preservation using combinations of preservatives has several advantages. This study shows that the concentration of some of the most frequently used allergenic preservatives can be markedly lowered when they are combined with phenoxyethanol. The antimicrobial efficacy of cosmetic preservatives and known allergens of various potency [diazolidinyl urea, methylchloroisothiazolinone/methylisothiazolinone (MCI/MI), methylisothiazolinone (MI) and phenoxyethanol] was tested alone and in various combinations of two or three preservatives together. The preservatives were tested for minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) values and possible synergy using fractional inhibitory concentration. MCI/MI was the only preservative showing low-level MIC against all four tested microorganisms: Staphylococcus aureus, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Candida albicans and Aspergillus niger. Different combinations of the preservatives indicated additive effects against the microorganisms. No combination of preservatives showed any inhibitory action on each other. Challenge tests with different concentrations and combinations were performed in a cosmetic cream. Diazolidinyl urea and MCI/MI alone were ineffective against C.albicans in a challenge test at concentrations up to 16 times higher than the observed MIC values. When combining phenoxyethanol with either one of the allergenic preservatives diazolidinyl urea, MCI/MI or MI, the cosmetic cream was adequately preserved at concentrations well below the preservatives' MIC values as well as 10-20 times below the maximum permitted concentrations. By using combinations of preservatives, effective preservation can be achieved with lower concentrations of allergenic preservatives. PMID:21272037

Lundov, M D; Johansen, J D; Zachariae, C; Moesby, L

2011-01-27

109

Privacy-preserving fingercode authentication  

Microsoft Academic Search

We present a privacy preserving protocol for fingerprint-based authentication. We consider a scenario where a client equipped with a fingerprint reader is interested into learning if the acquired fingerprint belongs to the database of authorized entities managed by a server. For security, it is required that the client does not learn anything on the database and the server should not

Mauro Barni; Tiziano Bianchi; Dario Catalano; Mario Di Raimondo; Ruggero Donida Labati; Pierluigi Failla; Dario Fiore; Riccardo Lazzeretti; Vincenzo Piuri; Fabio Scotti; Alessandro Piva

2010-01-01

110

Preservation: past, present and future.  

PubMed

Foods deteriorate in quality due to a wide range of reactions including some that are physical, some that are chemical, some enzymic and some microbiological. The various forms of spoilage and food poisoning caused by micro-organisms are preventable to a large degree by a number of preservation techniques, most of which act by preventing or slowing microbial growth. These include freezing, chilling, drying, curing, conserving, vacuum packing, modified atmosphere packing, acidifying, fermenting, and adding preservatives. In contrast, a smaller number of techniques act by inactivating micro-organisms, predominantly heating (pasteurization and sterilization). Complementary techniques restrict access of micro-organisms to food products, e.g. aseptic processing and packaging. New and 'emerging' preservation techniques include more that act by inactivation. They include the application of ionizing radiation, high hydrostatic pressure, high voltage electric discharges, high intensity light, ultrasonication in combination with heat and slightly raised pressure ('manothermosonication'), and the addition to foods of bacteriolytic enzymes, bacteriocins, and other naturally-occurring antimicrobials. Major trends, reacting to consumers' needs, are towards the use of procedures that deliver food products that are less 'heavily' preserved, higher quality, more convenient, more 'natural', freer from additives, nutritionally healthier, and still with high assurance of microbiological safety. PMID:10885107

Gould, G W

2000-01-01

111

Preserving average proximity in arrays  

Microsoft Academic Search

Programmers and data structure designers are often forced to choose between alternative structures. In storing these structures, preserving logical adjacencies or proximity is usually an important consideration. The combinatorial problem of storing arrays as various kinds of list structures is examined. Embeddings of graphs are used to model the loss of proximity involved in such storage schemes, and an elementary

Richard A. DeMillo; Stanley C. Eisenstat; Richard J. Lipton

1978-01-01

112

A Phase Preserving Sar Processor  

Microsoft Academic Search

Synthetic aperture radar (SAR) image phase information IS necessary to support many advanced SAR applications. The phase information in the complex image for conventional range Doppler processors is not a robust estimate of scene phase . A SAR processor specifically designed to preserve phase informa tion is being developed at the Canada Centre for Remote Sens ing (CCRS). In addition

R. Keith Raney; Paris W. Vachon

1989-01-01

113

Preservation and Archives in Vietnam.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This report, based on visits to Vietnamese libraries and archives between 1987 and 1997, examines the largely unexplored corpus of Vietnamese textual resources in research institutions and libraries there and elsewhere, the associated problems of bibliographic control, and issues of preservation. The following topics are addressed: the history of

Henchy, Judith

114

Privacy Preserving Nearest Neighbor Search  

Microsoft Academic Search

Data mining is frequently obstructed by privacy con- cerns. In many cases data is distributed, and bringing the data together in one place for analysis is not possible due to privacy laws (e.g. HIPAA) or policies. Privacy preserving data mining techniques have been developed to address this issue by providing mechanisms to mine the data while giv- ing certain privacy

Mark Shaneck; Yongdae Kim; Vipin Kumar

2006-01-01

115

Privacy preserving frequent itemset mining  

Microsoft Academic Search

One crucial aspect of privacy preserving frequent itemset mining is the fact that the mining process deals with a trade-off: privacy and accuracy, which are typically contradictory, and improving one usually incurs a cost in the other. One alternative to address this particular problem is to look for a balance between hiding restrictive patterns and disclosing nonrestrictive ones. In this

Stanley R. M. Oliveira; Osmar R. Zaane

2002-01-01

116

Effects of formalin and ethanol preservation on otolith delta18O stable isotope signatures.  

PubMed

The use of preserved otoliths for stable isotope analysis assumes handling and preservation procedures do not alter the isotopic composition of the otolith. Otoliths from wild and hatchery-reared salmonids (brook charr, Salvelinus fontinalis, and Atlantic salmon, Salmo salar) were used to test for possible delta(18)O preservation effects in ethanol and formalin preservation experiments at varying temperatures. Analysis of variance (ANOVA) demonstrated a significant interaction effect between species and preservative during preservation. Possible causes for the observed effect are discussed in relation to species-specific differences in otolith chemistry related to growth and environment including: (1) chemical mechanisms of dissolution-recrystallisation involving the precipitation of secondary minerals within and at the otolith surface; (2) adsorption of ions at available binding sites on the otolith surface; and (3) isotopic exchange during otolith surface dissolution and/or reprecipitation processes. Differential occurrence of vaterite and aragonite in otoliths is believed to account for some of the observed effects as a result of otolith density differences. Isotopic exchange is also argued to cause much of the observed variation in species-specific preservation effects. Biologically, study findings imply that preserved otoliths should not be used for baseline paleoclimatic or individual fish thermal reconstructions, or the development of delta(18)O-fractionation equations, without the prior use of pilot studies to determine preservation effects. PMID:17245794

Storm-Suke, A; Dempson, J B; Caron, F; Power, M

2007-01-01

117

Geocode Matching and Privacy Preservation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Geocoding is the process of matching addresses to geographic locations, such as latitudes and longitudes, or local census\\u000a areas. In many applications, addresses are the key to geo-spatial data analysis and mining. Privacy and confidentiality are\\u000a of paramount importance when data from, for example, cancer registries or crime databases is geocoded. Various approaches\\u000a to privacy-preserving data matching, also called record

Peter Christen

2008-01-01

118

Peer Disagreement and Independence Preservation  

Microsoft Academic Search

It has often been recommended that the differing probability distributions of a group of experts should be reconciled in such\\u000a a way as to preserve each instance of independence common to all of their distributions. When probability pooling is subject\\u000a to a universal domain condition, along with state-wise aggregation, there are severe limitations on implementing this recommendation.\\u000a In particular, when

Carl G. Wagner

2011-01-01

119

Privacy-Preserving Database Systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

Abstract. Privacy is today an important concern for both users and en-terprises. Therefore, intense research is today being carried out on various aspects of privacy-preserving data management systems. In this paper, we focus on database management systems (DBMS) able to enforce pri-vacy promises encoded in privacy languages such as P3P. In particular, in the paper, we ?rst present an overview

Elisa Bertino; Ji-won Byun; Ninghui Li

2005-01-01

120

Order-Preserving Symmetric Encryption  

Microsoft Academic Search

We initiate the cryptographic study of order-preserving symmetric encryption (OPE), a prim- itive suggested in the database community by Agrawal et al. (SIGMOD '04) for allowing ecient range queries on encrypted data. Interestingly, we rst show that a straightforward relaxation of standard security notions for encryption such as indistinguishability against chosen-plaintext attack (IND-CPA) is unachievable by a practical OPE scheme.

Alexandra Boldyreva; Nathan Chenette; Younho Lee; Adam ONeill

2009-01-01

121

Privacy Preserving Nearest Neighbor Search  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Data mining is frequently obstructed by privacy concerns. In many cases data is distributed, and bringing the data together in one place for analysis is not possible due to privacy laws (e.g. HIPAA) or policies. Privacy preserving data mining techniques have been developed to address this issue by providing mechanisms to mine the data while giving certain privacy guarantees. In this chapter we address the issue of privacy preserving nearest neighbor search, which forms the kernel of many data mining applications. To this end, we present a novel algorithm based on secure multiparty computation primitives to compute the nearest neighbors of records in horizontally distributed data. We show how this algorithm can be used in three important data mining algorithms, namely LOF outlier detection, SNN clustering, and kNN classification. We prove the security of these algorithms under the semi-honest adversarial model, and describe methods that can be used to optimize their performance. Keywords: Privacy Preserving Data Mining, Nearest Neighbor Search, Outlier Detection, Clustering, Classification, Secure Multiparty Computation

Shaneck, Mark; Kim, Yongdae; Kumar, Vipin

122

Practice and prospects of microbial preservation.  

PubMed

A growing interest in culturable diversity has required microbiologists to think seriously about microbial preservation. In addition to the isolation and cultivation of pure strains, adequate preservation without changes in morphological, physiological and genetic traits is necessary. This review consolidates different methods used for preservation of microorganisms with an emphasis on cryopreservation and lyophilization. The critical points of cryopreservation and lyophilization are highlighted to explain how several extrinsic and intrinsic factors affect the cell survival and recovery during the process of long-term preservation. Factors responsible for alteration in genotypic and phenotypic integrity of cultures during preservation and methods used for their evaluation have been incorporated. We emphasize the importance of depositories and highlight their current funding status. Future areas for preservation research, including cell dormancy, ecosystem and community level preservation and the effects of the viable but non-culturable state on post-preservation recovery of the cells are also discussed. PMID:23083094

Prakash, Om; Nimonkar, Yogesh; Shouche, Yogesh S

2012-11-22

123

Biotechnological efforts for preserving and enhancing temperate ...  

Treesearch

Because of these many values of hardwood tree species, preserving forest tree ... This article was written and prepared by U.S. Government employees on ... for preserving and enhancing temperate hardwood tree biodiversity, health, and...

124

SYNERGISTIC WOOD PRESERVATIVES FOR REPLACEMENT OF CCA  

EPA Science Inventory

The objective of this project was to evaluate the potential synergistic combinations of environmentally-safe biocides as wood preservatives. These wood preservatives could be potential replacements for the heavy-metal based CCA. Didecyldimethylammonium chloride [DDAC] was...

125

Acid preservation systems for food products  

SciTech Connect

Fumaric acid is used in combination with critical amounts of acetic acid to preserve acid containing food products from microbiological spoilage in the absence of or at reduced levels of chemical preservative.

Tiberio, J. E.; Cirigiano, M. C.

1984-10-16

126

Using a Grid for Digital Preservation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Digital preservation aims at maintaining digital objects and data accessible over long periods of time. Data grids provide\\u000a several functionalities required by digital preservation systems, especially when massive amounts of data must be preserved,\\u000a as in e-Science domains. We propose the use of existing data grid solutions to build frameworks for digital preservation.\\u000a In this paper we survey the main

Jos Barateiro; Gonalo Antunes; Manuel Cabral; Jos Luis Borbinha; Rodrigo Rodrigues

2008-01-01

127

Analysis of Mercurial Preservatives in Bacterins, Vaccines, and Antisera by Atomic Absorption Spectrophotometry  

PubMed Central

A flameless atomic absorption method was developed for the determination of mercurial preservatives in biologicals. The assay was based on a quantitative determination of the mercury content of these preservatives. This method was used to analyze a variety of samples and yielded reproducible results with satisfactory recoveries. The procedure is presented in a simplified block diagram and described in detail relating its suitability for routine assay of large numbers of samples.

Woodward, Paul W.; Pemberton, John R.

1974-01-01

128

Preservation Planning Program. Resource Notebook. Revised Edition.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Designed to be used with the Association of Research Libraries (ARL) "Preservation Planning Program Manual," this notebook provides access to background and technical information needed for planning and carrying out a variety of preservation programs and activities. Its contents, all drawn from the body of preservation literature available in

Darling, Pamela W., Comp.

129

Constraints on the Preservation of Ferriferous Microfossils  

Microsoft Academic Search

ABSTRACT:The taphonomy of ancient microbial communities is understood via rare windows of microbes that are successfully entombed and preserved in the fossil record. Laboratory investigations using live bacterial cultures, combined with observations on microfossils preserved in ferriferous oolitic beds formed around 161 million years ago, were used to constrain conditions that are conducive to preservation by mineralization. Lab experiments confirmed

Susan Glasauer; Al Mattes; Andreas Gehring

2012-01-01

130

An ontological model for digital preservation  

Microsoft Academic Search

The long-term preservation of digital resources requires assigning appropriate metadata. Several recommendations exist for preservation metadata reflecting the purposes and major preoccupations of the organizations that proposed each one. Digital resources are either digital surrogates of non-digital objects, or original digital objects. In either case we may assume that, if a digital resource is selected for preservation, it can be

Panos Constantopoulos; Vicky Dritsou; R. C. Athena

131

Quantifying Neighbourhood Preservation in Topographic Mappings  

Microsoft Academic Search

Mappings that preserve neighbourhood relationships are relevant in both practical and biologicalcontexts. It is important to be clear about precisely what preserving neighbourhoods couldmean. We give a definition of a "perfectly neighbourhood preserving" map, which we call atopographic homeomorphism, and prove that this has certain desirable properties. When atopographic homeomorphism does not exist (the usual case), many choices are available

Geoffrey J. Goodhill; Steven Finch; Terrence J. Sejnowski

1995-01-01

132

Preservation Assessment and Disaster Response Plan.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper addresses the preservation needs unique to small libraries, where the majority of special collections exist. A preservation survey of the Herrick Memorial Library (Wellington, OH) was conducted to ascertain the condition of its 45,000 holdings and develop a practical low-cost disaster plan. Using accepted preservation survey criteria,

Wisdom, Mark

133

Machine Perfusion Preservation of the Pig Liver Using a New Preservation Solution, Polysol  

Microsoft Academic Search

IntroductionThe current gold standard for donor liver preservation is cold storage in a preservation solution (4C), such as Celsior or the University of Wisconsin solution (UW). Recent studies have suggested the benefits of machine perfusion (MP) over cold storage. To improve the results of MP, an enriched preservation solution (named Polysol) was developed, which in a rat liver preservation model

M. Bessems; B. M. Doorschodt; S. Dinant; Graaf van de W; T. M. van Gulik

2006-01-01

134

Historic preservations impact on job creation, property values, and environmental sustainability  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study examines the impacts of historic preservation on jobs, property values, and environmentalism in Kentucky and its largest city, Louisville. Kentucky is a national leader in preservation, ranking first in the White Houses Preserve America initiative with 73 recognized communities. Kentucky is an ideal place to study historic preservation and environmentalism. Tax incentive programs have been an effective tool

John I. Gilderbloom; Matthew J. Hanka; Joshua D. Ambrosius

2009-01-01

135

Preserving mobility in older adults.  

PubMed Central

Age-related loss of strength contributes to impaired mobility and increases the risk of falls. Recent research has focused on 2 approaches to preventing age-related loss of strength--promoting physical activity and exercise (especially strength training) and using trophic factors to enhance muscle performance. Epidemiologic evidence strongly supports a role of regular physical activity in successful aging by preserving muscle performance, promoting mobility, and reducing fall risk. Randomized controlled trials provide convincing evidence that strength and endurance training improve muscle performance in older adults. Evidence is rapidly accumulating from randomized trials that endurance, strength, and balance training promote mobility and reduce fall risk, though exercise effects differ according to the type of exercise, details of the exercise program, and the target group of older adults. Because lifetime regular physical activity is recommended for all older adults, a reasonable strategy (especially for weak adults) is an activity program that includes strength training. In contrast, insufficient evidence exists to recommend the long-term use of trophic factors to preserve muscular performance. An intervention that merits additional study is avoiding the use of psychoactive drugs because drugs like benzodiazepines appear to be risk factors for inactivity and may have unrecognized direct effects on muscular performance. Because chronic illness is a risk factor for inactivity and disuse muscle atrophy, randomized trials comparing strength training with other interventions would be useful in understanding whether strength training has advantages in preserving muscle performance and improving health-related quality of life in a variety of chronic illnesses such as depressive illness.

Buchner, D M

1997-01-01

136

Polarization preservation in the AGS  

SciTech Connect

The successful operation of a high energy polarized beam at the Argonne Zero Gradient Synchrotron (ZGS) with the concommitant development of depolarizing resonance correction techniques has led to the present project of commissioning such a beam at the Brookhaven Alternating Gradient Synchrotron (AGS). A description of the project was presented at the 1981 National Accelerator Conference. I would like to now present a more detailed description of how we plan to preserve the polarization during acceleration, and to present our game plan for tuning through some 50 resonances and reaching our goal of a 26 GeV polarized proton beam with greater than 60% polarization.

Ratner, L.G.

1983-01-01

137

Phenoxyethanol: protein preservative for taxonomists.  

PubMed

Pieces of chicken heart or skeletal muscle were placed in a dilute solution of the antimicrobial agent 2-phenoxyethanol and stored at room temperature. Under these conditions, the serum albumin, lactate dehydrogenase, and malate dehydrogenase in these tissues survived in easily detectable amounts for at least 2 weeks. The surviving proteins appeared to be identical with those of fresh tissues in physical, catalytic, and immunological properties. Phenoxyethanol also preserved heart and muscle proteins of representatives of other vertebrate classes. Tissue samples collected in the analysis by biochemical taxonomists. PMID:5762931

Nakanishi, M; Wilson, A C; Nolan, R A; Gorman, G C; Bailey, G S

1969-02-14

138

Molecular preservation of the pigment melanin in fossil melanosomes.  

PubMed

Fossil feathers, hairs and eyes are regularly preserved as carbonized traces comprised of masses of micrometre-sized bodies that are spherical, oblate or elongate in shape. For a long time, these minute structures were regarded as the remains of biofilms of keratinophilic bacteria, but recently they have been reinterpreted as melanosomes; that is, colour-bearing organelles. Resolving this fundamental difference in interpretation is crucial: if endogenous then the fossil microbodies would represent a significant advancement in the fields of palaeontology and evolutionary biology given, for example, the possibility to reconstruct integumentary colours and plumage colour patterns. It has previously been shown that certain trace elements occur in fossils as organometallic compounds, and hence may be used as biomarkers for melanin pigments. Here we expand this knowledge by demonstrating the presence of molecularly preserved melanin in intimate association with melanosome-like microbodies isolated from an argentinoid fish eye from the early Eocene of Denmark. PMID:22569368

Lindgren, Johan; Uvdal, Per; Sjvall, Peter; Nilsson, Dan E; Engdahl, Anders; Schultz, Bo Pagh; Thiel, Volker

2012-05-08

139

Ethical issues regarding fertility preservation in adolescents and children.  

PubMed

Certain forms of treatment for cancer in children and adolescents may significantly affect their fertility. Oncologists and specialists in reproductive medicine are attempting to use various methods of fertility preservation to address this problem. However, major medical/biological issues must be resolved before many of these methods can be considered accepted medical treatments. In addition, ethical considerations that such treatments bring to the fore, including those relevant to assent by children and the provision of experimental treatment to children, must be taken into account. This article addresses the current and future medical and ethical status of the development of fertility-preserving treatment for adolescents and children who are to receive cancer treatment. PMID:19340857

Cohen, Cynthia B

2009-08-01

140

Is My Network Module Preserved and Reproducible?  

PubMed Central

In many applications, one is interested in determining which of the properties of a network module change across conditions. For example, to validate the existence of a module, it is desirable to show that it is reproducible (or preserved) in an independent test network. Here we study several types of network preservation statistics that do not require a module assignment in the test network. We distinguish network preservation statistics by the type of the underlying network. Some preservation statistics are defined for a general network (defined by an adjacency matrix) while others are only defined for a correlation network (constructed on the basis of pairwise correlations between numeric variables). Our applications show that the correlation structure facilitates the definition of particularly powerful module preservation statistics. We illustrate that evaluating module preservation is in general different from evaluating cluster preservation. We find that it is advantageous to aggregate multiple preservation statistics into summary preservation statistics. We illustrate the use of these methods in six gene co-expression network applications including 1) preservation of cholesterol biosynthesis pathway in mouse tissues, 2) comparison of human and chimpanzee brain networks, 3) preservation of selected KEGG pathways between human and chimpanzee brain networks, 4) sex differences in human cortical networks, 5) sex differences in mouse liver networks. While we find no evidence for sex specific modules in human cortical networks, we find that several human cortical modules are less preserved in chimpanzees. In particular, apoptosis genes are differentially co-expressed between humans and chimpanzees. Our simulation studies and applications show that module preservation statistics are useful for studying differences between the modular structure of networks. Data, R software and accompanying tutorials can be downloaded from the following webpage: http://www.genetics.ucla.edu/labs/horvath/CoexpressionNetwork/ModulePreservation.

Langfelder, Peter; Luo, Rui; Oldham, Michael C.; Horvath, Steve

2011-01-01

141

Context-preserving visual links.  

PubMed

Evaluating, comparing, and interpreting related pieces of information are tasks that are commonly performed during visual data analysis and in many kinds of information-intensive work. Synchronized visual highlighting of related elements is a well-known technique used to assist this task. An alternative approach, which is more invasive but also more expressive is visual linking in which line connections are rendered between related elements. In this work, we present context-preserving visual links as a new method for generating visual links. The method specifically aims to fulfill the following two goals: first, visual links should minimize the occlusion of important information; second, links should visually stand out from surrounding information by minimizing visual interference. We employ an image-based analysis of visual saliency to determine the important regions in the original representation. A consequence of the image-based approach is that our technique is application-independent and can be employed in a large number of visual data analysis scenarios in which the underlying content cannot or should not be altered. We conducted a controlled experiment that indicates that users can find linked elements in complex visualizations more quickly and with greater subjective satisfaction than in complex visualizations in which plain highlighting is used. Context-preserving visual links were perceived as visually more attractive than traditional visual links that do not account for the context information. PMID:22034344

Steinberger, Markus; Waldner, Manuela; Streit, Marc; Lex, Alexander; Schmalstieg, Dieter

2011-12-01

142

DNA damage in preserved specimens and tissue samples: a molecular assessment.  

PubMed

The extraction of genetic information from preserved tissue samples or museum specimens is a fundamental component of many fields of research, including the Barcode of Life initiative, forensic investigations, biological studies using scat sample analysis, and cancer research utilizing formaldehyde-fixed, paraffin-embedded tissue. Efforts to obtain genetic information from these sources are often hampered by an inability to amplify the desired DNA as a consequence of DNA damage.Previous studies have described techniques for improved DNA extraction from such samples or focused on the effect of damaging agents - such as light, oxygen or formaldehyde - on free nucleotides.We present ongoing work to characterize lesions in DNA samples extracted from preserved specimens. The extracted DNA is digested to single nucleosides with a combination of DNase I, Snake Venom Phosphodiesterase, and Antarctic Phosphatase and then analyzed by HPLC-ESI-TOF-MS.We present data for moth specimens that were preserved dried and pinned with no additional preservative and for frog tissue samples that were preserved in either ethanol, or formaldehyde, or fixed in formaldehyde and then preserved in ethanol. These preservation methods represent the most common methods of preserving animal specimens in museum collections. We observe changes in the nucleoside content of these samples over time, especially a loss of deoxyguanosine. We characterize the fragmentation state of the DNA and aim to identify abundant nucleoside lesions. Finally, simple models are introduced to describe the DNA fragmentation based on nicks and double-strand breaks. PMID:18947416

Zimmermann, Juergen; Hajibabaei, Mehrdad; Blackburn, David C; Hanken, James; Cantin, Elizabeth; Posfai, Janos; Evans, Thomas C

2008-10-23

143

A microfluidic device for dry sample preservation in remote settings.  

PubMed

This paper describes a microfluidic device for dry preservation of biological specimens at room temperature that incorporates chemical stabilization matrices. Long-term stabilization of samples is crucial for remote medical analysis, biosurveillance, and archiving, but the current paradigm for transporting remotely obtained samples relies on the costly "cold chain" to preserve analytes within biospecimens. We propose an alternative approach that involves the use of microfluidics to preserve samples in the dry state with stabilization matrices, developed by others, that are based on self-preservation chemistries found in nature. We describe a SlipChip-based device that allows minimally trained users to preserve samples with the three simple steps of placing a sample at an inlet, closing a lid, and slipping one layer of the device. The device fills automatically, and a pre-loaded desiccant dries the samples. Later, specimens can be rehydrated and recovered for analysis in a laboratory. This device is portable, compact, and self-contained, so it can be transported and operated by untrained users even in limited-resource settings. Features such as dead-end and sequential filling, combined with a "pumping lid" mechanism, enable precise quantification of the original sample's volume while avoiding overfilling. In addition, we demonstrated that the device can be integrated with a plasma filtration module, and we validated device operations and capabilities by testing the stability of purified RNA solutions. These features and the modularity of this platform (which facilitates integration and simplifies operation) would be applicable to other microfluidic devices beyond this application. We envision that as the field of stabilization matrices develops, microfluidic devices will be useful for cost-effectively facilitating remote analysis and biosurveillance while also opening new opportunities for diagnostics, drug development, and other medical fields. PMID:24056744

Begolo, Stefano; Shen, Feng; Ismagilov, Rustem F

2013-10-15

144

Synthetic biology  

PubMed Central

The field of synthetic biology has made rapid progress in a number of areas including method development, novel applications and community building. In seeking to make biology engineerable, synthetic biology is increasing the accessibility of biological research to researchers of all experience levels and backgrounds. One of the underlying strengths of synthetic biology is that it may establish the framework for a rigorous bottom-up approach to studying biology starting at the DNA level. Building upon the existing framework established largely by the Registry of Standard Biological Parts, careful consideration of future goals may lead to integrated multi- scale approaches to biology. Here we describe some of the current challenges that need to be addressed or considered in detail to continue the development of synthetic biology. Specifically, discussion on the areas of elucidating biological principles, computational methods and experimental construction methodologies are presented.

Bower, Adam G; McClintock, Maria K

2010-01-01

145

Mechanism for Burgess Shale-Type Preservation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Exceptionally preserved fossil biotas of the Burgess Shale and a handful of other similar Cambrian deposits provide rare but critical insights into the early diversification of animals. The extraordinary preservation of labile tissues in these geographically widespread but temporally restricted soft-bodied fossil assemblages has remained enigmatic sinceWalcotts initial discovery in 1909. Here,we demonstrate the mechanism of Burgess Shale-type preservation using

Robert Gaines; E. U. Hammarlund; Xianguang Hou; C. Qi; Sarah E. Gabbott; Y. L. Zhao; J. Peng; Donald Canfield

2012-01-01

146

Self-preserving size distributions of agglomerates  

Microsoft Academic Search

The attainment of self-preserving distributions by coagulation of agglomerate or aggregate particles has been investigated in the continuum and free-molecular regimes. Self-preserving distributions have been computed for agglomerates of various fractal dimensions. In the free-molecular regime, the self-preserving size distributions broaden as the fractal dimension decreases. In contrast, in the continuum regime, the distributions narrow with decreasing fractal dimension.The aggregate

Srinivas Vemury; Sotiris E. Pratsinis

1995-01-01

147

Protecting endangered species under future climate change: From single-species preservation to an anticipatory policy approach  

Microsoft Academic Search

Anthropogenic climate climate change presents a unique challenge for endangered species policy and an opportunity for policy makers to develop a more predictive and robust approach to preserving the nation's biological resources. Biological and ecological reactions to shifting climate conditions and the potential feedbacks and synergistic effects of such changes may threaten the well-being of many species, particularly of those

Carol A. Bloomgarden

1995-01-01

148

[The study of fatty acid composition of terpug during preserve's production].  

PubMed

The results of research of fatty acids composition of Terpug, during the producing of preserves in souses and aspics, which are got using the method of gas liquid chromatography. It is known that during the marinating process of Terpug there is no the oxidizing destruction of lipids of muscular tissue of fish. The kind of aspic influences on fatty acids composition of preserves of Terpug. The process of ripening and storing of preserves of fish leads to the diffusion, in particular the sorption of components of aspic with fish. This process increases nutrient density, proportion W3 cem/W6 cem acids it is close to optimal meaning, testifies to high biological value of preserves. PMID:12872659

Cherevan, E I; Tsybul'ko, E I

2003-01-01

149

Biochemical mutagens affect the preservation of fungi and biodiversity estimations.  

PubMed

Many fungi have significant industrial applications or biosafety concerns and maintaining the original characteristics is essential. The preserved fungi have to represent the situation in nature for posterity, biodiversity estimations, and taxonomic research. However, spontaneous fungal mutations and secondary metabolites affecting producing fungi are well known. There is increasing interest in the preservation of microbes in Biological Resource Centers (BRC) to ensure that the organisms remain viable and stable genetically. It would be anathema if they contacted mutagens routinely. However, for the purpose of this discussion, there are three potential sources of biochemical mutagens when obtaining individual fungi from the environment: (a) mixtures of microorganisms are plated routinely onto growth media containing mutagenic antibiotics to control overgrowth by contaminants, (b) the microbial mixtures may contain microorganisms capable of producing mutagenic secondary metabolites, and (c) target fungi for isolation may produce "self" mutagens in pure culture. The probability that these compounds could interact with fungi undermines confidence in the preservation process and the potential effects of these biochemical mutagens are considered for the first time on strains held in BRC in this review. PMID:23143468

Paterson, R Russell M; Lima, Nelson

2012-11-10

150

Preservative agents in foods. Mode of action and microbial resistance mechanisms.  

PubMed

Preservative agents are required to ensure that manufactured foods remain safe and unspoiled. In this review, we will discuss the mode of action of both chemical and biological (nature-derived) preservatives and the stress response mechanisms induced by these compounds in microorganisms of concern to the food industry. We will discuss the challenges that food manufacturers face with respect to the assurance of food safety and the prevention of spoilage. Following this, chemical preservatives will be discussed, in particular, weak organic acids such as sorbic and benzoic acid which are widely used in preservation. Furthermore. the mechanisms of microbial inactivation with hydrogen peroxide mediated systems and chelators such as citric acid and EDTA and their potential use in preservation will be covered. We will then address the potential of naturally occurring "preservatives". Of the antimicrobial compounds present in nature, first to be discussed will be the nonproteinaceous compounds often present in herbs and spices and we will speculate on the stress response(s) that microorganisms may elicit to these natural compounds. Next to be addressed will be compounds that attack cell walls and membranes, for example, peptides, proteins and lytic enzymes. In discussing the resistance mechanisms against membrane and wall perturbation, the extensive knowledge of stress responses against osmotic stress and temperature stress will be refered to. Finally, in the concluding paragraphs, options for combination preservation systems are evaluated. PMID:10488839

Brul, S; Coote, P

1999-09-15

151

Biological enhancement of meniscus repair and replacement.  

PubMed

When a meniscus injury occurs, it is generally accepted that preserving the meniscus is important for life-long joint preservation. Traditional suture repair of the meniscus has good results; however, the healing potential of meniscus tissue remains as a biological challenge because it is not a completely vascularized structure. For this reason, investigators have continued to search for adjuncts to improve clinical results. Mechanical adjuncts, local factor enhancement, scaffolds, gene therapy, and cell therapy have all been examined as options for improvement of biology and structure. This study reviews the basic science and clinical application of these modalities and provides an assessment of techniques on the horizon. PMID:22555209

Anz, Adam William; Rodkey, William G

2012-06-01

152

DNA damage in preserved specimens and tissue samples: a molecular assessment  

Microsoft Academic Search

The extraction of genetic information from preserved tissue samples or museum specimens is a fundamental component of many fields of research, including the Barcode of Life initiative, forensic investigations, biological studies using scat sample analysis, and cancer research utilizing formaldehyde-fixed, paraffin-embedded tissue. Efforts to obtain genetic information from these sources are often hampered by an inability to amplify the desired

Juergen Zimmermann; Mehrdad Hajibabaei; David C Blackburn; James Hanken; Elizabeth Cantin; Janos Posfai; Thomas C Evans Jr

2008-01-01

153

Directed Metallization of Single-Enzyme Molecules With Preserved Enzymatic Activity  

Microsoft Academic Search

A new method for the fabrication of molecular, water-soluble, and biologically active enzyme-metal hybrids was designed and its feasibility demonstrated. The method is based on the display of nucleation sites directing a subsequent electroless deposition of palladium and other metals to the enzyme's surface. The process is carried out under mild physiological conditions, enabling the preservation of enzymatic activity and

Sefi Vernick; Hila Moscovich-Dagan; Carmit Porat-Ophir; Judith Rishpon; Amihay Freeman; Yosi Shacham-Diamand

2009-01-01

154

Oceanographic processes and the preservation of sedimentary structure in Eckernfrde Bay, Baltic Sea  

Microsoft Academic Search

The sedimentary structure preserved within the seabed of Eckernfrde Bay was investigated together with the oceanographic processes influencing that structure. A series of four cruises were undertaken during winter to summer conditions. An instrumented tetrapod was deployed to monitor boundary-layer processes controlling sediment transport. Coring devices recovered sediment to examine the benthic biological community, to measure rates of sedimentological processes,

Charles A. Nittrouer; Glenn R. Lopez; L. Donelson Wright; Samuel J. Bentley; Anthony F. DAndrea; Carl T. Friedrichs; Nancy I. Craig; Christopher K. Sommerfield

1998-01-01

155

Numerical simulations of pulsed electric fields for food preservation: A review  

Microsoft Academic Search

The application of pulsed electric fields is a novel technique to preserve foods in a non-thermal way. One key component of this technology is the treatment chamber, in which the food is exposed to a pulsed electric field to induce permeabilization of biological cells, e.g. to inactivate microorganisms. For a high efficiency of the method and a high product quality

D. Gerlach; N. Alleborn; A. Baars; A. Delgado; J. Moritz; D. Knorr

2008-01-01

156

Science, Ethical Arguments, and Management in the Preservation of Land for Grizzly Bear Conservation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Environmental groups advocate the preservation of an area within British Columbia's coastal temperate rainforest as a sanctuary for grizzly bears ( Ursus arctos horribilis ). Debate among government, in- dustry, and environmental spokespersons has provided arguments but no resolution. We have applied to this issue available biological knowledge on grizzly bears and the arguments of a range of ethical theories.

Maria Davradou; Gene Namkoong

2001-01-01

157

Dual-Axis Tomography: An Approach with Alignment Methods That Preserve Resolution  

Microsoft Academic Search

Tomographic reconstructions of biological specimens are now routinely being generated in our high voltage electron microscope by tilting the specimen around two orthogonal axes. Separate tomograms are computed from each tilt series. The two tomograms are aligned to each other with general 3-D linear transformations that can correct for distortions between the two tomograms, thus preserving the inherent resolution of

David N. Mastronarde

1997-01-01

158

Biology Notes  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Includes thirteen topics relating to laboratory activities, organisms, and teaching materials for secondary school biology classes. Also provides a reading list of articles published during 1972 that are suitable for A and S level biology. (JR)

School Science Review, 1973

1973-01-01

159

Wavepacket Preservation Under Nonlinear Evolution  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We study nonlinear systems of hyperbolic PDEs in {mathbb{R}}d, the hyperbolicity is understood in a wider sense, namely multiple roots of the characteristic equation are allowed and dispersive equations are permitted. They describe wave propagation in dispersive nonlinear media such as, for example, electromagnetic waves in nonlinear photonic crystals. The initial data is assumed to be a finite sum of wavepackets referred to as a multi-wavepacket. The wavepackets and the medium nonlinearity are characterized by two principal small parameters ? and \\varrho where: (i) 1/? is a factor describing spatial extension of involved wavepackets; (ii) 1/\\varrho is a factor describing the relative magnitude of the linear part of the evolution equation compared to its nonlinearity. A key element in our approach is a proper definition of a wavepacket. Remarkably, the introduced definition has a flexibility sufficient for a wavepacket to preserve its defining properties under a general nonlinear evolution for long times. In particular, the corresponding wave vectors and the band numbers of involved wavepackets are conserved quantities. We also prove that the evolution of a multi-wavepacket is described with high accuracy by a properly constructed system of envelope equations with a universal nonlinearity. The universal nonlinearity is obtained by a time averaging applied to the original nonlinearity, in simpler cases the averaged system turns into a system of Nonlinear Schrodinger equations.

Babin, A.; Figotin, A.

2008-03-01

160

Preservation in the Age of Google: Digitization, Digital Preservation, and Dilemmas  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The cultural heritage preservation community now functions largely within the environment of digital technologies. This article begins by juxtaposing definitions of the terms "digitization for preservation" and "digital preservation" within a sociotechnical environment for which Google serves as a relevant metaphor. It then reviews two reports

Conway, Paul

2010-01-01

161

Whale Preservation. Grades Five to Nine.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Dedicated to the conservation and preservation of whales, dolphins, and porpoises through public education, this instructional unit for grades 5-9 provides current (1993) facts, lesson plans, activities, and conservation and preservation techniques. Interdisciplinary activities involve students in debates, critical thinking, research, and

Racicot, Darlene

162

Preservation of musical memory in Alzheimer's disease  

Microsoft Academic Search

An 82 year old musician with Alzheimer's disease (AD) showed a preserved ability to play previously learned piano compositions from memory while being unable to identify the composer or titles of each work. He also showed a preserved ability to learn the new skill of mirror reading while being unable to recall or recognise new information. Both anterograde and retrograde

H A Crystal; E Grober; D Masur

1989-01-01

163

Systems and Methods for Cell Preservation.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The present invention generally relates to devices and methods for the preservation of cells using drying, freezing, and other related techniques. In one set of embodiments, the invention allows for the preservation of cells in a dried state. In another s...

A. Fowler J. Acker J. M. Baust M. Toner S. Bhowmick T. Chen

2005-01-01

164

Continence-preserving anatomic radical retropubic prostatectomy  

Microsoft Academic Search

Introduction. Urinary continence, especially in regard to the time required to regain urinary control after radical prostatectomy, remains a significant complication of the procedure.Technical Considerations. The no touch or avoidance surgical principles that are the basis for continence-preserving radical prostatectomy primarily focus on the preservation of the following components of the external striated urethral sphincteric complex: the entire circumferential musculature

Mitchell S Steiner

2000-01-01

165

Organic Acids and Meat Preservation: A Review  

Microsoft Academic Search

Despite the application of various preservation methods, many problems are still encountered as a result of food spoilage and food poisoning. There is increasing demand for foods produced with milder treatments, and the movement towards more natural and even certified organic foods has been the fastest growing sector of the food industry over the last decade. The interest in bio-preservation

Maria M. Theron; Jan F. R. Lues

2007-01-01

166

Cliffwood Beach Fossil Preserve Environmental Assessment.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The Fossil Preserve built as part of the Cliffwood Beach Shore Protection project in the mid 1970's is important to scientists. The Township of Aberdeen now wants the Preserve filled to halt further cliff erosion and avoid safety problems. Before filling ...

1982-01-01

167

Tools for privacy preserving distributed data mining  

Microsoft Academic Search

Privacy preserving mining of distributed data has numerous applications. Each application poses different constraints: What is meant by privacy, what are the desired results, how is the data distributed, what are the constraints on collaboration and cooperative computing, etc. We suggest that the solution to this is a toolkit of components that can be combined for specific privacy-preserving data mining

Chris Clifton; Murat Kantarcioglu; Jaideep Vaidya; Xiaodong Lin; Michael Y. Zhu

2002-01-01

168

Preservation of rennet producing Rhizomucor miehei strain  

Microsoft Academic Search

Different methods are compared for the preservation of a Rhizomucor miehei strain used for the production of rennet, which is used in the dairy industry. The best method was found to be preservation under mineral oil, After 2 years of storage, R. miehei kept its original milk clotting activity, had a lowered non-specific proteolytic activity and therefore a higher specific

J. Blatnik; N. Gunde-Cimerman; A. Cimerman

1994-01-01

169

A Review of Natural Stone Preservation.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

With increased interest in stone preservation, it is desirable to know what causes stone to decay, and what materials can be used to preserve stone. This review covers the following topics: causes of stone decay, including faults in the stone, salts, natu...

G. A. Sleater

1973-01-01

170

Development of radiation preservation technique in Beijing.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The (sup 60)Co radiation preservation technique which was used to preserve persimmons, green peppers and four varieties of apple was studied. Apples and persimmons were irradiated with 0.1 (approx) 0.7kGy and 0.1 (approx) 1.0kGy respectively, then they we...

H. Zhang G. Li M. Pang

1990-01-01

171

Wireless Authentication Protocol Preserving User Anonymity  

Microsoft Academic Search

We propose an authentication and key agreement protocol while preserving the anonymity of a mobile user in wireless mobile environments. When a mobile user and his visited network mu- tually authenticate each other, the anonymity of the user sh ould be preserved. In order to provide user anonymity, we introdu ce new method of computing the temporary identity (TID) during

Jaeseung Go; Kwangjo Kim

2001-01-01

172

Corn, alfalfa and grass silage preservation principles  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Ensiling is the primary means of preserving moist forages for feeding livestock. In ensiling, the crop is stored anaerobically, and sugars in the crop are fermented by lactic acid bacteria naturally on the crop. The crop is preserved by the combination of the acids produced by the lactic acid bacter...

173

Digital Imaging and a Balanced Preservation Program.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Examines digital imaging and preservation (i.e., activities associated with maintaining library, archival, or museum materials for use, either in original physical form or in some other format); discusses problems and underlying causes associated with incorporating digital imaging as a preservation methodology; and lists questions to answer before

Bruer, John Michael

1998-01-01

174

The Preservation Officer's Role in Collection Development.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Summarizes the main elements of the library preservation officer's role--planning, administering, and coordinating. Areas in which preservation and collection development staff work together at the University of Texas at Austin are then discussed, including bibliographic review, binding, grant projects, needs assessment, and storage facility

Cunningham-Kruppa, Ellen

1992-01-01

175

Preserving hesperetin nanosuspensions for dermal application.  

PubMed

Nanosuspensions as aqueous formulations need to be preserved. However, preservatives could vitiate the physical stability of suspensions and to a greater extent nanosuspensions. The impact of six varied preservatives on the physical stability of previously prepared nanosuspensions was studied. The hesperetin nanosuspensions were stabilized using plantacare 2000.30 cycles of high pressure homogenization (HPH) led to a mean photon correlation spectroscopy (PCS) diameter of 335 nm. The preservatives were, caprylyl glycol, Euxyl PE9010, Hydrolite-5, MultiEx naturotics, Phenonip and Rokonsal PB5. On one hand, aggregations were noticed after adding caprylyl glycol, MultiEx naturotics and Phenonip reaching PCS mean diameters of about 500, 1070, 800 nm, respectively. While on the other hand Euxyl PE9010, Hydrolite-5 and Rokonsal PB5 have not significantly affected the physical stability of the nanosuspensions with mean PCS diameters of about 365, 332, 350 nm, respectively. The obtained nanosuspensions were further characterized by measuring zeta potential. From the obtained data it was found that the lipophilicity of the used preservatives demonstrates major influence on the stability of the nanosuspensions, i.e. the higher lipophilicity of the preservative, the stronger the destabilizing effect. Briefly, highly hydrophilic preservatives are recommended to preserve hesperetin nanosuspensions in order to maintain their physical stability during storage. PMID:20225649

Al Shaal, L; Mller, R H; Keck, C M

2010-02-01

176

Problems in the Preservation of Electronic Records.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Discusses issues related to the preservation of electronic records. Highlights include differences between physical and electronic records; volume of electronic records; physical media; authenticity; migration of electronic records; metadata; legal issues; improved storage media; and projects for preservation of electronic records. (LRW)

Lin, Lim Siew; Ramaiah, Chennupati K.; Wal, Pitt Kuan

2003-01-01

177

Self-preserving solutions for turbidity currents  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary Subaquatic density currents and turbidity currents flowing down an incline are analyzed. By noting that at least depositing turbidity currents on a constant slope depend on the source conditions, it is proposed to consider them as self-preserving or as piecewise selfpreserving in analogy to other shear flows. The requirements for self-preservation are examined and the limiting conditions for realizable

J. Buehler; Ch. Siegenthaler

1986-01-01

178

New preservation technologies: Possibilities and limitations  

Microsoft Academic Search

A lot of research in the field of food science has focused on new preservation technologies but very few of these methods have been implemented by the food industry until now. This article describes the most intensively investigated new preservation methods with their possibilities and especially their limitations, often hampering their implementation by the food industry. Many alternative non-thermal treatments

Frank Devlieghere; Lieve Vermeiren; Johan Debevere

2004-01-01

179

Neural Stem Cells Derived by Small Molecules Preserve Vision  

PubMed Central

Purpose: The advances in stem cell biology hold a great potential to treat retinal degeneration. Importantly, specific cell types can be generated efficiently with small molecules and maintained stably over numerous passages. Here, we investigated whether neural stem cell (NSC) derived from human embryonic stem cells (hESC) by small molecules can preserve vision following grafting into the Royal College Surgeon (RCS) rats; a model for retinal degeneration. Methods: A cell suspension containing 3 104 NSCs or NSCs labeled with green fluorescent protein (GFP) was injected into the subretinal space or the vitreous cavity of RCS rats at postnatal day (P) 22; animals injected with cell-carry medium and those left untreated were used as controls. The efficacy of treatment was evaluated by testing optokinetic response, recording luminance threshold, and examining retinal histology. Results: NSCs offered significant preservation of both photoreceptors and visual function. The grafted NSCs survived for long term without evidence of tumor formation. Functionally, NSC treated eyes had significantly better visual acuity and lower luminance threshold than controls. Morphologically, photoreceptors and retinal connections were well preserved. There was an increase in expression of cillary neurotrophic factor (CNTF) in Mller cells in the graft-protected retina. Conclusions: This study reveals that NSCs derived from hESC by small molecules can survive and preserve vision for long term following subretinal transplantation in the RCS rats. These cells migrate extensively in the subretinal space and inner retina; there is no evidence of tumor formation or unwanted changes after grafting into the eyes. Translational Relevance: The NSCs derived from hESC by small molecules can be generated efficiently and provide an unlimited supply of cells for the treatment of some forms of human outer retinal degenerative diseases. The capacity of NSCs migrating into inner retina offers a potential as a vehicle to delivery drugs/factors to treat inner retinal disorders.

Lu, Bin; Morgans, Catherine W.; Girman, Sergey; Luo, Jing; Zhao, Jiagang; Du, Hongjun; Lim, SiokLam; Ding, Sheng; Svendsen, Clive; Zhang, Kang; Wang, Shaomei

2013-01-01

180

Monitoring Survival and Preservation of Recent Cyanobacterial Mats  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Through geobiological evolution cyanobacterial mats have played a fundamental role through the development of early microbial carbonate ecosystems and through the sustainment of major biogeochemical cycling in the biosphere; nonetheless their sedimentary record is relatively modest in comparison with their biological impact; this apparent under-representation in the fossil record may be due to their intrinsic poor preservation potential but also to our inability to recognize some subtle microbial signatures. Modern studies on cyanobacterial mats involve high-tech molecular approaches to identify, analyze and even quantify the genetic diversity of ancient and modern microbial mats, yet the physical changes of mats, their survival and preservation potential, remain almost unknown and experimentally poorly explored. If we are going to succeed in the astrobiological quest for traces of life we should develop integrated methods and diagnostic features to address biosignatures at both, the phenotypic and genotypic levels when possible. The correct recognition and interpretation of biosignatures in this emerging field needs, aside these fine molecular tools, plain experimental approaches to test microbial resistance, survival and preservation potential of microbial mats after exposure to diagenetic changes. In this work we study some effects on fresh slices of cyanobacterial mats and cultures of specific external simulated agents that normally occur during diagenesis such as dehydratation, heat, abrasion or pressure among others. Samples from different cyanobacterial communities associated to carbonates collected from different rivers and falls around Mexico were subjected to same lab procedures. Physical and textural changes were monitored through microscopic analysis where cell integrity and mat cohesiveness were analyzed before and after treatment. Preliminary results show that mats enriched in halite and clay sediments were preferentially preserved; however those mats subjected to a rapid dehydration technique retained their original textural characteristics but their overall integrity was lost. Simple and direct observations like these help to get a better idea as to what to expect as biosignatures according to a specific environment, bridging the gap between the observer and the different types and scales of evidences.

Chacon, Elizabeth; Negron-Mendoza, Alicia; Camargo, Claudia

2010-05-01

181

Patch testing with preservatives, antimicrobials and industrial biocides. Results from a multicentre study.  

PubMed

Preservatives are biologically reactive substances, and their allergenic potential has been known for a long time. This study examined the role of different preservatives in a large number of patients with suspected allergic contact dermatitis. Patch test data and data from the patients' history were collected from the 24 departments participating in the Information Network of Departments of Dermatology from 1 January 1990 to 31 December 1994. Patch test data from 28,349 patients tested with preservatives of the standard series (SS), from 11,485 patients tested additionally with a preservative series (PS), and from 1787 patients tested with an industrial biocide tray (IB) were evaluated. Sensitization rates (standardized) of the SS preservatives were all > 1%, with thiomersal rating highest (5.3%), the parabens lowest (1.6%), and the remainder (chlormethylisothiazolinone/methylisothiazolinone, formaldehyde and methyldibromoglutaronitrile/phenoxyethanol (MDBGN/PE)) in the range of 2%. The most important allergens of the PS were, in women, alkylaminobenzoate (contained in milking fat) (2.5%), MDBGN/PE (2.2%), benzalkonium chloride (1.8%), chloracetamide (1.4%), diazolidinyl urea (1.3%), octylgallate (1.2%) and Bronopol (1.1%). In men rates differed only with regard to alkylaminobenzoate (0.9%). Patients tested with the IB series reacted most often to methylene-bis-thiocyanate (5%), but with a reaction index of -0.7, many reactions were most probably false positives. A further seven preservatives, mostly formaldehyde-releasers used in cutting fluids, gave sensitization rates of between 1% and 3%. Glutaraldehyde, not contained in the series but often tested additionally, showed a remarkable increase in sensitization during the study period. Health care personnel were frequently affected. Altogether, this study identified areas of concern within the different groups of preservatives. The overall impact of most of the preservatives on public health seems to be low, but for diagnostic reasons preservatives must be included in patch test series. PMID:9580801

Schnuch, A; Geier, J; Uter, W; Frosch, P J

1998-03-01

182

Fertility preservation in female classic galactosemia patients.  

PubMed

Almost every female classic galactosemia patient develops primary ovarian insufficiency (POI) as a diet-independent complication of the disease. This is a major concern for patients and their parents, and physicians are often asked about possible options to preserve fertility. Unfortunately, there are no recommendations on fertility preservation in this group. The unique pathophysiology of classic galactosemia with a severely reduced follicle pool at an early age requires an adjusted approach. In this article recommendations for physicians based on current knowledge concerning galactosemia and fertility preservation are made. Fertility preservation is only likely to be successful in very young prepubertal patients. In this group, cryopreservation of ovarian tissue is currently the only available technique. However, this technique is not ready for clinical application, it is considered experimental and reduces the ovarian reserve. Fertility preservation at an early age also raises ethical questions that should be taken into account. In addition, spontaneous conception despite POI is well described in classic galactosemia. The uncertainty surrounding fertility preservation and the significant chance of spontaneous pregnancy warrant counseling towards conservative application of these techniques. We propose that fertility preservation should only be offered with appropriate institutional research ethics approval to classic galactosemia girls at a young prepubertal age. PMID:23866841

van Erven, Britt; Gubbels, Cynthia S; van Golde, Ron J; Dunselman, Gerard A; Derhaag, Josien G; de Wert, Guido; Geraedts, Joep P; Bosch, Annet M; Treacy, Eileen P; Welt, Corrine K; Berry, Gerard T; Rubio-Gozalbo, M Estela

2013-07-16

183

Preservation and transplantation of porcine testis tissue  

PubMed Central

Grafting of immature mammalian testis tissue to mouse hosts can preserve the male germline. To make this approach applicable to a clinical or field situation, it is imperative that the testis tissue and/or spermatozoa harvested from grafted tissue are preserved successfully. The aim of the present study was to evaluate protocols for the preservation of testis tissue in a porcine model. Testis tissue was stored at 4C for short-term preservation or cryopreserved by slow-freezing, automated slow-freezing or vitrification for long-term storage. Preserved tissue was transplanted ectopically to mouse hosts and recovered xenografts were analysed histologically. In addition, spermatozoa were harvested from xenografts and cryopreserved. Total cell viability and germ cell viability remained high after tissue preservation. Complete spermatogenesis occurred in xenografts preserved by cooling up to 48 h, whereas spermatogenesis progressed to round spermatids in the xenografts that were frozenthawed before grafting. Approximately 50% of spermatozoa harvested from xenografts remained viable after freezing and thawing. The in vivo developmental potential of cryopreserved tissue was reduced despite high post-thaw viability. Therefore, it is important to evaluate germ cell differentiation in vivo in addition to cell viability in vitro when optimising freezing protocols for testis tissue.

Zeng, W.; Snedaker, A. K.; Megee, S.; Rathi, R.; Chen, F.; Honaramooz, A.; Dobrinski, I.

2009-01-01

184

Digital Preservation: A Time Bomb for Digital Libraries  

Microsoft Academic Search

Abstract. The difficulty and expense of preserving digital information is a potential impediment to digital library development. Preservation of traditional materials became,more,successful and systematic after libraries and archives integrated preservation into overall planning and resource allocation. Digital preservation is largely experimental and replete with the risks associated with untested methods. Digital preservation strategies are shaped by the needs and constraints

Margaret Hedstrom

1998-01-01

185

Fertility Preservation Methods in Breast Cancer  

PubMed Central

Thanks to the recent advances in reproductive medicine, more and more young women with breast cancer may be offered the possibility of preserving their fertility. Fertility can be endangered by chemotherapy, by treatment duration and by patient's age at diagnosis. The currently available means to preserve a young woman's fertility are pharmacological protection with gonadotrophin-releasing hormone analogues during chemotherapy, and ovarian tissue or oocyte/embryo freezing before treatment. New future venues, including in vitro maturation, will improve the feasibility and efficacy of the fertility preservation methods in breast cancer patients.

Peccatori, Fedro A.; Pup, Lino Del; Salvagno, Francesca; Guido, Maurizio; Sarno, Maria A.; Revelli, Alberto; Piane, Luisa Delle; Dolfin, Elisabetta; Franchi, Dorella; Molinari, Emanuela; Immediata, Valentina; Chiavari, Leonora; Vucetich, Alessandra; Borini, Andrea

2012-01-01

186

[Joint-preserving surgical options in osteoarthritis].  

PubMed

Joint-preserving surgery aims to correct the mechanical disbalances leading to the inhomogenous load distribution across joint lines, potentially leading to osteoarthritis. The possibilities of axial corrections at the knee have been known for years. A better pathophysiologic understanding of the disbalances leading to coxarthrosis has, more recently, allowed for the development of joint-preserving approaches, for instance in situations of excessive (impingement) or insufficient (dysplastic) femoro-acetabular coverage. On the opposite, in the absence of a mechanical defect, or if osteoarthritis is already present, joint-preserving surgery has little chances of success. PMID:22455151

Peter, R; Christofilopoulos, P

2012-03-14

187

Biological Clocks  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This lesson, from Science NetLinks, will challenge students to consider the idea of biological clocks. By first observing the opening and closing of a Morning Glory flower, students will be introduced to the concept of biological clocks in a tangible, hands-on way. The teacher will then lead them to identify internal clues they experience at different times of the day and talk about their own biological clocks.

Science Netlinks;

2002-08-05

188

Biological Engineering  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This page, presented by MIT and made available online via the university's Open Courseware site, presents a series of materials on biological engineering. Topics include introduction to biological engineering design, systems microbiology, computation for biological engineers and molecular principles of biomaterials. Materials are at both the undergraduate and graduate school levels. OpenCourseWare is free educational material online. Video lectures, assignments and exams are included. No registration or enrollment is required to use the materials.

2011-05-13

189

Computational Biology  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Dr. Jeff Krause, computational biologist and educator at Shodor Foundation Inc explores the changing face of contemporary biology and addresses these concepts: How has biology changed in recent history? How do computational models and tools help us to view biomolecular structures and motion? How do computational models relate to the shift towards systems thinking and study in biology? Shodor Foundation Inc is the leading partner for the NSDL Pathway for Computational Science (CSERD).This seminar was recorded live on December 11, 2007.

Payo, Robert

190

Industry (Biologics)  

Center for Biologics Evaluation and Research (CBER)

... Discontinuations; Compliance Programs (CBER); Impact of Severe Weather Conditions on Biological Products; Importing ... More results from www.fda.gov/biologicsbloodvaccines/resourcesforyou/industry

191

National Center for Home Food Preservation  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Home canning and food preservation is very much alive in parts of the United States, and the National Center for Home Food Preservation at the University of Georgia Cooperative Extension Service has canners', picklers', and curers'/smokers' interests at heart. The Center advises people on how to can foods safely, along with offering recipes for how to make delicious foods. The most notable freebie the website offers visitors is "Preserving Food at Home: A Self-Study." It is a self-paced, online course that teaches "Introduction to Food Preservation," "General Canning," "Canning Acid Foods," and "Canning Low-Acid Foods." The "Multimedia" section has "Videos," "Slideshows," "Graphics Galleries," and "Tutorials" to make the process of canning, pickling, drying, and freezing come to life. The "Graphics Galleries" are for those who give presentations, papers, lectures, etc., for educational and not-for-profit purposes. Some of the galleries include a "Drying Gallery," "Equipment Gallery," "Pickling Gallery," and a "Raw Foods Gallery."

192

Viability and Function of Preserved Red Cells.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Various in vitro manipulations of red cells produce a so-called 'preservation injury' that manifests itself in the form of severely and irreversibly damaged red cells that are removed from the recipient's circulation at an accelerated rate usually during ...

C. R. Valeri

1970-01-01

193

Neighborhood Preservation. Legal and Administrative Documents.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This document represents a collection of legal and administrative reports on 40 locally initiated neighborhood preservation programs. Reports are grouped in accordance with the following types of programs: code enforcement, comprehensive, focused public s...

1975-01-01

194

Preservative Treatment of Wood for Combat Vehicles.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Ninety-six simulated truck floor, comprising a total of 328 wood specimens, were prepared and exposed outdoors for three years. Seventy-five were treated at controlled retention and maximum penetration, using proprietary type and experimental preservative...

J. P. Hill

1964-01-01

195

Laboratory Exercise to Evaluate Hay Preservatives.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Presented is a laboratory exercise designed to demonstrate the effects of moisture on hay preservation products in a manner that does not require large amounts of equipment or instructor time. Materials, procedures, and probable results are discussed. (CW)

McGraw, R. L.; And Others

1990-01-01

196

Economic growth, ecological economics, and wilderness preservation  

Treesearch

Jul 21, 2013 ... Global Forest Information Service ... Perpetual economic growth and wilderness preservation are mutually ... The alternative, ecological economics paradigm faces a formidable struggle for credibility in the policy arena.

197

How to Press and Preserve Plants  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this Biodiversity Counts activity, students learn how to press and preserve plant specimens. The online page includes illustrated instructions about how to layer and maintain pressings until the specimens have dried.

198

Quantization of Dissipative and Volume Preserving Dynamics.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The problem of quantizing dissipative systems is shown to be reducible, through embedding, to the quantization of volume preserving dynamics. A Heisenberg picture quantization scheme for these dynamics is developed and applied to two simple examples. (Ato...

R. Vilela Mendes

1981-01-01

199

Laboratory Exercise to Evaluate Hay Preservatives.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Presented is a laboratory exercise designed to demonstrate the effects of moisture on hay preservation products in a manner that does not require large amounts of equipment or instructor time. Materials, procedures, and probable results are discussed. (CW)|

McGraw, R. L.; And Others

1990-01-01

200

Topology Preservation in Self-Organizing Maps.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This paper concentrates on the following aspects: (1) Discussion on what kind of mapping is produced by the Self Organizing Map (SOM) algorithm, (2) Introduction of a quantitative measure of topology preservation, (3) Introduction of a variant of SOM, cal...

K. Kiviluoto

1995-01-01

201

29 CFR 1915.33 - Chemical paint and preservative removers.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-07-01 false Chemical paint and preservative removers. 1915.33 Section 1915... § 1915.33 Chemical paint and preservative removers. (a) Employees shall...and application of chemical paint and preservative removers and shall be protected...

2013-07-01

202

21 CFR 146.154 - Concentrated orange juice with preservative.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...false Concentrated orange juice with preservative. 146.154 Section 146.154 ...154 Concentrated orange juice with preservative. (a) Concentrated orange juice with preservative complies with the requirements...

2009-04-01

203

21 CFR 146.154 - Concentrated orange juice with preservative.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...orange juice with preservative. 146.154 Section 146.154 Food and Drugs FOOD...The name of the food is Concentrated orange juice with preservative...weight of the preservative used. If the food is packed...

2010-04-01

204

21 CFR 146.154 - Concentrated orange juice with preservative.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...orange juice with preservative. 146.154 Section 146.154 Food and Drugs FOOD...The name of the food is Concentrated orange juice with preservative...weight of the preservative used. If the food is packed...

2013-04-01

205

36 CFR 801.5 - State Historic Preservation Officer responsibilities.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...Forests, and Public Property ADVISORY COUNCIL ON HISTORIC PRESERVATION HISTORIC PRESERVATION REQUIREMENTS OF THE URBAN DEVELOPMENT ACTION GRANT PROGRAM § 801.5 State Historic Preservation Officer responsibilities. (a)...

2012-07-01

206

36 CFR 801.5 - State Historic Preservation Officer responsibilities.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...Forests, and Public Property ADVISORY COUNCIL ON HISTORIC PRESERVATION HISTORIC PRESERVATION REQUIREMENTS OF THE URBAN DEVELOPMENT ACTION GRANT PROGRAM § 801.5 State Historic Preservation Officer responsibilities. (a)...

2011-07-01

207

48 CFR 552.211-75 - Preservation, Packaging and Packing.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-10-01 false Preservation, Packaging and Packing. 552.211-75 Section...Clauses 552.211-75 Preservation, Packaging and Packing. As prescribed in 511...the following clause: Preservation, Packaging, and Packing (FEB 1996)...

2011-10-01

208

48 CFR 211.272 - Alternate preservation, packaging, and packing.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-10-01 false Alternate preservation, packaging, and packing. 211.272 Section... 211.272 Alternate preservation, packaging, and packing. Use the provision at 252.211-7004, Alternate Preservation, Packaging, and Packing, in solicitations...

2012-10-01

209

48 CFR 552.211-75 - Preservation, Packaging and Packing.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-10-01 false Preservation, Packaging and Packing. 552.211-75 Section...Clauses 552.211-75 Preservation, Packaging and Packing. As prescribed in 511...the following clause: Preservation, Packaging, and Packing (FEB 1996)...

2012-10-01

210

Anatomically preserved Cycadeoidea (Cycadeoidaceae), with a reevaluation of systematic characters for the seed cones of Bennettitales.  

PubMed

Four anatomically preserved ovulate cycadeoid cones have been recovered from three localities in Upper Cretaceous (Turonian/Coniacian-Late Campanian) sediments of Vancouver and Hornby Islands, British Columbia, Canada. All of the specimens are preserved by calcareous cellular permineralization and are quite similar to seed cones described as several species of Cycadeoidea and Bennettites. These cones, described as Cycadeoidea maccafferyi sp. nov., consist of tightly packed interseminal scales and ovulate sporophylls with terminal ovules. Two specimens also preserve remains of a small receptacle. Interseminal scales and ovulate sporophylls are oriented parallel to one another. Ovules are distinctly stellate at the base of the micropylar tube, and the sarcotesta consists of both longitudinally oriented tubular cells and large radially elongated cells attached to the sclerotesta. The vascular strand below each ovule is highly contorted in a pattern that is characteristic of contractile tissue in the roots of living plants. These specimens are the most recent anatomically preserved cycadeoid cones yet discovered, revealing details of the reproductive biology shortly before extinction of the clade. Superb preservation of the British Columbia cones confirms that Bennettitales lack a cupule, have radial seeds, and have a vascularized nucellus (but no integumentary tracheids), and that no pollen chamber is produced. Together with a new species of Williamsonia preserved at one of the same localities, these specimens reveal a clear set of contrasting systematic characters for differentiating between isolated seed cones of Williamsoniaceae and Cycadeoidaceae. PMID:21665746

Rothwell, Gar W; Stockey, Ruth A

2002-09-01

211

Low-cost and low maintenance preservation of Agaricus brasiliensis cultures.  

PubMed

Agaricus brasiliensis cultures quickly lose viability when stored at cool temperatures, even for a short period of time. We evaluated several low-cost preservation methods using varied substrates, preservation solutions, and storage temperatures. Agaricus brasiliensis was intolerant to freezing temperatures, making liquid nitrogen use and deep-freezing methods impossible for its preservation. The best preservation conditions for the A. brasiliensis CS1 strain tested in this study were obtained by using rice as substrate and water as preservation solution, with storage at room temperature or when using soil, mushroom cultivation compost, or rice and stored at 10 C without preservation solution. Those cultures that were reactivated showed the same productivity attributes as the control. In addition, no effect on productivity or biological efficiency was observed through successive subculturing of the strain (CS1). Parboiled rice was successfully used for other A. brasiliensis strains (CS2, CS5, CS7, CS9, and CS10), and also for Pleurotus ostreatus, P. sajor-caju, and Lentinula edodes. PMID:22806115

Maia, Scheila C; Toledo, Rmulo C C; Almeida, Ana Paula M M; da Silva, Romildo; Rinker, Danny Lee; Dias, Eustquio S

2012-04-06

212

Biologically inspired embodied evolution of survival  

Microsoft Academic Search

Embodied evolution is a methodology for evo- lutionary robotics that mimics the distributed, asyn- chronous and autonomous properties of biological evo- lution. The evaluation, selection and reproduction are carried out by and between the robots, without any need for human intervention. In this paper we propose a bio- logically inspired embodied evolution framework, which fully integrates self-preservation, recharging from exter-

Stefan Elfwing; Eiji Uchibe; Kenji Doya; Henrik I. Christensen

2005-01-01

213

Preserved irradiated homologous cartilage for orbital reconstruction  

SciTech Connect

Human costal cartilage is an excellent implant material for orbital and periorbital reconstruction because of its light weight, strength, homogeneous consistency and the ease with which it can be carved. Its use has been limited by the necessity of a separate surgical procedure to obtain the material. Preserved irradiated homologous cartilage has been shown to have almost all the autogenous cartilage and is convenient to use. Preserved irradiated homologous cartilage transplants do not elicit rejection reactions, resist infection and rarely undergo absorption.

Linberg, J.V.; Anderson, R.L.; Edwards, J.J.; Panje, W.R.; Bardach, J.

1980-07-01

214

Adjacency Preserving Mappings of Rectangular Matrices  

Microsoft Academic Search

Let D be a division ring and let m,n be integers 2. Let Mm?n(D) be the space of m ? n matrices. In the fundamental theorem of the geometry of rectangular matrices all bijective mappings ' of Mm?n(D) are determined such that both ' and ' 1 preserve adjacency. We show that if a bijective map ' of Mm?n(D) preserves

Wen-ling Huang; Zhe-Xian Wan

2004-01-01

215

Preservation of methane hydrate at 1 atm  

USGS Publications Warehouse

A "pressure-release" method that enables reproducible bulk preservation of pure, porous, methane hydrate at conditions 50 to 75 K above its equilibrium T (193 K) at 1 atm is refined. The amount of hydrate preserved by this method appears to be greatly in excess of that reported in the previous citations, and is likely the result of a mechanism different from ice shielding.

Stern, L. A.; Circone, S.; Kirby, S. H.; Durham, W. B.

2001-01-01

216

Long-term preservation of anammox bacteria  

Microsoft Academic Search

Deposit of useful microorganisms in culture collections requires long-term preservation and successful reactivation techniques.\\u000a The goal of this study was to develop a simple preservation protocol for the long-term storage and reactivation of the anammox\\u000a biomass. To achieve this, anammox biomass was frozen or lyophilized at two different freezing temperatures (?60C and in liquid\\u000a nitrogen (?200C)) in skim milk media

Michael J. Rothrock Jr; Matias B. Vanotti; Ariel A. Szgi; Maria Cruz Garcia Gonzalez; Takao Fujii

217

The Self-Preserving Size Distribution Theory  

Microsoft Academic Search

Gas-phase synthesis of fine solid particles leads to fractal-like structures whose transport and light scattering properties differ from those of their spherical counterparts. Self-preserving size distribution theory provides a useful methodology for analyzing the asymptotic behavior of such systems. Apparent inconsistencies in previous treatments of the self-preserving size distributions in the free molecule regime are resolved. Integro-differential equations for fractal-like

Petrus J. Dekkers; Sheldon K. Friedlander

2002-01-01

218

Biological heart valves.  

PubMed

Abstract Cardiac valvular pathologies are often caused by rheumatic fever in young adults, atherosclerosis in elderly patients, or by congenital malformation of the heart in children, in effect affecting almost all population ages. Almost 300,000 heart valve operations are performed worldwide annually. Tissue valve prostheses have certain advantages over mechanical valves such as biocompatibility, more physiological hemodynamics, and no need for life-long systemic anticoagulation. However, the major disadvantage of biological valves is related to their durability. Nevertheless, during the last decade, the number of patients undergoing biological, rather than mechanical, valve replacement has increased from half to more than three-quarters for biological implants. Continuous improvement in valve fabrication includes development of new models and shapes, novel methods of tissue treatment, and preservation and implantation techniques. These efforts are focused not only on the improvement of morbidity and mortality of the patients but also on the improvement of their quality of life. Heart valve tissue engineering aims to provide durable, "autologous" valve prostheses. These valves demonstrate adaptive growth, which may avoid the need of repeated operations in growing patients. PMID:24101369

Ciubotaru, Anatol; Cebotari, Serghei; Tudorache, Igor; Beckmann, Erik; Hilfiker, Andres; Haverich, Axel

2013-10-01

219

Lipid Biomarker Preservation in Silica-Depositing Hydrothermal Analogs  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The discovery of extensive silica-rich deposits at Home Plate in the Columbia Hills indicates that hydrothermal conditions once existed on Mars (Squyres et al. 2008). Two types of environments could have been responsible for forming these materials: fumaroles or hydrothermal springs. Examples of both types of these thermal features are found throughout Yellowstone National Park (YNP). The discovery of bona fide microfossils in ancient cherts indicates that silica deposition was an excellent mechanism for organic preservation on the early Earth. Given the importance that organic biomarkers have played in identifying some of the earliest microbial life on Earth and the potential for a similar habitable period on Mars, examination of the preservation of organic biomarkers within various hydrothermal, silica-rich modern analogs is essential for future interpretation of Martian organics. Cyanobacterial mats and biofilms are common inhabitants of hydrothermal spring systems worldwide, at temperatures below 73C and over a broad range of pH, from acidic to alkaline. Bacteriohopanepolyols (BHPs) are the biological precursors for the abundant fossil hopanes recovered from sedimentary rock (Brocks et al. 1999; Summons et al. 1999). The 2-methyl homologs are generally considered a biomarker for cyanobacterial-dominated paleoecosystems. Some evidence exists that the complex molecular structure of BHP is retained upon entombment in hydrothermal silica and that rapid incorporation into the silica matrix may enhance preservation (Gibson et al. 2008). Here we report on the preservation of microbial lipids in several alkaline and acidic, silica-depositing hotsprings in YNP with particular emphasis on the potential for BHP preservation. Brocks JJ et al (1999) Archaean molecular fossils and the early rise of the eukaryotes. Science 185: 1033-1036 Gibson RA et al (2008) Bacteriohopanepolyol signatures of cyanobacterial and methanotrophic bacterial populations recorded in a geothermal vent sinter. Organic Geochemistry 39: 1020-1023 Squyres SW et al (2008) Detection of silica-rich deposits on Mars. Science 320: 1063-1067 Summons RE et al (1999) 2-Methylhopanoids as biomarkers for cyanobacterial oxygenic photosynthesis. Nature 400: 554-557

Jahnke, L. L.; Parenteau, M. N.; Farmer, J. D.

2010-12-01

220

Preservation of cardiomyocytes from the adult heart.  

PubMed

Cardiomyocytes represent one of the most useful models to conduct cardiac research. A single adult heart yields millions of cardiomyocytes, but these cells do not survive for long after isolation. We aimed to determine whether inhibition of myosin II ATPase that is essential for muscle contraction may preserve fully differentiated adult cardiomyocytes. Using inhibitors of the myosin II ATPase, blebbistatin and N-benzyl-p-toluene sulphonamide (BTS), we preserved freshly isolated fully differentiated adult primary cardiomyocytes that were stored at a refrigerated temperature. Specifically, preserved cardiomyocytes stayed viable for a 2-week period with a stable expression of cardiac genes and retained the expression of key markers characteristic of cardiomyocytes. Furthermore, voltage-clamp, action potential, calcium transient and contractility studies confirmed that the preserved cardiomyocytes are comparable to freshly isolated cells. Long-term exposure of preserved cardiomyocytes to four tyrosine kinase inhibitors, sunitinib malate, dasatinib, sorafenib tosylate and imatinib mesylate, revealed their potential to induce cardiac toxicity that was manifested with a decrease in contractility and induction of cell death, but this toxicity was not observed in acute experiments conducted over the time course amenable to freshly prepared cardiomyocytes. This study introduces the concept that the inhibition of myosin II ATPase safeguards the structure and function of fully differentiated adult cardiomyocytes. The fact that these preserved cardiomyocytes can be used for numerous days after preparation makes them a robust and versatile tool in cardiac research and allows the investigation of long-term exposure to novel drugs on cardiomyocyte function. PMID:24051370

Abi-Gerges, Najah; Pointon, Amy; Pullen, Georgia F; Morton, Michael J; Oldman, Karen L; Armstrong, Duncan; Valentin, Jean-Pierre; Pollard, Christopher E

2013-09-16

221

Analysis of Injury in Complex Organ Preservation  

PubMed Central

A biochemical assay of renal viability previously described for rabbits is validated in a canine model using anoxia, hypothermia, and hypothermic perfusion. The assay correlated well with the decree of anoxic injury and protective effect of hypothermia. It was found to be unable to document significant injury when pulsatile perfusion was added to the system and resulted in nonviable canine kidneys. Apparent vascular damage with interstitial hemorrhage occurred after the perfusion and was not predictable by the use of the assay system. The limitations of any assay for organ viability after complex preservation maneuvers is the result of a multiplicity of injurious factors surrounding the preservation or as a consequence of the preservation. No single assay system will be adequate for protection of organ viability during or after preservation as long as the types of injury are multiple. Is is suggested that great care be used in defining possible injurious factors associated with given preservation maneuver and that specific assays be utilized to document the effects of each of these factors. The more complex the preservation system employed; the more complex the assay system needed.

Weinerth, John L.; Abbott, William M.

1974-01-01

222

Biology Notes.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Describes laboratory procedures, demonstrations, and classroom activities/materials, including chi-square tests on a microcomputer, an integrated biology game, microscope slides of leaf stomata, culturing soil nematodes, technique for watering locust egg-laying tubes, hazards of biological chemicals (such as benzene, benzidene, calchicine,

School Science Review, 1983

1983-01-01

223

Biology Notes.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Presents procedures, exercises, demonstrations, and information on a variety of biology topics including labeling systems, biological indicators of stream pollution, growth of lichens, reproductive capacity of bulbous buttercups, a straw balance to measure transpiration, interaction of fungi, osmosis, and nitrogen fixation and crop production.

School Science Review, 1982

1982-01-01

224

Synthetic biology  

Microsoft Academic Search

Synthetic biologists come in two broad classes. One uses unnatural molecules to reproduce emergent behaviours from natural biology, with the goal of creating artificial life. The other seeks interchangeable parts from natural biology to assemble into systems that function unnaturally. Either way, a synthetic goal forces scientists to cross uncharted ground to encounter and solve problems that are not easily

A. Michael Sismour; Steven A. Benner

2005-01-01

225

BIOLOGICAL WARFARE  

PubMed Central

The use of biological agents as controlled weapons of war is practical although uncertain. Three types of agents are feasible, including pathogenic organisms and biological pests, toxins, and synthetic hormones regulating plant growth. These agents may be chosen for selective effects varying from prolonged incipient illness to death of plants, man and domestic animals. For specific preventive and control measures required to combat these situations, there must be careful and detailed planning. The nucleus of such a program is available within the existing framework of public health activities. Additional research and expansion of established activities in time of attack are necessary parts of biological warfare defense.

Beeston, John

1953-01-01

226

Urgent preservation of boreal carbon stocks and biodiversity.  

PubMed

Containing approximately one-third of all remaining global forests, the boreal ecosystem is a crucial store of carbon and a haven for diverse biological communities. Historically, fire and insects primarily drove the natural dynamics of this biome. However, human-mediated disturbances have increased in these forests during recent years, resulting in extensive forest loss for some regions, whereas others face heavy forest fragmentation or threat of exploitation. Current management practices are not likely to maintain the attendant boreal forest communities, nor are they adequate to mitigate climate change effects. There is an urgent need to preserve existing boreal forests and restore degraded areas if we are to avoid losing this relatively intact biodiversity haven and major global carbon sink. PMID:19679372

Bradshaw, Corey J A; Warkentin, Ian G; Sodhi, Navjot S

2009-08-11

227

Constrained Graph Optimization: Interdiction and Preservation Problems  

SciTech Connect

The maximum flow, shortest path, and maximum matching problems are a set of basic graph problems that are critical in theoretical computer science and applications. Constrained graph optimization, a variation of these basic graph problems involving modification of the underlying graph, is equally important but sometimes significantly harder. In particular, one can explore these optimization problems with additional cost constraints. In the preservation case, the optimizer has a budget to preserve vertices or edges of a graph, preventing them from being deleted. The optimizer wants to find the best set of preserved edges/vertices in which the cost constraints are satisfied and the basic graph problems are optimized. For example, in shortest path preservation, the optimizer wants to find a set of edges/vertices within which the shortest path between two predetermined points is smallest. In interdiction problems, one deletes vertices or edges from the graph with a particular cost in order to impede the basic graph problems as much as possible (for example, delete edges/vertices to maximize the shortest path between two predetermined vertices). Applications of preservation problems include optimal road maintenance, power grid maintenance, and job scheduling, while interdiction problems are related to drug trafficking prevention, network stability assessment, and counterterrorism. Computational hardness results are presented, along with heuristic methods for approximating solutions to the matching interdiction problem. Also, efficient algorithms are presented for special cases of graphs, including on planar graphs. The graphs in many of the listed applications are planar, so these algorithms have important practical implications.

Schild, Aaron V [Los Alamos National Laboratory

2012-07-30

228

Selective preservation of organic matter in marine environments - processes and impact on the fossil record  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The present paper is the result of a workshop sponsored by the Research Centre Ocean Margins, the International Graduate College EUROPROX and the Alfred Wegener Institute for Polar Research. The workshop brought together specialists on organic matter degradation and on proxy-based environmental reconstruction. The paper deals with the main theme of the workshop, understanding the impact of selective degradation/preservation of organic matter (OM) in marine sediments on the interpretation of the fossil record. Special attention is paid to (A) the influence of the molecular composition of OM in relation to the biological and physical depositional environment, including new methods for determining complex organic biomolecules, (B) the impact of selective OM preservation on the interpretation of proxies for marine palaeoceanographic and palaeoclimatic reconstruction, and (C) past marine productivity and selective preservation in sediments.

Zonneveld, K. A. F.; Versteegh, G. J. M.; Kasten, S.; Eglinton, T. I.; Emeis, K.-C.; Huguet, C.; Koch, B. P.; de Lange, G. J.; de Leeuw, J. W.; Middelburg, J. J.; Mollenhauer, G.; Prahl, F. G.; Rethemeyer, J.; Wakeham, S. G.

2009-07-01

229

Oscillator Model Reduction Preserving the Phase Response: Application to the Circadian Clock  

PubMed Central

Mathematical model reduction is a long-standing technique used both to gain insight into model subprocesses and to reduce the computational costs of simulation and analysis. A reduced model must retain essential features of the full model, which, traditionally, have been the trajectories of certain state variables. For biological clocks, timing, or phase, characteristics must be preserved. A key performance criterion for a clock is the ability to adjust its phase correctly in response to external signals. We present a novel model reduction technique that removes components from a single-oscillator clock model and discover that four feedback loops are redundant with respect to its phase response behavior. Using a coupled multioscillator model of a circadian clock, we demonstrate that by preserving the phase response behavior of a single oscillator, we preserve timing behavior at the multioscillator level.

Taylor, Stephanie R.; Doyle, Francis J.; Petzold, Linda R.

2008-01-01

230

Microbiological preservation of cucumbers for bulk storage by the use of acetic acid and food preservatives  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Microbial growth did not occur when cucumbers were preserved without a thermal process by storage in solutions containing acetic acid, sodium benzoate, and calcium chloride to maintain tissue firmness. The concentrations of acetic acid and sodium benzoate required to assure preservation were low en...

231

Biology Notes  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Twelve new experiments in biology are described by teachers for use in classrooms. Broad areas covered include enzyme action, growth regulation, microscopy, respiration, germination, plant succession, leaf structure and blood structure. Explanations are detailed. (PS)|

School Science Review, 1972

1972-01-01

232

Biology Notes  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Ten ideas that have been tried out by the authors in schools are presented for biology teachers. The areas covered include genetics, dispersal of seeds, habituation in earthworms, respiration, sensory neurons, fats and oils. A reading list is provided. (PS)|

School Science Review, 1972

1972-01-01

233

Biological monitoring  

SciTech Connect

Biological monitoring is defined as the measurement and assessment of workplace agents or their metabolites in tissues, secreta, excreta, expired air, or any combination of these to evaluate exposure and health risk compared to an appropriate reference. Biological monitoring offers several advantages: it takes into account individual variability in biological activity resulting from a chemical insult. It takes into account the effects of personal physical activity and individual life styles. It is a valuable adjunct to ambient monitoring and health surveillance. The importance of chemical speciation in the toxicity of pollutants is discussed. Basic protocols for lead, aluminum, cadmium, mercury, selenium, and nickel are presented. Basic criteria for biological monitoring methods are presented. 11 references, 1 table.

Ho, M.H.; Dillon, H.K.

1986-02-01

234

Hair Biology  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

If you�ve ever had a question about the biological make-up of your hair or anyone else�s, then this website is the place to go for answers. The Hair Biology portion of the Keratin web page gives incredible detail on hair fiber, follicles, growth cycle stages, hair length and density. These are just a few of the biological aspects of hair and much more is addressed and covered in great detail on the site. Hair Biology also features photography of different stages of hair growth along with a FAQ section which may answer some commonly asked (and not so commonly) questions about hair. Overall, this site would be an invaluable tool for anyone in the industry or anyone aspiring to join.

2006-11-24

235

Quantitative preservation of viability of Aspergillus fumigatus.  

PubMed

Quantitative preservation of the viability of two isolates of Aspergillus fumigatus was studied over a 15-month period of storage. Significant loss of viability occurred in isolates preserved at -70 degrees C in both phosphate-buffered saline with Tween (PBST) and 0.1% gelatin, immediately, and between 6 and 15 months. Storage in 10% and 25% dimethyl sulphoxide at -70 degrees C was successful up to 8 weeks with gradual loss of viability later. PBST at 4 degrees C or room temperature, or 10% glycerol at -70 degrees C maintained 100% viability of the cultures up to 6 months and 15 months, respectively. To preserve 100% viability, long-term storage of A. fumigatus is best done in 10% glycerol in PBST at -70 degrees C compared with the other methods tested. PMID:1287169

Denning, D W; Clemons, K V; Stevens, D A

1992-01-01

236

Exceptionally Preserved Jellyfishes from the Middle Cambrian  

PubMed Central

Cnidarians represent an early diverging animal group and thus insight into their origin and diversification is key to understanding metazoan evolution. Further, cnidarian jellyfish comprise an important component of modern marine planktonic ecosystems. Here we report on exceptionally preserved cnidarian jellyfish fossils from the Middle Cambrian (?505 million years old) Marjum Formation of Utah. These are the first described Cambrian jellyfish fossils to display exquisite preservation of soft part anatomy including detailed features of structures interpreted as trailing tentacles and subumbrellar and exumbrellar surfaces. If the interpretation of these preserved characters is correct, their presence is diagnostic of modern jellyfish taxa. These new discoveries may provide insight into the scope of cnidarian diversity shortly after the Cambrian radiation, and would reinforce the notion that important taxonomic components of the modern planktonic realm were in place by the Cambrian period.

Cartwright, Paulyn; Halgedahl, Susan L.; Hendricks, Jonathan R.; Jarrard, Richard D.; Marques, Antonio C.; Collins, Allen G.; Lieberman, Bruce S.

2007-01-01

237

33 CFR 144.01-20 - Life preservers.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...fibrous glass life preservers which... (c) Each life preserver carried on a manned platform...flotation device light that is approved...Part 161. Each light must be securely...shoulder area of the life preserver. ...preserver carried on a manned...

2013-07-01

238

Data Preservation in High Energy Physics  

SciTech Connect

Data from high-energy physics (HEP) experiments are collected with significant financial and human effort and are mostly unique. At the same time, HEP has no coherent strategy for data preservation and re-use. An inter-experimental Study Group on HEP data preservation and long-term analysis was convened at the end of 2008 and held two workshops, at DESY (January 2009) and SLAC (May 2009). This document is an intermediate report to the International Committee for Future Accelerators (ICFA) of the reflections of this Study Group. Large data sets accumulated during many years of detector operation at particle accelerators are the heritage of experimental HEP. These data sets offer unique opportunities for future scientific studies, sometimes long after the shut-down of the actual experiments: new theoretical input; new experimental results and analysis techniques; the quest for high-sensitivity combined analyses; the necessity of cross checks. In many cases, HEP data sets are unique; they cannot and most likely will not be superseded by data from newer generations of experiments. Once lost, or in an unusable state, HEP data samples cannot be reasonably recovered. The cost of conserving this heritage through a collaborative, target-oriented long-term data preservation program would be small, compared to the costs of past experimental projects or to the efforts to re-do experiments. However, this cost is not negligible, especially for collaborations close or past their end-date. The preservation of HEP data would provide today's collaborations with a secure way to complete their data analysis and enable them to seize new scientific opportunities in the coming years. The HEP community will benefit from preserved data samples through reanalysis, combination, education and outreach. Funding agencies would receive more scientific return, and a positive image, from their initial investment leading to the production and the first analysis of preserved data.

Mount, Richard; Brooks, Travis; /SLAC; Le Diberder, Francois; /Orsay, LAL; Dubois-Felsmann, Gregory; Neal, Homer; /SLAC; Bellis, Matt; /Stanford U.; Boehnlein, Amber; Votava, Margaret; White, Vicky; Wolbers, Stephen; /Fermilab; Konigsberg, Jacobo; /Florida U.; Roser, Robert; Snider, Rick; /Fermilab; Lucchesi, Donatella; /INFN, Padua; Denisov, Dmitri; /Fermilab; Soldner-Rembold, Stefan; /Manchester U.; Li, Qizhong; /Fermilab; Varnes, Erich; /Arizona U.; Jonckheere, Alan; /Fermilab; Gasthuber, Martin; Gulzow, Volker; /DESY /Marseille, CPPM /Dortmund U. /DESY /Gent U. /DESY, Zeuthen /KEK, Tsukuba /CC, Villeurbanne /CERN /INFN, Bari /Gjovik Coll. Engineering /Karlsruhe, Forschungszentrum /Beijing, Inst. High Energy Phys. /Carleton U. /Cornell U. /Rutherford

2012-04-03

239

Preserving Dark Skies: Do Astronomers Care?  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Ground based telescopes are, even in this era of planetary missions and space telescopes, the dominant source of data on solar system objects. Yet many of the premier observing sites in the world are threatened by increasing artificial light that is scattered into the sky - light pollution. World class observing sites such as Mt. Wilson have long since lost the ability to do cutting edge faint object science and observatories in Southern Arizona have been recently threatened - the Canoa Ranch development being the most recent example. Yet there are actions that can be taken to preserve dark skies, not only for astronomy, but also for the benefit of all humanity. Lead by astronomers, effective outdoor lighting codes have been produced and adopted by many jurisdictional authorities. Advocacy organizations such as the International Dark-sky Association (IDA) distribute educational material on how to preserve dark skies through good outdoor lighting practices. Other institutions, such as the National Park Service, are realizing that dark skies are an integral part of the wilderness experience and are taking steps to preserve the quality of their skies. However, the primary beneficaries of dark sky preservation efforts, namely the ground based astronomical community, have largely failed to become involved in efforts to preserve dark skies. For example, only a few percent of the membership of the American Astronomical Society is active in light pollution work or is even a member of IDA. In this presentation, Iwe will outline what is being done locally to preserve dark skies througout the world. In addition, some observations on the level of support from the astronomical community will be offered.

Davis, D. R.; Crawford, D. L.

2001-12-01

240

Exceptional fossil preservation and the cambrian explosion.  

PubMed

Exceptionally preserved, non-biomineralizing fossils contribute importantly to resolving details of the Cambrian explosion, but little to its overall patterns. Six distinct "types" of exceptional preservation are identified for the terminal Proterozoic-Cambrian interval, each of which is dependent on particular taphonomic circumstances, typically restricted both in space and time. Taphonomic pathways yielding exceptional preservation were particularly variable through the Proterozoic-Cambrian transition, at least in part a consequence of contemporaneous evolutionary innovations. Combined with the reasonably continuous record of "Doushantuo-type preservation," and the fundamentally more robust records of shelly fossils, phytoplankton cysts and trace fossils, these taphonomic perturbations contribute to the documentation of major evolutionary and biogeochemical shifts through the terminal Proterozoic and early Cambrian.Appreciation of the relationship between taphonomic pathway and fossil expression serves as a useful tool for interpreting exceptionally preserved, often problematic, early Cambrian fossils. In shale facies, for example, flattened non-biomineralizing structures typically represent the remains of degradation-resistant acellular and extracellular "tissues" such as chaetae and cuticles, whereas three-dimensional preservation represents labile cellular tissues with a propensity for attracting and precipitating early diagenetic minerals. Such distinction helps to identify the acuticular integument of hyolithids, the chaetae-like nature of Wiwaxia sclerites, the chaetognath-like integument of Amiskwia, the midgut glands of various Burgess Shale arthropods, and the misidentification of deposit-feeding arthropods in the Chengjiang biota. By the same reasoning, putative lobopods in the Sirius Passet biota and putative deuterostomes in the Chengiang biota are better interpreted as arthropods. PMID:21680421

Butterfield, Nicholas J

2003-02-01

241

Environmental preservation demand: Altruistic, bequest, and intrinsic motives  

SciTech Connect

When the demand for environmental preservation is not explicitly revealed in markets, motivating attitudes toward environmental preservation become important. A survey approach allows revelation and measurement of demand for environmental preservation. Indices which measure the altruistic, bequest, intrinsic, and option to use motives and other attitudes are utilized as determinants in a model that measures the demand for environmental preservation. Demand is more likely with greater preservation motives. Preservation demand also depends on individual preferences for economic development, perceptions of affordability and responsibility for preservation of the wetlands. 17 refs., 3 tabs.

Whitehead, J.C.; Thompson, C.Y. (East Carolina Univ., Greenville, NC (United States))

1993-01-01

242

Geology Fieldnotes: Ice Age National Scientific Preserve  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This National Park Service (NPS) site gives information on the Ice Age National Scientific Preserve in Wisconsin, including geology, park maps, a photo album, and other media (books, videos, CDs). There is also a selection of links to other geologic and conservation organizations, and to information for visitors. This preserve contains a wealth of glacial features associated with the most recent Pleistocene continental glaciation including drumlins, kames, kettles, moraines, erratics, and eskers. It also contains a segment of the Ice Age National Scenic Trail, a 1000-plus mile hiking and backpacking trail that passes through this unique glacial landscape.

243

SYSTEM BIOLOGY: Biological Systems Theory  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Robustness, a widely used concept in biology, has so far not been well defined. This perspective discusses the theorem formulated by Shinar and Feinberg which shows when a biochemical network exhibits âabsolute concentration robustness.â

Jeremy Gunawardena (Harvard Medical School;Department of Systems Biology)

2010-04-30

244

2001 Biological Approvals  

Center for Biologics Evaluation and Research (CBER)

... Biological Approvals by Year. Section Contents Menu. Development ... 1996 Biological Approvals. -. 2001 Biological Approvals. Biological ... More results from www.fda.gov/biologicsbloodvaccines/developmentapprovalprocess/biologicalapprovalsbyyear

245

2003 Biological Approvals  

Center for Biologics Evaluation and Research (CBER)

... Biological Approvals by Year. Section Contents Menu. Development ... 1996 Biological Approvals. -. 2003 Biological Approvals. Biological ... More results from www.fda.gov/biologicsbloodvaccines/developmentapprovalprocess/biologicalapprovalsbyyear

246

1999 Biological Approvals  

Center for Biologics Evaluation and Research (CBER)

... Biological Approvals by Year. Section Contents Menu. Development ... 1996 Biological Approvals. -. 1999 Biological Approvals. Biological ... More results from www.fda.gov/biologicsbloodvaccines/developmentapprovalprocess/biologicalapprovalsbyyear

247

Isolated total RNA and protein are preserved after thawing for more than twenty-four hours  

PubMed Central

OBJECTIVE: The preservation of biological samples at a low temperature is important for later biochemical and/or histological analyses. However, the molecular viability of thawed samples has not been studied sufficiently in depth. The present study was undertaken to evaluate the viability of intact tissues, tissue homogenates, and isolated total RNA after defrosting for more than twenty-four hours. METHODS: The molecular viability of the thawed samples (n?=?82) was assessed using the A260/A280 ratio, the RNA concentration, the RNA integrity, the level of intact mRNA determined by reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction, the protein level determined by Western blotting, and an examination of the histological structure. RESULTS: The integrity of the total RNA was not preserved in the thawed intact tissue, but the RNA integrity and level of mRNA were perfectly preserved in isolated defrosted samples of total RNA. Additionally, the level of ?-actin protein was preserved in both thawed intact tissue and homogenates. CONCLUSION: Isolated total RNA does not undergo degradation due to thawing for at least 24 hours, and it is recommended to isolate the total RNA as soon as possible after tissue collection. Moreover, the protein level is preserved in defrosted tissues.

de Oliveira, Ivone Braga; Ramos, Debora Rothstein; Lopes, Karen Lucasechi; de Souza, Regiane Machado; Heimann, Joel Claudio; Furukawa, Luzia Naoko Shinohara

2012-01-01

248

[Health of able-bodied population and preservation of labor potential of Seiberian Federal District].  

PubMed

The authors evaluated trends in parameters characterizing health state of able-bodied population, to specify a complex of medical and prophylactic measures aimed at preservation and increase in health state of Siberian Federal District population. The article covers study of medical and biological losses, forecast of medical and demographic parameters of labour potential in Siberian Federal District, practical approaches to target program of medical and social planning. PMID:23785801

Zakharenkov, V V; Viblaia, I V; Oleshchenko, A M

2013-01-01

249

Protecting endangered species under future climate change: From single-species preservation to an anticipatory policy approach  

Microsoft Academic Search

Anthropogenic climate climate change presents a unique challenge for endangered species policy and an opportunity for policy\\u000a makers to develop a more predictive and robust approach to preserving the nation's biological resources. Biological and ecological\\u000a reactions to shifting climate conditions and the potential feedbacks and synergistic effects of such changes may threaten\\u000a the well-being of many species, particularly of those

Carol A. Bloomgarden

1995-01-01

250

Role of anorectal sensation in preserving continence  

Microsoft Academic Search

The role of anal sensation in preserving continence was studied in nine healthy volunteers. Objective assessment of sphincter function by manometry and rectal saline infusion was carried out during topical anaesthesia of the anal canal using 5% lignocaine gel and during lubrication with the same amount of inert gel. Anaesthesia successfully abolished anal sensation and reduced both the amplitude and

M G Read; N W Read

1982-01-01

251

Preservation of teleost proteins by 2?phenoxyethanol  

Microsoft Academic Search

2?phenoxyethanol was tested as a preservative for plankton samples intended for electrophoretic analysis of enzymes. Esterase, ??glycerophosphate dehydrogenase, glucosephosphate isomerase, isocitrate dehydrogenase, lactate dehydrogenase, malate dehydrogenase, phospho?glucomutase, and superoxide dismutase were tested in starch gels. Adult skeletal muscle tissues retained enzyme activity for five of the enzymes tested. No activity was detected in eight larval species analysed for the same

P. J. Smith; James Crossland

1978-01-01

252

Writing as sophistry: From preservation to persuasion  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Sophists were suspect in Hellenic Greece largely because they used writing to record lists of things and to preserve the common wisdom. They were also regarded with suspicion for adapting written words and stylistic techniques to persuasion. Isocrates represents the bridge to respectability for writing, because he permitted his students to discuss and question his written ideas.

Tony M. Lentz

1982-01-01

253

Image enhancement by edge-preserving filtering.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Image enhancement is useful when the details in an image are lost due to various reasons. It is common to subtract a mask from a given image to enhance the details. The trick is how to obtain a good mask. We describe here how an edge-preserving filter can...

Y. Wong

1994-01-01

254

72-hour preservation of the canine pancreas.  

PubMed

A new flushout solution for preservation of the pancreas was tested in the dog model of segmental pancreas autotransplantation. The solution osmolality was 320 mOsm/L, K+ = 120 mM, Na+ = 30 mM, and it contained the anion, lactobionate, and raffinose as impermeants to the cell. Preservation times studied were 48 and 72 hr. The pancreas was flushed out with about 250 ml of the new solution and stored at 0 degrees C. Dogs were monitored postoperatively for blood glucose and intravenous glucose tolerance (IVGTT). Results were compared with control (no preservation) segmental pancreas autotransplants. Dogs receiving pancreases stored for 48 or 72 hr were normoglycemic on day one and remained normoglycemic for at least 28 days, or until time of sacrifice. Two of four dogs with pancreases stored for 48 hr were sacrificed on day 14 with normal IVGTT for histology. The remaining two dogs had normal pancreatic function for 28 days. Two of eight dogs receiving pancreas grafts after 72-hr cold storage died of causes unrelated to the pancreas graft, which was still functioning at the time of death. Six dogs remained normoglycemic and had a normal IVGTT at least for 28 days. This study demonstrates the feasibility of preserving the pancreas for three days for transplantation. PMID:3541322

Wahlberg, J A; Love, R; Landegaard, L; Southard, J H; Belzer, F O

1987-01-01

255

The H1 Data Preservation Project  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The H1 data preservation project was started in 2009 as part of the global data preservation initiative in high-energy physics, DPHEP. In order to retain the full potential for future improvements, the H1 Collaboration aims for level 4 of the DPHEP recommendations, which requires the full simulation and reconstruction chain as well as the data to be preserved for future analysis. A major goal of the H1 project is therefore to provide secure, long-lived and validated access to the H1 data and analysis software, which is realised in collaboration with DESY-IT using virtualisation techniques. By implementing such a system, it is hoped that the lifetime of the unique ep collision data from HERA will be extended, providing the possibility for novel analysis in the future. The preservation of the data and software is performed alongside a consolidation programme of digital and non-digital documentation, some of which dates back to the early 1980s. A new organisational model of the H1 Collaboration, reflecting the change to the long term phase, is to be adopted in July 2012.

South, D. M.; Steder, M.

2012-12-01

256

Public Demand for Preserving Local Open Space  

Microsoft Academic Search

Increased development results in the loss of forest, farm, range, and other open space lands that contribute to the quality of life of U.S. residents. I describe an economic rationale for growing public support for preserving local open space, based the growing scarcity of open space lands. I test the rationale empirically by correlating the prevalence of open space referenda

Jeffrey D. Kline

2006-01-01

257

Structure-preserving discretization of incompressible fluids  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The geometric nature of Euler fluids has been clearly identified and extensively studied over the years, culminating with Lagrangian and Hamiltonian descriptions of fluid dynamics where the configuration space is defined as the volume-preserving diffeomorphisms, and Kelvins circulation theorem is viewed as a consequence of Noethers theorem associated with the particle relabeling symmetry of fluid mechanics. However computational approaches to fluid mechanics have been largely derived from a numerical-analytic point of view, and are rarely designed with structure preservation in mind, and often suffer from spurious numerical artifacts such as energy and circulation drift. In contrast, this paper geometrically derives discrete equations of motion for fluid dynamics from first principles in a purely Eulerian form. Our approach approximates the group of volume-preserving diffeomorphisms using a finite-dimensional Lie group, and associated discrete Euler equations are derived from a variational principle with non-holonomic constraints. The resulting discrete equations of motion yield a structure-preserving time integrator with good long-term energy behavior and for which an exact discrete Kelvins circulation theorem holds.

Pavlov, D.; Mullen, P.; Tong, Y.; Kanso, E.; Marsden, J. E.; Desbrun, M.

2011-03-01

258

Micronized wood preservative formulations comprising boron compounds  

US Patent & Trademark Office Database

The present invention provides wood preservative and flame retardant compositions having low leachability comprising micronized boron compounds and, optionally, one or more organic biocides which may be micronized. Also provided is a method for applying the composition to wood and wood products comprising impregnating the wood with the composition.

Zhang; Jun (Getzville, NY); Zhang; Wenjin (Tonawanda, NY); Leach; Robert M. (Grand Island, NY)

2012-05-01

259

Matching Preservation Decisions with Collection Development Policy.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Based on communication with librarians from Russia, Mongolia, the Baltic States, Bulgaria, Slovenia, the Czech Republic, and Romania, this paper discusses library collection development and preservation policies. Highlights include: mission statements of national and regional libraries; availability of a formal structure responsible for

Khislovskaya, Galina

260

The Newspaper Preservation Act: A Retrospective Analysis.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Charges that the Newspaper Preservation Act has allowed unnatural monopolistic practices to exist where the free marketplace might otherwise operate, has failed to truly save failing newspapers, and has opened the way for non-failing newspapers to gain special antitrust exemptions. Calls for a reassessment of policy. (RL)|

Barwis, Gail Lund

1980-01-01

261

Preserving History in a Digital World  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Stanford University's (California) Julie Sweetkind-Singer is a recognized authority on digital preservation, and has been honored by the Library of Congress for her work in the field. She currently serves as both the assistant director of Stanford's Geospatial, Cartographic and Scientific Data and Services and as head of the Branner Earth

Baumann, Jim

2012-01-01

262

Micro-Preservation: Conserving the Small Library.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Offers suggestions and outlines procedures for the preservation of the resources of a small library. Brief sections discuss environment (temperature, humidity, housekeeping, light); library binding; simple in-house repairs; other protective measures (enclosures, microfilming); the care of unique objects; and disaster planning. A 21-item

DeCandido, Robert; DeCandido, GraceAnne A.

1985-01-01

263

Preserving the 'Athens of Indiana' through Digitization.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes a digitization project at the public library in Crawfordsville, Indiana that was designed to preserve their local history collection. Highlights include damage to the collection from fire, termites, use, and age; selecting a scanner and software; creating databases; and making information accessible on the Web. (LRW)

Helling, Bill

2003-01-01

264

Privacy-Preserving Location-Based Services  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Location-based services (LBS for short) providers require users' current locations to answer their location-based queries, e.g., range and nearest-neighbor queries. Revealing personal location information to potentially untrusted service providers could create privacy risks for users. To this end, our objective is to design a privacy-preserving

Chow, Chi Yin

2010-01-01

265

Wood Finishing: Water-Repellent Preservatives.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Homeowners can avoid many exterior wood finishing problems by treatment with a water-repellent preservative solution (WRP). This treatment guards against damage to the wood and paint caused by water and by decay and stain fungi (mildew). WRP treatment of ...

1968-01-01

266

Transition to chaos in area preserving maps  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

As is well known, area-preserving maps are a characteristic aspect of Hamiltonian systems, such as those arising from the velocity field in incompressible fluids or magnetofluids. In this connection, a fundamental issue and a popular subject of numerous investigations [see, in particular, [1-4

Nicolini, Piero; Tessarotto, Massimo

2003-11-01

267

Anisotropic diffusion for preserving boundary-edge  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper, a new approach for anisotropic diffusion based on the direction of a boundary-edge is proposed to better preserve edges along with the removal of noises. Although the anisotropic diffusion is effective in removing noises in the image, it often destructs the structural information of the object in the image because of a sequence of inaccurate diffusions. In

Hye Suk Kim; Yeong Joo Cho

2010-01-01

268

Inner Ear Therapy for Neural Preservation  

Microsoft Academic Search

A gradual loss of auditory neurons often occurs following sensorineural hearing loss. Since the cochlear implant must stimulate the remaining auditory neuron population, it would be beneficial to preserve as many auditory neurons as possible. Neurotrophic factors protect auditory neurons from degradation after sensorineural hearing loss in experimental animals, but have not yet been translated into the clinical setting. Current

Rachael T. Richardson; Farnoush Noushi; Stephen OLeary

2006-01-01

269

Assisting XML Schema Evolution that Preserves Validity  

Microsoft Academic Search

We consider the problem of XML schema evolution preserving t he va- lidity of existing documents related to the original schema . The aim of such schema evolution is to fit new needs without revalidating all e xisting valid XML documents. We propose an approach to assist users to specify schema updates that have no impact on existing document validity.

Batrice Bouchou; Denio Duarte

2007-01-01

270

Preservation metadata initiatives: practicality, sustainability, and interoperability  

Microsoft Academic Search

In recent years there have been a range of metadata specifications and frameworks developed to support digital preservation activities. These range from formats that are intended to be specific to certain types of resources (e.g., VERS Encapsulated Objects for electronic records, MPEG-7 for multimedia resources) to generic frameworks based on the information model defined by the Reference Model for an

Michael Day

271

Bacteriocins: safe, natural antimicrobials for food preservation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Bacteriocins are antibacterial proteins produced by bacteria that kill or inhibit the growth of other bacteria. Many lactic acid bacteria (LAB) produce a high diversity of different bacteriocins. Though these bacteriocins are produced by LAB found in numerous fermented and non-fermented foods, nisin is currently the only bacteriocin widely used as a food preservative. Many bacteriocins have been characterized biochemically

Jennifer Cleveland; Thomas J. Montville; Ingolf F. Nes; Michael L. Chikindas

2001-01-01

272

The Newspaper Preservation Act: A Retrospective Analysis.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The Newspaper Preservation Act, passed by the United States Congress in 1970, granted special antitrust exemptions to certain newspapers as a means of maintaining the editorial and reportorial independence and competitive nature of the press. However, an analysis of specific cases that have involved the act reveals that, while purportedly

Barwis, Gail Lund

273

Long-Term Information Preservation and Access  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|An unprecedented amount of information encompassing almost every facet of human activities across the world is generated daily in the form of zeros and ones, and that is often the only form in which such information is recorded. A good fraction of this information needs to be preserved for periods of time ranging from a few years to centuries.

Song, Sang Chul

2010-01-01

274

Physics-Preserving Turbulent Closure Models.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Both necessary and sufficient conditions are derived in a systematic, rigorous way for a subgrid-scale (SGS) flux vector model to preserve the frame- indifference of the vector and to satisfy both the principle of material frame indifference (PMFI) and th...

L. Wang

2001-01-01

275

Coatings to reduce wood preservative leaching.  

PubMed

The efficiency of semitransparent penetrating stains to reduce leaching of wood preservative components was evaluated. Five commercial wood deck finishes were applied to untreated and chromated copper arsenate (CCA), alkaline copper quat (ACQ), and copper azole (CA) treated wood, and leachates were collected and analyzed during 3 years of natural weathering exposure in Toronto, Canada. All stains evaluated effectively reduced the cumulative leaching of all inorganic preservative components by about 60% on average. Although most coatings showed significant film degradation starting around 12 months, the reduced leaching persisted even after 3 years. This suggests that temporary protection of wood with a coating during the early stages of use resulted in long-term reduction in preservative leaching potential. A two-week screening leaching test was able to predict the long-term leaching performance of different coatings reasonably well. Cured coating glass transition temperature (Tg) and liquid coating viscosity were the most important variables affecting a leaching prediction model. To effectively reduce leaching of preservative components from treated wood, coatings should have Tg low enough to withstand stresses caused by freezing in winter and have adequate viscosity to form a barrier film layer on the wood surface. PMID:20704213

Nejad, Mojgan; Cooper, Paul

2010-08-15

276

Morphological image segmentation preserving semantic object shapes  

Microsoft Academic Search

As an attempt to achieve realistic image segmentation, an efficient segmentation algorithm is proposed. The proposed method aims to represent homogeneous visual objects with few regions while preserving semantic contents of an image as good as possible. This strategy is valid, since homogeneous visual objects occupy most parts of the entire image domain in a typical 'head and shoulder' video

Hyun S. Park; Jong Beom Ra

1998-01-01

277

Preserving SSC Design Function Using RCM Principles  

Microsoft Academic Search

Reliability-Centered Maintenance (RCM) can be defined as an approach that employs preventive, predictive, proactive, and reactive maintenance practices and strategies in an integrated manner to increase the probability that a Structure, System, or Component (SSC) will function as designed over its life cycle with optimum maintenance. The goal of RCM is to preserve the SSC intended design function at the

Mohammadi

2009-01-01

278

Mechanism for Burgess Shale-type preservation.  

PubMed

Exceptionally preserved fossil biotas of the Burgess Shale and a handful of other similar Cambrian deposits provide rare but critical insights into the early diversification of animals. The extraordinary preservation of labile tissues in these geographically widespread but temporally restricted soft-bodied fossil assemblages has remained enigmatic since Walcott's initial discovery in 1909. Here, we demonstrate the mechanism of Burgess Shale-type preservation using sedimentologic and geochemical data from the Chengjiang, Burgess Shale, and five other principal Burgess Shale-type deposits. Sulfur isotope evidence from sedimentary pyrites reveals that the exquisite fossilization of organic remains as carbonaceous compressions resulted from early inhibition of microbial activity in the sediments by means of oxidant deprivation. Low sulfate concentrations in the global ocean and low-oxygen bottom water conditions at the sites of deposition resulted in reduced oxidant availability. Subsequently, rapid entombment of fossils in fine-grained sediments and early sealing of sediments by pervasive carbonate cements at bed tops restricted oxidant flux into the sediments. A permeability barrier, provided by bed-capping cements that were emplaced at the seafloor, is a feature that is shared among Burgess Shale-type deposits, and resulted from the unusually high alkalinity of Cambrian oceans. Thus, Burgess Shale-type preservation of soft-bodied fossil assemblages worldwide was promoted by unique aspects of early Paleozoic seawater chemistry that strongly impacted sediment diagenesis, providing a fundamentally unique record of the immediate aftermath of the "Cambrian explosion." PMID:22392974

Gaines, Robert R; Hammarlund, Emma U; Hou, Xianguang; Qi, Changshi; Gabbott, Sarah E; Zhao, Yuanlong; Peng, Jin; Canfield, Donald E

2012-03-05

279

Privacy preserving auctions and mechanism design  

Microsoft Academic Search

We suggest an architecture for executing protocols for auctionsand, more generally, mechanism design. Our goal isto preserve the privacy of the inputs of the participants (sothat no nonessential information about them is divulged, evena posteriori) while maintaining communication and computationalefficiency. We achieve this goal by adding anotherparty - the auction issuer - that generates the programs forcomputing the auctions but

Moni Naor; Benny Pinkas; Reuban Sumner

1999-01-01

280

Preservation of Mercury in Polyethylene Containers.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Reports results of experiments favoring use of 0.5 percent nitric acid with an oxidant (potassium dichromate or potassium permanganate) to preserve samples in polyethylene containers for mercury analysis. Includes procedures used and statistical data obtained from the experiments. (JN)|

Piccolino, Samuel Paul

1983-01-01

281

Privacy preserving group nearest neighbor queries  

Microsoft Academic Search

User privacy in location-based services has attracted great interest in the research community. We introduce a novel framework based on a decentralized architecture for privacy preserving group nearest neighbor queries. A group nearest neighbor (GNN) query returns the location of a meeting place that minimizes the aggregate distance from a spread out group of users; for example, a group of

Tanzima Hashem; Lars Kulik; Rui Zhang

2010-01-01

282

Contact sensitivity to preservatives in Turkey.  

PubMed

This study was designed to evaluate the frequency of contact sensitivity to 14 common preservatives among patients with contact dermatitis in Turkey. From 2000 to 2004, 308 patients with the diagnosis of contact dermatitis were patch tested in the Department of Dermatology, Ankara University School of Medicine. All patients were patch tested with European standard series. In addition to the four preservatives included in the standard series, patients were also tested with DMDM hydantoin, imidazolidinyl urea, bromonitropropane diol, diazolidinyl urea, thimerosal, propylene glycol, chlorocresol, chloroxylenol, methyldibromoglutaronitrile/phenoxyethanol (MDBGN/PE) and benzalkonium chloride. Out of the 308 patients suspected of having contact dermatitis, 23 patients were found to have positive reactions to one or more preservatives. Preservatives that were the most frequent cause of positive reactions were thimerosal (1.6%), benzalkonium chloride (1.6%), formaldehyde (1.3%) and MDBGN/PE (0.9%). In our study, 65% of the positive reactions were caused by allergens not present in the standard series, such as thimerosal, benzalkonium chloride and MDBGN/PE. Although thimerosal caused a high rate of contact sensitivity, it may not be considered as an important allergen, because clinical relevance could not be found in any of the patients. PMID:15932584

Boyvat, Ayse; Akyol, Aynur; Grgey, Erbak

2005-06-01

283

Nitrite and nitrosyl compounds in food preservation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Nitrite is consumed in the diet, through vegetables and drinking water. It is also added to meat products as a preservative. The potential risks of this practice are balanced against the unique protective effect against toxin-forming bacteria such as Clostridium botulinum. The chemistry of nitrite, and compounds derived from it, in food systems and bacterial cells are complex. It is

Richard Cammack; C. L Joannou; Xiao-Yuan Cui; Claudia Torres Martinez; Shaun R Maraj; Martin N Hughes

1999-01-01

284

Hearing Preservation after Cochlear Implantation: UNICAMP Outcomes  

PubMed Central

Background. Electric-acoustic stimulation (EAS) is an excellent choice for people with residual hearing in low frequencies but not high frequencies and who derive insufficient benefit from hearing aids. For EAS to be effective, subjects' residual hearing must be preserved during cochlear implant (CI) surgery. Methods. We implanted 6 subjects with a CI. We used a special surgical technique and an electrode designed to be atraumatic. Subjects' rates of residual hearing preservation were measured 3 times postoperatively, lastly after at least a year of implant experience. Subjects' aided speech perception was tested pre- and postoperatively with a sentence test in quiet. Subjects' subjective responses assessed after a year of EAS or CI experience. Results. 4 subjects had total or partial residual hearing preservation; 2 subjects had total residual hearing loss. All subjects' hearing and speech perception benefited from cochlear implantation. CI diminished or eliminated tinnitus in all 4 subjects who had it preoperatively. 5 subjects reported great satisfaction with their new device. Conclusions. When we have more experience with our surgical technique we are confident we will be able to report increased rates of residual hearing preservation. Hopefully, our study will raise the profile of EAS in Brazil and Latin/South America.

de Carvalho, Guilherme Machado; Guimaraes, Alexandre C.; Duarte, Alexandre S. M.; Muranaka, Eder B.; Soki, Marcelo N.; Martins, Renata S. Zanotello; Bianchini, Walter A.; Paschoal, Jorge R.; Castilho, Arthur M.

2013-01-01

285

Digitization constraints that preserve topology and geometry  

Microsoft Academic Search

Our definition of a digitization approximates many real digitization processes. We present conditions which guarantee that a digitization process preserves topology of a digitized object. Moreover, these conditions guarantee the invariance of convexity features of the object contour. A useful consequence of this result is the computation of a digitization resolution and a camera distance from a planar object such

Longin Latecki; Ari Gross

1995-01-01

286

3D Object Digitization: Topology Preserving Reconstruction  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper we derive a sampling theorem, which is the first one to guarantee topology preservation during digitization of 3D objects. This new theorem is appli- cable to several reconstruction methods, e.g. a union- of-balls reconstruction and the trilinear interpolation.

Peer Stelldinger; Longin Jan Latecki

2006-01-01

287

Unsupervised terrain classification preserving polarimetric scattering characteristics  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper, we proposed an unsupervised terrain and land-use classification algorithm using polarimetric synthetic aperture radar data. Unlike other algorithms that classify pixels statistically and ignore their scattering characteristics, this algorithm not only uses a statistical classifier, but also preserves the purity of dominant polarimetric scattering properties. This algorithm uses a combination of a scattering model-based decomposition developed by

Jong-Sen Lee; Mitchell R. Grunes; Eric Pottier; Laurent Ferro-Famil

2004-01-01

288

Matching Preservation Decisions with Collection Development Policy.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Based on communication with librarians from Russia, Mongolia, the Baltic States, Bulgaria, Slovenia, the Czech Republic, and Romania, this paper discusses library collection development and preservation policies. Highlights include: mission statements of national and regional libraries; availability of a formal structure responsible for collection

Khislovskaya, Galina

289

Resource Use in Glacier Bay National Preserve.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The report is a baseline description of resource use in the Dry Bay area, which in 1981 became Glacier Bay National Preserve. The study involved the joint cooperation of the NPS and the Subsistence Division of the Alaska Dept. of Fish and Game. The main p...

G. Gmelch

1982-01-01

290

Protein Simulation Using Fast Volume Preservation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Since empirical force fields computation requires a heavy computa- tional cost, the simulation of complex protein structures is a time consuming process for predicting their configuration. To achieve fast but plausible global deformations of protein, we present an efficient and robust global shape based protein dynamics model using an implicit volume preservation method. A trian- gulated surface of the protein

Min Hong; David J. Osguthorpe; Min-hyung Choi

2006-01-01

291

Natural Hypothermic Preservation: The Mammalian Hibernator  

Microsoft Academic Search

Hibernators offers a natural models of mammalian organs systems that can withstand long term hypothermia and ischemia. The biochemical mechanisms that regulate and stabilize metabolism to assure long term viability during torpor can be applied in methodologies that could improve the hypothermic preservation of human organs removed for transplant and substantially both the time that organs can be maintained in

Kenneth B. Storey

2002-01-01

292

Digitizing Technologies for Preservation. SPEC Kit 214.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The Association of Research Libraries distributed a survey to its 119 member libraries to assess the use of state-of-the-art digital technologies as a preservation method. Libraries were asked to report detailed data on all projects designed specifically to: (1) enhance images of faded or brittle originals, (2) provide access to digital images

Kellerman, L. Suzanne, Comp.; Wilson, Rebecca, Comp.

293

Conservation, Preservation and Restoration in Nigerian Libraries.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Addresses problems involved with the conservation, preservation, and restoration of library materials in Nigeria. Topics discussed include insect pests; light, heat, and humidity; atmospheric pollution and dust; natural disasters including fire and floods; theft and vandalism; acidity of paper; binding and mending; and trained personnel. (15

Ojo-Igbinoba, M. E.

1991-01-01

294

SINGLE BUNCH EMITTANCE PRESERVATION IN XFEL LINAC  

Microsoft Academic Search

The single bunch emittance preservation in booster and main linacs of European XFEL project is presented. The wakefield and chromatic dilution of the beam emittance caused by free betatron oscillations, cavity and modules offset misalignments and random tilts are evaluated. The effects of cavities misalignments correlation along the linac are discussed. The effects of quadrupole misalignments and the corresponding trajectory

G. Amatuni; V. Tsakanov; Armenia W. Decking; R Brinkmann

2006-01-01

295

Why We Should Preserve the Manhattan Project  

Microsoft Academic Search

For all the buildings and artifacts that we preserve, thousands are lost forever. In this special Bulletin essay, Pulitzer Prize-winner Richard Rhodes examines the value of protecting the physical legacy of the U.S. nuclear enterprise and what its loss would tell us about ourselves.

Richard Rhodes

2007-01-01

296

Fossil avian eggshell preserves ancient DNA  

PubMed Central

Owing to exceptional biomolecule preservation, fossil avian eggshell has been used extensively in geochronology and palaeodietary studies. Here, we show, to our knowledge, for the first time that fossil eggshell is a previously unrecognized source of ancient DNA (aDNA). We describe the successful isolation and amplification of DNA from fossil eggshell up to 19 ka old. aDNA was successfully characterized from eggshell obtained from New Zealand (extinct moa and ducks), Madagascar (extinct elephant birds) and Australia (emu and owl). Our data demonstrate excellent preservation of the nucleic acids, evidenced by retrieval of both mitochondrial and nuclear DNA from many of the samples. Using confocal microscopy and quantitative PCR, this study critically evaluates approaches to maximize DNA recovery from powdered eggshell. Our quantitative PCR experiments also demonstrate that moa eggshell has approximately 125 times lower bacterial load than bone, making it a highly suitable substrate for high-throughput sequencing approaches. Importantly, the preservation of DNA in Pleistocene eggshell from Australia and Holocene deposits from Madagascar indicates that eggshell is an excellent substrate for the long-term preservation of DNA in warmer climates. The successful recovery of DNA from this substrate has implications in a number of scientific disciplines; most notably archaeology and palaeontology, where genotypes and/or DNA-based species identifications can add significantly to our understanding of diets, environments, past biodiversity and evolutionary processes.

Oskam, Charlotte L.; Haile, James; McLay, Emma; Rigby, Paul; Allentoft, Morten E.; Olsen, Maia E.; Bengtsson, Camilla; Miller, Gifford H.; Schwenninger, Jean-Luc; Jacomb, Chris; Walter, Richard; Baynes, Alexander; Dortch, Joe; Parker-Pearson, Michael; Gilbert, M. Thomas P.; Holdaway, Richard N.; Willerslev, Eske; Bunce, Michael

2010-01-01

297

Review of Red Cell Preservation (Liquid State).  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The evaluation of supplemented preservative media used for extending the shelf-life of red cells is based on a considerable amount of in vitro biochemical and in vivo post-transfusion survival data. Since the essential information for maintaining a satisf...

A. Chanutin

1972-01-01

298

Planning for Preservation during Mass Digitization Projects  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|In anticipation of current and future mass digitization projects in which the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign's Library will participate, the Library's Conservation Unit began to gather data on the "scannability" of our general book collections to anticipate potential effects on conservation and preservation work flows. The findings

Teper, Jennifer Hain; Shaw, Emily F.

2011-01-01

299

Building Digital Audio Preservation Infrastructure and Workflows  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|In 2009 the University of Washington (UW) Libraries special collections received funding for the digital preservation of its audio indigenous language holdings. The university libraries, where the authors work in various capacities, had begun digitizing image and text collections in 1997. Because of this, at the onset of the project, workflows (a

Young, Anjanette; Olivieri, Blynne; Eckler, Karl; Gerontakos, Theodore

2010-01-01

300

Towards preserving privacy in participatory sensing  

Microsoft Academic Search

With the abundance and ubiquity of mobile de- vices, a new class of applications is emerging, called partici- patory sensing (PS), where people can contribute data (e.g., images, video) collected by their mobile devices to central data servers. However, privacy concerns are becoming a major impediment in the success of many participatory sensing systems. While several privacy preserving techniques exist

Leyla Kazemi; Cyrus Shahabi

2011-01-01

301

From Preserving the Past to Preserving the Future: The Data-PASS Project and the Challenges of Preserving Digital Social Science Data  

Microsoft Academic Search

Social science data are an unusual part of the past, present, and future of digital preservation. They are both an unqualified success, due to long-lived and sustainable archival organizations, and in need of further development because not all digital content is being preserved. This article is about the Data Preservation Alliance for the Social Sciences (Data-PASS), a project supported by

Myron P. Gutmann

2009-01-01

302

Molecular Biology  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

As more academic institutions seek to incorporate Internet technology into their courses, many instructors must work in a medium that is unfamiliar, with lots of cluttered information, and precious little time. Numerous examples of well-designed course homepages exist and can be used as templates for constructing a course Webpage. Dr. Malcolm Campbell of Davidson College in North Carolina is an award-winning teacher who has produced a logical and interesting new homepage for an upper-level undergraduate Molecular Biology course (Molecular Biology 304). With a syllabus, daily-, and laboratory-schedules, the straightforward site guides students (and anyone else) through the course, building on previous course work, and teaching such concepts as critical thinking, data collection and analysis, and the writing of review papers. Some information at the site is restricted to registered students only, but the accessible information is worthy on its own. A good list of biology (organismal and micro) sites is also provided.

303

Biological preconcentrator  

DOEpatents

A biological preconcentrator comprises a stimulus-responsive active film on a stimulus-producing microfabricated platform. The active film can comprise a thermally switchable polymer film that can be used to selectively absorb and desorb proteins from a protein mixture. The biological microfabricated platform can comprise a thin membrane suspended on a substrate with an integral resistive heater and/or thermoelectric cooler for thermal switching of the active polymer film disposed on the membrane. The active polymer film can comprise hydrogel-like polymers, such as poly(ethylene oxide) or poly(n-isopropylacrylamide), that are tethered to the membrane. The biological preconcentrator can be fabricated with semiconductor materials and technologies.

Manginell, Ronald P. (Albuquerque, NM); Bunker, Bruce C. (Albuquerque, NM); Huber, Dale L. (Albuquerque, NM)

2008-09-09

304

Doing Biology  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Scientists Joel Hagen, Douglas Allchin, and Fred Singers created the "Doing Biology" book and its accompanying website. They are concerned with reforming science education, and their goal is to have students learn more "about the history and nature of science, about science in practice-about doing biology." The first iteration of their book, which appeared in 1996, contained over a dozen historical case studies arranged in a guided inquiry format. The version on this site contains seventeen different chapters, organized into themes such as cellular biology, evolution, and diversity. Each chapter contains a biography of a scientist, along with a discussion about their work and area of inquiry. The online chapters include "Nettie Stevens & Sex Discrimination," "Peter Mitchell & How Cells Make ATP," and "Lynn Margulis & How Cells Evolved." Additionally, at the conclusion of each chapter, questions and activities can be found.

Hagen, Joel; Allchin, Douglas, 1956-; Singer, Fred, 1952-

2012-06-15

305

Biological terrorism.  

PubMed

A biological terrorism event could have a large impact on the general population and health care system. The impact of an infectious disaster will most likely be great to emergency departments, and the collaboration between emergency and infectious disease specialists will be critical in developing an effective response. A bioterrorism event is a disaster that requires specific preparations beyond the usual medical disaster planning. An effective response would include attention to infection control issues and plans for large-scale vaccination or antimicrobial prophylaxis. This article addresses some general issues related to preparing an effective response to a biological terrorism event. It will also review organisms and toxins that could be used in biological terrorism, including clinical features, management, diagnostic testing, and infection control. PMID:18295687

Moran, Gregory J; Talan, David A; Abrahamian, Fredrick M

2008-03-01

306

(Biological dosimetry)  

SciTech Connect

The traveler participated in an International Symposium on Trends in Biological Dosimetry and presented an invited paper entitled, Adducts in sperm protamine and DNA vs mutation frequency.'' The purpose of the Symposium was to examine the applicability of new methods to study quantitatively the effects of xenobiotic agents (radiation and chemicals) on molecular, cellular and organ systems, with special emphasis on human biological dosimetry. The general areas covered at the meeting included studies on parent compounds and metabolites; protein adducts; DNA adducts; gene mutations; cytogenetic end-points and reproductive methods.

Sega, G.A.

1990-11-06

307

Biology Notes.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Outlines a variety of laboratory procedures, techniques, and materials including construction of a survey frame for field biology, a simple tidal system, isolation and applications of plant protoplasts, tropisms, teaching lung structure, and a key to statistical methods for biologists. (DS)

School Science Review, 1981

1981-01-01

308

Field Biology  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This field biology class uses a service-learning project instead of a course term paper. The students worked with 4th and 5th graders at a local school to teach them skills in wildflower and fern identification, and then to help them implement a nature trail, which will be accessible to the greater community.

Course taught by Nancy Prentiss, University of Maine-Farmington, prentiss@maine.edu. Example compiled by Suzanne Savanick, Science Education Resource Center, ssavanic@carleton.edu.

309

Biology Notes.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Organized by topic is a reading list for A- and S-level biology. Described are experiments for measuring rate of water uptake in a shoot; questions to aid students in designing experiments; rise of overhead projection to demonstrate osmosis and blood cell counting; and microbial manufacture of vinegar. (CS)|

School Science Review, 1979

1979-01-01

310

(Biological dosimetry)  

SciTech Connect

The traveler attended the 1st International Conference on Biological Dosimetry in Madrid, Spain. This conference was organized to provide information to a general audience of biologists, physicists, radiotherapists, industrial hygiene personnel and individuals from related fields on the current ability of cytogenetic analysis to provide estimates of radiation dose in cases of occupational or environmental exposure. There is a growing interest in Spain in biological dosimetry because of the increased use of radiation sources for medical and occupational uses, and with this the anticipated and actual increase in numbers of overexposure. The traveler delivered the introductory lecture on Biological Dosimetry: Mechanistic Concepts'' that was intended to provide a framework by which the more applied lectures could be interpreted in a mechanistic way. A second component of the trip was to provide advice with regard to several recent cases of overexposure that had been or were being assessed by the Radiopathology and Radiotherapy Department of the Hospital General Gregorio Maranon'' in Madrid. The traveler had provided information on several of these, and had analyzed cells from some exposed or purportedly exposed individuals. The members of the biological dosimetry group were referred to individuals at REACTS at Oak Ridge Associated Universities for advice on follow-up treatment.

Preston, R.J.

1990-12-17

311

Bottle Biology.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes activities which utilize plastic drink bottles and are designed to foster the development of a wide range of biological and ecological concepts. Includes instructions for making a model compost column and presents a model that illustrates open versus closed ecosystems. (DDR)

Jager, Peter

1993-01-01

312

Biology Notes.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes laboratory procedures, demonstrations, and classroom activities/materials, including water relation exercise on auxin-treated artichoke tuber tissue; aerobic respiration in yeast; an improved potometer; use of mobiles in biological classification, and experiments on powdery mildews and banana polyphenol oxidase. Includes reading lists

School Science Review, 1983

1983-01-01

313

Marine Biology  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A variety of informational material for a course in marine biology or oceanology at the secondary level is presented. Among the topics discussed are: food webs and pyramids, planktonic blooms, marine life, plankton nets, food chains, phytoplankton, zooplankton, larval plankton and filter feeders. (BT)

Dewees, Christopher M.; Hooper, Jon K.

1976-01-01

314

Biology Notes.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Presents information on the teaching of nutrition (including new information relating to many current O-level syllabi) and part 16 of a reading list for A- and S-level biology. Also includes a note on using earthworms as a source of material for teaching meiosis. (JN)|

School Science Review, 1984

1984-01-01

315

Biology Notes.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Describes laboratory procedures, demonstrations, and classroom activities/materials, including water relation exercise on auxin-treated artichoke tuber tissue; aerobic respiration in yeast; an improved potometer; use of mobiles in biological classification, and experiments on powdery mildews and banana polyphenol oxidase. Includes reading lists

School Science Review, 1983

1983-01-01

316

Cancer Biology  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|University of Colorado's Virtual Student Fellowship available at and developed by Bakemeier, Richard F. This website is designed to give students applying for a fellowship an overview of basic topics in biology and how they are used by cancer researchers to develop new treatments.|

Dominiecki, Mary E.

2004-01-01

317

Biology Notes.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Describes equipment, activities, and experiments useful in biology and environmental education instruction, including, among others, sampling in ecology using an overhead projector, the slide finder as an aid to microscopy, teaching kidney function, and teaching wildlife conservation-sand dune systems. (SK)|

School Science Review, 1980

1980-01-01

318

Biologic Vaccines  

PubMed Central

The threat of new disease pandemics has spurred the development of biologic vaccines, which promise tremendous improvements in global and local health. Several lend themselves to the prevention or treatment of chronic diseases. But the uncertainties of whom to vaccinate raise the question of whether the health care system can make these promising products viable.

ADAMS, KATHERINE T.

2009-01-01

319

Preservation Plan for the Chalmette Monument, Jean Lafitte National Historical Park and Preserve, Louisiana.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The primary goal of the Preservation Architects was to develop a realistic plan for the stabilization and conservation of the Chalmette Monument and its maintenance into the future. The parameters accepted maximized the use of personal onsite inspection a...

E. D. Cizek D. Del Cid

1988-01-01

320

Achieving convergence, causality preservation, and intention preservation in real-time cooperative editing systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

Real-time cooperative editing systems allow multiple users to view and edit the same text\\/graphic\\/image\\/multimedia document at the same time for multiple sites connected by communication networks. Consistency maintenance is one of the most significant challenges in designing and implementing real-time cooperative editing systems. In this article, a consistency model, with properties of convergence, causality preservation, and intention preservation, is proposed

Chengzheng Sun; Xiaohua Jia; Yanchun Zhang; Yun Yang; David Chen

1998-01-01

321

Industrial Hygiene, Chemical and Biological Assessments of Exposures to a Chlorinated Phenolic Sapstain Control Agent  

Microsoft Academic Search

A two-year study of the occupational exposure of workers in a lumber mill to a wood preservative containing chlorophenol has been conducted. The methods were biological (urine) monitoring, industrial hygiene assessment and a questionnaire related to worker-perceived health effects. Approximately 40 workers exposed to the wood preservative and 40 unexposed controls working in other locations of the plant participated in

GOLDY D. KLEINMAN; SANFORD W. HORSTMAN; DAVID A. KALMAN; JOAN McKENZIE; DOROTHY STANSEL

1986-01-01

322

Morphological preservation of carbonaceous plant fossils in blueschist metamorphic rocks from New Zealand.  

PubMed

Morphological and chemical evidence of ancient life is widespread in sedimentary rocks retrieved from shallow depths in the Earth's crust. Metamorphism is highly detrimental to the preservation of biological information in rocks, thus limiting the geological record in which traces of life might be found. Deformation and increasing pressure/temperature during deep burial may alter the morphology as well as the composition and structure of both the organic and mineral constituents of fossils. However, microspore fossils have been previously observed in intensely metamorphosed rocks. It has been suggested that their small size, and/or the nature of the polymer composing their wall, and/or the mineralogy of their surrounding matrix were key parameters explaining their exceptional preservation. Here, we describe the remarkable morphological preservation of plant macrofossils in blueschist metamorphic rocks from New Zealand containing lawsonite. Leaves and stems can be easily identified at the macroscale. At the microscale, polygonal structures with walls mineralized by micas within the leaf midribs and blades may derive from the original cellular ultrastructure or, alternatively, from the shrinkage during burial of the gelified remnants of the leaves in an abiotic process. Processes and important parameters involved in the remarkable preservation of these fossils during metamorphism are discussed. Despite the excellent morphological preservation, the initial biological polymers have been completely transformed to graphitic carbonaceous matter down to the nanometer scale. This occurrence demonstrates that plant macrofossils may experience major geodynamic processes such as metamorphism and exhumation involving deep changes and homogenization of their carbon chemistry and structure but still retain their morphology with remarkable integrity even if they are not shielded by any hard-mineralized concretion. PMID:22299653

Galvez, M E; Beyssac, O; Benzerara, K; Bernard, S; Menguy, N; Cox, S C; Martinez, I; Johnston, M R; Brown, G E

2012-02-02

323

Coherence preservation of synchrotron beams by multilayers  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This work discusses the spatial coherence preservation and the uniformity of a synchrotron beam reflected from multilayer based x-ray optics. Experiments were carried out on the ESRF undulator beamline ID06 using direct imaging and the Talbot technique. Several W/B4C multilayers with differing d-spacings were studied with monochromatic light at various photon energies. To understand the respective influence of the underlying substrate and the multilayer coatings, measurements were made under total reflection, at different Bragg peaks, and on the bare substrates. In addition, samples with different substrate quality were compared. In the present study, both the degree of spatial coherence preservation and the visibility of characteristic line structures in the x-ray beam seem to be given by the properties of the underlying substrate.

Morawe, Ch; Barrett, R.; Friedrich, K.; Klnder, R.; Vivo, A.

2013-03-01

324

[Contact allergies to recently introduced preservatives].  

PubMed

Preservatives have come under fire due to their possible detrimental properties and the high rate of contact allergies some of them cause. Therefore, the pharmaceutical industry is searching for alternatives that will be effective, safe and economical. The present paper introduces a selection of new or revived biocides (Kathon CG, benzisothiazolinone, Euxyl K 400, Biobans, Grotans, Bronopol, Germall II), and the range of application and the sensitization potency of each are discussed. Test concentrations for patch tests are recommended. Kathon CG is the most commonly used preservative among these biocides, although it has a high sensitization potency and is a frequently encountered contact allergen. To make discovery of a new allergen easier and to reduce the risk of side effects, manufacturers should be required to specify the ingredients of their products on the labels. PMID:1830567

Senff, H; Kllner, A; Tholen, S; Frosch, P J

1991-04-01

325

Irradiation preservation of seafood: Literature review  

SciTech Connect

The application of gamma-irradiation for extending the shelf life of seafood has been of interest for many years. This report reviews a number of studies on seafood irradiation conducted over the past several years. Topics covered include seafood irradiation techniques and dosages, species applicability and differences, the effects of packaging on seafood preservation, and changes in organoleptic acceptability as a result of irradiation. Particular attention is given to radiation effects (likely and unlikely) of concern to the public. These include the potential for generation of toxic chemical products, botulinum toxin production, and other health concerns. No scientifically defensible evidence of any kind was found for any harmful effect of irradiation of seafoods at the doses being considered (less than 300 krad), and all indications are that irradiation is an acceptable and needed additional tool for seafood preservation. 49 refs., 14 figs., 14 tabs.

Molton, P.M.

1987-10-01

326

Effect of preservation on the ?C value of dissolved inorganic carbon in different types of water samples.  

PubMed

Recent studies have shown that the stable carbon isotope compositions of dissolved inorganic carbon (?(13)C(DIC)) of water samples preserved with HgCl(2) and CuSO(4) vary. Furthermore, mercury and cuprum compounds are toxic to the human or biological system and require proper waste disposal. To test the effect of preservation on the ?(13)C value of DIC in different types of water samples, a set of water samples with different DIC concentrations was preserved using different methods, including preserving with inhibitors (CuSO(4) or HgCl(2)), preserving under frozen conditions, filtering through a 0.4 ? m paper filter, and the DIC species precipitated in the form of solid BaCO(3). Our results show that ?(13)C(DIC) values of the samples preserved with CuSO(4) and HgCl(2) become more positive with increased storage time. The ?(13)C(DIC) of the water samples preserved under frozen conditions and the precipitated DIC as BaCO(3) are also more positive than original water samples. However, the ?(13)C values were relatively stable for up to 90 days in all water samples filtered through the 0.4 ? m paper filter and stored under cool conditions (0-4 C). Therefore, we suggest that the better method for the storage of water samples is to filter the samples through a 0.4 ? m paper filter while out in the field and preserve them under cool conditions, thereby avoiding the use of preservatives. PMID:21809940

Li, Xiangzhong; Liu, Weiguo

2011-08-02

327

Fertility preservation for boys with cancer  

Microsoft Academic Search

Childhood cancer is a curable disease due to the development of chemo- and radiation therapies, but long-term survivors suffer\\u000a late side-effects including infertility. Cytotoxic agents and radiation impair spermatogenesis and cause oligospermia or azoospermia\\u000a as well as genetic damage in sperm. To date, the only established option to preserve fertility is cryopreservation of sperm\\u000a before treatment and artificial reproduction techniques,

Kazutoshi Fujita; Akira Tsujimura

2010-01-01

328

Efficient Privacy-Preserving Face Recognition  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a Automatic recognition of human faces is becoming increasingly popular in civilian and law enforcement applications that require\\u000a reliable recognition of humans. However, the rapid improvement and widespread deployment of this technology raises strong\\u000a concerns regarding the violation of individuals privacy. A typical application scenario for privacy-preserving face recognition\\u000a concerns a client who privately searches for a specific face image in

Ahmad-Reza Sadeghi; Thomas Schneider; Immo Wehrenberg

2009-01-01

329

A Remote Authentication Scheme Preserving User Anonymity  

Microsoft Academic Search

Many smart card-based remote authentication schemes have been proposed, due to its convenience and secure computation of the smart card. However, these schemes didn't protect the users' identities while authenticating the users, even though user anonymity is an important issue in many e-commerce applications. In 2004, Das et al. proposed a remote authentication scheme to authenticate users while preserving the

Hung-yu Chien; Che-hao Chen

2005-01-01

330

Working Group Proposed to Preserve Archival Records  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The AAS and AIP co-hosted a Workshop in April 2012 with NSF support (AST-1110231) that recommends establishing a Working Group on Time Domain Astronomy (WGTDA) to encourage and advise on preserving historical observations in a form meaningful for future scientific analysis. Participants specifically considered archival observations that could describe how astronomical objects change over time. Modern techniques and increased storage capacity enable extracting additional information from older media. Despite the photographic plate focus, other formats also concerned participants. To prioritize preservation efforts, participants recommended considering the information density, the amount of previously published data, their format and associated materials, their current condition, and their expected deterioration rate. Because the best digitization still produces an observation of an observation, the originals should be retained. For accessibility, participants recommended that observations and their metadata be available digitally and on-line. Standardized systems for classifying, organizing, and listing holdings should enable discovery of historical observations through the Virtual Astronomical Observatory. Participants recommended pilot projects that produce scientific results, demonstrate the dependence of some advances on heritage data, and open new avenues of exploration. Surveying a broad region of the sky with a long time-base and high cadence should reveal new phenomena and improve statistics for rare events. Adequate financial support is essential. While their capacity to produce new science is the primary motivation for preserving astronomical records, their potential for historical research and citizen science allows targeting cultural institutions and other private sources. A committee was elected to prepare the WGTDA proposal. The WGTDA executive committee should be composed of ~10 members representing modern surveys, heritage materials, data management, data standardization and integration, follow-up of time-domain discoveries, and virtual observatories. The Working Group on the Preservation of Astronomical Heritage Web page includes a full report.

Bartlett, Jennifer L.

2013-01-01

331

Preserving idealism in global health promotion.  

PubMed

If the field of global health is to evolve in the second decade of the new millennium, we need to revive the idealistic spirit and by using the lens of health equity work toward improved health status around the world. Morality and empathy are considered by-products of our evolutionary history as a human species. Idealism may be a trait that we may choose to preserve in our modern evolutionary history. PMID:21513081

Franco-Paredes, Carlos; Zeuli, Julia; Hernndez-Ramos, Isabel; Santos-Preciado, Jose I

2010-12-01

332

Bacteriocin: safest approach to preserve food products  

Microsoft Academic Search

Start of the 21st century with its universal call to feed the hungry is an appropriate time to refocus attention on food security\\u000a and especially the impact of biopatenting on poor communities who are the primary victims of hunger in our world. Antibacterial\\u000a metabolites of lactic acid bacteria and Bacillus spp have potential as natural preservatives to control the growth

Neha Gautam; Nivedita Sharma

2009-01-01

333

Privacy Preservation over Untrusted Mobile Networks  

Microsoft Academic Search

The proliferation of mobile devices has given rise to novel user-centric applications and services. In current mobile systems,\\u000a users gain access to remote servers over mobile network operators. These operators are typically assumed to be trusted and\\u000a to manage the information they collect in a privacy-preserving way. Such information, however, is extremely sensitive and\\u000a coveted by many companies, which may

Claudio Agostino Ardagna; Sushil Jajodia; Pierangela Samarati; Angelos Stavrou

2009-01-01

334

Survey of Preservation Efforts in Law Libraries  

Microsoft Academic Search

Ms. Turpening conducted on-site surveys of the preservation efforts and prior- ities of thirty law libraries during 2000-2001. She analyzes the results of these surveys, discusses her observations, and makes recommendations for individ- ual libraries and the leadership of the American Association of Law Libraries. 1 Librarians have taken care of the books in their institutions for hundreds of years.1

Patricia K. Turpening

335

Self-preservation in stratified momentum wakes  

Microsoft Academic Search

A general model is described for drag wakes in a linearly stratified fluid, based on the self-preservation of the flow. It is assumed that the buoyancy-controlled self-similar wake expands in the horizontal direction due to turbulent diffusion and in the vertical direction due to viscous diffusion. The mean characteristics of the wake (height, width and velocity defect) are analytically derived

Patrice Meunier; Peter J. Diamessis; Geoffrey R. Spedding

2006-01-01

336

Renal Preservation Therapy for Renal Cell Carcinoma  

PubMed Central

Renal preservation therapy has been a promising concept for the treatment of localized renal cell carcinoma (RCC) for 20 years. Nowadays partial nephrectomy (PN) is well accepted to treat the localized RCC and the oncological control is proved to be the same as the radical nephrectomy (RN). Under the result of well oncological control, minimal invasive method gains more popularity than the open PN, like laparoscopic partial nephrectomy (LPN) and robot assisted laparoscopic partial nephrectomy (RPN). On the other hand, thermoablative therapy and cryoablation also play an important role in the renal preservation therapy to improve the patient procedural tolerance. Novel modalities, but limited to small number of patients, include high-intensity ultrasound (HIFU), radiosurgery, microwave therapy (MWT), laser interstitial thermal therapy (LITT), and pulsed cavitational ultrasound (PCU). Although initial results are encouraging, their real clinical roles are still under evaluation. On the other hand, active surveillance (AS) has also been advocated by some for patients who are unfit for surgery. It is reasonable to choose the best therapeutic method among varieties of treatment modalities according to patients' age, physical status, and financial aid to maximize the treatment effect among cancer control, patient morbidity, and preservation of renal function.

Chiu, Yichun; Chiu, Allen W.

2012-01-01

337

Preservation of samples for dissolved mercury  

SciTech Connect

Water samples for dissolved mercury require special treatment because of the high chemical mobility and volatility of this element. Widespread use of mercury and its compounds has provided many avenues for contamination of water. Two laboratory tests were done to determine the relative permeabilities of glass and plastic sample bottles to mercury vapor. Plastic containers were confirmed to be quite permeable to airborne mercury, glass containers were virtually impermeable. Methods of preservation include the use of various combinations of acids, oxidants, and complexing agents. The combination of nitric acid and potassium dichromate successfully preserved mercury in a large variety of concentrations and dissolved forms. Because this acid-oxidant preservative acts as a sink for airborne mercury and plastic containers are permeable to mercury vapor, glass bottles are preferred for sample collection. To maintain a healthy work environment and minimize the potential for contamination of water samples, mercury and its compounds are isolated from the atmosphere while in storage. Concurrently, a program to monitor environmental levels of mercury vapor in areas of potential contamination is needed to define the extent of mercury contamination and to assess the effectiveness of mercury clean-up procedures.

Hamlin, S.N. (Geological Survey, Sacramento, CA (United States))

1989-04-01

338

Cancer and fertility preservation: Barcelona consensus meeting.  

PubMed

Improvements in early diagnosis and treatment strategies in cancer patients have enabled younger women with cancer to survive. In addition to the stressful event of the diagnosis, patients with malignant diseases face the potential loss of the opportunity to have children. Preservation of fertility has become a challenging issue and it is still surrounded by controversies. On the basis of available evidence, a group of experts reached a consensus regarding the options for trying to preserve fertility in women with cancer: among established methods, in postpubertal women, oocyte cryopreservation is the preferred option, whereas ovarian tissue cryopreservation is the only possibility for prepubertal girls. Combining several strategies on an individual basis may improve the chances of success. Realistic information should be provided before any intervention is initiated. Counseling should offer support for patients and provide better care by understanding emotional needs, psychological predictors of distress and methods of coping. Early referral to the fertility specialist is essential as fertility preservation (FP) may improve quality of life in these patients. The information summarized here is intended to help specialists involved in the treatment of cancer and reproductive medicine to improve their understanding of procedures available for FP in young cancer patients. PMID:23347067

Martnez, Francisca; Devesa, Marta; Coroleu, Buenaventura; Tur, Rosa; Gonzlez, Clara; Boada, Montserrat; Sol, Miquel; Veiga, Anna; Barri, Pedro N

2013-01-24

339

Fertility Preservation for Cancer Patients: A Review  

PubMed Central

Infertility can arise as a consequence of treatment of oncological conditions. The parallel and continued improvement in both the management of oncology and fertility cases in recent times has brought to the fore-front the potential for fertility preservation in patients being treated for cancer. Oncologists must be aware of situations where their treatment will affect fertility in patients who are being treated for cancer and they must also be aware of the pathways available for procedures such as cryopreservation of gametes and/or embryos. Improved cancer care associated with increased cure rates and long term survival, coupled with advances in fertility treatment means that it is now imperative that fertility preservation is considered as part of the care offered to these patients. This can only be approached within a multidisciplinary setting. There are obvious challenges that still remain to be resolved, especially in the area of fertility preservation in prepubertal patients. These include ethical issues, such as valid consent and research in the area of tissue retrieval, cryopreservation, and transplantation.

Ajala, Tosin; Rafi, Junaid; Larsen-Disney, Peter; Howell, Richard

2010-01-01

340

Polarimetric property preservation in SAR speckle filtering  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Speckle reduction of polarimetric SAR imagery has been studied using several different approaches. All these approaches exploited the degree of independence between HH, HV and VV channels. The statistical characteristics, such as correlation between channels, and polarimetric property preservation, were not addressed. This paper proposes a new approach in polarimetric SAR filtering. The new approach emphasizes not introducing cross-talk, preserving polarimetric information and statistical correlation between channels, and not degrading the image quality. To avoid cross-talk, each element of the covariance matrix has to be filtered independently. This rules out current methods of polarimetric SAR filtering. To preserve the polarimetric signature, each element of the covariance matrix should be filtered in a way similar to multi-look processing by averaging the covariance matrix of neighboring pixels, but without the deficiency of smearing edges, or degrading image quality. The proposed polarimetric SAR filter uses edge- directed non-square windows and applies the local statistics filter. The impact of using this polarimetric speckle filtering on terrain classification is also studied. NASA/JPL Les Landes polarimetric P-Band and C-Band SAR data is used for illustration.

Lee, Jong-Sen; Grunes, Mitchell R.; Boerner, Wolfgang-Martin

1997-12-01

341

Mass preserving registration for lung CT  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this paper, we evaluate a novel image registration method on a set of expiratory-inspiratory pairs of computed tomography (CT) lung scans. A free-form multi resolution image registration technique is used to match two scans of the same subject. To account for the differences in the lung intensities due to differences in inspiration level, we propose to adjust the intensity of lung tissue according to the local expansion or compression. An image registration method without intensity adjustment is compared to the proposed method. Both approaches are evaluated on a set of 10 pairs of expiration and inspiration CT scans of children with cystic fibrosis lung disease. The proposed method with mass preserving adjustment results in significantly better alignment of the vessel trees. Analysis of local volume change for regions with trapped air compared to normally ventilated regions revealed larger differences between these regions in the case of mass preserving image registration, indicating that mass preserving registration is better at capturing localized differences in lung deformation.

Gorbunova, Vladlena; Lo, Pechin; Loeve, Martine; Tiddens, Harm A.; Sporring, Jon; Nielsen, Mads; de Bruijne, Marleen

2009-02-01

342

Topology Preserving SOM with Transductive Confidence Machine  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We propose a novel topology preserving self-organized map (SOM) classifier with transductive confidence machine (TPSOM-TCM). Typically, SOM acts as a dimension reduction tool for mapping training samples from a high-dimensional input space onto a neuron grid. However, current SOM-based classifiers can not provide degrees of classification reliability for new unlabeled samples so that they are difficult to be used in risk-sensitive applications where incorrect predictions may result in serious consequences. Our method extends a typical SOM classifier to allow it to supply such reliability degrees. To achieve this objective, we define a nonconformity measurement with which a randomness test can predict how nonconforming a new unlabeled sample is with respect to the training samples. In addition, we notice that the definition of nonconformity measurement is more dependent on the quality of topology preservation than that of quantization error reduction. We thus incorporate the grey relation coefficient (GRC) into the calculation of neighborhood radii to improve the topology preservation without increasing the quantization error. Our method is able to improve the time efficiency of a previous method kNN-TCM, when the number of samples is large. Extensive experiments on both the UCI and KDDCUP 99 data sets show the effectiveness of our method.

Tong, Bin; Qin, Zhiguang; Suzuki, Einoshin

343

HERA Data Preservation plans and activities  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

An international inter-experimental study group on data preservation and long-term analysis in HEP (DPHEP) was convened at the end of 2008 and held a series of workshops during 2009. The HERA experiments H1, ZEUS, HERMES as well as the IT division and the Library are well represented in DPHEP and efforts are now being made to form a coherent approach at DESY. Various options for preservation are explored, from permanent evolution (H1) to the use of virtualisation techniques (ZEUS). Both experiments have planned the computing and the associated resources until 2013 and now explore possibilities to ensure the maintenance of the data analysis capabilities beyond 2013. A common effort and additional resources may lead to longer viability of data analysis. Technical solutions have been investigated by DESY-IT and involve virtualisation systems tailored for long term software preservation as well as systems for self consistent data archiving and migration. The communication between experiments, DESY-IT and the Library have put forward the possibility for further common developments related to documentation scanning and storage as well as pilot projects within the HEP documentation system INSPIRE. The evaluation of such projects is ongoing and concrete proposals to ensure HERA data analysis after 2013 are expected in 2010.

Szuba, J.; DESY Data Preservation Group

2011-12-01

344

IKK Biology  

PubMed Central

Summary The inhibitor of nuclear factor-?B (I?B) kinase (IKK) complex is the master regulator of the NF-?B signaling pathway. The activation of the IKK complex is a tightly regulated, highly stimulus-specific, and target-specific event that is essential for the plethora of functions attributed to NF-?B. More recently, NF-?B independent roles of IKK members have brought increased complexity to its biological function. This review highlights some of the major advances in the studies of the process of IKK activation and the biological roles of IKK family members, with a focus on NF-?B independent functions. Understanding these complex processes is essential for targeting IKK for therapeutics.

Liu, Fei; Xia, Yifeng; Parker, Aaron S.; Verma, Inder M.

2012-01-01

345

Biological Invasions  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a Biological invasions can have powerful effects on ecosystem structure and function and are seen as a threat to global biodiversity.\\u000a Coastal systems are especially vulnerable, and we review the characteristics of invasions in marine benthic communities, beginning\\u000a with the factors influencing initial introduction: vectors and propagule pressure. Invasive species have few characteristics\\u000a in common, and their ease of establishment in

Christopher D. McQuaid; Francisco Arenas

346

Biological Crusts  

Microsoft Academic Search

Biological soil crusts (also called microbiotic, microphytic or cryptogamic crusts) are common cryptogamic communities in\\u000a various arid and semi-arid regions of the world. Apparently only a few soil crusts worldwide are as well investigated as those\\u000a of the Nizzana\\/Sinai-Negev sand fields (Galun and Garty 2001; also see Belnap et al. 2001). Concerning their species diversity,\\u000a ecology and ecophysiology, several studies

B. Bdel; M. Veste

347

Computational Biology  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Terrific progress has taken place in the last decade identifying many of the key components of signaling pathways that control a wide range of biologically and medically important physiological functions. STKE's Connections Map database (http://stke.sciencemag.org/cm/) is in part a tribute to the amount and complexity of the accumulated information. The pathways and their interactions are sufficiently elaborate that such an organizational aid is widely thought to be useful and informative.

L. Bryan Ray (American Association for the Advancement of Science;Editor of Science's STKE and a Senior Editor of Science REV); Lisa D. Chong (American Association for the Advancement of Science;Associate Editor of Science's STKE and Associate Editor of Science REV); Nancy R. Gough (American Association for the Advancement of Science;Managing Editor of Science's STKE REV)

2002-09-03

348

Making Educated Decisions. A Landscape Preservation Bibliography. 2.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Over the past two decades, and most recently since the publication of the first edition of Making Educated Decisions: A Landscape Preservation Bibliography by the National Park Service Historic Landscape initiative, the field of landscape preservation has...

C. A. Birnbaum H. L. Barrett E. Shillinglaw

2000-01-01

349

21 CFR 150.160 - Fruit preserves and jams.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION FRUIT BUTTERS, JELLIES, PRESERVES, AND RELATED PRODUCTS ...for Specific Standardized Fruit Butters, Jellies, Preserves, and Related Products ...Refractometer in Fresh and Canned Fruits, Jellies, Marmalades, and...

2013-04-01

350

21 CFR 150.160 - Fruit preserves and jams.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION FRUIT BUTTERS, JELLIES, PRESERVES, AND RELATED PRODUCTS ...for Specific Standardized Fruit Butters, Jellies, Preserves, and Related Products ...Refractometer in Fresh and Canned Fruits, Jellies, Marmalades, and...

2009-04-01

351

21 CFR 150.160 - Fruit preserves and jams.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION FRUIT BUTTERS, JELLIES, PRESERVES, AND RELATED PRODUCTS ...for Specific Standardized Fruit Butters, Jellies, Preserves, and Related Products ...Refractometer in Fresh and Canned Fruits, Jellies, Marmalades, and...

2010-04-01

352

21 CFR 178.3800 - Preservatives for wood.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

... Preservatives for wood. Preservatives...effect of protecting the wood from decay, mildew, and water absorption. (b) The substances...Pentachlorophenol and its sodium salt Not to exceed 50 p.p.m. in the treated wood, calculated as...

2009-04-01

353

21 CFR 178.3800 - Preservatives for wood.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

... Preservatives for wood. Preservatives...effect of protecting the wood from decay, mildew, and water absorption. (b) The substances...Pentachlorophenol and its sodium salt Not to exceed 50 p.p.m. in the treated wood, calculated as...

2010-01-01

354

21 CFR 178.3800 - Preservatives for wood.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

21 Food and Drugs 3 2013-04-01...2013-04-01 false Preservatives for wood. 178...Section 178.3800 Food and Drugs FOOD...CONTINUED) INDIRECT FOOD ADDITIVES: ADJUVANTS... § 178.3800 Preservatives for wood....

2013-04-01

355

38 CFR 1.952 - Preservation of evidence.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...Section 1.952 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS AFFAIRS GENERAL PROVISIONS Referrals to Gao, Department of Justice, Or Irs § 1.952 Preservation of evidence. VA must take care to preserve all files...

2013-07-01

356

X-ray imaging of biological specimens  

SciTech Connect

I compared alternative techniques for x-ray imaging of biological specimens on the basis of (1) transverse and longitudinal resolution, (2) depth of field, (3) choice of recording medium, and (4) recording efficiency. For all imaging techniques, the dosages received by specimens were so high that the living state cannot be preserved, nor the structural integrity of the specimen be maintained in the usual sense.

Solem, J.C.

1983-01-01

357

Contextualizing security for digital long-term preservation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Nowadays a growing amount of information not only exists in digital form but was actually born-digital. Digital long-term preservation becomes continuously important and is tackled by several international and national projects like the US National Digital Information Infrastructure and Preservation Program or the EU FP7 SHAMAN Integrated Project. The very essence of long-term preservation is the preserved data, which in

Kun Qian; Maik Schott; Christian Kraetzer; Matthias Hemmje

2011-01-01

358

Transformations preserving adjacency and base subsets of spine spaces  

Microsoft Academic Search

Transformations of spine spaces which preserve base subsets preserve also adjacency. They either preserve the two sorts of\\u000a projective adjacency or interchange them. Lines of a spine space can be defined in terms of adjacency, except one case where\\u000a projective lines have no proper extensions to projective maximal strong subspaces, and thus adjacency preserving transformations\\u000a are collineations.

M. Pankov; K. Pra?mowski; M. ?ynel

2005-01-01

359

Biological boundaries and biological age.  

PubMed

The chronologic age classically used in demography is often unable to give useful information about which exact stage in development or aging processes has reached an organism. Hence, we propose here to explain in some applications for what reason the chronologic age fails in explaining totally the observed state of an organism, which leads to propose a new notion, the biological age. This biological age is essentially determined by the number of divisions before the Hayflick's limit the tissue or mitochondrion in a critical organ (in the sense where its loss causes the death of the whole organism) has already used for its development and adult phases. We give a precise definition of the biological age of an organ based on the Hayflick's limit of its cells and we introduce a desynchronization index (the cell entropy) for some critical tissues or membranes, which are mainly skin, intestinal endothelium, alveoli epithelium and mitochondrial inner membrane. In these actively metabolising interface tissues or membranes, there is a rapid turnover of cells, of their cytoplasmic constituents such as proteins, and of membrane lipids. The boundaries corresponding to these tissues, cells or membranes have vital functions of interface with the environment (protection, homeothermy, nutrition and respiration) and have a rapid turnover (the total cell renewal time is in mice equal to 3 weeks for the skin, 1.5 day for the intestine, 4 months for the alveolae and 11 days for mitochondrial inner membrane) conditioning their biological age. The biological age of a tissue is made of two major components: (1) first, its embryonic age based on the distance (in number of divisions) between the birth date of its first differentiated cell and the time until it reaches its final boundary at the end of its development and (2) second, its adult age whose complement until its death is just the lapse of time made of the sum of remaining cell cycle durations authorized by its Hayflick's limit. From this definition, we calculate the global biological lifespan of an organism and revisit notions like demographic survival curves, duration and synchrony of cell cycles, living boundaries from proto-cells to organs, and embryonic and adult phases duration. PMID:19907923

Demongeot, Jacques

2009-11-12

360

Changes in Parental Depression Symptoms during Family Preservation Services  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Objectives: Parental depression symptoms often change over the course of child welfare family preservation and parenting services. This raises the question of whether certain processes in family preservation services might be associated with depression symptom change. This study tests three correlational models of change among family preservation

Chaffin, Mark; Bard, David

2011-01-01

361

On Preserving the Intelligibility of Digital Objects through Dependency Management  

Microsoft Academic Search

Digital information has to be preserved not only against hardware and software technology changes, but also against changes in the knowledge of the community. Apart from the bits we have to preserve the information and for this purpose we have to preserve the intelligibility of digital objects. This paper approaches this notion by introducing an abstract model of modules and

Yannis Tzitzikas

362

Basic aspects of food preservation by hurdle technology  

Microsoft Academic Search

Hurdle technology is used in industrialized as well as in developing countries for the gentle but effective preservation of foods. Previously hurdle technology, i.e., a combination of preservation methods, was used empirically without much knowledge of the governing principles. Since about 20 years the intelligent application of hurdle technology became more prevalent, because the principles of major preservative factors for

Lothar Leistner

2000-01-01

363

Productive Preservation and the Reinvention of Industrial America  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper explores the problem of why the traditional model preservation, characterized by a strict and inflexible interpretation of the law, often fails in struggling communities. Particular emphasis is given to early industrial cities, where the existing urban infrastructure and difficult economic situation often conspire to make preservation exceptionally challenging. A solution is proposed for making preservation productive these distressed

Jonathan Flynn

2006-01-01

364

High Performance Liquid Chromatography Determination of Chemical Preservatives in Yogurt  

Microsoft Academic Search

Reverse phase HPLC was used to determine the preservatives methyl-, ethyl- and propyl-p-hydroxybenzoate and sorbic acid in aqueous solutions, using n-butyl-p-aminobenzoate as the internal standard. This method was applied to the analysis of preservatives in yogurt. the preservatives were previously identified by thin layer chromatography, and revealed at 254 nm.

Ftima Olea Serrano; Isabel Snchez Lpez; Gloria Noguera Revilla

1991-01-01

365

Leaching of chromated copper arsenate wood preservatives: a review  

Microsoft Academic Search

Recent studies have generated conflicting data regarding the bioaccumulation and toxicity of leachates from preservative-treated wood. Due to the scale of the wood preserving industry, timber treated with the most common preservative, chromated copper arsenate (CCA), may form a significant source of metals in the aquatic environment. The existing literature on leaching of CCA is reviewed, and the numerous factors

J. A Hingston; C. D Collins; R. J Murphy; J. N Lester

2001-01-01

366

Video Preservation and Digital Reformatting: Pain and Possibility  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The digital library community is increasingly concerned with long-term preservation of digital materials. This concern presents an opportunity for strategic alliances between digital library units and preservation departments confronting the difficulties inherent in preservation reformatting of moving image materials. However, successful

McDonough, Jerome; Jimenez, Mona

2006-01-01

367

Research on Privacy Preserving Data in Web Log Mining  

Microsoft Academic Search

Researches on preserving private data in the application of web data mining possess practical value. Through introducing basic concepts of web log mining and private data protection, this paper analyzes the status quo of privacy preservation in web log mining, and then it puts forward privacy preserving mining model based on evolutionary algorithm of cloud model, combining with evolutionary algorithm

Chang-bin Jiang; Li Chen

2010-01-01

368

Comparison of Celsior and UW Solution in Experimental Pancreas Preservation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background. The University of Wisconsin solution (UW) is the gold standard for pancreas preservation. Celsior (CEL) was formulated specifically for heart preservation. Recently, experimental and clinical experience has been reported on the application of CEL to abdominal organs. In this animal study, pancreas preservation with CEL was compared with that in UW solution.Patients and Materials. Heterotopic, allogeneic pancreaticoduodenal transplantation was

Dirk Uhlmann; Barbara Armann; Stefan Ludwig; Evelyn Escher; Uta-Carolin Pietsch; Andrea Tannapfel; Daniel Teupser; Johann Hauss; Helmut Witzigmann

2002-01-01

369

2013 Biological Approvals  

Center for Biologics Evaluation and Research (CBER)

... Print; Share; E-mail. Home; Vaccines, Blood & Biologics; Development & Approval Process (Biologics); ... Development & Approval Process (Biologics). ... More results from www.fda.gov/biologicsbloodvaccines/developmentapprovalprocess/biologicalapprovalsbyyear

370

Color to gray: visual cue preservation.  

PubMed

Both commercial and scientific applications often need to transform color images into gray-scale images, e.g., to reduce the publication cost in printing color images or to help color blind people see visual cues of color images. However, conventional color to gray algorithms are not ready for practical applications because they encounter the following problems: 1) Visual cues are not well defined so it is unclear how to preserve important cues in the transformed gray-scale images; 2) some algorithms have extremely high time cost for computation; and 3) some require human-computer interactions to have a reasonable transformation. To solve or at least reduce these problems, we propose a new algorithm based on a probabilistic graphical model with the assumption that the image is defined over a Markov random field. Thus, color to gray procedure can be regarded as a labeling process to preserve the newly well--defined visual cues of a color image in the transformed gray-scale image. Visual cues are measurements that can be extracted from a color image by a perceiver. They indicate the state of some properties of the image that the perceiver is interested in perceiving. Different people may perceive different cues from the same color image and three cues are defined in this paper, namely, color spatial consistency, image structure information, and color channel perception priority. We cast color to gray as a visual cue preservation procedure based on a probabilistic graphical model and optimize the model based on an integral minimization problem. We apply the new algorithm to both natural color images and artificial pictures, and demonstrate that the proposed approach outperforms representative conventional algorithms in terms of effectiveness and efficiency. In addition, it requires no human-computer interactions. PMID:20634551

Song, Mingli; Tao, Dacheng; Chen, Chun; Li, Xuelong; Chen, Chang Wen

2010-09-01

371

Local distinguishability with preservation of entanglement  

SciTech Connect

I consider the deterministic distinguishability of a set of orthogonal, bipartite states when only a single copy is available and the parties are restricted to local operations and classical communication, but with the additional requirement that entanglement must be preserved in the process. Several general theorems aimed at characterizing sets of states with which the parties can succeed in such a task are proven. These include (i) a maximum for the number of states when the Schmidt rank of every outcome must be at least a given minimum, (ii) an upper bound (equal to the dimension of Hilbert space if entanglement need not be preserved) for the sum over Schmidt ranks of the initial states when only one-way classical communication is allowed, and (iii) separately, a necessary and a sufficient condition on the states such that their original Schmidt ranks can always be preserved. Two additional theorems explicitly demonstrate a trade-off between the extent to which the set of states fill Hilbert space, as measured by their Schmidt ranks, and how refined the parties must make their measurements, an important factor in determining the Schmidt rank the state can retain after it has been identified. It is shown that our bound on the sum of Schmidt ranks can be exceeded if two-way communication is permitted, and this includes the case that entanglement need not be preserved, so that this sum can exceed the dimension of Hilbert space. Such questions, concerning how the various results are affected by the resources used by the parties (amount of classical communication and types of local operations), are addressed for each theorem. This subject is closely related to the problem of locally purifying an entangled state from a mixed state, which is of direct relevance to teleportation and dense coding using a mixed-state resource. In an appendix, I give an extremely simple and transparent proof of nonlocality without entanglement, a phenomenon originally discussed by Bennett and co-workers several years ago.

Cohen, Scott M. [Department of Physics, Duquesne University, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania 15282 (United States); Department of Physics, Carnegie-Mellon University, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania 15213 (United States)

2007-05-15

372

Summary report on transverse emittance preservation  

SciTech Connect

During the past years, significant progress has been made in understanding the beam transverse emittance blow-up and its preservation. However, one often finds him-/herself ignorant when he/she tries to explain what was observed in an existing machine or to predict what will happen in a machine under design. There are a number of such examples given in this report. Some of them are even fundamental. These are the challenges. But they are also the directions leading to new achievements. The workshop gladly acknowledged them and promised to work on them.

Chou, W.; Vos, L. [European Organization for Nuclear Research, Geneva (Switzerland)

1997-12-01

373

Duodenum-preserving versus pylorus-preserving pancreatic head resection for benign and premalignant lesions  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background\\/purposePylorus-preserving pancreaticoduodenectomy (PPPD) is the treatment of choice for benign or premalignant pancreatic head lesions.\\u000a Duodenum-preserving pancreatic head resection (DPPHR) has been reported in only 132 patients. This study aimed to compare\\u000a the long-term results of DPPHR and PPPD.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a MethodsPatients who underwent DPPHR or PPPD for benign or borderline disease between 1991 and 2008 were followed up until December\\u000a 2009

Sergio Pedrazzoli; Silvio Alen Canton; Cosimo Sperti

2011-01-01

374

Pennsylvania Historical & Museum Commission: State Historic Preservation Office  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Most states have some type of historic preservation office to coordinate preservation activities. The Commonwealth of Pennsylvania has a very active preservation office and this website brings together a number of their publications and resources. Near the top of the page visitors will find two key items: the state's long-term preservation plan and the document titled "Economic Benefits of Historic Preservation Activities in Pennsylvania." The preservation plan may serve to inspire and edify those working in the field and it's a nice roadmap for those working in related fields, such as museum management. The second document highlights some of the long- and short-term benefits of sustained historic preservation activities from Philadelphia to Erie. Moving along, the site includes areas like Programs, Resources, and Initiatives. This last area is a real gem, as it features a tool designed to protect agricultural resources and a very fine field guide to the architectural types and styles that prevail throughout the Keystone State.

2012-08-31

375

Simplified field preservation of tissues for subsequent DNA analyses.  

PubMed

Successful DNA-based identification of mass disaster victims depends on acquiring tissues that are not highly degraded. In this study, multiple protocols for field preservation of tissues for later DNA analysis were tested. Skin and muscle samples were collected from decaying pig carcasses. Tissues were preserved using cold storage, desiccation, or room temperature storage in preservative solutions for up to 6 months. DNA quality was assessed through amplification of successively larger segments of nuclear DNA. Solution-based storage, including a DMSO/NaCl/EDTA mixture, alcohols, and RNAlater preserved DNA of the highest quality, refrigeration was intermediate, and desiccation was least effective. Tissue type and extent of decomposition significantly affected stored DNA quality. Overall, the results indicate that any tissue preservation attempt is far superior to delaying or forgoing preservation efforts, and that simple, inexpensive methods can be highly effective in preserving DNA, thus should be initiated as quickly as possible. PMID:21480896

Michaud, Corinne L; Foran, David R

2011-04-11

376

Optimization of preservation and storage time of sponge tissues to obtain quality mRNA for next-generation sequencing.  

PubMed

Transcriptome sequencing with next-generation sequencing technologies has the potential for addressing many long-standing questions about the biology of sponges. Transcriptome sequence quality depends on good cDNA libraries, which requires high-quality mRNA. Standard protocols for preserving and isolating mRNA often require optimization for unusual tissue types. Our aim was assessing the efficiency of two preservation modes, (i) flash freezing with liquid nitrogen (LN?) and (ii) immersion in RNAlater, for the recovery of high-quality mRNA from sponge tissues. We also tested whether the long-term storage of samples at -80 C affects the quantity and quality of mRNA. We extracted mRNA from nine sponge species and analysed the quantity and quality (A260/230 and A260/280 ratios) of mRNA according to preservation method, storage time, and taxonomy. The quantity and quality of mRNA depended significantly on the preservation method used (LN?) outperforming RNAlater), the sponge species, and the interaction between them. When the preservation was analysed in combination with either storage time or species, the quantity and A260/230 ratio were both significantly higher for LN?-preserved samples. Interestingly, individual comparisons for each preservation method over time indicated that both methods performed equally efficiently during the first month, but RNAlater lost efficiency in storage times longer than 2 months compared with flash-frozen samples. In summary, we find that for long-term preservation of samples, flash freezing is the preferred method. If LN? is not available, RNAlater can be used, but mRNA extraction during the first month of storage is advised. PMID:22136287

Riesgo, Ana; Prez-Porro, Alicia R; Carmona, Susana; Leys, Sally P; Giribet, Gonzalo

2011-12-04

377

Cinelectures for Introductory Biology  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Cinelectures for Introductory Biology is a YouTube channel containing a series of online, cinematic lectures covering basic chemistry for biology, metabolism, cell biology, genetics, and molecular biology. Many of these cinelectures incorporate videos, illustrations, and animations.

Marcey, David

378

Preserving the evolutionary potential of floras in biodiversity hotspots.  

PubMed

One of the biggest challenges for conservation biology is to provide conservation planners with ways to prioritize effort. Much attention has been focused on biodiversity hotspots. However, the conservation of evolutionary process is now also acknowledged as a priority in the face of global change. Phylogenetic diversity (PD) is a biodiversity index that measures the length of evolutionary pathways that connect a given set of taxa. PD therefore identifies sets of taxa that maximize the accumulation of 'feature diversity'. Recent studies, however, concluded that taxon richness is a good surrogate for PD. Here we show taxon richness to be decoupled from PD, using a biome-wide phylogenetic analysis of the flora of an undisputed biodiversity hotspot--the Cape of South Africa. We demonstrate that this decoupling has real-world importance for conservation planning. Finally, using a database of medicinal and economic plant use, we demonstrate that PD protection is the best strategy for preserving feature diversity in the Cape. We should be able to use PD to identify those key regions that maximize future options, both for the continuing evolution of life on Earth and for the benefit of society. PMID:17301791

Forest, Flix; Grenyer, Richard; Rouget, Mathieu; Davies, T Jonathan; Cowling, Richard M; Faith, Daniel P; Balmford, Andrew; Manning, John C; Proche?, Serban; van der Bank, Michelle; Reeves, Gail; Hedderson, Terry A J; Savolainen, Vincent

2007-02-15

379

Temperature Dependency of Molecular Mobility in Preserved Seeds  

PubMed Central

Although cryogenic storage is presumed to provide nearly infinite longevity to cells, the actual timescale for changes in viability has not been addressed theoretically or empirically. Molecular mobility within preserved biological materials provides a first approximation of the rate of deteriorative reactions that ultimately affect shelf-life. Here, temperature effects on molecular mobility in partially dried seeds are calculated from heat capacities, measured using differential scanning calorimetry, and models for relaxation of glasses based on configurational entropy. Based on these analyses, glassy behavior in seeds containing 0.07 g H2O/g dm followed strict Vogel-Tamman-Fulcher (VTF) behavior at temperatures above and just below the glass transition temperature (Tg) at 28C. Temperature dependency of relaxation times followed Arrhenius kinetics as temperatures decreased well below Tg. The transition from VTF to Arrhenius kinetics occurred between ?5 and ?10C. Overall, relaxation times calculated for seeds containing 0.07 g H2O/g dm decreased by approximately eight orders of magnitude when seeds were cooled from 60 to ?60C, comparable to the magnitude of change in aging kinetics reported for seeds and pollen stored at a similar temperature range. The Kauzmann temperature (TK), often considered the point at which molecular mobility of glasses is practically nil, was calculated as ?42C. Calculated relaxation times, temperature coefficients lower than expected from VTF kinetics, and TK that is 70C below Tg suggest there is molecular mobility, albeit limited, at cryogenic temperatures.

Walters, Christina

2004-01-01

380

Primary preservation in ICC color management system  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The saturation rendering intent in ICC color management system has never been practiced successfully. One of the reasons is that it is expected to have primary matching for this rendering intent, but the current ICC workflow makes this impossible. In this paper, three approaches to achieve primary matching for printing applications will be presented. We start with building a printer ICC profile that converts selected first and/or secondary primaries of the default monitor RGB color space to the corresponding printer primaries. If a source monitor RGB color space is different from the default RGB color space, a simple approach is to apply the default RGB color space for the saturation rendering intent for primary preservation. This is because the primary matching is more important than color accuracy for the saturation intent, and different source monitor RGB color spaces are not very different. For more accurate color transformation and still to preserve the primary matching, the source monitor RGB color space is adjusted so that the selected primaries are fully adapted to those of the default RGB color space and the adaptation is decreased gradually as the hue of a source color moves off the selected primaries. In a smart CMM environment, the primary matching can be achieved by hue rotation and gamut adaptation during the real-time linking.

Zeng, Huanzhao

2001-12-01

381

Methods for long-term virus preservation.  

PubMed

Viruses exhibit a wide variety of structural and chemical differences, but, in general, their infectivity may be destroyed by degradative enzymes that destroy nucleic acids, by detergents that solubilize the lipid-containing envelopes thus exposing the nucleic acid, by temperatures higher than about 50 degrees C, or by chemicals that breakdown capsid proteins. Preserving the viruses at low or ultra-low temperatures, and/or in the absence of water, slows down these destructive processes sufficiently to increase significantly the length of time that the virus can be stored as infectious material. Supplements such as serum are presumed to stabilize the environmental conditions and to block degradative processes. The methods by which viruses may be preserved for long periods of time are similar to those employed for other microorganisms and are relatively simple. Nevertheless, attention to detail, good laboratory practice, aseptic technique, meticulous recordkeeping, and regular monitoring of the stored materials will increase the success rate and reduce problems of contamination or loss in the storage containers, where many different viruses may be stored for posterity! This article describes some of the simplest and most reliable storage procedures for viruses, but the author recognizes that everyone will have a favorite method to suit his or her own particular virus. PMID:10934522

Gould, E A

1999-11-01

382

Carbonaceous preservation of Cambrian hexactinellid sponge spicules.  

PubMed

Early fossil sponges offer a direct window onto the evolutionary emergence of animals, but insights are limited by the paucity of characters preserved in the conventional fossil record. Here, a new preservational mode for sponge spicules is reported from the lower Cambrian Forteau Formation (Newfoundland, Canada), prompting a re-examination of proposed homologies and sponge inter-relationships. The spicules occur as wholly carbonaceous films, and are interpreted as the remains of robust organic spicule sheaths. Comparable sheaths are restricted among living taxa to calcarean sponges, although the symmetries of the fossil spicules are characteristic of hexactinellid sponges. A similar extinct character combination has been documented in the Burgess Shale fossil Eiffelia. Interpreting the shared characters as homologous implies complex patterns of spicule evolution, but an alternative interpretation as convergent autapomorphies is more parsimonious. In light of the mutually exclusive distributions of these same characters among the crown groups, this result suggests that sponges exhibited an early episode of disparity expansion followed by comparatively constrained evolution, a pattern shared with many other metazoans but obscured by the conventional fossil record of sponges. PMID:20554559

Harvey, Thomas H P

2010-06-16

383

Carbonaceous preservation of Cambrian hexactinellid sponge spicules  

PubMed Central

Early fossil sponges offer a direct window onto the evolutionary emergence of animals, but insights are limited by the paucity of characters preserved in the conventional fossil record. Here, a new preservational mode for sponge spicules is reported from the lower Cambrian Forteau Formation (Newfoundland, Canada), prompting a re-examination of proposed homologies and sponge inter-relationships. The spicules occur as wholly carbonaceous films, and are interpreted as the remains of robust organic spicule sheaths. Comparable sheaths are restricted among living taxa to calcarean sponges, although the symmetries of the fossil spicules are characteristic of hexactinellid sponges. A similar extinct character combination has been documented in the Burgess Shale fossil Eiffelia. Interpreting the shared characters as homologous implies complex patterns of spicule evolution, but an alternative interpretation as convergent autapomorphies is more parsimonious. In light of the mutually exclusive distributions of these same characters among the crown groups, this result suggests that sponges exhibited an early episode of disparity expansion followed by comparatively constrained evolution, a pattern shared with many other metazoans but obscured by the conventional fossil record of sponges.

Harvey, Thomas H. P.

2010-01-01

384

Preparation and preservation of hypoxia UW solution.  

PubMed

In order to explore the method to prepare hypoxia UW solution and the stability and preservation of hypoxia UW solution, UW solution was purged by argon or air for 15 min or 60 at a flow rate of 0.8 or 2 L/min, and the oxygen partial pressure of UW solution was detected. The hypoxia UW solution was exposed to the air or sealed up to preserve by using different methods, and the changes of oxygen partial pressure was tested. The results showed that oxygen partial presure of 50 mL UW solution, purged by argon for 15 min at a flow rate of 2 L/min, was declined from 242+/-6 mmHg to 83+/-10 mmHg. After exposure to the air, oxygen partial pressure of hypoxia UW solution was gradually increased to 160+/-7 mmHg at 48 h. After sealed up by the centrifuge tube and plastic bad filled with argon, oxygen partial pressure of hypoxia UW solution was stable, about 88+/-13 mmHg at 72 h. It was concluded that oxygen of UW solution could be purged by argon efficiently. Sealed up by the centrifuge tube and plastic bag filled with argon, oxygen partial pressure of UW solution could be stabilized. PMID:18060634

Wan, Chidang; Wang, Chunyou; Liu, Tao; Cheng, Rui; Yang, Zhiyong

2007-10-01

385

Simulating Biological and Non-Biological Motion  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|It is widely accepted that the brain processes biological and non-biological movements in distinct neural circuits. Biological motion, in contrast to non-biological motion, refers to active movements of living beings. Aim of our experiment was to investigate the mechanisms underlying mental simulation of these two movement types. Subjects had to

Bruzzo, Angela; Gesierich, Benno; Wohlschlager, Andreas

2008-01-01

386

Land of the lost: a discussion of what can be preserved through digital preservation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose The aim of this paper is to assist both the National Library of Australia and other institutions to think about digital objects in ways that will help to identify which preservation actions are most appropriate for a particular circumstance. It seeks to examine the basic nature of digital objects and how users interact with those objects. Design\\/methodology\\/approach

Nick del Pozo; Andrew Stawowczyk Long; David Pearson

2010-01-01

387

Collaboration, information, and preservation: Theroleofexpertise in farmland preservation task forces  

Microsoft Academic Search

Collaboration between agencies, private groups, and citizens in the field of natural resource management is generally seen as a productive strategy in challenging management situations. Collaborative management is particularly appealing in efforts like farmland preservation, which depend for their success on local initiative and support. However, such partnerships may create new dilemmas about the appropriate use of information in management.

Katrina Smith Korfmacher; Tomas M. Koontz

2003-01-01

388

Establishment of long-term preservation for dimethyl sulfide by the solid-phase microextraction method.  

PubMed

Dimethyl sulfide (DMS) derived from marine biological activity affects radiative forcing of the climate. The general analytical technique for DMS in seawater (purge and trap analytical method, P&T) is complex onboard ship. Thus it is difficult to obtain sufficient data for a comprehensive understanding of the spatiotemporal variability of DMS in the sea surface layer. On the other hand, a new analytical method for DMS using SPME (solid-phase microextraction) has recently been developed as an alternative method to P&T. This method is simpler than P&T because no special or complex apparatus is needed. If it is possible to preserve DMS for an extended period in excess of the duration of the cruise, the SPME method is a promising method for measuring DMS in seawater. We assessed an analytical method which can allow us to preserve DMS on the long-term scale using SPME. In liquid nitrogen (-196 degrees C), as preserved environment, for a period of 20 days after sampling, we found the preservation rate of DMS to be 94.7 +/- 4.4% (n = 6) in this study. Furthermore, estimating the distribution coefficient with respect to the effect of salinity on SPME, we found that DMS changed by 0.1 nM/% sal, suggesting that salinity has only a minor influence on oceanic DMS measurements in the open ocean because the minimal change of the open ocean salinity is within 2 %. Applying the SPME method to open ocean samples, we found that there were no significant differences in DMS between the unpreserved and preserved samples (r = 0.99, n = 26, SE = 0.01, p < 0.0001), showing the SPME method has potential for use for open ocean surveys. PMID:16808470

Sakamoto, Ai; Niki, Takushi; Watanabe, Yutaka W

2006-07-01

389

The Rhynie cherts: an early Devonian ecosystem preserved by hydrothermal activity.  

PubMed

The Rhynie cherts contain a remarkable early Devonian terrestrial to freshwater biota preserved in siliceous sinter by the action of a precious-metal-bearing hot spring system. Arthropods, vascular and non-vascular plants, algae, fungi and cyanobacteria are present. Preservation ranges from perfect 3D cellular permineralization to compacted coalified films, and can be related to both silicification processes and stages of biological and physical degradation of the plants at the time of silicification. Plants occasionally have original subaerial vertical axes preserved in growth position, and rhizomes bearing rhizoids. The plant litter of the substrate is also partly silicified. Silicification of organic material took place in hot spring pools, by surface flooding of areas with growing plants, and by permeation of the substrate. Sinters recognized include botryoidal geyserite typical of vent margins, and laminated sinter comparable with that of modern sinter terraces. Massive, vuggy, brecciated and nodular sinter textures are also present. At the microscopic level, textures associated with filamentous elements of the biota, and with the preservation of plants, closely match those present in modern sinters. Oxygen isotope and organic geochemical data from the Rhynie cherts indicate a temperature of 90-120 degrees C. This is apparently greater than the temperature at which elements of the biota were preserved and represents subsequent shallow burial in the hot spring system. The range of temperature and chemistry present at the surface provided high local environmental gradients. Current work attempts to identify thermophilic elements of the biota and document environmental zonation of biota relative to hot spring vents. PMID:9243014

Trewin, N H

1996-01-01

390

Ancient dna from pleistocene fossils: Preservation, recovery, and utility of ancient genetic information for quaternary research  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Until recently, recovery and analysis of genetic information encoded in ancient DNA sequences from Pleistocene fossils were impossible. Recent advances in molecular biology offered technical tools to obtain ancient DNA sequences from well-preserved Quaternary fossils and opened the possibilities to directly study genetic changes in fossil species to address various biological and paleontological questions. Ancient DNA studies involving Pleistocene fossil material and ancient DNA degradation and preservation in Quaternary deposits are reviewed. The molecular technology applied to isolate, amplify, and sequence ancient DNA is also presented. Authentication of ancient DNA sequences and technical problems associated with modern and ancient DNA contamination are discussed. As illustrated in recent studies on ancient DNA from proboscideans, it is apparent that fossil DNA sequence data can shed light on many aspects of Quaternary research such as systematics and phylogeny. conservation biology, evolutionary theory, molecular taphonomy, and forensic sciences. Improvement of molecular techniques and a better understanding of DNA degradation during fossilization are likely to build on current strengths and to overcome existing problems, making fossil DNA data a unique source of information for Quaternary scientists.

Yang, Hong

391

Carbon-13 nuclear magnetic resonance analysis of formaldehyde free preservatives.  

PubMed

Preservation of biomolecules is pivotal in increasingly important molecular diagnostics. Traditionally, formaldehyde is employed for such biomolecular preservation in spite of its carcinogenicity. Moreover, formaldehyde induced cross-linking during fixation is reported to alter structural and functional properties of the preserved biomolecules. Therefore, formaldehyde-free preservatives are advantageous because they are safer for laboratory personnel and they protect the structural and functional integrity of the biomolecules. Streck Cell Preservative and Cell-Free DNA BCT reagents are used as formaldehyde alternative preservatives. However, no studies have been carried out to evaluate formaldehyde concentrations in these preservatives. In this study, we evaluated the free formaldehyde concentrations of these reagents by carbon-13 ((13)C) NMR spectroscopic analysis. Chemically non-invasive NMR analysis is more reliable than the traditional derivatization based techniques in formaldehyde detection. (13)C NMR technique can be used for quantitative measurement by using (13)C NMR-relaxation agents. In this manuscript, we report an optimized NMR analysis method using Gadolinium diethylenetriaminepentaacetate. Additionally the data reported herein provide spectral analyses that indicate Streck Cell Preservative and Cell-Free DNA BCT reagents do not contain detectable free formaldehyde. Therefore, these preservatives are safer alternatives than formaldehyde for laboratory use, which can protect the overall integrity of the biomolecules within preserved samples. PMID:23261251

Das, Kausik; Dumais, Joseph; Basiaga, Sara; Krzyzanowski, Gary D

2012-12-21

392

Differential skeletal preservation at Windover Pond: causes and consequences.  

PubMed

In this paper, we evaluate the causes of differential skeletal preservation in the Windover Pond skeletal series (8BR246). We collected data on sex and age for approximately 110 individuals, and calculated a preservation score for each individual based on the presence of 80 skeletal landmarks. Our research questions evaluated the relationship between bone preservation and individual age and sex, and between the presence of preserved brain material and skeletal preservation, and the effects of burial location on bone preservation. The results indicate variability in average preservation for the sample (micro = 0.53, SD = 0.22) with an apparent lack of sex-specific (P = 0.79) or age-specific (P = 0.37) differences in preservation. The relationship between brain and skeletal preservation (P = 0.15) was not significant. The horizontal distribution of burials was not significantly correlated with skeletal preservation (north: r = -0.10, P = 0.93; east: r = 0.09, P = 0.45); however, vertical depth was a significant predictor of preservation (r = -0.31, P = 0.005), indicating that skeletal preservation decreased as burials were located closer to the ground surface. The observed variability in preservation scores may be related to the partial drying and resubmergence of the uppermost burials for the last few millennia. Comparison of Windover element-specific survival rates with previous analyses based on terrestrial samples (Galloway et al. [1997] Forensic taphonomy, Boca Raton: CRC Press; Waldron [1987] Death, decay and reconstruction, Manchester: Manchester University Press; Willey et al. [1997] Am J Phys Anthropol 104:513-528) affirms the relationship between element weight or density and bone survival. The unique taphonomic context of our study sample effected little change in bone deterioration processes. PMID:12209570

Stojanowski, Christopher M; Seidemann, Ryan M; Doran, Glen H

2002-09-01

393

Sterile measurement on the characteristics of chlorophyll fluorescence in plantlets in vitro preserved under low temperature condition  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Micro-environment such as temperature influenced the growth and quality of plantlets in vitro. Chlorophyll fluorescence (ChlF) parameter is an important one for photosynthesis capacity in plant. The modulated chlorophyll fluorescence imaging system can be used for obtaining ChlF imaging and signal of plantlet in vitro because the container has light permeability. Therefore, the biological activity and growth condition of plantlet in vitro can be estimated by sterilely measuring the characteristics of chlorophyll fluorescence. This study determined the parameter of chlorophyll fluorescence in Orychophragmus violaceus plantlets in vitro preserved under different temperature levels (0, 4, and 8C). The results showed that photosynthesis capacity in Orychophragmus violaceus plantlets in vitro preserved under 4C condition were higher than that under 0C or 8C conditions. The plantlets in vitro preserved under 4C condition maintained a high vitality to be subcultured.

Wu, Yanyou; Xing, Deke

394

Information and Knowledge in Biology  

PubMed Central

The second law of thermodynamics accounts for irreversibility of processes in the universe. As a statement about increasing disorder, it also plays a central role in creating order. Structuring is a way of how to increase the rate of dissipation of matter and energy. This is the reason why chemical reactions on Earth have produced a profusion of structures. Chemical structures with particularly high stability, maintained by continual dissipation, are designated, somewhat arbitrarily, as living systems. To preserve stability, organisms are unceasingly performing ontic work, assisted by epistemic work. Biological evolution is a progressing process of knowledge acquisition (cognition) and, correspondingly, of growth of complexity. The acquired knowledge represents epistemic complexity. Biological species are the main bookkeepers of acquired knowledge, with individual members of the species functioning as explorers of novelty. Science, a human species-specific mode of acquiring knowledge, abounds in metaphors no less than art. In the postgenomic era, the metaphor of information, along with the related metaphor of selfish genes, may need reconsideration and/or complementation. The world of great complexity, which is becoming the focus of studies of contemporary biology, may requiresimilarly as is the case of quantum physicsdescriptions based on the principle of complementarity. Embodied knowledge, molecular engine, ontic and epistemic work, and triggering may become parts of a new conceptual armory.

2007-01-01

395

Event preservation in lagoonal reef systems  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Paleontological data suggest that coral populations in the Caribbean were consistently healthy for the past 2 3 k.y. Beginning in the 1980s, however, disease outbreaks, bleaching episodes, hurricanes, and other perturbations caused catastrophic coral mortality and regional turnover. An alternative hypothesis, based on historical sources, posits that coral populations were already declining more than a century ago. These hypotheses can be distinguished only if turnover events are reliably preserved in the Holocene record of coral reefs. Push-cores extracted from uncemented lagoonal reefs in Belize showed that a direct hit by Hurricane Iris in 2001 did not disrupt the signature of the recent turnover event, which entered the subfossil record essentially intact. Cores from lagoonal systems in several areas of the Caribbean do not support the hypothesis that corals declined before the 1980s.

Aronson, Richard B.; MacIntyre, Ian G.; Precht, William F.

2005-09-01

396

Preserving Native American petroglyphs on porous sandstone  

USGS Publications Warehouse

A new method of chemical treatment is proposed to improve the durability of soft, porous sandstones onto which Native American petroglyphs have been carved. Cores of Dakota Sandstone from the Faris Cave site, located along the Smoky Hill River in Ellsworth County, Kansas, were treated with ethyl silicate dissolved in a lightweight ketone carrier, and some cores were subsequently treated with a combination of ethyl silicate and silane using the same solvent. Measurement of the resulting physical properties, when compared to untreated cores, indicate the treatments substantially increased the compressive strength and freeze-thaw resistance of the stone without discoloring the stone or completely sealing the pore system. The treatment increases the durability of the stone and provides a method for preserving the petroglyphs at the site. After treating test panels at the site, the petroglyphs were treated in like manner.

Grisafe, D. A.

1996-01-01

397

Memory preservation made prestigious but easy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Preserving memories combined with story-telling using either photo books for multiple images or high quality products such as one or a few images printed on canvas or images mounted on acryl to create high-quality wall decorations are gradually becoming more popular than classical 4*6 prints and classical silver halide posters. Digital printing via electro photography and ink jet is increasingly replacing classical silver halide technology as the dominant production technology for these kinds of products. Maintaining a consistent and comparable quality of output is becoming more challenging than using silver halide paper for both, prints and posters. This paper describes a unique approach of combining both desktop based software to initiate a compelling project and the use of online capabilities in order to finalize and optimize that project in an online environment in a community process. A comparison of the consumer behavior between online and desktop based solutions for generating photo books will be presented.

Fageth, Reiner; Debus, Christina; Sandhaus, Philipp

2011-01-01

398

Structures preserved by the QR-algorithm  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this paper we investigate some classes of structures that are preserved by applying a (shifted) QR-step on a matrix A. We will handle two classes of such structures: the first we call polynomial structures, for example a matrix being Hermitian or Hermitian up to a rank one correction, and the second we call rank structures, which are encountered for example in all kinds of what we could call Hessenberg-like and lower semiseparable-like matrices. An advantage of our approach is that we define a structure by decomposing it as a collection of `building stones' which we call structure blocks. This allows us to state the results in their natural, most general context.

Delvaux, Steven; van Barel, Marc

2006-03-01

399

Structure-preserving desynchronization of minority games  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Perfect synchronicity in N-player games is a useful theoretical dream, but communication delays are inevitable and may result in asynchronous interactions. Some systems such as financial markets are asynchronous by design, and yet most theoretical models assume perfectly synchronized actions. We propose a general method to transform standard models of adaptive agents into asynchronous systems while preserving their global structure under some conditions. Using the minority game as an example, we find that the phase and fluctuations structure of the standard game subsists even in maximally asynchronous deterministic case, but that it disappears if too much stochasticity is added to the temporal structure of interaction. Allowing for heterogeneous communication speeds and activity patterns gives rise to a new information ecology that we study in details. in here

Mosetti, G.; Challet, D.; Solomon, S.

2009-10-01

400

Organic solderability preservation evaluation. Topical report  

SciTech Connect

An evaluation was conducted to determine the possible replacement of the hot air solder leveling (HASL) process used in the Allied Signal Federal Manufacturing & Technologies (FM&T) Printed Wiring Board Facility with an organic solderability preservative (OSP). The drivers for replacing HASL include (1) Eliminating lead from PWB fabrication processes; (2) Potential legislation restricting use of lead, (3) Less expensive processing utilizing OSP rather than HASL processing; (4) Avoiding solder dross disposal inherent with HASL processing, (5) OSP provides flat, planar surface required for surface mount technology product, and (6) Trend to thinner PWB designs. A reduction in the cost of nonconformance (CONC) due to HASL defects (exposed copper, solderability, dewetting and non-wetting) would be realized with the incorporation of the OSP process. Several supplier HASL replacement candidates were initially evaluated. One supplier chemistry was chosen for potential use in the FM&T PWB and assembly areas.

Becka, G.A.; McHenry, M.R.; Slanina, J.T.

1997-03-01

401

Preserved semantic priming effect in alexia.  

PubMed

BH, a left-handed patient with alexia and nonfluent aphasia, was presented with a lexical-decision task in which words and pronounceable pseudowords were preceded by semantically related or unrelated picture primes (Experiment 1). In Experiment 2, BH was given an explicit reading task using the word lists from Experiment 1. Performance on Experiment 2 disclosed severe reading deficits in both oral reading and semantic matching of the words to pictures. However, in Experiment 1, BH demonstrated a significant semantic priming effect, responding more accurately and more quickly to words preceded by related primes than by unrelated primes. The present results suggest that even in a patient with severe alexia, implicit access to semantic information can be preserved in the absence of explicit identification. The possibility of categorical gradient in implicit activation (living vs. nonliving) in BH was also discussed, which, however, needs to be clarified in the further investigation. PMID:8866057

Mimura, M; Goodglass, H; Milberg, W

1996-09-01

402

Organ preservation using a photosynthetic solution  

PubMed Central

Background Organs harvested from a body lapsing into circulatory deficit are exposed to low O2/high CO2, and reach a critical point where original functionality after transplantation is unlikely. The present study evaluates the effect of respiratory assistance using Chlorella photosynthesis on preservation of the rat pancreas from the viewpoint of donation after cardiac death (DCD). Methods Gas was exchanged through the peritoneum of rats under controlled ventilation with or without Chlorella photosynthetic respiratory assistance. A gas permeable pouch containing Chlorella in solution was placed in the peritoneum and then the space between the pouch and the peritoneum was filled with an emulsified perfluorocarbon gas carrier. Rat DCD pancreases procured 3?h after cardiac arrest were preserved for 30?min in a cold or mildly hypothermic environment or in a mildly hypothermic environment with photosynthetic respiratory support. The pancreases were then heterotopically transplanted into rats with STZ-induced diabetes. Results Levels of blood oxygen (PaO2) and carbon dioxide (PaCO2) increased and significantly decreased, respectively, in rats with mechanically reduced ventilation and rats given intraperitoneal photosynthetic respiratory support when compared with those without such support. Transplantation with DCD pancreases that had been stored under photosynthetic respiratory support resulted in the survival of all rats, which is impossible to achieve using pancreases that have been maintained statically in cold storage. Conclusion Respiratory assistance using photosynthesis helps to improve not only blood gas status in the event of respiratory insufficiency, but also graft recovery after pancreas transplantation with a DCD pancreas that has been damaged by prolonged warm ischemia.

2012-01-01

403

Preserving noble gases in a convecting mantle.  

PubMed

High (3)He/(4)He ratios sampled at many ocean islands are usually attributed to an essentially undegassed lower-mantle reservoir with high (3)He concentrations. A large and mostly undegassed mantle reservoir is also required to balance the Earth's (40)Ar budget, because only half of the (40)Ar produced from the radioactive decay of (40)K is accounted for by the atmosphere and upper mantle. However, geophysical and geochemical observations suggest slab subduction into the lower mantle, implying that most or all of Earth's mantle should have been processed by partial melting beneath mid-ocean ridges and hotspot volcanoes. This should have left noble gases in both the upper and the lower mantle extensively outgassed, contrary to expectations from (3)He/(4)He ratios and the Earth's (40)Ar budget. Here we suggest a simple solution: recycling and mixing of noble-gas-depleted slabs dilutes the concentrations of noble gases in the mantle, thereby decreasing the rate of mantle degassing and leaving significant amounts of noble gases in the processed mantle. As a result, even when the mass flux across the 660-km seismic discontinuity is equivalent to approximately one lower-mantle mass over the Earth's history, high (3)He contents, high (3)He/(4)He ratios and (40)Ar concentrations high enough to satisfy the (40)Ar mass balance of the Earth can be preserved in the lower mantle. The differences in (3)He/(4)He ratios between mid-ocean-ridge basalts and ocean island basalts, as well as high concentrations of (3)He and (40)Ar in the mantle source of ocean island basalts, can be explained within the framework of different processing rates for the upper and the lower mantle. Hence, to preserve primitive noble gas signatures, we find no need for hidden reservoirs or convective isolation of the lower mantle for any length of time. PMID:19478782

Gonnermann, Helge M; Mukhopadhyay, Sujoy

2009-05-28

404

Participation in Investigational Fertility Preservation Research: A Feminist Research Ethics Approach  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a The goals and rhetoric of The Oncofertility Consortium (National Institutes of Health. NIH Roadmap for Medical Research. Funded\\u000a Research: Interdisciplinary Research, Interdisciplinary Research Consortium. http:\\/\\/nihroadmap.nih.gov\\/interdisciplinary\\/fundedresearch.asp.\\u000a Accessed August 25, 2009) are aimed toward preserving cancer patients reproductive choices and facilitating their reproductive\\u000a autonomy after cancer. While the end goals of oncofertility research are oriented toward safeguarding the possibility of biological\\u000a reproduction

Michelle L. McGowan

405

Redox biology of the intestine  

PubMed Central

The intestinal tract, known for its capability for self-renew, represents the first barrier of defense between the organism and its luminal environment. The thiol/disulfide redox systems comprising the glutathione/glutathione disulfide (GSH/GSSG), cysteine/cystine (Cys/CySS) and reduced and oxidized thioredoxin (Trx/TrxSS) redox couples play important roles in preserving tissue redox homeostasis, metabolic functions, and cellular integrity. Control of the thiol-disulfide status at the luminal surface is essential for maintaining mucus fluidity and absorption of nutrients, and protection against chemical-induced oxidant injury. Within intestinal cells, these redox couples preserve an environment that supports physiological processes and orchestrates networks of enzymatic reactions against oxidative stress. In this review, we focus on the intestinal redox and antioxidant systems, their subcellular compartmentation, redox signaling and epithelial turnover, and contribution of luminal microbiota, key aspects that are relevant to understanding redox-dependent processes in gut biology with implications for degenerative digestive disorders, such as inflammation and cancer.

Circu, Magdalena L.; Aw, Tak Yee

2011-01-01

406

[Biologic artifacts in quantitative EEG].  

PubMed

We studied the influence of five biologic artifacts sources on quantitative EEG (blinking, forced eyes closure, forced jaw closure, tongue movements and pursuit eyes movements) through both visual and spectral analysis, with the purpose of verifying how do these artifacts can be seen in a cartographic way. We found that the spectrums potentials showed the same topographic display that was found through visual analysis. Visual analysis was superior than the quantitative evaluation to recognise the artifacts, as the former preserved the morphological display of the paroxysms. However it is important know how do the potentials are represented in quantitative maps, so that they can be identified as artifacts and not as pathologic EEG activity. PMID:16791367

Anghinah, Renato; Basile, Luis I; Schmidt, Magali T; Sameshima, Koichi; Gattaz, Wagner Farid

2006-06-09

407

Muscle torque preservation and physical activity in individuals with stroke  

PubMed Central

Background A greater percent loss of concentric versus eccentric muscle torque (i.e., relative eccentric muscle torque preservation) has been reported in the paretic limb of individuals with stroke and has been attributed to hypertonia and/or co-contractions. Stroke provides a unique condition for examining mechanisms underlying eccentric muscle preservation because both limbs experience similar amounts of general physical activity, but the paretic side is impaired directly by the brain lesion. Purpose The purpose of this study was to determine 1) whether eccentric preservation also exists in the nonparetic limb and 2) the relationship of eccentric or concentric torque preservation with physical activity in stroke. We hypothesized that the nonparetic muscles would demonstrate eccentric muscle preservation, which would suggest that non-neural mechanisms may also contribute to its relative preservation. Methods Eighteen stroke and 18 healthy control subjects (age and sex matched) completed a physical activity questionnaire. Maximum voluntary concentric and eccentric joint torques of the ankle, knee and hip flexors and extensors were measured using an isokinetic dynamometer at 30/s for the paretic and nonparetic muscles. Relative concentric and eccentric peak torque preservation were expressed as a percentage of control subject torque. Results Relative eccentric torque was higher (more preserved) than relative concentric torque for paretic, as well as nonparetic muscles. Physical activity correlated with paretic (r=0.640, p=0.001) and nonparetic concentric torque preservation (r=0.508, p=0.009), but not with eccentric torque preservation for either leg. Conclusions The relative preservation of eccentric torque in the nonparetic muscles suggest a role of non-neural mechanisms and could also explain the preservation observed in other chronic health conditions. Loss of concentric, but not eccentric muscle torque was related to physical inactivity in stroke.

Eng, Janice J.; Lomaglio, Melanie J.; MacIntyre, Donna L.

2011-01-01

408

Preserved fruit image classification using visual contents of images  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Preserved Fruits are one of the famous and traditional Chinese agriculture foods. In this paper, we propose a method that utilizes color and texture features s for Preserved Fruits image classification. We use color moments and subband's statistics of wavelet decomposition as color and texture features respectively. A wide range of Preserved Fruits images are tested to evaluate the performance of the proposed method. The experimental results show that the scheme has produced promising results.

Jian, Muwei; Zhang, Chaoqin; Liu, Lei; Yin, Cheng

2009-07-01

409

Buyer-Type Effects in Conservation and Preservation Property Values  

Microsoft Academic Search

Properties can be bought by government agencies, land trusts, or private entities for conservation and preservation purposes,\\u000a such as farmland preservation, wildlife refuges, other conservation, and cultural and historical preservation. There is variation\\u000a in the dollars paid per acre across properties and across buyer type. An option value model based on future potential land\\u000a uses is used to explain much

Jason A. Winfree; Jill J. McCluskey; Ron C. Mittelhammer

2006-01-01

410

Resveratrol nanosuspensions: interaction of preservatives with nanocrystal production.  

PubMed

The effect of six different preservatives on the production process and stability of resveratrol nanosuspensions was investigated. Nanosuspensions of the anti-oxidant resveratrol were prepared by high pressure homogenization (1,500 bar, 20 homogenization cycles). The preservatives used were: caprylyl glycol (0.75%), Euxyl PE 9010 (1.0%), Hydrolite-5 (2.0), Phenonip (0.75%), Rokonsal PB-5 (0.5%) and MultiEx Naturotics (2.0%). Preservation is essential for oral and dermal nanosuspensions, but can impair the stability. The effect of the preservatives on stability as a function of cycle numbers was determined by size measurements (photon correlation spectroscopy (PCS), laser diffraction (LD) and light microscopy). Zeta potential measurements were performed for determination of the Stern potential (measurements in water) and as stability criterion (measurements in original dispersion medium), to elucidate the mechanism of destabilization. The preservatives could be placed into three groups. Hydrolite-5 did not affect the production process and the short term stability, sizes were practically identical to the preservative-free nanosuspension (e.g. PCS diameters 196 nm and 184 nm, respectively). All other preservatives impaired the stability medium to pronounced, being most pronounced for MultiEx Naturotics. Hydrolite-5 is recommended as preservative of choice. A mechanistic model was developed to explain the absence and the different degrees of destabilization. In general, when screening for suitable preservatives, suspensions are produced, different preservatives added and the size changes are monitored over long-term. The destabilizing effect of the preservatives on nanosuspensions became evident when added in the production process immediately, thus this can be used as a screening tool for optimal, non-destabilizing preservatives, replacing or minimizing time-consuming long-term stability studies. PMID:22312699

Kobierski, S; Ofori-Kwakye, K; Mller, R H; Keck, C M

2011-12-01

411

Lipid Rafts in Mast Cell Biology  

PubMed Central

Mast cells have long been recognized to have a direct and critical role in allergic and inflammatory reactions. In allergic diseases, these cells exert both local and systemic responses, including allergic rhinitis and anaphylaxis. Mast cell mediators are also related to many chronic inflammatory conditions. Besides the roles in pathological conditions, the biological functions of mast cells include roles in innate immunity, involvement in host defense mechanisms against parasites, immunomodulation of the immune system, tissue repair, and angiogenesis. Despite their growing significance in physiological and pathological conditions, much still remains to be learned about mast cell biology. This paper presents evidence that lipid rafts or raft components modulate many of the biological processes in mast cells, such as degranulation and endocytosis, play a role in mast cell development and recruitment, and contribute to the overall preservation of mast cell structure and organization.

Silveira e Souza, Adriana Maria Mariano; Mazucato, Vivian Marino; Jamur, Maria Celia; Oliver, Constance

2011-01-01

412

Thanksgiving Biology  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The first Web site (1) is an article from State University of New York College of Environmental Sciences and Forestry. It provides a short, readable introduction to the biology and natural history of wild turkeys in the US. Wild or domesticated, turkey meat is well know for its soporific power. Visitors to the Web site from International Anti-aging Systems (2) can learn all about tryptophan, the amino acid responsible for the post-Thanksgiving dinner nap. Also found in turkey (but much less appealing) is the Salmonella bacteria, which can cause debilitating illness in humans. The third Web site (3), from Centers for Disease Control Division of Bacterial and Mycotic Diseases, offers a reliable source of information about salmonellosis. Environmental Health and Safety Online offers some facts and figures about contaminated turkeys, citing studies from the Center for Science in the Public Interest (4). The wild turkey would have become the national bird of the US if Benjamin Franklin had his way, but North America isn't the only continent that's home to wild turkeys. The fifth Web site (5) from the University of New South Wales introduces the Australian Brush Turkey. The cranberry, another Thanksgiving staple, is one of the few native fruits grown commercially in North America. The Cranberry Institute offers a brief introduction to the history, botany, and harvest of cranberries (6). The University of Illinois Extension provides an in-depth Web site devoted to nothing but pumpkins, including a recipe for Traditional Pumpkin Pie (7). The final Web site, from iVillage, clears up in a brief explanation the confusion about yams and sweet potatoes (8).

Sohmer, Rachel.

2002-01-01

413

Antimicrobial preservative use in parenteral products: past and present.  

PubMed

The following review provides a comprehensive summary of antimicrobial preservatives that are commonly used in licensed parenteral products to date. The information reviewed includes the general properties of the preservatives, the doses and frequency of their use, the classes of the preserved products (peptide, protein, vaccine, and small molecule products), the interactions with other formulation components, and the criteria commonly used for their selection in parental product formulations. It was revealed that phenol and benzyl alcohol are the two most common antimicrobial preservatives used in peptide and protein products, while phenoxyethanol is the most frequently used preservative in vaccines. Benzyl alcohol or a combination of methylparaben and propylparaben are generally found in small molecule parenteral formulations. The key criteria for antimicrobial preservative selection are the preservative's dose, antimicrobial functionality, and effect on the active ingredient. Additionally, the use of spectroscopic techniques (circular dicroism (CD) and fluorescence) and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) were identified as common techniques used in evaluating an antimicrobial preservative for its impact on the conformational stability of peptide, protein, and vaccine antigens. The future use of preservatives is also discussed, including antimicrobial agents such as peptides, and regulatory requirements for antimicrobial effectiveness testing. PMID:17722087

Meyer, Brian K; Ni, Alex; Hu, Binghua; Shi, Li

2007-12-01

414

Molecular preservation in Late Cretaceous sauropod dinosaur eggshells  

PubMed Central

Exceptionally preserved sauropod eggshells discovered in Upper Cretaceous (Campanian) deposits in Patagonia, Argentina, contain skeletal remains and soft tissues of embryonic Titanosaurid dinosaurs. To preserve these labile embryonic remains, the rate of mineral precipitation must have superseded post-mortem degradative processes, resulting in virtually instantaneous mineralization of soft tissues. If so, mineralization may also have been rapid enough to retain fragments of original biomolecules in these specimens. To investigate preservation of biomolecular compounds in these well-preserved sauropod dinosaur eggshells, we applied multiple analytical techniques. Results demonstrate organic compounds and antigenic structures similar to those found in extant eggshells.

Schweitzer, M.H; Chiappe, L; Garrido, A.C; Lowenstein, J.M; Pincus, S.H

2005-01-01

415

Local energy-preserving and momentum-preserving algorithms for coupled nonlinear Schrdinger system  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this paper, local energy and momentum conservation laws are proposed for the coupled nonlinear Schrdinger system. The two local conservation laws are more essential than global conservation laws since they are independent of the boundary conditions. Based on the rule that numerical algorithms should conserve the intrinsic properties of the original problems as much as possible, we propose local energy-preserving and momentum-preserving algorithms for the problem. The proposed algorithms conserve the local energy and momentum conservation laws in any local time-space region, respectively. With periodic boundary conditions, we prove the proposed algorithms admit the charge, global energy and global momentum conservation laws. Numerical experiments are conducted to show the performance of the proposed methods. Numerical results verify the theoretical analysis.

Cai, Jiaxiang; Wang, Yushun; Liang, Hua

2013-04-01

416

The new approaches to preservation of graft cell integrity in preservation for transplantation.  

PubMed

Restoration of cell plasma membrane integrity after injury is essential for the survival of animal cells. In case of graft preservation or during chemotherapy in cancer, cell membrane integrity and the process of its repair are disrupted. Cytoprotective substances are important in such cases, as well as in other diseases, for example in myocardial infarction, acute insults and in chronic neurodegenerative diseases. Hyperosmolarity is a condition in which cell membrane stability may be damaged in vivo but preserved in the in vitro conditions. Hypertonicity causes water leaving from cells by osmosis, decreasing cell volume and increasing of intracellular ionic strength. High intracellular ionic strength perturbs cellular function by decreasing the rates of biochemical reaction. We review the new experimentally studied cytoprotective substances and their application in cell membrane protection. Moreover, we present our data on the effects of hyperosmolarity and its protective effect on cell internal structure. PMID:17037081

Gewartowska, Magdalena; Olszewski, Waldemar L

2005-01-01

417

Improving oral rehabilitation through the preservation of the tissues through alveolar preservation.  

PubMed

When performing a tooth extraction, imminent collapse of the tissue by resorption and remodeling of the socket is a natural occurrence. The procedure for the preservation of the alveolar ridge has been widely described in the dental literatures and aims to maintain hard and soft tissues in the extraction site for optimal rehabilitation either with conventional fixed or removable prosthetics or implant-supported prosthesis. PMID:22977727

Afrashtehfar, Kelvin Ian; Kurtzman, Gregori Michael; Mahesh, Lanka

2012-08-28

418

Improving oral rehabilitation through the preservation of the tissues through alveolar preservation  

PubMed Central

When performing a tooth extraction, imminent collapse of the tissue by resorption and remodeling of the socket is a natural occurrence. The procedure for the preservation of the alveolar ridge has been widely described in the dental literatures and aims to maintain hard and soft tissues in the extraction site for optimal rehabilitation either with conventional fixed or removable prosthetics or implant-supported prosthesis.

Kurtzman, Gregori Michael; Mahesh, Lanka

2012-01-01

419

Treatment-Mediated Alterations in HIV Fitness Preserve CD4+ T Cell Counts but Have Minimal Effects on Viral Load  

Microsoft Academic Search

For most HIV-infected patients, antiretroviral therapy controls viral replication. However, in some patients drug resistance can cause therapy to fail. Nonetheless, continued therapy with a failing regimen can preserve or even lead to increases in CD4+ T cell counts. To understand the biological basis of these observations, we used mathematical models to explain observations made in patients with drug-resistant HIV

Naveen K. Vaidya; Libin Rong; Vincent C. Marconi; Daniel R. Kuritzkes; Steven G. Deeks; Alan S. Perelson; Christophe Fraser

2010-01-01

420

Models for synthetic biology  

Microsoft Academic Search

Synthetic biological engineering is emerging from biology as a distinct discipline based on quantification. The technologies propelling synthetic biology are not new, nor is the concept of designing novel biological molecules. What is new is the emphasis on system behavior. The objective is the design and construction of new biological devices and systems to deliver useful applications. Numerous synthetic gene

Yiannis N Kaznessis

2007-01-01

421

Preservation technologies for fresh meat A review  

Microsoft Academic Search

Fresh meat is a highly perishable product due to its biological composition. Many interrelated factors influence the shelf life and freshness of meat such as holding temperature, atmospheric oxygen (O2), endogenous enzymes, moisture, light and most importantly, micro-organisms. With the increased demand for high quality, convenience, safety, fresh appearance and an extended shelf life in fresh meat products, alternative non-thermal

G. H. Zhou; X. L. Xu; Y. Liu

2010-01-01

422

Knowledge, change and the preservation of progress.  

PubMed

Respect for traditional knowledge is urges as a source of learning to understand where societies originate. A Western understanding of traditional cultural knowledge must go beyond an understanding of fundamental values that give meaning; there must be a change in the cultural perception of development. There operates a complex interaction among artistic and spiritual practices, language and communication, patterns of social reproduction, practices in community governance, and management of natural and human resources. There are contradictions because cultural expression is a diverse combination of individual and collective capacities to manage the social, political, economic, and environmental aspects of life. Quick solutions sometimes lead to romanticized notions of cultural knowledge, rather than being systematic and historical and part of the cultural milieu. From the ethnic perspective, traditional knowledge is seen as "indigenous" or an expression of "curious" traditions and practices of native peoples which are different from one's own perspective. Viewing traditional knowledge in this fashion detaches it from rites, languages, and community practices. When reduced to a utilitarian economic notion, traditional knowledge is separated from the lessons drawn from survival strategies and practices of "materially impoverished peoples." Sometimes, the application of this knowledge bypasses recognition of the part played by traditional peoples. People in the North or industrialized countries neglect the human and sociocultural basis of knowledge, even though there have been attempts to reclaim cultural knowledge as part of development efforts. There remain many questions about how to better understand traditional knowledge, how to preserve it in a meaningful way, and how to apply it to sustain development. There is no consensus about what traditional knowledge is and how it is "genuinely" expressed. The definition of traditional knowledge is as a body of information about values and customs that guide interaction among people and between people and nature in a systematic way. The "blueprint for remodeling the world order" is still based on a Western notion of correctness, science, and progress. The threat among developing countries is how to preserve the shared knowledge of human learning that has been handed down for generations. PMID:12286445

Morales-gomez, D A

1993-04-01

423

Soil preservation by afforestation in changing climate  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Observed climate changes in Vojvodina (northern part of Republic Serbia) are reflected in the increasing of average annual air temperature and decrasing of precipitation. The data suggest that the increase of average annual air temperature in the period 1998-2008 compared to period 1960-1991 was higher for 1C. Reduction of rainfall was recorded for December, January, February and May. These decreasing of rainfall with an increase of average air temperature in the vegetation period (July 1.2C and 1.7C in August) leading to longer and more frequent dry periods. Forest aridity index (FAI) increase from period 1960-1991 continuously. In period 1960-1991 FAI for Vojvodina was 5,74 and in period from 2000-2010 the average FAI was 7,57. This increasing FAI means warmer and dryer weather in the main growth cycle and in the critical month. Longer and more frequent dry periods lead to unfavorable conditions for the growth of many tree species in region like Vojvodina. Soil erosion leads to the degradation of fertile soils in Vojvodina (about 83.24% of soils are used for agricultural production). The main soil type is chernozem. A significant role of chernozem protection and conservation is attributed to different forms of forest and non-forest greenery, such as protection forests, shelterbelts, tree rows, hunting preserves and other forms of amenity and ornamental greenery. This paper analyses the possibility of afforestation of tree and shurb species in different forms of protection forests, shelterbelts, tree rows, hunting preserves and other forms of amenity and ornamental greenery in Vojvodina considering future climate change. The selection of tree species is the base of establishment of different forms of greenery aimed at the prevention of destructive processes in future. Key words: climate change, soil degradation, afforestation Acknowledgement This paper was realized as a part of the project "Studying climate change and its influence on the environment: impacts, adaptation and mitigation" (43007) financed by the Ministry of Education and Science of the Republic of Serbia within the framework of integrated and interdisciplinary research for the period 2011-2014.

Galic, Z.; Orlovic, S.

2012-04-01

424

Invasion Biology and Biological Control 1  

Microsoft Academic Search

Analysis of some current issues in invasion biology that relate to exotic pests illustrates the linkage between this discipline and biological control and reveals opportunities for invasion biologists and biological control workers to mutually advance their respective disciplines. Concepts such as the tens rule, early-stage subdectability, and long latency period from invasion to first detection should be viewed as working

L. E. Ehler

1998-01-01

425

Biosimilar Biological Products  

Center for Drug Evaluation (CDER)

Text VersionPage 1. Biosimilar Biological Products Rachel E. Sherman, MD, MPH ... Antibody Biological Products Biological products may be manufactured ... More results from www.fda.gov/downloads/drugs/developmentapprovalprocess

426

Biologics License Applications  

Center for Drug Evaluation (CDER)

Text Version... CDER? Page 25. Therapeutic Biological Products (TBP) ... Page 32. Biological Products Biological Products Not Not regulated by CDER !!! ... More results from www.fda.gov/downloads/drugs/newsevents

427

Biological Interactions of Nanomaterials.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The Biological Interactions of Nanomaterials project focuses on biological characterization of nanomaterials of particular interest to the Air Force. This report describes the basic mechanism of biological interactions of engineered nanomaterials, and exp...

A. M. Schrand J. L. Speshock K. O. Yu L. K. Braydich-Stolle S. M. Hussain

2008-01-01

428

Treeline biogeochemistry and dynamics, Noatak National Preserve, northwestern Alaska  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The extensive boreal biome is little studies relative to its global importance. Its high soil moisture and low temperatures result in large below-ground reservoirs of carbon (C) and nitrogen (N). Presently, such high-latitude ecosystems are undergoing the largest temperature increases in global warming. Change in soil temperature or moisture in the large pools of soil organic matter could fundamentally change ecosystem C and N budgets. Since 1990, we have conducted treeline studies in a small (800 ha) watershed in Noatak National Preserve, northwestern Alaska. Our objectives were to (1) gain an understanding of treeline dynamics, structure, and function; and (2) examine the effects of global climate change, particularly soil temperature, moisture, and N availability, on ecosystem processes. Our intensive site studies show that the treeline has advanced into turdra during the past 150 years. Inplace and laboratory incubations indicate that soil organic-layer mineralization rates increase with a temperature change >5 degrees C. N availability was greatest in soils beneath alder and lowest beneath willow or cottongrass tussocks. Watershed output of inorganic N as NO3 was 70 percent greater than input. The high inorganic-N output likely reflects soil freeze-thaw cycles, shallow flowpaths to the stream, and low seasonal biological retention. Concentrations and flux of dissolved organic carbon (DOC) in streamwater increased during spring melt and in autumn, indicating a seasonal accumulation of soil and forest-floor DOC and a shallower flowpath for meltwater to the stream. In sum, our research suggests that treeling transitionzone processes are quite sensitive to climate change, especially those functions regulating the C and N cycles.

Stottlemyer, R.; Binkley, D.; Steltzer, H.

2002-01-01

429

EFFECT OF DIFFERENT PRESERVATIVES ON THE HUMAN SOFT TISSUES STORED AT DIFFERENT TEMPERATURES AND INTERVALS OF TIME FOR THE ISOLATION OF DNA FOR DNA FINGERPRINTING  

Microsoft Academic Search

The major problem faced by the forensic laboratories is to get the samples in proper conditions. Most of the biological samples brought for DNA analysis are either partially degraded or completely degraded and many a times it is not possible to extract DNA from them. It necessitates the optimization of the temperature conditions and preservatives for the storage of the

Anupuma Raina; Bhuvnesh K. Yadav; S Lalwani; TD Dogra

2006-01-01

430

Preservation of arm veins for arterial reconstruction.  

PubMed

The results of surgery for lower extremity salvage have improved steadily over the past decade. One of the principles accounting for this advance is the preferential use of autogenous veins for peripheral bypass surgery. Nonautogenous and prosthetic grafts to the infrageniculate (below knee) level have patency rates significantly lower than autogenous bypasses. Currently, the technical limits of bypass surgery often depend upon the availability of adequate venous conduits. The saphenous vein has been the conduit of choice for distal arterial bypasses. However, some patients lack saphenous veins as a result of previous vein harvesting for coronary or other arterial surgery, phlebitis, variations in venous anatomy, previous vein stripping, or other conditions. In these patients, arm veins (cephalic and basilic) have been used successfully for limb salvage. There are several requirements for the successful use of arm veins. These include a detailed knowledge of the anatomy of the cephalic and basilic veins, education of patients and health care professionals, nursing protocols to preserve arm veins, and the training of surgical nurses in the demanding technical maneuvers for arm vein implantation. This paper will address these subjects. PMID:1599859

Apyan, R L; Schneider, P A; Andros, G

1992-06-01

431

Predicting locations of carbon preservation in Cretaceous  

SciTech Connect

The widespread deposition of organic-rich, black shales during the Cretaceous indicates that significant parts of the global ocean were periodically anoxic. Enhanced accumulation of organic carbon is usually attributed to increased primary production in regions of upwelling and/or increased input of carbon from terrestrial sources. An alternative hypothesis is that the enhanced accumulation was due to oxygen-depleted depositional environments. The difficulty associated with increasing the carbon flux to the deep oceans is appreciated by consideration of the present-day fluxes. The carbon production from upwelling regions and from terrestrial sources is only 0.1% and 2-4% respectively of the total net carbon from the euphotic zone. Therefore, to achieve Cretaceous accumulation rates would require dramatic increases in these carbon sources. To produce anoxic deep water that preserves organic matter requires an initial source of dense surface water, depleted in oxygen. As this dense water sinks and spreads, its oxygen will be further depleted by oxidation of settling organic matter. Two settings that can produce the initially dense water are marginal seas like the Mediterranean and seas with wind-induced trapping like the Wedell Sea. The trajectory of the sinking water will be determined by Coriolis effects, dilution by entrainment of interior water, and the local bathymetry. The keys to predicting source rocks formed by this proposed mechanism are, together with paleogeographic maps, simple models of Cretaceous oceanic atmospheric circulation.

Southam, J.

1988-02-01

432

Sleep for preserving and transforming episodic memory.  

PubMed

Sleep is known to support memory consolidation. Here we review evidence for an active system consolidation occurring during sleep. At the beginning of this process is sleep's ability to preserve episodic experiences preferentially encoded in hippocampal networks. Repeated neuronal reactivation of these representations during slow-wave sleep transforms episodic representations into long-term memories, redistributes them toward extrahippocampal networks, and qualitatively changes them to decontextualized schema-like representations. Electroencephalographic (EEG) oscillations regulate the underlying communication: Hippocampal sharp-wave ripples coalescing with thalamic spindles mediate the bottom-up transfer of reactivated memory information to extrahippocampal regions. Neocortical slow oscillations exert a supraordinate top-down control to synchronize hippocampal reactivations of specific memories to their excitable up-phase, thus allowing plastic changes in extrahippocampal regions. We propose that reactivations during sleep are a general mechanism underlying the abstraction of temporally stable invariants from a flow of input that is solely structured in time, thus representing a basic mechanism of memory formation. PMID:23642099

Inostroza, Marion; Born, Jan

2013-04-29

433

Working memory is partially preserved during sleep.  

PubMed

Although several cognitive processes, including speech processing, have been studied during sleep, working memory (WM) has never been explored up to now. Our study assessed the capacity of WM by testing speech perception when the level of background noise and the sentential semantic length (SSL) (amount of semantic information required to perceive the incongruence of a sentence) were modulated. Speech perception was explored with the N400 component of the event-related potentials recorded to sentence final words (50% semantically congruent with the sentence, 50% semantically incongruent). During sleep stage 2 and paradoxical sleep: (1) without noise, a larger N400 was observed for (short and long SSL) sentences ending with a semantically incongruent word compared to a congruent word (i.e. an N400 effect); (2) with moderate noise, the N400 effect (observed at wake with short and long SSL sentences) was attenuated for long SSL sentences. Our results suggest that WM for linguistic information is partially preserved during sleep with a smaller capacity compared to wake. PMID:23236418

Daltrozzo, Jrme; Claude, La; Tillmann, Barbara; Bastuji, Hlne; Perrin, Fabien

2012-12-07

434

Dipole preserving and polarization consistent charges.  

PubMed

A method for estimating dipole preserving and polarization consistent (DPPC) charges is described, which reproduces exactly the molecular dipole moment as well as the local, atomic hybridization dipoles determined from the corresponding wave function and can yield accurate molecular polarization. The method is based on a model described by Thole and van Duijnen and a new feature is introduced to treat molecular polarization. Thus, the DPPC method offers a convenient procedure to describe molecular polarization in applications using semiempirical models and ab initio molecular orbital theory with relatively small basis functions such as 6-31+G(d,p) or without inclusion of electron correlation; these methods tend to underestimate molecular polarizability. The trends of the DPPC partial atomic charges are found to be in good accord with those of the CM2 model, a class IV charge analysis method that has been used in a variety of applications. The DPPC method is illustrated to mimic the correct molecular polarizability in a water dimer test case and in water-halide ion complexes using the explicit polarization (X-Pol) potential with the Austin model 1 Hamiltonian. 2011 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Comput Chem, 2011. PMID:21541954

Zhang, Peng; Bao, Peng; Gao, Jiali

2011-05-01

435

Viability of preserved Cryptosporidium baileyi oocysts.  

PubMed

The present study was undertaken to determine the viability and infectivity of oocysts of Cryptosporidium baileyi that had been stored from 1 to 40 months at 4 degrees C preserved in 2.5% potassium dichromate solution. Oocysts of C. baileyi were purified from the feces of experimentally infected chickens using discontinuous sucrose gradients. Subsequently, the purified oocysts were suspended in 2.5% potassium dichromate solution at a concentration of 1 x 10(7) organism/ml, and their viabilities were assessed by nucleic acid staining, histologic examination, and infectivity to 2-day-old chickens. All chickens inoculated with oocysts that had been stored for 1-18 months developed patent infections, while chickens infected with older oocysts remained uninfected. Between 5.8% and 82.2% of the oocysts, stored at 4 degrees C in 2.5% potassium dichromate solution, were found to be viable, as determined by nucleic acid staining. Parasite colonization in the bursa of Fabricius was detected in the microvillus border of bursal epithelium. The finding that C. baileyi oocysts remain infective to chickens for at least 18 months offers important time-saving advantages to investigators who frequently require large numbers of oocysts. PMID:14699260

Surl, Chan-Gu; Kim, Se-Min; Kim, Hyeon-Cheol

2003-12-01

436

Fossil oak galls preserve ancient multitrophic interactions  

PubMed Central

Trace fossils of insect feeding have contributed substantially to our understanding of the evolution of insectplant interactions. The most complex phenotypes of herbivory are galls, whose diagnostic morphologies often allow the identification of the gall inducer. Although fossil insect-induced galls over 300?Myr old are known, most are two-dimensional impressions lacking adequate morphological detail either for the precise identification of the causer or for detection of the communities of specialist parasitoids and inquilines inhabiting modern plant galls. Here, we describe the first evidence for such multitrophic associations in Pleistocene fossil galls from the Eemian interglacial (130?000115?000 years ago) of The Netherlands. The exceptionally well-preserved fossils can be attributed to extant species of Andricus gallwasps (Hymenoptera: Cynipidae) galling oaks (Quercus), and provide the first fossil evidence of gall attack by herbivorous inquiline gallwasps. Furthermore, phylogenetic placement of one fossil in a lineage showing obligate host plant alternation implies the presence of a second oak species, Quercus cerris, currently unknown from Eemian fossils in northwestern Europe. This contrasts with the southern European native range of Q. cerris in the current interglacial and suggests that gallwasp invasions following human planting of Q. cerris in northern Europe may represent a return to preglacial distribution limits.

Stone, Graham N; van der Ham, Raymond W.J.M; Brewer, Jan G

2008-01-01

437

Dipole Preserving and Polarization Consistent Charges  

PubMed Central

A method for estimating dipole preserving and polarization consistent (DPPC) charges is described, which reproduces exactly the molecular dipole moment as well as the local, atomic hybridization dipoles determined from the corresponding wave function, and can yield accurate molecular polarization. The method is based on a model described by Thole and van Duijnen and a new feature is introduced in the DPPC model to treat molecular polarization. Thus, the DPPC method offers a convenient procedure to describe molecular polarization in applications using semiempirical models and ab initio molecular orbital theory with relatively small basis functions such as 6-31+G(d,p) or without inclusion of electron correlation; these methods tend to underestimate molecular polarizability. The trends of the DPPC partial atomic charges are found to be in good accord with those of the CM2 model, a class IV charge analysis method that has been used in a variety of applications. The DPPC method is illustrated to mimic the correct molecular polarizability in a water dimer test case and in water-halide ion complexes using the explicit polarization (X-Pol) potential with the AM1 Hamiltonian.

Zhang, Peng; Bao, Peng; Gao, Jiali

2011-01-01

438

7 CFR 1940.578 - Housing Preservation Grant (HPG) program.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2009-01-01 true Housing Preservation Grant (HPG) program. 1940.578 Section 1940...1940.578 Housing Preservation Grant (HPG) program. (a) Amount available for...this subpart. Funds may be pooled after all HPG applications have been received...

2010-01-01

439

7 CFR 1940.578 - Housing Preservation Grant (HPG) program.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2009-01-01 false Housing Preservation Grant (HPG) program. 1940.578 Section 1940...1940.578 Housing Preservation Grant (HPG) program. (a) Amount available for...this subpart. Funds may be pooled after all HPG applications have been received...

2009-01-01

440

Oocyte cryopreservation as a fertility preservation measure for cancer patients  

Microsoft Academic Search

Advances in cancer treatment have allowed women to live longer, fuller lives. However, gonadotoxic therapies used to effect cancer cures often significantly impair a womans reproductive potential. Thus, in accordance with improved survival rates, there is an increase in demand for fertility preservation. Initially, fertility preservation was limited to embryo cryopreservation; therefore, the number of patients enrolling was relatively low.

Nicole Noyes; Jaime M. Knopman; Katherine Melzer; M. Elizabeth Fino; Brooke Friedman; Lynn M. Westphal

2011-01-01

441

Exponential locality preserving projections for small sample size problem  

Microsoft Academic Search

Locality preserving projections (LPP) is a widely used manifold reduced dimensionality technique. However, it suffers from two problems: (1) small sample size problem and (2) the performance is sensitive to the neighborhood size k. In order to address these problems, we propose an exponential locality preserving projections (ELPP) by introducing the matrix exponential in this paper. ELPP avoids the singular

Su-Jing Wang; Hui-Ling Chen; Xu-Jun Peng; Chun-Guang Zhou

2011-01-01

442

Effects of tissue preservation on murine bone mechanical properties  

Microsoft Academic Search

Murine bone specimens are used extensively in skeletal research to assess the effects of environmental, physiologic and pathologic factors on their mechanical properties. Given the destructive nature of mechanical testing, it is normally performed as a terminal procedure, where specimens must be preserved without affecting their mechanical properties. To this end, we aimed to study the effects of tissue preservation

Ara Nazarian; Bryan J. Hermannsson; John Muller; David Zurakowski; Brian D. Snyder

2009-01-01

443

Preservation of FFTF Data Related to Passive Safety Testing  

Microsoft Academic Search

One of the goals of the Fuel Cycle Research and Development Program (FCRD) is to preserve the knowledge that has been gained in the United States on Liquid Metal Reactors (LMR). A key area deserving special attention for preservation is the data relating to passive safety testing that was conducted in FFTF and EBR-II during the 1980s. Accidents at Unit

David W. Wootan; R. Scott Butner; Ronald P. Omberg; Bruce J. Makenas; Deborah L. Nielsen

2010-01-01

444

St. Andrews State Park Aquatic Preserve Management Plan.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

St. Andrews Bay Aquatic Preserve, located in Bay County, covers 25,000 acres along the entrance to St. Andrews Bay and extends some 3 miles offshore into Gulf waters. The preserve consist largely of high energy zone areas, e.g. gulf sandy beaches, a stron...

J. Hughes

1990-01-01

445

PreScan: towards automating the preservation of digital objects  

Microsoft Academic Search

The preservation of digital objects is a topic of prominent importance for archives and digital libraries. However the creation and maintenance of metadata is a laborious task that does not always pay ofi immediately. For this reason there is a need for tools that automate as much as possible the creation and curation of preservation metadata. Such an automation is

Yannis Marketakis; Makis Tzanakis; Yannis Tzitzikas

2009-01-01

446

Environmental surveillance of the Palos Park Forest Preserve  

Microsoft Academic Search

This is the second report describing an ongoing environmental surveillance program conducted at the Palos Park Forest Preserve near Chicago, Illinois. The Preserve was a site of a nuclear research laboratory (Site A) from 1943 to 1956 and a radioactive waste burial site (Plot M) from 1944 to 1949. An extensive radiological characterization of the site was conducted from February

N. W. Golchert; J. Sedlet; K. A. Hayes

1983-01-01

447

Preservation of the Larynx in Laryngeal and Hypopharyngeal Cancer  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the last decade the primary treatment of laryngeal and hypopharyngeal cancer was shifted towards organ preservation, i.e. preservation of the larynx. The treatment of laryngeal cancer was changed from standard radiotherapy towards hyperfractionated radiotherapy. Hypopharyngeal cancer is nowadays mostly treated with a combination of chemotherapy and radiotherapy instead of primary surgery. Therefore, the greatest shift in treatment protocols found

Aniel Sewnaik

2006-01-01

448

Multivariate statistical process control based on multiway locality preserving projections  

Microsoft Academic Search

An approach for multivariate statistical process control based on multiway locality preserving projections (LPP) is presented. The recently developed LPP is a linear dimensionality reduction technique for preserving the neighborhood structure of the data set. It is characterized by capturing the intrinsic structure of the observed data and finding more meaningful low-dimensional information hidden in the high-dimensional observations compared with

Kunlun Hu; Jingqi Yuan

2008-01-01

449

Animal models for fertility preservation in the male  

Microsoft Academic Search

Fertility preservation in the male is routinely focused on sperm. In clinical and veterinary settings cryopreservation of sperm is a widely used tool. However, the goals for male fertility preservation differ between experimental models, maintenance of livestock, conservation of rare species and fertility protection in men. Therefore, very different approaches exist which are adapted to the specialized needs for each

Jens Ehmcke; Stefan Schlatt

2008-01-01

450

EFFECTS OF YEAST, FERMENTATION TIME, AND PRESERVATION METHODS ON TARHANA  

Microsoft Academic Search

The physicochemical properties of tarhana soup produced with different dough treatments, fermentation times, and preservation methods were examined. Tarhana doughs were prepared with yogurt (control) or baker's yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae) and fermented for 3 days. Samples were taken at 24, 48, and 72hr. Samples were then preserved via one of four methods: sun dried, dried in the shade, vacumn dried,

Ozan Gurbuz; Duygu Gocmen; Nese Ozmen; Fatih Dagdelen

2010-01-01

451

Preservation of viable Francisella tularensis for forensic analysis  

SciTech Connect

As a preservation solution, (1%) ammonium chloride may be preferred over other conventionally used storage solutions because of its compatibility with analytical techniques such as Mass Spectrometry. In this study, ammonium chloride performed as well or better than phosphate buffered saline with Tween or Butterfields/Tween for preserving Francisella tularensis novicida.

Valentine, Nancy B.; Wunschel, Sharon C.; Valdez, Catherine O.; Kreuzer-Martin, Helen W.; Bartholomew, Rachel A.; Straub, Tim M.; Wahl, Karen L.

2011-01-01

452

Demolition and preservation in shrinking US industrial cities  

Microsoft Academic Search

What is the role demolition is likely to play in the future of shrinking industrial cities in the United States? The history of demolition is explored as a policy response to real or perceived problems. A balance between demolition and preservation is critical to preserving viable neighbourhoods and restoring vitality to these cities. Older industrial cities with shrinking job and

Alan Mallach

2011-01-01

453

Neighborhood Preserving Projections (NPP): A Novel Linear Dimension Reduction Method  

Microsoft Academic Search

Dimension reduction is a crucial step for pattern recognition and information retrieval tasks to overcome the curse of dimensionality. In this paper a novel unsupervised linear dimension reduction method, Neighborhood Preserving Projections (NPP), is proposed. In contrast to traditional linear dimension reduction method, such as principal com- ponent analysis (PCA), the proposed method has good neighborhood- preserving property. The central

Yanwei Pang; Lei Zhang; Zhengkai Liu; Nenghai Yu; Houqiang Li

2005-01-01

454

A nonlinear projection method based on Kohonen's topology preserving maps  

Microsoft Academic Search

A nonlinear projection method is presented to visualize high-dimensional data as a 2D image. The proposed method is based on the topology preserving mapping algorithm of Kohonen. The topology preserving mapping algorithm is used to train a 2D network structure. Then the interpoint distances in the feature space between the units in the network are graphically displayed to show the

Martin A. Kraaijveld; Jianchang Mao; A. K. Jain

1995-01-01

455

Property Preserving Abstractions for the Verification of Concurrent Systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

We study property preserving transformations for reactive systems. The main idea isthe use of simulations parameterizedby Galois connections (ff; fl), relating the lattices of propertiesof two systems. We propose and study a notion of preservation of properties expressed by formulasof a logic, by a function ff mapping sets of states of a system S into sets of states of a

Claire Loiseaux; Susanne Graf; Joseph Sifakis; Ahmed Bouajjani; Saddek Bensalem; David Probst

1995-01-01

456

Stochastic Human Exposure and Dose Simulation Model for Wood Preservatives  

EPA Science Inventory

SHEDS-Wood (Stochastic Human Exposure and Dose Simulation Model for Wood Preservatives) is a physically-based stochastic model that was developed to quantify exposure and dose of children to wood preservatives on treated playsets and residential decks. Probabilistic inputs are co...

457

Target-Based Maintenance of Privacy Preserving Association Rules  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|In the context of association rule mining, the state-of-the-art in privacy preserving data mining provides solutions for categorical and Boolean association rules but not for quantitative association rules. This research fills this gap by describing a method based on discrete wavelet transform (DWT) to protect input data privacy while preserving

Ahluwalia, Madhu V.

2011-01-01

458

On the Privacy Preserving Properties of Random Data Perturbation Techniques  

Microsoft Academic Search

Privacy is becoming an increasingly important issue in many data mining applications. This has triggered the de- velopment of many privacy-preserving data mining tech- niques. A large fraction of them use randomized data dis- tortion techniques to mask the data for preserving the pri- vacy of sensitive data. This methodology attempts to hide the sensitive data by randomly modifying the

Hillol Kargupta; Souptik Datta; Qi Wang; Krishnamoorthy Sivakumar

2003-01-01

459

Intestinal Neuromuscular Function after Preservation and Transplantation1  

PubMed Central

While it is well known that prolonged preservation of the intestinal graft causes severe mucosal damage after transplantation, little is known about the effect on neuromuscular function. The entire small intestine of adult hound dogs was flushed and preserved with cold lactated Ringers solution and autotransplanted either immediately (n = 6) or after 24 hr (n = 6). Animals undergoing sham operation (n = 4) were used as a control. Fasting motility and the response of the intestinal smooth muscle and enteric nerves to bethanechol (100 ?g/kg/0.5 hr, iv) and cisapride (0.5 mg/kg, iv) were determined by a multiple strain gauge method on Postoperative Days 2, 4, 7, 14, 21, and 28. Compared to the control, immediately transplanted grafts and those preserved for 24 hr developed delayed reappearance of migrating myoelectric complexes (MMC), hypercontractile activity, and reduced response to bethanechol and cisapride administration. Animals in the preservation group developed more abnormal fasting motility after transplantation, but responses to bethanechol and cisapride stimulation were not markedly different from those of the immediate group. The reappearance of MMC occurred 3 weeks postoperatively in the preservation group compared to 2 days in the immediate group. The results of our study indicate that intestinal dysmotility is augmented in prolonged-preservation grafts compared to those with brief preservation. The dysmotility was transient and normalized 3 to 4 weeks after surgery. Preservation and reperfusion injury to the neuromuscular system of intestinal grafts are reversible and are attenuated by simple hypothermia.

Hamada, Nobuo; Hutson, William R.; Nakada, Koji; Ikoma, Akira; Suzuki, Tomomi; Zhu, Yue; Starzl, Thomas E.; Todo, Satoru

2010-01-01

460

Preserving sludge from meat industry waste waters through lactic fermentation  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article presents the results of research on preserving sludge from meat industry waste waters. The sludge precipitated by chemical purification of effluents contains considerable amounts of proteins and fats which under certain conditions can be used for feeding to animals. The preservation of sludge was based on lactic fermentation conducted with the use of Lactobacillus delbrckii. Molasses, as the

Maciej Urbaniak; Gra?yna Sakson

1999-01-01

461

APPROACHES FOR REMEDIATION OF UNCONTROLLED WOOD PRESERVING SITES  

EPA Science Inventory

This document provides an overview of remediation of uncontrolled wood preserving sites. It is, in part, a distillation of discussions that took place at a Forum on Wood Preserving Waste that was held in San Francisco, California, in October 1988. Information from this workshop h...

462

21 CFR 146.152 - Orange juice with preservative.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...Orange juice with preservative is the food prepared for further...c) The name of the food is Orange juice with preservative. (d) Label declaration...percent by weight of the preservative used. If the food is packed in...

2013-04-01

463

21 CFR 146.152 - Orange juice with preservative.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...Orange juice with preservative is the food prepared for further...c) The name of the food is Orange juice with preservative. (d) Label declaration...percent by weight of the preservative used. If the food is packed in...

2009-04-01

464

Alternative food-preservation technologies: efficacy and mechanisms  

Microsoft Academic Search

High-pressure processing, ionizing radiation, pulsed electric field and ultraviolet radiation are emerging preservation technologies designed to produce safe food, while maintaining its nutritional and sensory qualities. A sigmoid inactivation pattern is observed in most kinetic studies. Damage to cell membranes, enzymes or DNA is the most commonly cited cause of death of microorganisms by alternative preservation technologies.

Beatrice H. Lado; Ahmed E. Yousef

2002-01-01

465

21 CFR 146.152 - Orange juice with preservative.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...Orange juice with preservative is the food prepared for further...c) The name of the food is Orange juice with preservative. (d) Label declaration...percent by weight of the preservative used. If the food is packed in...

2010-04-01

466

Efficient representation of purity-preserving Gaussian quantum filters  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We discuss representation of single-mode purity-preserving conditional Gaussian quantum operations by complex symplectic matrices. This formalism allows us to efficiently determine the result of concatenation of several probabilistic purity-preserving Gaussian operations. We present several examples of application of this formalism and discuss canonical forms of the considered single-mode conditional Gaussian operations.

Fiurek, Jaromr

2013-05-01

467

A Remote User Authentication Scheme Preserving User Anonymity and Traceability  

Microsoft Academic Search

Many smart card based remote authentication schemes have been proposed to preserve user privacy against eavesdropper. However, none of the exiting scheme provides both users' anonymity to server and traceability to the malicious user. In this paper, we present a scheme that preserve user anonymity not only against outside attackers, but also against the remote server. When a malicious user

Shuai Shao; Hui Li; Xinxi Niu; Yixian Yang

2009-01-01

468

Exceptional fossil preservation during CO 2 greenhouse crises?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Exceptional fossil preservation may require not only exceptional places, but exceptional times, as demonstrated here by two distinct types of analysis. First, irregular stratigraphic spacing of horizons yielding articulated Triassic fishes and Cambrian trilobites is highly correlated in sequences in different parts of the world, as if there were short temporal intervals of exceptional preservation globally. Second, compilations of ages

Gregory J. Retallack

2011-01-01

469

Privacy preservation by independent component analysis and variance control  

Microsoft Academic Search

The primary objective of privacy preservation is to protect an individual's confidential information in released data sets. In recent years, several simulation-based approaches for privacy preservation have been proposed. The idea is to generate a synthetic data set with the constraint that the probability distribution is as close as possible to that of the original set. In this paper, we

Chih-Ming Hsu; Ming-Syan Chen

2011-01-01

470

Preserving and interpreting the landscape legacy of Thomas Dolliver Church  

Microsoft Academic Search

When one contemplates the great legacy of significant American gardens preserved for future generations, masterworks such as Thomas Jefferson's Monticello in Charlottesville, Virginia, Beatrix Farrand's Dumbarton Oaks in Washington, DC, and Jens Jensen's design for Eleanor and Edsel Ford's Fair Lane in Dearborn, Michigan, come to mind. When the preservation of modem residential landmarks is considered, one thinks of Frank

Charles A. Birnbaum

2000-01-01

471

Clinical application of serial operations with preserving spleen  

Microsoft Academic Search

AIM: To evaluate the clinical application of serial operations with preservation of spleen. METHODS: Serial operations with preserving spleen were performed on 211 cases in our hospital from 1980 to 2000. The patient's age ranged from 13 to 56 years, averaging 38 years. Diseases included splenic injury in 171 cases, portal hypertension in 9 cases, splenic cyst in 10 cases,

Hong-Chi Jiang; Bei Sun; Hai-Quan Qiao; Jun Xu; Da-Xun Piao; Hang Yin

472

Shape Preserving Digitization of Ideal and Blurred Binary Images  

Microsoft Academic Search

In order to make image analysis methods more reliable it is important to analyse to what extend shape information is preserved during image digitization. Most existing approaches to this problem con- sider topology preservation and are restricted to ideal binary images. We extend these results in two ways. First, we characterize the set of binary images which can be correctly

Ullrich Kthe; Peer Stelldinger

2003-01-01

473

Amplitude Preserving Kirchhoff Migration: A Traveltime Based Strategy  

Microsoft Academic Search

Amplitude versus offset information is a key feature to seismic reservoir characterization. Therefore amplitude preserving migration was developed to obtain this information from seismic reflection data. For complex 3-D media, however, this process is computationally expensive. In this paper we present an efficient traveltime based strategy for amplitude preserving migration of the Kirchhoff type. Its foundations are the generation of

Dirk Gajewski; Radu Coman; Claudia Vanelle

2002-01-01

474

Biomats, biofilms, and bioglue as preservational agents for arthropod trackways  

Microsoft Academic Search

Due to divergent taphonomic selection, corresponding body and trace fossils are rarely found in the same rocks. In addition to this general rule, arthropod trackways are preferentially preserved in particular settings: (1) lithographic limestones, where toxic bottom waters account for the exceptional preservation of body fossils at the end of their mortichnial trackways; (2) estuarine and lacustrine biolaminites that yield

Adolf Seilacher

2008-01-01

475

A Condensation Approach to Privacy Preserving Data Mining  

Microsoft Academic Search

In recent years, privacy preserving data mining has become an important problem because of the large amount of personal data which is tracked by many business applications. In many cases, users are unwilling to provide personal information unless the privacy of sensitive information is guaranteed. In this paper, we propose a new framework for privacy preserving data mining of multi-dimensional

Charu C. Aggarwal; Philip S. Yu

2004-01-01

476

Preservation of scientific and cultural heritage in Balkan countries  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose The peoples living in the Balkan Peninsula over centuries have created a very rich cultural heritage and the constant political upheavals in the region have affected the development and preservation of their cultures. This paper aims to review the internet infrastructure and networked readiness levels of the Balkan countries, which are conducive to scientific co-operation and preservation of

Ya?ar Tonta

2009-01-01

477

The need for preservation aware storage: a position paper  

Microsoft Academic Search

Digital Preservation deals with ensuring that digital data stored today can be read and interpreted tens or hundreds of years from now. At the heart of any solution to the preser- vation problem lies a storage component. This paper char- acterizes the requirements for such a component, defines its desirable properties and presents the need for preservation- aware storage systems.

Michael Factor; Dalit Naor; Leeat Ramati; Petra Reshef; Julian Satran

2007-01-01

478

Land use externalities, open space preservation, and urban sprawl  

Microsoft Academic Search

Parcel data on residential land conversion are used to investigate how land use externalities influence the rate of development and modify policies designed to manage urban growth and preserve open space. Several smart growth policies are found to significantly influence land conversion, including a development clustering policy that concentrates development and generates preserved open space. In addition to directly affecting

Elena G. Irwin; Nancy E. Bockstael

2004-01-01

479

Preserving Our Legacy for Future Generations of Educators  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Preserving dance history for future generations includes documenting and maintaining the life and work of dance pioneers who today's dance educators can learn from and imitate. This article offers basic guidelines for conducting interviews; preserving valuable documentation, including photographs and recordings; and unearthing forgotten stories

Hearn, Colleen Porter; Crabtree, Kacy E.

2008-01-01

480

36 CFR 7.85 - Big Thicket National Preserve.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2009-07-01 2009-07-01 false Big Thicket National Preserve...NATIONAL PARK SYSTEM § 7.85 Big Thicket National Preserve...designated seasons, as defined for game animals or birds by the State...following may be hunted: (i) Game animals, rabbits, and...

2009-07-01

481

36 CFR 7.85 - Big Thicket National Preserve.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Big Thicket National Preserve...NATIONAL PARK SYSTEM § 7.85 Big Thicket National Preserve...designated seasons, as defined for game animals or birds by the State...following may be hunted: (i) Game animals, rabbits, and...

2010-07-01

482

36 CFR 7.86 - Big Cypress National Preserve.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2009-07-01 2009-07-01 false Big Cypress National Preserve...NATIONAL PARK SYSTEM § 7.86 Big Cypress National Preserve...oil and gas companies. (B) Big Cypress Florida Trail, Section...executive director of the Florida Game and Fresh Water Fish...

2009-07-01

483

36 CFR 7.86 - Big Cypress National Preserve.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Big Cypress National Preserve...NATIONAL PARK SYSTEM § 7.86 Big Cypress National Preserve...oil and gas companies. (B) Big Cypress Florida Trail, Section...executive director of the Florida Game and Fresh Water Fish...

2010-07-01

484

Sedimentary organic matter preservation: an assessment and speculative synthesis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Throughout Earth history, almost all preserved organic matter has been incorporated in marine sediments deposited under oxygenated waters along continental margins. Given modern oceanic productivity and sediment burial rates of 50 1015 and 0.16 1015 gC yr?1, respectively, organic preservation in the marine environment is < 0.5% efficient. Although correlative information is often used to suggest that productivity,

John I. Hedges; Richard G. Keil

1995-01-01

485

BIOREMEDIATION FIELD INITIATIVE SITE PROFILE: ESCAMBIA WOOD PRESERVING SITE - BROOKHAVEN  

EPA Science Inventory

The Escambia Wood Preserving Site?Brookhaven in Brookhaven, Mississippi, is a former wood preserving facility that used pentachlo- rophenol (PCP) and creosote to treat wooden poles. The site contains two pressure treatment cylinders, a wastewater treatment system, five bulk pr...

486

21 CFR 1305.17 - Preservation of DEA Forms 222.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2009-04-01 2009-04-01 false Preservation of DEA Forms 222. 1305.17 Section 1305.17 ...ORDERS FOR SCHEDULE I AND II CONTROLLED SUBSTANCES DEA Form 222 § 1305.17 Preservation of DEA Forms 222. (a) The purchaser must...

2009-04-01

487

21 CFR 1305.17 - Preservation of DEA Forms 222.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Preservation of DEA Forms 222. 1305.17 Section 1305.17 ...ORDERS FOR SCHEDULE I AND II CONTROLLED SUBSTANCES DEA Form 222 § 1305.17 Preservation of DEA Forms 222. (a) The purchaser must...

2010-04-01

488

Comparison of methods of preserving tissues for pesticide analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Formalin preservation, freezing, spoiling followed by freezing, and phenoxyethanol were compared in terms of concentrations of DDT, DDD, DDE, endrin, and heptachlor epoxide measured in brain, liver and carcass of birds fed dietary dosages of pesticides and in spiked egg homogenate. Phenoxyethanol proved to be an unsatisfactory preservative; the amount of extractable lipid was excessive, and measurements of concentrations in

William H. Stickel; Lucille F. Stickel; Russell A. Dyrland; Donald L. Hughes

1984-01-01

489

The role of natural antioxidants in preserving the biological activity of endothelium-derived nitric oxide  

Microsoft Academic Search

Endothelium-derived nitric oxide (EDNO) is a pivotal molecule in the regulation of vascular tone via the stimulation of vascular smooth muscle cell relaxation and concomitant vasodilation. In addition, EDNO exerts a number of other potent antiatherogenic effects, including inhibition of leukocyte-endothelial interactions, smooth muscle cell proliferation, and platelet aggregation. Endothelial vasodilator dysfunction has been observed in patients with CAD or

Anitra Carr; Balz Frei

2000-01-01

490

River bioassessment and the preservation of threatened species: Towards acceptable biological quality criteria  

Microsoft Academic Search

A central objective of environmental management is to maintain biodiversity, including populations of threatened species. Freshwater ecosystems are increasingly assessed by their biotic properties, but whether the resulting classifications of biotic condition are sufficient to protect species with conservation status has received very little consideration. We used data from 225 reference and impacted river sites from Finland to examine whether

Jukka Aroviita; Heikki Mykr; Heikki Hmlinen

2010-01-01

491

Biological preservation of plant derived animal feed with antifungal microorganisms: safety and formulation aspects  

Microsoft Academic Search

During storage of moist animal feed, growth of detrimental fungi causing spoilage, or being mycotoxigenic or pathogenic, is\\u000a a severe problem. Addition of biopreservative yeasts or lactic acid bacteria can significantly reduce this problem. However,\\u000a their use requires several careful considerations. One is the safety to the animal, humans and the environment, tightly connected\\u000a to legal aspects and the need

Petter Melin; Ingvar Sundh; Sebastian Hkansson; Johan Schnrer

2007-01-01

492

Biological preservation of plant derived animal feed with antifungal microorganisms: safety and formulation aspects.  

PubMed

During storage of moist animal feed, growth of detrimental fungi causing spoilage, or being mycotoxigenic or pathogenic, is a severe problem. Addition of biopreservative yeasts or lactic acid bacteria can significantly reduce this problem. However, their use requires several careful considerations. One is the safety to the animal, humans and the environment, tightly connected to legal aspects and the need for pre-market authorisation when supplementing feed with microorganisms. Although both yeasts and lactic acid bacteria are considered comparatively safe organisms due to low production of toxic metabolites, it is of great importance to understand the mechanisms behind the biopreservative abilities. Another important issue concerns practical aspects, such as the economic production of large amounts of the organisms and the development of a suitable formulation giving the organisms a long shelf life. These aspects are discussed and a recommendation of this review is that both safety and formulation aspects of a specific microbe should be considered at an early stage in the selection of new organisms with biopreservation potential. PMID:17479224

Melin, Petter; Sundh, Ingvar; Hkansson, Sebastian; Schnrer, Johan

2007-05-04

493

Compliance Actions (Biologics)  

Center for Biologics Evaluation and Research (CBER)

... Safety & Availability (Biologics) Recalls, Shortages, Biological Product Deviation Reporting, Adverse Event Reporting ... Food and Drug Administration. ... More results from www.fda.gov/biologicsbloodvaccines/guidancecomplianceregulatoryinformation/complianceactivities

494

Biologics Procedures (SOPPs)  

Center for Biologics Evaluation and Research (CBER)

... Products; Vaccines, Blood & Biologics; Animal & Veterinary; Cosmetics; Tobacco Products. Vaccines, Blood & Biologics. Print; ... More results from www.fda.gov/biologicsbloodvaccines/guidancecomplianceregulatoryinformation/proceduressopps

495

Safety & Availability (Biologics)  

Center for Biologics Evaluation and Research (CBER)

... Products; Vaccines, Blood & Biologics; Animal & Veterinary; Cosmetics; Tobacco Products. Vaccines, Blood & Biologics. Print; ... More results from www.fda.gov/biologicsbloodvaccines/safetyavailability

496

Formalin preservation of avian blood for metal and DDE analysis  

SciTech Connect

Field investigators often take blood samples from wild birds for residue analysis to determine their exposure to various environmental contaminants, such as metals and organochlorines. Under field conditions immediate freezing of blood samples, one common technique of preservation, is not always possible or practical. Therefore, specific techniques of blood preservation must be tested to determine which method is most suitable when blood is to be analyzed for contaminants. In addition, techniques of homogenization of formalin-preserved blood must be adequate if such samples are to be analyzed for both organochlorines and metals or for metals requiring different analytical techniques. The objectives of our study were to test the adequacy of a homogenization technique for formalin-preserved blood and determine which of two preservation techniques is better when samples are to be analyzed for metals and DDE.

Wiemeyer, S.N.; Moore, J.F.; Mulhern, B.M.

1984-11-01