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1

Water Treatment  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Water treatment on a large scale enables the supply of clean drinking water to communities. In this activity, learners develop methods to clean a polluted water sample, describe components of a water treatment process, and learn how humans impact Earth's freshwater supply. The activity simulates methods used in real water treatment including aeration, coagulation, sedimentation, filtration and disinfection. This activity would be an excellent adjunct to a guided tour of a local water treatment plant.

Jersey, New; Center, Liberty S.; Coalition, New J.

2006-01-01

2

17. 'BIRDSEYEVIEW, PRESIDIO OF MONTEREY, CAL., JAN. 1938.' No signature, ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

17. 'BIRDSEYEVIEW, PRESIDIO OF MONTEREY, CAL., JAN. 1938.' No signature, photographer probably Anton C. Heidrick. This panoramic view looks west over Soldier Field from the upper floor or roof of the gymnasium. Original cool toned silver gelatin print measures 85.1 cm by 22.4 cm, flush mounted on mat board. - Presidio of Monterey, Soldier Field, Monterey, Monterey County, CA

3

42. Post Engineer Office, Presidio of San Francisco, Letterman Army ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

42. Post Engineer Office, Presidio of San Francisco, Letterman Army Hospital, X-Ray Department and Second Floor Plan, X-Ray Department Plan, Building 1006. no date. BUILDING 1006. - Presidio of San Francisco, Letterman General Hospital, Building No. 27, Letterman Hospital Complex, Edie Road, San Francisco, San Francisco County, CA

4

14. 'TROOP A, OREGON CAVALRY IN CAMP AT PRESIDIO OF ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

14. 'TROOP A, OREGON CAVALRY IN CAMP AT PRESIDIO OF MONTEREY, CALIFORNIA, 1915.' Anton C. Heidrick, photographer. This panoramic view looks west from the lower end of Soldier Field, before construction of walls and roads. Original warm toned silver gelatin print measures 94.9 cm by 19.7 cm, flush mounted on mat board. - Presidio of Monterey, Soldier Field, Monterey, Monterey County, CA

5

Acculturation at the La Bahia Mission and Presidio, Goliad, Texas  

E-print Network

ACCULTURATION AT THE LA BAHIA MISSION AND PRESIDIO, GOLIAD, TEXAS A Theses by DIANE KIMBERLEY KLOETZER Submrtted to the Office of Graduate Studres of Texas A&M Universrty rn partral fulfrllment of the requrrements for the degree of MASTER... OF ARTS May 2000 Major Subject: Anthropology ACCULTURATION AT THE LA BAHIA MISSION AND PRESIDIO, GOLIAD, TEXAS A Thesi. s by DIANE KIMBERLEY KLOETZER Submitted to Texas A&M University in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree...

Kloetzer, Diane Kimberley

2012-06-07

6

Treatment of Well Water  

MedlinePLUS

... message, please visit this page: About CDC.gov . Drinking Water Healthy Water Home Share Compartir On This Page ... a compromised immune system Improve the taste of drinking water Household water treatment systems are composed of two ...

7

Water Treatment Process  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This interactive diagram allows the user to follow a drop of water from the source through the treatment process. Water may be treated differently in different communities depending on the quality of the water which enters the plant. Groundwater is water located under ground and typically requires less treatment than water from lakes, rivers, and streams. Users are invited to click on each treatment point on the image to see a little information about that treatment point.

8

Water Resources Water Quality and Water Treatment  

E-print Network

PLANTS WATER TRE WATER QUALITY MONITORING NETWORK I Central Pollution Control Board (CPCB) hasEF) promotes basin-wide pollution control strategies. It liaises with State Water Pollution Control BoardsWater Resources TD 603 Lecture 1: Water Quality and Water Treatment CTARA Indian Institute

Sohoni, Milind

9

Water Treatment Process  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this activity students can follow a drop of water from the source through the treatment process. Stop at each treatment point and unscramble the words to show where the water is along the treatment path. Click on each treatment point on the image to view the unscrambled answer and a little information about that treatment point. The treatment points are: coagulation, sedimentation, filtration, disinfection, and storage.

10

Demystifying water treatment  

SciTech Connect

Increasingly accountable for the environmental quality and cost of managing their waste and process water streams, customers require more precise data about the constituents in their water. This has forced suppliers to unlock some of the secrets of water treatment. In the open exchange of information, users are trading in esoteric formulations for products that are more chemical efficient and environmentally benign. Factoring more prominently in the water treatment equation are service and supply. This paper reviews some of these simpler treatments.

Hairston, D.

1994-09-01

11

Drinking Water Treatment  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This lesson provides an introduction to the treatment of drinking water to remove harmful or distasteful substances. Topics include the history of treatment and a brief listing of treatment processes. Students can examine a selection of online resources for more detailed information on modern treatment methods and potential contaminants. The lesson includes an activity in which they construct a model treatment plant and treat water that they have 'contaminated' themselves in order to observe firsthand the steps involved in purifying water for human consumption.

Laposata, Matt

12

Water Treatment Plant  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In most parts of the United States, getting clean, safe water is as easy as turning on a faucet. Generally, this water comes from either groundwater or nearby streams and reservoirs. What most of us never see or have to worry about are the steps required to make this water drinkable. This video segment, adapted from a ZOOM television broadcast, shows how a water treatment facility in Cambridge, Massachusetts purifies its city's water. The segment is two minutes twenty seconds in length.

13

36 CFR 1011.4 - What notice will the Presidio Trust send to a debtor when collecting a debt?  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...part); (5) The name, address and telephone number of a contact person within the Presidio Trust; (6) The Presidio...a bankruptcy proceeding of the debtor or another person liable for the debt being collected. (b)...

2010-07-01

14

36 CFR 1011.12 - How will the Presidio Trust offset a Federal employee's salary to collect a debt?  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...Presidio Trust offset a Federal employee's salary to collect a debt? 1011.12 Section 1011...Presidio Trust offset a Federal employee's salary to collect a debt? (a) Federal salary offset . (1) Salary offset is used...

2010-07-01

15

36 CFR 1011.12 - How will the Presidio Trust offset a Federal employee's salary to collect a debt?  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...Presidio Trust offset a Federal employee's salary to collect a debt? 1011.12 Section 1011...Presidio Trust offset a Federal employee's salary to collect a debt? (a) Federal salary offset . (1) Salary offset is used...

2011-07-01

16

36 CFR 1011.5 - What interest, penalty charges and administrative costs will the Presidio Trust add to a debt?  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...penalty charges and administrative costs will the Presidio Trust add to a debt? 1011.5 Section 1011.5 Parks, Forests...penalty charges and administrative costs will the Presidio Trust add to a debt? (a) Interest. (1) The Presidio Trust...

2010-07-01

17

36 CFR 1011.5 - What interest, penalty charges and administrative costs will the Presidio Trust add to a debt?  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...penalty charges and administrative costs will the Presidio Trust add to a debt? 1011.5 Section 1011.5 Parks, Forests...penalty charges and administrative costs will the Presidio Trust add to a debt? (a) Interest. (1) The Presidio Trust...

2011-07-01

18

Water Treatment Technology - Filtration.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

One of twelve water treatment technology units, this student manual on filtration provides instructional materials for six competencies. (The twelve units are designed for a continuing education training course for public water supply operators.) The competencies focus on the following areas: purposes of sedimentation basins and flocculation…

Ross-Harrington, Melinda; Kincaid, G. David

19

Water Treatment Technology - Wells.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

One of twelve water treatment technology units, this student manual on wells provides instructional materials for five competencies. (The twelve units are designed for a continuing education training course for public water supply operators.) The competencies focus on the following areas: dug, driven, and chilled wells, aquifer types, deep well…

Ross-Harrington, Melinda; Kincaid, G. David

20

Water Treatment Technology - Flouridation.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

One of twelve water treatment technology units, this student manual on flouridation provides instructional materials for three competencies. (The twelve units are designed for a continuing education training course for public water supply operators.) The competencies focus on the following areas: purpose and process of flouridation, correct…

Ross-Harrington, Melinda; Kincaid, G. David

21

Water Treatment Technology - Hydraulics.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

One of twelve water treatment technology units, this student manual on hydraulics provides instructional materials for three competencies. (The twelve units are designed for a continuing education training course for public water supply operators.) The competencies focus on the following areas: head loss in pipes in series, function loss in…

Ross-Harrington, Melinda; Kincaid, G. David

22

Water Treatment Technology - Chlorination.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

One of twelve water treatment technology units, this student manual on chlorination provides instructional materials for nine competencies. (The twelve units are designed for a continuing education training course for public water supply operators.) The competencies focus on the following areas: purpose and process of chlorination, chlorine…

Ross-Harrington, Melinda; Kincaid, G. David

23

Water Treatment Technology - Pumps.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

One of twelve water treatment technology units, this student manual on pumps provides instructional materials for three competencies. (The twelve units are designed for a continuing education training course for public water supply operators.) The competencies focus on the following areas: types of pumps in plant and distribution systems, pump…

Ross-Harrington, Melinda; Kincaid, G. David

24

Water Treatment Technology - Springs.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

One of twelve water treatment technology units, this student manual on springs provides instructional materials for two competencies. (The twelve units are designed for a continuing education training course for public water supply operators.) The competencies focus on spring basin construction and spring protection. For each competency, student…

Ross-Harrington, Melinda; Kincaid, G. David

25

DRINKING WATER TREATMENT  

EPA Science Inventory

The purpose of water treatment is threefold: 1. To improve the aethetic quality ofwater, 2. to remove toxic or health-hazardous chemicals, 3. to remove and/or inactivate any disease causing microorganisms. These objectives should be accomplished using a reasonable safety factor...

26

Basic Water Treatment Operation.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This manual was developed for use at workshops designed to introduce the fundamentals of water treatment plant operations. The course consists of lecture-discussions and hands-on activities. Each of the fourteen lessons in this document has clearly stated behavioral objectives to tell the trainee what he should know or do after completing that…

Ontario Ministry of the Environment, Toronto.

27

Water treatment plant  

SciTech Connect

A water treatment plant comprises a generally horizontal cylindrical tank and an upstanding cylindrical tank usually having a diameter less than the horizontal tank and being integrally attached to and intersecting an end wall portion thereof. The horizontal tank includes a transverse partition and a longitudinal partition which extends from an intermediate portion of the transverse partition to the upstanding tank and divides the first tank into an aeration chamber, a sludge holding chamber and a purifying or chlorine contact chamber. The second tank comprises a clarifying chamber including an upper portion having influent and effluent pipe means and skimming means and a bottom portion having a circular bottom surface, an outlet and scraper means for moving sediment into the outlet for recirculation either to the aeration chamber or to the sludge holding chamber.

Mixon, J.A.

1982-09-28

28

36 CFR 1011.11 - How will the Presidio Trust use tax refund offset to collect a debt?  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...Tax refund offset . In most cases, the FMS uses the Treasury Offset Program to collect...part. If not already transferred to the FMS under § 1011.9 of this part, the Presidio...The Presidio Trust will certify to the FMS's Treasury Offset Program, in...

2010-07-01

29

Water treatment method  

DOEpatents

A method is described for reducing the concentration of any undesirable metals dissolved in contaminated water, such as waste water. The method involves uniformly reacting the contaminated water with an excess amount of solid particulate calcium sulfite to insolubilize the undesirable metal ions, followed by removal thereof and of the unreacted calcium sulfite.

Martin, F.S.; Silver, G.L.

1991-04-30

30

Water treatment method  

SciTech Connect

A method for reducing the concentration of many undesirable metals dissolved in contaminated water, such as waste water. The method involves uniformly reacting the contaminated water with an excess amount of solid particulate calcium sulfite to insolubilize the undesirable metal ions, followed by removal thereof and of the unreacted calcium sulfite. 1 tab.

Martin, F.S.; Silver, G.L.

1990-02-02

31

Water treatment method  

DOEpatents

A method for reducing the concentration of any undesirable metals dissolved in contaminated water, such as waste water. The method involves uniformly reacting the contaminated water with an excess amount of solid particulate calcium sulfite to insolubilize the undesirable metal ions, followed by removal thereof and of the unreacted calcium sulfite.

Martin, Frank S. (Farmersville, OH); Silver, Gary L. (Centerville, OH)

1991-04-30

32

Technology for Water Treatment  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

There are approximately 500,000 water cooling towers in the United States, all of which must be kept clear of "scale" and corrosion and free of pollutants and bacteria. Electron Pure, Ltd. manufactures a hydro cooling tower conditioner as well as an automatic pool sanitizer. The pool sanitizer consists of two copper/silver electrodes placed in a chamber mounted in the pool's recirculation system. The tower conditioner combines the ionization system with a water conditioner, pump, centrifugal solids separator and timer. The system saves water, eliminates algae and operates maintenance and chemical free. The company has over 100 distributors in the U.S. as well as others in 20 foreign countries. The buildup of scale and corrosion is the most costly maintenance problem in cooling tower operation. Jet Propulsion Laboratory successfully developed a non-chemical system that not only curbed scale and corrosion, but also offered advantages in water conservation, cost savings and the elimination of toxic chemical discharge. In the system, ozone is produced by an on-site generator and introduced to the cooling tower water. Organic impurities are oxidized, and the dissolved ozone removes bacteria and scale. National Water Management, a NASA licensee, has installed its ozone advantage systems at some 200 cooling towers. Customers have saved money and eliminated chemical storage and discharge.

1992-01-01

33

Water disinfection by electrochemical treatment.  

PubMed

The electrochemical disinfection of germinated brown rice (GBR) circulating water and cooling tower water containing Legionella bacteria was investigated. Results showed the total aerobic plate counts (APC) in the treated GBR circulating water decreased significantly and the turbidity was largely improved at a pulse voltage of 1.0 kV; Legionella bacteria were also disinfected effectively at 1.0 kV. The disinfection was attributed to the synergistic effects of the oxide anode, the electric field, and the radicals formed during the electrochemical treatment. This suggests that electrochemical treatment could be applicable to the disinfection of water from other sources. PMID:15081482

Feng, Chuanping; Suzuki, Keitaro; Zhao, Shuyun; Sugiura, Norio; Shimada, Satoru; Maekawa, Takaaki

2004-08-01

34

Surface Water Treatment Workshop Manual.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This manual was developed for use at workshops designed to increase the knowledge of experienced water treatment plant operators. Each of the fourteen lessons in this document has clearly stated behavioral objectives to tell the trainee what he should know or do after completing that topic. Areas covered in this manual include: basic water

Ontario Ministry of the Environment, Toronto.

35

Water Treatment Technology - Distribution Systems.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

One of twelve water treatment technology units, this student manual on distribution systems provides instructional materials for six competencies. (The twelve units are designed for a continuing education training course for public water supply operators.) The competencies focus on the following areas: types of pipe for distribution systems, types…

Ross-Harrington, Melinda; Kincaid, G. David

36

Waste water treatment  

SciTech Connect

Waste water containing over 2 ppm Mo and at least one heavy metal impurity selected from the group consisting of Fe, Mn, Cu, Zn, Pb, and Cd, and also containing cyanide ion (CN) is treated by passing waste water having an adjusted pH value ranging from about 3 to 4 through an ion-exchange resin column selective to the removal of Mo and provide an ion-exchange effluent containing at least one of said heavy metal impurities and said cyanide ion. The ph value of the effluent is then adjusted to a range of about 7 to 11 sufficient to precipitate the heavy metal impurity having the highest pH requirement for precipitation, following which the precipitate is flocculated and the effluent containing the flocculated precipitate then subjected to electrolysis using insoluble electrodes to form electrolytic oxygen and hydrogen and effect electroflotation of the flocculated precipitate and form a froth thereof which is separated from the effluent by skimming.

Laferty, J.M.; Van Riper, G.G.; Zundel, W.P.

1980-02-19

37

Arsenic in water treatment.  

SciTech Connect

Sandia National Laboratories (SNL) is collaborating with the Awwa Research Foundation (AwwaRF) and WERC (A Consortium for Environmental Education and Technology Development) in a program for the development and testing of innovative technologies that have the potential to substantially reduce the costs associated with arsenic removal from drinking water. Sandia National Laboratories will administer contracts placed with AwwaRF and WERC to carry out bench scale studies and economic analyses/outreach activities, respectively. The elements of the AwwaRF program include (1) identification of new technologies, (2) proof-of-concept laboratory studies and, (3) a research program that will meet the other needs of small utilities by providing solutions to small utilities so that they may successfully meet the new arsenic MCL. WERC's activities will include development of an economic analysis tool for Pilot Scale Demonstrations and development of educational training and technical assistance tools. The objective of the Sandia Program is the field demonstration testing of innovative technologies. The primary deliverables of the Sandia program will be engineering analyses of candidate technologies; these will be contained in preliminary reports and final analysis reports. Projected scale-up costs will be generated using a cost model provided by WERC or another suitable model.

Siegel, Malcolm Dean

2004-12-01

38

Treatment of industrial effluent water  

SciTech Connect

This article reports on a thematic exhibition on ''New Developments in Treatment of Natural and Effluent Water'' in the Sanitary-Technical Construction Section at the Exhibition of Achievements of the National Economy of the USSR. The exhibition acquainted visitors with the achievements of leading organizations in different branches of industry with respect to treatment of natural and industrial effluent water. The Kharkov ''Vodkanalproekt'' Institute and the Kharkov affiliate of the All-Union Scientific-Research Institute of Water and Geodesy has jointly developed a ''Polymer-25'' filter for removal of oil products from nonexplosive effluent water discharged by machine building plants. A Baku affiliate has developed a new ShFP-1 screw-type press filter for dewatering the sediments from water treatment plants as well as for sediments from chemical, food, and other types of plants. The State Institute for Applied Chemistry has designed a continuous process plant for treating effluent water and removing toxic organic waste by converting them into mineral salts with high efficiency.

Levitskii, Yu.N.

1982-09-01

39

ENVIRONMENTAL ASSESSMENT WASTE WATER TREATMENT MODIFICATIONS  

E-print Network

ENVIRONMENTAL ASSESSMENT FOR WASTE WATER TREATMENT MODIFICATIONS FOR IMPROVED EFFLUENT COMPLIANCE................................................38 5.3.4 Effects of the Enhanced Treatment Alternative on Water Resources........................39 5.................................................................................................. 21 4.3 Alternative 3 ­ Enhanced Effluent Treatment

Ohta, Shigemi

40

ENVIRONMENTAL ASSESSMENT Waste Water Treatment Modifications for  

E-print Network

ENVIRONMENTAL ASSESSMENT FOR Waste Water Treatment Modifications for Improved Effluent Compliance treatment of waste water to remove priority metals · Install new metering system to dose secondary with SPDES Permit modifications · Ensure effective treatment of waste water EA will Evaluate Treatment

Homes, Christopher C.

41

36 CFR 1011.10 - How will the Presidio Trust use administrative offset (offset of non-tax federal payments) to...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...Treasury Offset Program . (1) If not already transferred to the FMS under § 1011.9 of this part, the Presidio Trust will refer...1011.4 of this part. The Presidio Trust will certify to the FMS, in writing, that the debt is valid, delinquent,...

2010-07-01

42

Drinking water safely during cancer treatment  

MedlinePLUS

... for Disease Control and Prevention. A guide to drinking water treatment technologies for household use. http://www.cdc.gov/healthywater/drinking/travel/household_water_treatment.html. Accessed May 7, 2014.

43

Benefits of Ozone Treatment for Bottled Water  

Microsoft Academic Search

The ozone treatment enhances the water quality of most drinking water in general. However, it is a key and essential treatment for the production of safe, high quality, good tasting, aesthetically pleasing and storage stable bottled water that the consumers have come to expect. The development and adaptation of ozone treatment in the 1970's resolved the troublesome and sometimes embarrassing

L. Joseph Bollyky

2002-01-01

44

Developments in membrane technology for water treatment  

Microsoft Academic Search

Membrane technology is widely accepted as a means of producing various qualities of water from surface water, well water, brackish water and seawater. Membrane technology is also used in industrial processes and in industrial wastewater treatment, and lately membrane technology has moved into the area of treating secondary and tertiary municipal wastewater and oil field produced water. In many cases

Bjarne Nicolaisen

2003-01-01

45

The French Connection: Cuisine and Water Treatment  

Microsoft Academic Search

During a one-week tour of water treatment plants in France, the author observed several small, simple water systems as well as some of the largest and most sophisticated installations in France. Cultural expectations that affect water treatment practices were of special interest, as were the professional resources provided by privatization. Durante su visita de una semana a plantas de tratamiento

Ida M. Sayre

1986-01-01

46

New England Water Treatment Technology Assistance Center  

E-print Network

New England Water Treatment Technology Assistance Center U n i v e r s i t y o f N e w H a m p s h in packed bed contactors affects the chemistry of the treated water and how this treatment affects Society National Meeting, New York, September 2003, "Enhanced Corrosion Control in Small Water Systems

47

36 CFR 1011.19 - Will the Presidio Trust issue a refund if money is erroneously collected on a debt?  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

The Presidio Trust will promptly refund to a debtor any amount collected on a debt when the debt is waived or otherwise found not to be owed to the United States, or as otherwise required by law. Refunds under this part will not bear interest unless required by...

2010-07-01

48

VIRUS REMOVAL DURING CONVENTIONAL DRINKING WATER TREATMENT  

EPA Science Inventory

The reduction of enteroviruses and rotaviruses was studied at a full scale 205 mgd water treatment plant involving chemical clarification, sand filtration and chlorination. Reduction of enteroviruses and rotaviruses averaged 81% and 93%, respectively, for the complete treatment p...

49

Water Treatment Technology - General Plant Operation.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

One of twelve water treatment technology units, this student manual on general plant operations provides instructional materials for seven competencies. (The twelve units are designed for a continuing education training course for public water supply operators.) The competencies focus on the following areas: water supply regulations, water plant…

Ross-Harrington, Melinda; Kincaid, G. David

50

Technology for Water Treatment (National Water Management)  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The buildup of scale and corrosion is the most costly maintenance problem in cooling tower operation. Jet Propulsion Laboratory successfully developed a non-chemical system that not only curbed scale and corrosion, but also offered advantages in water conservation, cost savings and the elimination of toxic chemical discharge. In the system, ozone is produced by an on-site generator and introduced to the cooling tower water. Organic impurities are oxidized, and the dissolved ozone removes bacteria and scale. National Water Management, a NASA licensee, has installed its ozone advantage systems at some 200 cooling towers. Customers have saved money and eliminated chemical storage and discharge.

1992-01-01

51

Water Treatment of Fuel Cell  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Received the award, we would like to take this opportunity to thank and to describe, where is water used in fuel cell system, how do we treat water dew to source of water, what we do to purify water for fuel cell system in commercial or home use, what are the problems remaining.

Misumi, Yoshiteru; Iizuka, Hiroshi

52

Uses of ozone in drinking water treatment  

Microsoft Academic Search

Ozone has been used continuously for the treatment of drinking water since 1906, when it was first installed in the city of Nice, France, for disinfection purposes. Although many water treatment plants throughout the world still utilize ozone primarily for disinfection, most modern plants rely on ozone to perform one or more oxidation functions. Applications for ozonation now include oxidation

Rip G. Rice; C. Michael Robson; G. Wade Miller; Archibald G. Hill

1981-01-01

53

Treatment of Seasonal Pesticides in Surface Waters  

Microsoft Academic Search

Numerous pesticides were monitored in surface waters in agricultural areas. Atrazine, alachlor, metolachlor, cyanazine, metribuzin, carbofuran, linuron, and simazine were found in the influent to three water treatment plants in stormwater runoff. Studies at these plants, together with bench-scale studies, demonstrated poor control by conventional treatment processes. The relatively high adsorption capacities of these agrichemicals indicate that granular activated carbon

Richard J. Miltner; David B. Baker; Thomas F. Speth; Carol A. Fronk

1989-01-01

54

Wafer Treatment Using Electrolysis-Ionized Water  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Electrolysis-ionized water treatment is shown to be useful for removing polystyrene particles from contact holes, silicon surface cleaning and the removal of metal contamination such as copper. Electrolysis-ionized waterhas a controllable pH and a higher oxidation-reduction potential than chemicals. Moreover, this water does notcontain acid or alkaline chemicals, and can easily be neutralized without adding chemicals. Electrolysis-ionized water treatment has great potential for ecologically safe and low cost semiconductor processing.

Aoki, Hidemitsu; Nakamori, Masaharu; Aoto, Nahomi; Ikawa, Eiji

1994-10-01

55

Water treatment considerations for thermal storage systems  

SciTech Connect

Traditional closed loop corrosion, fouling, and microbial control treatments are not always capable of providing effective treatment to Thermal Energy Storage systems. Typically, these systems experience a higher incidence of corrosion, corrosion related fouling and microbial problems than traditional closed loop applications. Customary corrosion control treatments like nitrite have yielded poor results due to microbial degradation. Microbial control is often harder due to the sheer volume of water needing treatment and inadequate distribution in the system. This paper will review the various water treatment needs for Thermal Energy Storage Systems and present data on a successfully operating Thermal Energy Storage system.

Meier, D.A. [Nalco Chemical Co., Naperville, IL (United States)

1998-12-31

56

Delta Drinking Water Quality and Treatment Costs  

E-print Network

Delta Drinking Water Quality and Treatment Costs Technical Appendix H Wei-Hsiang Chen Kristine-San Joaquin Delta, prepared by a team of researchers from the Center for Watershed Sciences (University Acknowledgments v Acronyms vi Introduction 1 1. WATER QUALITY IN AND NEAR DELTA 2 Delta Drinking Water Intakes 2

Pasternack, Gregory B.

57

FOREST TREATMENT EFFECTS ON WATER YIELD  

Microsoft Academic Search

Results are reported for thirty-nine studies of the effect of altering forest cover on water yield. Taken collectively, these studies reveal that forest reduction increases water yield, and that reforestation de- creases water yield. Results of individual treatments vary widely and for the most part are unpredictable. First-year response to complete forest reduction varies from 34 mm to more than

ALDEN R. HIBBERT

58

Water Treatment Technology - Chemistry/Bacteriology.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

One of twelve water treatment technology units, this student manual on chemistry/bacteriology provides instructional materials for twelve competencies. (The twelve units are designed for a continuing education training course for public water supply operators.) The competencies focus on the following areas: waterborne diseases, water sampling…

Ross-Harrington, Melinda; Kincaid, G. David

59

Household Water Treatments in Developing Countries  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Household water treatments (HWT) can help provide clean water to millions of people worldwide who do not have access to safe water. This article describes four common HWT used in developing countries and the pertinent chemistry involved. The intent of this article is to inform both high school and college chemical educators and chemistry students…

Smieja, Joanne A.

2011-01-01

60

A Primer on Waste Water Treatment.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This information pamphlet is for teachers, students, or the general public concerned with the types of waste water treatment systems, the need for further treatment, and advanced methods of treating wastes. Present day pollution control methods utilizing primary and secondary waste treatment plants, lagoons, and septic tanks are described,…

Department of the Interior, Washington, DC. Federal Water Pollution Control Administration.

61

Organic polyelectrolytes in water treatment  

Microsoft Academic Search

The use of polymers in the production of drinking water is reviewed, with emphasis on the nature of the impurities to be removed, the mechanisms of coagulation and flocculation, and the types of polymers commonly available. There is a focus on polymers for primary coagulation, their use as coagulant aids, in the recycling of filter backwash waters, and in sludge

Brian Bolto; John Gregory

2007-01-01

62

Guidelines for makeup water treatment  

Microsoft Academic Search

The EPRI Fossil Plant Cycle Chemistry Program, RP 2712, was developed in recognition of the importance of controlling cycle water and steam purity in attainment of maximized unit availability, reliability and efficiency. This guideline characterizes the state-of-the-art technology for production of cycle makeup water. It is intended to complement other RP 2712 projects in the areas of cycle chemistry guidelines,

D. A. Jr. Cline; K. J. Shields

1990-01-01

63

MEMBRANES FOR DRINKING WATER TREATMENT  

EPA Science Inventory

Various treatment technologies have proven effective in controlling halogenated disinfection by-products such as precursor removal and the use of alternative disinfectants. One of the most promising methods for halogenated by-product control includes removal of precursors before ...

64

INTEGRATED WATER TREATMENT SYSTEM PERFORMANCE EVALUATION  

SciTech Connect

This document describes the results of an evaluation of the current Integrated Water Treatment System (IWTS) operation against design performance and a determination of short term and long term actions recommended to sustain IWTS performance.

SEXTON RA; MEEUWSEN WE

2009-03-12

65

ESTIMATION OF SMALL SYSTEM WATER TREATMENT COSTS  

EPA Science Inventory

This report presents cost data for unit processes that are capable of removing contaminants included in the National Interim Primary Drinking Water Regulations. Construction and operation and maintenance cost data are presented for 45 centralized treatment unit processes that are...

66

ALTERNATIVE DISINFECTION FOR DRINKING WATER TREATMENT  

EPA Science Inventory

During a one-yr study at Jefferson Parish, La., the chemical, microbiological, and mutagenic effects os using the major drinkgin water disinfectants (chlorine, chlorine dioxide, chloramine, ozone) were evaluated. Tests were performed on samples collected from various treatment s...

67

Water/Wastewater Treatment Plant Operator Qualifications.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article summarizes in tabular form the U.S. and Canadian programs for classification of water and wastewater treatment plant personnel. Included are main characteristics of the programs, educational and experience requirements, and indications of requirement substitutions. (CS)

Water and Sewage Works, 1979

1979-01-01

68

Verifying Ballast Water Treatment Performance  

EPA Science Inventory

The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, NSF International, Battelle, and U.S. Coast Guard are jointly developing a protocol for verifying the technical performance of commercially available technologies designed to treat ship ballast water for potentially invasive species. The...

69

Water-conserving cooling tower treatment  

SciTech Connect

Water conservation in cooling towers and evaporative coolers can finally become a reality. Also, fouled closed hot and chilled water systems can be restored to near original efficiency using the same technology. The barrier limiting the traditional water treatment industry from serious involvement in water conservation is the lack of a really good chemical to control scale. Poor scale inhibitors are the reason for a heavy bleed. Minerals concentrated by evaporation is wasted to the sewer while low solids make-up water fills the tower. Water conservation is important because of the increasing usable water shortage, the cost to add infrastructure to deliver increasing amounts of water to accommodate growth and the limitations imposed on disposal to the sewer. Now, due to innovations in chemical treatment, users of cooling towers and evaporative coolers can conserve water. In this presentation the author assumes the audience has some knowledge of traditional water treatment. Except for a few general references to establish common understanding, the author confines his remarks to discussing an advanced technology developed by DIAS, Inc., and the economics of its use.

Mathie, A.J. [A.J. Mathie Company, Roy, UT (United States)

1996-12-31

70

Water Treatment Technology - Taste, Odor & Color.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

One of twelve water treatment technology units, this student manual on taste, odor, and color provides instructional materials for three competencies. (The twelve units are designed for a continuing education training course for public water supply operators.) The competencies focus on the following areas: taste and odor determination, control of…

Ross-Harrington, Melinda; Kincaid, G. David

71

Water Treatment Technology - Cross-Connections.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

One of twelve water treatment technology units, this student manual on cross connections provides instructional materials for two competencies. (The twelve units are designed for a continuing education training course for public water supply operators.) The competencies focus on cross connections terminology and control devices. For each…

Ross-Harrington, Melinda; Kincaid, G. David

72

7 CFR 305.22 - Hot water immersion treatment schedules.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-01-01 false Hot water immersion treatment schedules. 305...Continued) ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION...AGRICULTURE PHYTOSANITARY TREATMENTS Heat Treatments § 305.22 Hot water immersion treatment schedules....

2010-01-01

73

Saving Energy, Water, and Money with Efficient Water Treatment Technologies  

SciTech Connect

Reverse Osmosis (RO) is a method of purifying water for industrial processes and human consumption; RO can remove mineral salts as well as contaminants such as bacteria and pesticides. Advances in water treatment technologies have enhanced and complemented the conventional RO process, reducing energy and water consumption, lowering capital and operating costs, and producing purer water. This publication of the Department of Energy's Federal Energy Management Program introduces RO, describes the benefits of high-efficiency reverse osmosis (HERO), and compares HERO with RO/electrodeionization (EDI) technology.

Not Available

2004-06-01

74

Innovations in nanotechnology for water treatment.  

PubMed

Important challenges in the global water situation, mainly resulting from worldwide population growth and climate change, require novel innovative water technologies in order to ensure a supply of drinking water and reduce global water pollution. Against this background, the adaptation of highly advanced nanotechnology to traditional process engineering offers new opportunities in technological developments for advanced water and wastewater technology processes. Here, an overview of recent advances in nanotechnologies for water and wastewater treatment processes is provided, including nanobased materials, such as nanoadsorbents, nanometals, nanomembranes, and photocatalysts. The beneficial properties of these materials as well as technical barriers when compared with conventional processes are reported. The state of commercialization is presented and an outlook on further research opportunities is given for each type of nanobased material and process. In addition to the promising technological enhancements, the limitations of nanotechnology for water applications, such as laws and regulations as well as potential health risks, are summarized. The legal framework according to nanoengineered materials and processes that are used for water and wastewater treatment is considered for European countries and for the USA. PMID:25609931

Gehrke, Ilka; Geiser, Andreas; Somborn-Schulz, Annette

2015-01-01

75

Innovations in nanotechnology for water treatment  

PubMed Central

Important challenges in the global water situation, mainly resulting from worldwide population growth and climate change, require novel innovative water technologies in order to ensure a supply of drinking water and reduce global water pollution. Against this background, the adaptation of highly advanced nanotechnology to traditional process engineering offers new opportunities in technological developments for advanced water and wastewater technology processes. Here, an overview of recent advances in nanotechnologies for water and wastewater treatment processes is provided, including nanobased materials, such as nanoadsorbents, nanometals, nanomembranes, and photocatalysts. The beneficial properties of these materials as well as technical barriers when compared with conventional processes are reported. The state of commercialization is presented and an outlook on further research opportunities is given for each type of nanobased material and process. In addition to the promising technological enhancements, the limitations of nanotechnology for water applications, such as laws and regulations as well as potential health risks, are summarized. The legal framework according to nanoengineered materials and processes that are used for water and wastewater treatment is considered for European countries and for the USA. PMID:25609931

Gehrke, Ilka; Geiser, Andreas; Somborn-Schulz, Annette

2015-01-01

76

Oxidative treatment of pharmaceuticals in water  

Microsoft Academic Search

Environmentally relevant pharmaceuticals were chosen according to human consumption and occurrence in the aquatic environment like sewage plant effluents, rivers and groundwater to investigate their behavior during oxidative water treatment. Derived from data compilation in literature the lipid lowering agent clofibric acid and the analgesic agents ibuprofen and diclofenac were selected. Analyses of the acidic compounds were carried out after

C. Zwiener; F. H. Frimmel

2000-01-01

77

Magnetic water treatment: A coming attraction?  

SciTech Connect

United Airlines and pharmaceutical company Eli Lilly and Company are among a number of users that are controlling scale and corrosion in cooling tower loops with magnetic water treatment, a controversial technology that has met with skepticism, disbelief, and claims of fraud. Experts and hundreds of published papers disagree on whether magnetic water treatment works, and if so, how. No scientific theory has proven how magnets can treat water, nor are there documented, reproducible laboratory test results. Field experience is mixed, with some installations working well and others failing. Despite the controversy and the lack of an adequately documented theoretical underpinning, the existence of large, apparently successful installations lends credence to the view that at least some magnetic water treatment systems are effective. The stakes are high. Most large HVAC systems are currently treated with chemicals. These chemicals generally work well, but they are costly, in many cases are environmentally damaging, and are subject to increasingly strict regulations. A reliable, low-cost, and more environmentally benign alternative that eliminates or sharply reduces the need for chemical treatment would have obvious benefits. Based on the review of the literature, discussions with users, vendors, and independent analysts, and tours of several apparently successful installations, E Source believes that this technology works in some cases and warrants further investigation. They caution prospective users to shop carefully and to select vendors with an established track record.

Fryer, L.

1995-10-01

78

ANAEROBIC BIOLOGICAL TREATMENT OF PRODUCED WATER  

SciTech Connect

During the production of oil and gas, large amounts of water are brought to the surface and must be disposed of in an environmentally sensitive manner. This is an especially difficult problem in offshore production facilities where space is a major constraint. The chief regulatory criterion for produced water is oil and grease. Most facilities have little trouble meeting this criterion using conventional oil-water separation technologies. However, some operations have significant amounts of naphthenic acids in the water that behave as oil and grease but are not well removed by conventional technologies. Aerobic biological treatment of naphthenic acids in simulated-produced water has been demonstrated by others; however, the system was easily overloaded by the large amounts of low-molecular-weight organic acids often found in produced waters. The objective of this research was to determine the ability of an anaerobic biological system to treat these organic acids in a simulated produced water and to examine the potential for biodegradation of the naphthenic acids in the anaerobic environment. A small fixed-film anaerobic biological reactor was constructed and adapted to treat a simulated produced water. The bioreactor was tubular, with a low-density porous glass packing material. The inocula to the reactor was sediment from a produced-water holding pond from a municipal anaerobic digester and two salt-loving methanogenic bacteria. During start-up, the feed to the reactor contained glucose as well as typical produced-water components. When glucose was used, rapid gas production was observed. However, when glucose was eliminated and the major organic component was acetate, little gas was generated. Methane production from acetate may have been inhibited by the high salt concentrations, by sulfide, or because of the lack, despite seeding, of microbes capable of converting acetate to methane. Toluene, a minor component of the produced water (0.1 g/L) was removed in the reactor. Batch tests were conducted to examine naphthenic acid biodegradability under several conditions. The conditions used were seed from the anaerobic reactor, wetland sediments under aerobic and anaerobic conditions, and a sterile control. The naphthenic acid was from a commercial source isolated from Gulf Coast petroleum as was dosed at 2 mg/mL. The incubations were for 30 days at 30 C. The results showed that the naphthenic acids were not biodegraded under anaerobic conditions, but were degraded under aerobic conditions. Despite poor performance of the anaerobic reactor, it remains likely that anaerobic treatment of acetate, toluene, and, potentially, other produced-water components is feasible.

John R. Gallagher

2001-07-31

79

Performance of small water treatment plants: The case study of Mutshedzi Water Treatment Plant  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The performance of small water treatment plants (SWTPs) was evaluated using Mutshedzi WTP as a case study. The majority of SWTPs in South Africa (SA) that supply water to rural villages face problems of cost recovery, water wastages, limited size and semi-skilled labour. The raw and final water quality analyses and their compliance were used to assess the performance of the Mutshedzi WTP. Electrical conductivity (EC), p? and turbidity were measured in the field using a portable multimeter and a turbidity meter respectively. Atomic Absorption Spectrometry and Ion Chromatography were used to analyse metals and non-metals respectively. The results were compared with the Department of Water Affairs (DWA) guidelines for domestic use. The turbidity levels partially exceeded the recommended guidelines for domestic water use of 1 NTU. The concentrations of chemical parameters in final water were within the DWA guidelines for domestic water use except for fluoride, which exceeded the maximum allowable guideline of 1.5 mg/L in August 2009. Mutshedzi WTP had computed compliance for raw and final water analyses ranging from 79% to 93% and 86% to 93% throughout the sampling period, respectively. The results from earlier studies showed that the microbiological quality of final water in Mutshedzi WTP complied with the recommended guidelines, eliminating the slight chance of adverse aesthetic effects and infectious disease transmission associated with the turbidity values between 1 and 5 NTU. The study concluded that Mutshedzi WTP, though moving towards compliance, is still not producing adequate quality of water. Other studies also indicated that the quantity of water produced from Mutshedzi WTP was inadequate. The findings of the study indicate that lack of monitoring of quantity of water supplied to each village, dosage of treatment chemicals, the treatment capacity of the WTP and monitoring the quality of water treated are some of the factors that limit the performance of Mutshedzi WTP. These have been confirmed in literature to be widespread in similar WTPs in SA. It is recommended that water meters be provided and the community be advised to subsidise the cost of water supply. The study recommended that the treatments of turbidity and fluoride should form critical functions of the plant to ensure that final water for domestic use is always safe from any harmful substances or disease causing pathogens. The study concluded that the WTP only needs minor improvement to boost its efficiency with regard to the treatment of raw water. This will also ensure that the plant achieves 100% compliance for final water.

Makungo, R.; Odiyo, J. O.; Tshidzumba, N.

80

Characterization of drinking water treatment sludge after ultrasound treatment.  

PubMed

Ultrasonic technology alone or the combination of ultrasound with alkaline or thermal hydrolysis as pretreatment for anaerobic digestion of activated sludge has been extensively documented. However, there are few reports on ultrasound as pretreatment of drinking water treatment sludge (DWTS), and thereby the characteristic variability of sonicated DWTS has not been fully examined. This research presents a lab-scale study on physical, chemical and biological characteristics of a DWTS sample collected from a water plant after ultrasonic treatment via a bath/probe sonoreactor. By doing this work, we provide implications for using ultrasound as pretreatment of enhanced coagulation of recycling sludge, and for the conditioning of water and wastewater mixed sludge by ultrasound combined with polymers. Our results indicate that the most vigorous DWTS disintegration quantified by particles' size reduction and organic solubilization is achieved with 5W/ml for 30min ultra-sonication (specific energy of 1590kWh/kgTS). The Brunauer, Emmett and Teller (BET) specific surface area of sonicated DWTS flocs increase as ultra-sonication prolongs at lower energy densities (0.03 and 1W/ml), while decrease as ultra-sonication prolongs at higher energy densities (3 and 5W/ml). Additionally, the pH and zeta potential of sonicated DWTS slightly varies under all conditions observed. A shorter sonication with higher energy density plays a more effective role in restraining microbial activity than longer sonication with lower energy density. PMID:25443278

Zhou, Zhiwei; Yang, Yanling; Li, Xing; Zhang, Yang; Guo, Xuan

2015-05-01

81

Electrocoagulation: A Novel Waste Water Treatment Method  

E-print Network

ABSTRACT: A renewed interest in electrocoagulation has spurred by the search for reliable, cost effective method for the treatment of polluted water. Electrocoagulation present a robust novel and innovative alternative in which a sacrificial metal anode corrodes, due to an applied electric potential, while the simultaneous evolution of hydrogen at the cathode which is removed by flotation. This has the major advantage of providing active cations required for coagulation, without increasing the salinity of the water. Electrocoagulation is a complex process with a multitude of mechanisms operating synergistically to remove the pollutants from the water. Different options exist for key mechanisms and reactor configurations. This paper presents an in-depth discussion and consideration of the factors that are the requirements for the optimum performance of this technology.

Satish. I. Chaturvedi

82

Energy requirements for waste water treatment.  

PubMed

The actual mathematical models describing global climate closely link the detected increase in global temperature to anthropogenic activity. The only energy source we can rely on in a long perspective is solar irradiation which is in the order of 10,000 kW/inhabitant. The actual primary power consumption (mainly based on fossil resources) in the developed countries is in the range of 5 to 10 kW/inhabitant. The total power contained in our nutrition is in the range of 0.11 kW/inhabitant. The organic pollution of domestic waste water corresponds to approximately 0.018 kW/inhabitant. The nutrients contained in the waste water can also be converted into energy equivalents replacing market fertiliser production. This energy equivalent is in the range of 0.009 kW/inhabitant. Hence waste water will never be a relevant source of energy as long as our primary energy consumption is in the range of several kW/inhabitant. The annual mean primary power demand of conventional municipal waste water treatment with nutrient removal is in the range of 0.003-0.015 kW/inhabitant. In principle it is already possible to reduce this value for external energy supply to zero. Such plants should be connected to an electrical grid in order to keep investment costs low. Peak energy demand will be supported from the grid and surplus electric energy from the plant can be is fed to the grid. Zero 'carbon footprint' will not be affected by this solution. Energy minimisation must never negatively affect treatment efficiency because water quality conservation is more important for sustainable development than the possible reduction in energy demand. This argument is strongly supported by economical considerations as the fixed costs for waste water infrastructure are dominant. PMID:22214091

Svardal, K; Kroiss, H

2011-01-01

83

36 CFR 1011.13 - How will the Presidio Trust use administrative wage garnishment to collect a debt from a debtor's...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...the requirements of § 1011.4(a)(10) of this part. For debts referred to the FMS under § 1011.9 of this part, the Presidio Trust may authorize the FMS to send a notice informing the debtor that administrative wage garnishment...

2010-07-01

84

7. Water treatment plant, view to E, berm in foreground ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

7. Water treatment plant, view to E, berm in foreground covering settling tank - Fort Benton Water Treatment Plant, Filtration Plant, Lots 9-13 of Block 7, Fort Benton Original Townsite at Missouri River, Fort Benton, Chouteau County, MT

85

5. Water treatment plant, view to N, berm in foreground ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

5. Water treatment plant, view to N, berm in foreground - Fort Benton Water Treatment Plant, Filtration Plant, Lots 9-13 of Block 7, Fort Benton Original Townsite at Missouri River, Fort Benton, Chouteau County, MT

86

OBLIQUE VIEW OF NORTH AND WEST SIDES OF WATER TREATMENT ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

OBLIQUE VIEW OF NORTH AND WEST SIDES OF WATER TREATMENT PLANT, FIRE PUMP HOUSE IN BACKGROUND, VIEW TOWARDS SOUTHEAST - Ortona Lock, Lock No. 2, Water Treatment Plant, Caloosahatchee River, Cross-State Canal, Okeechobee Intracoastal Waterway, Ortona, Glades County, FL

87

2. WATER TREATMENT PUMPING AND STORAGE BUILDING, REAR AND RIGHT ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

2. WATER TREATMENT PUMPING AND STORAGE BUILDING, REAR AND RIGHT SIDES, LOOKING SOUTHWEST. - NIKE Missile Base SL-40, Water Treatment & Storage Building, Southern portion of launch area, southeast of Ready Building, Hecker, Monroe County, IL

88

10. Water treatment plant, view to S. 1965 addition is ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

10. Water treatment plant, view to S. 1965 addition is in the foreground - Fort Benton Water Treatment Plant, Filtration Plant, Lots 9-13 of Block 7, Fort Benton Original Townsite at Missouri River, Fort Benton, Chouteau County, MT

89

3. Water treatment plant, view to W, detail of door ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

3. Water treatment plant, view to W, detail of door area - Fort Benton Water Treatment Plant, Filtration Plant, Lots 9-13 of Block 7, Fort Benton Original Townsite at Missouri River, Fort Benton, Chouteau County, MT

90

13. Water treatment plant interior view of tanks in control ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

13. Water treatment plant interior view of tanks in control room. View to SW - Fort Benton Water Treatment Plant, Filtration Plant, Lots 9-13 of Block 7, Fort Benton Original Townsite at Missouri River, Fort Benton, Chouteau County, MT

91

8. Water treatment plant, view to SE, berm in foreground ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

8. Water treatment plant, view to SE, berm in foreground covering settling tank - Fort Benton Water Treatment Plant, Filtration Plant, Lots 9-13 of Block 7, Fort Benton Original Townsite at Missouri River, Fort Benton, Chouteau County, MT

92

4. Water treatment plant, view to NW, berm in foreground ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

4. Water treatment plant, view to NW, berm in foreground - Fort Benton Water Treatment Plant, Filtration Plant, Lots 9-13 of Block 7, Fort Benton Original Townsite at Missouri River, Fort Benton, Chouteau County, MT

93

4. PHOTOCOPY, ARCHITECTURAL DETAILS FOR WATER TREATMENT PUMPING AND STORAGE ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

4. PHOTOCOPY, ARCHITECTURAL DETAILS FOR WATER TREATMENT PUMPING AND STORAGE BUILDING. - NIKE Missile Base SL-40, Water Treatment & Storage Building, Southern portion of launch area, southeast of Ready Building, Hecker, Monroe County, IL

94

OBLIQUE VIEW OF SOUTH AND EAST SIDES OF WATER TREATMENT ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

OBLIQUE VIEW OF SOUTH AND EAST SIDES OF WATER TREATMENT PLANT, VIEW TOWARDS NORTHWEST - Ortona Lock, Lock No. 2, Water Treatment Plant, Caloosahatchee River, Cross-State Canal, Okeechobee Intracoastal Waterway, Ortona, Glades County, FL

95

6. Water treatment plant, view NE, berm in foreground ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

6. Water treatment plant, view NE, berm in foreground - Fort Benton Water Treatment Plant, Filtration Plant, Lots 9-13 of Block 7, Fort Benton Original Townsite at Missouri River, Fort Benton, Chouteau County, MT

96

1. WATER TREATMENT PUMPING AND STORAGE BUILDING, FRONT AND LEFT ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

1. WATER TREATMENT PUMPING AND STORAGE BUILDING, FRONT AND LEFT SIDES, LOOKING NORTHEAST. - NIKE Missile Base SL-40, Water Treatment & Storage Building, Southern portion of launch area, southeast of Ready Building, Hecker, Monroe County, IL

97

OBLIQUE VIEW OF EAST AND NORTH SIDES OF WATER TREATMENT ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

OBLIQUE VIEW OF EAST AND NORTH SIDES OF WATER TREATMENT PLANT, LOCK TENDER'S HOUSE IN BACKGROUND, VIEW TOWARDS SOUTHWEST - Ortona Lock, Lock No. 2, Water Treatment Plant, Caloosahatchee River, Cross-State Canal, Okeechobee Intracoastal Waterway, Ortona, Glades County, FL

98

2. Water treatment plant entrance, view to W Fort ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

2. Water treatment plant entrance, view to W - Fort Benton Water Treatment Plant, Filtration Plant, Lots 9-13 of Block 7, Fort Benton Original Townsite at Missouri River, Fort Benton, Chouteau County, MT

99

14. Water treatment plant interior view of chlorination room. View ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

14. Water treatment plant interior view of chlorination room. View to N - Fort Benton Water Treatment Plant, Filtration Plant, Lots 9-13 of Block 7, Fort Benton Original Townsite at Missouri River, Fort Benton, Chouteau County, MT

100

Boiler System Efficiency Improves with Effective Water Treatment  

E-print Network

Water treatment is an important aspect of boiler operation which can affect efficiency or result in damage if neglected. Without effective water treatment, scale can form on boiler tubes, reducing heat transfer, and causing a loss of boiler...

Bloom, D.

101

Optimized alumina coagulants for water treatment  

DOEpatents

Substitution of a single Ga-atom or single Ge-atom (GaAl.sub.12 and GeAl.sub.12 respectively) into the center of an aluminum Keggin polycation (Al.sub.13) produces an optimal water-treatment product for neutralization and coagulation of anionic contaminants in water. GaAl.sub.12 consistently shows .about.1 order of magnitude increase in pathogen reduction, compared to Al.sub.13. At a concentration of 2 ppm, GaAl.sub.12 performs equivalently to 40 ppm alum, removing .about.90% of the dissolved organic material. The substituted GaAl.sub.12 product also offers extended shelf-life and consistent performance. We also synthesized a related polyaluminum chloride compound made of pre-hydrolyzed dissolved alumina clusters of [GaO.sub.4Al.sub.12(OH).sub.24(H.sub.2O).sub.12].sup.7+.

Nyman, May D. (Albuquerque, NM); Stewart, Thomas A. (Albuquerque, NM)

2012-02-21

102

I. INTRODUCTION Previous research in water treatment has been  

E-print Network

I. INTRODUCTION Previous research in water treatment has been varied and extensive. In the past, water treatment research included remote plasma processes, such as ozone, UV and electron processes the knowledge gleaned from past research, PAED seems to be a viable water treatment option. PAED may provide

McMaster University

103

40 CFR 141.83 - Source water treatment requirements.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Source water treatment requirements. 141.83 Section...ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) WATER PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) NATIONAL PRIMARY DRINKING WATER REGULATIONS Control of Lead and Copper...

2013-07-01

104

40 CFR 141.83 - Source water treatment requirements.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Source water treatment requirements. 141.83 Section...ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) WATER PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) NATIONAL PRIMARY DRINKING WATER REGULATIONS Control of Lead and Copper...

2012-07-01

105

40 CFR 141.83 - Source water treatment requirements.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Source water treatment requirements. 141.83 Section...ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) WATER PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) NATIONAL PRIMARY DRINKING WATER REGULATIONS Control of Lead and Copper...

2011-07-01

106

40 CFR 141.83 - Source water treatment requirements.  

...2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Source water treatment requirements. 141.83 Section...ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) WATER PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) NATIONAL PRIMARY DRINKING WATER REGULATIONS Control of Lead and Copper...

2014-07-01

107

40 CFR 141.83 - Source water treatment requirements.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Source water treatment requirements. 141.83 Section...ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) WATER PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) NATIONAL PRIMARY DRINKING WATER REGULATIONS Control of Lead and Copper...

2010-07-01

108

Testing of filter technologies for ballast water treatment  

Microsoft Academic Search

Growing concern over the content of discharged ballast water necessitates development of technologies which can decontaminate the water before or during discharge. Many types of filtration technologies exist today which may be applicable candidates for the treatment of ships' ballast water. This treatment applies to the removal of organic and inorganic matter found within the ballast water. To adequately evaluate

Scott Riley; E. Lemieux; S. Robbins

2005-01-01

109

Onshore ballast water treatment: a viable option for major ports.  

PubMed

Ballast water treatment consists of the elimination of exotic species. Currently, the development of alternative methods for this process is directed toward treatment onboard ships. However, we present onshore treatment as a viable alternative for ballast water treatment. We investigated onshore treatment in two iron ore ports with movement capacities of 25 and 90 million tons annually (Mta) that receive 7.5 and 25 million cubic meters annually (Mm(3)) of ballast water, respectively. Discrete event simulation was used as the method of analysis, considering the processes of arrival, berthing, ship loading and capture and treatment of ballast water. We analyzed data from 71 ships operating in these ports to validate our simulation model. We were able to demonstrate that onshore treatment does not impact the cargo capacity, occupation rate or average queuing time of ships at these ports. We concluded that implementation of onshore ballast water treatment may be practicable in ports that receive high volumes of ballast water. PMID:22920715

Pereira, Newton Narciso; Brinati, Hernani Luiz

2012-11-01

110

36 CFR 1002.63 - Boating and water use activities.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

36 ? Parks, Forests, and Public Property ? 3 ? 2013-07-01 ? 2012-07-01 ? true ? Boating and water use activities. ? 1002.63 ? Section 1002.63 ? Parks, Forests, and Public Property ? PRESIDIO TRUST ? RESOURCE PROTECTION, PUBLIC USE AND RECREATION ? § 1002.63 ? Boating and water use activities....

2013-07-01

111

Drinking water treatment processes for removal of Cryptosporidium and Giardia  

Microsoft Academic Search

Major waterborne cryptosporidiosis and giardiasis outbreaks associated with contaminated drinking water have been linked to evidence of suboptimal treatment. Cryptosporidium parvum oocysts are particularly more resistant than Giardia lamblia cysts to removal and inactivation by conventional water treatment (coagulation, sedimentation, filtration and chlorine disinfection); therefore, extensive research has been focused on the optimization of treatment processes and application of new

Walter Q. Betancourt; Joan B. Rose

2004-01-01

112

Big waste-treatment job for water hyacinths  

SciTech Connect

Studies indicate that water hyacinths are at least 50% cheaper for the secondary treatment of sewage compared with activated-sludge plants, not taking into account the potential production of methane from the crop. Ultimately it is hoped that hyacinth aquaculture will permit tertiary treatment of sewage for recovery of potable water. Existing and planned water hyacinth treatment processes in the U.S. are reviewed.

Parkinson, G.

1981-05-04

113

Design and Compilation of a Geodatabase of Existing Salinity Information for the Rio Grande Basin, from the Rio Arriba-Sandoval County Line, New Mexico, to Presidio, Texas, 2010  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers, compiled salinity-related water-quality data and information in a geodatabase containing more than 6,000 sampling sites. The geodatabase was designed as a tool for water-resource management and includes readily available digital data sources from the U.S. Geological Survey, U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, New Mexico Interstate Stream Commission, Sustainability of semi-Arid Hydrology and Riparian Areas, Paso del Norte Watershed Council, numerous other State and local databases, and selected databases maintained by the University of Arizona and New Mexico State University. Salinity information was compiled for an approximately 26,000-square-mile area of the Rio Grande Basin from the Rio Arriba-Sandoval County line, New Mexico, to Presidio, Texas. The geodatabase relates the spatial location of sampling sites with salinity-related water-quality data reported by multiple agencies. The sampling sites are stored in a geodatabase feature class; each site is linked by a relationship class to the corresponding sample and results stored in data tables.

Shah, Sachin D.; Maltby, David R., II

2010-01-01

114

50. NORTHERN VIEW OF NONEVAPORATIVE WASTE WATER TREATMENT COOLING TOWERS ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

50. NORTHERN VIEW OF NON-EVAPORATIVE WASTE WATER TREATMENT COOLING TOWERS IN CENTER, AND EVAPORATIVE WASTE WATER COOLING TOWERS ON RIGHT. (Jet Lowe) - U.S. Steel Duquesne Works, Blast Furnace Plant, Along Monongahela River, Duquesne, Allegheny County, PA

115

Water Treatment: Can You Purify Water for Drinking?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Presents a three-day mini unit on purification of drinking water that uses the learning cycle approach. Demonstrates the typical technology that water companies use to provide high-quality drinking water. (JRH)

Harris, Mary E.

1996-01-01

116

Radium and Other Radiological Chemicals: Drinking Water Treatment Strategies  

EPA Science Inventory

Radium and Other Radiological Chemicals: Drinking Water Treatment Technologies Topics include: Introduction to Rad Chemistry, Summary of the Rad, Regulations Treatment Technology, and Disposal. The introductions cover atoms, ions, radium and uranium and the removal of radioac...

117

Biological Treatment of Drinking Water: Applications, Advantages and Disadvantages  

EPA Science Inventory

The fundamentals of biological treatment are presented to an audience of state drinking water regulators. The presentation covers definitions, applications, the basics of bacterial metabolism, a discussion of treatment options, and the impact that implementation of these options...

118

Precipitative Softening and Ultrafiltration Treatment of Beverage Water.  

E-print Network

??Lime softening, chlorination, clarification and filtration have been long recognized treatment processes for beverage water specifically the carbonated soft drink (CSD) because it provides consistent… (more)

Aguinaldo, Jorge T.

2006-01-01

119

K West integrated water treatment system subproject safety analysis document  

SciTech Connect

This Accident Analysis evaluates unmitigated accident scenarios, and identifies Safety Significant and Safety Class structures, systems, and components for the K West Integrated Water Treatment System.

SEMMENS, L.S.

1999-02-24

120

Onsite Wastewater Treatment Systems: Graywater Use and Water Quality  

E-print Network

treatment systems Blackwater tank Graywater tank Bruce Lesikar, Rachel Alexander and Justin Mechell Professor and Extension Agricultural Engineer; Communications Coordinator, Texas Water Resources Institute; and Extension Assistant, Biological...

Lesikar, Bruce J.; Mechell, Justin; Alexander, Rachel

2008-08-28

121

Mobile Emergency Response Water Treatment Technology Results  

EPA Science Inventory

When natural disasters like hurricanes, floods and earthquakes occur, safe drinking water can be compromised, limited or unavailable. Under such situations, communities have emergency response plans. One of many options for providing safe drinking water during emergency situati...

122

12. Water treatment plant interior view of pipes and pump ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

12. Water treatment plant interior view of pipes and pump in heater room. View to W - Fort Benton Water Treatment Plant, Filtration Plant, Lots 9-13 of Block 7, Fort Benton Original Townsite at Missouri River, Fort Benton, Chouteau County, MT

123

Prestorage hot water treatments (immersion, rinsing and brushing)  

Microsoft Academic Search

This review summarizes the latest developments in hot water immersion treatment (HWT) and hot water rinsing and brushing (HWRB) technologies. These treatments kill pathogens that cause surface decay, while maintaining fruit quality during prolonged storage and marketing. They also are relatively easy to use, have a short operating time, and are efficient in heat transfer. The cost of a typical

Elazar Fallik

2004-01-01

124

11. Water treatment plant interior view of pipes, stairs, and ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

11. Water treatment plant interior view of pipes, stairs, and pump in pump room. View to SW - Fort Benton Water Treatment Plant, Filtration Plant, Lots 9-13 of Block 7, Fort Benton Original Townsite at Missouri River, Fort Benton, Chouteau County, MT

125

INORGANIC CHEMICAL CHARACTERIZATION OF WATER TREATMENT PLANT RESIDUALS  

EPA Science Inventory

The study obtained field data on the inorganic contaminants and constituents in residuals produced by Water Treatment Plants (WTPs). Eight WTPs were studied based on treatment technology, contamination or suspected contamination of raw water, and efficiency in the removal of cont...

126

BARIUM AND RADIUM IN WATER TREATMENT PLANT WASTES  

EPA Science Inventory

Water treatment plants at nine locations (10 plants) in Illinois and Iowa were studied to determine the characteristics and disposal practices for the sludge, brine, and backwash water containing radium (Ra) and/or barium (Ba). The treatment processes in these ten plants include ...

127

Hydrogen Peroxide and Ultraviolet Irradiations in Water Treatment  

Microsoft Academic Search

Trihalomethanes (THMs) the by-products of chlorination in water treatment are recognised as a threat to public health due to their carcinogenicity. The photodegradation of THMs using hydrogen peroxide has been found to give increased removal efficiency and the outcome of the study may find, its application in designing a unit process for water treatment. Batch experiments were carried out using

Anjana Rudra; Neeta P. Thacker; Sunil P. Pande

2005-01-01

128

Emergency Response and Protection Water Treatment Technologies  

EPA Science Inventory

The Expeditionary Unit Water Purifier (EUWP) is supported and deployed by NFESC, the TARDEC, and the USBR. The EUWP was deployed to Biloxi, MS after Hurricane Katrina to supply potable water to a hospital, using seawater from the Gulf of Mexico as the source water. The EUWP ...

129

CHARACTERIZING RAW SURFACE WATER AMENABLE TO MINIMAL WATER SUPPLY TREATMENT  

EPA Science Inventory

The monitoring strategy must be sensitive to frequent and unpredictable fluctuations in water quality caused by major storm events and seasonal destratifications of the lake/impoundment. Therefore, daily monitoring of raw source water and the finished water quality entering distr...

130

Water footprint assessment for wastewater treatment: method, indicator, and application.  

PubMed

The water footprint in terms of the sum of both direct and indirect water cost of wastewater treatment is for the first time accounted in this work. On the basis of the hybrid method as a combination of process analysis and input-output analysis, a detailed water footprint accounting procedure is provided to cover the supply chain of a wastewater treatment plant. A set of indices intending to reveal the efficiency as well as renewability of wastewater treatment systems are devised as parallels of corresponding indicators in net energy analysis for energy supply systems. A case study is carried out for the Beijing Space City wastewater treatment plant as a landmark project. The high WROI (water return on investment) and low WIWP (water investment in water purified) indicate a high efficiency and renewability of the case system, illustrating the fundamental function of wastewater treatment for water reuse. The increasing of the wastewater and sludge treatment rates are revealed in an urgent need to reduce the water footprint of China and to improve the performance of wastewater treatment. PMID:23777208

Shao, Ling; Chen, G Q

2013-07-16

131

A Review of Chlorine Dioxide in Drinking Water Treatment  

Microsoft Academic Search

There is increased interest in using chlorine dioxide to treat drinking water for trihalomethane control, taste and odor control, oxidation of iron and manganese, and oxidant-enhanced coagulation-sedimentation. This article reviews the physical, chemical, and biological properties of chlorine dioxide as they relate to water treatment. The generation reactions as well as the reactions likely to occur in treated water are

E. Marco Aieta; James D. Berg

1986-01-01

132

BACTERIAL COLONIZATION OF POINT-OF-USE WATER TREATMENT DEVICES  

EPA Science Inventory

Point-of-use water treatment devices were investigated for types of organisms that may colonize these filters, the magnitude of microbial post colonization release in the product water during daily use or after periods of non use, and the impact of tap waters of marginal bacterio...

133

MORINGA OLEIFERA SEEDS AS NATURAL COAGULANT FOR WATER TREATMENT  

Microsoft Academic Search

Developing countries and third world countries are facing potable water supply problems because of inadequate financial resources. The cost of water treatment is increasing and the quality of river water is not stable due to suspended and colloidal particle load caused by land development and high storm runoff during the rainy seasons especially in a country like Malaysia. During the

Eman N. Ali; Suleyman A. Muyibi; Hamzah M. Salleh

134

POOL WATER TREATMENT AND COOLING SYSTEM DESCRIPTION DOCUMENT  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Pool Water Treatment and Cooling System is located in the Waste Handling Building (WHB), and is comprised of various process subsystems designed to support waste handling operations. This system maintains the pool water temperature within an acceptable range, maintains water quality standards that support remote underwater operations and prevent corrosion, detects leakage from the pool liner, provides the capability

V. King

2000-01-01

135

POOL WATER TREATMENT AND COOLING SYSTEM DESCRIPTION DOCUMENT  

SciTech Connect

The Pool Water Treatment and Cooling System is located in the Waste Handling Building (WHB), and is comprised of various process subsystems designed to support waste handling operations. This system maintains the pool water temperature within an acceptable range, maintains water quality standards that support remote underwater operations and prevent corrosion, detects leakage from the pool liner, provides the capability to remove debris from the pool, controls the pool water level, and helps limit radiological exposure to personnel. The pool structure and liner, pool lighting, and the fuel staging racks in the pool are not within the scope of the Pool Water Treatment and Cooling System. Pool water temperature control is accomplished by circulating the pool water through heat exchangers. Adequate circulation and mixing of the pool water is provided to prevent localized thermal hotspots in the pool. Treatment of the pool water is accomplished by a water treatment system that circulates the pool water through filters, and ion exchange units. These water treatment units remove radioactive and non-radioactive particulate and dissolved solids from the water, thereby providing the water clarity needed to conduct waste handling operations. The system also controls pool water chemistry to prevent advanced corrosion of the pool liner, pool components, and fuel assemblies. Removal of radioactivity from the pool water contributes to the project ALARA (as low as is reasonably achievable) goals. A leak detection system is provided to detect and alarm leaks through the pool liner. The pool level control system monitors the water level to ensure that the minimum water level required for adequate radiological shielding is maintained. Through interface with a demineralized water system, adequate makeup is provided to compensate for loss of water inventory through evaporation and waste handling operations. Interface with the Site Radiological Monitoring System provides continuous radiological monitoring of the pool water. The Pool Water Treatment and Cooling System interfaces with the Waste Handling Building System, Site-Generated Radiological Waste Handling System, Site Radiological Monitoring System, Waste Handling Building Electrical System, Site Water System, and the Monitored Geologic Repository Operations Monitoring and Control System.

V. King

2000-06-19

136

INL Bettis Water Treatment Project Report  

SciTech Connect

Bechtel Bettis Atomic Power Laboratory (Bettis), West Mifflin, PA, requested that the Idaho National Laboratory (INL) (Battelle Energy Alliance) perform tests using water simulants and three specified media to determine if those ion-exchange (IX) resins will be effective at removing the plutonium contamination from water. This report details the testing and results of the tests to determine the suitability of the media to treat plutonium contaminated water at near nuetral pH.

Not Available

2009-06-01

137

Performance of a Treatment Loop for Recycling Spent Rinse Waters  

SciTech Connect

This paper summarizes an evaluation of a treatment loop designed to upgrade the quality of spent rinse waters discharged from 10 wet benches located in the fab at Sandia's Microelectronics Development Laboratory (MDL). The goal of the treatment loop is to make these waters, presently being discharged to the fab's acid waste neutralization (AWN) station, suitable for recycling as feed water back into the fab's ultrapure water (UPW) plant. The MDL typically operates 2 shifts per day, 5 days per week. Without any treatment, the properties of the spent rinse waters now being collected have been shown to be compatible with recycling about 30% (50/168) of the time (weekends primarily, when the fab is idling) which corresponds to about 12% of the present water discharged from the fab to the AWN. The primary goal of adding a treatment loop is to increase the percentage of recyclable water from these 10 wet benches to near 100%, increasing the percentage of total recyclable water to near 40% of the total present fab discharge to the AWN. A second goal is to demonstrate compatibility with recycling this treated spent rinse water to the present R/O product water tank, reducing both the present volume of R/O reject water and the present load on the R/O. The approach taken to demonstrate achieving these goals is to compare all the common metrics of water quality for the treated spent rinse waters with those of the present R/O product water. Showing that the treated rinse water is equal or superior in quality to the water presently stored in the R/O tank by every metric all the time is assumed to be sufficient argument for proceeding with plans to incorporate recycling of these spent rinse waters back into MDL's R/O tank.

DONOVAN,ROBERT PATRICK; TIMON,ROBERT P.; DEBUSK,MICHAEL JOHN; JONES,RONALD V.; ROGERS,DARELL M.

2000-11-15

138

EPA?s Drinking Water Treatment Research  

EPA Science Inventory

Riverbank filtration has been utilized for decades as a pretreatment for waters that will be used for drinking water. A study investigating the occurrence and potential for removal of suspected endocrine disrupting compounds (EDCs) during riverbank filtration at a municipal well...

139

Magnetic water treatment for scale prevention  

Microsoft Academic Search

A home-made magnetic device was built with permanent magnets for treating scaling waters. Its efficiency was evaluated by measuring the remaining ionic calcium at the output of the device by means of an ion selective electrode. The scaling power of the treated water was estimated through an electrochemical scaling test. Chroamperometric curves and chronoelectrogravimetric curves were plotted to obtain the

C. Gabrielli; R. JAOUHARIy; G. Maurin; M. Keddam

2001-01-01

140

The evaluation of drinking water treatment performed with HPSEC  

Microsoft Academic Search

Characterization of natural organic matter (NOM) removal in the drinking-water treatment train can give valuable information, while optimizing the treatment process. In this study, high-performance size-exclusion chromatography (HPSEC) was applied to evaluate the relative changes of molecular size distribution (MSD) of NOM in different treatment steps. The full-scale treatment train consisting of coagulation, flocculation, sedimentation, sand filtration, and ozonation was

Riku Vahala; Jukka Rintala; Risto Laukkanen

1998-01-01

141

CAN MEMBRANES BE ACCEPTABLE TREATMENT TECHNOLOGY FOR DRINKING WATER TREATMENT?  

EPA Science Inventory

Various treatment technologies have proven effective in controlling halogenated disinfection by-products such as precursor removal and the use of alternative disinfectants. ne of the most promising methods for halogenated by-product control includes removal of precursors before d...

142

Magnetic treatment of irrigation water: Its effects on vegetable crop yield and water productivity  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study examines whether there are any beneficial effects of magnetic treatment of different irrigation water types on water productivity and yield of snow pea, celery and pea plants. Replicated pot experiments involving magnetically treated and non-magnetically treated potable water (tap water), recycled water and saline water (500ppm and 1000ppm NaCl for snow peas; 1500ppm and 3000ppm for celery and

Basant L. Maheshwari; Harsharn Singh Grewal

2009-01-01

143

Water treatment facilities (excluding wastewater facilities). (Latest citations from the Selected Water Resources Abstracts database). Published Search  

SciTech Connect

The bibliography contains citations concerning the design, construction, costs, and operation of water treatment facilities. Facilities covered include those that provide drinking water, domestic water, and water for industrial use. Types of water treatment covered include reverse osmosis, chlorination, filtration, and ozonization. Waste water treatment facilities are excluded from this bibliography. (Contains 250 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.)

Not Available

1993-07-01

144

OZONATION AND BIOLOGICAL STABILITY OF WATER IN AN OPERATING WATER TREATMENT PLANT  

EPA Science Inventory

Ozonation of drinking water may adversely affect the biological stability of the inished water. his study was designed assess the effect of ozone as a preoxidant on the nutrient status of water treated in a full-scale water treatment plant. he study was conducted over a ten week ...

145

Climate Adaptation Capacity for Conventional Drinking Water Treatment Facilities  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Water supplies are vulnerable to a host of climate- and weather-related stressors such as droughts, intense storms/flooding, snowpack depletion, sea level changes, and consequences from fires, landslides, and excessive heat or cold. Surface water resources (lakes, reservoirs, rivers, and streams) are especially susceptible to weather-induced changes in water availability and quality. The risks to groundwater systems may also be significant. Typically, water treatment facilities are designed with an underlying assumption that water quality from a given source is relatively predictable based on historical data. However, increasing evidence of the lack of stationarity is raising questions about the validity of traditional design assumptions, particularly since the service life of many facilities can exceed fifty years. Given that there are over 150,000 public water systems in the US that deliver drinking water to over 300 million people every day, it is important to evaluate the capacity for adapting to the impacts of a changing climate. Climate and weather can induce or amplify changes in physical, chemical, and biological water quality, reaction rates, the extent of water-sediment-air interactions, and also impact the performance of treatment technologies. The specific impacts depend on the watershed characteristics and local hydrological and land-use factors. Water quality responses can be transient, such as erosion-induced increases in sediment and runoff. Longer-term impacts include changes in the frequency and intensity of algal blooms, gradual changes in the nature and concentration of dissolved organic matter, dissolved solids, and modulation of the microbiological community structure, sources and survival of pathogens. In addition, waterborne contaminants associated with municipal, industrial, and agricultural activities can also impact water quality. This presentation evaluates relationships between climate and weather induced water quality variability and the capacity of treatment facilities and supporting water infrastructure to deliver safe drinking water consistently and reliably. Simulation models of water treatment facilities are used to evaluate the outcome of specific source water quality scenarios on treatment system performance and reliability. Modeling results are used to evaluate the process and operational capacity to respond to transient water quality changes and adapt to longer-term variability in water quality and availability. In some cases, changes in temperature and mineral content serve to improve the overall treatment performance. In addition, the integration of microbially enhanced treatment systems such as biological filtration can provide additional capacity. Conversely, changes in the nutrient and temperature dynamics can trigger algal and cyanobacterial blooms that can impair performance. Research needs are identified and the importance of developing more integrated modeling systems is highlighted.

Levine, A.; Goodrich, J.; Yang, J.

2013-12-01

146

Water Treatment using Electrocoagulation Ritika Mohan  

E-print Network

to 12 were prepared from the 6 L solution using sulfuric acid or sodium hydroxide. pH measurements were Organization has set a standard of 10 parts per billion in drinking water3 . Arsenic disrupts ATP production

Fay, Noah

147

ALTERNATIVE DISINFECTANTS FOR DRINKING WATER TREATMENT  

EPA Science Inventory

During a one-year study at Jefferson Parish, Louisiana the chemical, microbiological, and mutagenic effects of using the major drinking water disinfectants (chlorine, chlorine dioxide, chloramine, ozone) were evaluated. ests were performed on samples collected from various treatm...

148

AERIAL VIEW LOOKING FURTHER SOUTH EAST, VILLAGE CREEK WATER TREATMENT ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

AERIAL VIEW LOOKING FURTHER SOUTH EAST, VILLAGE CREEK WATER TREATMENT PLANT ON RIGHT SIDE, ENSLEY IN BACKGROUND. - Birmingham Southern Railroad Yard, Thirty-fourth Street, Ensley, Jefferson County, AL

149

Sacramento River Water Treatment Plant Intake Pier & Access Bridge, ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

Sacramento River Water Treatment Plant Intake Pier & Access Bridge, Spanning Sacramento River approximately 175 feet west of eastern levee on river; roughly .5 mile downstream from confluence of Sacramento & American Rivers, Sacramento, Sacramento County, CA

150

Looking east at the boiler water treatment tank located off ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

Looking east at the boiler water treatment tank located off the west wall of the boiler house. - Wheeling-Pittsburgh Steel Corporation, Allenport Works, Boiler House, Route 88 on West bank of Monongahela River, Allenport, Washington County, PA

151

INTERACTIONS OF SILICA PARTICLES IN DRINKING WATER TREATMENT PROCESSES  

EPA Science Inventory

EPA Identifier: U915331 Title: Interactions of Silica Particles in Drinking Water Treatment Processes Fellow (Principal Investigator): Christina L. Clarkson Institution: Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University EPA GRANT R...

152

Fate of High Priority Pesticides During Drinking Water Treatment  

EPA Science Inventory

The fate of organophosphorus (OP) pesticides in the presence of chlorinated oxidants was investigated under drinking water treatment conditions. In the presence of aqueous chlorine, intrinsic rate coefficients were found for the reaction of hypochlorous acid and hypochlorite ion ...

153

Generic Protocol for the Verification of Ballast Water Treatment Technology  

EPA Science Inventory

In anticipation of the need to address performance verification and subsequent approval of new and innovative ballast water treatment technologies for shipboard installation, the U.S Coast Guard and the Environmental Protection Agency?s Environmental Technology Verification Progr...

154

Acid mine water aeration and treatment system  

DOEpatents

An in-line system is provided for treating acid mine drainage which basically comprises the combination of a jet pump (or pumps) and a static mixer. The jet pump entrains air into the acid waste water using a Venturi effect so as to provide aeration of the waste water while further aeration is provided by the helical vanes of the static mixer. A neutralizing agent is injected into the suction chamber of the jet pump and the static mixer is formed by plural sections offset by 90 degrees.

Ackman, Terry E. (Finleyville, PA); Place, John M. (Bethel Park, PA)

1987-01-01

155

Online Produced Water Treatment Catalog and Decision Tool  

SciTech Connect

The objective of this project was to create an internet-based Water Treatment Technology Catalog and Decision Tool that will increase production, decrease costs and enhance environmental protection. This is to be accomplished by pairing an operator's water treatment cost and capacity needs to specific water treatments. This project cataloged existing and emerging produced water treatment technologies and allows operators to identify the most cost-effective approaches for managing their produced water. The tool captures the cost and capabilities of each technology and the disposal and beneficial use options for each region. The tool then takes location, chemical composition, and volumetric data for the operator's water and identifies the most cost effective treatment options for that water. Regulatory requirements or limitations for each location are also addressed. The Produced Water Treatment Catalog and Decision Tool efficiently matches industry decision makers in unconventional natural gas basins with: 1) appropriate and applicable water treatment technologies for their project, 2) relevant information on regulatory and legal issues that may impact the success of their project, and 3) potential beneficial use demands specific to their project area. To ensure the success of this project, it was segmented into seven tasks conducted in three phases over a three year period. The tasks were overseen by a Project Advisory Council (PAC) made up of stakeholders including state and federal agency representatives and industry representatives. ALL Consulting has made the catalog and decision tool available on the Internet for the final year of the project. The second quarter of the second budget period, work was halted based on the February 18, 2011 budget availability; however previous project deliverables were submitted on time and the deliverables for Task 6 and 7 were completed ahead of schedule. Thus the application and catalog were deployed to the public Internet. NETL did not provide additional funds and work on the project stopped on February 18, 2011. NETL ended the project on March 31, 2012.

J. Arthur

2012-03-31

156

Photocatalytic water treatment: solar energy applications  

Microsoft Academic Search

During the past 20 years research and development in the area of photocatalysis have been tremendous. One of the major applications of this technology is the degradation of organic pollutants in water and air streams which is considered as one of the so-called advanced oxidation processes. This overview briefly describes the basic principles of photocatalysis, focusing in particular on important

Detlef Bahnemann

2004-01-01

157

Detection of Cyanotoxins During Potable Water Treatment  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

In 2007, the U.S. EPA listed three cyanobacterial toxins on the CCL3 containment priority list for potable drinking waters. This paper describes all methodologies used for detection of these toxins, and assesses each on a cost/benefit basis. Methodologies for microcystin, cylindrospermopsin, and a...

158

Biological Processes in Drinking Water Treatment  

Microsoft Academic Search

Biological processes have the potential to remove pollutants that may be ineffectively removed by conventional treatment, such as biodegradable organics, synthetic organic compounds, ammonia, nitrate, iron, and manganese. Biooxidation of organic matter and ammonia decreases available substrates for microbial regrowth in distribution systems, reduces tastes and odors, and decreases the amount of precursor available to form disinfection by-products. Biological removal

Edward J. Bouwer; Patricia B. Crowe

1988-01-01

159

WATER TREATMENT BY HETEROGENEOUS PHOTOCATALYSIS AN OVERVIEW1  

Microsoft Academic Search

Photocatalysis process, as an environmental application is a relatively novel subject with tremendous potential in the near future. This paper describes the basics of heterogeneous photocatalysis, mainly on TiO2 and the application of photocatalytic processes to water purification and treatment. The paper also reviews more than 50 references covering the wide scale of heterogeneous water phase applications. Finally, a short

Radwan A. Al-Rasheed

160

ECONOMIC ASSESSMENT OF WASTE WATER AQUACULTURE TREATMENT SYSTEMS  

EPA Science Inventory

This study attempted to ascertain the economic viability of aquaculture as an alternative to conventional waste water treatment systems for small municipalities in the Southwestern region of the United States. A multiple water quality objective level cost-effectiveness model was ...

161

EVALUATION OF DRINKING WATER TREATMENT TECHNIQUES FOR EDC REMOVAL  

EPA Science Inventory

Many of the chemicals identified as potential endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDCs) may be present in surface or ground waters used as drinking water sources, due to their disposal via domestic and industrial sewage treatment systems and wet-weather runoff. In order to decrease t...

162

REVERSE OSMOSIS FIELD TEST: TREATMENT OF COPPER CYANIDE RINSE WATERS  

EPA Science Inventory

Field tests of reverse osmosis (RO) were conducted on copper cyanide rinse waters at two different sites: Whyco Chromium Co. and New England Plating Co. At both sites, closed-loop treatment was used with plating chemicals recycled to the bath and purified water recycled to the ri...

163

USEPA'S RESEARCH EFFORTS IN SMALL DRINKING WATER TREATMENT TECHNOLOGIES  

EPA Science Inventory

Currently, in the United States there are approximately 50,000 small community and 130,000 non-community systems providing water to over 25 million people. The drinking water treatment systems at these locations are not always adequate to comply with current and pending regulati...

164

Research progress of nuclear, biological and chemical polluted water treatment  

Microsoft Academic Search

As a major victim of the biochemical warfare in the history, China is confronting the threat of new nuclear, chemical and biological warfare nowadays. Water is the main transmission mode of nuclear, chemical and biological warfare agent. Therefore pure water treatment becomes an important mode of Three Defenses. This paper mainly introduces the characteristics of chemical and biological pollution, the

Wang Xiaojie; Li Xiaojing; Ji Yunzhe

2011-01-01

165

Process water treatment for reactor effluent activity control: Budget study  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of this study is to provide budgetary data for modifying and monitoring the present water treatment process at B, C, D, KE, and KW reactor plants to effect a reduction in the activity of the reactor effluent water discharged to the Columbia River. The study is subdivided into three parts: facilities for sodium silicate addition at each reactor

Etheridge

1966-01-01

166

RECOVERY OF LIME AND MAGNESIUM IN POTABLE WATER TREATMENT  

EPA Science Inventory

A hard, turbid surface water was successfully treated using the magnesium carbonate process in a 2 mgd pilot plant at the treatment works of Water District No. 1 of Johnson County, Kansas, for one year during 1975 and 1976. During this study, froth flotation was used to separate ...

167

Method and an apparatus for biological treatment of waste waters  

SciTech Connect

A waste water treatment plant providing biological oxidation, biological nitrification and denitrification and biological removal of phosphorus and clarification of the treated waste water in a single reaction tank in a single suspended growth sludge system without the use of the traditional compressors, surface aerators, mixers, recirculation pumps, sludge scrapers, sludge return pumps, piping and valving.

Besik, F.

1982-10-12

168

Surface water pollution by herbicides from effluents of waste water treatment plants  

Microsoft Academic Search

Herbicide loads of urban and rural waste water treatment plant effluents were calculated over a one-year period by measuring the herbicide concentrations in 14-day mixed samples. More than three quarters of the total herbicide load of the effluent of the rural waste water treatment plant consists of isoproturon. Particularly large amounts of this substance contribute to the total herbicide load

Walter Schüssler

1998-01-01

169

COST ESTIMATION MODELS FOR DRINKING WATER TREATMENT UNIT PROCESSES  

EPA Science Inventory

Cost models for unit processes typically utilized in a conventional water treatment plant and in package treatment plant technology are compiled in this paper. The cost curves are represented as a function of specified design parameters and are categorized into four major catego...

170

Hot water treatments delay cold-induced banana peel blackening  

Microsoft Academic Search

Banana fruit of cv. Gros Michel (Musa acuminata, AAA Group, locally called cv. Hom Thong) and cv. Namwa (Musa×paradisiaca, ABB Group) were immersed for 5, 10 and 15min in water at 42°C, or in water at 25°C (control), and were then stored at 4°C. Hot water treatment for 15min delayed peel blackening during cold storage by about 4 days in

Surassawadee Promyou; Saichol Ketsa; Wouter G. van Doorn

2008-01-01

171

Flowing Water: An Effective Treatment for Ichthyophthiriasis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Ichthyophthiriasis, or ich, is a disease of freshwater fish that is difficult to treat chemotherapeutically because the causative agent, Ichthyophthirius multifiliis, is protected by the host's epithelium during much of its life cycle. In our experiments, a modified standard formalin treatment (25 mg\\/L for 4 h, 4 d\\/week) conferred partial protection but failed to prevent 40–70% mortality among channel catfish

Leo R. Bodensteiner; Robert J. Sheehan; Paul S. Wills; Alan M. Brandenburg; William M. Lewis

2000-01-01

172

Alternative cooling tower water treatment methods  

SciTech Connect

The factors that contribute to proper water balance include total alkalinity, calcium hardness, and pH. In order to keep the cooling tower from scaling or corroding, a manipulation of these components is often necessary. This has traditionally been achieved with the use of chemicals, including but not limited to the following: acid, soda ash, sodium bicarbonate, calcium bicarbonate, algicide, and bactericide. Extensive research has shown that a balanced water system can also be achieved by using the proper combination of copper with a known halogen. Microbiologists have determined that a small amount of copper, acting as a supplement to chlorine at 0.4 ppm, has the same efficiency as 2.0 ppm free chlorine. Therefore, by using the following combination of components and procedures, the desired results can still be achieved: production of copper compound ions as a supplement to the chemical regimen; analysis and manipulation of make-up water; the use of copper as a coagulant for reduction of scale; copper as a supplemental bacterial disinfectant; and copper as an algicide.

Wilsey, C.A. [Water Clear, Mound, MN (United States)

1996-11-01

173

43 CFR 3904.40 - Long-term water treatment trust funds.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-10-01 false Long-term water treatment trust funds. 3904.40... § 3904.40 Long-term water treatment trust funds. (a) The...continuation of long-term treatment to achieve water quality standards and...

2012-10-01

174

40 CFR 403.19 - Provisions of specific applicability to the Owatonna Waste Water Treatment Facility.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...applicability to the Owatonna Waste Water Treatment Facility. 403.19 Section...applicability to the Owatonna Waste Water Treatment Facility. (a) For the...discharging to the Owatonna Waste Water Treatment Facility in...

2012-07-01

175

43 CFR 3904.40 - Long-term water treatment trust funds.  

...2014-10-01 false Long-term water treatment trust funds. 3904.40... § 3904.40 Long-term water treatment trust funds. (a) The...continuation of long-term treatment to achieve water quality standards and...

2014-10-01

176

40 CFR 403.19 - Provisions of specific applicability to the Owatonna Waste Water Treatment Facility.  

...applicability to the Owatonna Waste Water Treatment Facility. 403.19 Section...applicability to the Owatonna Waste Water Treatment Facility. (a) For the...discharging to the Owatonna Waste Water Treatment Facility in...

2014-07-01

177

40 CFR 403.19 - Provisions of specific applicability to the Owatonna Waste Water Treatment Facility.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...applicability to the Owatonna Waste Water Treatment Facility. 403.19 Section...applicability to the Owatonna Waste Water Treatment Facility. (a) For the...discharging to the Owatonna Waste Water Treatment Facility in...

2013-07-01

178

43 CFR 3904.40 - Long-term water treatment trust funds.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-10-01 false Long-term water treatment trust funds. 3904.40... § 3904.40 Long-term water treatment trust funds. (a) The...continuation of long-term treatment to achieve water quality standards and...

2013-10-01

179

43 CFR 3904.40 - Long-term water treatment trust funds.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-10-01 false Long-term water treatment trust funds. 3904.40... § 3904.40 Long-term water treatment trust funds. (a) The...continuation of long-term treatment to achieve water quality standards and...

2011-10-01

180

40 CFR 749.68 - Hexavalent chromium-based water treatment chemicals in cooling systems.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-07-01 false Hexavalent chromium-based water treatment chemicals in cooling systems...CONTINUED) TOXIC SUBSTANCES CONTROL ACT WATER TREATMENT CHEMICALS Air Conditioning...749.68 Hexavalent chromium-based water treatment chemicals in cooling...

2013-07-01

181

40 CFR 749.68 - Hexavalent chromium-based water treatment chemicals in cooling systems.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-07-01 false Hexavalent chromium-based water treatment chemicals in cooling systems...CONTINUED) TOXIC SUBSTANCES CONTROL ACT WATER TREATMENT CHEMICALS Air Conditioning...749.68 Hexavalent chromium-based water treatment chemicals in cooling...

2011-07-01

182

40 CFR 749.68 - Hexavalent chromium-based water treatment chemicals in cooling systems.  

...2014-07-01 false Hexavalent chromium-based water treatment chemicals in cooling systems...CONTINUED) TOXIC SUBSTANCES CONTROL ACT WATER TREATMENT CHEMICALS Air Conditioning...749.68 Hexavalent chromium-based water treatment chemicals in cooling...

2014-07-01

183

40 CFR 749.68 - Hexavalent chromium-based water treatment chemicals in cooling systems.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-07-01 false Hexavalent chromium-based water treatment chemicals in cooling systems...CONTINUED) TOXIC SUBSTANCES CONTROL ACT WATER TREATMENT CHEMICALS Air Conditioning...749.68 Hexavalent chromium-based water treatment chemicals in cooling...

2012-07-01

184

40 CFR 749.68 - Hexavalent chromium-based water treatment chemicals in cooling systems.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-07-01 false Hexavalent chromium-based water treatment chemicals in cooling systems...CONTINUED) TOXIC SUBSTANCES CONTROL ACT WATER TREATMENT CHEMICALS Air Conditioning...749.68 Hexavalent chromium-based water treatment chemicals in cooling...

2010-07-01

185

MSWT-01, flood disaster water treatment solution from common ideas  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Indonesia has a lot of potential flood disaster places with clean water problems faced. Various solution programs always initiated by Government, companies CSR, and people sporadical actions to provide clean water; with their advantages and disadvantages respectively. One solution is easy to operate for instance, but didn't provide adequate capacity, whereas the other had ideal performance but more costly. This situation inspired to develop a water treatment machine that could be an alternative favor. There are many methods could be choosed; whether in simple, middle or high technology, depends on water source input and output result quality. MSWT, Mobile Surface Water Treatment, is an idea for raw water in flood area, basically made for 1m3 per hour. This water treatment design adopted from combined existing technologies and related literatures. Using common ideas, the highlight is how to make such modular process put in compact design elegantly, and would be equipped with mobile feature due to make easier in operational. Through prototype level experiment trials, the machine is capable for producing clean water that suitable for sanitation and cooking/drinking purposes although using contaminated water input source. From the investment point of view, such machine could be also treated as an asset that will be used from time to time when needed, instead of made for project approach only.

Ananto, Gamawan; Setiawan, Albertus B.; Z, Darman M.

2013-06-01

186

MODERN WATER TREATMENT BY ELECTROCHEMICAL OXIDATION- A REVIEW  

E-print Network

Electrochemical oxidation (EO) as electrochemical method is unique by three aspects. The first is that is the most versatility process in water treatment area and covers: various industrial effluent treatment including, amongst others, distillery, agrochemical, pulp and paper, textile dyes, oilfield and metalplating wastes; hazardous effluent treatment including hospital wastes; removal of pathogens and persistent, pharmaceutical residues and biological from municipal wastewater treatment plant; removal of organic micro-pollutants such as pesticides and heavy metals such as arsenic and chromium from water. Another aspect is that EO is complementary with most other methods: chemical or electrochemical, and is often combined with one or more of them. And finally, this procedure is the most interdisciplinary of all. It includes: material science, (micro)biology, (electro)chemistry, environmental protection, water supply systems, etc. Key words: electrochemical oxidation, electrooxidation, wastewaters, synergistic methods, interdisciplinary approach, ecology.

Silvana B. Dimitrijevi?; Stevan P. Dimitrijevi?; Milovan D. Vukovi?

187

Changes in water quality in the Owabi water treatment plant in Ghana  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The study was conducted on the status of the quality of water from the Owabi water treatment plant that supplies drinking water to Kumasi, a major city in Ghana, to ascertain the change in quality of water from source to point-of-use. Physico-chemical, bacteriological water quality parameters and trace metal concentration of water samples from five different treatment points from the Owabi water treatment plant were investigated. The raw water was moderately hard with high turbidity and colour that exceeds the WHO guideline limits. Nutrient concentrations were of the following order: NH3 < NO2 - < NO3 - < PO4 3- < SO4 2- and were all below WHO permissible level for drinking water in all the samples at different stages of treatment. Trace metal concentrations of the reservoir were all below WHO limit except chromium (0.06 mg/L) and copper (0.24 mg/L). The bacteriological study showed that the raw water had total coliform (1,766 cfu/100 mL) and faecal coliform (257 cfu/100 mL) that exceeded the WHO standard limits, rendering it unsafe for domestic purposes without treatment. Colour showed strong positive correlation with turbidity (r = 0.730), TSS (r ? 0.922) and alkalinity (0.564) significant at p < 0.01. The quality of the treated water indicates that colour, turbidity, Cr and Cu levels reduced and fall within the WHO permissible limit for drinking water. Treatment process at the water treatment plant is adjudged to be good.

Akoto, Osei; Gyamfi, Opoku; Darko, Godfred; Barnes, Victor Rex

2014-09-01

188

Whole-house arsenic water treatment provided more effective arsenic exposure reduction than point-of-use water treatment at New Jersey homes with arsenic in well water.  

PubMed

A comparison of the effectiveness of whole house (point-of-entry) and point-of-use arsenic water treatment systems in reducing arsenic exposure from well water was conducted. The non-randomized observational study recruited 49 subjects having elevated arsenic in their residential home well water in New Jersey. The subjects obtained either point-of-entry or point-of-use arsenic water treatment. Prior ingestion exposure to arsenic in well water was calculated by measuring arsenic concentrations in the well water and obtaining water-use histories for each subject, including years of residence with the current well and amount of water consumed from the well per day. A series of urine samples was collected from the subjects, some starting before water treatment was installed and continuing for at least nine months after treatment had begun. Urine samples were analyzed and speciated for inorganic-related arsenic concentrations. A two-phase clearance of inorganic-related arsenic from urine and the likelihood of a significant body burden from chronic exposure to arsenic in drinking water were identified. After nine months of water treatment the adjusted mean of the urinary inorganic-related arsenic concentrations was significantly lower (p<0.0005) in the point-of-entry treatment group (2.5?g/g creatinine) than in the point-of-use treatment group (7.2?g/g creatinine). The results suggest that whole house arsenic water treatment systems provide a more effective reduction of arsenic exposure from well water than that obtained by point-of-use treatment. PMID:24975493

Spayd, Steven E; Robson, Mark G; Buckley, Brian T

2015-02-01

189

Delta Drinking Water Quality and TreatmentDelta Drinking Water Quality and Treatment WeiWei--Hsiang ChenHsiang Chen  

E-print Network

11 Delta Drinking Water Quality and TreatmentDelta Drinking Water Quality and Treatment Costs processes in the DeltaCurrent treatment processes in the Delta X X (a) X X (a) X X a X X a X X (a) X a X a ­ Ozonation (widely used for Delta water) ­ UV irradiation · Treatment processes for DBP precursor removal

Pasternack, Gregory B.

190

Innovative Treatment Technologies for Natural Waters and Wastewaters  

SciTech Connect

The research described in this report focused on the development of novel membrane contactor processes (in particular, forward osmosis (FO), pressure retarded osmosis (PRO), and membrane distillation (MD)) in low energy desalination and wastewater treatment applications and in renewable energy generation. FO and MD are recently gaining national and international attention as viable, economic alternatives for removal of both established and emerging contaminants from natural and process waters; PRO is gaining worldwide attention as a viable source of renewable energy. The interrelationship of energy and water are at the core of this study. Energy and water are inextricably bound; energy usage and production must be considered when evaluating any water treatment process for practical application. Both FO and MD offer the potential for substantial energy and resource savings over conventional treatment processes and PRO offers the potential for renewable energy or energy offsets in desalination. Combination of these novel technologies with each other, with existing technologies (e.g., reverse osmosis (RO)), and with existing renewable energy sources (e.g., salinity gradient solar ponds) may enable much less expensive water production and also potable water production in remote or distributed locations. Two inter-related projects were carried out in this investigation. One focused on membrane bioreactors for wastewater treatment and PRO for renewable energy generation; the other focused on MD driven by a salinity gradient solar pond.

Childress, Amy E.

2011-07-01

191

Carbon isotopic characterisation of dissolved organic matter during water treatment.  

PubMed

Water treatment is a series of physio-chemical processes to aid organic matter (OM) removal, which helps to minimise the formation of potentially carcinogenic disinfection by-products and microbial regrowth. Changes in OM character through the treatment processes can provide insight into the treatment efficiency, but radiogenic isotopic characterisation techniques have yet to be applied. Here, we show for the first time that analysis of (13)C and (14)C of dissolved organic carbon (DOC) effectively characterises dissolved OM through a water treatment works. At the sites investigated: post-clarification, DOC becomes isotopically lighter, due to an increased proportion of relatively hydrophilic DOC. Filtration adds 'old' (14)C-DOC from abrasion of the filter media, whilst the use of activated carbon adds 'young' (14)C-DOC, most likely from the presence of biofilms. Overall, carbon isotopes provide clear evidence for the first time that new sources of organic carbon are added within the treatment processes, and that treated water is isotopically lighter and typically younger in (14)C-DOC age than untreated water. We anticipate our findings will precipitate real-time monitoring of treatment performance using stable carbon isotopes, with associated improvements in energy and carbon footprint (e.g. isotopic analysis used as triggers for filter washing and activated carbon regeneration) and public health benefits resulting from improved carbon removal. PMID:24075722

Bridgeman, John; Gulliver, Pauline; Roe, Jessie; Baker, Andy

2014-01-01

192

Reverse-Osmosis Filtration Based Water Treatment and Special Water Purification for Nuclear Power Systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper is devoted to the development and operation of specialized water treatment and water purification systems, based on the principle of reverse-osmosis filtration of water, for the operation of bench nuclear power systems at the A. P. Aleksandrov Scientific-Research and Technological Institute. Reverse-osmosis filters permit softening the process water, improving its quality, and greatly decrease the load on the

V. N. Epimakhov; M. S. Oleinik; L. N. Moskvin

2004-01-01

193

Public water supplies of North Carolina : a summary of water sources, use, treatment, and capacity of water-supply systems  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Data were collected during 1970-76 on 224 public water supply systems in North Carolina with 500 or more customers. This report summarizes these data that were previously published in five separate regional reports. The data are presented in order to Council of Government region, county, and water system name and include population served, average and maximum daily use, industrial use, water source, allowable draft of surface-water supplies, raw water pumping capacity, raw and finished water storage, type of water treatment, treatment plant capacity, and a summary of the chemical quality of finished water. Tables and maps provide cross references for system names, counties, Council of Government regions and water source.

Mann, L.T., Jr.

1978-01-01

194

ETV REPORT: REMOVAL OF ARSENIC IN DRINKING WATER ORCA WATER TECHNOLOGIES KEMLOOP 1000 COAGULATION AND FILTRATION WATER TREATMENT SYSTEM  

EPA Science Inventory

Verification testing of the ORCA Water Technologies KemLoop 1000 Coagulation and Filtration Water Treatment System for arsenic removal was conducted at the St. Louis Center located in Washtenaw County, Michigan, from March 23 through April 6, 2005. The source water was groundwate...

195

Large area radiation source for water and wastewater treatment  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

There is a strong desire for processes that improve the safety of water supplies and that minimize disinfection byproducts. Stellarray is developing mercury-free next-generation x-ray and UV-C radiation sources in flat-panel and pipe form factors for water and wastewater treatment applications. These new radiation sources are designed to sterilize sludge and effluent, and to enable new treatment approaches to emerging environmental concerns such as the accumulation of estrogenic compounds in water. Our UV-C source, based on cathodoluminescent technology, differs significantly from traditional disinfection approaches using mercury arc lamps or UV LEDs. Our sources accelerate electrons across a vacuum gap, converting their energy into UV-C when striking a phosphor, or x-rays when striking a metallic anode target. Stellarray's large area radiation sources for wastewater treatment allow matching of the radiation source area to the sterilization target area for maximum coverage and improved efficiency.

Mueller, Michael T.; Lee, Seungwoo; Kloba, Anthony; Hellmer, Ronald; Kumar, Nalin; Eaton, Mark; Rambo, Charlotte; Pillai, Suresh

2011-06-01

196

An opacity-sampled treatment of water vapor  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Although the bands of H2O are strong in the spectra of cool stars and calculations have repeatedly demonstrated their significance as opacity sources, only approximate opacities are currently available, due both to the difficulty of accounting for the millions of lines involved and to the inadequacy of laboratory and theoretical data. To overcome these obstacles, a new treatment is presented, based upon a statistical representation of the water vapor spectrum derived from available laboratory data. This statistical spectrum of water vapor employs an exponential distribution of line strengths and random positions of lines whose overall properties are forced to reproduce the mean opacities observed in the laboratory. The resultant data set is then treated by the opacity-sampling method exactly as are all other lines, both molecular and atomic. Significant differences are found between the results of this improved treatment and the results obtained with previous treatments of water-vapor opacity.

Alexander, David R.; Augason, Gordon C.; Johnson, Hollis R.

1989-01-01

197

SMALL DRINKING WATER TREATMENT TECHNOLOGIES FOR COMPLIANCE WITH THE ENHANCED SURFACE WATER TREATMENT RULES  

EPA Science Inventory

According to FY2003 statistics compiled by the Office of Ground Water and Drinking Water, the U.S. regulates about 160,000 small drinking water systems that impact close to 70 million people. Small systems (serving transient and non-transient populations of 10,000 people or less...

198

Water: from the source to the treatment plan  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Isabelle BAUDE isa.baude@free.fr Lycee français de Vienne Liechtensteinstrasse 37AVienna As a physics and chemistry teacher, I have worked on water from the source to the treatment plant with 27 pupils between 14 and 15 years old enrolled in the option "Science and laboratory". The objectives of this option are to interest students in science, to introduce them to practical methods of laboratory analyses, and let them use computer technology. Teaching takes place every two weeks and lasts 1.5 hours. The theme of water is a common project with the biology and geology teacher, Mrs. Virginie Marquet. Lesson 1: Introduction: The water in Vienna The pupils have to consider why the water is so important in Vienna (history, economy etc.) and where tap water comes from. Activities: Brainstorming about where and why we use water every day and why the water is different in Vienna. Lesson 2: Objectives of the session: What are the differences between mineral waters? Activities: Compare water from different origins (France: Evian, Vittel, Contrex. Austria: Vöslauer, Juvina, Gasteiner and tap water from Vienna) by tasting and finding the main ions they contain. Testing ions: Calcium, magnesium, sulphate, chloride, sodium, and potassium Lesson 3: Objectives of the session: Build a hydrometer Activities: Producing a range of calibration solutions, build and calibrate the hydrometer with different salt-water solutions. Measure the density of the Dead Sea's water and other mineral waters. Lesson 4: Objectives of the session: How does a fountain work? Activities: Construction of a fountain as Heron of Alexandria with simple equipment and try to understand the hydrostatic principles. Lesson 5: Objectives of the session: Study of the physical processes of water treatment (decantation, filtration, screening) Activities: Build a natural filter with sand, stone, carbon, and cotton wool. Retrieve the filtered water to test it during lesson 7. Lesson 6: Visit of the biggest treatment plant of Europe in Vienna. Lesson 7: Objectives of the session: Water Quality Monitoring: Biochemical Oxygen Demand (chemical analysis) in common with my colleague.

Baude, I.; Marquet, V.

2012-04-01

199

Is hot water immersion an effective treatment for marine envenomation?  

PubMed Central

Envenomation by marine creatures is common. As more people dive and snorkel for leisure, the incidence of envenomation injuries presenting to emergency departments has increased. Although most serious envenomations occur in the temperate or tropical waters of the Indo?Pacific region, North American and European waters also provide a habitat for many stinging creatures. Marine envenomations can be classified as either surface stings or puncture wounds. Antivenom is available for a limited number of specific marine creatures. Various other treatments such as vinegar, fig juice, boiled cactus, heated stones, hot urine, hot water, and ice have been proposed, although many have little scientific basis. The use of heat therapies, previously reserved for penetrating fish spine injuries, has been suggested as treatment for an increasing variety of marine envenomation. This paper reviews the evidence for the effectiveness of hot water immersion (HWI) and other heat therapies in the management of patients presenting with pain due to marine envenomation. PMID:16794088

Atkinson, P R T; Boyle, A; Hartin, D; McAuley, D

2006-01-01

200

Prototype spectral analysis of water samples for monitoring and treatment of public water resources  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Experimental measurements conducted in the laboratory, involving hyperspectral analysis of water samples taken from public water resources in the New York City metro area, have motivated a reevaluation of issues concerning the potential application of this type of analysis for water monitoring, treatment and evaluation prior to filtration. One issue concerns hyperspectral monitoring of contaminants with respect to types and relative concentrations. This implies a need for better understanding the statistical profiles of water contaminants in terms of spatial-temporal distributions of electromagnetic absorption spectra ranging from the ultraviolet to infrared, which are associated with specific water resources. This issue also implies the need for establishing correlations between hyperspectral signatures and types of contaminants to be found within specific water resources. Another issue concerns the use of absorption spectra for determining changes in chemical and physical characteristics of contaminants after application of water treatments in order to determine levels of toxicity with respect to the environment.

Lambrakos, S. G.; Lee, M.; Yapijakis, C.; Ramsey, L. S.; Huang, L.; Shabaev, A.; Massa, L.

2014-06-01

201

Enhanced drinking water supply through harvested rainwater treatment  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Decentralized drinking water systems represent an important element in the process of achieving the Millennium Development Goals, as centralized systems are often inefficient or nonexistent in developing countries. In those countries, most water quality related problems are due to hygiene factors and pathogens. A potential solution might include decentralized systems, which might rely on thermal and/or UV disinfection methods as well as physical and chemical treatments to provide drinking water from rainwater. For application in developing countries, decentralized systems major constraints include low cost, ease of use, environmental sustainability, reduced maintenance and independence from energy sources. This work focuses on an innovative decentralized system that can be used to collect and treat rainwater for potable use (drinking and cooking purposes) of a single household, or a small community. The experimented treatment system combines in one compact unit a Filtration process with an adsorption step on GAC and a UV disinfection phase in an innovative design (FAD - Filtration Adsorption Disinfection). All tests have been carried out using a full scale FAD treatment unit. The efficiency of FAD technology has been discussed in terms of pH, turbidity, COD, TOC, DOC, Escherichia coli and Total coliforms. FAD technology is attractive since it provides a total barrier for pathogens and organic contaminants, and reduces turbidity, thus increasing the overall quality of the water. The FAD unit costs are low, especially if compared to other water treatment technologies and could become a viable option for developing countries.

Naddeo, Vincenzo; Scannapieco, Davide; Belgiorno, Vincenzo

2013-08-01

202

Laboratory study of electro-coagulation–flotation for water treatment  

Microsoft Academic Search

An electro-coagulation–flotation process has been developed for water treatment. This involved an electrolytic reactor with aluminium electrodes and a separation\\/flotation tank. The water to be treated passed through the reactor and was subjected to coagulation\\/flotation, by Al(III) ions dissolved from the electrodes, the resulting flocs floating after being captured by hydrogen gas bubbles generated at cathode surfaces. Apparent current efficiencies

Jia-Qian Jiang; Nigel Graham; Cecile André; Geoff H. Kelsall; Nigel Brandon

2002-01-01

203

Technology assessment of aquaculture systems for municipal waste water treatment  

SciTech Connect

The innovative and alternative technology provisions of the Clean Water Act of 1977 (PL 95-217) provide financial incentives to communities that use wastewater treatment alternatives to reduce costs or energy consumption over conventional systems. Some of these technologies have been only recently developed and are not in widespread use in the United States. This document discusses the applicability and technical and economic feasibility of using aquaculture systems for municipal wastewater treatment facilities.

Hyde, H.C.; Ross, R.S.; Sturmer, L.

1984-08-01

204

Water drinking as a treatment for orthostatic syndromes  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

PURPOSE: Water drinking increases blood pressure in a substantial proportion of patients who have severe orthostatic hypotension due to autonomic failure. We tested the hypothesis that water drinking can be used as a practical treatment for patients with orthostatic and postprandial hypotension, as well as those with orthostatic tachycardia. SUBJECTS AND METHODS: We studied the effect of drinking water on seated and standing blood pressure and heart rate in 11 patients who had severe orthostatic hypotension due to autonomic failure and in 9 patients who had orthostatic tachycardia due to idiopathic orthostatic intolerance. We also tested the effect of water drinking on postprandial hypotension in 7 patients who had autonomic failure. Patients drank 480 mL of tap water at room temperature in less than 5 minutes. RESULTS: In patients with autonomic failure, mean (+/- SD) blood pressure after 1 minute of standing was 83 +/- 6/53 +/- 3.4 mm Hg at baseline, which increased to 114 +/- 30/66 +/- 18 mm Hg (P <0.01) 35 minutes after drinking. After a meal, blood pressure decreased by 43 +/- 36/20 +/- 13 mm Hg without water drinking, compared with 22 +/- 10/12 +/- 5 mm Hg with drinking (P <0.001). In patients with idiopathic orthostatic intolerance, water drinking attenuated orthostatic tachycardia (123 +/- 23 beats per minute) at baseline to 108 +/- 21 beats per minute after water drinking ( P <0.001). CONCLUSION: Water drinking elicits a rapid pressor response in patients with autonomic failure and can be used to treat orthostatic and postprandial hypotension. Water drinking moderately reduces orthostatic tachycardia in patients with idiopathic orthostatic intolerance. Thus, water drinking may serve as an adjunctive treatment in patients with impaired orthostatic tolerance.

Shannon, John R.; Diedrich, Andre; Biaggioni, Italo; Tank, Jens; Robertson, Rose Marie; Robertson, David; Jordan, Jens

2002-01-01

205

Removal of antibiotics from surface and distilled water in conventional water treatment processes  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Conventional drinking water treatment processes were evaluated under typical water treatment plant conditions to determine their effectiveness in the removal of seven common antibiotics: carbadox, sulfachlorpyridazine, sulfadimethoxine, sulfamerazine, sulfamethazine, sulfathiazole, and trimethoprim. Experiments were conducted using synthetic solutions prepared by spiking both distilled/ deionized water and Missouri River water with the studied compounds. Sorption on Calgon WPH powdered activated carbon, reverse osmosis, and oxidation with chlorine and ozone under typical plant conditions were all shown to be effective in removing the studied antibiotics. Conversely, coagulation/flocculation/sedimentation with alum and iron salts, excess lime/soda ash softening, ultraviolet irradiation at disinfection dosages, and ion exchange were all relatively ineffective methods of antibiotic removal. This study shows that the studied antibiotics could be effectively removed using processes already in use many water treatment plants. Additional work is needed on by-product formation and the removal of other classes of antibiotics.

Adams, C.; Wang, Y.; Loftin, K.; Meyer, M.

2002-01-01

206

Evaluation of Current Water Treatment and Distribution System Optimization to Provide Safe Drinking Water from Various Source Water Types and Conditions (Deliverable 5.2.C.1)  

EPA Science Inventory

Increasingly, drinking water treatment plants (DWTPs) are being challenged by changes in the quality of their source waters and by their aging treatment and distribution system infrastructure. Individually or in combination, factors such as shrinking water and financial resources...

207

Nanotechnology for a safe and sustainable water supply: enabling integrated water treatment and reuse.  

PubMed

Ensuring reliable access to clean and affordable water is one of the greatest global challenges of this century. As the world's population increases, water pollution becomes more complex and difficult to remove, and global climate change threatens to exacerbate water scarcity in many areas, the magnitude of this challenge is rapidly increasing. Wastewater reuse is becoming a common necessity, even as a source of potable water, but our separate wastewater collection and water supply systems are not designed to accommodate this pressing need. Furthermore, the aging centralized water and wastewater infrastructure in the developed world faces growing demands to produce higher quality water using less energy and with lower treatment costs. In addition, it is impractical to establish such massive systems in developing regions that currently lack water and wastewater infrastructure. These challenges underscore the need for technological innovation to transform the way we treat, distribute, use, and reuse water toward a distributed, differential water treatment and reuse paradigm (i.e., treat water and wastewater locally only to the required level dictated by the intended use). Nanotechnology offers opportunities to develop next-generation water supply systems. This Account reviews promising nanotechnology-enabled water treatment processes and provides a broad view on how they could transform our water supply and wastewater treatment systems. The extraordinary properties of nanomaterials, such as high surface area, photosensitivity, catalytic and antimicrobial activity, electrochemical, optical, and magnetic properties, and tunable pore size and surface chemistry, provide useful features for many applications. These applications include sensors for water quality monitoring, specialty adsorbents, solar disinfection/decontamination, and high performance membranes. More importantly, the modular, multifunctional and high-efficiency processes enabled by nanotechnology provide a promising route both to retrofit aging infrastructure and to develop high performance, low maintenance decentralized treatment systems including point-of-use devices. Broad implementation of nanotechnology in water treatment will require overcoming the relatively high costs of nanomaterials by enabling their reuse and mitigating risks to public and environmental health by minimizing potential exposure to nanoparticles and promoting their safer design. The development of nanotechnology must go hand in hand with environmental health and safety research to alleviate unintended consequences and contribute toward sustainable water management. PMID:22738389

Qu, Xiaolei; Brame, Jonathon; Li, Qilin; Alvarez, Pedro J J

2013-03-19

208

Texas refiner starts up new waste water treatment plant  

SciTech Connect

Chevron Corp. has started up a new waste water treatment plant at its Port Arthur, Tex., refinery. The new facility has an hydraulic capacity of 10,000 gpm and will treat process waste water, cooling tower blowdown, and contaminated storm water. The plant includes: A process unit for removing free and emulsified oil; and equalization facility; a biological system for organics biodegradation; and a volatile organic compounds (VOC) control system. The paper describes predesign studies, the preliminary design and VOC control, the final design, cost savings, process control, and construction.

Al-Tell, N. (Bechtel Corp., Houston, TX (United States)); Lueders, R. (Chevron Corp., Port Arthur, TX (United States))

1994-03-21

209

Supercritical water oxidation test bed effluent treatment study  

SciTech Connect

This report presents effluent treatment options for a 50 h Supercritical Water Test Unit. Effluent compositions are calculated for eight simulated waste streams, using different assumed cases. Variations in effluent composition with different reactor designs and operating schemes are discussed. Requirements for final effluent compositions are briefly reviewed. A comparison is made of two general schemes. The first is one in which the effluent is cooled and effluent treatment is primarily done in the liquid phase. In the second scheme, most treatment is performed with the effluent in the gas phase. Several unit operations are also discussed, including neutralization, mercury removal, and evaporation.

Barnes, C.M.

1994-04-01

210

Short communication Control of brown rot of stone fruits by brief heated water immersion treatments  

E-print Network

Short communication Control of brown rot of stone fruits by brief heated water immersion treatments. Several studies have shown that hot water treatments by themselves or in combination with other treatments they require are an issue that has hindered the commercial adoption of hot water treatments. While higher water

Crisosto, Carlos H.

211

Significance and treatment of volatile organic compounds in water supplies  

SciTech Connect

Chapter 1 covers the statutory and regulatory basis for the control of chemicals in drinking water and the 1986 Amendments to the Safe Drinking Water Act. Chapter 2 reviews: (1) the nature and extent of groundwater contamination, and (2) management controls. Chapter 3 describes research methods for determination of aqueous VOCs. Chapter 4 reviews the EPA-approved analytical methods for VOC analysis in drinking water. Chapter 5 presents sampling and analysis procedures to minimize volatilization loss. Chapter 6 reviews past and present approaches of fiber optics to measure VOCs in groundwater. Chapter 7 reviews the national surveys of VOCs in ground and surface waters. Chapter 9 presents a conceptual overview of VOC transport in groundwater. Chapter 10 discusses the physical-chemical properties and fate of VOCs using the fugacity approach. Chapter 11 focuses on biologically mediated transformations that affect the fate of VOCs in the environment. Chapter 12 reviews the theory and applications of VOC removal from drinking water by adsorption. Chapter 13 presents a detailed model for a packed tower aeration (PTA) system. Chapter 14 describes oxidative treatment methods that convert VOCs to relatively harmless substances. Chapter 15 reviews research, being conducted by EPA's Drinking Water Research Division. Chapter 16 describes point-of-use/point-of-entry systems technology. Chapter 17 presents an economic analysis of GA and PTA. The remaining five chapters discuss the risks involved in water treatment for VOCs. Separate abstracts are processed for 21 chapters in this book for inclusion in the appropriate data bases.

Ram, N.M.; Christman, R.F.; Cantor, K.P. (ed.)

1990-01-01

212

Car wash wastewater treatment and water reuse - a case study.  

PubMed

Recent features of a car wash wastewater reclamation system and results from a full-scale car wash wastewater treatment and recycling process are reported. This upcoming technology comprises a new flocculation-column flotation process, sand filtration, and a final chlorination. A water usage and savings audit (22 weeks) showed that almost 70% reclamation was possible, and fewer than 40 L of fresh water per wash were needed. Wastewater and reclaimed water were characterized by monitoring chemical, physicochemical and biological parameters. Results were discussed in terms of aesthetic quality (water clarification and odour), health (pathological) and chemical (corrosion and scaling) risks. A microbiological risk model was applied and the Escherichia coli proposed criterion for car wash reclaimed water is 200 CFU 100 mL(-1). It is believed that the discussions on car wash wastewater reclamation criteria may assist institutions to create laws in Brazil and elsewhere. PMID:23128624

Zaneti, R N; Etchepare, R; Rubio, J

2013-01-01

213

Water treatment dosage control and relationship to performance  

SciTech Connect

New methods for monitoring scale and corrosion inhibiting water treatment programs have been developed. These new patented methods utilize the measurement of system consumption of actives in the treatment program by fluorescence analysis. The applied dosage of treatment program and the amount of actives available to the system are measured with inert fluorescent tracers added to the treatments. System consumption of actives is defined as the difference between the amount of actives added and remaining in the system. Consumption measurements determine changes in the whole operating system (not a simulated, small portion of the system). Consumption measurements can also be made on individual portions of the system (heat exchangers). Changes in consumption of inhibitors and dispersants can be related to changes in system operating conditions and performance. Reducing consumption of actives or maintaining consumption within a specified range can be related to optimization of the operation of the cooling system and treatment program.

Hoots, J.E. [Nalco Chemical Co., Naperville, IL (United States)

1995-12-01

214

Economic assessment of membrane processes for water and waste water treatment  

Microsoft Academic Search

Membrane processes are increasingly being considered as an alternative to conventional water and waste water treatment methods in anticipation of future demands for high standards and reduced environmental impact. However, the use of membranes for these applications is currently limited by the high capital and operating costs with which they are associated. This paper looks at the economics of membrane

G. Owen; M. Bandi; J. A. Howell; S. J. Churchouse

1995-01-01

215

REMOVAL OF ARSENIC IN DRINKING WATER: ARS CFU-50 APC ELECTROFLOCCULATION AND FILTRATION WATER TREATMENT SYSTEM  

EPA Science Inventory

ETV testing of the ARS CFU-50 APC Electroflocculation and Filtration Water Treatment System (ARS CFU-50 APC) for arsenic removal was conducted at the Town of Bernalillo Well #3 site from April 18 through May 2, 2006. The source water was chlorinated groundwater from two supply w...

216

UV Water Treatment Facility Funded by the GLRI  

USGS Multimedia Gallery

Funding for the USGS Tunison Laboratory's UV water treatment facility and salmon rearing capabilities come from the Great Lakes Restoration Initiative and from a 2005 Congressional appropriation. Herring splash in oudoor containment channels beside the new facility. A new, sophisticated fish r...

217

Application of Ultrasonic Technology for Water and Wastewater Treatment  

Microsoft Academic Search

Ultrasonic technology as an innovative technology may be used for water and wastewater treatment for pollution removal. This technology acts as an advanced oxidation process. Application of this technology leads to the decomposition of many complex organic compounds to much simpler compounds during physical and chemical compounds during cavitation proc- ess. In this article review, some applications of this valuable

AH Mahvi

2009-01-01

218

An Analysis of the Waste Water Treatment Operator Occupation.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The occupational analysis contains a brief job description for the waste water treatment occupations of operator and maintenance mechanic and 13 detailed task statements which specify job duties (tools, equipment, materials, objects acted upon, performance knowledge, safety considerations/hazards, decisions, cues, and errors) and learning skills…

Clark, Anthony B.; And Others

219

An Analysis of the Waste Water Treatment Maintenance Mechanic Occupation.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The general purpose of the occupational analysis is to provide workable, basic information dealing with the many and varied duties performed in the waste water treatment mechanics occupation. The document opens with a brief introduction followed by a job description. The bulk of the document is presented in table form. Twelve duties are broken…

Clark, Anthony B.; And Others

220

EVALUATING A COMPOSITE CARTRIDGE FOR SMALL SYSTEM DRINKING WATER TREATMENT  

EPA Science Inventory

A multi-layer, cartridge-based system that combines physical filtration with carbon adsorption and ultraviolet (UV) light disinfection has been developed to perform as a water treatment security device to protect homes against accidental or intentional contaminant events. A seri...

221

49. LOOKING NORTH AT EVAPORATIVE WASTE WATER TREATMENT COOLING TOWERS, ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

49. LOOKING NORTH AT EVAPORATIVE WASTE WATER TREATMENT COOLING TOWERS, WITH BLOW ENGINE HOUSE No. 3 ON RIGHT, AND FILTER CAKE HOUSE IN FOREGROUND. (Jet Lowe) - U.S. Steel Duquesne Works, Blast Furnace Plant, Along Monongahela River, Duquesne, Allegheny County, PA

222

Treatment for hydrazine-containing waste water solution  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The treatment for waste solutions containing hydrazine is presented. The invention attempts oxidation and decomposition of hydrazine in waste water in a simple and effective processing. The method adds activated charcoal to waste solutions containing hydrazine while maintaining a pH value higher than 8, and adding iron salts if necessary. Then, the solution is aerated.

Yade, N.

1986-01-01

223

Impact of Arsenic Treatment Techniques on Distribution Water Quality  

EPA Science Inventory

This presentation will summarize the results of the distribution water quality studies (arsenic, lead, and copper) of the demonstration program. The impact of the treatment systems by type of system (adsorptive media, coagulation/filtration, ion exchange, etc) will be shown by co...

224

Anodic oxidation of phenol for waste water treatment  

Microsoft Academic Search

The electrochemical oxidation of phenol for waste water treatment was studied at a platinum anode. Analysis of reaction intermediates and a carbon balance has shown that the reaction occurs by two parallel pathways; chemical oxidation with electrogenerated hydroxyl radicals and direct combustion of adsorbed phenol or\\/and its aromatic intermediates to CO2.

Ch. Comninellis; C. Pulgarin

1991-01-01

225

WATER FACTORY 21: RECLAIMED WATER, VOLATILE ORGANICS, VIRUS, AND TREATMENT PERFORMANCE  

EPA Science Inventory

This report describes the performance of Water Factory 21, a 0.66 cu m/s advanced wastewater treatment plant designed to reclaim secondary effluent from a municipal wastewater treatment plant so that it can be used for injection and recharge of a groundwater system. Included in t...

226

Integrated operation of drinking water treatment plant at Amsterdam water supply  

Microsoft Academic Search

Water treatment plants are in general robust and designs are based on the performance of individual processes with pre-set boundary conditions. It is assumed that an integral approach of the entire treatment plant can lead to more efficient operation. Taking into account the developments in sensoring, automation and computation, it is a challenge to improve quality and reliability of the

G. J. Bosklopper; L. C. Rietveld; R. Babuska; B. Smaal; J. Timmer

227

Problems of drinking water treatment along Ismailia Canal Province, Egypt*  

PubMed Central

The present drinking water purification system in Egypt uses surface water as a raw water supply without a preliminary filtration process. On the other hand, chlorine gas is added as a disinfectant agent in two steps, pre- and post-chlorination. Due to these reasons most of water treatment plants suffer low filtering effectiveness and produce the trihalomethane (THM) species as a chlorination by-product. The Ismailia Canal represents the most distal downstream of the main Nile River. Thus its water contains all the proceeded pollutants discharged into the Nile. In addition, the downstream reaches of the canal act as an agricultural drain during the closing period of the High Dam gates in January and February every year. Moreover, the wide industrial zone along the upstream course of the canal enriches the canal water with high concentrations of heavy metals. The obtained results indicate that the canal gains up to 24.06×106 m3 of water from the surrounding shallow aquifer during the closing period of the High Dam gates, while during the rest of the year, the canal acts as an influent stream losing about 99.6×106 m3 of its water budget. The reduction of total organic carbon (TOC) and suspended particulate matters (SPMs) should be one of the central goals of any treatment plan to avoid the disinfectants by-products. The combination of sedimentation basins, gravel pre-filtration and slow sand filtration, and underground passage with microbiological oxidation-reduction and adsorption criteria showed good removal of parasites and bacteria and complete elimination of TOC, SPM and heavy metals. Moreover, it reduces the use of disinfectants chemicals and lowers the treatment costs. However, this purification system under the arid climate prevailing in Egypt should be tested and modified prior to application. PMID:18357626

Geriesh, Mohamed H.; Balke, Klaus-Dieter; El-Rayes, Ahmed E.

2008-01-01

228

7 CFR 1780.63 - Sewage treatment and bulk water sales contracts.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-01-01 false Sewage treatment and bulk water sales contracts. 1780...AGRICULTURE (CONTINUED) WATER AND WASTE LOANS AND GRANTS...Inspections § 1780.63 Sewage treatment and bulk water sales contracts....

2012-01-01

229

7 CFR 1780.63 - Sewage treatment and bulk water sales contracts.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-01-01 false Sewage treatment and bulk water sales contracts. 1780...AGRICULTURE (CONTINUED) WATER AND WASTE LOANS AND GRANTS...Inspections § 1780.63 Sewage treatment and bulk water sales contracts....

2013-01-01

230

7 CFR 1780.63 - Sewage treatment and bulk water sales contracts.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-01-01 false Sewage treatment and bulk water sales contracts. 1780...AGRICULTURE (CONTINUED) WATER AND WASTE LOANS AND GRANTS...Inspections § 1780.63 Sewage treatment and bulk water sales contracts....

2011-01-01

231

7 CFR 1780.63 - Sewage treatment and bulk water sales contracts.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-01-01 false Sewage treatment and bulk water sales contracts. 1780...AGRICULTURE (CONTINUED) WATER AND WASTE LOANS AND GRANTS...Inspections § 1780.63 Sewage treatment and bulk water sales contracts....

2010-01-01

232

Hydrogen peroxide and ultraviolet irradiations in water treatment.  

PubMed

Trihalomethanes (THMs) the by-products of chlorination in water treatment are recognised as a threat to public health due to their carcinogenicity. The photodegradation of THMs using hydrogen peroxide has been found to give increased removal efficiency and the outcome of the study may find, its application in designing a unit process for water treatment. Batch experiments were carried out using UV lamp of 83 W and 40% w/w Hydrogen peroxide (H(2)O(2)) in test waters between 2.5-10 pH range of chloroform, bromodichloromethane, dibromochloromethane and bromoform at 50-200 microg L(-1) initial concentration. 92-100% removal of chloroform, bromodichloromethane, dibromochloromethane and bromoform were found with 0.1% of H(2)O(2) and 90 min of UV exposure. PMID:16240198

Rudra, Anjana; Thacker, Neeta P; Pande, Sunil P

2005-10-01

233

Assessment of didecyldimethylammonium chloride as a ballast water treatment method.  

PubMed

Ballast water-mediated transfer of aquatic invasive species is considered a major threat to marine biodiversity, marine industry and human health. A ballast water treatment is needed to comply with International Maritime Organization (IMO) ballast water discharge regulations. Didecyldimethylammonium chloride (DDAC) was tested for its applicability as a ballast water treatment method. The treatment of the marine phytoplankton species Tetraselmis suecica, Isochrysis galbana and Chaetoceros calcitrans showed that at 2.5?µL?L(-1) DDAC was able to inactivate photosystem II (PSII) efficiency and disintegrate the cells after 5 days of dark incubation. The treatment of natural marine plankton communities with 2.5?µL?L(-1) DDAC did not sufficiently decrease zooplankton abundance to comply with the IMO D-2 standard. Bivalve larvae showed the highest resistance to DDAC. PSII efficiency was inactivated within 5 days but phytoplankton cells remained intact. Regrowth occurred within 2 days of incubation in the light. However, untreated phytoplankton exposed to residual DDAC showed delayed cell growth and reduced PSII efficiency, indicating residual DDAC toxicity. Natural marine plankton communities treated with 5?µL?L(-1) DDAC showed sufficient disinfection of zooplankton and inactivation of PSII efficiency. Phytoplankton regrowth was not detected after 9 days of light incubation. Bacteria were initially reduced due to the DDAC treatment but regrowth was observed within 5 days of dark incubation. Residual DDAC remained too high after 5 days to be safely discharged. Two neutralization cycles of 50?mg?L(-1) bentonite were needed to inactivate residual DDAC upon discharge. The inactivation of residual DDAC may seriously hamper the practical use of DDAC as a ballast water disinfectant. PMID:25182049

van Slooten, Cees; Peperzak, Louis; Buma, Anita G J

2015-02-01

234

Study on the TOC concentration in raw water and HAAs in Tehran's water treatment plant outlet.  

PubMed

A sampling has been undertaken to investigate the variation of haloacetic acids formation and nature organic matter through 81 samples were collected from three water treatment plant and three major rivers of Tehran Iran. Changes in the total organic matter (TOC), ultraviolet absorbance (UV254), specific ultraviolet absorbance (SUVA) were measured in raw water samples. Haloacetic acids concentrations were monitored using a new static headspace GC-ECD method without a manual pre-concentration in three water treatment plants. The average concentration of TOC and HAAs in three rivers and three water treatment plants in spring, summer and fall, were 4, 2.41 and 4.03 mg/L and 48.75, 43.79 and 51.07 ?g/L respectively. Seasonal variation indicated that HAAs levels were much higher in spring and fall. PMID:24283403

Ghoochani, Mahboobeh; Rastkari, Noushin; Nabizadeh Nodehi, Ramin; Mahvi, Amir Hossein; Nasseri, Simin; Nazmara, Shahrokh

2013-01-01

235

Treatment of produced waters by electrocoagulation and reverse osmosis  

SciTech Connect

Two oil field produced waters and one coal bed methane produced water from Wyoming were treated with electrocoagulation and reverse osmosis. All three produced waters would require treatment to meet the new Wyoming Department of Environmental Quality requirements for effluent discharge into a class III or IV stream. The removal of radium 226 and oil and grease was the primary focus of the study. Radium 226 and oil and grease were removed from the produced waters with electrocoagulation. The best removal of radium 226 (>84%) was achieved with use of a non-sacrificial anode (titanium). The best removal of oil and grease (>93%) was achieved using a sacrificial anode (aluminum). By comparison, reverse osmosis removed up to 87% of the total dissolved solids and up to 95% of the radium 226.

Tuggle, K.; Humenick, M.; Barker, F.

1992-08-01

236

Treatment of TNT red water by layer melt crystallization.  

PubMed

Treatment of the red water, which is wastewater of 2,4,6- trinitrotoluene (TNT) manufacturing process has been explored using ice crystallization. This study focuses on the formation of ice crystals from the red water in a layer crystallizer under various operating conditions. Among the parameters which affect layer crystallization, attention was given to cooling rate, cooling temperature, sweating rate and concentration of the red water. The study highlights the effect of subcooling and growth rate on purity of the ice crystalline layers produced. After sweating, the COD value of crystalline ice layer was significantly reduced from 10,000 mg/L to below 20mg/L. Most organic contaminants were removed in sweating fractions of 0.5. Eventually, the red water was treated by layer crystallization combined with the sweating process. PMID:25151241

Jo, Jeong-Hyeon; Ernest, Takyi; Kim, Kwang-Joo

2014-09-15

237

Measurement of near-surface seismic compressional wave velocities using refraction tomography at a proposed construction site on the Presidio of Monterey, California  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The U.S. Army Corps of Engineers is determining the feasibility of constructing a new barracks building on the U.S. Army Presidio of Monterey in Monterey, California. Due to the presence of an endangered orchid in the proposed area, invasive techniques such as exploratory drill holes are prohibited. To aid in determining the feasibility, budget, and design of this building, a compressional-wave seismic refraction survey was proposed by the U.S. Geological Survey as an alternative means of investigating the depth to competent bedrock. Two sub-parallel profiles were acquired along an existing foot path and a fence line to minimize impacts on the endangered flora. The compressional-wave seismic refraction tomography data for both profiles indicate that no competent rock classified as non-rippable or marginally rippable exists within the top 30 feet beneath the ground surface.

Powers, Michael H.; Burton, Bethany L.

2012-01-01

238

Occurrence of Mycobacteria in Water Treatment Lines and in Water Distribution Systems  

PubMed Central

The frequency of recovery of atypical mycobacteria was estimated in two treatment plants providing drinking water to Paris, France, at some intermediate stages of treatment. The two plants use two different filtration processes, rapid and slow sand filtration. Our results suggest that slow sand filtration is more efficient for removing mycobacteria than rapid sand filtration. In addition, our results show that mycobacteria can colonize and grow on granular activated carbon and are able to enter distribution systems. We also investigated the frequency of recovery of mycobacteria in the water distribution system of Paris (outside buildings). The mycobacterial species isolated from the Paris drinking water distribution system are different from those isolated from the water leaving the treatment plants. Saprophytic mycobacteria (present in 41.3% of positive samples), potentially pathogenic mycobacteria (16.3%), and unidentifiable mycobacteria (54.8%) were isolated from 12 sites within the Paris water distribution system. Mycobacterium gordonae was preferentially recovered from treated surface water, whereas Mycobacterium nonchromogenicum was preferentially recovered from groundwater. No significant correlations were found among the presence of mycobacteria, the origin of water, and water temperature. PMID:12406720

Le Dantec, Corinne; Duguet, Jean-Pierre; Montiel, Antoine; Dumoutier, Nadine; Dubrou, Sylvie; Vincent, Véronique

2002-01-01

239

Review of technologies for oil and gas produced water treatment.  

PubMed

Produced water is the largest waste stream generated in oil and gas industries. It is a mixture of different organic and inorganic compounds. Due to the increasing volume of waste all over the world in the current decade, the outcome and effect of discharging produced water on the environment has lately become a significant issue of environmental concern. Produced water is conventionally treated through different physical, chemical, and biological methods. In offshore platforms because of space constraints, compact physical and chemical systems are used. However, current technologies cannot remove small-suspended oil particles and dissolved elements. Besides, many chemical treatments, whose initial and/or running cost are high and produce hazardous sludge. In onshore facilities, biological pretreatment of oily wastewater can be a cost-effective and environmental friendly method. As high salt concentration and variations of influent characteristics have direct influence on the turbidity of the effluent, it is appropriate to incorporate a physical treatment, e.g., membrane to refine the final effluent. For these reasons, major research efforts in the future could focus on the optimization of current technologies and use of combined physico-chemical and/or biological treatment of produced water in order to comply with reuse and discharge limits. PMID:19505758

Fakhru'l-Razi, Ahmadun; Pendashteh, Alireza; Abdullah, Luqman Chuah; Biak, Dayang Radiah Awang; Madaeni, Sayed Siavash; Abidin, Zurina Zainal

2009-10-30

240

Assessment of Coliphage Surrogates for Testing Drinking Water Treatment Devices.  

PubMed

Test protocols have been developed by the United States Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA) and the World Health Organization (WHO) to test water treatment devices/systems that are used at the individual and home levels to ensure the removal of waterborne viruses. The goal of this study was to assess if coliphage surrogates could be used in this testing in place of the currently required use of animal or human enteric viruses. Five different coliphages (MS-2, PRD1, ?X-174, Q?, and fr) were compared to the removal of poliovirus type 1 (LSc-2ab) by eight different water treatment devices/systems using a general case and a challenge case (high organic load, dissolved solids, and turbidity) test water as defined by the USEPA. The performance of the units was rated as a pass/fail based on a 4 log removal/inactivation of the viruses. In all cases, a failure or a pass of the units/system for poliovirus also corresponded to a pass/fail by all of the coliphages. In summary, in using pass/fail criteria as recommended under USEPA guidelines for testing water treatment device/systems, the use of coliphages should be considered as an alternative to reduce cost and time of testing such devices/systems. PMID:25399400

Gerba, Charles P; Abd-Elmaksoud, Sherif; Newick, Huikheng; El-Esnawy, Nagwa A; Barakat, Ahmed; Ghanem, Hossam

2014-11-16

241

Performance of a biological deoxygenation process for ships' ballast water treatment under very cold water conditions.  

PubMed

Water deoxygenation is listed among the promising on-board treatment technologies to treat ships' ballast waters to reduce the risk of species transfer. We assessed the performance of a yeast-based bioreactive deoxygenation process in very cold water (<2°C) and determined the potential toxicity of the residual treated waters. Experiments using two treatment levels (0.5% and 1% v/v) were conducted in large-volume (4.5m(3)) tanks over 19 days at mean temperature of 1.5°C. Time to hypoxia varied between 10.3 and 16 days, being slightly higher than the predicted time of 9.8 days from previous empirical relationships. Water deoxygenation was achieved when yeast density exceeded 5×10(5) viable cellsmL(-1) and variation in time to hypoxia was mainly explained by difference in yeast growth. There was no oxycline and no significant difference in yeast density over the 2-m deep water column. Results from six bioassays indicated weak toxic response of treated waters at the 1.0% level, but no potential toxic response at the 0.5% treatment level. Results confirmed that the potential application of a yeast-based deoxygenation process for treating ships' ballast waters extended over the range of water temperature typically encountered during most shipping operational conditions. Time to reach full deoxygenation may however be limiting for universal application of this treatment which should be preferably used for ships making longer voyages in cold environments. There was no evidence that biological deoxygenation at low temperature did increase toxicity risk of treated waters to impede their disposal at the time of discharge. PMID:24345863

de Lafontaine, Yves; Despatie, Simon-Pierre

2014-02-15

242

Groundwater Treatment at the Fernald Preserve: Status and Path Forward for the Water Treatment Facility - 12320  

SciTech Connect

Operating a water treatment facility at the Fernald Preserve in Cincinnati, Ohio-to support groundwater remediation and other wastewater treatment needs-has become increasingly unnecessary. The Fernald Preserve became a U.S. Department of Energy Office of Legacy Management (LM) site in November 2006, once most of the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act environmental remediation and site restoration had been completed. Groundwater remediation is anticipated to continue beyond 2020. A portion of the wastewater treatment facility that operated during the CERCLA cleanup continued to operate after the site was transferred to LM, to support the remaining groundwater remediation effort. The treatment facility handles the site's remaining water treatment needs (for groundwater, storm water, and wastewater) as necessary, to ensure that uranium discharge limits specified in the Operable Unit 5 Record of Decision are met. As anticipated, the need to treat groundwater to meet uranium discharge limits has greatly diminished over the last several years. Data indicate that the groundwater treatment facility is no longer needed to support the ongoing aquifer remediation effort. (authors)

Powel, J. [U.S. Department of Energy Office of Legacy Management, Harrison, Ohio (United States); Hertel, B.; Glassmeyer, C.; Broberg, K. [S.M. Stoller Corporation, Harrison, Ohio (United States)

2012-07-01

243

Treatment methods for breaking certain oil and water emulsions  

DOEpatents

Disclosed are treatment methods for breaking emulsions of petroleum oil and salt water, fatty oil and water, and those resulting from liquefication of organic material. The emulsions are broken by heating to a predetermined temperature at or above about 200.degree. C. and pressurizing to a predetermined pressure above the vapor pressure of water at the predetermined temperature to produce a heated and pressurized fluid. The heated and pressurized fluid is contained in a single vessel at the predetermined temperature and pressure for a predetermined period of time to effectively separate the emulsion into substantially distinct first and second phases, the first phase comprising primarily the petroleum oil, the second phase comprising primarily the water. The first and second phases are separately withdrawn from the vessel at a withdraw temperature between about 200.degree. C. and 374.degree. C. and a withdraw pressure above the vapor pressure of water at the withdraw temperature. Where solids are present in the certain emulsions, the above described treatment may also effectively separate the certain emulsion into a substantially distinct third phase comprising primarily the solids.

Sealock, Jr., L. John (W. Richland, WA); Baker, Eddie G. (Richland, WA); Elliott, Douglas C. (Richland, WA)

1992-01-01

244

Recovery of municipal waste incineration bottom ash and water treatment sludge to water permeable pavement materials.  

PubMed

Water treatment plant sludge and municipal solid waste incinerator bottom ash are non-hazardous residues, and they can be reprocessed to produce useful materials for city public works. In this study, an effort was endeavored to investigate the properties of water permeable bricks made of water treatment sludge and bottom ash without involving an artificial aggregate step. The water treatment plant sludge was dried and ground, and the bottom ash was subjected to magnetic separation to remove ferrous metals. Both sludge and bottom ash were ground and sieved to a size of <2mm. Different contents of water treatment sludge (70-95% by weight) were mixed with bottom ash and the blocks were molded under a pressure of 110 kg/cm2. Thereafter, the molded blocks were sintered at temperatures of 900-1200 degrees C for 60-360 min. The compressive strength, permeability and water absorption rate of the sintered brick were examined and compared to relevant standards. The amount of bottom ash added in the mixture with water treatment sludge affects both the compressive strength and the permeability of the sintered bricks. The two effects are antonymous as higher bottom ash content will develop a beehive configuration and have more voids in the brick. It is concluded that a 20% weight content of bottom ash under a sintering condition of 1150 degrees C for 360 min can generate a brick with a compressive strength of 256 kg/cm2, a water absorption ratio of 2.78% and a permeability of 0.016 cm/s. PMID:16293405

Lin, Cheng-Fang; Wu, Chung-Hsin; Ho, Hsiu-Mai

2006-01-01

245

40 CFR 141.403 - Treatment technique requirements for ground water systems.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...Treatment technique requirements for ground water systems. 141.403 Section 141.403...ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) WATER PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) NATIONAL PRIMARY DRINKING WATER REGULATIONS Ground Water Rule §...

2011-07-01

246

40 CFR 141.404 - Treatment technique violations for ground water systems.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...Treatment technique violations for ground water systems. 141.404 Section 141.404...ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) WATER PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) NATIONAL PRIMARY DRINKING WATER REGULATIONS Ground Water Rule §...

2012-07-01

247

40 CFR 141.403 - Treatment technique requirements for ground water systems.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...Treatment technique requirements for ground water systems. 141.403 Section 141.403...ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) WATER PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) NATIONAL PRIMARY DRINKING WATER REGULATIONS Ground Water Rule §...

2013-07-01

248

40 CFR 141.403 - Treatment technique requirements for ground water systems.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...Treatment technique requirements for ground water systems. 141.403 Section 141.403...ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) WATER PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) NATIONAL PRIMARY DRINKING WATER REGULATIONS Ground Water Rule §...

2012-07-01

249

40 CFR 141.404 - Treatment technique violations for ground water systems.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...Treatment technique violations for ground water systems. 141.404 Section 141.404...ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) WATER PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) NATIONAL PRIMARY DRINKING WATER REGULATIONS Ground Water Rule §...

2013-07-01

250

40 CFR 141.404 - Treatment technique violations for ground water systems.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...Treatment technique violations for ground water systems. 141.404 Section 141.404...ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) WATER PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) NATIONAL PRIMARY DRINKING WATER REGULATIONS Ground Water Rule §...

2011-07-01

251

40 CFR 141.404 - Treatment technique violations for ground water systems.  

...Treatment technique violations for ground water systems. 141.404 Section 141.404...ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) WATER PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) NATIONAL PRIMARY DRINKING WATER REGULATIONS Ground Water Rule §...

2014-07-01

252

40 CFR 141.403 - Treatment technique requirements for ground water systems.  

...Treatment technique requirements for ground water systems. 141.403 Section 141.403...ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) WATER PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) NATIONAL PRIMARY DRINKING WATER REGULATIONS Ground Water Rule §...

2014-07-01

253

40 CFR 141.403 - Treatment technique requirements for ground water systems.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...Treatment technique requirements for ground water systems. 141.403 Section 141.403...ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) WATER PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) NATIONAL PRIMARY DRINKING WATER REGULATIONS Ground Water Rule §...

2010-07-01

254

40 CFR 141.404 - Treatment technique violations for ground water systems.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...Treatment technique violations for ground water systems. 141.404 Section 141.404...ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) WATER PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) NATIONAL PRIMARY DRINKING WATER REGULATIONS Ground Water Rule §...

2010-07-01

255

Treatment of spent filter backwash water using dissolved air flotation.  

PubMed

There is increasing interest in treating recovered spent filter backwash water in the drinking water industry. In the USA the Filter Backwash Recycling Rule will come into effect in the near future. The purpose of the Rule is to prevent the concentrated pathogenic agents, potentially in the filter backwash water, from being returned to the head of the water treatment works without some form of treatment or dilution. By treating this flow both public health and financial liability can be better managed by the operating utility. Dissolved Air Flotation (DAF) was investigated as a possible technology alternative to simple or advanced sedimentation techniques. This application is not widespread but sits somewhere in between the two normal applications of DAF as a high solids sludge thickener and a low turbidity clarification system. Given this a pilot plant program, supported by jar testing, was undertaken to determine the process capability and the design parameters for this application. DAF proved to be very suitable for backwash water recovery. DAF effluent turbidities of < 1.0 NTU could be easily obtained, when raw water turbidities were in excess of 50 NTU. Chemical requirements were low with only a single low dose of polymer required to bind the floc particles to form a solids matrix suitable for flotation. Flocculation contact times ranged from 0-10 minutes depending on the nature of the raw water. Recycle rates as low as 5% performed satisfactorily with no significant improvement when increased to 20%. Sludge solids of 3.5-9.6% dry solids were found and very low volumes of sludge, < 0.1% of the incoming flow make the DAF solids handling system very compact. PMID:11394280

Eades, A; Bates, B J; MacPhee, M J

2001-01-01

256

Removal of NOM in the different stages of the water treatment process  

Microsoft Academic Search

Natural organic matter (NOM) is abundant in natural waters in Finland and in many ways affects the unit operations in water purification. In this study, the organic matter content in water in different stages of a full-scale treatment process over 1 year was measured. The full-scale treatment sequence, studied at the Rusko water treatment plant in Tampere, Finland, consisted of

Anu Matilainen; Niina Lindqvist; Susanna Korhonen; Tuula Tuhkanen

2002-01-01

257

The use of ozone and associated oxidation processes in drinking water treatment  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper summarizes the main applications of ozonation and associated oxidation processes in the treatment of natural waters (surface and ground waters) for drinking water production. In fact, oxidants may be added at several points throughout the treatment: pre-oxidation, intermediate oxidation or final disinfection. So, the numerous effects of chemical oxidation are discussed along the water treatment: removal of inorganic

V Camel; A Bermond

1998-01-01

258

Water treatment residuals amended soils release Mn, Na, S and C  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Water treatment residuals (WTRs) are drinking water treatment byproducts containing chemicals used to purify raw water. Water treatment residuals are used to remediate P-enriched soils. Following soil application, elements present in WTRs have the potential of converting to soluble forms and cause c...

259

INTEC CPP-603 Basin Water Treatment System Closure: Process Design  

SciTech Connect

This document describes the engineering activities that have been completed in support of the closure plan for the Idaho Nuclear Technology and Engineering Center (INTEC) CPP-603 Basin Water Treatment System. This effort includes detailed assessments of methods and equipment for performing work in four areas: 1. A cold (nonradioactive) mockup system for testing equipment and procedures for vessel cleanout and vessel demolition. 2. Cleanout of process vessels to meet standards identified in the closure plan. 3. Dismantlement and removal of vessels, should it not be possible to clean them to required standards in the closure plan. 4. Cleanout or removal of pipelines and pumps associated with the CPP-603 basin water treatment system. Cleanout standards for the pipes will be the same as those used for the process vessels.

Kimmitt, Raymond Rodney; Faultersack, Wendell Gale; Foster, Jonathan Kay; Berry, Stephen Michael

2002-09-01

260

Treatment of gasoline-contaminated waters by advanced oxidation processes  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this study, the efficiency of advanced oxidative processes (AOPs) was investigated toward the degradation of aqueous solutions containing benzene, toluene and xylenes (BTX) and gasoline-contaminated waters. The results indicated that BTX can be effectively oxidized by near UV-assisted photo-Fenton process. The treatment permits almost total degradation of BTX and removal of more than 80% of the phenolic intermediates at

Elaine Regina Lopes Tiburtius; Patricio Peralta-Zamora; Alexandre Emmel

2005-01-01

261

Influence of Water Treatment Residuals on Phosphorus Solubility and Leaching  

Microsoft Academic Search

Laboratory and greenhouse studies compared the ability of water treatment residuals (WTRs) to alter P solubility and leaching in Immo- kalee sandy soil (sandy, siliceous, hyperthermic Arenic Alaquod) amended with biosolids and triple superphosphate (TSP). Aluminum sulfate (Al-WTR) and ferric sulfate (Fe-WTR) coagulation residuals, a lime softening residual (Ca-WTR) produced during hardness re- moval, and pure hematite were examined. In

H. A. Elliott; G. A. O'Connor; P. Lu; S. Brinton

2002-01-01

262

Land disposal of water treatment plant sludge -- A feasibility analysis  

SciTech Connect

In this study, the following alternative disposal methods for the Buffalo Pound Water Treatment Sludge were evaluated: landfilling, discharge into sanitary sewers, long-term lagooning, use in manufacturing, co-composting, alum recovery and land application. Land application was chosen at the best disposal alternative. Preliminary design resulted in a 1% dry alum sludge loading rate (25 tonnes/ha), requiring 35 ha over a nine-year period and a phosphorus fertilizer supplement of about 50kg/ha.

Viraraghavan, T.; Multon, L.M.; Wasylenchuk, E.J.

1998-07-01

263

Water treatment plant simulation program, version 1. 21, user's manual  

SciTech Connect

The User's Manual for Version 1.21 of the Water Treatment Plant Simulation Program has been prepared to provide a basic understanding of (1) how to operate the program, and (2) the underlying assumptions and equations that are used to calculate the removal of natural organic matter and the formation of disinfection by-products. The manual represents the first public release of the program.

Not Available

1992-06-01

264

Small community water and wastewater treatment. Summary report  

SciTech Connect

The summary report presents information on the unique needs of small communities facing new water and wastewater treatment requirements. It contains three main sections: technology overviews (each presents a process description, O M requirements, technology limitations, and financial considerations), small community case studies, and a resource directory presenting listings of organizations that can provide a wide variety of technical and financial services to small communities.

Not Available

1992-09-01

265

No Chemical, Zero Bleed Cooling Tower Water Treatment Process  

E-print Network

to do it. CONVENTIONAL WISDOM REPLACED So the conventional wisdom of yesterday has been replaced with better technology, Little by little, the conventional chemical technology is giving way to non-chemical methods of water treatment in cooling... solubility and begin the scale inhibition process. This also descales existing scale build-up in the system. Ozone is manufactured from ambient air and injected into the bypass system through a venturi type injector. This kills algae, slime and bacteria...

Coke, A. L.

266

CONVENTIONAL WATER TREATMENT AND DIRECT FILTRATION: TREATMENT AND REMOVAL OF TOTAL ORGANIC CARBON AND TRIHALOMETHANE PRECURSORS  

EPA Science Inventory

After describing the fundamentals of coagulation of humic substances for alum and cationic polyelectrolytes, field studies of two conventional-type water treatment plants are discussed. THM formation through the plants is examined, and removals of total organic carbon (TOC) and T...

267

Effect of hot water treatments on quality of highbush blueberries.  

PubMed

Highbush blueberries, cv 'Burlington', were treated with 22, 45, 50, or 60 degrees C water for 15 or 30 s along with an untreated control. Fruit were then stored for 0, 1, 2, or 4 wk at 0 degrees C and 2 or 9 d at 20 degrees C prior to evaluation of microbial population and fruit quality. After 4 wk of storage, the hot water treatment at 60 degrees C resulted in 92% marketable berries, followed by 90% at 50 degrees C, 88% at 45 degrees C, and 83% at 22 degrees C compared with 76% in untreated controls. Decay incidence was reduced to 0.6%, 1.2%, 1.4%, or 2.8% with 60, 50, 45, or 22 degrees C water treatments, respectively, compared with 5.1% in controls following 4 wk at 0 degrees C and 2 d at 20 degrees C. After an additional 7 d at 20 degrees C, decay in fruit treated at 60 degrees C for 15 or 30 s remained at 1.8% and 0.4%, respectively, compared to 37.4% in controls. Weight loss of berries treated with hot water was 0.4% against 3.8% in controls, and shriveled and split berries were also reduced compared to controls (P<0.001). Aerobic plate count and yeast and mold count were reduced by 0.45 to 0.7 log at 60 degrees C for 30 s. Botrytis cinerea and Colletotrichum sp. were the dominant fungal pathogens causing decay of Burlington blueberries during storage. Hot water treatments also immediately induced an increase in ethanol and reduced fruit titratable acidity and soluble solids content, but had no significant effect on fruit firmness, pH, or most flavor volatile concentrations. PMID:19241561

Fan, L; Forney, C F; Song, J; Doucette, C; Jordan, M A; McRae, K B; Walker, B A

2008-08-01

268

Influence of softening sequencing on electrocoagulation treatment of produced water.  

PubMed

Electrocoagulation has been used to remove solids and some metals from both water and wastewater sources for decades. Additionally, chemical softening is commonly employed in water treatment systems to remove hardness. This paper assesses the combination and sequence of softening and EC methods to treat hydraulic fracturing flowback and produced water from shale oil and gas operations. EC is one of the available technologies to treat produced water for reuse in frac fluids, eliminating not only the need to transport more water but also the costs of providing fresh water. In this paper, the influence of chemical softening on EC was studied. In the softening process, pH was raised to 9.5 and 10.2 before and after EC, respectively. Softening, when practiced before EC was more effective for removing turbidity with samples from wells older than one month (99% versus 88%). However, neither method was successful in treating samples collected from early flowback (1-day and 2-day samples), likely due to the high concentration of organic matter. For total organic carbon, hardness, Ba, Sr, and B removal, application of softening before EC appeared to be the most efficient approach, likely due to the formation of solids before the coagulation process. PMID:25464315

Esmaeilirad, Nasim; Carlson, Ken; Omur Ozbek, Pinar

2015-02-11

269

Kinetics and mechanism of dimethoate chlorination during drinking water treatment.  

PubMed

Dimethoate (DMT), a commonly used organophosphorus pesticide, is of great concern because of its toxicity and potentially harmful effects on water sources. The elimination of DMT as well as the toxicity and persistence of the byproducts formed during DMT degradation is most important for the safety of drinking water. This study first determined the reaction kinetics of DMT with free chlorine (FC) under typical water treatment conditions. The reaction between DMT and FC proceeded rapidly, exhibiting first-order with respect to each reactant. The degradation of DMT by FC was highly pH dependent, and the pseudo-first-order rate constant decreased obviously from 0.13 to 0.02 s(-1) with an increase in pH from 7.0 to 8.3. Bromide ion accelerated the reaction by acting as a catalyst, and the accelerated reaction rate was linearly proportional to the bromide concentration. As a ubiquitous component in natural waters, humic acid also increased the reaction rate. However, the presence of ammonium inhibited the degradation of DMT due to its rapid converting FC to chloramines. Omethoate (OMT) was identified as an important byproduct of DMT chlorination, but only accounted for ca. 28% of the DMT degraded; and other two organic byproducts were also identified. The acute toxicity of DMT solution increased after treatment with FC due to the formation of more toxic byproducts (e.g. OMT). PMID:24377445

Tian, Fang; Liu, Wenjun; Guo, Guang; Qiang, Zhimin; Zhang, Can

2014-05-01

270

Efficient taste and odour removal by water treatment plants around the Han River water supply system.  

PubMed

Seven major water treatment plants in Seoul Metropolitan Area, which are under Korea Water Resources Corporation (KOWACO)'s management, take water from the Paldang Reservoir in the Han River System for drinking water supply. There are taste and odour (T&O) problems in the finished water because the conventional treatment processes do not efficiently remove the T&O compounds. This study evaluated T&O removal by ozonation, granular activated carbon (GAC) treatment, powder activated carbon (PAC) and an advanced oxidation process in a pilot-scale treatment plant and bench-scale laboratory experiments. During T&O episodes, PAC alone was not adequate, but as a pretreatment together with GAC it could be a useful option. The optimal range of ozone dose was 1 to 2 mg/L at a contact time of 10 min. However, with ozone alone it was difficult to meet the T&O target of 3 TON and 15 ng/L of MIB or geosmin. The GAC adsorption capacity for DOC in the three GAC systems (F/A, GAC and O3 + GAC) at an EBCT of 14 min is mostly exhausted after 9 months. However, substantial TON removal continued for more than 2 years (>90,000 bed volumes). GAC was found to be effective for T&O control and the main removal mechanisms were adsorption capacity and biodegradation. PMID:17489399

Ahn, H; Chae, S; Kim, S; Wang, C; Summers, R S

2007-01-01

271

Water Quality Improvements with the Use of Ozone at the Los Angeles Water Treatment Plant  

Microsoft Academic Search

At 600 mgd (2,270 ML\\/day), the recently completed Los Angeles Aqueduct Filtration Plant (LAAFP) is one of the world's largest water' treatment facilities utilizing ozone for pretreatment. The treatment process features direct filtration at rates of up to 13.5 gpm\\/ft (33 m\\/h). Under the optimized full-scale operation, preozonation has resulted in significantly reduced THM levels and very low effluent turbidity

Duane L. Georgeson; Ali A. Karimi

1988-01-01

272

Standards and guides of water treatment and water-distribution systems. Volume 2. Manual for 1987-1988  

SciTech Connect

The following 6 important documents are compiled for design of municipal water treatment facilities and water distribution systems: (1) Standards of the Construction of Public Community Water Systems; (2) Community System Design Standards; (3) Bottled Water, Bulk Water Hauling and Vending Machines; (4) Noncommunity System Design Standards; (5) Operation and Maintenance; and (6) Cross-Contamination Control.

Wang, L.K.; Wang, M.H.S.

1988-04-15

273

An Integrated Water Treatment Technology Solution for Sustainable Water Resource Management in the Marcellus Shale  

SciTech Connect

This Final Scientific/ Technical Report submitted with respect to Project DE-FE0000833 titled 'An Integrated Water Treatment Technology Solution for Sustainable Water Resource Management in the Marcellus Shale' in support of final reporting requirements. This final report contains a compilation of previous reports with the most current data in order to produce one final complete document. The goal of this research was to provide an integrated approach aimed at addressing the increasing water resource challenges between natural gas production and other water stakeholders in shale gas basins. The objective was to demonstrate that the AltelaRain{reg_sign} technology could be successfully deployed in the Marcellus Shale Basin to treat frac flow-back water. That objective has been successfully met.

Matthew Bruff; Ned Godshall; Karen Evans

2011-04-30

274

[Organohalogen contamination of a dialysis-water treatment plant].  

PubMed

On March 2001 the regular quality control test of the water used for dialysis in an urban centre using a reverse osmosis system revealed a high level of organo-halogenated contamination. The compounds implicated were: trichloroethylene (trielene) [M.Wt. 131 D], tetrachloroethylene, trichloromethane (chloroform) [M.Wt. 121 D], chlorodibromomethane. The dialysis unit was closed. Water samples were analysed in duplicate. The table shows the values (in ppm or microgram/l) obtained for chloroform at the given times: March 8th, altered sample; March 12th, confirmation sample; March 16th, after osmosis membranes change; March 22nd, after carbon filtration replacement; March 26th, after softener resins substitution. The AAMI doesn't recommend any value for organo-halogenated compounds in dialysis water. In the past, the European Pharmacopoeia and the Italian Health Ministry released some reference values for tap water, values which were extended to water used for dialysis. The values are 1 ppm as reference value, 30 ppm as maximum accepted value for the sum of all organo-halogenated compounds, and 10 ppm as the recommended value. In conclusion, the problem was solved by progressive replacement of the components of the water treatment system, even though the real cause remained undetermined. No clinical symptom was recorded and no level of chloroform or trielene was detected in patients' sera despite the low molecular weight and low protein binding of the compounds. A strict control of the water quality and a more comprehensive and updated reference guide are needed for better and safer dialysis delivery. PMID:12369053

Formica, M; Vallero, A; Forneris, G; Cesano, G; Pozzato, M; Borca, M; Iadarola, G M; Quarello, F

2002-01-01

275

MICROBIOLOGICAL CHANGES IN SOURCE WATER TREATMENT: REFLECTIONS IN DISTRIBUTION WATER QUALITY  

EPA Science Inventory

Microbial quality in the distribution system is a reflection of raw source water characteristics, treatment process configurations and their modifications. ased on case history experiences there may at times be a microbial breakthrough that is caused by fluctuations in raw surfac...

276

Introduction to Chemistry for Water and Wastewater Treatment Plant Operators. Water and Wastewater Training Program.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Presented are basic concepts of chemistry necessary for operators who manage drinking water treatment plants and wastewater facilities. It includes discussions of chemical terms and concepts, laboratory procedures for basic analyses of interest to operators, and discussions of appropriate chemical calculations. Exercises are included and answer…

South Dakota Dept. of Environmental Protection, Pierre.

277

Mathematics for Water and Wastewater Treatment Plant Operators. Water and Wastewater Training Program.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This booklet is intended to aid the prospective waste treatment plant operator or drinking water plant operator in learning to solve mathematical problems, which is necessary for Class I certification. It deals with the basic mathematics which a Class I operator may require in accomplishing day-to-day tasks. The book also progresses into problems…

South Dakota Dept. of Environmental Protection, Pierre.

278

INTERGRATING SOURCE WATER PROTECTION AND DRINKING WATER TREATMENT: U.S. ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY'S WATER SUPPLY AND WATER RESOURCES DIVISION  

EPA Science Inventory

The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's (EPA) Water Supply and Water Resources Division (WSWRD) is an internationally recognized water research organization established to assist in responding to public health concerns related to drinking water supplies. WSWRD has evolved from...

279

INTEGRATING SOURCE WATER PROTECTION AND DRINKING WATER TREATMENT: U.S. ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY'S WATER SUPPLY AND WATER RESOURCES DIVISION  

EPA Science Inventory

The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's (EPA) Water Supply and Water Resources Division (WSWRD) is an internationally recognized water research organization established to assist in responding to public health concerns related to drinking water supplies. WSWRD has evolved from...

280

1. DOMESTIC WATER SUPPLY TREATMENT HOUSE, ON PENSTOCK ABOVE SAR1. ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

1. DOMESTIC WATER SUPPLY TREATMENT HOUSE, ON PENSTOCK ABOVE SAR-1. VIEW TO NORTWEST. - Santa Ana River Hydroelectric System, SAR-1 Domestic Water Supply Treatment House, Redlands, San Bernardino County, CA

281

REGULATIONS ON THE DISPOSAL OF ARSENIC RESIDUALS FROM DRINKING WATER TREATMENT PLANTS  

EPA Science Inventory

This report summarizes federal and selected state regulations that govern the management of residuals produced by small water treatment systems removing arsenic from drinking water. The document focuses on the residuals produced by five treatment processes: anion exchange, activa...

282

Environmental and cost life cycle assessment of disinfection options for municipal drinking water treatment  

EPA Science Inventory

This document summarizes the data collection, analysis, and results for a base case drinking water treatment (DWT) plant reference model and alternative disinfection technologies. The base case is modeled after the Greater Cincinnati Water Works (GCWW) Richard Miller Treatment Pl...

283

Treatment Technology to Meet the Interim Primary Drinking Water Regulations for Inorganics: Part 3.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article is the third in a series summarizing existing treatment technology to meet the inorganic National Interim Primary Drinking Water Regulations. This report deals specifically with treatment methods for removing cadmium, lead, and silver from drinking water. (CS)

Sorg, Thomas J.; And Others

1978-01-01

284

Hollow Fiber Ultrafiltration of Ottawa River Water: Impact of Different Pre-treatment Schemes .  

E-print Network

??To minimize membrane fouling many water treatment plants pre-treat water prior to microfiltration (MF) or ultrafiltration (UF). Coagulation/flocculation/sedimentation is a common form of pre-treatment, but… (more)

Walker, Steven

285

Water treatment plant sludge disposal into stabilization ponds.  

PubMed

Researchers have paid particular attention to the disposal of sludge produced in water treatment plants (WTPs) into wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) for further processing, mainly because it is considered an attractive alternative for the treatment of waste generated in water production processes. This study evaluated the effects of flow equalization and disposal of sludge, from a conventional WTP, into a WWTP system that includes an anaerobic stabilization pond followed by a facultative pond. During the period of sludge discharge from the WTP into the wastewater system, the influent to the WWTP presented an increase of 17% (from 171 to 200 mg L(-1)) of total suspended solids (TSS) and a 7.0% flow rate increase, without showing adverse effects on the organic load, TSS and nutrients removal. The most significant impact observed in the WWTP was the increase of solids accumulation rate in the anaerobic pond, with a value of 141 mm/year during the sludge discharge period. The operating time, before the dredging and desludging cycles required for this specific anaerobic pond, decreased from 12.7 to 10.4 years, which is consistent with previous studies in literature. Thus, based on the observed parameters of this study, it is viable to release solids from a WTP effluent into a WWTP that includes anaerobic stabilization ponds followed by a facultative pond. Indeed, this process scheme becomes a viable technical, environmental, and economical alternative for small to medium WWTPs. PMID:23416593

Filho, Sidney Seckler Ferreira; Piveli, Roque Passos; Cutolo, Silvana Audrá; de Oliveira, Alexandre Alves

2013-01-01

286

Ferrates: greener oxidants with multimodal action in water treatment technologies.  

PubMed

Conspectus One of the biggest challenges for humanity in the 21st century is easy access to purified and potable water. The presence of pathogens and toxins in water causes more than two million deaths annually, mostly among children under the age of five. Identifying and deploying effective and sustainable water treatment technologies is critical to meet the urgent need for clean water globally. Among the various agents used in the purification and treatment of water, iron-based materials have garnered particular attention in view of their special attributes such as their earth-abundant and environmentally friendly nature. In recent years, higher-valent tetraoxy iron(VI) (Fe(VI)O4(2-), Fe(VI)), commonly termed, ferrate, is being explored for a broad portfolio of applications, including a greener oxidant in synthetic organic transformations, a water oxidation catalyst, and an efficient agent for abatement of pollutants in water. The use of Fe(VI) as an oxidant/disinfectant and further utilization of the ensuing iron(III) oxides/hydroxide as coagulants are other additional attributes of ferrate for water treatment. This multimodal action and environmentally benign character of Fe(VI) are key advantages over other commonly used oxidants (e.g., chlorine, chlorine dioxide, permanganate, hydrogen peroxide, and ozone). This Account discusses current state-of-the-art applications of Fe(VI) and the associated unique chemistry of these high-valence states of iron. The main focus centers around the description and salient properties of ferrate species involving various electron transfer and oxygen-atom transfer pathways in terms of presently accepted mechanisms. The mechanisms derive the number of electron equivalents per Fe(VI) (i.e., oxidation capacity) in treating various contaminants. The role of pH in the kinetics of the reactions and in determining the removal efficiency of pollutants is highlighted; the rates of competing reactions of Fe(VI) with itself, water, and the contaminants, which are highly pH dependent, determine the optimum pH range of maximum efficacy. The main emphasis of this account is placed on cases where various modes of ferrate action are utilized, including the treatment of nitrogen- and sulfur-containing waste products, antibiotics, viruses, bacteria, arsenic, and heavy metals. For example, the oxidative degradation of N- and S-bearing contaminants by Fe(VI) yields either Fe(II) or Fe(III) via the intermediacy of Fe(IV) and Fe(V) species, respectively (e.g., Fe(VI) ? Fe(IV) ? Fe(II) and Fe(VI) ? Fe(V) ? Fe(III)). Oxidative transformations of antibiotics such as trimethoprim by Fe(VI) generate products with no residual antibiotic activity. Disinfection and inactivation of bacteria and viruses can easily be achieved by Fe(VI). Advanced applications involve the use of ferrate for the degradation of cyanobacteria and microcystin originating from algal blooms and for covalently embedding arsenic and heavy metals into the structure of formed magnetic iron(III) oxides, therefore preventing their leaching. Applications of state-of-the-art analytical techniques, namely, in situ Mössbauer spectroscopy, rapid-freeze electron paramagnetic resonance, nuclear forward scattering of synchrotron radiation, and mass spectrometry will enhance the mechanistic understanding of ferrate species. This will make it possible to unlock the true potential of ferrates for degrading emerging toxins and pollutants, and in the sustainable production and use of nanomaterials in an energy-conserving environment. PMID:25668700

Sharma, Virender K; Zboril, Radek; Varma, Rajender S

2015-02-17

287

Safety evaluation -- Spent water treatment system components inventory release  

SciTech Connect

Over the past few years various impediments to shipment of generated spent basin water treatment system components have resulted in the accumulation of quantities of these waste items at 100K. Specifically, there are (as of 01/01/95) 13 grout/culvert packaged cartridge filters (CF), four unpackaged cartridge filters, 60 spent ion exchange columns (IXC) and seven ion exchange modules (IXM) at 100K awaiting shipment for final waste disposal. As a result of the accumulation of this waste, the question has arisen regarding the consequences of potential releases of the inventory of radionuclides in these waste items relative to the K Area safety envelope. The purpose of this paper is to address this question. The initial step evaluating the consequences of potential release of material from the spent water treatment system components was to determine the individual and total radionuclide inventories of concern. Generally the radioisotopes of concern to the dose consequences were Sr/Y-90, Cs-137, and the transuranic (TRU) isotopes. The loading of these radioisotopes needed to be determined for each of the components of the total number of accumulated IXCs, IXMs and CFs. This evaluation examines four potential releases of material from the spent water treatment system components. These releases are: the release of material from all 39 IXCs stored in 183-KW; the release of material from the IXCs, IXMs and CFs at 105-KE and 105-KW; the release of material from the 13 CFs stored behind 105-KE; and the non-mechanistic release of the total stored waste inventory.

Dodd, E.N. Jr.

1995-01-24

288

Enhanced performance of crumb rubber filtration for ballast water treatment.  

PubMed

Waste-tire-derived crumb rubber was utilized as filter media to develop an efficient filter for ballast water treatment. In this study, the effects of coagulation, pressure filtration and dual-media (gravity) filtration on the performance of the crumb rubber filtration were investigated. The removal efficiencies of turbidity, phytoplankton and zooplankton, and head loss development were monitored during the filtration process. The addition of a coagulant enhanced the removal efficiencies of all targeted matter, but resulted in substantial increase of head loss. Pressure filtration increased filtration rates to 220 m(3)h(-1)m(-2) for 8-h operation and improved the zooplankton removal. Dual-media (crumb rubber/sand) gravity filtration also improved the removal efficiencies of phytoplankton and zooplankton over mono-media gravity crumb rubber filtration. However, these filtration techniques alone did not meet the criteria for removing indigenous organisms from ballast water. A combination of filtration and disinfection is suggested for future studies. PMID:19117590

Tang, Zhijian; Butkus, Michael A; Xie, Yuefeng F

2009-03-01

289

A mathematical programming model for water usage and treatment network design  

Microsoft Academic Search

A mathematical programming model is proposed in this paper for determining the optimal water usage and treatment network (WUTN) in any chemical plant, which features the least amount of fresh water consumption and\\/or minimum wastewater treatment capacity. In particular, because design equations of all wastewater treatment facilities and all units which utilize either process or utility water are included in

Ching-Huei Huang; Chuei-Tin Chang; Han-Chern Ling; C. C. Chang

1999-01-01

290

September 3, 1999 Characterization of Arsenic Occurrence in US Drinking Water Treatment  

E-print Network

September 3, 1999 Characterization of Arsenic Occurrence in US Drinking Water Treatment Facility in treatment facility finished water may not be low enough to adequately reduce exposure to the carcinogen occurrence in raw water and the costs and removal efficiencies of various treatment options. J.R. Lockwood

291

Treatment of Methyl tert-Butyl Ether Contaminated Water Using a Dense  

E-print Network

Treatment of Methyl tert-Butyl Ether Contaminated Water Using a Dense Medium Plasma Reactor 53706 Plasma treatment of contaminated water appears to be a promising alternative for the oxidation. The oxidation products from the treatment of MTBE-contaminated water in the DMP reactor were found

Dandy, David

292

[Performance of treatment wetland systems for surface water quality improvement].  

PubMed

Intercropped with Phragmites communis and Typha angustifolia, subsurface flow constructed wetland systems (CWs) with the surface area of 3 x 20m x 2m were established beside Guanting Reservoir, an important source water base of Beijing. The treatment performance of the systems with different season were studied, the impacts of influent concentration, hydraulic loading rate and water temperature on contaminations removal were analyzed. The result showed that the subsurface flow CWs had the better decontamination effect to micro-pollution surface water. The relationship between the concentrations of CODMn and NH4+ -N in inflow and outflow followed the linear equation. The removal rates of total nitrogen (TN) and total phosphorus (TP) in the systems were 20%-60% and 30%-45%, respectively. The removal rates of contaminations were reduced with the decrease of water temperature and the increase of hydraulic loading rate, the removal rates of CODMn, N4+ -N and TN showed the positive correlation with their inflow concentration, but the removal rate of TP showed the negative correlation with its inflow concentration. Operation and management considerations of the subsurface flow CWs in winter were investigated in this study. PMID:15515938

Liu, Hong; Dai, Ming-li; Liu, Xue-yan; Ouyang, Wei; Liu, Pei-bin

2004-07-01

293

Characterization and treatment of the phosphoric gypsum transport water.  

PubMed

This paper presents a new treatment procedure applied on phosphogypsum transport water. Untreated transport water is highly acidic (pH 1.79), having fluoride content of 1540 mg/L and elevated values of phosphates (215 mg/L) and heavy metals (Fe=25.8 mg/L; Zn=5.7 mg/L; Mn=2.7 mg/L, V=1.7 mg/L). Neutralization/purification of the transport water was carried out with wood fly ash, otherwise a rich source of calcium, composed of calcite, dipotassium calcium carbonate and hydroxylapatite. Maximum removal efficiency of fluoride was observed at pH 7 (99.99%) and phosphate at pH 9 (96.29%). The removal of fluorides was a consequence of the formation of fluorite and fluorapatite mineral phases derived from the reaction of calcium (released from the fly ash minerals) and fluorides (from the transport water). The removal of phosphates resulted from the formation of fluorapathite and hydroxilapatite. At the optimum conditions removal efficiencies for the elements Pb, V, Cr(VI), Mn, Fe, Ni, Cu, and Zn were 95%, 98.14%, 91.11%, 100%, 99.71%, 96.33%, 97.24%, and 99.65%, respectively. Optimal heavy metal removal occurred in major cases at pH 7. PMID:19412850

Orescanin, Visnja; Mikelic, Luka; Tomasic, Nenad; Medunic, Gordana; Kampic, Stefica; Mikulic, Nenad; Rubcic, Mirta; Lulic, Stipe; Harambasic, Matija

2009-06-01

294

Treatment of nitrate contaminated water using an electrochemical method  

Microsoft Academic Search

Treatment of nitrate contaminated water which is unsuitable for biological removal using an electrochemical method with Fe as a cathode and Ti\\/IrO2–Pt as an anode in an undivided cell was studied. In the absence and presence of 0.50g\\/L NaCl, the nitrate–N decreased from 100.0 to 7.2 and 12.9mg\\/L in 180min, respectively, and no ammonia and nitrite by-products were detected in

Miao Li; Chuanping Feng; Zhenya Zhang; Shengjiong Yang; Norio Sugiura

2010-01-01

295

Effect of drinking water treatment process parameters on biological removal of manganese from surface water.  

PubMed

Soluble manganese (Mn) presents a significant treatment challenge to many water utilities, causing aesthetic and operational concerns. While application of free chlorine to oxidize Mn prior to filtration can be effective, this is not feasible for surface water treatment plants using ozonation followed by biofiltration because it inhibits biological removal of organics. Manganese-oxidizing bacteria (MOB) readily oxidize Mn in groundwater treatment applications, which normally involve pH > 7.0. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the potential for biological Mn removal at the lower pH conditions (6.2-6.3) often employed in enhanced coagulation to optimize organics removal. Four laboratory-scale biofilters were operated over a pH range of 6.3-7.3. The biofilters were able to oxidize Mn at a pH as low as pH 6.3 with greater than 98% Mn removal. Removal of simulated organic ozonation by-products was also greater than 90% in all columns. Stress studies indicated that well-acclimated MOB can withstand variations in Mn concentration (e.g., 0.1-0.2 mg/L), hydraulic loading rate (e.g., 2-4 gpm/ft(2); 1.36 × 10(-3)-2.72 × 10(-3) m/s), and temperature (e.g., 7-22 °C) typically found at surface water treatment plants at least for relatively short (1-2 days) periods of time. PMID:25181615

Hoyland, Victoria W; Knocke, William R; Falkinham, Joseph O; Pruden, Amy; Singh, Gargi

2014-12-01

296

Optofluidic planar reactors for photocatalytic water treatment using solar energy  

PubMed Central

Optofluidics may hold the key to greater success of photocatalytic water treatment. This is evidenced by our findings in this paper that the planar microfluidic reactor can overcome the limitations of mass transfer and photon transfer in the previous photocatalytic reactors and improve the photoreaction efficiency by more than 100 times. The microreactor has a planar chamber (5 cm×1.8 cm×100 ?m) enclosed by two TiO2-coated glass slides as the top cover and bottom substrate and a microstructured UV-cured NOA81 layer as the sealant and flow input?output. In experiment, the microreactor achieves 30% degradation of 3 ml 3×10?5M methylene blue within 5 min and shows a reaction rate constant two orders higher than the bulk reactor. Under optimized conditions, a reaction rate of 8% s?1 is achieved under solar irradiation. The average apparent quantum efficiency is found to be only 0.25%, but the effective apparent quantum efficiency reaches as high as 25%. Optofluidic reactors inherit the merits of microfluidics, such as large surface?volume ratio, easy flow control, and rapid fabrication and offer a promising prospect for large-volume photocatalytic water treatment. PMID:21267436

Lei, Lei; Wang, Ning; Zhang, X. M.; Tai, Qidong; Tsai, Din Ping; Chan, Helen L. W.

2010-01-01

297

Copper corrosion in potable water systems: Impacts of natural organic matter and water treatment processes  

SciTech Connect

Copper corrosion was examined in the presence of natural organic matter (NOM) and in situations where NOM was altered by drinking water treatment. Corrosion rates (i{sub corr}) increased with higher NOM concentration at pH 6, whereas insignificant effects were observed at pH 7.5 and 9.0. Corrosion byproduct release was affected adversely by 4 mg/L NOM at pH 6.0, 7.5 and 9.0, with soluble copper increasing by 0.6 mg/L to 0.7 mg/L when compared to solutions without NOM. Alum-coagulated waters had higher i{sub corr} than untreated waters, but ferric chloride (FeCl{sub 3}{center_dot}6H{sub 2}O)-coagulated waters exhibited reduced i{sub corr}. This difference was attributed to the relative effects of added sulfate via alum coagulation vs added chloride via FeCl{sub 3}{center_dot}6H{sub 2}O coagulation. The effect of combined treatment (alum coagulation, ozonation, and granular activated carbon) was similar to that using alum coagulation alone.

Rehring, J.P. [Camp, Dresser, McKee Inc., Denver, CO (United States); Edwards, M. [Univ. of Colorado, Boulder, CO (United States). Dept. of Civil, Environmental, and Architectural Engineering

1996-04-01

298

www.barrandwray.com Barr + Wray 2013 The Treatment of Scottish Water  

E-print Network

+ Wray 2013 Water Source. Surface Water e.g. Stream, Loch or River. Ground Water e.g. Borehole, Well upstream if Fe levels Ground Water Supply #12;www.barrandwray.com © Barrwww.barrandwray.com © Barr + Wray 2013 The Treatment of Scottish Water for Private Communities

Painter, Kevin

299

FERRATES: SYNTHESIS, PROPERTIES AND APPLICATIONS IN WATER AND WASTEWATER TREATMENT.  

SciTech Connect

The higher oxidation states of iron (Fe(VI) and Fe(V) in particular) have been shown to be strongly oxidizing in enzymatic systems, where they can carry out aliphatic hydrogen abstraction. In addition, they have been postulated as intermediates in Fenton-type systems. Fe(VI) itself is relatively stable and has been shown to have potential as an oxidant in the so-called ''green'' treatment of polluted waters. By contrast, Fe(V) is a relatively short-lived transient when produced in aqueous solution in the absence of strongly bonding ligands other than hydroxide, a feature that has limited studies of its reactivity. Fe(VI) has been proposed to be useful in battery design and a very interesting study suggested that ferrate may be able to oxidize insoluble chromium to chromate and thus serve to remove chromium contamination in the Hanford radioactive waste tanks.

CABELLI, D.E.; SHARMA, V.K.

2006-05-19

300

Filtration of slime suspension in water-treatment precipitation clarifiers  

SciTech Connect

When water is treated in industrial clarifiers a slime suspension is produced that has a pH 11-12.5 and contains up to 5% solid phase. In order to utilize the excess alkalinity of the suspension and save fresh lime milk, the suspension is used to neutralize the acidic regenerates past the cation-exchanger columns. The operation of the vacuum filter is a narrow part of the wastewater treatment area. The filter cloth often gets choked, the sediment being sticky and difficult to remove from the cloth. We proposed to alter the mode of removal of the slime suspension by submitting it to filtration immediately after its exit from the clarifier. For mixing with the acidic regeneration from the cation-exchanger columns the filtrate was delivered after the vacuum filter.

Trofimenko, M.A.; Tyagnyryadno, L.A.; Korol'kov, N.M.; Zheleznyak, A.B.

1988-02-10

301

CHANGES IN THE MICROBIOLOGICAL WATER QUALITY ASSOCIATED WITH USING GRANULAR ACTIVATED CARBON IN DRINKING WATER TREATMENT PROCESSES  

Microsoft Academic Search

Granular activated carbon (GAC) is widely used in drinking water treatment for removal of organic compounds, primarily taste, odor, turbidity and the by-products formed during disinfection process. The possibility of replacement the rapid sand filter in the conventional treatment process by activated carbon filter was considered and the effect on microbiological quality of water produced was studied. The study was

Helmy T. El-Zanfaly; A. H. Mostafa; M. H. Mostafa

302

Impact of backwashing on nitrification in the biological activated carbon filters used in drinking water treatment  

Microsoft Academic Search

Nitrification during biological filtration is currently used in drinking water production to remove ammonia, which is the source of several water quality problems during treatment and distribution. We evaluated here the impact of backwashing on nitrification efficiency in filters used for drinking water treatment. Two different granular activated carbon (one open and one closed carbon superstructure) were tested. Ammonia removal

P. Laurent; A. Kihn; A. Andersson; P. Servais

2003-01-01

303

Development of a Water Treatment Plant Operation Manual Using an Algorithmic Approach.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This document describes the steps to be followed in the development of a prescription manual for training of water treatment plant operators. Suggestions on how to prepare both flow and narrative prescriptions are provided for a variety of water treatment systems, including: raw water, flocculation, rapid sand filter, caustic soda feed, alum feed,…

Counts, Cary A.

304

AN INVESTIGATION OF ARSENIC MOBILITY FROM IRON OXIDE SOLIDS PRODUCED DURING DRINKING WATER TREATMENT  

EPA Science Inventory

The Arsenic Rule under the Safe Drinking Water Act will require certain drinking water suppliers to add to or modify their existing treatment in order to comply with the regulations. One of the treatment options is iron co-precipitation. This treatment is attractive because ars...

305

Clean water recycle in sugar extraction process: Performance analysis of reverse osmosis in the treatment of sugar beet press water  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the beet sugar manufacturing the treatment of the press water represents a challenging design task. In fact presently, press water is completely recycled to the extraction of sugar beet cossettes. Press water is essentially a dilute solution (1–3% total solids) containing, besides sugar (60–80% of the total solids), impurities in the form of dissolved species, salts, colloids, and suspended

M. Bogliolo; A. Bottino; G. Capannelli; M. De Petro; A. Servida; G. Pezzi; G. Vallini

1997-01-01

306

Relationship between use of water from community-scale water treatment refill kiosks and childhood diarrhea in Jakarta.  

PubMed

In developing countries, safe piped drinking water is generally unavailable, and bottled water is unaffordable for most people. Purchasing drinking water from community-scale decentralized water treatment and refill kiosks (referred to as isi ulang depots in Indonesia) is becoming a common alternative. This study investigates the association between diarrhea risk and community-scale water treatment and refill kiosk. We monitored daily diarrhea status and water source for 1,000 children 1-4 years of age in Jakarta, Indonesia, for up to 5 months. Among children in an urban slum, rate of diarrhea/1,000 child-days varied significantly by primary water source: 8.13 for tap water, 3.60 for bottled water, and 3.97 for water kiosks. In multivariable Poisson regression analysis, diarrhea risk remained significantly lower among water kiosk users (adjusted rate ratio [RR] = 0.49, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 0.29-0.83) and bottled water users (adjusted RR = 0.45, 95% CI = 0.21-0.97), compared with tap water users. In a peri-urban area, where few people purchased from water kiosk (N = 28, 6% of total population), diarrhea rates were lower overall: 2.44 for well water, 1.90 for bottled water, and 2.54 for water kiosks. There were no significant differences in diarrhea risk for water kiosk users or bottled water users compared with well water users. Purchasing water from low-cost water kiosks is associated with a reduction in diarrhea risk similar to that found for bottled water. PMID:23128290

Sima, Laura C; Desai, Mayur M; McCarty, Kathleen M; Elimelech, Menachem

2012-12-01

307

Relationship between Use of Water from Community-Scale Water Treatment Refill Kiosks and Childhood Diarrhea in Jakarta  

PubMed Central

In developing countries, safe piped drinking water is generally unavailable, and bottled water is unaffordable for most people. Purchasing drinking water from community-scale decentralized water treatment and refill kiosks (referred to as isi ulang depots in Indonesia) is becoming a common alternative. This study investigates the association between diarrhea risk and community-scale water treatment and refill kiosk. We monitored daily diarrhea status and water source for 1,000 children 1–4 years of age in Jakarta, Indonesia, for up to 5 months. Among children in an urban slum, rate of diarrhea/1,000 child-days varied significantly by primary water source: 8.13 for tap water, 3.60 for bottled water, and 3.97 for water kiosks. In multivariable Poisson regression analysis, diarrhea risk remained significantly lower among water kiosk users (adjusted rate ratio [RR] = 0.49, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 0.29–0.83) and bottled water users (adjusted RR = 0.45, 95% CI = 0.21–0.97), compared with tap water users. In a peri-urban area, where few people purchased from water kiosk (N = 28, 6% of total population), diarrhea rates were lower overall: 2.44 for well water, 1.90 for bottled water, and 2.54 for water kiosks. There were no significant differences in diarrhea risk for water kiosk users or bottled water users compared with well water users. Purchasing water from low-cost water kiosks is associated with a reduction in diarrhea risk similar to that found for bottled water. PMID:23128290

Sima, Laura C.; Desai, Mayur M.; McCarty, Kathleen M.; Elimelech, Menachem

2012-01-01

308

Comparative analysis of effluent water quality from a municipal treatment plant and two on-site wastewater treatment systems.  

PubMed

Though decentralized on-site technologies are extensively employed for wastewater treatment around the globe, an understanding of effluent water quality impairments associated with these systems remain less understood than effluent discharges from centralized municipal wastewater treatment facilities. Using a unique experimental facility, a novel comparative analysis of effluent water quality was performed from model decentralized aerobic (ATS) and septic (STS) on-site wastewater treatment systems and a centralized municipal wastewater treatment plant (MTP). The ATS and STS units did not benefit from further soil treatment. Each system received common influent wastewater from the Waco, Texas, USA Metropolitan Area Regional Sewerage System. We tested the hypothesis that MTP effluent would exhibit higher water quality than on-site effluents, based on parameters selected for study. A tiered testing approach was employed to assess the three effluent discharges: select routine water quality parameters (Tier I), whole effluent toxicity (Tier II), and select endocrine-active compounds (Tier III). Contrary to our hypothesis, ATS effluent was not statistically different from MTP effluents, based on Tier I and III parameters, but reproductive responses of Daphnia magna were slightly more sensitive to ATS than MTP effluents. STS effluent water quality was identified as most degraded of the three wastewater treatment systems. Parameters used to assess centralized wastewater treatment plant effluent water quality such as whole effluent toxicity and endocrine active substances appear useful for water quality assessments of decentralized discharges. Aerobic on-site wastewater treatment systems may represent more robust options than traditional septic systems for on-site wastewater treatment in watersheds with appreciable groundwater - surface water exchange. PMID:23557723

Garcia, Santos N; Clubbs, Rebekah L; Stanley, Jacob K; Scheffe, Brian; Yelderman, Joe C; Brooks, Bryan W

2013-06-01

309

Coxiella burnetii in sewage water at sewage water treatment plants in a Q fever epidemic area.  

PubMed

During 2007-2010, over 4000 persons in The Netherlands contracted Q-fever, a zoonosis caused by the bacterium Coxiella burnetii. Goats and sheep are the main reservoir of C. burnetti and infected animals shed the bacterium with their urine, faeces and birth products. Human infections may occur through direct contact with infected animals, or through inhalation of contaminated dust particles or aerosols. Discharge of waste water from Q fever contaminated goat farms may result in the presence of C. burnetii in sewage water and aerosols at sewage water treatment plants (SWTPs) which may pose a health risk for workers or neighbouring residents. The objectives of this study were to determine the presence of C. burnetii at SWTPs and to optimize available detection methods. In March-July 2011, sewage influent and aeration tank samples from four SWTPs receiving discharge from Q fever positive goat farms were examined by using a multiplex real-time PCR detecting C. burnetii DNA by targeting IS1111 and com1 genes. Influent (44%; n=16/36) and active sludge (36%; n=13/36) samples were positive with low C. burnetii DNA content. Percentage positive samples per SWTP were 28-61%. Positive samples were most frequent in March 2011 and least frequent in May 2011. The presence of C. burnetii DNA in sewage water samples suggests that SWTPs receiving waste water from Q fever contaminated goat farms may contribute to the spread of C. burnetii to the environment. The low levels of C. burnetii DNA in sewage water during the decline of the Q fever outbreak in The Netherlands in 2011 indicate a low health risk for SWTP workers and residents. PMID:23347968

Schets, F M; de Heer, L; de Roda Husman, A M

2013-11-01

310

Evaluation of Effectiveness Technological Process of Water Purification Exemplified on Modernized Water Treatment Plant at Otoczna  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The article presents the work of the Water Treatment Plant in the town of Otoczna, located in the Wielkopolska province, before and after the modernization of the technological line. It includes the quality characteristics of the raw water and treated water with particular emphasis on changes in the quality indicators in the period 2002 -2012 in relation to the physicochemical parameters: the content of total iron and total manganese, the ammonium ion as well as organoleptic parameters(colour and turbidity). The efficiency of technological processes was analysed, including the processes of bed start up with chalcedonic sand to remove total iron and manganese and ammonium ion. Based on the survey, it was found that the applied modernization helped solve the problem of water quality, especially the removal of excessive concentrations of iron, manganese and ammonium nitrogen from groundwater. It has been shown that one year after modernization of the technological line there was a high reduction degree of most parameters, respectively for the general iron content -99%, general manganese - 93% ammonia - 93%, turbidity - 94%. It has been proved, that chalcedonic turned out to be better filter material than quartz sand previously used till 2008. The studies have confirmed that the stage of modernization was soon followed by bed start-up for removing general iron from the groundwater. The stage of manganese removal required more time, about eight months for bed start-up. Furthermore, the technological modernization contributed to the improvement of the efficiency of the nitrification process.

Jordanowska, Joanna; Jakubus, Monika

2014-12-01

311

TREATMENT OF DRINKING WATER CONTAINING TRICHLOROETHYLENE AND RELATED INDUSTRIAL SOLVENTS  

EPA Science Inventory

Volatile chlorinated and non-chlorinated compounds occur in both untreated and treated drinking water. Because volatilization is restricted, ground waters rather than surface waters are more likely to have high concentrations of these compounds. This document reviews properties, ...

312

TREATMENT OF VOLATILE ORGANIC COMPOUNDS IN DRINKING WATER  

EPA Science Inventory

Volatile chlorinated and non-chlorinated compounds occur in both untreated and treated drinking water. Because volatilization is restricted, ground waters rather than surface waters are more likely to have high concentrations of these compounds. This document reviews properties, ...

313

MODIFIED REVERSE OSMOSIS SYSTEM FOR TREATMENT OF PRODUCED WATERS  

SciTech Connect

This report describes work performed during the first year of the project ''Modified Reverse Osmosis System for Treatment of Produced Waters.'' This research project has two objectives. The first objective is to test the use of clay membranes in the treatment of produced waters by reverse osmosis. The second objective is to test the ability of a system patented by the New Mexico Tech Research Foundation to remove salts from reverse osmosis waste streams as a solid. We performed 12 experiments using clay membranes in cross-flow experimental cells. We found that, due to dispersion in the porous frit used adjacent to the membrane, the concentration polarization layer seems to be completely (or nearly completely) destroyed at low flow rates. This observation suggests that clay membranes used with porous frit material many reach optimum rejection rates at lower pumping rates than required for use with synthetic membranes. The solute rejection efficiency decreases with increasing solution concentration. For the membranes and experiments reported here, the rejection efficiency ranged from 71% with 0.01 M NaCl solution down to 12% with 2.3 M NaCl solution. More compacted clay membranes will have higher rejection capabilities. The clay membranes used in our experiments were relatively thick (approximately 0.5 mm). The active layer of most synthetic membranes is only 0.04 {micro}m (0.00004 mm), approximately 1250 times thinner than the clay membranes used in these experiments. Yet clay membranes as thin as 12 {micro}m have been constructed (Fritz and Eady, 1985). Since Darcy's law states that the flow through a material of constant permeability is inversely proportional to it's the material's thickness, then, based on these experimental observations, a very thin clay membrane would be expected to have much higher flow rates than the ones used in these experiments. Future experiments will focus on testing very thin clay membranes. The membranes generally exhibited reasonable stable rejection rates over time for chloride for a range of concentrations between 0.01 and 2.5 M. One membrane ran in excess of three months with no apparent loss of usability. This suggests that clay membranes may have a long useable life. Twenty different hyperfiltration-induced solute precipitation experiments were either attempted or completed and are reported here. The results of these experiments suggest that hyperfiltration-induced solute precipitation is possible, even for very soluble substances such as NaCl. However, the precipitation rates obtained in the laboratory do not appear to be adequate for commercial application at this time. Future experiments will focus on making the clay membranes more compact and thinner in order to obtain higher flux rates. Two alternative methods of removing solutes from solution, for which the New Mexico Tech Research Foundation is preparing patent applications, are also being investigated. These methods will be described in the next annual report after the patent applications are filed. Technology transfer efforts included two meetings (one in Farmington NM, and one in Hobbs, NM) where the results of this research were presented to independent oil producers and other interested parties. In addition, members of the research team gave seven presentations concerning this research and because of this research project T. M. (Mike) Whitworth was asked to sit on the advisory board for development of a new water treatment facility for the City of El Paso, Texas. Several papers are in preparation for submission to peer-reviewed journals based on the data presented in this report.

T.M. Whitworth; Liangxiong Li

2002-09-15

314

TREATMENT TECHNOLOGY TO MEET THE INTERIM PRIMARY DRINKING WATER REGULATIONS FOR INORGANICS: PART 5  

EPA Science Inventory

The fifth in a series summarizing existing treatment technology to meet the inorganic National Interim Primary Drinking Water Regulations, this report describes current methods for removing barium and radionuclides from drinking water....

315

The electrochemistry of chlorophenols and its implications for waste water treatment  

SciTech Connect

Chlorophenols end up in waste water and consequently in soils and ground water. This paper describes electrochemical approaches to the waste treatment of pentachlorophenol containing wastes and the efficiency of the process.

Gattrell, M.; MacDougall, B. [NRC, Ontario (Canada)

1996-12-31

316

Determining the removal effectiveness of flame retardants from drinking water treatment processes  

E-print Network

Low concentrations of xenobiotic chemicals have recently become a concern in the surface water environment. The concern expands to drinking water treatment processes, and whether or not they remove these chemicals while ...

Lin, Joseph C. (Joseph Chris), 1981-

2004-01-01

317

Household water treatment and safe storage options for Northern Region Ghana : consumer preference and relative cost  

E-print Network

A range of household water treatment and safe storage (HWTS) products are available in Northern Region Ghana which have the potential to significantly improve local drinking water quality. However, to date, the region has ...

Green, Vanessa (Vanessa Layton)

2008-01-01

318

NONPHOTOSYNTHETIC PIGMENTED BACTERIA IN A POTABLE WATER TREATMENT AND DISTRIBUTION SYSTEM  

EPA Science Inventory

The occurrence of pigmented bacteria in potable water from raw source water through treatment to distribution water, including dead-end locations, was compared at sample sites in a large municipal water system. edia used to enumerate heterotrophic bacteria and differentiate pigme...

319

Electrocoagulation–electroflotation as a surface water treatment for industrial uses  

Microsoft Academic Search

Water is a natural product that is needed in many industrial uses, but some processes like washing or cooling do not require drinking water. In this work we investigated the efficiency of an electrolytic treatment of surface waters in order to increase their quality. The waters were taken from a river and in a pond and they were treated by

Catherine Ricordel; André Darchen; Dimiter Hadjiev

2010-01-01

320

DEVELOPMENT OF GIARDIA C.T VALUES FOR THE SURFACE WATER TREATMENT RULE  

EPA Science Inventory

As a consequence of the 1986 Amendments to the Safe Drinking Water Act (SDWA) the U.S. EPA has issued a Surface Water Treatment Rule (SWTR) for systems using surface and ground waters under the direct influence of surface water. n the Guidance Manual of the SWTR, the EPA recommen...

321

Innovative Disinfection Processes Including Membrane Technology and Ultraviolet Light for Treatment of Reclaimed Water for Indirect Potable Reuse  

Microsoft Academic Search

Advanced water treatment technology exists which can provide a continuous supply of pure water from reclaimed water sources. Membrane technology in the form of microfiltration (MF), ultrafiltration (UF), nanofiltration (NF) and\\/or reverse osmosis (RO) has become an increasingly affordable alternative when compared to conventional water treatment processes to achieve the same water quality objectives. A treatment train, which utilizes membrane

Sharon Beverly; George Lukasik; William J. Conlon; David MacIntyre

322

Use of a resource-saving technology in water treatment systems  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We present the results obtained from laboratory research works on studying the treatment of natural water by subjecting it to diaphragm electrolysis with addition of carbon dioxide into source water to achieve a higher degree of its softening and reduce the time for which water must dwell in the electrolyzer. The basic technological scheme of an industrial water treatment plant is proposed, and the economic effect from using it is calculated.

Demidova, Yu. M.; Shinkevich, E. O.; Laptev, A. G.

2010-08-01

323

76 FR 71560 - Notice of a Public Meeting on Long Term 2 Enhanced Surface Water Treatment Rule: Initiate...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Notice of a Public Meeting on Long Term 2 Enhanced Surface Water Treatment...water monitoring data from the Long Term 2 Enhanced Surface Water Treatment...meeting, EPA will present its evaluation of the LT2 rule...

2011-11-18

324

Treatment of pulp mill sludges by supercritical water oxidation  

SciTech Connect

Supercritical water oxidation (SCWO) is new process that can oxidize organics very effectively at moderate temperatures (400 to 650{degree}C) and high pressure (3700 psi). It is an environmentally acceptable alternative for sludge treatment. In bench scale tests, total organic carbon (TOC) and total organic halide (TOX) reductions of 99 to 99.9% were obtained; dioxin reductions were 95 to 99.9%. A conceptual design for commercial systems has been completed and preliminary economics have been estimated. Comparisons confirm that SCWO is less costly than dewatering plus incineration for treating pulp mill sludges. SCWO can also compete effectively with dewatering plus landfilling where tipping fees exceed $35/yd{sup 3}. In some regions of the US, tipping fees are now $75/yd{sup 3} and rising steadily. In the 1995 to 2000 time frame, SCWO has a good chance of becoming the method of choice. MODEC's objective is to bring the technology to commercial availability by 1993. 10 refs., 6 figs., 19 tabs.

Modell, M.

1990-07-01

325

Treatment of surface water with Moringa Oleifera seed extract and alum – a comparative study using a pilot scale water treatment plant  

Microsoft Academic Search

The present study involved the use of a pilot scale water treatment plant to treat turbid surface water from a stream using processed Moringa oleifera seed and alum as primary coagulants. At low initial turbidity of 21.5 to 49.3 NTU, residual turbidities of 2.7, 1.8 and 1.4 NTU were achieved after treatment using Moringa oleifera, alum, and alum with Moringa

Suleyman Muyibi; Akif Alfugara

2003-01-01

326

Investigation of early water breakthrough and the likely effectiveness of water shut-off treatments in heterogeneous carbonate reservoirs  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Progressive percentage of total fluid produced in the oil industry is formation brine. Ever, increasing water cut will reduce oil recovery, diminish wells' productivity and increase cost of eventual artificial lift and produced water handling. This study investigates the problem of early water development in layered and heterogeneous reservoirs and determines the effect of various reservoir parameters on the development of water front movement in the presence of thief zones. A water injection in a line-staggered pattern was simulated to analyze these effects on the water breakthrough time, WBTT, and the evolution of water front in the thief zone. To achieve this, sensitivity analysis is conducted to investigate and determine the effect of some reservoir parameters that would explain the experience of having unpredicted advancement of injected water resulting in early water breakthrough and high water cut wells. These reservoir parameters included layers' horizontal permeability, Kv/Kh ratio, thickness of high permeability layers, water gravity effect, oil API gravity effect, and injection/production rate ratio (or IPR). Threshold of these parameters beyond which its effect would be constant is also determined to help operators to better estimate the water breakthrough time and hence better decision making process in waterflooding projects. Moreover, water shut-off, WSO, treatments are simulated to determine their effectiveness in delaying the water breakthrough time, and reducing water cut percentages for maximum possible time, under different thief zones' conditions. Extreme thief zone cases are selected from the first part of the study for this purpose. Also, the optimum WSO treatment thickness is identified at which a maximum delay in time is achieved which yields to best treatment practices in the fields. Finally, this study summarizes the applicability of these WSO treatment methods, and it identifies the level of effectiveness based on specific given petrophysical data that are presented as dimensionless variables to be able to generalize the predictions.

Alblooshi, Younes

327

MODIFIED REVERSE OSMOSIS SYSTEM FOR TREATMENT OF PRODUCED WATERS  

SciTech Connect

This report describes work performed during the second year of the project ''Modified reverse osmosis system for treatment of produced waters.'' We performed two series of reverse osmosis experiments using very thin bentonite clay membranes compacted to differing degrees. The first series of 10 experiments used NaCl solutions with membranes that ranged between 0.041 and 0.064mm in thickness. Our results showed compaction of such ultra-thin clay membranes to be problematic. The thickness of the membranes was exceeded by the dimensional variation in the machined experimental cell and this is believed to have resulted in local bypassing of the membrane with a resultant decrease in solute rejection efficiency. In two of the experiments, permeate flow was varied as a percentage of the total flow to investigate results of changing permeate flow on solute rejection. In one experiment, the permeate flow was varied between 2.4 and 10.3% of the total flow with no change in solute rejection. In another experiment, the permeate flow was varied between 24.6 and 52.5% of the total flow. In this experiment, the solute rejection rate decreased as the permeate occupied greater fractions of the total flow. This suggests a maximum solute rejection efficiency for these clay membranes for a permeate flow of between 10.3 and 24.6% of the total; flow. Solute rejection was found to decrease with increasing salt concentration and ranged between 62.9% and 19.7% for chloride and between 61.5 and 16.8% for sodium. Due to problems with the compaction procedure and potential membrane bypassing, these rejection rates are probably not the upper limit for NaCl rejection by bentonite membranes. The second series of four reverse osmosis experiments was conducted with a 0.057mm-thick bentonite membrane and dilutions of a produced water sample with an original TDS of 196,250 mg/l obtained from a facility near Loco Hill, New Mexico, operated by an independent. These experiments tested the separation efficiency of the bentonite membrane for each of the dilutions. We found that membrane efficiency decreased with increasing solute concentration and with increasing TDS. The rejection of SO{sub 4}{sup 2-} was greater than Cl{sup -}. This may be because the SO{sub 4}{sup 2-} concentration was much lower than the Cl{sup -} concentration in the waters tested. The cation rejection sequence varied with solute concentration and TDS. The solute rejection sequence for multi-component solutions is difficult to predict for synthetic membranes; it may not be simple for clay membranes either. The permeate flows in our experiments were 4.1 to 5.4% of the total flow. This suggests that very thin clay membranes may be useful for some separations. Work on development of a spiral-wound clay membrane module found that it is difficult to maintain compaction of the membrane if the membrane is rolled and then inserted in the outer tube. A different design was tried using a cylindrical clay membrane and this also proved difficult to assemble with adequate membrane compaction. The next step is to form the membrane in place using hydraulic pressure on a thin slurry of clay in either water or a nonpolar organic solvent such as ethanol. Technology transfer efforts included four manuscripts submitted to peer-reviewed journals, two abstracts, and chairing a session on clays as membranes at the Clay Minerals Society annual meeting.

T.M. Whitworth; Liangxiong Li

2002-09-15

328

Occurrence and elimination of cyanobacterial toxins in drinking water treatment plants  

SciTech Connect

Toxin-producing cyanobacteria (blue-green algae) are abundant in surface waters used as drinking water resources. The toxicity of one group of these toxins, the microcystins, and their presence in surface waters used for drinking water production has prompted the World Health Organization (WHO) to publish a provisional guideline value of 1.0 {mu}g microcystin (MC)-LR/l drinking water. To verify the efficiency of two different water treatment systems with respect to reduction of cyanobacterial toxins, the concentrations of MC in water samples from surface waters and their associated water treatment plants in Switzerland and Germany were investigated. Toxin concentrations in samples from drinking water treatment plants ranged from below 1.0 {mu}g MC-LR equiv./l to more than 8.0 {mu}g/l in raw water and were distinctly below 1.0 {mu}g/l after treatment. In addition, data to the worldwide occurrence of cyanobacteria in raw and final water of water works and the corresponding guidelines for cyanobacterial toxins in drinking water worldwide are summarized.

Hoeger, Stefan J.; Hitzfeld, Bettina C.; Dietrich, Daniel R

2005-03-15

329

ETV REPORT: REMOVAL OF CHEMICAL CONTAMINANTS IN DRINKING WATER ? PALL/KINETICO PUREFECTA DRINKING WATER TREATMENT SYSTEM  

EPA Science Inventory

The Pall/Kinetico Purefecta? POU drinking water treatment system was tested for removal of aldicarb, benzene, cadmium, carbofuran, cesium, chloroform, dichlorvos, dicrotophos, fenamiphos, mercury, mevinphos, oxamyl, strontium, and strychnine. The Purefecta? employs several compon...

330

MODIFIED REVERSE OSMOSIS SYSTEM FOR TREATMENT OF PRODUCED WATERS  

SciTech Connect

This final report of ''Modified Reverse Osmosis System for Treatment of Produced Water,'' DOE project No. DE-FC26-00BC15326 describes work performed in the third year of the project. Several good results were obtained, which are documented in this report. The compacted bentonite membranes were replaced by supported bentonite membranes, which exhibited the same salt rejection capability. Unfortunately, it also inherited the clay expansion problem due to water invasion into the interlayer spaces of the compacted bentonite membranes. We noted that the supported bentonite membrane developed in the project was the first of its kind reported in the literature. An {alpha}-alumina-supported MFI-type zeolite membrane synthesized by in-situ crystallization was fabricated and tested. Unlike the bentonite clay membranes, the zeolite membranes maintained stability and high salt rejection rate even for a highly saline solution. Actual produced brines from gas and oil fields were then tested. For gas fields producing brine, the 18,300 ppm TDS (total dissolved solids) in the produced brine was reduced to 3060 ppm, an 83.3% rejection rate of 15,240 ppm salt rejection. For oilfield brine, while the TDS was reduced from 181,600 ppm to 148,900 ppm, an 18% rejection rate of 32,700 ppm reduction, the zeolite membrane was stable. Preliminary results show the dissolved organics, mainly hydrocarbons, did not affect the salt rejection. However, the rejection of organics was inconclusive at this point. Finally, the by-product of this project, the {alpha}-alumina-supported Pt-Co/Na Y catalytic zeolite membrane was developed and demonstrated for overcoming the two-step limitation of nonoxidation methane (CH{sub 4}) conversion to higher hydrocarbons (C{sub 2+}) and hydrogen (H{sub 2}). Detailed experiments to obtain quantitative results of H{sub 2} generation for various conditions are now being conducted. Technology transfer efforts included five manuscripts submitted to peer-reviewed journals and five conference presentations.

Robert L. Lee; Junghan Dong

2004-06-03

331

EDI as a Treatment Module in Recycling Spent Rinse Waters  

SciTech Connect

Recycling of the spent rinse water discharged from the wet benches commonly used in semiconductor processing is one tactic for responding to the targets for water usage published in the 1997 National Technology Roadmap for Semiconductors (NTRS). Not only does the NTRS list a target that dramatically reduces total water usage/unit area of silicon manufactured by the industry in the future but for the years 2003 and beyond, the NTRS actually touts goals which would have semiconductor manufacturers drawing less water from a regional water supply per unit area of silicon manufactured than the quantity of ultrapure water (UPW) used in the production of that same silicon. Achieving this latter NTRS target strongly implies more widespread recycling of spent rinse waters at semiconductor manufacturing sites. In spite of the fact that, by most metrics, spent rinse waters are of much higher purity than incoming municipal waters, recycling of these spent rinse waters back into the UPW production plant is not a simple, straightforward task. The rub is that certain of the chemicals used in semiconductor manufacturing, and thus potentially present in trace concentrations (or more) in spent rinse waters, are not found in municipal water supplies and are not necessarily removed by the conventional UPW production sequence used by semiconductor manufacturers. Some of these contaminants, unique to spent rinse waters, may actually foul the resins and membranes of the UPW system, posing a threat to UPW production and potentially even causing a shutdown.

Donovan, Robert P.; Morrison, Dennis J.

1999-08-11

332

Chapter 24. emerging technologies for irrigation water treatment  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Several disinfestants that have potential for treating recycled irrigation water are less commonly used or newer developing technologies. Hydrogen peroxide can reduce spread of pathogens in water that contains nutrients or pesticide residues without generating toxic residues. Benefits potentially in...

333

Chemical Treatment Fosters Zero Discharge by Making Cooling Water Reusable  

E-print Network

. To determine if the solubility of calcium sulfate has been exceeded, multiply the calcium and sulfate concentration in mgfL. A value greater than 500,000 means that the solubility of calcium sulfate has been exceeded. Most acrylate-based polymers... become concentrated. The evaporated water is replaced by fresh makeup water. The dissolved solids content of the water is maintained by the rate of water discharge (blowdown). As the amount of dissolved solids increases, their solubility is exceeded...

Boffardi, B. P.

334

ANALYTICAL ASPECTS OF OZONE TREATMENT OF WATER AND WASTEWATER - A MONOGRAPH  

EPA Science Inventory

With the ever-increasing interest in the application of ozone for water and wastewater treatment, several major questions arise in the minds of those new to the field: (1) What is the nature of ozone. (2) How is ozone applied in water and wastewater treatment. (3) How is ozone ap...

335

Modification of water transfer properties on historical limestones induced by bio-calcification treatment.  

E-print Network

of water within the stone which are the main vector of pollutants. Different surface treatmentsModification of water transfer properties on historical limestones induced by bio-calcification treatment. O. Rozenbaum, J.-L. Rouet June 28, 2013 Univ d'Orl´eans, ISTO, UMR 7327, 45071, Orl´eans, France

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

336

Successful treatment of polydipsia, water intoxication, and delusional jealousy in an alcohol dependent patient with clozapine.  

PubMed

The beneficial effect of clozapine on polydipsia and water intoxication in patients with schizophrenia has been demonstrated many times. The authors report a successful clozapine treatment of polydipsia, intermittent water intoxication, and delusional jealousy of an alcoholic. This is a rare case of clozapine treatment of a non-schizophrenic patient affected by polydipsia. PMID:16600455

Margeti?, Branimir; Aukst-Margeti?, Branka; Zarkovi?-Palijan, Tija

2006-09-30

337

Water Treatment Plant Operation. Volume I. A Field Study Training Program.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The purpose of this water treatment field study training program is to: (1) develop new qualified water treatment plant operators; (2) expand the abilities of existing operators, permitting better service both to employers and public; and (3) prepare operators for civil service and certification examinations (examinations administered by…

California State Univ., Sacramento. School of Engineering.

338

Evaluation of the impact of membrane change at a membrane softening water treatment plant  

Microsoft Academic Search

At the water treatment plant in Dunedin, Florida, reverse osmosis membranes remove the hardness from groundwater sources. Reverse osmosis membranes remove salts, pathogens, and organics from the feed water but can create an aggressive permeate. The membranes strip most ions in the process and the resulting permeate, if not subjected to blending on post treatment, has a tendency to leach

Michael Keen

2009-01-01

339

Response of ‘Royal Gala’ apples to hot water treatment for insect control  

Microsoft Academic Search

The response of ‘Royal Gala’ apples (Malus domestica Borkh.) to hot water treatments (HWTs) for the control of quarantine leafroller species was investigated. ‘Royal Gala’ apples from two orchards from each of two regions of New Zealand, and up to three harvest dates, were hot water treated at 44, 45 or 46°C for 35, 40 or 45 min. Following treatment,

Karen J Smith; Michael Lay-Yee

2000-01-01

340

Water Treatment Plant Operation Volume 2. A Field Study Training Program. Revised.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The purpose of this water treatment field study training program is to: (1) develop new qualified water treatment plant operators; (2) expand the abilities of existing operators, permitting better service both to employers and public; and (3) prepare operators for civil service and certification examinations (examinations administered by…

California State Univ., Sacramento. School of Engineering.

341

Water Treatment Plant Operation. Volume II. A Field Study Training Program.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The purpose of this water treatment field study training program is to: (1) develop new qualified water treatment plant operators; (2) expand the abilities of existing operators, permitting better service both to employers and public; and (3) prepare operators for civil service and certification examinations (examinations administered by…

California State Univ., Sacramento. School of Engineering.

342

Modeling Urban Storm-Water Quality Treatment: Model Development and Application to a Surface Sand Filter  

E-print Network

Modeling Urban Storm-Water Quality Treatment: Model Development and Application to a Surface Sand management; Urban areas; Hydraulic models; Sand, filter; Parameters; Estimation; Water treatment. Author Houle4 Abstract: A mathematical and statistical model for simulating contaminant removal from a surface

343

Constructed wetland (CW) for industrial waste water treatment  

Microsoft Academic Search

The constructed wetland (CW) in Gradiš?e (Slovenia) has been in operation since 1991 for the purification of waste waters from a food processing plant. It functions according to the method of horizontal subsurface flow. Waste waters are composed of industrial, faecal and meteor waters. The CW is composed of two beds, filled with substrate and planted with Carex gracilis and

Dani Vrhovšek; Vlasta Kukanja; Tjaša Bulc

1996-01-01

344

EDI as a Treatment Module in Recycling Spent Rinse Waters  

Microsoft Academic Search

Recycling of the spent rinse water discharged from the wet benches commonly used in semiconductor processing is one tactic for responding to the targets for water usage published in the 1997 National Technology Roadmap for Semiconductors (NTRS). Not only does the NTRS list a target that dramatically reduces total water usage\\/unit area of silicon manufactured by the industry in the

Robert P. Donovan; Dennis J. Morrison

1999-01-01

345

Review of technologies for oil and gas produced water treatment  

Microsoft Academic Search

Produced water is the largest waste stream generated in oil and gas industries. It is a mixture of different organic and inorganic compounds. Due to the increasing volume of waste all over the world in the current decade, the outcome and effect of discharging produced water on the environment has lately become a significant issue of environmental concern. Produced water

Ahmadun Fakhru’l-Razi; Alireza Pendashteh; Luqman Chuah Abdullah; Dayang Radiah Awang Biak; Sayed Siavash Madaeni; Zurina Zainal Abidin

2009-01-01

346

Water and air treatment using ultraviolet light sources  

Microsoft Academic Search

Advances in production of novel UV light sources is reviewed. The use of these devices for air and water purification is described, along with necessary validation procedures for verifying the operation of water disinfection systems. Ultraviolet light sources are currently used to neutralize pathogenic organisms and remove chemical contaminants from both air and water. These sources range from highly efficient

Gordon Knight

2011-01-01

347

Hydrogen Sulfide in Drinking Water: Causes and Treatment Alternatives  

E-print Network

in drinking water. Water tests should always be conducted on new wells or when problems are suspected in an existing water supply. This can be particularly important if more than one contami- nant is involved because it will affect proper diagnosis...

McFarland, Mark L.; Provin, Tony

1999-06-15

348

ADVANCES IN DRINKING WATER TREATMENT IN THE UNITED STATES  

EPA Science Inventory

The United States drinking water public health protection goal is to provide water that meets all health-based standards to ninety-five percent of the population served by public drinking water supplies by 2005. In 2002, the level of compliance with some eighty-five health-based ...

349

PACKAGE WATER TREATMENT PLANTS. VOLUME 1. A PERFORMANCE EVALUATION  

EPA Science Inventory

Many small and rural water systems have both cost and quality problems. Their unit costs tend to be higher because of the small number of connections they service. As shown by the Community Water Supply Survey of 1969 many small systems have trouble meeting minimal drinking water...

350

ADVERSE IMPACTS OF WASTE WATER TREATMENT ­ A CASE STUDY  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Industrial metal plating processes coat materials with metals, such as chromium, copper and nickel. After the plating process, excess metals are rinsed off and the rinse water is collected and then treated to remove metals prior to discharge of the rinse water into rivers. This waste water is typica...

351

Ecotoxicological assessment of grey water treatment systems with Daphnia magna and Chironomus riparius.  

PubMed

In order to meet environmental quality criteria, grey water was treated in four different ways: 1) aerobic 2) anaerobic+aerobic 3) aerobic+activated carbon 4) aerobic+ozone. Since each treatment has its own specific advantages and disadvantages, the aim of this study was to compare the ecotoxicity of differently treated grey water using Chironomus riparius (96 h test) and Daphnia magna (48 h and 21d test) as test organisms. Grey water exhibited acute toxicity to both test organisms. The aerobic and combined anaerobic+aerobic treatment eliminated mortality in the acute tests, but growth of C. riparius was still affected by these two effluents. Post-treatment by ozone and activated carbon completely removed the acute toxicity from grey water. In the chronic toxicity test the combined anaerobic+aerobic treatment strongly affected D. magna population growth rate (47%), while the aerobic treatment had a small (9%) but significant effect. Hence, aerobic treatment is the best option for biological treatment of grey water, removing most of the toxic effects of grey water. If advanced treatment is required, the treatment with either ozone or GAC were shown to be very effective in complete removal of toxicity from grey water. PMID:22197265

Hernández Leal, L; Soeter, A M; Kools, S A E; Kraak, M H S; Parsons, J R; Temmink, H; Zeeman, G; Buisman, C J N

2012-03-15

352

Effectiveness and potential toxicological impact of the PERACLEAN Ocean ballast water treatment technology.  

PubMed

The efficacy and the potential toxicological impact of a proposed ballast water treatment (PERACLEAN Ocean) using peracetic acid (PAA) as active substances to control species introduction was assessed in both fresh- and salt water experiments at very cold water temperatures (1-2 degrees C). Levels of PAA gradually declined over the 5-day experiments, while levels of hydrogen peroxide remained relatively stable. The rate of decay of both the PAA and hydrogen peroxide in water was accelerated in the presence of sediments. Water quality properties varied significantly with treatment level with a maximum reduction of pH by 2.0 units and a concomitant 20-fold increase in dissolved organic carbon levels. Living biomass of organisms in treated water was reduced by 99% after 2 days. Results from six toxicological tests revealed very steep dose-response curves of the treatment. The toxic response of treated waters was higher in fresh water than in salt water. The PERACLEAN Ocean treatment may represent an effective technology to treat ballast waters under a wide range of temperature and salinity conditions. The discharge of treated fresh water may however pose some toxicological risk to fresh water receiving environments and to cold waters in particular. PMID:18078993

de Lafontaine, Yves; Despatie, Simon-Pierre; Wiley, Chris

2008-10-01

353

ETV REPORT: REMOVAL OF CHEMICAL CONTAMINANTS IN DRINKING WATER ? ECOWATER SYSTEMS, INC. ERO-R450E WATER TREATMENT SYSTEM  

EPA Science Inventory

The EcoWater Systems ERO-R450E POU drinking water treatment system was tested for removal of aldicarb, benzene, cadmium, carbofuran, cesium, chloroform, dichlorvos, dicrotophos, fenamiphos, mercury, mevinphos, oxamyl, strontium, and strychnine. The ERO-R450E employs a reverse os...

354

Current and Long-Term Effects of Delta Water Quality on Drinking Water Treatment Costs from Disinfection Byproduct Formation  

E-print Network

Disinfection Byproduct Formation Wei-Hsiang Chen, Kristine Haunschild, and Jay R. Lund* Department of Civil, Sacramento-San Joaquin Delta, Treatment Cost, Disinfection Byproduct, Bromide, Total Organic Carbon, Sea quality on drinking water treatment cost and residual public health risk from disinfection byproduct (DBP

Pasternack, Gregory B.

355

Concentration of natural radionuclides in raw water and packaged drinking water and the effect of water treatment.  

PubMed

The raw water (RW) samples collected from natural sources are subjected to water treatment process, including reverse osmosis (RO), and are packed in bottles as packaged drinking water (PDW). Raw water (21 samples) taken from deep wells of Chennai and Secunderabad which are used in the production of PDW, were analysed for (234)U, (235)U, (238)U, (226)Ra, (228)Ra and (210)Pb activity concentrations. Activity Concentrations of (234)U, (235)U, (238)U, (226)Ra, (228)Ra, (210)Pb and (210)Po in PDW were also analysed. The mean activity concentrations of (234)U, (235)U, (238)U, (226)Ra, (228)Ra and (210)Pb in RW at Chennai were 12.1, ?1.3, 7.1, 2.6, 27.5, and 16.3 mBq/L respectively. The mean activity concentrations of (234)U, (235)U, (238)U, (226)Ra, (228)Ra and (210)Pb in RW at Secunderabad were found to be 40.9, 1.7, 41.5 84.5, 100.1, and 17.0 mBq/L respectively. The mean concentrations of (234)U, (235)U, (238)U, (226)Ra, (228)Ra, (210)Pb and (210)Po in PDW at Chennai were found to be ?1.3, ?1.3, ?1.3, ?0.2, ?1.7, 28.0 and 1.2 mBq/L at Secunderabad were found to be ?1.3, ?1.3, 1.7, 4.3, 5.0 and 28.1 mBq/L. The study indicated a considerable reduction in the concentration of natural radionuclides due to water treatment. The reduction ratios of RW to PDW for (234)U, (238)U, (226)Ra, (228)Ra were 97, 96, 94 and 95%. In case of (210)Pb, the PDW showed higher concentration of (210)Pb than RW. This was due to its in growth from (222)Rn which was not removed in the RO process. PMID:25223293

Manu, Anitha; Santhanakrishnan, V; Rajaram, S; Ravi, P M

2014-12-01

356

WasteWater Treatment And Heavy Metals Removal In The A-01 Constructed Wetland 2003 Report  

SciTech Connect

The A-01 wetland treatment system (WTS) was designed to remove metals from the effluent at the A-01 NPDES outfall. The purpose of research conducted during 2003 was to evaluate (1) the ability of the A-01 wetland treatment system to remediate waste water, (2) retention of the removed contaminants in wetland sediment, and (3) the potential remobilization of these contaminants from the sediment into the water column. Surface water and sediment samples were collected and analyzed in this study.

ANNA, KNOX

2004-08-01

357

Water use, conservation and wastewater treatment alternatives for oil refineries in New Mexico  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study analyzed the present operations, water use and wastewater treatment and disposal of the operating refineries in New Mexico. Alternatives for water conservation and wastewater reduction\\/treatment were evaluated for applicability and cost effectiveness. New Mexico refineries presently use from 10.6 to 39.1 gallons of water per barrel of crude oil and generate 6.5 to 25.4 gallons of wastewater per

Timm

1985-01-01

358

Development of ballast water treatment system based on electrochemical disinfection technology  

Microsoft Academic Search

International Maritime Organization adopted the International Convention for the Control and Management of Ships' Ballast Water and Sediments in 2004 to prevent the transfer of aquatic organisms through ballast water. The Convention is expected to be applied in 2010. About 30 ballast water treatment systems are developing now in the world using the technologies of mechanical separation, micro-agitation, ultraviolet, ozone,

Eun-Chan Kim; Kang-Pyung Lee

2009-01-01

359

Modeling Treatment Decisions, Costs, and Risk Implications of Regulations for the US Water Supply Industry  

E-print Network

Modeling Treatment Decisions, Costs, and Risk Implications of Regulations for the US Water Supply, Carnegie Mellon University ABSTRACT Assessments of the impacts of proposed drinking water standards have. In this research, a new modeling framework is described for evaluating the impacts of multiple drinking water

de Weck, Olivier L.

360

Efficiency of conventional drinking-water-treatment processes in removal of pharmaceuticals and other organic compounds  

Microsoft Academic Search

Samples of water and sediment from a conventional drinking-water-treatment (DWT) plant were analyzed for 113 organic compounds (OCs) that included pharmaceuticals, detergent degradates, flame retardants and plasticizers, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), fragrances and flavorants, pesticides and an insect repellent, and plant and animal steroids. 45 of these compounds were detected in samples of source water and 34 were detected in

Paul E. Stackelberg; Jacob Gibs; Edward T. Furlong; Michael T. Meyer; Steven D. Zaugg; R. Lee Lippincott

2007-01-01

361

Role of membrane technology in drinking water treatment in the United States  

Microsoft Academic Search

With the increase in water quality regulations and decrease in available fresh water supplies in the US, pressure-driven membrane processes are playing an increasingly important role in drinking water treatment. They are being employed to remove a wide range of contaminants, and depending on their use, can be operated with minimal or no chemical pretreatment that forms deleterious by-products. The

Joseph G. Jacangelo; R. Rhodes Trussell; Montgomery Watson

1997-01-01

362

Possibility of improvement of boiler water treatment process—ion exchange vs. reverse osmosis  

Microsoft Academic Search

The boiler water in certain power plant is produced by chemical decarbonization, sand filtration, and ion exchange. Process ends with mixed bed ion exchange. The current boiler water treatment process is analyzed in terms of achieved water quality, quantity and quality of wastewater, and amount of chemicals needed. The main disadvantage of current process is consumption of large amount of

Dragana V. Kuki?; Marina B. Š?iban; Branka B. Mitrovi?; Jelena M. Prodanovi?; Vesna M. Vasi?; Darjana Ž. Iveti?; Mirjana G. Antov

2012-01-01

363

Bacteriological Changes Associated with Granular Activated Carbon in a Pilot Water Treatment Plant  

Microsoft Academic Search

Bacteriological analysis were performed on collected water samples from a conventional water treatment pilot plant in Cincinnati, Ohio in which granular activated carbon (GAC) has been used as the final process to assess the impact of GAC on the bacteriological quality and incidence of antibiotic resistant bacteria in water produced. Heterotrophic bacterial counts (HPC) at 20 °C was stabilized at

Helmy Tawfik El-Zanfaly; Donald J. Reasoner; Edwin E. Geldreich

1998-01-01

364

Understanding why women adopt and sustain home water treatment: Insights from the Malawi antenatal care program  

Microsoft Academic Search

In many settings in Africa, social marketing has proven more successful in generating brand recognition for chlorine water treatment products than in promoting their use. To promote household use of one such product in Malawi, WaterGuard, the Ministry of Health (MOH) and Population Services International (PSI) distributed free hygiene kits that included WaterGuard to pregnant women attending antenatal clinics in

Siri Wood; Jennifer Foster; Adrienne Kols

365

ENTERIC VIRUS AND INDICATOR BACTERIA LEVELS IN A WATER TREATMENT SYSTEM MODIFIED TO REDUCE TRIHALOMETHANE PRODUCTION  

EPA Science Inventory

A drinking water treatment plant with high concentrations of trihalomethanes (THMs) in its finished water and large numbers of viruses in its source water was located. This plant was used to study the effect of an alteration in the point of chlorination from the first to last ste...

366

Description of the surface water filtration and ozone treatment system at the Northeast Fishery Center  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

A water filtration and ozone disinfection system was installed at the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service's Northeast Fishery Center in Lamar, Pennsylvania to treat a surface water supply that is used to culture sensitive and endangered fish. The treatment system first passes the surface water through dr...

367

The impact of hygiene and localised treatment on the quality of drinking water in Masaka, Rwanda.  

PubMed

The worldwide prevalence of waterborne diseases has been attributed to the lack of safe water, inadequate sanitation and hygiene. This study evaluated socio-demographic factors, microbiological quality of water at source and point of use (POU) at households, water handling and sanitation practices in a rural Rwandan community. Thirty five water samples from the source, Nyabarongo River, and water at point of use (POU) treated with the Slow Sand Filter (SSF) and Sûr'Eau methods, were analysed for total coliform and faecal coliform counts. Turbidity was measured in household samples. A structured questionnaire regarding water collection, storage, usage and waterborne disease awareness was administered to 324 women. Despite the significant reduction in coliforms and faecal coliforms from the Nyabarongo River following treatment using either SSF or Sûr'Eau, the water at point of use was found to be unsafe for human consumption. The frequency of diarrheal diseases were significantly higher among people who did not wash hands before food preparation (P = 0.002) and after using a toilet (P = 0.007) than among those who did. There was a statistically significant association between education levels and water treatment practices at the households (P < 0.05). Participants had limited knowledge regarding water storage practices for prevention of household water contamination. A combination of treatment methods with appropriate water handling should be considered. In addition, education is a fundamental precursor to advocating water treatment at POU. PMID:24345241

Uwimpuhwe, Monique; Reddy, Poovendhree; Barratt, Graham; Bux, Faizal

2014-01-01

368

Naphthoquinones as broad spectrum biocides for treatment of ship's ballast water: Toxicity to phytoplankton and bacteria  

Microsoft Academic Search

Current UN International Maritime Organization legislation mandates the phased introduction of ballast water treatment technologies capable of complying with rigorous standards related to removal of waterborne organisms. Doubts concerning mechanical treatments at very high ballasting rates have renewed interest in chemical treatment for very large vessels. High removal rates for biota require broad spectrum biocides that are safe to transport

D. A. Wright; R. Dawson; S. J. Cutler; H. G. Cutler; C. E. Orano-Dawson; E. Graneli

2007-01-01

369

THE TREATMENT OF FISH-CULTURAL WATERS FOR THE REMOVAL OF ALGiE  

E-print Network

THE TREATMENT OF FISH-CULTURAL WATERS FOR THE REMOVAL OF ALGiE ByM. C. Marsh and R. K. Robinson at Washington, U. S. A., September 22 to 26, 1908 #12;CONTENTS. Essential principles of the treatment- u u _ Susceptibility of fishes u u u h u u _ _ Method of administering the treatment- u _ u h u u _ Details

370

7. OBLIQUE INTERIOR VIEW OF FILTRATION ROOM IN FILTRATION PLANT ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

7. OBLIQUE INTERIOR VIEW OF FILTRATION ROOM IN FILTRATION PLANT (#1773), LOOKING NORTHEAST, SHOWING PUMP NO. 1 AND METERING EQUIPMENT - Presidio Water Treatment Plant, Filtration Plant, East of Lobos Creek at Baker Beach, San Francisco, San Francisco County, CA

371

5. OBLIQUE INTERIOR VIEW OF CHEMICAL STORAGE BUILDING (#1776), LOOKING ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

5. OBLIQUE INTERIOR VIEW OF CHEMICAL STORAGE BUILDING (#1776), LOOKING SOUTHEAST - Presidio Water Treatment Plant, Chemical Storage, East of Lobos Creek at Baker Beach, San Francisco, San Francisco County, CA

372

3. OBLIQUE DETAIL VIEW OF DOOR AT CHEMICAL STORAGE BUILDING ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

3. OBLIQUE DETAIL VIEW OF DOOR AT CHEMICAL STORAGE BUILDING (#1776), LOOKING NORTHWEST - Presidio Water Treatment Plant, Chemical Storage, East of Lobos Creek at Baker Beach, San Francisco, San Francisco County, CA

373

4. DETAIL VIEW OF WINDOW AT CHEMICAL STORAGE BUILDING (#1776), ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

4. DETAIL VIEW OF WINDOW AT CHEMICAL STORAGE BUILDING (#1776), LOOKING EAST - Presidio Water Treatment Plant, Chemical Storage, East of Lobos Creek at Baker Beach, San Francisco, San Francisco County, CA

374

Pre- and post-treatment techniques for spacecraft water recovery  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Distillation-based waste water pretreatment and recovered water posttreatment methods are proposed for the NASA Space Station. Laboratory investigation results are reported for two nonoxidizing urine pretreatment formulas (hexadecyl trimethyl ammonium bromide and Cu/Cr) which minimize the generation of volatile organics, thereby significantly reducing posttreatment requirements. Three posttreatment methods (multifiltration, reverse osmosis, and UV-assisted ozone oxidation) have been identified which appear promising for the removal of organic contaminants from recovered water.

Putnam, David F.; Colombo, Gerald V.; Chullen, Cinda

1986-01-01

375

Genotoxicity and cytotoxicity assessment in lake drinking water produced in a treatment plant.  

PubMed

Chemical analyses and short-term mutagenicity bioassays have revealed the presence of genotoxic disinfection by-products in drinking water. In this study, the influence of the different steps of surface water treatment on drinking water mutagen content was evaluated. Four different samples were collected at a full-scale treatment plant: raw lake water (A), water after pre-disinfection with chlorine dioxide and coagulation (B), water after pre-disinfection, coagulation and granular activated carbon filtration (C) and tap water after post-disinfection with chlorine dioxide just before its distribution (D). Water samples, concentrated by solid phase adsorption on silica C18 columns, were tested in human leukocytes and HepG2 hepatoma cells using the comet assay and in HepG2 cells in the micronuclei test. A significant increase in DNA migration was observed in both cell types after 1 h treatment with filtered and tap water, and, to a lesser extent, chlorine dioxide pre-disinfected water. Similar findings were observed for the induction of "ghost" cells. Overloading of the carbon filter, with a consequent peak release, might explain the high genotoxicity found in water samples C and D. Cell toxicity and DNA damage increases were also detected in metabolically competent HepG2 cells treated with a lower concentration of tap water extract for a longer exposure time (24 h). None of the water extracts significantly increased micronuclei frequencies. Our monitoring approach appears to be able to detect contamination related to the different treatment stages before drinking water consumption and the results suggest the importance of improving the technologies for drinking water treatment to prevent human exposure to potential genotoxic compounds. PMID:15388805

Buschini, Annamaria; Carboni, Pamela; Frigerio, Silvia; Furlini, Mariangela; Marabini, Laura; Monarca, Silvano; Poli, Paola; Radice, Sonia; Rossi, Carlo

2004-09-01

376

Assessing the Impacts of Climate Change on Drinking Water Treatment  

EPA Science Inventory

Climate change may affect both surface water and ground water quality. Increases (or decreases) in precipitation and related changes in flow can result in problematic turbidity levels, increased levels of organic matter, high levels of bacteria, virus and parasites and increased...

377

Disinfection By-Products and Drinking Water Treatment  

EPA Science Inventory

The disinfection of drinking water has been rightly hailed as a public health triumph of the 20th century. Before its widespread use, millions of people died from waterborne diseases. Now, people in developed nations receive quality drinking water every day from their public wa...

378

PACKAGE WATER TREATMENT PLANTS. VOLUME 2. A COST EVALUATION  

EPA Science Inventory

Many small and rural systems have both cost and quality problems. Their unit costs tend to be higher because of the small number of connections they service. As shown by the Community Water Supply Survey of 1969, many small systems have trouble meeting minimal drinking water stan...

379

Removal of Estrogens and Estrogenicity through Drinking Water Treatment  

EPA Science Inventory

Estrogenic compounds have been shown to be present in surface waters, leading to concerns over their possible presence in finished drining waters. In this work, two in vitro human cell line bioassays for estrogenicity were used to evaluate the removal of estrogens through conven...

380

WRSIS: AN INNOVATIVE APPROACH TO AGRICULTURAL WATER TREATMENT AND RECYCLING  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

A Wetland Reservoir Subirrigation System (WRSIS) is an innovative agricultural water management system (Allred, et al. 2003). WRSIS is comprised of a wetland, a water storage reservoir, and a network of subsurface pipes used at different times to either drain or irrigate crops through the root zone ...

381

Simultaneous stack-gas scrubbing and waste water treatment  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Simultaneous treatment of wastewater and S02-laden stack gas make both treatments more efficient and economical. According to results of preliminary tests, solution generated by stack gas scrubbing cycle reduces bacterial content of wastewater. Both processess benefit by sharing concentrations of iron.

Poradek, J. C.; Collins, D. D.

1980-01-01

382

Automated resource-saving technology of ion-exchange water treatment  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Stable high quality of the purified water can be provided by adaptive control of water-treatment installations with the observer in a loop of the control system on the basis of observer of ion exchange processes. To obtain this goal the following problems have been solved: the hierarchic structure of water treatment system is developed; the system of water treatment quality criteria for ion exchange processes is developed; the created mathematical model of ionic exchange processes is functionally oriented to application in control system as an observer; methodologies of identification of a mathematical model of ionic exchange processes is developed; verification of the mathematical model of ionic exchange is performed on experimental-industrial basis; automatic control system of water treatment with observer in the loop is developed for low-waste installation of a heat supply system.

Livshits, M.

2015-01-01

383

Failure of the public health testing program for ballast water treatment systems.  

PubMed

Since 2004, an international testing program has certified 53 shipboard treatment systems as meeting ballast water discharge standards, including limits on certain microbes to prevent the spread of human pathogens. We determined how frequently certification tests failed a minimum requirement for a meaningful evaluation, that the concentration of microbes in the untreated (control) discharge must exceed the regulatory limit for treated discharges. In 95% of cases where the result was accepted as evidence that the treatment system reduced microbes to below the regulatory limit, the discharge met the limit even without treatment. This shows that the certification program for ballast water treatment systems is dysfunctional in protecting human health. In nearly all cases, the treatment systems would have equally well "passed" these tests even if they had never been turned on. Protocols must require minimum concentrations of targeted microbes in test waters, reflecting the upper range of concentrations in waters where ships operate. PMID:25596892

Cohen, Andrew N; Dobbs, Fred C

2015-02-15

384

Microbial community structures and dynamics in the O3/BAC drinking water treatment process.  

PubMed

Effectiveness of drinking water treatment, in particular pathogen control during the water treatment process, is always a major public health concern. In this investigation, the application of PCR-DGGE technology to the analysis of microbial community structures and dynamics in the drinking water treatment process revealed several dominant microbial populations including: ?-Proteobacteria, ?-Proteobacteria, ?-Proteobacteria, Bacteroidetes, Actinobacteria Firmicutes and Cyanobacteria. ?-Proteobacteria and ?-Proteobacteria were the dominant bacteria during the whole process. Bacteroidetes and Firmicutes were the dominant bacteria before and after treatment, respectively. Firmicutes showed season-dependent changes in population dynamics. Importantly, ?-Proteobacteria, which is a class of medically important bacteria, was well controlled by the O3/biological activated carbon (BAC) treatment, resulting in improved effluent water bio-safety. PMID:24937529

Tian, Jian; Lu, Jun; Zhang, Yu; Li, Jian-Cheng; Sun, Li-Chen; Hu, Zhang-Li

2014-06-01

385

A three step approach for removing organic matter from South African water sources and treatment plants  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The high variability in the levels and composition of natural organic matter (NOM) in South-African water sources in different regions means that no single treatment process can be prescribed for each water treatment plant operating in the country. In order to remove NOM from water in a water treatment train, the composition of the NOM in the source water must be taken into account, especially as it may not necessarily be uniform since the composition is dependent on local environmental situation. The primary objective of this study was to characterise the NOM present in South African source waters through an extensive sampling of representative water types across the country and then develop a rapid NOM characterisation protocol. Water samples were thus collected from eight different water treatment plants located throughout the country at different sites of their water treatment trains. Raw water samples, the intermediate samples before filtration and water samples before disinfection were collected at these drinking water treatment plants. The fluorescence excitation-emission matrices (FEEMs), biodegradable dissolved organic carbon (BDOC), ultraviolet (UV) characterisation (200-900 nm) and dissolved organic carbon (DOC) analysis were used to characterise the NOM in the water samples. The FEEM and UV results revealed that the samples were composed mainly of humic substances with a high UV-254 absorbance, while some samples had marine humic substances and non-humic substances. The sample’s DOC results were within the range of 3.25-21.44 mg C/L, which was indicative of the varying nature of the NOM composition in the regions where samples were obtained. The BDOC fraction of the NOM, on the other hand, ranged from 20% to 65%, depending on the geographical location of the sampling site. It is evident from the results obtained that the NOM composition varied per sampling site which would eventually have a bearing on its treatability. The various water treatment processes employed at the different treatment plants were able to effectively reduce NOM, as evidenced by a percentage DOC removal of between 11% and 85%. The highest DOC removal was achieved at the treatment plants that had highly humic and coloured raw water sources.

Nkambule, T. I.; Krause, R. W. M.; Haarhoff, J.; Mamba, B. B.

386

Nanoparticle Doped Water -NeowaterTM The effects of the rf-treatments of water and aqueous solutions can be amplified and stabilized by  

E-print Network

Nanoparticle Doped Water - NeowaterTM The effects of the rf-treatments of water and aqueous by the rf-treatment and cavitation is generated due to the injection of hot particles into water below solutions can be amplified and stabilized by doping the water with low density of insoluble nanoparticles [1

Jacob, Eshel Ben

387

Photocatalytic post-treatment in waste water reclamation systems  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A photocatalytic water purification process is described which effectively oxidizes organic impurities common to reclaimed waste waters and humidity condensates to carbon dioxide at ambient temperatures. With this process, total organic carbon concentrations below 500 ppb are readily achieved. The temperature dependence of the process is well described by the Arrhenius equation and an activation energy barrier of 3.5 Kcal/mole. The posttreatment approach for waste water reclamation described here shows potential for integration with closed-loop life support systems.

Cooper, Gerald; Ratcliff, Matthew A.; Verostko, Charles E.

1989-01-01

388

TREATMENT OF PRODUCED OIL AND GAS WATERS WITH SURFACTANT-MODIFIED ZEOLITE  

SciTech Connect

Co-produced water from the oil and gas industry accounts for a significant waste stream in the United States. It is by some estimates the largest single waste stream in the country, aside from nonhazardous industrial wastes. Characteristics of produced water include high total dissolved solids content, dissolved organic constituents such as benzene and toluene, an oil and grease component, and chemicals added during the oil-production process. While most of the produced water is disposed via reinjection, some must be treated to remove organic constituents before the water is discharged. Current treatment options are successful in reducing the organic content; however, they cannot always meet the levels of current or proposed regulations for discharged water. Therefore, an efficient, cost-effective treatment technology is needed. Surfactant-modified zeolite (SMZ) has been used successfully to treat contaminated ground water for organic and inorganic constituents. In addition, the low cost of natural zeolites makes their use attractive in water-treatment applications. This report summarizes the work and results of this four-year project. We tested the effectiveness of surfactant-modified zeolite (SMZ) for removal of BTEX with batch and column experiments using waters with BTEX concentrations that are comparable to those of produced waters. The data from our experimental investigations showed that BTEX sorption to SMZ can be described by a linear isotherm model, and competitive effects between compounds were not significant. The SMZ can be readily regenerated using air stripping. We field-tested a prototype SMZ-based water treatment system at produced water treatment facilities and found that the SMZ successfully removes BTEX from produced waters as predicted by laboratory studies. When compared to other existing treatment technologies, the cost of the SMZ system is very competitive. Furthermore, the SMZ system is relatively compact, does not require the storage of potentially hazardous chemicals, and could be readily adapted to an automated system.

Lynn E. Katz; R.S. Bowman; E.J. Sullivan

2003-11-01

389

REMOVING TRIHALOMETHANES FROM DRINKING WATER - AN OVERVIEW OF TREATMENT TECHNIQUES  

EPA Science Inventory

In 1974 trihalomethanes (chloroform, bromodichloromethane, dibromochloromethane, and bromoform) were discovered to be formed during the disinfection step of drinking water if free chlorine was the disinfectant. This, coupled with the perceived hazard to the consumer's health, led...

390

Desalination and Water Treatment www.deswater.com  

E-print Network

of a solar-assisted pilot plant in the Arava Valley in Israel. It is argued that the proposed system would. Keywords: Brackish water; Irrigation; Nanofiltration; Reverse osmosis; Solar desalination 1. Agriculture

Messalem, Rami

391

Treatment of arsenic-contaminated water using akaganeite adsorption  

DOEpatents

The present invention comprises a method and composition using akaganeite, an iron oxide, as an ion adsorption medium for the removal of arsenic from water and affixing it onto carrier media so that it can be used in filtration systems.

Cadena C., Fernando (Las Cruces, NM); Johnson, Michael D. (Las Cruces, NM)

2008-01-01

392

Calibrating an optimal condition model for solar water disinfection in peri-urban household water treatment in Kampala, Uganda.  

PubMed

In low income settlements where the quality of drinking water is highly contaminated due to poor hygienic practices at community and household levels, there is need for appropriate, simple, affordable and environmentally sustainable household water treatment technology. Solar water disinfection (SODIS) that utilizes both the thermal and ultra-violet effect of solar radiation to disinfect water can be used to treat small quantities of water at household level to improve its bacteriological quality for drinking purposes. This study investigated the efficacy of the SODIS treatment method in Uganda and determined the optimal condition for effective disinfection. Results of raw water samples from the study area showed deterioration in bacteriological quality of water moved from source to the household; from 3 to 36 cfu/100 mL for tap water and 75 to 126 cfu/100 mL for spring water, using thermotolerant coliforms (TTCs) as indicator microorganisms. SODIS experiments showed over 99.9% inactivation of TTCs in 6 h of exposure, with a threshold temperature of 39.5 ± 0.7°C at about 12:00 noon, in the sun during a clear sunny day. A mathematical optimal condition model for effective disinfection has been calibrated to predict the decline of the number of viable microorganisms over time. PMID:23428553

Okurut, Kenan; Wozei, Eleanor; Kulabako, Robinah; Nabasirye, Lillian; Kinobe, Joel

2013-03-01

393

FEASIBILITY OF COMMERCIALIZED WATER TREATMENT TECHNIQUES FOR CONCENTRATED WASTE SPILLS  

EPA Science Inventory

The suitability and economics of using reverse osmosis, ultrafiltration, ion exchange, wet air oxidation, high purity oxygen activated sludge process, ultraviolet-ozone oxidation, and coagulation/precipitation for on-site treatment of concentrated wastes were evaluated. Published...

394

Reverse osmosis treatment to remove inorganic contaminants from drinking water  

SciTech Connect

The purpose of the research project was to determine the removal of inorganic contaminants from drinking water using several state-of-the-art reverse osmosis membrane elements. A small 5-KGPD reverse osmosis system was utilized and five different membrane elements were studied individually with the specific inorganic contaminants added to several natural Florida ground waters. Removal data were also collected on naturally occurring substances.

Huxstep, M.R.; Sorg, T.J.

1987-12-01

395

Water recovery by catalytic treatment of urine vapor  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The objective of this investigation was to demonstrate the feasibility of water recovery on a man-rated scale by the catalytic processing of untreated urine vapor. For this purpose, two catalytic systems, one capable of processing an air stream containing low urine vapor concentrations and another to process streams with high urine vapor concentrations, were designed, constructed, and tested to establish the quality of the recovered water.

Budininkas, P.; Quattrone, P. D.; Leban, M. I.

1980-01-01

396

Promoting household water treatment through women's self help groups in Rural India: assessing impact on drinking water quality and equity.  

PubMed

Household water treatment, including boiling, chlorination and filtration, has been shown effective in improving drinking water quality and preventing diarrheal disease among vulnerable populations. We used a case-control study design to evaluate the extent to which the commercial promotion of household water filters through microfinance institutions to women's self-help group (SHG) members improved access to safe drinking water. This pilot program achieved a 9.8% adoption rate among women targeted for adoption. Data from surveys and assays of fecal contamination (thermotolerant coliforms, TTC) of drinking water samples (source and household) were analyzed from 281 filter adopters and 247 non-adopters exposed to the program; 251 non-SHG members were also surveyed. While adopters were more likely than non-adopters to have children under 5 years, they were also more educated, less poor, more likely to have access to improved water supplies, and more likely to have previously used a water filter. Adopters had lower levels of fecal contamination of household drinking water than non-adopters, even among those non-adopters who treated their water by boiling or using traditional ceramic filters. Nevertheless, one-third of water samples from adopter households exceeded 100 TTC/100ml (high risk), and more than a quarter of the filters had no stored treated water available when visited by an investigator, raising concerns about correct, consistent use. In addition, the poorest adopters were less likely to see improvements in their water quality. Comparisons of SHG and non-SHG members suggest similar demographic characteristics, indicating SHG members are an appropriate target group for this promotion campaign. However, in order to increase the potential for health gains, future programs will need to increase uptake, particularly among the poorest households who are most susceptible to disease morbidity and mortality, and focus on strategies to improve the correct, consistent and sustained use of these water treatment products. PMID:22957043

Freeman, Matthew C; Trinies, Victoria; Boisson, Sophie; Mak, Gregory; Clasen, Thomas

2012-01-01

397

Promoting Household Water Treatment through Women's Self Help Groups in Rural India: Assessing Impact on Drinking Water Quality and Equity  

PubMed Central

Household water treatment, including boiling, chlorination and filtration, has been shown effective in improving drinking water quality and preventing diarrheal disease among vulnerable populations. We used a case-control study design to evaluate the extent to which the commercial promotion of household water filters through microfinance institutions to women's self-help group (SHG) members improved access to safe drinking water. This pilot program achieved a 9.8% adoption rate among women targeted for adoption. Data from surveys and assays of fecal contamination (thermotolerant coliforms, TTC) of drinking water samples (source and household) were analyzed from 281 filter adopters and 247 non-adopters exposed to the program; 251 non-SHG members were also surveyed. While adopters were more likely than non-adopters to have children under 5 years, they were also more educated, less poor, more likely to have access to improved water supplies, and more likely to have previously used a water filter. Adopters had lower levels of fecal contamination of household drinking water than non-adopters, even among those non-adopters who treated their water by boiling or using traditional ceramic filters. Nevertheless, one-third of water samples from adopter households exceeded 100 TTC/100ml (high risk), and more than a quarter of the filters had no stored treated water available when visited by an investigator, raising concerns about correct, consistent use. In addition, the poorest adopters were less likely to see improvements in their water quality. Comparisons of SHG and non-SHG members suggest similar demographic characteristics, indicating SHG members are an appropriate target group for this promotion campaign. However, in order to increase the potential for health gains, future programs will need to increase uptake, particularly among the poorest households who are most susceptible to disease morbidity and mortality, and focus on strategies to improve the correct, consistent and sustained use of these water treatment products. PMID:22957043

Freeman, Matthew C.; Trinies, Victoria; Boisson, Sophie; Mak, Gregory; Clasen, Thomas

2012-01-01

398

COSTS OF WATER TREATMENT DUE TO DIMINISHED WATER QUALITY: A CASE STUDY IN TEXAS  

E-print Network

quality represents an important component of the societal costs of water pollution. Here, the chemical represents an important component of the societal costs of water pollution. Efficient management of water supplies must balance the costs of cleaning, using, or avoiding use of polluted water. The marginal cost

McCarl, Bruce A.

399

Radiation processing applications in the Czechoslovak water treatment technologies  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The regeneration of biologically clogged water wells by radiation proved to be a successful and economically beneficial process among other promising applications of ionizing radiation in the water supply technology. The application conditions and experience are mentioned. The potential pathogenic Mycobacteria occuring in the warm washing and bathing water are resistant against usual chlorine and ozone concentrations. The radiation sensitivity of Mycobacteria allowed to suggest a device for their destroying by radiation. Some toxic substances in the underground water can be efficiently degraded by gamma radiation directly in the wells drilled as a hydraulic barrier surrounding the contaminated land area. Substantial decrease of CN - concentration and C.O.D. value was observed in water pumped from such well equipped with cobalt sources and charcoal. The removing of pathogenic contamination remains to be the main goal of radiation processing in the water purification technologies. The decrease of liquid sludge specific filter resistance and sedimentation acceleration by irradiation have a minor technological importance. The hygienization of sludge cake from the mechanical belt filter press by electron beam appears to be the optimum application in the Czechoslovak conditions. The potatoes and barley crop yields from experimental plots treated with sludge were higher in comparison with using the manure. Biological sludge from the municipal and food industry water purification plants contains nutritive components. The proper hygienization is a necessary condition for using them as a livestock feed supplement. Feeding experiments with broilers and pigs confirmed the possibility of partial (e.g. 50%) replacement of soya-, bone- or fish flour in feed mixtures by dried sludge hygienized either by heat or by the irradiation.

Vacek, K.; Pastuszek, F.; Sedlá?ek, M.

400

Cyanobacterial toxins: removal during drinking water treatment, and human risk assessment.  

PubMed Central

Cyanobacteria (blue-green algae) produce toxins that may present a hazard for drinking water safety. These toxins (microcystins, nodularins, saxitoxins, anatoxin-a, anatoxin-a(s), cylindrospermopsin) are structurally diverse and their effects range from liver damage, including liver cancer, to neurotoxicity. The occurrence of cyanobacteria and their toxins in water bodies used for the production of drinking water poses a technical challenge for water utility managers. With respect to their removal in water treatment procedures, of the more than 60 microcystin congeners, microcystin-LR (L, L-leucine; R, L-arginine) is the best studied cyanobacterial toxin, whereas information for the other toxins is largely lacking. In response to the growing concern about nonlethal acute and chronic effects of microcystins, the World Health Organization has recently set a new provisional guideline value for microcystin-LR of 1.0 microg/L drinking water. This will lead to further efforts by water suppliers to develop effective treatment procedures to remove these toxins. Of the water treatment procedures discussed in this review, chlorination, possibly micro-/ultrafiltration, but especially ozonation are the most effective in destroying cyanobacteria and in removing microcystins. However, these treatments may not be sufficient during bloom situations or when a high organic load is present, and toxin levels should therefore be monitored during the water treatment process. In order to perform an adequate human risk assessment of microcystin exposure via drinking water, the issue of water treatment byproducts will have to be addressed in the future. PMID:10698727

Hitzfeld, B C; Höger, S J; Dietrich, D R

2000-01-01

401

Cyanobacterial toxins: removal during drinking water treatment, and human risk assessment.  

PubMed

Cyanobacteria (blue-green algae) produce toxins that may present a hazard for drinking water safety. These toxins (microcystins, nodularins, saxitoxins, anatoxin-a, anatoxin-a(s), cylindrospermopsin) are structurally diverse and their effects range from liver damage, including liver cancer, to neurotoxicity. The occurrence of cyanobacteria and their toxins in water bodies used for the production of drinking water poses a technical challenge for water utility managers. With respect to their removal in water treatment procedures, of the more than 60 microcystin congeners, microcystin-LR (L, L-leucine; R, L-arginine) is the best studied cyanobacterial toxin, whereas information for the other toxins is largely lacking. In response to the growing concern about nonlethal acute and chronic effects of microcystins, the World Health Organization has recently set a new provisional guideline value for microcystin-LR of 1.0 microg/L drinking water. This will lead to further efforts by water suppliers to develop effective treatment procedures to remove these toxins. Of the water treatment procedures discussed in this review, chlorination, possibly micro-/ultrafiltration, but especially ozonation are the most effective in destroying cyanobacteria and in removing microcystins. However, these treatments may not be sufficient during bloom situations or when a high organic load is present, and toxin levels should therefore be monitored during the water treatment process. In order to perform an adequate human risk assessment of microcystin exposure via drinking water, the issue of water treatment byproducts will have to be addressed in the future. PMID:10698727

Hitzfeld, B C; Höger, S J; Dietrich, D R

2000-03-01

402

Emerging risks from ballast water treatment: the run-up to the International Ballast Water Management Convention.  

PubMed

Uptake and discharge of ballast water by ocean-going ships contribute to the worldwide spread of aquatic invasive species, with negative impacts on the environment, economies, and public health. The International Ballast Water Management Convention aims at a global answer. The agreed standards for ballast water discharge will require ballast water treatment. Systems based on various physical and/or chemical methods were developed for on-board installation and approved by the International Maritime Organization. Most common are combinations of high-performance filters with oxidizing chemicals or UV radiation. A well-known problem of oxidative water treatment is the formation of disinfection by-products, many of which show genotoxicity, carcinogenicity, or other long-term toxicity. In natural biota, genetic damages can affect reproductive success and ultimately impact biodiversity. The future exposure towards chemicals from ballast water treatment can only be estimated, based on land-based testing of treatment systems, mathematical models, and exposure scenarios. Systematic studies on the chemistry of oxidants in seawater are lacking, as are data about the background levels of disinfection by-products in the oceans and strategies for monitoring future developments. The international approval procedure of ballast water treatment systems compares the estimated exposure levels of individual substances with their experimental toxicity. While well established in many substance regulations, this approach is also criticised for its simplification, which may disregard critical aspects such as multiple exposures and long-term sub-lethal effects. Moreover, a truly holistic sustainability assessment would need to take into account factors beyond chemical hazards, e.g. energy consumption, air pollution or waste generation. PMID:25048914

Werschkun, Barbara; Banerji, Sangeeta; Basurko, Oihane C; David, Matej; Fuhr, Frank; Gollasch, Stephan; Grummt, Tamara; Haarich, Michael; Jha, Awadhesh N; Kacan, Stefan; Kehrer, Anja; Linders, Jan; Mesbahi, Ehsan; Pughiuc, Dandu; Richardson, Susan D; Schwarz-Schulz, Beatrice; Shah, Amisha; Theobald, Norbert; von Gunten, Urs; Wieck, Stefanie; Höfer, Thomas

2014-10-01

403

Appraisal of ground-water quality near wastewater-treatment facilities, Glacier National Park, Montana  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Water-level and water-quality data were collected from monitoring wells at wastewater-treatment facilities in Glacier National Park. Five additional shallow observation wells were installed at the Glacier Park Headquarters facility to monitor water quality in the shallow ground-water system. Water-level, water-quality, and geologic information indicate that some of the initial monitoring wells are not ideally located to sample ground water most likely to be affected by waste disposal at the sites. Small differences in chemical characteristics between samples from monitor wells indicate that effluent may be affecting ground-water quality but that impacts are not significant. Future monitoring of ground-water quality could be limited to selected wells most likely to be impacted by percolating effluent. Laboratory analyses for common ions could detect future impacts. (USGS)

Moreland, Joe A.; Wood, Wayne A.

1982-01-01

404

Inactivation of microalgae in ballast water with pulse intense light treatment.  

PubMed

The exotic emission of ballast water has threatened the coastal ecological environment and people's health in many countries. This paper firstly introduces pulse intense light to treat ballast water. 99.9±0.09% inactivation of Heterosigma akashiwo and 99.9±0.16% inactivation of Pyramimonas sp. are observed under treatment conditions of 350V pulse peak voltage, 15Hz pulse frequency, 5ms pulse width and 1.78L/min flow rate. The energy consumption of the self-designed pulse intense light treatment system is about 2.90-5.14 times higher than that of the typical commercial UV ballast water treatment system. The results indicate that pulse intense light is an effective technique for ballast water treatment, while it is only a competitive one when drastic decreasing in energy consumption is accomplished. PMID:25440896

Feng, Daolun; Shi, Jidong; Sun, Dan

2015-01-15

405

COMETABOLISM OF TRIHALOMETHANES BY NITRIFYING BIOFILTERS UNDER DRINKING WATER TREATMENT PLANT CONDITIONS  

EPA Science Inventory

EPA Identifier: FP916412 Title: Cometabolism of Trihalomethanes by Nitrifying Biofilters Under Drinking Water Treatment Plant Conditions Fellow (Principal Investigator): David G. Wahman Institution: University of Texas at Austin EPA ...

406

TREATMENT AND PRODUCT RECOVERY: SUPERCRITICAL WATER OXIDATION OF NYLON MONOMER MANUFACTURING WASTE  

EPA Science Inventory

EPA GRANT NUMBER: R822721C569 Title: Treatment and Product Recovery: Supercritical Water Oxidation of Nylon Monomer Manufacturing Waste Investigator: Earnest F. Gloyna Institution: University of Texas at Austin EPA Project Officer:...

407

Integrated Chemical and Toxicological Investigation of UV-Chlorine/Chloramine Drinking Water Treatment  

EPA Science Inventory

As the use of alternative drinking water treatment increases, it is important to understand potential public health•implications associated with these processes. The objective of this study was to evaluate the formation of disinfection byproducts (DBPs) and cytotoxicity of ...

408

Water Treatment Plant Sludges--An Update of the State of the Art: Part 2.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This report outlines the state of the art with respect to nonmechanical and mechanical methods of dewatering water treatment plant sludge, ultimate solids disposal, and research and development needs. (CS)

American Water Works Association Journal, 1978

1978-01-01

409

21 CFR 1250.83 - Storage of water prior to treatment.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...REGULATIONS UNDER CERTAIN OTHER ACTS ADMINISTERED BY THE FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION INTERSTATE CONVEYANCE SANITATION Sanitation Facilities and Conditions on Vessels § 1250.83 Storage of water prior to treatment. The...

2011-04-01

410

21 CFR 1250.83 - Storage of water prior to treatment.  

...REGULATIONS UNDER CERTAIN OTHER ACTS ADMINISTERED BY THE FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION INTERSTATE CONVEYANCE SANITATION Sanitation Facilities and Conditions on Vessels § 1250.83 Storage of water prior to treatment. The...

2014-04-01

411

21 CFR 1250.83 - Storage of water prior to treatment.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...REGULATIONS UNDER CERTAIN OTHER ACTS ADMINISTERED BY THE FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION INTERSTATE CONVEYANCE SANITATION Sanitation Facilities and Conditions on Vessels § 1250.83 Storage of water prior to treatment. The...

2010-04-01

412

21 CFR 1250.83 - Storage of water prior to treatment.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...REGULATIONS UNDER CERTAIN OTHER ACTS ADMINISTERED BY THE FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION INTERSTATE CONVEYANCE SANITATION Sanitation Facilities and Conditions on Vessels § 1250.83 Storage of water prior to treatment. The...

2013-04-01

413

21 CFR 1250.83 - Storage of water prior to treatment.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...REGULATIONS UNDER CERTAIN OTHER ACTS ADMINISTERED BY THE FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION INTERSTATE CONVEYANCE SANITATION Sanitation Facilities and Conditions on Vessels § 1250.83 Storage of water prior to treatment. The...

2012-04-01

414

Fouling-tolerant nanofibrous polymer membranes for water treatment.  

PubMed

Nafion/polyvinylidene fluoride (PVDF) nanofibrous membranes with electrostatically negative charges on the fiber surface were fabricated via electrospinning with superior water permeability and antifouling behaviors in comparison with the conventional microfiltration membranes. The fiber diameter and the resultant pore size in the nanofibrous membranes were easily controlled through tailoring the properties of the electrospinning solutions. The electrospun Nafion/PVDF nanofibrous membranes revealed high porosities (>80%) and high densities of sulfonate groups on the membrane surface, leading to praiseworthy water permeability. Unexpectedly, the water permeability was observed as proportional to the fiber diameter and pore size in the membrane. The presence of sulfonate groups on the membrane improved the antifouling performance against negatively charged oily foulants. PMID:25116281

Lee, Jang-Woo; Jung, Jiyoung; Cho, Young Hoon; Yadav, Santosh Kumar; Baek, Kyung Youl; Park, Ho Bum; Hong, Soon Man; Koo, Chong Min

2014-08-27

415

Performance of conventional multi-barrier drinking water treatment plants for the removal of four artificial sweeteners  

Microsoft Academic Search

Due to incomplete removal of artificial sweeteners in wastewater treatment plants some of these compounds end up in receiving surface waters, which are used for drinking water production. The sum of removal efficiency of single treatment steps in multi-barrier treatment systems affects the concentrations of these compounds in the provided drinking water. This is the first systematic study revealing the

Marco Scheurer; Florian R. Storck; Heinz-J. Brauch; Frank T. Lange

2010-01-01

416

Microstructure and shear fracture characteristics of porous anodic TiO 2 layer before and after hot water treatment  

Microsoft Academic Search

Porous TiO2 layer was fabricated on the surface of commercially pure titanium using an anodic spark oxidation technique for biomedical application, and subsequent hot water treatment was performed to modify the resultant oxide layer. The microstructure features and shear fracture characteristics of anodic oxide layer before and after water treatment were investigated. Results show that before water treatment, the oxide

Z. X. Chen; W. X. Wang; Y. Takao; T. Matsubara; L. M. Ren

2011-01-01

417

Evaluation of physical-chemical and biological treatment of shale oil retort water  

SciTech Connect

Bench scale studies were conducted to evaluate conventional physical-chemical and biological treatment processes for removal of pollutants from retort water produced by in situ shale oil recovery methods. Prior to undertaking these studies, very little information had been reported on treatment of retort water. A treatment process train patterned after that generally used throughout the petroleum refining industry was envisioned for application to retort water. The treatment train would consist of processes for removing suspended matter, ammonia, biodegradable organics, and nonbiodegradable or refractory organics. The treatment processes evaluated include anaerobic digestion and activated sludge for removal of biodegradable organics and other oxidizable substances; activated carbon adsorption for removal of nonbiodegradable organics; steam stripping for ammonia removal; and chemical coagulation, sedimentation and filtration for removal of suspended matter. Preliminary cost estimates are provided.

Mercer, B.W.; Mason, M.J.; Spencer, R.R.; Wong, A.L.; Wakamiya, W.

1982-09-01

418

Regional assessment of produced water treatment and disposal practices and research needs  

SciTech Connect

Produced water accounts for greater than 80 percent by volume of the residual material generated in the natural gas industry. Cost-effective and environmentally acceptable disposal of these waters is critical to the continued economic production of natural gas. The Gas Research Institute (GRI) has recently completed a comprehensive assessment of the demographics of produced water characterized according to volumes and geographic location of the gas producing geologic provinces of the United States. This information in association with both the federal and state environmental regulations has been used to identify potential cost-effective produced water treatment research opportunities which are described in this paper. The study involved the use of a computer-based engineering-economic model, Produced Water Management Options Model (PWMOM), which combines engineering process models with a cost performance data base to predict the economics of a spectrum of unit water treatment processes and treatment trains. Various produced water scenarios, i.e., volumes, qualities and regulatory requirements, were evaluated and categorized to focus on the natural gas producing regions of the U.S. where produced waters could be surface discharged under the National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System (NPDES). Residual brines from produced water treatment would continue to be injected. Unit process technologies evaluated include deoiling (removal of free oil & grease), iron removal, dissolved organic removal (soluble organic treatment) and partial demineralization. Federal and state regulations were reviewed to identify where surface discharge could be or has been practiced to determine where cost-effective treatment could increase the opportunity for non-injection disposal alternatives. To complete this analysis, surface treatment costs were generated with PWMOM and compared to deep well injection costs.

Lawrence, A.W.; Miller, J.A.; Miller, D.L.; Hayes, T.D.

1995-12-01

419

REMOVING ESOTERIC CONTAMINANTS FROM DRINKING WATERS: IMPACTS OF TREATMENT IMPLEMENTATION  

EPA Science Inventory

At first blush, the production and distribution of drinking water seems to be a very straight forward process. There is a need to remove microbial agents and any anthropogenic or autochthonous contaminants that may be of health concern. Finally, a disinfectant is usually added to...

420

ORGANIC CARBON REMOVAL BY ADVANCED WASTE WATER TREATMENT PROCESSES  

EPA Science Inventory

Fourteen physical-chemical processes singularly or in combination were evaluated for their ability to remove dissolved organic carbon in the effluent of a wastewater reclamation facility treating secondary effluent. The objective of the study was to produce a product water with o...

421

Decontamination Methods For Drinking Water Treatment And Distribution Systems  

EPA Science Inventory

Once contamination has occurred in drinking water systems and the contaminated segment has been isolated from other parts of the system, there will be great urgency to decontaminate the areas as rapidly and cost effectively as possible. This article describes available and deve...

422

Oil field effluent water treatment for safe disposal by electroflotation  

Microsoft Academic Search

The separation of finely dispersed oil from oil–water emulsion was carried out in an electroflotation cell which has a set of perforated aluminium electrodes. The effect of operating parameters on the performance of batch cell were examined. The parameters investigated are pH, voltage, oil concentration, flotation time, and salinity. The batch experiments have been conducted to optimize electrical input in

Rupesh M. Bande; B. Prasad; I. M. Mishra; Kailas L. Wasewar

2008-01-01

423

RADON REMOVAL USING POINT-OF-ENTRY WATER TREATMENT TECHNIQUES  

EPA Science Inventory

The purpose of the EPA Cooperative Agreement was to evaluate the performance of POE granular activated carbon (GAC), and diffused bubble and bubble place aeration systems treating a ground water supply containing radon (35,620 ±6,717 pCi/L). The pattern of loading to the uni...

424

RADON REMOVAL USING POINT-OF-ENTRY WATER TREATMENT TECHNIQUES  

EPA Science Inventory

The purpose of this EPA Cooperative Agreement was to evaluate the performance of POE granular activated carbon (GAG), and diffused bubble and bubble place aeration systems treating a ground water supply containing radon (35,620 + or - 6,717 pCi/L. he pattern of loading to the uni...

425

Cost and Pollutant Removal of StormWater Treatment Practices  

Microsoft Academic Search

Six storm-water best management practices BMPs for treating urban rainwater runoff were evaluated for cost and effective- ness in removing suspended sediments and total phosphorus. Construction and annual operating and maintenance O and M cost data were collected and analyzed for dry extended detention basins, wet basins, sand filters, constructed wetlands, bioretention filters, and infiltration trenches using literature that reported

Peter T. Weiss; John S. Gulliver; Andrew J. Erickson

2007-01-01

426

Treatment Efficiencies of Slow Sand Filtration for Landscape Water  

Microsoft Academic Search

The performance of the slow sand filter was examined using the landscape water with the experimental period of 46 days. The filter installed was similar to the traditional slow sand filter; expect that the top 5-cm sand was changed to the quartz sand. In this study, the variations of the turbidity, COD, BOD and TN were measured based on the

Cui Li; Yifan Wu; Liangbo Zhang; Wen Liu

2010-01-01

427

WRSIS: AN INNOVATIVE APPROACH TO AGRICULTURAL WATER TREATMENT AND RECYCLING  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

A Wetland Reservoir Subirrigation System, or WRSIS for short, is an innovative agricultural water management system. Three WRSIS demonstration sites are located in the northwest Ohio portion of the Maumee River Basin and have been in operation since 1996 or 1997. WRSIS is comprised of three main com...

428

FIELD INVESTIGATION OF BIOLOGICAL TOILET SYSTEMS AND GREY WATER TREATMENT  

EPA Science Inventory

The objective of the field program was to determine the operational characteristics and overall acceptability of popular models of biological toilets and a few select grey water systems. A field observation scheme was devised to take advantage of in-use sites throughout the State...

429

WASTEWATER TREATMENT FOR REUSE AND ITS CONTRIBUTION TO WATER SUPPLIES  

EPA Science Inventory

An 18 month study using cost effective municipal wastewater treatment technology coupled with a computerized data handling system, was conducted at the EPA/Washington, D.C. Blue Plains Pilot Plant to obtain data on the safety of the effluent for discharge upstream of drinking wat...

430

TREATMENT OF EFFLUENT WATERS FROM VEGETABLE OIL REFINING  

EPA Science Inventory

A detailed investigation was done to characterize the wastewater from a vegetable oil refinery. A calcium chloride chemical treatment was installed which resulted in a net decrease in waste load of 71 percent from .0135 lb BOD5 per pound oil processed to .0039 lb BOD5 per pound o...

431

A new optional recycled water pre-treatment system prior to use in the household laundry.  

PubMed

With a constantly growing population, water scarcity becomes the limiting factor for further social and economic growth. To achieve a partial reduction in current freshwater demands and lessen the environmental loadings, an increasing trend in the water market tends to adopt recycled water for household laundries as a new recycled water application. The installation of a small pre-treatment unit for water purification can not only further improve the recycled water quality, but also be viable to enhance the public confidence and acceptance level on recycled water consumption. Specifically, this paper describes column experiments conducted using a 550 mm length bed of zeolite media as a one-dimensional flow reactor. The results show that the zeolite filter system could be a simple low-cost pre-treatment option which is able to significantly reduce the total hardness level of recycled water via effective ion exchange. Additionally, depending on the quality of recycled water required by end users, a new by-pass controller using a three-level operation switching mechanism is introduced. This approach provides householders sufficient flexibility to respond to different levels of desired recycled water quality and increase the reliability of long-term system operation. These findings could be beneficial to the smooth implementation of new end uses and expansion of the potential recycled water market. The information could also offer sound suggestions for future research on sustainable water management and governance. PMID:24496024

Chen, Zhuo; Ngo, Huu Hao; Guo, Wenshan; Pham, Thi Thu Nga; Lim, Richard; Wang, Xiaochang C; Miechel, Clayton; Halloran, Kelly O'; Listowski, Andrzej; Corby, Nigel

2014-04-01

432

Effect of magnetic iron oxide nanoparticles in surface water treatment: trace minerals and microbes.  

PubMed

The existing water treatment process often uses chemicals, which is of high health and environmental concern. The present study focused on the efficiency of microemulsion prepared magnetic iron oxide nanoparticles (ME-MIONs) and protein-functionalized nanoparticles (MOCP+ME-MIONs) in water treatment. Their influence on mineral ions and microorganisms present in the surface water from lake Brunnsviken and Örlången, Sweden were investigated. Ion analysis of water samples before and after treatment with nanoparticles was performed. Microbial content was analyzed by colony forming units (CFU/ml). The results impart that ME-MIONs could reduce the water turbidity even in low turbid water samples. Reduction of microbial content (98%) was observed at 37°C and more than 90% reduction was seen at RT and 30 °C when compared to untreated samples from lake Örlången. The investigated surface water treatment method with ME-MIONs was not significantly affecting the mineral ion composition, which implies their potential complement in the existing treatment process. PMID:23337539

Lakshmanan, Ramnath; Okoli, Chuka; Boutonnet, Magali; Järås, Sven; Rajarao, Gunaratna K

2013-02-01

433

40 CFR 141.81 - Applicability of corrosion control treatment steps to small, medium-size and large water systems.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...treatment steps to small, medium-size and large water systems. 141.81 Section 141.81...ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) WATER PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) NATIONAL PRIMARY DRINKING WATER REGULATIONS Control of Lead and Copper...

2012-07-01

434

40 CFR 141.81 - Applicability of corrosion control treatment steps to small, medium-size and large water systems.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...treatment steps to small, medium-size and large water systems. 141.81 Section 141.81...ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) WATER PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) NATIONAL PRIMARY DRINKING WATER REGULATIONS Control of Lead and Copper...

2011-07-01

435

40 CFR 141.81 - Applicability of corrosion control treatment steps to small, medium-size and large water systems.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...treatment steps to small, medium-size and large water systems. 141.81 Section 141.81...ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) WATER PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) NATIONAL PRIMARY DRINKING WATER REGULATIONS Control of Lead and Copper...

2013-07-01

436

40 CFR 141.81 - Applicability of corrosion control treatment steps to small, medium-size and large water systems.  

...treatment steps to small, medium-size and large water systems. 141.81 Section 141.81...ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) WATER PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) NATIONAL PRIMARY DRINKING WATER REGULATIONS Control of Lead and Copper...

2014-07-01

437

40 CFR 141.81 - Applicability of corrosion control treatment steps to small, medium-size and large water systems.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...treatment steps to small, medium-size and large water systems. 141.81 Section 141.81...ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) WATER PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) NATIONAL PRIMARY DRINKING WATER REGULATIONS Control of Lead and Copper...

2010-07-01

438

Ground water currents: Developments in innovative ground water treatment, June 1994  

SciTech Connect

;Contents: Low-level uranium removed from ground water; Promising ion exchange technology seeks site for demonstration; Pervaporation membrane removes volatile organic compounds (VOCs); and Ground water sampling information available.

Not Available

1994-06-01

439

A practical application for the chemical treatment of Southern California`s reclaimed, Title 22 water for use as makeup water for recirculating cooling water systems  

SciTech Connect

Pilot cooling water studies conducted at a Southern California landfill/cogeneration station demonstrated a successful chemical treatment program for recirculating cooling water that used unnitrified, reclaimed, Title 22 water as the primary makeup water source. The constituents in the reclaimed water are supplied by variety of residential and waste water sources resulting in a water quality that may vary to a greater degree than domestic water supplies. This water contains high concentrations of orthophosphate, ammonia, chlorides and suspended solids. The impact of which, under cycled conditions is calcium orthophosphate scaling, high corrosion of yellow metal and mild steel, stress cracking of copper alloys and stainless steel and rapidly growing biological activity. A mobile cooling water testing laboratory with two pilot recirculating water systems modeled the cogeneration station`s cooling tower operating conditions and parameters. The tube and shell, tube side cooling heat exchangers were fitted with 443 admiralty, 90/10 copper nickel, 316 stainless steel and 1202 mild steel heat exchanger tubes. Coupons and Corrater electrodes were also installed. A chemical treatment program consisting of 60/40 AA/AMPS copolymer for scale, deposits and dispersion, sodium tolyltriazole for yellow metal corrosion, and a bromination program to control the biological activity was utilized in the pilot systems. Recirculating water orthophosphate concentrations reached levels of 70 mg/L as PO, and ammonia concentrations reached levels of 35 mg/L, as total NH3. The study successfully demonstrated a chemical treatment program to control scale and deposition, minimize admiralty, 90/10 copper nickel and carbon steel corrosion rates, prevent non-heat transfer yellow metal and stainless steel stress cracking, and control the biological activity in this high nutrient water.

Zakrzewski, J. [Calgon Corp., Pittsburgh, PA (United States); Cosulich, J.; Bartling, E. [County Sanitation Districts of Los Angeles County, Whittier, CA (United States)

1998-12-31

440

Radioactive Water Treatment at a United States Environmental Protection Agency Superfund Site - 12322  

SciTech Connect

A water treatment system at a United States Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA) Superfund site impacted by radiological contaminants is used to treat water entering the site. The United States Army Corps of Engineers (USACE) is actively managing the remedial action for the USEPA using contracts to support the multiple activities on site. The site is where former gas mantle production facilities operated around the turn of the century. The manufacturing facilities used thorium ores to develop the mantles and disposed of off-specification mantles and ore residuals in the surrounding areas. During Site remedial actions, both groundwater and surface water comes into contact with contaminated soils and must be collected and treated at an on-site treatment facility. The radionuclides thorium and radium with associated progeny are the main concern for treatment. Suspended solids, volatile organic compounds, and select metals are also monitored during water treatment. The water treatment process begins were water is pumped to a collection tank where debris and grit settle out. Stored water is pumped to a coagulant tank containing poly-aluminum chloride to collect dissolved solids. The water passes into a reaction tube where aspirated air is added or reagent added to remove Volatile Organic Compounds (VOC'S) by mass transfer and convert dissolved iron to a solid. The water enters the flocculent polymer tank to drop solids out. The flocculated water overflows to a fluidized bed contact chamber to increase precipitation. Flocculation is where colloids of material drop out of suspension and settle. The settled solids are periodically removed and disposed of as radioactive waste. The water is passed through filters and an ion exchange process to extract the radionuclides. Several million liters of water are processed each year from two water treatment plants servicing different areas of the remediation site. Ion exchange resin and filter material are periodically replaced and disposed of as radioactive waste. A total of 0.85 m{sup 3} of waste sludge per year requires disposal on average, in addition to another 6.6 m{sup 3} of waste cartridge filters. All water discharges are regulated by a state of New Jersey Pollutant Discharge Elimination System Permit implemented by the Federal Water Pollution Control Act (Clean Water Act). Laboratory analyses are required to satisfy requirements of the state NPDES permit. Specific monitoring parameters and discharge rates will be provided. Use of the water treatment systems drastically reduces the amount of contaminated water requiring solidification and water disposal to near zero. Millions of liters of potentially contaminated water from excavation activities is treated and released within permit limits. A small volume of solid radioactive waste (21 cubic meters) is generated annually from water treatment process operations. Management of ground and surface water is effectively controlled in remediation areas by the use of sumps, erosion control measures and pumping of water to storage vessels. Continued excavations can be made as water impacting the site is effectively controlled. (authors)

Beckman, John C. [US Army Corps of Engineers, Baltimore District, Baltimore, MD 21201 (United States)

2012-07-01

441

EVALUATION OF DRINKING WATER TREATMENT TECHNOLOGIES FOR REMOVAL OF ENDOCRINE DISRUPTING COMPOUNDS  

EPA Science Inventory

Many of the chemicals identified as potential endocrine disrupting compounds (EDCs) may be present in surface or ground waters used as drinking water sources due to their introduction from domestic and industrial sewage treatment systems and wet-weather runoff. In order to dec...

442

Catalytic ozonation and methods of enhancing molecular ozone reactions in water treatment  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents a review of catalytic ozonation and methods of enhancing molecular ozone reactions in water treatment. It is also an attempt to propose general ideas about mechanisms governing catalytic ozone reactions. Catalytic ozonation is a new means of contaminants removal from drinking water and wastewater. Its application is mainly limited to laboratory use. However, due to successful results

Barbara Kasprzyk-Hordern; Maria Zió?ek; Jacek Nawrocki

2003-01-01

443

LPT. Shield test facility (TAN646) interior. Water treatment room contains ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

LPT. Shield test facility (TAN-646) interior. Water treatment room contains water softeners, deionizers, and display panel. Note metal ceiling and walls. Photographer: Jack L. Anderson. Date: February 20, 1959. INEEL negative no. 59-856 - Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, Test Area North, Scoville, Butte County, ID

444

Evaluation of the impact of hot water treatment on the sensory quality of fresh tomatoes  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Minimizing the effects of chilling injury during shelf-life is important for maintaining the sensory quality of fresh tomato fruit. Postharvest hot water treatments within certain limits of exposure time and water temperature have been shown to increase the resistance of tomatoes to chilling injury....

445

Reverse osmosis (RO) treatment of Tucson's share of Central Arizona Project (CAP) water is being con-  

E-print Network

Reverse osmosis (RO) treatment of Tucson's share of Central Arizona Project (CAP) water is being, are needed before large-scale production of treated CAP water can become cost-effective. Investigators Smith (UA) Umur Yenal (UA) PROJECT FUNDING CYCLE 2007 PROJECT GOALS This project had three main goals: 1

Fay, Noah

446

Water Research 36 (2002) 36473653 Treatment of perchlorate-and nitrate-contaminated  

E-print Network

Water Research 36 (2002) 3647­3653 Treatment of perchlorate- and nitrate-contaminated groundwater of nitrate, perchlorate removal rate (rP; ppb/min) in the reactor was found to be first order with respect:89; po10�5 ). When nitrate was present in the water, similar perchlorate removals were achieved despite

447

PHOTOCATALYTIC OXIDATION OF METHYL-TERT-BUTYL ETHER FOR DRINKING WATER TREATMENT  

EPA Science Inventory

The photo-oxidation of methyl tert-butyl ether (MTBE) in water was investigated to determine the feasibility of using photocatalysis for the treatment of MTBE-contaminated drinking water. The feasibility assessment was conducted using slurries of titanium dioxide in both a photo-...

448

Impact of temperature on nitrification in biological activated carbon (BAC) filters used for drinking water treatment  

Microsoft Academic Search

The impact of temperature on nitrification in biological granular activated carbon (GAC) filters was evaluated in order to improve the understanding of the nitrification process in drinking water treatment. The study was conducted in a northern climate where very cold water temperatures (below 2°C) prevail for extended periods and rapid shifts of temperature are frequent in the spring and fall.

Anneli Andersson; Patrick Laurent; Anne Kihn; Michèle Prévost; Pierre Servais

2001-01-01

449

Polyelectrolytes: Wastewater and sewage treatment. (Latest citations from the Selected Water Resources Abstracts database). Published Search  

SciTech Connect

The bibliography contains citations concerning polyelectrolytes in wastewater and water treatment. Topics include flocculation, coagulation, separation techniques, pollutant identification, water pollution sources, and sludge dehydration. Hospital wastewater processing, methods of synthesizing polyelectrolyte complexes, and performance evaluations of polyelectrolytes are also discussed. (Contains 250 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.)

Not Available

1994-04-01

450

We All Live Downstream. A Guide to Waste Treatment That Stops Water Pollution.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Based on the idea that the prevention and treatment of water pollution should begin at its source, this document focuses on some methods that individuals can use in their homes and businesses to treat wastewater. Chapter one, "What Is the Water Crisis?" explains the basic concepts of the hydrologic cycle, evapotranspiration, and the quantity of…

Costner, Pat; And Others

451

PERSISTENCE OF INDIGENOUS VIRUSES THROUGH THE PROCESSING REGIMEN AT AN OPERATING WATER TREATMENT PLANT  

EPA Science Inventory

The levels of viable indigenous bacteriophages and human enteric viruses contained in raw water entering a full scale drinking water treatment facility were examined on a quarterly basis for a 1-year period. n these same sampling occasions, indigenous virus concentrations were al...

452

Microbial Survey of a Full-Scale, Biologically Active Filter for Treatment of Drinking Water  

PubMed Central

The microbial community of a full-scale, biologically active drinking water filter was surveyed using molecular techniques. Nitrosomonas, Nitrospira, Sphingomonadales, and Rhizobiales dominated the clone libraries. The results elucidate the microbial ecology of biological filters and demonstrate that biological treatment of drinking water should be considered a viable alternative to physicochemical methods. PMID:22752177

DeBry, Ronald W.; Lytle, Darren A.

2012-01-01

453

Temperature tolerances of toxic dinoflagellate cysts: application to the treatment of ships' ballast water  

Microsoft Academic Search

Using toxic dinoflagellates and their resistant resting cysts as model organisms, we demonstrate the potential of heat treatment as a method to minimise the transport of harmful aquatic organisms via ships' ballast water. Vegetative dinoflagellate cultures of Gymnodinium catenatum could be readily killed using temperatures as low as 35 °C and treatment times in the range 30 minutes to 5

Gustaaf M. Hallegraeff; Joseph P. Valentine; Judith-Anne Marshall; Christopher J. Bolch

1997-01-01

454

Real-time water treatment process control with artificial neural networks  

Microsoft Academic Search

With more stringent requirements being placed on water treatment performance, operators need a reliable tool to optimize the process control in the treatment plant. In the present paper, one such tool is presented, which is a process control system built with the artificial neural network (ANN) modeling approach. The coagulation, flocculation, and sedimentation processes involve many complex physical and chemical

Qing Zhang; Stephen J. Stanley

1999-01-01

455

Modeling fruit internal heating rates for hot air and hot water treatments  

Microsoft Academic Search

Hot air and hot water heating methods have been extensively studied as thermal treatments to control insect pests in fruits to replace chemical fumigation. An inherent difficulty in using these methods is that slow heating rates may result in long treatment times and possible damage to fruit quality. Many factors influence heating time. A systematic analysis of those influences is

S. Wang; J. Tang; R. P. Cavalieri

2001-01-01

456

Behaviours of natural organic matter in membrane filtration for surface water treatment — a review  

Microsoft Academic Search

Membrane application in surface water treatment provides many advantages over conventional treatment. However, this effort is hampered by the fouling issue, which restricts its widespread application due to increases in hydraulic resistances, operational and maintenance costs, deterioration of productivity and frequency of membrane regeneration problems. This paper discusses natural organic matter (NOM) and its components as the major membrane foulants

A. W. Zularisam; A. F. Ismail; Razman Salim

2006-01-01

457

Impacts of full secondary treatment at the joint water pollution control plant  

Microsoft Academic Search

In September 1979, the Sanitation Districts of Los Angeles County applied for a 301(h) waiver for modification of secondary treatment requirements for the Joint Water Pollution Control Plant. As specified by Environmental Protection Agency regulations, the waiver evaluated the environmental impacts associated with implementation of partial secondary treatment as compared to elimination of the wastewater discharge entirely. This paper presents

R. Miele

1985-01-01

458

Waste water treatment: Chemical industry. (Latest citations from Pollution Abstracts). Published Search  

SciTech Connect

The bibliography contains citations concerning wastewater treatment of industrial pollutants. The use and effectiveness of biological treatments and carbon additives are examined. References also discuss problems and recommendations for the removal of mercury and its compounds, fertilizers, and pesticides from polluted waste water. (Contains 250 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.)

Not Available

1992-05-01

459

Cost and Performance Evaluation of Treatment Technologies for MTBE-Contaminated Water  

Microsoft Academic Search

Treatment of Methyl Tert-Butyl Ether (MTBE) from contaminated surface and groundwater supplies presents specific challenges due to the physicochemical properties of MTBE which depend strongly on its hydrophilic nature, and translate into a high solubility in water, very low HenryÕs constant and very low affinity for common adsorbents. In this study we evaluate two common treatment technologies, air stripping and

Arturo A. Keller; Orville C. Sandall; Robert G. Rinker; Marie M. Mitani; Britta Bierwagen; Michael J. Snodgrass

1998-01-01

460

FOULING-RESISTANT CERAMIC MEMBRANES FOR TREATMENT OF METASTABLE OIL/WATER EMULSIONS - PHASE I  

EPA Science Inventory

Billions of gallons of oily wastewaters are generated daily by a variety of industrial sources. One class of oily wastewaters, metastable oil/water emulsions, encompasses waste streams for which a need exists for more cost-effective and reliable treatment. Current treatment...

461

Microbial Survey of a Full-Scale, Biologically Active Filter for Treatment of Drinking Water  

EPA Science Inventory

Biological nitrification has been used as a reliable technology in wastewater treatment for decades. Implementing biological approaches to drinking water treatment has faced resistance in the United States due in part to the lack of understanding of microbial processes and conce...

462

Separation of saturated hydrocarbons from coal by treatment with water at supercritical parameters  

SciTech Connect

The treatment of coals of various degrees of metamorphism in supercritical water (SCW) over the temperature region 380-800{sup o}C was studied. The yields and compositions of liquid products obtained by treatment in SCW were determined. These data were compared with the results of the semicoking of the above coals.

M.R. Predtechenskiy; M.V. Pukhovoy [Russian Academy of Sciences, Novosibirsk (Russia). Kutateladze Institute of Thermophysics

2008-10-15

463

Treatment of coal and formic acid mixtures with water at supercritical parameters  

SciTech Connect

The treatment of coals of various degrees of metamorphism in supercritical water (SCW) over the temperature region 380-800{sup o}C was studied. The possibility of obtaining strong agglomerates from the powders of long-flame and oxidized fat noncoking coals by treatment in SCW was demonstrated. The strength of agglomerates was commensurable with the strength of lump coal.

M.R. Predtechenskii; M.V. Pukhovoi; A.N. Smal; A.O. Uuemaa [Russian Academy of Sciences, Novosibirsk (Russian Federation). Kutateladze Institute of Thermophysics, Siberian Division

2007-08-15

464

POINT-OF-USE TREATMENT OF DRINKING WATER IN SAN YSIDRO, NM  

EPA Science Inventory

This study was conducted to determine whether point-of-use (POU) reverse osmosis (RO) units could satisfactorily function in lieu of central treatment to remove arsenic and fluoride from the drinking water supply of San Ysidro, NM. POU treatment was evaluated for removal efficien...

465

POINT-OF-USE TREATMENT OF DRINKING WATER IN SAN YSIDRO, NM  

EPA Science Inventory

A study was conducted to determine whether point-of-use reverse osmosis units could satisfactorily function in lieu of central treatment to remove arsenic and fluoride from the drinking water supply of a small community. Point-of-use treatment was evaluated for removal efficiency...

466

Permeable Reactive Barriers for mine water treatment in the UK: lessons from laboratory-scale applications  

Microsoft Academic Search

Permeable reactive barriers (PRBs) for mine water remediation have found limited application in the UK to date, but there is an increasing need to address treatment of near-subsurface leachate from coal spoil, as these become the limiting factor to further environmental improvements in former coal mining areas. PRBs may well be an important option for passive treatment of such discharges.

Gozzard Emma; Bowden Lawrence I; Younger Paul L

467

Microbial fuel cell treatment of ethanol fermentation process water  

DOEpatents

The present invention relates to a method for removing inhibitor compounds from a cellulosic biomass-to-ethanol process which includes a pretreatment step of raw cellulosic biomass material and the production of fermentation process water after production and removal of ethanol from a fermentation step, the method comprising contacting said fermentation process water with an anode of a microbial fuel cell, said anode containing microbes thereon which oxidatively degrade one or more of said inhibitor compounds while producing electrical energy or hydrogen from said oxidative degradation, and wherein said anode is in electrical communication with a cathode, and a porous material (such as a porous or cation-permeable membrane) separates said anode and cathode.

Borole, Abhijeet P. (Knoxville, TN)

2012-06-05

468

Optimisation of combined coagulation and microfiltration for water treatment  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effect of upstream coagulant dosing for full-flow microfiltration of an upland-reservoir water has been investigated. The process, run under conditions of constant flux and pH and based on a ferric salt, is compared with a published study of another full-flow process based on alum dosing and operated at constant pressure and coagulant concentration. The current study includes data for

S. J. Judd; P. Hillis

2001-01-01

469

Electrochemical treatment of pharmaceutical azo dye amaranth from waste water  

Microsoft Academic Search

The electrochemical behavior of pharmaceutical azo dye amaranth has been investigated in distilled water and Britton–Robinson\\u000a buffer. One well-defined irreversible cathodic peak is observed. This may be attributed to the reduction of the –N=N– group.\\u000a Calculation of the number of electrons transferred in the reduction process has been performed and a reduction mechanism proposed.\\u000a Results indicate that the electrode process

Rajeev Jain; Nidhi Sharma; Keisham Radhapyari

2009-01-01

470

In-situ treatment of acid mine waters using fluidized bed ash: Field study  

SciTech Connect

A slurry of mine water and fluidized bed ash (FBA) was injected into an abandoned coal mine in eastern Oklahoma in July 1997. Oil-field technology was used to inject 1.8 Gg (418 tons) of FBA through five wells in 15 hours. Prior to injection the seep water had a pH of 4.4, was net acidic (acidity over 400 mg/L as CaCO{sub 3}), and had relatively high metal concentrations (in mg/L: Fe-200; Mn-7; and Al-6). After injection, during the period of effective treatment, the seep water had a pH above 6.0, less net acidity, and had lower metals concentrations (in mg/L: Fe-120; Mn-5; and Al-{lt}PQL). When the treated seep water exited the mine, the dissolved metals oxidized and hydrolyzed. As the metals precipitated, the alkalinity introduced by the FBA was consumed and the pH dropped. However, the seep water characteristics upon entering the receiving stream were improved, compared to pre-injection. The resulting seep water quality is such that it is more amenable to further treatment by passive treatment methods, such as anoxic limestone drains or wetlands. Alkaline injection is a finite treatment process. Eventually, the added alkalinity is exhausted, at which time the seep returns to pre-injection conditions, necessitating another injection of ash. For the study discussed in this paper, the treatment lasted approximately 15 months. While the amount of alkalinity added to the mine could have potentially treated much more than a year's volume of seep water, it is believed that much of the injected alkalinity was unavailable in backwater areas in the mine. This alkalinity contributed little, if any, to the treatment of water flowing through the mine. Mine hydrology, especially during injection are crucial to treatment longevity.

Everett, J.W.; Canty, G.A.

1999-07-01

471

The application of fluorescence spectroscopy to organic matter characterisation in drinking water treatment  

Microsoft Academic Search

Key to effective disinfection byproduct (DBP) management is source water control and management, and more specifically, organic\\u000a matter (OM) control and management. However, the content and character of OM in source waters is spatially and temporally\\u000a variable, and the prediction of its composition is challenging. Water treatment companies require adequate analytical techniques\\u000a for OM characterisation to maintain the operation of

John BridgemanMagdalena Bieroza; Magdalena Bieroza; Andy Baker

472

Pollution-control equipment (Brazil). Water treatment and distribution equipment, June 1992. Export trade information  

SciTech Connect

The market of water treatment and distribution equipment in Brazil is expected to reach US $330 million in 1992, up 11% from 1991. Much needed investments in the sanitation sector by municipal water supply companies should stimulate this market to recover from the idle production capacity and reduced output it is currently experiencing. The lower import duties imposed on water supply equipment and instruments should cause imports also to rise from US $24 million in 1991 to around US $27 million in 1992.

Not Available

1992-06-01

473

1. GENERAL VIEW OF WATER STORAGE/TREATMENT AREA; OPEN AREA IN ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

1. GENERAL VIEW OF WATER STORAGE/TREATMENT AREA; OPEN AREA IN FOREGROUND IS TOP OF ONE-MILLION-GALLON UNDERGROUND RESERVOIR (BUILDING 190); TWO-STORY BUILDING AT CENTER OF PHOTO (BUILDING 190 ADDITION) CONTAINS WATER SOFTENING EQUIPMENT; EAST SIDE OF BUILDING 27 VISIBLE AT RIGHT; BUILDINGS 181 AND 149 AT LEFT BACKGROUND; NORTHWEST CORNER OF BUILDING 166 AT EXTREME LEFT - Rath Packing Company, Reservoir-Water Softener Building, Sycamore Street between Elm & Eighteenth Streets, Waterloo, Black Hawk County, IA

474

Boiling water and silane pre-treatment of aluminium alloys for durable adhesive bonding  

Microsoft Academic Search

Three series of aluminium alloys received a surface pre-treatment including immersion in boiling water followed by soaking in a 1% aqueous solution of 3-glycidoxytrimethoxysilane. When aluminium was pre-treated in this manner, adhesive joints formed with a range of epoxy resins produced notable improvements in bond durability in comparison with simple abrasion pre-treatments. In some cases, the pre-treatment improved joint durability

A. N Rider; D. R Arnott

2000-01-01

475

Managing water and salinity with desalination, conveyance, conservation, waste-water treatment and reuse to counteract climate variability in Gaza  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We include demands for water of different salinity concentrations as input parameters and decision variables in a regional hydro-economic optimization model. This specification includes separate demand functions for saline water. We then use stochastic non-linear programming to jointly identify the benefit maximizing set of infrastructure expansions, operational allocations, and use of different water quality types under climate variability. We present a detailed application for the Gaza Strip. The application considers building desalination and waste-water treatment plants and conveyance pipelines, initiating water conservation and leak reduction programs, plus allocating and transferring water of different qualities among agricultural, industrial, and urban sectors and among districts. Results show how to integrate a mix of supply enhancement, conservation, water quality improvement, and water quality management actions into a portfolio that can economically and efficiently respond to changes and uncertainties in surface and groundwater availability due to climate variability. We also show how to put drawn-down and saline Gaza aquifer water to more sustainable and economical use.

Rosenberg, D. E.; Aljuaidi, A. E.; Kaluarachchi, J. J.

2009-12-01

476

PHYSICAL REMOVAL OF MICROBIAL CONTAMINANTS IN DRINKING WATER ? WATTS PREMIER INC. WP-4V DRINKING WATER TREATMENT SYSTEM  

EPA Science Inventory

The Watts Premier WP-4V four-stage POU RO system was tested for removal of bacteria and viruses at NSF?s Drinking Water Treatment Systems Laboratory. Five systems were challenged with the bacteriophage viruses fr and MS2, and the bacteria Brevundimonas diminutaEM. The ...

477

ETV REPORT: REMOVAL OF CHEMICAL CONTAMINANTS IN DRINKING WATER ? WATTS PREMIER INC. WP-4V DRINKING WATER TREATMENT SYSTEM  

EPA Science Inventory

The Watts Premier WP-4V POU drinking water treatment system was tested for removal of aldicarb, benzene, cadmium, carbofuran, cesium, chloroform, dichlorvos, dicrotophos, fenamiphos, mercury, mevinphos, oxamyl, strontium, and strychnine. The WP-4V employs a reverse osmosis (RO) m...

478

Modeling of underground thermal behavior of solar hot water during treatment of harmful plants  

SciTech Connect

Annihilation of harmful plants among vegetables by solar hot-water injection into the roots is an alternative to chemical treatment methods. A three-dimensional solution of the heat diffusion equation between the treated region and the vegetable root is presented with related boundary conditions. Soil properties and dimensional characteristics are important for obtaining safety limitations of the treatment. A mathematical model with suitable outputs gives practical results for correct application of solar hot water. Critical distances between overheating of vegetable roots and useful irrigation water effects are distinguished.

Eltez, M. [Ege Univ., Bornova-Izmir (Turkey). Solar Energy Inst.

1998-04-01

479

Biofouling of Water Treatment Membranes: A Review of the Underlying Causes, Monitoring Techniques and Control Measures  

PubMed Central

Biofouling is a critical issue in membrane water and wastewater treatment as it greatly compromises the efficiency of the treatment processes. It is difficult to control, and significant economic resources have been dedicated to the development of effective biofouling monitoring and control strategies. This paper highlights the underlying causes of membrane biofouling and provides a review on recent developments of potential monitoring and control methods in water and wastewater treatment with the aim of identifying the remaining issues and challenges in this area. PMID:24958430

Nguyen, Thang; Roddick, Felicity A.; Fan, Linhua

2012-01-01

480

Biochemical composition of organic matter in UK Midlands catchments: implications for drinking water treatment  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Insufficient removal of natural organic matter at treatment works can lead to the formation of potentially carcinogenic disinfection by-products (mainly trihalomethanes and haloacetic acids, THMs and HAAs) due to reactions of residual organic matter with chlorine added at the disinfection stage of water treatment process. However, the total organic carbon (TOC) removal efficiency is controlled by the content and character of organic matter in treated water, spatially and temporally dependent (e.g. the ratio of hydrophylic and hydrophobic fractions). Thus, a better understanding of organic matter composition can affect the treatment process strategies, improving the THM formation prediction and the quantification of coagulant and disinfection dosages. Fluorescence analysis of organic matter composition and treatment efficiency has been carried out on raw and partially-treated water samples from catchments in the Midlands region of the UK. The catchments cover an area of different water sources, ranging from upland, peaty-rich subcatchments with coloured, young waters, to agriculturally transformed lowland subcatchments. From the spectrophotometric analysis of raw water it was found that, the abstraction from river with water storage in reservoirs corresponds with a hydrophilic character of organic matter, rather high microbial fraction and high TOC. Opposite properties (hydrophobic, low microbial and variable TOC) are specific for sites with abstraction and storage processes within reservoirs. For direct abstraction from rivers, without water storing in reservoir, a common pattern is intermediate character of organic matter. The fluorescence excitation-emission matrix (EEM) technique was used for the assessment of water treatment works performance (TOC removal) and organic matter characterization. The freshwater organic matter exhibits specific fluorescence properties, with increased intensities of fluorescence in some regions of the EEM, resulting from the water origin. Well-documented relationships of fluorescence properties with aromacity, molecular weight, bioavailability, TOC and biochemical oxygen demand were the basis of discrimination of biochemical organic matter properties, and hence drinking water treatment implications. TOC removal was calculated from the decrease in organic matter peak C fluorescence intensity between raw and clarified water samples. The organic matter character therefore determines the TOC removal at different water treatment works. Low TOC removal appears to correlate with high microbial content and variability of the organic matter characterizing riverine sources, whereas stable, high TOC removal corresponds with small microbial fraction of organic matter of low variability (sites with abstraction from reservoirs).

Bieroza, M.; Bridgeman, J.; Baker, A.

2007-12-01

481

Urban net-zero water treatment and mineralization: experiments, modeling and design.  

PubMed

Water and wastewater treatment and conveyance account for approximately 4% of US electric consumption, with 80% used for conveyance. Net zero water (NZW) buildings would alleviate demands for a portion of this energy, for water, and for the treatment of drinking water for pesticides and toxic chemical releases in source water. However, domestic wastewater contains nitrogen loads much greater than urban/suburban ecosystems can typically absorb. The purpose of this work was to identify a first design of a denitrifying urban NZW treatment process, operating at ambient temperature and pressure and circum-neutral pH, and providing mineralization of pharmaceuticals (not easily regulated in terms of environmental half-life), based on laboratory tests and mass balance and kinetic modeling. The proposed treatment process is comprised of membrane bioreactor, iron-mediated aeration (IMA, reported previously), vacuum ultrafiltration, and peroxone advanced oxidation, with minor rainwater make-up and H2O2 disinfection residual. Similar to biological systems, minerals accumulate subject to precipitative removal by IMA, salt-free treatment, and minor dilution. Based on laboratory and modeling results, the system can produce potable water with moderate mineral content from commingled domestic wastewater and 10-20% rainwater make-up, under ambient conditions at individual buildings, while denitrifying and reducing chemical oxygen demand to below detection (<3 mg/L). While economics appear competitive, further development and study of steady-state concentrations and sludge management options are needed. PMID:23770482

Englehardt, James D; Wu, Tingting; Tchobanoglous, George

2013-09-01

482

Planted floating bed performance in treatment of eutrophic river water.  

PubMed

The objective of the study was to treat eutrophic river water using floating beds and to identify ideal plant species for design of floating beds. Four parallel pilot-scale units were established and vegetated with Canna indica (U1), Accords calamus (U2), Cyperus alternifolius (U3), and Vetiveria zizanioides (U4), respectively, to treat eutrophic river water. The floating bed was made of polyethylene foam, and plants were vegetated on it. Results suggest that the floating bed is a viable alternative for treating eutrophic river water, especially for inhibiting algae growth. When the influent chemical oxygen demand (COD) varied from 6.53 to 18.45 mg/L, total nitrogen (TN) from 6.82 to 12.25 mg/L, total phosphorus (TP) from 0.65 to 1.64 mg/L, and Chla from 6.22 to 66.46 g/m(3), the removal of COD, TN, TP, and Chla was 15.3%-38.4%, 25.4%-48.4%, 16.1%-42.1%, and 29.9 %-88.1%, respectively. Ranked by removal performance, U1 was best, followed by U2, U3, and U4. In the floating bed, more than 60% TN and TP were removed by sedimentation; plant uptake was quantitatively of low importance with an average removal of 20.2% of TN and 29.4% of TP removed. The loss of TN (TP) was of the least importance. Compared with the other three, U1 exhibited better dissolved oxygen (DO) gradient distributions, higher DO levels, higher hydraulic efficiency, and a higher percentage of nutrient removal attributable to plant uptake; in addition, plant development and the volume of nutrient storage in the C. indica tissues outperformed the other three species. C. indica thus could be selected when designing floating beds for the Three Gorges Reservoir region of P. R. China. PMID:23737127

Bu, Faping; Xu, Xiaoyi

2013-11-01

483

Utilization of immobilized urease for waste water treatment  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The feasibility of using immobilized urease for urea removal from waste water for space system applications is considered, specifically the elimination of the urea toxicity problem in a 30-day Orbiting Frog Otolith (OFO) flight experiment. Because urease catalyzes the hydrolysis of urea to ammonia and carbon dioxide, control of their concentrations within nontoxic limits was also determined. The results of this study led to the use of free urease in lieu of the immobilized urease for controlling urea concentrations. An ion exchange resin was used which reduced the NH3 level by 94% while reducing the sodium ion concentration only 10%.

Husted, R. R.

1974-01-01

484

Chapter Five Passive Treatment of Polluted Mine Waters  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a As contaminated mine waters flow into and through receiving systems (streams, rivers, wetlands and lakes), their toxic characteristics\\u000a commonly decrease. Many studies (e.g. Tuttle et al., 1969, Wieder and Lang 1982; Huntsman 1978; Stark et al., 1990; Herlihy and Mills 1985) have shown that this amelioration in quality occurs as a result of:\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a  \\u000a \\u000a natural chemical and biological reactions and

Paul L. Younger; Steven A. Banwart; Robert S. Hedin

485

Improvements in mixing operations of water treatment plants by use of a stable finite element model.  

PubMed

This work shows improvements made in mixing operations at water treatment plants, as a result of the hydrodynamic analysis of the mixing processes carried out by the use of a Finite Element Model. The code, developed in the Civil Engineering Department of the University of La Coruña, Spain, solves the Navier-Stokes equations that rule viscous incompressible flow by using a Streamline Upwind/Petrov-Galerkin (SUPG) stabilization technique. The incorporation of the SUPG formulation leads to obtaining stable solutions for Reynolds numbers of a moderate order in connection with meshes that are not very refined. Some water treatment units present significant deficiencies in their design. The numerical evaluation of the flow avoids the high expenses of the trial-and-error processes involved in installing and removing the mixing mechanisms and those derived from the need to halt the water treatment processes. As a result, an optimum design of the treatment plant is obtained at a low cost. PMID:17605331

Vellando, P; Fe, J; Juncosa, R; Padilla, F

2007-06-01

486

Determination of PCDF/PCDD in sludges from a drinking water treatment plant influence of chlorination treatment.  

PubMed

A preliminary study to assess the origin and evolution of polichlorodibenzofurans (PCDFs) and polichlorodibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs) in a drinking water treatment plant (DWTP) was undertaken. Samples of coagulation sludges and exhausted granular activated carbon (GAC) were collected from a DWTP. Owing to the similar congener profiles obtained from sludges and GAC, a subsequent study of chlorination influence was carried out. Sludge samples from a treatment with and without the chlorination step were analysed. A complementary study of the PCB content was made. The results obtained did not reveal a marked influence of chlorination in the formation of PCDFs/PCDDs. PMID:9134669

Rivera, J; Eljarrat, E; Espadaler, I; Martrat, M G; Caixach, J

1997-01-01

487

Mine water treatment with limestone for sulfate removal.  

PubMed

Limestone can be an option for sulfate sorption, particularly from neutral mine drainages because calcium ions on the solid surface can bind sulfate ions. This work investigated sulfate removal from mine waters through sorption on limestone. Continuous stirred-tank experiments reduced the sulfate concentration from 588.0mg/L to 87.0mg/L at a 210-min residence time. Batch equilibrium tests showed that sulfate loading on limestone can be described by the Langmuir isotherm, with a maximum loading of 23.7mg/g. Fixed-bed experiments were utilized to produce breakthrough curves at different bed depths. The Bed Depth Service Time (BDST) model was applied, and it indicated sulfate loadings of up to 20.0gSO(4)(2-)/L-bed as the flow rate increased from 1 to 10mL/min. Thomas, Yoon-Nelson and dose-response models, predicted a maximum particle loading of 19mg/g. Infrared spectrometry indicated the presence of sulfate ions on the limestone surface. Sulfate sorption on limestone seems to be an alternative to treating mine waters with sulfate concentrations below the 1200-2000mg/L range, where lime precipitation is not effective. In addition, this approach does not require alkaline pH values, as in the ettringite process. PMID:22541641

Silva, Adarlêne M; Lima, Rosa M F; Leão, Versiane A

2012-06-30

488

Manganese and limestone interactions during mine water treatment.  

PubMed

Manganese removal from mining-affected waters is an important challenge for the mining industry. Addressed herein is this issue in both batch and continuous conditions. Batch experiments were carried out with synthetic solutions, at 23+/-2 degrees C, initial pH 5.5 and 8.3 g limestone/L. Similarly, continuous tests were performed with a 16.5 mg/L Mn(2+) mine water, at 23 degrees C, initial pH 8.0 and 20.8 g limestone/L. Calcite limestone gave the best results and its fine grinding proved to the most effective parameter for manganese removal. In either synthetic solutions or industrial effluents, the final manganese concentration was below 1 mg/L. A change in limestone surface zeta potential is observed after manganese removal and manganese carbonate formation was suggested by IR spectroscopy. The conclusion is that limestone can remove manganese from industrial effluents for values that comply with environmental regulations. PMID:20570440

Silva, A M; Cruz, F L S; Lima, R M F; Teixeira, M C; Leão, V A

2010-09-15

489

[Denitrification water treatment with zeolite composite filter by intermittent operation].  

PubMed

The zeolite composite filters (ZCF) with the size of4-8 mm were prepared using raw zeolite (0.15-0.18 mm) as the main material and the cement as binder. After a combination of material characterizations, such as the void fraction, apparent density, compression strength and surface area, the optimal prepared conditions of composite filters were obtained as follow: weight ratio of m (zeolite): m (cement) = 7 : 3, curing for 15 d under the moisture condition and ambient temperature. Through upflow low-concentration ammonia nitrogen wastewater, ZCF filled in the experimental column was hung with the biological membrane. Thus, intermittent dynamic experiments were conducted, the intermittent operation cycle included adsorption, biological regeneration and drip washing. Until concentration of ammonia nitrogen was more than 2 mg x L(-1) of effluent standards, water in experiment column was firstly emptied, and then blast biological regeneration was conducted. After the filters were bathed with water, the zeolite adsorption-biological regeneration cycle was performed repeatedly. The experimental results show that under conditions of 24 h blast and 5 d of continuous operation period, ammonia nitrogen removal rate is up to 87.6% on average, total nitrogen removal rate reaches 51.2% on average. PMID:23379168

Qing, Cheng-Song; Bao, Tao; Chen, Tian-Hu; Chen, Dong; Xie, Jing-Jing

2012-12-01

490

Effects of electrolyzed oxidizing water treatment on reducing Vibrio parahaemolyticus and Vibrio vulnificus in raw oysters.  

PubMed

Contamination of Vibrio parahaemolyticus and Vibrio vulnificus in oysters is a food safety concern. This study investigated effects of electrolyzed oxidizing (EO) water treatment on reducing V. parahaemolyticus and V. vulnificus in laboratory-contaminated oysters. EO water exhibited strong antibacterial activity against V. parahaemolyticus and V. vulnificus in pure cultures. Populations of V. parahaemolyticus (8.74 x 10(7) CFU/ml) and V. vulnificus (8.69 x 10(7) CFU/ml) decreased quickly in EO water containing 0.5% NaCl to nondetectable levels (> 6.6 log reductions) within 15 s. Freshly harvested Pacific oysters were inoculated with a five-strain cocktail of V. parahaemolyticus or V. vulnificus at levels of 10(4) and 10(6) most probable number (MPN)/g and treated with EO water (chlorine, 30 ppm; pH 2.82; oxidation-reduction potential, 1131 mV) containing 1% NaCl at room temperature. Reductions of V. parahaemolyticus and V. vulnificus in oysters were determined at 0 (before treatment), 2, 4, 6, and 8 h of treatment. Holding oysters inoculated with V. parahaemolyticus or V. vulnificus in the EO water containing 1% NaCl for 4 to 6 h resulted in significant (P < 0.05) reductions of V. parahaemolyticus and V. vulnificus by 1.13 and 1.05 log MPN/g, respectively. Extended exposure (> 12 h) of oysters in EO water containing high levels of chlorine (> 30 ppm) was found to be detrimental to oysters. EO water could be used as a postharvest treatment to reduce Vibrio contamination in oysters. However, treatment should be limited to 4 to 6 h to avoid death of oysters. Further studies are needed to determine effects of EO water treatment on sensory characteristics of oysters. PMID:16924906

Ren, Tingting; Su, Yi-Cheng

2006-08-01

491

Vacuum-UV radiation at 185 nm in water treatment--a review.  

PubMed

The vacuum-UV radiation of water results in the in situ generation of hydroxyl radicals. Low-pressure mercury vapor lamps which emit at 185 nm are potential sources of VUV radiation. The scope of this article is to give an overview of the application of VUV radiation at 185 nm for water treatment including the transformation of inorganic and organic water constituents, and the disinfection efficiency. Another focus is on the generation of ozone by VUV radiation from oxygen or air and the application of the produced ozone in combination with VUV irradiation of water in the VUV/O3 process. The advantages and limitation of the VUV process at 185 nm as well as possible applications in water treatment are outlined. PMID:24463177

Zoschke, Kristin; Börnick, Hilmar; Worch, Eckhard

2014-04-01

492

Chemical and bioanalytical assessments on drinking water treatments by quaternized magnetic microspheres.  

PubMed

This study aimed to compare the toxicity reduction performance of conventional drinking water treatment (CT) and a treatment (NT) with quaternized magnetic microspheres (NDMP) based on chemical analyses. Fluorescence excitation-emission-matrix combined with parallel factor analysis identified four components in source water of different rivers or lake, and the abundance of each component differed greatly among the different samples. Compared with the CT, the NT evidently reduced the concentrations of dissolved organic carbon, adsorbable organic halogens (AOX), bromide and disinfection by-products. Toxicological evaluation indicated that the NT completely eliminated the cytotoxicity, and greatly reduced the genotoxicity and oxidative stress of all raw water. In contrast, the CT increased the cytotoxicity of Taihu Lake and the Zhongshan River water, genotoxicity of Taihu Lake and the Mangshe River water, as well as the levels of superoxide dismutase and malondialdehyde of the Mangshe River water. Correlation analysis indicated that the AOX of the treated samples was significantly correlated with the genotoxicity and glutathione concentration, but exhibited no correlation with either of them for all the samples. As it can effectively reduce pollutant levels and the toxicities of drinking water, NDMP might be widely used for drinking water treatment in future. PMID:25481701

Shi, Peng; Ma, Rong; Zhou, Qing; Li, Aimin; Wu, Bing; Miao, Yu; Chen, Xun; Zhang, Xuxiang

2015-03-21

493

ETV REPORT: REMOVAL OF ARSENIC IN DRINKING WATER ? BASIN WATER HIGH EFFICIENCY ION EXCHANGE WATER TREATMENT SYSTEM  

EPA Science Inventory

Verification testing of the Basin Water System was conducted over a 54-day period between April 4, 2005 and May 28, 2005. The test was conducted at the Elsinore Valley Municipal Water District (EVMWD) Corydon Street Well in Lake Elsinore, California. The source water was a raw gr...

494

Oxidation kinetics of antibiotics during water treatment with potassium permanganate.  

PubMed

The ubiquitous occurrence of antibiotics in aquatic environments raises concerns about potential adverse effects on aquatic ecology and human health, including the promotion of increased antibiotic resistance. This study examined the oxidation of three widely detected antibiotics (ciprofloxacin, lincomycin, and trimethoprim) by potassium permanganate [KMnO(4); Mn(VII)]. Reaction kinetics were described by second-order rate laws, with apparent second-order rate constants (k(2)) at pH 7 and 25 degrees C in the order of 0.61 +/- 0.02 M(-1) s(-1) (ciprofloxacin) < 1.6 +/- 0.1 M(-1) s(-1) (trimethoprim) < 3.6 +/- 0.1 M(-1) s(-1) (lincomycin). Arrhenius temperature dependence was observed with apparent activation energies (E(a)) ranging from 49 kJ mol(-1) (trimethoprim) to 68 kJ mol(-1) (lincomycin). Rates of lincomycin and trimethoprim oxidation exhibited marked pH dependences, whereas pH had only a small effect on rates of ciprofloxacin oxidation. The effects of pH were quantitatively described by considering parallel reactions between KMnO(4) and individual acid-base species of the target antibiotics. Predictions from a kinetic model that included temperature, KMnO(4) dosage, pH, and source water oxidant demand as input parameters agreed reasonably well with measurements of trimethoprim and lincomycin oxidation in six drinking water utility sources. Although Mn(VII) reactivity with the antibiotics was lower than that reported for ozone and free chlorine, its high selectivity and stability suggests a promising oxidant for treating sensitive micropollutants in organic-rich matrices (e.g., wastewater). PMID:20704243

Hu, Lanhua; Martin, Heather M; Strathmann, Timothy J

2010-08-15

495

Removal of Stabilized Silver Nanoparticles from Ohio River Water by Potable Water Treatment Processes  

EPA Science Inventory

Due to their extensive use, silver nanoparticles (Ag NPs) are likely to occur in drinking water sources. Once released into the environment they are considered an emerging contaminant in water and wastewater. The main objective of this research is to investigate the removal of di...

496

Emergency water treatment with bleach in the United States: the need to revise EPA recommendations.  

PubMed

During emergencies in the United States, the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) currently recommends using bottled water, or boiling or treating water by adding 1/8 teaspoon (or 8 drops) of bleach to 1 gal of water. This bleach recommendation is internally inconsistent, a relatively high chlorine dose (5.55-8.67 mg/L), and unsupported by evidence. In this study, bleach was added in three different dosages to six waters available to emergency-affected populations in each of six states; free chlorine residual (FCR) and Escherichia coli/total coliforms were measured 1-24 h after treatment. Data were analyzed using four efficacy criteria. Results indicated the dosages in the current EPA recommendation are unnecessarily high to ensure (1) maintenance of FCR for 24 h after treatment, (2) absence of E. coli/total coliforms, and (3) establishment of a CT-factor sufficient to inactivate Giardia lamblia and enteric viruses 1 h after treatment. Additionally, emergency-prone populations did not have the materials to complete treatment with bleach in their household. Therefore, we recommend EPA review and revise the current recommendation to establish an internally consistent, criteria-based recommendation that is usable by emergency-affected populations. We also recommend investigating the use of new or commercially available water treatment products for emergency response in the United States. PMID:24684410

Lantagne, Daniele; Person, Bobbie; Smith, Natalie; Mayer, Ally; Preston, Kelsey; Blanton, Elizabeth; Jellison, Kristen

2014-05-01

497

Facile nanofibrillation of chitin derivatives by gas bubbling and ultrasonic treatments in water.  

PubMed

In this paper, we report that nanofiber network structures were constructed from chitin derivatives by gas bubbling and ultrasonic treatments in water. When chitin was first subjected to N2 gas bubbling with ultrasonication in water, the SEM images of the product showed nanofiber network morphology. However, nanofiber network was not re-constructed by the same N2 gas bubbling and ultrasonic treatments after agglomeration. We then have paid attention to an amidine group to provide the agglomeration-nanofibrillation behavior of chitin derivatives. An amidinated chitin was synthesized by the reaction of the amino groups in a partially deacetylated chitin with N,N-dimethylacetamide dimethyl acetal, which was subjected to CO2 gas bubbling and ultrasonic treatments in water to convert into an amidinium chitin by protonation. The SEM images of the product clearly showed nanofiber network morphology. We further examined re-nanofibrillation of the agglomerated material, which was obtained by mixing the nanofibrillated amidinium chitin with water, followed by drying under reduced pressure. Consequently, the material was re-nanofibrillated by N2 gas bubbling with ultrasonication in water owing to electrostatic repulsion between the amidinium groups. Furthermore, deprotonation of the amidinium chitin and re-protonation of the resulting amidinated chitin were conducted by alkaline treatment and CO2 gas bubbling-ultrasonic treatments, respectively. The material showed the agglomeration-nanofibrillation behavior during the processes. PMID:25238127

Tanaka, Kohei; Yamamoto, Kazuya; Kadokawa, Jun-ichi

2014-10-29

498

Bioanalytical assessment of the formation of disinfection byproducts in a drinking water treatment plant.  

PubMed

Disinfection of drinking water is the most successful measure to reduce water-borne diseases and protect health. However, disinfection byproducts (DBPs) formed from the reaction of disinfectants such as chlorine and monochloramine with organic matter may cause bladder cancer and other adverse health effects. In this study the formation of DBPs through a full-scale water treatment plant serving a metropolitan area in Australia was assessed using in vitro bioanalytical tools, as well as through quantification of halogen-specific adsorbable organic halogens (AOXs), characterization of organic matter, and analytical quantification of selected regulated and emerging DBPs. The water treatment train consisted of coagulation, sand filtration, chlorination, addition of lime and fluoride, storage, and chloramination. Nonspecific toxicity peaked midway through the treatment train after the chlorination and storage steps. The dissolved organic matter concentration decreased after the coagulation step and then essentially remained constant during the treatment train. Concentrations of AOXs increased upon initial chlorination and continued to increase through the plant, probably due to increased chlorine contact time. Most of the quantified DBPs followed a trend similar to that of AOXs, with maximum concentrations observed in the final treated water after chloramination. The mostly chlorinated and brominated DBPs formed during treatment also caused reactive toxicity to increase after chlorination. Both genotoxicity with and without metabolic activation and the induction of the oxidative stress response pathway showed the same pattern as the nonspecific toxicity, with a maximum activity midway through the treatment train. Although measured effects cannot be directly translated to adverse health outcomes, this study demonstrates the applicability of bioanalytical tools to investigate DBP formation in a drinking water treatment plant, despite bioassays and sample preparation not yet being optimized for volatile DBPs. As such, the bioassays are useful as monitoring tools as they provide sensitive responses even at low DBP levels. PMID:22873573

Neale, Peta A; Antony, Alice; Bartkow, Michael E; Farré, Maria José; Heitz, Anna; Kristiana, Ina; Tang, Janet Y M; Escher, Beate I

2012-09-18

499

Whole systems thinking for sustainable water treatment design  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Microbial fuel cell (MFC) technology could provide a low cost alternative to conventional aerated wastewater treatment, however there has been little comparison between MFC and aeration treatment using real wastewater substrate. This study attempts to directly compare the wastewater treatment efficiency and energy consumption and generation among three reactor systems, a traditional aeration process, a simple submerged MFC configuration, and a control reactor acting similar as natural lagoons. Results showed that all three systems were able to remove >90% of COD, but the aeration used shorter time (8 days) then the MFC (10 days) and control reactor (25 days). Compared to aeration, the MFC showed lower removal efficiency in high COD concentration but much higher efficiency when the COD is low. Only the aeration system showed complete nitrification during the operation, reflected by completed ammonia removal and nitrate accumulation. Suspended solid measurements showed that MFC reduced sludge production by 52-82% as compared to aeration, and it also saved 100% of aeration energy. Furthermore, though not designed for high power generation, the MFC reactor showed a 0.3 Wh/g COD/L or 24 Wh/m3 (wastewater treated) net energy gain in electricity generation. These results demonstrate that MFC technology could be integrated into wastewater infrastructure to meet effluent quality and save operational cost. The high cost and life-cycle impact of electrode materials is one major barrier to the large scale application of microbial fuel cells (MFC). We also demonstrate that biomass-derived black carbon (biochar), could be a more cost effective and sustainable alternative to granular activated carbon (GAC) and graphite granule (GG) electrodes. In a comparison study, two biochar materials made from lodgepole pine sawdust pellets (BCp) and lodgepole pine woodchips (BCc), gassified at a highest heat temperature (HHT) of 1000°C under a heating rate of 16°C/min, showed a satisfactory power density of 532 +/- 18 mW/m-2 and 457 +/- 20 mW/m-2 respectively, compared to GAC with 674 +/- 10 mW/m-2 and GG with 566 +/- 5 mW/m-2 (normalized to cathode projected surface area), as an anode material in a two-chamber MFC. BCc and BCp had BET-N2 surface area measurements of 429 cm2 g -1 and 470 cm2 g-1 respectively, lower than industrial GAC with 1248 cm2 g-1 but several orders of magnitude higher that GG with 0.44 cm2 g-1 . BCc and BCp had a lower surface resistance of 3+/-1? mm -1 and 6+/-1 ? mm-1 than 8+/-2? mm -1 for GAC, but higher that GG with 0.4+/-0.5 ? mm -1. We also investigated the life-cycle impact and estimated cost of biochar as an electrode material. Although there is no well-established market price for biochar, conservative estimates place the costs around 51-356 US/tonne, up to ten times cheaper that GAC (500-2500 US/tonne) and GGs (500-800 US$/tonne) with significantly greater life-cycle advantages.

Huggins, Mitchell Tyler

500

Evaluating the sustainability of ceramic filters for point-of-use drinking water treatment.  

PubMed

This study evaluates the social, economic, and environmental sustainability of ceramic filters impregnated with silver nanoparticles for point-of-use (POU) drinking water treatment in developing countries. The functional unit for this analysis was the amount of water consumed by a typical household over ten years (37,960 L), as delivered by either the POU technology or a centralized water treatment and distribution system. Results indicate that the ceramic filters are 3-6 times more cost-effective than the centralized water system for reduction of waterborne diarrheal illness among the general population and children under five. The ceramic filters also exhibit better environmental performance for four of five evaluated life cycle impacts: energy use, water use, global warming potential, and particulate matter emissions (PM10). For smog formation potential, the centralized system is preferable to the ceramic filter POU technology. This convergence of social, economic, and environmental criteria offers clear indication that the ceramic filter POU technology is a more sustainable choice for drinking water treatment in developing countries than the centralized treatment systems that have been widely adopted in industrialized countries. PMID:23991752

Ren, Dianjun; Colosi, Lisa M; Smith, James A

2013-10-01