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1

62 FR 8931 - Presidio Leadership Center  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...NATIONAL AND COMMUNITY SERVICE Presidio Leadership Center AGENCY: Corporation for National...Notice of availability of customized leadership training...Corporation for National Service's Presidio Leadership Center invites organizations...

1997-02-27

2

60 FR 12745 - Presidio Leadership Center Call for Public Participation  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...NATIONAL AND COMMUNITY SERVICE Presidio Leadership Center Call for Public Participation...Corporation) has established the Presidio Leadership Center (PLC) to train and develop...implementation, and evaluation of leadership development and leadership...

1995-03-08

3

34. Fort Winfield Scott and Presidio of San Francisco. August ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

34. Fort Winfield Scott and Presidio of San Francisco. August 1918. SHOWING THE LETTERMAN HOSPITAL COMPLEX, FOLLOWING CONSTRUCTION OF BUILDING 1006 AND 1049, IN CONTEXT WITH ENTIRE PRESIDIO IN 1918. - Presidio of San Francisco, Letterman General Hospital, Building No. 27, Letterman Hospital Complex, Edie Road, San Francisco, San Francisco County, CA

4

1. OVERVIEW OF MAIN HOSPITAL, NORTHEAST CORNER. Presidio of ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

1. OVERVIEW OF MAIN HOSPITAL, NORTHEAST CORNER. - Presidio of San Francisco, Letterman General Hospital, Building No. 27, Letterman Hospital Complex, Edie Road, San Francisco, San Francisco County, CA

5

22. Post Engineer Office, Presidio of San Francisco, Building # ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

22. Post Engineer Office, Presidio of San Francisco, Building # 1049 Letterman General Hospital. Alterations to EKG Cardiology Clinic. November 1963. BUILDING 1049. - Presidio of San Francisco, Letterman General Hospital, Building No. 12, Letterman Hospital Complex, Edie Road, San Francisco, San Francisco County, CA

6

21. Post Engineer Office, Presidio of San Francisco, Letterman Army ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

21. Post Engineer Office, Presidio of San Francisco, Letterman Army Hospital. EKG Cardiology Clinic, Building 1049. December 1955. BUILDING 1049. - Presidio of San Francisco, Letterman General Hospital, Building No. 12, Letterman Hospital Complex, Edie Road, San Francisco, San Francisco County, CA

7

42. Post Engineer Office, Presidio of San Francisco, Letterman Army ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

42. Post Engineer Office, Presidio of San Francisco, Letterman Army Hospital, X-Ray Department and Second Floor Plan, X-Ray Department Plan, Building 1006. no date. BUILDING 1006. - Presidio of San Francisco, Letterman General Hospital, Building No. 27, Letterman Hospital Complex, Edie Road, San Francisco, San Francisco County, CA

8

36. Post Engineer Office, Presidio of San Francisco. Plot Plan, ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

36. Post Engineer Office, Presidio of San Francisco. Plot Plan, Letterman Army Hospital, San Francisco, Calif. 1958. SHOWING LOCATION OF BUILDINGS 1006 AND 1049 IN LETTERMAN HOSPITAL COMPLEX IN 1958. - Presidio of San Francisco, Letterman General Hospital, Building No. 27, Letterman Hospital Complex, Edie Road, San Francisco, San Francisco County, CA

9

41. Post Engineer Office, Presidio of San Francisco, Letterman Army ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

41. Post Engineer Office, Presidio of San Francisco, Letterman Army Hospital, First Floor Plan, Main Laboratory Section and Plan, Building 1006. no date BUILDING 1006. - Presidio of San Francisco, Letterman General Hospital, Building No. 27, Letterman Hospital Complex, Edie Road, San Francisco, San Francisco County, CA

10

17. 'BIRDSEYEVIEW, PRESIDIO OF MONTEREY, CAL., JAN. 1938.' No signature, ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

17. 'BIRDSEYEVIEW, PRESIDIO OF MONTEREY, CAL., JAN. 1938.' No signature, photographer probably Anton C. Heidrick. This panoramic view looks west over Soldier Field from the upper floor or roof of the gymnasium. Original cool toned silver gelatin print measures 85.1 cm by 22.4 cm, flush mounted on mat board. - Presidio of Monterey, Soldier Field, Monterey, Monterey County, CA

11

17. BUILDING 1049, TOILET ROOM ON SECOND FLOOR. Presidio ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

17. BUILDING 1049, TOILET ROOM ON SECOND FLOOR. - Presidio of San Francisco, Letterman General Hospital, Building No. 12, Letterman Hospital Complex, Edie Road, San Francisco, San Francisco County, CA

12

East wing. Elevation of east side along Presidio Avenue, as ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

East wing. Elevation of east side along Presidio Avenue, as seen from the rooftop of the Laurel Inn across the street. - Jewish Community Center of San Francisco, 3200 California Street, San Francisco, San Francisco County, CA

13

14. 'TROOP A, OREGON CAVALRY IN CAMP AT PRESIDIO OF ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

14. 'TROOP A, OREGON CAVALRY IN CAMP AT PRESIDIO OF MONTEREY, CALIFORNIA, 1915.' Anton C. Heidrick, photographer. This panoramic view looks west from the lower end of Soldier Field, before construction of walls and roads. Original warm toned silver gelatin print measures 94.9 cm by 19.7 cm, flush mounted on mat board. - Presidio of Monterey, Soldier Field, Monterey, Monterey County, CA

14

Water Treatment  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This web site showcases Lenntech's Complete Water treatment and Air filtration solutions. This company designs, manufactures and installs complete air and water treatment system solutions. Lenntech proclaims, "Our wide range of technologies and extended know-how in all water-related sectors will guarantee you a cost-efficient solution meeting your water quality requirements." Whether or not you're looking to purchase one of these fine water treatment systems, the site will still provide beneficial resources about how said systems operate.

2008-09-17

15

WATER TREATMENT  

DOEpatents

An automated system for adding clarifying chemicals to water in a water treatment plant is described. To a sample of the floc suspension polyacrylamide or similar filter aid chemicals are added, and the sample is then put through a fast filter. The resulting filtrate has the requisite properties for monitoring in an optical turbidimeter to control the automated system. (AEC)

Pitman, R.W.; Conley, W.R. Jr.

1962-12-01

16

36 CFR 1011.6 - When will the Presidio Trust allow a debtor to enter into a repayment agreement?  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...will the Presidio Trust allow a debtor to enter into a repayment agreement? 1011.6...will the Presidio Trust allow a debtor to enter into a repayment agreement? (a) Voluntary...Presidio Trust will consider a request to enter into a voluntary repayment...

2010-07-01

17

36 CFR 1011.6 - When will the Presidio Trust allow a debtor to enter into a repayment agreement?  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...will the Presidio Trust allow a debtor to enter into a repayment agreement? 1011.6...will the Presidio Trust allow a debtor to enter into a repayment agreement? (a) Voluntary...Presidio Trust will consider a request to enter into a voluntary repayment...

2009-07-01

18

Usage and Administration Manual for a Geodatabase Compendium of Water-Resources Data Rio Grande Basin from the Rio Arriba-Sandoval County Line, New Mexico, to Presidio, Texas, 1889-2009.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the New Mexico Interstate Stream Commission, developed a geodatabase compendium (hereinafter referred to as the geodatabase) of available water-resources data for the reach of the Rio Grande from Rio Arriba-...

T. E. Burley

2010-01-01

19

Water Treatment Process  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this activity students can follow a drop of water from the source through the treatment process. Stop at each treatment point and unscramble the words to show where the water is along the treatment path. Click on each treatment point on the image to view the unscrambled answer and a little information about that treatment point. The treatment points are: coagulation, sedimentation, filtration, disinfection, and storage.

20

Tenant guidelines for energy-efficient renovation of buildings at the Presidio of San Francisco  

SciTech Connect

These Guidelines are intended to help current and future tenants of the Presidio work with designers and contractors to incorporate energy efficiency and sustainable practices into the renovations of the buildings. This guide is designed to complement the detailed Guidelines for Rehabilitating Buildings at the Presidio of San Francisco, available from the National Park Service. Energy efficiency yields benefits far beyond energy savings. Daylighting and efficient electric lighting, natural ventilation and cooling, and other conservation strategies improve tenant health, comfort, and productivity, while preserving the historical heritage of Presidio buildings. This guide examines the use of energy and resources and opportunities for efficiency in Presidio buildings on the basis of individual components and systems. The authors begin with recommended and discouraged practices for roofs, walls, and foundations, then move to windows and other opening. Next they address efficiency issues in building interiors--lighting, office equipment, and spacing planning. The authors follow with recommendations for mechanical and plumbing systems and conclude with insights on miscellaneous outdoor energy and resource concerns. A concise listing of sources of more detailed information is provided at the end of the document. The authors expect this guide to help tenants begin the process of using energy-efficient and sustainable practices throughout the Presidio of San Francisco.

Warner, J.L.; Sartor, D.; Diamond, R.

1997-06-01

21

Drinking Water Treatment  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This lesson provides an introduction to the treatment of drinking water to remove harmful or distasteful substances. Topics include the history of treatment and a brief listing of treatment processes. Students can examine a selection of online resources for more detailed information on modern treatment methods and potential contaminants. The lesson includes an activity in which they construct a model treatment plant and treat water that they have 'contaminated' themselves in order to observe firsthand the steps involved in purifying water for human consumption.

Laposata, Matt

22

Water Treatment Plant  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In most parts of the United States, getting clean, safe water is as easy as turning on a faucet. Generally, this water comes from either groundwater or nearby streams and reservoirs. What most of us never see or have to worry about are the steps required to make this water drinkable. This video segment, adapted from a ZOOM television broadcast, shows how a water treatment facility in Cambridge, Massachusetts purifies its city's water. The segment is two minutes twenty seconds in length.

23

Structure of the Presidio Bolson area, Texas, interpreted from gravity data  

SciTech Connect

To obtain a better understanding of the structure and tectonism of the region, an integrated geophysical-geological study of the Presidio area, Texas, was undertaken using gravity measurements and deep drilling data. New gravity data were combined with existing data to construct simple Bouguer anomaly maps of the Presidio area, and two-dimensional computer modeling of gravity profiles was used to derive earth models. These data outline the major geologic features of the area that are dominated by the effects of Tertiary block faulting and volcanism. The main feature of interest was the Presidio Graben, which is approximately 1.5 km deep near Ruidosa, Texas. One motivation for this study was the collection of a part of the basic scientific data needed to assess the geothermal potential of the area, and the results obtained support the hypothesis that hot springs associated with the Presidio Graben derive their heat from deep circulation along its boundary faults. However, some gravity anomalies observed could be interpreted as indicating the presence of late Tertiary intrusions that could provide heat for the hot springs.

Mraz, J.R.; Keller, G.R.

1980-01-01

24

Water Treatment Technology - Chlorination.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|One of twelve water treatment technology units, this student manual on chlorination provides instructional materials for nine competencies. (The twelve units are designed for a continuing education training course for public water supply operators.) The competencies focus on the following areas: purpose and process of chlorination, chlorine…

Ross-Harrington, Melinda; Kincaid, G. David

25

Water Treatment Technology - Hydraulics.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|One of twelve water treatment technology units, this student manual on hydraulics provides instructional materials for three competencies. (The twelve units are designed for a continuing education training course for public water supply operators.) The competencies focus on the following areas: head loss in pipes in series, function loss in…

Ross-Harrington, Melinda; Kincaid, G. David

26

Electrocoagulation in Water Treatment  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Electrocoagulation (EC) is an electrochemical method of treating polluted water where sacrificial anodes corrode to release active coagulant precursors (usually aluminum or iron cations) into solution. At the cathode, gas evolves (usually as hydrogen bubbles) accompanying electrolytic reactions. EC needs simple equipments and is designable for virtually any size. It is cost effective and easily operable. Specially, the recent technical improvements combined with a growing need for small-scale water treatment facilities have led to a revaluation of EC. In this chapter, the basic principle of EC was introduced first. Following that, reactions at the electrodes and electrode assignment were reviewed; electrode passivation process and activation method were presented; comparison between electrocoagulation and chemical coagulation was performed; typical design of the EC reactors was also described; and factors affecting electrocoagulation including current density, effect of conductivity, temperature, and pH were introduced in details. Finally, application of EC in water treatment was given in details.

Liu, Huijuan; Zhao, Xu; Qu, Jiuhui

27

Guidelines for sustainable building design: Recommendations from the Presidio of San Francisco energy efficiency design charrette  

SciTech Connect

In 1994, the Bay Chapter of the Association of Energy Engineers{reg_sign} organized a two-day design charrette for energy-efficient redevelopment of buildings by the National Park Services (NPS) at the Presidio of San Francisco. This event brought together engineers, researchers, architects, government officials, and students in a participatory environment to apply their experience to create guidelines for the sustainable redesign of Presidio buildings. The venue for the charrette was a representative barracks building located at the Main Post of the Presidio. Examination of this building allowed for the development of design recommendations, both for the building and for the remainder of the facilities. The charrette was organized into a committee structure consisting of: steering, measurement and monitoring, modeling, building envelope and historic preservation (architectural), HVAC and controls, lighting, and presentation. Prior to the charrette itself, the modeling and measurement/monitoring committees developed substantial baseline data for the other committees during the charrette. An integrated design approach was initiated through interaction between the committees during the charrette. Later, committee reports were cross-referenced to emphasize whole building design and systems integration.

Brown, K.; Sartor, D.; Greenberg, S. [and others

1996-05-01

28

Occupational Analysis: Water Treatment Technician  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Advanced Technology Environmental and Energy Center (ATEEC) has provided this document which includes an overview of general required competencies for water treatment technicians. General areas of competence such as water treatment processes, water sources and water quality are included,as well as specific tasks in each category.Users must download this resource for viewing, which requires a free log-in. There is no cost to download the item.

2011-02-14

29

Water treatment and monitor disinfection  

Microsoft Academic Search

Water treatment system and dialysis monitors are susceptible to microbial contaminations and pe- riodical disinfection procedures are mandatory to obtain results requested from international stand- ards and guidelines. Several chemical germicides or some physical treatments are on the market validated by device manufacturer according to medical device directives. With time, interfering sub- stances from dialysis device or water are able

Gianni CAPPELLI; Marco RICCARDI; Salvatore PERRONE; Moreno BONDI; Giulia LIGABUE; Alberto ALBERTAZZI

2006-01-01

30

WATER TREATMENT: CHARACTERISATION AND PERFORMANCE  

Microsoft Academic Search

In urban waste water treatment, a novel gas sparger based on flexible rubber membrane has been used for the last ten years. The objective of this present work is to compare two flexible membranes (the new membrane and the old membrane provided by ONDEO-DEGREMONT group) used in waste water treatment. For this purpose, the different membrane properties (hole diameter, pressure

Pisut PAINMANAKUL; Karine LOUBIERE; Gilles HEBRARD; P. BUFFIERE

31

MUST Waste Water Treatment System.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The purpose of this program was to develop a second-generation water treatment unit that would treat liquid wastes (except human) from the MUST Hospital and produce (1) water, safe for ground discharge, and (2) potable water. As the previous flotation sys...

C. A. Bryce J. A. Heist R. Leon R. J. Daley R. D. Holyer Black

1973-01-01

32

Analysis of Serpentine Soils in the Presidio of San Francisco, CA  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Serpentine soils and their associated serpentine prairie habitats are extremely rare. Within California, serpentine-derived soil comprises only 2,860 km2 of the State and represents less than 1% of the total land surface. The Presidio, a National Park located in San Francisco, CA, hosts several patches of serpentine habitat, which are currently being encroached by non-native plant species. The serpentine soils support threatened and endangered plant species, and are defined by the geochemical properties inherent to the soils. We analyzed the physical and geochemical properties of soils within the West Grassland area of the Presidio to characterize the distribution of serpentine soils across the study site. Our goal is to further understand sub-surface conditions, including depth to bedrock and changes in lithology with depth. Nine locations throughout the West Grassland portion of the Park were randomly selected and hand augured to a depth of 3-5 feet, and soil samples were obtained at 1-foot intervals. Physical properties including color and texture were obtained in the field. Soils overlying serpentine bedrock were found to have a clayey-loam texture. Depth to bedrock was shallow in hilly areas underlain by resistant, hill-forming serpentine bedrock. Auguring further revealed that topographic lows correlated to changes in lithology from soils that were serpentine-derived to sandy loams consistent with sand dune deposits found elsewhere in the vicinity. The geochemistry of selected samples is being analyzed for namely pH, nitrogen, calcium, and magnesium concentrations. Geochemical data will be compared to an existing database and a statistical analysis of the geochemical data will be used to correlate physical and textural data.

Matthew, A.; Chan, L.; Cheng, J.; Khalil, M.; White, L. D.; Gonzales, J.; La Force, M. J.

2004-12-01

33

Water Treatment: Advanced Photooxidation Processes.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A report from the rapporteur, for the first session during a workshop held by the Committee on Potential Applications of Concentrated Solar Photons, is presented. Systems for photooxidation water treatment are considered. Among the systems mentioned are t...

R. G. Zepp

1991-01-01

34

Water Quality and Treatment  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a Pollutants in water can be classified as:\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a  \\u000a \\u000a • Suspended solids — floating debris, settleable sediment or buoyant algae.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a  \\u000a \\u000a • a quality unrelated necessarily to solids, e.g. temperature, acidity, colour, odour or taste. the latter are often associated\\u000a with matter in the water, however.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a  \\u000a \\u000a • Dissolved chemicals — many cations, anions, with different effects, e.g. on health, equipment

David Stephenson

35

Special Lake Water Treatment Problems  

Microsoft Academic Search

One of the biggest problems that some water treatment plants dependent on surface water can have is keeping their intakes open. At Chicago, ice and microorganisms have been troublesome. Here is a description of the occurrences that bothered both of Chicago's filtration plants, explanations of their causes, and solutions.

James C. Vaughn

1972-01-01

36

Surface Water Treatment Workshop Manual.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This manual was developed for use at workshops designed to increase the knowledge of experienced water treatment plant operators. Each of the fourteen lessons in this document has clearly stated behavioral objectives to tell the trainee what he should know or do after completing that topic. Areas covered in this manual include: basic water

Ontario Ministry of the Environment, Toronto.

37

Water Treatment Technology - Distribution Systems.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

One of twelve water treatment technology units, this student manual on distribution systems provides instructional materials for six competencies. (The twelve units are designed for a continuing education training course for public water supply operators.) The competencies focus on the following areas: types of pipe for distribution systems, types…

Ross-Harrington, Melinda; Kincaid, G. David

38

Arsenic in water treatment.  

SciTech Connect

Sandia National Laboratories (SNL) is collaborating with the Awwa Research Foundation (AwwaRF) and WERC (A Consortium for Environmental Education and Technology Development) in a program for the development and testing of innovative technologies that have the potential to substantially reduce the costs associated with arsenic removal from drinking water. Sandia National Laboratories will administer contracts placed with AwwaRF and WERC to carry out bench scale studies and economic analyses/outreach activities, respectively. The elements of the AwwaRF program include (1) identification of new technologies, (2) proof-of-concept laboratory studies and, (3) a research program that will meet the other needs of small utilities by providing solutions to small utilities so that they may successfully meet the new arsenic MCL. WERC's activities will include development of an economic analysis tool for Pilot Scale Demonstrations and development of educational training and technical assistance tools. The objective of the Sandia Program is the field demonstration testing of innovative technologies. The primary deliverables of the Sandia program will be engineering analyses of candidate technologies; these will be contained in preliminary reports and final analysis reports. Projected scale-up costs will be generated using a cost model provided by WERC or another suitable model.

Siegel, Malcolm Dean

2004-12-01

39

Computers and boiler water treatment  

SciTech Connect

Since the late 1970's, large in-house mainframes are used to maintain an extensive boiler technical database at Betz Laboratories. Likewise, large central computers are used for several years to implement and report water sample analyses (the Technical Analysis Program, TAP) and to help the clients manage daily water plant and steam plant data (Operational Support System, OSS). TechniProbe/sup R/, a computer-assisted engineering analysis of a boiler system, was established 2 years ago to marshal a series of water plant and steam plant programs into a coherent format and to develop system-specific treatment recommendations. The newest computer application in boiler water treatment is System Sentry, where the computer assumes an integral part in the operation of the steam plant, not just in data logging but also in the actual control of chemical feed systems and boiler blowdown to optimize boiler efficiency and greatly increase boiler operating reliability.

Bornak, W.E.

1985-01-01

40

Treatment of industrial effluent water  

SciTech Connect

This article reports on a thematic exhibition on ''New Developments in Treatment of Natural and Effluent Water'' in the Sanitary-Technical Construction Section at the Exhibition of Achievements of the National Economy of the USSR. The exhibition acquainted visitors with the achievements of leading organizations in different branches of industry with respect to treatment of natural and industrial effluent water. The Kharkov ''Vodkanalproekt'' Institute and the Kharkov affiliate of the All-Union Scientific-Research Institute of Water and Geodesy has jointly developed a ''Polymer-25'' filter for removal of oil products from nonexplosive effluent water discharged by machine building plants. A Baku affiliate has developed a new ShFP-1 screw-type press filter for dewatering the sediments from water treatment plants as well as for sediments from chemical, food, and other types of plants. The State Institute for Applied Chemistry has designed a continuous process plant for treating effluent water and removing toxic organic waste by converting them into mineral salts with high efficiency.

Levitskii, Yu.N.

1982-09-01

41

Benefits of Ozone Treatment for Bottled Water  

Microsoft Academic Search

The ozone treatment enhances the water quality of most drinking water in general. However, it is a key and essential treatment for the production of safe, high quality, good tasting, aesthetically pleasing and storage stable bottled water that the consumers have come to expect. The development and adaptation of ozone treatment in the 1970's resolved the troublesome and sometimes embarrassing

L. Joseph Bollyky

2002-01-01

42

[Treatment of thermal pool waters].  

PubMed

No laws currently exist regarding the treatment of spa pool water, since it is not completely logical that these should have the same requirements as normal swimming pools. The problem arises especially with regards to the use of chlorine as a disinfectant, which may actually annulate the therapeutic effects of spring waters by altering their physical-chemical characteristics. Possible choices may be represented by frequent replacement of pool water, which may be easily achievable for small pools but more difficult to implement for larger pools, or by alternative disinfection methods such as ozone or ultraviolet rays. The efficacy of these methods must be shown through frequent chemical and microbiological analyses and future, to be hoped-for laws or guidelines, will need to be aimed at defining safety performance standards rather than prescribing analytical intervention and control methods. Beyond the choice of disinfection method, it is extremely important to highlight some relevant hygienic measures that bathers should take and that play a fundamental role in preventing infectious diseases which may be acquired in pools. The most important of these include: showering before entering the pool, wearing slippers around the pool, not urinating in the pool, not bathing if affected by diarrhea, wearing a bathing cap, avoiding the use of contact lenses while bathing and avoiding exchanging towels. Pool managers have the important role of avoiding overcrowding of the facilities and ensuring that all technological systems function properly. PMID:17206228

Signorelli, Carlo; Pasquarella, Cesira; Saccani, Elisa; Sansebastiano, Giuliano

43

Raw water pre-treatment methods in pharmaceutical water systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

The use of pre-treatment methods for the raw water used to produce pharmaceutical grade water is growing in popularity, especially when it results in better operating reliability and a longer operating lifetime of the downstream treatment plant and equipment. Andreas Müller and Thomas Menzel, Christ AG, Switzerland, discuss the background to pre-treatment, and explain when such systems are necessary and

Andreas Müller; Thomas Menzel

2004-01-01

44

ACTIVATED CARBON FROM LIGNITE FOR WATER TREATMENT  

Microsoft Academic Search

High concentrations of humate in surface water result in the formation of excess amounts of chlorinated byproducts during disinfection treatment. These precursors can be removed in water treatment prior to disinfection using powdered activated carbon. In the interest of developing a more cost-effective method for removal of humates in surface water, a comparison of the activities of carbons prepared from

Edwin S. Olson; Daniel J. Stepan

2000-01-01

45

DRINKING WATER TREATMENT PLANT ADVISOR - USER DOCUMENTATION  

EPA Science Inventory

The Drinking Water Treatment Plant (DWTP) Advisor is a software application which has been designed to provide assistance in the evaluation of drinking water treatment plants. Specifically, this program, which is based on the source document Interim Handbook Optimizing Water Trea...

46

Physical and Chemical Water Quality of Ilam Water Treatment Plant  

Microsoft Academic Search

4 Abstract: Water usually has some dissolved elements such as solids and gasses. Existences of some elements in water are necessary for human health, but deficiency of many them can cause problems. At this research chemical and physical parameters of produced water in Ilam Water Treatment has determined and compared with Iran and world health organization (WHO) standards. In this

Sajad Mazloomi; Mohammad Hadi Dehghani; Mehdi Norouzi; Mehdi Fazlzadeh Davil

47

Water Treatment of Fuel Cell  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Received the award, we would like to take this opportunity to thank and to describe, where is water used in fuel cell system, how do we treat water dew to source of water, what we do to purify water for fuel cell system in commercial or home use, what are the problems remaining.

Misumi, Yoshiteru; Iizuka, Hiroshi

48

Ozone Treatment in Cooling Water Systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

Ozone treatment for preventing the biofouling in cooling water systems is investigated.In the fresh water system, the separating effect of the ozonated water on the microorganisms such as the sphaerotilus and the zoogloea which adhere to the piping and form the slime is recognized. When the ozonated water is supplied intermittently to the piping without stopping the flow of the

N. Kaiga; T. Seki; K. Iyasu

1989-01-01

49

Water Treatment Technology - General Plant Operation.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

One of twelve water treatment technology units, this student manual on general plant operations provides instructional materials for seven competencies. (The twelve units are designed for a continuing education training course for public water supply operators.) The competencies focus on the following areas: water supply regulations, water plant…

Ross-Harrington, Melinda; Kincaid, G. David

50

Acid mine water treatment using engineered wetlands  

Microsoft Academic Search

During the last two decades, the United States mining industry has greatly increased the amount it spends on pollution control. The application of biotechnology to mine water can reduce the industry's water treatment costs (estimated at over a million dollars a day) and improve water quality in streams and rivers adversely affected by acidic mine water draining from abandoned mines.

Robert L. P. Kleinmann

1990-01-01

51

Uranium partitioning during water treatment processes  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a Water samples were collected from underground water purification plant to study the variation in uranium concentration through\\u000a the treatment processes and its relation to physical and chemical properties of water. Samples represent the different treatment\\u000a processes (input, output, after filtration, sludge tank, reverse osmosis permit and reject, and waste water ponds). Uranium\\u000a concentration in the collected samples were measured using

Ashraf E. M. Khater

52

7 CFR 305.22 - Hot water immersion treatment schedules.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2009-01-01 false Hot water immersion treatment schedules. 305.22...Treatments § 305.22 Hot water immersion treatment schedules. (a) T102-d...water's surface in a hot water immersion treatment tank certified by...

2009-01-01

53

7 CFR 305.22 - Hot water immersion treatment schedules.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-01-01 false Hot water immersion treatment schedules. 305.22...Treatments § 305.22 Hot water immersion treatment schedules. (a) T102-d...water's surface in a hot water immersion treatment tank certified by...

2010-01-01

54

Biological Drinking Water Treatment: Benefiting from Bacteria  

Microsoft Academic Search

While the use of microbial biomass for the degradation of contaminants, nutrients, and organics has been commonly used in the wastewater field since the early 1900s, the biological treatment of drinking water has been limited, particularly in the United States. However, recent developments in the drinking water treatment field are beginning to broaden the applicability, feasibility, and favorability of biological

Jess C. Brown; Carollo Engineers

55

Estimate the cost of water treatment technologies  

Microsoft Academic Search

One of the many problems faced in planning for a water treatment system is defining the cost with some accuracy. There are two stages where costs can be enumerated-first, in the planning phase and second, after the facility is in operation. We use a cost model, the WTCost (Water Treatment Cost Estimation Program) for the poultry wastewater purification process. The

Szép Angéla; H Horváth Zsuzsanna; Véha Antal; Hodúr Cecilia

56

Magnetic water treatment: A coming attraction?  

Microsoft Academic Search

United Airlines and pharmaceutical company Eli Lilly and Company are among a number of users that are controlling scale and corrosion in cooling tower loops with magnetic water treatment, a controversial technology that has met with skepticism, disbelief, and claims of fraud. Experts and hundreds of published papers disagree on whether magnetic water treatment works, and if so, how. No

1995-01-01

57

FOREST TREATMENT EFFECTS ON WATER YIELD  

Microsoft Academic Search

Results are reported for thirty-nine studies of the effect of altering forest cover on water yield. Taken collectively, these studies reveal that forest reduction increases water yield, and that reforestation de- creases water yield. Results of individual treatments vary widely and for the most part are unpredictable. First-year response to complete forest reduction varies from 34 mm to more than

ALDEN R. HIBBERT

58

Radical change in water treatment technology  

Microsoft Academic Search

Water treatment technology focusses on the purification of domestic and industrial waste waters in keeping with environmental requirements and with economic demands as much as possible. Producing clear water ready for discharge into rivers is not the only objective; sewage sludge obtaining in the process as well will have to be treated in such a way as to allow recycling

Nebiker

2009-01-01

59

Household Water Treatments in Developing Countries  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Household water treatments (HWT) can help provide clean water to millions of people worldwide who do not have access to safe water. This article describes four common HWT used in developing countries and the pertinent chemistry involved. The intent of this article is to inform both high school and college chemical educators and chemistry students…

Smieja, Joanne A.

2011-01-01

60

Grey water treatment systems: A review  

Microsoft Academic Search

This review aims to discern a treatment for grey water by examining grey water characteristics, reuse standards, technology performance and costs. The review reveals that the systems for treating grey water, whatever its quality, should consist of processes that are able to trap pollutants with a small particle size and convert organic matter to mineralized compounds. For efficient, simple and

L. N. A. H. Abu-Ghunmi; G. Zeeman; M. Fayyad; Lier van J. B

2011-01-01

61

Grey Water Treatment Systems: A Review  

Microsoft Academic Search

This review aims to discern a treatment for grey water by examining grey water characteristics, reuse standards, technology performance and costs. The review reveals that the systems for treating grey water, whatever its quality, should consist of processes that are able to trap pollutants with a small particle size and convert organic matter to mineralized compounds. For efficient, simple and

Lina Abu Ghunmi; Grietje Zeeman; Manar Fayyad; Jules B. van Lier

2011-01-01

62

Water Treatment Technology - Chemistry/Bacteriology.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

One of twelve water treatment technology units, this student manual on chemistry/bacteriology provides instructional materials for twelve competencies. (The twelve units are designed for a continuing education training course for public water supply operators.) The competencies focus on the following areas: waterborne diseases, water sampling…

Ross-Harrington, Melinda; Kincaid, G. David

63

Water Treatment Technology - Chemistry/Bacteriology.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|One of twelve water treatment technology units, this student manual on chemistry/bacteriology provides instructional materials for twelve competencies. (The twelve units are designed for a continuing education training course for public water supply operators.) The competencies focus on the following areas: waterborne diseases, water sampling…

Ross-Harrington, Melinda; Kincaid, G. David

64

Continuous treatment of refinery waste waters  

Microsoft Academic Search

Removal of BOD, suspended solids and oil from vegetable oil refinery waste waters is best accomplished by isolation and treatment\\u000a of the most offensive streams. This approach reduces equipment and chemical treatment requirements, recovers by-products of\\u000a value and reduces overall costs of waste treatment and operation. A continuous process for clarification of acid water stream\\u000a from acidulation is given. Typical

L. S. Crauer

1970-01-01

65

Acid mine water treatment using engineered wetlands  

Microsoft Academic Search

During the last two decades, the United States mining industry has greatly increased the amount it spends on pollution control.\\u000a The application of biotechnology to mine water can reduce the industry's water treatment costs (estimated at over a million\\u000a dollars a day) and improve water quality in streams and rivers adversely affected by acidic mine water draining from abandoned\\u000a mines.

Robert L. P. Kleinmann

1990-01-01

66

WATER TREATMENT PROBLEMS AND CONSEQUENCES  

EPA Science Inventory

In recent years the emphasis on removing microbes from drinking water has increased. This increased concern was brought about partly by documented waterborne disease outbreaks in the US. Cryptosporidium concerns were elevated after the cryptosporodiosis outbreak in Milwaukee. Oth...

67

SEAWATER IN TREATMENT OF WASTE WATERS  

Microsoft Academic Search

Hypochlorite which is generated electrolytically from seawater under optimized conditions was evaluated for its (i) bacterial sensitivity to Escherichia coli in comparison to commercial bleaches and (ii) utilization in the treatment of sanitary effluent. Effective bacterial growth inhibition occurs using the hypochlorite containing seawater. Waste water samples from sewage treatment plant, from two sampling points, i.e., one after primary treatment

V. Chunilall; M. Govender; S. B. Jonnalagadda

2002-01-01

68

A Primer on Waste Water Treatment.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This information pamphlet is for teachers, students, or the general public concerned with the types of waste water treatment systems, the need for further treatment, and advanced methods of treating wastes. Present day pollution control methods utilizing primary and secondary waste treatment plants, lagoons, and septic tanks are described,…

Department of the Interior, Washington, DC. Federal Water Pollution Control Administration.

69

Evaluating Nanoparticle Breakthrough during Drinking Water Treatment  

PubMed Central

Background: Use of engineered nanoparticles (NPs) in consumer products is resulting in NPs in drinking water sources. Subsequent NP breakthrough into treated drinking water is a potential exposure route and human health threat. Objectives: In this study we investigated the breakthrough of common NPs—silver (Ag), titanium dioxide (TiO2), and zinc oxide (ZnO)—into finished drinking water following conventional and advanced treatment. Methods: NPs were spiked into five experimental waters: groundwater, surface water, synthetic freshwater, synthetic freshwater containing natural organic matter, and tertiary wastewater effluent. Bench-scale coagulation/flocculation/sedimentation simulated conventional treatment, and microfiltration (MF) and ultrafiltration (UF) simulated advanced treatment. We monitored breakthrough of NPs into treated water by turbidity removal and inductively coupled plasma–mass spectrometry (ICP-MS). Results: Conventional treatment resulted in 2–20%, 3–8%, and 48–99% of Ag, TiO2, and ZnO NPs, respectively, or their dissolved ions remaining in finished water. Breakthrough following MF was 1–45% for Ag, 0–44% for TiO2, and 36–83% for ZnO. With UF, NP breakthrough was 0–2%, 0–4%, and 2–96% for Ag, TiO2, and ZnO, respectively. Variability was dependent on NP stability, with less breakthrough of aggregated NPs compared with stable NPs and dissolved NP ions. Conclusions: Although a majority of aggregated or stable NPs were removed by simulated conventional and advanced treatment, NP metals were detectable in finished water. As environmental NP concentrations increase, we need to consider NPs as emerging drinking water contaminants and determine appropriate drinking water treatment processes to fully remove NPs in order to reduce their potential harmful health outcomes. Citation: Abbott Chalew TE, Ajmani GS, Huang H, Schwab KJ. 2013. Evaluating nanoparticle breakthrough during drinking water treatment. Environ Health Perspect 121:1161–1166;?http://dx.doi.org/10.1289/ehp.1306574

Chalew, Talia E. Abbott; Ajmani, Gaurav S.; Huang, Haiou

2013-01-01

70

SUMMARY REPORT: SMALL COMMUNITY WATER AND WASTE- WATER TREATMENT  

EPA Science Inventory

This summary report presents information on the unique needs of small communities facing new water and wastewater treatment requirements. t contains three main sections: technology overviews (each presents a process description, O&M requirements, technology limitations, and finan...

71

MEMBRANES FOR DRINKING WATER TREATMENT  

EPA Science Inventory

Various treatment technologies have proven effective in controlling halogenated disinfection by-products such as precursor removal and the use of alternative disinfectants. One of the most promising methods for halogenated by-product control includes removal of precursors before ...

72

Design and Compilation of a Geodatabase of Existing Salinity Information for the Rio Grande Basin, from the Rio Arriba-Sandoval County Line, New Mexico, to Presidio, Texas, 2010  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers, compiled salinity-related water-quality data and information in a geodatabase containing more than 6,000 sampling sites. The geodatabase was designed as a tool for water-resource management and includes readily available digital data sources from the U.S. Geological Survey, U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, New Mexico Interstate Stream Commission, Sustainability of semi-Arid Hydrology and Riparian Areas, Paso del Norte Watershed Council, numerous other State and local databases, and selected databases maintained by the University of Arizona and New Mexico State University. Salinity information was compiled for an approximately 26,000-square-mile area of the Rio Grande Basin from the Rio Arriba-Sandoval County line, New Mexico, to Presidio, Texas. The geodatabase relates the spatial location of sampling sites with salinity-related water-quality data reported by multiple agencies. The sampling sites are stored in a geodatabase feature class; each site is linked by a relationship class to the corresponding sample and results stored in data tables.

Shah, Sachin D.; Maltby, David R. II

2010-01-01

73

Verifying Ballast Water Treatment Performance  

EPA Science Inventory

The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, NSF International, Battelle, and U.S. Coast Guard are jointly developing a protocol for verifying the technical performance of commercially available technologies designed to treat ship ballast water for potentially invasive species. The...

74

043 DEVELOPMENT OF RESOURCE WATER QUALI TY OBJECTIVES FOR POTABLE WATER TREATMENT AT UMGENI WATER  

Microsoft Academic Search

Umgeni Water abstracts raw water from rivers and dams for potable water treatment, and therefore quality of the water resource is vital for the sustainability of its business. Areas of concern regarding the quality of water resource in the Umgeni Water operational area include eutrophication (nutrient enrichment and associated threats including algal blooms and weed infestations); faecal contamination and pathogen

Felicia Tiba; Kim Hodgson

75

Mobile water treatment plant special study  

SciTech Connect

Characterization of the level and extent of groundwater contamination in the vicinity of Title I mill sites began during the surface remedial action stage (Phase 1) of the Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action (UMTRA) Project. Some of the contamination in the aquifer(s) at the abandoned sites is attributable to milling activities during the years the mills were in operation. To begin implementation of Phase 11 groundwater remediation, the US Department of Energy (DOE) requested that (1) the Technical Assistance Contractor (TAC) conduct a study to provide for the design of a mobile water treatment plant to treat groundwater extracted during site characterization studies at completed Phase I UMTRA sites, and (2) the results of the TAC investigations be documented in a special study report. This special study develops the design criteria for a water treatment plant that can be readily transported from one UMTRA site to another and operated as a complete treatment system. The 1991 study provides the basis for selecting a mobile water treatment system to meet the operating requirements recommended in this special study. The scope of work includes the following: Determining contaminants, flows, and loadings. Setting effluent quality criteria. Sizing water treatment unit(s). Evaluating non-monetary aspects of alternate treatment processes. Comparing costs of alternate treatment processes. Recommending the mobile water treatment plant design criteria.

Not Available

1992-12-01

76

Alternative Water Treatment Systems Using Flotation Technology.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Feasibility study was conducted for a parallel comparison between conventional water treatment system and innovative flotation system (KROFTA SANDFLOAT). It was concluded that the innovative system is technically feasible for removal of turbidity, color, ...

M. Krofta L. K. Wang

1982-01-01

77

Pulsed-power treatment for physical water treatment  

Microsoft Academic Search

The objective of the present study was to examine the validity of a physical water treatment concept using a pulsed-power system, which was based on an induced electric field via Faraday's law. Heat transfer fouling tests were conducted and fouling resistance was measured over 820 h while maintaining the electric conductivity of circulating water at 2000 ?mho\\/cm. The fouling resistance

Young I. Cho; Wontae Kim

2005-01-01

78

Water treatment apparatus and method  

US Patent & Trademark Office Database

An apparatus for the biological treatment of saltwater-based domestic wastewater, the apparatus having an inlet for the introduction of the saltwater-based domestic wastewater, an outlet for the removal of treated wastewater, means for monitoring the salinity level of the saltwater-based domestic wastewater entering or within the apparatus and means for controlling the salinity level of the saltwater-based domestic wastewater entering or within the apparatus such that fluctuations in the salinity level of the saltwater-based domestic wastewater are reduced and the biological treatment of the saltwater-based domestic wastewater is thereby maintained.

Fry; John (Torfaen, GB); Jones; Gerald (Nr Swindon, GB)

2011-01-25

79

Reuse Water Treatment Sludge for Hollow Concrete Block Manufacture  

Microsoft Academic Search

Problem statement: This research reuses the water treatment sludge fro m a water treatment plant to make hollow concrete blocks. The main objectives are to increase the value of the water treatment sludge from a water treatment plant and t o make a sustainable and profitable disposal alternative for the water treatment sludge. Attempt s were made to utilize the

Thaniya Kaosol

80

Passive mine water treatment: the correct approach?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Passive waste water treatment technologies based on ecological principles for organic pollutants are gaining gradual acceptance in many industrial sectors in the western world. They represent a revival of the ancient stewardship of natural resources in response to the need for sustainable development. This revival has also lead to the use of wetlands for mine waste water with inorganic pollutants.

Margarete Kalin

2004-01-01

81

TREATMENT EFFECTIVENESS: OIL TANKER BALLAST WATER FACILITY  

EPA Science Inventory

A study dealing with the effectiveness of large-scale treatment of ballast water was conducted at the terminal facility of the TransAlaska Pipeline in Valdez, Alaska. The plant was found to be generally effective in reducing the petroleum content of the ballast water. On the aver...

82

Iowa's first electrodialysis reversal water treatment plant  

Microsoft Academic Search

In 1979 the City of Washington was notified by the Iowa Department of Natural Resources (IDNR) that the City was in violation of the radium standard for drinking water. The City of Washington authorized an engineering study to determine the most cost-effective and practical way to remove radium and, at the same time, improve overall water quality. Several possible treatment

John Hays

2000-01-01

83

Water Treatment Technology - Taste, Odor & Color.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|One of twelve water treatment technology units, this student manual on taste, odor, and color provides instructional materials for three competencies. (The twelve units are designed for a continuing education training course for public water supply operators.) The competencies focus on the following areas: taste and odor determination, control of…

Ross-Harrington, Melinda; Kincaid, G. David

84

Performance of small water treatment plants: The case study of Mutshedzi Water Treatment Plant  

Microsoft Academic Search

The performance of small water treatment plants (SWTPs) was evaluated using Mutshedzi WTP as a case study. The majority of SWTPs in South Africa (SA) that supply water to rural villages face problems of cost recovery, water wastages, limited size and semi-skilled labour. The raw and final water quality analyses and their compliance were used to assess the performance of

R. Makungo; J. O. Odiyo; N. Tshidzumba

2011-01-01

85

Treatment of water-containing coal  

SciTech Connect

Disclosed is a process for the treatment of water-containing coal. The process comprises: mixing the water-containing coal with a hydrocarbon oil having a specific gravity higher than that of water at temperatures in the range of 100 to 350/sup 0/C; heating the resulting mixture at a temperature in the range of 100 to 350/sup 0/C and a pressure not lower than the saturated va pressure of water at that temperature; and then allowing the heated mixture to settle at a temperature in the range of 100 to 350/sup 0/C and a pressure not lower than the saturated va pressure of water at that temperature, whereby an upper layer consisting of the water separated from the water-containing coal is formed on a lower layer consisting of the mixture of the dehydrated coal and the hydrocarbon oil.

Kubo, I.; Nagayoshi, S.; Oi, S.; Sakata, F.; Wada, T.

1982-01-05

86

Evaluating Nanoparticle Breakthrough during Drinking Water Treatment.  

PubMed

Background: Use of engineered nanoparticles (NPs) in consumer products is resulting in NPs in drinking water sources. Subsequent NP breakthrough into treated drinking water is a potential exposure route and human health threat.Objectives: In this study we investigated the breakthrough of common NPs-silver (Ag), titanium dioxide (TiO2), and zinc oxide (ZnO)-into finished drinking water following conventional and advanced treatment.Methods: NPs were spiked into five experimental waters: groundwater, surface water, synthetic freshwater, synthetic freshwater containing natural organic matter, and tertiary wastewater effluent. Bench-scale coagulation/flocculation/sedimentation simulated conventional treatment, and microfiltration (MF) and ultrafiltration (UF) simulated advanced treatment. We monitored breakthrough of NPs into treated water by turbidity removal and inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry (ICP-MS).Results: Conventional treatment resulted in 2-20%, 3-8%, and 48-99% of Ag, TiO2, and ZnO NPs, respectively, or their dissolved ions remaining in finished water. Breakthrough following MF was 1-45% for Ag, 0-44% for TiO2, and 36-83% for ZnO. With UF, NP breakthrough was 0-2%, 0-4%, and 2-96% for Ag, TiO2, and ZnO, respectively. Variability was dependent on NP stability, with less breakthrough of aggregated NPs compared with stable NPs and dissolved NP ions.Conclusions: Although a majority of aggregated or stable NPs were removed by simulated conventional and advanced treatment, NP metals were detectable in finished water. As environmental NP concentrations increase, we need to consider NPs as emerging drinking water contaminants and determine appropriate drinking water treatment processes to fully remove NPs in order to reduce their potential harmful health outcomes.Citation: Abbott Chalew TE, Ajmani GS, Huang H, Schwab KJ. 2013. Evaluating nanoparticle breakthrough during drinking water treatment. Environ Health Perspect 121:1161-1166;?http://dx.doi.org/10.1289/ehp.1306574. PMID:23933526

Chalew, Talia E Abbott; Ajmani, Gaurav S; Huang, Haiou; Schwab, Kellogg J

2013-07-22

87

Water and wastewater treatment system  

SciTech Connect

An apparatus is described for dissolving a plurality of gases into a recycled liquid stream by pressurization, releasing the pressurized recycled liquid stream, generating micro gas bubbles in a depressurized liquid stream, concentrating microorganisms as a floating scum on the surface of the depressurized liquid stream, recycling a portion of the concentrated microorganisms in the floating scum to an influent liquid stream for treating the influent liquid stream, and discharging a clarified effluent liquid stream comprising: (a) an influent pipe apparatus and a liquid flow measuring apparatus connected to the influent pipe apparatus for measuring the flow of an influent liquid stream; (b) a pretreatment chamber apparatus directly or indirectly connected to the influent pipe apparatus comprising feeder apparatus for feeding chemicals and/or microorganisms into the influent liquid stream; (c) a bioreactor; (d) apparatus for delivering at least one gas comprises a bubbles distribution apparatus positioned near bottom of the bioreactor apparatus for generating coarse gas bubbles with diameter greater than 80 microns; (e) apparatus positioned inside the bioreactor for holding microorganisms; (f) apparatus connected to the bioreactor for discharging the bioreactor effluent liquid stream; (g) apparatus connected to the bioreactor for receiving the recycled floating scum or settled sludges or both containing microorganisms; (h) an inlet pipe connected to a nozzle assembly; a gas injector connected to the inlet pipe, and a pump connected to the inlet pipe; (i) an enclosed cylindrical pressure vessel having a tangentially disposed liquid stream vessel inlet connected to the inlet pipe and pump; (k) the open vessel connected directly or indirectly to the bioreactor; (l) sludge removal apparatus; (m) post-treatment apparatus; and (n) a third discharge apparatus.

Wang, L.K.; Kurylko, L.; Wang, M.H.S.

1993-08-31

88

Rice water in treatment of infantile gastroenteritis.  

PubMed

In Singapore the World Health Organization's (WHO's) oral electrolyte solution for the treatment of infantile gastroenteritis has been used for 6 years and rice water has been used for 8 years. The rice water is the water used in preparing boiled rice or congee and is a slightly starchy solution. As the impression was that rice water was as effective as or even better than the oral electrolyte solution, a trial was conducted of the 2 solutions in babies with gastroenteritis admitted to the Department of Pediatrics of the National University of Singapore. Alternate cases were assigned consecutively to the oral electrolyte solution or to rice water. There were 63 patients on oral electrolyte and 67 on rice water. Milk was totally withdrawn for 24 hours after admission and the babies were put on 1 or the other oral solution. Intravenous 3.75% glucose and 0.23% saline was given at the same time to babies considered to be more dehydrated. On day 2, quarter strength powdered milk was given, followed by half strength on day 3, three-quarters strength on day 4, and full strength on day 5. Electrolyte and urea values were compared, both for "drip" versus "no drip" within oral treatment groups and between electrolyte solution and rice water groups (20 comparisons altogether). There were only 3 significant differences, and these might be explained by the intravenous drip and by the better water absorption from rice water than from the oral electrolyte solution. The most obvious difference in the 2 groups was in the effect on diarrhea (stools/day). Rice water cut down the number of stools more effectively than did oral electrolyte solution. No patient died, and there were no pathological sequelae in any of the 130 patients. Rice water can be tried as a more practical alternative to oral electrolyte solutions since there are problems with providing oral elecrolyte solutions to all babies with diarrhea in the developing countries and ensuring sterility. PMID:6113434

Wong, H B

1981-07-11

89

Activated seawater waste water treatment system  

SciTech Connect

A waste water treatment system for use in treating household waste water particularly for tidal coastal areas where seawater is plentiful and fresh water may be scarce. The system uses a source of seawater, preferably from a central storage location, to which hydrogen peroxide has been added. Individual households are provided with the seawater-hydrogen peroxide mixture as flush water directly into the toilet flush tanks. The discharge from each household, including wastes from toilets, bathing, wash and kitchen units, is fed to a series of two or three reaction chambers, and a filter unit before being drained back into the tidal waters. The system includes also a bypass line independent of the flushing mechanisms to provide a continuous source of the seawater-hydrogen peroxide mixture directly into the reaction chambers to insure continuous aerobic biochemical reaction with solids in the reaction chambers thus providing for continuous reaction independent of fluctuating rate of usage of the household waste systems.

Rehm, R.H.

1984-04-10

90

Energy conservation in water treatment: A study of four water treatment plants in Phoenix, Arizona  

SciTech Connect

The total annual energy cost for water supply in the city of Phoenix for the fiscal year 1980-81 was $7 million. Of this, energy costs for water treatment for the four water treatment plants serving the city was over 1 Million dollars. The study and research performed under this grant focuses on the energy cost saving opportunities in water treatment. Elements of major energy consuming functions in water treatment include electric motor-driven raw water pumps and treated water booster pumps, and electrical energy consumption from lighting, heating, ventilation, air conditioning and power driven process equipment. The objective of this project was to study the process and equipment used in water treatment, exclusive of booster pumping, and to identify cost saving alternatives. Both the analytical approaches as well as results are transferable to other urban areas. The research plan included the identification and analysis of existing water treatment methods and equipment for possible energy savings. It also included energy audits of building heating, ventilating and air-conditioning (HVAC) and lighting systems to identify energy conservation measures (ECM's). 8 figs., 20 tabs.

Not Available

1983-02-01

91

Acid mine water treatment using engineered wetlands  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

During the last two decades, the United States mining industry has greatly increased the amount it spends on pollution control. The application of biotechnology to mine water can reduce the industry's water treatment costs (estimated at over a million dollars a day) and improve water quality in streams and rivers adversely affected by acidic mine water draining from abandoned mines. Biological treatment of mine waste water is typically conducted in a series of small excavated ponds that resemble, in a superficial way, a small marsh area. The ponds are engineered to first facilitate bacterial oxidation of iron; ideally, the water then flows through a composted organic substrate that supports a population of sulfate-reducing bacteria. The latter process raises the pH. During the past four years, over 400 wetland water treatment systems have been built on mined lands as a result of research by the U.S. Bureau of Mines. In general, mine operators find that the wetlands reduce chemical treatment costs enough to repay the cost of wetland construction in less than a year. Actual rates of iron removal at field sites have been used to develop empirical sizing criteria based on iron loading and pH. If the pH is 6 or above, the wetland area (m2) required is equivalent to the iron load (grams/day) divided by 10. Theis requirement doubles at a pH of 4 to 5. At a pH below 4, the iron load (grams/day) should be divided by 2 to estimate the area required (m2).

Kleinmann, Robert L. P.

1990-03-01

92

Water quality of water source area in Taihu Lake and effect on water treatment process  

Microsoft Academic Search

Due to the severe pollution taken place in Taihu Lake, the investigation of water source quality in Taihu Lake is urgent for the development of drinking water treatment processes. Water samples taken from two water source areas in Taihu Lake were analyzed. The results showed that ammonia, TN, TP and CODMn were the dominant contaminants. The concentrations of those contaminants

Guangcan Zhu; Guangyu Zhao; Zhaohui Zhang; Xiwu Lu

2011-01-01

93

Costs for water supply, treatment, end-use and reclamation  

Microsoft Academic Search

The paper reviews the cost of different water supply and water treatment options around the world. The cost of supplying ground water is found to be proportional to the lift. The relationship between cost and volume of water treated by specific treatment options is assessed. Vehicular transportation of water is found to be very costly compared to wastewater treatment and

Anand K. Plappally; John H. Lienhard V

2012-01-01

94

Oxidative treatment of pharmaceuticals in water  

Microsoft Academic Search

Environmentally relevant pharmaceuticals were chosen according to human consumption and occurrence in the aquatic environment like sewage plant effluents, rivers and groundwater to investigate their behavior during oxidative water treatment. Derived from data compilation in literature the lipid lowering agent clofibric acid and the analgesic agents ibuprofen and diclofenac were selected. Analyses of the acidic compounds were carried out after

C. Zwiener; F. H. Frimmel

2000-01-01

95

Biological treatment of heavy metals contaminated waters  

Microsoft Academic Search

The precipitation of metals with biologically produced H2S by Sulphate Reducing Bacteria (SRB) in Permeable Reactive Barriers (PRB) has been proposed as a technology for the treatment of heavy metals contaminated waters. The aim of the work was the comparison between a selected reactive mixture containing organic matter for SRB and other electron donors, such as ethanol, glucose and polysaccharides.

Cruz Viggi Carolina; Pagnanelli Francesca; Cibati Alessio; Berteletti Cecilia; Toro Luigi

96

Falluja Waste Water Treatment System, Falluja, Iraq.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

In July 2008, the U.S. Ambassador became 'extremely concerned' that the Falluja Waste Water Treatment System had 'gone so far off track and for so long.' This project was originally planned to cost $32.5 million, be completed in 18 months in January 2006 ...

A. Johnston K. O'Connor T. Criswell

2008-01-01

97

Thermal power plant water treatment process  

Microsoft Academic Search

The requirements and treatment costs of water used in a fossil fuel fired power station are reduced by a process which employs multiple reverse osmosis stages. This process also employs station waste heat to concentrate solid waste material to facilitate disposal thereof.

H. Ludwig; K. Marquardt

1982-01-01

98

Magnetic water treatment: A coming attraction?  

SciTech Connect

United Airlines and pharmaceutical company Eli Lilly and Company are among a number of users that are controlling scale and corrosion in cooling tower loops with magnetic water treatment, a controversial technology that has met with skepticism, disbelief, and claims of fraud. Experts and hundreds of published papers disagree on whether magnetic water treatment works, and if so, how. No scientific theory has proven how magnets can treat water, nor are there documented, reproducible laboratory test results. Field experience is mixed, with some installations working well and others failing. Despite the controversy and the lack of an adequately documented theoretical underpinning, the existence of large, apparently successful installations lends credence to the view that at least some magnetic water treatment systems are effective. The stakes are high. Most large HVAC systems are currently treated with chemicals. These chemicals generally work well, but they are costly, in many cases are environmentally damaging, and are subject to increasingly strict regulations. A reliable, low-cost, and more environmentally benign alternative that eliminates or sharply reduces the need for chemical treatment would have obvious benefits. Based on the review of the literature, discussions with users, vendors, and independent analysts, and tours of several apparently successful installations, E Source believes that this technology works in some cases and warrants further investigation. They caution prospective users to shop carefully and to select vendors with an established track record.

Fryer, L.

1995-10-01

99

Discharges in Water and Applications to Wasted Water Treatment  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Recently the electrical discharge in water has been used for the water treatment. In this study, various shape of electrodes were examined to observe and measure the electrical discharge phenomena in water. Both the Marx generator and the pulsed power generator were used to generate the discharge in water. The oscillation on the waveforms of both applied voltage and discharge current was observed using the pulsed power generator whose peak applied voltage was about 80-120 kV and its discharge repetition rate was about one pulse per thirty seconds although it wasn't observed on the waveforms in the practical use of the high voltage generator (peak applied voltage was about 30-40 kV) with high repetition rate of discharge (20-300 pulses per second). Bubbles were introduced into the discharge region of main electrode using the ejector and the generation of hydroxyl radicals (OH) was confirmed by the measurement of emission spectrum of discharge in water and the intensity of OH radicals increased with the ratio of G/L (where, G is gas flow rate and L is water flow rate). The hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) was also measured and this reactor system was applied for the de-color of water.

Yamabe, Chobei; Yamashita, Takanori; Ihara, Satoshi

100

Costs of water treatment due to diminished water quality: A case study in Texas  

Microsoft Academic Search

Abstract The cost of municipal water treatment due to diminished water quality represents an important component of the societal costs of water pollution. Here, the chemical costs of municipal water treatment are expressed as a function of raw surface water quality. Data are used for a three year period for 12 water treatment plants in Texas. Results show that when

David Dearmont; Bruce A. McCarl; Deborah A. Tolman

1998-01-01

101

Costs of water treatment due to diminished water quality: A case study in Texas  

Microsoft Academic Search

The cost of municipal water treatment due to diminished water quality represents an important component of the societal costs of water pollution. Here the chemical costs of municipal water treatment are expressed as a function of raw surface water quality. Data are used for a 3-year period for 12 water treatment plants in Texas. Results show that when regional raw

David Dearmont; Bruce A. McCarl; Deborah A. Tolman

1998-01-01

102

Assessing the water quality index of water treatment plant and bore wells, in Delhi, India  

Microsoft Academic Search

Water quality monitoring exercise was carried out with water quality index (WQI) method by using water characteristics data\\u000a for bore wells and a water treatment plant in Delhi city from December 2006 to August 2007. The water treatment plant received\\u000a surface water as raw water, and product water is supplied after treatment. The WQI is used to classify water quality

M. K. Chaturvedi; J. K. Bassin

2010-01-01

103

Performance of small water treatment plants: The case study of Mutshedzi Water Treatment Plant  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The performance of small water treatment plants (SWTPs) was evaluated using Mutshedzi WTP as a case study. The majority of SWTPs in South Africa (SA) that supply water to rural villages face problems of cost recovery, water wastages, limited size and semi-skilled labour. The raw and final water quality analyses and their compliance were used to assess the performance of the Mutshedzi WTP. Electrical conductivity (EC), p\\Ncy and turbidity were measured in the field using a portable multimeter and a turbidity meter respectively. Atomic Absorption Spectrometry and Ion Chromatography were used to analyse metals and non-metals respectively. The results were compared with the Department of Water Affairs (DWA) guidelines for domestic use. The turbidity levels partially exceeded the recommended guidelines for domestic water use of 1 NTU. The concentrations of chemical parameters in final water were within the DWA guidelines for domestic water use except for fluoride, which exceeded the maximum allowable guideline of 1.5 mg/L in August 2009. Mutshedzi WTP had computed compliance for raw and final water analyses ranging from 79% to 93% and 86% to 93% throughout the sampling period, respectively. The results from earlier studies showed that the microbiological quality of final water in Mutshedzi WTP complied with the recommended guidelines, eliminating the slight chance of adverse aesthetic effects and infectious disease transmission associated with the turbidity values between 1 and 5 NTU. The study concluded that Mutshedzi WTP, though moving towards compliance, is still not producing adequate quality of water. Other studies also indicated that the quantity of water produced from Mutshedzi WTP was inadequate. The findings of the study indicate that lack of monitoring of quantity of water supplied to each village, dosage of treatment chemicals, the treatment capacity of the WTP and monitoring the quality of water treated are some of the factors that limit the performance of Mutshedzi WTP. These have been confirmed in literature to be widespread in similar WTPs in SA. It is recommended that water meters be provided and the community be advised to subsidise the cost of water supply. The study recommended that the treatments of turbidity and fluoride should form critical functions of the plant to ensure that final water for domestic use is always safe from any harmful substances or disease causing pathogens. The study concluded that the WTP only needs minor improvement to boost its efficiency with regard to the treatment of raw water. This will also ensure that the plant achieves 100% compliance for final water.

Makungo, R.; Odiyo, J. O.; Tshidzumba, N.

104

Biological treatment of alkaline industrial waste waters  

Microsoft Academic Search

The biotechnological treatment of alkaline waste waters (AWW) resulting from the production of caprolactam by the SNIA-viscosa process has been studied. The pollutant in the AWW is 80–120 g litre?1 cyclohexanecarboxysulphonate (CECS) sodium salt with a COD up to 325?000 mg litre?1. Bacterial strains have been isolated which are able to grow on AWW and to degrade the largest possible

S Baccella; G Cerichelli; M Chiarini; C Ercole; E Fantauzzi; A Lepidi; L Toro; F Vegliò

2000-01-01

105

Energy requirements for waste water treatment.  

PubMed

The actual mathematical models describing global climate closely link the detected increase in global temperature to anthropogenic activity. The only energy source we can rely on in a long perspective is solar irradiation which is in the order of 10,000 kW/inhabitant. The actual primary power consumption (mainly based on fossil resources) in the developed countries is in the range of 5 to 10 kW/inhabitant. The total power contained in our nutrition is in the range of 0.11 kW/inhabitant. The organic pollution of domestic waste water corresponds to approximately 0.018 kW/inhabitant. The nutrients contained in the waste water can also be converted into energy equivalents replacing market fertiliser production. This energy equivalent is in the range of 0.009 kW/inhabitant. Hence waste water will never be a relevant source of energy as long as our primary energy consumption is in the range of several kW/inhabitant. The annual mean primary power demand of conventional municipal waste water treatment with nutrient removal is in the range of 0.003-0.015 kW/inhabitant. In principle it is already possible to reduce this value for external energy supply to zero. Such plants should be connected to an electrical grid in order to keep investment costs low. Peak energy demand will be supported from the grid and surplus electric energy from the plant can be is fed to the grid. Zero 'carbon footprint' will not be affected by this solution. Energy minimisation must never negatively affect treatment efficiency because water quality conservation is more important for sustainable development than the possible reduction in energy demand. This argument is strongly supported by economical considerations as the fixed costs for waste water infrastructure are dominant. PMID:22214091

Svardal, K; Kroiss, H

2011-01-01

106

Microbiological quality of drinking water at eight water treatment plants.  

PubMed

Eight drinking water treatment plants were sampled monthly during one year to evaluate the removal of bacterial indicators, new indicators and some pathogenic bacteria. Six plants are allocated along the Nile River at Cairo segment and the two others on Ismailia Canal. In this study many parameters were determined; the classical bacterial indicators (total bacterial counts at 22 and 37 degrees C, total coliforms, faecal coliforms and faecal streptococci) show the same trend in all plant intakes except faecal streptococci parameter. The numbers of faecal streptococci in plant intakes on the main stream of Nile River ranged from 8 to 250 MPN/100 ml, but the others ranged from 80 to 2700 MPN/100 ml. With regard to new indicators; total yeasts, Candida albicans, Aeromonas hydrophlia and total staphylococci ranged from 10(1) to 10(5), 10(2) to 10(5), 10(2) to 10(5) and 10(2) to 10(3) cfu/100 ml, respectively. In case of pathogens, salmonellae ranged between 10(2) and 10(3) cfu/100 ml, total vibrios varied between 10(2) and 10(4) and the Listeria group ranged from 10(2) to 10(5) cfu/100 ml from the intake samples. All tested samples from the outlet of water treatment plants, which produce drinking water, were free of classical bacterial indicators. So the produced water has a good quality from the bacteriological point, according to national and international regulations. On the other hand, the drinking water from some tested plants had one or more positive parameters of new indicators and pathogenic bacteria. PMID:11798415

El-Taweel, G E; Shaban, A M

2001-11-01

107

Investigation on optimization of conventional drinking water treatment plant  

Microsoft Academic Search

Conventional drinking water treatment plant consists of coagulation, flocculation, sedimentation, and filtration and disinfection units. Depending on water quality influent, each unit can be optimized to achieve the desired water quality effluent, both in design and operation stages. A typical water treatment plant has the combination of processes needed to treat the contaminants in the source water treated by the

I. Piri; I. Homayoonnezhad; P. Amirian

2010-01-01

108

Oilfield Produced Water Treatment by Ozone-Enhanced Flocculation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Due to the difficulty of oilfield produced water treatment and low efficiency of coagulation technology. A more efficient treatment technology was necessity. Produced water treatment by ozone enhanced coagulation was investigated in this study in order to develop a new method for oilfield produced water treatment. The results showed that addition of ozone could reduce the dosage of coagulant (PAC)

Lihua Cheng; Xuejun Bi; Yantao Ni

2011-01-01

109

Scale Inhibition of Electromagnetic Water Treatment and Corrosion Behavior of Carbon Steel in Simulated Water  

Microsoft Academic Search

Physical water treatment attracts more attention because of its environmental protection and economic characteristics. The scale inhibition efficiency of frequency conversion pulsed electromagnetic water treatment were measured by weighing method. The results show that the scale inhibition efficiency increases with the treatment time and the hardness of the simulated water. The effect of electromagnetic water treatment to corrosion behavior of

Hong-Hua Ge; Xiao-Ming Gong; Rui Liu; Xin-Jing Meng; Yong Gu

2010-01-01

110

Direct Filtration of Biesbosch Water and Algae and Water Treatment in the Netherlands.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Contents: State of the Art: Direct Filtration of Biesbosch Water; Effect of Ozone and Potassium Permanganate on Direct Filtration Performance; and Algae and Water Treatment in the Netherlands, Problem Analysis and Treatment Strategies in Five Water Compan...

B. Petrusevski A. Vlaski A. N. van Breemen G. J. Alaerts

1993-01-01

111

1. WATER TREATMENT PUMPING AND STORAGE BUILDING, FRONT AND LEFT ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

1. WATER TREATMENT PUMPING AND STORAGE BUILDING, FRONT AND LEFT SIDES, LOOKING NORTHEAST. - NIKE Missile Base SL-40, Water Treatment & Storage Building, Southern portion of launch area, southeast of Ready Building, Hecker, Monroe County, IL

112

4. PHOTOCOPY, ARCHITECTURAL DETAILS FOR WATER TREATMENT PUMPING AND STORAGE ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

4. PHOTOCOPY, ARCHITECTURAL DETAILS FOR WATER TREATMENT PUMPING AND STORAGE BUILDING. - NIKE Missile Base SL-40, Water Treatment & Storage Building, Southern portion of launch area, southeast of Ready Building, Hecker, Monroe County, IL

113

2. WATER TREATMENT PUMPING AND STORAGE BUILDING, REAR AND RIGHT ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

2. WATER TREATMENT PUMPING AND STORAGE BUILDING, REAR AND RIGHT SIDES, LOOKING SOUTHWEST. - NIKE Missile Base SL-40, Water Treatment & Storage Building, Southern portion of launch area, southeast of Ready Building, Hecker, Monroe County, IL

114

2. Water treatment plant entrance, view to W Fort ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

2. Water treatment plant entrance, view to W - Fort Benton Water Treatment Plant, Filtration Plant, Lots 9-13 of Block 7, Fort Benton Original Townsite at Missouri River, Fort Benton, Chouteau County, MT

115

8. Water treatment plant, view to SE, berm in foreground ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

8. Water treatment plant, view to SE, berm in foreground covering settling tank - Fort Benton Water Treatment Plant, Filtration Plant, Lots 9-13 of Block 7, Fort Benton Original Townsite at Missouri River, Fort Benton, Chouteau County, MT

116

3. Water treatment plant, view to W, detail of door ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

3. Water treatment plant, view to W, detail of door area - Fort Benton Water Treatment Plant, Filtration Plant, Lots 9-13 of Block 7, Fort Benton Original Townsite at Missouri River, Fort Benton, Chouteau County, MT

117

10. Water treatment plant, view to S. 1965 addition is ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

10. Water treatment plant, view to S. 1965 addition is in the foreground - Fort Benton Water Treatment Plant, Filtration Plant, Lots 9-13 of Block 7, Fort Benton Original Townsite at Missouri River, Fort Benton, Chouteau County, MT

118

OBLIQUE VIEW OF SOUTH AND EAST SIDES OF WATER TREATMENT ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

OBLIQUE VIEW OF SOUTH AND EAST SIDES OF WATER TREATMENT PLANT, VIEW TOWARDS NORTHWEST - Ortona Lock, Lock No. 2, Water Treatment Plant, Caloosahatchee River, Cross-State Canal, Okeechobee Intracoastal Waterway, Ortona, Glades County, FL

119

13. Water treatment plant interior view of tanks in control ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

13. Water treatment plant interior view of tanks in control room. View to SW - Fort Benton Water Treatment Plant, Filtration Plant, Lots 9-13 of Block 7, Fort Benton Original Townsite at Missouri River, Fort Benton, Chouteau County, MT

120

4. Water treatment plant, view to NW, berm in foreground ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

4. Water treatment plant, view to NW, berm in foreground - Fort Benton Water Treatment Plant, Filtration Plant, Lots 9-13 of Block 7, Fort Benton Original Townsite at Missouri River, Fort Benton, Chouteau County, MT

121

14. Water treatment plant interior view of chlorination room. View ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

14. Water treatment plant interior view of chlorination room. View to N - Fort Benton Water Treatment Plant, Filtration Plant, Lots 9-13 of Block 7, Fort Benton Original Townsite at Missouri River, Fort Benton, Chouteau County, MT

122

7. Water treatment plant, view to E, berm in foreground ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

7. Water treatment plant, view to E, berm in foreground covering settling tank - Fort Benton Water Treatment Plant, Filtration Plant, Lots 9-13 of Block 7, Fort Benton Original Townsite at Missouri River, Fort Benton, Chouteau County, MT

123

OBLIQUE VIEW OF NORTH AND WEST SIDES OF WATER TREATMENT ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

OBLIQUE VIEW OF NORTH AND WEST SIDES OF WATER TREATMENT PLANT, FIRE PUMP HOUSE IN BACKGROUND, VIEW TOWARDS SOUTHEAST - Ortona Lock, Lock No. 2, Water Treatment Plant, Caloosahatchee River, Cross-State Canal, Okeechobee Intracoastal Waterway, Ortona, Glades County, FL

124

OBLIQUE VIEW OF EAST AND NORTH SIDES OF WATER TREATMENT ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

OBLIQUE VIEW OF EAST AND NORTH SIDES OF WATER TREATMENT PLANT, LOCK TENDER'S HOUSE IN BACKGROUND, VIEW TOWARDS SOUTHWEST - Ortona Lock, Lock No. 2, Water Treatment Plant, Caloosahatchee River, Cross-State Canal, Okeechobee Intracoastal Waterway, Ortona, Glades County, FL

125

6. Water treatment plant, view NE, berm in foreground ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

6. Water treatment plant, view NE, berm in foreground - Fort Benton Water Treatment Plant, Filtration Plant, Lots 9-13 of Block 7, Fort Benton Original Townsite at Missouri River, Fort Benton, Chouteau County, MT

126

5. Water treatment plant, view to N, berm in foreground ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

5. Water treatment plant, view to N, berm in foreground - Fort Benton Water Treatment Plant, Filtration Plant, Lots 9-13 of Block 7, Fort Benton Original Townsite at Missouri River, Fort Benton, Chouteau County, MT

127

Treatment of produced waters by electrocoagulation and reverse osmosis.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Two oil field produced waters and one coal bed methane produced water from Wyoming were treated with electrocoagulation and reverse osmosis. All three produced waters would require treatment to meet the new Wyoming Department of Environmental Quality requ...

K. Tuggle M. Humenick F. Barker

1992-01-01

128

40 CFR 141.83 - Source water treatment requirements.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...complete follow-up tap water monitoring (§ 141...copper levels at users' taps. (2) State determination regarding source water treatment. The State...lead or copper levels in water delivered to users' taps. If the State...

2010-07-01

129

40 CFR 141.83 - Source water treatment requirements.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...complete follow-up tap water monitoring (Sec. 141...copper levels at users' taps. (2) State determination regarding source water treatment. The State...lead or copper levels in water delivered to users' taps. If the State...

2009-07-01

130

40 CFR 141.83 - Source water treatment requirements.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Source water treatment requirements. 141.83 Section...ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) WATER PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) NATIONAL PRIMARY DRINKING WATER REGULATIONS Control of Lead and Copper...

2013-07-01

131

Treatment Agents for Separation of Oil and Water.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This invention concerns treatment agents for separation of oil and water in oil-polluted water, such as the waste water discharged from service stations. The treatment agents adsorb the oil content present in waste water when they are added in an appropri...

S. Tanaka N. Suda

1983-01-01

132

Flotation techniques for oily water treatment.  

PubMed

The aim of this work is to develop alternative techniques for the treatment of waters heavily contaminated by oil. Furthermore, the treatment system should achieve high removal efficiencies even under unfavorable conditions, when oil is finely dispersed in the water phase and oil droplet sizes range from 5-30 mm and concentrations are between 100 and 300 mg l(-1). The first experiments were carried out in an induced air flotation system where a flotation column performance was evaluated in batch and continuous operation. The second system investigated in this work focused on the association of centrifugal separation in a hydrocyclone and the flotation operation. The considered system is characterized by the association of these two processes, resulting the set-up in a compact unit (centrifugal flotation system). The bubbles generation and the droplet-bubble contact are performed through a gas-liquid ejector, while the separation of the phase rich in oil (froth phase) is promoted by a hydrocyclone. In both systems, it was possible to reduce the chemical demand of oxygen by more than 85% and the oil concentration of an emulsion containing droplets with sizes between 10 and 20 mm, using Polyacrilamide as destabilizing agent. PMID:12916838

Melo, M V; Sant'anna, G L; Massarani, G

2003-07-01

133

Treatment Of Waste Water From Food Industry Using Snail Shell  

Microsoft Academic Search

Waste water from a food- factory was characterized and treated using snail shell. The aim was to find out the effectiveness of snail shell as a coagulant in waste water treatment. The result of the parameter studied before and after treatment, shows a change in color from dark brown before treatment to light brown after treatment, there was reduction in

E. O Jatto; I. O Asia; E. E Egbon; J. O Otutu; M. E Chukwuedo; C. J Ewansiha

2010-01-01

134

Water Treatment: Can You Purify Water for Drinking?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Presents a three-day mini unit on purification of drinking water that uses the learning cycle approach. Demonstrates the typical technology that water companies use to provide high-quality drinking water. (JRH)

Harris, Mary E.

1996-01-01

135

Water Treatment: Can You Purify Water for Drinking?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Presents a three-day mini unit on purification of drinking water that uses the learning cycle approach. Demonstrates the typical technology that water companies use to provide high-quality drinking water. (JRH)|

Harris, Mary E.

1996-01-01

136

Risk management in waste water treatment.  

PubMed

With the continuous restructuring of the water market due to liberalisation, privatisation and internationalisation processes, the requirements on waste water disposal companies have grown. Increasing competition requires a target-oriented and clearly structured procedure. At the same time it is necessary to meet the environment-relevant legal requirements and to design the processes to be environment-oriented. The implementation of risk management and the integration of such a management instrument in an existing system in addition to the use of modern technologies and procedures can help to make the operation of the waste water treatment safer and consequently strengthen market position. The risk management process consists of three phases, risk identification, risk analysis/risk assessment and risk handling, which are based on each other, as well as of the risk managing. To achieve an identification of the risks as complete as possible, a subdivision of the kind of risks (e.g. legal, financial, market, operational) is suggested. One possibility to assess risks is the portfolio method which offers clear representation. It allows a division of the risks into classes showing which areas need handling. The determination of the appropriate measures to handle a risk (e.g. avoidance, reduction, shift) is included in the concluding third phase. Different strategies can be applied here. On the one hand, the cause-oriented strategy, aiming at preventive measures which aim to reduce the probability of occurrence of a risk (e.g. creation of redundancy, systems with low susceptibility to malfunction). On the other hand, the effect-oriented strategy, aiming to minimise the level of damage in case of an undesired occurrence (e.g. use of alarm systems, insurance cover). PMID:16477971

Wagner, M; Strube, I

2005-01-01

137

Desalting and water treatment membrane manual: A guide to membranes for municipal water treatment. Water treatment technology program report No. 1  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Bureau of Reclamation prepared this manual to provide an overview of microfiltration, ultrafiltration, nanofiltration, reverse osmosis, and electrodialysis processes as they are used for water treatment. Membrane composition, the chemical processes, and the physical processes involved with each membrane type are described and compared. Because care and maintenance of water treatment membranes are vital to their performance and life

Chapman-Wilbert

1993-01-01

138

Water treatment plant intelligent monitoring in large gas refinery  

Microsoft Academic Search

Water treatment plants have to provide good water quality and at the same time low operational costs. Owing to various physical, chemical and biological interactions water treatment processes are often difficult to handle and reliable predictions for the course of processes are difficult to obtain. Developing monitoring in Automation Control System is a major industrial concern since those systems are

Amir Firoozshahi; Li Mengyang

2010-01-01

139

Treatment Agents for Separation of Oil and Water.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This invention concerns treatment agents for separation of oil and water in oil-polluted water, such as the waste discharged from service stations. The treatment agents adsorb the oil content present in waste water when they are added in an appropriate qu...

S. Tanaka N. Suda

1983-01-01

140

Committee Report: Membrane Processes in Potable Water Treatment  

Microsoft Academic Search

Membrane technology is a process that has not been widely used in potable water treatment, except for reverse osmosis applications. Because of increasingly stringent regulations, this technology is being examined for the potential application of ultrafiltration, microfiltration, and nanoflltration to water treatment processes. Membranes can be used as the primary means to remove materials from water, but they can also

1992-01-01

141

PLAYING CATCH-UP WITH CATCHMENT WATER QUALITY THE VAALKOP WATER TREATMENT PLANT UPGRADE CASE STUDY  

Microsoft Academic Search

The first phase of the Vaalkop water treatment plant was commissioned more than 30 years ago soon after the Vaalkop Dam was constructed. The quality of the water abstracted from the Vaalkop Dam was such that a conventional water treatment train utilizing flocculation, settling, sand filtration and disinfection was sufficient to treat the water to potable standards. However, many changes

JJ van der Walt; CJ van der Walt

142

Putting A Price On Riparian Corridors As Water Treatment Facilities  

Microsoft Academic Search

Abstract The monetary value of natural riparian environments,that provide water quality treatment functions by processing nutrients, storing sediment, moderating temperatures, and other services can be estimated by calculating the costs associated with the construction of brick and mortar water treatment plantsbuilt to achieve similar functions. A demonstration urban runoff treatment plant built by the City of Santa Monica provides similar

Ann L. Riley

143

Cost assessment of Produced Water Treatment  

Microsoft Academic Search

includes produced water characterization with respect to quality and quantity, and an assessment of the technical and the economic feasibility of using a wide range of technologies to achieve various levels of treated water quality. The quality of the produced water is judged by quantifying the amounts of material present in categories of produced water contaminants. These categories are adsorbable

John Hackney; Mark R. Wiesner

1996-01-01

144

Membrane treatment is versatile — A single treatment facility producing boiler feed, food processing water, and drinking water  

Microsoft Academic Search

Membrane treatment is gaining a reputation for consistent and stable performance, which might lead some to the impression that treatment systems utilizing membranes are not versatile. On the contrary, there is a recently completed facility operating in the agricultural area of Southeast Florida which provides boiler feed water, food processing water, and drinking water from a single facility. The versatility

Mark D. Miller; John E. Potts

1995-01-01

145

[Gambro hemodialysis reverse osmosis water treatment system troubleshooting].  

PubMed

Described gambro hemodialysis reverse osmosis water treatment system can not supply water due to PC PLC failure, the reasons of failure were analysed, troubleshooting methods and procedures were introdced. PMID:23668052

Jiang, Youhao; Peng, Wen; Kong, Lingwei; Ma, Li; Wang, Hao

2013-01-01

146

Treatment of Waste Sludges from Water Purification Plants.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The disposal of sludges resulting from conventional water treatment processes such as coagulation, softening and filtration was examined with a view of developing alternatives to disposal by dilution in cases where water quality stream standards would be ...

P. H. King H. M. Bugg J. W. Olver D. G. Argo

1972-01-01

147

50. NORTHERN VIEW OF NONEVAPORATIVE WASTE WATER TREATMENT COOLING TOWERS ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

50. NORTHERN VIEW OF NON-EVAPORATIVE WASTE WATER TREATMENT COOLING TOWERS IN CENTER, AND EVAPORATIVE WASTE WATER COOLING TOWERS ON RIGHT. (Jet Lowe) - U.S. Steel Duquesne Works, Blast Furnace Plant, Along Monongahela River, Duquesne, Allegheny County, PA

148

Big waste-treatment job for water hyacinths  

SciTech Connect

Studies indicate that water hyacinths are at least 50% cheaper for the secondary treatment of sewage compared with activated-sludge plants, not taking into account the potential production of methane from the crop. Ultimately it is hoped that hyacinth aquaculture will permit tertiary treatment of sewage for recovery of potable water. Existing and planned water hyacinth treatment processes in the U.S. are reviewed.

Parkinson, G.

1981-05-04

149

CHARACTERIZING RAW SURFACE WATER AMENABLE TO MINIMAL WATER SUPPLY TREATMENT  

EPA Science Inventory

The monitoring strategy must be sensitive to frequent and unpredictable fluctuations in water quality caused by major storm events and seasonal destratifications of the lake/impoundment. Therefore, daily monitoring of raw source water and the finished water quality entering distr...

150

Predominant bacterial genera in granular activated carbon water treatment systems.  

PubMed

Granular activated carbon (GAC) beds may be used for removal of dissolved organic matter during the treatment of drinking water. However, they might also change the microbiological quality of the water entering the distribution system either by changing the predominant bacteria or the bacterial density of the treated water. A 3-year pilot plant study of water treatment using GAC beds was conducted at the Baxter Water Treatment Plant in Philadelphia. During the study, bacteria were isolated from the raw water and from the effluents of the GAC treatment units. At the end of the study, bacteria were also isolated from the GAC units and from sand beds operated in parallel with the GAC units. Bacterial genera in the GAC effluents and in the GAC units themselves were similar to those found in the raw water and in the sand beds. Prechlorination and (or) preozonation of the water before GAC treatment had no noticeable effect on the bacterial genera found as compared with GAC unit having no predisinfection. The bacterial genera found in this study were similar to those found in seven other studies of GAC water treatment that used a variety of treatment schemes and a variety of heterotrophic plate count techniques to evaluate bacterial populations. From these several studies it appears that GAC treatment does not change the nature of the bacterial populations associated with drinking water. PMID:3708443

Burlingame, G A; Suffet, I H; Pipes, W O

1986-03-01

151

Survey of All Water Treatment Plant Operators Who Fluoridate Drinking Water in Ohio1  

Microsoft Academic Search

Ohio like several other states in the US is mandated by law to optimally fluoridate all public water systems serving over 5000 people. The purpose of this study was three-fold: 1) to determine if Ohioans on public water supplies are receiving optimally fluoridated water, 2) to determine the knowl- edge level of water treatment plant operators who fluoridate drinking water,

JAMES A. LALUMANOIER; LEONOR C. HERNANDEZ; ANA B. LOCCI

152

K West integrated water treatment system subproject safety analysis document  

SciTech Connect

This Accident Analysis evaluates unmitigated accident scenarios, and identifies Safety Significant and Safety Class structures, systems, and components for the K West Integrated Water Treatment System.

SEMMENS, L.S.

1999-02-24

153

ENVIRONMENTAL POLLUTION CONTROL ALTERNATIVES: DRINKING WATER TREATMENT FOR SMALL COMMUNITIES  

EPA Science Inventory

This document provides information for small system owners, operators, managers, and local decision makers, such as town officials, regarding drinking water treatment requirements and the treatment technologies suitable for small systems. t is not intended to be a comprehensive m...

154

Focus on the industrial process water treatment market in Europe  

Microsoft Academic Search

As more companies favour on-site wastewater treatment plants, the value of the European industrial process water treatment equipment market will reach more than US$700 million by 2007 says market analyst Frost & Sullivan.

Kristina Menzefricke

2001-01-01

155

Mobile Emergency Response Water Treatment Technology Results  

EPA Science Inventory

When natural disasters like hurricanes, floods and earthquakes occur, safe drinking water can be compromised, limited or unavailable. Under such situations, communities have emergency response plans. One of many options for providing safe drinking water during emergency situati...

156

Chemical additives enhance power plant water treatment  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper discusses the importance of control systems in power plant water systems. An upgrading of a system in Portland is described. The author presents an artificial intelligence based water chemistry diagnostic system.

Rittenhouse

1989-01-01

157

Water Treatment by Dendrimer Enhanced Filtration.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Described herein are compositions and methods useful for the purification of water using dendritic macromolecules. The process involves using dendritic macromolecules (dendrimers) to bind to contaminants, and a filtration step to produce water from which ...

M. S. Diallo

2005-01-01

158

Ballast water treatment for exotic species control  

US Patent & Trademark Office Database

Systems and methods for effectively and economically annihilating non-indigenous marine species and pathogenic bacteria in ship ballast water. A preferred embodiment comprises adding a killing agent to ballast water tanks and subsequently adding a reducing agent to the container. Oxygen is subsequently introduced to the ballast water to eliminate any excess reducing agent, and to ensure compliance with the dissolved oxygen discharge requirements of the receiving water.

Russell; Larry (Tiburon, CA)

2004-08-10

159

WATER TREATMENT AT ST. LOUIS, MO  

PubMed Central

With three kinds of water, Mississippi, Missouri and Illinois rivers, of different natures, and coming in an infinite variety of mixtures, St. Louis has peculiar water supply problems. This outline of methods will interest water engineers. Of the success of the St. Louis methods, the low mortality rates of the city are evidence.

Wall, Edward E.

1920-01-01

160

Experimental Treatment of Lake Erie Water, Erie, Pennsylvania, Water Plant.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The study resulted from a discussion with representatives of the Bureau of Water for Erie, PA., concerning various possible approaches for expansion of their municipal water plants. The study was designed to check the influence of high-rate and dual-media...

K. A. Dostal G. G. Robeck

1966-01-01

161

Treatment of dairy wastewater by water hyacinth.  

PubMed

The present study addresses potential of water hyacinth for treating small-scale dairy wastewater to satisfy effluent standards for disposal into public sewers. The batch experiments were conducted on dairy wastewater using reactor with water hyacinth and without water hyacinth. The Chemical Oxygen Demand (COD) was varied from 507 mg/L to 4,672 mg/L and the maximum Hydraulic Retention Time (HRT) adopted was 8 days. The loss of water due to evapo-transpiration and evaporation was also measured. The water hyacinth system performed better when initial COD concentration was maintained less than 1,672 mg/L for six days HRT. The performance of water hyacinth system was more effective than reference by 30% to 45% for COD removal. However, water hyacinth had no significant impact in reducing Total Dissolved Solids (TDS). The evapo-transpiration loss was almost double than the evaporation loss. The first order reaction kinetics was applicable and reaction rate parameters were estimated for various organic strengths of wastewater. The reaction rate parameters for water hyacinth system were three times higher than a system without water hyacinth and also found to vary with initial COD values. Water hyacinth can be adopted to treat dairy wastewater from small-scale dairy effectively for disposal into public sewers. PMID:19237765

Munavalli, G R; Saler, P S

2009-01-01

162

MODIFIED REVERSE OSMOSIS SYSTEM FOR TREATMENT OF PRODUCED WATERS  

Microsoft Academic Search

This report describes work performed during the first year of the project ''Modified Reverse Osmosis System for Treatment of Produced Waters.'' This research project has two objectives. The first objective is to test the use of clay membranes in the treatment of produced waters by reverse osmosis. The second objective is to test the ability of a system patented by

T. M. Whitworth; Liangxiong Li

2002-01-01

163

Performance of a Treatment Loop for Recycling Spent Rinse Waters  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper summarizes an evaluation of a treatment loop designed to upgrade the quality of spent rinse waters discharged from 10 wet benches located in the fab at Sandia's Microelectronics Development Laboratory (MDL). The goal of the treatment loop is to make these waters, presently being discharged to the fab's acid waste neutralization (AWN) station, suitable for recycling as feed

ROBERT PATRICK DONOVAN; ROBERT P. TIMON; MICHAEL JOHN DEBUSK; RONALD V. JONES; DARELL M. ROGERS

2000-01-01

164

BENEFICIAL DISPOSAL OF WATER PURIFICATION PLANT SLUDGES IN WASTEWATER TREATMENT  

EPA Science Inventory

This report discusses the advantages and disadvantages of the disposal of waste alum sludge from a water treatment plant to a municipal wastewater treatment plant and is submitted in fulfillment of Grant No. 803336-01 by Novato Sanitary District and North Marin County Water Distr...

165

Dairy Waste Water Treatment by Combining Ozonation and Nanofiltration  

Microsoft Academic Search

The aim of this investigation was to examine the applicability of the membrane technique and the effect of preozonation in dairy waste water treatment technology. The best degree of surfactant removal from model anionic surfactant solution by nanofiltration was achieved at 20°C and 40 bar. Investigations on the effects of ozone treatment of the waste water indicated that preozonation decreased the

Zsuzsanna László; Szabolcs Kertész; Cecilia Hodúr

2007-01-01

166

Prestorage hot water treatments (immersion, rinsing and brushing)  

Microsoft Academic Search

This review summarizes the latest developments in hot water immersion treatment (HWT) and hot water rinsing and brushing (HWRB) technologies. These treatments kill pathogens that cause surface decay, while maintaining fruit quality during prolonged storage and marketing. They also are relatively easy to use, have a short operating time, and are efficient in heat transfer. The cost of a typical

Elazar Fallik

2004-01-01

167

Monitoring of drinking water treatment plants using ICP?MS  

Microsoft Academic Search

More than sixty inorganic parameters were monitored in the Ter and Llobregat Drinking Water Treatment Plants (DWTPs) using ICP?MS. Both DWTPs supply approximately four million inhabitants with water in Barcelona and neighbouring areas (NE Spain). The profile of inorganic parameters throughout the treatment process is similar in the Ter and Llobregat DWTPs. Sodium, K, Mg, Ca, Si, Cl, SO4 ,

J. F. Llorens; A. Roig; M. Carnicero; F. Valero

2000-01-01

168

11. Water treatment plant interior view of pipes, stairs, and ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

11. Water treatment plant interior view of pipes, stairs, and pump in pump room. View to SW - Fort Benton Water Treatment Plant, Filtration Plant, Lots 9-13 of Block 7, Fort Benton Original Townsite at Missouri River, Fort Benton, Chouteau County, MT

169

12. Water treatment plant interior view of pipes and pump ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

12. Water treatment plant interior view of pipes and pump in heater room. View to W - Fort Benton Water Treatment Plant, Filtration Plant, Lots 9-13 of Block 7, Fort Benton Original Townsite at Missouri River, Fort Benton, Chouteau County, MT

170

Case history advanced coatings for water treatment plant components  

SciTech Connect

Components of water treatment plants (WTPs) are susceptible to corrosion from constant immersion in water. A case history of corrosion and proximity to chlorine problems and their treatment at an Army WTP is presented. Solutions included using high micro-silica restoration mortar and advanced coal tar epoxy coatings.

Stephenson, L.D.; Kumar, A.

2008-12-15

171

Integrated modeling of ozonation for optimization of drinking water treatment  

Microsoft Academic Search

Drinking water treatment plants automation becomes more sophisticated, more on-line monitoring systems become available and integration of modeling environments with control systems becomes easier. This gives possibilities for model-based optimization. In operation of drinking water treatment plants, the processes are usually optimized individually on the basis of \\

2007-01-01

172

Improved polyacrylamide treatments for water control in producing wells  

SciTech Connect

This paper reports on two polyacrylamide processes for water control in producing wells which improve the efficiency of conventional polyacrylamide treatment without inducing any risk of well plugging by crosslinkers. Treatment of a gas-storage well strongly decreased water production without any adverse effect on gas injection or production for at least 3 years.

Zaltoun, A.; Kohler, N. (Inst. Francais du Petrole (FR)); Guerrini, Y. (Gaz de France (FR))

1991-07-01

173

INL Bettis Water Treatment Project Report  

SciTech Connect

Bechtel Bettis Atomic Power Laboratory (Bettis), West Mifflin, PA, requested that the Idaho National Laboratory (INL) (Battelle Energy Alliance) perform tests using water simulants and three specified media to determine if those ion-exchange (IX) resins will be effective at removing the plutonium contamination from water. This report details the testing and results of the tests to determine the suitability of the media to treat plutonium contaminated water at near nuetral pH.

Not Available

2009-06-01

174

Treatment efficiency and economic benefit of Zartech poultry slaughter house waste water treatment plant, Ibadan, Nigeria  

Microsoft Academic Search

The efficiency of the poultry wastewater treatment plant of Zartech Limited, Ibadan, Nigeria, was assessed based on percentage reduction of the various water contaminants while the unit cost of treated water was compared with that supplied through tankers. Wastewater and treated water samples were respectively collected from the points of generation and release after treatment for laboratory analysis for biochemical

Yahaya Mijinyawa; Nurudeen Samuel Lawal

175

Grey water treatment concept integrating water and carbon recovery and removal of micropollutants  

Microsoft Academic Search

A total treatment concept was developed for grey water from 32 houses in Sneek, The Netherlands. A thorough characterization of COD, nutrients, metals, micropollutants and anions was carried out. Four biological treatment systems were tested: aerobic, anaerobic, combined anaerobic?+?aerobic and a bioflocculation system. Micropollutants were measured in grey water and effluent from three biological treatment systems. The best performing biological

L. Hernandez Leal; G. Zeeman; C. J. N. Buisman

2011-01-01

176

Treatment of produced waters by electrocoagulation and reverse osmosis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Two oil field produced waters and one coal bed methane produced water from Wyoming were treated with electrocoagulation and reverse osmosis. All three produced waters would require treatment to meet the new Wyoming Department of Environmental Quality requirements for effluent discharge into a class III or IV stream. The removal of radium 226 and oil and grease was the primary

K. Tuggle; M. Humenick; F. Barker

1992-01-01

177

Drinking water treatment residuals: A Review of recent uses  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Coagulants such as alum [Al2(SO4)3•14H2O], FeCl3, or Fe2(SO4)3 are commonly used to remove particulate and dissolved constituents from water supplies in the production of drinking water. The resulting waste product, called water-treatment residuals (WTR), contains precipitated Al and Fe oxyhydroxide...

178

MORINGA OLEIFERA SEEDS AS NATURAL COAGULANT FOR WATER TREATMENT  

Microsoft Academic Search

Developing countries and third world countries are facing potable water supply problems because of inadequate financial resources. The cost of water treatment is increasing and the quality of river water is not stable due to suspended and colloidal particle load caused by land development and high storm runoff during the rainy seasons especially in a country like Malaysia. During the

Eman N. Ali; Suleyman A. Muyibi; Hamzah M. Salleh

179

Introducing Water-Treatment Subjects into Chemical Engineering Education.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Proposes that inclusion of waste water treatment subjects within the chemical engineering curriculum can provide students with direct access to environmental issues from both a biotechnological and an ethical perspective. The descriptive details of water recycling at a copper plant and waste water stabilization ponds exemplify this approach from…

Caceres, L.; And Others

1992-01-01

180

MODELLING OF COAGULANT DOSAGE IN A WATER TREATMENT PLANT  

Microsoft Academic Search

Artificial Neural Network (ANN) techniques are applied to the control of coagulant dosing in a drinking water treatment plant. Coagulant dosing rate is non-linearly correlated to raw water parameters such as turbidity, conductivity, pH, temperature, etc. An important requirement of the application is robustness of the system against erroneous sensor measurements or unusual water characteristics. The hybrid system developed includes

N. Valentin; T. Denoeux; F. Fotoohi

181

SUPERCRITICAL WATER TREATMENT OF BIOMASS FOR ENERGY AND MATERIAL RECOVERY  

Microsoft Academic Search

Supercritical water liquefaction and gasification is reviewed with the introduction of some recent findings by the authors. Supercritical water gasification is suitable for recovery of energy from wet biomass while supercritical water liquefaction opens the door to effective treatment of biomass species in terms of material recovery. Cellulose, one of the main components of biomass, is completely dissolved in supercritical

YUKIHIKO MATSUMURA; MITSURU SASAKI; KAZUHIDE OKUDA; SEIICHI TAKAMI; SATOSHI OHARA; MITSUO UMETSU; TADAFUMI ADSCHIRI

2006-01-01

182

Impact of Raw Water Ammonia on the Surface Water Treatment Processes and Its Removal by Nitrification  

Microsoft Academic Search

Impact of raw water ammonia on the treated water quality and removal of ammonia from surface water were studied. Raw water ammonia and physicochemical quality of treated water of Saidabad Water Treatment Plant were analyzed for the period of one year (January through December 2006). The monthly averages of maximum (7.55 mg\\/l) and minimum (0.34 mg\\/l) ammonia-N level of the

M Alamgir Hossain; ANM Fakhruddin; Sirajul Islam Khan

2007-01-01

183

Two-stage treatment reduces water/oil ratio  

SciTech Connect

This paper reports how a treatment of amphoteric polymer followed by chrome-complexed anionic polyacrylamide has successfully decreased the water/oil (WOR) ratio of wells producing from the Arbuckle dolomite formation in central Kansas. This technique, the fractured-matrix, water-control (FMWC) treatment, is designed to alter both primary and secondary permeability to water production. In 10 treated wells, the average WOR was reduced by a factor of five.

Wood, F.; Dairymple, D. (Halliburton Services, Duncan, OK (US)); McKown, K.; Matthews, B. (Halliburton Services, KS (US))

1990-09-10

184

ANAEROBIC BIOLOGICAL TREATMENT OF PRODUCED WATER  

Microsoft Academic Search

During the production of oil and gas, large amounts of water are brought to the surface and must be disposed of in an environmentally sensitive manner. This is an especially difficult problem in offshore production facilities where space is a major constraint. The chief regulatory criterion for produced water is oil and grease. Most facilities have little trouble meeting this

John R. Gallagher

2001-01-01

185

Treatment of oil-in-water emulsions  

SciTech Connect

Petroleum is separated from an oil-in-water emulsion containing water-soluble polymer such as polyacrylamide prior to refining by adding amphoteric metal cations (Zn, Al, Sn, and Co) to the emulsion to form a flocculate and then treating the resulting flocculate with a strong base to recover the oil and metal. 11 claims.

Presley, C.T.; Harrison, R.J.

1980-01-08

186

COST COMPARISIONS OF WATER TREATMENT SYSTEMS TO IMPROVE WATER QUALITY FOR MUNICIPAL USE  

Microsoft Academic Search

Drinking water quality is the key factor for sustainability of life and well being of the human population. The quality of water in Texas High Plains generally is suitable for irrigation but doesn't meet the drinking water standards with respect to certain dissolved constituents (dissolved solids\\/salinity, fluorides, chlorides and sulfate). Water treatment systems are costly and local communities have financial

Naveen C Adusumilli; Lal K. Almas

187

Water footprint assessment for wastewater treatment: method, indicator, and application.  

PubMed

The water footprint in terms of the sum of both direct and indirect water cost of wastewater treatment is for the first time accounted in this work. On the basis of the hybrid method as a combination of process analysis and input-output analysis, a detailed water footprint accounting procedure is provided to cover the supply chain of a wastewater treatment plant. A set of indices intending to reveal the efficiency as well as renewability of wastewater treatment systems are devised as parallels of corresponding indicators in net energy analysis for energy supply systems. A case study is carried out for the Beijing Space City wastewater treatment plant as a landmark project. The high WROI (water return on investment) and low WIWP (water investment in water purified) indicate a high efficiency and renewability of the case system, illustrating the fundamental function of wastewater treatment for water reuse. The increasing of the wastewater and sludge treatment rates are revealed in an urgent need to reduce the water footprint of China and to improve the performance of wastewater treatment. PMID:23777208

Shao, Ling; Chen, G Q

2013-07-05

188

TAPWAT: Definition structure and applications for modelling drinking water treatment  

Microsoft Academic Search

The 'Tool for the Analysis of the Production of drinking WATer' (TAPWAT)\\u000amodel has been developed for describing drinking-water quality in\\u000aintegral studies in the context of the Environmental Policy Assessment of\\u000athe RIVM. The model consists of modules that represent individual steps\\u000ain a treatment process, so that different treatment processes can be\\u000aconstructed. The treatment steps included in

Versteegh JFM; Gaalen FW van; Rietveld LC; Evers EG; Aldenberg TA; Cleij P

2007-01-01

189

Cooling water treatment effective from makeup to blowdown  

SciTech Connect

Maintaining efficient cooling water system performance is a major goal of Cargill's ammonia plant in Columbus, Miss. A crossflow, induced draft cooling tower with three cells provides a temperature differential of 15-20/sup 0/F. The system circulates approximately 19,000 gpm of water and has a total water volume of approximately 150,000 gal. This system is discussed with regard to water composition and treatment, micro biological control and environmental control, corrosion inhibitors, biocides and ion exchange.

Scruggs, S.

1983-08-01

190

Water Treatment Systems Make a Big Splash.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

In the 1960s, NASA's Manned Space Center (now known as Johnson Space Center) and the Garrett Corporation, Air Research Division, conducted a research program to develop a small, lightweight water purifier for the Apollo spacecraft that would require minim...

2004-01-01

191

HYBRID TREATMENT SYSTEMS FOR VERY ACIDIC MINING INFLUENCED WATER1  

Microsoft Academic Search

The treatment of mining influenced water (MIW) has traditionally been addressed with two distinct technologies: active treatment with its associated chronic operating costs that include labor, power, reagents, and residue disposal, and passive treatment with its typical requirement of acidity-dependent land areas for bioreactors, aeration wetland cells, and ponds. With the development of \\

James J. Gusek; Kevin W. Conroy

192

Microbiological treatment of uranium mine waters  

Microsoft Academic Search

Percolation of uranium mine discharge water through Ambrosia Lake, NM, soil is shown to be an effective method for lowering selenium, uranium, molybdenum, and sulfate concentrations in the mine water. Selenium concentrations were lowered from approx.1.6 to <0.05 mg\\/L by reduction of soluble selenate and selenite to insoluble selenium metal. This reaction is most likely performed by bacteria belonging to

Jim W. Kauffman; William C. Laughlin; Roger A. Baldwin

1986-01-01

193

Evaluation of two methods in controlling dental treatment water contamination.  

PubMed

Dental unit water systems are contaminated with biofilms that amplify bacterial counts in dental treatment water in excess of a million colony forming units per milliliter (cfu/ml). The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention and the American Dental Association have agreed that the maximum allowable contamination of dental treatment water not exceed 500 cfu/ml. This study was conducted to evaluate two protocols in controlling contamination of dental unit water systems and dental treatment water. Both methods used an antimicrobial self-dissolving chlorine dioxide (ClO?) tablet at a high concentration (50 ppm) to shock the dental unit water system biofilms initially followed by periodic exposure. To treat dental treatment source water for patient care, 3 parts per million (ppm) ClO? in municipal/tap water was compared to use of a citrus botanical extract dissolved in municipal water. Heterotrophic microbial counts of effluent water and laser scanning confocal microscopy were performed to evaluate effects of the two treatments. Results from this study indicated that both treatments were effective in controlling biofilm contamination and reducing heterotrophic plate counts <500 cfu/ml. A comprehensive study addressing compatibility of 50 ppm ClO? on the metals and nonmetal components of the dental water system and effects of low-grade chemicals used on composite bonding to dentin and enamel is warranted before translation from efficacy studies to common clinical use. Clinical significance: This study provides evidence-based information of using two methods of controlling dental treatment water contamination. The study was conducted in a clinical practice setting in an active dental clinic and the results are meaningful to a clinician who is interested in providing safe dental treatment water for patient care. Keywords: Dental waterline biofilms, Dental treatment water contamination control, Chlorine dioxide, Emulsifiers, Heterotrophic plate counts, Laser scanning confocal microscopy. How to cite this article: Bansal R, Puttaiah R, Harris R, Reddy A. Evaluation of Two Methods in Controlling Dental Treatment Water Contamination. J Contemp Dent Pract 2011;12(2):73-83. Source of support: Nil Conflict of interest: None declared. PMID:22186748

Bansal, Ritu; Puttaiah, Raghunath; Harris, Robert; Reddy, Anil

2011-03-01

194

Organic Matter in Natural Water and Water Treatment.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

An overview of rivers and lakes, including the origin and general nature of their dissolved and undissolved material is given. The chemical nature of organic matter was determined by processing more than six tons of water to isolate 30 g of organic matter...

J. H. Weber

1974-01-01

195

Proposed water treatment approach for commercial tar sand wastewaters  

SciTech Connect

Waters produced during the steamflood extraction of bitumen from tar sand require treatment before they can be recycled as feedwater for steam generation. The characterization of two waters from commercial-scale tar sand operations indicates that the levels of hardness, oil and grease, silica, suspended solids, and iron must be reduced before these waters can be reused in the bitumen extraction process. The Western Research Institute proposes two treatment methods (electrocoagulation and ultrafiltration) that may, when used in conjunction with standard practices, improve the efficiency of the overall treatment process. 21 refs., 3 tabs.

Kocornik, D.

1986-09-01

196

Removal of uranium from drinking water by conventional treatment methods  

SciTech Connect

The USEPA currently does not regulate uranium in drinking water but will be revising the radionuclide regulations during 1989 and will propose a maximum contaminant level for uranium. This paper presents treatment technology information on the effectiveness of conventional methods to removal uranium from drinking water. Treatment information based primarily on laboratory and pilot plant studies is presented on conventional coagulation/filtration, ion exchange, lime softening, and reverse osmosis. Ion-exchange treatment has been applied successfully on ground waters by small systems.

Sorg, T.J.

1989-01-01

197

A Primer on Waste Water Treatment.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The report, the methods used now and processes being developed for the future to treat municipal wastes are explained. This includes topics as: Secondary treatment; Lagoons and septic tanks; Coagulation-sedimentation; Adsorption; Electrodialysis; Bending ...

1973-01-01

198

Desalting and water treatment membrane manual: A guide to membranes for municipal water treatment. Water treatment technology program report No. 1  

SciTech Connect

The Bureau of Reclamation prepared this manual to provide an overview of microfiltration, ultrafiltration, nanofiltration, reverse osmosis, and electrodialysis processes as they are used for water treatment. Membrane composition, the chemical processes, and the physical processes involved with each membrane type are described and compared. Because care and maintenance of water treatment membranes are vital to their performance and life expectancy, pretreatment, cleaning, and storage requirements are discussed in some detail. Options for concentrate disposal, also a problematic feature of membrane processes, are discussed. The culmination of this wealth of knowledge is an extensive comparison of water treatment membranes commercially available at this time. The tables cover physical characteristics, performance data, and operational tolerances.

Chapman-Wilbert, M.

1993-09-01

199

Hanford facilities tracer study report (315 Water Treatment Facility)  

SciTech Connect

This report presents the results and findings of a tracer study to determine contact time for the disinfection process of 315 Water Treatment Facility that supplies sanitary water for the 300 Area. The study utilized fluoride as the tracer and contact times were determined for two flow rates. Interpolation of data and short circuiting effects are also discussed. The 315 Water Treatment Facility supplies sanitary water for the 300 Area to various process and domestic users. The Surface Water Treatment Rule (SWTR), outlined in the 1986 Safe Drinking Water Act Amendments enacted by the EPA in 1989 and regulated by the Washington State Department of Health (DOH) in Section 246-290-600 of the Washington Administrative Code (WAC), stipulates filtration and disinfection requirements for public water systems under the direct influence of surface water. The SWTR disinfection guidelines require that each treatment system achieves predetermined inactivation ratios. The inactivation by disinfection is approximated with a measure called CxT, where C is the disinfectant residual concentration and T is the effective contact time of the water with the disinfectant. The CxT calculations for the Hanford water treatment plants were derived from the total volume of the contact basin(s). In the absence of empirical data to support CxT calculations, the DOH determined that the CxT values used in the monthly reports for the water treatment plants on the Hanford site were invalid and required the performance of a tracer study at each plant. In response to that determination, a tracer study will be performed to determine the actual contact times of the facilities for the CxT calculations.

Ambalam, T. [Kaiser Engineers Hanford Co., Richland, WA (United States)

1995-04-14

200

Carbon Column Operation in Waste Water Treatment.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The Adsorption and filtration of waste water in an isothermal column of granular activated carbon has been mathematically modeled. Based on this model, a simulation program was prepared and coded in Fortran IV to be run on the IBM 360/50 level G compiler....

C. Vanier C. Tien

1970-01-01

201

Preliminary treatment of dairy plant waste water  

Microsoft Academic Search

The quality of a dairy plant wastewater that had been discharged in a ditch and then into a small stream was evaluated over a three?year period. The wastewater was released to the ditch, where after traversing a distance of approximately 100 meters, it entered a snail moving stream of water. Vegetation in the ditch served as a biofilter for the

R. H. Gough; P. McGrew

1993-01-01

202

Photocatalytic water treatment: solar energy applications  

Microsoft Academic Search

During the past 20 years research and development in the area of photocatalysis have been tremendous. One of the major applications of this technology is the degradation of organic pollutants in water and air streams which is considered as one of the so-called advanced oxidation processes. This overview briefly describes the basic principles of photocatalysis, focusing in particular on important

Detlef Bahnemann

2004-01-01

203

Treatment Strategies for Lead in Drinking Water  

EPA Science Inventory

Lead pipes are capable of lasting hundreds of years. Conservatively, there are over 12 million, still serving drinking water in the US. Probably, this is a substantial underestimate. Leaded solder joining copper pipe abounds. Leaded brasses have dominated the materials used for...

204

Impact of riverbank filtration on treatment of polluted river water.  

PubMed

The impact of riverbank filtration (RBF) on the treatment of water from the River Yamuna at Mathura, which has disagreeable visual properties, has been investigated. The dissolved organic carbon (DOC) and colour of the river water were 4.0-6.8mg/L and 40-65 colour units (CU), respectively. Pre-chlorination is in practice to improve raw water quality. Chlorine doses as high as 60mg/L ahead of the water treatment units reduced colour by about 78%. Removal of DOC and UV-absorbance was less than 18%. In comparison to direct pumping of the river water, collection of water through RBF resulted in the reduction of DOC, colour, UV-absorbance and fecal coliforms by around 50%. However, riverbank filtrate did not conform to the drinking water quality standards. Therefore, riverbank-filtered water along with the Yamuna water were ozonated for different durations. To reduce DOC to the desired level, the dose of ozone required for the riverbank filtrate was found to be considerably less than the ozone required for the river water. RBF as compared to direct pumping of Yamuna water appears to be effective in improving the quality of the raw water. PMID:20089349

Singh, P; Kumar, P; Mehrotra, I; Grischek, T

2010-01-22

205

CAN MEMBRANES BE ACCEPTABLE TREATMENT TECHNOLOGY FOR DRINKING WATER TREATMENT?  

EPA Science Inventory

Various treatment technologies have proven effective in controlling halogenated disinfection by-products such as precursor removal and the use of alternative disinfectants. ne of the most promising methods for halogenated by-product control includes removal of precursors before d...

206

51. LOOKING NORTHEAST AT EIMCO WASTE WATER TREATMENT THICKENER No. ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

51. LOOKING NORTHEAST AT EIMCO WASTE WATER TREATMENT THICKENER No. 2, ELECTRIC POWERHOUSE No. 2, AND OUTDOOR ELECTRICAL SUBSTATION IN BACKGROUND. (Jet Lowe) - U.S. Steel Duquesne Works, Blast Furnace Plant, Along Monongahela River, Duquesne, Allegheny County, PA

207

Fate of High Priority Pesticides During Drinking Water Treatment  

EPA Science Inventory

The fate of organophosphorus (OP) pesticides in the presence of chlorinated oxidants was investigated under drinking water treatment conditions. In the presence of aqueous chlorine, intrinsic rate coefficients were found for the reaction of hypochlorous acid and hypochlorite ion ...

208

TREATMENT TECHNOLOGY FOR REMOVING RADON FROM SMALL COMMUNITY WATER SUPPLIES  

EPA Science Inventory

Radon contamination of drinking water primarily affects individual homeowners and communities using groundwater supplies. resently, three types of treatment processes have been used to remove radon: granular activated carbon adsorption (GAG>, diffused bubble aeration, and packed ...

209

Arsenic Treatment Technologies for Soil, Waste, and Water.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The purpose of this report is to provide a synopsis of the availability, performance, and cost of 13 arsenic treatment technologies for soil, water, and waste. Its intended audience includes hazardous waste site managers; generators and treaters of arseni...

2002-01-01

210

Sacramento River Water Treatment Plant Intake Pier & Access Bridge, ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

Sacramento River Water Treatment Plant Intake Pier & Access Bridge, Spanning Sacramento River approximately 175 feet west of eastern levee on river; roughly .5 mile downstream from confluence of Sacramento & American Rivers, Sacramento, Sacramento County, CA

211

Fluoride Analysis of Water-Treatment-Plant Sludges.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A method for fluoride analysis of sludges was developed and verified using laboratory-prepared alum sludge. The developed method was then used to measure fluoride concentrations in sludges from selected water treatment plants. Initially, three methods of ...

W. H. Duke

1974-01-01

212

6. PHOTOCOPY, WATER TREATMENT PUMPING AND STORAGE BUILDING, MISSILE TEST ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

6. PHOTOCOPY, WATER TREATMENT PUMPING AND STORAGE BUILDING, MISSILE TEST AND ASSEMBLY BUILDING, GENERATOR BUILDING No. 3, AND WARHEADING BUILDING OF LAUNCH AREA. - NIKE Missile Base SL-40, Beck Road between Nike & M Roads, Hecker, Monroe County, IL

213

MICROORGANISMS AND HIGHER PLANTS FOR WASTE WATER TREATMENT  

EPA Science Inventory

Batch experiments were conducted to compare the waste water treatment efficiencies of plant-free microbial filters with filters supporting the growth of reeds (Phragmites communis), cattail (Typha latifolia), rush (Juncus effusus), and bamboo (Bambusa multiplex). The experimental...

214

Microorganisms and Higher Plants for Waste Water Treatment.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Batch experiments were conducted to compare the waste water treatment efficiencies of plant-free microbial filters with filters supporting the growth of reeds (Phragmites communis), cattail (Typha latifolia), rush (Juncus effusus), and bamboo (Bambusa mul...

B. C. Wolverton R. C. McDonald W. R. Duffer

1983-01-01

215

City of Cape Coral Reverse Osmosis Water Treatment Facility.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A model reverse osmosis water treatment plant in Cape Coral, Florida, USA, with a design capacity of 15 million gallons per day (MGD), is introduced in detail. This technical paper presents the plant's historical development, present status, future plan, ...

L. K. Wang S. P. Kopko

1997-01-01

216

AERIAL VIEW LOOKING FURTHER SOUTH EAST, VILLAGE CREEK WATER TREATMENT ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

AERIAL VIEW LOOKING FURTHER SOUTH EAST, VILLAGE CREEK WATER TREATMENT PLANT ON RIGHT SIDE, ENSLEY IN BACKGROUND. - Birmingham Southern Railroad Yard, Thirty-fourth Street, Ensley, Jefferson County, AL

217

Linking Ceragenins to Water-Treatment Membranes to Minimize Biofouling.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Ceragenins were used to create biofouling resistant water-treatment membranes. Ceragenins are synthetically produced antimicrobial peptide mimics that display broad-spectrum bactericidal activity. While ceragenins have been used on bio-medical devices, us...

H. D. T. Jones L. K. McGrath M. Hibbs P. B. Savage S. Branda S. J. Altman Y. Feng

2012-01-01

218

REMOVAL OF URANIUM FROM DRINKING WATER BY CONVENTIONAL TREATMENT METHODS  

EPA Science Inventory

The USEPA currently does not regulate uranium in drinking water but will be revising the radionuclide regulations during 1989 and will propose a maximum contaminant level for uranium. The paper presents treatment technology information on the effectiveness of conventional method...

219

Surface water pollution by herbicides from effluents of waste water treatment plants  

Microsoft Academic Search

Herbicide loads of urban and rural waste water treatment plant effluents were calculated over a one-year period by measuring the herbicide concentrations in 14-day mixed samples. More than three quarters of the total herbicide load of the effluent of the rural waste water treatment plant consists of isoproturon. Particularly large amounts of this substance contribute to the total herbicide load

Walter Schüssler

1998-01-01

220

Physical Water Treatment for the Mitigation of Mineral Fouling in Cooling-Tower Water Applications  

Microsoft Academic Search

The physical water treatment (PWT) device is defined as a non-chemical method of water treatment utilized for the purpose of scale prevention or mitigation. Three different PWT devices, including permanent magnets, solenoid coil device, and high-voltage electrode, were used under various operating conditions. The present study proposed a bulk precipitation as the mechanism of the PWT and conducted a number

Young I Cho; SungHyuk Lee; Wontae Kim; Sangho Suh

2004-01-01

221

Plasma treatment of diamond nanoparticles for dispersion improvement in water  

SciTech Connect

Low-temperature plasmas of methane and oxygen mixtures were used to treat diamond nanoparticles to modify their surface characteristics and thus improve their dispersion capability in water. It was found that the plasma treatment significantly reduced water contact angle of diamond nanoparticles and thus rendered the nanoparticles with strong water affinity for dispersion enhancement in polar media such as water. Surface analysis using Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy confirmed that polar groups were imparted on nanoparticle surfaces. As a result, improved suspension stability was observed with plasma treated nanoparticles when dispersed in water.

Yu Qingsong; Kim, Young Jo; Ma, Hongbin [Center for Surface Science and Plasma Technology, Department of Chemical Engineering, University of Missouri-Columbia, Columbia, Missouri 65211 (United States); Department of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering, University of Missouri-Columbia, Columbia, Missouri 65211 (United States)

2006-06-05

222

Amend soils with residues from water-treatment processes  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article reports that land application is emerging as a viable disposal\\/reuse method for water-treatment-process residues. In many cases, these residues actually enhance soil quality and arrest fertilizer loss. Water treatment usually generates solid residues requiring disposal. These include sludges from lime softening and related pretreatment processes and spent ion-exchange resins and adsorbents used for softening, dealkalization, and deionization of

Makansi

1993-01-01

223

Control retrofit optimizes water treatment operation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Mississippi Power's Plant Daniel has installed a state-of-the-art microprocessor-based monitoring and control system. According to Leeds and Northrup, manufacturers of the new control system, the system collects water chemistry data from on-line analyzers. In addition, it provides automatic control and monitoring of the plant's demineralizer and condensate polishers. A two-year study conducted by Plant Daniel determined the need for updating

Ball

1992-01-01

224

Linking ceragenins to water-treatment membranes to minimize biofouling.  

SciTech Connect

Ceragenins were used to create biofouling resistant water-treatment membranes. Ceragenins are synthetically produced antimicrobial peptide mimics that display broad-spectrum bactericidal activity. While ceragenins have been used on bio-medical devices, use of ceragenins on water-treatment membranes is novel. Biofouling impacts membrane separation processes for many industrial applications such as desalination, waste-water treatment, oil and gas extraction, and power generation. Biofouling results in a loss of permeate flux and increase in energy use. Creation of biofouling resistant membranes will assist in creation of clean water with lower energy usage and energy with lower water usage. Five methods of attaching three different ceragenin molecules were conducted and tested. Biofouling reduction was observed in the majority of the tests, indicating the ceragenins are a viable solution to biofouling on water treatment membranes. Silane direct attachment appears to be the most promising attachment method if a high concentration of CSA-121a is used. Additional refinement of the attachment methods are needed in order to achieve our goal of several log-reduction in biofilm cell density without impacting the membrane flux. Concurrently, biofilm forming bacteria were isolated from source waters relevant for water treatment: wastewater, agricultural drainage, river water, seawater, and brackish groundwater. These isolates can be used for future testing of methods to control biofouling. Once isolated, the ability of the isolates to grow biofilms was tested with high-throughput multiwell methods. Based on these tests, the following species were selected for further testing in tube reactors and CDC reactors: Pseudomonas ssp. (wastewater, agricultural drainage, and Colorado River water), Nocardia coeliaca or Rhodococcus spp. (wastewater), Pseudomonas fluorescens and Hydrogenophaga palleronii (agricultural drainage), Sulfitobacter donghicola, Rhodococcus fascians, Rhodobacter katedanii, and Paracoccus marcusii (seawater), and Sphingopyxis spp. (groundwater). The testing demonstrated the ability of these isolates to be used for biofouling control testing under laboratory conditions. Biofilm forming bacteria were obtained from all the source water samples.

Hibbs, Michael R.; Altman, Susan Jeanne; Feng, Yanshu (Brigham Young University, Provo, Utah); Savage, Paul B. (Brigham Young University, Provo, Utah); Pollard, Jacob (Brigham Young University, Provo, Utah); Branda, Steven S.; Goeres, Darla (Montana State University, Bozeman, MT); Buckingham-Meyer, Kelli (Montana State University, Bozeman, MT); Stafslien, Shane (North Dakota State University, Fargo, ND); Marry, Christopher; Jones, Howland D. T.; Lichtenberger, Alyssa; Kirk, Matthew F.; McGrath, Lucas K. (LMATA, Albuquerque, NM)

2012-01-01

225

Assessing the water quality index of water treatment plant and bore wells, in Delhi, India.  

PubMed

Water quality monitoring exercise was carried out with water quality index (WQI) method by using water characteristics data for bore wells and a water treatment plant in Delhi city from December 2006 to August 2007. The water treatment plant received surface water as raw water, and product water is supplied after treatment. The WQI is used to classify water quality as excellent, good, medium, bad, and very bad. The National Sanitation Foundation WQI procedure was used to calculate the WQI. The index ranges from 0 to 100, where 100 represents an excellent water quality condition. Water samples were collected monthly from a bore well in Nehru Camp (site 1), a bore well in Sanjay Gandhi pumping station (site 2), and water treatment plant in Haiderpur (site 3). Five parameters were analyzed, namely, nitrate, pH, total dissolved solids, turbidity, and temperature. We found that the WQI was around 73-80 in site 3, which corresponds to "good," and it decreased to 54.32-60.19 and 59.93-70.63 in site 1 and site 2, respectively, indicating that these bore wells were classified as "medium" quality. PMID:19343515

Chaturvedi, M K; Bassin, J K

2009-04-03

226

Effects of Alum Water Treatment Sludge on Domestic Wastewater Sludges.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Research on the effects of alum sludge generated by water treatment plants on the properties of domestic waste water sludges is reported. Phase I of the three phase investigation was concerned with the effects of raw sewage containing alum sludge on an ac...

M. E. Burman

1975-01-01

227

A rapid, simple and effective waste water treatment  

Microsoft Academic Search

It had been shown previously that electrolysis systems using special electrodes generate solutions with high antimicrobial activity. These laboratory data have been expanded to cover waste waters. Tests were run at the Salt Lake City sewage treatment plant, using Brinecell Model 130 units. The results are presented. Waste water from a chicken processing plant was investigated for reduction in BOD

T. Themy; T. Drury; I. J. Wilk

1988-01-01

228

Treatment of dairy waste by using water hyacinth  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the present study treatment of wastewater from a large dairy by using water hyacinth was studied in laboratory experiments. Effects of depth of the system, variations in area coverage, prior settling and of daily renewal of the plants was also studied on the efficacy of hyacinth in treating the dairy waste. Water hyacinth (Eichhornia crassipes) was found to grow

R. K. Trivedy; S. M. Pattanshetty

229

The future for electrocoagulation as a localised water treatment technology  

Microsoft Academic Search

Electrocoagulation is an electrochemical method of treating polluted water whereby sacrificial anodes corrode to release active coagulant precursors (usually aluminium or iron cations) into solution. Accompanying electrolytic reactions evolve gas (usually as hydrogen bubbles) at the cathode.Electrocoagulation has a long history as a water treatment technology having been employed to remove a wide range of pollutants. However electrocoagulation has never

Peter K. Holt; Geoffrey W. Barton; Cynthia A. Mitchell

2005-01-01

230

Process water treatment for reactor effluent activity control: Budget study.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The purpose of this study is to provide budgetary data for modifying and monitoring the present water treatment process at B, C, D, KE, and KW reactor plants to effect a reduction in the activity of the reactor effluent water discharged to the Columbia Ri...

E. L. Etheridge

1966-01-01

231

Process water treatment for reactor effluent activity control: Budget study  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of this study is to provide budgetary data for modifying and monitoring the present water treatment process at B, C, D, KE, and KW reactor plants to effect a reduction in the activity of the reactor effluent water discharged to the Columbia River. The study is subdivided into three parts: facilities for sodium silicate addition at each reactor

Etheridge

1966-01-01

232

‘Iraq Water Treatment Vulnerabilities’: a Challenge to Public Health Ethics  

Microsoft Academic Search

A formerly classified US document, ‘Iraq Water Treatment Vulnerabilities,’ provides evidence that ill health was knowingly induced in the population of Iraq through the ruination of that country's water purification system. We believe that the uncovering of this document should stimulate the public health community to clarify principles of public health ethics and to formulate statements giving voice to these

Graeme MacQueen; Thomas Nagy; Joanna Santa Barbara; Claudia Raichle

2004-01-01

233

Recent developments in photocatalytic water treatment technology: A review  

Microsoft Academic Search

In recent years, semiconductor photocatalytic process has shown a great potential as a low-cost, environmental friendly and sustainable treatment technology to align with the “zero” waste scheme in the water\\/wastewater industry. The ability of this advanced oxidation technology has been widely demonstrated to remove persistent organic compounds and microorganisms in water. At present, the main technical barriers that impede its

Meng Nan Chong; Bo Jin; Christopher W. K. Chow; Chris Saint

2010-01-01

234

Hanford facilities tracer study report (315 Water Treatment Facility)  

Microsoft Academic Search

This report presents the results and findings of a tracer study to determine contact time for the disinfection process of 315 Water Treatment Facility that supplies sanitary water for the 300 Area. The study utilized fluoride as the tracer and contact times were determined for two flow rates. Interpolation of data and short circuiting effects are also discussed. The 315

Ambalam

1995-01-01

235

Selenium adsorption to aluminum-based water treatment residuals  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Aluminum-based water treatment residuals (WTR) can adsorb water- and soil-borne P, As(V), As(III), and perchlorate, and may be able to adsorb excess environmental selenium. WTR, clay minerals, and amorphous aluminum hydroxide were shaken for 24 hours in selenate or selenite solutions at pH values o...

236

REVERSE OSMOSIS FIELD TEST: TREATMENT OF COPPER CYANIDE RINSE WATERS  

EPA Science Inventory

Field tests of reverse osmosis (RO) were conducted on copper cyanide rinse waters at two different sites: Whyco Chromium Co. and New England Plating Co. At both sites, closed-loop treatment was used with plating chemicals recycled to the bath and purified water recycled to the ri...

237

Selenium Adsorption To Aluminum-Based Water Treatment Residuals  

EPA Science Inventory

Aluminum-based water treatment residuals (WTR) can adsorb water-and soil-borne P, As(V), As(III), and perchlorate, and may be able to adsorb excess environmental selenium. WTR, clay minerals, and amorphous aluminum hydroxide were shaken for 24 hours in selenate or selenite solut...

238

Water Treatment Estimation Routine (WaTER) User Manual. Water Desalination Research and Development Program Report No. 43.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

One of the primary concerns in updating an older water treatment plant, or building a new one is: 'How much will it cost.' In a joint effort between the Bureau of Reclamation, and the National Institute of Standards and Technology, a water treatment desig...

M. C. Wilbert J. Pellegrino J. Scott Q. Zhang

1999-01-01

239

Reviewing efficacy of alternative water treatment techniques.  

PubMed

This section is designed to provide a brief summary of some of the findings. A good deal of work has been conducted by Mr N. L. Pavey and the team at BSRIA, Bracknell. The BSRIA publications are an excellent source of further information. Ultraviolet radiation: UV radiation of wavelength 254 nm destroys bacteria by a mechanism of damaging nucleic acids by producing thymine dimers which disrupt DNA replication [Gavdy and Gavdy, 1980]. L. pneumophila has been reported as sensitive to UV dosages of 2,500-7,000 uW.s/cm2 [Antopol & Ellner, 1979; Knudson, 1985]. Antopol and Ellner [1979] examined the susceptibility of L. pneumophila to UV dosage. Their results indicated that 50% of the organisms were killed by 380 uWs/cm2 and 90% were killed by 920 uWs/cm2. Kills of 99 and 99.9% were obtained using 1,840 and 2,760 uWs/cm2 respectively. Muraca et al [1987] showed that continuous UV irradiation resulted in a 5 logarithm decrease in waterborne L. pneumophila in a circulating system. Gilpin [1984] reported that in laboratory buffer solutions, exposure to 1 uW of UV radiation per cm2 achieved a 50% kill of L longbeachae in 5 minutes, L. gormanii in 2-30 minutes and L pneumophila in 17 minutes. Exposure times for 99% kills for L. longbeachae, L pneumophila and L. Gormanii were 33, 48 and 63 minutes respectively. The same research worker conducted experiments using a 3 litre circulating water system, connected to a stainless steel housing containing a UV source. The UV lamp output was 7 ergs/mm2 per second per 100 cm at 254 nm. L. pneumophila was killed within 15 seconds, that is within their first pass through the system. Continuous disinfection with UV has the advantages of imparting no taste, odour or harmful chemical by-products and requires minimal operation and maintenance [Muraca et al 1988]. Keevil et al [1989] state that UV irradiation fails to clear systems of biofilm because of poor penetration into microflocs of the micro-organisms. Copper/silver ionisation: A recent study of full scale hot water test rigs incorporating copper-silver ionisation systems has been reported by Pavey, 1996. Copper and silver ions were introduced into the water by electrolysis. One of the principal mechanisms of biocidal action of these ions is thought to be cell penetration. The positively charged copper ions form electrostatic bonds with negatively charged sites on the cell wall. The cell membrane is thus distorted, allowing ingress of silver ions which attack the cell by binding at specific sites to DNA, RNA, respiratory enzymes and cellular protein, causing catastrophic failure of the life support systems of the cell. Silver and copper ion concentrations of 40 and 400 ug/L respectively were effective against planktonic Legionellae in cold water systems and hot water systems containing soft water. In hard water, the ionisation was ineffective due to the inability to control silver ion concentrations. This was caused by scaling of the electrodes and silver ion complexation by the high concentration of dissolved solids. Bosch et al [1993] had earlier extended the application of copper-silver disinfection to human enteric viruses in water, such as adenovirus, rotavirus, hepatitis A virus, and poliovirus. Their work showed that copper and silver ions in the presence of reduced levels of free chlorine did not ensure the total elimination of viral pathogens from water. In the case of an amoeba, Naegleria fowleria [responsible for primary amoebic meningoencephalitis], Cassells et al [1995] have demonstrated that a combination of silver and copper ions were ineffective at inactivating the amoebae at 80 and 800 ug/L respectively. However addition of 1.0 mg/L free chlorine produced a synergistic effect, with superior inactivation relative to either chlorine or silver-copper in isolation. A similar synergy was reported by Yahya et al [1989] in their study of Staphylococcus sp. and Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Yahya et al [1992] also suggested an additive or synergistic effect in the inactivation of coliphage MS-2 and poliovirus. Other techniques: There are

Hambidge, A

2001-06-01

240

Selection of water treatment processes special study  

SciTech Connect

Characterization of the level and extent of groundwater contamination in the vicinity of Title I mill sites began during the surface remedial action stage (Phase 1) of the Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action (UMTRA) Project. Some of the contamination in the aquifer(s) at the abandoned sites is attributable to milling activities during the years the mills were in operation. The restoration of contaminated aquifers is to be undertaken in Phase II of the UMTRA Project. To begin implementation of Phase II, DOE requested that groundwater restoration methods and technologies be investigated by the Technical Assistance Contractor (TAC). and that the results of the TAC investigations be documented in special study reports. Many active and passive methods are available to clean up contaminated groundwater. Passive groundwater treatment includes natural flushing, geochemical barriers, and gradient manipulation by stream diversion or slurry walls. Active groundwater.cleanup techniques include gradient manipulation by well extraction or injection. in-situ biological or chemical reclamation, and extraction and treatment. Although some or all of the methods listed above may play a role in the groundwater cleanup phase of the UMTRA Project, the extraction and treatment (pump and treat) option is the only restoration alternative discussed in this report. Hence, all sections of this report relate either directly or indirectly to the technical discipline of process engineering.

Not Available

1991-11-01

241

Soluble arsenic removal at water treatment plants  

SciTech Connect

Arsenic profiles were obtained from full-scale conventional treatment (coagulation, Fe-Mn oxidation, or softening) plants, facilitating testing of theories regarding arsenic removal. Soluble As(V) removal efficiency was controlled primarily by pH during coagulation, be Fe{sup +2} oxidation and Fe(OH){sub 3} precipitation during Fe-Mn oxidation, and by Mg(OH){sub 2} formation during softening. Insignificant soluble As(V) removal occurred during calcite precipitation at softening plants or during Mn{sup +2} oxidation-precipitation at Fe-Mn oxidation plants. The extent of soluble As(V) removal during coagulation and softening treatments was lower than expected. Somewhat surprisingly, during coagulation As(V) removal efficiencies were limited by particulate aluminum formation and removal, because much of the added coagulant was not removed by 0.45-{mu}m-pore-size filters. At one utility, reducing the coagulation pH from 7.4 to 6.8 (at constant alum dose) improved removal of particulate aluminum, thereby enhancing soluble As(V) removal during treatment.

McNeill, L.S.; Edwards, M. [Univ. of Colorado, Boulder, CO (United States). Dept. of Civil Engineering

1995-04-01

242

Pure oxygen treatment of pesticide plant waste water  

Microsoft Academic Search

Chemagro's waste water treatment plant, which includes pH control, solids removal, equalization, biological treatment (UNOX) and sludge dewatering process units, and which reduces COD by 50.4%, BOD by 92.8%, and phenols by 76.9% is discussed, including the operating problems, operating experience with both the cyrogenic air separation plant and the UNOX system, and advantages.

Pallanich

1978-01-01

243

Urban and semi?urban planning in developing countries from a water and waste water treatment point of view  

Microsoft Academic Search

Several appropriate technology alternatives are suggested for water and wastewatei treatment in less developed countries. Large?scale water supply systems employing conventional water treatment methods should be replaced by several small?scale water treatment units utilizing appropriate water treatment methods.Conventional sewerage systems should be replaced by low cost on?site sanitation systems and several other low?cost wastewater treatment methods such as oxidation ponds,

S. V. R. Rao

1988-01-01

244

ETV REPORT: REMOVAL OF ARSENIC IN DRINKING WATER ORCA WATER TECHNOLOGIES KEMLOOP 1000 COAGULATION AND FILTRATION WATER TREATMENT SYSTEM  

EPA Science Inventory

Verification testing of the ORCA Water Technologies KemLoop 1000 Coagulation and Filtration Water Treatment System for arsenic removal was conducted at the St. Louis Center located in Washtenaw County, Michigan, from March 23 through April 6, 2005. The source water was groundwate...

245

Reverse-Osmosis Filtration Based Water Treatment and Special Water Purification for Nuclear Power Systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper is devoted to the development and operation of specialized water treatment and water purification systems, based on the principle of reverse-osmosis filtration of water, for the operation of bench nuclear power systems at the A. P. Aleksandrov Scientific-Research and Technological Institute. Reverse-osmosis filters permit softening the process water, improving its quality, and greatly decrease the load on the

V. N. Epimakhov; M. S. Oleinik; L. N. Moskvin

2004-01-01

246

Recent developments in photocatalytic water treatment technology: a review.  

PubMed

In recent years, semiconductor photocatalytic process has shown a great potential as a low-cost, environmental friendly and sustainable treatment technology to align with the "zero" waste scheme in the water/wastewater industry. The ability of this advanced oxidation technology has been widely demonstrated to remove persistent organic compounds and microorganisms in water. At present, the main technical barriers that impede its commercialisation remained on the post-recovery of the catalyst particles after water treatment. This paper reviews the recent R&D progresses of engineered-photocatalysts, photoreactor systems, and the process optimizations and modellings of the photooxidation processes for water treatment. A number of potential and commercial photocatalytic reactor configurations are discussed, in particular the photocatalytic membrane reactors. The effects of key photoreactor operation parameters and water quality on the photo-process performances in terms of the mineralization and disinfection are assessed. For the first time, we describe how to utilize a multi-variables optimization approach to determine the optimum operation parameters so as to enhance process performance and photooxidation efficiency. Both photomineralization and photo-disinfection kinetics and their modellings associated with the photocatalytic water treatment process are detailed. A brief discussion on the life cycle assessment for retrofitting the photocatalytic technology as an alternative waste treatment process is presented. This paper will deliver a scientific and technical overview and useful information to scientists and engineers who work in this field. PMID:20378145

Chong, Meng Nan; Jin, Bo; Chow, Christopher W K; Saint, Chris

2010-03-18

247

40 CFR 749.68 - Hexavalent chromium-based water treatment chemicals in cooling systems.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...Hexavalent chromium-based water treatment chemicals in cooling systems. 749...SUBSTANCES CONTROL ACT WATER TREATMENT CHEMICALS Air Conditioning and Cooling...Hexavalent chromium-based water treatment chemicals in cooling systems....

2009-07-01

248

40 CFR 749.68 - Hexavalent chromium-based water treatment chemicals in cooling systems.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...Hexavalent chromium-based water treatment chemicals in cooling systems. 749...SUBSTANCES CONTROL ACT WATER TREATMENT CHEMICALS Air Conditioning and Cooling...Hexavalent chromium-based water treatment chemicals in cooling systems....

2010-07-01

249

40 CFR 403.19 - Provisions of specific applicability to the Owatonna Waste Water Treatment Facility.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...applicability to the Owatonna Waste Water Treatment Facility. 403.19 Section...applicability to the Owatonna Waste Water Treatment Facility. (a) For...discharging to the Owatonna Waste Water Treatment Facility in...

2009-07-01

250

40 CFR 403.19 - Provisions of specific applicability to the Owatonna Waste Water Treatment Facility.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...applicability to the Owatonna Waste Water Treatment Facility. 403.19 Section...applicability to the Owatonna Waste Water Treatment Facility. (a) For...discharging to the Owatonna Waste Water Treatment Facility in...

2010-07-01

251

40 CFR 403.19 - Provisions of specific applicability to the Owatonna Waste Water Treatment Facility.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...specific applicability to the Owatonna Waste Water Treatment Facility. 403.19 Section...specific applicability to the Owatonna Waste Water Treatment Facility. (a) For the...Industrial User discharging to the Owatonna Waste Water Treatment Facility in...

2012-07-01

252

40 CFR 749.68 - Hexavalent chromium-based water treatment chemicals in cooling systems.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-07-01 false Hexavalent chromium-based water treatment chemicals in cooling systems...CONTINUED) TOXIC SUBSTANCES CONTROL ACT WATER TREATMENT CHEMICALS Air Conditioning...749.68 Hexavalent chromium-based water treatment chemicals in cooling...

2013-07-01

253

Water: from the source to the treatment plan  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

As a biology and geology teacher, I have worked on water, from the source to the treatment plant, with pupils between 14 and 15 years old. Lesson 1. Introduction, the water in Vienna Aim: The pupils have to consider why the water is so important in Vienna (history, economy etc.) Activities: Brainstorming about where and why we use water every day and why the water is different in Vienna. Lesson 2. Soil, rock and water Aim: Permeability/ impermeability of the different layers of earth Activities: The pupils have measure the permeability and porosity of different stones: granite, clay, sand, carbonate and basalt. Lesson 3. Relationship between water's ion composition and the stone's mineralogy Aim: Each water source has the same ion composition as the soil where the water comes from. Activities: Comparison between the stone's mineralogy and ions in water. They had a diagram with the ions of granite, clay, sand, carbonate and basalt and the label of different water. They had to make hypotheses about the type of soil where the water came from. They verified this with a geology map of France and Austria. They have to make a profile of the area where the water comes from. They had to confirm or reject their hypothesis. Lesson 4 .Water-catchment and reservoir rocks Aim: Construction of a confined aquifer and artesian well Activities: With sand, clay and a basin, they have to model a confined aquifer and make an artesian well, using what they have learned in lesson 2. Lesson 5. Organic material breakdown and it's affect on the oxygen levels in an aquatic ecosystem Aim: Evaluate the relationship between oxygen levels and the amount of organic matter in an aquatic ecosystem. Explain the relationship between oxygen levels, bacteria and the breakdown of organic matter using an indicator solution. Activities: Put 5 ml of a different water sample in each tube with 20 drops of methylene blue. Observe the tubes after 1 month. Lesson 6. Visit to the biggest water treatment plant in Europe in Vienna Lesson 7 Water Quality Monitoring: Biochemical Oxygen Demand Aim: Measure the quantity of oxygen used by microorganisms in the oxidation of organic matter for different water; downstream and upstream of polluting refuse, after addition of glucose, milk or humus in the water. Activities: After dissolution of the different samples of water they measure the dissolved oxygen with the Winkler Method.

Marquet, V.; Baude, I.

2012-04-01

254

Apparatus for treatment of waste water sludge  

SciTech Connect

An apparatus is described for treating waste water sludge, containing a separating system for separating the sludge into a plurality of separate streams. The separating system includes a plurality of confined passageways, each of which are sized and shaped to receive a corresponding stream of sludge. The apparatus also has a propelling system for propelling each of the streams of sludge through and from a corresponding one of the passageways, thereby creating a plurality of propelled streams of sludge. A shearing system is provided for mechanically shearing solid particles contained in the propelled streams of sludge to such an extent that at least some of the solid particles are broken into smaller sized fragments, whereby liquid contained in pores of the fragmented particles is released. The shearing system includes an impinging apparatus for permitting at least some of the solid particles contained in the propelled streams of sludge to impinge. The impinging apparatus also includes a plurality of contact surfaces separate from the passageways and positioned in close proximity, whereby each of the propelled streams of sludge impinges on at least one of the contact surfaces immediately after being propelled from a corresponding one of the passageways.

Kew, S.A.; Kritzer, R.M.; Soule, B.E.

1993-08-31

255

Detection of enteric viruses, Giardia and Cryptosporidium in two different types of drinking water treatment facilities  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this study, two types of drinking water treatment facilities (two conventional drinking water treatment plants (DWTPs) and two compact units (Cus)) were compared referring to their production capacity. Water samples were collected from three main points: (a) different water treatment steps (b) washings of sand filters and (c) distribution system at different distances from the water treatment plants. Both

M. A. Ali; A. Z. Al-Herrawy; S. E. El-Hawaary

2004-01-01

256

SMALL DRINKING WATER TREATMENT TECHNOLOGIES FOR COMPLIANCE WITH THE ENHANCED SURFACE WATER TREATMENT RULES  

EPA Science Inventory

According to FY2003 statistics compiled by the Office of Ground Water and Drinking Water, the U.S. regulates about 160,000 small drinking water systems that impact close to 70 million people. Small systems (serving transient and non-transient populations of 10,000 people or less...

257

Is biological treatment a viable alternative for micropollutant removal in drinking water treatment processes?  

PubMed

In western societies, clean and safe drinking water is often taken for granted, but there are threats to drinking water resources that should not be underestimated. Contamination of drinking water sources by anthropogenic chemicals is one threat that is particularly widespread in industrialized nations. Recently, a significant amount of attention has been given to the occurrence of micropollutants in the urban water cycle. Micropollutants are bioactive and/or persistent chemicals originating from diverse sources that are frequently detected in water resources in the pg/L to ?g/L range. The aim of this review is to critically evaluate the viability of biological treatment processes as a means to remove micropollutants from drinking water resources. We first place the micropollutant problem in context by providing a comprehensive summary of the reported occurrence of micropollutants in raw water used directly for drinking water production and in finished drinking water. We then present a critical discussion on conventional and advanced drinking water treatment processes and their contribution to micropollutant removal. Finally, we propose biological treatment and bioaugmentation as a potential targeted, cost-effective, and sustainable alternative to existing processes while critically examining the technical limitations and scientific challenges that need to be addressed prior to implementation. This review will serve as a valuable source of data and literature for water utilities, water researchers, policy makers, and environmental consultants. Meanwhile this review will open the door to meaningful discussion on the feasibility and application of biological treatment and bioaugmentation in drinking water treatment processes to protect the public from exposure to micropollutants. PMID:24053940

Benner, Jessica; Helbling, Damian E; Kohler, Hans-Peter E; Wittebol, Janneke; Kaiser, Elena; Prasse, Carsten; Ternes, Thomas A; Albers, Christian N; Aamand, Jens; Horemans, Benjamin; Springael, Dirk; Walravens, Eddy; Boon, Nico

2013-08-09

258

The future for electrocoagulation as a localised water treatment technology.  

PubMed

Electrocoagulation is an electrochemical method of treating polluted water whereby sacrificial anodes corrode to release active coagulant precursors (usually aluminium or iron cations) into solution. Accompanying electrolytic reactions evolve gas (usually as hydrogen bubbles) at the cathode. Electrocoagulation has a long history as a water treatment technology having been employed to remove a wide range of pollutants. However electrocoagulation has never become accepted as a 'mainstream' water treatment technology. The lack of a systematic approach to electrocoagulation reactor design/operation and the issue of electrode reliability (particularly passivation of the electrodes over time) have limited its implementation. However recent technical improvements combined with a growing need for small-scale decentralised water treatment facilities have led to a re-evaluation of electrocoagulation. Starting with a review of electrocoagulation reactor design/operation, this article examines and identifies a conceptual framework for electrocoagulation that focuses on the interactions between electrochemistry, coagulation and flotation. In addition detailed experimental data are provided from a batch reactor system removing suspended solids together with a mathematical analysis based on the 'white water' model for the dissolved air flotation process. Current density is identified as the key operational parameter influencing which pollutant removal mechanism dominates. The conclusion is drawn that electrocoagulation has a future as a decentralised water treatment technology. A conceptual framework is presented for future research directed towards a more mechanistic understanding of the process. PMID:15763088

Holt, Peter K; Barton, Geoffrey W; Mitchell, Cynthia A

2004-12-08

259

Cost of water reclamation by advanced wastewater treatment  

SciTech Connect

The advanced wastewater treatment (AWT) facility in Orange County, Calif., treats 0.66 cu m/sec of wastewater. Detailed cost data obtained during one year of operation are presented. The cost of producing reclaimed water is compared with the cost of importing water supplies. The plant's product water met all injection water quality requirements. Typical removal efficiency of the AWT process is summarized. The total cost of the blended water produced by the AWT plant is $90/1000 cu m capital and $131/1000 cu m operation and maintenance. The Orange County Water District believes that the future growth and economy of southern California will depend to a great extent on the continued development of wastewater reclamation. (3 diagrams, 11 tables)

Argo, D.G.

1980-04-01

260

Microbial Characterization of Biological Filters Used for Drinking Water Treatment  

PubMed Central

The impact of preozonation and filter contact time (depth) on microbial communities was examined in drinking water biofilters treating Ohio River water which had undergone conventional treatment (coagulation, flocculation, sedimentation) or solutions of natural organic matter isolated from groundwater (both ozonated and nonozonated). With respect to filter depth, compared to filters treating nonozonated waters, preozonation of treated water led to greater differences in community phospholipid fatty acid (PLFA) profiles, utilization of sole carbon sources (Biolog), and arbitrarily primed PCR fingerprints. PLFA profiles indicated that there was a shift toward anaerobic bacteria in the communities found in the filter treating ozonated water compared to the communities found in the filter treating nonozonated settled water, which had a greater abundance of eukaryotic markers.

Moll, Deborah M.; Summers, R. Scott; Breen, Alec

1998-01-01

261

Development of an advanced water treatment system for wastewater reuse.  

PubMed

The aim of this research was to develop an optimal reuse system applying various types of advanced oxidation processes such as titanium dioxide (TiO2), ozone (O3) and electro-coagulation/oxidation methods. This system is suitable for improving the treatment efficiency of difficult wastewaters, and for the efficient reuse of wastewater. The connecting systems were divided into various types to investigate the stability and treatment efficiency according to the kinds of waste load. Different treatment sequences were examined taking into consideration the characteristics and economical efficiency. In the case of electro-coagulation/oxidation + ozone system, the mean treatment efficiency in terms of BOD5, CODCr and SS removal was 98.7%. The effluent concentration was 50.2 mg l(-1), 38.3 mg l(-1), 30.4 mg l(-1), respectively. In considering the economical efficiency and commercial use, around an eighth of the treatment expenses and around a fifth of the maintenance expenses could be saved compared with existing water treatment systems. The initial construction expenses could be reduced by a third to a fifth. Therefore, if a proper implementation of this research is carried out in relation to site conditions and the purpose of the water reuse, the water reuse rate will be higher and water resources can be protected. PMID:18844120

Chung, H; Ku, B; Gregory, J

2008-09-01

262

40 CFR 141.403 - Treatment technique requirements for ground water systems.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED)] [Subchapter D - WATER PROGRAMS (CONTINUED)] [Part 141 - NATIONAL PRIMARY DRINKING WATER REGULATIONS--] [Subpart S - Ground Water Rule] [Sec. 141.403 - Treatment technique requirements...

2009-07-01

263

Affordable Drinking Water Treatment for Public Water Systems Contaminated by Excess Levels of Natural Fluoride.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The report explores affordable treatments for public drinking water systems that have been contaminated by excess levels of naturally occurring fluoride. The report includes discussion of fluoride occurrences in groundwater, remediation techniques associa...

C. Mastropaolo

1991-01-01

264

Waste Water Treatment. Aeration of Waste Water by Oxygen. (Traitement des Eaux Usees par Oxygenation).  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Oxygen enriched air or industrial oxygen appear to be particularly suitable for waste water treatment in the following cases: Wastes with high organic loads of varying concentration, wastes with easily volatile components, tending to emit odors, overloadi...

1973-01-01

265

Minireview: the health implications of water treatment with ozone  

SciTech Connect

Ozone is a highly efficient disinfectant which may have significant advantages in water treatment compared to chlorine. It has, however, been shown that mutagenic and possibly carcinogenic byproducts may be produced under certain conditions of ozonation. Light chlorination following ozonization may meet the highest standards of disinfection. In addition the destruction of much of the organic matter by prior ozone treatment may well result in less harmful chlorinated and brominated products in the finished water. In many cases ozone treatment alone may suffice. It would be desirable to test with long term in vivo experiments which of the alternatives produces the best combination of microbiologically clean and pleasant water with minimum mutagenic and carcinogenic effect.

Carmichael, N.G.; Winder, C.; Borges, S.H.; Backhouse, B.L.; Lewis, P.D.

1982-01-11

266

Large area radiation source for water and wastewater treatment  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

There is a strong desire for processes that improve the safety of water supplies and that minimize disinfection byproducts. Stellarray is developing mercury-free next-generation x-ray and UV-C radiation sources in flat-panel and pipe form factors for water and wastewater treatment applications. These new radiation sources are designed to sterilize sludge and effluent, and to enable new treatment approaches to emerging environmental concerns such as the accumulation of estrogenic compounds in water. Our UV-C source, based on cathodoluminescent technology, differs significantly from traditional disinfection approaches using mercury arc lamps or UV LEDs. Our sources accelerate electrons across a vacuum gap, converting their energy into UV-C when striking a phosphor, or x-rays when striking a metallic anode target. Stellarray's large area radiation sources for wastewater treatment allow matching of the radiation source area to the sterilization target area for maximum coverage and improved efficiency.

Mueller, Michael T.; Lee, Seungwoo; Kloba, Anthony; Hellmer, Ronald; Kumar, Nalin; Eaton, Mark; Rambo, Charlotte; Pillai, Suresh

2011-05-01

267

Photodegradation characteristics of PPCPs in water with UV treatment  

Microsoft Academic Search

The degradation characteristics of PPCPs commonly found in surface water under UV treatment were examined for 30 kinds of PPCPs using a UV\\/Lamp1 that emits light at a wavelength of 254 nm and a UV\\/Lamp2 that emits light at 254 nm and 185 nm in pure water. When a UV dose of some 230 mJ\\/cm2 was introduced to the 30 PPCPs, photodegradation rates of

Ilho Kim; Hiroaki Tanaka

2009-01-01

268

Correlating Cryptosporidium removal using dissolved air flotation in water treatment  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cryptosporidium parvum behaves similarly to other low density colloidal particles in water. Their physical removal requires destabilization and subsequent separation. Removal as high as 4.9 log-units has been reported for gravity sedimentation but the average removal tends to be less than 2 log-units. Dissolved air flotation (DAF) is a method of water treatment that has been used primarily for sludge

Kathy French; Rodney K Guest; Gordon R Finch; Charles N Haas

2000-01-01

269

Treatment of cadmium and nickel electroplating rinse water by electrocoagulation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Treatments of cadmium?cyanide and nickel?cyanide electroplating rinse water were investigated in an electrochemical reactor equipped with iron plate electrodes in a batch mode by electrocoagulation (EC). Effects of the process variables such as pH, current density, and operating time were explored with respect to removal efficiencies of cadmium, nickel and cyanide in electroplating rinse water and operating costs as well.

M. Kobya; E. Demirbas; N. U. Parlak; S. Yigit

2010-01-01

270

Batch-Mixed Iron Treatment of High Arsenic Waters  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper develops batch-mixed treatment with zero-valent iron as a point-of-use technology, appropriate for arsenic removal from water stored within rural homes in Bangladesh and West Bengal, India, where arsenic poisoning has affected an estimated 20 million people. Batch tests with iron yielded the following results: (1) High arsenic removal (>93%) was achieved from highly arsenated waters (2000?g\\/L) over short

Anuradha Ramaswami; Santhiti Tawachsupa; Mehmet Isleyen

2001-01-01

271

Cost effectiveness of centralised and decentralised storm water treatment.  

PubMed

As part of a research & development project commissioned by the Land of North Rhine-Westphalia's Ministry for the Environment and Nature Conservation, Agriculture and Consumer Protection (MUNLV) an examination is being carried out of the general possibilities for centralised and decentralised treatment storm water runoff to be discharged into (canalised) receiving waters and the costs ensuing from this. The examination of the different options is being carried out under real conditions, with the Briller Creek (Wuppertal/Germany) and Müggen Creek (Remscheid/Germany) catchment areas being used as models. The range of investigations deals with a comparison between 'decentralised, semicentralised, centralised' storm water treatment, centralised storm water treatment involving a separate sewer and parameter-specific pollution based storm water runoff control. In the framework of the research project each of the variants is to be elaborated and the costs are to be calculated so as to permit a comparison between the different system designs. In particular, the investigations are to take into account the actual requirements to be met by storm water drainage systems involving separate sewage systems. PMID:22049754

Gruening, H; Hoppe, H; Messmann, S; Giga, A

2011-01-01

272

An Integrated Water Treatment Technology Solution for Sustainable Water Resource Management in the Marcellus Shale  

Microsoft Academic Search

This Final Scientific\\/ Technical Report submitted with respect to Project DE-FE0000833 titled 'An Integrated Water Treatment Technology Solution for Sustainable Water Resource Management in the Marcellus Shale' in support of final reporting requirements. This final report contains a compilation of previous reports with the most current data in order to produce one final complete document. The goal of this research

Matthew Bruff; Ned Godshall; Karen Evans

2011-01-01

273

REMOVAL OF ARSENIC IN DRINKING WATER: ARS CFU-50 APC ELECTROFLOCCULATION AND FILTRATION WATER TREATMENT SYSTEM  

EPA Science Inventory

ETV testing of the ARS CFU-50 APC Electroflocculation and Filtration Water Treatment System (ARS CFU-50 APC) for arsenic removal was conducted at the Town of Bernalillo Well #3 site from April 18 through May 2, 2006. The source water was chlorinated groundwater from two supply w...

274

Fate of antibiotics during municipal water recycling treatment processes.  

PubMed

Municipal water recycling processes are potential human and environmental exposure routes for low concentrations of persistent antibiotics. While the implications of such exposure scenarios are unknown, concerns have been raised regarding the possibility that continuous discharge of antibiotics to the environment may facilitate the development or proliferation of resistant strains of bacteria. As potable and non-potable water recycling schemes are continuously developed, it is imperative to improve our understanding of the fate of antibiotics during conventional and advanced wastewater treatment processes leading to high-quality water reclamation. This review collates existing knowledge with the aim of providing new insight to the influence of a wide range of treatment processes to the ultimate fate of antibiotics during conventional and advanced wastewater treatment. Although conventional biological wastewater treatment processes are effective for the removal of some antibiotics, many have been reported to occur at 10-1000 ng L(-1) concentrations in secondary treated effluents. These include beta-lactams, sulfonamides, trimethoprim, macrolides, fluoroquinolones, and tetracyclines. Tertiary and advanced treatment processes may be required to fully manage environmental and human exposure to these contaminants in water recycling schemes. The effectiveness of a range of processes including tertiary media filtration, ozonation, chlorination, UV irradiation, activated carbon adsorption, and NF/RO filtration has been reviewed and, where possible, semi-quantitative estimations of antibiotics removals have been provided. PMID:20619433

Le-Minh, N; Khan, S J; Drewes, J E; Stuetz, R M

2010-06-15

275

Guide to land treatment of municipal waste water in Illinois  

SciTech Connect

Waste water is a recyclable commodity. Organic matter, nitrogen, phosphorus, and micronutrients in waste water are generally harmful when discharged to lakes and streams, but these constituents have a positive economic value when applied under properly controlled conditions to vegetated soils. The guide provides an overview of planning for a land-treatment system. It first discusses the potential for land treatment in Illinois, how to modify lagoons for land treatment, economic considerations, health and environmental concerns, regulatory requirements, and public education. It then provides more technical information on land-treatment processes, site and waste-load evaluation, systems for agricultural production, the potential for supplemental irrigation in Illinois, general site management, and system monitoring.

Skelton, L.W.; Hinesly, T.D.; John, S.F.

1989-01-01

276

'Iraq Water Treatment Vulnerabilities': a challenge to public health ethics.  

PubMed

A formerly classified US document, 'Iraq Water Treatment Vulnerabilities,' provides evidence that ill health was knowingly induced in the population of Iraq through the ruination of that country's water purification system. We believe that the uncovering of this document should stimulate the public health community to clarify principles of public health ethics and to formulate statements giving voice to these principles. We propose here two statements, one dealing with the broad issue of public health ethics and international relations, and one dealing specifically with public health ethics and water purification. PMID:15260175

MacQueen, Graeme; Nagy, Thomas; Santa Barbara, Joanna; Raichle, Claudia

277

[On the fluorescence of bidistilled water after electrochemical treatment].  

PubMed

The short-wave fluorescence of bidistilled water treated in the cathode and anode chambers of two types of electrolysers made from different materials was investigated by fluorescence spectroscopy. It was shown that the electrochemical treatment of water did not induce intrinsic short-wave flyorescence of catholyte and anolyte in the case of quartz glass electrolyser. The increase observed in the intensity of intrinsic short-wavelength fluorescence of bidistilled water in the catholyte and anolyte of the electrolyser made from technical organic glass was caused by microcontaminations released from electrolyser material in the samples. PMID:16637323

Ivanov, A Iu; Miroshnikov, A I

278

Technology assessment of aquaculture systems for municipal waste water treatment  

SciTech Connect

The innovative and alternative technology provisions of the Clean Water Act of 1977 (PL 95-217) provide financial incentives to communities that use wastewater treatment alternatives to reduce costs or energy consumption over conventional systems. Some of these technologies have been only recently developed and are not in widespread use in the United States. This document discusses the applicability and technical and economic feasibility of using aquaculture systems for municipal wastewater treatment facilities.

Hyde, H.C.; Ross, R.S.; Sturmer, L.

1984-08-01

279

Fate of estrogens in biological treatment of concentrated black water  

Microsoft Academic Search

Keywords: estrogens, black water, wastewater, biological treatment.<\\/div>
 <\\/div>
Sewage treatment plants (STPs) effluents were found to have estrogenic character which is mainly due to the presence of estrone (E1), 17b-estradiol (E2) and 17a-ethynylestradiol (EE2). E1 and E2 are natural hormones excreted by mammals in urine and faeces, whereas EE2 is a synthetic hormone present in the contraceptive pill. The largest

Mes de T. Z. D

2007-01-01

280

The use of organo-clays in water treatment  

Microsoft Academic Search

The use of organo-clays in wastewater treatment has become commonplace in industry today. Organo-clays exhibit a synergistic effect with many commonly utilized water treatment unit processes including granular-activated charcoal, reverse osmosis, and air strippers. Organo-clays have proven to be the technology of choice for treating oily wastewaters. This paper will discuss the physical chemistry of the organo-clays sorption mechanism as

Gary W. Beall

2003-01-01

281

Car wash wastewater treatment and water reuse - a case study.  

PubMed

Recent features of a car wash wastewater reclamation system and results from a full-scale car wash wastewater treatment and recycling process are reported. This upcoming technology comprises a new flocculation-column flotation process, sand filtration, and a final chlorination. A water usage and savings audit (22 weeks) showed that almost 70% reclamation was possible, and fewer than 40 L of fresh water per wash were needed. Wastewater and reclaimed water were characterized by monitoring chemical, physicochemical and biological parameters. Results were discussed in terms of aesthetic quality (water clarification and odour), health (pathological) and chemical (corrosion and scaling) risks. A microbiological risk model was applied and the Escherichia coli proposed criterion for car wash reclaimed water is 200 CFU 100 mL(-1). It is believed that the discussions on car wash wastewater reclamation criteria may assist institutions to create laws in Brazil and elsewhere. PMID:23128624

Zaneti, R N; Etchepare, R; Rubio, J

2013-01-01

282

Amend soils with residues from water-treatment processes  

SciTech Connect

This article reports that land application is emerging as a viable disposal/reuse method for water-treatment-process residues. In many cases, these residues actually enhance soil quality and arrest fertilizer loss. Water treatment usually generates solid residues requiring disposal. These include sludges from lime softening and related pretreatment processes and spent ion-exchange resins and adsorbents used for softening, dealkalization, and deionization of surface and well water. Although it may not appear so at first glance, according to consultant Dr. Robert Kunin, these materials have properties that can benefit the soil for agricultural and horticultural needs. Treating water with lime is popular and effective for removing hardness, phosphates, and some silica. Small amounts of alum, chlorine, and/or organic flocculants may also be added in lime-softening processes. Resulting sludge consists of calcium carbonate (CaCO[sub 3]), magnesium hydroxide, and calcium/magnesium/phosphate compounds, along with humic matter and related organic compounds that originate in the raw water. If softening is conducted at high temperatures, large, dense CaCO[sub 3] particles form as the compound crystallizes around sand particles. Disposal of this sludge is often considered a major disadvantage of lime softening. But if the water being treated meets EPA regulations for heavy metals, especially arsenic, then chemical analysis suggests benefits for soils. This has been well-described in texts addressing water treatment. For example, the sludge serves as a mild liming agent and may even supply various plant nutrients. Note that this application is different from municipal wastewater treatment plant sludge, which is difficult to land apply.

Makansi, J.

1993-09-01

283

WATER FACTORY 21: RECLAIMED WATER, VOLATILE ORGANICS, VIRUS, AND TREATMENT PERFORMANCE  

EPA Science Inventory

This report describes the performance of Water Factory 21, a 0.66 cu m/s advanced wastewater treatment plant designed to reclaim secondary effluent from a municipal wastewater treatment plant so that it can be used for injection and recharge of a groundwater system. Included in t...

284

Integrated operation of drinking water treatment plant at Amsterdam water supply  

Microsoft Academic Search

Water treatment plants are in general robust and designs are based on the performance of individual processes with pre-set boundary conditions. It is assumed that an integral approach of the entire treatment plant can lead to more efficient operation. Taking into account the developments in sensoring, automation and computation, it is a challenge to improve quality and reliability of the

G. J. Bosklopper; L. C. Rietveld; R. Babuska; B. Smaal; J. Timmer

285

Problems of drinking water treatment along Ismailia Canal Province, Egypt.  

PubMed

The present drinking water purification system in Egypt uses surface water as a raw water supply without a preliminary filtration process. On the other hand, chlorine gas is added as a disinfectant agent in two steps, pre- and post-chlorination. Due to these reasons most of water treatment plants suffer low filtering effectiveness and produce the trihalomethane (THM) species as a chlorination by-product. The Ismailia Canal represents the most distal downstream of the main Nile River. Thus its water contains all the proceeded pollutants discharged into the Nile. In addition, the downstream reaches of the canal act as an agricultural drain during the closing period of the High Dam gates in January and February every year. Moreover, the wide industrial zone along the upstream course of the canal enriches the canal water with high concentrations of heavy metals. The obtained results indicate that the canal gains up to 24.06x10(6) m3 of water from the surrounding shallow aquifer during the closing period of the High Dam gates, while during the rest of the year, the canal acts as an influent stream losing about 99.6x10(6) m3 of its water budget. The reduction of total organic carbon (TOC) and suspended particulate matters (SPMs) should be one of the central goals of any treatment plan to avoid the disinfectants by-products. The combination of sedimentation basins, gravel pre-filtration and slow sand filtration, and underground passage with microbiological oxidation-reduction and adsorption criteria showed good removal of parasites and bacteria and complete elimination of TOC, SPM and heavy metals. Moreover, it reduces the use of disinfectants chemicals and lowers the treatment costs. However, this purification system under the arid climate prevailing in Egypt should be tested and modified prior to application. PMID:18357626

Geriesh, Mohamed H; Balke, Klaus-Dieter; El-Rayes, Ahmed E

2008-03-01

286

Electrotechnologies for waste and water treatment: Final report  

SciTech Connect

This work identifies and examines the use of electrotechnologies in the treatment of solid and liquid wastes. The types of wastes studied were divided into five major classifications: (1) municipal solid wastes, (2) municipal wastewater, (3) nonhazardous industrial wastes, (4) hazardous industrial wastes and (5) nuclear wastes. Within each category, information was gathered on the quantities of waste generated, types of wastes generated, current disposal or treatment technologies, research on promising treatment technologies, and energy usage for current and promising technologies. Information in the above areas was also put together for the topics of drinking water and resource recovery. 71 refs., 71 figs., 91 tabs.

Estey, P.; Hampton, H.; Sefidpour, S.

1987-10-01

287

Supercritical water oxidation test bed effluent treatment study  

SciTech Connect

This report presents effluent treatment options for a 50 h Supercritical Water Test Unit. Effluent compositions are calculated for eight simulated waste streams, using different assumed cases. Variations in effluent composition with different reactor designs and operating schemes are discussed. Requirements for final effluent compositions are briefly reviewed. A comparison is made of two general schemes. The first is one in which the effluent is cooled and effluent treatment is primarily done in the liquid phase. In the second scheme, most treatment is performed with the effluent in the gas phase. Several unit operations are also discussed, including neutralization, mercury removal, and evaporation.

Barnes, C.M.

1994-04-01

288

52. NORTHEASTERN EXTERIOR VIEW OF DOOROLIVER WAST WATER TREATMENT THICKENER ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

52. NORTHEASTERN EXTERIOR VIEW OF DOOR-OLIVER WAST WATER TREATMENT THICKENER No. 1. ELECTRIC POWERHOUSE No. 2 AND BLOW ENGINE HOUSE No. 3 IS IN THE BACKGROUND. (Jet Lowe) - U.S. Steel Duquesne Works, Blast Furnace Plant, Along Monongahela River, Duquesne, Allegheny County, PA

289

Fetal loss and work in a waste water treatment plant  

Microsoft Academic Search

We investigated pregnancy outcomes in 101 wives of workers employed in a waste water treatment plant (WWTP), and verified fetal losses by hospital records. Paternal work histories were compiled and each of the 210 pregnancies was assigned a paternal exposure category. The relative risk of fetal loss was increased when paternal exposure to the WWTP occurred around the time of

R. W. Morgan; L. Kheifets; D. L. Obrinsky; M. D. Whorton; D. E. Foliart

1984-01-01

290

49. LOOKING NORTH AT EVAPORATIVE WASTE WATER TREATMENT COOLING TOWERS, ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

49. LOOKING NORTH AT EVAPORATIVE WASTE WATER TREATMENT COOLING TOWERS, WITH BLOW ENGINE HOUSE No. 3 ON RIGHT, AND FILTER CAKE HOUSE IN FOREGROUND. (Jet Lowe) - U.S. Steel Duquesne Works, Blast Furnace Plant, Along Monongahela River, Duquesne, Allegheny County, PA

291

Anodic oxidation of phenol for waste water treatment  

Microsoft Academic Search

The electrochemical oxidation of phenol for waste water treatment was studied at a platinum anode. Analysis of reaction intermediates and a carbon balance has shown that the reaction occurs by two parallel pathways; chemical oxidation with electrogenerated hydroxyl radicals and direct combustion of adsorbed phenol or\\/and its aromatic intermediates to CO2.

Ch. Comninellis; C. Pulgarin

1991-01-01

292

COMPUTER ASSISTED PRELIMINARY DESIGN FOR DRINKING WATER TREATMENT PROCESS SYSTEMS  

EPA Science Inventory

The purpose of the study was to develop an interactive computer program to aid the design engineer in evaluating the performance and cost for any proposed drinking water treatment system consisting of individual unit processes. The 25 unit process models currently in the program ...

293

Optofluidic planar reactors for photocatalytic water treatment using solar energy  

Microsoft Academic Search

Optofluidics may hold the key to greater success of photocatalytic water treatment. This is evidenced by our findings in this paper that the planar microfluidic reactor can overcome the limitations of mass transfer and photon transfer in the previous photocatalytic reactors and improve the photoreaction efficiency by more than 100 times. The microreactor has a planar chamber (5 cm×1.8 cm×100

Lei Lei; Ning Wang; X. M. Zhang; Qidong Tai; Din Ping Tsai; Helen L. W. Chan

2010-01-01

294

Preliminary Listing of Municipal Waste Water Treatment Capacities.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This publication is a current listing of available data on waste water treatment facilities of all U.S. communities with a served population of over 2,000. The data are presented alphabetically by state and alphabetically by community name within each sta...

1976-01-01

295

Assessing dewatering performance of drinking water treatment sludges  

Microsoft Academic Search

A comparison of the dewaterability of a range of water treatment plant sludges has been completed through computation of dewatering performance indicators for a diaphragm filter press. Real parameter data, obtained from the characterisation of alum and ferric sludges, generated under precisely controlled conditions, was used for input to a phenomenological model. Comparisons of dewaterability based on throughput curves largely

David I. Verrelli; David R. Dixon; Peter J. Scales

2010-01-01

296

Chemical cooling water treatment cuts corrosion rate 80%  

SciTech Connect

A study of the cooling water system at the Farley Nuclear Plant was made to establish the degree of corrosion and fouling that would take place with and without chemical treatment, and to determine the effect that increased cycles of concentration might have on fouling. It was established that a need for chemical treatment existed. The new cooling water treatment program yielded no fouling, a reduction in corrosion rates of 80%, and a decrease in water usage of about 10%. Experience showed that condenser fouling was not a problem, but that corrosion of mild steel piping was a possibility. Control of corrosion without causing any fouling problems, coupled with a desire to conserve water and reduce associated pumping costs, prompted studies to establish the current degree of corrosion and to determine the effect of increasing cycles of concentration of both corrosion and fouling, with and without chemical treatment. This paper covers a period of three years of plant operation. During the first year, the corrosion rates were measured and tests were made to evaluate the potential effect of increasing cycles of concentration.

Bayne, W.R. (Alabama Power Co., Birmingham, AL (United States)); Herman, K.W. (Drew Industrial Div. (US))

1991-06-01

297

Meeting the challenge of power plant water treatment  

Microsoft Academic Search

Biofouling and corrosion control, special situations in cycling units, and water treatment system retrofitting and plant life extension are among the many requirements and problem areas being dealt with by powerplant managers. Specific problems and solutions are offered for the following areas of concern: dechlorination, alternatives to chlorine use, zero discharge requirements, corrosion control, brine concentrators, demineralization, plant life extension,

Rittenhouse

1984-01-01

298

DRINKING WATER TREATMENT AND RISK OF CANCER DEATH IN WISCONSIN  

EPA Science Inventory

A case control study of drinking water treatment practices and female cancer mortality was conducted in Wisconsin. Cancer deaths for 1972-1977 from 28 Wisconsin counties and non-cancer deaths matched to cancer deaths on age, year of death and county of residence, were compared fo...

299

Selenium-Water Treatment Residual Adsorption And Characterization  

EPA Science Inventory

Aluminum-based water treatment residuals (WTR) have the ability to adsorb tremendous quantities of soil-borne P, and have been shown to adsorb other anions, such as As (V), As (III), and ClO4-. Environmental issues associated with Se in the Western US led us to study W...

300

Summary Report: Audits of Ballast Water Treatment Systems.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The development of ballast water treatment (BWT) technologies is at a very early stage. Many of the proposed BWT technologies have had limited laboratory testing and only a few have been tested aboard ships. Many others are still in the conceptual stage. ...

G. E. Roderick

2004-01-01

301

ORGANOPHOSPHATE PESTICIDE DEGRADATION UNDER DRINKING WATER TREATMENT CONDITIONS  

EPA Science Inventory

Chlorpyrifos (CP) was used as a model compound to develop experimental methods and prototype modeling tools to forecast the fate of organophosphate (OP) pesticides under drinking water treatment conditions. CP was found to rapidly oxidize to chlorpyrifos oxon (CPO) in the presen...

302

NATURE OF ORGANICS REMOVED DURING TREATMENT OF MISSISSIPPI RIVER WATER  

EPA Science Inventory

In light of increasing concern for the organic content of potable water supplies and the production of potentially toxic chlorinated organic products, a better understanding of the character of organics removed by commonly used treatment processes is desirable. A variety of chemi...

303

COST MODELING FOR DRINKING WATER UNIT TREATMENT PROCESSES  

EPA Science Inventory

Current U.S. EPA research is underway to improve and expand upon a cost data base for use in estimating the economics of building and operating drinking water treatment facilities. his cost data is important to the EPA decision making process when formulating new regulations and ...

304

Combined bioelectrochemical and sulfur autotrophic denitrification for drinking water treatment  

Microsoft Academic Search

A combined bioelectrochemical and sulfur autotrophic denitrification process for drinking water treatment was put forward and investigated extensively in this paper. In this new process, the bioelectrochemical denitrification was carried out in the upper part of the reactor while sulfur denitrification in the lower part. The H+ produced in Sulfur Part could be consumed by hydrogen denitrification in Bioelectrochemical Part.

Haiyan Wang; Jiuhui Qu

2003-01-01

305

Water recycling using sequential membrane treatment in the electronics industry  

Microsoft Academic Search

Sony Display Device in Singapore (SDS) has taken the radical initiative of installing a water recycling system (WRS) that draws over half its feed from reclaimed municipal wastewater. Pretreated plant wastewater collected from three fabrication processes is blended with filtered secondary sewage and processed through a dual membrane treatment system comprising Memcor continuous microfiltration (CMF) and reverse osmosis (RO). The

Minoru Okazaki; Masaru Uraki; Kunio Miura; Takaharu Nishida

2000-01-01

306

An Analysis of the Waste Water Treatment Operator Occupation.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The occupational analysis contains a brief job description for the waste water treatment occupations of operator and maintenance mechanic and 13 detailed task statements which specify job duties (tools, equipment, materials, objects acted upon, performance knowledge, safety considerations/hazards, decisions, cues, and errors) and learning skills…

Clark, Anthony B.; And Others

307

Potabilizacion de las Aguas de Estanques o Jagueyes (Pond Water Treatment).  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The bulletin discusses private use of surface waters and treatment plants and operation, on a small scale for potable water on a farm or rural homestead. Ponds, rivers, lakes and reservoirs are good sources of water; treatment includes filtration, chlorin...

1965-01-01

308

7 CFR 1780.63 - Sewage treatment and bulk water sales contracts.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2009-01-01 false Sewage treatment and bulk water sales contracts. 1780...Inspections § 1780.63 Sewage treatment and bulk water sales contracts. ...public parties to treat sewage or supply bulk water shall have written...

2009-01-01

309

7 CFR 1780.63 - Sewage treatment and bulk water sales contracts.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-01-01 false Sewage treatment and bulk water sales contracts. 1780...Inspections § 1780.63 Sewage treatment and bulk water sales contracts. ...public parties to treat sewage or supply bulk water shall have written...

2010-01-01

310

Physical injury risks associated with drinking water arsenic treatment.  

PubMed

We estimated the number of transportation deaths that would be associated with water treatment in Albuquerque to meet the EPA's recently proposed revisions of the Maximum Contaminant Level (MCL) for arsenic. Vehicle mileage was estimated for ion exchange, activated alumina, and iron coagulation/microfiltration water treatment processes to meet an MCL of 0.020 mg/L, 0.010 mg/L, 0.005 mg/L, and 0.003 mg/L. Local crash, injury, and death rates per million vehicle miles were used to estimate the number of injuries and deaths. Depending on the water treatment options chosen, we estimate that meeting an arsenic MCL of 0.005 mg/L will result in 143 to 237 crashes, 58 to 98 injuries, and 0.6 to 2.6 deaths in Albuquerque over a 70-year period, resulting in 26 to 113 years of life lost. The anticipated health benefits for Albuquerque residents from a 0.005 mg/L arsenic MCL, estimated using either a multistage Weibull or Poisson model, ranged from 3 to 80 arsenic-related bladder and lung cancer deaths prevented over a 70-year period, adding between 43 and 1,123 years of life. Whether a revised arsenic MCL increases or reduces overall loss of life in Albuquerque depends on the accuracy of EPA's cancer risk assessment. If the multistage Weibull model accurately estimates the benefits, the years of life added is comparable or lower than the anticipated years lost due to transportation associated with the delivery of chemicals, disposal of treatment waste, and operation of the water treatment system. Coagulation/microfiltration treatment will result in substantially fewer transportation deaths than either ion exchange or activated alumina. PMID:12022673

Frost, Floyd J; Chwirka, Joseph; Craun, Gunther F; Thomson, Bruce; Stomps, John

2002-04-01

311

Treatment of produced waters by electrocoagulation and reverse osmosis  

SciTech Connect

Two oil field produced waters and one coal bed methane produced water from Wyoming were treated with electrocoagulation and reverse osmosis. All three produced waters would require treatment to meet the new Wyoming Department of Environmental Quality requirements for effluent discharge into a class III or IV stream. The removal of radium 226 and oil and grease was the primary focus of the study. Radium 226 and oil and grease were removed from the produced waters with electrocoagulation. The best removal of radium 226 (>84%) was achieved with use of a non-sacrificial anode (titanium). The best removal of oil and grease (>93%) was achieved using a sacrificial anode (aluminum). By comparison, reverse osmosis removed up to 87% of the total dissolved solids and up to 95% of the radium 226.

Tuggle, K.; Humenick, M.; Barker, F.

1992-08-01

312

Occurrence of Giardia cysts and Cryptosporidium oocysts in raw and treated water from two water treatment plants in Selangor, Malaysia  

Microsoft Academic Search

The occurrence of Giardia cysts and Cryptosporidium oocysts was determined both in the raw water and the treated waters from two water treatment plants in Selangor, Malaysia between July 1994 and January 1995. At each treatment plant, raw and treated water samples were collected fortnightly on 10 separate occasions. Physical parameters, including dissolved oxygen, pH, temperature, conductivity, turbidity and free

R. A. Ahmad; E. Lee; I. T. L. Tan; A. G. Mohamad-Kamel

1997-01-01

313

1. OVERALL VIEW OF LOBOS CREEK INLET STRUCTURE (#1786), LOOKING ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

1. OVERALL VIEW OF LOBOS CREEK INLET STRUCTURE (#1786), LOOKING SOUTHWEST - Presidio Water Treatment Plant, Lobos Creek Inlet Structure, East of Lobos Creek at Baker Beach, San Francisco, San Francisco County, CA

314

9. VIEW OF UPPER LEVEL OF FILTRATION ROOM SHOWING TANKS ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

9. VIEW OF UPPER LEVEL OF FILTRATION ROOM SHOWING TANKS AND CONTROL VALVES, LOOKING NORTH - Presidio Water Treatment Plant, Filtration Plant, East of Lobos Creek at Baker Beach, San Francisco, San Francisco County, CA

315

12. OBLIQUE VIEW OF NORTH WORK ROOM IN FILTRATION PLANT ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

12. OBLIQUE VIEW OF NORTH WORK ROOM IN FILTRATION PLANT (#1773), LOOKING NORTHWEST - Presidio Water Treatment Plant, Filtration Plant, East of Lobos Creek at Baker Beach, San Francisco, San Francisco County, CA

316

10. OBLIQUE DETAIL VIEW OF PUMP NO. 1 IN FILTRATION ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

10. OBLIQUE DETAIL VIEW OF PUMP NO. 1 IN FILTRATION ROOM IN FILTRATION PLANT (#1773), LOOKING NORTHEAST - Presidio Water Treatment Plant, Filtration Plant, East of Lobos Creek at Baker Beach, San Francisco, San Francisco County, CA

317

5. OBLIQUE INTERIOR VIEW OF CHEMICAL STORAGE BUILDING (#1776), LOOKING ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

5. OBLIQUE INTERIOR VIEW OF CHEMICAL STORAGE BUILDING (#1776), LOOKING SOUTHEAST - Presidio Water Treatment Plant, Chemical Storage, East of Lobos Creek at Baker Beach, San Francisco, San Francisco County, CA

318

3. OBLIQUE DETAIL VIEW OF DOOR AT CHEMICAL STORAGE BUILDING ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

3. OBLIQUE DETAIL VIEW OF DOOR AT CHEMICAL STORAGE BUILDING (#1776), LOOKING NORTHWEST - Presidio Water Treatment Plant, Chemical Storage, East of Lobos Creek at Baker Beach, San Francisco, San Francisco County, CA

319

4. DETAIL VIEW OF WINDOW AT CHEMICAL STORAGE BUILDING (#1776), ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

4. DETAIL VIEW OF WINDOW AT CHEMICAL STORAGE BUILDING (#1776), LOOKING EAST - Presidio Water Treatment Plant, Chemical Storage, East of Lobos Creek at Baker Beach, San Francisco, San Francisco County, CA

320

1. VIEW OF LIFT STATION (#1774), AND SHED (#1775) BEYOND ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

1. VIEW OF LIFT STATION (#1774), AND SHED (#1775) BEYOND AT LEFT, LOOKING SOUTHWEST - Presidio Water Treatment Plant, Lift Station, East of Lobos Creek at Baker Beach, San Francisco, San Francisco County, CA

321

1. VIEW OF VALVE HOUSE (#1771), AND PUMPING STATION (#1772) ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

1. VIEW OF VALVE HOUSE (#1771), AND PUMPING STATION (#1772) BEYOND, LOOKING SOUTHEAST - Presidio Water Treatment Plant, Valve House, East of Lobos Creek at Baker Beach, San Francisco, San Francisco County, CA

322

INTERGRATING SOURCE WATER PROTECTION AND DRINKING WATER TREATMENT: U.S. ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY'S WATER SUPPLY AND WATER RESOURCES DIVISION  

EPA Science Inventory

The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's (EPA) Water Supply and Water Resources Division (WSWRD) is an internationally recognized water research organization established to assist in responding to public health concerns related to drinking water supplies. WSWRD has evolved from...

323

INTEGRATING SOURCE WATER PROTECTION AND DRINKING WATER TREATMENT: U.S. ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY'S WATER SUPPLY AND WATER RESOURCES DIVISION  

EPA Science Inventory

The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's (EPA) Water Supply and Water Resources Division (WSWRD) is an internationally recognized water research organization established to assist in responding to public health concerns related to drinking water supplies. WSWRD has evolved from...

324

Review of technologies for oil and gas produced water treatment.  

PubMed

Produced water is the largest waste stream generated in oil and gas industries. It is a mixture of different organic and inorganic compounds. Due to the increasing volume of waste all over the world in the current decade, the outcome and effect of discharging produced water on the environment has lately become a significant issue of environmental concern. Produced water is conventionally treated through different physical, chemical, and biological methods. In offshore platforms because of space constraints, compact physical and chemical systems are used. However, current technologies cannot remove small-suspended oil particles and dissolved elements. Besides, many chemical treatments, whose initial and/or running cost are high and produce hazardous sludge. In onshore facilities, biological pretreatment of oily wastewater can be a cost-effective and environmental friendly method. As high salt concentration and variations of influent characteristics have direct influence on the turbidity of the effluent, it is appropriate to incorporate a physical treatment, e.g., membrane to refine the final effluent. For these reasons, major research efforts in the future could focus on the optimization of current technologies and use of combined physico-chemical and/or biological treatment of produced water in order to comply with reuse and discharge limits. PMID:19505758

Fakhru'l-Razi, Ahmadun; Pendashteh, Alireza; Abdullah, Luqman Chuah; Biak, Dayang Radiah Awang; Madaeni, Sayed Siavash; Abidin, Zurina Zainal

2009-05-19

325

Treatment methods for breaking certain oil and water emulsions  

DOEpatents

Disclosed are treatment methods for breaking emulsions of petroleum oil and salt water, fatty oil and water, and those resulting from liquefication of organic material. The emulsions are broken by heating to a predetermined temperature at or above about 200.degree. C. and pressurizing to a predetermined pressure above the vapor pressure of water at the predetermined temperature to produce a heated and pressurized fluid. The heated and pressurized fluid is contained in a single vessel at the predetermined temperature and pressure for a predetermined period of time to effectively separate the emulsion into substantially distinct first and second phases, the first phase comprising primarily the petroleum oil, the second phase comprising primarily the water. The first and second phases are separately withdrawn from the vessel at a withdraw temperature between about 200.degree. C. and 374.degree. C. and a withdraw pressure above the vapor pressure of water at the withdraw temperature. Where solids are present in the certain emulsions, the above described treatment may also effectively separate the certain emulsion into a substantially distinct third phase comprising primarily the solids.

Sealock, Jr., L. John (W. Richland, WA); Baker, Eddie G. (Richland, WA); Elliott, Douglas C. (Richland, WA)

1992-01-01

326

40 CFR 141.403 - Treatment technique requirements for ground water systems.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...Treatment technique requirements for ground water systems. 141.403 Section 141.403...ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) WATER PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) NATIONAL PRIMARY DRINKING WATER REGULATIONS Ground Water Rule §...

2011-07-01

327

40 CFR 141.404 - Treatment technique violations for ground water systems.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...Treatment technique violations for ground water systems. 141.404 Section 141.404...ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) WATER PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) NATIONAL PRIMARY DRINKING WATER REGULATIONS Ground Water Rule §...

2013-07-01

328

40 CFR 141.403 - Treatment technique requirements for ground water systems.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...Treatment technique requirements for ground water systems. 141.403 Section 141.403...ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) WATER PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) NATIONAL PRIMARY DRINKING WATER REGULATIONS Ground Water Rule §...

2013-07-01

329

Mineralogical Characterization of Manganese Oxides in Mine Water Treatment Systems  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The removal of manganese(II) from mine water is a significant problem for both operating and abandoned mines across the United States. In many situations, manganese removal represents the most costly aspect of mine water treatment. Active treatment of Mn-containing mine water requires adjustment of pH to 9-10, and results in the abiotic precipitation of manganese oxides (MnOx). After manganese removal, this high pH water must be neutralized before release. Alternatively, passive limestone beds can be used for neutralization of low-pH mine water and subsequent manganese removal. Although limestone beds are effective for Mn removal, the processes involved are not clear (e.g., relative importance of biological Mn(II) oxidation versus surface mediated oxidation) and the characteristics of the manganese "crusts" formed are not well studied. In this field-based study, we have collected natural manganese oxides from two different limestone beds designed to treat mine water from abandoned coal strip mines in Pennsylvania. Samples were collected at different locations in the beds and at different seasons to capture possible variations in mineralogical characteristics. Water samples were also collected to measure the corresponding solution chemistry and revealed that manganese removal was strongly temperature dependent. Solid samples have been examined by scanning and transmission electron microscopy, and by X-ray diffraction. Micro-diffraction XRD has been used to tentatively identify disordered buserite as a predominant mineral in many of these crust samples. Additional characterizations will include particle size distribution and surface charge. Synchroton-based X-ray techniques such as scanning transmission X-ray microscopy (STXM) and X-ray spectroscopy (XAS) may also be pursued.

Tan, H.; Heaney, P.; Post, J.; Burgos, W.

2006-05-01

330

Standards and guides of water treatment and water-distribution systems. Volume 2. Manual for 1987-1988  

SciTech Connect

The following 6 important documents are compiled for design of municipal water treatment facilities and water distribution systems: (1) Standards of the Construction of Public Community Water Systems; (2) Community System Design Standards; (3) Bottled Water, Bulk Water Hauling and Vending Machines; (4) Noncommunity System Design Standards; (5) Operation and Maintenance; and (6) Cross-Contamination Control.

Wang, L.K.; Wang, M.H.S.

1988-04-15

331

Chemical drinking water quality in Ghana: water costs and scope for advanced treatment.  

PubMed

To reduce child mortality and improve health in Ghana boreholes and wells are being installed across the country by the private sector, NGO's and the Ghanaian government. Water quality is not generally monitored once a water source has been improved. Water supplies were sampled across Ghana from mostly boreholes, wells and rivers as well as some piped water from the different regions and analysed for the chemical quality. Chemical water quality was found to exceed the WHO guidelines in 38% of samples, while pH varied from 3.7 to 8.9. Excess levels of nitrate (NO(3)(-)) were found in 21% of the samples, manganese (Mn) and fluoride (F(-)) in 11% and 6.7%, respectively. Heavy metals such as lead (Pb), arsenic (As) and uranium (U) were localised to mining areas. Elements without health based guideline values such as aluminium (Al, 95%) and chloride (Cl, 5.7%) were found above the provisional guideline value. Economic information was gathered to identify water costs and ability to pay. Capital costs of wells and boreholes are about pound1200 and pound3800 respectively. The majority of installation costs are generally paid by the government or NGO's, while the maintenance is expected to be covered by the community. At least 58% of the communities had a water payment system in place, either an annual fee/one-off fee or "pay-as-you-fetch". The annual fee was between pound0.3-21, while the boreholes had a water collection fee of pound0.07-0.7/m(3), many wells were free. Interestingly, the most expensive water ( pound2.9-3.5/m(3)) was brought by truck. Many groundwater sources were not used due to poor chemical water quality. Considering the cost of unsuccessful borehole development, the potential for integrating suitable water treatment into the capital and maintenance costs of water sources is discussed. Additionally, many sources were not in use due to lack of water capacity, equipment malfunction or lack of economic resources to repair and maintain equipment. Those issues need to be addressed in combination with water quality, coordinated water supply provision and possible treatment to ensure sustainability of improved water resources. PMID:20206375

Rossiter, Helfrid M A; Owusu, Peter A; Awuah, Esi; Macdonald, Alan M; Schäfer, Andrea I

2010-03-05

332

Treatment of waste thermal waters by ozonation and nanofiltration.  

PubMed

After their use for heating, e.g. in greenhouses, waste thermal waters may cause environmental problems due to their high contents of ions, and in some cases organic matter (associated with an oxygen demand) or toxic compounds. The aims of this work were to decrease the high organic content of waste thermal water by a combination of ozone treatment and membrane separation, and to investigate the accompanying membrane fouling. The results demonstrated that the chemical oxygen demand and the total organic content can be effectively decreased by a combination of ozone pretreatment and membrane filtration. Ozone treatment is more effective for phenol elimination than nanofiltration alone: with a combination of the two processes, 100% elimination efficiency can be achieved. The fouling index b proved to correlate well with the fouling and polarization layer resistances. PMID:23508151

Kiss, Z L; Szép, A; Kertész, S; Hodúr, C; László, Z

2013-01-01

333

Corrosion of thermal power plant chemical water treatment equipment under conditions of physical-chemical tertiary treatment of municipal wastewater  

Microsoft Academic Search

Steam power plants are among the largest users of fresh water. Therefore, the use of treated municipal water is of great importance. One of the primary factors to be considered in determining the feasibility of using municipal water at a thermal power plant is the rate of corrosion. The water leaving the municipal treatment plant differs from naturally occurring water

K. M. Abdullaev; I. A. Malakhov; M. S. Trifel; A. K. Khachaturov; B. S. Azimov

1982-01-01

334

An evaluation of free water surface wetlands as tertiary sewage water treatment of micro-pollutants.  

PubMed

Increased attention is currently directed towards potential negative effects of pharmaceuticals and other micro-pollutants discharged into the aquatic environment via municipal sewage water. A number of additional treatment technologies, such as ozonation, have therefore been suggested as promising tools for improving the removal efficiency of pharmaceuticals in existing Sewage Treatment Plants (STPs). Constructed wetlands are also capable of removing a variety of micro-pollutants, including some pharmaceuticals, and could hence be a resource efficient complement to more advanced treatment technologies. The purpose of the present study was therefore to increase the knowledge base concerning the potential use of constructed wetlands as a treatment step to reduce emissions of organic micro-pollutants from municipal sewage effluents. Under cold winter conditions, incoming and outgoing waters from four Swedish free water surface wetlands, operated as final treatment steps of sewage effluent from municipal STPs, were sampled and analyzed for levels of a set of 92 pharmaceuticals and 22 inorganic components as well as assessed using subchronic ecotoxicity tests with a macro-alga and a crustacean. Sixty-five pharmaceuticals were detected in the range from 1 ng L(-1) to 7.6 ?g L(-1) in incoming and outgoing waters from the four investigated wetlands. Although the sampling design used in the present study lacks the robustness of volume proportional to 24h composite samples, the average estimated removal rates ranged from 42% to 52%, which correlates to previous published values. The effects observed in the ecotoxicity tests with the macro-alga (EC(50)s in the range of 7.5-46%) and the crustacean (LOECs in the range of 11.25-90%) could not be assigned to either pharmaceutical residues or metals, but in general showed that these treatment facilities release water with a relatively low toxic potential, comparable to water that has been treated with advanced tertiary treatments. From the present study it can be concluded that constructed wetlands may provide a complementary sewage treatment option, especially where other treatment is lacking today. To fully remove micro-pollutants from sewage effluent, however, other more advanced treatment technologies are likely needed. PMID:22192709

Breitholtz, Magnus; Näslund, Maria; Stråe, Daniel; Borg, Hans; Grabic, Roman; Fick, Jerker

2011-12-20

335

MODIFIED REVERSE OSMOSIS SYSTEM FOR TREATMENT OF PRODUCED WATERS  

Microsoft Academic Search

This final report of ''Modified Reverse Osmosis System for Treatment of Produced Water,'' DOE project No. DE-FC26-00BC15326 describes work performed in the third year of the project. Several good results were obtained, which are documented in this report. The compacted bentonite membranes were replaced by supported bentonite membranes, which exhibited the same salt rejection capability. Unfortunately, it also inherited the

Robert L. Lee; Junghan Dong

2004-01-01

336

Water treatment using MIEX®DOC\\/ultrafiltration process  

Microsoft Academic Search

The objective of the study was to compare the treatment efficiency obtained with the MIEX®DOC process and ultrafiltration as well as to investigate the effect of MIEX®DOC water pretreatment on the performance of ultrafiltration membranes. The influence of MIEX® resin dose and membrane cut-off on natural organic matter removal (NOM) efficiency was analyzed.Based on obtained results it might be stated

Malgorzata Kabsch-Korbutowicz; Katarzyna Majewska-Nowak; Tomasz Winnicki

2008-01-01

337

Treatment of gasoline-contaminated waters by advanced oxidation processes  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this study, the efficiency of advanced oxidative processes (AOPs) was investigated toward the degradation of aqueous solutions containing benzene, toluene and xylenes (BTX) and gasoline-contaminated waters. The results indicated that BTX can be effectively oxidized by near UV-assisted photo-Fenton process. The treatment permits almost total degradation of BTX and removal of more than 80% of the phenolic intermediates at

Elaine Regina Lopes Tiburtius; Patricio Peralta-Zamora; Alexandre Emmel

2005-01-01

338

Use of peat in the treatment of oily waters  

Microsoft Academic Search

Peat is an effective medium in the treatment of oil-in-water emulsions due to its known capacity to absorb oil and its abundant availability. Horticultural Sphagnum peat was used in the present study to assess its potential for removal of oil from oily wastewaters. Oily wastewater samples included a low viscosity (50 cP) crude oil Midale, a medium viscosity (130 cP)

G. N. Mathavan; T. Viraraghavan

1989-01-01

339

The use of ozone and associated oxidation processes in drinking water treatment  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper summarizes the main applications of ozonation and associated oxidation processes in the treatment of natural waters (surface and ground waters) for drinking water production. In fact, oxidants may be added at several points throughout the treatment: pre-oxidation, intermediate oxidation or final disinfection. So, the numerous effects of chemical oxidation are discussed along the water treatment: removal of inorganic

V Camel; A Bermond

1998-01-01

340

A Kind of BP Neural Network Application in Water Treatment Control System Parameter Tuning  

Microsoft Academic Search

In Thermal Power Generation Water Treatment process, due to the pipeline pressure and flow changes, Water Treatment PID control system parameter unstable, causes the water treatment controller can not prompt tracking response, PH value of water changes in a larger range, increased damage to the boiler pipes. Three layers of BP neural network model can dynamically adjust the parameters of

Chen Shuqian; Zhang Lihong

2010-01-01

341

WATER TREATMENT PLANT OPTIMIZATION BY CONTROLLING THE SUSPENDED SOLIDS PHYSICOCHEMICAL ENVIRONMENT  

Microsoft Academic Search

Optimizing water treatment plant operation is a concept should be applied to all plants because some operational improvements can always be made. Optimization at a water treatment plant can be considered achieved when certain goals are being met to attain the most efficient use of the water treatment plant facilities. The most important goals are to reduce the water wastes,

Kamal El-Nahhas

342

Biofilter treatment of aquaculture water for reuse applications.  

PubMed

Biotreatment of aquaculture water for recirculation purposes is a sensible mean to support the further growth of aquaculture industry without excessive water demands that are environmentally unsustainable. This study evaluates the efficacy of biofilter treatment of an eel (Anguilla japonica) culture pond water using different filter media and flow scheme arrangements. The experimental results demonstrate that biofilter systems packed with suitable filter media are capable of improving the quality of effluents for recirculation applications. The characteristics of the filter media appear to be more critical than biofilter flow scheme arrangements in affecting the efficacy of the biofilter treatment. Filter media with surface and structural characteristics are conducive to the development of biofilms and the capture of organic suspended matter are desirable to ensure good and consistent biofilter performance. Under such circumstances the bacterial "consortia" in the biofilter are capable of utilizing the captured organic suspended matter as an alternative substrate to support their metabolic activities when the concentration of the primary substrate (i.e., BOD) is low. For the eel pond water, a biofilter packed with filter media having cross-link structures and a high bed porosity, followed by another biofilter packed with a type of filter media having rough surfaces, produced the best results under the conditions tested. Moreover, a preliminary cost-benefit analysis confirms its cost advantages. PMID:11487106

Yang, L; Chou, L S; Shieh, W K

2001-09-01

343

Treatment of cadmium and nickel electroplating rinse water by electrocoagulation.  

PubMed

Treatments of cadmium-cyanide and nickel-cyanide electroplating rinse water were investigated in an electrochemical reactor equipped with iron plate electrodes in a batch mode by electrocoagulation (EC). Effects of the process variables such as pH, current density, and operating time were explored with respect to removal efficiencies of cadmium, nickel and cyanide in electroplating rinse water and operating costs as well. Removal efficiencies and operating costs under the optimum conditions (30 A/m2, 30 min and pH 8-10 for cadmium; 60A/m2, 80 min and pH 8-10 for nickel) for the EC process in electroplating rinse water were determined as 99.4% and 1.05/m3 for cadmium, 99.1% and 2.45/m3 for nickel and > 99.7% for cyanide, respectively. The results indicated that EC was very effective treatment for the removals of cadmium, nickel, and cyanide ions from the electroplating rinse water. PMID:21214006

Kobya, M; Demirbas, E; Parlak, N U; Yigit, S

2010-12-01

344

Treatment of household grey water with a UF membrane filtration system  

Microsoft Academic Search

As water is becoming a rare resource, the onsite reuse and recycling of grey water are practiced in many countries as a sustainable solution to reduce the overall urban water demand. In this paper, a decentralized grey water treatment system, which used a submerged spiral-wound ultrafiltration (UF) membrane module, was studied. This grey water treatment system aimed to treat and

Fangyue Li; Holger Gulyas; Knut Wichmann; Ralf Otterpohl

2009-01-01

345

Problems of drinking water treatment and analysiscaused by presence of humic substances in underwater  

Microsoft Academic Search

There are the publications about reduction of water treatment effect of natural water in the presence of humic substances on rationed parameters of drinking water quality, including mutagenic chlorinated organic pollutants and toxic metal ions. It takes place at water treatment station in the process of desinfection by chlorination of initial natural water, containing humic substances. We have assumed that

N. Chernyshova; Ludmila Svintsova

2001-01-01

346

Life Cycle Assesment of Daugavgriva Waste Water Treatment Plant  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper presents the assessment of the environmental impacts caused by the treatment of Riga's waste water in the Daugavgriva plant with biogas energy cogeneration through the life cycle assessment (LCA). The LCA seems to be a good tool to assess and evaluate the most serious environmental impacts of a facility The results showed clearly that the impact category contributing the most to the total impact -eutrophicationcomes from the wastewater treatment stage. Climate change also seems to be a relevant impact coming from the wastewater treatment stage and the main contributor to the Climate change is N2O. The main environmental benefits, in terms of the percentages of the total impact, associated to the use of biogas instead of any other fossil fuel in the cogeneration plant are equal to: 3,11% for abiotic depletation, 1,48% for climate change, 0,51% for acidification and 0,12% for eutrophication.

Romagnoli, F.; Sampaio, F.; Blumberga, D.

2009-01-01

347

Design considerations for waste water treatment with water hyacinth E. Crassipes  

Microsoft Academic Search

An attempt to provide a design methodology for wastewater treatment in water hyacinth ponds Is tried in the following lines. Literature data is complemented with growth rate and yield measurements to develop a performance equation with two dimensioniess groups indicating the system capacity for nutrient removal. It is concluded that organic loads up to 10 Kg BOD Had are critical

Oscar Monroy Hermosillo; Sofia Sarquis

1990-01-01

348

Clean option: Berkeley Pit water treatment and resource recovery strategy  

SciTech Connect

The US Department of Energy (DOE), Office of Technology Development, established the Resource Recovery Project (RRP) in 1992 as a five-year effort to evaluate and demonstrate multiple technologies for recovering water, metals, and other industrial resources from contaminated surface and groundwater. Natural water resources located throughout the DOE complex and the and western states have been rendered unusable because of contamination from heavy metals. The Berkeley Pit, a large, inactive, open pit copper mine located in Butte, Montana, along with its associated groundwater system, has been selected by the RRP for use as a feedstock for a test bed facility located there. The test bed facility provides the infrastructure needed to evaluate promising technologies at the pilot plant scale. Data obtained from testing these technologies was used to assess their applicability for similar mine drainage water applications throughout the western states and at DOE. The objective of the Clean Option project is to develop strategies that provides a comprehensive and integrated approach to resource recovery using the Berkeley Pit water as a feedstock. The strategies not only consider the immediate problem of resource recovery from the contaminated water, but also manage the subsequent treatment of all resulting process streams. The strategies also employ the philosophy of waste minimization to optimize reduction of the waste volume requiring disposal, and the recovery and reuse of processing materials.

Gerber, M.A.; Orth, R.J.; Elmore, M.R.; Monzyk, B.F.

1995-09-01

349

[Organohalogen contamination of a dialysis-water treatment plant].  

PubMed

On March 2001 the regular quality control test of the water used for dialysis in an urban centre using a reverse osmosis system revealed a high level of organo-halogenated contamination. The compounds implicated were: trichloroethylene (trielene) [M.Wt. 131 D], tetrachloroethylene, trichloromethane (chloroform) [M.Wt. 121 D], chlorodibromomethane. The dialysis unit was closed. Water samples were analysed in duplicate. The table shows the values (in ppm or microgram/l) obtained for chloroform at the given times: March 8th, altered sample; March 12th, confirmation sample; March 16th, after osmosis membranes change; March 22nd, after carbon filtration replacement; March 26th, after softener resins substitution. The AAMI doesn't recommend any value for organo-halogenated compounds in dialysis water. In the past, the European Pharmacopoeia and the Italian Health Ministry released some reference values for tap water, values which were extended to water used for dialysis. The values are 1 ppm as reference value, 30 ppm as maximum accepted value for the sum of all organo-halogenated compounds, and 10 ppm as the recommended value. In conclusion, the problem was solved by progressive replacement of the components of the water treatment system, even though the real cause remained undetermined. No clinical symptom was recorded and no level of chloroform or trielene was detected in patients' sera despite the low molecular weight and low protein binding of the compounds. A strict control of the water quality and a more comprehensive and updated reference guide are needed for better and safer dialysis delivery. PMID:12369053

Formica, M; Vallero, A; Forneris, G; Cesano, G; Pozzato, M; Borca, M; Iadarola, G M; Quarello, F

350

CONVENTIONAL WATER TREATMENT AND DIRECT FILTRATION: TREATMENT AND REMOVAL OF TOTAL ORGANIC CARBON AND TRIHALOMETHANE PRECURSORS  

EPA Science Inventory

After describing the fundamentals of coagulation of humic substances for alum and cationic polyelectrolytes, field studies of two conventional-type water treatment plants are discussed. THM formation through the plants is examined, and removals of total organic carbon (TOC) and T...

351

Enumeration of faecal indicator bacteria in large water volumes using on site membrane filtration to assess water treatment efficiency  

Microsoft Academic Search

With sample volumes as tested in routine microbiological monitoring for the presence and absence of faecal indicator bacteria in treated water the actual concentration in the final stages of water treatment cannot be assessed. Consequently, no accurate information can be obtained about the removal efficiency of a water treatment for microorganisms. Therefore a method for on site isolation of faecal

W. A. M. Hijnen; D. A Van Veenendaal; W. M. H. van der Speld; Ate Visser; W. Hoogenboezem; D. van der Kooij

2000-01-01

352

Recovery of Iron Coagulants From Tehran Water-Treatment-Plant Sludge for Reusing in Textile Wastewater Treatment  

Microsoft Academic Search

Most of the water treatment plants in Iran discharge their sludge to the environment whithout consideration of possible side effects. Since this kind of sludge is generally considered pollutant, the sludge treatment of water industry seems to be an essential task. Obviously theweight and volume of solids produced during the coagulation process are much more than other wastes of water

F Vaezi; F Batebi; Gh Moosavi

353

Adsorption of Roxarsone onto Drinking Water Treatment Residuals: Preliminary Studies  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Roxarsone (3-nitro-4-hydroxyphenyl-arsonic acid) is an organo-arsenical compound, commonly used as a feed additive in the broiler poultry industry to control coccidial intestinal parasites. Roxarsone is not toxic to the birds not only because of the low dose, and also because it most likely does not convert to toxic inorganic arsenic (As) in their systems. However, upon excretion, roxarsone may undergo transformation to inorganic As, posing a serious risk of contaminating the agricultural land and water bodies via surface runoff or leaching. The use of poultry litter as fertilizer results in As accumulation rates of up to 50 metric tons per year in agricultural lands. The immediate challenge, as identified by the various regulatory bodies in recent years is to develop an efficient, yet cost-effective and environmentally sound approach to cleaning up such As- contaminated soils. Recent studies conducted by our group have suggested that the drinking water treatment residuals (WTRs) can effectively retain As, thereby decreasing its mobility in the environment. The WTRs are byproducts of drinking water treatment processes and are typically composed of amorphous Fe/Al oxides, activated C and cationic polymers. They can be obtained free-of-cost from water treatment plants. It is well demonstrated that the environmental mobility of As is controlled by adsorption/desorption reactions onto mineral surfaces. Hence, knowledge of adsorption and desorption of As onto the WTRs is of environmental relevance. The reported study examined the adsorption and desorption characteristics of As using two types of WTRs, namely the Fe-WTRs (byproduct of Fe salt treatment), and the Al-WTRs (byproduct of Al salt treatment). All adsorption experiments were carried out in batch and As retention on the WTRs was investigated as a function of solid/solution ratio (1:5, 1:10, 1:25 and 1:50), equilibration time (10 min - 48 hr), pH (2 - 10) and initial As load (100, 500, 1000 and 2000 mg As/L). The above parameters were varied one at a time to study their effects on roxarsone adsorption. Desorption studies were carried out using 125 mg/L phosphorous at predetermined interval of time. In addition to analyzing for total As by an ICP-MS, aqueous speciation of As was performed using a coupled HPLC-ICP-MS system. Preliminary studies show significant roxarsone adsorption capacity of the WTRs.

Salazar, J.; Sarkar, D.; Datta, R.; Sharma, S.

2006-05-01

354

Photodegradation of etridiazole by UV radiation during drinking water treatment.  

PubMed

The photodegradation of etridiazole (ETZ) in water by UV radiation at 254 nm was investigated. Results indicate that the simulated first-order rate constants decreased with the increase of initial ETZ concentration (i.e., 5, 20 and 30 microM), and did not show any pH dependence within the range from 6.0 to 8.0. The quantum yield was 0.46+/-0.02 molE(-1) at pH 7.0. H(2)O(2) was generated at trace levels in the range from 0 to 1.0 microM during photodegradation of ETZ. Direct photodegradation was responsible for the decomposition of ETZ in distilled water by UV radiation. Three organic byproducts were identified: 5-ethoxy-3-dichloromethyl-1,2,4-thiadiazole, 5-ethoxy-1,2,4-thiadiazole-3-carboxylic acid and 5-ethoxy-3-hydroxyl-1,2,4-thiadiazole. About 90% of chloro mass in the initial ETZ was released as Cl(-) at the end of photodegradation. In contrast, the formation of sulfate and nitrate was insignificant. In general, ETZ decayed more quickly in groundwater than in sand-filtered or surface water. It is reasonably deduced that ETZ may not get removed effectively under a typical UV dose of 40 mJcm(-2) at most water treatment plants that employ UV radiation for disinfection. PMID:19476968

Liu, Chao; Qiang, Zhimin; Tian, Fang; Zhang, Tao

2009-05-23

355

Treatment Technology to Meet the Interim Primary Drinking Water Regulations for Inorganics: Part 3.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This article is the third in a series summarizing existing treatment technology to meet the inorganic National Interim Primary Drinking Water Regulations. This report deals specifically with treatment methods for removing cadmium, lead, and silver from drinking water. (CS)|

Sorg, Thomas J.; And Others

1978-01-01

356

Carbon Dioxide Treatment for Scale Removal and Control in Potable Water Systems.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Carbon dioxide treatment for controlling and removing scale deposits in potable water systems has been investigated for potential application at Army installations. Scaling of water treatment systems is costly in terms of severe headloss and reduced carry...

T. M. Prakash C. H. Neff R. J. Scholze J. T. Bandy E. D. Smith

1987-01-01

357

1. DOMESTIC WATER SUPPLY TREATMENT HOUSE, ON PENSTOCK ABOVE SAR1. ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

1. DOMESTIC WATER SUPPLY TREATMENT HOUSE, ON PENSTOCK ABOVE SAR-1. VIEW TO NORTWEST. - Santa Ana River Hydroelectric System, SAR-1 Domestic Water Supply Treatment House, Redlands, San Bernardino County, CA

358

Use of Ceragenins To Create Novel Biofouling Resistant Water-Treatment Membranes.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Scoping studies have demonstrated that ceragenins, when linked to water-treatment membranes have the potential to create biofouling resistant water-treatment membranes. Ceragenins are synthetically produced molecules that mimic antimicrobial peptides. Evi...

A. L. Sanchez H. D. T. Jones L. K. McGrath M. Hibbs P. B. Savage S. J. Altman

2008-01-01

359

IDENTIFY THE OCCURRENCE OF DISINFECTION BY-PRODUCTS IN WATER TREATMENT SYSTEMS  

EPA Science Inventory

Due to concerns over trihalomethanes (THMs) and other halogenated by-products that can be formed during chlorination of drinking water, alternative disinfectants are being explored. Several drinking water treatment plants in the United States have altered their treatment methods...

360

Utilization of water hyacinths to upgrade heavily loaded waste-water treatment-plant effuents  

SciTech Connect

In recent years, considerable attention has been focused on the use of aquatic plants of various types to treat municipal wastewaters. While several species of plants have been found to be useful in this regard, water hyacinths appear to offer the most promise in areas where the climate is mild enough for them to flourish during most of the year. Accordingly, the primary purpose of this research was to test the acceptability of such systems for use in Southern States such as Alabama. A wastewater treatment plant located at Union Springs, Alabama was selected as the site for this study. The experimental water hyacinth system was configured as a set of two treatment trains with two growth channels in series for each train. One train was harvested and the other was not. Each growth channel was constructed of 3/4-inch marine plywood and was 8 feet wide, 2 feet deep and 32 feet long. The system was operated from May 1986 to October 1987. Observations from this study indicate that a water hyacinth treatment system can be a reliable method for upgrading secondary effluents to advance secondary levels in central Alabama. The reliable treatment period will extend from about May through December with no plant protection (possibly longer in Southern Alabama.)

McAnally, A.S.

1989-01-01

361

Mercury Bioaccumulation Potential from Wastewater Treatment Plants in Receiving Waters  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In early 2007, the Water Environment Research Foundation (WERF) mercury bioavailability project was initiated in response to the establishment of mercury Total Maximum Daily Load (TMDL) criteria around the country. While many TMDLs recognize that point sources typically constitute a small fraction of the mercury load to a water body, the question was raised concerning the relative bioavailablity of mercury coming from various sources. For instance, is the mercury discharged from a wastewater treatment plant more or less bioavailable than mercury contributed from other sources? This talk will focus on the results of a study investigating approaches to the estimation of bioavailability and potential bioaccumulation of mercury from wastewater treatment plants and other sources in receiving waters. From the outset, a working definition of bioavailability was developed which included not only methylmercury, the form that readily bioaccumulates in aquatic food chains, but also bioavailable inorganic mercury species that could be converted to methylmercury within a scientifically reasonable time frame. Factors that enhance or mitigate the transformation of inorganic mercury to methylmercury and its subsequent bioaccumulation were identified. Profiles were developed for various sources of mercury in watersheds, including wastewater treatment plants, with regard to methylmercury and inorganic bioavailable mercury, and the key factors that enhance or mitigate mercury bioavailability. Technologies that remove mercury from wastewater were reviewed and evaluated for their effect on bioavailability. A screening procedure was developed for making preliminary estimates of bioavailable mercury concentrations and fluxes in wastewater effluents and in fresh, estuarine and marine receiving waters. The procedure was validated using several diverse river and reservoir data sets. A "Bioavailability Tool" was developed which allows a user to estimate the bioavailability of an effluent and compare it to another, and to mix an effluent in a receiving water to estimate bioavailability in the near- and far-field. As part of this project, a study was undertaken to evaluate methylmercury and reactive mercury in wastewater effluents. Effluent samples from 7 municipal wastewater plants from around the Unites States were collected weekly over a ten week period from late June through August of 2008. These data represent the first comprehensive study of bioavailable mercury in wastewater effluents and have not been published elsewhere. Initial data suggest that bioavailable (methyl plus reactive) mercury is less than 30 percent of total unfiltered mercury. Reactive mercury percentages (relative to dissolved total mercury) are somewhat higher than were initially predicted from theoretical calculations. This presentation will overview the project as a whole with a focus on the bioavailability study of these 7 wastewater plants.

Dean, J. D.; Mason, R. P.

2008-12-01

362

Microbiological Considerations of Ozone Treatment of Reuse Water in Fish Hatcheries.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The effectiveness of ozone as an alternative to current ultraviolet disinfection of makeup water and its potential for treatment of recycled water in commercial reuse hatcheries was considered. Comparative survival rates in water were established for four...

P. J. Colberg

1977-01-01

363

21 CFR 1250.83 - Storage of water prior to treatment.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-04-01 false Storage of water prior to treatment. 1250.83 Section...1250.83 Storage of water prior to treatment. The following requirements...respect to the storage of water on vessels prior to treatment must be met in order...

2013-04-01

364

Intensification of nonlinear separation effects in systems of treatment of oil-containing process waters  

Microsoft Academic Search

The issues of treatment of process waters at petroleum storage depots have been studied. The conditions for intensifying nonlinear\\u000a separation effects of physicochemical methods applied in the water treatment were investigated and a system of treatment of\\u000a oil-containing process waters based on the leading-edge nanotechnology was presented.

N. V. Kulalaeva; V. A. Mikhailyuk

2007-01-01

365

The impact of conventional water treatment processes on cells of the cyanobacterium Microcystis aeruginosa  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cyanobacteria can produce toxins, tastes and odors which significantly impair water quality. Removal of intact cyanobacterial cells with their intracellular compounds during water treatment would potentially reduce the concentration of taste, odor and toxic cell metabolites present in the treated water. In this study, the effect of conventional water treatment processes using aluminum sulphate (alum) on the integrity of cells

Christopher W. K Chow; Mary Drikas; Jenny House; Michael D Burch; Renate M. A Velzeboer

1999-01-01

366

COST-EFFECTIVE ACID ROCK DRAINAGE WATER TREATMENT APPLIED TO MINING-IMPACTED WATERSHEDS1  

Microsoft Academic Search

The application of three different Acid Rock Drainage (ARD) water treatment technologies will be discussed. The first water treatment technology results discussed are from laboratory and field treatability studies that used low volumes of high Total Dissolved Solids (TDS) ARD water to treat much larger volumes of lower TDS water to reach applicable ecological standards in the effluent stream. The

J. A. Chermak; B. Wielinga; E. G. Wyatt; J. Taylor

367

Development of a New Water Treatment Process for Decreasing the Potential for Trihalomethane Formation.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This study is concerned with the treatment of raw water to conform with the Safe Drinking Water Act. The raw water studied was from the Pequannock Watershed, which is the source of the Newark Water Supply System. The present treatment techniques at the Ch...

A. Pappachen L. Kurylko L. K. Wang

1981-01-01

368

Optofluidic planar reactors for photocatalytic water treatment using solar energy  

PubMed Central

Optofluidics may hold the key to greater success of photocatalytic water treatment. This is evidenced by our findings in this paper that the planar microfluidic reactor can overcome the limitations of mass transfer and photon transfer in the previous photocatalytic reactors and improve the photoreaction efficiency by more than 100 times. The microreactor has a planar chamber (5 cm×1.8 cm×100 ?m) enclosed by two TiO2-coated glass slides as the top cover and bottom substrate and a microstructured UV-cured NOA81 layer as the sealant and flow input?output. In experiment, the microreactor achieves 30% degradation of 3 ml 3×10?5M methylene blue within 5 min and shows a reaction rate constant two orders higher than the bulk reactor. Under optimized conditions, a reaction rate of 8% s?1 is achieved under solar irradiation. The average apparent quantum efficiency is found to be only 0.25%, but the effective apparent quantum efficiency reaches as high as 25%. Optofluidic reactors inherit the merits of microfluidics, such as large surface?volume ratio, easy flow control, and rapid fabrication and offer a promising prospect for large-volume photocatalytic water treatment.

Lei, Lei; Wang, Ning; Zhang, X. M.; Tai, Qidong; Tsai, Din Ping; Chan, Helen L. W.

2010-01-01

369

Optofluidic planar reactors for photocatalytic water treatment using solar energy.  

PubMed

Optofluidics may hold the key to greater success of photocatalytic water treatment. This is evidenced by our findings in this paper that the planar microfluidic reactor can overcome the limitations of mass transfer and photon transfer in the previous photocatalytic reactors and improve the photoreaction efficiency by more than 100 times. The microreactor has a planar chamber (5 cm×1.8 cm×100 ?m) enclosed by two TiO(2)-coated glass slides as the top cover and bottom substrate and a microstructured UV-cured NOA81 layer as the sealant and flow input?output. In experiment, the microreactor achieves 30% degradation of 3 ml 3×10(-5)M methylene blue within 5 min and shows a reaction rate constant two orders higher than the bulk reactor. Under optimized conditions, a reaction rate of 8% s(-1) is achieved under solar irradiation. The average apparent quantum efficiency is found to be only 0.25%, but the effective apparent quantum efficiency reaches as high as 25%. Optofluidic reactors inherit the merits of microfluidics, such as large surface?volume ratio, easy flow control, and rapid fabrication and offer a promising prospect for large-volume photocatalytic water treatment. PMID:21267436

Lei, Lei; Wang, Ning; Zhang, X M; Tai, Qidong; Tsai, Din Ping; Chan, Helen L W

2010-12-30

370

Copper corrosion in potable water systems: Impacts of natural organic matter and water treatment processes  

SciTech Connect

Copper corrosion was examined in the presence of natural organic matter (NOM) and in situations where NOM was altered by drinking water treatment. Corrosion rates (i{sub corr}) increased with higher NOM concentration at pH 6, whereas insignificant effects were observed at pH 7.5 and 9.0. Corrosion byproduct release was affected adversely by 4 mg/L NOM at pH 6.0, 7.5 and 9.0, with soluble copper increasing by 0.6 mg/L to 0.7 mg/L when compared to solutions without NOM. Alum-coagulated waters had higher i{sub corr} than untreated waters, but ferric chloride (FeCl{sub 3}{center_dot}6H{sub 2}O)-coagulated waters exhibited reduced i{sub corr}. This difference was attributed to the relative effects of added sulfate via alum coagulation vs added chloride via FeCl{sub 3}{center_dot}6H{sub 2}O coagulation. The effect of combined treatment (alum coagulation, ozonation, and granular activated carbon) was similar to that using alum coagulation alone.

Rehring, J.P. [Camp, Dresser, McKee Inc., Denver, CO (United States); Edwards, M. [Univ. of Colorado, Boulder, CO (United States). Dept. of Civil, Environmental, and Architectural Engineering

1996-04-01

371

Drinking water treatment residuals: a review of recent uses.  

PubMed

Coagulants such as alum [Al2(SO4)3 x 14H2O], FeCl3, or Fe2(SO4)3 are commonly used to remove particulate and dissolved constituents from water supplies in the production of drinking water. The resulting waste product, called water-treatment residuals (WTR), contains precipitated Al and Fe oxyhydroxides, resulting in a strong affinity for anionic species. Recent research has focused on using WTR as cost-effective materials to reduce soluble phosphorus (P) in soils, runoff, and land-applied organic wastes (manures and biosolids). Studies show P adsorption by WTR to be fast and nearly irreversible, suggesting long-term stable immobilization of WTR-bound P. Because excessive WTR application can induce P deficiency in crops, effective application rates and methods remain an area of intense research. Removal of other potential environmental contaminants [ClO4-, Se(+IV and +VI), As(+III and +V), and Hg] by WTR has been documented, suggesting potential use of WTR in environmental remediation. Although the creation of Al plant toxicity and enhanced Al leaching are concerns expressed by researchers, these effects are minimal at circumneutral soil pH conditions. Radioactivity, trace element levels, and enhanced Mn leaching have also been cited as potential problems in WTR usage as a soil supplement. However, these issues can be managed so as not to limit the beneficial use of WTR in controlling off-site P losses to sensitive water bodies or reducing soil-extractable P concentrations. PMID:21488487

Ippolito, J A; Barbarick, K A; Elliott, H A

372

Review of the technological approaches for grey water treatment and reuses  

Microsoft Academic Search

Based on literature review, a non-potable urban grey water reuse standard is proposed and the treatment alternatives and reuse scheme for grey water reuses are evaluated according to grey water characteristics and the proposed standard. The literature review shows that all types of grey water have good biodegradability. The bathroom and the laundry grey water are deficient in both nitrogen

Fangyue Li; Knut Wichmann; Ralf Otterpohl

2009-01-01

373

THE USE OF RANDOMIZED CONTROLLED TRIALS OF IN-HOME DRINKING WATER TREATMENT TO STUDY ENDEMIC WATERBORNE DISEASE  

EPA Science Inventory

Randomized trials of water treatment have demonstrated the ability of simple water treatments to significantly reduce the incidence of gastrointestinal illnesses in developing countries where drinking water is of poor quality. Whether or not additional treatment at the tap reduc...

374

Using phytoremediation technologies to upgrade waste water treatment in Europe  

Microsoft Academic Search

One of the burning problems of our industrial society is the high consumption of water and the high demand for clean drinking water. Numerous approaches have been taken to reduce water consumption, but in the long run it seems only possible to recycle waste water into high quality water. It seems timely to discuss alternative water remediation technologies that are

Peter Schröder; Juan Navarro-Aviñ'o; Hassan Azaizeh; Avi Golan Goldhirsh; Simona DiGregorio; Tamas Komives; Günter Langergraber; Anton Lenz; Elena Maestri; Abdul R. Memon; Alfonso Ranalli; Luca Sebastiani; Stanislav Smrcek; Tomas Vanek; Stephane Vuilleumier; Frieder Wissing

2007-01-01

375

Relationship between use of water from community-scale water treatment refill kiosks and childhood diarrhea in Jakarta.  

PubMed

In developing countries, safe piped drinking water is generally unavailable, and bottled water is unaffordable for most people. Purchasing drinking water from community-scale decentralized water treatment and refill kiosks (referred to as isi ulang depots in Indonesia) is becoming a common alternative. This study investigates the association between diarrhea risk and community-scale water treatment and refill kiosk. We monitored daily diarrhea status and water source for 1,000 children 1-4 years of age in Jakarta, Indonesia, for up to 5 months. Among children in an urban slum, rate of diarrhea/1,000 child-days varied significantly by primary water source: 8.13 for tap water, 3.60 for bottled water, and 3.97 for water kiosks. In multivariable Poisson regression analysis, diarrhea risk remained significantly lower among water kiosk users (adjusted rate ratio [RR] = 0.49, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 0.29-0.83) and bottled water users (adjusted RR = 0.45, 95% CI = 0.21-0.97), compared with tap water users. In a peri-urban area, where few people purchased from water kiosk (N = 28, 6% of total population), diarrhea rates were lower overall: 2.44 for well water, 1.90 for bottled water, and 2.54 for water kiosks. There were no significant differences in diarrhea risk for water kiosk users or bottled water users compared with well water users. Purchasing water from low-cost water kiosks is associated with a reduction in diarrhea risk similar to that found for bottled water. PMID:23128290

Sima, Laura C; Desai, Mayur M; McCarty, Kathleen M; Elimelech, Menachem

2012-11-05

376

FERRATES: SYNTHESIS, PROPERTIES AND APPLICATIONS IN WATER AND WASTEWATER TREATMENT.  

SciTech Connect

The higher oxidation states of iron (Fe(VI) and Fe(V) in particular) have been shown to be strongly oxidizing in enzymatic systems, where they can carry out aliphatic hydrogen abstraction. In addition, they have been postulated as intermediates in Fenton-type systems. Fe(VI) itself is relatively stable and has been shown to have potential as an oxidant in the so-called ''green'' treatment of polluted waters. By contrast, Fe(V) is a relatively short-lived transient when produced in aqueous solution in the absence of strongly bonding ligands other than hydroxide, a feature that has limited studies of its reactivity. Fe(VI) has been proposed to be useful in battery design and a very interesting study suggested that ferrate may be able to oxidize insoluble chromium to chromate and thus serve to remove chromium contamination in the Hanford radioactive waste tanks.

CABELLI, D.E.; SHARMA, V.K.

2006-05-19

377

Technical report series: North Alabama water quality assessment: Volume 3, Water treatment plants and Wilson and Wheeler Dams  

Microsoft Academic Search

TVA is conducting an ongoing evaluation of the environmental effects of pollutants in water, sediment, and biota in North Alabama. This report presents data on surface water quality in the Shoals area of North Alabama. Samples were collected at five water treatment plants and at two dams on the mainstream of the Tennessee River. The objectives were to: (1) present

Meinert

1986-01-01

378

A Comparative Risk Approach to Assessing Point-of-Use Water treatment Systems in Developing Countries  

Microsoft Academic Search

Unsafe water is a leadingcause of death and disease in economically disadvantaged societies. The development of centralized large-scale water treatment and supply systems has proven to be a slow, expensive strategy to provide safe drinking water in many low-income countries. Governments and non-governmental organizations have therefore increasingly been promoting point-of-use water treatment technologies in communities without reliable municipal water supplies.

A. Varghese

379

Coxiella burnetii in sewage water at sewage water treatment plants in a Q fever epidemic area.  

PubMed

During 2007-2010, over 4000 persons in The Netherlands contracted Q-fever, a zoonosis caused by the bacterium Coxiella burnetii. Goats and sheep are the main reservoir of C. burnetti and infected animals shed the bacterium with their urine, faeces and birth products. Human infections may occur through direct contact with infected animals, or through inhalation of contaminated dust particles or aerosols. Discharge of waste water from Q fever contaminated goat farms may result in the presence of C. burnetii in sewage water and aerosols at sewage water treatment plants (SWTPs) which may pose a health risk for workers or neighbouring residents. The objectives of this study were to determine the presence of C. burnetii at SWTPs and to optimize available detection methods. In March-July 2011, sewage influent and aeration tank samples from four SWTPs receiving discharge from Q fever positive goat farms were examined by using a multiplex real-time PCR detecting C. burnetii DNA by targeting IS1111 and com1 genes. Influent (44%; n=16/36) and active sludge (36%; n=13/36) samples were positive with low C. burnetii DNA content. Percentage positive samples per SWTP were 28-61%. Positive samples were most frequent in March 2011 and least frequent in May 2011. The presence of C. burnetii DNA in sewage water samples suggests that SWTPs receiving waste water from Q fever contaminated goat farms may contribute to the spread of C. burnetii to the environment. The low levels of C. burnetii DNA in sewage water during the decline of the Q fever outbreak in The Netherlands in 2011 indicate a low health risk for SWTP workers and residents. PMID:23347968

Schets, F M; de Heer, L; de Roda Husman, A M

2013-01-22

380

Influence of the distribution of electric fields in a reactor of electrodischarge water treatment on the treatment efficiency  

Microsoft Academic Search

Calculations of the electric field in a reactor of electrodischarge water purification have been performed. The influence of the water-air medium on the electric field distribution has been analyzed. Ways for increasing the efficiency of water treatment are discussed.

Ya. I. Kornev; Yu. N. Isaev; V. Ya. Ushakov; M. B. Khaskelberg; N. A. Yavorovskii; V. A. Kolchanova

2004-01-01

381

Long-term impact of integration of household water treatment and hygiene promotion with antenatal services on maternal water treatment and hygiene practices in Malawi.  

PubMed

A clinic-based program to integrate antenatal services with distribution of hygiene kits including safe water storage containers, water treatment solution (brand name WaterGuard), soap, and hygiene education, was implemented in Malawi in 2007 and evaluated in 2010. We surveyed 389 participants at baseline in 2007, and found and surveyed 232 (60%) participants to assess water treatment, test stored drinking water for residual chlorine (an objective measure of treatment), and observe handwashing technique at follow-up in 2010. Program participants were more likely to know correct water treatment procedures (67% versus 36%; P < 0.0001), treat drinking water with WaterGuard (24% versus 2%; P < 0.0001), purchase and use WaterGuard (21% versus 1%; P < 0.001), and demonstrate correct handwashing technique (50% versus 21%; P < 0.001) at the three-year follow-up survey than at baseline. This antenatal-clinic-based program may have contributed to sustained water treatment and proper handwashing technique among program participants. PMID:23243106

Loharikar, Anagha; Russo, Elizabeth; Sheth, Anandi; Menon, Manoj; Kudzala, Amose; Tauzie, Blessius; Masuku, Humphreys D; Ayers, Tracy; Hoekstra, Robert M; Quick, Robert

2012-12-12

382

Vegetated ditches for treatment of surface water with highly fluctuating water regime.  

PubMed

Vegetated drainage ditches (VDD) as a type of constructed wetland primarily serve to remove and store excess water associated with irrigation and storm events. Current research suggests using a VDD as an additional practice in the mitigation of surface water pollution. The VDD for water treatment of the Glinscica River was constructed in 2006. The efficiency of the system was evaluated in 2008 and 2009 regarding the reduction of SS, COD, BOD5, NH4-N, NO3-N, NO2-N, TN, ON and TP. The microbiological association developed in the VDD was analyzed with a focus on the identification and quantification of the narG gene as a denitrification indicator. This paper discusses the efficiency of pollution removal and the distribution of the narG gene within the VDD. The results showed that the highly fluctuating water regime was the main reason for the even distribution and abundance of the narG gene throughout the system, regardless of oxygen saturation or the nutrient status of the wastewater. With the exception of SS, pollutant concentrations met the permitted outflow levels. PMID:21977660

Bulc, T G; Klemencic, A K; Razinger, J

2011-01-01

383

Significance of microcystin production by benthic communities in water treatment systems of arid zones  

Microsoft Academic Search

The study of the dynamics of phytobenthic and phytoplankton communities was undertaken, during a year, in the regulation reservoir associated with a water treatment plant (WTP), which provides the city of Murcia (Spain) with drinking water. Water samples were collected in different stages of the treatment. In the reservoir, the presence of dissolved and intracellular microcystins is constant, both in

I. Hurtado; M. Aboal; E. Zafra; D. Campillo

2008-01-01

384

SPECIATION OF ELEMENTS RELEASED FROM WATER TREATMENT RESDUALS AND THEIR MIGRATION THROUGH A SANDY SOIL  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Water treatment residuals (WTRs) are by-products from drinking water treatment facilities that use chemical amendments to flocculate sediments from raw water sources. These residuals are composed of a variety of organic and inorganic compounds as a result of the mineral composition of the sediments,...

385

Development of a Water Treatment Plant Operation Manual Using an Algorithmic Approach.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This document describes the steps to be followed in the development of a prescription manual for training of water treatment plant operators. Suggestions on how to prepare both flow and narrative prescriptions are provided for a variety of water treatment systems, including: raw water, flocculation, rapid sand filter, caustic soda feed, alum feed,…

Counts, Cary A.

386

Development of a Water Treatment Plant Operation Manual Using an Algorithmic Approach.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This document describes the steps to be followed in the development of a prescription manual for training of water treatment plant operators. Suggestions on how to prepare both flow and narrative prescriptions are provided for a variety of water treatment systems, including: raw water, flocculation, rapid sand filter, caustic soda feed, alum…

Counts, Cary A.

387

Coconut-based biosorbents for water treatment — A review of the recent literature  

Microsoft Academic Search

Biosorption is an emerging technique for water treatment utilizing abundantly available biomaterials (especially agricultural wastes). Among several agricultural wastes studied as biosorbents for water treatment, coconut has been of great importance as various parts of this tree (e.g. coir, shell, etc.) have been extensively studied as biosorbents for the removal of diverse type of pollutants from water. Coconut-based agricultural wastes

Amit Bhatnagar; Vítor J. P. Vilar; Cidália M. S. Botelho; Rui A. R. Boaventura

2010-01-01

388

Dewatering behaviour of water treatment sludges associated with contaminated site remediation in Antarctica  

Microsoft Academic Search

Sludge reduction and dewatering is an important aspect of water and waste water treatment. This is especially true in the case of Australia's Antarctic contaminated site remediation program, where the reduction in volume of wastes to be returned to Australia can lead to significant transport and handling cost savings. The dewatering characterisation of water treatment sludges from an Antarctic contaminated

Kathy A. Northcott; Ian Snape; Peter J. Scales; Geoff W. Stevens

2005-01-01

389

Electrochemical advanced oxidation process for water treatment using DiaChem ® electrodes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Currently applied water treatment techniques consist of a combination of different methods to achieve the elimination of harmful pollutants. Within this field, the capability of electrochemical water treatment is still not exhaustively exploited due to the lack of for instance appropriate electrode materials. The chemical inertness and unique electrochemical properties of boron-doped diamond electrodes present great potential for electrochemical water

I. Tröster; M. Fryda; D. Herrmann; L. Schäfer; W. Hänni; A. Perret; M. Blaschke; A. Kraft; M. Stadelmann

2002-01-01

390

About the Physical Methods Applied by Underground Water Treatment in Food Industry  

Microsoft Academic Search

The modern food industry requires high quality processing water at greater flow rate. The actual paper presents an original computer controlled pilot equipment in multiple stages: fresh air treatment in the underground pipe, treatment in pulsating electric filed, water softening in electromagnetic field and the disinfection in ultraviolet (UV) ray. The high-level water purification is ensured in two additional stages:

Dumitru Vaju; Grigore Vlad; Clement Festila

2006-01-01

391

Reuse of drinking water treatment sludge for olive oil mill wastewater treatment.  

PubMed

Olive mill wastewater (OMW) results from the production of olive oil, which is an important traditional agro-industry in Mediterranean countries. In continuous three-phase centrifugation 1.0-1.2 m(3) of OMW are produced per ton of processed olives. Discharge of OMW is of serious environmental concern due to its high content of organic matter with phytotoxic properties, namely phenolic compounds. Meanwhile, drinking water treatment sludge (DWTS) is produced in high amounts and has long been considered as a waste for landfill. The aim of this work was the assessment of reusing DWTS for OMW treatment. High performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) analysis was carried out to determine the phenolic compounds present and to evaluate if they are recalcitrant. Treatability assays were performed using a dosage of DWTS from 50 to 300 g L(-1). Treatment efficiency was evaluated based on the removal of chemical oxygen demand (COD), biochemical oxygen demand (BOD), total solids (TS), total suspended solids (TSS), total volatile solids (TVS), oil and grease (OG), phenols (total phosphorous (TP) and HPLC fraction). Results from OMW HPLC characterization identified a total of 13 compounds; the major ones were hydroxytyrosol, tyrosol, caffeic acid, p-cumaric acid and oleuropein. Treatability assays led to a maximum reduction of about 90% of some of the phenolic compounds determined by HPLC. Addition of 200-300 g L(-1) of DWTS reduced 40-50% of COD, 45-50% of TP, a maximum of nearly 70% TSS and 45% for TS and TVS. The OG fraction showed a reduction of about 90%, achieved adding 300 g L(-1) od DWTS. This study points out the possibility of establishing an integrated management of OMW and DWTS, contributing to a decrease in the environmental impact of two industrial activities, olive oil production and drinking water treatment. PMID:22766882

Fragoso, R A; Duarte, E A

2012-01-01

392

MODIFIED REVERSE OSMOSIS SYSTEM FOR TREATMENT OF PRODUCED WATERS  

SciTech Connect

This report describes work performed during the first year of the project ''Modified Reverse Osmosis System for Treatment of Produced Waters.'' This research project has two objectives. The first objective is to test the use of clay membranes in the treatment of produced waters by reverse osmosis. The second objective is to test the ability of a system patented by the New Mexico Tech Research Foundation to remove salts from reverse osmosis waste streams as a solid. We performed 12 experiments using clay membranes in cross-flow experimental cells. We found that, due to dispersion in the porous frit used adjacent to the membrane, the concentration polarization layer seems to be completely (or nearly completely) destroyed at low flow rates. This observation suggests that clay membranes used with porous frit material many reach optimum rejection rates at lower pumping rates than required for use with synthetic membranes. The solute rejection efficiency decreases with increasing solution concentration. For the membranes and experiments reported here, the rejection efficiency ranged from 71% with 0.01 M NaCl solution down to 12% with 2.3 M NaCl solution. More compacted clay membranes will have higher rejection capabilities. The clay membranes used in our experiments were relatively thick (approximately 0.5 mm). The active layer of most synthetic membranes is only 0.04 {micro}m (0.00004 mm), approximately 1250 times thinner than the clay membranes used in these experiments. Yet clay membranes as thin as 12 {micro}m have been constructed (Fritz and Eady, 1985). Since Darcy's law states that the flow through a material of constant permeability is inversely proportional to it's the material's thickness, then, based on these experimental observations, a very thin clay membrane would be expected to have much higher flow rates than the ones used in these experiments. Future experiments will focus on testing very thin clay membranes. The membranes generally exhibited reasonable stable rejection rates over time for chloride for a range of concentrations between 0.01 and 2.5 M. One membrane ran in excess of three months with no apparent loss of usability. This suggests that clay membranes may have a long useable life. Twenty different hyperfiltration-induced solute precipitation experiments were either attempted or completed and are reported here. The results of these experiments suggest that hyperfiltration-induced solute precipitation is possible, even for very soluble substances such as NaCl. However, the precipitation rates obtained in the laboratory do not appear to be adequate for commercial application at this time. Future experiments will focus on making the clay membranes more compact and thinner in order to obtain higher flux rates. Two alternative methods of removing solutes from solution, for which the New Mexico Tech Research Foundation is preparing patent applications, are also being investigated. These methods will be described in the next annual report after the patent applications are filed. Technology transfer efforts included two meetings (one in Farmington NM, and one in Hobbs, NM) where the results of this research were presented to independent oil producers and other interested parties. In addition, members of the research team gave seven presentations concerning this research and because of this research project T. M. (Mike) Whitworth was asked to sit on the advisory board for development of a new water treatment facility for the City of El Paso, Texas. Several papers are in preparation for submission to peer-reviewed journals based on the data presented in this report.

T.M. Whitworth; Liangxiong Li

2002-09-15

393

Reverse osmosis brine staging treatment of subsurface water  

Microsoft Academic Search

An earlier Kuwait Institute for Scientific Research (KISR) study on subsurface water rise problems in residential areas of Kuwait recommended drainage by deep wells to lower levels and maintain the subsurface water at a desired level. A large quantity of water needs to be permanently pumped for this purpose. The quality of the pumped water is likely to prohibit its

Y. Al-Wazzan; M. Safar; A. Mesri

2003-01-01

394

Metal sorption to natural filter substrates for storm water treatment—column studies  

Microsoft Academic Search

Storm water generated from road runoff contains pollutants such as metals that are either dissolved in storm water or bound to particulates. Using detention ponds for the treatment of storm water from road runoff, where particles can settle, can reduce the level of particulate-bound metals in the water, while small particles and dissolved matter pass through the detention pond. Some

Carina Färm

2002-01-01

395

DEVELOPMENT OF GIARDIA C.T VALUES FOR THE SURFACE WATER TREATMENT RULE  

EPA Science Inventory

As a consequence of the 1986 Amendments to the Safe Drinking Water Act (SDWA) the U.S. EPA has issued a Surface Water Treatment Rule (SWTR) for systems using surface and ground waters under the direct influence of surface water. n the Guidance Manual of the SWTR, the EPA recommen...

396

Cost and financial sustainability of a household-based water treatment and storage intervention in Zambia  

Microsoft Academic Search

Providing safe water to .1 billion people in need is a major challenge. To address this need, the Safe Water System (SWS) - household water treatment with dilute bleach, safe water storage, and behavior change - has been implemented in .20 countries. To assess the potential sustainability of the SWS, we analyzed costs in Zambia of \\

Anyana Banerjee; Deborah A. McFarland; Ritu Singh; Robert Quick

2007-01-01

397

NONPHOTOSYNTHETIC PIGMENTED BACTERIA IN A POTABLE WATER TREATMENT AND DISTRIBUTION SYSTEM  

EPA Science Inventory

The occurrence of pigmented bacteria in potable water from raw source water through treatment to distribution water, including dead-end locations, was compared at sample sites in a large municipal water system. edia used to enumerate heterotrophic bacteria and differentiate pigme...

398

Monitoring and modeling of trihalomethanes (THMs) for a water treatment plant in Istanbul  

Microsoft Academic Search

Because of increasing concern for both microbial control and disinfection by-products (DBPs) formation, water utilities are strictly examining and optimizing disinfection practices. In this study, modeling of trihalomethanes (THMs) formation at processed water of the Kagithane water treatment plant in Istanbul City was conducted. Data for THMs and other water quality and operational parameters were generated through a 12-month sampling

V. Uyak; I. Toroz; S. Meriç

2005-01-01

399

Development of Giardia C · t values for the surface water treatment rule  

Microsoft Academic Search

As a consequence of the 1986 Amendments to the Safe Drinking Water Act (SDWA) the U.S. EPA has issued a Surface Water Treatment Rule (SWTR) for systems using surface and ground waters under the direct influence of surface water. In the Guidance Manual to the SWTR, the EPA recommends C·t values (product of disinfection concentration in milligrams per liter and

Robert M. Clark; Stig Regli

1993-01-01

400

Feasibility Study for Upgrading of Potable Water Treatment Plants. Final Report.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The final report is intended to summarize findings from the project 'Feasibility Study for Upgrading of Potable Water Treatment Plants' conducted for the City of Istanbul Water and Sewer Administration (ISKI). The two-year project was initiated in October...

1999-01-01

401

TREATMENT TECHNOLOGY TO MEET THE INTERIM PRIMARY DRINKING WATER REGULATIONS FOR INORGANICS: PART 5  

EPA Science Inventory

The fifth in a series summarizing existing treatment technology to meet the inorganic National Interim Primary Drinking Water Regulations, this report describes current methods for removing barium and radionuclides from drinking water....

402

Treatment Technology to Meet the Interim Primary Drinking Water Regulations for Inorganics: Part 5.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The fifth in a series summarizing existing treatment technology to meet the inorganic National Interim Primary Drinking Water Regulations, this report describes current methods for removing barium and radionuclides from drinking water.

T. J. Sorg G. S. Logsdon

1980-01-01

403

Effect of Hardwood Leaf Litter on Water Quality and Treatment in a Western Oregon Municipal Watershed.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Riparian red alder stands are common in western Oregon and have been suspected in causing domestic water quality and treatment problems during autumn leaf fall. Studies on the Seaside Municipal Watershed showed potential water quality effects (particularl...

R. L. Taylor P. W. Adams P. O. Nelson R. J. Seidler

1983-01-01

404

Suppressive Antimicrobial Treatment: Ozone\\/Water Spray for California Fresh Produce Processor  

Microsoft Academic Search

Aqueous sprays of Ozone treated water, 1.25 to 2.40 ppm were applied to various produce conveying surfaces for varying times. This treatment followed the fresh water rinse which is a routine first step in the daily plant clean up protocol. Aerobic Plate Counts of various sites sampled after the fresh water rinse but before the ozone\\/water treatments ranged between 5.7x10(4)

Arthur J. Dawson; Paul Vervalle

405

ANALYSIS ON EFFLUENT WATER QUALITY AND ELECTRICITY CONSUMPTION AFTER INTRODUCING ADVANCED SEWAGE TREATMENT  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We analyze effluent water quality and electricity consumption after in troducing advanced treatment in sewage treatment plant. We define 'advanced treatment ratio' as volume of treated water through advanced treatment processes divided by total volume of treated water in plant. Advanced treatment ratio represents degree of introducing advanced treatment. We build two types of equation. One represents relation between effluent water quality and advanced treatment ratio, the other between electricity consumption and advanced treatment ratio. Each equation is fitted by least squares on 808 samples: 8 fiscal years operation data of 101 plants working in Kanagawa, Tokyo, Saitama and Chiba areas, and coefficient of advanced treatment ratio is estimated. The result is as follows. (1) After introducing advanced treatment aimed at nitrogen removal, T-N in effluent water decreases by 51.3% and electricity consum ption increases by 52.2%. (2) After introducing advanced treatment aimed at phosphorus removal, T-P in effluent water decreases by 27.8%. Using the above result, we try prioritizing 71 plants in Tokyo Bay watershed about raising advanced treatment ratio, so that, in total, pollutant in effluent water decreases with minimized increase of electricity consumption.

Shiojiri, Yasuo; Maekawa, Shunich

406

Treatment of pulp mill sludges by supercritical water oxidation  

SciTech Connect

Supercritical water oxidation (SCWO) is new process that can oxidize organics very effectively at moderate temperatures (400 to 650{degree}C) and high pressure (3700 psi). It is an environmentally acceptable alternative for sludge treatment. In bench scale tests, total organic carbon (TOC) and total organic halide (TOX) reductions of 99 to 99.9% were obtained; dioxin reductions were 95 to 99.9%. A conceptual design for commercial systems has been completed and preliminary economics have been estimated. Comparisons confirm that SCWO is less costly than dewatering plus incineration for treating pulp mill sludges. SCWO can also compete effectively with dewatering plus landfilling where tipping fees exceed $35/yd{sup 3}. In some regions of the US, tipping fees are now $75/yd{sup 3} and rising steadily. In the 1995 to 2000 time frame, SCWO has a good chance of becoming the method of choice. MODEC's objective is to bring the technology to commercial availability by 1993. 10 refs., 6 figs., 19 tabs.

Modell, M.

1990-07-01

407

Influence of water treatment residuals on dewaterability of wastewater biosolids.  

PubMed

Co-dewatering of water treatment residuals (WTR) and wastewater biosolids can potentially benefit municipalities by reducing processing equipment and costs. This study investigated dewaterability (using capillary suction time, CST) of combined alum residuals (Al-WTR) and anaerobically digested biosolids at various blending ratios (BR), defined as the mass ratio of WTR to biosolids on a dry solids basis. Without polymer addition, the CST was 160 s for a BR of 0.75 compared with 355 s for the biosolids alone. The optimum polymer dose (OPD), defined as the polymer dose yielding CST of 20 s, was reduced from 20.6 g kg(-1) dry solids for the biosolids alone to 16.3 and 12.6 g kg(-1) when BR was 0.75 and 1.5, respectively. Precipitated Al hydrous oxides in the WTR likely caused flocculation of the biosolids particles through heterocoagulation or charge neutralization. The solids contents of the blended materials and biosolids at their respective OPDs were not statistically different (? = 0.05) following dewatering by a belt-filter press. We conclude addition of Al-WTR improved biosolids dewaterability and reduced polymer dosage. In practice, the extent of these benefits may be limited by the quantity of WTR produced relative to the amount of wastewater solids generated by a municipality. PMID:23128637

Taylor, Malcolm; Elliott, Herschel A

2013-01-01

408

Recycle of Alum recovered from water treatment sludge in chemically enhanced primary treatment.  

PubMed

An investigation was made to study the feasibility of recovering the Alum from coagulation sludges and reusing it in chemically enhanced primary treatment (CEPT) process to make the CEPT more cost-effective and recover the resource (Alum) efficiently. The optimum condition and efficiency of the acidification method for Alum recovery from coagulation sludge were investigated in the test. The results show that when the recovery rate of Alum reaches its highest level, 84.5%, the reduction rate of sludge is 35.5%. It turns out that the capability of recovered coagulant to remove turbidity, UV(254) and COD are 96%, 46% and 53%, respectively. The results prove that the recovered coagulants could be used in CEPT and the efficiency of recovered coagulant to remove pollutants is similar to that of fresh coagulant. Although some substances will be enriched during recycle, they have little effect on the quality of treated wastewater. The experiments verify that it would be an advisable and cost-effective way to recover Alum from coagulation sludges in water treatment and chemical wastewater treatment, and it could be then recycled to CEPT as well as reduce sludge volume. PMID:18486332

Xu, G R; Yan, Z C; Wang, Y C; Wang, N

2008-04-10

409

Restoring the Quality of Urban Receiving Waters: Interfacing Upgraded Treatment Facilities with the Stream.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The research demonstrated the feasibility of employing advanced waste treatment techniques added as adjuncts to overloaded existing conventional waste treatment facilities for protecting urban water resources from further degradation. This is an attractiv...

B. C. Dysart T. M. Keinath

1974-01-01

410

Study of Factors Related to Magnetic Treatment of Calcium Carbonate Saturated Water.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Magnetic water treatment to reduce scale formation in industrial equipment has performed inconsistently in field trials. Laboratory studies have also shown mixed results. Recent research shows promising results for effects of magnetic treatment on calcium...

K. Lambert

1998-01-01

411

EDI as a Treatment Module in Recycling Spent Rinse Waters  

SciTech Connect

Recycling of the spent rinse water discharged from the wet benches commonly used in semiconductor processing is one tactic for responding to the targets for water usage published in the 1997 National Technology Roadmap for Semiconductors (NTRS). Not only does the NTRS list a target that dramatically reduces total water usage/unit area of silicon manufactured by the industry in the future but for the years 2003 and beyond, the NTRS actually touts goals which would have semiconductor manufacturers drawing less water from a regional water supply per unit area of silicon manufactured than the quantity of ultrapure water (UPW) used in the production of that same silicon. Achieving this latter NTRS target strongly implies more widespread recycling of spent rinse waters at semiconductor manufacturing sites. In spite of the fact that, by most metrics, spent rinse waters are of much higher purity than incoming municipal waters, recycling of these spent rinse waters back into the UPW production plant is not a simple, straightforward task. The rub is that certain of the chemicals used in semiconductor manufacturing, and thus potentially present in trace concentrations (or more) in spent rinse waters, are not found in municipal water supplies and are not necessarily removed by the conventional UPW production sequence used by semiconductor manufacturers. Some of these contaminants, unique to spent rinse waters, may actually foul the resins and membranes of the UPW system, posing a threat to UPW production and potentially even causing a shutdown.

Donovan, Robert P.; Morrison, Dennis J.

1999-08-11

412

MODIFIED REVERSE OSMOSIS SYSTEM FOR TREATMENT OF PRODUCED WATERS  

SciTech Connect

This report describes work performed during the second year of the project ''Modified reverse osmosis system for treatment of produced waters.'' We performed two series of reverse osmosis experiments using very thin bentonite clay membranes compacted to differing degrees. The first series of 10 experiments used NaCl solutions with membranes that ranged between 0.041 and 0.064mm in thickness. Our results showed compaction of such ultra-thin clay membranes to be problematic. The thickness of the membranes was exceeded by the dimensional variation in the machined experimental cell and this is believed to have resulted in local bypassing of the membrane with a resultant decrease in solute rejection efficiency. In two of the experiments, permeate flow was varied as a percentage of the total flow to investigate results of changing permeate flow on solute rejection. In one experiment, the permeate flow was varied between 2.4 and 10.3% of the total flow with no change in solute rejection. In another experiment, the permeate flow was varied between 24.6 and 52.5% of the total flow. In this experiment, the solute rejection rate decreased as the permeate occupied greater fractions of the total flow. This suggests a maximum solute rejection efficiency for these clay membranes for a permeate flow of between 10.3 and 24.6% of the total; flow. Solute rejection was found to decrease with increasing salt concentration and ranged between 62.9% and 19.7% for chloride and between 61.5 and 16.8% for sodium. Due to problems with the compaction procedure and potential membrane bypassing, these rejection rates are probably not the upper limit for NaCl rejection by bentonite membranes. The second series of four reverse osmosis experiments was conducted with a 0.057mm-thick bentonite membrane and dilutions of a produced water sample with an original TDS of 196,250 mg/l obtained from a facility near Loco Hill, New Mexico, operated by an independent. These experiments tested the separation efficiency of the bentonite membrane for each of the dilutions. We found that membrane efficiency decreased with increasing solute concentration and with increasing TDS. The rejection of SO{sub 4}{sup 2-} was greater than Cl{sup -}. This may be because the SO{sub 4}{sup 2-} concentration was much lower than the Cl{sup -} concentration in the waters tested. The cation rejection sequence varied with solute concentration and TDS. The solute rejection sequence for multi-component solutions is difficult to predict for synthetic membranes; it may not be simple for clay membranes either. The permeate flows in our experiments were 4.1 to 5.4% of the total flow. This suggests that very thin clay membranes may be useful for some separations. Work on development of a spiral-wound clay membrane module found that it is difficult to maintain compaction of the membrane if the membrane is rolled and then inserted in the outer tube. A different design was tried using a cylindrical clay membrane and this also proved difficult to assemble with adequate membrane compaction. The next step is to form the membrane in place using hydraulic pressure on a thin slurry of clay in either water or a nonpolar organic solvent such as ethanol. Technology transfer efforts included four manuscripts submitted to peer-reviewed journals, two abstracts, and chairing a session on clays as membranes at the Clay Minerals Society annual meeting.

T.M. Whitworth; Liangxiong Li

2002-09-15

413

Treatment of surface water with Moringa Oleifera seed extract and alum – a comparative study using a pilot scale water treatment plant  

Microsoft Academic Search

The present study involved the use of a pilot scale water treatment plant to treat turbid surface water from a stream using processed Moringa oleifera seed and alum as primary coagulants. At low initial turbidity of 21.5 to 49.3 NTU, residual turbidities of 2.7, 1.8 and 1.4 NTU were achieved after treatment using Moringa oleifera, alum, and alum with Moringa

Suleyman Muyibi; Akif Alfugara

2003-01-01

414

IMPACT OF DRINKING WATER TREATMENT ON ASSIMILABLE ORGANIC CARBON  

EPA Science Inventory

Regrowth in the drinking water distribution system is a primary concern for water utilities. he disinfection process, although normally efficient for primary inactivation, is not always enough to discourage microbial regrowth if sufficient substrate is available. Previously, the,...

415

THE TREATMENT OF CONTAMINATED WATER AT REMEDIAL WOOD PRESERVING SITES  

EPA Science Inventory

Contaminated groundwater and surface water have posed a great challenge in restoring wood preserving sites to beneficial use. Often contaminated groundwater plumes extend far beyond the legal property limits, adversely impacting drinking water supplies and crop lands. To contain,...

416

Strategy for Testing the Efficacy of Ballast Water Treatment Technologies.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

One of the principal vectors of aquatic invasive species introductions is the transport of organisms in ballast water. The primary management practice to reduce such introductions during routine ballasting operations is mid-ocean ballast water exchange (B...

B. L. Howes C. D. Taylor

2003-01-01

417

Treatment of low-contaminated waste water from the food industry to produce water of drinking quality for reuse  

Microsoft Academic Search

The treatment of low-contaminated waste water from the meat processing industry was studied with the objective of producing water of drinking quality for reuse. A demonstration plant with a capacity of up to 2 m3\\/h was built based on our experiments to compare different treatment processes for the removal of suspended particles, dissolved inorganics, undissolved and dissolved organics and micro-organisms

V. Mavrov; A. Fähnrich; H. Chmiel

1997-01-01

418

Anaerobic treatment as a core technology for energy, nutrients and water from source-separated domestic waste(water)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Based on results of pilot scale research with source-separated black water (BW) and grey water (GW), a new sanitation concept is proposed. BW and GW are both treated in a UASB (-septic tank) for recovery of CH4 gas. Kitchen waste is added to the anaerobic BW treatment for doubling the biogas production. Post-treatment of the effluent is providing recovery of

Grietje Zeeman; Katarzyna Kujawa; Mes de T. Z. D; Graaff de M. S; L. N. A. H. Abu-Ghunmi; A. R. Mels; B. Meulman; B. G. Temmink; C. J. N. Buisman; Lier van J. B; G. Lettinga

2008-01-01

419

EDI as a Treatment Module in Recycling Spent Rinse Waters  

Microsoft Academic Search

Recycling of the spent rinse water discharged from the wet benches commonly used in semiconductor processing is one tactic for responding to the targets for water usage published in the 1997 National Technology Roadmap for Semiconductors (NTRS). Not only does the NTRS list a target that dramatically reduces total water usage\\/unit area of silicon manufactured by the industry in the

Robert P. Donovan; Dennis J. Morrison

1999-01-01

420

Low-cost water treatment solves disposal problems  

Microsoft Academic Search

Gulf Oil Corp. has eliminated open pit disposal of waste water from crude oil separators, and has significantly improved water quality for subsurface injection in its Red Ribbon Ranch plant near Bakersfield, Calif. The water purifying facility has been tested with throughputs of 10,600 bwpd with 100 ppm oil contamination. The discharge consistently tested less than 4 ppm oil, with

Beckett

1971-01-01

421

Chlorination by-products in surface water treatment process  

Microsoft Academic Search

Chlorine disinfection is carried out for the purpose of sterilization of microbes existing in drinking water. Chlorination may cause the formation of disinfection by-products (DBPs) by the reaction of free chlorine with humic substance in the water. In particular, the DBPs including trihalomethanes (THMs), haloacetic acids (HAAs), haloacetonitriles (HANs), and haloketones exist in tap water. The US Environmental Protection Agency

Junsung Kim; Yong Chung; Dongchun Shin; Myungsoo Kim; Yonghun Lee; Youngwook Lim; Duckhee Lee

2003-01-01

422

Physical water treatment using RF electric fields for the mitigation of CaCO 3 fouling in cooling water  

Microsoft Academic Search

The present study investigated the feasibility of RF electrical fields in mitigating CaCO3 fouling in cooling water. Three different voltages and two frequencies were used for the RF electric fields produced directly in water with varying cold-side velocity. Artificial hard water was used. Fouling resistances for the PWT-treated cases decreased by 34–88% from the values for no-treatment cases, depending on

Leonard D. Tijing; Hang Young Kim; Dong Hwan Lee; Cheol Sang Kim; Young I. Cho

2010-01-01

423

7 CFR 305.21 - Hot water dip treatment schedule for mangoes.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2009-01-01 false Hot water dip treatment schedule for mangoes. 305.21 Section 305.21 Agriculture Regulations... § 305.21 Hot water dip treatment schedule for mangoes. Mangoes may be treated using schedule T102-a:...

2009-01-01

424

7 CFR 305.21 - Hot water dip treatment schedule for mangoes.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-01-01 false Hot water dip treatment schedule for mangoes. 305.21 Section 305.21 Agriculture Regulations... § 305.21 Hot water dip treatment schedule for mangoes. Mangoes may be treated using schedule T102-a:...

2010-01-01

425

Water maze learning and hippocampal synaptic plasticity in streptozotocin-diabetic rats: effects of insulin treatment  

Microsoft Academic Search

Streptozotocin-diabetic rats express deficits in water maze learning and hippocampal synaptic plasticity. The present study examined whether these deficits could be prevented and\\/or reversed with insulin treatment. In addition, the water maze learning deficit in diabetic rats was further characterized. Insulin treatment was commenced at the onset of diabetes in a prevention experiment, and 10 weeks after diabetes induction in

Geert-Jan Biessels; Amer Kamal; Ivan J. A Urban; Berrie M Spruijt; D. Willem Erkelens; Willem Hendrik Gispen

1998-01-01

426

ANALYTICAL ASPECTS OF OZONE TREATMENT OF WATER AND WASTEWATER - A MONOGRAPH  

EPA Science Inventory

With the ever-increasing interest in the application of ozone for water and wastewater treatment, several major questions arise in the minds of those new to the field: (1) What is the nature of ozone. (2) How is ozone applied in water and wastewater treatment. (3) How is ozone ap...

427

Development of Floating Plastic Media Filtration System for Water Treatment and Wastewater Reuse  

Microsoft Academic Search

Floating plastic media coupled with sand filtration system was applied for treating surface water and secondary effluent from municipal sewage treatment plant. The system employed floating plastic media for the removal of suspended solids in surface water and precipitated phosphorus from secondary effluent of sewage treatment plant. Sand filtration was then used to remove further the suspended solids. For the

C. Chiemchaisri; C. Panchawaranon; S. Rutchatanunti; A. Kludpiban; H. H. Ngo; S. Vigneswaran

2003-01-01

428

Evaluation of the impact of membrane change at a membrane softening water treatment plant  

Microsoft Academic Search

At the water treatment plant in Dunedin, Florida, reverse osmosis membranes remove the hardness from groundwater sources. Reverse osmosis membranes remove salts, pathogens, and organics from the feed water but can create an aggressive permeate. The membranes strip most ions in the process and the resulting permeate, if not subjected to blending on post treatment, has a tendency to leach

Michael Keen

2009-01-01

429

FORMULATION AND MODELING OF TRIHALOMETHANE IN NEW BENHA WATER TREATMENT PLANT, EGYPT  

Microsoft Academic Search

The formation and evaluation of total trihalomethane (THMs) concentration were analyzed using statistical technique over the period from April 2004 to August 2005. The results of THMs formed during water treatment processes at New Benha Water Treatment Plant (NBWTP) showed that THMs levels ranged between (26 and 70 µg\\/L) and the average concentration was 60 µg\\/L. A mathematical model that

Mohamed Basiouny; Tarek Elmitwalli; Mohamed Rabee

2008-01-01

430

Effect of chlorine on adsorption\\/ultrafiltration treatment for removing natural organic matter in drinking water  

Microsoft Academic Search

In drinking water treatment, prechlorination is often applied in order to control microorganisms and taste-and-odor-causing materials, which may influence organics removal by adsorption and membrane filtration. Thus, the addition of chlorine into an advanced water treatment process using a hybrid of adsorption and ultrafiltration (UF) was investigated in terms of natural organic matter (NOM) removal and membrane permeability. A comparison

Tae-Wook Ha; Kwang-Ho Choo; Sang-June Choi

2004-01-01

431

Water Treatment Plant Operation Volume 2. A Field Study Training Program. Revised.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The purpose of this water treatment field study training program is to: (1) develop new qualified water treatment plant operators; (2) expand the abilities of existing operators, permitting better service both to employers and public; and (3) prepare operators for civil service and certification examinations (examinations administered by…

California State Univ., Sacramento. School of Engineering.

432

Water Treatment Plant Operation. Volume II. A Field Study Training Program.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The purpose of this water treatment field study training program is to: (1) develop new qualified water treatment plant operators; (2) expand the abilities of existing operators, permitting better service both to employers and public; and (3) prepare operators for civil service and certification examinations (examinations administered by…

California State Univ., Sacramento. School of Engineering.

433

Water Treatment Plant Operation. Volume II. A Field Study Training Program.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The purpose of this water treatment field study training program is to: (1) develop new qualified water treatment plant operators; (2) expand the abilities of existing operators, permitting better service both to employers and public; and (3) prepare operators for civil service and certification examinations (examinations administered by…

California State Univ., Sacramento. School of Engineering.

434

Capital cost functions of a surface water treatment plant and its components  

Microsoft Academic Search

The capital cost function of a surface water treatment plant has been estimated in a few past studies, of which the best known are a study by Orlob and Lindorf and another by Koenig. The present study presents an estimate of the capital cost function of a surface water treatment plant and estimates of the plant's major components which have

Hirohide Hinomoto

1977-01-01

435

Integration of power plant water treatment system with flue gas desulfurization  

Microsoft Academic Search

Future plants that must meet zero liquid discharge and FGD criteria, and those which will use very hard water may be designed to use the water treatment lime sludge for SOâ removal. Such a combination should reduce the plant capital investment and operating costs by eliminating or reducing the capacity of cooling tower blowdown treatment, FGD lime or limestone feed,

Domahidy

1979-01-01

436

Process and apparatus for the anaerobic treatment of waste water in a filter including granular material  

SciTech Connect

Waste water to be treated is introduced into a filter including granular material for supporting the biomass resulting from an anaerobic treatment operation. During such treatment operation biogas is formed, and the waste water being treated and the granular material supporting the biomass are continuously circulated by injecting a portion of the biogas into a tube extending vertically upwardly through the filter.

Rovel, J.M.; Nicol, R.; Prevot, C.

1984-11-13

437

Removal of AOC in biological water treatment processes: A kinetic modeling approach  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper, a steady-state biofilm model is applied for modeling substrate removal by plug-flow bioreactors in biological water treatment. The model is used with assimilable organic carbon (AOC) data from a previous pilot scale study to estimate the essential physical and kinetic parameters required for designing biological water treatment processes. The successful fitting of the model to the data

Shulin Zhang; Peter M. Huck

1996-01-01

438

Potable and Waste Water Treatment with Polyelectrolytes Obtained by Radiation Technologies  

Microsoft Academic Search

Comparative results obtained for potable and waste water treatment with electrolytes and combined treatment with electrolytes and polyelectrolytes obtained by radiation technologies are presented. These polyelectrolyte mixtures have the capability to provide measurable improvements in potable water quality, especially leading to a considerable decrease of the ``turbidity'' (T < 1 NTU), ``organic matters'' (OM<4 mg KMnO4\\/l) and ``total organic carbon''

Elena N. Manaila; Diana I. Martin; Gabriela D. Craciun; Daniel I. Ighigeanu; Constantin I. Matei; Anton I. Anton; Elena D. Vulpasu; Constantin V. Oproiu; Adelina I. Ighigeanu

2007-01-01

439

Water Treatment Plant Operation. Volume I. A Field Study Training Program.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The purpose of this water treatment field study training program is to: (1) develop new qualified water treatment plant operators; (2) expand the abilities of existing operators, permitting better service both to employers and public; and (3) prepare operators for civil service and certification examinations (examinations administered by…

California State Univ., Sacramento. School of Engineering.

440

Water Treatment Plant Operation. Volume I. A Field Study Training Program.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The purpose of this water treatment field study training program is to: (1) develop new qualified water treatment plant operators; (2) expand the abilities of existing operators, permitting better service both to employers and public; and (3) prepare operators for civil service and certification examinations (examinations administered by…

California State Univ., Sacramento. School of Engineering.

441

Treatment of a hard borehole water containing low levels of pesticide by nanofiltration  

Microsoft Academic Search

Intermittent, low levels of pesticide in the borehole water at Debden Road water works, Saffron Walden, England, required an appropriate treatment for its removal. A second treatment goal was a reduction of the calcium hardness by about 50%. Nanofiltration utilising DOW NF 200 was the chosen process allowing to achieve both requirements. During the first year of operation, no significant

E. Wittmann; P. Cöté; C. Medici; J. Leech; A. G. Turner

1998-01-01

442

Nanofiltration/reverse osmosis for treatment of coproduced waters  

SciTech Connect

Current high oil and gas prices have lead to renewed interest in exploration of nonconventional energy sources such as coal bed methane, tar sand, and oil shale. However oil and gas production from these nonconventional sources has lead to the coproduction of large quantities of produced water. While produced water is a waste product from oil and gas exploration it is a very valuable natural resource in the arid Western United States. Thus treated produced water could be a valuable new source of water. Commercially available nanofiltration and low pressure reverse osmosis membranes have been used to treat three produced waters. The results obtained here indicate that the permeate could be put to beneficial uses such as crop and livestock watering. However minimizing membrane fouling will be essential for the development of a practical process. Field Emission Scanning Electron Microscopy imaging may be used to observe membrane fouling.

Mondal, S.; Hsiao, C.L.; Wickramasinghe, S.R. [Colorado State University, Ft Collins, CO (United States)

2008-07-15

443

OZONE TREATMENT OF SOLUBLE ORGANICS IN PRODUCED WATER (FEAC307)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Oil production is shifting from ''shallow'' wells (0-650 ft water depth) to off-shore, deep-water operations (>2,600 ft.). Production from these operations is now approaching 20%. By 2007, it is projected that as much as 70% of the U.S. oil production will be from deep-water operations. The crude oil from these deep wells is more polar, thus increasing the amount of

K. Thomas Klasson; David W. DePaoli; Costas Tsouris

2001-01-01

444

Surimi wash water treatment for protein recovery: effect of chitosan–alginate complex concentration and treatment time on protein adsorption  

Microsoft Academic Search

Chitosan (Chi), a protein recovery agent for the treatment of aqueous food processing streams, appears to work by mechanical entrapment and electrostatic interaction of chitosan amino groups with anionic groups on proteins. Chitosan effectiveness for recovering soluble proteins from surimi wash water (SWW) is increased by complexation with alginate (Alg) and by adjusting complex concentration and treatment time. Flocculation at

Singgih Wibowo; Gonzalo Velazquez; Vivek Savant; J. Antonio Torres

2005-01-01

445

Ecotoxicological assessment of grey water treatment systems with Daphnia magna and Chironomus riparius.  

PubMed

In order to meet environmental quality criteria, grey water was treated in four different ways: 1) aerobic 2) anaerobic+aerobic 3) aerobic+activated carbon 4) aerobic+ozone. Since each treatment has its own specific advantages and disadvantages, the aim of this study was to compare the ecotoxicity of differently treated grey water using Chironomus riparius (96 h test) and Daphnia magna (48 h and 21d test) as test organisms. Grey water exhibited acute toxicity to both test organisms. The aerobic and combined anaerobic+aerobic treatment eliminated mortality in the acute tests, but growth of C. riparius was still affected by these two effluents. Post-treatment by ozone and activated carbon completely removed the acute toxicity from grey water. In the chronic toxicity test the combined anaerobic+aerobic treatment strongly affected D. magna population growth rate (47%), while the aerobic treatment had a small (9%) but significant effect. Hence, aerobic treatment is the best option for biological treatment of grey water, removing most of the toxic effects of grey water. If advanced treatment is required, the treatment with either ozone or GAC were shown to be very effective in complete removal of toxicity from grey water. PMID:22197265

Hernández Leal, L; Soeter, A M; Kools, S A E; Kraak, M H S; Parsons, J R; Temmink, H; Zeeman, G; Buisman, C J N

2011-12-09

446

Evaluation of the freeze-thaw\\/evaporation process for the treatment of produced waters  

Microsoft Academic Search

Water purification by using natural conditions to promote freezing appears to be an extremely attractive freeze-crystallization process for the treatment of contaminated water in many areas where natural climatic conditions will seasonally promote freezing. The natural freezing process can be coupled with natural evaporative processes to treat oil and gas produced waters year round in regions with favorable climatic conditions.

J. Boysen; J. Morotti

1993-01-01

447

Ozonation and Advanced Oxidation Treatment of Emerging Organic Pollutants in Water and Wastewater  

Microsoft Academic Search

A vast number of persistent organic pollutants have been found in wastewater effluent, surface water, and drinking water around the world. This indicates their ineffective removal from water and wastewater using conventional treatment technologies. In addition to classical persistent organics such as organochlorine insecticides, solvents, and polychlorinated biphenyls, a growing number of emerging pollutants of both synthetic and natural origins

Keisuke Ikehata; Mohamed Gamal El-Din; Shane A. Snyder

2008-01-01

448

Removal of selected pharmaceuticals from sewage water by advanced treatment techniques  

Microsoft Academic Search

The presence of pharmaceuticals as trace pollutants in natural surface water bodies, ground water and drinking water has recently led to some concern. Since sewage is the main source of this type of pollution, some attempts have been made to remove pharmaceuticals by advanced physical, chemical and biological techniques which go further than the conventional treatment. A few of these

René Wetzig

449

AN INTEGRATED KINETIC MODEL FOR WATER HYACINTH PONDS USED FOR WASTEWATER TREATMENT  

Microsoft Academic Search

Water hyacinth (Eichhornia crassipes) is a floating aquatic plant which has been employed for wastewater treatment in many parts of the world. By planting water hyacinth in a wastewater pond, part of the gaseous oxygen produced by photosynthetic activity of the green leaves is translocated to the stems and roots and to the water body; this oxygen is used by

CHONGRAK POLPRASERT; NAWA RAJ KHATIWADA

1998-01-01

450

Operation, Maintenance and Performance Evaluation of the Potomac Estuary Experimental Water Treatment Plant. Main Volume.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The investigation evaluated the water quality produced by a 1.0 MGD demonstration water treatment plant (EEWTP), which was located adjacent to the Estuary at the Blue Plains WPCP (Water Pollution Control Plant), Washington, D.C. Based on certain hydrologi...

J. M. Montgomery

1983-01-01

451

Handbook of ozone technology and applications. Vol. 2. Ozone for drinking water treatment  

SciTech Connect

This volume of the handbook series concerns the application of ozone for the treatment of drinking water. Great emphasis is given ozone's powerful disinfectant and oxidant properties with the added advantage of the non-production of undesirable by-products. European sources have been heavily drawn upon since that is where most of the experience has been. Over one-third of the volume is devoted to a bibliography of some 1600 citations (in addition to 260 as chapter references). Contents: Ozone disinfection of drinking water. Removal of color from drinking water with ozone. Removal of ammonia and other nitrogen derivatives from drinking water with ozone. Raw water preozonation. Recent developments in the treatment of drinking water. Ozone for drinking water treatment - a bibliography. Index.

Rice, R.G.; Netzer, A.

1984-01-01

452

Enteric virus and indicator bacteria levels in a water treatment system modified to reduce trihalomethane production.  

PubMed Central

A drinking-water treatment plant with high concentrations of trihalomethanes in its finished water and large numbers of viruses in its source water was located. This plant was used to study the effect of an alteration in the point of chlorination from the first to last step of water treatment on the biological and chemical qualities of its finished water. This alteration caused some reduction in trihalomethane production, but trihalomethane concentrations still exceeded the prescribed limit of 100 micrograms/liter. No viruses or bacterial indicators were ever isolated from the finished water of the modified plant. Total virus removal by the treatment steps before chlorination (coagulation, sedimentation, and sand filtration) averaged ca. 90%, whereas removal of bacterial indicators by these processes averaged between 88 and 98%. Recoveries of viruses and bacterial indicators in the source water were generally negatively correlated.

Stetler, R E; Ward, R L; Waltrip, S C

1984-01-01

453

Treatment of micro-polluted river water by using integrated horizontal-flow constructed wetland  

Microsoft Academic Search

The micro-polluted river water was treated by using integrated horizontal-flow constructed wetland. The micro- polluted river water was mixed up by effluent from wastewater treatment plant in west of Changchun City and Leijia river water. The experimental results show that integrated horizontal-flow constructed wetland has better treatment effect on COD, TP, ammonia, nitrite and nitrate nitrogen. Meanwhile, the average removal

Zhigang Zhao; Yongxiang Zhang; Feng Yan; Chonggang Yuan

2011-01-01

454

Grey water characteristics and treatment options for rural areas in Jordan  

Microsoft Academic Search

Low water consumption in rural areas in Jordan had resulted in the production of concentrated grey water. Average COD, BOD and TSS values were 2568mg\\/l, 1056mg\\/l and 845mg\\/l, respectively. The average grey water generation was measured to be 14L\\/c.d. Three different treatment options were selected based on certain criterions, and discussed in this article. The examined treatment systems are septic

M. Halalsheh; S. Dalahmeh; M. Sayed; W. Suleiman; M. Shareef; M. Mansour; M. Safi

2008-01-01

455

Environmental safety factors estimation in selection of water treatment technologies  

Microsoft Academic Search

A number of southern regions of Russia are traditionally short of drinking water of good quality, especially in summer period or in the places of counter-terror operations. The multifactor analysis covered not only the quality of environmental waters, consumption structure, but the ability of technology to withstand eco terrorism as well. The research works resulted in prioritization of nonchemical combined

V. V. Gutenyev; A. I. Azhgirevich; L. F. Kiryanova; Ye. N. Gutenyeva

2003-01-01

456

Removal of Estrogens and Estrogenicity through Drinking Water Treatment  

EPA Science Inventory

Estrogenic compounds have been shown to be present in surface waters, leading to concerns over their possible presence in finished drining waters. In this work, two in vitro human cell line bioassays for estrogenicity were used to evaluate the removal of estrogens through conven...

457

GAMMA RADIATION TREATMENT OF WATERS FROM LIGNITE MINES  

EPA Science Inventory

Discussed in this report are results of laboratory investigations carried out with the application of gamma radiation for the purification of waters drained from surface lignite mines. These waters are polluted to a considerable extent with suspended matter of various sizes, a la...

458

U.S. DRINKING WATER REGULATIONS: TREATMENT TECHNOLOGIES AND COST  

EPA Science Inventory

The U.S. EPA is responsible for implementing and enforcing the Safe Drinking Water Act, as amended in 1986. n carrying out its responsibility, the EPA promulgates regulations which are designed to control the quality of public drinking water. he 1986 Amendments have imposed a lar...

459

Radium removal from mine waters in underground treatment installations  

Microsoft Academic Search

The underground mining of hard coal is widespread in the Upper Silesian Coal Basin (southern Poland). In deep mines, inflows of highly mineralised waters containing radium isotopes are numerous. These waters cause severe damage to the natural environment due to the salinity, but additionally radioactive pollution occurs. The region is densely populated, therefore mitigation methods are very important. The method

Stanislaw Chalupnik; Malgorzata Wysocka

2008-01-01

460

Endotoxin inactivation by selected drinking water treatment oxidants  

Microsoft Academic Search

Exposure to endotoxins in treated drinking water can occur through ingestion, dermal abrasions, inhalation of water vapor, intravenous injection or during dialysis. While the risks associated with endotoxin ingestion and entry through dermal abrasions are not well quantified, adverse effects of intravenous injection and dialysis are well known and some studies indicate that inhalation of moisture-laden air may impact human

William B Anderson; Colin I Mayfield; D. George Dixon; Peter M Huck

2003-01-01

461

Closed loop waste treatment and water recycling toilet system  

Microsoft Academic Search

A description is given of a multi-stage method for treating toilet waste and recycling treated liquid therefrom, comprising the steps of; A. receiving said waste at a first stage and flushing said waste from said first stage with flush water containing nitrates thereby to form a liquid mixture of the waste and nitrate containing flush water, B. transferring said liquid

F. Bernardin; A. Coviello; K. Kalb

1980-01-01

462

WRSIS: AN INNOVATIVE APPROACH TO AGRICULTURAL WATER TREATMENT AND RECYCLING  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

A Wetland Reservoir Subirrigation System (WRSIS) is an innovative agricultural water management system (Allred, et al. 2003). WRSIS is comprised of a wetland, a water storage reservoir, and a network of subsurface pipes used at different times to either drain or irrigate crops through the root zone ...

463

Pilot Study on Treatment of Surface Water for Groundwater Injection  

Microsoft Academic Search

A groundwater recharge demonstration project sponsored by the US Bureau of Reclamation is being conducted by the Salt Lake County Water Conservancy District in Utah. Treated surface water will be injected in winter into the aquifer through injection wells and recovered through separate wells during the peak summer months. The conveyance capacity of the project will be 1,000 gpm (5.5

Eva C. Nieminski; Susan L. Fenhaus

1991-01-01

464

Oily bilge water treatment with a tubular ultrafiltration system  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Navy has been developing various oil pollution abatement systems. One potential process for the separation of oil in bilge water is ultrafiltration, a pressure-driven membrane process which can separate, concentrate, and fractionate macromolecular solutes and suspended species from water. A tubular ultrafiltration system using cellulosic and noncellulosic membranes was tested with bilge oil obtained from a patrol craft. Tests

L. R. Harris; D. F. Jackson; P. Schatzberg

1976-01-01

465

Fate of antibiotics during municipal water recycling treatment processes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Municipal water recycling processes are potential human and environmental exposure routes for low concentrations of persistent antibiotics. While the implications of such exposure scenarios are unknown, concerns have been raised regarding the possibility that continuous discharge of antibiotics to the environment may facilitate the development or proliferation of resistant strains of bacteria. As potable and non-potable water recycling schemes are

N. Le-Minh; S. J. Khan; J. E. Drewes; R. M. Stuetz

2010-01-01

466

TREATMENT OF ARSENIC RESIDUALS FROM DRINKING WATER REMOVAL PROCESSES  

EPA Science Inventory

The drinking water MCL was recently lowered from 0.05 mg/L to 0.01 mg/L. One concern was that reduction in the TCLP arsenic limit in response to the drinking water MCL could be problematic with regard to disposal of solid residuals generated at arsenic removal facilities. This pr...

467

Environmental safety factors estimation in selection of water treatment technologies  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A number of southern regions of Russia are traditionally short of drinking water of good quality, especially in summer period or in the places of counter-terror operations. The multifactor analysis covered not only the quality of environmental waters, consumption structure, but the ability of technology to withstand eco terrorism as well. The research works resulted in prioritization of nonchemical combined technologies based on microfiltration and ultraviolet radiation with the use of various bacteriostatics built on ionic complexes of a number of metals, both fixed and mobile. In special operations held on the territory of Chechen Republic to ensure supply of water of guaranteed quality the efforts are focused on organizational activities on provision of traceability of water delivery process at all transportation stages, as well as on application of bacteriostatics in case of long-term water storage.

Gutenyev, V. V.; Azhgirevich, A. I.; Kiryanova, L. F.; Gutenyeva, Ye. N.

2003-04-01

468

Promoting Household Water Treatment through Women's Self Help Groups in Rural India: Assessing Impact on Drinking Water Quality and Equity  

PubMed Central

Household water treatment, including boiling, chlorination and filtration, has been shown effective in improving drinking water quality and preventing diarrheal disease among vulnerable populations. We used a case-control study design to evaluate the extent to which the commercial promotion of household water filters through microfinance institutions to women's self-help group (SHG) members improved access to safe drinking water. This pilot program achieved a 9.8% adoption rate among women targeted for adoption. Data from surveys and assays of fecal contamination (thermotolerant coliforms, TTC) of drinking water samples (source and household) were analyzed from 281 filter adopters and 247 non-adopters exposed to the program; 251 non-SHG members were also surveyed. While adopters were more likely than non-adopters to have children under 5 years, they were also more educated, less poor, more likely to have access to improved water supplies, and more likely to have previously used a water filter. Adopters had lower levels of fecal contamination of household drinking water than non-adopters, even among those non-adopters who treated their water by boiling or using traditional ceramic filters. Nevertheless, one-third of water samples from adopter households exceeded 100 TTC/100ml (high risk), and more than a quarter of the filters had no stored treated water available when visited by an investigator, raising concerns about correct, consistent use. In addition, the poorest adopters were less likely to see improvements in their water quality. Comparisons of SHG and non-SHG members suggest similar demographic characteristics, indicating SHG members are an appropriate target group for this promotion campaign. However, in order to increase the potential for health gains, future programs will need to increase uptake, particularly among the poorest households who are most susceptible to disease morbidity and mortality, and focus on strategies to improve the correct, consistent and sustained use of these water treatment products.

Freeman, Matthew C.; Trinies, Victoria; Boisson, Sophie; Mak, Gregory; Clasen, Thomas

2012-01-01

469

Calibrating an optimal condition model for solar water disinfection in peri-urban household water treatment in Kampala, Uganda.  

PubMed

In low income settlements where the quality of drinking water is highly contaminated due to poor hygienic practices at community and household levels, there is need for appropriate, simple, affordable and environmentally sustainable household water treatment technology. Solar water disinfection (SODIS) that utilizes both the thermal and ultra-violet effect of solar radiation to disinfect water can be used to treat small quantities of water at household level to improve its bacteriological quality for drinking purposes. This study investigated the efficacy of the SODIS treatment method in Uganda and determined the optimal condition for effective disinfection. Results of raw water samples from the study area showed deterioration in bacteriological quality of water moved from source to the household; from 3 to 36 cfu/100 mL for tap water and 75 to 126 cfu/100 mL for spring water, using thermotolerant coliforms (TTCs) as indicator microorganisms. SODIS experiments showed over 99.9% inactivation of TTCs in 6 h of exposure, with a threshold temperature of 39.5 ± 0.7°C at about 12:00 noon, in the sun during a clear sunny day. A mathematical optimal condition model for effective disinfection has been calibrated to predict the decline of the number of viable microorganisms over time. PMID:23428553

Okurut, Kenan; Wozei, Eleanor; Kulabako, Robinah; Nabasirye, Lillian; Kinobe, Joel

2013-03-01

470

Study on fouling materials in the membrane treatment process for potable water  

Microsoft Academic Search

Studies were made on a water treatment process which used hollow fiber microfiltration membranes for potable water. The influent, which was from a eutrophic lake named Kasumigaura, was provided directly into the treatment system, and no pre-treatment such as coagulation was done. Dead-end filtration was carried out under constant rate permeation, and membranes were washed by air-scrubbing. The trans-membrane pressure

Yoshihide Kaiya; Yoshikazu Itoh; Kenji Fujita; Satoshi Takizawa

1996-01-01

471

Sodium hydroxide treatment of field water in a biopolymer complex  

SciTech Connect

This paper describes a waterflood method for recovering hydrocarbonaceous fluids from an oil reservoir which has zones of varying permeability and which formation is penetrated by an injection and a production well. It comprises: first mixing into water a substantially small amount of an alkali or alkaline earth metal hydroxide sufficient to cause gelation within a substantially effective time period where the hydroxide is contained in an aqueous solution in an amount of from about 1 to about 500 ppm; thereafter placing into the solution a water thickening amount of a water soluble Xanthomonas biopolysaccharide; and complexing subsequently the biopolysaccharide with an amount of a water-soluble compound of a polyvalent metal ion selected from the group consisting of trivalent phosphorus, scandium, titanium, vanadium, chromium, manganese, iron, cobalt, copper, aluminum, arsenic, yttrium, zirconium, niobium, cadmium, tin, antimony, lanthanum, hafnium, tantalum, lead, and mixtures thereof, sufficient to cause substantially quicker gelation of the water soluble biopolysaccharide thereby forming a substantially more stable gel sufficient for use as a mobility or profile control medium in environments having low pH brines wherein the water soluble compound is added to the aqueous solution in an amount of from about 10 to about 1,000 ppm of the active polyvalent metal ion, injecting the stable gel into the reservoir via the injection well; and thereafter injecting water as a drive fluid behind the stable gel and recovering hydrocarbonaceous fluids.

Phelps, C.H.; Sampath, K.; Shu, P.

1990-12-18

472

Total Treatment of Black and Grey Water for Rural Communities  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a Decentralized or on-site treatment systems for domestic waste and wastewater treatment can be the answer to many of the world’s\\u000a environmental health problems. Poor or remote communities need technologies developed for the application, and an economically\\u000a viable whole-of-waste approach is necessary. Vermicomposting offers a natural option to treat domestic waste and wastewater\\u000a into reusable products. The extent of treatment can

Avanish K. Panikkar; Susan A. Okalebo; Steven J. Riley; Surendra P. Shrestha; Yung-Tse Hung

473

Mitigation of scaling in heat exchangers by physical water treatment using zinc and tourmaline  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents a study on the mitigation of calcium carbonate scaling in a double-pipe heat exchanger by physical water treatment (PWT) using zinc and tourmaline as catalytic materials. Artificially-hardened water at 300 mgL?1 was utilized as the fluid medium to form fouling deposits. The cooling water (i.e., hard water) velocity was varied from 0.3 to 0.8 ms?1. The inlet temperatures were

Leonard D. Tijing; Mi-Hwa Yu; Chae-Hwa Kim; Altangerel Amarjargal; Young Chan Lee; Dong-Hwan Lee; Dong-Won Kim; Cheol Sang Kim

2011-01-01

474

Treatment Alternatives for Controlling Chlorinated Organic Contaminants in Drinking Water.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A pilot plant study was conducted by the City of Thornton, Colorado, to evaluate techniques for controlling chlorinated organic compounds formed in drinking water as a result of breakpoint, or free, chlorination. The pilot plant was operated for 46 months...

M. A. Speed A. Barnard R. P. Arber G. C. Budd F. J. Johns

1987-01-01

475

Bilge Water Treatment with a Tubular Ultrafiltration System.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Ultrafiltration is one of the candidate systems under evaluation for separation of oil from bilge water. A tubular ultrafiltration system using cellulosic and noncellulosic membranes was evaluated with a fuel oil, a lubricating oil, and bilge oil obtained...

L. R. Harris D. F. Jackson P. Schatzberg

1976-01-01

476

Sodium hydroxide treatment of field water in a biopolymer complex  

SciTech Connect

A method is described for making an aqueous gel formed into a polysaccharide. The gel is used as a fluid medium in a subterranean formation for the production of hydrocarbonaceous fluids. The improvement comprises: mixing a substantially small amount of an alkali or alkaline earth metal hydroxide sufficient to cause gelation with a water soluble scleroglucan polysaccharide within a substantially effective time period where the hydroxide is contained in an aqueous solution in an amount of from about 1 to about 500 ppm which solution also contains a water thickening amount of the water soluble scleroglucan polysaccharide; and then complexing the polysaccharide with an amount of a water-soluble compound of a polyvalent metal ion.

Phelps, C.H.; Sampath, K.

1987-05-26

477

Using Desalination Technologies for Water Treatment: Background Paper.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

There are five basic techniques that can be used to remove salt and other dissolved solids from water: distillation, reverse osmosis (RO), electrodialysis (ED), ion exchange (IX), and freeze desalination. Distillation and freezing involve removing pure wa...

1988-01-01

478

New Modification of Hot-Water Irrigation in the Treatment of Posterior Epistaxis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: Tamponade treatment for epistaxis is pain- ful and traumatic to the nasal mucosa, and may necessi- tate hospitalization for several days. Hot-water irrigation (HWI) was introduced as a treatment of epistaxis more than 100 years ago. In a previous study the treatment proved to be effective, less painful, and less traumatic, and required a shorter hospital stay than tamponade

Sven-Eric Stangerup; Hans Dommerby; Christian Siim; Lone Kemp; Jan Stage

1999-01-01

479

Preliminary Experiment of EM Technology on Waste Water Treatment  

Microsoft Academic Search

The objective of the experiment was to investigate the effect of EM4 on improving the quality of waste water. The experiment was conducted in two locations of candy factory, viz Nestle and Trebor Companies in Jakarta. The EM4 was treated in laboratory condition to the effluent of waste water of non adjusted pH (pH 4.0) and adjusted pH (pH 7.44)

Gede Ngurah Wididana

480

Solar photocatalysis—a possible step in drinking water treatment  

Microsoft Academic Search

Possibility of the use of solar radiation for reduction of Natural Organic Matter (NOM) content in natural lake water, as a source for drinking water preparation, was the topic of this research. Solar radiation alone does not have enough energy for sufficient degradation of NOM, but in combination with heterogeneous photocatalyst-titanium dioxide (TiO2), with or without other chemicals, the degradation

Davor Ljubas

2005-01-01

481

Safe drinking water and clean air: An experimental study evaluating the concept of combining household water treatment and indoor air improvement using the Water Disinfection Stove (WADIS)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Indoor air pollution and unsafe water remain two of the most important environmental risk factors for the global burden of infectious diseases. Improved stoves and household water treatment (HWT) methods represent two of the most effective interventions to fight respiratory and diarrhoeal illnesses at household level. Since new improved stoves are highly accepted and HWT methods have their drawbacks regarding

Andri Christen; Carlos Morante Navarro; Daniel Mäusezahl

2009-01-01

482

Elimination of viruses and indicator bacteria at each step of treatment during preparation of drinking water at seven water treatment plants.  

PubMed Central

Seven drinking water treatment plants were sampled twice a month for 12 months to evaluate the removal of indicator bacteria and cytopathogenic enteric viruses. Samples were obtained at each level of treatment: raw water, postchlorination, postsedimentation, postfiltration, postozonation, and finished (tap) water. Raw water quality was usually poor, with total coliform counts exceeding 105 to 106 CFU/liter and the average virus count in raw water of 3.3 most probable number of cytopathogenic units (MPNCU)/liter; several samples contained more than 100 MPNCU/liter. All plants distributed finished water that was essentially free of indicator bacteria as judged by analysis of 1 liter for total coliforms, fecal coliforms, fecal streptococci, coagulase-positive staphylococci, and Pseudomonas aeruginosa. The total plate counts at 20 and 35 degrees C were also evaluated as a measure of the total microbial population and were usually very low. Viruses were detected in 7% (11 of 155) of the finished water samples (1,000 liters) at an average density of 0.0006 MPNCU/liter the highest virus density measured being 0.2 MPNCU/liter. The average cumulative virus reduction was 95.15% after sedimentation and 99.97% after filtration and did not significantly decrease after ozonation or final chlorination. The viruses isolated from treated waters were all enteroviruses: poliovirus types 1, 2, and 3, coxsackievirus types B3, B4, and B5, echovirus type 7, and untyped picornaviruses.

Payment, P; Trudel, M; Plante, R

1985-01-01

483

CONSTRUCTED WETLAND TREATMENT SYSTEMS FOR WATER QUALITY IMPROVEMENT  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Savannah River National Laboratory implemented a constructed wetland treatment system (CWTS) in 2000 to treat industrial discharge and stormwater from the Laboratory area. The industrial discharge volume is 3,030 m³ per day with elevated toxicity and metals (copper, zinc and mercury). The CWTS was identified as the best treatment option based on performance, capital and continuing cost, and schedule.

2010-01-01

484

Energy conservation in waste water treatment through value engineering  

Microsoft Academic Search

Overall, energy consumed by municipal wastewater treatment facilities is a relatively minor amount (less than one percent of the national total); however, energy required to treat sewage is increasing at a much faster rate than the national average. It is estimated that between 1977 and 1990, energy consumption by wastewater treatment facilities will increase by 109% while that for the

Van Atten

1983-01-01

485

Ground water currents: Developments in innovative ground water treatment, June 1994  

SciTech Connect

;Contents: Low-level uranium removed from ground water; Promising ion exchange technology seeks site for demonstration; Pervaporation membrane removes volatile organic compounds (VOCs); and Ground water sampling information available.

Not Available

1994-06-01

486

Assessment of waterborne protozoan passage through conventional drinking water treatment process in Venezuela.  

PubMed

Three drinking water treatment plants (DWTPs) differing in source water and treatment capacity were investigated for the potential passage of waterborne protozoan (oo)cysts through conventional processing. DWTP I (15,000 L/s), DWTP II (7,500 L/s) and DWTP III (4,300 L/s) provide drinking water for approximately 2.7 million inhabitants of the Metropolitan District of Caracas (Venezuela). The US Environmental Protection Agency Method 1623 for detection of Cryptosporidium and Giardia was used to analyze raw water and finished drinking water samples collected from the three plants. (Oo)cyst recovery efficiencies varied between 23 and 84%. The concentration of confirmed (oo)cysts detected in raw water samples ranged between 1 and 100 per 100 L. (Oo)cyst levels in finished water samples ranged from 2 to 25 per 100 L. These data indicated that the conventional treatment process to produce finished water at two filtration plants was not effective in preventing the passage of protozoan (oo)cysts. Monitoring strategies that include multiple microbial indicators and waterborne pathogens are strongly recommended for accurate source water characterization and for verification of the effectiveness of treatment process barriers to microbial breakthrough in the finished water. PMID:22717757

Betancourt, Walter Q; Mena, Kristina D

2012-06-01

487

Selection of antibiotic-resistant standard plate count bacteria during water treatment.  

PubMed Central

Standard plate count (SPC) bacteria were isolated from a drinking-water treatment facility and from the river supplying the facility. All isolates were identified and tested for their resistance to six antibiotics to determine if drug-resistant bacteria were selected for as a consequence of water treatment. Among the isolates surviving our test procedures, there was a significant selection (P less than 0.05) of gram-negative SPC organisms resistant to two or more of the test antibiotics. These bacteria were isolated from the flash mix tank, where chlorine, alum, and lime are added to the water. Streptomycin resistance in particular was more frequent in this population as compared with bacteria in the untreated river water (P less than 0.01). SPC bacteria from the clear well, which is a tank holding the finished drinking water at the treatment facility, were also more frequently antibiotic resistant than were the respective river water populations. When 15.8 and 18.2% of the river water bacteria were multiply antibiotic resistant, 57.1 and 43.5%, respectively, of the SPC bacteria in the clear well were multiply antibiotic resistant. Selection for bacteria exhibiting resistance to streptomycin was achieved by chlorinating river water in the laboratory. We concluded that the selective factors operating in the aquatic environment of a water treatment facility can act to increase the proportion of antibiotic-resistant members of the SPC bacterial population in treated drinking water.

Armstrong, J L; Calomiris, J J; Seidler, R J

1982-01-01

488

TREATMENT OF PRODUCED OIL AND GAS WATERS WITH SURFACTANT-MODIFIED ZEOLITE  

SciTech Connect

Co-produced water from the oil and gas industry accounts for a significant waste stream in the United States. It is by some estimates the largest single waste stream in the country, aside from nonhazardous industrial wastes. Characteristics of produced water include high total dissolved solids content, dissolved organic constituents such as benzene and toluene, an oil and grease component, and chemicals added during the oil-production process. While most of the produced water is disposed via reinjection, some must be treated to remove organic constituents before the water is discharged. Current treatment options are successful in reducing the organic content; however, they cannot always meet the levels of current or proposed regulations for discharged water. Therefore, an efficient, cost-effective treatment technology is needed. Surfactant-modified zeolite (SMZ) has been used successfully to treat contaminated ground water for organic and inorganic constituents. In addition, the low cost of natural zeolites makes their use attractive in water-treatment applications. This report summarizes the work and results of this four-year project. We tested the effectiveness of surfactant-modified zeolite (SMZ) for removal of BTEX with batch and column experiments using waters with BTEX concentrations that are comparable to those of produced waters. The data from our experimental investigations showed that BTEX sorption to SMZ can be described by a linear isotherm model, and competitive effects between compounds were not significant. The SMZ can be readily regenerated using air stripping. We field-tested a prototype SMZ-based water treatment system at produced water treatment facilities and found that the SMZ successfully removes BTEX from produced waters as predicted by laboratory studies. When compared to other existing treatment technologies, the cost of the SMZ system is very competitive. Furthermore, the SMZ system is relatively compact, does not require the storage of potentially hazardous chemicals, and could be readily adapted to an automated system.

Lynn E. Katz; R.S. Bowman; E.J. Sullivan

2003-11-01

489

Statistical Analysis of Drinking Water Treatment Plant Costs, Source Water Quality, and Land Cover Characteristics  

Microsoft Academic Search

Revisiting an earlier study conducted by The Trust for Public Land in 2004, this research brings new data and methodologies to offer insight on the impact of the decline of forest cover and the increase of agriculture or urban land cover in a drinking water source drainage area on the water quality for that drinking water source and the drinking

Jade Freeman; Rebecca Madsen; Kelley Hart; Paul Barten; Paul Gregory; David Reckhow; Woody Duncan

490

Electrocoagulation-Microfiltration for Drinking Water Treatment: A Case Study with the Typical Micro-Polluted Source Waters  

Microsoft Academic Search

Treatment of slightly-polluted surface water by Electrocoagulation-Microfiltration (EC-MF) was studied. The factors influences on removal efficiencies of TOC, NH3-N and oil, such as current density, electrolytic time and pH value had been investigated. Based on the optimize experiments on the single factor, Xuzhou section of Beijing-Hangzhou Canal water was cleaned by EC-MF. The results showed that the above pollutants decreased

Feng Qiyan; Lu Ping; Li Xiangdong; Meng Qingjun; Sun Yue

2009-01-01

491

FEASIBILITY OF COMMERCIALIZED WATER TREATMENT TECHNIQUES FOR CONCENTRATED WASTE SPILLS  

EPA Science Inventory

The suitability and economics of using reverse osmosis, ultrafiltration, ion exchange, wet air oxidation, high purity oxygen activated sludge process, ultraviolet-ozone oxidation, and coagulation/precipitation for on-site treatment of concentrated wastes were evaluated. Published...

492

Closed loop waste treatment and water recycling toilet system  

SciTech Connect

A description is given of a multi-stage method for treating toilet waste and recycling treated liquid therefrom, comprising the steps of; A. receiving said waste at a first stage and flushing said waste from said first stage with flush water containing nitrates thereby to form a liquid mixture of the waste and nitrate containing flush water, B. transferring said liquid mixture to a second stage whereby said mixture is agitated and is maintained under anoxic conditions so as to cause denitrification of said liquid mixture and generation of nitrogen gas, said nitrogen gas being vented from said second stage in such manner as to prevent the entry of oxygen into said second stage thereby to assist in maintaining the anoxic conditions in said second stage. C. transferring liquid from said second stage to a thrid stage containing biologically active solids and liquid and being maintained under aerobic conditions, air being passed through the mixture in said third stage at a sufficient rate to cause nitrification of nitrogenous compounds in said mixture, thereby to produce nitrates therein, the dissolved oxygen in the mixture in said third stage being greater than 2 mg/1, D. transferring the nitrate-containing mixture from said third stage directly to a filtering stage wherein said mixture is filtered to separate nitrate-containing water therein from the solids therein, the concentration of nitrate nitrogen in said nitrate-containing water being at least 50 mg/1, E. cycling solids from said filtering stage back to said third stage; and F. cycling said nitrate-containing water from said filtering stage to said first stage thereby to serve as said nitrate-containing flush water in said first stage.

Bernardin, F.; Coviello, A.; Kalb, K.

1980-07-01

493

Combined biological treatment and underground injection of refinery waste water  

Microsoft Academic Search

A petroleum refinery wastewater is split into two streams. Biological treatment is used for 6.3 million gallons per day for 150 ppM five-day biological oxygen demand (BOD) waste, and the remaining 0.4 million gallons per day of wastewater, containing ammonia, mercaptans, phenol, and sulfides with a 4,000 ppM BOD, is injected into a 7,000-foot-deep geologic formation. Both treatment systems and

F. D. Sutterfield; E. C. Donaldson; F. S. Mannning

1976-01-01

494

Municipal sewage treatment: Lagoons (ponds). (Latest citations from the Selected Water Resources Abstracts database). Published Search  

SciTech Connect

The bibliography contains citations concerning the treatment and storage of municipal wastewater and sewage in lagoons. Lagoon design, operation, and associated equipment for pretreatment, treatment, and storage techniques are discussed. Many citations describe the water treatment facilities of specific cities, and provide evaluations of the operations at those sites. Industrial and other non-municipal wastewater treatment lagoons are referenced in a related bibliography. (Contains 250 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.)

Not Available

1993-11-01

495

Molecular dynamics simulations of small halogenated organics at the air-water interface: implications in water treatment and atmospheric chemistry.  

PubMed

Free energy profiles associated with transfer of chlorinated and brominated halomethane molecules from the gas phase across the water-vapor interface to the aqueous phase were calculated using classical molecular dynamics simulations. The investigated species include chloromethane (CH3Cl), bromomethane (CH3Br), dichloromethane (CH2Cl2), dibromomethane (CH2Br2), chloroform (CHCl3), and bromoform (CHBr3). The employed halomethane force field was tuned by scaling up the atomic charges to reproduce the experimental hydration free energies. The computed free energy profiles have a minimum at the water-vapor interface of about 12-15 kJ·mol(-1) relative to full hydration in the bulk liquid. This implies that the halomethanes exhibit enhanced interfacial concentrations in systems with large surface area per unit volume, such as air bubbles dispersed in water or water droplets dispersed in air. Implications for water treatment as well as for atmospheric chemistry are discussed. PMID:23971412

Habartová, Alena; Valsaraj, Kalliat T; Roeselová, Martina

2013-09-16

496

Cost and Pollutant Removal of StormWater Treatment Practices  

Microsoft Academic Search

Six storm-water best management practices BMPs for treating urban rainwater runoff were evaluated for cost and effective- ness in removing suspended sediments and total phosphorus. Construction and annual operating and maintenance O and M cost data were collected and analyzed for dry extended detention basins, wet basins, sand filters, constructed wetlands, bioretention filters, and infiltration trenches using literature that reported

Peter T. Weiss; John S. Gulliver; Andrew J. Erickson

2007-01-01

497

RADON REMOVAL USING POINT-OF-ENTRY WATER TREATMENT TECHNIQUES  

EPA Science Inventory

The purpose of this EPA Cooperative Agreement was to evaluate the performance of POE granular activated carbon (GAG), and diffused bubble and bubble place aeration systems treating a ground water supply containing radon (35,620 + or - 6,717 pCi/L. he pattern of loading to the uni...

498

Ozone-Loaded Solvents for use in Water Treatment  

Microsoft Academic Search

The solubility of ozone in various solvents has been measured with a view to contacting the ozone-loaded solvents with water polluted with organic chemicals and consequent oxidation of pollutants. The class of polydimethylsiloxane solvents has been found suitable for such a process. Fluorohydrocarbons were also investigated but were deemed inferior on the grounds of lower ozone solubility and\\/or high vapor

D. B. Ward; C. Tizaoui; M. J. Slater

2003-01-01

499

Application of polyhydroxyalkanoates for denitrification in water and wastewater treatment  

Microsoft Academic Search

Application of polyhydroxyalkanoates (PHAs) and related biodegradable polymers has gained momentum in various areas of biotechnology. A promising application that started appearing in the past decade is the use of PHAs as the solid substrate for denitrification of water and wastewater. This type of denitrification, termed here \\

A. Hiraishi; S. T. Khan

2003-01-01

500

ORGANOPHOSPHATE PESTICIDE DEGRADATION UNDER DRINKING WATER TREATMENT CONDITIONS  

EPA Science Inventory

The Food Quality Protection Act (FQPA) of 1996 requires that all tolerances for pesticide chemical residuals in or on food be considered for anticipated exposure. Drinking water is considered a potential pathway for dietary exposure and there is reliable monitoring data for the ...