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1

Ground-water data for the Salt Basin, Eagle Flat, Red Light Draw, Green River Valley and Presidio Bolson in westernmost Texas  

USGS Publications Warehouse

From October 1971 through October 1974. the U.S. Geological Survey collected ground-water data in the basins in Texas west of the Pecos River drainage area and northwest of the Big Bend country. The basins included are, from east to west: The Presidio Bolson; the Salt Basin; Green River Valley, Eagle Flat, and Red Light Draw. These data, which were collected in cooperation with the Texas Department of Water Resources (formerly Texas Water Development Board), will provide information for a continuing assessment of water availability within the State.

White, Donald E.; Gates, Joseph S.; Smith, James T.; Fry, Bonnie J.

1980-01-01

2

Level 1 Water-Quality Inventory of Baseline Levels of Pesticides in Urban Creeks - Golden Gate National Recreation Area and the Presidio of San Francisco, California  

USGS Publications Warehouse

To characterize baseline water-quality levels of pesticides in Golden Gate National Recreation Area and the Presidio of San Francisco, the U.S. Geological Survey collected and analyzed surface-water and bed-sediment samples at 10 creeks during February, April, and July 2006. Pesticide data were obtained using previously developed methods. Samples from sites in the Presidio were analyzed only for pyrethroid insecticides, whereas the remaining samples were analyzed for pyrethroids and additional current and historical-use pesticides. Pesticide concentrations were low in both the water (below 30 ng/L) and sediment (below 3 ng/g). The pyrethroid bifenthrin was detected in water samples from two sites at concentrations below 2 ng/L. Other compounds detected in water included the herbicides dacthal (DCPA) and prometryn, the insecticide fipronil, the insecticide degradates p,p'-DDE and fipronil sulfone, and the fungicides cyproconazole, myclobutanil and tetraconazole. The only pesticides detected in the sediment samples were p,p'-DDT and its degradates (p,p'-DDD and p,p'-DDE). Pesticide information from the samples collected can provide a reference point for future sampling and can help National Park Service managers assess the water quality of the urban creeks.

Hladik, Michelle L.; Orlando, James L.

2008-01-01

3

Ground-water data for the Salt Basin, Eagle Flat, Red Light Draw, Green River Valley, and Presidio Bolson in westernmost Texas  

USGS Publications Warehouse

From October 1971 through October 1974, the U.S. Geological Survey collected groundwater data in the basins in Texas west of the Pecos River drainage area and northwest of the Big Bend country. The basins included are, from east to west: The Presidio Bolson; the Salt Basin; Green River Valley, Eagle Flat, and Red Light Draw. The data collection program consisted of an inventory of all major irrigation, municipal-supply, and industrial wells; selected stock and domestic wells; and selected springs. Water samples were collected from representative wells and springs for chemical analyses. (Woodard-USGS)

White, Donald Edward; Gates, J. S.; Smith, J. T.; Fry, B. J.

1978-01-01

4

Water Treatment  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Water treatment on a large scale enables the supply of clean drinking water to communities. In this activity, learners develop methods to clean a polluted water sample, describe components of a water treatment process, and learn how humans impact Earth's freshwater supply. The activity simulates methods used in real water treatment including aeration, coagulation, sedimentation, filtration and disinfection. This activity would be an excellent adjunct to a guided tour of a local water treatment plant.

Jersey, New; Center, Liberty S.; Coalition, New J.

2006-01-01

5

36 CFR 1012.2 - What is the Presidio Trust's policy on granting requests for employee testimony or Presidio Trust...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-07-01 false What is the Presidio Trust's policy on granting requests for employee testimony or Presidio Trust records? 1012.2 Section 1012...Forests, and Public Property PRESIDIO TRUST LEGAL PROCESS: TESTIMONY BY...

2010-07-01

6

Streamflow gains and losses and selected water-quality observations in five subreaches of the Rio Grande/Rio Bravo del Norte from near Presidio to Langtry, Texas, Big Bend area, United States and Mexico, 2006  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Few historical streamflow and water-quality data are available to characterize the segment of the Rio Grande/Rio Bravo del Norte (hereinafter Rio Grande) extending from near Presidio to near Langtry, Texas. The U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the National Park Service and the Texas Commission on Environmental Quality, collected water-quality and streamflow data from the Rio Grande from near Presidio to near Langtry, Texas, to characterize the streamflow gain and loss and selected constituent concentrations in a 336.3-mile reach of the Rio Grande from near Presidio to near Langtry, Texas. Streamflow was measured at 38 sites and water-quality samples were collected at 20 sites along the Rio Grande in February, March, and June 2006. Streamflow gains and losses over the course of the stream were measured indirectly by computing the differences in measured streamflow between sites along the stream. Water-quality data were collected and analyzed for salinity, dissolved solids, major ions, nutrients, trace elements, and stable isotopes. Selected properties and constituents were compared to available Texas Commission on Environmental Quality general use protection criteria or screening levels. Summary statistics of selected water-quality data were computed for each of the five designated subreaches. Streamflow gain and loss and water-quality constituent concentration were compared for each subreach, rather than the entire segment because of the temporal variation in sample collection caused by controlled releases upstream. Subreach A was determined to be a losing reach, and subreaches B, C, D, and E were determined to be gaining reaches. Compared to concentrations measured in upstream subreaches, downstream subreaches exhibited evidence of dilution of selected constituent concentrations. Subreaches A and B had measured total dissolved solids, chloride, and sulfate exceeding the Texas Commission on Environmental Quality general use protection criteria. Subreaches C, D, and E did not exceed the general use protection criteria for any constituent concentration criteria, but dissolved oxygen concentrations did not meet the general use criteria in these subreaches.

Raines, Timothy H.; Turco, Michael J.; Connor, Patrick J.; Bennett, Jeffery B.

2012-01-01

7

34. Fort Winfield Scott and Presidio of San Francisco. August ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

34. Fort Winfield Scott and Presidio of San Francisco. August 1918. SHOWING THE LETTERMAN HOSPITAL COMPLEX, FOLLOWING CONSTRUCTION OF BUILDING 1006 AND 1049, IN CONTEXT WITH ENTIRE PRESIDIO IN 1918. - Presidio of San Francisco, Letterman General Hospital, Building No. 27, Letterman Hospital Complex, Edie Road, San Francisco, San Francisco County, CA

8

Water Resources Water Quality and Water Treatment  

E-print Network

Water Resources TD 603 Lecture 1: Water Quality and Water Treatment CTARA Indian Institute of Technology, Bombay 2nd November, 2011 #12;OVERVIEW Water Quality WATER TREATMENT PLANTS WATER TREATMENT PLANTS WATER TREATMENT PLANTS WATER TRE OVERVIEW OF THE LECTURE 1. Water Distribution Schemes Hand Pump

Sohoni, Milind

9

36 CFR 1011.14 - How will the Presidio Trust report debts to credit bureaus?  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-07-01 false How will the Presidio Trust report debts to credit bureaus? 1011...Forests, and Public Property PRESIDIO TRUST DEBT COLLECTION Procedures To Collect Presidio Trust Debts § 1011.14 How will the...

2010-07-01

10

36 CFR 1009.5 - Indemnification of Presidio Trust directors and employees.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-07-01 false Indemnification of Presidio Trust directors and employees. 1009.5 ...Forests, and Public Property PRESIDIO TRUST ADMINISTRATIVE CLAIMS UNDER THE FEDERAL...1009.5 Indemnification of Presidio Trust directors and employees. (a) The...

2010-07-01

11

36 CFR 1011.7 - When will the Presidio Trust compromise a debt?  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-07-01 false When will the Presidio Trust compromise a debt? 1011.7 Section...Forests, and Public Property PRESIDIO TRUST DEBT COLLECTION Procedures To Collect Presidio Trust Debts § 1011.7 When will the...

2010-07-01

12

1. OVERVIEW OF MAIN HOSPITAL, NORTHEAST CORNER. Presidio of ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

1. OVERVIEW OF MAIN HOSPITAL, NORTHEAST CORNER. - Presidio of San Francisco, Letterman General Hospital, Building No. 27, Letterman Hospital Complex, Edie Road, San Francisco, San Francisco County, CA

13

41. Post Engineer Office, Presidio of San Francisco, Letterman Army ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

41. Post Engineer Office, Presidio of San Francisco, Letterman Army Hospital, First Floor Plan, Main Laboratory Section and Plan, Building 1006. no date BUILDING 1006. - Presidio of San Francisco, Letterman General Hospital, Building No. 27, Letterman Hospital Complex, Edie Road, San Francisco, San Francisco County, CA

14

36. Post Engineer Office, Presidio of San Francisco. Plot Plan, ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

36. Post Engineer Office, Presidio of San Francisco. Plot Plan, Letterman Army Hospital, San Francisco, Calif. 1958. SHOWING LOCATION OF BUILDINGS 1006 AND 1049 IN LETTERMAN HOSPITAL COMPLEX IN 1958. - Presidio of San Francisco, Letterman General Hospital, Building No. 27, Letterman Hospital Complex, Edie Road, San Francisco, San Francisco County, CA

15

42. Post Engineer Office, Presidio of San Francisco, Letterman Army ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

42. Post Engineer Office, Presidio of San Francisco, Letterman Army Hospital, X-Ray Department and Second Floor Plan, X-Ray Department Plan, Building 1006. no date. BUILDING 1006. - Presidio of San Francisco, Letterman General Hospital, Building No. 27, Letterman Hospital Complex, Edie Road, San Francisco, San Francisco County, CA

16

Presidio of San Francisco. Sheet 27. June 1945. SHOWING EASTERN ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

Presidio of San Francisco. Sheet 27. June 1945. SHOWING EASTERN PORTION OF AREA B, BUILDINGS 901-919 AND WESTERN PORTION OF CRISSY FIELD - Presidio of San Francisco, Enlisted Men's Barracks Type, West end of Crissy Field, between Pearce & Maudlin Streets, San Francisco, San Francisco County, CA

17

Treatment of Well Water  

MedlinePLUS

... Pore Sizes Camping, Hiking, Travel Drinking Water Treatment & Sanitation for Backcountry & Travel Use Emergency Disinfection of Drinking ... Drinking Water Healthy Swimming / Recreational Water Global Water, Sanitation, & Hygiene Other Uses of Water Water-related Emergencies & ...

18

36 CFR 1011.22 - What does the Presidio Trust do upon receipt of a request to offset the salary of a Presidio...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-07-01 false What does the Presidio Trust do upon receipt of a request to offset the salary of a Presidio Trust employee to collect a debt owed by the...Forests, and Public Property PRESIDIO TRUST DEBT COLLECTION Procedures for...

2010-07-01

19

36 CFR 1011.2 - Why is the Presidio Trust issuing these regulations and what do they cover?  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-07-01 false Why is the Presidio Trust issuing these regulations and what do...Forests, and Public Property PRESIDIO TRUST DEBT COLLECTION General Provisions § 1011.2 Why is the Presidio Trust issuing these regulations and what...

2010-07-01

20

36 CFR 1011.12 - How will the Presidio Trust offset a Federal employee's salary to collect a debt?  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-07-01 false How will the Presidio Trust offset a Federal employee's salary to collect...Forests, and Public Property PRESIDIO TRUST DEBT COLLECTION Procedures To Collect Presidio Trust Debts § 1011.12 How will the...

2010-07-01

21

36 CFR 1011.4 - What notice will the Presidio Trust send to a debtor when collecting a debt?  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-07-01 false What notice will the Presidio Trust send to a debtor when collecting a debt...Forests, and Public Property PRESIDIO TRUST DEBT COLLECTION Procedures To Collect Presidio Trust Debts § 1011.4 What notice will...

2010-07-01

22

36 CFR 1011.6 - When will the Presidio Trust allow a debtor to enter into a repayment agreement?  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-07-01 false When will the Presidio Trust allow a debtor to enter into a repayment...Forests, and Public Property PRESIDIO TRUST DEBT COLLECTION Procedures To Collect Presidio Trust Debts § 1011.6 When will the...

2010-07-01

23

36 CFR 1011.16 - When will the Presidio Trust refer debts to the Department of Justice?  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-07-01 false When will the Presidio Trust refer debts to the Department of Justice...Forests, and Public Property PRESIDIO TRUST DEBT COLLECTION Procedures To Collect Presidio Trust Debts § 1011.16 When will the...

2010-07-01

24

36 CFR 1011.8 - When will the Presidio Trust suspend or terminate debt collection on a debt?  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-07-01 false When will the Presidio Trust suspend or terminate debt collection on a...Forests, and Public Property PRESIDIO TRUST DEBT COLLECTION Procedures To Collect Presidio Trust Debts § 1011.8 When will the...

2010-07-01

25

36 CFR 1011.11 - How will the Presidio Trust use tax refund offset to collect a debt?  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-07-01 false How will the Presidio Trust use tax refund offset to collect a debt...Forests, and Public Property PRESIDIO TRUST DEBT COLLECTION Procedures To Collect Presidio Trust Debts § 1011.11 How will the...

2010-07-01

26

36 CFR 1011.17 - Will a debtor who owes a debt be ineligible for Presidio Trust licenses, permits, leases...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...who owes a debt be ineligible for Presidio Trust licenses, permits, leases, privileges...Forests, and Public Property PRESIDIO TRUST DEBT COLLECTION Procedures To Collect Presidio Trust Debts § 1011.17 Will a debtor...

2010-07-01

27

36 CFR 1011.9 - When will the Presidio Trust transfer a debt to the Financial Management Service for collection?  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-07-01 false When will the Presidio Trust transfer a debt to the Financial Management...Forests, and Public Property PRESIDIO TRUST DEBT COLLECTION Procedures To Collect Presidio Trust Debts § 1011.9 When will the...

2010-07-01

28

36 CFR 1012.9 - What criteria will the Presidio Trust consider in responding to my Touhy Request?  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...false What criteria will the Presidio Trust consider in responding to my Touhy Request...Forests, and Public Property PRESIDIO TRUST LEGAL PROCESS: TESTIMONY BY EMPLOYEES...RECORDS Responsibilities of the Presidio Trust § 1012.9 What criteria will the...

2010-07-01

29

36 CFR 1011.12 - How will the Presidio Trust offset a Federal employee's salary to collect a debt?  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...a Federal employee's salary to collect a debt? 1011.12 Section 1011.12 Parks, Forests, and Public Property PRESIDIO TRUST DEBT COLLECTION Procedures To Collect Presidio Trust Debts § 1011.12 How will the Presidio...

2011-07-01

30

36 CFR 1011.12 - How will the Presidio Trust offset a Federal employee's salary to collect a debt?  

...a Federal employee's salary to collect a debt? 1011.12 Section 1011.12 Parks, Forests, and Public Property PRESIDIO TRUST DEBT COLLECTION Procedures To Collect Presidio Trust Debts § 1011.12 How will the Presidio...

2014-07-01

31

36 CFR 1011.12 - How will the Presidio Trust offset a Federal employee's salary to collect a debt?  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...a Federal employee's salary to collect a debt? 1011.12 Section 1011.12 Parks, Forests, and Public Property PRESIDIO TRUST DEBT COLLECTION Procedures To Collect Presidio Trust Debts § 1011.12 How will the Presidio...

2012-07-01

32

36 CFR 1011.12 - How will the Presidio Trust offset a Federal employee's salary to collect a debt?  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...a Federal employee's salary to collect a debt? 1011.12 Section 1011.12 Parks, Forests, and Public Property PRESIDIO TRUST DEBT COLLECTION Procedures To Collect Presidio Trust Debts § 1011.12 How will the Presidio...

2013-07-01

33

Water Treatment Process  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This interactive diagram allows the user to follow a drop of water from the source through the treatment process. Water may be treated differently in different communities depending on the quality of the water which enters the plant. Groundwater is water located under ground and typically requires less treatment than water from lakes, rivers, and streams. Users are invited to click on each treatment point on the image to see a little information about that treatment point.

34

Water treatment residuals  

Microsoft Academic Search

Solutions to an environmental problem often create other environmental problems. That surely is the case in the water supply field. By providing new or expanded water treatment systems to comply with the maximum contaminant levels and treatment mandates of the Safe Drinking Water Act, water purveyors are generating large volumes of residuals that must be managed, ultimately disposed of, or

Billings

1994-01-01

35

Drinking Water Treatment  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This lesson provides an introduction to the treatment of drinking water to remove harmful or distasteful substances. Topics include the history of treatment and a brief listing of treatment processes. Students can examine a selection of online resources for more detailed information on modern treatment methods and potential contaminants. The lesson includes an activity in which they construct a model treatment plant and treat water that they have 'contaminated' themselves in order to observe firsthand the steps involved in purifying water for human consumption.

Laposata, Matt

36

Water Treatment Plant  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In most parts of the United States, getting clean, safe water is as easy as turning on a faucet. Generally, this water comes from either groundwater or nearby streams and reservoirs. What most of us never see or have to worry about are the steps required to make this water drinkable. This video segment, adapted from a ZOOM television broadcast, shows how a water treatment facility in Cambridge, Massachusetts purifies its city's water. The segment is two minutes twenty seconds in length.

37

Water Treatment Technology - Hydraulics.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

One of twelve water treatment technology units, this student manual on hydraulics provides instructional materials for three competencies. (The twelve units are designed for a continuing education training course for public water supply operators.) The competencies focus on the following areas: head loss in pipes in series, function loss in…

Ross-Harrington, Melinda; Kincaid, G. David

38

36 CFR 1011.20 - Will the Presidio Trust's failure to comply with these regulations be a defense to a debt?  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-07-01 false Will the Presidio Trust's failure to comply with these regulations...Forests, and Public Property PRESIDIO TRUST DEBT COLLECTION Procedures To Collect Presidio Trust Debts § 1011.20 Will the...

2010-07-01

39

36 CFR 1011.10 - How will the Presidio Trust use administrative offset (offset of non-tax federal payments) to...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-07-01 false How will the Presidio Trust use administrative offset (offset of non-tax...Forests, and Public Property PRESIDIO TRUST DEBT COLLECTION Procedures To Collect Presidio Trust Debts § 1011.10 How will the...

2010-07-01

40

36 CFR 1011.13 - How will the Presidio Trust use administrative wage garnishment to collect a debt from a debtor's...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-07-01 false How will the Presidio Trust use administrative wage garnishment to collect...Forests, and Public Property PRESIDIO TRUST DEBT COLLECTION Procedures To Collect Presidio Trust Debts § 1011.13 How will the...

2010-07-01

41

Magnetic water treatment  

Microsoft Academic Search

Carbonates formed by heating water containing ?120mg(Ca)\\/l are characterized by X-ray diffraction and electron microscopy. Tests on 32 pairs of samples establish, at the 99.9% probability level, that drawing water through a static magnetic field (B?0.1T, ?B?10T\\/m) increases the aragonite\\/calcite ratio in the deposit. There is an incubation period of several hours, and memory of magnetic treatment extends beyond 200h.

J. M. D. Coey; Stephen Cass

2000-01-01

42

DRINKING WATER TREATMENT  

EPA Science Inventory

The purpose of water treatment is threefold: 1. To improve the aethetic quality ofwater, 2. to remove toxic or health-hazardous chemicals, 3. to remove and/or inactivate any disease causing microorganisms. These objectives should be accomplished using a reasonable safety factor...

43

Acculturation at the La Bahia Mission and Presidio, Goliad, Texas  

E-print Network

OF ARTS May 2000 Major Subject: Anthropology ACCULTURATION AT THE LA BAHIA MISSION AND PRESIDIO, GOLIAD, TEXAS A Thesi. s by DIANE KIMBERLEY KLOETZER Submitted to Texas A&M University in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree... of MASTER OF ARTS Approved as to style and content by: David L. Carlson (Chair of Committee) D. L. Hamilton (Member) c, & ~ H nry C. Schmidt (Member) David L. Carlson (Head of Department) May 2000 Major Subject: Anthropology ABSTRACT...

Kloetzer, Diane Kimberley

2012-06-07

44

36 CFR 1011.9 - When will the Presidio Trust transfer a debt to the Financial Management Service for collection?  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...will the Presidio Trust transfer a debt to the Financial Management Service for collection? 1011.9 Section 1011...will the Presidio Trust transfer a debt to the Financial Management Service for collection? (a)...

2011-07-01

45

Water treatment method  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper describes a method for treating water removed from the ground to reduce the content of noxious sulfur-containing impurities therein before the water is supplied to an associated water system. It comprises: the steps of spraying the water to be treated in the upper portion of a closed standpipe which has an inlet for the water to be treated

Siebert

1991-01-01

46

Water treatment method  

SciTech Connect

This paper describes a method for treating water removed from the ground to reduce the content of noxious sulfur-containing impurities therein before the water is supplied to an associated water system. It comprises: the steps of spraying the water to be treated in the upper portion of a closed standpipe which has an inlet for the water to be treated and an outlet through which water can flow to the associated water system, the inlet and the outlet of the standpipe being so positioned that air which becomes disassociated from water can collect in the upper portion of the standpipe, controlling the spraying of water in the upper portion of the closed standpipe to maintain a superatmospheric therein to pressurize the associated water system, entraining air with the water before it is sprayed in the standpipe. The last named step being carried out in a vessel in which the ground water is sprayed upwardly, maintaining the water level in the standpipe that is required to enable the flow of water therefrom to the associated water system, containing the ground water, before it is delivered to the associated water system, with a catalyst for the oxidation of sulfur and sulfur-containing moieties to sulfate anions, and controlling the time of contact between the ground water and the catalyst, the amount of air entrained with the water sprayed in the vessel and the amount of air entrained with the water sprayed in the standpipe so that entrained air separates from the water and forms an air pocket inside the standpipe and there is a substantially complete oxidation of sulfur and sulfur-containing moieties to sulfate anions.

Siebert, G.H.

1991-02-12

47

Occupational Analysis: Water Treatment Technician  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Advanced Technology Environmental and Energy Center (ATEEC) has provided this document which includes an overview of general required competencies for water treatment technicians. General areas of competence such as water treatment processes, water sources and water quality are included,as well as specific tasks in each category.Users must download this resource for viewing, which requires a free log-in. There is no cost to download the item.

2011-02-14

48

36 CFR 1004.10 - Travel on Presidio Trust roads and designated routes.  

...roads and designated routes. (a) Operating a motor vehicle is prohibited except on Presidio Trust roads and in parking areas. (b) The following are prohibited: (1) Operating a motor vehicle not equipped with pneumatic...

2014-07-01

49

Water treatment method  

DOEpatents

A method is described for reducing the concentration of any undesirable metals dissolved in contaminated water, such as waste water. The method involves uniformly reacting the contaminated water with an excess amount of solid particulate calcium sulfite to insolubilize the undesirable metal ions, followed by removal thereof and of the unreacted calcium sulfite.

Martin, F.S.; Silver, G.L.

1991-04-30

50

Electrocoagulation in Water Treatment  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a Electrocoagulation (EC) is an electrochemical method of treating polluted water where sacrificial anodes corrode to release\\u000a active coagulant precursors (usually aluminum or iron cations) into solution. At the cathode, gas evolves (usually as hydrogen\\u000a bubbles) accompanying electrolytic reactions. EC needs simple equipments and is designable for virtually any size. It is cost\\u000a effective and easily operable. Specially, the recent technical

Huijuan Liu; Xu Zhao; Jiuhui Qu

2010-01-01

51

Pennsylvania Stream Water Treatment Systems  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The video asks who will be around to keep water treatment systems going, monitor the quality of streams, and create new initiatives to keep water sources clean. A number of programs address these issues and get young people involved in environmental and conservation activities.

Wpsu

2007-04-04

52

Theory of magnetic water treatment  

Microsoft Academic Search

A mechanism is proposed for magnetic water treatment which makes it possible to explain the known experimental facts. The polyextremal dependence of the treatment effects on the magnetic field strength and the flow velocity as well as the increases in viscosity, thermal conductivity, and the velocity of ultrasound are explained on its basis; specific changes in the IR spectrum of

V. A. Boichenko; L. G. Sapogin

1977-01-01

53

Arsenic in water treatment.  

SciTech Connect

Sandia National Laboratories (SNL) is collaborating with the Awwa Research Foundation (AwwaRF) and WERC (A Consortium for Environmental Education and Technology Development) in a program for the development and testing of innovative technologies that have the potential to substantially reduce the costs associated with arsenic removal from drinking water. Sandia National Laboratories will administer contracts placed with AwwaRF and WERC to carry out bench scale studies and economic analyses/outreach activities, respectively. The elements of the AwwaRF program include (1) identification of new technologies, (2) proof-of-concept laboratory studies and, (3) a research program that will meet the other needs of small utilities by providing solutions to small utilities so that they may successfully meet the new arsenic MCL. WERC's activities will include development of an economic analysis tool for Pilot Scale Demonstrations and development of educational training and technical assistance tools. The objective of the Sandia Program is the field demonstration testing of innovative technologies. The primary deliverables of the Sandia program will be engineering analyses of candidate technologies; these will be contained in preliminary reports and final analysis reports. Projected scale-up costs will be generated using a cost model provided by WERC or another suitable model.

Siegel, Malcolm Dean

2004-12-01

54

Treatment of industrial waste water  

SciTech Connect

A method is disclosed for processing industrial waste waters and , in particular, blow down water from thermal electric plants. The water is processed to concentrate the salts contained therein and to obtain a concentrated brine which can then be passed to a thermal evaporator and/or solar evaporation ponds. The water is processed by the addition of magnesium hydroxide and carbon dioxide in amounts sufficient to precipitate the calcium as calcium carbonate, thereby obtaining a water reduced in calcium content and increased in magnesium content from the industrial waste water. The treated water is processed to recover a purified water from a brine, preferably by reverse osmosis. Calcium hydroxide is added to the brine generated by the reverse osmosis process in an amount sufficient to precipitate magnesium hydroxide therefrom which can be recycled to supply the magnesium hydroxide used in pre-treatment of the water prior to the reverse osmosis process. A clarified brine is recovered from the magnesium hydroxide precipitation step and may then be naturally or thermally evaporated to produce a saturated slurry of salt solids. This slurry can then be further reduced to dryness by solar evaporation.

Anderson, D. R.

1980-02-12

55

Structure of the Presidio Bolson area, Texas, interpreted from gravity data  

SciTech Connect

To obtain a better understanding of the structure and tectonism of the region, an integrated geophysical-geological study of the Presidio area, Texas, was undertaken using gravity measurements and deep drilling data. New gravity data were combined with existing data to construct simple Bouguer anomaly maps of the Presidio area, and two-dimensional computer modeling of gravity profiles was used to derive earth models. These data outline the major geologic features of the area that are dominated by the effects of Tertiary block faulting and volcanism. The main feature of interest was the Presidio Graben, which is approximately 1.5 km deep near Ruidosa, Texas. One motivation for this study was the collection of a part of the basic scientific data needed to assess the geothermal potential of the area, and the results obtained support the hypothesis that hot springs associated with the Presidio Graben derive their heat from deep circulation along its boundary faults. However, some gravity anomalies observed could be interpreted as indicating the presence of late Tertiary intrusions that could provide heat for the hot springs.

Mraz, J.R.; Keller, G.R.

1980-01-01

56

CHARACTERISATION OF RANGER MINE WATER TREATMENT SLUDGE  

Microsoft Academic Search

Process water from ERA's Ranger Uranium Mine (Northern Territory, Australia) requires treatment to meet stringent environmental water quality criteria prior to discharge into the environment. Prior to treatment, the process water is acidic and contains high concentrations of sulfates, aluminium, magnesium and manganese in addition to residual uranium. One concept that has been considered for a process water treatment plant

R. PLEYSIER; G. DOUGLAS; M. G. TREFRY; L. WENDLING; F. BENN; A. GRABSCH; C. KLAUBER

57

78 FR 25973 - Final Environmental Impact Statement for the Real Property Master Plan at the Presidio of...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Plan (RPMP) at the Presidio of Monterey (POM). The Final EIS analyzes and evaluates the potential environmental and socioeconomic impacts associated with proposed development at two properties: the POM and the Ord Military Community (OMC),...

2013-05-03

58

36 CFR 1011.11 - How will the Presidio Trust use tax refund offset to collect a debt?  

... How will the Presidio Trust use tax refund offset to collect a debt? (a) Tax refund offset. In most cases, the FMS uses the Treasury Offset Program to collect debts by the offset of tax refunds and other federal...

2014-07-01

59

Apparatus and process for water treatment  

DOEpatents

An apparatus is disclosed utilizing permeable treatment media for treatment of contaminated water, along with a method for enhanced passive flow of contaminated water through the treatment media. The apparatus includes a treatment cell including a permeable structure that encloses the treatment media, the treatment cell may be located inside a water collection well, exterior to a water collection well, or placed in situ within the pathway of contaminated groundwater. The passive flow of contaminated water through the treatment media is maintained by a hydraulic connection between a collecting point of greater water pressure head, and a discharge point of lower water pressure head. The apparatus and process for passive flow and groundwater treatment utilizes a permeable treatment media made up of granular metal, bimetallics, granular cast iron, activated carbon, cation exchange resins, and/or additional treatment materials. An enclosing container may have an outer permeable wall for passive flow of water into the container and through the enclosed treatment media to an effluent point. Flow of contaminated water is attained without active pumping of water through the treatment media. Remediation of chlorinated hydrocarbons and other water contaminants to acceptable regulatory concentration levels is accomplished without the costs of pumping, pump maintenance, and constant oversight by personnel.

Phifer, Mark A. (North Augusta, SC); Nichols, Ralph L. (North Augusta, SC)

2001-01-01

60

DRINKING WATER TREATMENT PLANT ADVISOR - USER DOCUMENTATION  

EPA Science Inventory

The Drinking Water Treatment Plant (DWTP) Advisor is a software application which has been designed to provide assistance in the evaluation of drinking water treatment plants. Specifically, this program, which is based on the source document Interim Handbook Optimizing Water Trea...

61

ACTIVATED CARBON FROM LIGNITE FOR WATER TREATMENT  

Microsoft Academic Search

High concentrations of humate in surface water result in the formation of excess amounts of chlorinated byproducts during disinfection treatment. These precursors can be removed in water treatment prior to disinfection using powdered activated carbon. In the interest of developing a more cost-effective method for removal of humates in surface water, a comparison of the activities of carbons prepared from

Edwin S. Olson; Daniel J. Stepan

2000-01-01

62

Guidelines for sustainable building design: Recommendations from the Presidio of San Francisco energy efficiency design charrette  

SciTech Connect

In 1994, the Bay Chapter of the Association of Energy Engineers{reg_sign} organized a two-day design charrette for energy-efficient redevelopment of buildings by the National Park Services (NPS) at the Presidio of San Francisco. This event brought together engineers, researchers, architects, government officials, and students in a participatory environment to apply their experience to create guidelines for the sustainable redesign of Presidio buildings. The venue for the charrette was a representative barracks building located at the Main Post of the Presidio. Examination of this building allowed for the development of design recommendations, both for the building and for the remainder of the facilities. The charrette was organized into a committee structure consisting of: steering, measurement and monitoring, modeling, building envelope and historic preservation (architectural), HVAC and controls, lighting, and presentation. Prior to the charrette itself, the modeling and measurement/monitoring committees developed substantial baseline data for the other committees during the charrette. An integrated design approach was initiated through interaction between the committees during the charrette. Later, committee reports were cross-referenced to emphasize whole building design and systems integration.

Brown, K.; Sartor, D.; Greenberg, S. [and others

1996-05-01

63

NORDIC WASTE WATER TREATMENT SLUDGE TREATMENT  

E-print Network

and to regulate its use in such a way as to prevent harmful effects on soil, vegetation, ani- mals and man Commission Environ- ment DG, http://ec.europa.eu/environment) Sludge treatment: l Reduces organic ingredients-Norway treats source separated household waste (food waste), organic industrial waste (food processing

64

TREATMENT OF SEASONAL PESTICIDES IN SURFACE WATERS  

EPA Science Inventory

Numerous pesticides were monitored in surface waters in agricultural areas. Atrazine, alachlor, metolachlor, cyanazine, metribuzin, carbofuran, linuron, and simazine were found in the influent to three water treatment plants in storm runoff following their application. Studies at...

65

Ozone Treatment in Cooling Water Systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

Ozone treatment for preventing the biofouling in cooling water systems is investigated.In the fresh water system, the separating effect of the ozonated water on the microorganisms such as the sphaerotilus and the zoogloea which adhere to the piping and form the slime is recognized. When the ozonated water is supplied intermittently to the piping without stopping the flow of the

N. Kaiga; T. Seki; K. Iyasu

1989-01-01

66

Enhanced surface water treatment by ultrafiltration  

Microsoft Academic Search

For capacity extension of one of the drinking water production plants of Amsterdam Water Supply, four treatment schemes applying ultrafiltration (UF) are considered. The main purposes of the UF process are phosphate removal, removal of suspended solids and colloidal matter, and hygienic water quality improvement. In the pilot plant investigation, water from the Bethunepolder has been treated with UF. The

J. A. M. H. Hofman; M. M. Beumer; E. T. Baars; J. P. van der Hoek; H. M. M. Koppers

1998-01-01

67

Handbook of Industrial Water Treatment  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This site contains a forty-chapter text including chapters on environmental consideration, aeration, filtration, membrane systems, ion exchange, boiler water systems, cooling water systems, wastewater and gas cleaning systems, and analytical methods and equipment.

2011-04-15

68

MIUS technology evaluation: water supply and treatment  

Microsoft Academic Search

Water treatment is one of the services which may be performed within a Modular Integrated Utility System (MIUS). A MIUS can serve from 100 to 3000 dwelling units and their associated facilities. The small size and self-contained nature of a MIUS create special situations with respect to the application of innovative water treatment and distribution technologies. This report evaluates current

A. L. Compere; W. J. Griffith; W. J. Jr. Boegly; I. Spiewak; D. G. Thomas; S. A. Reed

1976-01-01

69

Magnetic water treatment: A coming attraction?  

Microsoft Academic Search

United Airlines and pharmaceutical company Eli Lilly and Company are among a number of users that are controlling scale and corrosion in cooling tower loops with magnetic water treatment, a controversial technology that has met with skepticism, disbelief, and claims of fraud. Experts and hundreds of published papers disagree on whether magnetic water treatment works, and if so, how. No

1995-01-01

70

Biological Drinking Water Treatment: Benefiting from Bacteria  

Microsoft Academic Search

While the use of microbial biomass for the degradation of contaminants, nutrients, and organics has been commonly used in the wastewater field since the early 1900s, the biological treatment of drinking water has been limited, particularly in the United States. However, recent developments in the drinking water treatment field are beginning to broaden the applicability, feasibility, and favorability of biological

Jess C. Brown; Carollo Engineers

71

Copyright Awwa Research Foundation 2006 Advanced Water Treatment Impacts onAdvanced Water Treatment Impacts on  

E-print Network

... Alternative water sourcesAlternative water sources Unconventional sources of fresh water supply:Unconventional sources of fresh water supply: wastewater reuse, seawater, brackish groundwater,wastewater reuse, seawater© Copyright Awwa Research Foundation 2006 Advanced Water Treatment Impacts onAdvanced Water

Keller, Arturo A.

72

Wafer Treatment Using Electrolysis-Ionized Water  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Electrolysis-ionized water treatment is shown to be useful for removing polystyrene particles from contact holes, silicon surface cleaning and the removal of metal contamination such as copper. Electrolysis-ionized waterhas a controllable pH and a higher oxidation-reduction potential than chemicals. Moreover, this water does notcontain acid or alkaline chemicals, and can easily be neutralized without adding chemicals. Electrolysis-ionized water treatment has great potential for ecologically safe and low cost semiconductor processing.

Aoki, Hidemitsu; Nakamori, Masaharu; Aoto, Nahomi; Ikawa, Eiji

1994-10-01

73

Setting up the water chemistry for thermal water treatment  

Microsoft Academic Search

Results are presented from the development and setting up of water-chemistry conditions for a thermal water treatment process\\u000a that allows saline effluents from a boiler house to be eliminated. Peculiarities of reducing scale formation in the evaporator\\u000a through the use of chalk primer and type PAF-13A antiscale agent are discussed. The results of industrial tests of a thermal\\u000a water treatment

A. V. Boglovskii; V. B. Chernozubov; N. E. Chernykh; A. V. Gorbunov; R. Kh. Birdin

2007-01-01

74

Arsenic Removal Technologies for Drinking Water Treatment  

Microsoft Academic Search

Arsenic contamination as a consequence of human activities such as mining and pesticide use is affecting the water resource quality worldwide. Because of the high risk of arsenic exposure, specific water treatment processes are required to meet the anticipated more severe water quality standards. Better understanding of presently available processes is necessary to develop economic, efficient and effective methods for

Kuan-Seong Ng; Zaini Ujang; Pierre Le-Clech

2004-01-01

75

Grey Water Treatment Systems: A Review  

Microsoft Academic Search

This review aims to discern a treatment for grey water by examining grey water characteristics, reuse standards, technology performance and costs. The review reveals that the systems for treating grey water, whatever its quality, should consist of processes that are able to trap pollutants with a small particle size and convert organic matter to mineralized compounds. For efficient, simple and

Lina Abu Ghunmi; Grietje Zeeman; Manar Fayyad; Jules B. van Lier

2011-01-01

76

WATER TREATMENT PROBLEMS AND CONSEQUENCES  

EPA Science Inventory

In recent years the emphasis on removing microbes from drinking water has increased. This increased concern was brought about partly by documented waterborne disease outbreaks in the US. Cryptosporidium concerns were elevated after the cryptosporodiosis outbreak in Milwaukee. Oth...

77

Acid mine water treatment using engineered wetlands  

Microsoft Academic Search

During the last two decades, the United States mining industry has greatly increased the amount it spends on pollution control.\\u000a The application of biotechnology to mine water can reduce the industry's water treatment costs (estimated at over a million\\u000a dollars a day) and improve water quality in streams and rivers adversely affected by acidic mine water draining from abandoned\\u000a mines.

Robert L. P. Kleinmann

1990-01-01

78

Evaluating Nanoparticle Breakthrough during Drinking Water Treatment  

PubMed Central

Background: Use of engineered nanoparticles (NPs) in consumer products is resulting in NPs in drinking water sources. Subsequent NP breakthrough into treated drinking water is a potential exposure route and human health threat. Objectives: In this study we investigated the breakthrough of common NPs—silver (Ag), titanium dioxide (TiO2), and zinc oxide (ZnO)—into finished drinking water following conventional and advanced treatment. Methods: NPs were spiked into five experimental waters: groundwater, surface water, synthetic freshwater, synthetic freshwater containing natural organic matter, and tertiary wastewater effluent. Bench-scale coagulation/flocculation/sedimentation simulated conventional treatment, and microfiltration (MF) and ultrafiltration (UF) simulated advanced treatment. We monitored breakthrough of NPs into treated water by turbidity removal and inductively coupled plasma–mass spectrometry (ICP-MS). Results: Conventional treatment resulted in 2–20%, 3–8%, and 48–99% of Ag, TiO2, and ZnO NPs, respectively, or their dissolved ions remaining in finished water. Breakthrough following MF was 1–45% for Ag, 0–44% for TiO2, and 36–83% for ZnO. With UF, NP breakthrough was 0–2%, 0–4%, and 2–96% for Ag, TiO2, and ZnO, respectively. Variability was dependent on NP stability, with less breakthrough of aggregated NPs compared with stable NPs and dissolved NP ions. Conclusions: Although a majority of aggregated or stable NPs were removed by simulated conventional and advanced treatment, NP metals were detectable in finished water. As environmental NP concentrations increase, we need to consider NPs as emerging drinking water contaminants and determine appropriate drinking water treatment processes to fully remove NPs in order to reduce their potential harmful health outcomes. Citation: Abbott Chalew TE, Ajmani GS, Huang H, Schwab KJ. 2013. Evaluating nanoparticle breakthrough during drinking water treatment. Environ Health Perspect 121:1161–1166;?http://dx.doi.org/10.1289/ehp.1306574 PMID:23933526

Chalew, Talia E. Abbott; Ajmani, Gaurav S.; Huang, Haiou

2013-01-01

79

Mobile water treatment plant special study  

SciTech Connect

Characterization of the level and extent of groundwater contamination in the vicinity of Title I mill sites began during the surface remedial action stage (Phase 1) of the Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action (UMTRA) Project. Some of the contamination in the aquifer(s) at the abandoned sites is attributable to milling activities during the years the mills were in operation. To begin implementation of Phase 11 groundwater remediation, the US Department of Energy (DOE) requested that (1) the Technical Assistance Contractor (TAC) conduct a study to provide for the design of a mobile water treatment plant to treat groundwater extracted during site characterization studies at completed Phase I UMTRA sites, and (2) the results of the TAC investigations be documented in a special study report. This special study develops the design criteria for a water treatment plant that can be readily transported from one UMTRA site to another and operated as a complete treatment system. The 1991 study provides the basis for selecting a mobile water treatment system to meet the operating requirements recommended in this special study. The scope of work includes the following: Determining contaminants, flows, and loadings. Setting effluent quality criteria. Sizing water treatment unit(s). Evaluating non-monetary aspects of alternate treatment processes. Comparing costs of alternate treatment processes. Recommending the mobile water treatment plant design criteria.

Not Available

1992-12-01

80

ENVIRONMENTAL ASSESSMENT WASTE WATER TREATMENT MODIFICATIONS  

E-print Network

.4 Land Use, Demography, and Environmental Justice..........................................39 5ENVIRONMENTAL ASSESSMENT FOR WASTE WATER TREATMENT MODIFICATIONS FOR IMPROVED EFFLUENT COMPLIANCE ................................................. 22 5.0 AFFECTED ENVIRONMENT AND ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACTS..................................22 5.1 Site

Ohta, Shigemi

81

ESTIMATION OF SMALL SYSTEM WATER TREATMENT COSTS  

EPA Science Inventory

This report presents cost data for unit processes that are capable of removing contaminants included in the National Interim Primary Drinking Water Regulations. Construction and operation and maintenance cost data are presented for 45 centralized treatment unit processes that are...

82

Water/Wastewater Treatment Plant Operator Qualifications.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article summarizes in tabular form the U.S. and Canadian programs for classification of water and wastewater treatment plant personnel. Included are main characteristics of the programs, educational and experience requirements, and indications of requirement substitutions. (CS)

Water and Sewage Works, 1979

1979-01-01

83

The artificial water cycle: emergy analysis of waste water treatment.  

PubMed

The artificial water cycle can be divided into the phases of water capture from the environment, potabilisation, distribution, waste water collection, waste water treatment and discharge back into the environment. The terminal phase of this cycle, from waste water collection to discharge into the environment, was assessed by emergy analysis. Emergy is the quantity of solar energy needed directly or indirectly to provide a product or energy flow in a given process. The emergy flow attributed to a process is therefore an index of the past and present environmental cost to support it. Six municipalities on the western side of the province of Bologna were analysed. Waste water collection is managed by the municipal councils and treatment is carried out in plants managed by a service company. Waste water collection was analysed by compiling a mass balance of the sewer system serving the six municipalities, including construction materials and sand for laying the pipelines. Emergy analysis of the water treatment plants was also carried out. The results show that the great quantity of emergy required to treat a gram of water is largely due to input of non renewable fossil fuels. As found in our previous analysis of the first part of the cycle, treatment is likewise characterised by high expenditure of non renewable resources, indicating a correlation with energy flows. PMID:12817633

Bastianoni, Simone; Fugaro, Laura; Principi, Ilaria; Rosini, Marco

2003-04-01

84

Water-conserving cooling tower treatment  

SciTech Connect

Water conservation in cooling towers and evaporative coolers can finally become a reality. Also, fouled closed hot and chilled water systems can be restored to near original efficiency using the same technology. The barrier limiting the traditional water treatment industry from serious involvement in water conservation is the lack of a really good chemical to control scale. Poor scale inhibitors are the reason for a heavy bleed. Minerals concentrated by evaporation is wasted to the sewer while low solids make-up water fills the tower. Water conservation is important because of the increasing usable water shortage, the cost to add infrastructure to deliver increasing amounts of water to accommodate growth and the limitations imposed on disposal to the sewer. Now, due to innovations in chemical treatment, users of cooling towers and evaporative coolers can conserve water. In this presentation the author assumes the audience has some knowledge of traditional water treatment. Except for a few general references to establish common understanding, the author confines his remarks to discussing an advanced technology developed by DIAS, Inc., and the economics of its use.

Mathie, A.J. [A.J. Mathie Company, Roy, UT (United States)

1996-12-31

85

Reuse Water Treatment Sludge for Hollow Concrete Block Manufacture  

Microsoft Academic Search

Problem statement: This research reuses the water treatment sludge fro m a water treatment plant to make hollow concrete blocks. The main objectives are to increase the value of the water treatment sludge from a water treatment plant and t o make a sustainable and profitable disposal alternative for the water treatment sludge. Attempt s were made to utilize the

Thaniya Kaosol

86

Dispersion Destabilization in Magnetic Water Treatment  

Microsoft Academic Search

The destabilization of fine nonmagnetic particles as one of the possible mechanisms for magnetic water treatment (MWT), an alternative method for scale control in industrial water processing and amelioration of dispersion separations, is discussed. Numerical results (based on an electrical double-layer theory) for the theoretical model of surface neutralization due to ion shifts from the bulk of the solution toward

L. C. Lipus; J. Krope; L. Crepinsek

2001-01-01

87

Laboratory measurements on magnetic water treatment device  

Microsoft Academic Search

A short review of magnetic water treatment (MWT) devices with permanent magnets is given. In the paper, the authors present a model of electromagnetic devices with AC electrical input from 40 to 110 W and radial symmetric water flow from 10 to 400 L\\/min. Electromagnetic properties of the laboratory model EM I are presented and MWT efficiency is discussed. Comparison

Viljeni Kozic; Jurij Krope; Igor Ticar; Edvard Kiker

2001-01-01

88

TREATMENT EFFECTIVENESS: OIL TANKER BALLAST WATER FACILITY  

EPA Science Inventory

A study dealing with the effectiveness of large-scale treatment of ballast water was conducted at the terminal facility of the TransAlaska Pipeline in Valdez, Alaska. The plant was found to be generally effective in reducing the petroleum content of the ballast water. On the aver...

89

Passive mine water treatment: the correct approach?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Passive waste water treatment technologies based on ecological principles for organic pollutants are gaining gradual acceptance in many industrial sectors in the western world. They represent a revival of the ancient stewardship of natural resources in response to the need for sustainable development. This revival has also lead to the use of wetlands for mine waste water with inorganic pollutants.

Margarete Kalin

2004-01-01

90

New England Water Treatment Technology Assistance Center  

E-print Network

New England Water Treatment Technology Assistance Center U n i v e r s i t y o f N e w H a m p s h Society National Meeting, New York, September 2003, "Enhanced Corrosion Control in Small Water Systems

91

Saving Energy, Water, and Money with Efficient Water Treatment Technologies  

SciTech Connect

Reverse Osmosis (RO) is a method of purifying water for industrial processes and human consumption; RO can remove mineral salts as well as contaminants such as bacteria and pesticides. Advances in water treatment technologies have enhanced and complemented the conventional RO process, reducing energy and water consumption, lowering capital and operating costs, and producing purer water. This publication of the Department of Energy's Federal Energy Management Program introduces RO, describes the benefits of high-efficiency reverse osmosis (HERO), and compares HERO with RO/electrodeionization (EDI) technology.

Not Available

2004-06-01

92

Nanotechnology-based water treatment strategies.  

PubMed

The most important component for living beings on the earth is access to clean and safe drinking water. Globally, water scarcity is pervasive even in water-rich areas as immense pressure has been created by the burgeoning human population, industrialization, civilization, environmental changes and agricultural activities. The problem of access to safe water is inevitable and requires tremendous research to devise new, cheaper technologies for purification of water, while taking into account energy requirements and environmental impact. This review highlights nanotechnology-based water treatment technologies being developed and used to improve desalination of sea and brackish water, safe reuse of wastewater, disinfection and decontamination of water, i.e., biosorption and nanoadsorption for contaminant removal, nanophotocatalysis for chemical degradation of contaminants, nanosensors for contaminant detection, different membrane technologies including reverse osmosis, nanofiltration, ultrafiltration, electro-dialysis etc. This review also deals with the fate and transport of engineered nanomaterials in water and wastewater treatment systems along with the risks associated with nanomaterials. PMID:24749460

Kumar, Sandeep; Ahlawat, Wandit; Bhanjana, Gaurav; Heydarifard, Solmaz; Nazhad, Mousa M; Dilbaghi, Neeraj

2014-02-01

93

Microwave treatment of naphthenic acids in water.  

PubMed

Naphthenic acids (NAs) are natural constituents of bitumen and crude oil. These compounds are concentrated as part of the oil sands process water (OSPW) during petroleum refining and separation from oil sands. NAs are considered among the major water contaminants in OSPW due to their toxicity and environmental recalcitrance. A laboratory scale microwave system was developed and experiments were conducted to determine the efficiency of NA degradation during microwave treatment. The effects of water source and quality (deionized lab water and river water) and of TiO(2) catalyst in the degradation process were also investigated. Degradation kinetic parameters for both total NAs and individual z-family were calculated. The microwave system degraded OSPW NAs and commercial Fluka NAs in river water in the presence of TiO(2) rapidly, producing half-life values of 3.32 and 3.61 hours, respectively. Toxicity assessments of the NA samples pre-and post-treatment indicated that the microwave system reduced overall toxicity of water containing Fluka NAs from high (5 min. IC(50) v/v = 15.85%) to moderate (5 min. IC(50) v/v = 36.45%) toxicity levels. However, a slight increase in toxicity was noted post-treatment in OSPW NAs. PMID:20623403

Mishra, Sabyasachi; Meda, Venkatesh; Dalai, Ajay K; Headley, John V; Peru, Kerry M; McMartin, Dena W

2010-08-01

94

Magnetic treatment of industrial water. Silica activation  

Microsoft Academic Search

The paper presents two large-scale observations of magnetic treatment of industrial water, aimed at investigating changes in the formation of deposits. First, a four-month experiment is described with two identical 25 kW heat exchangers, where in one case the inlet water was treated by a magneto-hydrodynamic method. Deposits recovered from both exchangers were analyzed chemically, by X-ray diffraction, infrared spectroscopy

A. Szkatula; M. Balanda; M. Kopec

2002-01-01

95

Acid mine water treatment using engineered wetlands  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

During the last two decades, the United States mining industry has greatly increased the amount it spends on pollution control. The application of biotechnology to mine water can reduce the industry's water treatment costs (estimated at over a million dollars a day) and improve water quality in streams and rivers adversely affected by acidic mine water draining from abandoned mines. Biological treatment of mine waste water is typically conducted in a series of small excavated ponds that resemble, in a superficial way, a small marsh area. The ponds are engineered to first facilitate bacterial oxidation of iron; ideally, the water then flows through a composted organic substrate that supports a population of sulfate-reducing bacteria. The latter process raises the pH. During the past four years, over 400 wetland water treatment systems have been built on mined lands as a result of research by the U.S. Bureau of Mines. In general, mine operators find that the wetlands reduce chemical treatment costs enough to repay the cost of wetland construction in less than a year. Actual rates of iron removal at field sites have been used to develop empirical sizing criteria based on iron loading and pH. If the pH is 6 or above, the wetland area (m2) required is equivalent to the iron load (grams/day) divided by 10. Theis requirement doubles at a pH of 4 to 5. At a pH below 4, the iron load (grams/day) should be divided by 2 to estimate the area required (m2).

Kleinmann, Robert L. P.

1990-03-01

96

CHEMICAL DOSER FOR AGUACLARA WATER TREATMENT PLANTS  

EPA Science Inventory

The design procedure for the nonlinear chemical doser will be validated and extended over a wide range of flow rates. The doser will be tested in several full-scale municipal water treatment plants. We will also generate improved design algorithms for rapid mix, flocculation,...

97

Microbiological quality of drinking water at eight water treatment plants  

Microsoft Academic Search

Eight drinking water treatment plants were sampled monthly during one year to evaluate the removal of bacterial indicators, new indicators and some pathogenic bacteria. Six plants are allocated along the Nile River at Cairo segment and the two others on Ismailia Canal. In this study many parameters were determined; the classical bacterial indicators (total bacterial counts at 22 and 37°C,

Gamila E. El-Taweel; Ahmad M. Shaban

2001-01-01

98

Study of drinking water treatment by ultrafiltration of surface water and its application to China  

Microsoft Academic Search

In China, many water supplies depend on conventional water treatment. Due to unfit soil and water conservationin some regions of China, conventional water treatment has showed some defects for the poor quality of water resource. In addition, advances in membrane technology and increasing requirements on water quality have stimulated ultrafiltration (UF) for water treatment. In this research, OF test apparatus

Shengji Xia; Jun Nan; Ruiping Liu; Guibai Li

2004-01-01

99

ANAEROBIC BIOLOGICAL TREATMENT OF PRODUCED WATER  

SciTech Connect

During the production of oil and gas, large amounts of water are brought to the surface and must be disposed of in an environmentally sensitive manner. This is an especially difficult problem in offshore production facilities where space is a major constraint. The chief regulatory criterion for produced water is oil and grease. Most facilities have little trouble meeting this criterion using conventional oil-water separation technologies. However, some operations have significant amounts of naphthenic acids in the water that behave as oil and grease but are not well removed by conventional technologies. Aerobic biological treatment of naphthenic acids in simulated-produced water has been demonstrated by others; however, the system was easily overloaded by the large amounts of low-molecular-weight organic acids often found in produced waters. The objective of this research was to determine the ability of an anaerobic biological system to treat these organic acids in a simulated produced water and to examine the potential for biodegradation of the naphthenic acids in the anaerobic environment. A small fixed-film anaerobic biological reactor was constructed and adapted to treat a simulated produced water. The bioreactor was tubular, with a low-density porous glass packing material. The inocula to the reactor was sediment from a produced-water holding pond from a municipal anaerobic digester and two salt-loving methanogenic bacteria. During start-up, the feed to the reactor contained glucose as well as typical produced-water components. When glucose was used, rapid gas production was observed. However, when glucose was eliminated and the major organic component was acetate, little gas was generated. Methane production from acetate may have been inhibited by the high salt concentrations, by sulfide, or because of the lack, despite seeding, of microbes capable of converting acetate to methane. Toluene, a minor component of the produced water (0.1 g/L) was removed in the reactor. Batch tests were conducted to examine naphthenic acid biodegradability under several conditions. The conditions used were seed from the anaerobic reactor, wetland sediments under aerobic and anaerobic conditions, and a sterile control. The naphthenic acid was from a commercial source isolated from Gulf Coast petroleum as was dosed at 2 mg/mL. The incubations were for 30 days at 30 C. The results showed that the naphthenic acids were not biodegraded under anaerobic conditions, but were degraded under aerobic conditions. Despite poor performance of the anaerobic reactor, it remains likely that anaerobic treatment of acetate, toluene, and, potentially, other produced-water components is feasible.

John R. Gallagher

2001-07-31

100

[Maintenance and monitoring of water treatment system].  

PubMed

Water treatment systems must be submitted to maintenance, disinfections and monitoring periodically. The aim of this review is to analyze how these processes must complement each other in order to preserve the efficiency of the system and optimize the dialysis fluid quality. The correct working of the preparatory process (pre-treatment) and the final phase of depuration (reverse osmosis) of the system need a periodic preventive maintenance and the regular substitution of worn or exhausted components (i.e. the salt of softeners' brine tank, cartridge filters, activated carbon of carbon tanks) by a competent and trained staff. The membranes of reverse osmosis and the water distribution system, including dialysis machine connections, should be submitted to dis-infections at least monthly. For this purpose it is possible to use chemical and physical agents according to manufacturer' recommendations. Each dialysis unit should predispose a monitoring program designed to check the effectiveness of technical working, maintenance and disinfections and the achievement of chemical and microbiological standards taken as a reference. Generally, the correct composition of purified water is monitored by continuous measuring of conductivity, controlling bacteriological cultures and endotoxin levels (monthly) and checking water contaminants (every 6-12 months). During pre-treatment, water hardness (after softeners) and total chlorine (after chlorine tank) should be checked periodically. Recently the Italian Society of Nephrology has developed clinical guidelines for water and dialysis solutions aimed at suggesting rational procedures for production and monitoring of dialysis fluids. It is hopeful that the application of these guidelines will lead to a positive cultural change and to an improvement in dialysis fluid quality. PMID:16342048

Pontoriero, G; Pozzoni, P; Tentori, F; Scaravilli, P; Locatelli, F

2005-01-01

101

Optimized alumina coagulants for water treatment  

Microsoft Academic Search

Substitution of a single Ga-atom or single Ge-atom (GaAl.sub.12 and GeAl.sub.12 respectively) into the center of an aluminum Keggin polycation (Al.sub.13) produces an optimal water-treatment product for neutralization and coagulation of anionic contaminants in water. GaAl.sub.12 consistently shows .about.1 order of magnitude increase in pathogen reduction, compared to Al.sub.13. At a concentration of 2 ppm, GaAl.sub.12 performs equivalently to 40

May D. Nyman; Thomas A. Stewart

2012-01-01

102

Assessing the water quality index of water treatment plant and bore wells, in Delhi, India  

Microsoft Academic Search

Water quality monitoring exercise was carried out with water quality index (WQI) method by using water characteristics data\\u000a for bore wells and a water treatment plant in Delhi city from December 2006 to August 2007. The water treatment plant received\\u000a surface water as raw water, and product water is supplied after treatment. The WQI is used to classify water quality

M. K. Chaturvedi; J. K. Bassin

2010-01-01

103

Parameter identification in dynamical models of anaerobic waste water treatment  

E-print Network

Parameter identification in dynamical models of anaerobic waste water treatment T.G. Muuller a,*, N how to solve them, we analyze two different second order models for anaerobic waste water treatment identifiability; Confidence intervals; Waste water treatment processes 1. Introduction Anaerobic waste water

Timmer, Jens

104

I. INTRODUCTION Previous research in water treatment has been  

E-print Network

a multi-barrier approach to water treatment benefiting the drinking, ballast and waste water industriesI. INTRODUCTION Previous research in water treatment has been varied and extensive. In the past, water treatment research included remote plasma processes, such as ozone, UV and electron processes

McMaster University

105

Applications of nanotechnology in water and wastewater treatment  

E-print Network

Applications of nanotechnology in water and wastewater treatment Xiaolei Qu, Pedro J.J. Alvarez and wastewater treatment Water reuse Sorption Membrane processes Photocatalysis Disinfection Microbial control. Nanotechnology holds great potential in advancing water and wastewater treatment to improve treatment efficiency

Alvarez, Pedro J.

106

Energy requirements for waste water treatment.  

PubMed

The actual mathematical models describing global climate closely link the detected increase in global temperature to anthropogenic activity. The only energy source we can rely on in a long perspective is solar irradiation which is in the order of 10,000 kW/inhabitant. The actual primary power consumption (mainly based on fossil resources) in the developed countries is in the range of 5 to 10 kW/inhabitant. The total power contained in our nutrition is in the range of 0.11 kW/inhabitant. The organic pollution of domestic waste water corresponds to approximately 0.018 kW/inhabitant. The nutrients contained in the waste water can also be converted into energy equivalents replacing market fertiliser production. This energy equivalent is in the range of 0.009 kW/inhabitant. Hence waste water will never be a relevant source of energy as long as our primary energy consumption is in the range of several kW/inhabitant. The annual mean primary power demand of conventional municipal waste water treatment with nutrient removal is in the range of 0.003-0.015 kW/inhabitant. In principle it is already possible to reduce this value for external energy supply to zero. Such plants should be connected to an electrical grid in order to keep investment costs low. Peak energy demand will be supported from the grid and surplus electric energy from the plant can be is fed to the grid. Zero 'carbon footprint' will not be affected by this solution. Energy minimisation must never negatively affect treatment efficiency because water quality conservation is more important for sustainable development than the possible reduction in energy demand. This argument is strongly supported by economical considerations as the fixed costs for waste water infrastructure are dominant. PMID:22214091

Svardal, K; Kroiss, H

2011-01-01

107

No Chemical, Zero Bleed Cooling Tower Water Treatment Process  

E-print Network

NO CHEMICAL, ZERO BLEED COOLING TOWER WATER TREATMENT PROCESS ALDEN L. COKE, CWS IV, PRESIDENT, AQUA-FLO, INC., BALTIMORE, MARYLAND ABSTRACT This paper describes a process to treat cooling tower water by means of a fully automated... and chemical free mechanical water treatment process. This is an alternative to conventional chemical treatment. Beginning with a suction pump to draw water out of the tower sump, water goes through a permanent magnetic descaler to increase the water...

Coke, A. L.

108

1. WATER TREATMENT PUMPING AND STORAGE BUILDING, FRONT AND LEFT ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

1. WATER TREATMENT PUMPING AND STORAGE BUILDING, FRONT AND LEFT SIDES, LOOKING NORTHEAST. - NIKE Missile Base SL-40, Water Treatment & Storage Building, Southern portion of launch area, southeast of Ready Building, Hecker, Monroe County, IL

109

4. PHOTOCOPY, ARCHITECTURAL DETAILS FOR WATER TREATMENT PUMPING AND STORAGE ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

4. PHOTOCOPY, ARCHITECTURAL DETAILS FOR WATER TREATMENT PUMPING AND STORAGE BUILDING. - NIKE Missile Base SL-40, Water Treatment & Storage Building, Southern portion of launch area, southeast of Ready Building, Hecker, Monroe County, IL

110

2. WATER TREATMENT PUMPING AND STORAGE BUILDING, REAR AND RIGHT ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

2. WATER TREATMENT PUMPING AND STORAGE BUILDING, REAR AND RIGHT SIDES, LOOKING SOUTHWEST. - NIKE Missile Base SL-40, Water Treatment & Storage Building, Southern portion of launch area, southeast of Ready Building, Hecker, Monroe County, IL

111

Magnetic treatment of industrial water. Silica activation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The paper presents two large-scale observations of magnetic treatment of industrial water, aimed at investigating changes in the formation of deposits. First, a four-month experiment is described with two identical 25 kW heat exchangers, where in one case the inlet water was treated by a magneto-hydrodynamic method. Deposits recovered from both exchangers were analyzed chemically, by X-ray diffraction, infrared spectroscopy and PIXE. The amount of deposit for untreated water, composed mostly of calcite, increased exponentially with temperature reaching 20 g/m of tube at the warm end of the heat exchanger. The mass of the deposit for magnetically treated water did not depend on temperature and was only ca. 0.5 g/m of tube. It was composed of mainly noncrystalline silica-rich material. Further results were obtained from the practical installation at three blocks of a 1 GW power plant. The soft, amorphous deposit for magnetically treated water had a specific surface area of 80 m^2/g and an infrared spectrum similar to that of a silicate hydrogel. Therefore, it appeared that, as a result of the passage through the magnetic device, crystallization of carbonates in water was blocked due to initiation of another, competitive process. This process is the activation of the colloidal silica, which will adsorb calcium, magnesium or other metal ions and then precipitate from the solution as the coagulated agglomerate. The most probable mechanism responsible for silica activation is a Lorentz-force induced deformation of the diffuse layer leading to the increased counterion concentration in the adsorption layer of the negatively charged silica.

Szkatula, A.; Balanda, M.; Kope?, M.

2002-04-01

112

40 CFR 141.83 - Source water treatment requirements.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Source water treatment requirements. 141.83 Section...ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) WATER PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) NATIONAL PRIMARY DRINKING WATER REGULATIONS Control of Lead and Copper...

2013-07-01

113

40 CFR 141.83 - Source water treatment requirements.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Source water treatment requirements. 141.83 Section...ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) WATER PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) NATIONAL PRIMARY DRINKING WATER REGULATIONS Control of Lead and Copper...

2012-07-01

114

40 CFR 141.83 - Source water treatment requirements.  

...2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Source water treatment requirements. 141.83 Section...ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) WATER PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) NATIONAL PRIMARY DRINKING WATER REGULATIONS Control of Lead and Copper...

2014-07-01

115

Magnetic treatment of water prevents mineral build-up  

Microsoft Academic Search

Increased demand for water and especially for water reuse combined with tighter restrictions on environmental pollution has dictated the need for improvement in water treatment. The effective treatment of a water supply to prevent or minimize the formation of scale or corrosion, for example, is complex and any process requiring little or no chemical additions represents an attractive alternative. Untreated

C. J. Quinn; T. C. Molden; C. H. Sanderson

1997-01-01

116

Treatment of recycled carrot washing water.  

PubMed

Large volumes of effluents and solid waste derive from industrial fresh packing and processing of carrots. Due to high organic loads and suspended solids and due to insufficient wastewater treatment, surface waters are polluted by effluents of carrot washing, as shown for one enterprise in Germany. Over a period of four months the water quality was studied at the stages of a treatment system consisting of a grit chamber, a settling tank combined with aeration devices and a constructed wetland. Organic pollutants were measured as COD and BOD5 in different fractions of the wastewater. The daily washing of carrots produces up to 300 m3 wastewater with a mean filterable solids content of 453 mg l(-1) and a mean COD concentration of 179 mg l(-1). On average the current efficiency of total COD reduction is 52%. Due to the fine grain size and the low density of suspended solids, settling is very slow and incomplete, primarily during the winter. As much as 29 mg COD l(-1) in the effluent derive from the fraction of particles which do not settle within 18 hours. The dissolved COD fraction accounts for 30 mg l(-1) and reflects the insufficient oxygenation of the wastewater. Strategies for enhancing the removal of organic compounds can be derived from the results of this study. Spatial separation of settling and aeration processes is recommended to optimise the treatment process. Furthermore, the area of the constructed wetland should be increased to maintain its hydraulic conductivity and to guarantee a high COD reduction. PMID:16583829

Kern, J; Reimann, W; Schlüter, O

2006-04-01

117

Chapter 6 Ion-Exchange Membrane Processes in Water Treatment  

Microsoft Academic Search

Electrodialysis has been one of the first commercially available large scale water desalination processes based on membranes. However, in spite of a long term reliable operation experience in brackish water desalination and waste water treatment electrodialysis is replaced more and more by reverse osmosis and nanofiltration which have especially in the production of potable water from sea water a clear

H. Strathmann

2010-01-01

118

Water quality transformations during soil aquifer treatment at the Mesa Northwest Water Reclamation Plant, USA  

Microsoft Academic Search

Water quality transformations during soil aquifer treatment at the Mesa Northwest Water Reclamation Plant (NWWRP) were evaluated by sampling a network of groundwater monitoring wells located within the reclaimed water plume. The Mesa Northwest Water Reclamation Plant has used soil aquifer treatment (SAT) since it began operation in 1990 and the recovery of reclaimed water from the impacted groundwater has

P. Fox; K. Narayanaswamy; A. Gen; J. E. Drewes

119

COSTS OF WATER TREATMENT DUE TO DIMINISHED WATER QUALITY: A CASE STUDY IN TEXAS  

E-print Network

COSTS OF WATER TREATMENT DUE TO DIMINISHED WATER QUALITY: A CASE STUDY IN TEXAS David Dearmont and Resources Portland State University P O Box 751 Portland OR 97207-0751 October, 1997 Draft of paper in Water Resources Research, 34(4), 849-854, 1998. #12;2 CHEMICAL COSTS OF WATER TREATMENT DUE TO DIMINISHED WATER

McCarl, Bruce A.

120

Risk management in waste water treatment.  

PubMed

With the continuous restructuring of the water market due to liberalisation, privatisation and internationalisation processes, the requirements on waste water disposal companies have grown. Increasing competition requires a target-oriented and clearly structured procedure. At the same time it is necessary to meet the environment-relevant legal requirements and to design the processes to be environment-oriented. The implementation of risk management and the integration of such a management instrument in an existing system in addition to the use of modern technologies and procedures can help to make the operation of the waste water treatment safer and consequently strengthen market position. The risk management process consists of three phases, risk identification, risk analysis/risk assessment and risk handling, which are based on each other, as well as of the risk managing. To achieve an identification of the risks as complete as possible, a subdivision of the kind of risks (e.g. legal, financial, market, operational) is suggested. One possibility to assess risks is the portfolio method which offers clear representation. It allows a division of the risks into classes showing which areas need handling. The determination of the appropriate measures to handle a risk (e.g. avoidance, reduction, shift) is included in the concluding third phase. Different strategies can be applied here. On the one hand, the cause-oriented strategy, aiming at preventive measures which aim to reduce the probability of occurrence of a risk (e.g. creation of redundancy, systems with low susceptibility to malfunction). On the other hand, the effect-oriented strategy, aiming to minimise the level of damage in case of an undesired occurrence (e.g. use of alarm systems, insurance cover). PMID:16477971

Wagner, M; Strube, I

2005-01-01

121

Costs of water treatment due to diminished water quality: A case study in Texas  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The cost of municipal water treatment due to diminished water quality represents an important component of the societal costs of water pollution. Here the chemical costs of municipal water treatment are expressed as a function of raw surface water quality. Data are used for a 3-year period for 12 water treatment plants in Texas. Results show that when regional raw water contamination is present, the chemical cost of water treatment is increased by 95 per million gallons (per 3785 m3) from a base of 75. A 1% increase in turbidity is shown to increase chemical costs by 0.25%.

Dearmont, David; McCarl, Bruce A.; Tolman, Deborah A.

1998-04-01

122

RECIRCULATION PROCESS OF DEMINERALIZATION WATER TREATMENT PLANT TO REDUCE CONDUCTIVITY LEVEL OF WATER  

E-print Network

Demineralization Water Treatment Plant serves to treat water that has been filtered at the Water Treatment Plant to be "good quality water " with the process of reverse osmosis. The initial design of Demineralization Water Treatment Plant in Pemaron – Bali Gas Turbine is to produce water that have conductivity level in 15 microsimens / cm, which is used for gas turbine cooling water system. At the moment we are planning to install Hydrogen Plant, it turns out this equipment takes raw water with a maximum conductivity of 5 microsimens / cm. So the product of Demineralization Water Treatment Plant is unable. Do a little innovation in production process of Demineralization Water Treatment Plant, namely recirculation, so that it can reduce the value conductivity to below 5 microsimens / cm. From result of laboratory test, it can be concluded that conductivity water after recirculation process is 2 microsimens / cm, thus meet requirement and can be used as raw water for Hydrogen Plant

Kukuh Pambudi; Widi Nurcahyo; K. Adi Dharma; W Tantrawan

123

36 CFR 1002.63 - Boating and water use activities.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

36 ? Parks, Forests, and Public Property ? 3 ? 2013-07-01 ? 2012-07-01 ? true ? Boating and water use activities. ? 1002.63 ? Section 1002.63 ? Parks, Forests, and Public Property ? PRESIDIO TRUST ? RESOURCE PROTECTION, PUBLIC USE AND RECREATION ? § 1002.63 ? Boating and water use activities....

2013-07-01

124

Disposal of water treatment wastes containing arsenic — A review  

Microsoft Academic Search

Solid waste management in developing countries is often unsustainable, relying on uncontrolled disposal in waste dumps. Particular problems arise from the disposal of treatment residues generated by removing arsenic (As) from drinking water because As can be highly mobile and has the potential to leach back to ground and surface waters. This paper reviews the disposal of water treatment wastes

Colin Sullivan; Mark Tyrer; Christopher R. Cheeseman; Nigel J. D. Graham

2010-01-01

125

Performance Evaluation of a Water Treatment Plant (Case Study)  

Microsoft Academic Search

For providing continuous and good quality of water to all the regions in Maharashtra through out the year, Govt. of Maharashtra has constructed new water treatment plants during the past few years. Performance of these plants is an essential parameter to be monitored and evaluated for the better understanding of design and operating difficulties in water treatment plants. The conclusions

A. N. Burile; P. B. Nagarnaik

2010-01-01

126

Improving Water Quality by Coordinating Industries Schedules and Treatment Plants  

Microsoft Academic Search

Having a proper waste water treatment system is crucial for making a good use of water resources. Current regulations enforce some restrictions to the industries producing waste, according to the capacities of waste water treatment plants. However, these are usually not sufficient to ensure that these capacities are not exceeded. In this paper we present a co- ordination system that

Víctor Muñoz; Javier Murillo; Dídac Busquets; Beatriz López

2007-01-01

127

Water treatment plant intelligent monitoring in large gas refinery  

Microsoft Academic Search

Water treatment plants have to provide good water quality and at the same time low operational costs. Owing to various physical, chemical and biological interactions water treatment processes are often difficult to handle and reliable predictions for the course of processes are difficult to obtain. Developing monitoring in Automation Control System is a major industrial concern since those systems are

Amir Firoozshahi; Li Mengyang

2010-01-01

128

Evaluation of Water Treatment Sludge for Ameliorating Acid Mine Waste  

Microsoft Academic Search

ter providing authority to the Gauteng Province (South Africa), produces 550 Mg of water treatment sludge This study investigated the liming effect of water treatment sludge daily. The reuse of sludge will therefore be environmen- on acid mine spoils. The study was conducted with sludge from a tally and economically beneficial. Alternative uses of the water purification plant along the

L. Van Rensburg; T. L. Morgenthal

2003-01-01

129

Measuring Aluminum During Water Treatment: Methodology and Application  

Microsoft Academic Search

A method for determining aluminum during water treatment is described. The procedure, which involves filtration and cation exchange to isolate specific aluminum fractions followed by analysis, was applied to two municipal water treatment plants. Results showed that 70-80 percent of the aluminum present in the treated water was in the dissolved form. Residual aluminum concentrations and the extent of oversaturation

John E. Van Benschoten; James K. Edzwald

1990-01-01

130

Water Treatment: Can You Purify Water for Drinking?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Presents a three-day mini unit on purification of drinking water that uses the learning cycle approach. Demonstrates the typical technology that water companies use to provide high-quality drinking water. (JRH)

Harris, Mary E.

1996-01-01

131

Onsite Wastewater Treatment Systems: Graywater Use and Water Quality  

E-print Network

their homes in their landscapes. This reuse of graywater can reduce the amount of wastewater entering sewers or treatment systems, reduce the amount of fresh water used on landscapes and help preserve limited fresh water supplies. Onsite wastewater...-washing machines ? The code excludes water that has washed materials soiled with human waste, such as diapers, and water that has been in contact with toilet waste. This water, known as blackwater, includes flush water from toilets and urinals and wastewater...

Lesikar, Bruce J.; Mechell, Justin; Alexander, Rachel

2008-08-28

132

Linking ceragenins to water-treatment membranes to minimize biofouling  

Microsoft Academic Search

Ceragenins were used to create biofouling resistant water-treatment membranes. Ceragenins are synthetically produced antimicrobial peptide mimics that display broad-spectrum bactericidal activity. While ceragenins have been used on bio-medical devices, use of ceragenins on water-treatment membranes is novel. Biofouling impacts membrane separation processes for many industrial applications such as desalination, waste-water treatment, oil and gas extraction, and power generation. Biofouling results

Michael R. Hibbs; Susan Jeanne Altman; Yanshu Feng; Paul B. Savage; Jacob Pollard; Steven S. Branda; Darla Goeres; Kelli Buckingham-Meyer; Shane Stafslien; Christopher Marry; Howland D. T. Jones; Alyssa Lichtenberger; Matthew F. Kirk; Lucas K. McGrath

2012-01-01

133

Biological Treatment of Drinking Water: Applications, Advantages and Disadvantages  

EPA Science Inventory

The fundamentals of biological treatment are presented to an audience of state drinking water regulators. The presentation covers definitions, applications, the basics of bacterial metabolism, a discussion of treatment options, and the impact that implementation of these options...

134

COMPUTER COST MODELS FOR POTABLE WATER TREATMENT PLANTS  

EPA Science Inventory

A series of computer programs have been developed which calculate costs for specific unit treatment processes used in water treatment plants. The programs contained in this report are as follows: chlorination, chlorine dioxide, ozone, and granular activated carbon adsorption. Tab...

135

Influence of various commercial water treatment processes on the electric conductivity of several drinking waters  

Microsoft Academic Search

Seven commercially available devices for water treatment were used on samples of drinking water drawn from four geographically different sources in Austria containing significantly different amounts of dissolved ions. The purpose of this investigation was to elucidate the influence of these water treatment processes, if any, on the electric conductivity of drinking waters. Within the limits of our experimental precision,

A. Asenbaum; C. Pruner; H. Kabelka; A. Philipp; Emmerich Wilhelm; R. Spendlingwimmer; A. Gebauer; R. Buchner

2011-01-01

136

K West integrated water treatment system subproject safety analysis document  

SciTech Connect

This Accident Analysis evaluates unmitigated accident scenarios, and identifies Safety Significant and Safety Class structures, systems, and components for the K West Integrated Water Treatment System.

SEMMENS, L.S.

1999-02-24

137

ORGANOPHOSPHATE PESTICIDE DEGRADATION UNDER DRINKING WATER TREATMENT CONDITIONS: MODELING PERSPECTIVES  

EPA Science Inventory

The objectives of this work were to develop experimental approaches and a modeling philosophy to study degradation of organophosphate pesticides as a class under drinking water treatment conditions....

138

Improving the efficiency of clarifiers for coagulation treatment of water  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Technological and design possibilities of improving clarifiers for coagulation treatment of water are considered. The results obtained from implementing these possibilities in real devices are presented.

Vinogradov, V. N.; Smirnov, B. A.; Zhadan, A. V.; Avan, V. K.

2010-08-01

139

Precipitative Softening and Ultrafiltration Treatment of Beverage Water.  

E-print Network

??Lime softening, chlorination, clarification and filtration have been long recognized treatment processes for beverage water specifically the carbonated soft drink (CSD) because it provides consistent… (more)

Aguinaldo, Jorge T.

2006-01-01

140

36 CFR 1011.10 - How will the Presidio Trust use administrative offset (offset of non-tax federal payments) to...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...federal payments) to collect a debt? 1011.10 Section 1011...Property PRESIDIO TRUST DEBT COLLECTION Procedures To Collect...example, when the validity of the debt turns on an issue of credibility...not to have been owed to the...

2013-07-01

141

36 CFR 1011.10 - How will the Presidio Trust use administrative offset (offset of non-tax federal payments) to...  

...federal payments) to collect a debt? 1011.10 Section 1011...Property PRESIDIO TRUST DEBT COLLECTION Procedures To Collect...example, when the validity of the debt turns on an issue of credibility...not to have been owed to the...

2014-07-01

142

36 CFR 1011.10 - How will the Presidio Trust use administrative offset (offset of non-tax federal payments) to...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...federal payments) to collect a debt? 1011.10 Section 1011...Property PRESIDIO TRUST DEBT COLLECTION Procedures To Collect...example, when the validity of the debt turns on an issue of credibility...not to have been owed to the...

2011-07-01

143

36 CFR 1011.10 - How will the Presidio Trust use administrative offset (offset of non-tax federal payments) to...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...federal payments) to collect a debt? 1011.10 Section 1011...Property PRESIDIO TRUST DEBT COLLECTION Procedures To Collect...example, when the validity of the debt turns on an issue of credibility...not to have been owed to the...

2012-07-01

144

Application potential of carbon nanotubes in water treatment: A review.  

PubMed

Water treatment is the key to coping with the conflict between people's increasing demand for water and the world-wide water shortage. Owing to their unique and tunable structural, physical, and chemical properties, carbon nanotubes (CNTs) have exhibited great potentials in water treatment. This review makes an attempt to provide an overview of potential solutions to various environmental challenges by using CNTs as adsorbents, catalysts or catalyst support, membranes, and electrodes. The merits of incorporating CNT to conventional water-treatment material are emphasized, and the remaining challenges are discussed. PMID:24218837

Liu, Xitong; Wang, Mengshu; Zhang, Shujuan; Pan, Bingcai

2013-07-01

145

Applications of nanotechnology in water and wastewater treatment.  

PubMed

Providing clean and affordable water to meet human needs is a grand challenge of the 21st century. Worldwide, water supply struggles to keep up with the fast growing demand, which is exacerbated by population growth, global climate change, and water quality deterioration. The need for technological innovation to enable integrated water management cannot be overstated. Nanotechnology holds great potential in advancing water and wastewater treatment to improve treatment efficiency as well as to augment water supply through safe use of unconventional water sources. Here we review recent development in nanotechnology for water and wastewater treatment. The discussion covers candidate nanomaterials, properties and mechanisms that enable the applications, advantages and limitations as compared to existing processes, and barriers and research needs for commercialization. By tracing these technological advances to the physicochemical properties of nanomaterials, the present review outlines the opportunities and limitations to further capitalize on these unique properties for sustainable water management. PMID:23571110

Qu, Xiaolei; Alvarez, Pedro J J; Li, Qilin

2013-08-01

146

The Alumina- Lime Soda Water Treatment Process.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A new pretreatment process for brackish water desalting has been developed and evaluated in the laboratory. The alumina-lime-soda process involves treating raw saline water with sodium aluminate and lime, separating precipitated solids, and neutralizing t...

J. W. Nebgen, E. P. Shea, S. Y. Chiu

1973-01-01

147

PHOSPHATE CHEMICALS FOR BUILDING POTABLE WATER TREATMENT  

EPA Science Inventory

Buildings can contribute significant quantities of trace metal contamination to drinking water, particularly lead, copper and zinc. Discolored water may also result in corroded galvanized and steel plumbing and after prolonged stagnation times. To protect human health as well as ...

148

Water Treatment using Electrocoagulation Ritika Mohan  

E-print Network

Reverse Osmosis (HEROTM). Semiconductor industrial waste water amounts to approximately 105 ­ 106 gal of brine amounting to almost 103 104 gal/day water. The difference between conventional Reverse Osmosis

Fay, Noah

149

Disinfection of Water by Ultrasound: Application to Ballast Water Treatment.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Ultrasound has potential application in disinfecting a variety of water streams, including shipboard ballast water to avoid transfer of non- indigenous species between geographic locations. Two approaches for improving the performance of ultrasound in dis...

D. M. Stamper, E. R. Holm, R. A. Brizzolara

2006-01-01

150

Emergency Response and Protection Water Treatment Technologies  

EPA Science Inventory

The Expeditionary Unit Water Purifier (EUWP) is supported and deployed by NFESC, the TARDEC, and the USBR. The EUWP was deployed to Biloxi, MS after Hurricane Katrina to supply potable water to a hospital, using seawater from the Gulf of Mexico as the source water. The EUWP ...

151

Magnetic water treatment – how might it work?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Claims that passing hard water through a magnetic field somehow influences the structure and morphology of the calcium carbonate that forms when the water is subsequently heated have been met with robust scepticism. This was largely due to the absence of any plausible mechanism whereby water could acquire a long-lasting magnetically-imprinted memory. Recent work challenging classical nucleation theory, insofar as

J. M. D. Coey

2012-01-01

152

CHARACTERIZING RAW SURFACE WATER AMENABLE TO MINIMAL WATER SUPPLY TREATMENT  

EPA Science Inventory

The monitoring strategy must be sensitive to frequent and unpredictable fluctuations in water quality caused by major storm events and seasonal destratifications of the lake/impoundment. Therefore, daily monitoring of raw source water and the finished water quality entering distr...

153

SUSTAINABLE CATALYTIC TREATMENT OF WASTE ION EXCHANGE BRINES FOR REUSE DURING OXYANION TREATMENT IN DRINKING WATER  

EPA Science Inventory

We expect the proposed work to result in the design of full-scale treatment systems for catalytic brine treatment that provides a more economical and sustainable option for removing mixtures of oxyanions from drinking water at small water treatment utilities. This will allo...

154

Improved polyacrylamide treatments for water control in producing wells  

SciTech Connect

This paper reports on two polyacrylamide processes for water control in producing wells which improve the efficiency of conventional polyacrylamide treatment without inducing any risk of well plugging by crosslinkers. Treatment of a gas-storage well strongly decreased water production without any adverse effect on gas injection or production for at least 3 years.

Zaltoun, A.; Kohler, N. (Inst. Francais du Petrole (FR)); Guerrini, Y. (Gaz de France (FR))

1991-07-01

155

12. Water treatment plant interior view of pipes and pump ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

12. Water treatment plant interior view of pipes and pump in heater room. View to W - Fort Benton Water Treatment Plant, Filtration Plant, Lots 9-13 of Block 7, Fort Benton Original Townsite at Missouri River, Fort Benton, Chouteau County, MT

156

MODIFIED REVERSE OSMOSIS SYSTEM FOR TREATMENT OF PRODUCED WATERS  

Microsoft Academic Search

This report describes work performed during the first year of the project ''Modified Reverse Osmosis System for Treatment of Produced Waters.'' This research project has two objectives. The first objective is to test the use of clay membranes in the treatment of produced waters by reverse osmosis. The second objective is to test the ability of a system patented by

T. M. Whitworth; Liangxiong Li

2002-01-01

157

BARIUM AND RADIUM IN WATER TREATMENT PLANT WASTES  

EPA Science Inventory

Water treatment plants at nine locations (10 plants) in Illinois and Iowa were studied to determine the characteristics and disposal practices for the sludge, brine, and backwash water containing radium (Ra) and/or barium (Ba). The treatment processes in these ten plants include ...

158

ARSENIC MOBILITY FROM IRON OXIDE SOLIDS PRODUCED DURING WATER TREATMENT  

EPA Science Inventory

The Arsenic Rule under the Safe Drinking Water Act will require certain drinking water suppliers to add to or modify their existing treatment in order to comply with the new 10 ppb arsenic standard. One of the treatment options is co-precipitation of arsenic with iron. This tre...

159

BENEFICIAL DISPOSAL OF WATER PURIFICATION PLANT SLUDGES IN WASTEWATER TREATMENT  

EPA Science Inventory

This report discusses the advantages and disadvantages of the disposal of waste alum sludge from a water treatment plant to a municipal wastewater treatment plant and is submitted in fulfillment of Grant No. 803336-01 by Novato Sanitary District and North Marin County Water Distr...

160

INL Bettis Water Treatment Project Report  

SciTech Connect

Bechtel Bettis Atomic Power Laboratory (Bettis), West Mifflin, PA, requested that the Idaho National Laboratory (INL) (Battelle Energy Alliance) perform tests using water simulants and three specified media to determine if those ion-exchange (IX) resins will be effective at removing the plutonium contamination from water. This report details the testing and results of the tests to determine the suitability of the media to treat plutonium contaminated water at near nuetral pH.

Not Available

2009-06-01

161

Ballast water treatment technologies: hydrocyclonic a viable option  

Microsoft Academic Search

Many governments, international maritime environmental entities and public health organizations have recognized the environmental,\\u000a economic and health threats caused by the translocation and release of ballast water. A wide variety of ballast water treatment\\u000a systems are available at both commercial and under evaluation levels. The available ballast water treatment technologies are\\u000a reviewed. This work reviews the various types of technologies

Mazen M. Abu-Khader; Omar Badran; Menwer Attarakih

2011-01-01

162

Two-stage treatment reduces water/oil ratio  

SciTech Connect

This paper reports how a treatment of amphoteric polymer followed by chrome-complexed anionic polyacrylamide has successfully decreased the water/oil (WOR) ratio of wells producing from the Arbuckle dolomite formation in central Kansas. This technique, the fractured-matrix, water-control (FMWC) treatment, is designed to alter both primary and secondary permeability to water production. In 10 treated wells, the average WOR was reduced by a factor of five.

Wood, F.; Dairymple, D. (Halliburton Services, Duncan, OK (US)); McKown, K.; Matthews, B. (Halliburton Services, KS (US))

1990-09-10

163

Desalination and Water Treatment www.deswater.com  

E-print Network

and to produce purified water. The main advantages of FO include operation at very low hydraulic pressures, highDesalination and Water Treatment www.deswater.com 1944-3994 / 1944-3986 © 2010 Desalination for enhancement of water recovery in desalination processes Tzahi Y. Cath Division of Environmental Science

164

Good and bad particle counter use in potable water treatment  

Microsoft Academic Search

Over the last two decades, there has been much interest in whether particle counters hold any significant benefit over conventional nephelometric turbidimeters in monitoring, optimising and controlling potable water treatment processes. Southern Water, which supplies drinking water to two million customers living in Kent, Sussex, Hampshire and the Isle of Wight first used particle counters at one of its works

Paul Hamilton; Tony Beer; Guy Standen; Simon Parsons

165

Direct drinking water treatment by spiral-wound ultrafiltration membranes  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents the results of a research on direct drinking water treatment through an ultrafiltration pilot plant unit using spiral-wound membranes (3500 MWCO). The source of water is the Guarapiranga Reservoir, an eutrophicated water body located in the metropolitan region of São Paulo, Brazil. The data were collected during a period of almost 3400 h, from August 2005 to

J. C. Mierzwa; I. Hespanhol; M. C. C. da Silva; L. D. B. Rodrigues; C. F. Giorgi

2008-01-01

166

Inferring Infection Transmission Parameters That Influence Water Treatment Decisions  

Microsoft Academic Search

One charge of the United States Environmental Protection Agency is to study the risk of infection for microbial agents that can be disseminated through drinking water systems, and to recommend water treatment policy to counter that risk. Recently proposed dynamical system models quantify indirect risks due to secondary transmission, in addition to primary infection risk from the water supply considered

Stephen E. Chick; Sada Soorapanth; James S. Koopman

2003-01-01

167

BACTERIAL COLONIZATION OF POINT-OF-USE WATER TREATMENT DEVICES  

EPA Science Inventory

Point-of-use water treatment devices were investigated for types of organisms that may colonize these filters, the magnitude of microbial post colonization release in the product water during daily use or after periods of non use, and the impact of tap waters of marginal bacterio...

168

71 FR 654 - National Primary Drinking Water Regulations: Long Term 2 Enhanced Surface Water Treatment Rule  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...5 years after the first...if source water quality has...that should affect treatment...is stored after a PWS has...uncovered finished water storage facility...system will not affect this determination...change does not affect the treatment...of source water monitoring...30 months after the rule...

2006-01-05

169

Purge water characterization and treatment summary  

Microsoft Academic Search

A number of groundwaters at the Hanford Site are contaminated with a variety of radioactive and nonradioactive constituents. The contaminants and the movement of these groundwaters are monitored in accordance with US Department of Energy (DOE) and the Washington State Department of Ecology (Ecology) requirements. The monitoring activities generate four types of purge water: (1) well sampling purge water for

L. Garrett; P. M. Olson

1990-01-01

170

Magnetic water treatment for scale prevention  

Microsoft Academic Search

A home-made magnetic device was built with permanent magnets for treating scaling waters. Its efficiency was evaluated by measuring the remaining ionic calcium at the output of the device by means of an ion selective electrode. The scaling power of the treated water was estimated through an electrochemical scaling test. Chroamperometric curves and chronoelectrogravimetric curves were plotted to obtain the

C. Gabrielli; R. JAOUHARIy; G. Maurin; M. Keddam

2001-01-01

171

Treatment of oil-in-water emulsions  

SciTech Connect

Petroleum is separated from an oil-in-water emulsion containing water-soluble polymer such as polyacrylamide prior to refining by adding amphoteric metal cations (Zn, Al, Sn, and Co) to the emulsion to form a flocculate and then treating the resulting flocculate with a strong base to recover the oil and metal. 11 claims.

Presley, C.T.; Harrison, R.J.

1980-01-08

172

Treatment of oil-in-water emulsions  

SciTech Connect

Petroleum is separated from an ''oil-in-water'' emulsion containing water-soluble polymer prior to refining by adding amphoteric metal cations to the emulsion to form a flocculate and then treating the resulting flocculate with a strong base to recover the oil and metal.

Harrison, R.J.; Presley, C.T.

1980-01-08

173

EPA?s Drinking Water Treatment Research  

EPA Science Inventory

Riverbank filtration has been utilized for decades as a pretreatment for waters that will be used for drinking water. A study investigating the occurrence and potential for removal of suspected endocrine disrupting compounds (EDCs) during riverbank filtration at a municipal well...

174

THE FUTURE IN WATER TREATMENT - AN SA WATER PERSPECTIVE  

Microsoft Academic Search

Adelaide's water quality has been the subject of adverse media comment in regard to taste and odour for years. At times, algal taste and odours are evident due to the majority of water being sourced from the River Murray plus reservoirs in the Adelaide Hills - a primary agricultural area. Further, customers complain about chlorinous taste and odour in the

Geoffrey Kilmore; Mary Drikas; Trevor Lehmann

175

CAN MEMBRANES BE ACCEPTABLE TREATMENT TECHNOLOGY FOR DRINKING WATER TREATMENT?  

EPA Science Inventory

Various treatment technologies have proven effective in controlling halogenated disinfection by-products such as precursor removal and the use of alternative disinfectants. ne of the most promising methods for halogenated by-product control includes removal of precursors before d...

176

ESTIMATING WATER TREATMENT COSTS. VOLUME 1. SUMMARY  

EPA Science Inventory

This report discusses unit processes and combinations of unit processes that are capable of removing contaminants included in the National Interim Primary Drinking Water Regulations. Construction and operation and maintenance cost curves are presented for 99 unit processes that a...

177

Problems of drinking water treatment along Ismailia Canal Province, Egypt  

Microsoft Academic Search

The present drinking water purification system in Egypt uses surface water as a raw water supply without a preliminary filtration\\u000a process. On the other hand, chlorine gas is added as a disinfectant agent in two steps, pre- and post-chlorination. Due to\\u000a these reasons most of water treatment plants suffer low filtering effectiveness and produce the trihalomethane (THM) species\\u000a as a

Mohamed H. Geriesh; Klaus-Dieter Balke; Ahmed E. El-Rayes

2008-01-01

178

Magnetic treatment of irrigation water: Its effects on vegetable crop yield and water productivity  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study examines whether there are any beneficial effects of magnetic treatment of different irrigation water types on water productivity and yield of snow pea, celery and pea plants. Replicated pot experiments involving magnetically treated and non-magnetically treated potable water (tap water), recycled water and saline water (500ppm and 1000ppm NaCl for snow peas; 1500ppm and 3000ppm for celery and

Basant L. Maheshwari; Harsharn Singh Grewal

2009-01-01

179

Integrated water quality, emergy and economic evaluation of three bioremediation treatment systems for eutrophic water  

EPA Science Inventory

This study was targeted at ?nding one or more environmentally efficient, economically feasible and ecologically sustainable bioremediation treatment modes for eutrophic water. Three biological species, i.e. water spinach (Ipomoea aquatica), loach (Misgurus anguillicaudatu...

180

Optimisation of complex water supply systems with water quality, hydraulic and treatment plant aspects  

Microsoft Academic Search

A model for optimal operation of a complex water supply system for drinking water and with water quality, hydraulic and desalination treatment plants developed by Cohen and others has been applied to a realistic regional network, in which water quality is defined by salinity, magnesium and sulphur. The model considers the hydraulics of the network, including pump stations, boosters and

Dani Cohen; Uri Shamir; Gideon Sinai

2009-01-01

181

Water treatment facilities (excluding wastewater facilities). (Latest citations from the Selected Water Resources Abstracts database). Published Search  

SciTech Connect

The bibliography contains citations concerning the design, construction, costs, and operation of water treatment facilities. Facilities covered include those that provide drinking water, domestic water, and water for industrial use. Types of water treatment covered include reverse osmosis, chlorination, filtration, and ozonization. Waste water treatment facilities are excluded from this bibliography. (Contains 250 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.)

Not Available

1993-07-01

182

Effectiveness of Natural Polyelectrolytes in Water Treatment  

Microsoft Academic Search

Synthetic polyelectrolytes are widely used in the United States because of their effectiveness as a coagulant or coagulant aid. Synthetic polyelectrolytes produce a lower volume of sludge compared with alum flocculation, and their effectiveness is not much affected by the pH level of water. Synthetic polyelectrolytes provide better dewatering characteristics in sludge produced and facilitate better filter performance. However, one

Susumu Kawamura

1991-01-01

183

Photocatalytic water treatment: solar energy applications  

Microsoft Academic Search

During the past 20 years research and development in the area of photocatalysis have been tremendous. One of the major applications of this technology is the degradation of organic pollutants in water and air streams which is considered as one of the so-called advanced oxidation processes. This overview briefly describes the basic principles of photocatalysis, focusing in particular on important

Detlef Bahnemann

2004-01-01

184

Spring water treatment with ultrafiltration and stripping  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study focuses on an hybrid process which couples ultrafiltration and stripping. The aim is to treat spring water to disinfect it and to enhance its pH without adding reactants. The first part of the study focused on stripping in a batch stirred reactor without UF. Air was chosen as the stripping gas, and the influence of the air flow

Corinne Cabassud; Caroline Burgaud; Jean-Michel Espenan

2001-01-01

185

DRINKING WATER TREATMENT USING SLOW SAND FILTRATION  

EPA Science Inventory

Recent re-interest in slow sand filtration was brought about by the needs for small communities to install treatment technologies that are effective, less costly, and easier to operate and maintain than the more sophisticated rapid sand filters. These simpler technologies for sma...

186

Sacramento River Water Treatment Plant Intake Pier & Access Bridge, ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

Sacramento River Water Treatment Plant Intake Pier & Access Bridge, Spanning Sacramento River approximately 175 feet west of eastern levee on river; roughly .5 mile downstream from confluence of Sacramento & American Rivers, Sacramento, Sacramento County, CA

187

MICROORGANISMS AND HIGHER PLANTS FOR WASTE WATER TREATMENT  

EPA Science Inventory

Batch experiments were conducted to compare the waste water treatment efficiencies of plant-free microbial filters with filters supporting the growth of reeds (Phragmites communis), cattail (Typha latifolia), rush (Juncus effusus), and bamboo (Bambusa multiplex). The experimental...

188

TREATMENT TECHNOLOGY FOR REMOVING RADON FROM SMALL COMMUNITY WATER SUPPLIES  

EPA Science Inventory

Radon contamination of drinking water primarily affects individual homeowners and communities using groundwater supplies. resently, three types of treatment processes have been used to remove radon: granular activated carbon adsorption (GAG>, diffused bubble aeration, and packed ...

189

51. LOOKING NORTHEAST AT EIMCO WASTE WATER TREATMENT THICKENER No. ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

51. LOOKING NORTHEAST AT EIMCO WASTE WATER TREATMENT THICKENER No. 2, ELECTRIC POWERHOUSE No. 2, AND OUTDOOR ELECTRICAL SUBSTATION IN BACKGROUND. (Jet Lowe) - U.S. Steel Duquesne Works, Blast Furnace Plant, Along Monongahela River, Duquesne, Allegheny County, PA

190

12. NORTHEAST VIEW OF THE WASTE WATER TREATMENT COMPLEX FOR ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

12. NORTHEAST VIEW OF THE WASTE WATER TREATMENT COMPLEX FOR THE PRIMARY AND 22 BAR MILLS. - U.S. Steel Duquesne Works, Auxiliary Buildings & Shops, Along Monongahela River, Duquesne, Allegheny County, PA

191

Generic Protocol for the Verification of Ballast Water Treatment Technology  

EPA Science Inventory

In anticipation of the need to address performance verification and subsequent approval of new and innovative ballast water treatment technologies for shipboard installation, the U.S Coast Guard and the Environmental Protection Agency?s Environmental Technology Verification Progr...

192

OPTIMIZING WATER TREATMENT PLANT PERFORMANCE WITH THE COMPOSITE CORRECTION PROGRAM  

EPA Science Inventory

This Technology Transfer Summary Report summarizes the results of an ongoing project to evaluate the utility of the Composite Correction Program (CCP) approach to improving the performance of drinking water treatment facilities. The CCP approach, which has already proven successf...

193

6. PHOTOCOPY, WATER TREATMENT PUMPING AND STORAGE BUILDING, MISSILE TEST ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

6. PHOTOCOPY, WATER TREATMENT PUMPING AND STORAGE BUILDING, MISSILE TEST AND ASSEMBLY BUILDING, GENERATOR BUILDING No. 3, AND WARHEADING BUILDING OF LAUNCH AREA. - NIKE Missile Base SL-40, Beck Road between Nike & M Roads, Hecker, Monroe County, IL

194

Using wastewater for cooling: Increasing water reuse poses treatment challenges  

SciTech Connect

Technologies for control of biofouling, scale, corrosion and microbiologically influenced corrosion (MIC) in cooling water systems are discussed. Techniques involving water reuse and using wastewater as makeup are emphasized, and associated problems are identified. Appropriate chemical treatments, including biocides and biostats, biodispersants, sludge dispersants, corrosion inhibitors, and supplementary chemical treatments, are outlined. New and developing technologies reviewed include microorganism control based on biodispersants and on enzymes.

Lutey, R.W. [Buckman Labs. International Inc., Memphis, TN (United States)

1996-04-01

195

Design and Compilation of a Geodatabase of Existing Salinity Information for the Rio Grande Basin, from the Rio Arriba-Sandoval County Line, New Mexico, to Presidio, Texas, 2010  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers, compiled salinity-related water-quality data and information in a geodatabase containing more than 6,000 sampling sites. The geodatabase was designed as a tool for water-resource management and includes readily available digital data sources from the U.S. Geological Survey, U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, New Mexico Interstate Stream Commission, Sustainability of semi-Arid Hydrology and Riparian Areas, Paso del Norte Watershed Council, numerous other State and local databases, and selected databases maintained by the University of Arizona and New Mexico State University. Salinity information was compiled for an approximately 26,000-square-mile area of the Rio Grande Basin from the Rio Arriba-Sandoval County line, New Mexico, to Presidio, Texas. The geodatabase relates the spatial location of sampling sites with salinity-related water-quality data reported by multiple agencies. The sampling sites are stored in a geodatabase feature class; each site is linked by a relationship class to the corresponding sample and results stored in data tables.

Shah, Sachin D.; Maltby, David R., II

2010-01-01

196

CONSTRUCTED WETLANDS FOR ANIMAL WASTE WATER TREATMENT  

Microsoft Academic Search

Confined animal production generates enormous per-unit-area quantities of waste. Waste- water from dairy and swine operations has been successfully treated in constructed wetlands. Plants are an integral part of wetlands. Cattails and bul~~hes are commonly used in constructed wetlands for their capacity to transport oxygen to the sediment. Improved oxidation and nitrification may also be obtained by the use of

P. G. Hunt; M. B. Vanotti; A. A. Szogi; F. J. Humenik; J. M. Rice

197

Control retrofit optimizes water treatment operation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Mississippi Power's Plant Daniel has installed a state-of-the-art microprocessor-based monitoring and control system. According to Leeds and Northrup, manufacturers of the new control system, the system collects water chemistry data from on-line analyzers. In addition, it provides automatic control and monitoring of the plant's demineralizer and condensate polishers. A two-year study conducted by Plant Daniel determined the need for updating

Ball

1992-01-01

198

Selection of water treatment processes special study  

SciTech Connect

Characterization of the level and extent of groundwater contamination in the vicinity of Title I mill sites began during the surface remedial action stage (Phase 1) of the Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action (UMTRA) Project. Some of the contamination in the aquifer(s) at the abandoned sites is attributable to milling activities during the years the mills were in operation. The restoration of contaminated aquifers is to be undertaken in Phase II of the UMTRA Project. To begin implementation of Phase II, DOE requested that groundwater restoration methods and technologies be investigated by the Technical Assistance Contractor (TAC). and that the results of the TAC investigations be documented in special study reports. Many active and passive methods are available to clean up contaminated groundwater. Passive groundwater treatment includes natural flushing, geochemical barriers, and gradient manipulation by stream diversion or slurry walls. Active groundwater.cleanup techniques include gradient manipulation by well extraction or injection. in-situ biological or chemical reclamation, and extraction and treatment. Although some or all of the methods listed above may play a role in the groundwater cleanup phase of the UMTRA Project, the extraction and treatment (pump and treat) option is the only restoration alternative discussed in this report. Hence, all sections of this report relate either directly or indirectly to the technical discipline of process engineering.

Not Available

1991-11-01

199

Plasma treatment of diamond nanoparticles for dispersion improvement in water  

SciTech Connect

Low-temperature plasmas of methane and oxygen mixtures were used to treat diamond nanoparticles to modify their surface characteristics and thus improve their dispersion capability in water. It was found that the plasma treatment significantly reduced water contact angle of diamond nanoparticles and thus rendered the nanoparticles with strong water affinity for dispersion enhancement in polar media such as water. Surface analysis using Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy confirmed that polar groups were imparted on nanoparticle surfaces. As a result, improved suspension stability was observed with plasma treated nanoparticles when dispersed in water.

Yu Qingsong; Kim, Young Jo; Ma, Hongbin [Center for Surface Science and Plasma Technology, Department of Chemical Engineering, University of Missouri-Columbia, Columbia, Missouri 65211 (United States); Department of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering, University of Missouri-Columbia, Columbia, Missouri 65211 (United States)

2006-06-05

200

Linking ceragenins to water-treatment membranes to minimize biofouling.  

SciTech Connect

Ceragenins were used to create biofouling resistant water-treatment membranes. Ceragenins are synthetically produced antimicrobial peptide mimics that display broad-spectrum bactericidal activity. While ceragenins have been used on bio-medical devices, use of ceragenins on water-treatment membranes is novel. Biofouling impacts membrane separation processes for many industrial applications such as desalination, waste-water treatment, oil and gas extraction, and power generation. Biofouling results in a loss of permeate flux and increase in energy use. Creation of biofouling resistant membranes will assist in creation of clean water with lower energy usage and energy with lower water usage. Five methods of attaching three different ceragenin molecules were conducted and tested. Biofouling reduction was observed in the majority of the tests, indicating the ceragenins are a viable solution to biofouling on water treatment membranes. Silane direct attachment appears to be the most promising attachment method if a high concentration of CSA-121a is used. Additional refinement of the attachment methods are needed in order to achieve our goal of several log-reduction in biofilm cell density without impacting the membrane flux. Concurrently, biofilm forming bacteria were isolated from source waters relevant for water treatment: wastewater, agricultural drainage, river water, seawater, and brackish groundwater. These isolates can be used for future testing of methods to control biofouling. Once isolated, the ability of the isolates to grow biofilms was tested with high-throughput multiwell methods. Based on these tests, the following species were selected for further testing in tube reactors and CDC reactors: Pseudomonas ssp. (wastewater, agricultural drainage, and Colorado River water), Nocardia coeliaca or Rhodococcus spp. (wastewater), Pseudomonas fluorescens and Hydrogenophaga palleronii (agricultural drainage), Sulfitobacter donghicola, Rhodococcus fascians, Rhodobacter katedanii, and Paracoccus marcusii (seawater), and Sphingopyxis spp. (groundwater). The testing demonstrated the ability of these isolates to be used for biofouling control testing under laboratory conditions. Biofilm forming bacteria were obtained from all the source water samples.

Hibbs, Michael R.; Altman, Susan Jeanne; Feng, Yanshu (Brigham Young University, Provo, Utah); Savage, Paul B. (Brigham Young University, Provo, Utah); Pollard, Jacob (Brigham Young University, Provo, Utah); Branda, Steven S.; Goeres, Darla (Montana State University, Bozeman, MT); Buckingham-Meyer, Kelli (Montana State University, Bozeman, MT); Stafslien, Shane (North Dakota State University, Fargo, ND); Marry, Christopher; Jones, Howland D. T.; Lichtenberger, Alyssa; Kirk, Matthew F.; McGrath, Lucas K. (LMATA, Albuquerque, NM)

2012-01-01

201

Catalytic membrane reactor for water and wastewater treatment  

Microsoft Academic Search

A double membrane reactor was fabricated and assessed for continuous treatment of water containing organic contaminants by ozonation. This innovative reactor consisted of a zeolite membrane prepared on the inner surface of a porous a-alumina support, which served as water selective extractor and active contactor, and a porous stainless membrane which was the ozone gas diffuser. The coupling of membrane

Samuel Heng

2006-01-01

202

USEPA'S RESEARCH EFFORTS IN SMALL DRINKING WATER TREATMENT TECHNOLOGIES  

EPA Science Inventory

Currently, in the United States there are approximately 50,000 small community and 130,000 non-community systems providing water to over 25 million people. The drinking water treatment systems at these locations are not always adequate to comply with current and pending regulati...

203

Selenium Adsorption To Aluminum-Based Water Treatment Residuals  

EPA Science Inventory

Aluminum-based water treatment residuals (WTR) can adsorb water-and soil-borne P, As(V), As(III), and perchlorate, and may be able to adsorb excess environmental selenium. WTR, clay minerals, and amorphous aluminum hydroxide were shaken for 24 hours in selenate or selenite solut...

204

RECOVERY OF LIME AND MAGNESIUM IN POTABLE WATER TREATMENT  

EPA Science Inventory

A hard, turbid surface water was successfully treated using the magnesium carbonate process in a 2 mgd pilot plant at the treatment works of Water District No. 1 of Johnson County, Kansas, for one year during 1975 and 1976. During this study, froth flotation was used to separate ...

205

Process water treatment for reactor effluent activity control: Budget study  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of this study is to provide budgetary data for modifying and monitoring the present water treatment process at B, C, D, KE, and KW reactor plants to effect a reduction in the activity of the reactor effluent water discharged to the Columbia River. The study is subdivided into three parts: facilities for sodium silicate addition at each reactor

Etheridge

1966-01-01

206

Treatment of Potato Processing Waste Water on Agricultural Land1  

Microsoft Academic Search

The chemical oxygen demand (COD) and the total N and NO3 -N concentrations in potato (Solanum tuberosum L.) process- ing plant waste water and in the soil solution at several depths in a treatment field where the waste water was applied were studied for a 2-year period. The COD decreased 95 to 99% from 850 to 2,000 ppm in waste

J. H. Smith

1976-01-01

207

BIOLOGICAL PROCESSES IN THE TREATMENT OF MUNICIPAL WATER SUPPLIES  

EPA Science Inventory

The objective of this project was to study the use of Biologically Enhanced Granular Activated Carbon (BEGAC) technology in European water treatment plants and to determine its advantages and disadvantages for use in the United States. Seven European water works were visited in w...

208

Cleaning Membranes with Focused Ultrasound Beams for Drinking Water Treatment  

E-print Network

micro pollutants such as harmful organics and cannot meet the demand for high-quality drinking water pollutants, shortens membrane life due to chemical erosion, adds costs of cleanup, handling, and transporting to clean a large membrane area needed for a typical water treatment plant. In this paper, a focused

Lu, Jian-yu

209

Swimming pool water treatment by ultrafiltration–adsorption process  

Microsoft Academic Search

Disinfection by-products are of great concern in swimming pool water where water treatment generally involves a disinfection step with chlorine. In fact, swimmers can contribute a large quantity of organic matter that can lead to the formation of chloramines, chloroform and chloroacetic acids. These compounds can lead to health problems among the staff and pool users, especially babies or little

E. Barbot; P. Moulin

2008-01-01

210

Surface water pollution by herbicides from effluents of waste water treatment plants  

Microsoft Academic Search

Herbicide loads of urban and rural waste water treatment plant effluents were calculated over a one-year period by measuring the herbicide concentrations in 14-day mixed samples. More than three quarters of the total herbicide load of the effluent of the rural waste water treatment plant consists of isoproturon. Particularly large amounts of this substance contribute to the total herbicide load

Walter Schüssler

1998-01-01

211

MANUAL: GROUND-WATER AND LEACHATE TREATMENT SYSTEMS  

EPA Science Inventory

This manual was developed for remedial design engineers and regulatory personnel who oversee the ex situ ground water or leachate treatment efforts of the regulated community. The manual can be used as a treatment technology screening tool in conjunction with other references. Mo...

212

Granulated activated carbon water treatment and potential radiation hazards  

Microsoft Academic Search

Early enthusiasm for granular activated carbon (GAC) as the radon treatment medium of choice for very small systems has diminished in consideration of the secondary radiation problems it presents. GAC remains a viable treatment method for radon only at the low end of the radon concentration range. In domestic water supplies this is 5000 pCi\\/l or less. The initial cost

S. Rydell; B. Keene; J. Lowry

1989-01-01

213

Kinetic study of pyrolysis of waste water treatment plant sludge  

Microsoft Academic Search

Activated sewage sludge samples obtained from two different waste water treatment plants were investigated by thermogravimetric\\u000a analysis. Due to a very high content of water in the sludge samples, these had to be dried at 160°C in an electrical oven\\u000a in order to remove all adsorbed water. To ensure pyrolysis conditions, nitrogen atmosphere was applied. The pyrolysis decomposition\\u000a process was

Lukáš Gašparovi?; Ivan Hrablay; Zuzana Vojteková; ?udovít Jelemenský

2011-01-01

214

Preliminary studies of water treatment using forward osmosis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Forward osmosis (FO) is an emerging water treatment technology with potential applications in desalination and wastewater reclamation. The FO uses a concentrated draw solution to generate high osmotic pressure, which pulls water across a semipermeable membrane from the feed solution. In this study, we have investigated the effect of draw solution on FO water flux. The 0.1?M NaCl draw solution

Yijun Xie; Rui Ma; Shengji Xia

2012-01-01

215

Hot water treatments delay cold-induced banana peel blackening  

Microsoft Academic Search

Banana fruit of cv. Gros Michel (Musa acuminata, AAA Group, locally called cv. Hom Thong) and cv. Namwa (Musa×paradisiaca, ABB Group) were immersed for 5, 10 and 15min in water at 42°C, or in water at 25°C (control), and were then stored at 4°C. Hot water treatment for 15min delayed peel blackening during cold storage by about 4 days in

Surassawadee Promyou; Saichol Ketsa; Wouter G. van Doorn

2008-01-01

216

MSWT-01, flood disaster water treatment solution from common ideas  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Indonesia has a lot of potential flood disaster places with clean water problems faced. Various solution programs always initiated by Government, companies CSR, and people sporadical actions to provide clean water; with their advantages and disadvantages respectively. One solution is easy to operate for instance, but didn't provide adequate capacity, whereas the other had ideal performance but more costly. This situation inspired to develop a water treatment machine that could be an alternative favor. There are many methods could be choosed; whether in simple, middle or high technology, depends on water source input and output result quality. MSWT, Mobile Surface Water Treatment, is an idea for raw water in flood area, basically made for 1m3 per hour. This water treatment design adopted from combined existing technologies and related literatures. Using common ideas, the highlight is how to make such modular process put in compact design elegantly, and would be equipped with mobile feature due to make easier in operational. Through prototype level experiment trials, the machine is capable for producing clean water that suitable for sanitation and cooking/drinking purposes although using contaminated water input source. From the investment point of view, such machine could be also treated as an asset that will be used from time to time when needed, instead of made for project approach only.

Ananto, Gamawan; Setiawan, Albertus B.; Z, Darman M.

2013-06-01

217

Pretreatment for membrane water treatment systems: a laboratory study  

SciTech Connect

The goal of the work was to determine if biological treatment of water containing soil-derived humic substances has the potential for reducing the fouling of membranes used in water treatment. Laboratory scale biological filters containing biologically active carbon or iron oxide coated sand were fed humic-laden water with or without prechlorination. This stream was split, with half being further treated by microfiltration. Treated water was assessed for total organic carbon removal and biofouling potential using a glass bead assay and membrane assay for total cell counts, fouling layer thickness, and flux reduction. A combination of these assays provided more insight than any single measurement. Compared to untreated control water, biological treatment was capable of reducing downstream fouling of membrane systems. For example, fouling layer thickness was reduced by half after biological treatment, and cell counts were reduced four- to five-fold. Biological treatment coupled with microfiltration provided the best reduction of fouling, while prechlorination did not appear to impact the process. These results suggest that biological treatment may be valuable in reducing membrane fouling while reducing the amount of disinfectants used in pretreatment.

Wend, Christopher F.; Stewart, Philip S.; Jones, Warren L.; Camper, Anne K.

2003-09-30

218

Effect of water treatment processes on Cryptosporidium infectivity.  

PubMed

Conventional water treatment processes have the ability to remove Cryptosporidium oocysts through coagulation, flocculation, sedimentation and filtration, provided there is efficient management of plant performance. The potential exists for the breakthrough of oocysts through the treatment train. The effect of the water treatment chemical aluminium sulphate (alum) on Cryptosporidium oocyst infectivity has been assessed using an assay that combines cell culture and real-time polymerase chain reaction techniques. The infectivity of fresh and temperature-aged oocysts (stored up to 6 months at 4 or 15 degrees C) was unaffected by exposure to a range of doses of alum in standard jar test procedures and dissolved air flotation processes and subsequent exposure to chlorine or chloramine. Removal efficiencies and infectivity measures are important in determining risk to public health and will reflect the ability of water treatment plants to act as a barrier to these pathogens. PMID:18067945

Keegan, Alexandra; Daminato, David; Saint, Christopher P; Monis, Paul T

2008-03-01

219

Trace Element Analysis of Water and Sediment Before\\/After Passing a Waste Water Treatment Plant  

Microsoft Academic Search

A system for waste water cleaning using activated red mud is described in this paper. This system was originally developed for heavy metals and turbidity removal from the waste water generated by pressure washing of the boats coated with antifouling paints. The major parts of the system are described. After the treatment clear water can be discharged directly into the

V. Orescanin; K. Nad; L. Kukec; A. Gajski; D. Sudac; V. Valkovic

2003-01-01

220

Post-treatment of desalinated water and water quality characteristics in Yanbu Industrial City  

Microsoft Academic Search

Yanbu Industrial City (YIC) in Saudi Arabia depends on seawater desalination for its entire fresh water supply. The fresh water is supplied by a desalination plant that consists of nine multi-stage flash (MSF) distillation units and seven reverse osmosis (RO) desalination trains. The product water from the MSF and RO desalination processes requires post-treatment to prepare it for potable use.

Ahmed S. Bajahlan; Jong-Mihn Wie

2012-01-01

221

Establishing Solar Water Disinfection as a water treatment method at household level  

Microsoft Academic Search

billion People worldwide do not have access to safe drinking water and therefore are exposed to a high risk for diarrhoeal diseases. As a consequence, about 6,000 children die each day of dehydration due to diarrhoea. Adequate water treatment methods and safe storage of drinking water, combined with hygiene promotion, are required to prevent the population without access to safe

Regula Meierhofer

222

Changes in water quality in the Owabi water treatment plant in Ghana  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The study was conducted on the status of the quality of water from the Owabi water treatment plant that supplies drinking water to Kumasi, a major city in Ghana, to ascertain the change in quality of water from source to point-of-use. Physico-chemical, bacteriological water quality parameters and trace metal concentration of water samples from five different treatment points from the Owabi water treatment plant were investigated. The raw water was moderately hard with high turbidity and colour that exceeds the WHO guideline limits. Nutrient concentrations were of the following order: NH3 < NO2 - < NO3 - < PO4 3- < SO4 2- and were all below WHO permissible level for drinking water in all the samples at different stages of treatment. Trace metal concentrations of the reservoir were all below WHO limit except chromium (0.06 mg/L) and copper (0.24 mg/L). The bacteriological study showed that the raw water had total coliform (1,766 cfu/100 mL) and faecal coliform (257 cfu/100 mL) that exceeded the WHO standard limits, rendering it unsafe for domestic purposes without treatment. Colour showed strong positive correlation with turbidity (r = 0.730), TSS (r ? 0.922) and alkalinity (0.564) significant at p < 0.01. The quality of the treated water indicates that colour, turbidity, Cr and Cu levels reduced and fall within the WHO permissible limit for drinking water. Treatment process at the water treatment plant is adjudged to be good.

Akoto, Osei; Gyamfi, Opoku; Darko, Godfred; Barnes, Victor Rex

2014-09-01

223

40 CFR 749.68 - Hexavalent chromium-based water treatment chemicals in cooling systems.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-07-01 false Hexavalent chromium-based water treatment chemicals in cooling systems...CONTINUED) TOXIC SUBSTANCES CONTROL ACT WATER TREATMENT CHEMICALS Air Conditioning...749.68 Hexavalent chromium-based water treatment chemicals in cooling...

2013-07-01

224

40 CFR 749.68 - Hexavalent chromium-based water treatment chemicals in cooling systems.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-07-01 false Hexavalent chromium-based water treatment chemicals in cooling systems...CONTINUED) TOXIC SUBSTANCES CONTROL ACT WATER TREATMENT CHEMICALS Air Conditioning...749.68 Hexavalent chromium-based water treatment chemicals in cooling...

2012-07-01

225

Produced Water Treatment Using Microbial Fuel Cell Technology  

SciTech Connect

ORNL has developed a treatment for produced water using a combination of microbial fuel cells and electrosorption. A collaboration between Campbell Applied Physics and ORNL was initiated to further investigate development of the technology and apply it to treatment of field produced water. The project successfully demonstrated the potential of microbial fuel cells to generate electricity from organics in produced water. A steady voltage was continuously generated for several days using the system developed in this study. In addition to the extraction of electrical energy from the organic contaminants, use of the energy at the representative voltage was demonstrated for salts removal or desalination of the produced water. Thus, the technology has potential to remove organic as well as ionic contaminants with minimal energy input using this technology. This is a novel energy-efficient method to treat produced water. Funding to test the technology at larger scale is being pursued to enable application development.

Borole, A. P.; Campbell, R. [Campbell Applied Physics] [Campbell Applied Physics

2011-05-20

226

Utilizing the fluidized bed to initiate water treatment on site  

SciTech Connect

Escalating wastewater disposal costs coupled with enforcement of stricter regulations push industrial sites previously without water treatment to treat on site. These sites, inexperienced in water treatment, require a treatment technology that is easily installed, operated, and maintained. The aerobic granular activated carbon (GAC) fluidized bed incorporates biological and adsorptive technologies into a simple, cost-effective process capable of meeting strict effluent requirements. Two case studies at industrial sites illustrate the installation and operation of the fluidized bed and emphasize the ability to use the fluidized bed singularly or as an integral component of a treatment system capable of achieving treatment levels that allow surface discharge and reinjection. Attention is focused on BTEX (benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene, and xylenes).

Ahmadvand, H. [Arco Pipeline Co., Colvis, NM (United States); Germann, G. [Sinclair Pipeline Co., Carrollton, MO (United States); Gandee, J.P. [Blasland, Bouck and Lee, Westerville, OH (United States); Buehler, V.T. [Envirex, Inc., Waukesha, WI (United States)

1995-12-31

227

Radioactive residues associated with water treatment, use and disposal in Australia.  

E-print Network

??Water resources are known to contain radioactive materials, either from natural or anthropogenic sources. Treatment, including wastewater treatment, of water for drinking, domestic, agricultural and… (more)

Kleinschmidt, Ross Ivan

2011-01-01

228

Carbon isotopic characterisation of dissolved organic matter during water treatment.  

PubMed

Water treatment is a series of physio-chemical processes to aid organic matter (OM) removal, which helps to minimise the formation of potentially carcinogenic disinfection by-products and microbial regrowth. Changes in OM character through the treatment processes can provide insight into the treatment efficiency, but radiogenic isotopic characterisation techniques have yet to be applied. Here, we show for the first time that analysis of (13)C and (14)C of dissolved organic carbon (DOC) effectively characterises dissolved OM through a water treatment works. At the sites investigated: post-clarification, DOC becomes isotopically lighter, due to an increased proportion of relatively hydrophilic DOC. Filtration adds 'old' (14)C-DOC from abrasion of the filter media, whilst the use of activated carbon adds 'young' (14)C-DOC, most likely from the presence of biofilms. Overall, carbon isotopes provide clear evidence for the first time that new sources of organic carbon are added within the treatment processes, and that treated water is isotopically lighter and typically younger in (14)C-DOC age than untreated water. We anticipate our findings will precipitate real-time monitoring of treatment performance using stable carbon isotopes, with associated improvements in energy and carbon footprint (e.g. isotopic analysis used as triggers for filter washing and activated carbon regeneration) and public health benefits resulting from improved carbon removal. PMID:24075722

Bridgeman, John; Gulliver, Pauline; Roe, Jessie; Baker, Andy

2014-01-01

229

Water: from the source to the treatment plan  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

As a biology and geology teacher, I have worked on water, from the source to the treatment plant, with pupils between 14 and 15 years old. Lesson 1. Introduction, the water in Vienna Aim: The pupils have to consider why the water is so important in Vienna (history, economy etc.) Activities: Brainstorming about where and why we use water every day and why the water is different in Vienna. Lesson 2. Soil, rock and water Aim: Permeability/ impermeability of the different layers of earth Activities: The pupils have measure the permeability and porosity of different stones: granite, clay, sand, carbonate and basalt. Lesson 3. Relationship between water's ion composition and the stone's mineralogy Aim: Each water source has the same ion composition as the soil where the water comes from. Activities: Comparison between the stone's mineralogy and ions in water. They had a diagram with the ions of granite, clay, sand, carbonate and basalt and the label of different water. They had to make hypotheses about the type of soil where the water came from. They verified this with a geology map of France and Austria. They have to make a profile of the area where the water comes from. They had to confirm or reject their hypothesis. Lesson 4 .Water-catchment and reservoir rocks Aim: Construction of a confined aquifer and artesian well Activities: With sand, clay and a basin, they have to model a confined aquifer and make an artesian well, using what they have learned in lesson 2. Lesson 5. Organic material breakdown and it's affect on the oxygen levels in an aquatic ecosystem Aim: Evaluate the relationship between oxygen levels and the amount of organic matter in an aquatic ecosystem. Explain the relationship between oxygen levels, bacteria and the breakdown of organic matter using an indicator solution. Activities: Put 5 ml of a different water sample in each tube with 20 drops of methylene blue. Observe the tubes after 1 month. Lesson 6. Visit to the biggest water treatment plant in Europe in Vienna Lesson 7 Water Quality Monitoring: Biochemical Oxygen Demand Aim: Measure the quantity of oxygen used by microorganisms in the oxidation of organic matter for different water; downstream and upstream of polluting refuse, after addition of glucose, milk or humus in the water. Activities: After dissolution of the different samples of water they measure the dissolved oxygen with the Winkler Method.

Marquet, V.; Baude, I.

2012-04-01

230

TU/NALPAS: Water treatment to total drainage management  

SciTech Connect

Water quality management is a critical task in the mining industry. Wastewater discharge from surface mining is required by Federal and State regulations to be compliant with all wastewater permits. The Texas Coal Mining Regulations state: {open_quotes}no...water quality statutes, regulations, standards, or effluent limitations be violated.{close_quotes} While guidelines are provided for meeting these standards, the operator must develop a strategy that best fits a specific site. During the past decade many techniques have been researched to satisfy objectives and regulations ranging from physical treatment (i.e., settling ponds) to chemical treatment. Research led to the conclusion that a combination of methods would best suit the water quality objectives for Texas Utilities in Northeast Texas. A partnering relationship was developed between a major chemical manufacturer and the mining company, investigating from a scientific standpoint, water properties, soil properties, geographic factors, and polymer characteristics. The data collected during a study period was done in conjunction with the actual water treatment program using a package system (TU/NALPAS). The system proved to be highly reliable, continually monitoring parameters and immediately adjusting treatment to match constantly changing water conditions. Parameters including clarity, water volume, peak flow, and pH have been monitored and used in optimizing the logic system. The system has also been used in remote areas by the addition of solar power and radio-controlled activation. This systematic approach has changed difficult and labor intensive water treatment to one which is automated and provides for reliable and cost effective mine drainage management.

Attaway, T.C. [NALCO Chemical Co., Plano, TX (United States); Cooney, S.T. [Texas Utilities Mining Company, Tatum, TX (United States)

1997-12-31

231

Considerations for monitoring permeable ground-water treatment walls  

SciTech Connect

Permeable ground-water treatment walls (PTWs) have been implemented as a means by which innovative ground-water treatment technologies can be applied in-situ. Though not widely addressed in the technical literature, the ground-water monitoring program for a PTW at a commercial site should consider several factors including: (1) design elements of the PTW; (2) the remediation process to be implemented through the PTW; (3) the distribution of contaminants in the affected aquifer; (4) ground-water sampling methods; and (5) regulatory issues. Also, the compliance monitoring well network within the PTW and sampling plan should be designed to assure that (1) design ground-water residence time goals within the PTW are achieved prior to sampling; (2) the uniformity of ground-water flow through the PTW is accounted for; and (3) ground-water samples are collected using techniques (e.g., micropurging) that reduce the potential for collecting nontreated ground water from down- or upgradient of the PTW. A case study illustrates the concepts used to develop a ground-water monitoring program for a PTW that was accepted by regulatory agencies for a commercial site.

Warner, S.D.; Yamane, C.L.; Gallinatti, J.D. [Geomatrix Consultants, Inc., San Francisco, CA (United States); Hankins, D.A. [Intersil, Inc., San Francisco, CA (United States)

1998-06-01

232

SMALL DRINKING WATER TREATMENT TECHNOLOGIES FOR COMPLIANCE WITH THE ENHANCED SURFACE WATER TREATMENT RULES  

EPA Science Inventory

According to FY2003 statistics compiled by the Office of Ground Water and Drinking Water, the U.S. regulates about 160,000 small drinking water systems that impact close to 70 million people. Small systems (serving transient and non-transient populations of 10,000 people or less...

233

Novel Americium Treatment Process for Surface Water and Dust Suppression Water  

SciTech Connect

The Rocky Flats Environmental Technology Site (RFETS), a former nuclear weapons production plant, has been remediated under CERCLA and decommissioned to become a National Wildlife Refuge. The site conducted this cleanup effort under the Rocky Flats Cleanup Agreement (RFCA) that established limits for the discharge of surface and process waters from the site. At the end of 2004, while a number of process buildings were undergoing decommissioning, routine monitoring of a discharge pond (Pond A-4) containing approximately 28 million gallons of water was discovered to have been contaminated with a trace amount of Americium-241 (Am-241). While the amount of Am-241 in the pond waters was very low (0.5 - 0.7 pCi/l), it was above the established Colorado stream standard of 0.15 pCi/l for release to off site drainage waters. The rapid successful treatment of these waters to the regulatory limit was important to the site for two reasons. The first was that the pond was approaching its hold-up limit. Without rapid treatment and release of the Pond A-4 water, typical spring run-off would require water management actions to other drainages onsite or a mass shuttling of water for disposal. The second reason was that this type of contaminated water had not been treated to the stringent stream standard at Rocky Flats before. Technical challenges in treatment could translate to impacts on water and secondary waste management, and ultimately, cost impacts. All of the technical challenges and specific site criteria led to the conclusion that a different approach to the treatment of this problem was necessary and a crash treatability program to identify applicable treatment techniques was undertaken. The goal of this program was to develop treatment options that could be implemented very quickly and would result in the generation of no high volume secondary waste that would be costly to dispose. A novel chemical treatment system was developed and implemented at the RFETS to treat Am-241 contaminated pond water, surface run-off and D and D dust suppression water during the later stages of the D and D effort at Rocky Flats. This novel chemical treatment system allowed for highly efficient, high-volume treatment of all contaminated waste waters to the very low stream standard of 0.15 pCi/1 with strict compliance to the RFCA discharge criteria for release to off-site surface waters. The rapid development and implementation of the treatment system avoided water management issues that would have had to be addressed if contaminated water had remained in Pond A-4 into the Spring of 2005. Implementation of this treatment system for the Pond A-4 waters and the D and D waters from Buildings 776 and 371 enabled the site to achieve cost-effective treatment that minimized secondary waste generation, avoiding the need for expensive off-site water disposal. Water treatment was conducted for a cost of less than $0.20/gal which included all development costs, capital costs and operational costs. This innovative and rapid response effort saved the RFETS cleanup program well in excess of $30 million for the potential cost of off-site transportation and treatment of radioactive liquid waste. (authors)

Tiepel, E.W.; Pigeon, P. [Golder Associates (United States); Nesta, S. [Kaiser-Hill Company, LLC (United States); Anderson, J. [Rocky Flats Closure Site Services - RFCSS (United States)

2006-07-01

234

Flotation treatment of waste water using cationic flocculants  

SciTech Connect

This work has been aimed at studying and comparing the efficiency of the use of cationic flocculants in the two process schemes for treating waste water in continuous pilot-plant and commercial flotation units. Waste water from the Moscow Petroleum Refinery was subjected to treatment. The characteristics of the cationic flocculants that were tested are presented. The test results in the pilot unit are shown. Results of laboratory studies show that the flocculants PPS and KR are more effective. Simplified flow plans of processes for flotation treatment of waste water and of pilot-plant flotation unit are illustrated. Concentration of suspended matter in treated water as a function of flocculant dose is presented.

Butseva, L.N.; Gandurina, L.V.; Ustinov, B.M.; Pridatkin, P.P.

1987-01-01

235

Fate of estrogens in biological treatment of concentrated black water  

Microsoft Academic Search

Keywords: estrogens, black water, wastewater, biological treatment.<\\/div>
 <\\/div>
Sewage treatment plants (STPs) effluents were found to have estrogenic character which is mainly due to the presence of estrone (E1), 17b-estradiol (E2) and 17a-ethynylestradiol (EE2). E1 and E2 are natural hormones excreted by mammals in urine and faeces, whereas EE2 is a synthetic hormone present in the contraceptive pill. The largest

Mes de T. Z. D

2007-01-01

236

Water drinking as a treatment for orthostatic syndromes  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

PURPOSE: Water drinking increases blood pressure in a substantial proportion of patients who have severe orthostatic hypotension due to autonomic failure. We tested the hypothesis that water drinking can be used as a practical treatment for patients with orthostatic and postprandial hypotension, as well as those with orthostatic tachycardia. SUBJECTS AND METHODS: We studied the effect of drinking water on seated and standing blood pressure and heart rate in 11 patients who had severe orthostatic hypotension due to autonomic failure and in 9 patients who had orthostatic tachycardia due to idiopathic orthostatic intolerance. We also tested the effect of water drinking on postprandial hypotension in 7 patients who had autonomic failure. Patients drank 480 mL of tap water at room temperature in less than 5 minutes. RESULTS: In patients with autonomic failure, mean (+/- SD) blood pressure after 1 minute of standing was 83 +/- 6/53 +/- 3.4 mm Hg at baseline, which increased to 114 +/- 30/66 +/- 18 mm Hg (P <0.01) 35 minutes after drinking. After a meal, blood pressure decreased by 43 +/- 36/20 +/- 13 mm Hg without water drinking, compared with 22 +/- 10/12 +/- 5 mm Hg with drinking (P <0.001). In patients with idiopathic orthostatic intolerance, water drinking attenuated orthostatic tachycardia (123 +/- 23 beats per minute) at baseline to 108 +/- 21 beats per minute after water drinking ( P <0.001). CONCLUSION: Water drinking elicits a rapid pressor response in patients with autonomic failure and can be used to treat orthostatic and postprandial hypotension. Water drinking moderately reduces orthostatic tachycardia in patients with idiopathic orthostatic intolerance. Thus, water drinking may serve as an adjunctive treatment in patients with impaired orthostatic tolerance.

Shannon, John R.; Diedrich, Andre; Biaggioni, Italo; Tank, Jens; Robertson, Rose Marie; Robertson, David; Jordan, Jens

2002-01-01

237

Removal of antibiotics from surface and distilled water in conventional water treatment processes  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Conventional drinking water treatment processes were evaluated under typical water treatment plant conditions to determine their effectiveness in the removal of seven common antibiotics: carbadox, sulfachlorpyridazine, sulfadimethoxine, sulfamerazine, sulfamethazine, sulfathiazole, and trimethoprim. Experiments were conducted using synthetic solutions prepared by spiking both distilled/ deionized water and Missouri River water with the studied compounds. Sorption on Calgon WPH powdered activated carbon, reverse osmosis, and oxidation with chlorine and ozone under typical plant conditions were all shown to be effective in removing the studied antibiotics. Conversely, coagulation/flocculation/sedimentation with alum and iron salts, excess lime/soda ash softening, ultraviolet irradiation at disinfection dosages, and ion exchange were all relatively ineffective methods of antibiotic removal. This study shows that the studied antibiotics could be effectively removed using processes already in use many water treatment plants. Additional work is needed on by-product formation and the removal of other classes of antibiotics.

Adams, C.; Wang, Y.; Loftin, K.; Meyer, M.

2002-01-01

238

Nanotechnology for a safe and sustainable water supply: enabling integrated water treatment and reuse.  

PubMed

Ensuring reliable access to clean and affordable water is one of the greatest global challenges of this century. As the world's population increases, water pollution becomes more complex and difficult to remove, and global climate change threatens to exacerbate water scarcity in many areas, the magnitude of this challenge is rapidly increasing. Wastewater reuse is becoming a common necessity, even as a source of potable water, but our separate wastewater collection and water supply systems are not designed to accommodate this pressing need. Furthermore, the aging centralized water and wastewater infrastructure in the developed world faces growing demands to produce higher quality water using less energy and with lower treatment costs. In addition, it is impractical to establish such massive systems in developing regions that currently lack water and wastewater infrastructure. These challenges underscore the need for technological innovation to transform the way we treat, distribute, use, and reuse water toward a distributed, differential water treatment and reuse paradigm (i.e., treat water and wastewater locally only to the required level dictated by the intended use). Nanotechnology offers opportunities to develop next-generation water supply systems. This Account reviews promising nanotechnology-enabled water treatment processes and provides a broad view on how they could transform our water supply and wastewater treatment systems. The extraordinary properties of nanomaterials, such as high surface area, photosensitivity, catalytic and antimicrobial activity, electrochemical, optical, and magnetic properties, and tunable pore size and surface chemistry, provide useful features for many applications. These applications include sensors for water quality monitoring, specialty adsorbents, solar disinfection/decontamination, and high performance membranes. More importantly, the modular, multifunctional and high-efficiency processes enabled by nanotechnology provide a promising route both to retrofit aging infrastructure and to develop high performance, low maintenance decentralized treatment systems including point-of-use devices. Broad implementation of nanotechnology in water treatment will require overcoming the relatively high costs of nanomaterials by enabling their reuse and mitigating risks to public and environmental health by minimizing potential exposure to nanoparticles and promoting their safer design. The development of nanotechnology must go hand in hand with environmental health and safety research to alleviate unintended consequences and contribute toward sustainable water management. PMID:22738389

Qu, Xiaolei; Brame, Jonathon; Li, Qilin; Alvarez, Pedro J J

2013-03-19

239

Treatment of tunnel wash water and implications for its disposal.  

PubMed

The use of road tunnels in urban areas creates water pollution problems, since the tunnels must be frequently cleaned for traffic safety reasons. The washing generates extensive volumes of highly polluted water, for example, more than fivefold higher concentrations of suspended solids compared to highway runoff. The pollutants in the wash water have an affinity for particulate material, so sedimentation should be a viable treatment option. In this study, 12 in situ sedimentation trials were carried out on tunnel wash water, with and without addition of chemical flocculent. Initial suspended solids concentration ranged from 804 to 9,690 mg/L. With sedimentation times of less than 24 hours and use of a chemical flocculent, it was possible to reach low concentrations of suspended solids (<15 mg/L), PAH (<0.1 ?g/L), As (<1.0 ?g/L), Cd (<0.05 ?g/L), Hg (<0.02 ?g/L), Fe (<200 ?g/L), Ni (<8 ?g/L), Pb (<0.5 ?g/L), Zn (<60 ?g/L) and Cr (<8 ?g/L). Acute Microtox(®) toxicity, mainly attributed to detergents used for the tunnel wash, decreased significantly at low suspended solids concentrations after sedimentation using a flocculent. The tunnel wash water did not inhibit nitrification. The treated water should be suitable for discharge into recipient waters or a wastewater treatment plant. PMID:24845317

Hallberg, M; Renman, G; Byman, L; Svenstam, G; Norling, M

2014-01-01

240

Significance and treatment of volatile organic compounds in water supplies  

SciTech Connect

Chapter 1 covers the statutory and regulatory basis for the control of chemicals in drinking water and the 1986 Amendments to the Safe Drinking Water Act. Chapter 2 reviews: (1) the nature and extent of groundwater contamination, and (2) management controls. Chapter 3 describes research methods for determination of aqueous VOCs. Chapter 4 reviews the EPA-approved analytical methods for VOC analysis in drinking water. Chapter 5 presents sampling and analysis procedures to minimize volatilization loss. Chapter 6 reviews past and present approaches of fiber optics to measure VOCs in groundwater. Chapter 7 reviews the national surveys of VOCs in ground and surface waters. Chapter 9 presents a conceptual overview of VOC transport in groundwater. Chapter 10 discusses the physical-chemical properties and fate of VOCs using the fugacity approach. Chapter 11 focuses on biologically mediated transformations that affect the fate of VOCs in the environment. Chapter 12 reviews the theory and applications of VOC removal from drinking water by adsorption. Chapter 13 presents a detailed model for a packed tower aeration (PTA) system. Chapter 14 describes oxidative treatment methods that convert VOCs to relatively harmless substances. Chapter 15 reviews research, being conducted by EPA's Drinking Water Research Division. Chapter 16 describes point-of-use/point-of-entry systems technology. Chapter 17 presents an economic analysis of GA and PTA. The remaining five chapters discuss the risks involved in water treatment for VOCs. Separate abstracts are processed for 21 chapters in this book for inclusion in the appropriate data bases.

Ram, N.M.; Christman, R.F.; Cantor, K.P. (ed.)

1990-01-01

241

Car wash wastewater treatment and water reuse - a case study.  

PubMed

Recent features of a car wash wastewater reclamation system and results from a full-scale car wash wastewater treatment and recycling process are reported. This upcoming technology comprises a new flocculation-column flotation process, sand filtration, and a final chlorination. A water usage and savings audit (22 weeks) showed that almost 70% reclamation was possible, and fewer than 40 L of fresh water per wash were needed. Wastewater and reclaimed water were characterized by monitoring chemical, physicochemical and biological parameters. Results were discussed in terms of aesthetic quality (water clarification and odour), health (pathological) and chemical (corrosion and scaling) risks. A microbiological risk model was applied and the Escherichia coli proposed criterion for car wash reclaimed water is 200 CFU 100 mL(-1). It is believed that the discussions on car wash wastewater reclamation criteria may assist institutions to create laws in Brazil and elsewhere. PMID:23128624

Zaneti, R N; Etchepare, R; Rubio, J

2013-01-01

242

Economic assessment of membrane processes for water and waste water treatment  

Microsoft Academic Search

Membrane processes are increasingly being considered as an alternative to conventional water and waste water treatment methods in anticipation of future demands for high standards and reduced environmental impact. However, the use of membranes for these applications is currently limited by the high capital and operating costs with which they are associated. This paper looks at the economics of membrane

G. Owen; M. Bandi; J. A. Howell; S. J. Churchouse

1995-01-01

243

The drinking water response to the Indian Ocean tsunami, including the role of household water treatment  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose – To document the drinking water component of the humanitarian response to the Great Sumatra-Andaman earthquake of December 26, 2004, including a focus on the promotion of household water treatment (HHWT)\\/safe storage to minimize the spread of diarrhoeal disease. Design\\/methodology\\/approach – Firsthand accounts of the response effort, interviews, and literature review. Findings – The combined efforts to mobilize a

Thomas Clasen; Lucy Smith; Jeff Albert; Andrew Bastable; Jean-Francois Fesselet

2006-01-01

244

Problems of drinking water treatment along Ismailia Canal Province, Egypt*  

PubMed Central

The present drinking water purification system in Egypt uses surface water as a raw water supply without a preliminary filtration process. On the other hand, chlorine gas is added as a disinfectant agent in two steps, pre- and post-chlorination. Due to these reasons most of water treatment plants suffer low filtering effectiveness and produce the trihalomethane (THM) species as a chlorination by-product. The Ismailia Canal represents the most distal downstream of the main Nile River. Thus its water contains all the proceeded pollutants discharged into the Nile. In addition, the downstream reaches of the canal act as an agricultural drain during the closing period of the High Dam gates in January and February every year. Moreover, the wide industrial zone along the upstream course of the canal enriches the canal water with high concentrations of heavy metals. The obtained results indicate that the canal gains up to 24.06×106 m3 of water from the surrounding shallow aquifer during the closing period of the High Dam gates, while during the rest of the year, the canal acts as an influent stream losing about 99.6×106 m3 of its water budget. The reduction of total organic carbon (TOC) and suspended particulate matters (SPMs) should be one of the central goals of any treatment plan to avoid the disinfectants by-products. The combination of sedimentation basins, gravel pre-filtration and slow sand filtration, and underground passage with microbiological oxidation-reduction and adsorption criteria showed good removal of parasites and bacteria and complete elimination of TOC, SPM and heavy metals. Moreover, it reduces the use of disinfectants chemicals and lowers the treatment costs. However, this purification system under the arid climate prevailing in Egypt should be tested and modified prior to application. PMID:18357626

Geriesh, Mohamed H.; Balke, Klaus-Dieter; El-Rayes, Ahmed E.

2008-01-01

245

Problems of drinking water treatment along Ismailia Canal Province, Egypt.  

PubMed

The present drinking water purification system in Egypt uses surface water as a raw water supply without a preliminary filtration process. On the other hand, chlorine gas is added as a disinfectant agent in two steps, pre- and post-chlorination. Due to these reasons most of water treatment plants suffer low filtering effectiveness and produce the trihalomethane (THM) species as a chlorination by-product. The Ismailia Canal represents the most distal downstream of the main Nile River. Thus its water contains all the proceeded pollutants discharged into the Nile. In addition, the downstream reaches of the canal act as an agricultural drain during the closing period of the High Dam gates in January and February every year. Moreover, the wide industrial zone along the upstream course of the canal enriches the canal water with high concentrations of heavy metals. The obtained results indicate that the canal gains up to 24.06x10(6) m3 of water from the surrounding shallow aquifer during the closing period of the High Dam gates, while during the rest of the year, the canal acts as an influent stream losing about 99.6x10(6) m3 of its water budget. The reduction of total organic carbon (TOC) and suspended particulate matters (SPMs) should be one of the central goals of any treatment plan to avoid the disinfectants by-products. The combination of sedimentation basins, gravel pre-filtration and slow sand filtration, and underground passage with microbiological oxidation-reduction and adsorption criteria showed good removal of parasites and bacteria and complete elimination of TOC, SPM and heavy metals. Moreover, it reduces the use of disinfectants chemicals and lowers the treatment costs. However, this purification system under the arid climate prevailing in Egypt should be tested and modified prior to application. PMID:18357626

Geriesh, Mohamed H; Balke, Klaus-Dieter; El-Rayes, Ahmed E

2008-03-01

246

REVERSE OSMOSIS FIELD TEST: TREATMENT OF WATTS NICKEL RINSE WATERS  

EPA Science Inventory

A field test was conducted to determine the feasibility of using a polyamide reverse-osmosis membrane in hollow fine fiber configuration for closed-loop treatment of rinse water from a Watts-type nickel bath. Performance of the membrane module was determined by measuring the prod...

247

Treatment of RO brine-towards sustainable water reclamation practice.  

PubMed

Treatment and disposal of RO brine is an important part in sustaining the water reclamation practice. RO brine generated from water reclamation contains high concentration of organic and inorganic compounds. Cost-effective technologies for treatment of RO brine are still relatively unexplored. Thus, this study aim to determine a feasible treatment process for removal of both organic and inorganic compounds in RO brine generated from NEWater production. The proposed treatment consists of biological activated carbon (BAC) column followed by capacitive deionization (CDI) process for organic and inorganic removals, respectively. Preliminary bench-scale study demonstrated about 20% TOC removal efficiency was achieved using BAC at 40 mins empty bed contact time (EBCT) while the CDI process was able to remove more than 90% conductivity reducing it from 2.19 mS/cm to only about 164 microS/cm. More than 90% cations and anions in the BAC effluent were removed using CDI process. In addition, TOC and TN removals of 78% and 91%, respectively were also attained through this process. About 90% water recovery was achieved. This process shows the potential of increased water recovery in the reclamation process while volume for disposal can be further minimized. Further studies on the sustainable operation and process optimization are ongoing. PMID:18776632

Ng, H Y; Lee, L Y; Ong, S L; Tao, G; Viawanath, B; Kekre, K; Lay, W; Seah, H

2008-01-01

248

An Analysis of the Waste Water Treatment Maintenance Mechanic Occupation.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The general purpose of the occupational analysis is to provide workable, basic information dealing with the many and varied duties performed in the waste water treatment mechanics occupation. The document opens with a brief introduction followed by a job description. The bulk of the document is presented in table form. Twelve duties are broken…

Clark, Anthony B.; And Others

249

Selenium-Water Treatment Residual Adsorption And Characterization  

EPA Science Inventory

Aluminum-based water treatment residuals (WTR) have the ability to adsorb tremendous quantities of soil-borne P, and have been shown to adsorb other anions, such as As (V), As (III), and ClO4-. Environmental issues associated with Se in the Western US led us to study W...

250

7. VIEW OF WATER TREATMENT PLANT, ADJACENT TO THE COAL ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

7. VIEW OF WATER TREATMENT PLANT, ADJACENT TO THE COAL CONVEYOR; IN THE DISTANCE IS THE FREQUENCY CHANGER HOUSE, WHICH IS ATTACHED TO SWITCH HOUSE NO. 1; LOOKING WEST. - Commonwealth Electric Company, Fisk Street Electrical Generating Station, 1111 West Cermak Avenue, Chicago, Cook County, IL

251

Biofilm characterization and activity analysis in water and wastewater treatment  

Microsoft Academic Search

Biofilm composition and activity are two important parameters for the successful operation and control of fixed film processes in water and wastewater treatment. Widely used parameters for biofilm characterization are biofilm thickness, total dry weight and total cell count. These parameters are, however, not sufficient to describe biofilm activity. Improved analytical methods and procedures are needed in order to understand

V. Lazarova; J. Manem

1995-01-01

252

Chlorine demand removal by biological treatment in cold water  

Microsoft Academic Search

A major strategy to reduce or prevent the formation of undesirable by?products is to reduce chlorine demand before the application of chlorine. The major objective of this study was to evaluate the performance of different water treatment processes at full scale, specifically the combination of ozonation and biological activated carbon (BAG) filtration, for the removal of chlorine demand over a

M. Prévost; R. Desjardins; D. Duchesne; C. Poirier

1991-01-01

253

Foothills: A State-of-the-Art Water Treatment Plant  

Microsoft Academic Search

After three years of operation, the showcase Foothills water treatment plant, serving the base needs of the Denver, Colo., metropolitan area, has been performing at, or above, expectations. Taking hydraulic advantage of its location above the city, the plant's pumping costs are minimal and the plant's hydro turbine generates enough power to operate the facilities and sell excess electricity. A

Robert K. Weir; Robert L. Chapman

1987-01-01

254

An Analysis of the Waste Water Treatment Operator Occupation.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The occupational analysis contains a brief job description for the waste water treatment occupations of operator and maintenance mechanic and 13 detailed task statements which specify job duties (tools, equipment, materials, objects acted upon, performance knowledge, safety considerations/hazards, decisions, cues, and errors) and learning skills…

Clark, Anthony B.; And Others

255

POU/POE TREATMENT OF ARSENIC IN GROUND WATER  

EPA Science Inventory

Point-of-use/Point-of-entry (POU/POE) arsenic removal systems were installed in seventeen homes that were found to have high levels of arsenic (50-480ug/L) in their well water. This presetation will describe the process and the problems encountered in selecting the treatment syst...

256

Treatment for hydrazine-containing waste water solution  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The treatment for waste solutions containing hydrazine is presented. The invention attempts oxidation and decomposition of hydrazine in waste water in a simple and effective processing. The method adds activated charcoal to waste solutions containing hydrazine while maintaining a pH value higher than 8, and adding iron salts if necessary. Then, the solution is aerated.

Yade, N.

1986-01-01

257

Laser removal of water repellent treatments on limestone  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Protective and water repellent treatments are applied on stone materials used on buildings or sculptures of artistic value to reduce water intrusion without limiting the natural permeability to water vapour of the material. The effect of the wavelength associated with the laser removal of two water repellent treatments applied on limestone, Paraloid B-72, a copolymer of methyl acrylate and ethyl methacrylate, and Tegosivin HL-100, a modified polysiloxane resin, was investigated by using the four harmonics of a Q-switched Nd:YAG laser (1064, 532, 355 and 266 nm). The modifications induced on the surface of limestone samples by laser irradiation were studied using colorimetry, roughness measurements and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The removal of the treatments was found to be dependent on the laser irradiation conditions and on the characteristics of the coatings. The fundamental laser radiation was effective in removing both treatments, but thermal alteration processes were induced on the constituent calcite crystals. The best results were obtained by irradiation in the near UV at 355 nm.

Gómez-Heras, Miguel; Alvarez de Buergo, Mónica; Rebollar, Esther; Oujja, Mohamed; Castillejo, Marta; Fort, Rafael

2003-12-01

258

USE OF FERRATE IN SMALL DRINKING WATER TREATMENT SYSTEMS  

EPA Science Inventory

The proposed project will result in a document providing guidance for the beneficial use of ferrate in small systems. We will highlight the ways it can be used to improve water quality, lower cost and provide a more sustainable treatment alternative to other technologies. W...

259

Electrochemical generation of high-concentration ozone for water treatment  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper reviews electrochemical methods of high-concentration ozone generation for various applications including water treatment. Various membrane and electrode materials suitable for electrochemical ozone generation are discussed in terms of the efficiency of ozone yield, material stability against aggressive oxidative environment during the process of ozone generation, costs, and power consumption. Two different methods of electrochemical ozone generation are considered,

Dmitri G. Bessarabov

260

Desalination and Water Treatment www.deswater.com  

E-print Network

.22 µm. Seawater, reverse osmosis (RO) concentrate collected from a wastewater reclamation plant for the treatment of saline water and wastewater such as thermal distillation and reverse osmosis [2,3]. MD has several advantages compared to conventional thermal distillation and reverse osmosis processes [3

261

EVALUATING A COMPOSITE CARTRIDGE FOR SMALL SYSTEM DRINKING WATER TREATMENT  

EPA Science Inventory

A multi-layer, cartridge-based system that combines physical filtration with carbon adsorption and ultraviolet (UV) light disinfection has been developed to perform as a water treatment security device to protect homes against accidental or intentional contaminant events. A seri...

262

WATER TREATMENT PROJECT: OBSERVATIONS ON USE OF GAC IN PRACTICE  

EPA Science Inventory

The objectives of this project were: (1) to determine if granular activated carbon (GAC) adsorption beds applied in water treatment practice slough-off organic materials during the spring warm-up and (2) to evaluate the feasibility of the dilute or low-level COD procedure for the...

263

Integrated operation of drinking water treatment plant at Amsterdam water supply  

Microsoft Academic Search

Water treatment plants are in general robust and designs are based on the performance of individual processes with pre-set boundary conditions. It is assumed that an integral approach of the entire treatment plant can lead to more efficient operation. Taking into account the developments in sensoring, automation and computation, it is a challenge to improve quality and reliability of the

G. J. Bosklopper; L. C. Rietveld; R. Babuska; B. Smaal; J. Timmer

264

Occurrence of Mycobacteria in Water Treatment Lines and in Water Distribution Systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

The frequency of recovery of atypical mycobacteria was estimated in two treatment plants providing drinking water to Paris, France, at some intermediate stages of treatment. The two plants use two different filtration processes, rapid and slow sand filtration. Our results suggest that slow sand filtration is more efficient for removing mycobacteria than rapid sand filtration. In addition, our results show

Corinne Le Dantec; Jean-Pierre Duguet; Antoine Montiel; Nadine Dumoutier; Sylvie Dubrou; Veronique Vincent

2002-01-01

265

Performance evaluation of water treatment ultrafiltration pilot plants treating algae-rich reservoir water  

Microsoft Academic Search

Three different water treatment ultrafiltration (UF) pilot plants were investigated to treat algae-rich reservoir water. Coagulation, coagulation–sedimentation and coagulation–sedimentation–filtration were applied prior to UF respectively. Based on the permeate water quality and the specific flux of UF, coagulation\\/settling process was selected as the best pretreatment method for UF membrane. Filter played a negative role in pretreatment for UF membrane fouling

Heng Liang; Weijia Gong; Guibai Li

2008-01-01

266

Treatment of poly- and perfluoroalkyl substances in U.S. full-scale water treatment systems.  

PubMed

The near ubiquitous presence of poly- and perfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs) in humans has raised concerns about potential human health effects from these chemicals, some of which are both extremely persistent and bioaccumulative. Because some of these chemicals are highly water soluble, one major pathway for human exposure is the consumption of contaminated drinking water. This study measured concentrations of PFASs in 18 raw drinking water sources and 2 treated wastewater effluents and evaluated 15 full-scale treatment systems for the attenuation of PFASs in water treatment utilities throughout the U.S. A liquid-chromatography tandem mass-spectrometry method was used to enable measurement of a suite of 23 PFASs, including perfluorocarboxylic acids (PFCAs) and perfluorosulfonic acids (PFSAs). Despite the differences in reporting levels, the PFASs that were detected in >70% of the source water samples (n = 39) included PFSAs, perfluorobutane sulfonic acid (74%), perfluorohexane sulfonic acid (79%), and perfluorooctane sulfonic acid (84%), and PFCAs, perfluoropentanoic acid (74%), perfluorohexanoic acid (79%), perfluoroheptanoic acid (74%), and perfluorooctanoic acid (74%). More importantly, water treatment techniques such as ferric or alum coagulation, granular/micro-/ultra- filtration, aeration, oxidation (i.e., permanganate, ultraviolet/hydrogen peroxide), and disinfection (i.e., ozonation, chlorine dioxide, chlorination, and chloramination) were mostly ineffective in removing PFASs. However, anion exchange and granular activated carbon treatment preferably removed longer-chain PFASs and the PFSAs compared to the PFCAs, and reverse osmosis demonstrated significant removal for all the PFASs, including the smallest PFAS, perfluorobutanoic acid. PMID:24275109

Appleman, Timothy D; Higgins, Christopher P; Quiñones, Oscar; Vanderford, Brett J; Kolstad, Chad; Zeigler-Holady, Janie C; Dickenson, Eric R V

2014-03-15

267

7 CFR 1780.63 - Sewage treatment and bulk water sales contracts.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...false Sewage treatment and bulk water sales contracts. 1780.63 Section...DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE (CONTINUED) WATER AND WASTE LOANS AND GRANTS Planning, Designing...63 Sewage treatment and bulk water sales contracts. Owners...

2011-01-01

268

7 CFR 1780.63 - Sewage treatment and bulk water sales contracts.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...false Sewage treatment and bulk water sales contracts. 1780.63 Section...DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE (CONTINUED) WATER AND WASTE LOANS AND GRANTS Planning, Designing...63 Sewage treatment and bulk water sales contracts. Owners...

2013-01-01

269

7 CFR 1780.63 - Sewage treatment and bulk water sales contracts.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...false Sewage treatment and bulk water sales contracts. 1780.63 Section...DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE (CONTINUED) WATER AND WASTE LOANS AND GRANTS Planning, Designing...63 Sewage treatment and bulk water sales contracts. Owners...

2012-01-01

270

7 CFR 1780.63 - Sewage treatment and bulk water sales contracts.  

...2013-01-01 true Sewage treatment and bulk water sales contracts. 1780.63 Section...DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE (CONTINUED) WATER AND WASTE LOANS AND GRANTS Planning...1780.63 Sewage treatment and bulk water sales contracts. Owners entering...

2014-01-01

271

Study on the TOC concentration in raw water and HAAs in Tehran's water treatment plant outlet  

PubMed Central

A sampling has been undertaken to investigate the variation of haloacetic acids formation and nature organic matter through 81 samples were collected from three water treatment plant and three major rivers of Tehran Iran. Changes in the total organic matter (TOC), ultraviolet absorbance (UV254), specific ultraviolet absorbance (SUVA) were measured in raw water samples. Haloacetic acids concentrations were monitored using a new static headspace GC-ECD method without a manual pre-concentration in three water treatment plants. The average concentration of TOC and HAAs in three rivers and three water treatment plants in spring, summer and fall, were 4, 2.41 and 4.03 mg/L and 48.75, 43.79 and 51.07 ?g/L respectively. Seasonal variation indicated that HAAs levels were much higher in spring and fall. PMID:24283403

2013-01-01

272

Study on the TOC concentration in raw water and HAAs in Tehran's water treatment plant outlet.  

PubMed

A sampling has been undertaken to investigate the variation of haloacetic acids formation and nature organic matter through 81 samples were collected from three water treatment plant and three major rivers of Tehran Iran. Changes in the total organic matter (TOC), ultraviolet absorbance (UV254), specific ultraviolet absorbance (SUVA) were measured in raw water samples. Haloacetic acids concentrations were monitored using a new static headspace GC-ECD method without a manual pre-concentration in three water treatment plants. The average concentration of TOC and HAAs in three rivers and three water treatment plants in spring, summer and fall, were 4, 2.41 and 4.03 mg/L and 48.75, 43.79 and 51.07 ?g/L respectively. Seasonal variation indicated that HAAs levels were much higher in spring and fall. PMID:24283403

Ghoochani, Mahboobeh; Rastkari, Noushin; Nabizadeh Nodehi, Ramin; Mahvi, Amir Hossein; Nasseri, Simin; Nazmara, Shahrokh

2013-01-01

273

Evaluation of Water Treatment Methods for Endocrine Disrupting Compounds  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Endocrine disrupting compounds (EDCs) have caught recent attention as one of the major concerns in the environment. They are known to interfere with the activity of growth-related hormones and usually, as a result, cause disruption in normal functioning of the body. The compounds currently classified as EDCs range from a variety of both natural and synthetic organic compounds and also some heavy metals. Most of these compounds are used in household, pharmaceutical, industrial, agricultural activities, the consumption or usage of which increases with population. There is a lack of detailed chemical and biological analysis as to what concentrations each of these EDCs pose harmless to the environment because of the large number of the suspected compounds. However, several published reports have established that endocrine disruption is observed in aquatic species due to chronic exposure to concentrations of some EDCs as low as a few ng/l. Conventional water treatment facilities do not usually suffice to remove EDCs in concentrations below 1 ng/l. Available technologies for removal of EDCs include adsorption, degradation and membrane treatment. The removal rates, however, are dependant on the properties of the compound, such as molecular weight, water- octanol partition coefficient and vapor pressure; physiochemical conditions of the matrix such as, redox and temperature conditions; type and dose of degrading agent and the concentration of the EDCs. Since, EDCs comprise a vast variety of compounds, their response to each of these treatment methods will be different and hence it is plausible that a single treatment technique will not be sufficient to remove the EDCs to very low concentrations. Based on our review of existing water treatment methods, we believe that a sequential treatment technique that consists of an adsorption, a degradation and finally a fine membrane treatment, each optimized for favorable, efficient and inexpensive removal may be required to remove EDCs to the desired low concentrations.

Thomas, S. M.; Murray, K. E.

2006-05-01

274

Treatment of TNT red water by layer melt crystallization.  

PubMed

Treatment of the red water, which is wastewater of 2,4,6- trinitrotoluene (TNT) manufacturing process has been explored using ice crystallization. This study focuses on the formation of ice crystals from the red water in a layer crystallizer under various operating conditions. Among the parameters which affect layer crystallization, attention was given to cooling rate, cooling temperature, sweating rate and concentration of the red water. The study highlights the effect of subcooling and growth rate on purity of the ice crystalline layers produced. After sweating, the COD value of crystalline ice layer was significantly reduced from 10,000mg/L to below 20mg/L. Most organic contaminants were removed in sweating fractions of 0.5. Eventually, the red water was treated by layer crystallization combined with the sweating process. PMID:25151241

Jo, Jeong-Hyeon; Ernest, Takyi; Kim, Kwang-Joo

2014-09-15

275

Understanding the Permeation of Solutes in Water Treatment Membranes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The responsible management of the world's water resources is essential to supporting human life on earth. The successful development of reverse osmosis seawater desalination makes it a crucial component in the portfolio of water supply options. However, other measures to alleviate the stresses on water supplies are necessary to responsibly and sustainably meet the worldwide demand for fresh water. Osmotically driven membrane processes (ODMP) are an emerging set of technologies that show promise in water conservation and reuse, as well as wastewater reclamation. The majority of research in the field has focused on predicting and enhancing water permeation through membranes, however, the effective operation of ODMP systems requires that the permeation of solutes across water treatment membranes be better understood. For example, the reverse flux of draw solute from the concentrated draw solution into the feed solution should be minimized. Additionally, due to the presence of solute-solute interactions that arise because of the unique geometry of ODMPs, the rejection of dilute solutes in these processes can be dramatically different than those observed in traditional pressure driven operations. In this talk, theoretical and experimental approaches are used to explore the permeation of solutes in osmotically driven membrane processes. Phenomenological models were developed that describe the forward and reverse permeation of the solutes across an asymmetric membrane in forward osmosis operation; and experiments were carried out to validate the model predictions. Using independently determined membrane transport coefficients, strong agreement between the model predictions and experimental results was observed.

Phillip, William

2013-03-01

276

Mineralogical Characterization of Manganese Oxides in Mine Water Treatment Systems  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The removal of manganese(II) from mine water is a significant problem for both operating and abandoned mines across the United States. In many situations, manganese removal represents the most costly aspect of mine water treatment. Active treatment of Mn-containing mine water requires adjustment of pH to 9-10, and results in the abiotic precipitation of manganese oxides (MnOx). After manganese removal, this high pH water must be neutralized before release. Alternatively, passive limestone beds can be used for neutralization of low-pH mine water and subsequent manganese removal. Although limestone beds are effective for Mn removal, the processes involved are not clear (e.g., relative importance of biological Mn(II) oxidation versus surface mediated oxidation) and the characteristics of the manganese "crusts" formed are not well studied. In this field-based study, we have collected natural manganese oxides from two different limestone beds designed to treat mine water from abandoned coal strip mines in Pennsylvania. Samples were collected at different locations in the beds and at different seasons to capture possible variations in mineralogical characteristics. Water samples were also collected to measure the corresponding solution chemistry and revealed that manganese removal was strongly temperature dependent. Solid samples have been examined by scanning and transmission electron microscopy, and by X-ray diffraction. Micro-diffraction XRD has been used to tentatively identify disordered buserite as a predominant mineral in many of these crust samples. Additional characterizations will include particle size distribution and surface charge. Synchroton-based X-ray techniques such as scanning transmission X-ray microscopy (STXM) and X-ray spectroscopy (XAS) may also be pursued.

Tan, H.; Heaney, P.; Post, J.; Burgos, W.

2006-05-01

277

Arsenic Treatment for Small Water Delivery and Domestic Systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

Inorganic arsenic has been linked to several types of cancer, as well as numerous non-cancerous health risks. Because of this, the EPA's Maximum Contaminant Level (MCL) for arsenic in drinking water was recently been reduced from 50 µg\\/L to 10 µg\\/L, with compliance scheduled for February of 2006. For small, rural communities the cost for current treatment options may be

Andrew Baker; Paul Dimick; Jenna Cellini; Amanda Eggleston; Catherine Herchenroder; Melissa Korpela; Erik Person; Katrin Przyuski; Ebony Sterling; Lee Vanzler

278

40 CFR 141.403 - Treatment technique requirements for ground water systems.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...Treatment technique requirements for ground water systems. 141.403 Section 141.403...ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) WATER PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) NATIONAL PRIMARY DRINKING WATER REGULATIONS Ground Water Rule §...

2012-07-01

279

40 CFR 141.403 - Treatment technique requirements for ground water systems.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...Treatment technique requirements for ground water systems. 141.403 Section 141.403...ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) WATER PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) NATIONAL PRIMARY DRINKING WATER REGULATIONS Ground Water Rule §...

2011-07-01

280

40 CFR 141.404 - Treatment technique violations for ground water systems.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...Treatment technique violations for ground water systems. 141.404 Section 141.404...ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) WATER PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) NATIONAL PRIMARY DRINKING WATER REGULATIONS Ground Water Rule §...

2013-07-01

281

40 CFR 141.404 - Treatment technique violations for ground water systems.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...Treatment technique violations for ground water systems. 141.404 Section 141.404...ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) WATER PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) NATIONAL PRIMARY DRINKING WATER REGULATIONS Ground Water Rule §...

2012-07-01

282

40 CFR 141.404 - Treatment technique violations for ground water systems.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...Treatment technique violations for ground water systems. 141.404 Section 141.404...ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) WATER PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) NATIONAL PRIMARY DRINKING WATER REGULATIONS Ground Water Rule §...

2011-07-01

283

40 CFR 141.403 - Treatment technique requirements for ground water systems.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...Treatment technique requirements for ground water systems. 141.403 Section 141.403...ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) WATER PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) NATIONAL PRIMARY DRINKING WATER REGULATIONS Ground Water Rule §...

2013-07-01

284

40 CFR 141.403 - Treatment technique requirements for ground water systems.  

...Treatment technique requirements for ground water systems. 141.403 Section 141.403...ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) WATER PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) NATIONAL PRIMARY DRINKING WATER REGULATIONS Ground Water Rule §...

2014-07-01

285

40 CFR 141.404 - Treatment technique violations for ground water systems.  

...Treatment technique violations for ground water systems. 141.404 Section 141.404...ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) WATER PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) NATIONAL PRIMARY DRINKING WATER REGULATIONS Ground Water Rule §...

2014-07-01

286

CONVENTIONAL WATER TREATMENT AND DIRECT FILTRATION: TREATMENT AND REMOVAL OF TOTAL ORGANIC CARBON AND TRIHALOMETHANE PRECURSORS  

EPA Science Inventory

After describing the fundamentals of coagulation of humic substances for alum and cationic polyelectrolytes, field studies of two conventional-type water treatment plants are discussed. THM formation through the plants is examined, and removals of total organic carbon (TOC) and T...

287

On reduction in the surface tension of water due to magnetic treatment  

Microsoft Academic Search

Water treatment by magnetic field (MF) or physical water treatment (PWT) is an attractive but still controversial issue. The main purpose of the present study was to investigate whether or not a physical water treatment reduces the surface tension of water as reported in some scientific literature. In this paper PWT phenomenon was studied by measuring surface tension of treated

M. C. Amiri; Ali A. Dadkhah

2006-01-01

288

The use of ozone and associated oxidation processes in drinking water treatment  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper summarizes the main applications of ozonation and associated oxidation processes in the treatment of natural waters (surface and ground waters) for drinking water production. In fact, oxidants may be added at several points throughout the treatment: pre-oxidation, intermediate oxidation or final disinfection. So, the numerous effects of chemical oxidation are discussed along the water treatment: removal of inorganic

V Camel; A Bermond

1998-01-01

289

Selenium adsorption to aluminum-based water treatment residuals  

SciTech Connect

Aluminum-based water treatment residuals (WTR) can adsorb water- and soil-borne P, As(V), As(III), and perchlorate, and may be able to adsorb excess environmental selenium. WTR, clay minerals, and amorphous aluminum hydroxide were shaken for 24 h in selenate or selenite solutions at pH values of 5-9, and then analyzed for selenium content. Selenate and selenite adsorption edges were unaffected across the pH range studied. Selenate adsorbed on to WTR, reference mineral phases, and amorphous aluminum hydroxide occurred as outer sphere complexes (relatively loosely bound), while selenite adsorption was identified as inner-sphere complexation (relatively tightly bound). Selenite sorption to WTR in an anoxic environment reduced Se(IV) to Se(0), and oxidation of Se(0) or Se(IV) appeared irreversible once sorbed to WTR. Al-based WTR could play a favorable role in sequestering excess Se in affected water sources.

Ippolito, James A.; Scheckel, Kirk G.; Barbarick, Ken A.; (US-Agriculture); (EPA); (CSU)

2009-09-02

290

Kinetics and mechanism of dimethoate chlorination during drinking water treatment.  

PubMed

Dimethoate (DMT), a commonly used organophosphorus pesticide, is of great concern because of its toxicity and potentially harmful effects on water sources. The elimination of DMT as well as the toxicity and persistence of the byproducts formed during DMT degradation is most important for the safety of drinking water. This study first determined the reaction kinetics of DMT with free chlorine (FC) under typical water treatment conditions. The reaction between DMT and FC proceeded rapidly, exhibiting first-order with respect to each reactant. The degradation of DMT by FC was highly pH dependent, and the pseudo-first-order rate constant decreased obviously from 0.13 to 0.02 s(-1) with an increase in pH from 7.0 to 8.3. Bromide ion accelerated the reaction by acting as a catalyst, and the accelerated reaction rate was linearly proportional to the bromide concentration. As a ubiquitous component in natural waters, humic acid also increased the reaction rate. However, the presence of ammonium inhibited the degradation of DMT due to its rapid converting FC to chloramines. Omethoate (OMT) was identified as an important byproduct of DMT chlorination, but only accounted for ca. 28% of the DMT degraded; and other two organic byproducts were also identified. The acute toxicity of DMT solution increased after treatment with FC due to the formation of more toxic byproducts (e.g. OMT). PMID:24377445

Tian, Fang; Liu, Wenjun; Guo, Guang; Qiang, Zhimin; Zhang, Can

2014-05-01

291

Efficient taste and odour removal by water treatment plants around the Han River water supply system.  

PubMed

Seven major water treatment plants in Seoul Metropolitan Area, which are under Korea Water Resources Corporation (KOWACO)'s management, take water from the Paldang Reservoir in the Han River System for drinking water supply. There are taste and odour (T&O) problems in the finished water because the conventional treatment processes do not efficiently remove the T&O compounds. This study evaluated T&O removal by ozonation, granular activated carbon (GAC) treatment, powder activated carbon (PAC) and an advanced oxidation process in a pilot-scale treatment plant and bench-scale laboratory experiments. During T&O episodes, PAC alone was not adequate, but as a pretreatment together with GAC it could be a useful option. The optimal range of ozone dose was 1 to 2 mg/L at a contact time of 10 min. However, with ozone alone it was difficult to meet the T&O target of 3 TON and 15 ng/L of MIB or geosmin. The GAC adsorption capacity for DOC in the three GAC systems (F/A, GAC and O3 + GAC) at an EBCT of 14 min is mostly exhausted after 9 months. However, substantial TON removal continued for more than 2 years (>90,000 bed volumes). GAC was found to be effective for T&O control and the main removal mechanisms were adsorption capacity and biodegradation. PMID:17489399

Ahn, H; Chae, S; Kim, S; Wang, C; Summers, R S

2007-01-01

292

Assessing UV reactor performance for treatment of finished water.  

PubMed

Recently, use of low levels of medium- and low-pressure ultraviolet light for successful inactivation of Cryptosporidium parvum oocysts has generated tremendous excitement in the water industry. Accurate delivery of the target dose, lamp performance, sensor stability and impact of water characteristics are some factors that could impact disinfection efficacy, in turn influencing decisions on application of this technology. To this end, American Water Systems, the largest investor owned water utility in the US, has responded to some of these challenges by ascertaining the long-term feasibility of applying UV for treatment of finished water. A 4 x 1 UV reactor with a 12 inch (0.3 m) diameter was installed after granular activated carbon filtration and was operated with a finished water flow rate of 600 gpm (2,700 L/min). Over a 12-month period, various chemical (THM, HAA, UV254, DOC, TOC, metals, nitrate, nitrites) and physical measurements (lamp voltage, current, sensor measurements) were monitored to define their impact (if any) on the operation of the reactor. MS2 bacteriophage challenge studies were conducted with various lamp configurations and lamp age. These inactivation data demonstrated high levels of correlation with controlled bench scale inactivation data. For C. parvum oocysts, bench scale studies were performed with a modified in vitro infectivity assay using HCT-8 cells, an enhanced infectivity protocol and with either immunofluorescence or quantitative PCR based detection. While both assays indicated increasing infections levels of HCT-8 cells with increasing oocyst inocula, UV treatment of oocysts produced markedly different infectivity responses. Based on the data generated in this study, one in vitro infectivity assay was selected to demonstrate > 3 logs inactivation with low UV doses (5 mJ/cm(20-10 mJ/cm2). PMID:12639026

Bukhari, Z; LeChevallier, M

2003-01-01

293

Comparison of drinking water treatment process streams for optimal bacteriological water quality.  

PubMed

Four pilot-scale treatment process streams (Stream 1 - Conventional treatment (coagulation/flocculation/dual media filtration); Stream 2 - Magnetic ion exchange (MIEX)/Conventional treatment; Stream 3 - MIEX/Conventional treatment/granular activated carbon (GAC) filtration; Stream 4 - Microfiltration/nanofiltration) were commissioned to compare their effectiveness in producing high quality potable water prior to disinfection. Despite receiving highly variable source water quality throughout the investigation, each stream consistently reduced colour and turbidity to below Australian Drinking Water Guideline levels, with the exception of Stream 1 which was difficult to manage due to the reactive nature of coagulation control. Of particular interest was the bacteriological quality of the treated waters where flow cytometry was shown to be the superior monitoring tool in comparison to the traditional heterotrophic plate count method. Based on removal of total and active bacteria, the treatment process streams were ranked in the order: Stream 4 (average log removal of 2.7) > Stream 2 (average log removal of 2.3) > Stream 3 (average log removal of 1.5) > Stream 1 (average log removal of 1.0). The lower removals in Stream 3 were attributed to bacteria detaching from the GAC filter. Bacterial community analysis revealed that the treatments affected the bacteria present, with the communities in streams incorporating conventional treatment clustering with each other, while the community composition of Stream 4 was very different to those of Streams 1, 2 and 3. MIEX treatment was shown to enhance removal of bacteria due to more efficient flocculation which was validated through the novel application of the photometric dispersion analyser. PMID:22608607

Ho, Lionel; Braun, Kalan; Fabris, Rolando; Hoefel, Daniel; Morran, Jim; Monis, Paul; Drikas, Mary

2012-08-01

294

An evaluation of free water surface wetlands as tertiary sewage water treatment of micro-pollutants.  

PubMed

Increased attention is currently directed towards potential negative effects of pharmaceuticals and other micro-pollutants discharged into the aquatic environment via municipal sewage water. A number of additional treatment technologies, such as ozonation, have therefore been suggested as promising tools for improving the removal efficiency of pharmaceuticals in existing Sewage Treatment Plants (STPs). Constructed wetlands are also capable of removing a variety of micro-pollutants, including some pharmaceuticals, and could hence be a resource efficient complement to more advanced treatment technologies. The purpose of the present study was therefore to increase the knowledge base concerning the potential use of constructed wetlands as a treatment step to reduce emissions of organic micro-pollutants from municipal sewage effluents. Under cold winter conditions, incoming and outgoing waters from four Swedish free water surface wetlands, operated as final treatment steps of sewage effluent from municipal STPs, were sampled and analyzed for levels of a set of 92 pharmaceuticals and 22 inorganic components as well as assessed using subchronic ecotoxicity tests with a macro-alga and a crustacean. Sixty-five pharmaceuticals were detected in the range from 1 ng L(-1) to 7.6 ?g L(-1) in incoming and outgoing waters from the four investigated wetlands. Although the sampling design used in the present study lacks the robustness of volume proportional to 24h composite samples, the average estimated removal rates ranged from 42% to 52%, which correlates to previous published values. The effects observed in the ecotoxicity tests with the macro-alga (EC(50)s in the range of 7.5-46%) and the crustacean (LOECs in the range of 11.25-90%) could not be assigned to either pharmaceutical residues or metals, but in general showed that these treatment facilities release water with a relatively low toxic potential, comparable to water that has been treated with advanced tertiary treatments. From the present study it can be concluded that constructed wetlands may provide a complementary sewage treatment option, especially where other treatment is lacking today. To fully remove micro-pollutants from sewage effluent, however, other more advanced treatment technologies are likely needed. PMID:22192709

Breitholtz, Magnus; Näslund, Maria; Stråe, Daniel; Borg, Hans; Grabic, Roman; Fick, Jerker

2012-04-01

295

Recovery of Iron Coagulants From Tehran Water-Treatment-Plant Sludge for Reusing in Textile Wastewater Treatment  

Microsoft Academic Search

Most of the water treatment plants in Iran discharge their sludge to the environment whithout consideration of possible side effects. Since this kind of sludge is generally considered pollutant, the sludge treatment of water industry seems to be an essential task. Obviously theweight and volume of solids produced during the coagulation process are much more than other wastes of water

F Vaezi; F Batebi; Gh Moosavi

296

Chemical drinking water quality in Ghana: water costs and scope for advanced treatment.  

PubMed

To reduce child mortality and improve health in Ghana boreholes and wells are being installed across the country by the private sector, NGO's and the Ghanaian government. Water quality is not generally monitored once a water source has been improved. Water supplies were sampled across Ghana from mostly boreholes, wells and rivers as well as some piped water from the different regions and analysed for the chemical quality. Chemical water quality was found to exceed the WHO guidelines in 38% of samples, while pH varied from 3.7 to 8.9. Excess levels of nitrate (NO(3)(-)) were found in 21% of the samples, manganese (Mn) and fluoride (F(-)) in 11% and 6.7%, respectively. Heavy metals such as lead (Pb), arsenic (As) and uranium (U) were localised to mining areas. Elements without health based guideline values such as aluminium (Al, 95%) and chloride (Cl, 5.7%) were found above the provisional guideline value. Economic information was gathered to identify water costs and ability to pay. Capital costs of wells and boreholes are about pound1200 and pound3800 respectively. The majority of installation costs are generally paid by the government or NGO's, while the maintenance is expected to be covered by the community. At least 58% of the communities had a water payment system in place, either an annual fee/one-off fee or "pay-as-you-fetch". The annual fee was between pound0.3-21, while the boreholes had a water collection fee of pound0.07-0.7/m(3), many wells were free. Interestingly, the most expensive water ( pound2.9-3.5/m(3)) was brought by truck. Many groundwater sources were not used due to poor chemical water quality. Considering the cost of unsuccessful borehole development, the potential for integrating suitable water treatment into the capital and maintenance costs of water sources is discussed. Additionally, many sources were not in use due to lack of water capacity, equipment malfunction or lack of economic resources to repair and maintain equipment. Those issues need to be addressed in combination with water quality, coordinated water supply provision and possible treatment to ensure sustainability of improved water resources. PMID:20206375

Rossiter, Helfrid M A; Owusu, Peter A; Awuah, Esi; Macdonald, Alan M; Schäfer, Andrea I

2010-05-01

297

INTERGRATING SOURCE WATER PROTECTION AND DRINKING WATER TREATMENT: U.S. ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY'S WATER SUPPLY AND WATER RESOURCES DIVISION  

EPA Science Inventory

The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's (EPA) Water Supply and Water Resources Division (WSWRD) is an internationally recognized water research organization established to assist in responding to public health concerns related to drinking water supplies. WSWRD has evolved from...

298

INTEGRATING SOURCE WATER PROTECTION AND DRINKING WATER TREATMENT: U.S. ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY'S WATER SUPPLY AND WATER RESOURCES DIVISION  

EPA Science Inventory

The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's (EPA) Water Supply and Water Resources Division (WSWRD) is an internationally recognized water research organization established to assist in responding to public health concerns related to drinking water supplies. WSWRD has evolved from...

299

NURE Aerial gamma-Ray and Magnetic Reconnaissance Survey: Big Bend Area, Marfa MH 13-5, Fort Stockton MH 13-6, Presidio MH 13-8, Emory Peak MH 13-9 Quadrangles. Volume I. Narrative Report.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A rotary-wing, reconnaissance, high sensitivity, radiometric and magnetic survey was performed in the Big Bend area of Texas. Four 1:250,000 scale NTMS quadrangles (Marfa, Ft. Stockton, Presidio, and Emory Peak) were surveyed. A total of 7,529 line miles ...

1979-01-01

300

Adsorption of Roxarsone onto Drinking Water Treatment Residuals: Preliminary Studies  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Roxarsone (3-nitro-4-hydroxyphenyl-arsonic acid) is an organo-arsenical compound, commonly used as a feed additive in the broiler poultry industry to control coccidial intestinal parasites. Roxarsone is not toxic to the birds not only because of the low dose, and also because it most likely does not convert to toxic inorganic arsenic (As) in their systems. However, upon excretion, roxarsone may undergo transformation to inorganic As, posing a serious risk of contaminating the agricultural land and water bodies via surface runoff or leaching. The use of poultry litter as fertilizer results in As accumulation rates of up to 50 metric tons per year in agricultural lands. The immediate challenge, as identified by the various regulatory bodies in recent years is to develop an efficient, yet cost-effective and environmentally sound approach to cleaning up such As- contaminated soils. Recent studies conducted by our group have suggested that the drinking water treatment residuals (WTRs) can effectively retain As, thereby decreasing its mobility in the environment. The WTRs are byproducts of drinking water treatment processes and are typically composed of amorphous Fe/Al oxides, activated C and cationic polymers. They can be obtained free-of-cost from water treatment plants. It is well demonstrated that the environmental mobility of As is controlled by adsorption/desorption reactions onto mineral surfaces. Hence, knowledge of adsorption and desorption of As onto the WTRs is of environmental relevance. The reported study examined the adsorption and desorption characteristics of As using two types of WTRs, namely the Fe-WTRs (byproduct of Fe salt treatment), and the Al-WTRs (byproduct of Al salt treatment). All adsorption experiments were carried out in batch and As retention on the WTRs was investigated as a function of solid/solution ratio (1:5, 1:10, 1:25 and 1:50), equilibration time (10 min - 48 hr), pH (2 - 10) and initial As load (100, 500, 1000 and 2000 mg As/L). The above parameters were varied one at a time to study their effects on roxarsone adsorption. Desorption studies were carried out using 125 mg/L phosphorous at predetermined interval of time. In addition to analyzing for total As by an ICP-MS, aqueous speciation of As was performed using a coupled HPLC-ICP-MS system. Preliminary studies show significant roxarsone adsorption capacity of the WTRs.

Salazar, J.; Sarkar, D.; Datta, R.; Sharma, S.

2006-05-01

301

Removal of dissolved organic matter in water-hyacinth waste-water treatment lagoons  

Microsoft Academic Search

Secondary treatment of domestic wastewater in water hyacinth lagoons was evaluated under experimental conditions to assess the role of the roots' bacterial biofilm in the removal of dissolved organic matter (DOM). Research was conducted to (1) quantify removal rates by the biofilm as a function of bulk DOM concentration, (2) formulate an analytical model of DOM removal incorporating biofilm activity,

Victoria-Rueda

1991-01-01

302

Introduction to Chemistry for Water and Wastewater Treatment Plant Operators. Water and Wastewater Training Program.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Presented are basic concepts of chemistry necessary for operators who manage drinking water treatment plants and wastewater facilities. It includes discussions of chemical terms and concepts, laboratory procedures for basic analyses of interest to operators, and discussions of appropriate chemical calculations. Exercises are included and answer…

South Dakota Dept. of Environmental Protection, Pierre.

303

Mathematics for Water and Wastewater Treatment Plant Operators. Water and Wastewater Training Program.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This booklet is intended to aid the prospective waste treatment plant operator or drinking water plant operator in learning to solve mathematical problems, which is necessary for Class I certification. It deals with the basic mathematics which a Class I operator may require in accomplishing day-to-day tasks. The book also progresses into problems…

South Dakota Dept. of Environmental Protection, Pierre.

304

Methods of removing uranium from drinking water. 1. A literature survey. 2. Present municipal water treatment and potential removal methods  

Microsoft Academic Search

Literature was searched for methods of removing uranium from drinking water. U.S. manufacturers and users of water-treatment equipment and products were also contacted regarding methods of removing uranium from potable water. Based on the results of these surveys, it was recommended that untreated, partially treated, and finished water samples from municipal water-treatment facilities be analyzed to determine the extent of

J. S. Drury; D. Michelson; J. T. Ensminger; S. Y. Lee; S. K. White

1982-01-01

305

Evaluations of membrane fouling potential in water treatment applications  

SciTech Connect

Membrane processes such as ultrafiltration, nanofiltration, and reverse osmosis are becoming increasingly popular in water treatment utilities because of their ability to produce high finished water quality. A major problem affecting the economics of these processes is permeate flux decline due to membrane fouling. The types of membrane fouling can be broadly categorized as follows: organic fouling, biofouling, colloidal fouling, inorganic fouling, and precipitation scaling. The membrane performance with respect to resistance to fouling as well as rejection characteristics is an important consideration. Selection of appropriate membranes for performance improvement in water treatment applications mandates the evaluation of the fouling potential, an aspect related to the membrane material, membrane type, nature of feed solution, and interactions between membranes and solutes. In the present study, the membrane fouling potential is evaluated by membrane performance tests with respect to permeate flux and solute rejections, and by membrane surface characterization techniques including measurements of membrane sorption, zeta potential, contact angles, and membrane surface morphology. These surface characterization techniques are intended to evaluate membrane sorption characteristics (with respect to foulants), membrane surface hydrophobicity, membrane surface charge under different solution conditions, and changes on membrane surface topography on the clean and fouled membranes.

Tu, S.C.; Ravindran, V.; Pirbazari, M.

1999-07-01

306

Produced water treatment by micellar-enhanced ultrafiltration.  

PubMed

A water treatment approach combining ultrafiltration (UF) and micellar-enhanced ultrafiltration (MEUF) techniques was used for the removal of organic contaminants in field produced water samples from Canada and the United States. Free oil droplets and suspended solids were separated by initial UF treatments while MEUF was necessary for the removal of dissolved organics. It was shown that the amphiphilic characteristics of some organics commonly existing in produced water contributed to lowering the critical micelle concentration (CMC) of the surfactant employed. Lower surfactant concentrations could, therefore, be employed leading to lower fouling and back contamination and higher permeate flux. In addition, the incorporation of organic contaminants into the structure of cetylpyridinium chloride (CPC) micelles resulted in larger size and higher dissolution capacity of the "mixed micelles". The performance of polymeric and ceramic membranes of different molecular weight cutoffs (MWCOs) was evaluated by analyzing the permeate flux, recovery ratio, and solute percent rejection as functions of trans-membrane pressure (TMP). A mathematical model based on Darcy's law and the resistance in-series model successfully described the flux decline as a function of TMP for the two field samples and the two membranes studied. PMID:20121232

Deriszadeh, Ali; Husein, Maen M; Harding, Thomas G

2010-03-01

307

REGULATIONS ON THE DISPOSAL OF ARSENIC RESIDUALS FROM DRINKING WATER TREATMENT PLANTS  

EPA Science Inventory

This report summarizes federal and selected state regulations that govern the management of residuals produced by small water treatment systems removing arsenic from drinking water. The document focuses on the residuals produced by five treatment processes: anion exchange, activa...

308

40 CFR 403.19 - Provisions of specific applicability to the Owatonna Waste Water Treatment Facility.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...industrial processes, and potential by-products have not contributed...to the Owatonna Waste Water Treatment Facility is...User has no reasonable potential to violate a Pretreatment...f) The Owatonna Waste Water Treatment Facility...

2012-07-01

309

40 CFR 403.19 - Provisions of specific applicability to the Owatonna Waste Water Treatment Facility.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...industrial processes, and potential by-products have not contributed...to the Owatonna Waste Water Treatment Facility is...User has no reasonable potential to violate a Pretreatment...f) The Owatonna Waste Water Treatment Facility...

2010-07-01

310

40 CFR 403.19 - Provisions of specific applicability to the Owatonna Waste Water Treatment Facility.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...industrial processes, and potential by-products have not contributed...to the Owatonna Waste Water Treatment Facility is...User has no reasonable potential to violate a Pretreatment...f) The Owatonna Waste Water Treatment Facility...

2011-07-01

311

40 CFR 403.19 - Provisions of specific applicability to the Owatonna Waste Water Treatment Facility.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...industrial processes, and potential by-products have not contributed...to the Owatonna Waste Water Treatment Facility is...User has no reasonable potential to violate a Pretreatment...f) The Owatonna Waste Water Treatment Facility...

2013-07-01

312

40 CFR 403.19 - Provisions of specific applicability to the Owatonna Waste Water Treatment Facility.  

...industrial processes, and potential by-products have not contributed...to the Owatonna Waste Water Treatment Facility is...User has no reasonable potential to violate a Pretreatment...f) The Owatonna Waste Water Treatment Facility...

2014-07-01

313

Treatment Technology to Meet the Interim Primary Drinking Water Regulations for Inorganics: Part 3.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article is the third in a series summarizing existing treatment technology to meet the inorganic National Interim Primary Drinking Water Regulations. This report deals specifically with treatment methods for removing cadmium, lead, and silver from drinking water. (CS)

Sorg, Thomas J.; And Others

1978-01-01

314

Safety evaluation -- Spent water treatment system components inventory release  

SciTech Connect

Over the past few years various impediments to shipment of generated spent basin water treatment system components have resulted in the accumulation of quantities of these waste items at 100K. Specifically, there are (as of 01/01/95) 13 grout/culvert packaged cartridge filters (CF), four unpackaged cartridge filters, 60 spent ion exchange columns (IXC) and seven ion exchange modules (IXM) at 100K awaiting shipment for final waste disposal. As a result of the accumulation of this waste, the question has arisen regarding the consequences of potential releases of the inventory of radionuclides in these waste items relative to the K Area safety envelope. The purpose of this paper is to address this question. The initial step evaluating the consequences of potential release of material from the spent water treatment system components was to determine the individual and total radionuclide inventories of concern. Generally the radioisotopes of concern to the dose consequences were Sr/Y-90, Cs-137, and the transuranic (TRU) isotopes. The loading of these radioisotopes needed to be determined for each of the components of the total number of accumulated IXCs, IXMs and CFs. This evaluation examines four potential releases of material from the spent water treatment system components. These releases are: the release of material from all 39 IXCs stored in 183-KW; the release of material from the IXCs, IXMs and CFs at 105-KE and 105-KW; the release of material from the 13 CFs stored behind 105-KE; and the non-mechanistic release of the total stored waste inventory.

Dodd, E.N. Jr.

1995-01-24

315

A rapid, simple and effective waste water treatment  

SciTech Connect

It had been shown previously that electrolysis systems using special electrodes generate solutions with high antimicrobial activity. These laboratory data have been expanded to cover waste waters. Tests were run at the Salt Lake City sewage treatment plant, using Brinecell Model 130 units. The results are presented. Waste water from a chicken processing plant was investigated for reduction in BOD and COD; solution was recirculated through the cell. Preliminary data are presented. In order to investigate conditions for significant reductions in BOD, COD and TOC, tests were run using solutions made up of known compounds. Further tests were run to investigate the effect of the electrolysis system on chloroorganic compounds. Carbon tetrachloride and chloroform, in the same solution, were treated.

Themy, T.; Drury, T. (Brinecell Manufacturing Corp., Salt Lake City, UT (USA)); Wilk, I.J.

1988-09-01

316

Characterization and treatment of the phosphoric gypsum transport water.  

PubMed

This paper presents a new treatment procedure applied on phosphogypsum transport water. Untreated transport water is highly acidic (pH 1.79), having fluoride content of 1540 mg/L and elevated values of phosphates (215 mg/L) and heavy metals (Fe=25.8 mg/L; Zn=5.7 mg/L; Mn=2.7 mg/L, V=1.7 mg/L). Neutralization/purification of the transport water was carried out with wood fly ash, otherwise a rich source of calcium, composed of calcite, dipotassium calcium carbonate and hydroxylapatite. Maximum removal efficiency of fluoride was observed at pH 7 (99.99%) and phosphate at pH 9 (96.29%). The removal of fluorides was a consequence of the formation of fluorite and fluorapatite mineral phases derived from the reaction of calcium (released from the fly ash minerals) and fluorides (from the transport water). The removal of phosphates resulted from the formation of fluorapathite and hydroxilapatite. At the optimum conditions removal efficiencies for the elements Pb, V, Cr(VI), Mn, Fe, Ni, Cu, and Zn were 95%, 98.14%, 91.11%, 100%, 99.71%, 96.33%, 97.24%, and 99.65%, respectively. Optimal heavy metal removal occurred in major cases at pH 7. PMID:19412850

Orescanin, Visnja; Mikelic, Luka; Tomasic, Nenad; Medunic, Gordana; Kampic, Stefica; Mikulic, Nenad; Rubcic, Mirta; Lulic, Stipe; Harambasic, Matija

2009-06-01

317

Point-of-entry treatment of petroleum contaminated water supplies  

SciTech Connect

Contamination of individual wells in rural area from leaking petroleum storage tanks poses unique problems for regulatory agencies utilities, and potentially responsible parties. A potential solution is the use of point-of-entry (POE) treatment techniques. Results indicate POE systems using aeration followed by granular activated carbon (GAC) are a viable, cost effective, short-term solution while ground water remediation is performed or an alternate drinking water supply is secured. Selection and design of POE systems should consider variations in water usage and contaminant concentrations. Iron and manganese did not affect POE system performance at the ten sites studied. However, iron precipitation was observed and may pose problems in some POE applications. Increased concentrations of nonpurgeable dissolved organic carbon consisting primarily of methy-t-butyl ether (MTBE) and hydrophilic petroleum hydrocarbons were found in the raw waters but did not affect volatile organic chemical (VOC) removals by aeration of GAC. Microbial activity as measured by heterotrophie plate count significantly increased through four of the ten POE systems studied. Reliability of the POE systems will best be achieved by specifying top quality system components, educating POE users, and providing routine maintenance and VOC monitoring. 20 refs., 9 figs., 4 tabs.

Malley, J.P. Jr.; Eliason, P.A.; Wagler, J.L. [Univ. of New Hampshire, Durham (United States)

1993-03-01

318

Performance of a Small-scale Treatment Wetland for Treatment of Landscaping Wash Water  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A large number of lawn mowers and related equipment must be cleaned each day by commercial landscaping operations and state and local highway maintenance crews. Washing these devices produces wastewater that contains high amounts of organic matter and potentially problematic nutrients, as well as oil and grease and other chemicals and metals that come from the machinery itself. Dirty water washes off the mowers, flows off the pavement and into nearby storm drains without any kind of treatment. A better idea would be to collect such wastewater, retain it in an appropriate catchment such as an engineered wetland where natural processes could break down any pollutants in the wash water, and allow the water to naturally evaporate or percolate into the soil where it could recharge ground water resources safely. This research examines the performance of a small-scale treatment wetland tailored to remove nitrogen from landscaping wash water by incorporating both aerobic and anaerobic phases. Contaminants are analyzed through physical and chemical methods. Both methods involve collection of samples, followed by standardized, validated analytical laboratory tests for measuring total solids, total kjeldahl nitrogen, nitrates, total and dissolved phosphorus, COD, BOD, oil and grease, and metals (Zn and Cu). High levels of total solids, total kjeldahl nitrogen, nitrates, total and dissolved phosphorus, COD, BOD, oil and grease are found. Zinc and copper levels are low. Wetland treatment removes 99% total solids, 77% total kjeldahl nitrogen, 100% nitrates, 94% total phosphorus, 86% dissolved phosphorus, 94% COD, 97% BOD, and 76% oil and grease. The results will be a critical step towards developing a sustainable low-energy system for treating such wastewater that could be used by private landscaping companies and government agencies.

Thompson, R. J.; Fayed, E.; Fish, W.

2011-12-01

319

Treatment of drinking water to improve its sanitary or bacteriological quality is  

E-print Network

the potential source of contamination and/or methods to treat the water continuously to elTreatment of drinking water to improve its sanitary or bacteriological quality is referred contamination of water. This method also can be used by private- water-well owners. Water Wells Water wells

320

Optofluidic planar reactors for photocatalytic water treatment using solar energy  

PubMed Central

Optofluidics may hold the key to greater success of photocatalytic water treatment. This is evidenced by our findings in this paper that the planar microfluidic reactor can overcome the limitations of mass transfer and photon transfer in the previous photocatalytic reactors and improve the photoreaction efficiency by more than 100 times. The microreactor has a planar chamber (5 cm×1.8 cm×100 ?m) enclosed by two TiO2-coated glass slides as the top cover and bottom substrate and a microstructured UV-cured NOA81 layer as the sealant and flow input?output. In experiment, the microreactor achieves 30% degradation of 3 ml 3×10?5M methylene blue within 5 min and shows a reaction rate constant two orders higher than the bulk reactor. Under optimized conditions, a reaction rate of 8% s?1 is achieved under solar irradiation. The average apparent quantum efficiency is found to be only 0.25%, but the effective apparent quantum efficiency reaches as high as 25%. Optofluidic reactors inherit the merits of microfluidics, such as large surface?volume ratio, easy flow control, and rapid fabrication and offer a promising prospect for large-volume photocatalytic water treatment. PMID:21267436

Lei, Lei; Wang, Ning; Zhang, X. M.; Tai, Qidong; Tsai, Din Ping; Chan, Helen L. W.

2010-01-01

321

Flocculant Dosage Optimizing in Water Treatment based on Nonlinear Mathematical Model  

Microsoft Academic Search

The artificial mathematical model of feed water treatment is investigated by the method of mechanism and modeling of distributed parameter system; it includes the basic processes of feed water treatment, i.e.coagulation, flocculation and sedimentation. This model can give the dynamic response of relationship between coagulant dosage and water turbidity after flocculation and sedimentation. The influence of water plant design parameters

Guo Yufeng; Ma Jun; Zhai Xuedong; Fan Yi

2009-01-01

322

Management of Concentrated Waste Streams from High-Pressure Membrane Water Treatment Systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

The sustainable management of concentrated waste streams from high-pressure membrane-based water treatment processes are commonly the greatest limitations to the implementation of such processes. This applies to seawater desalination, brackish water desalination, groundwater softening, surface water treatment, and municipal water reclamation. This review provides an analysis of the potential environmental implications of concentrate disposal to marine, freshwater, and terrestrial environments.

Stuart J. Khan; David Murchland; Michelle Rhodes; T. David Waite

2009-01-01

323

Advanced Oxidation Treatment of Drinking Water: Part II. Turbidity, Particles and Organics Removal from Lake Huron Water  

Microsoft Academic Search

Pre-coagulation ozonation has been reported to be effective in drinking water treatment processes. Limited data are available on the impact of advanced oxidation processes (AOPs) on Lake Huron water which serves as a primary source of drinking water for many communities around the Great Lakes region. Impact of ozone\\/hydrogen peroxide based AOP on Lake Huron water was studied. The results

M. F. Rahman; S. Y. Jasim; E. K. Yanful; S. Ndiongue; D. Borikar

2010-01-01

324

Use of ceregenins to create novel biofouling resistant water water-treatment membranes.  

SciTech Connect

Scoping studies have demonstrated that ceragenins, when linked to water-treatment membranes have the potential to create biofouling resistant water-treatment membranes. Ceragenins are synthetically produced molecules that mimic antimicrobial peptides. Evidence includes measurements of CSA-13 prohibiting the growth of and killing planktonic Pseudomonas fluorescens. In addition, imaging of biofilms that were in contact of a ceragenin showed more dead cells relative to live cells than in a biofilm that had not been treated with a ceragenin. This work has demonstrated that ceragenins can be attached to polyamide reverse osmosis (RO) membranes, though work needs to improve the uniformity of the attachment. Finally, methods have been developed to use hyperspectral imaging with multivariate curve resolution to view ceragenins attached to the RO membrane. Future work will be conducted to better attach the ceragenin to the RO membranes and more completely test the biocidal effectiveness of the ceragenins on the membranes.

Kirk, Matthew F.; Jones, Howland D. T.; Feng, Yanshu; McGrath, Lucas K.; Altman, Susan Jeanne; Pollard, Jacob; Hibbs, Michael R.; Savage, Paul B.

2010-05-01

325

Copper Corrosion in Potable Water Systems: Impacts of Natural Organic Matter and Water Treatment Processes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Copper corrosion was examined in the presence of natural organic matter (NOM) and in situations where NOM was altered by drinking water treatment. Corrosion rates (i{sub corr}) increased with higher NOM concentration at pH 6, whereas insignificant effects were observed at pH 7.5 and 9.0. Corrosion byproduct release was affected adversely by 4 mg\\/L NOM at pH 6.0, 7.5 and

J. P. Rehring; M. P. Edwards

1996-01-01

326

Drinking water treatment residuals: a review of recent uses.  

PubMed

Coagulants such as alum [Al2(SO4)3 x 14H2O], FeCl3, or Fe2(SO4)3 are commonly used to remove particulate and dissolved constituents from water supplies in the production of drinking water. The resulting waste product, called water-treatment residuals (WTR), contains precipitated Al and Fe oxyhydroxides, resulting in a strong affinity for anionic species. Recent research has focused on using WTR as cost-effective materials to reduce soluble phosphorus (P) in soils, runoff, and land-applied organic wastes (manures and biosolids). Studies show P adsorption by WTR to be fast and nearly irreversible, suggesting long-term stable immobilization of WTR-bound P. Because excessive WTR application can induce P deficiency in crops, effective application rates and methods remain an area of intense research. Removal of other potential environmental contaminants [ClO4-, Se(+IV and +VI), As(+III and +V), and Hg] by WTR has been documented, suggesting potential use of WTR in environmental remediation. Although the creation of Al plant toxicity and enhanced Al leaching are concerns expressed by researchers, these effects are minimal at circumneutral soil pH conditions. Radioactivity, trace element levels, and enhanced Mn leaching have also been cited as potential problems in WTR usage as a soil supplement. However, these issues can be managed so as not to limit the beneficial use of WTR in controlling off-site P losses to sensitive water bodies or reducing soil-extractable P concentrations. PMID:21488487

Ippolito, J A; Barbarick, K A; Elliott, H A

2011-01-01

327

An integrated performance assessment framework for water treatment plants.  

PubMed

An innovative framework for the performance assessment of a traditional water treatment plant (WTP) is presented that integrates the concepts of reliability, robustness, and Quantitative Microbial Risk Assessment (QMRA). Performance assessment for a WTP comprised of three units (i.e., unit 1: Coagulation/Flocculation and Sedimentation; unit 2: Filtration, and unit 3: Disinfection) was conducted. Performance functions for units 1, 2, and units 1 and 2 combined, were constructed by integrating turbidity robustness indices. Performance function for chlorine disinfection was developed based on the difference between achieved and required CT values. A health-based performance function was developed by comparing the target daily infection rate to the site-specific infection rate. It was used to identify whether the health-based target was met during the failures of units 1 to 3. Results obtained from the proposed performance functions can be used by operators to ensure that multiple barriers perform successfully under variable conditions. PMID:22244994

Zhang, Kejiang; Achari, Gopal; Sadiq, Rehan; Langford, Cooper H; Dore, Mohammed H I

2012-04-15

328

Risk management program for the 283-W water treatment facility  

SciTech Connect

This Risk Management (RM) Program covers the 283-W Water Treatment Facility (283W Facility), located in the 200 West Area of the Hanford Site. A RM Program is necessary for this facility because it stores chlorine, a listed substance, in excess of or has the potential to exceed the threshold quantities defined in Title 40 of the Code of Federal Regulations (CFR) Part 68 (EPA, 1998). The RM Program contains data that will be used to prepare a RM Plan, which is required by 40 CFR 68. The RM Plan is a summary of the RM Program information, contained within this document, and will be submitted to the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) ultimately for distribution to the public. The RM Plan will be prepared and submitted separately from this document.

GREEN, W.E.

1999-05-11

329

FERRATES: SYNTHESIS, PROPERTIES AND APPLICATIONS IN WATER AND WASTEWATER TREATMENT.  

SciTech Connect

The higher oxidation states of iron (Fe(VI) and Fe(V) in particular) have been shown to be strongly oxidizing in enzymatic systems, where they can carry out aliphatic hydrogen abstraction. In addition, they have been postulated as intermediates in Fenton-type systems. Fe(VI) itself is relatively stable and has been shown to have potential as an oxidant in the so-called ''green'' treatment of polluted waters. By contrast, Fe(V) is a relatively short-lived transient when produced in aqueous solution in the absence of strongly bonding ligands other than hydroxide, a feature that has limited studies of its reactivity. Fe(VI) has been proposed to be useful in battery design and a very interesting study suggested that ferrate may be able to oxidize insoluble chromium to chromate and thus serve to remove chromium contamination in the Hanford radioactive waste tanks.

CABELLI, D.E.; SHARMA, V.K.

2006-05-19

330

Using phytoremediation technologies to upgrade waste water treatment in Europe  

Microsoft Academic Search

One of the burning problems of our industrial society is the high consumption of water and the high demand for clean drinking water. Numerous approaches have been taken to reduce water consumption, but in the long run it seems only possible to recycle waste water into high quality water. It seems timely to discuss alternative water remediation technologies that are

Peter Schröder; Juan Navarro-Aviñ'o; Hassan Azaizeh; Avi Golan Goldhirsh; Simona DiGregorio; Tamas Komives; Günter Langergraber; Anton Lenz; Elena Maestri; Abdul R. Memon; Alfonso Ranalli; Luca Sebastiani; Stanislav Smrcek; Tomas Vanek; Stephane Vuilleumier; Frieder Wissing

2007-01-01

331

Coalbed Methane Produced Water Screening Tool for Treatment Technology and Beneficial Use 2013 Supporting Information  

E-print Network

later users in times of water shortage. Water rights are appropriated when the water is diverted fromCoalbed Methane Produced Water Screening Tool for Treatment Technology and Beneficial Use 2013 1 Supporting Information 1.0 Produced Water Regulatory Framework for WY and NM

332

Algal-bacterial treatment facility removes selenium from drainage water  

SciTech Connect

A demonstration algal-bacterial selenium removal (ABSR) facility has been treating agricultural drainage water in the Panoche Drainage District on the west side of the San Joaquin Valley since 1997. The project goals are to demonstrate the effectiveness of the ABSR technology for selenium removal, to investigate potential wildlife exposure to selenium at full-scale facilities, and to develop an operational plant configuration that will minimize the life-cycle cost for each pound of selenium removed. The facility consists of a series of ponds designed to promote native microorganisms that remove nitrate and selenium. Previous treatment research efforts sought to reduce selenium concentrations to less than 5 mu g/L, but the ABSR Facility demonstration focuses on providing affordable reduction of the selenium load that is discharged to the San Joaquin River. During 1997 and 1998, the best-performing ABSR plant configuration reduced nitrate by more than 95 percent and reduced total soluble selenium mass by 80 percent. Ongoing investigations focus on optimizing operational parameters and determining operational costs and scale-up engineering requirements. The preliminary total cost estimate for a 10-acre-foot per day ABSR facility is less than $200 per acre-foot of treated drainage water.

Quinn, Nigel W.T.; Lundquist, Tryg J.; Green, F. Bailey; Zarate, Max A.; Oswald, William J.; Leighton, Terrance

2000-01-25

333

Catalytic membrane reactor for water and wastewater treatment  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A double membrane reactor was fabricated and assessed for continuous treatment of water containing organic contaminants by ozonation. This innovative reactor consisted of a zeolite membrane prepared on the inner surface of a porous a-alumina support, which served as water selective extractor and active contactor, and a porous stainless membrane which was the ozone gas diffuser. The coupling of membrane separation and chemical oxidation was found to be highly beneficial to both processes. The total organic carbon (TOC) removal rate at the retentate was enhanced by up to 2.2 times, as compared to membrane ozonation. Simultaneously, clean water (< 2 mg C.L-1 ) was consistently produced on the permeate side, using a feed solution containing up to 1000 mg C.L-1, while the retentate was concentrated and treated. Most significantly, the addition of an adsorbing material, as a bed or a coated layer, onto the pores of the membrane support, was shown to further enhance TOC degradation, permeated TOC concentration, permeate flux, and moreover, ozone yield. The achievements of this project included: (1) The development of a novel low-temperature zeolite membrane activation method that generates consistently high quality membranes (i.e. high reproducibility and fewer defects). (2) The demonstration that gamma-alumina and gamma-alumina supported catalysts do not have significant activity and that the TOC removal enhancement usually observed during catalytic ozonation was due primarily to the contribution of adsorption and metal leaching. Thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) and elemental analysis (EA) of the spent catalyst showed that, during catalytic ozonation, oxygenated by-products of increased adsorbability were concentrated onto the gamma-alumina contactor, and were subsequently degraded. (3) The development of a method for coating high surface area gamma-alumina layers onto the grains of zeolite membrane support used as the active membrane contactor.

Heng, Samuel

334

Dewatering behaviour of water treatment sludges associated with contaminated site remediation in Antarctica  

Microsoft Academic Search

Sludge reduction and dewatering is an important aspect of water and waste water treatment. This is especially true in the case of Australia's Antarctic contaminated site remediation program, where the reduction in volume of wastes to be returned to Australia can lead to significant transport and handling cost savings. The dewatering characterisation of water treatment sludges from an Antarctic contaminated

Kathy A. Northcott; Ian Snape; Peter J. Scales; Geoff W. Stevens

2005-01-01

335

Filtration of contaminated suspended solids for the treatment of surface water  

Microsoft Academic Search

As few technologies exist worldwide for the treatment of contaminated surface water, a new approach is currently under development consisting of an in situ water treatment system based on a floating filtration process for adsorbed contaminants such as heavy metals. Laboratory filtration tests were performed for the removal of contaminated suspended solids (SS) from surface water. SS, chemical oxygen demand

Catherine N. Mulligan; Neginmalak Davarpanah; Masaharu Fukue; Tomohiro Inoue

2009-01-01

336

Regular Articles Coalbed methane produced water screening tool for treatment technology  

E-print Network

Regular Articles Coalbed methane produced water screening tool for treatment technology Colorado School of Mines, Golden, CO 80401, United States a r t i c l e i n f o Article history: Received 8: Produced water Beneficial use Environment Treatment costs Coal bed methane a b s t r a c t Produced water

337

Towards an ontology of waste water treatment plants: the identification phase  

Microsoft Academic Search

Water pollution in Mexico is an important issue in spite of the benefits obtained by current waste water treatment plants; more heuristic knowledge is required to adequately design and operate new plants. This paper discusses the role of the identification phase in the attainment of a knowledge base to obtain a domain ontology of waste water treatment plants. Two examples

Octavio Cabezut-boo; Antonio Sánchez-aguilar

1999-01-01

338

In-line treatment of metal contaminated storm water by charred microporous polymers  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper examines the feasibility of using an in-line storm water treatment system to remove heavy metals from storm water discharges. There are a number of commercially available microporous carbons that have a demonstrated affinity for the uptake of metals. Industry currently utilizes in-line storm water treatment processes to remove settle able solids, oils and greases; these processes could easily

Kliem

1998-01-01

339

Arsenite Sorption by Drinking-Water Treatment Residuals: Redox Effects  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Arsenic (As) is a major human carcinogen and could pose a serious human health risk at concentrations as low as 50 ppb in drinking water. Elevated As concentrations in soils currently used for residential purposes (located on former agricultural lands amended with arsenical pesticides) have increased the possibility of human contact with soil-As. Studies have shown that As bioavailability in the environment is primarily a function of its chemical speciation, which depends upon the redox potential. Arsenic toxicity and carcinogenicity to living organisms is primarily due to exposure to the reduced species of As - arsenite, i.e., As(III), rather than the oxidized species - arsenate, i.e., As(V); the mobility of As(III) is much higher than As(V). One of the most promising methods to decrease the mobility of arsenite in the soil-water system is promoting its retention onto amorphous Fe/Al hydroxides. Drinking-Water Treatment Residuals (WTRs) are an inexpensive source of such Fe/Al hydroxides, which can be land-applied following the USEPA-regulated biosolids application rules. The WTRs are byproducts of drinking-water purification processes and generally contain sediment, organic carbon, and Al/Fe hydroxides. The hydroxides are typically amorphous and have tremendous affinity for oxyanions (e.g., arsenate). Preliminary work showed that WTRs are characterized by large internal surface area and porosity that partly explains their high affinity for As(V). The current study examines the potential of two WTRs (Fe-based and Al-based) to adsorb arsenite from solution. We hypothesize that As(III) adsorption onto the Fe-based WTR (whose stability is highly redox-sensitive) would be vastly different from the adsorption of As(III) onto the redox-insensitive Al-based WTR. Our main objective is to characterize As(III) sorption by both Fe- and Al-based WTRs by changing critical factors, such as the solid:solution ratio, contact time, and initial As(III) load. Results from this study are expected to identify the optimal conditions for As(III) sorption onto WTRs as a function of solution pH and redox potential. Potential desorption of the retained As will be assessed in batch studies using phosphate as the competing ligand.

Makris, K. C.; Sarkar, D.; Datta, R.

2005-05-01

340

Filtration demonstration plant as reverse osmosis pretreatment in an industrial water treatment plant  

Microsoft Academic Search

Reverse osmosis (RO) has emerged as an alternative treatment in industrial water production. However, RO systems need suitable pretreatment to avoid membranes fouling. A demonstration study was conducted to assess improvements to RO pretreatment in the water treatment plant of a steel factory. Various pretreatment options, resulting from the combination of the existing treatment with different filtration stages, were tested.

Noelia Quevedo; Joan Sanz; Amaya Lobo; Javier Temprano; Iñaki Tejero

341

Clean water recycle in sugar extraction process: Performance analysis of reverse osmosis in the treatment of sugar beet press water  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the beet sugar manufacturing the treatment of the press water represents a challenging design task. In fact presently, press water is completely recycled to the extraction of sugar beet cossettes. Press water is essentially a dilute solution (1–3% total solids) containing, besides sugar (60–80% of the total solids), impurities in the form of dissolved species, salts, colloids, and suspended

M. Bogliolo; A. Bottino; G. Capannelli; M. De Petro; A. Servida; G. Pezzi; G. Vallini

1997-01-01

342

Relationship between Use of Water from Community-Scale Water Treatment Refill Kiosks and Childhood Diarrhea in Jakarta  

PubMed Central

In developing countries, safe piped drinking water is generally unavailable, and bottled water is unaffordable for most people. Purchasing drinking water from community-scale decentralized water treatment and refill kiosks (referred to as isi ulang depots in Indonesia) is becoming a common alternative. This study investigates the association between diarrhea risk and community-scale water treatment and refill kiosk. We monitored daily diarrhea status and water source for 1,000 children 1–4 years of age in Jakarta, Indonesia, for up to 5 months. Among children in an urban slum, rate of diarrhea/1,000 child-days varied significantly by primary water source: 8.13 for tap water, 3.60 for bottled water, and 3.97 for water kiosks. In multivariable Poisson regression analysis, diarrhea risk remained significantly lower among water kiosk users (adjusted rate ratio [RR] = 0.49, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 0.29–0.83) and bottled water users (adjusted RR = 0.45, 95% CI = 0.21–0.97), compared with tap water users. In a peri-urban area, where few people purchased from water kiosk (N = 28, 6% of total population), diarrhea rates were lower overall: 2.44 for well water, 1.90 for bottled water, and 2.54 for water kiosks. There were no significant differences in diarrhea risk for water kiosk users or bottled water users compared with well water users. Purchasing water from low-cost water kiosks is associated with a reduction in diarrhea risk similar to that found for bottled water. PMID:23128290

Sima, Laura C.; Desai, Mayur M.; McCarty, Kathleen M.; Elimelech, Menachem

2012-01-01

343

Modeling of bromate formation by ozonation of surface waters in drinking water treatment.  

PubMed

The main objective of this paper is to try to develop statistically and chemically rational models for bromate formation by ozonation of clarified surface waters. The results presented here show that bromate formation by ozonation of natural waters in drinking water treatment is directly proportional to the "Ct" value ("Ctau" in this study). Moreover, this proportionality strongly depends on many parameters: increasing of pH, temperature and bromide level leading to an increase of bromate formation; ammonia and dissolved organic carbon concentrations causing a reverse effect. Taking into account limitation of theoretical modeling, we proposed to predict bromate formation by stochastic simulations (multi-linear regression and artificial neural networks methods) from 40 experiments (BrO(3)(-) vs. "Ctau") carried out with three sand filtered waters sampled on three different waterworks. With seven selected variables we used a simple architecture of neural networks, optimized by "neural connection" of SPSS Inc./Recognition Inc. The bromate modeling by artificial neural networks gives better result than multi-linear regression. The artificial neural networks model allowed us classifying variables by decreasing order of influence (for the studied cases in our variables scale): "Ctau", [N-NH(4)(+)], [Br(-)], pH, temperature, DOC, alkalinity. PMID:15087201

Legube, Bernard; Parinet, Bernard; Gelinet, Karine; Berne, Florence; Croue, Jean-Philippe

2004-04-01

344

Process for treatment of phossy water for recycling  

SciTech Connect

In the electric arc furnace production of elemental phosphorus, cold phossy water is segregated from hot phossy water. The cold phossy water is discharged to a lined pond wherein solids settle to form a clarified cold water which is recycled for cooling and washing purposes. The hot phossy water is passed through a lamellar settler wherein phosphorus and solids are separated as a sludge to form a clarified hot water. The clarified hot water, without requiring additional heat, is recycled for process use. Phosphorus is recovered from the sludge to recover to a minimum the amount of phosphorus discharged with dirt from the hot phossy water to the pond.

Scherbel, G.H.; Crea, D.A.; Keely, J.A.; Anderson, R.L.; Nichols, B.L.

1988-05-17

345

Comparative analysis of effluent water quality from a municipal treatment plant and two on-site wastewater treatment systems.  

PubMed

Though decentralized on-site technologies are extensively employed for wastewater treatment around the globe, an understanding of effluent water quality impairments associated with these systems remain less understood than effluent discharges from centralized municipal wastewater treatment facilities. Using a unique experimental facility, a novel comparative analysis of effluent water quality was performed from model decentralized aerobic (ATS) and septic (STS) on-site wastewater treatment systems and a centralized municipal wastewater treatment plant (MTP). The ATS and STS units did not benefit from further soil treatment. Each system received common influent wastewater from the Waco, Texas, USA Metropolitan Area Regional Sewerage System. We tested the hypothesis that MTP effluent would exhibit higher water quality than on-site effluents, based on parameters selected for study. A tiered testing approach was employed to assess the three effluent discharges: select routine water quality parameters (Tier I), whole effluent toxicity (Tier II), and select endocrine-active compounds (Tier III). Contrary to our hypothesis, ATS effluent was not statistically different from MTP effluents, based on Tier I and III parameters, but reproductive responses of Daphnia magna were slightly more sensitive to ATS than MTP effluents. STS effluent water quality was identified as most degraded of the three wastewater treatment systems. Parameters used to assess centralized wastewater treatment plant effluent water quality such as whole effluent toxicity and endocrine active substances appear useful for water quality assessments of decentralized discharges. Aerobic on-site wastewater treatment systems may represent more robust options than traditional septic systems for on-site wastewater treatment in watersheds with appreciable groundwater - surface water exchange. PMID:23557723

Garcia, Santos N; Clubbs, Rebekah L; Stanley, Jacob K; Scheffe, Brian; Yelderman, Joe C; Brooks, Bryan W

2013-06-01

346

Immobilization of slimes obtained during the magnetic and sorption water treatment from radionuclides  

Microsoft Academic Search

A process flow diagram for the magnetic and sorption treatment of water from radionuclides has been proposed. Basic technology\\u000a concepts were developed for the conditioning of water treatment radioactive slimes aimed at immobilization of radionuclides.\\u000a A new type of matrices (glass-ceramic matrices) was used for processing slimes produced during the magnetic and sorption treatment\\u000a of 90Sr-containing water. Optimal conditions were

L. N. Puzyrnaya; T. G. Timoshenko; A. P. Kryvoruchko; E. V. Terlikovskii

2009-01-01

347

Quality criteria for desalinated water following post-treatment  

Microsoft Academic Search

In 2010 desalinated water is expected to provide approximately 25% of Israel’s fresh water supply. Since desalination is cost-effective only if operated constantly, areas adjacent to the desalination plants may receive unblended desalinated water for prolonged times while other sources are added only at peak demand. Notwithstanding that desalinated water is of superior quality, it is widely accepted that soft

Ori Lahav; Liat Birnhack

2007-01-01

348

Monitoring effective use of household water treatment and safe storage technologies in Ethiopia and Ghana  

E-print Network

Household water treatment and storage (HWTS) technologies dissemination is beginning to scale-up to reach the almost 900 million people without access to an improved water supply (WHO/UNICEF/JMP, 2008). Without well-informed ...

Stevenson, Matthew M

2009-01-01

349

Determining the removal effectiveness of flame retardants from drinking water treatment processes  

E-print Network

Low concentrations of xenobiotic chemicals have recently become a concern in the surface water environment. The concern expands to drinking water treatment processes, and whether or not they remove these chemicals while ...

Lin, Joseph C. (Joseph Chris), 1981-

2004-01-01

350

Household water treatment and safe storage options for Northern Region Ghana : consumer preference and relative cost  

E-print Network

A range of household water treatment and safe storage (HWTS) products are available in Northern Region Ghana which have the potential to significantly improve local drinking water quality. However, to date, the region has ...

Green, Vanessa (Vanessa Layton)

2008-01-01

351

Lamella settlers for storm water treatment - performance and design recommendations.  

PubMed

Three lamella settlers were monitored over a period of 4 years. The main objective was to determine removal efficiencies for total suspended solids and associated pollutants. For this purpose a new sampling method based on large volume solid samplers was developed allowing a detailed analysis of solids. With regard to total suspended solids the average removal efficiency of the plants range from 49 to 68%. Similar values could be achieved for phosphorus and heavy metals mainly because of the high portion of fine particles in treatment plants' influent. A clear dependency between solid removal efficiency and the parameters maximum surface load and influent concentration could be observed on a single event basis. The aggregation of all findings result in a recommended maximum design surface loading rate (SLR) of 4 m/h. A solid removal rate of 50%, which is defined as minimum long-term efficiency, can be achieved safely at this SLR. In addition to the definition of the maximum SLR, a proper dissipation of the inflow energy and an equal collection of the clear water above the lamellas turn out to be essential. PMID:24473295

Fuchs, Stephan; Mayer, Ingo; Haller, Bernd; Roth, Hartmut

2014-01-01

352

Application of locally available materials for the treatment of organic polluted water  

Microsoft Academic Search

Several types of water treatment technologies including adsorption are now being used to treat polluted water. In this paper the removal of phenol by adsorption will be discussed. Activated carbons are successfully applied for purification of potable water and the removal of organic pollutants in wastwater. This paper is concerned with a low cost approach to treating waste water that

M. R. Salim; F. Othman; J. Patterson; T. Hardy

353

DEVELOPMENT OF GIARDIA C.T VALUES FOR THE SURFACE WATER TREATMENT RULE  

EPA Science Inventory

As a consequence of the 1986 Amendments to the Safe Drinking Water Act (SDWA) the U.S. EPA has issued a Surface Water Treatment Rule (SWTR) for systems using surface and ground waters under the direct influence of surface water. n the Guidance Manual of the SWTR, the EPA recommen...

354

Design and Economical Performance of Gray Water Treatment Plant in Rural Region  

Microsoft Academic Search

In India, the quarrel between the budding human populace and the planet's unchanging supply of freshwater and falling water tables has strained attention the reuse of gray water as an alternative water resource in rural development. This paper present the finest design of laboratory scale gray water treatment plant, which is a combination of natural and physical operations such as

Bhausaheb L. Pangarkar; Saroj B. Parjane; M. G. Sane

2010-01-01

355

Investigation of early water breakthrough and the likely effectiveness of water shut-off treatments in heterogeneous carbonate reservoirs  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Progressive percentage of total fluid produced in the oil industry is formation brine. Ever, increasing water cut will reduce oil recovery, diminish wells' productivity and increase cost of eventual artificial lift and produced water handling. This study investigates the problem of early water development in layered and heterogeneous reservoirs and determines the effect of various reservoir parameters on the development of water front movement in the presence of thief zones. A water injection in a line-staggered pattern was simulated to analyze these effects on the water breakthrough time, WBTT, and the evolution of water front in the thief zone. To achieve this, sensitivity analysis is conducted to investigate and determine the effect of some reservoir parameters that would explain the experience of having unpredicted advancement of injected water resulting in early water breakthrough and high water cut wells. These reservoir parameters included layers' horizontal permeability, Kv/Kh ratio, thickness of high permeability layers, water gravity effect, oil API gravity effect, and injection/production rate ratio (or IPR). Threshold of these parameters beyond which its effect would be constant is also determined to help operators to better estimate the water breakthrough time and hence better decision making process in waterflooding projects. Moreover, water shut-off, WSO, treatments are simulated to determine their effectiveness in delaying the water breakthrough time, and reducing water cut percentages for maximum possible time, under different thief zones' conditions. Extreme thief zone cases are selected from the first part of the study for this purpose. Also, the optimum WSO treatment thickness is identified at which a maximum delay in time is achieved which yields to best treatment practices in the fields. Finally, this study summarizes the applicability of these WSO treatment methods, and it identifies the level of effectiveness based on specific given petrophysical data that are presented as dimensionless variables to be able to generalize the predictions.

Alblooshi, Younes

356

Treatment of surface water with Moringa Oleifera seed extract and alum – a comparative study using a pilot scale water treatment plant  

Microsoft Academic Search

The present study involved the use of a pilot scale water treatment plant to treat turbid surface water from a stream using processed Moringa oleifera seed and alum as primary coagulants. At low initial turbidity of 21.5 to 49.3 NTU, residual turbidities of 2.7, 1.8 and 1.4 NTU were achieved after treatment using Moringa oleifera, alum, and alum with Moringa

Suleyman Muyibi; Akif Alfugara

2003-01-01

357

Characterization of natural organic matter in conventional water treatment processes for selection of treatment processes focused on DBPs control  

Microsoft Academic Search

Natural organic matter (NOM) from raw and process waters at a conventional water treatment plant was isolated into hydrophobic and hydrophilic fractions by physicochemical fractionation methods to investigate its characteristics. Formation potential of trihalomethanes (THMs) was highly influenced by the hydrophobic fraction, whereas haloacetic acids formation potential (HAAFP) depended more on the hydrophilic fraction. However the hydrophobic fraction was removed

Hyun-Chul Kim; Myong-Jin Yu

2005-01-01

358

EDI as a Treatment Module in Recycling Spent Rinse Waters  

SciTech Connect

Recycling of the spent rinse water discharged from the wet benches commonly used in semiconductor processing is one tactic for responding to the targets for water usage published in the 1997 National Technology Roadmap for Semiconductors (NTRS). Not only does the NTRS list a target that dramatically reduces total water usage/unit area of silicon manufactured by the industry in the future but for the years 2003 and beyond, the NTRS actually touts goals which would have semiconductor manufacturers drawing less water from a regional water supply per unit area of silicon manufactured than the quantity of ultrapure water (UPW) used in the production of that same silicon. Achieving this latter NTRS target strongly implies more widespread recycling of spent rinse waters at semiconductor manufacturing sites. In spite of the fact that, by most metrics, spent rinse waters are of much higher purity than incoming municipal waters, recycling of these spent rinse waters back into the UPW production plant is not a simple, straightforward task. The rub is that certain of the chemicals used in semiconductor manufacturing, and thus potentially present in trace concentrations (or more) in spent rinse waters, are not found in municipal water supplies and are not necessarily removed by the conventional UPW production sequence used by semiconductor manufacturers. Some of these contaminants, unique to spent rinse waters, may actually foul the resins and membranes of the UPW system, posing a threat to UPW production and potentially even causing a shutdown.

Donovan, Robert P.; Morrison, Dennis J.

1999-08-11

359

MODIFIED REVERSE OSMOSIS SYSTEM FOR TREATMENT OF PRODUCED WATERS  

SciTech Connect

This final report of ''Modified Reverse Osmosis System for Treatment of Produced Water,'' DOE project No. DE-FC26-00BC15326 describes work performed in the third year of the project. Several good results were obtained, which are documented in this report. The compacted bentonite membranes were replaced by supported bentonite membranes, which exhibited the same salt rejection capability. Unfortunately, it also inherited the clay expansion problem due to water invasion into the interlayer spaces of the compacted bentonite membranes. We noted that the supported bentonite membrane developed in the project was the first of its kind reported in the literature. An {alpha}-alumina-supported MFI-type zeolite membrane synthesized by in-situ crystallization was fabricated and tested. Unlike the bentonite clay membranes, the zeolite membranes maintained stability and high salt rejection rate even for a highly saline solution. Actual produced brines from gas and oil fields were then tested. For gas fields producing brine, the 18,300 ppm TDS (total dissolved solids) in the produced brine was reduced to 3060 ppm, an 83.3% rejection rate of 15,240 ppm salt rejection. For oilfield brine, while the TDS was reduced from 181,600 ppm to 148,900 ppm, an 18% rejection rate of 32,700 ppm reduction, the zeolite membrane was stable. Preliminary results show the dissolved organics, mainly hydrocarbons, did not affect the salt rejection. However, the rejection of organics was inconclusive at this point. Finally, the by-product of this project, the {alpha}-alumina-supported Pt-Co/Na Y catalytic zeolite membrane was developed and demonstrated for overcoming the two-step limitation of nonoxidation methane (CH{sub 4}) conversion to higher hydrocarbons (C{sub 2+}) and hydrogen (H{sub 2}). Detailed experiments to obtain quantitative results of H{sub 2} generation for various conditions are now being conducted. Technology transfer efforts included five manuscripts submitted to peer-reviewed journals and five conference presentations.

Robert L. Lee; Junghan Dong

2004-06-03

360

Removal of dissolved organic matter in water-hyacinth waste-water treatment lagoons  

SciTech Connect

Secondary treatment of domestic wastewater in water hyacinth lagoons was evaluated under experimental conditions to assess the role of the roots' bacterial biofilm in the removal of dissolved organic matter (DOM). Research was conducted to (1) quantify removal rates by the biofilm as a function of bulk DOM concentration, (2) formulate an analytical model of DOM removal incorporating biofilm activity, and (3) test the model response to variable organic loads in a pilot-scale plant. Removal of DOM by the biofilm was quantified in continuous-flow water hyacinth tanks at ten concentrations ranging from 45 to 330 g COD m {sup {minus}3} . Total DOM removal in the denitrifying, acetate-based experimental system was measured and partitioned into two fractions associated with the activity of biofilm and suspended bacteria. Calculated DOM removal by the biofilm was adjusted for the release of organic compounds by debris decomposition. Values of DOM removal were used to calculate oxygen transfer rates from the water hyacinth roots. A model of DOM removal in water hyacinth lagoons was formulated. The model, composed of four differential equations, was solved at steady-state conditions and the validity of its simulation results was tested in pilot-scale tanks. Hydraulic detection times ranging from 2 to 28 days were evaluated using biofilm density and concentrations of DOM and particulate organics as monitoring parameters of the model response. The observed decrease of suspended bacterial biomass along the tank was correctly simulated by the model, but predictions of effluent concentrations were not always consistent. Predicted values of biofilm bacterial mass were similar to those measured in the tanks, except when large algal populations were present in the film.

Victoria-Rueda, C.H.

1991-01-01

361

IMPACT OF DRINKING WATER TREATMENT ON ASSIMILABLE ORGANIC CARBON  

EPA Science Inventory

Regrowth in the drinking water distribution system is a primary concern for water utilities. he disinfection process, although normally efficient for primary inactivation, is not always enough to discourage microbial regrowth if sufficient substrate is available. Previously, the,...

362

Household water treatment and safe storage product development in Ghana  

E-print Network

Microbial and/or chemical contaminants can infiltrate into piped water systems, especially when the system is intermittent. Ghana has been suffering from aged and intermittent piped water networks, and an added barrier of ...

Yang, Shengkun, M. Eng. Massachusetts Institute of Technology

2013-01-01

363

THE TREATMENT OF CONTAMINATED WATER AT REMEDIAL WOOD PRESERVING SITES  

EPA Science Inventory

Contaminated groundwater and surface water have posed a great challenge in restoring wood preserving sites to beneficial use. Often contaminated groundwater plumes extend far beyond the legal property limits, adversely impacting drinking water supplies and crop lands. To contain,...

364

Constructed wetland (CW) for industrial waste water treatment  

Microsoft Academic Search

The constructed wetland (CW) in Gradiš?e (Slovenia) has been in operation since 1991 for the purification of waste waters from a food processing plant. It functions according to the method of horizontal subsurface flow. Waste waters are composed of industrial, faecal and meteor waters. The CW is composed of two beds, filled with substrate and planted with Carex gracilis and

Dani Vrhovšek; Vlasta Kukanja; Tjaša Bulc

1996-01-01

365

Desalination and Water Treatment www.deswater.com  

E-print Network

with brackish water is a widespread practice in freshwater-poor regions with ample brackish water resources of agriculture [1]. Improving the management of water demand by preventing waste and introducing efficient and tran- spiration, which results in lower yields than obtainable with freshwater irrigation [2]. Second

Messalem, Rami

366

Characterization of natural organic matter in conventional water treatment processes for selection of treatment processes focused on DBPs control.  

PubMed

Natural organic matter (NOM) from raw and process waters at a conventional water treatment plant was isolated into hydrophobic and hydrophilic fractions by physicochemical fractionation methods to investigate its characteristics. Formation potential of trihalomethanes (THMs) was highly influenced by the hydrophobic fraction, whereas haloacetic acids formation potential (HAAFP) depended more on the hydrophilic fraction. However the hydrophobic fraction was removed more than the hydrophilic fraction through conventional water treatment. Therefore residual hydrophilic NOM after conventional treatment needs to be removed to reduce HAAFP. Feasible additional processes are required to be evaluated by comparing preferential removal efficiency of hydrophilic NOM through pilot tests. The structural and chemical characteristics of hydrophobic NOM (i.e., humic substances (HS)) were further investigated to know how they are influenced by conventional treatment. The phenolic fraction in the hydrophobic NOM was mainly removed compared to the carboxylic fraction through water treatment, and a higher formation potential of THMs resulted from NOM with a higher phenolic content. The Fourier-transform infrared (FT-IR) and proton nuclear magnetic resonance ((1)H-NMR) employed for characterization of NOM through water treatment were insightful revealing that their results were quite close to each other. Decreases of ratio of UV absorbance at 253 and 203 nm, respectively (A(253)/A(203) ratio) and trihalomethane formation potential/dissolved organic carbon (THMFP/DOC) showed consistent trends; therefore, the A(253)/A(203) ratio may be a good indicator of tendency for the formation potential of disinfection by-products (DBPs). PMID:16253305

Kim, Hyun-Chul; Yu, Myong-Jin

2005-11-01

367

Water Treatment Plant Operation. Volume I. A Field Study Training Program.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The purpose of this water treatment field study training program is to: (1) develop new qualified water treatment plant operators; (2) expand the abilities of existing operators, permitting better service both to employers and public; and (3) prepare operators for civil service and certification examinations (examinations administered by…

California State Univ., Sacramento. School of Engineering.

368

Sustainable Use of Resources Recycling of Sewage Treatment Plant Water in Concrete  

E-print Network

Sustainable Use of Resources ­ Recycling of Sewage Treatment Plant Water in Concrete Marcia Silva1, especially partially processed sewage treatment plant water in concrete. On the basis of identified knowledge. The concrete industry is a significant contributor to air pollution and also a consumer of vast quantities

Wisconsin-Milwaukee, University of

369

Naturally occurring radionuclides in materials derived from urban water treatment plants in southeast Queensland, Australia.  

PubMed

An assessment of radiologically enhanced residual materials generated during treatment of domestic water supplies in southeast Queensland, Australia, was conducted. Radioactivity concentrations of U-238, Th-232, Ra-226, Rn-222, and Po-210 in water, sourced from both surface water catchments and groundwater resources were examined both pre- and post-treatment under typical water treatment operations. Surface water treatment processes included sedimentation, coagulation, flocculation and filtration, while the groundwater was treated using cation exchange, reverse osmosis, activated charcoal or methods similar to surface water treatment. Waste products generated as a result of treatment included sediments and sludges, filtration media, exhausted ion exchange resin, backwash and wastewaters. Elevated residual concentrations of radionuclides were identified in these waste products. The waste product activity concentrations were used to model the radiological impact of the materials when either utilised for beneficial purposes, or upon disposal. The results indicate that, under current water resource exploitation programs, reuse or disposal of the treatment wastes from large scale urban water treatment plants in Australia do not pose a significant radiological risk. PMID:17980468

Kleinschmidt, Ross; Akber, Riaz

2008-04-01

370

Author's personal copy Modelling and automation of water and wastewater treatment processes  

E-print Network

Author's personal copy Preface Modelling and automation of water and wastewater treatment processes on the applications of modelling and automation to water and wastewater treatment processes. The session, under purification systems. Many papers showed a considerable effort to extend the analysis from the single plant

371

ANALYTICAL ASPECTS OF OZONE TREATMENT OF WATER AND WASTEWATER - A MONOGRAPH  

EPA Science Inventory

With the ever-increasing interest in the application of ozone for water and wastewater treatment, several major questions arise in the minds of those new to the field: (1) What is the nature of ozone. (2) How is ozone applied in water and wastewater treatment. (3) How is ozone ap...

372

Application of polyelectrolytes obtained by radiation processing to potable and waste water treatment  

Microsoft Academic Search

Comparative results obtained by using classical treatment with electrolytes and combined treatment with electrolytes and polyelectrolytes (acrylamide copolymers) for potable water and waste water from vegetable oil plants and slaughter houses are presented. The polyelectrolytes used are obtained by combined electron beam and microwave-induced polymerization. They are available in a wide range of molecular weights and charge densities as well

E. N. Manaila; D. I. Martin; G. D. Craciun; D. I. Ighigeanu; C. I. Matei; C. V. Oproiu; N. I. Iacob; H. M. Iovu; M. I. Sandu; E. D. Vulpasu; G. I. Racoviteanu

2005-01-01

373

Mechanical properties of concrete produced with a composite of water treatment sludge and sawdust  

Microsoft Academic Search

In developing countries such as Brazil, the wastes generated in the decanters and filters of water treatment plants are discharged directly into the same rivers and streams that supply water for treatment. Another environmental problem is the unregulated discard of wood wastes. The lumber and wood products industry generates large quantities of this waste, from logging to the manufacture of

Almir Sales; Francis Rodrigues de Souza; Fernando do Couto Rosa Almeida

2011-01-01

374

Effectiveness of a drinking-water treatment sludge in removing different phosphorus species from aqueous solution  

Microsoft Academic Search

Drinking-water treatment sludge (DWTS) produced at water treatment plants is an inescapable byproduct and has long been treated as a waste for landfill. In this study, a series of batch adsorption tests were conducted using a wide range of phosphorus (P) species to determine the adsorption capacities of freshly dewatered aluminium salt based DWTS. The adsorption process is highly dependant

M. Razali; Y. Q. Zhao; M. Bruen

2007-01-01

375

Ecotoxicological assessment of grey water treatment systems with Daphnia magna and Chironomus riparius.  

PubMed

In order to meet environmental quality criteria, grey water was treated in four different ways: 1) aerobic 2) anaerobic+aerobic 3) aerobic+activated carbon 4) aerobic+ozone. Since each treatment has its own specific advantages and disadvantages, the aim of this study was to compare the ecotoxicity of differently treated grey water using Chironomus riparius (96 h test) and Daphnia magna (48 h and 21d test) as test organisms. Grey water exhibited acute toxicity to both test organisms. The aerobic and combined anaerobic+aerobic treatment eliminated mortality in the acute tests, but growth of C. riparius was still affected by these two effluents. Post-treatment by ozone and activated carbon completely removed the acute toxicity from grey water. In the chronic toxicity test the combined anaerobic+aerobic treatment strongly affected D. magna population growth rate (47%), while the aerobic treatment had a small (9%) but significant effect. Hence, aerobic treatment is the best option for biological treatment of grey water, removing most of the toxic effects of grey water. If advanced treatment is required, the treatment with either ozone or GAC were shown to be very effective in complete removal of toxicity from grey water. PMID:22197265

Hernández Leal, L; Soeter, A M; Kools, S A E; Kraak, M H S; Parsons, J R; Temmink, H; Zeeman, G; Buisman, C J N

2012-03-15

376

Heat recovery from waste water by energy-saving heat pump systems in connection with water treatment plants  

Microsoft Academic Search

The advantages of waste water recovery as an energy source were investigated. It was found that heat pump systems reach the highest performance coefficients and their primary energy ratios are competitive with conventional heating systems. It is concluded that the utilization of waste water treatment plants by large heat pump systems provides a considerable annual energy saving of light oil.

U. Wiedmann; R. Flohrschuetz

1980-01-01

377

Treatment, waste management and cost for removal of radioactivity from drinking water.  

PubMed

The processes (costs, efficiencies and reliability) used in treating drinking water for removal of radioactive contaminants and the disposal of wastes generated by the treatment processes are analyzed and discussed. The study was limited to U, Ra and Rn. Initially concepts of water and waste treatment in terms of their applicability to the drinking water industry were established. The alternative processes for treatment of Ra, U, Rn, water and sludges were described and evaluated, in terms of cost, efficiency, reliability, process control and feasibility. PMID:3988526

Reid, G W; Lassovszky, P; Hathaway, S

1985-05-01

378

Nanofiltration/reverse osmosis for treatment of coproduced waters  

SciTech Connect

Current high oil and gas prices have lead to renewed interest in exploration of nonconventional energy sources such as coal bed methane, tar sand, and oil shale. However oil and gas production from these nonconventional sources has lead to the coproduction of large quantities of produced water. While produced water is a waste product from oil and gas exploration it is a very valuable natural resource in the arid Western United States. Thus treated produced water could be a valuable new source of water. Commercially available nanofiltration and low pressure reverse osmosis membranes have been used to treat three produced waters. The results obtained here indicate that the permeate could be put to beneficial uses such as crop and livestock watering. However minimizing membrane fouling will be essential for the development of a practical process. Field Emission Scanning Electron Microscopy imaging may be used to observe membrane fouling.

Mondal, S.; Hsiao, C.L.; Wickramasinghe, S.R. [Colorado State University, Ft Collins, CO (United States)

2008-07-15

379

1.85 Water and Wastewater Treatment Engineering, Spring 2005  

E-print Network

Theory and design of systems for treating industrial and municipal wastewater and potable water supplies. Methods for characterizing wastewater properties. Physical, chemical, and biological processes, including primary ...

Shanahan, Peter

380

Using coagulation to restrict microbial re-growth in tap water by phosphate limitation in water treatment.  

PubMed

Extensive microbial re-growth in a drinking water distribution system can deteriorate water quality. The limiting factor for microbial re-growth in a tap water produced by a conventional drinking water treatment plant in China was identified by determining the microbial re-growth potential (MRP) by adding different nutrients to stimulate growth of a natural microbial consortium as inoculum and flow-cytometric enumeration. No obvious change of MRP was found in tap water after addition of carbon, whereas, a 1- to 2-fold increase of MRP was observed after addition of phosphate (P). This clearly demonstrated that microbial re-growth in this tap water was limited by P. Most of the re-grown microbial flora (>85%) consisted of high nucleic acid content cells. A subsequent investigation of the MRP in the actual water treatment plant demonstrated that coagulation was the crucial step for decreasing MRP and producing P-limited water. Therefore, a comparison concerning the control of MRP by three different coagulants was conducted. It showed that all the three coagulants efficiently reduced the MRP and shifted the limitation regime from C to P, but the required dose was different. The study shows that it is feasible to restrict microbial re-growth by P limitation using coagulation in water treatment. PMID:25179107

Wen, Gang; Ma, Jun; Huang, Ting-Lin; Egli, Thomas

2014-09-15

381

Studies on Water Absorption of Bamboo-Polyester Composites: Effect of Silane Treatment of Mercerized Bamboo  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effect of silane treatments on the water absorption properties of mercerized bamboo matting reinforced polyester composites were investigated. Treatments using ?-Aminopropyltriethoxy silane, 3-trimethoxysilylpropyl methacrylate, Vinyltris(2-methoxyethoxy)silane, Bis[3-(triethoxysilyl)propyl] tetrasulfide, 3-aminopropyltrimethoxy silane and n-Octyltrimethoxy silane were carried out to improve the water resistant property of the bamboo fibers. Water absorption in the composites was studied by long-term immersion and 2 h boiling in

Pradeep K. Kushwaha; Rakesh Kumar

2009-01-01

382

Studies on the Water Absorption of Bamboo-Epoxy Composites: The Effect of Silane Treatment  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effect of silane treatments on the water absorption properties of bamboo matting reinforced epoxy composites were investigated. Treatments using ?-Aminopropyltriethoxy silane, 3-trimethoxysilylpropyl methacrylate, Vinyltris(2-methoxyethoxy)silane, Bis[3-(triethoxysilyl)propyl] tetrasulfide, 3-aminopropyltrimethoxy silane and n-Octyltrimethoxy silane were carried out to study the water absorption property of the bamboo composites. Water absorption in the composites was studied by long-term immersion and 2 h boiling in distilled

Pradeep K. Kushwaha; Rakesh Kumar

2010-01-01

383

Engineering Analysis and Failure Prevention of a Water Treatment Plant in Nigeria  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper contains a detailed engineering assessment and failure prevention assessment for a water treatment plant in Nigeria.\\u000a Population data for the university community were collected and the treatment plant was visited. Data on each of the treatment\\u000a process (unit) were also collected and water consumption per day was computed and compared with standard. An engineering assessment\\u000a of each of

Isaiah Adesola Oke

2010-01-01

384

Desalination and Water Treatment 16 (2010) 339353 www.deswater.com April  

E-print Network

subsystems: (a) an air and/or the water heater, which can use the solar energy; (b) a humidifierDesalination and Water Treatment 16 (2010) 339­353 www.deswater.com April 1944 technology for small-scale water production applications. There are several embodiments of this technology

Lienhard V, John H.

385

Prevalence of Antibiotic Resistance in Drinking Water Treatment and Distribution Systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

The occurrence and spread of antibiotic-resistant bacteria (ARB) are pressing public health problems worldwide, and aquatic ecosystems are a recognized reservoir for ARB. We used culture-dependent methods and quantitative molecular techniques to detect and quantify ARB and antibiotic resistance genes (ARGs) in source waters, drinking water treatment plants, and tap water from several cities in Michigan and Ohio. We found

Chuanwu Xi; Yongli Zhang; Carl F. Marrs; Wen Ye; Carl Simon; Betsy Foxman; Jerome Nriagu

2009-01-01

386

Persuasion factors influencing the decision to use sustainable household water treatment  

Microsoft Academic Search

Solar water disinfection (SODIS) is a sustainable water treatment method. With the help of the sun and plastic bottles, water is treated and illnesses prevented. This paper aims to identify the factors influencing SODIS uptake, that is, why someone may become a SODIS user. This uptake decision can be influenced by persuasion. From behaviour theory, variables are recognised which have

Silvie M. Kraemer; Hans-Joachim Mosler

2010-01-01

387

ENTERIC VIRUS AND INDICATOR BACTERIA LEVELS IN A WATER TREATMENT SYSTEM MODIFIED TO REDUCE TRIHALOMETHANE PRODUCTION  

EPA Science Inventory

A drinking water treatment plant with high concentrations of trihalomethanes (THMs) in its finished water and large numbers of viruses in its source water was located. This plant was used to study the effect of an alteration in the point of chlorination from the first to last ste...

388

The impact of hygiene and localised treatment on the quality of drinking water in Masaka, Rwanda.  

PubMed

The worldwide prevalence of waterborne diseases has been attributed to the lack of safe water, inadequate sanitation and hygiene. This study evaluated socio-demographic factors, microbiological quality of water at source and point of use (POU) at households, water handling and sanitation practices in a rural Rwandan community. Thirty five water samples from the source, Nyabarongo River, and water at point of use (POU) treated with the Slow Sand Filter (SSF) and Sûr'Eau methods, were analysed for total coliform and faecal coliform counts. Turbidity was measured in household samples. A structured questionnaire regarding water collection, storage, usage and waterborne disease awareness was administered to 324 women. Despite the significant reduction in coliforms and faecal coliforms from the Nyabarongo River following treatment using either SSF or Sûr'Eau, the water at point of use was found to be unsafe for human consumption. The frequency of diarrheal diseases were significantly higher among people who did not wash hands before food preparation (P = 0.002) and after using a toilet (P = 0.007) than among those who did. There was a statistically significant association between education levels and water treatment practices at the households (P < 0.05). Participants had limited knowledge regarding water storage practices for prevention of household water contamination. A combination of treatment methods with appropriate water handling should be considered. In addition, education is a fundamental precursor to advocating water treatment at POU. PMID:24345241

Uwimpuhwe, Monique; Reddy, Poovendhree; Barratt, Graham; Bux, Faizal

2014-01-01

389

SELECTION OF MINE WATER TREATMENT TECHNOLOGIES FOR THE EMALAHLENI (WITBANK) WATER RECLAMATION PROJECT  

Microsoft Academic Search

Coal mining has an impact on the water management of the water scarce Upper Olifants River Catchment. A pre-feasibility study was done by Anglo Coal and Ingwe Collieries Limited to establish the water supply and demand in the catchment. A geo-hydrological model was used for the coalfields to determine the stored water and excess water available. Two distinct collective and

Peter Gunther; Wendy Mey

390

Treatment of canal water with ultrafiltration to produce industrial and household water  

Microsoft Academic Search

Water Supply Company Oost-Brabant intends to supply, in addition to drinking water, a second water quality called ‘Bqua’ for use in households and for industrial purposes in a newly built urban and industrial area near the City of Eindhoven. The project is initiated by the need for the use of surface water for the production of drinking water, since in

Ger Vos; Yvette Brekvoort; Hieke A. Oosterom; Maarten M. Nederlof

1998-01-01

391

A novel membrane reactor for ozone water treatment  

Microsoft Academic Search

A novel membrane reactor was designed for the ozonolysis of refractory organic pollutants in water. The reactor employed a membrane contactor and a membrane separator in a concentric arrangement to affect a uniform ozone distribution along the reactor length, while allowing the simultaneous membrane separation and production of clean water. An alumina capillary membrane contactor and a ZSM-5 zeolite pervaporation

Samuel Heng; King Lun Yeung; Malik Djafer; Jean-Christophe Schrotter

2007-01-01

392

Fate of antibiotics during municipal water recycling treatment processes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Municipal water recycling processes are potential human and environmental exposure routes for low concentrations of persistent antibiotics. While the implications of such exposure scenarios are unknown, concerns have been raised regarding the possibility that continuous discharge of antibiotics to the environment may facilitate the development or proliferation of resistant strains of bacteria. As potable and non-potable water recycling schemes are

N. Le-Minh; S. J. Khan; J. E. Drewes; R. M. Stuetz

2010-01-01

393

Assessing Waste Water Treatment Plant Effluent for Thyroid Hormone Disruption  

EPA Science Inventory

Much information has been coming to light on the estrogenic and androgenic activity of chemicals present in the waste water stream and in surface waters, but much less is known about the presence of chemicals with thyroid activity. To address this issue, we have utilized two assa...

394

Assessing the Impacts of Climate Change on Drinking Water Treatment  

EPA Science Inventory

Climate change may affect both surface water and ground water quality. Increases (or decreases) in precipitation and related changes in flow can result in problematic turbidity levels, increased levels of organic matter, high levels of bacteria, virus and parasites and increased...

395

Oily bilge water treatment with a tubular ultrafiltration system  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Navy has been developing various oil pollution abatement systems. One potential process for the separation of oil in bilge water is ultrafiltration, a pressure-driven membrane process which can separate, concentrate, and fractionate macromolecular solutes and suspended species from water. A tubular ultrafiltration system using cellulosic and noncellulosic membranes was tested with bilge oil obtained from a patrol craft. Tests

L. R. Harris; D. F. Jackson; P. Schatzberg

1976-01-01

396

Water Quality Assessment in Reservoirs and Wastewater Treatment System of the Mae Moh Power Plant, Thailand  

Microsoft Academic Search

Assessment of water quality, from three reservoirs and a wastewater treatment system of the Mae Moh thermal power plant, was conducted during January 2003-February 2004. Statistical analyses showed significant differences between reservoirs and the wastewater treatment system. The reservoirs are less conductivity, total dissolved solids, hardness, silica and heavy metals (As, Pb & Zn) than the wastewater treatment system. Assessment

PONGSARUN JUNSHUM; PIAMSAK MENASVETA; SIRIPEN TRAICHAIYAPORN

397

Characterization of the efficiency of antiscale treatments of water. Part II: Physical processes  

Microsoft Academic Search

The efficiency of physical antiscale treatments of water was evaluated by various techniques, such as chronoamperometry, electrochemical impedance and chronoelectrogravimetry. It was found that the antiscale electrolytic treatment is more efficient than magnetic treatment, at least for the commercial devices used here, and that it also has a longer lasting effect. The electrolytic process generates CaCO3 nuclei in suspension in

A. Khalil; R. Rosset; C. Gabrielli; M. Keddam; H. Perrot

1999-01-01

398

Long term case study of MIEX pre-treatment in drinking water; understanding NOM removal.  

PubMed

Removal of natural organic matter (NOM) is a key requirement to improve drinking water quality. This study compared the removal of NOM with, and without, the patented magnetic ion exchange process for removal of dissolved organic carbon (MIEX DOC) as a pre-treatment to microfiltration or conventional coagulation treatment over a 2 year period. A range of techniques were used to characterise the NOM of the raw and treated waters. MIEX pre-treatment produced water with lower concentration of dissolved organic carbon (DOC) and lower specific UV absorbance (SUVA). The processes incorporating MIEX also produced more consistent water quality and were less affected by changes in the concentration and character of the raw water DOC. The very hydrophobic acid fraction (VHA) was the dominant NOM component in the raw water and was best removed by MIEX pre-treatment, regardless of the raw water VHA concentration. MIEX pre-treatment also produced water with lower weight average apparent molecular weight (AMW) and with the greatest reduction in complexity and range of NOM. A strong correlation was found between the VHA content and weight average AMW confirming that the VHA fraction was a major component of the NOM for both the raw water and treated waters. PMID:21167549

Drikas, Mary; Dixon, Mike; Morran, Jim

2011-02-01

399

Bioanalytical tools for the evaluation of organic micropollutants during sewage treatment, water recycling and drinking water generation.  

PubMed

A bioanalytical test battery was used for monitoring organic micropollutants across an indirect potable reuse scheme testing sites across the complete water cycle from sewage to drinking water to assess the efficacy of different treatment barriers. The indirect potable reuse scheme consists of seven treatment barriers: (1) source control, (2) wastewater treatment plant, (3) microfiltration, (4) reverse osmosis, (5) advanced oxidation, (6) natural environment in a reservoir and (7) drinking water treatment plant. Bioanalytical results provide complementary information to chemical analysis on the sum of micropollutants acting together in mixtures. Six endpoints targeting the groups of chemicals with modes of toxic action of particular relevance for human and environmental health were included in the evaluation: genotoxicity, estrogenicity (endocrine disruption), neurotoxicity, phytotoxicity, dioxin-like activity and non-specific cell toxicity. The toxicity of water samples was expressed as toxic equivalent concentrations (TEQ), a measure that translates the effect of the mixtures of unknown and potentially unidentified chemicals in a water sample to the effect that a known reference compound would cause. For each bioassay a different representative reference compound was selected. In this study, the TEQ concept was applied for the first time to the umuC test indicative of genotoxicity using 4-nitroquinoline as the reference compound for direct genotoxicity and benzo[a]pyrene for genotoxicity after metabolic activation. The TEQ were observed to decrease across the seven treatment barriers in all six selected bioassays. Each bioassay showed a differentiated picture representative for a different group of chemicals and their mixture effect. The TEQ of the samples across the seven barriers were in the same order of magnitude as seen during previous individual studies in wastewater and advanced water treatment plants and reservoirs. For the first time a benchmarking was performed that allows direct comparison of different treatment technologies and covers several orders of magnitude of TEQ from highly contaminated sewage to drinking water with TEQ close or below the limit of detection. Detection limits of the bioassays were decreased in comparison to earlier studies by optimizing sample preparation and test protocols, and were comparable to or lower than the quantification limits of the routine chemical analysis, which allowed monitoring of the presence and removal of micropollutants post Barrier 2 and in drinking water. The results obtained by bioanalytical tools were reproducible, robust and consistent with previous studies assessing the effectiveness of the wastewater and advanced water treatment plants. The results of this study indicate that bioanalytical results expressed as TEQ are useful to assess removal efficiency of micropollutants throughout all treatment steps of water recycling. PMID:21704353

Macova, Miroslava; Toze, Simon; Hodgers, Leonie; Mueller, Jochen F; Bartkow, Michael; Escher, Beate I

2011-08-01

400

Treatment of arsenic-contaminated water using akaganeite adsorption  

DOEpatents

The present invention comprises a method and composition using akaganeite, an iron oxide, as an ion adsorption medium for the removal of arsenic from water and affixing it onto carrier media so that it can be used in filtration systems.

Cadena C., Fernando (Las Cruces, NM); Johnson, Michael D. (Las Cruces, NM)

2008-01-01

401

Nanofluids used for water/wastewater treatment--a mini review.  

PubMed

Due to the rapid elevation of health standards and the limited water resources, decontamination and disinfection have become a challenging aspect of water/wastewater treatment. Traditional disinfection in water/wastewater treatment is associated with limitations, such as the production of toxic disinfection by-products. With the development of nanofluids, there is more and more interest in using nanofluids in environmental sectors, especially in water/wastewater treatment. Nanofluids are not strong oxidants and are not expected to produce harmful disinfection by-products. Nanofluids exhibit good disinfection properties against a wide range of bacteria, including Gram-negative, Gram-positive and spore bacteria. Several patents disclose the typically used types of nanofluids and their possible disinfection/ decontamination mechanisms. The use of different nanofluids and their applications in different water/wastewater treatment have also been reviewed in this paper. PMID:24330045

Zhang, Lingling; Li, Yu; Liu, Xiaoming; Cang, Daqiang

2013-11-01

402

Microbial Community Structures and Dynamics in the O3/BAC Drinking Water Treatment Process  

PubMed Central

Effectiveness of drinking water treatment, in particular pathogen control during the water treatment process, is always a major public health concern. In this investigation, the application of PCR-DGGE technology to the analysis of microbial community structures and dynamics in the drinking water treatment process revealed several dominant microbial populations including: ?-Proteobacteria, ?-Proteobacteria, ?-Proteobacteria, Bacteroidetes, Actinobacteria Firmicutes and Cyanobacteria. ?-Proteobacteria and ?-Proteobacteria were the dominant bacteria during the whole process. Bacteroidetes and Firmicutes were the dominant bacteria before and after treatment, respectively. Firmicutes showed season-dependent changes in population dynamics. Importantly, ?-Proteobacteria, which is a class of medically important bacteria, was well controlled by the O3/biological activated carbon (BAC) treatment, resulting in improved effluent water bio-safety. PMID:24937529

Tian, Jian; Lu, Jun; Zhang, Yu; Li, Jian-Cheng; Sun, Li-Chen; Hu, Zhang-Li

2014-01-01

403

Reverse osmosis treatment to remove inorganic contaminants from drinking water  

SciTech Connect

The purpose of the research project was to determine the removal of inorganic contaminants from drinking water using several state-of-the-art reverse osmosis membrane elements. A small 5-KGPD reverse osmosis system was utilized and five different membrane elements were studied individually with the specific inorganic contaminants added to several natural Florida ground waters. Removal data were also collected on naturally occurring substances.

Huxstep, M.R.; Sorg, T.J.

1987-12-01

404

Occurrence and removal of pharmaceuticals and hormones through drinking water treatment  

Microsoft Academic Search

The occurrence of fifty-five pharmaceuticals, hormones and metabolites in raw waters used for drinking water production and their removal through a drinking water treatment were studied. Thirty-five out of fifty-five drugs were detected in the raw water at the facility intake with concentrations up to 1200 ng\\/L. The behavior of the compounds was studied at each step: prechlorination, coagulation, sand filtration,

Maria Huerta-Fontela; Maria Teresa Galceran; Francesc Ventura

2011-01-01

405

Economies of size in municipal water treatment technologies: Texas lower Rio Grande Valley  

E-print Network

advancements have improved the economic viability of reverse-osmosis (RO) desalination of brackish-groundwater as a potable water source. Brackish-groundwater may be an alternative water source that provides municipalities an opportunity to hedge against... droughts, political shortfalls, and protection from potential surface-water contamination. This research specifically focuses on investigating economies of size for conventional surface-water treatment and brackish-groundwater desalination by using results...

Boyer, Christopher Neil

2008-10-10

406

Effects of dissolved air flotation hydraulic loading rate on water treatment performance  

SciTech Connect

The performance of dissolved air flotation (DAF) followed by granular media filtration for water treatment was evaluated via pilot-scale studies for two water sources. The study focused on short flocculation times (5--8 minutes), high DAF hydraulic loading rates (17--44 m/hr (7--18 gpm/ft{sup 2})) and rapid rate filtration (10--20 m/hr (4--8 gpm/ft{sup 2})). Excellent treatment performance was achieved in terms of DAF clarified water turbidity, filtered water turbidity, organic matter removal and filtered water production. Bubble carryover from the DAF tank was mitigated by employing either internal or external air removal strategies. Overall, the results demonstrate the effectiveness of an integrated, high rate flocculation/DAF/filtration water treatment strategy.

Tobiason, J.E.; Edzwald, J.K.; Amato, T.; Maggi, L.J.

1999-07-01

407

Municipal sewage treatment: Lagoons (ponds). (Latest citations from the Selected Water Resources Abstracts database). Published Search  

SciTech Connect

The bibliography contains citations concerning the treatment and storage of municipal wastewater and sewage in lagoons. Lagoon design, operation, and associated equipment for pretreatment, treatment, and storage techniques are discussed. Many citations describe the water treatment facilities of specific cities, and provide evaluations of the operations at those sites. Industrial and other non-municipal wastewater treatment lagoons are referenced in a related bibliography. (Contains 250 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.)

Not Available

1993-11-01

408

Municipal sewage treatment: Lagoons (ponds). (Latest citations from the Selected Water Resources Abstracts database). Published Search  

SciTech Connect

The bibliography contains citations concerning the treatment and storage of municipal wastewater and sewage in lagoons. Lagoon design, operation, and associated equipment for pretreatment, treatment, and storage techniques are discussed. Many citations describe the water treatment facilities of specific cities, and provide evaluations of the operations at those sites. Industrial and other non-municipal wastewater treatment lagoons are referenced in a related bibliography. (Contains 250 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.)

Not Available

1993-07-01

409

6. DETAIL VIEW OF PORTION OF WEST ELEVATION SHOWING CIRCULAR ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

6. DETAIL VIEW OF PORTION OF WEST ELEVATION SHOWING CIRCULAR BRICKED-IN OPENING, ARCHED WINDOW AND CORNICE - Presidio Water Treatment Plant, Filtration Plant, East of Lobos Creek at Baker Beach, San Francisco, San Francisco County, CA

410

5. DETAIL VIEW OF PORTION OF EAST ELEVATION SHOWING ARCHED ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

5. DETAIL VIEW OF PORTION OF EAST ELEVATION SHOWING ARCHED WINDOW AND DOOR OPENINGS - Presidio Water Treatment Plant, Filtration Plant, East of Lobos Creek at Baker Beach, San Francisco, San Francisco County, CA

411

5. OBLIQUE INTERIOR VIEW OF CHEMICAL STORAGE BUILDING (#1776), LOOKING ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

5. OBLIQUE INTERIOR VIEW OF CHEMICAL STORAGE BUILDING (#1776), LOOKING SOUTHEAST - Presidio Water Treatment Plant, Chemical Storage, East of Lobos Creek at Baker Beach, San Francisco, San Francisco County, CA

412

3. OBLIQUE DETAIL VIEW OF DOOR AT CHEMICAL STORAGE BUILDING ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

3. OBLIQUE DETAIL VIEW OF DOOR AT CHEMICAL STORAGE BUILDING (#1776), LOOKING NORTHWEST - Presidio Water Treatment Plant, Chemical Storage, East of Lobos Creek at Baker Beach, San Francisco, San Francisco County, CA

413

4. DETAIL VIEW OF WINDOW AT CHEMICAL STORAGE BUILDING (#1776), ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

4. DETAIL VIEW OF WINDOW AT CHEMICAL STORAGE BUILDING (#1776), LOOKING EAST - Presidio Water Treatment Plant, Chemical Storage, East of Lobos Creek at Baker Beach, San Francisco, San Francisco County, CA

414

1. OVERALL VIEW OF LOBOS CREEK INLET STRUCTURE (#1786), LOOKING ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

1. OVERALL VIEW OF LOBOS CREEK INLET STRUCTURE (#1786), LOOKING SOUTHWEST - Presidio Water Treatment Plant, Lobos Creek Inlet Structure, East of Lobos Creek at Baker Beach, San Francisco, San Francisco County, CA

415

1. OVERALL VIEW OF FLOCCULATION/SEDIMENTATION BASINS (#1778), LOOKING NORTHWEST ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

1. OVERALL VIEW OF FLOCCULATION/SEDIMENTATION BASINS (#1778), LOOKING NORTHWEST - Presidio Water Treatment Plant, Flocculation-Sedimentation Basins, East of Lobos Creek at Baker Beach, San Francisco, San Francisco County, CA

416

2. DETAIL VIEW OF FLOCCULATION/SEDIMENTATION BASINS (#1778), LOOKING SOUTHWEST ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

2. DETAIL VIEW OF FLOCCULATION/SEDIMENTATION BASINS (#1778), LOOKING SOUTHWEST - Presidio Water Treatment Plant, Flocculation-Sedimentation Basins, East of Lobos Creek at Baker Beach, San Francisco, San Francisco County, CA

417

1. VIEW OF LIFT STATION (#1774), AND SHED (#1775) BEYOND ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

1. VIEW OF LIFT STATION (#1774), AND SHED (#1775) BEYOND AT LEFT, LOOKING SOUTHWEST - Presidio Water Treatment Plant, Lift Station, East of Lobos Creek at Baker Beach, San Francisco, San Francisco County, CA

418

Radiation processing applications in the Czechoslovak water treatment technologies  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The regeneration of biologically clogged water wells by radiation proved to be a successful and economically beneficial process among other promising applications of ionizing radiation in the water supply technology. The application conditions and experience are mentioned. The potential pathogenic Mycobacteria occuring in the warm washing and bathing water are resistant against usual chlorine and ozone concentrations. The radiation sensitivity of Mycobacteria allowed to suggest a device for their destroying by radiation. Some toxic substances in the underground water can be efficiently degraded by gamma radiation directly in the wells drilled as a hydraulic barrier surrounding the contaminated land area. Substantial decrease of CN - concentration and C.O.D. value was observed in water pumped from such well equipped with cobalt sources and charcoal. The removing of pathogenic contamination remains to be the main goal of radiation processing in the water purification technologies. The decrease of liquid sludge specific filter resistance and sedimentation acceleration by irradiation have a minor technological importance. The hygienization of sludge cake from the mechanical belt filter press by electron beam appears to be the optimum application in the Czechoslovak conditions. The potatoes and barley crop yields from experimental plots treated with sludge were higher in comparison with using the manure. Biological sludge from the municipal and food industry water purification plants contains nutritive components. The proper hygienization is a necessary condition for using them as a livestock feed supplement. Feeding experiments with broilers and pigs confirmed the possibility of partial (e.g. 50%) replacement of soya-, bone- or fish flour in feed mixtures by dried sludge hygienized either by heat or by the irradiation.

Vacek, K.; Pastuszek, F.; Sedlá?ek, M.

419

Promoting Household Water Treatment through Women's Self Help Groups in Rural India: Assessing Impact on Drinking Water Quality and Equity  

PubMed Central

Household water treatment, including boiling, chlorination and filtration, has been shown effective in improving drinking water quality and preventing diarrheal disease among vulnerable populations. We used a case-control study design to evaluate the extent to which the commercial promotion of household water filters through microfinance institutions to women's self-help group (SHG) members improved access to safe drinking water. This pilot program achieved a 9.8% adoption rate among women targeted for adoption. Data from surveys and assays of fecal contamination (thermotolerant coliforms, TTC) of drinking water samples (source and household) were analyzed from 281 filter adopters and 247 non-adopters exposed to the program; 251 non-SHG members were also surveyed. While adopters were more likely than non-adopters to have children under 5 years, they were also more educated, less poor, more likely to have access to improved water supplies, and more likely to have previously used a water filter. Adopters had lower levels of fecal contamination of household drinking water than non-adopters, even among those non-adopters who treated their water by boiling or using traditional ceramic filters. Nevertheless, one-third of water samples from adopter households exceeded 100 TTC/100ml (high risk), and more than a quarter of the filters had no stored treated water available when visited by an investigator, raising concerns about correct, consistent use. In addition, the poorest adopters were less likely to see improvements in their water quality. Comparisons of SHG and non-SHG members suggest similar demographic characteristics, indicating SHG members are an appropriate target group for this promotion campaign. However, in order to increase the potential for health gains, future programs will need to increase uptake, particularly among the poorest households who are most susceptible to disease morbidity and mortality, and focus on strategies to improve the correct, consistent and sustained use of these water treatment products. PMID:22957043

Freeman, Matthew C.; Trinies, Victoria; Boisson, Sophie; Mak, Gregory; Clasen, Thomas

2012-01-01

420

TREATMENT OF PRODUCED OIL AND GAS WATERS WITH SURFACTANT-MODIFIED ZEOLITE  

SciTech Connect

Co-produced water from the oil and gas industry accounts for a significant waste stream in the United States. It is by some estimates the largest single waste stream in the country, aside from nonhazardous industrial wastes. Characteristics of produced water include high total dissolved solids content, dissolved organic constituents such as benzene and toluene, an oil and grease component, and chemicals added during the oil-production process. While most of the produced water is disposed via reinjection, some must be treated to remove organic constituents before the water is discharged. Current treatment options are successful in reducing the organic content; however, they cannot always meet the levels of current or proposed regulations for discharged water. Therefore, an efficient, cost-effective treatment technology is needed. Surfactant-modified zeolite (SMZ) has been used successfully to treat contaminated ground water for organic and inorganic constituents. In addition, the low cost of natural zeolites makes their use attractive in water-treatment applications. This report summarizes the work and results of this four-year project. We tested the effectiveness of surfactant-modified zeolite (SMZ) for removal of BTEX with batch and column experiments using waters with BTEX concentrations that are comparable to those of produced waters. The data from our experimental investigations showed that BTEX sorption to SMZ can be described by a linear isotherm model, and competitive effects between compounds were not significant. The SMZ can be readily regenerated using air stripping. We field-tested a prototype SMZ-based water treatment system at produced water treatment facilities and found that the SMZ successfully removes BTEX from produced waters as predicted by laboratory studies. When compared to other existing treatment technologies, the cost of the SMZ system is very competitive. Furthermore, the SMZ system is relatively compact, does not require the storage of potentially hazardous chemicals, and could be readily adapted to an automated system.

Lynn E. Katz; R.S. Bowman; E.J. Sullivan

2003-11-01

421

Drinking water treatment is not associated with an observed increase in neural tube defects in mice.  

PubMed

Disinfection by-products (DBPs) arise when natural organic matter in source water reacts with disinfectants used in the water treatment process. Studies have suggested an association between DBPs and birth defects. Neural tube defects (NTDs) in embryos of untreated control mice were first observed in-house in May 2006 and have continued to date. The source of the NTD-inducing agent was previously determined to be a component of drinking water. Tap water samples from a variety of sources were analyzed for trihalomethanes (THMs) to determine if they were causing the malformations. NTDs were observed in CD-1 mice provided with treated and untreated surface water. Occurrence of NTDs varied by water source and treatment regimens. THMs were detected in tap water derived from surface water but not detected in tap water derived from a groundwater source. THMs were absent in untreated river water and laboratory purified waters, yet the percentage of NTDs in untreated river water were similar to the treated water counterpart. These findings indicate that THMs were not the primary cause of NTDs in the mice since the occurrence of NTDs was unrelated to drinking water disinfection. PMID:24497082

Melin, Vanessa E; Johnstone, David W; Etzkorn, Felicia A; Hrubec, Terry C

2014-06-01

422

Impact of storm water runoff on efficiency of the effluent treatment plant - a case study  

SciTech Connect

This paper evaluates the impact of storm water runoff on an existing sewage treatment plant situated in an industrial township. Significant dilution effect is observed during the monsoon period (June-September) in the influent and effluent characteristics of sewage. The estimated excess runoff water during these months is mainly due to the rainfall in the region and due to the absence of proper control or design for the collection of storm water, thereby avoiding the discharge of the storm water into the treatment plant. This has resulted in the reduction of BOD, COD, total nitrogen and total phosphorus, thus decreasing the efficiency of gas generation. 7 refs., 5 figs., 5 tabs.

Suresh, I.V.; Murthy, M.V.R.L.; Sanghi, S.K.; Yadava, R.N. [Regional Research Lab. (CSIR), Bhopal (India); Wanganeo, A. [Barkatullah Univ., Bhopal (India)

1996-04-01

423

Chemical Treatment Fosters Zero Discharge by Making Cooling Water Reusable  

E-print Network

and (3) the amount of scale-forming material in the water. Occurring most frequently in cooling water systems are calcium carbonate (CaCO)), calcium sulfate (CaS0 4 ), calcium phosphate [CaJCP0 4 )z] and silica (SiO z ). Calcium Carbonate... Historically, calcium carbonate has been controlled by adding sulfuric acid to convert the scale to calcium sulfate, which is more soluble. Because fluctuations in the acid feed rate can produce variability in pH levels, which can accelerate corrosion...

Boffardi, B. P.

424

ELECTROCHEMICAL PROCESS FOR THE TREATMENT OF DRINKING WATER  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this study removal of fluoride from synthetic water (distilled water + NaF salt + Na2SO4) by electrocoagulation using iron electrode was examined. Experiments were conducted to evaluate the effects of current density (0.5-3 mA\\/cm2), initial pH (5-9), and supporting electrolyte (Na2SO4) dosage (0.005-0.03M) on the performance of the system. The influent pH value was found to be a very

A. SavaKoparal; Ülker Bakir Ö

425

Coagulant recovery from water treatment plant sludge and reuse in post-treatment of UASB reactor effluent treating municipal wastewater.  

PubMed

In the present study, feasibility of recovering the coagulant from water treatment plant sludge with sulphuric acid and reusing it in post-treatment of upflow anaerobic sludge blanket (UASB) reactor effluent treating municipal wastewater were studied. The optimum conditions for coagulant recovery from water treatment plant sludge were investigated using response surface methodology (RSM). Sludge obtained from plants that use polyaluminium chloride (PACl) and alum coagulant was utilised for the study. Effect of three variables, pH, solid content and mixing time was studied using a Box-Behnken statistical experimental design. RSM model was developed based on the experimental aluminium recovery, and the response plots were developed. Results of the study showed significant effects of all the three variables and their interactions in the recovery process. The optimum aluminium recovery of 73.26 and 62.73 % from PACl sludge and alum sludge, respectively, was obtained at pH of 2.0, solid content of 0.5 % and mixing time of 30 min. The recovered coagulant solution had elevated concentrations of certain metals and chemical oxygen demand (COD) which raised concern about its reuse potential in water treatment. Hence, the coagulant recovered from PACl sludge was reused as coagulant for post-treatment of UASB reactor effluent treating municipal wastewater. The recovered coagulant gave 71 % COD, 80 % turbidity, 89 % phosphate, 77 % suspended solids and 99.5 % total coliform removal at 25 mg Al/L. Fresh PACl also gave similar performance but at higher dose of 40 mg Al/L. The results suggest that coagulant can be recovered from water treatment plant sludge and can be used to treat UASB reactor effluent treating municipal wastewater which can reduce the consumption of fresh coagulant in wastewater treatment. PMID:24777321

Nair, Abhilash T; Ahammed, M Mansoor

2014-09-01

426

Behaviour and fate of perfluoroalkyl and polyfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs) in drinking water treatment: a review.  

PubMed

This article reviews perfluoroalkyl and polyfluoroalkyl substance (PFAS) characteristics, their occurrence in surface water, and their fate in drinking water treatment processes. PFASs have been detected globally in the aquatic environment including drinking water at trace concentrations and due, in part, to their persistence in human tissue some are being investigated for regulation. They are aliphatic compounds containing saturated carbon-fluorine bonds and are resistant to chemical, physical, and biological degradation. Functional groups, carbon chain length, and hydrophilicity/hydrophobicity are some of the important structural properties of PFASs that affect their fate during drinking water treatment. Full-scale drinking water treatment plant occurrence data indicate that PFASs, if present in raw water, are not substantially removed by most drinking water treatment processes including coagulation, flocculation, sedimentation, filtration, biofiltration, oxidation (chlorination, ozonation, AOPs), UV irradiation, and low pressure membranes. Early observations suggest that activated carbon adsorption, ion exchange, and high pressure membrane filtration may be effective in controlling these contaminants. However, branched isomers and the increasingly used shorter chain PFAS replacement products may be problematic as it pertains to the accurate assessment of PFAS behaviour through drinking water treatment processes since only limited information is available for these PFASs. PMID:24216232

Rahman, Mohammad Feisal; Peldszus, Sigrid; Anderson, William B

2014-03-01

427

Mobile water treatment plant special study. Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action Project  

SciTech Connect

Characterization of the level and extent of groundwater contamination in the vicinity of Title I mill sites began during the surface remedial action stage (Phase 1) of the Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action (UMTRA) Project. Some of the contamination in the aquifer(s) at the abandoned sites is attributable to milling activities during the years the mills were in operation. To begin implementation of Phase 11 groundwater remediation, the US Department of Energy (DOE) requested that (1) the Technical Assistance Contractor (TAC) conduct a study to provide for the design of a mobile water treatment plant to treat groundwater extracted during site characterization studies at completed Phase I UMTRA sites, and (2) the results of the TAC investigations be documented in a special study report. This special study develops the design criteria for a water treatment plant that can be readily transported from one UMTRA site to another and operated as a complete treatment system. The 1991 study provides the basis for selecting a mobile water treatment system to meet the operating requirements recommended in this special study. The scope of work includes the following: Determining contaminants, flows, and loadings. Setting effluent quality criteria. Sizing water treatment unit(s). Evaluating non-monetary aspects of alternate treatment processes. Comparing costs of alternate treatment processes. Recommending the mobile water treatment plant design criteria.

Not Available

1992-12-01

428

Cyanobacterial toxins: removal during drinking water treatment, and human risk assessment.  

PubMed Central

Cyanobacteria (blue-green algae) produce toxins that may present a hazard for drinking water safety. These toxins (microcystins, nodularins, saxitoxins, anatoxin-a, anatoxin-a(s), cylindrospermopsin) are structurally diverse and their effects range from liver damage, including liver cancer, to neurotoxicity. The occurrence of cyanobacteria and their toxins in water bodies used for the production of drinking water poses a technical challenge for water utility managers. With respect to their removal in water treatment procedures, of the more than 60 microcystin congeners, microcystin-LR (L, L-leucine; R, L-arginine) is the best studied cyanobacterial toxin, whereas information for the other toxins is largely lacking. In response to the growing concern about nonlethal acute and chronic effects of microcystins, the World Health Organization has recently set a new provisional guideline value for microcystin-LR of 1.0 microg/L drinking water. This will lead to further efforts by water suppliers to develop effective treatment procedures to remove these toxins. Of the water treatment procedures discussed in this review, chlorination, possibly micro-/ultrafiltration, but especially ozonation are the most effective in destroying cyanobacteria and in removing microcystins. However, these treatments may not be sufficient during bloom situations or when a high organic load is present, and toxin levels should therefore be monitored during the water treatment process. In order to perform an adequate human risk assessment of microcystin exposure via drinking water, the issue of water treatment byproducts will have to be addressed in the future. PMID:10698727

Hitzfeld, B C; Hoger, S J; Dietrich, D R

2000-01-01

429

Safe drinking water and clean air: An experimental study evaluating the concept of combining household water treatment and indoor air improvement using the Water Disinfection Stove (WADIS)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Indoor air pollution and unsafe water remain two of the most important environmental risk factors for the global burden of infectious diseases. Improved stoves and household water treatment (HWT) methods represent two of the most effective interventions to fight respiratory and diarrhoeal illnesses at household level. Since new improved stoves are highly accepted and HWT methods have their drawbacks regarding

Andri Christen; Carlos Morante Navarro; Daniel Mäusezahl

2009-01-01

430

TREATMENT TECHNIQUES FOR CONTROLLING TRIHALOMETHANES IN DRINKING WATER  

EPA Science Inventory

In this volume, the authors attempt to bring together information developed over the past 6 years, on all aspects of trihalomethanes as they relate to drinking water. Section I summarizes with references to the primary literature the discovery of the trihalomethane problem, healt...

431

Water pollution control by aquatic vegetation of treatment wetlands  

Microsoft Academic Search

Supplying polluted river water to nature reserves in The Netherlands often leads to eutrophication of the reserve. The eutrophication can be caused directly by the high nutrient input (external eutrophication) or indirectly by altering nutrient availability due to changes in nutrient desorption or mineralization. This paper investigates the potential of a ditch system that is tested for its potential to

Arthur F. M. Meuleman; Boudewijn Beltman; Robbert A. Scheffer

2004-01-01

432

Biologically Inspired Photocatalytically Active Membranes for Water Treatment  

E-print Network

water soluble and hydrolytically stable precursor, TiBALDH. The effect of pH andeffect of pH and synthesis time on the crystal growth and phase development using a waterwater. This study investigated the effect of anatase-rutile mixtures and pH

Kinsinger, Nichola

2013-01-01

433

Treatment of waste water from marine products processing plants  

Microsoft Academic Search

Different types of pollutants produced as by?products in various marine product processing plants are described. A detailed discussion on the effects of these polluting materials on the environment follows. Various technologies available for treating waste water contaminated with the above are introduced. Methods are described for evaluating various processing methods and choosing a method that meets individual processing requirements based

Kazuo Sano

1988-01-01

434

Water flavour improvement by membrane (RO and EDR) treatment  

Microsoft Academic Search

With the aim of improving the physicochemical and organoleptic quality of the water supplied to Barcelona metropolitan area from the River Llobregat, a pilot plant was built to test the behaviour of reverse osmosis and electrodialysis reversal techniques, in three different designs or scenarios. This study was focused on flavour analyses carried out on several blends in different proportions of

Ricard Devesa; Verònica García; Lleonard Matía

2010-01-01

435

WATER TREATMENT RESIDUALS USED TO TREAT EUTROPHIC SOILSi  

Microsoft Academic Search

Soils containing more than approximately 75 mg P\\/kg necessary for plant growth are considered eutrophic. Excess phosphorus is rinsed from the soil by rainfall and is a major cause of eutrophication of surface water. The soil is so severely laden with phosphorus in some areas that no commercial or large scale land applications of fertilizers or biosolids are allowed. Literature

Christopher B. Lind

436

Metagenomic Analyses of Drinking Water Receiving Different Disinfection Treatments  

EPA Science Inventory

A metagenome-based approach was utilized for assessing the taxonomic affiliation and function potential of microbial populations in free chlorine (CHL) and monochloramine (CHM) treated drinking water (DW). A total of 1,024, 242 (averaging 544 bp) and 849, 349 (averaging 554 bp) ...

437

Decontamination Methods For Drinking Water Treatment And Distribution Systems  

EPA Science Inventory

Once contamination has occurred in drinking water systems and the contaminated segment has been isolated from other parts of the system, there will be great urgency to decontaminate the areas as rapidly and cost effectively as possible. This article describes available and deve...

438

ADVANCED TREATMENT FOR WASTEWATER RECLAMATION AT WATER FACTORY 21  

EPA Science Inventory

The performance and reliability of Water Factory 21 (WF21) in Orange County, California, for removal of a broad range of organic, inorganic, and biological contaminants from activated-sludge treated municipal wastewater was evaluated. This full-scale facility has a capacity of 0....

439

Appraisal of ground-water quality near wastewater-treatment facilities, Glacier National Park, Montana  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Water-level and water-quality data were collected from monitoring wells at wastewater-treatment facilities in Glacier National Park. Five additional shallow observation wells were installed at the Glacier Park Headquarters facility to monitor water quality in the shallow ground-water system. Water-level, water-quality, and geologic information indicate that some of the initial monitoring wells are not ideally located to sample ground water most likely to be affected by waste disposal at the sites. Small differences in chemical characteristics between samples from monitor wells indicate that effluent may be affecting ground-water quality but that impacts are not significant. Future monitoring of ground-water quality could be limited to selected wells most likely to be impacted by percolating effluent. Laboratory analyses for common ions could detect future impacts. (USGS)

Moreland, Joe A.; Wood, Wayne A.

1982-01-01

440

WASTEWATER TREATMENT FOR REUSE AND ITS CONTRIBUTION TO WATER SUPPLIES  

EPA Science Inventory

An 18 month study using cost effective municipal wastewater treatment technology coupled with a computerized data handling system, was conducted at the EPA/Washington, D.C. Blue Plains Pilot Plant to obtain data on the safety of the effluent for discharge upstream of drinking wat...

441

Solar-powered electrocoagulation system for water and wastewater treatment  

Microsoft Academic Search

The objective of this study is to investigate the feasibility of solar powered electrocoagulation (SPEC) for wastewater treatment using aluminium electrodes. Optimisation of various operating parameters such as pH, voltage\\/current, electrodes gap, pollutant concentration etc. were first performed using direct electrical current. SPEC reactor was designed by connecting with photovoltaic panel (PV) either directly or through a set of batteries

G. Sharma; J. Choi; H. K. Shon; S. Phuntsho

2011-01-01

442

Impact of Arsenic Treatment Systems on Distribution System Water  

EPA Science Inventory

Under the USEPA Arsenic Demonstration Program, 50 arsenic removal treatment systems were installed and their performance evaluated over a period of one to three years. The program was limited to small systems whose population served were less than 10,000. Ten of the systems were ...

443

Changes in Blood Lead Levels Associated with Use of Chloramines in Water Treatment Systems  

PubMed Central

Background More municipal water treatment plants are using chloramines as a disinfectant in order to reduce carcinogenic by-products. In some instances, this has coincided with an increase in lead levels in drinking water in those systems. Lead in drinking water can be a significant health risk. Objectives We sought to test the potential effect of switching to chloramines for disinfection in water treatment systems on childhood blood lead levels using data from Wayne County, located in the central Coastal Plain of North Carolina. Methods We constructed a unified geographic information system (GIS) that links blood lead screening data with age of housing, drinking water source, and census data for 7,270 records. The data were analyzed using both exploratory methods and more formal multivariate techniques. Results The analysis indicates that the change to chloramine disinfection may lead to an increase in blood lead levels, the impact of which is progressively mitigated in newer housing. Conclusions Introducing chloramines to reduce carcinogenic by-products may increase exposure to lead in drinking water. Our research provides guidance on adjustments in the local childhood lead poisoning prevention program that should accompany changes in water treatment. As similar research is conducted in other areas, and the underlying environmental chemistry is clarified, water treatment strategies can be optimized across the multiple objectives that municipalities face in providing high quality drinking water to local residents. PMID:17384768

Miranda, Marie Lynn; Kim, Dohyeong; Hull, Andrew P.; Paul, Christopher J.; Galeano, M. Alicia Overstreet

2007-01-01

444

Nanostructured Titanium Oxide Film- And Membrane-Based Photocatalysis For Water Treatment  

EPA Science Inventory

Titanium Oxide (TiO2) photocatalysis, one of the ultraviolet (UV)-based advanced oxidation technologies (AOTs) and nanotechnologies (AONs), has attracted great attention for the development of efficient water treatment and purification systems due to the effectiveness ...

445

Assessment of sludge management options in a waste water treatment plant  

E-print Network

This thesis is part of a larger project which began in response to a request by the Spanish water agengy, Cadagua, for advice on life cycle assessment (LCA) and environmental impacts of Cadagua operated wastewater treatment ...

Lim, Jong hyun, M. Eng. Massachusetts Institute of Technology

2012-01-01

446

RESEARCH DIRECTION IN INSTRUMENTATION AND CONTROL OF WATER AND WASTEWATER TREATMENT  

EPA Science Inventory

Instrumentation and automatic control, already common in oil, chemical and other industries, is making rapid strides in water supply and wastewater treatment systems. The report describes some of the capability now available and suggests directions for new research....

447

Water/Wastewater Treatment Plant Field Device Wiring Method Decision Analysis  

E-print Network

The choice of field device wiring method for water and wastewater treatment plant design is extremely complex and contains many variables. The choice not only affects short-term startup and equipment costs, but also long-term operations...

Dicus, Scott C.

2011-12-16

448

EFFECTIVE RISK MANAGEMENT OF ENDOCRINE DISRUPTING CHEMICALS USING DRINKING WATER TREATMENT PROCESSES  

EPA Science Inventory

The conventional drinking water treamtent processes of coagulation, flocculation, and filtration as well as specialized treatment processes have been examined for their capacity to remove endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDCs). A groupf od EDCs including 4-nonylphenol, diethylphth...

449

21 CFR 1250.83 - Storage of water prior to treatment.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...REGULATIONS UNDER CERTAIN OTHER ACTS ADMINISTERED BY THE FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION INTERSTATE CONVEYANCE SANITATION Sanitation Facilities and Conditions on Vessels § 1250.83 Storage of water prior to treatment. The...

2011-04-01

450

21 CFR 1250.83 - Storage of water prior to treatment.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...REGULATIONS UNDER CERTAIN OTHER ACTS ADMINISTERED BY THE FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION INTERSTATE CONVEYANCE SANITATION Sanitation Facilities and Conditions on Vessels § 1250.83 Storage of water prior to treatment. The...

2010-04-01

451

21 CFR 1250.83 - Storage of water prior to treatment.  

...REGULATIONS UNDER CERTAIN OTHER ACTS ADMINISTERED BY THE FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION INTERSTATE CONVEYANCE SANITATION Sanitation Facilities and Conditions on Vessels § 1250.83 Storage of water prior to treatment. The...

2014-04-01

452

21 CFR 1250.83 - Storage of water prior to treatment.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...REGULATIONS UNDER CERTAIN OTHER ACTS ADMINISTERED BY THE FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION INTERSTATE CONVEYANCE SANITATION Sanitation Facilities and Conditions on Vessels § 1250.83 Storage of water prior to treatment. The...

2013-04-01

453

21 CFR 1250.83 - Storage of water prior to treatment.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...REGULATIONS UNDER CERTAIN OTHER ACTS ADMINISTERED BY THE FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION INTERSTATE CONVEYANCE SANITATION Sanitation Facilities and Conditions on Vessels § 1250.83 Storage of water prior to treatment. The...

2012-04-01

454

Evaluation of chitosan as a natural coagulant for drinking water treatment.  

PubMed

Chitosan, a natural biopolymer, was evaluated for its ability to be used as a coagulant to treat water for potable use both in isolation and in combination with other water treatment technologies, specifically ion-exchange and activated carbon. Chitosan was found to be very effective for particle removal at doses far below those required for equivalent turbidity removal by inorganic coagulants. However in the water sources tested, chitosan was not particularly efficient for dissolved organic carbon (DOC) removal when applied as the sole treatment step. When applied as the final clarification stage of a multi-step treatment process, chitosan exhibited limited turbidity reduction due to specific flocculation requirements. This combination of treatment technologies was also unable to further reduce secondary water quality parameters, such as disinfectant demand and trihalomethane (THM) formation. PMID:20389011

Fabris, R; Chow, C W K; Drikas, M

2010-01-01

455

TEX-A-SYST: Reducing the Risk of Ground Water Contamination by Improving Household Wastewater Treatment  

E-print Network

Household wastewater treatment systems (septic systems) can contaminate ground water unless they are properly designed, constructed and maintained. This publication describes various kinds of systems and guides the homeowner in assessing...

Harris, Bill L.; Hoffman, D.; Mazac Jr., F. J.

1997-08-29

456

Preparation of a novel chitosan derivative and use in water treatment  

Microsoft Academic Search

Chitosan-betaine derivative was prepared by chitosan and betaine hydrochloride through dry process in the presence of dicyandiamide. The product exhibited solubility, practical flocculating property and antibacterial efficacy. Keywords—Chitosan-betaine derivative; Water treatment

Min Zhang; ChengYu Tan; Liang Kong; LuChen Jin

2011-01-01

457

Specific and chelate exchangers: new functional polymers for water and wastewaster treatment  

Microsoft Academic Search

The discovery that polar groups attach to polymeric matrices has enabled many types of synthetic ion-exchange materials to be used in water and wastewater treatments because of their high selectivity and specificity.

C. Calmon

1981-01-01

458

CONTROL OF CHELATOR-BASED UPSETS IN SURFACE FINISHING SHOP WASTE WATER TREATMENT SYSTEMS  

EPA Science Inventory

Actual surface finishing shop examples are used to illustrate the use of process chemistry understanding and analyses to identify immediate, interim and permanent response options for industrial waste water treatment plant (IWTP) upset problems caused by chelating agents. There i...

459

Water Treatment Plant Sludges--An Update of the State of the Art: Part 2.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This report outlines the state of the art with respect to nonmechanical and mechanical methods of dewatering water treatment plant sludge, ultimate solids disposal, and research and development needs. (CS)

American Water Works Association Journal, 1978

1978-01-01

460

Efficiency and sustainability of soil-aquifer treatment for indirect potable reuse of reclaimed water.  

PubMed

An increasing number of municipalities are considering the indirect reuse of treated wastewater (recycled water) by groundwater recharge as a feasible option to augment potable water supplies. This planned approach offers several advantages compared to the conventional way of discharging effluents into surface waters, including the additional treatment afforded as the water percolates and co-mingles with groundwater (soil aquifer treatment). While groundwater recharge has been used in the United States (U.S.) for several decades and has been the subject of a number of studies, limitations in methodology and testing have prevented many within the scientific and technical community from being able to fully address a number of complex public health questions related to organic chemicals, nitrogen and microorganisms. Ongoing research being conducted in Arizona and California is directed at reducing the uncertainties about the efficiency and sustainability of soil aquifer treatment for indirect potable reuse of recycled water. PMID:10842819

Drewes, J E; Fox, P; Nellor, M H

2000-01-01

461

Statistical Analysis of Drinking Water Treatment Plant Costs, Source Water Quality, and Land Cover Characteristics  

Microsoft Academic Search

Revisiting an earlier study conducted by The Trust for Public Land in 2004, this research brings new data and methodologies to offer insight on the impact of the decline of forest cover and the increase of agriculture or urban land cover in a drinking water source drainage area on the water quality for that drinking water source and the drinking

Jade Freeman; Rebecca Madsen; Kelley Hart; Paul Barten; Paul Gregory; David Reckhow; Woody Duncan

462

65 FR 19046 - National Primary Drinking Water Regulations: Long Term 1 Enhanced Surface Water Treatment and...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Environmental Engineering and Technology...presented preliminary data and potential...of small water systems through the...and TNC water systems described below...and TNC water systems based on service...obtained from SDWIS data. However, service...obtained from engineering design...

2000-04-10

463

Evaluation of physical-chemical and biological treatment of shale oil retort water  

SciTech Connect

Bench scale studies were conducted to evaluate conventional physical-chemical and biological treatment processes for removal of pollutants from retort water produced by in situ shale oil recovery methods. Prior to undertaking these studies, very little information had been reported on treatment of retort water. A treatment process train patterned after that generally used throughout the petroleum refining industry was envisioned for application to retort water. The treatment train would consist of processes for removing suspended matter, ammonia, biodegradable organics, and nonbiodegradable or refractory organics. The treatment processes evaluated include anaerobic digestion and activated sludge for removal of biodegradable organics and other oxidizable substances; activated carbon adsorption for removal of nonbiodegradable organics; steam stripping for ammonia removal; and chemical coagulation, sedimentation and filtration for removal of suspended matter. Preliminary cost estimates are provided.

Mercer, B.W.; Mason, M.J.; Spencer, R.R.; Wong, A.L.; Wakamiya, W.

1982-09-01

464

The mechanism of reducing scale during magnetic water treatment in heat-power devices  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A model describing the mechanism of the magnetic treatment of the water flow based on the Deryagin-Landau-Ferway-Overbeck theory is refined. The effect of homogeneous generation of new nuclei during the coagulation of critical-size particles in the colloid solution that lost stability is taken into account. This allowed us to approach the qualitative evaluations of efficiency of the scale-proof treatment of the water flow to the actual experimental data.

Koshoridze, S. I.; Levin, Yu. K.

2013-03-01

465

Magnetic water treatment for scale control in heating and alkaline conditions  

Microsoft Academic Search

Magnetic water treatment (MWT), an alternative solution for scale control, is discussed with emphasis on the construction of the magnetic devices and the mechanism of MWT influence on the scale formation. Two applications in high-temperature and high-pH conditions are presented. The treatment noticeably reduced the scale thickness on the heating spiral and removed preciously precipitated scale from hot tap-water outlet

Viljem Kozic; Anton Hamler; Irena Ban; Lucija C. Lipus

2010-01-01

466

Nutritional value of sorghum grain after treatment with water and enzymes  

E-print Network

supplementation and water treatment for poultry feeds have been conducted with barley. For this reason, the literature on enzyme treat- ments of barley will be reviewed. The difference in nutritional value of' corn and barley for poultry has been recognized.... Water Treatment of Corn and Sorghum Grain A search of the literature revealed no studies on the reconstitution of sorghum grain for poultry feeds. Since reconstituted and. early harvested sorghum grain have been used for cattle, a literature review...

Silva, Paulo Carlos

2012-06-07

467

Effect of a continuous hot water treatment of potato tubers on seed-borne fungal pathogens  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary  The viability of five pathogens was decreased by treatment with hot water when tested in vitro.Polyscytalum pustulans was most sensitive andRhizoctonia solani least sensitive.\\u000a \\u000a Potato tubers were exposed to 55C for 5 min in a commercial continuous hot water treatment plant using naturally contaminated\\u000a seed tubers and tubers which had been inoculated by dipping in comminuted cultures. The frequency of

E. P. Dashwood; E. M. Burnett; M. C. M. Perombelon

1991-01-01

468

Particle count monitoring of reverse osmosis water treatment for removal of low-level radionuclides  

Microsoft Academic Search

Laser diode particle counting technology and analytical measurements were used to evaluate a pilot-scale reverse osmosis (RO) water treatment system for removal of particulate matter and sub-picocurie low-level radionuclides. Stormwater mixed with Waste Water Treatment Plant (WWTP) effluent from the Rocky Flats Environmental Technology Site (RFETS), formerly a Department of Energy (DOE) nuclear weapons production facility, were treated. No chemical

E. J. Moritz; C. R. Hoffman; T. R. Hergert

1995-01-01

469

The potential of solar water disinfection as a household water treatment method in peri-urban Zimbabwe  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The potential for reducing diarrhoea morbidity and improving the health status of children in developing countries using solar water disinfection (SODIS) has been demonstrated in past research. A baseline survey was conducted to explore the feasibility and necessity of introducing SODIS in peri-urban communities of Zimbabwe. The survey sought to establish drinking water quality in these areas and to determine the health and hygiene beliefs as well as practices related to water handling in the household. Microbiological water quality tests and personal interviews were carried out in Epworth township and Hopley farm, two peri-urban areas near the capital of Zimbabwe, Harare. These two areas are among the poorest settlements around Harare with 80% of inhabitants being informal settlers. Community meetings were held to introduce solar water disinfection prior to the survey. This was followed by administration of questionnaires, which aimed to investigate whether the community had ever heard about SODIS, whether they were practicing it, other means that were being used to treat drinking water as well as health and hygiene beliefs and practices. It was found out that most households cannot afford basic water treatment like boiling as firewood is expensive. People generally reported that the water was not palatable due to objectionable odour and taste. Microbiological water quality tests proved that drinking water was contaminated in both areas, which makes the water unsafe for drinking and shows the necessity of treatment. Although the majority of people interviewed had not heard of SODIS prior to the interview, attitudes towards its introduction were very positive and the intention to do SODIS in the future was high. Amongst the ones who had heard about SODIS before the study, usage was high. Plastic PET bottles, which were used for the SODIS experiments are currently unavailable and this has been identified as a potential hindrance to the successful implementation of SODIS.

Murinda, Sharon; Kraemer, Silvie

470

Regional assessment of produced water treatment and disposal practices and research needs  

SciTech Connect

Produced water accounts for greater than 80 percent by volume of the residual material generated in the natural gas industry. Cost-effective and environmentally acceptable disposal of these waters is critical to the continued economic production of natural gas. The Gas Research Institute (GRI) has recently completed a comprehensive assessment of the demographics of produced water characterized according to volumes and geographic location of the gas producing geologic provinces of the United States. This information in association with both the federal and state environmental regulations has been used to identify potential cost-effective produced water treatment research opportunities which are described in this paper. The study involved the use of a computer-based engineering-economic model, Produced Water Management Options Model (PWMOM), which combines engineering process models with a cost performance data base to predict the economics of a spectrum of unit water treatment processes and treatment trains. Various produced water scenarios, i.e., volumes, qualities and regulatory requirements, were evaluated and categorized to focus on the natural gas producing regions of the U.S. where produced waters could be surface discharged under the National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System (NPDES). Residual brines from produced water treatment would continue to be injected. Unit process technologies evaluated include deoiling (removal of free oil & grease), iron removal, dissolved organic removal (soluble organic treatment) and partial demineralization. Federal and state regulations were reviewed to identify where surface discharge could be or has been practiced to determine where cost-effective treatment could increase the opportunity for non-injection disposal alternatives. To complete this analysis, surface treatment costs were generated with PWMOM and compared to deep well injection costs.

Lawrence, A.W.; Miller, J.A.; Miller, D.L.; Hayes, T.D.

1995-12-01

471

Microbial fuel cell treatment of ethanol fermentation process water  

DOEpatents

The present invention relates to a method for removing inhibitor compounds from a cellulosic biomass-to-ethanol process which includes a pretreatment step of raw cellulosic biomass material and the production of fermentation process water after production and removal of ethanol from a fermentation step, the method comprising contacting said fermentation process water with an anode of a microbial fuel cell, said anode containing microbes thereon which oxidatively degrade one or more of said inhibitor compounds while producing electrical energy or hydrogen from said oxidative degradation, and wherein said anode is in electrical communication with a cathode, and a porous material (such as a porous or cation-permeable membrane) separates said anode and cathode.

Borole, Abhijeet P. (Knoxville, TN)

2012-06-05

472

Anaerobic biological treatment of in-situ retort water  

SciTech Connect

Anaerobic fermentation was successfully used in a laboratory-scale batch digester to remove soluble organics from retort water. Required pretreatment includes reduction of ammonia levels to 360 mg-N/l, pH adjustment to 7.0, sulfide control, and the addition of the nutrients, calcium, magnesium, and phoshorus. If the prescribed pretreatment is used, BOD/sub 5/ and COD removal efficiencies of 89 to 90% and 65 to 70% are achieved, respectively.

Ossio, E.; Fox, P.

1980-03-01

473

Burkholderia pseudomallei traced to water treatment plant in Australia.  

PubMed Central

Burkholderia pseudomallei was isolated from environmental specimens 1 year after an outbreak of acute melioidosis in a remote coastal community in northwestern Australia. B. pseudomallei was isolated from a water storage tank and from spray formed in a pH-raising aerator unit. Pulsed-field gel electrophoresis confirmed the aerator and storage tank isolates were identical to the outbreak strain, WKo97. PMID:10653571

Inglis, T. J.; Garrow, S. C.; Henderson, M.; Clair, A.; Sampson, J.; O'Reilly, L.; Cameron, B.

2000-01-01

474

Langerhans Lab Protocols Water treatment & aging.docx revised 1/30/13 by JW Page 1 of 1  

E-print Network

the water out, scrub the bucket, rinse, and start again with fresh water. The last liter of waterLangerhans Lab Protocols Water treatment & aging.docx revised 1/30/13 by JW Page 1 of 1 Water salinity) Marine Mix or Instant Ocean 2. Fill bucket with tap water, to brim. 3. Put air stone and heater

Langerhans, Brian

475

Assessing the impact of water treatment on bacterial biofilms in drinking water distribution systems using high-throughput DNA sequencing.  

PubMed

Biofilm control in drinking water distribution systems (DWDSs) is crucial, as biofilms are known to reduce flow efficiency, impair taste and quality of drinking water and have been implicated in the transmission of harmful pathogens. Microorganisms within biofilm communities are more resistant to disinfection compared to planktonic microorganisms, making them difficult to manage in DWDSs. This study evaluates the impact of four unique drinking water treatments on biofilm community structure using metagenomic DNA sequencing. Four experimental DWDSs were subjected to the following treatments: (1) conventional coagulation, (2) magnetic ion exchange contact (MIEX) plus conventional coagulation, (3) MIEX plus conventional coagulation plus granular activated carbon, and (4) membrane filtration (MF). Bacterial biofilms located inside the pipes of each system were sampled under sterile conditions both (a) immediately after treatment application ('inlet') and (b) at a 1km distance from the treatment application ('outlet'). Bacterial 16S rRNA gene sequencing revealed that the outlet biofilms were more diverse than those sampled at the inlet for all treatments. The lowest number of unique operational taxonomic units (OTUs) and lowest diversity was observed in the MF inlet. However, the MF system revealed the greatest increase in diversity and OTU count from inlet to outlet. Further, the biofilm communities at the outlet of each system were more similar to one another than to their respective inlet, suggesting that biofilm communities converge towards a common established equilibrium as distance from treatment application increases. Based on the results, MF treatment is most effective at inhibiting biofilm growth, but a highly efficient post-treatment disinfection regime is also critical in order to prevent the high rates of post-treatment regrowth. PMID:25038469

Shaw, Jennifer L A; Monis, Paul; Fabris, Rolando; Ho, Lionel; Braun, Kalan; Drikas, Mary; Cooper, Alan

2014-12-01

476

pH induced polychromatic UV treatment for the removal of a mixture of SMX, OTC and CIP from water  

Microsoft Academic Search

Water and wastewater effluents contain a vast range of chemicals in mixtures that have different chemical structures and characteristics. This study presents a treatment technology for the removal of mixtures of antibiotic residues (sulfamethoxazole (SMX), oxtetracycline (OTC) and ciprofloxacin (CIP)) from contaminated water. The treatment combines pH modification of the water to an optimal value, followed by a photolytic treatment

D. Avisar; Y. Lester; H. Mamane

2010-01-01

477

Evaluating Repair Strategies for a Water-Treatment Facility using Arcade B.R. Haverkort1,2  

E-print Network

Evaluating Repair Strategies for a Water-Treatment Facility using Arcade B.R. Haverkort1,2 M. Kuntz- tructures, such as water-treatment facilities is essential. In this paper we use various performance and dependability measures to analyze a simplified model of a water treatment facility. Building on the existing

Leue, Stefan

478

Point-of-use water treatment and diarrhoea reduction in the emergency context: an effectiveness trial in Liberia  

E-print Network

the findings of a 12-week effectiveness study of point-of-use water treatment with a flocculant, point-of-use water treatment with the flocculant­disinfectant plus improved storage reduced diarrhoea, household water treatment, flocculant­disinfectant, Liberia, diarrhoea Introduction Communicable diseases

Scharfstein, Daniel

479

Halogen compatible treatment programs for open recirculating cooling water systems  

SciTech Connect

Stabilized phosphate cooling water programs have been exceptionally effective and well established in the marketplace for close to twenty years. Identification of this technology allowed chromate to be eliminated from open recirculating systems, providing less toxic operating conditions. However, very good control of stabilized phosphate applications is necessary in order to ensure chrome-like corrosion and deposit control performance. Difficulties with stabilized phosphate technology have occurred when it is used along with chlorine. Elevated chlorine dosages are sometimes necessary for microbial control. When this occurs, copper induced pitting becomes a concern as does the degradation of the cooling water program itself, i.e. phosphonate reversion. New programs have been identified which maintain their component integrity in the presence of chlorine. They offer improved deposit control performance under a variety of stressed cooling water conditions by using select polymer blends, as opposed to a single polymer. They also incorporate a new azole corrosion inhibition chemistry which minimizes copper-induced pitting associated with over-chlorination. Laboratory and field experience with this technology is discussed.

Kessler, S.M.; Given, K.M.

1999-07-01

480

A new optional recycled water pre-treatment system prior to use in the household laundry.  

PubMed

With a constantly growing population, water scarcity becomes the limiting factor for further social and economic growth. To achieve a partial reduction in current freshwater demands and lessen the environmental loadings, an increasing trend in the water market tends to adopt recycled water for household laundries as a new recycled water application. The installation of a small pre-treatment unit for water purification can not only further improve the recycled water quality, but also be viable to enhance the public confidence and acceptance level on recycled water consumption. Specifically, this paper describes column experiments conducted using a 550 mm length bed of zeolite media as a one-dimensional flow reactor. The results show that the zeolite filter system could be a simple low-cost pre-treatment option which is able to significantly reduce the total hardness level of recycled water via effective ion exchange. Additionally, depending on the quality of recycled water required by end users, a new by-pass controller using a three-level operation switching mechanism is introduced. This approach provides householders sufficient flexibility to respond to different levels of desired recycled water quality and increase the reliability of long-term system operation. These findings could be beneficial to the smooth implementation of new end uses and expansion of the potential recycled water market. The information could also offer sound suggestions for future research on sustainable water management and governance. PMID:24496024

Chen, Zhuo; Ngo, Huu Hao; Guo, Wenshan; Pham, Thi Thu Nga; Lim, Richard; Wang, Xiaochang C; Miechel, Clayton; Halloran, Kelly O'; Listowski, Andrzej; Corby, Nigel

2014-04-01

481

A practical application for the chemical treatment of Southern California`s reclaimed, Title 22 water for use as makeup water for recirculating cooling water systems  

SciTech Connect

Pilot cooling water studies conducted at a Southern California landfill/cogeneration station demonstrated a successful chemical treatment program for recirculating cooling water that used unnitrified, reclaimed, Title 22 water as the primary makeup water source. The constituents in the reclaimed water are supplied by variety of residential and waste water sources resulting in a water quality that may vary to a greater degree than domestic water supplies. This water contains high concentrations of orthophosphate, ammonia, chlorides and suspended solids. The impact of which, under cycled conditions is calcium orthophosphate scaling, high corrosion of yellow metal and mild steel, stress cracking of copper alloys and stainless steel and rapidly growing biological activity. A mobile cooling water testing laboratory with two pilot recirculating water systems modeled the cogeneration station`s cooling tower operating conditions and parameters. The tube and shell, tube side cooling heat exchangers were fitted with 443 admiralty, 90/10 copper nickel, 316 stainless steel and 1202 mild steel heat exchanger tubes. Coupons and Corrater electrodes were also installed. A chemical treatment program consisting of 60/40 AA/AMPS copolymer for scale, deposits and dispersion, sodium tolyltriazole for yellow metal corrosion, and a bromination program to control the biological activity was utilized in the pilot systems. Recirculating water orthophosphate concentrations reached levels of 70 mg/L as PO, and ammonia concentrations reached levels of 35 mg/L, as total NH3. The study successfully demonstrated a chemical treatment program to control scale and deposition, minimize admiralty, 90/10 copper nickel and carbon steel corrosion rates, prevent non-heat transfer yellow metal and stainless steel stress cracking, and control the biological activity in this high nutrient water.

Zakrzewski, J. [Calgon Corp., Pittsburgh, PA (United States); Cosulich, J.; Bartling, E. [County Sanitation Districts of Los Angeles County, Whittier, CA (United States)

1998-12-31

482

Alkaline industrial waters and wetlands: prospects for effective treatment  

E-print Network

� Potential elevation of trace elements � e.g. As, Cr, Se, V � V potentially a key issue given pentavalent;2 � Weathering of lime-rich residues produced in major global industries: e.g. steel slags, fly ash, lime spoil for treatment wetlands � `Volunteer' wetlands � pH 12 lime spoil leachate � pH 12 steel slag leachate � Calcite

Heal, Kate

483

Disinfection of water by adsorption combined with electrochemical treatment.  

PubMed

The disinfection performance of a unique process of adsorption combined with electrochemical treatment is evaluated. A flake graphite intercalation compound adsorbent was used, which is effective for the removal of organic contaminants and is amenable to anodic electrochemical regeneration. Adsorption of Escherichia coli on the graphite flake was followed by electrochemical treatment under a range of experimental conditions in a sequential batch reactor. The adsorption of E. coli cells was found to be a fast process and was capable of removing >99.98% of cells from solution after 5 min with a ca. 6.5-log10 reduction in E. coli concentration after 10 min. With electrochemical treatment the adsorbent could be reused, with no decrease in E. coli adsorption observed over five cycles. In the presence of chloride, >8.5-log10 reduction of E. coli concentration was achieved. Disinfection was found to be less effective in the absence of chloride. However, selection of appropriate operating conditions enabled effective disinfection in a chloride free system, reducing the potential for formation of disinfection by-products. The energy consumption required to achieve >8.5-log10 disinfection was 2-7 kWh m(-3). PMID:24568786

Hussain, S N; de Las Heras, N; Asghar, H M A; Brown, N W; Roberts, E P L

2014-05-01

484

Analysis of micromixers and biocidal coatings on water-treatment membranes to minimize biofouling.  

SciTech Connect

Biofouling, the unwanted growth of biofilms on a surface, of water-treatment membranes negatively impacts in desalination and water treatment. With biofouling there is a decrease in permeate production, degradation of permeate water quality, and an increase in energy expenditure due to increased cross-flow pressure needed. To date, a universal successful and cost-effect method for controlling biofouling has not been implemented. The overall goal of the work described in this report was to use high-performance computing to direct polymer, material, and biological research to create the next generation of water-treatment membranes. Both physical (micromixers - UV-curable epoxy traces printed on the surface of a water-treatment membrane that promote chaotic mixing) and chemical (quaternary ammonium groups) modifications of the membranes for the purpose of increasing resistance to biofouling were evaluated. Creation of low-cost, efficient water-treatment membranes helps assure the availability of fresh water for human use, a growing need in both the U. S. and the world.

Webb, Stephen W.; James, Darryl L. (Texas Tech University, Lubbock, TX); Hibbs, Michael R.; Jones, Howland D. T.; Hart, William Eugene; Khalsa, Siri Sahib; Altman, Susan Jeanne; Clem, Paul Gilbert; Elimelech, Menachem (Yale University, New Haven, CT); Cornelius, Christopher James; Sanchez, Andres L. (LMATA Government Services LLC, Albuquerque, NM); Noek, Rachael M.; Ho, Clifford Kuofei; Kang, Seokatae (Yale University, New Haven, CT); Sun, Amy Cha-Tien; Adout, Atar (Yale University, New Haven, CT); McGrath, Lucas K. (LMATA Government Services LLC, Albuquerque, NM); Cappelle, Malynda A.; Cook, Adam W.

2009-12-01

485

Behavior of pharmaceuticals and drugs of abuse in a drinking water treatment plant (DWTP) using combined conventional and ultrafiltration and reverse osmosis (UF\\/RO) treatments  

Microsoft Academic Search

The behavior along the potabilization process of 29 pharmaceuticals and 12 drugs of abuse identified from a total of 81 compounds at the intake of a drinking water treatment plant (DWTP) has been studied. The DWTP has a common treatment consisting of dioxychlorination, coagulation\\/flocculation and sand filtration and then water is splitted in two parallel treatment lines: conventional (ozonation and

M Boleda; M Galceran; Francesc Ventura

2011-01-01

486

Reverse osmosis and activated alumina water treatment plant for the California State prisons located near Blythe  

Microsoft Academic Search

To supply water to two California prisons located in a desert area on the west of the Colorado River an average of 1.7–5.2 mgd are required. Available groundwater had high concentrations of fluoride and TDS and a temperature close to 45°C. A water treatment plant using a combination of activated alumina and reverse osmosis units was selected.

D. R. Lee; J. M. Hargreaves; L. Badertscher; L. Rein; F. Kassir

1995-01-01

487

Nanostructuring of alumina optical waveguides by hot water treatment for tuning sensor output  

Microsoft Academic Search

A study of the nanostructuring of alumina integrated optical waveguides by means of hot water treatment to tune their outputs, namely, total internal reflection and scattering, is presented. Homogeneous alumina thin films fabricated by atomic layer deposition were exposed to hot water to form surface nano-pillars of various heights and densities. The 135-, 232- and 307-nm thick alumina films were

Mustafa M. Aslan

488

Treatment of Water with Granular Ceramics and Alumina Through a Fluidization System  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study aims at assessing the effect of different treatments on Kochi tap water of Japan with different materials belonging to various parameters. Granular ceramics and alumina having electrochemical charges at the surface were produced in a fluidization system with tap water. Ceramics and alumina were used as fluidizing agents in the experiment and three different amounts of these materials

2006-01-01

489

Impacts of Substituting Aluminum-Based Coagulants in Drinking Water Treatment  

Microsoft Academic Search

Aluminum-based coagulants in drinking water treatment are widely used across Canada. According to the literature, the presence of aluminum in drinking water poses possible risks to humans. Preliminary studies investigating the use of alterna- tive coagulating agents such as iron-based coagulants, lanthanide salts and organic coagulants have already revealed that their implementation is possible, but require further studies concerning their

Patrick Niquette; Frédéric Monette; Abdelkrim Azzouz; Robert Hausler

2004-01-01

490

Modeling Urban Storm-Water Quality Treatment: Model Development and Application to a Surface Sand Filter  

E-print Network

Modeling Urban Storm-Water Quality Treatment: Model Development and Application to a Surface Sand EPA 1999; Keblin et al. 1998; Minton 2002; Roseen et al. 2006 . Design criteria for sand filters and nutrient removal is often low. Water quality performance of the sand filter can be evaluated by comparing

491

Treatment of NO x in exhaust gas by corona plasma over water surface  

Microsoft Academic Search

For developing NOx treatment engineering of exhaust gas in lower construction and operating cost, we propose a new type of corona reactor with some experimental results. The reactor is madeup of multi needles’ electrode placed over water and to make use of corona plasma over water surface for plasma chemical reactions. Typical corona characteristics of the reactor with positive and

Tomio Fujii; Massimo Rea

2000-01-01

492

Pretreatments at 38°C of 'Hass' Avocado Confer Thermotolerance to 50 °C Hot Water Treatments  

Microsoft Academic Search

Additional index words, fruit ripening, heat shock proteins, Persea americana, postharvest physiology, shelf life, disinfestation Abstract. 'Hass' avocados (Persea americana Mill.) were pretreated in water (38°C for up to 120 min) immediately before 50°C hot water treatments of up to 10 min. Fruit were stored for 1 week at 6°C and ripened at 20°C. External browning was evaluated immediately upon

Allan B. Woolf; Michael Lay-Yee

1997-01-01

493

Rejection of pharmaceuticals in nanofiltration and reverse osmosis membrane drinking water treatment  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper investigates the removal of a broad range of pharmaceuticals during nanofiltration (NF) and reverse osmosis (RO) applied in a full-scale drinking water treatment plant (DWTP) using groundwater. Pharmaceutical residues detected in groundwater used as feed water in all five sampling campaigns were analgesics and anti-inflammatory drugs such as ketoprofen, diclofenac, acetaminophen and propyphenazone, ?-blockers sotalol and metoprolol, an

J. Radjenovi?; M. Petrovi?; F. Ventura; D. Barceló

2008-01-01

494