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1

Ground-water data for the Salt Basin, Eagle Flat, Red Light Draw, Green River Valley and Presidio Bolson in westernmost Texas  

USGS Publications Warehouse

From October 1971 through October 1974. the U.S. Geological Survey collected ground-water data in the basins in Texas west of the Pecos River drainage area and northwest of the Big Bend country. The basins included are, from east to west: The Presidio Bolson; the Salt Basin; Green River Valley, Eagle Flat, and Red Light Draw. These data, which were collected in cooperation with the Texas Department of Water Resources (formerly Texas Water Development Board), will provide information for a continuing assessment of water availability within the State.

White, Donald E.; Gates, Joseph S.; Smith, James T.; Fry, Bonnie J.

1980-01-01

2

Level 1 Water-Quality Inventory of Baseline Levels of Pesticides in Urban Creeks - Golden Gate National Recreation Area and the Presidio of San Francisco, California  

USGS Publications Warehouse

To characterize baseline water-quality levels of pesticides in Golden Gate National Recreation Area and the Presidio of San Francisco, the U.S. Geological Survey collected and analyzed surface-water and bed-sediment samples at 10 creeks during February, April, and July 2006. Pesticide data were obtained using previously developed methods. Samples from sites in the Presidio were analyzed only for pyrethroid insecticides, whereas the remaining samples were analyzed for pyrethroids and additional current and historical-use pesticides. Pesticide concentrations were low in both the water (below 30 ng/L) and sediment (below 3 ng/g). The pyrethroid bifenthrin was detected in water samples from two sites at concentrations below 2 ng/L. Other compounds detected in water included the herbicides dacthal (DCPA) and prometryn, the insecticide fipronil, the insecticide degradates p,p'-DDE and fipronil sulfone, and the fungicides cyproconazole, myclobutanil and tetraconazole. The only pesticides detected in the sediment samples were p,p'-DDT and its degradates (p,p'-DDD and p,p'-DDE). Pesticide information from the samples collected can provide a reference point for future sampling and can help National Park Service managers assess the water quality of the urban creeks.

Hladik, Michelle L.; Orlando, James L.

2008-01-01

3

Ground-water data for the Salt Basin, Eagle Flat, Red Light Draw, Green River Valley, and Presidio Bolson in westernmost Texas  

USGS Publications Warehouse

From October 1971 through October 1974, the U.S. Geological Survey collected groundwater data in the basins in Texas west of the Pecos River drainage area and northwest of the Big Bend country. The basins included are, from east to west: The Presidio Bolson; the Salt Basin; Green River Valley, Eagle Flat, and Red Light Draw. The data collection program consisted of an inventory of all major irrigation, municipal-supply, and industrial wells; selected stock and domestic wells; and selected springs. Water samples were collected from representative wells and springs for chemical analyses. (Woodard-USGS)

White, Donald Edward; Gates, J. S.; Smith, J. T.; Fry, B. J.

1978-01-01

4

Park for People. The Presidio Trust Year-End Report.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Contents: Mission Statement; Message from the Chairman; Message from the Executive Director; Historical Overview; About the Presidio Trust; The Bay School of San Francisco; Presidio Sport and Medicine; Presidio Performing Arts Foundation; Sunset Scrub; Re...

2004-01-01

5

Usage and administration manual for a geodatabase compendium of water-resources data-Rio Grande Basin from the Rio Arriba-Sandoval County line, New Mexico, to Presidio, Texas, 1889-2009  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the New Mexico Interstate Stream Commission, developed a geodatabase compendium (hereinafter referred to as the 'geodatabase') of available water-resources data for the reach of the Rio Grande from Rio Arriba-Sandoval County line, New Mexico, to Presidio, Texas. Since 1889, a wealth of water-resources data has been collected in the Rio Grande Basin from Rio Arriba-Sandoval County line, New Mexico, to Presidio, Texas, for a variety of purposes. Collecting agencies, researchers, and organizations have included the U.S. Geological Survey, Bureau of Reclamation, International Boundary and Water Commission, State agencies, irrigation districts, municipal water utilities, universities, and other entities. About 1,750 data records were recently (2010) evaluated to enhance their usability by compiling them into a single geospatial relational database (geodatabase). This report is intended as a user's manual and administration guide for the geodatabase. All data available, including water quality, water level, and discharge data (both instantaneous and daily) from January 1, 1889, through December 17, 2009, were compiled for the study area. A flexible and efficient geodatabase design was used, enhancing the ability of the geodatabase to handle data from diverse sources and helping to ensure sustainability of the geodatabase with long-term maintenance. Geodatabase tables include daily data values, site locations and information, sample event information, and parameters, as well as data sources and collecting agencies. The end products of this effort are a comprehensive water-resources geodatabase that enables the visualization of primary sampling sites for surface discharges, groundwater elevations, and water-quality and associated data for the study area. In addition, repeatable data processing scripts, Structured Query Language queries for loading prepared data sources, and a detailed process for refreshing all data in the compendium have been developed. The geodatabase functionality allows users to explore spatial characteristics of the data, conduct spatial analyses, and pose questions to the geodatabase in the form of queries. Users can also customize and extend the geodatabase, combine it with other databases, or use the geodatabase design for other water-resources applications.

Burley, Thomas E.

2011-01-01

6

36 CFR 1004.10 - Travel on Presidio Trust roads and designated routes.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 3 2013-07-01...true Travel on Presidio Trust roads and designated routes. 1004...10 Parks, Forests, and Public Property PRESIDIO TRUST ...10 Travel on Presidio Trust roads and designated routes....

2013-07-01

7

Interior view of garage facing back wall (east) Presidio ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

Interior view of garage facing back wall (east) - Presidio of San Francisco, Officers' Vehicles Garage, 1055 General Kennedy Avenue, Letterman Hospital Complex, San Francisco, San Francisco County, CA

8

21. Post Engineer Office, Presidio of San Francisco, Letterman Army ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

21. Post Engineer Office, Presidio of San Francisco, Letterman Army Hospital. EKG Cardiology Clinic, Building 1049. December 1955. BUILDING 1049. - Presidio of San Francisco, Letterman General Hospital, Building No. 12, Letterman Hospital Complex, Edie Road, San Francisco, San Francisco County, CA

9

22. Post Engineer Office, Presidio of San Francisco, Building # ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

22. Post Engineer Office, Presidio of San Francisco, Building # 1049 Letterman General Hospital. Alterations to EKG Cardiology Clinic. November 1963. BUILDING 1049. - Presidio of San Francisco, Letterman General Hospital, Building No. 12, Letterman Hospital Complex, Edie Road, San Francisco, San Francisco County, CA

10

36 CFR 1011.16 - When will the Presidio Trust refer debts to the Department of Justice?  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...activity. The Presidio Trust will refer debts having...Litigation. The Presidio Trust will promptly refer to the...collection activity has been taken in accordance with this part that the Presidio Trust determines should not...

2010-07-01

11

Mammoth Mine, Tierra Vieja Mountains, Presidio County, Texas.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The Mammoth mine is located in the Tierra Vieja Mountains, approximately 60 miles south of Van Horn, Presidio County, Texas. The region is composed of highly faulted, moderately folded sedimentary rocks, tuffs, flows, and flow breccias of Upper Cretaceous...

T. S. Nye

1978-01-01

12

36 CFR 1011.12 - How will the Presidio Trust offset a Federal employee's salary to collect a debt?  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-07-01 2012-07-01 true How will the Presidio Trust offset a Federal employee's...Presidio Trust Debts § 1011.12 How will the Presidio Trust offset a Federal employee's...a) of this part, the Presidio Trust will refer debts to the FMS for...

2013-07-01

13

36 CFR 1011.9 - When will the Presidio Trust transfer a debt to the Financial Management Service for collection?  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...Management Service for collection? (a) Cross-servicing. The Presidio Trust will...collection services, a process known as âcross-servicing.â The Presidio...Offset Program database. If there is a match, the FMS (or, in some cases,...

2013-07-01

14

Water Treatment Process  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This interactive diagram allows the user to follow a drop of water from the source through the treatment process. Water may be treated differently in different communities depending on the quality of the water which enters the plant. Groundwater is water located under ground and typically requires less treatment than water from lakes, rivers, and streams. Users are invited to click on each treatment point on the image to see a little information about that treatment point.

15

36 CFR 1011.6 - When will the Presidio Trust allow a debtor to enter into a repayment agreement?  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...will the Presidio Trust allow a debtor to enter into a repayment agreement? 1011.6...will the Presidio Trust allow a debtor to enter into a repayment agreement? (a) Voluntary...Presidio Trust will consider a request to enter into a voluntary repayment...

2009-07-01

16

36 CFR 1011.6 - When will the Presidio Trust allow a debtor to enter into a repayment agreement?  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...will the Presidio Trust allow a debtor to enter into a repayment agreement? 1011.6...will the Presidio Trust allow a debtor to enter into a repayment agreement? (a) Voluntary...Presidio Trust will consider a request to enter into a voluntary repayment...

2013-07-01

17

36 CFR 1011.6 - When will the Presidio Trust allow a debtor to enter into a repayment agreement?  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...will the Presidio Trust allow a debtor to enter into a repayment agreement? 1011.6...will the Presidio Trust allow a debtor to enter into a repayment agreement? (a) Voluntary...Presidio Trust will consider a request to enter into a voluntary repayment...

2010-07-01

18

36 CFR 1011.4 - What notice will the Presidio Trust send to a debtor when collecting a debt?  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-07-01 2012-07-01 true What notice will the Presidio Trust send to a debtor when...Trust Debts § 1011.4 What notice will the Presidio Trust send to a debtor when...Notice requirements. The Presidio Trust will aggressively collect debts. The...

2013-07-01

19

The Presidio Trust and our National Parks: Not a Model to be Trusted  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Presidio is unique. As a large area of natural habitat in a congested urban landscape, as a site which retains centuries of historic and prehistoric artifacts, as the longest continually operating military base in the United States, and as the southern promontory of the Golden Gate Bridge, one of the world's most recognized vistas, the Presidio is without equal.

Johanna H. Wald

2010-01-01

20

36 CFR 1011.10 - How will the Presidio Trust use administrative offset (offset of non-tax federal payments) to...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-07-01 2012-07-01 true How will the Presidio Trust use administrative...Presidio Trust Debts § 1011.10 How will the Presidio Trust use administrative...1011.9 of this part, the Presidio Trust will refer any eligible debt over 180...

2013-07-01

21

Water Treatment Process  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this activity students can follow a drop of water from the source through the treatment process. Stop at each treatment point and unscramble the words to show where the water is along the treatment path. Click on each treatment point on the image to view the unscrambled answer and a little information about that treatment point. The treatment points are: coagulation, sedimentation, filtration, disinfection, and storage.

22

Demystifying water treatment  

SciTech Connect

Increasingly accountable for the environmental quality and cost of managing their waste and process water streams, customers require more precise data about the constituents in their water. This has forced suppliers to unlock some of the secrets of water treatment. In the open exchange of information, users are trading in esoteric formulations for products that are more chemical efficient and environmentally benign. Factoring more prominently in the water treatment equation are service and supply. This paper reviews some of these simpler treatments.

Hairston, D.

1994-09-01

23

Drinking Water Treatment  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This lesson provides an introduction to the treatment of drinking water to remove harmful or distasteful substances. Topics include the history of treatment and a brief listing of treatment processes. Students can examine a selection of online resources for more detailed information on modern treatment methods and potential contaminants. The lesson includes an activity in which they construct a model treatment plant and treat water that they have 'contaminated' themselves in order to observe firsthand the steps involved in purifying water for human consumption.

Laposata, Matt

24

Water Treatment Technology - Hydraulics.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

One of twelve water treatment technology units, this student manual on hydraulics provides instructional materials for three competencies. (The twelve units are designed for a continuing education training course for public water supply operators.) The competencies focus on the following areas: head loss in pipes in series, function loss in…

Ross-Harrington, Melinda; Kincaid, G. David

25

Water Treatment Technician  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This video, created by ATETV and presented by WGBH, looks at a community college graduate working at a water treatment plant and how the skills he learned helped to prepare them for this career. The video also gives a basic tour of the plant and the processes involved to provide fresh drinking water. This video is helpful for students interested in water treatment technology, or anyone just looking to learn how community colleges can prepare graduates for a career in industry. Educators will also find a background essay, discussion questions, and standards alignment for the material. Running time for the video is 4:16.

2010-10-11

26

36 CFR 1011.5 - What interest, penalty charges and administrative costs will the Presidio Trust add to a debt?  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...administrative costs when it would be against equity and good conscience or not in the Presidio Trust's best interest to collect...these charges when accrual would be against equity and good conscience or not in the Presidio Trust's best interest. [70...

2013-07-01

27

DRINKING WATER TREATMENT  

EPA Science Inventory

The purpose of water treatment is threefold: 1. To improve the aethetic quality ofwater, 2. to remove toxic or health-hazardous chemicals, 3. to remove and/or inactivate any disease causing microorganisms. These objectives should be accomplished using a reasonable safety factor...

28

Cooling-water treatment  

SciTech Connect

This article examines how new chemicals, application technology, and control systems enhance treatment of water for cooling and powerplant reuse, while minimizing discharges to protect the environment. Effective operation of cooling-water treatment systems continues to hinge on the control of scaling, fouling, and corrosion. Though these maladies have not changed in nature over recent years, the operating problems encountered have intensified considerably. Depletion and degradation of water sources and environmental concerns have been the driving forces for change. In some states, regulations--such as California`s Title 22--now mandate the use of reclaimed water (treated sewage) and are harbingers of future trends. While these and other influences combine to reduce freshwater consumption and wastewater discharge, they force reliance on poorer-quality, more aggressive water in powerplant cooling systems. Responses to the challenge include a continuing move from once-through to recirculating systems featuring cooling towers, higher-cycle operation of existing cooling-tower systems, and improvements in treatment chemicals, technology, and controls.

Puckorius, P.R.; Strauss, S.D.

1995-05-01

29

Electrocoagulation in Water Treatment  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Electrocoagulation (EC) is an electrochemical method of treating polluted water where sacrificial anodes corrode to release active coagulant precursors (usually aluminum or iron cations) into solution. At the cathode, gas evolves (usually as hydrogen bubbles) accompanying electrolytic reactions. EC needs simple equipments and is designable for virtually any size. It is cost effective and easily operable. Specially, the recent technical improvements combined with a growing need for small-scale water treatment facilities have led to a revaluation of EC. In this chapter, the basic principle of EC was introduced first. Following that, reactions at the electrodes and electrode assignment were reviewed; electrode passivation process and activation method were presented; comparison between electrocoagulation and chemical coagulation was performed; typical design of the EC reactors was also described; and factors affecting electrocoagulation including current density, effect of conductivity, temperature, and pH were introduced in details. Finally, application of EC in water treatment was given in details.

Liu, Huijuan; Zhao, Xu; Qu, Jiuhui

30

Structure of the Presidio Bolson area, Texas, interpreted from gravity data  

SciTech Connect

To obtain a better understanding of the structure and tectonism of the region, an integrated geophysical-geological study of the Presidio area, Texas, was undertaken using gravity measurements and deep drilling data. New gravity data were combined with existing data to construct simple Bouguer anomaly maps of the Presidio area, and two-dimensional computer modeling of gravity profiles was used to derive earth models. These data outline the major geologic features of the area that are dominated by the effects of Tertiary block faulting and volcanism. The main feature of interest was the Presidio Graben, which is approximately 1.5 km deep near Ruidosa, Texas. One motivation for this study was the collection of a part of the basic scientific data needed to assess the geothermal potential of the area, and the results obtained support the hypothesis that hot springs associated with the Presidio Graben derive their heat from deep circulation along its boundary faults. However, some gravity anomalies observed could be interpreted as indicating the presence of late Tertiary intrusions that could provide heat for the hot springs.

Mraz, J.R.; Keller, G.R.

1980-01-01

31

Guidelines for sustainable building design: Recommendations from the Presidio of San Francisco energy efficiency design charrette.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

In 1994, the Bay Chapter of the Association of Energy Engineers(reg sign) organized a two-day design charrette for energy-efficient redevelopment of buildings by the National Park Services (NPS) at the Presidio of San Francisco. This event brought togethe...

K. Brown D. Sartor S. Greenberg

1996-01-01

32

Waste-Water Treatment Apparatus.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The design and operation of equipment for lowering the COD and BOD of domestic and industrial waste water are described. The invention is intended for the treatment of waste water in a very short time at low waste water in a very short time at low cost. I...

M. Takagi T. Fujita

1983-01-01

33

Pink Water Treatment Options.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Army Ammunition Plants (AAPs) perform two functions that generate a waste stream known as pink water. These functions are (1) load, assemble, and pack (LAP), and (2) demilitarization of munitions. Associated housekeeping and processing operations, for exa...

M. Qazi B. Freward M. Scher B. Nelson

1995-01-01

34

Technology for Water Treatment  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

There are approximately 500,000 water cooling towers in the United States, all of which must be kept clear of "scale" and corrosion and free of pollutants and bacteria. Electron Pure, Ltd. manufactures a hydro cooling tower conditioner as well as an automatic pool sanitizer. The pool sanitizer consists of two copper/silver electrodes placed in a chamber mounted in the pool's recirculation system. The tower conditioner combines the ionization system with a water conditioner, pump, centrifugal solids separator and timer. The system saves water, eliminates algae and operates maintenance and chemical free. The company has over 100 distributors in the U.S. as well as others in 20 foreign countries. The buildup of scale and corrosion is the most costly maintenance problem in cooling tower operation. Jet Propulsion Laboratory successfully developed a non-chemical system that not only curbed scale and corrosion, but also offered advantages in water conservation, cost savings and the elimination of toxic chemical discharge. In the system, ozone is produced by an on-site generator and introduced to the cooling tower water. Organic impurities are oxidized, and the dissolved ozone removes bacteria and scale. National Water Management, a NASA licensee, has installed its ozone advantage systems at some 200 cooling towers. Customers have saved money and eliminated chemical storage and discharge.

1992-01-01

35

Contaminated water treatment  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Method and system for processing of a liquid ("contaminant liquid") containing water and containing urine and/or other contaminants in a two step process. Urine, or a contaminated liquid similar to and/or containing urine and thus having a relatively high salt and urea content is passed through an activated carbon filter to provide a resulting liquid, to remove most of the organic molecules. The resulting liquid is passed through a semipermeable membrane from a membrane first side to a membrane second side, where a fortified drink having a lower water concentration (higher osmotic potential) than the resulting liquid is positioned. Osmotic pressure differential causes the water, but not most of the remaining inorganic (salts) contaminant(s) to pass through the membrane to the fortified drink. Optionally, the resulting liquid is allowed to precipitate additional organic molecules before passage through the membrane.

Gormly, Sherwin J. (Inventor); Flynn, Michael T. (Inventor)

2010-01-01

36

Electrocoagulation in Water Treatment  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a Electrocoagulation (EC) is an electrochemical method of treating polluted water where sacrificial anodes corrode to release\\u000a active coagulant precursors (usually aluminum or iron cations) into solution. At the cathode, gas evolves (usually as hydrogen\\u000a bubbles) accompanying electrolytic reactions. EC needs simple equipments and is designable for virtually any size. It is cost\\u000a effective and easily operable. Specially, the recent technical

Huijuan Liu; Xu Zhao; Jiuhui Qu

2010-01-01

37

Arsenic in water treatment.  

SciTech Connect

Sandia National Laboratories (SNL) is collaborating with the Awwa Research Foundation (AwwaRF) and WERC (A Consortium for Environmental Education and Technology Development) in a program for the development and testing of innovative technologies that have the potential to substantially reduce the costs associated with arsenic removal from drinking water. Sandia National Laboratories will administer contracts placed with AwwaRF and WERC to carry out bench scale studies and economic analyses/outreach activities, respectively. The elements of the AwwaRF program include (1) identification of new technologies, (2) proof-of-concept laboratory studies and, (3) a research program that will meet the other needs of small utilities by providing solutions to small utilities so that they may successfully meet the new arsenic MCL. WERC's activities will include development of an economic analysis tool for Pilot Scale Demonstrations and development of educational training and technical assistance tools. The objective of the Sandia Program is the field demonstration testing of innovative technologies. The primary deliverables of the Sandia program will be engineering analyses of candidate technologies; these will be contained in preliminary reports and final analysis reports. Projected scale-up costs will be generated using a cost model provided by WERC or another suitable model.

Siegel, Malcolm Dean

2004-12-01

38

Standards and Guides of Water Treatment and Water Distribution Systems.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The following five important documents are compiled for design of municipal water treatment facilities and water distribution systems: (1) Ten States Recommended Standards for Water Works; (2) A Public Water Supply Guide--Designing Community Water Systems...

L. K. Wang M. H. S. Wang

1987-01-01

39

Treatment of industrial effluent water  

SciTech Connect

This article reports on a thematic exhibition on ''New Developments in Treatment of Natural and Effluent Water'' in the Sanitary-Technical Construction Section at the Exhibition of Achievements of the National Economy of the USSR. The exhibition acquainted visitors with the achievements of leading organizations in different branches of industry with respect to treatment of natural and industrial effluent water. The Kharkov ''Vodkanalproekt'' Institute and the Kharkov affiliate of the All-Union Scientific-Research Institute of Water and Geodesy has jointly developed a ''Polymer-25'' filter for removal of oil products from nonexplosive effluent water discharged by machine building plants. A Baku affiliate has developed a new ShFP-1 screw-type press filter for dewatering the sediments from water treatment plants as well as for sediments from chemical, food, and other types of plants. The State Institute for Applied Chemistry has designed a continuous process plant for treating effluent water and removing toxic organic waste by converting them into mineral salts with high efficiency.

Levitskii, Yu.N.

1982-09-01

40

Water Hyacinth Wastewater Treatment System.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A prototype water hyacinth wastewater treatment system has been in operation for two years at Walt Disney World, near Orlando, Florida. Typically, the hyacinth system removes 80-90% total suspended solids and B.O.D. from the influent stream. Major impacts...

B. R. Schwegler

1983-01-01

41

Biological Treatment of Shipboard Sanitary Waste Water.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This report is concerned with the biological treatment of shipboard waste water and the pollution problems caused by this waste water. The study evaluates two of the most efficient biological sanitary waste water treatment systems adaptable for shipboard ...

W. H. Bailey

1974-01-01

42

Guidelines for makeup water treatment  

SciTech Connect

The EPRI Fossil Plant Cycle Chemistry Program, RP 2712, was developed in recognition of the importance of controlling cycle water and steam purity in attainment of maximized unit availability, reliability and efficiency. This guideline characterizes the state-of-the-art technology for production of cycle makeup water. It is intended to complement other RP 2712 projects in the areas of cycle chemistry guidelines, instrumentation and control, guideline demonstration and verification, and related subject areas. This guideline reviews available technology for and preferred approaches to production of fossil plant cycle makeup from various raw water supplies. Subject areas covered include makeup water source and source characteristics, unit processes comprising makeup treatment systems, guidelines for process selection, resin and membrane selection guidelines, techniques for monitoring performance and cost effectiveness, and waste disposal considerations. The report also identifies additional research activity needed to advance the state-of-the-art for makeup water treatment, results of a utility industry survey and other related topics. 72 refs., 60 figs., 74 tabs.

Cline, D.A. Jr.; Shields, K.J. (Powell (Sheppard T.) Associates, Baltimore, MD (USA))

1990-03-01

43

CHARACTERISATION OF RANGER MINE WATER TREATMENT SLUDGE  

Microsoft Academic Search

Process water from ERA's Ranger Uranium Mine (Northern Territory, Australia) requires treatment to meet stringent environmental water quality criteria prior to discharge into the environment. Prior to treatment, the process water is acidic and contains high concentrations of sulfates, aluminium, magnesium and manganese in addition to residual uranium. One concept that has been considered for a process water treatment plant

R. PLEYSIER; G. DOUGLAS; M. G. TREFRY; L. WENDLING; F. BENN; A. GRABSCH; C. KLAUBER

44

Expert Computer Program for Boiler Water Treatment.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

AFR 91-40, Industrial Water Treatment, 24 September 1984, initiated a new era in Air Force boiler water treatment. The study evaluates the current implementation status of this regulation through associated formal schools support, central laboratory use, ...

M. J. Kaminskas

1988-01-01

45

Effects of Limnological Factors on Water Treatment.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Comparisons between previously determined Coralville Reservoir conditions and water plant operations indicate that various limnological conditions are frequently accompanied by specific treatment problems at the University of Iowa Water Treatment Plant. I...

D. B. McDonald N. B. Fisher

1971-01-01

46

WATER TREATMENT COST CASE STUDY LIBRARY  

EPA Science Inventory

Resource Purpose: The case study library is a collection of "real-world" examples of detailed water treatment costs for a variety of treatment technologies and water system sizes. This library allows comparisons between EPA's modeled water treatment costs and actual treatme...

47

Apparatus and process for water treatment  

DOEpatents

An apparatus is disclosed utilizing permeable treatment media for treatment of contaminated water, along with a method for enhanced passive flow of contaminated water through the treatment media. The apparatus includes a treatment cell including a permeable structure that encloses the treatment media, the treatment cell may be located inside a water collection well, exterior to a water collection well, or placed in situ within the pathway of contaminated groundwater. The passive flow of contaminated water through the treatment media is maintained by a hydraulic connection between a collecting point of greater water pressure head, and a discharge point of lower water pressure head. The apparatus and process for passive flow and groundwater treatment utilizes a permeable treatment media made up of granular metal, bimetallics, granular cast iron, activated carbon, cation exchange resins, and/or additional treatment materials. An enclosing container may have an outer permeable wall for passive flow of water into the container and through the enclosed treatment media to an effluent point. Flow of contaminated water is attained without active pumping of water through the treatment media. Remediation of chlorinated hydrocarbons and other water contaminants to acceptable regulatory concentration levels is accomplished without the costs of pumping, pump maintenance, and constant oversight by personnel.

Phifer, Mark A. (North Augusta, SC); Nichols, Ralph L. (North Augusta, SC)

2001-01-01

48

[Treatment of thermal pool waters].  

PubMed

No laws currently exist regarding the treatment of spa pool water, since it is not completely logical that these should have the same requirements as normal swimming pools. The problem arises especially with regards to the use of chlorine as a disinfectant, which may actually annulate the therapeutic effects of spring waters by altering their physical-chemical characteristics. Possible choices may be represented by frequent replacement of pool water, which may be easily achievable for small pools but more difficult to implement for larger pools, or by alternative disinfection methods such as ozone or ultraviolet rays. The efficacy of these methods must be shown through frequent chemical and microbiological analyses and future, to be hoped-for laws or guidelines, will need to be aimed at defining safety performance standards rather than prescribing analytical intervention and control methods. Beyond the choice of disinfection method, it is extremely important to highlight some relevant hygienic measures that bathers should take and that play a fundamental role in preventing infectious diseases which may be acquired in pools. The most important of these include: showering before entering the pool, wearing slippers around the pool, not urinating in the pool, not bathing if affected by diarrhea, wearing a bathing cap, avoiding the use of contact lenses while bathing and avoiding exchanging towels. Pool managers have the important role of avoiding overcrowding of the facilities and ensuring that all technological systems function properly. PMID:17206228

Signorelli, Carlo; Pasquarella, Cesira; Saccani, Elisa; Sansebastiano, Giuliano

2006-01-01

49

DRINKING WATER TREATMENT PLANT ADVISOR - USER DOCUMENTATION  

EPA Science Inventory

The Drinking Water Treatment Plant (DWTP) Advisor is a software application which has been designed to provide assistance in the evaluation of drinking water treatment plants. Specifically, this program, which is based on the source document Interim Handbook Optimizing Water Trea...

50

ACTIVATED CARBON FROM LIGNITE FOR WATER TREATMENT  

Microsoft Academic Search

High concentrations of humate in surface water result in the formation of excess amounts of chlorinated byproducts during disinfection treatment. These precursors can be removed in water treatment prior to disinfection using powdered activated carbon. In the interest of developing a more cost-effective method for removal of humates in surface water, a comparison of the activities of carbons prepared from

Edwin S. Olson; Daniel J. Stepan

2000-01-01

51

Chemisty of water treatment. Second edition  

SciTech Connect

This books focuses on the chemical aspects of water quality and water treatment that influence the design of treatment processes. The information in the book covers the removal of organic and inorganic compounds, heavy metals, particulate matter, pathogenic bacteria, protozoans, and viruses from water. In addition, a new chapter is included on aeration technology.

Faust, S.D.; Aly, O.M.

1998-12-31

52

Technology for Water Treatment (National Water Management)  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The buildup of scale and corrosion is the most costly maintenance problem in cooling tower operation. Jet Propulsion Laboratory successfully developed a non-chemical system that not only curbed scale and corrosion, but also offered advantages in water conservation, cost savings and the elimination of toxic chemical discharge. In the system, ozone is produced by an on-site generator and introduced to the cooling tower water. Organic impurities are oxidized, and the dissolved ozone removes bacteria and scale. National Water Management, a NASA licensee, has installed its ozone advantage systems at some 200 cooling towers. Customers have saved money and eliminated chemical storage and discharge.

1992-01-01

53

TREATMENT OF SEASONAL PESTICIDES IN SURFACE WATERS  

EPA Science Inventory

Numerous pesticides were monitored in surface waters in agricultural areas. Atrazine, alachlor, metolachlor, cyanazine, metribuzin, carbofuran, linuron, and simazine were found in the influent to three water treatment plants in storm runoff following their application. Studies at...

54

ACID MINE WATER TREATMENT USING ENGINEERED WETLANDS  

Microsoft Academic Search

During the last two decades, the United States mining industry has greatly increased the amount it spends on pollution control. The application of biotechnology to mine water can reduce the industry's water treatment c osts (estimated at over a million dollars a day) and improve water quality in streams and rivers adversely affected by acidic mine water draining from abandoned

Robert L. P. Kleinmann

2006-01-01

55

Ozone Treatment in Cooling Water Systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

Ozone treatment for preventing the biofouling in cooling water systems is investigated.In the fresh water system, the separating effect of the ozonated water on the microorganisms such as the sphaerotilus and the zoogloea which adhere to the piping and form the slime is recognized. When the ozonated water is supplied intermittently to the piping without stopping the flow of the

N. Kaiga; T. Seki; K. Iyasu

1989-01-01

56

[Growth and reproduction of the shrimp Atya margaritacea (Decapoda: Atyidae) in Rio Presidio, Sinaloa, Mexico].  

PubMed

Some growth and reproduction parameters of the population of the shrimp Atya margaritacea in Presidio River (Sinaloa, NW Mexico) were studied using 542 organisms collected with a Surber net in five sampling locations distributed from mid- to low river. Total lengths and gross weights ranged from 15 to 96 mm and 0.1 to 25.2 g. The male:female ratio was 1.96:1 and males had larger sizes and weights. The relations of total length (Lt) to gross weight (Pt) were Pt = 1.02 x 10(-5) (Lt)32089 for males and Pt = 2.29 x 10(-5) (Lt)3.0159 for females. Growth in males was positively allometric whereas in females it was isometric. The regressions between total lengths and cephalothorax (Lc) were Log Lc = 1.1118 (Log Lt)- 0.6087 for males and Log Lc = 0.9945 (Log Lt)- 0.4321 for females. The relative growth between these body parts was allometrically positive in males and isometric in females; this result indicates a clear sexual dimorphism. Ovigerous females appeared in the rainy season (July to November). The absolute fecundity ranged from 1860 to 22400 eggs in females of 43 to 59 mm in length and 1.9 to 6.0 g in weight. The equations relating the number of eggs to length and weight were Fec = 8.3 x 10(-7) (Lt)5.8053 and Fec = 732 (Pt)1.836 respectively. PMID:19256424

Sánchez Palacios, Jesús; Alvarez, Rigoberto Beltrán; Ramírez Lozano, Juan Pedro

2008-06-01

57

Handbook of Industrial Water Treatment  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This site contains a forty-chapter text including chapters on environmental consideration, aeration, filtration, membrane systems, ion exchange, boiler water systems, cooling water systems, wastewater and gas cleaning systems, and analytical methods and equipment.

2011-04-15

58

Wafer Treatment Using Electrolysis-Ionized Water  

Microsoft Academic Search

Electrolysis-ionized water treatment is shown to be useful for removing polystyrene particles from contact holes, silicon surface cleaning and the removal of metal contamination such as copper. Electrolysis-ionized waterhas a controllable pH and a higher oxidation-reduction potential than chemicals. Moreover, this water does notcontain acid or alkaline chemicals, and can easily be neutralized without adding chemicals. Electrolysis-ionized water treatment has

Hidemitsu Aoki; Masaharu Nakamori; Nahomi Aoto; Eiji Ikawa

1994-01-01

59

Wafer Treatment Using Electrolysis-Ionized Water  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Electrolysis-ionized water treatment is shown to be useful for removing polystyrene particles from contact holes, silicon surface cleaning and the removal of metal contamination such as copper. Electrolysis-ionized waterhas a controllable pH and a higher oxidation-reduction potential than chemicals. Moreover, this water does notcontain acid or alkaline chemicals, and can easily be neutralized without adding chemicals. Electrolysis-ionized water treatment has great potential for ecologically safe and low cost semiconductor processing.

Aoki, Hidemitsu; Nakamori, Masaharu; Aoto, Nahomi; Ikawa, Eiji

1994-10-01

60

FOREST TREATMENT EFFECTS ON WATER YIELD  

Microsoft Academic Search

Results are reported for thirty-nine studies of the effect of altering forest cover on water yield. Taken collectively, these studies reveal that forest reduction increases water yield, and that reforestation de- creases water yield. Results of individual treatments vary widely and for the most part are unpredictable. First-year response to complete forest reduction varies from 34 mm to more than

ALDEN R. HIBBERT

61

Household Water Treatments in Developing Countries  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Household water treatments (HWT) can help provide clean water to millions of people worldwide who do not have access to safe water. This article describes four common HWT used in developing countries and the pertinent chemistry involved. The intent of this article is to inform both high school and college chemical educators and chemistry students…

Smieja, Joanne A.

2011-01-01

62

Water treatment program raises boiler operating efficiency  

SciTech Connect

This report details the boiler water treatment program which played a vital role in changing an aging steam plant into a profitable plant in just three years. Boiler efficiency increased from approximately 70 percent initially to 86 percent today. The first step in this water treatment program involves use of a sodium zeolite water softener that works to remove scale-forming ions from municipal water used in the system. A resin cleaner is also added to prolong the life of resins in the softener. The water is then passed through a new blow-down heat exchanger, which allows preheating from the continuous blow-down from the boiler system. The water gets pumped into a deaerator tank where sulfite treatment is added. The water then passes from feedpumps into the boiler system.

Not Available

1984-03-01

63

Acid mine water treatment using engineered wetlands  

Microsoft Academic Search

During the last two decades, the United States mining industry has greatly increased the amount it spends on pollution control.\\u000a The application of biotechnology to mine water can reduce the industry's water treatment costs (estimated at over a million\\u000a dollars a day) and improve water quality in streams and rivers adversely affected by acidic mine water draining from abandoned\\u000a mines.

Robert L. P. Kleinmann

1990-01-01

64

WATER TREATMENT PROBLEMS AND CONSEQUENCES  

EPA Science Inventory

In recent years the emphasis on removing microbes from drinking water has increased. This increased concern was brought about partly by documented waterborne disease outbreaks in the US. Cryptosporidium concerns were elevated after the cryptosporodiosis outbreak in Milwaukee. Oth...

65

Cooling Water Treatment with Ozone  

Microsoft Academic Search

Small scale tests oruan open recirculating cooling system with a cooling water flow of 10 m\\/h conducted for a period of two years have shown that ozone could be a viable alternative to chlorine and other commonly used biocides. An average ozone dosage of 0.05 mg\\/L was applied continuously to the cooling water. Corrosion rates of copper alloy samples immersed

R. Wellauer; M. Oldani

1990-01-01

66

SUMMARY REPORT: SMALL COMMUNITY WATER AND WASTE- WATER TREATMENT  

EPA Science Inventory

This summary report presents information on the unique needs of small communities facing new water and wastewater treatment requirements. t contains three main sections: technology overviews (each presents a process description, O&M requirements, technology limitations, and finan...

67

Verifying Ballast Water Treatment Performance  

EPA Science Inventory

The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, NSF International, Battelle, and U.S. Coast Guard are jointly developing a protocol for verifying the technical performance of commercially available technologies designed to treat ship ballast water for potentially invasive species. The...

68

Water Treatment Plant Filter Backwash Optimization Study.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Filtration has been identified as the most important barrier for the removal of particles and microorganisms in drinking water treatment. The objective was to address the public demand for higher quality at lower costs and improved safeguards by optimizin...

1999-01-01

69

Integrated Water Treatment System Performance Evaluation.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This document describes the results of an evaluation of the current Integrated Water Treatment System (IWTS) operation against design performance and a determination of short term and long term actions recommended to sustain IWTS performance.

R. A. Sexton W. E. Meeuwsen

2009-01-01

70

INTEGRATED WATER TREATMENT SYSTEM PERFORMANCE EVALUATION  

SciTech Connect

This document describes the results of an evaluation of the current Integrated Water Treatment System (IWTS) operation against design performance and a determination of short term and long term actions recommended to sustain IWTS performance.

SEXTON RA; MEEUWSEN WE

2009-03-12

71

ALTERNATIVE DISINFECTION FOR DRINKING WATER TREATMENT  

EPA Science Inventory

During a one-yr study at Jefferson Parish, La., the chemical, microbiological, and mutagenic effects os using the major drinkgin water disinfectants (chlorine, chlorine dioxide, chloramine, ozone) were evaluated. Tests were performed on samples collected from various treatment s...

72

Water/Wastewater Treatment Plant Operator Qualifications.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article summarizes in tabular form the U.S. and Canadian programs for classification of water and wastewater treatment plant personnel. Included are main characteristics of the programs, educational and experience requirements, and indications of requirement substitutions. (CS)

Water and Sewage Works, 1979

1979-01-01

73

ESTIMATION OF SMALL SYSTEM WATER TREATMENT COSTS  

EPA Science Inventory

This report presents cost data for unit processes that are capable of removing contaminants included in the National Interim Primary Drinking Water Regulations. Construction and operation and maintenance cost data are presented for 45 centralized treatment unit processes that are...

74

Advances in water treatment by adsorption technology  

Microsoft Academic Search

Among various water purification and recycling technologies, adsorption is a fast, inexpensive and universal method. The development of low-cost adsorbents has led to the rapid growth of research interests in this field. The present protocol describes salient features of adsorption and details experimental methodologies for the development and characterization of low-cost adsorbents, water treatment and recycling using adsorption technology including

V K Gupta; Imran Ali

2007-01-01

75

Iowa's first electrodialysis reversal water treatment plant  

Microsoft Academic Search

In 1979 the City of Washington was notified by the Iowa Department of Natural Resources (IDNR) that the City was in violation of the radium standard for drinking water. The City of Washington authorized an engineering study to determine the most cost-effective and practical way to remove radium and, at the same time, improve overall water quality. Several possible treatment

John Hays

2000-01-01

76

TREATMENT EFFECTIVENESS: OIL TANKER BALLAST WATER FACILITY  

EPA Science Inventory

A study dealing with the effectiveness of large-scale treatment of ballast water was conducted at the terminal facility of the TransAlaska Pipeline in Valdez, Alaska. The plant was found to be generally effective in reducing the petroleum content of the ballast water. On the aver...

77

Drinking Water Treatment: Activated Carbon Filtration  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This site, presented by the University of Nebraska - Lincoln Extension, discusses the principles, processes and requirements of activated carbon filtration systems for the domestic (household) user. The site addresses contaminants removed, those not removed, water testing, principals of treatment and the equipment used in this treatment.

Divorak, Bruce I.; Skipton, Sharon

2008-10-21

78

Treatment: improvement or deterioration of water quality?  

PubMed

The formation of trihalomethanes through chlorination has shown very clearly that water treatment processes may adversely affect water quality. There are many more examples of such effects, including the following which are discussed in detail: 1. Formation of organohalogen compounds in addition to trihalomethanes by chlorination and other oxidation processes. 2. Formation of more polar, more biodegradable organics by ozonation for example, and the consequent increase in bacterial growth in the distribution system. 3. Formation and removal of organic and inorganic corrosion inhibitors by treatment, and the consequent higher heavy metal concentrations in tap water. PMID:7233162

Kühn, W; Sontheimer, H

1981-04-01

79

Saving Energy, Water, and Money with Efficient Water Treatment Technologies  

SciTech Connect

Reverse Osmosis (RO) is a method of purifying water for industrial processes and human consumption; RO can remove mineral salts as well as contaminants such as bacteria and pesticides. Advances in water treatment technologies have enhanced and complemented the conventional RO process, reducing energy and water consumption, lowering capital and operating costs, and producing purer water. This publication of the Department of Energy's Federal Energy Management Program introduces RO, describes the benefits of high-efficiency reverse osmosis (HERO), and compares HERO with RO/electrodeionization (EDI) technology.

Not Available

2004-06-01

80

Nanotechnology-based water treatment strategies.  

PubMed

The most important component for living beings on the earth is access to clean and safe drinking water. Globally, water scarcity is pervasive even in water-rich areas as immense pressure has been created by the burgeoning human population, industrialization, civilization, environmental changes and agricultural activities. The problem of access to safe water is inevitable and requires tremendous research to devise new, cheaper technologies for purification of water, while taking into account energy requirements and environmental impact. This review highlights nanotechnology-based water treatment technologies being developed and used to improve desalination of sea and brackish water, safe reuse of wastewater, disinfection and decontamination of water, i.e., biosorption and nanoadsorption for contaminant removal, nanophotocatalysis for chemical degradation of contaminants, nanosensors for contaminant detection, different membrane technologies including reverse osmosis, nanofiltration, ultrafiltration, electro-dialysis etc. This review also deals with the fate and transport of engineered nanomaterials in water and wastewater treatment systems along with the risks associated with nanomaterials. PMID:24749460

Kumar, Sandeep; Ahlawat, Wandit; Bhanjana, Gaurav; Heydarifard, Solmaz; Nazhad, Mousa M; Dilbaghi, Neeraj

2014-02-01

81

Water and wastewater treatment system  

SciTech Connect

An apparatus is described for dissolving a plurality of gases into a recycled liquid stream by pressurization, releasing the pressurized recycled liquid stream, generating micro gas bubbles in a depressurized liquid stream, concentrating microorganisms as a floating scum on the surface of the depressurized liquid stream, recycling a portion of the concentrated microorganisms in the floating scum to an influent liquid stream for treating the influent liquid stream, and discharging a clarified effluent liquid stream comprising: (a) an influent pipe apparatus and a liquid flow measuring apparatus connected to the influent pipe apparatus for measuring the flow of an influent liquid stream; (b) a pretreatment chamber apparatus directly or indirectly connected to the influent pipe apparatus comprising feeder apparatus for feeding chemicals and/or microorganisms into the influent liquid stream; (c) a bioreactor; (d) apparatus for delivering at least one gas comprises a bubbles distribution apparatus positioned near bottom of the bioreactor apparatus for generating coarse gas bubbles with diameter greater than 80 microns; (e) apparatus positioned inside the bioreactor for holding microorganisms; (f) apparatus connected to the bioreactor for discharging the bioreactor effluent liquid stream; (g) apparatus connected to the bioreactor for receiving the recycled floating scum or settled sludges or both containing microorganisms; (h) an inlet pipe connected to a nozzle assembly; a gas injector connected to the inlet pipe, and a pump connected to the inlet pipe; (i) an enclosed cylindrical pressure vessel having a tangentially disposed liquid stream vessel inlet connected to the inlet pipe and pump; (k) the open vessel connected directly or indirectly to the bioreactor; (l) sludge removal apparatus; (m) post-treatment apparatus; and (n) a third discharge apparatus.

Wang, L.K.; Kurylko, L.; Wang, M.H.S.

1993-08-31

82

Microwave treatment of naphthenic acids in water.  

PubMed

Naphthenic acids (NAs) are natural constituents of bitumen and crude oil. These compounds are concentrated as part of the oil sands process water (OSPW) during petroleum refining and separation from oil sands. NAs are considered among the major water contaminants in OSPW due to their toxicity and environmental recalcitrance. A laboratory scale microwave system was developed and experiments were conducted to determine the efficiency of NA degradation during microwave treatment. The effects of water source and quality (deionized lab water and river water) and of TiO(2) catalyst in the degradation process were also investigated. Degradation kinetic parameters for both total NAs and individual z-family were calculated. The microwave system degraded OSPW NAs and commercial Fluka NAs in river water in the presence of TiO(2) rapidly, producing half-life values of 3.32 and 3.61 hours, respectively. Toxicity assessments of the NA samples pre-and post-treatment indicated that the microwave system reduced overall toxicity of water containing Fluka NAs from high (5 min. IC(50) v/v = 15.85%) to moderate (5 min. IC(50) v/v = 36.45%) toxicity levels. However, a slight increase in toxicity was noted post-treatment in OSPW NAs. PMID:20623403

Mishra, Sabyasachi; Meda, Venkatesh; Dalai, Ajay K; Headley, John V; Peru, Kerry M; McMartin, Dena W

2010-08-01

83

36 CFR 1002.63 - Boating and water use activities.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

36 Ç Parks, Forests, and Public Property Ç 3 Ç 2013-07-01 Ç 2012-07-01 Ç true Ç Boating and water use activities. Ç 1002.63 Ç Section 1002.63 Ç Parks, Forests, and Public Property Ç PRESIDIO TRUST Ç RESOURCE PROTECTION, PUBLIC USE AND RECREATION Ç Â§ 1002.63 Ç Boating and water use activities....

2013-07-01

84

Waste-Water Treatment Plant Control.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The Carrousel is a waste-water treatment plant based on the functioning of the activated sludge process. in this biochemical process, ammonium and nitrate and/or nitrite are broken down by living biomass. The main contribution to plant operation costs is ...

K. van Schagen R. Banning A. M. J. Veersma

1996-01-01

85

ANAEROBIC BIOLOGICAL TREATMENT OF PRODUCED WATER  

SciTech Connect

During the production of oil and gas, large amounts of water are brought to the surface and must be disposed of in an environmentally sensitive manner. This is an especially difficult problem in offshore production facilities where space is a major constraint. The chief regulatory criterion for produced water is oil and grease. Most facilities have little trouble meeting this criterion using conventional oil-water separation technologies. However, some operations have significant amounts of naphthenic acids in the water that behave as oil and grease but are not well removed by conventional technologies. Aerobic biological treatment of naphthenic acids in simulated-produced water has been demonstrated by others; however, the system was easily overloaded by the large amounts of low-molecular-weight organic acids often found in produced waters. The objective of this research was to determine the ability of an anaerobic biological system to treat these organic acids in a simulated produced water and to examine the potential for biodegradation of the naphthenic acids in the anaerobic environment. A small fixed-film anaerobic biological reactor was constructed and adapted to treat a simulated produced water. The bioreactor was tubular, with a low-density porous glass packing material. The inocula to the reactor was sediment from a produced-water holding pond from a municipal anaerobic digester and two salt-loving methanogenic bacteria. During start-up, the feed to the reactor contained glucose as well as typical produced-water components. When glucose was used, rapid gas production was observed. However, when glucose was eliminated and the major organic component was acetate, little gas was generated. Methane production from acetate may have been inhibited by the high salt concentrations, by sulfide, or because of the lack, despite seeding, of microbes capable of converting acetate to methane. Toluene, a minor component of the produced water (0.1 g/L) was removed in the reactor. Batch tests were conducted to examine naphthenic acid biodegradability under several conditions. The conditions used were seed from the anaerobic reactor, wetland sediments under aerobic and anaerobic conditions, and a sterile control. The naphthenic acid was from a commercial source isolated from Gulf Coast petroleum as was dosed at 2 mg/mL. The incubations were for 30 days at 30 C. The results showed that the naphthenic acids were not biodegraded under anaerobic conditions, but were degraded under aerobic conditions. Despite poor performance of the anaerobic reactor, it remains likely that anaerobic treatment of acetate, toluene, and, potentially, other produced-water components is feasible.

John R. Gallagher

2001-07-31

86

Performance of small water treatment plants: The case study of Mutshedzi Water Treatment Plant  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The performance of small water treatment plants (SWTPs) was evaluated using Mutshedzi WTP as a case study. The majority of SWTPs in South Africa (SA) that supply water to rural villages face problems of cost recovery, water wastages, limited size and semi-skilled labour. The raw and final water quality analyses and their compliance were used to assess the performance of the Mutshedzi WTP. Electrical conductivity (EC), p? and turbidity were measured in the field using a portable multimeter and a turbidity meter respectively. Atomic Absorption Spectrometry and Ion Chromatography were used to analyse metals and non-metals respectively. The results were compared with the Department of Water Affairs (DWA) guidelines for domestic use. The turbidity levels partially exceeded the recommended guidelines for domestic water use of 1 NTU. The concentrations of chemical parameters in final water were within the DWA guidelines for domestic water use except for fluoride, which exceeded the maximum allowable guideline of 1.5 mg/L in August 2009. Mutshedzi WTP had computed compliance for raw and final water analyses ranging from 79% to 93% and 86% to 93% throughout the sampling period, respectively. The results from earlier studies showed that the microbiological quality of final water in Mutshedzi WTP complied with the recommended guidelines, eliminating the slight chance of adverse aesthetic effects and infectious disease transmission associated with the turbidity values between 1 and 5 NTU. The study concluded that Mutshedzi WTP, though moving towards compliance, is still not producing adequate quality of water. Other studies also indicated that the quantity of water produced from Mutshedzi WTP was inadequate. The findings of the study indicate that lack of monitoring of quantity of water supplied to each village, dosage of treatment chemicals, the treatment capacity of the WTP and monitoring the quality of water treated are some of the factors that limit the performance of Mutshedzi WTP. These have been confirmed in literature to be widespread in similar WTPs in SA. It is recommended that water meters be provided and the community be advised to subsidise the cost of water supply. The study recommended that the treatments of turbidity and fluoride should form critical functions of the plant to ensure that final water for domestic use is always safe from any harmful substances or disease causing pathogens. The study concluded that the WTP only needs minor improvement to boost its efficiency with regard to the treatment of raw water. This will also ensure that the plant achieves 100% compliance for final water.

Makungo, R.; Odiyo, J. O.; Tshidzumba, N.

87

Water Treatment Systems for Long Spaceflights  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Space exploration will require new life support systems to support the crew on journeys lasting from a few days to several weeks, or longer. These systems should also be designed to reduce the mass required to keep humans alive in space. Water accounts for about 80 percent of the daily mass intake required to keep a person alive. As a result, recycling water offers a high return on investment for space life support. Water recycling can also increase mission safety by providing an emergency supply of drinking water, where another supply is exhausted or contaminated. These technologies also increase safety by providing a lightweight backup to stored supplies, and they allow astronauts to meet daily drinking water requirements by recycling the water contained in their own urine. They also convert urine into concentrated brine that is biologically stable and nonthreatening, and can be safely stored onboard. This approach eliminates the need to have a dedicated vent to dump urine overboard. These needs are met by a system that provides a contaminant treatment pouch, referred to as a urine cell or contaminant cell, that converts urine or another liquid containing contaminants into a fortified drink, engineered to meet human hydration, electrolyte, and caloric requirements, using a variant of forward osmosis (FO) to draw water from a urine container into the concentrated fortified drink as part of a recycling stage. An activated carbon pretreatment removes most organic molecules. Salinity of the initial liquid mix (urine plus other) is synergistically used to enhance the precipitation of organic molecules so that activated carbon can remove most of the organics. A functional osmotic bag is then used to remove inorganic contaminants. If a contaminant is processed for which the saline content is different than optimal for precipitating organic molecules, the saline content of the liquid should be adjusted toward the optimal value for that contaminant. A first urine treatment method converts urine into a fortified sports drink, resembling Gatorade, using a first urine cell.

FLynn, Michael T.

2012-01-01

88

Asbestos survey for Fort Point U. S. Coast Guard Station. Volume 1. The Presidio of San Francisco. Phase 2 environmental study. Final report  

SciTech Connect

R.L. Stollar and Associates conducted an asbestos survey in all the buildings associated with the former U.S. Coast Guard Station at Fort Point on the Presidio of San Francisco. The intent of the survey was to identify the location and condition of all asbestos containing material and recommend asbestos abatement measures for any asbestos containing material which is in deteriorated condition. The report recommended remedial action in the duct work in Building 992 of the station.

Not Available

1991-09-01

89

Design and Compilation of a Geodatabase of Existing Salinity Information for the Rio Grande Basin, from the Rio Arriba-Sandoval County Line, New Mexico, to Presidio, Texas, 2010  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers, compiled salinity-related water-quality data and information in a geodatabase containing more than 6,000 sampling sites. The geodatabase was designed as a tool for water-resource management and includes readily available digital data sources from the U.S. Geological Survey, U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, New Mexico Interstate Stream Commission, Sustainability of semi-Arid Hydrology and Riparian Areas, Paso del Norte Watershed Council, numerous other State and local databases, and selected databases maintained by the University of Arizona and New Mexico State University. Salinity information was compiled for an approximately 26,000-square-mile area of the Rio Grande Basin from the Rio Arriba-Sandoval County line, New Mexico, to Presidio, Texas. The geodatabase relates the spatial location of sampling sites with salinity-related water-quality data reported by multiple agencies. The sampling sites are stored in a geodatabase feature class; each site is linked by a relationship class to the corresponding sample and results stored in data tables.

Shah, Sachin D.; Maltby, David R. II

2010-01-01

90

Energy requirements for waste water treatment.  

PubMed

The actual mathematical models describing global climate closely link the detected increase in global temperature to anthropogenic activity. The only energy source we can rely on in a long perspective is solar irradiation which is in the order of 10,000 kW/inhabitant. The actual primary power consumption (mainly based on fossil resources) in the developed countries is in the range of 5 to 10 kW/inhabitant. The total power contained in our nutrition is in the range of 0.11 kW/inhabitant. The organic pollution of domestic waste water corresponds to approximately 0.018 kW/inhabitant. The nutrients contained in the waste water can also be converted into energy equivalents replacing market fertiliser production. This energy equivalent is in the range of 0.009 kW/inhabitant. Hence waste water will never be a relevant source of energy as long as our primary energy consumption is in the range of several kW/inhabitant. The annual mean primary power demand of conventional municipal waste water treatment with nutrient removal is in the range of 0.003-0.015 kW/inhabitant. In principle it is already possible to reduce this value for external energy supply to zero. Such plants should be connected to an electrical grid in order to keep investment costs low. Peak energy demand will be supported from the grid and surplus electric energy from the plant can be is fed to the grid. Zero 'carbon footprint' will not be affected by this solution. Energy minimisation must never negatively affect treatment efficiency because water quality conservation is more important for sustainable development than the possible reduction in energy demand. This argument is strongly supported by economical considerations as the fixed costs for waste water infrastructure are dominant. PMID:22214091

Svardal, K; Kroiss, H

2011-01-01

91

Microbiological quality of drinking water at eight water treatment plants.  

PubMed

Eight drinking water treatment plants were sampled monthly during one year to evaluate the removal of bacterial indicators, new indicators and some pathogenic bacteria. Six plants are allocated along the Nile River at Cairo segment and the two others on Ismailia Canal. In this study many parameters were determined; the classical bacterial indicators (total bacterial counts at 22 and 37 degrees C, total coliforms, faecal coliforms and faecal streptococci) show the same trend in all plant intakes except faecal streptococci parameter. The numbers of faecal streptococci in plant intakes on the main stream of Nile River ranged from 8 to 250 MPN/100 ml, but the others ranged from 80 to 2700 MPN/100 ml. With regard to new indicators; total yeasts, Candida albicans, Aeromonas hydrophlia and total staphylococci ranged from 10(1) to 10(5), 10(2) to 10(5), 10(2) to 10(5) and 10(2) to 10(3) cfu/100 ml, respectively. In case of pathogens, salmonellae ranged between 10(2) and 10(3) cfu/100 ml, total vibrios varied between 10(2) and 10(4) and the Listeria group ranged from 10(2) to 10(5) cfu/100 ml from the intake samples. All tested samples from the outlet of water treatment plants, which produce drinking water, were free of classical bacterial indicators. So the produced water has a good quality from the bacteriological point, according to national and international regulations. On the other hand, the drinking water from some tested plants had one or more positive parameters of new indicators and pathogenic bacteria. PMID:11798415

El-Taweel, G E; Shaban, A M

2001-11-01

92

Barium and Radium in Water Treatment Plant Wastes.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Water treatment plants at nine locations (10 plants) in Illinois and Iowa were studied to determine the characteristics and disposal practices for the sludge, brine, and backwash water containing radium (Ra) and/or barium (Ba). The treatment processes in ...

A. G. Myers C. K. Jongeward S. K. Richter V. L. Snoeyink

1985-01-01

93

Magnetic treatment of industrial water. Silica activation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The paper presents two large-scale observations of magnetic treatment of industrial water, aimed at investigating changes in the formation of deposits. First, a four-month experiment is described with two identical 25 kW heat exchangers, where in one case the inlet water was treated by a magneto-hydrodynamic method. Deposits recovered from both exchangers were analyzed chemically, by X-ray diffraction, infrared spectroscopy and PIXE. The amount of deposit for untreated water, composed mostly of calcite, increased exponentially with temperature reaching 20 g/m of tube at the warm end of the heat exchanger. The mass of the deposit for magnetically treated water did not depend on temperature and was only ca. 0.5 g/m of tube. It was composed of mainly noncrystalline silica-rich material. Further results were obtained from the practical installation at three blocks of a 1 GW power plant. The soft, amorphous deposit for magnetically treated water had a specific surface area of 80 m^2/g and an infrared spectrum similar to that of a silicate hydrogel. Therefore, it appeared that, as a result of the passage through the magnetic device, crystallization of carbonates in water was blocked due to initiation of another, competitive process. This process is the activation of the colloidal silica, which will adsorb calcium, magnesium or other metal ions and then precipitate from the solution as the coagulated agglomerate. The most probable mechanism responsible for silica activation is a Lorentz-force induced deformation of the diffuse layer leading to the increased counterion concentration in the adsorption layer of the negatively charged silica.

Szkatula, A.; Balanda, M.; Kope?, M.

2002-04-01

94

Optimized alumina coagulants for water treatment  

DOEpatents

Substitution of a single Ga-atom or single Ge-atom (GaAl.sub.12 and GeAl.sub.12 respectively) into the center of an aluminum Keggin polycation (Al.sub.13) produces an optimal water-treatment product for neutralization and coagulation of anionic contaminants in water. GaAl.sub.12 consistently shows .about.1 order of magnitude increase in pathogen reduction, compared to Al.sub.13. At a concentration of 2 ppm, GaAl.sub.12 performs equivalently to 40 ppm alum, removing .about.90% of the dissolved organic material. The substituted GaAl.sub.12 product also offers extended shelf-life and consistent performance. We also synthesized a related polyaluminum chloride compound made of pre-hydrolyzed dissolved alumina clusters of [GaO.sub.4Al.sub.12(OH).sub.24(H.sub.2O).sub.12].sup.7+.

Nyman, May D. (Albuquerque, NM); Stewart, Thomas A. (Albuquerque, NM)

2012-02-21

95

VIEW OF BUILDING 124, THE WATER TREATMENT PLANT, LOOKING NORTHEAST. ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

VIEW OF BUILDING 124, THE WATER TREATMENT PLANT, LOOKING NORTHEAST. THE ROCKY FLATS PLANT WATER SUPPLY, TREATMENT, STORAGE, AND DISTRIBUTION SYSTEM HAS OPERATED CONTINUOUSLY SINCE 1953 - Rocky Flats Plant, Water Treatment Plant, West of Third Street, north of Cedar Avenue, Golden, Jefferson County, CO

96

40 CFR 141.83 - Source water treatment requirements.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Source water treatment requirements. 141.83 Section...ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) WATER PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) NATIONAL PRIMARY DRINKING WATER REGULATIONS Control of Lead and Copper...

2013-07-01

97

40 CFR 141.83 - Source water treatment requirements.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Source water treatment requirements. 141.83 Section...ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) WATER PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) NATIONAL PRIMARY DRINKING WATER REGULATIONS Control of Lead and Copper...

2012-07-01

98

40 CFR 141.83 - Source water treatment requirements.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Source water treatment requirements. 141.83 Section...ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) WATER PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) NATIONAL PRIMARY DRINKING WATER REGULATIONS Control of Lead and Copper...

2011-07-01

99

Preliminary Study on the Supply of Industrial Water by Advanced Treatment of Waste Water Discharged from a Sewage Treatment Plant.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The reuse of waste water in closed circuit as industrial water after centralized treatment, but without passage through the soil, was studied for application in a newly developed industrial area which includes a sewage treatment plant. The quality of the ...

D. Wallisch

1981-01-01

100

Drinking Water Treatment Plant Residuals Management Technical Report: Summary of Residuals Generation, Treatment, and Disposal at Large Community Water Systems.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The purpose of this report is to summarize information EPA collected to assess drinking water treatment plant (WTP) discharges of treatment residuals to surface water. EPA identified WTPs for analysis in its 2004 Effluent Guidelines Program Plan based on ...

2011-01-01

101

Laser removal of water repellent treatments on limestone  

Microsoft Academic Search

Protective and water repellent treatments are applied on stone materials used on buildings or sculptures of artistic value to reduce water intrusion without limiting the natural permeability to water vapour of the material. The effect of the wavelength associated with the laser removal of two water repellent treatments applied on limestone, Paraloid B-72, a copolymer of methyl acrylate and ethyl

Miguel Gómez-Heras; Mónica Alvarez de Buergo; Esther Rebollar; Mohamed Oujja; Marta Castillejo; Rafael Fort

2003-01-01

102

Flotation techniques for oily water treatment.  

PubMed

The aim of this work is to develop alternative techniques for the treatment of waters heavily contaminated by oil. Furthermore, the treatment system should achieve high removal efficiencies even under unfavorable conditions, when oil is finely dispersed in the water phase and oil droplet sizes range from 5-30 mm and concentrations are between 100 and 300 mg l(-1). The first experiments were carried out in an induced air flotation system where a flotation column performance was evaluated in batch and continuous operation. The second system investigated in this work focused on the association of centrifugal separation in a hydrocyclone and the flotation operation. The considered system is characterized by the association of these two processes, resulting the set-up in a compact unit (centrifugal flotation system). The bubbles generation and the droplet-bubble contact are performed through a gas-liquid ejector, while the separation of the phase rich in oil (froth phase) is promoted by a hydrocyclone. In both systems, it was possible to reduce the chemical demand of oxygen by more than 85% and the oil concentration of an emulsion containing droplets with sizes between 10 and 20 mm, using Polyacrilamide as destabilizing agent. PMID:12916838

Melo, M V; Sant'anna, G L; Massarani, G

2003-07-01

103

Standards and guides of water treatment and water-distribution systems. Manual for 1974-86  

Microsoft Academic Search

The following five important documents are compiled for design of municipal water treatment facilities and water distribution systems: (1) Ten States Recommended Standards for Water Works; (2) A Public Water Supply Guide--Designing Community Water Systems; (3) Water Supply Guide Lines for Public Water Systems; (4) American National Standard for the Thickness Design of Ductile-Iron Pipe; and (5) Designing for Cast

L. K. Wang; M. H. S. Wang

1987-01-01

104

Chemical treatment makes cooling water reusable  

Microsoft Academic Search

Over the past decade, the water requirements for cooling industrial manufacturing processes have changed dramatically. Once-through cooling has been largely replaced by open recirculating cooling-water methods. This approach reduces water consumption by increasing the use of recycled water. The recycled water is cooled by evaporation of some of the circulating water as it passes through the tower. As a result

B. P. Boffardi; A. L. Smith

1995-01-01

105

Water Treatment: Can You Purify Water for Drinking?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Presents a three-day mini unit on purification of drinking water that uses the learning cycle approach. Demonstrates the typical technology that water companies use to provide high-quality drinking water. (JRH)

Harris, Mary E.

1996-01-01

106

Emerging Health Concerns Related to Water Treatment.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Drinking water utilities provide an exceedingly important public health service through their generation of high quality, safe and palatable tap water. The disinfection of drinking water in public facilities primarily employs chemical disinfectants such a...

E. D. Wagner M. J. Plewa

2008-01-01

107

77 FR 12227 - Long Term 2 Enhanced Surface Water Treatment Rule: Uncovered Finished Water Reservoirs; Public...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...FRL-9641-3] Long Term 2 Enhanced Surface Water Treatment Rule: Uncovered Finished Water Reservoirs; Public Meeting AGENCY: Environmental...the regulatory review of the uncovered finished water reservoir requirement in the Long Term 2...

2012-02-29

108

Magnetic Treatment of Feed Water for Steam Boilers.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The paper describes the results of investigations performed on magnetic treatment of boiler feed water. The program consisted of determining the appropriate operating mode of the water at the design of the boiler, and investigating the scale, sludge, and ...

M. Yovchev N. Todoriev

1973-01-01

109

[Gambro hemodialysis reverse osmosis water treatment system troubleshooting].  

PubMed

Described gambro hemodialysis reverse osmosis water treatment system can not supply water due to PC PLC failure, the reasons of failure were analysed, troubleshooting methods and procedures were introdced. PMID:23668052

Jiang, Youhao; Peng, Wen; Kong, Lingwei; Ma, Li; Wang, Hao

2013-01-01

110

Big waste-treatment job for water hyacinths  

SciTech Connect

Studies indicate that water hyacinths are at least 50% cheaper for the secondary treatment of sewage compared with activated-sludge plants, not taking into account the potential production of methane from the crop. Ultimately it is hoped that hyacinth aquaculture will permit tertiary treatment of sewage for recovery of potable water. Existing and planned water hyacinth treatment processes in the U.S. are reviewed.

Parkinson, G.

1981-05-04

111

Linking ceragenins to water-treatment membranes to minimize biofouling  

Microsoft Academic Search

Ceragenins were used to create biofouling resistant water-treatment membranes. Ceragenins are synthetically produced antimicrobial peptide mimics that display broad-spectrum bactericidal activity. While ceragenins have been used on bio-medical devices, use of ceragenins on water-treatment membranes is novel. Biofouling impacts membrane separation processes for many industrial applications such as desalination, waste-water treatment, oil and gas extraction, and power generation. Biofouling results

Michael R. Hibbs; Susan Jeanne Altman; Yanshu Feng; Paul B. Savage; Jacob Pollard; Steven S. Branda; Darla Goeres; Kelli Buckingham-Meyer; Shane Stafslien; Christopher Marry; Howland D. T. Jones; Alyssa Lichtenberger; Matthew F. Kirk; Lucas K. McGrath

2012-01-01

112

MICROBIAL ASPECTS OF WATER TREATMENT PROCESSES: A PROGRESS REPORT  

EPA Science Inventory

Modifications in water treatment processes or in their sequential placement to optimize reductions in disinfection byproduct formation must be cautiously evaluated and monitored for their impact on microbial barriers. our major treatment concepts were investigated either in pilot...

113

COMPUTER COST MODELS FOR POTABLE WATER TREATMENT PLANTS  

EPA Science Inventory

A series of computer programs have been developed which calculate costs for specific unit treatment processes used in water treatment plants. The programs contained in this report are as follows: chlorination, chlorine dioxide, ozone, and granular activated carbon adsorption. Tab...

114

Treatment of Arsenic Residuals from Drinking Water Removal Processes.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This report presents the results of a laboratory study to evaluate several potential treatment options to treat residuals produced by five drinking water treatment processes; ion exchange (IE), reverse osmosis (RO), nanofiltration (NF), activated alumina ...

M. L. MacPhee, G. E. Charles, D. A. Cornwell

2002-01-01

115

Radium and Other Radiological Chemicals: Drinking Water Treatment Strategies  

EPA Science Inventory

Radium and Other Radiological Chemicals: Drinking Water Treatment Technologies Topics include: Introduction to Rad Chemistry, Summary of the Rad, Regulations Treatment Technology, and Disposal. The introductions cover atoms, ions, radium and uranium and the removal of radioac...

116

Characterization and Treatment of Oil Shale Retort Water.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Argonne National Laboratory's research in the treatment and environmental control of oil shale retort waste water is described. It consists of 3 tasks: characterization, treatment, and engineering design and cost analysis. The comprehensive study is pragm...

M. F. Torpy L. A. Raphaelian

1981-01-01

117

WATER QUALITY IN SOURCE WATER, TREATMENT, AND DISTRIBUTION SYSTEMS  

EPA Science Inventory

Most drinking water utilities practice the multiple-barrier concept as the guiding principle for providing safe water. This chapter discusses multiple barriers as they relate to the basic criteria for selecting and protecting source waters, including known and potential sources ...

118

The Alumina- Lime Soda Water Treatment Process.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A new pretreatment process for brackish water desalting has been developed and evaluated in the laboratory. The alumina-lime-soda process involves treating raw saline water with sodium aluminate and lime, separating precipitated solids, and neutralizing t...

J. W. Nebgen E. P. Shea S. Y. Chiu

1973-01-01

119

Emergency Response and Protection Water Treatment Technologies  

EPA Science Inventory

The Expeditionary Unit Water Purifier (EUWP) is supported and deployed by NFESC, the TARDEC, and the USBR. The EUWP was deployed to Biloxi, MS after Hurricane Katrina to supply potable water to a hospital, using seawater from the Gulf of Mexico as the source water. The EUWP ...

120

Development of innovative flotation processes for water treatment and waste-water reclamation. Technical report  

SciTech Connect

The engineering designs and applications of various newly developed flotation clarifiers (Supracell, Sandfloat, Sedifloat, Lakeguard, Float Skimmer, and Foamer) are presented. Supracell is a high-rate dissolved air flotation clarifier for industrial water-treatment and in-plant water recycle. Sandfloat is a package water treatment plant designed for treatment of surface water, ground water, or waste water. Sedifloat is a package plant from reclamation of process waste water or pretreatment of raw water containing heavy silts and/or high concentrations of suspended solids. Lakeguard is an extremely compact package plant for single families, factories, and small institutions. Both lake water and ground water can be properly treated by Lakeguard for potable applications and for treatment of septic-tank effluent. Foamer is a high-rate cost-effective dispersed air flotation clarifier. Float skimmer is specifically designed for applications in paper and pulp mills.

Krofta, M.; Wang, L.K.

1988-08-01

121

Standards and guides of water treatment and water-distribution systems. Manual for 1974-86  

SciTech Connect

The following five important documents are compiled for design of municipal water treatment facilities and water distribution systems: (1) Ten States Recommended Standards for Water Works; (2) A Public Water Supply Guide--Designing Community Water Systems; (3) Water Supply Guide Lines for Public Water Systems; (4) American National Standard for the Thickness Design of Ductile-Iron Pipe; and (5) Designing for Cast Iron Pipe.

Wang, L.K.; Wang, M.H.S.

1987-01-15

122

IMMERSED ULTRAFILTRATION MEMBRANES FOR TREATMENT OF ORGANICALLY LADEN SURFACE WATER  

Microsoft Academic Search

Ultrafiltration membranes are becoming increasingly prevalent in potable water treatment applications. This trend can be attributed to the improved cost effectiveness of membrane systems as compared to conventional treatment technologies and to progressively more stringent water quality regulations. In particular, increased awareness related to the formation of disinfection by-products (DBPs) such as trihalomethanes (THMs) and halo-acetic acids (HAAs) has required

John Van Doesburg; Sophie Pease; Miles Sherman

123

BARIUM AND RADIUM IN WATER TREATMENT PLANT WASTES  

EPA Science Inventory

Water treatment plants at nine locations (10 plants) in Illinois and Iowa were studied to determine the characteristics and disposal practices for the sludge, brine, and backwash water containing radium (Ra) and/or barium (Ba). The treatment processes in these ten plants include ...

124

12. Water treatment plant interior view of pipes and pump ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

12. Water treatment plant interior view of pipes and pump in heater room. View to W - Fort Benton Water Treatment Plant, Filtration Plant, Lots 9-13 of Block 7, Fort Benton Original Townsite at Missouri River, Fort Benton, Chouteau County, MT

125

ARSENIC MOBILITY FROM IRON OXIDE SOLIDS PRODUCED DURING WATER TREATMENT  

EPA Science Inventory

The Arsenic Rule under the Safe Drinking Water Act will require certain drinking water suppliers to add to or modify their existing treatment in order to comply with the new 10 ppb arsenic standard. One of the treatment options is co-precipitation of arsenic with iron. This tre...

126

INL Bettis Water Treatment Project Report  

SciTech Connect

Bechtel Bettis Atomic Power Laboratory (Bettis), West Mifflin, PA, requested that the Idaho National Laboratory (INL) (Battelle Energy Alliance) perform tests using water simulants and three specified media to determine if those ion-exchange (IX) resins will be effective at removing the plutonium contamination from water. This report details the testing and results of the tests to determine the suitability of the media to treat plutonium contaminated water at near nuetral pH.

Not Available

2009-06-01

127

Two-stage treatment reduces water/oil ratio  

SciTech Connect

This paper reports how a treatment of amphoteric polymer followed by chrome-complexed anionic polyacrylamide has successfully decreased the water/oil (WOR) ratio of wells producing from the Arbuckle dolomite formation in central Kansas. This technique, the fractured-matrix, water-control (FMWC) treatment, is designed to alter both primary and secondary permeability to water production. In 10 treated wells, the average WOR was reduced by a factor of five.

Wood, F.; Dairymple, D. (Halliburton Services, Duncan, OK (US)); McKown, K.; Matthews, B. (Halliburton Services, KS (US))

1990-09-10

128

Good and bad particle counter use in potable water treatment  

Microsoft Academic Search

Over the last two decades, there has been much interest in whether particle counters hold any significant benefit over conventional nephelometric turbidimeters in monitoring, optimising and controlling potable water treatment processes. Southern Water, which supplies drinking water to two million customers living in Kent, Sussex, Hampshire and the Isle of Wight first used particle counters at one of its works

Paul Hamilton; Tony Beer; Guy Standen; Simon Parsons

129

Microbial As(III) Oxidation in Water Treatment Plant Filters  

EPA Science Inventory

Arsenic exists in two oxidation states in water - arsenite [As(III)] and arsenate [As(V)]. As(III) is relatively mobile in water and difficult to remove by arsenic-removal treatment processes. Source waters that contain As(III) must add a strong oxidant such as free chlorine or p...

130

Texas refiner starts up new waste water treatment plant  

Microsoft Academic Search

Chevron Corp. has started up a new waste water treatment plant at its Port Arthur, Tex., refinery. The new facility has an hydraulic capacity of 10,000 gpm and will treat process waste water, cooling tower blowdown, and contaminated storm water. The plant includes: A process unit for removing free and emulsified oil; and equalization facility; a biological system for organics

N. Al-Tell; R. Lueders

1994-01-01

131

Water treatment cuts deposition at oil and solvent recovery plant  

Microsoft Academic Search

To accommodate its process water needs, the Oil and Solvent Process Company (OSCO) of Azusa, CA uses city water containing over 69 ppm calcium (as CaCOâ) and over 15 ppm silica. The company requires a flow rate of 1800 gpm to cool its evaporative condensers. The previous water treatment program was unsatisfactory and, because of this, many of the cooling

N. Jr. Guevara; G. Weir; D. A. Toy

1985-01-01

132

MAGNESIUM CARBONATE - A RECYCLED COAGULANT FROM WATER TREATMENT. CAPSULE REPORT  

EPA Science Inventory

This Capsule Report explains the new magnesium recycle coagulation system for water treatment, which is based on a combination of water softening and conventional coagulation techniques which can be applied to all types of water. This system offers an alternative approach to chem...

133

Fate of Perfluorooctanesulfonate and perfluorooctanoate in drinking water treatment processes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Perfluorooctanesulfonate (PFOS) and perfluorooctanoate (PFOA) have been recognized as global environmental pollutants. Although PFOS and PFOA have been detected in tap water from Japan and several other countries, very few studies have examined the fate, especially removal, of perfluorinated compounds (PFCs) in drinking water treatment processes. In this study, we analyzed PFOS and PFOA at every stages of drinking water

Sokichi Takagi; Fumie Adachi; Keiichi Miyano; Yoshihiko Koizumi; Hidetsugu Tanaka; Isao Watanabe; Shinsuke Tanabe; Kurunthachalam Kannan

2011-01-01

134

POOL WATER TREATMENT AND COOLING SYSTEM DESCRIPTION DOCUMENT  

SciTech Connect

The Pool Water Treatment and Cooling System is located in the Waste Handling Building (WHB), and is comprised of various process subsystems designed to support waste handling operations. This system maintains the pool water temperature within an acceptable range, maintains water quality standards that support remote underwater operations and prevent corrosion, detects leakage from the pool liner, provides the capability to remove debris from the pool, controls the pool water level, and helps limit radiological exposure to personnel. The pool structure and liner, pool lighting, and the fuel staging racks in the pool are not within the scope of the Pool Water Treatment and Cooling System. Pool water temperature control is accomplished by circulating the pool water through heat exchangers. Adequate circulation and mixing of the pool water is provided to prevent localized thermal hotspots in the pool. Treatment of the pool water is accomplished by a water treatment system that circulates the pool water through filters, and ion exchange units. These water treatment units remove radioactive and non-radioactive particulate and dissolved solids from the water, thereby providing the water clarity needed to conduct waste handling operations. The system also controls pool water chemistry to prevent advanced corrosion of the pool liner, pool components, and fuel assemblies. Removal of radioactivity from the pool water contributes to the project ALARA (as low as is reasonably achievable) goals. A leak detection system is provided to detect and alarm leaks through the pool liner. The pool level control system monitors the water level to ensure that the minimum water level required for adequate radiological shielding is maintained. Through interface with a demineralized water system, adequate makeup is provided to compensate for loss of water inventory through evaporation and waste handling operations. Interface with the Site Radiological Monitoring System provides continuous radiological monitoring of the pool water. The Pool Water Treatment and Cooling System interfaces with the Waste Handling Building System, Site-Generated Radiological Waste Handling System, Site Radiological Monitoring System, Waste Handling Building Electrical System, Site Water System, and the Monitored Geologic Repository Operations Monitoring and Control System.

V. King

2000-06-19

135

Alternative water treatment for cooling towers  

Microsoft Academic Search

Problems commonly found in cooling towers include: calcium scale formation, corrosion, algae and bacterial growth. These problems can inhibit a cooling tower from operating at its most efficient capacity. An energy-saving, cost-efficient method to control each of these problems in tower water will ultimately benefit the owner as well as the environment. Supplemental ionic water purification was developed to overcome

Wilsey

1997-01-01

136

Treatment of oil-in-water emulsions  

SciTech Connect

Petroleum is separated from an ''oil-in-water'' emulsion containing water-soluble polymer prior to refining by adding amphoteric metal cations to the emulsion to form a flocculate and then treating the resulting flocculate with a strong base to recover the oil and metal.

Harrison, R.J.; Presley, C.T.

1980-01-08

137

Treatment of oil-in-water emulsions  

SciTech Connect

Petroleum is separated from an oil-in-water emulsion containing water-soluble polymer such as polyacrylamide prior to refining by adding amphoteric metal cations (Zn, Al, Sn, and Co) to the emulsion to form a flocculate and then treating the resulting flocculate with a strong base to recover the oil and metal. 11 claims.

Presley, C.T.; Harrison, R.J.

1980-01-08

138

Performance of a Treatment Loop for Recycling Spent Rinse Waters  

SciTech Connect

This paper summarizes an evaluation of a treatment loop designed to upgrade the quality of spent rinse waters discharged from 10 wet benches located in the fab at Sandia's Microelectronics Development Laboratory (MDL). The goal of the treatment loop is to make these waters, presently being discharged to the fab's acid waste neutralization (AWN) station, suitable for recycling as feed water back into the fab's ultrapure water (UPW) plant. The MDL typically operates 2 shifts per day, 5 days per week. Without any treatment, the properties of the spent rinse waters now being collected have been shown to be compatible with recycling about 30% (50/168) of the time (weekends primarily, when the fab is idling) which corresponds to about 12% of the present water discharged from the fab to the AWN. The primary goal of adding a treatment loop is to increase the percentage of recyclable water from these 10 wet benches to near 100%, increasing the percentage of total recyclable water to near 40% of the total present fab discharge to the AWN. A second goal is to demonstrate compatibility with recycling this treated spent rinse water to the present R/O product water tank, reducing both the present volume of R/O reject water and the present load on the R/O. The approach taken to demonstrate achieving these goals is to compare all the common metrics of water quality for the treated spent rinse waters with those of the present R/O product water. Showing that the treated rinse water is equal or superior in quality to the water presently stored in the R/O tank by every metric all the time is assumed to be sufficient argument for proceeding with plans to incorporate recycling of these spent rinse waters back into MDL's R/O tank.

DONOVAN,ROBERT PATRICK; TIMON,ROBERT P.; DEBUSK,MICHAEL JOHN; JONES,RONALD V.; ROGERS,DARELL M.

2000-11-15

139

NF & RO Biostability Relative to Alternative Methods of Water Treatment  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effect of blending different water qualities on distribution system water quality was investigated in a field study. Waters produced from five different treatment systems; aeration (G1), NF (G4), CSF-O3-GAC (S1), IMS (CSF-NF, or S2) and high pressure RO were blended and distributed to 18 different pilot distribution systems (PDS). G1, G4, and RO source waters were taken from the

Suibing Liu; Cheol Chang; Michael Le Puil; James S. Taylor; Andrew A. Randall

140

Integrated water quality, emergy and economic evaluation of three bioremediation treatment systems for eutrophic water  

EPA Science Inventory

This study was targeted at ?nding one or more environmentally efficient, economically feasible and ecologically sustainable bioremediation treatment modes for eutrophic water. Three biological species, i.e. water spinach (Ipomoea aquatica), loach (Misgurus anguillicaudatu...

141

OZONATION AND BIOLOGICAL STABILITY OF WATER IN AN OPERATING WATER TREATMENT PLANT  

EPA Science Inventory

Ozonation of drinking water may adversely affect the biological stability of the inished water. his study was designed assess the effect of ozone as a preoxidant on the nutrient status of water treated in a full-scale water treatment plant. he study was conducted over a ten week ...

142

Evaluation of two methods in controlling dental treatment water contamination.  

PubMed

Dental unit water systems are contaminated with biofilms that amplify bacterial counts in dental treatment water in excess of a million colony forming units per milliliter (cfu/ml). The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention and the American Dental Association have agreed that the maximum allowable contamination of dental treatment water not exceed 500 cfu/ml. This study was conducted to evaluate two protocols in controlling contamination of dental unit water systems and dental treatment water. Both methods used an antimicrobial self-dissolving chlorine dioxide (ClO?) tablet at a high concentration (50 ppm) to shock the dental unit water system biofilms initially followed by periodic exposure. To treat dental treatment source water for patient care, 3 parts per million (ppm) ClO? in municipal/tap water was compared to use of a citrus botanical extract dissolved in municipal water. Heterotrophic microbial counts of effluent water and laser scanning confocal microscopy were performed to evaluate effects of the two treatments. Results from this study indicated that both treatments were effective in controlling biofilm contamination and reducing heterotrophic plate counts <500 cfu/ml. A comprehensive study addressing compatibility of 50 ppm ClO? on the metals and nonmetal components of the dental water system and effects of low-grade chemicals used on composite bonding to dentin and enamel is warranted before translation from efficacy studies to common clinical use. Clinical significance: This study provides evidence-based information of using two methods of controlling dental treatment water contamination. The study was conducted in a clinical practice setting in an active dental clinic and the results are meaningful to a clinician who is interested in providing safe dental treatment water for patient care. Keywords: Dental waterline biofilms, Dental treatment water contamination control, Chlorine dioxide, Emulsifiers, Heterotrophic plate counts, Laser scanning confocal microscopy. How to cite this article: Bansal R, Puttaiah R, Harris R, Reddy A. Evaluation of Two Methods in Controlling Dental Treatment Water Contamination. J Contemp Dent Pract 2011;12(2):73-83. Source of support: Nil Conflict of interest: None declared. PMID:22186748

Bansal, Ritu; Puttaiah, Raghunath; Harris, Robert; Reddy, Anil

2011-01-01

143

Characterization and treatment of oil shale retort water  

SciTech Connect

Argonne National Laboratory's research in the treatment and environmental control of oil shale retort waste water is described. It consists of 3 tasks: characterization, treatment, and engineering design and cost analysis. The comprehensive study is pragmatic to the extent it addresses critical issues that the oil shale industry must ultimately address for its production planning and permit acquisition. Results indicate that total organic carbon can be reduced by at least 90% in the Oxy-6 retort water. Retort water quality varies, and proven methods in the case of treating Oxy-6 retort water should be tested with other retort waters before generalized biological treatment techniques are adopted. The problem of maintaining sample quality over short and long periods of time may be an additional variable in treatment studies and should be minimized, when possible. Reuse of the biologically treated retort water for some purposes may require additional treatment to reduce the high concentrations of inorganic residual and organic constituents. The extent of reuse after organic carbon and inorganic residual reduction can be identified only by evaluating the necessary quality required for particular reuse purposes. A continued research program in water treatment, and especially in retort water reuse, is essential to the acceptability of the oil shale industry in the arid and relatively undeveloped region of the western states.

Torpy, M.F.; Raphaelian, L.A.

1981-01-01

144

ESTIMATING WATER TREATMENT COSTS. VOLUME 1. SUMMARY  

EPA Science Inventory

This report discusses unit processes and combinations of unit processes that are capable of removing contaminants included in the National Interim Primary Drinking Water Regulations. Construction and operation and maintenance cost curves are presented for 99 unit processes that a...

145

Water Treatment Systems Make a Big Splash  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

In the 1960s, NASA's Manned Space Center (now known as Johnson Space Center) and the Garrett Corporation, Air Research Division, conducted a research program to develop a small, lightweight water purifier for the Apollo spacecraft that would require minimal power and would not need to be monitored around-the-clock by astronauts in orbit. The 9-ounce purifier, slightly larger than a cigarette pack and completely chlorine-free, dispensed silver ions into the spacecraft s water supply to successfully kill off bacteria. A NASA Technical Brief released around the time of the research reported that the silver ions did not impart an unpleasant taste to the water. NASA s ingenuity to control microbial contamination in space caught on quickly, opening the doors for safer methods of controlling water pollutants on Earth.

2004-01-01

146

ALTERNATIVE DISINFECTANTS FOR DRINKING WATER TREATMENT  

EPA Science Inventory

During a one-year study at Jefferson Parish, Louisiana the chemical, microbiological, and mutagenic effects of using the major drinking water disinfectants (chlorine, chlorine dioxide, chloramine, ozone) were evaluated. ests were performed on samples collected from various treatm...

147

Cooling water treatment with ozone. [WEST GERMANY  

Microsoft Academic Search

Small scale tests on an open recirculating cooling system with a cooling water flow of 10 m³\\/h conducted for a period of two years have shown that ozone could be a viable alternative to chlorine and other commonly used biocides. An average ozone dosage of 0.05 mg\\/L was applied continuously to the cooling water. Corrosion rates of copper alloy samples

R. Wellauer; M. Oldani

2009-01-01

148

A Primer on Waste Water Treatment.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The report describes briefly methods now used and processes being developed for the treatment of municipal and industrial wastes. It also gives general categories of pollutants and explains them. A glossary of terms is included.

1969-01-01

149

A Primer on Waste Water Treatment.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The report, the methods used now and processes being developed for the future to treat municipal wastes are explained. This includes topics as: Secondary treatment; Lagoons and septic tanks; Coagulation-sedimentation; Adsorption; Electrodialysis; Bending ...

1973-01-01

150

Proposed water treatment approach for commercial tar sand wastewaters  

SciTech Connect

Waters produced during the steamflood extraction of bitumen from tar sand require treatment before they can be recycled as feedwater for steam generation. The characterization of two waters from commercial-scale tar sand operations indicates that the levels of hardness, oil and grease, silica, suspended solids, and iron must be reduced before these waters can be reused in the bitumen extraction process. The Western Research Institute proposes two treatment methods (electrocoagulation and ultrafiltration) that may, when used in conjunction with standard practices, improve the efficiency of the overall treatment process. 21 refs., 3 tabs.

Kocornik, D.

1986-09-01

151

Chemical equilibria in split-treatment softening of water  

Microsoft Academic Search

Split-treatment softening is more cost effective than conventional treatment with certain types of water. This paper develops the equilibria relationships for solving split-treatment softening problems, in order to understand how desired effluent quality parameters and operating variables affect chemical requirements. Solution sets are presented for treatment with lime only and with lime and soda; effluent hardness and pH, effluent alkalinity

Karl A. Zipf Jr.; Richard G. Luthy

1981-01-01

152

Evaluation of advanced wastewater treatment systems for water reuse in the era of advanced wastewater treatment  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This study focuses on effluent COD concentration from wastewater treatment in regards to the reduction of pathogenic bacteria and trace substances in public waters. The main types of secondary wastewater treatment were conventional activated sludge processes. Recently, however, advance wastewater treatment processes have been developed aimed at the removal of nitrogen and phosphorus, and the effluent quality of these processes was analyzed in this study. Treatment processes for water reclamation that make effluent to meet the target water quality for reuse purposes were selected and also optimum design parameters for these processes were proposed. It was found that the treatment cost to water reclamation was greatly affected by the effluent COD of the secondary treatment. It is important to maintain low COD concentration in the secondary treated effluent. Therefore, it is considered that adequate cost benefits would be obtained by achieving target COD quality through shifting from a conventional activated sludge process to an advanced treatment process.

Kon, Hisao; Watanabe, Masahiro

153

[Current technology of waste water treatment].  

PubMed

For the purification of municipal waste water and industrial waste water predominantly burdened by organic matter, mechanical-biological plants partly based on the method of activation and partly on the trickling filter system are preferably used. Recently overloading of existing plants and tighter water protection requirements imposed the necessity of boosting the performance of conventional biological processes by reducing the sludge burden and the loading per unit volume. This has also resulted in nitrification of the nitrogen compounds and in extensive sludge stabilization. As the oxygen supply to the micro-organisms requires the highest expenditure of energy in the activation process, special attention was given to the development of efficient aeration systems. For waste water containing a high proportion of substances which prove difficult to decompose, or waste water subject to strong fluctuations, multi-stage biological procedures or a combination of various processes are used increasingly. In this context, chemical precipitation for the elimination of phosphorus and biological nitrogen elimination have proven themselves as additional purification methods. PMID:6650000

Bischofsberger, W; Hegemann, W

1983-09-01

154

Alternative water treatment for cooling towers  

SciTech Connect

Problems commonly found in cooling towers include: calcium scale formation, corrosion, algae and bacterial growth. These problems can inhibit a cooling tower from operating at its most efficient capacity. An energy-saving, cost-efficient method to control each of these problems in tower water will ultimately benefit the owner as well as the environment. Supplemental ionic water purification was developed to overcome the disadvantages associates with a total chemical disinfection system. The concept of supplemental ionic water purification was developed in the early 1900s and later reviewed by NASA in the mid-1960`s. Only in the past seven years have biologists combined copper ions with chlorine to act as a bactericide. The findings have shown that metal compound ions (copper), when absorbed by bacteria, affect the organisms enzyme balance. This combination inhibits the organism`s reproduction and respiration capabilities. This technology has been applied to cooling tower operations as an alternative to a chemical-only regimen.

Wilsey, C.A. [Water Clear, Inc., Mound, MN (United States)

1997-04-01

155

Fate of perfluorooctanesulfonate and perfluorooctanoate in drinking water treatment processes.  

PubMed

Perfluorooctanesulfonate (PFOS) and perfluorooctanoate (PFOA) have been recognized as global environmental pollutants. Although PFOS and PFOA have been detected in tap water from Japan and several other countries, very few studies have examined the fate, especially removal, of perfluorinated compounds (PFCs) in drinking water treatment processes. In this study, we analyzed PFOS and PFOA at every stages of drinking water treatment processes in several water purification plants that employ advanced water treatment technologies. PFOS and PFOA concentrations did not vary considerably in raw water, sand filtered water, settled water, and ozonated water. Sand filtration and ozonation did not have an effect on the removal of PFOS and PFOA in drinking water. PFOS and PFOA were removed effectively by activated carbon that had been used for less than one year. However, activated carbon that had been used for a longer period of time (>1 year) was not effective in removing PFOS and PFOA from water. Variations in the removal ratios of PFOS and PFOA by activated carbon were found between summer and winter months. PMID:21628066

Takagi, Sokichi; Adachi, Fumie; Miyano, Keiichi; Koizumi, Yoshihiko; Tanaka, Hidetsugu; Watanabe, Isao; Tanabe, Shinsuke; Kannan, Kurunthachalam

2011-07-01

156

Evaluation of neighborhood treatment systems for potable water supply.  

PubMed

Piped water is available in Ciudad Juarez, Chihuahua, Mexico, but residual disinfectant is not reliably found in the public drinking water supply. Lack of confidence in the public supply leads many residents to rely on bottled water. To provide consistent disinfection, two health clinics were equipped with ultraviolet disinfection systems, and neighboring households were encouraged to obtain their drinking water from the treatment systems. Use of the treated water declined from 62% of self-selected study participants at the time of the first visit to 40% at the second visit. During the first visit, diarrhea prevalence was similar among households using treated water and other water sources yet diarrhea prevalence was higher among households using the treated water during the second visit. Microbiological quality of the treated water in the homes was not demonstrably superior to that of other sources. PMID:19241246

Corella-Barud, Veronica; Mena, Kristina D; Gibbs, Shawn G; Gurian, Patrick L; Barud, Alberto

2009-02-01

157

Hanford facilities tracer study report (315 Water Treatment Facility)  

SciTech Connect

This report presents the results and findings of a tracer study to determine contact time for the disinfection process of 315 Water Treatment Facility that supplies sanitary water for the 300 Area. The study utilized fluoride as the tracer and contact times were determined for two flow rates. Interpolation of data and short circuiting effects are also discussed. The 315 Water Treatment Facility supplies sanitary water for the 300 Area to various process and domestic users. The Surface Water Treatment Rule (SWTR), outlined in the 1986 Safe Drinking Water Act Amendments enacted by the EPA in 1989 and regulated by the Washington State Department of Health (DOH) in Section 246-290-600 of the Washington Administrative Code (WAC), stipulates filtration and disinfection requirements for public water systems under the direct influence of surface water. The SWTR disinfection guidelines require that each treatment system achieves predetermined inactivation ratios. The inactivation by disinfection is approximated with a measure called CxT, where C is the disinfectant residual concentration and T is the effective contact time of the water with the disinfectant. The CxT calculations for the Hanford water treatment plants were derived from the total volume of the contact basin(s). In the absence of empirical data to support CxT calculations, the DOH determined that the CxT values used in the monthly reports for the water treatment plants on the Hanford site were invalid and required the performance of a tracer study at each plant. In response to that determination, a tracer study will be performed to determine the actual contact times of the facilities for the CxT calculations.

Ambalam, T. [Kaiser Engineers Hanford Co., Richland, WA (United States)

1995-04-14

158

Preliminary Design Experimental Water Treatment Plant.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

On October 29, 1948, a report (ORNL 48-10-377) prepared by O.R. Placak and R.J. Morton appeared entitled 'Proposal For Evaluating The Impact of Water-Borne Radioactive Contaminants On Sanitary Engineering Facilities'. This report called attention to the n...

C. P. Straub

1973-01-01

159

Treatment Strategies for Lead in Drinking Water  

EPA Science Inventory

Lead pipes are capable of lasting hundreds of years. Conservatively, there are over 12 million, still serving drinking water in the US. Probably, this is a substantial underestimate. Leaded solder joining copper pipe abounds. Leaded brasses have dominated the materials used for...

160

SUMMARY REPORT - SMALL COMMUNITY WATER AND WASTEWATER TREATMENT  

EPA Science Inventory

This summary report presents information on the unique needs of small communities facing new water and wastewater treatment requirements. t contains three main sections: technology overviews (each presents a process description, O&M requirements, technology limitations, and finan...

161

Fluoride Analysis of Water-Treatment-Plant Sludges.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A method for fluoride analysis of sludges was developed and verified using laboratory-prepared alum sludge. The developed method was then used to measure fluoride concentrations in sludges from selected water treatment plants. Initially, three methods of ...

W. H. Duke

1974-01-01

162

INTERACTIONS OF SILICA PARTICLES IN DRINKING WATER TREATMENT PROCESSES  

EPA Science Inventory

EPA Identifier: U915331 Title: Interactions of Silica Particles in Drinking Water Treatment Processes Fellow (Principal Investigator): Christina L. Clarkson Institution: Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University EPA GRANT R...

163

OPTIMIZING WATER TREATMENT PLANT PERFORMANCE WITH THE COMPOSITE CORRECTION PROGRAM  

EPA Science Inventory

This Technology Transfer Summary Report summarizes the results of an ongoing project to evaluate the utility of the Composite Correction Program (CCP) approach to improving the performance of drinking water treatment facilities. The CCP approach, which has already proven successf...

164

MICROORGANISMS AND HIGHER PLANTS FOR WASTE WATER TREATMENT  

EPA Science Inventory

Batch experiments were conducted to compare the waste water treatment efficiencies of plant-free microbial filters with filters supporting the growth of reeds (Phragmites communis), cattail (Typha latifolia), rush (Juncus effusus), and bamboo (Bambusa multiplex). The experimental...

165

6. PHOTOCOPY, WATER TREATMENT PUMPING AND STORAGE BUILDING, MISSILE TEST ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

6. PHOTOCOPY, WATER TREATMENT PUMPING AND STORAGE BUILDING, MISSILE TEST AND ASSEMBLY BUILDING, GENERATOR BUILDING No. 3, AND WARHEADING BUILDING OF LAUNCH AREA. - NIKE Missile Base SL-40, Beck Road between Nike & M Roads, Hecker, Monroe County, IL

166

Looking east at the boiler water treatment tank located off ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

Looking east at the boiler water treatment tank located off the west wall of the boiler house. - Wheeling-Pittsburgh Steel Corporation, Allenport Works, Boiler House, Route 88 on West bank of Monongahela River, Allenport, Washington County, PA

167

OZONE FOR INDUSTRIAL WATER AND WASTEWATER TREATMENT: A LITERATURE SURVEY  

EPA Science Inventory

The project explored the technology of ozonation applicable to industrial water and wastewater treatment. The final report documents existing equipment, extent of application and practical usage, contract systems, monitoring and detection devices, general and specific economics, ...

168

Biological Processes in the Treatment of Municipal Water Supplies.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The objective of this project was to study the use of Biologically Enhanced Granular Activated Carbon (BEGAC) technology in European water treatment plants and to determine its advantages and disadvantages for use in the United States. Seven European wate...

R. G. Rice C. M. Robson G. W. Miller J. C. Clark W. Kuhn

1982-01-01

169

Generic Protocol for the Verification of Ballast Water Treatment Technology  

EPA Science Inventory

In anticipation of the need to address performance verification and subsequent approval of new and innovative ballast water treatment technologies for shipboard installation, the U.S Coast Guard and the Environmental Protection Agency?s Environmental Technology Verification Progr...

170

Ozone for Industrial Water and Wastewater Treatment, An Annotated Bibliography.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The project explored the technology of ozonation applicable to industrial water and wastewater treatment. The final report documents existing equipment, extent of application and practical usage, contract systems, monitoring and detection devices, general...

R. G. Rice M. E. Browning

1980-01-01

171

Ozone for Industrial Water and Wastewater Treatment: A Literature Survey.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The project explored the technology of ozonation applicable to industrial water and wastewater treatment. The final report documents existing equipment, extent of application and practical usage, contract systems, monitoring and detection devices, general...

R. G. Rice M. E. Browning

1980-01-01

172

Fate of High Priority Pesticides During Drinking Water Treatment.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The fate of organophosphorus (OP) pesticides in the presence of chlorinated oxidants was investigated under drinking water treatment conditions. In the presence of aqueous chlorine, intrinsic rate coefficients were found for the reaction of hypochlorous a...

G. M. Davis L. M. Desetto S. E. Duirk

2008-01-01

173

Online Produced Water Treatment Catalog and Decision Tool  

SciTech Connect

The objective of this project was to create an internet-based Water Treatment Technology Catalog and Decision Tool that will increase production, decrease costs and enhance environmental protection. This is to be accomplished by pairing an operator's water treatment cost and capacity needs to specific water treatments. This project cataloged existing and emerging produced water treatment technologies and allows operators to identify the most cost-effective approaches for managing their produced water. The tool captures the cost and capabilities of each technology and the disposal and beneficial use options for each region. The tool then takes location, chemical composition, and volumetric data for the operator's water and identifies the most cost effective treatment options for that water. Regulatory requirements or limitations for each location are also addressed. The Produced Water Treatment Catalog and Decision Tool efficiently matches industry decision makers in unconventional natural gas basins with: 1) appropriate and applicable water treatment technologies for their project, 2) relevant information on regulatory and legal issues that may impact the success of their project, and 3) potential beneficial use demands specific to their project area. To ensure the success of this project, it was segmented into seven tasks conducted in three phases over a three year period. The tasks were overseen by a Project Advisory Council (PAC) made up of stakeholders including state and federal agency representatives and industry representatives. ALL Consulting has made the catalog and decision tool available on the Internet for the final year of the project. The second quarter of the second budget period, work was halted based on the February 18, 2011 budget availability; however previous project deliverables were submitted on time and the deliverables for Task 6 and 7 were completed ahead of schedule. Thus the application and catalog were deployed to the public Internet. NETL did not provide additional funds and work on the project stopped on February 18, 2011. NETL ended the project on March 31, 2012.

J. Arthur

2012-03-31

174

Using wastewater for cooling: Increasing water reuse poses treatment challenges  

SciTech Connect

Technologies for control of biofouling, scale, corrosion and microbiologically influenced corrosion (MIC) in cooling water systems are discussed. Techniques involving water reuse and using wastewater as makeup are emphasized, and associated problems are identified. Appropriate chemical treatments, including biocides and biostats, biodispersants, sludge dispersants, corrosion inhibitors, and supplementary chemical treatments, are outlined. New and developing technologies reviewed include microorganism control based on biodispersants and on enzymes.

Lutey, R.W. [Buckman Labs. International Inc., Memphis, TN (United States)

1996-04-01

175

Phosphorus Retention Mechanisms of a Water Treatment Residual  

Microsoft Academic Search

Water treatment residuals (WTRs) are a by-product of municipal drinking water treatment plants and can have the,capacity to adsorb tremendous amounts of P. Understanding the WTR phosphorus ad- sorption process is important for discerning the mechanrism and tenac- ity of P retention. We studied P adsorbing mechanism(s) of an alumi- num-based (A12(SO 4),14H 2O) WTR from Englewood, CO. In a

J. A. Ippolito; K. A. Barbarick; D. M. Heil; J. P. Chandler; E. F. Redente

2003-01-01

176

Amend soils with residues from water-treatment processes  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article reports that land application is emerging as a viable disposal\\/reuse method for water-treatment-process residues. In many cases, these residues actually enhance soil quality and arrest fertilizer loss. Water treatment usually generates solid residues requiring disposal. These include sludges from lime softening and related pretreatment processes and spent ion-exchange resins and adsorbents used for softening, dealkalization, and deionization of

Makansi

1993-01-01

177

Plasma treatment of diamond nanoparticles for dispersion improvement in water  

SciTech Connect

Low-temperature plasmas of methane and oxygen mixtures were used to treat diamond nanoparticles to modify their surface characteristics and thus improve their dispersion capability in water. It was found that the plasma treatment significantly reduced water contact angle of diamond nanoparticles and thus rendered the nanoparticles with strong water affinity for dispersion enhancement in polar media such as water. Surface analysis using Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy confirmed that polar groups were imparted on nanoparticle surfaces. As a result, improved suspension stability was observed with plasma treated nanoparticles when dispersed in water.

Yu Qingsong; Kim, Young Jo; Ma, Hongbin [Center for Surface Science and Plasma Technology, Department of Chemical Engineering, University of Missouri-Columbia, Columbia, Missouri 65211 (United States); Department of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering, University of Missouri-Columbia, Columbia, Missouri 65211 (United States)

2006-06-05

178

Treatment of circulating water in petroleum refineries  

Microsoft Academic Search

1.Commercial tests have been performed on the inhibitor IKB-4, and the following have been established: (a) with an inhibitor dose of 50 mg\\/liter (calculated on makeup), the rates of corrosion and sediment formation in shell-and-tube heat exchangers are reduced on the average by 93 and 54%, respectively, (b) The IKB-4 inhibitor gives the circulating water a certain amount of detergency,

K. Z. Saifutdinov; É. G. Ioakimis; A. K. Efimova; V. N. Umutba'ev; E. A. Sapozhnikova; V. P. Uchastkin

1975-01-01

179

Linking ceragenins to water-treatment membranes to minimize biofouling.  

SciTech Connect

Ceragenins were used to create biofouling resistant water-treatment membranes. Ceragenins are synthetically produced antimicrobial peptide mimics that display broad-spectrum bactericidal activity. While ceragenins have been used on bio-medical devices, use of ceragenins on water-treatment membranes is novel. Biofouling impacts membrane separation processes for many industrial applications such as desalination, waste-water treatment, oil and gas extraction, and power generation. Biofouling results in a loss of permeate flux and increase in energy use. Creation of biofouling resistant membranes will assist in creation of clean water with lower energy usage and energy with lower water usage. Five methods of attaching three different ceragenin molecules were conducted and tested. Biofouling reduction was observed in the majority of the tests, indicating the ceragenins are a viable solution to biofouling on water treatment membranes. Silane direct attachment appears to be the most promising attachment method if a high concentration of CSA-121a is used. Additional refinement of the attachment methods are needed in order to achieve our goal of several log-reduction in biofilm cell density without impacting the membrane flux. Concurrently, biofilm forming bacteria were isolated from source waters relevant for water treatment: wastewater, agricultural drainage, river water, seawater, and brackish groundwater. These isolates can be used for future testing of methods to control biofouling. Once isolated, the ability of the isolates to grow biofilms was tested with high-throughput multiwell methods. Based on these tests, the following species were selected for further testing in tube reactors and CDC reactors: Pseudomonas ssp. (wastewater, agricultural drainage, and Colorado River water), Nocardia coeliaca or Rhodococcus spp. (wastewater), Pseudomonas fluorescens and Hydrogenophaga palleronii (agricultural drainage), Sulfitobacter donghicola, Rhodococcus fascians, Rhodobacter katedanii, and Paracoccus marcusii (seawater), and Sphingopyxis spp. (groundwater). The testing demonstrated the ability of these isolates to be used for biofouling control testing under laboratory conditions. Biofilm forming bacteria were obtained from all the source water samples.

Hibbs, Michael R.; Altman, Susan Jeanne; Feng, Yanshu (Brigham Young University, Provo, Utah); Savage, Paul B. (Brigham Young University, Provo, Utah); Pollard, Jacob (Brigham Young University, Provo, Utah); Branda, Steven S.; Goeres, Darla (Montana State University, Bozeman, MT); Buckingham-Meyer, Kelli (Montana State University, Bozeman, MT); Stafslien, Shane (North Dakota State University, Fargo, ND); Marry, Christopher; Jones, Howland D. T.; Lichtenberger, Alyssa; Kirk, Matthew F.; McGrath, Lucas K. (LMATA, Albuquerque, NM)

2012-01-01

180

TECHNOLOGY TRANSFER HANDBOOK: MANAGEMENT OF WATER TREATMENT PLANT RESIDUALS  

EPA Science Inventory

Potable water treatment processes produce safe drinking water and generate a wide variety of waste products known as residuals, including organic and inorganic compounds in liquid, solid, and gaseous forms. In the current regulatory climate, a complete management program for a w...

181

Effects of Alum Water Treatment Sludge on Domestic Wastewater Sludges.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Research on the effects of alum sludge generated by water treatment plants on the properties of domestic waste water sludges is reported. Phase I of the three phase investigation was concerned with the effects of raw sewage containing alum sludge on an ac...

M. E. Burman

1975-01-01

182

Water drinking as a treatment for orthostatic syndromes  

Microsoft Academic Search

PurposeWater drinking increases blood pressure in a substantial proportion of patients who have severe orthostatic hypotension due to autonomic failure. We tested the hypothesis that water drinking can be used as a practical treatment for patients with orthostatic and postprandial hypotension, as well as those with orthostatic tachycardia.

John R Shannon; Andre Diedrich; Italo Biaggioni; Jens Tank; Rose Marie Robertson; David Robertson; Jens Jordan

2002-01-01

183

EVALUATION OF DRINKING WATER TREATMENT TECHNIQUES FOR EDC REMOVAL  

EPA Science Inventory

Many of the chemicals identified as potential endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDCs) may be present in surface or ground waters used as drinking water sources, due to their disposal via domestic and industrial sewage treatment systems and wet-weather runoff. In order to decrease t...

184

USEPA'S RESEARCH EFFORTS IN SMALL DRINKING WATER TREATMENT TECHNOLOGIES  

EPA Science Inventory

Currently, in the United States there are approximately 50,000 small community and 130,000 non-community systems providing water to over 25 million people. The drinking water treatment systems at these locations are not always adequate to comply with current and pending regulati...

185

Selenium Adsorption To Aluminum-Based Water Treatment Residuals  

EPA Science Inventory

Aluminum-based water treatment residuals (WTR) can adsorb water-and soil-borne P, As(V), As(III), and perchlorate, and may be able to adsorb excess environmental selenium. WTR, clay minerals, and amorphous aluminum hydroxide were shaken for 24 hours in selenate or selenite solut...

186

Chapter 12 Renewable Energy Powered Water Treatment Systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

There are many motivations for considering the use of renewable energy (RE) for powering water reuse or desalination systems. Although many RE technologies have been combined with water treatment technologies to provide a specific solution, the two dominant ones are photovoltaic- (PV) and wind-powered desalination systems. This chapter explores the possibilities and challenges for such technologies on a global scale.

Bryce S. Richards; Andrea I. Schäfer

2010-01-01

187

ECONOMIC ASSESSMENT OF WASTE WATER AQUACULTURE TREATMENT SYSTEMS  

EPA Science Inventory

This study attempted to ascertain the economic viability of aquaculture as an alternative to conventional waste water treatment systems for small municipalities in the Southwestern region of the United States. A multiple water quality objective level cost-effectiveness model was ...

188

REVERSE OSMOSIS FIELD TEST: TREATMENT OF COPPER CYANIDE RINSE WATERS  

EPA Science Inventory

Field tests of reverse osmosis (RO) were conducted on copper cyanide rinse waters at two different sites: Whyco Chromium Co. and New England Plating Co. At both sites, closed-loop treatment was used with plating chemicals recycled to the bath and purified water recycled to the ri...

189

The future for electrocoagulation as a localised water treatment technology  

Microsoft Academic Search

Electrocoagulation is an electrochemical method of treating polluted water whereby sacrificial anodes corrode to release active coagulant precursors (usually aluminium or iron cations) into solution. Accompanying electrolytic reactions evolve gas (usually as hydrogen bubbles) at the cathode.Electrocoagulation has a long history as a water treatment technology having been employed to remove a wide range of pollutants. However electrocoagulation has never

Peter K. Holt; Geoffrey W. Barton; Cynthia A. Mitchell

2005-01-01

190

DISPOSAL OF WASTES FROM WATER TREATMENT PLANTS—PART 4  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of this report is to provide current information on the nature of the water treatment plant waste disposal problem, and to assist water utilities in solving the problem. The report describes technology presently available, defines new approaches to the problem, and suggests future directions for the coordination and dissemination of information.

R. I. Dick; R. B. Dean; D. D. Adrian; A. P. Black; R. N. Kinman; K. E. Shull; G. Tchobanoglous; W. K. Neubauer; D. P. Proudfit; W. W. Aultman; S. L. Bishop; P. W. Doe; J. C. Nebiker; W. H. Plautz; J. W. Krasauskas; Lee Streicher; C. M. Bach; H. Hartung; C. E. Johnson; H. R. Peters; J. C. Webber; J. C. Lamb III; E. C. Weber; J. B. Coulter; G. H. Eagle; Vern Fahy; Edgar Henry; H. B. Russelmann

1970-01-01

191

Silica removal in thermal recovery water treatment programs  

Microsoft Academic Search

The silica must be removed from the water used for steam stimulation or steam-drive recovery programs. It may be removed by precipitation using either hot-process water softening or cold lime-soda softening, but the hot softening method is by far the most efficient technique. Silica may also be removed during ion-exchange treatment of the water. The hydroxides of aluminum, magnesium, and

1965-01-01

192

Preliminary studies of water treatment using forward osmosis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Forward osmosis (FO) is an emerging water treatment technology with potential applications in desalination and wastewater reclamation. The FO uses a concentrated draw solution to generate high osmotic pressure, which pulls water across a semipermeable membrane from the feed solution. In this study, we have investigated the effect of draw solution on FO water flux. The 0.1?M NaCl draw solution

Yijun Xie; Rui Ma; Shengji Xia

2012-01-01

193

Hot water treatments delay cold-induced banana peel blackening  

Microsoft Academic Search

Banana fruit of cv. Gros Michel (Musa acuminata, AAA Group, locally called cv. Hom Thong) and cv. Namwa (Musa×paradisiaca, ABB Group) were immersed for 5, 10 and 15min in water at 42°C, or in water at 25°C (control), and were then stored at 4°C. Hot water treatment for 15min delayed peel blackening during cold storage by about 4 days in

Surassawadee Promyou; Saichol Ketsa; Wouter G. van Doorn

2008-01-01

194

Alternative treatment strategy for tannery water reuse and material recovery  

Microsoft Academic Search

Most tanneries use conventional systems for treatment of the mixture of all production effluents. Such an approach makes it possible to meet environmental regulations, but because of the high cost of the treatment facilities, its implementation has been scarce, especially in developing countries. With the waste reduction-elimination concept in view, an alternative strategy for water management is proposed based on

P. Mijaylova Nacheva; G. Moeller Chávez; M. Juárez Herrera

195

A Movable Combined Water Treatment Facility for Rainwater Harvesting  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Alarming water shortage and increased water scarcity world wide has led to increased interests in alternative water sources. Rainwater harvesting is one of them which is getting more and more attention. There is a huge potential for generalization and extension of rainwater harvesting system as an alternative water supply. This is especially important for arid and semi-arid regions where the water shortage blocks further social, economical development. Earlier laboratory experiments and field study showed that harvested rainwater requires treatments of different degrees in order to meet the WHO drinking water standards. The main focus of this study is to ascertain the quality of stored rainwater for drinking purposes with emphasis on water disinfection and pollutants removal. A movable, low-cost, fully functional small scale treatment facility is proposed and tested under simulated field condition. A number of actual and potential hazardous pollutants were identified in the collected water samples together with laboratory test. The corresponding water purification procedure and fresh-keeping methods are discussed. The final proposal of this movable facility needs to be further examined to achieve optimal combined treatment efficiency.

Zhang, L.; Liao, L.

2003-12-01

196

MSWT-01, flood disaster water treatment solution from common ideas  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Indonesia has a lot of potential flood disaster places with clean water problems faced. Various solution programs always initiated by Government, companies CSR, and people sporadical actions to provide clean water; with their advantages and disadvantages respectively. One solution is easy to operate for instance, but didn't provide adequate capacity, whereas the other had ideal performance but more costly. This situation inspired to develop a water treatment machine that could be an alternative favor. There are many methods could be choosed; whether in simple, middle or high technology, depends on water source input and output result quality. MSWT, Mobile Surface Water Treatment, is an idea for raw water in flood area, basically made for 1m3 per hour. This water treatment design adopted from combined existing technologies and related literatures. Using common ideas, the highlight is how to make such modular process put in compact design elegantly, and would be equipped with mobile feature due to make easier in operational. Through prototype level experiment trials, the machine is capable for producing clean water that suitable for sanitation and cooking/drinking purposes although using contaminated water input source. From the investment point of view, such machine could be also treated as an asset that will be used from time to time when needed, instead of made for project approach only.

Ananto, Gamawan; Setiawan, Albertus B.; Z, Darman M.

2013-06-01

197

Removal of estrogens and estrogenicity through drinking water treatment.  

PubMed

Estrogenic compounds have been shown to be present in surface waters, leading to concerns over their possible presence in finished drinking waters. In this work, two in vitro human cell line bioassays for estrogenicity were used to evaluate the removal of estrogens through conventional drinking water treatment using a natural water. Bench-scale studies utilizing chlorine, alum coagulation, ferric chloride coagulation, and powdered activated carbon (PAC) were conducted using Ohio River water spiked with three estrogens, 17?-estradiol, 17?-ethynylestradiol, and estriol. Treatment of the estrogens with chlorine, either alone or with coagulant, resulted in approximately 98% reductions in the concentrations of the parent estrogens, accompanied by formation of by-products. The MVLN reporter gene and MCF-7 cell proliferation assays were used to characterize the estrogenic activity of the water before and after treatment. The observed estrogenic activities of the chlorinated samples showed that estrogenicity of the water was reduced commensurate with removal of the parent estrogen. Therefore, the estrogen chlorination by-products did not contribute appreciably to the estrogenic activity of the water. Coagulation alone did not result in significant removals of the estrogens. However, addition of PAC, at a typical drinking water plant dose, resulted in removals ranging from approximately 20 to 80%. PMID:22361701

Schenck, Kathleen; Rosenblum, Laura; Wiese, Thomas E; Wymer, Larry; Dugan, Nicholas; Williams, Daniel; Mash, Heath; Merriman, Betty; Speth, Thomas

2012-03-01

198

Reviewing efficacy of alternative water treatment techniques.  

PubMed

This section is designed to provide a brief summary of some of the findings. A good deal of work has been conducted by Mr N. L. Pavey and the team at BSRIA, Bracknell. The BSRIA publications are an excellent source of further information. Ultraviolet radiation: UV radiation of wavelength 254 nm destroys bacteria by a mechanism of damaging nucleic acids by producing thymine dimers which disrupt DNA replication [Gavdy and Gavdy, 1980]. L. pneumophila has been reported as sensitive to UV dosages of 2,500-7,000 uW.s/cm2 [Antopol & Ellner, 1979; Knudson, 1985]. Antopol and Ellner [1979] examined the susceptibility of L. pneumophila to UV dosage. Their results indicated that 50% of the organisms were killed by 380 uWs/cm2 and 90% were killed by 920 uWs/cm2. Kills of 99 and 99.9% were obtained using 1,840 and 2,760 uWs/cm2 respectively. Muraca et al [1987] showed that continuous UV irradiation resulted in a 5 logarithm decrease in waterborne L. pneumophila in a circulating system. Gilpin [1984] reported that in laboratory buffer solutions, exposure to 1 uW of UV radiation per cm2 achieved a 50% kill of L longbeachae in 5 minutes, L. gormanii in 2-30 minutes and L pneumophila in 17 minutes. Exposure times for 99% kills for L. longbeachae, L pneumophila and L. Gormanii were 33, 48 and 63 minutes respectively. The same research worker conducted experiments using a 3 litre circulating water system, connected to a stainless steel housing containing a UV source. The UV lamp output was 7 ergs/mm2 per second per 100 cm at 254 nm. L. pneumophila was killed within 15 seconds, that is within their first pass through the system. Continuous disinfection with UV has the advantages of imparting no taste, odour or harmful chemical by-products and requires minimal operation and maintenance [Muraca et al 1988]. Keevil et al [1989] state that UV irradiation fails to clear systems of biofilm because of poor penetration into microflocs of the micro-organisms. Copper/silver ionisation: A recent study of full scale hot water test rigs incorporating copper-silver ionisation systems has been reported by Pavey, 1996. Copper and silver ions were introduced into the water by electrolysis. One of the principal mechanisms of biocidal action of these ions is thought to be cell penetration. The positively charged copper ions form electrostatic bonds with negatively charged sites on the cell wall. The cell membrane is thus distorted, allowing ingress of silver ions which attack the cell by binding at specific sites to DNA, RNA, respiratory enzymes and cellular protein, causing catastrophic failure of the life support systems of the cell. Silver and copper ion concentrations of 40 and 400 ug/L respectively were effective against planktonic Legionellae in cold water systems and hot water systems containing soft water. In hard water, the ionisation was ineffective due to the inability to control silver ion concentrations. This was caused by scaling of the electrodes and silver ion complexation by the high concentration of dissolved solids. Bosch et al [1993] had earlier extended the application of copper-silver disinfection to human enteric viruses in water, such as adenovirus, rotavirus, hepatitis A virus, and poliovirus. Their work showed that copper and silver ions in the presence of reduced levels of free chlorine did not ensure the total elimination of viral pathogens from water. In the case of an amoeba, Naegleria fowleria [responsible for primary amoebic meningoencephalitis], Cassells et al [1995] have demonstrated that a combination of silver and copper ions were ineffective at inactivating the amoebae at 80 and 800 ug/L respectively. However addition of 1.0 mg/L free chlorine produced a synergistic effect, with superior inactivation relative to either chlorine or silver-copper in isolation. A similar synergy was reported by Yahya et al [1989] in their study of Staphylococcus sp. and Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Yahya et al [1992] also suggested an additive or synergistic effect in the inactivation of coliphage MS-2 and poliovirus. Other techniques: There are

Hambidge, A

2001-06-01

199

Establishing Solar Water Disinfection as a water treatment method at household level  

Microsoft Academic Search

billion People worldwide do not have access to safe drinking water and therefore are exposed to a high risk for diarrhoeal diseases. As a consequence, about 6,000 children die each day of dehydration due to diarrhoea. Adequate water treatment methods and safe storage of drinking water, combined with hygiene promotion, are required to prevent the population without access to safe

Regula Meierhofer

200

Back-country water treatment to prevent giardiasis.  

PubMed Central

This study was conducted to provide current information on the effectiveness of water treatment chemicals and filters for control of Giardia cysts in areas where treated water is not available. Four filters and seven chemical treatments were evaluated for both clear and turbid water at 10 degrees C. Three contact disinfection devices were also tested for cyst inactivation. Filters were tested with 1-liter volumes of water seeded with 3 x 10(4) cysts of G. lamblia produced in gerbils inoculated with in vitro cultured trophozoites; the entire volume of filtrate was examined for cyst passage. Chemical treatments were evaluated at concentrations specified by the manufacturer and for contact times that might be expected of hikers (30 minutes) and campers (eight hours, i.e., overnight). Two of the four filter devices tested were 100 percent effective for Giardia cyst removal. Of the other two filters, one was 90 percent effective and the other considerably less effective. Among the seven disinfection treatments, the iodine-based chemicals were all significantly more effective than the chlorine-based chemicals. None of the chemical treatments achieved 99.9 percent cyst inactivation with only 30-minute contact. After an eight-hour contact each of the iodine but none of the chlorine preparations achieved at least 99.9 percent cyst inactivation. None of the contact disinfection devices provided appreciable cyst inactivation. Heating water to at least 70 degrees C for 10 minutes was an acceptable alternative treatment.

Ongerth, J E; Johnson, R L; Macdonald, S C; Frost, F; Stibbs, H H

1989-01-01

201

40 CFR 749.68 - Hexavalent chromium-based water treatment chemicals in cooling systems.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-07-01 false Hexavalent chromium-based water treatment chemicals in cooling systems...CONTINUED) TOXIC SUBSTANCES CONTROL ACT WATER TREATMENT CHEMICALS Air Conditioning...749.68 Hexavalent chromium-based water treatment chemicals in cooling...

2013-07-01

202

40 CFR 749.68 - Hexavalent chromium-based water treatment chemicals in cooling systems.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-07-01 false Hexavalent chromium-based water treatment chemicals in cooling systems...CONTINUED) TOXIC SUBSTANCES CONTROL ACT WATER TREATMENT CHEMICALS Air Conditioning...749.68 Hexavalent chromium-based water treatment chemicals in cooling...

2012-07-01

203

40 CFR 749.68 - Hexavalent chromium-based water treatment chemicals in cooling systems.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-07-01 false Hexavalent chromium-based water treatment chemicals in cooling systems...CONTINUED) TOXIC SUBSTANCES CONTROL ACT WATER TREATMENT CHEMICALS Air Conditioning...749.68 Hexavalent chromium-based water treatment chemicals in cooling...

2011-07-01

204

Produced Water Treatment Using Microbial Fuel Cell Technology  

SciTech Connect

ORNL has developed a treatment for produced water using a combination of microbial fuel cells and electrosorption. A collaboration between Campbell Applied Physics and ORNL was initiated to further investigate development of the technology and apply it to treatment of field produced water. The project successfully demonstrated the potential of microbial fuel cells to generate electricity from organics in produced water. A steady voltage was continuously generated for several days using the system developed in this study. In addition to the extraction of electrical energy from the organic contaminants, use of the energy at the representative voltage was demonstrated for salts removal or desalination of the produced water. Thus, the technology has potential to remove organic as well as ionic contaminants with minimal energy input using this technology. This is a novel energy-efficient method to treat produced water. Funding to test the technology at larger scale is being pursued to enable application development.

Borole, A. P.; Campbell, R. [Campbell Applied Physics] [Campbell Applied Physics

2011-05-20

205

Is biological treatment a viable alternative for micropollutant removal in drinking water treatment processes?  

PubMed

In western societies, clean and safe drinking water is often taken for granted, but there are threats to drinking water resources that should not be underestimated. Contamination of drinking water sources by anthropogenic chemicals is one threat that is particularly widespread in industrialized nations. Recently, a significant amount of attention has been given to the occurrence of micropollutants in the urban water cycle. Micropollutants are bioactive and/or persistent chemicals originating from diverse sources that are frequently detected in water resources in the pg/L to ?g/L range. The aim of this review is to critically evaluate the viability of biological treatment processes as a means to remove micropollutants from drinking water resources. We first place the micropollutant problem in context by providing a comprehensive summary of the reported occurrence of micropollutants in raw water used directly for drinking water production and in finished drinking water. We then present a critical discussion on conventional and advanced drinking water treatment processes and their contribution to micropollutant removal. Finally, we propose biological treatment and bioaugmentation as a potential targeted, cost-effective, and sustainable alternative to existing processes while critically examining the technical limitations and scientific challenges that need to be addressed prior to implementation. This review will serve as a valuable source of data and literature for water utilities, water researchers, policy makers, and environmental consultants. Meanwhile this review will open the door to meaningful discussion on the feasibility and application of biological treatment and bioaugmentation in drinking water treatment processes to protect the public from exposure to micropollutants. PMID:24053940

Benner, Jessica; Helbling, Damian E; Kohler, Hans-Peter E; Wittebol, Janneke; Kaiser, Elena; Prasse, Carsten; Ternes, Thomas A; Albers, Christian N; Aamand, Jens; Horemans, Benjamin; Springael, Dirk; Walravens, Eddy; Boon, Nico

2013-10-15

206

ETV REPORT: REMOVAL OF ARSENIC IN DRINKING WATER ORCA WATER TECHNOLOGIES KEMLOOP 1000 COAGULATION AND FILTRATION WATER TREATMENT SYSTEM  

EPA Science Inventory

Verification testing of the ORCA Water Technologies KemLoop 1000 Coagulation and Filtration Water Treatment System for arsenic removal was conducted at the St. Louis Center located in Washtenaw County, Michigan, from March 23 through April 6, 2005. The source water was groundwate...

207

Innovative Treatment Technologies for Natural Waters and Wastewaters  

SciTech Connect

The research described in this report focused on the development of novel membrane contactor processes (in particular, forward osmosis (FO), pressure retarded osmosis (PRO), and membrane distillation (MD)) in low energy desalination and wastewater treatment applications and in renewable energy generation. FO and MD are recently gaining national and international attention as viable, economic alternatives for removal of both established and emerging contaminants from natural and process waters; PRO is gaining worldwide attention as a viable source of renewable energy. The interrelationship of energy and water are at the core of this study. Energy and water are inextricably bound; energy usage and production must be considered when evaluating any water treatment process for practical application. Both FO and MD offer the potential for substantial energy and resource savings over conventional treatment processes and PRO offers the potential for renewable energy or energy offsets in desalination. Combination of these novel technologies with each other, with existing technologies (e.g., reverse osmosis (RO)), and with existing renewable energy sources (e.g., salinity gradient solar ponds) may enable much less expensive water production and also potable water production in remote or distributed locations. Two inter-related projects were carried out in this investigation. One focused on membrane bioreactors for wastewater treatment and PRO for renewable energy generation; the other focused on MD driven by a salinity gradient solar pond.

Childress, Amy E.

2011-07-01

208

Carbon isotopic characterisation of dissolved organic matter during water treatment.  

PubMed

Water treatment is a series of physio-chemical processes to aid organic matter (OM) removal, which helps to minimise the formation of potentially carcinogenic disinfection by-products and microbial regrowth. Changes in OM character through the treatment processes can provide insight into the treatment efficiency, but radiogenic isotopic characterisation techniques have yet to be applied. Here, we show for the first time that analysis of (13)C and (14)C of dissolved organic carbon (DOC) effectively characterises dissolved OM through a water treatment works. At the sites investigated: post-clarification, DOC becomes isotopically lighter, due to an increased proportion of relatively hydrophilic DOC. Filtration adds 'old' (14)C-DOC from abrasion of the filter media, whilst the use of activated carbon adds 'young' (14)C-DOC, most likely from the presence of biofilms. Overall, carbon isotopes provide clear evidence for the first time that new sources of organic carbon are added within the treatment processes, and that treated water is isotopically lighter and typically younger in (14)C-DOC age than untreated water. We anticipate our findings will precipitate real-time monitoring of treatment performance using stable carbon isotopes, with associated improvements in energy and carbon footprint (e.g. isotopic analysis used as triggers for filter washing and activated carbon regeneration) and public health benefits resulting from improved carbon removal. PMID:24075722

Bridgeman, John; Gulliver, Pauline; Roe, Jessie; Baker, Andy

2014-01-01

209

SMALL DRINKING WATER TREATMENT TECHNOLOGIES FOR COMPLIANCE WITH THE ENHANCED SURFACE WATER TREATMENT RULES  

EPA Science Inventory

According to FY2003 statistics compiled by the Office of Ground Water and Drinking Water, the U.S. regulates about 160,000 small drinking water systems that impact close to 70 million people. Small systems (serving transient and non-transient populations of 10,000 people or less...

210

Conventional Water Treatment and Direct Filtration: Treatment and Removal of Total Organic Carbon and Trihalomethane Precursors.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

After describing the fundamentals of coagulation of humic substances for alum and cationic polyelectrolytes, field studies of two conventional-type water treatment plants are discussed. THM formation through the plants is examined, and removals of total o...

J. K. Edzwald

1986-01-01

211

Characteristics of Electrode-Water-Electrode Discharge and its Application to Water Treatment  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Atmospheric air discharge above the surface of water is an effective method for water treatment. The leakage current and Joule heating of water are reduced by the air gap, which raises the energy efficiency of the water treatment. However, the application of this kind of discharge is limited by a pair of conflicting factors: the chemical efficiency grows as the discharge gap distance decreases, while the spark breakdown voltage decreases as the gap distance decreases. To raise the spark breakdown voltage and the chemical efficiency of atmospheric pressure water surface discharge, both the high-voltage electrode and the ground electrode are suspended above the water surface to form an electrode-water-electrode discharge system. For this system, there are two potential discharge directions: from one electrode to another directly, and from the electrodes to the water surface. The first step in utilizing the electrode-water-electrode discharge is to find out the discharge direction transition criterion. In this paper, the discharge direction transition criterions of spark discharge and streamer discharge are presented. By comparing the discharge characteristics and the chemical efficiencies, the discharge propagating from the electrodes to the water surface is proved to be more suitable for water treatment than that propagating directly between the electrodes.

Wang, Xiaoping; Li, Zhongjian; Zhang, Xingwang; Lei, Lecheng

2014-05-01

212

Is hot water immersion an effective treatment for marine envenomation?  

PubMed

Envenomation by marine creatures is common. As more people dive and snorkel for leisure, the incidence of envenomation injuries presenting to emergency departments has increased. Although most serious envenomations occur in the temperate or tropical waters of the Indo-Pacific region, North American and European waters also provide a habitat for many stinging creatures. Marine envenomations can be classified as either surface stings or puncture wounds. Antivenom is available for a limited number of specific marine creatures. Various other treatments such as vinegar, fig juice, boiled cactus, heated stones, hot urine, hot water, and ice have been proposed, although many have little scientific basis. The use of heat therapies, previously reserved for penetrating fish spine injuries, has been suggested as treatment for an increasing variety of marine envenomation. This paper reviews the evidence for the effectiveness of hot water immersion (HWI) and other heat therapies in the management of patients presenting with pain due to marine envenomation. PMID:16794088

Atkinson, P R T; Boyle, A; Hartin, D; McAuley, D

2006-07-01

213

Croatian refiner meets waste water treatment standards, reduces fines  

SciTech Connect

A new approach to waste water treatment at a refinery in Croatia produces effluent that not only meets the region`s regulations for disposal into the Adriatic Sea, but also surpasses the refinery`s specifications for recycling process water. Key to the dramatic reduction in pollutants was the installation of a Sandfloat unit developed by Krofta Engineering Corp. The Sandfloat unit is a dissolved air flotation clarifier that combines flocculation, flotation, and multilayer filtration to produce high-quality effluent. In fact, the effluent from the unit has a lower hydrocarbon concentration than water from the underground wells that supply process water to the refinery. While similar systems have been used for decades in industrial applications, this is the first time a Sandfloat unit has been installed in an oil refinery. The article describes the problem, refinery operations, treatment costs, and effluent recycling.

Meier, A.L. [Krofta Engineering Corp., Lenox, MA (United States); Nikolic, O. [INA Oil Refinery, Rijeka (Croatia)

1995-11-27

214

Treatment of oil spill water by ozonation and sand filtration.  

PubMed

Increasing volumes of crude oil being produced and transported throughout the world in recent decades have resulted in increased risks of spill and high-profile spill incidents of significant environmental and ecological impacts over extended periods of time. While immediate in situ and ex situ responses have been implemented, none are available for onsite treatment of contaminated water for immediate release of the treated water. We demonstrate here a potential treatment scheme involving ozonation and sand filtration intended for immediate treatment and discharge of the impacted water. Waters of tap, Utah Lake, and Great Salt Lake sources were spiked with crude oil of the Great Natural Butte of Utah at 2.5% and 0.025% oil (v/v) and tested for treatment. The results showed near complete removal (100%) of both Chemical Oxygen Demand (COD) and oil and grease (O&G) from initially 20000 and 11000 mg L(-1), respectively, via flotation pretreatment, ozonation in pressure cycles, and sand filtration. At lower oil level of 0.025%, complete removal of COD and O&G from waters were achieved without floatation. The treated waters showed reduction of turbidity to <1 from 4000 NTU and high Biochemical Oxygen Demand/COD ratio of 0.3-0.5 that reflected highly biodegradable residual organics. The results showed synergistic oil removal when two well practiced methods, namely ozonation and sand filtration that either alone seems ineffective, are combined sequentially. It indicates a potential on-site treatment response for oil spill incidents where the collection and transport of a large amount of contaminated water may be avoided. PMID:23394956

Hong, P K Andy; Xiao, Ting

2013-04-01

215

40 CFR 141.403 - Treatment technique requirements for ground water systems.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED)] [Subchapter D - WATER PROGRAMS (CONTINUED)] [Part 141 - NATIONAL PRIMARY DRINKING WATER REGULATIONS--] [Subpart S - Ground Water Rule] [Sec. 141.403 - Treatment technique requirements...

2009-07-01

216

Preparation and Properties of Environmentally Friendly Water Treatment Material  

Microsoft Academic Search

A new kind of water treatment composite was prepared by melt blend for diesel oil and chromium (VI) absorption, Ethylene Propylene Diene Monomer (EPDM) was the matrix, calcinatory Fe2O3 and anion exchange resin were the fillers. This composite can suspend in water-oil contact. The results showed that the diesel oil absorbencies were step-down and chromium (VI) absorbencies increased continuously as

Heqin Xing; Xiuqi Liu

2009-01-01

217

Electrochemical treatment of pentachlorophenol in water and pulp bleaching effluent  

Microsoft Academic Search

Adsorbable organic halides (AOX) compounds produced during bleaching of pulp are recalcitrant and known to have eco-toxic effect. We have studied the removal of pentachlorophenol (PCP) as a model AOX compound in water as well as in pulp bleaching effluent of a bamboo based mill by electrochemical treatment in batch mode. It was found that 10mgL?1 of PCP in water

Upendra D. Patel; Sumathi Suresh

2008-01-01

218

Treatment of cadmium and nickel electroplating rinse water by electrocoagulation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Treatments of cadmium?cyanide and nickel?cyanide electroplating rinse water were investigated in an electrochemical reactor equipped with iron plate electrodes in a batch mode by electrocoagulation (EC). Effects of the process variables such as pH, current density, and operating time were explored with respect to removal efficiencies of cadmium, nickel and cyanide in electroplating rinse water and operating costs as well.

M. Kobya; E. Demirbas; N. U. Parlak; S. Yigit

2010-01-01

219

Guide to land treatment of municipal waste water in Illinois  

SciTech Connect

Waste water is a recyclable commodity. Organic matter, nitrogen, phosphorus, and micronutrients in waste water are generally harmful when discharged to lakes and streams, but these constituents have a positive economic value when applied under properly controlled conditions to vegetated soils. The guide provides an overview of planning for a land-treatment system. It first discusses the potential for land treatment in Illinois, how to modify lagoons for land treatment, economic considerations, health and environmental concerns, regulatory requirements, and public education. It then provides more technical information on land-treatment processes, site and waste-load evaluation, systems for agricultural production, the potential for supplemental irrigation in Illinois, general site management, and system monitoring.

Skelton, L.W.; Hinesly, T.D.; John, S.F.

1989-01-01

220

Removal of antibiotics from surface and distilled water in conventional water treatment processes  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Conventional drinking water treatment processes were evaluated under typical water treatment plant conditions to determine their effectiveness in the removal of seven common antibiotics: carbadox, sulfachlorpyridazine, sulfadimethoxine, sulfamerazine, sulfamethazine, sulfathiazole, and trimethoprim. Experiments were conducted using synthetic solutions prepared by spiking both distilled/ deionized water and Missouri River water with the studied compounds. Sorption on Calgon WPH powdered activated carbon, reverse osmosis, and oxidation with chlorine and ozone under typical plant conditions were all shown to be effective in removing the studied antibiotics. Conversely, coagulation/flocculation/sedimentation with alum and iron salts, excess lime/soda ash softening, ultraviolet irradiation at disinfection dosages, and ion exchange were all relatively ineffective methods of antibiotic removal. This study shows that the studied antibiotics could be effectively removed using processes already in use many water treatment plants. Additional work is needed on by-product formation and the removal of other classes of antibiotics.

Adams, C.; Wang, Y.; Loftin, K.; Meyer, M.

2002-01-01

221

Technology assessment of aquaculture systems for municipal waste water treatment  

SciTech Connect

The innovative and alternative technology provisions of the Clean Water Act of 1977 (PL 95-217) provide financial incentives to communities that use wastewater treatment alternatives to reduce costs or energy consumption over conventional systems. Some of these technologies have been only recently developed and are not in widespread use in the United States. This document discusses the applicability and technical and economic feasibility of using aquaculture systems for municipal wastewater treatment facilities.

Hyde, H.C.; Ross, R.S.; Sturmer, L.

1984-08-01

222

Water drinking as a treatment for orthostatic syndromes  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

PURPOSE: Water drinking increases blood pressure in a substantial proportion of patients who have severe orthostatic hypotension due to autonomic failure. We tested the hypothesis that water drinking can be used as a practical treatment for patients with orthostatic and postprandial hypotension, as well as those with orthostatic tachycardia. SUBJECTS AND METHODS: We studied the effect of drinking water on seated and standing blood pressure and heart rate in 11 patients who had severe orthostatic hypotension due to autonomic failure and in 9 patients who had orthostatic tachycardia due to idiopathic orthostatic intolerance. We also tested the effect of water drinking on postprandial hypotension in 7 patients who had autonomic failure. Patients drank 480 mL of tap water at room temperature in less than 5 minutes. RESULTS: In patients with autonomic failure, mean (+/- SD) blood pressure after 1 minute of standing was 83 +/- 6/53 +/- 3.4 mm Hg at baseline, which increased to 114 +/- 30/66 +/- 18 mm Hg (P <0.01) 35 minutes after drinking. After a meal, blood pressure decreased by 43 +/- 36/20 +/- 13 mm Hg without water drinking, compared with 22 +/- 10/12 +/- 5 mm Hg with drinking (P <0.001). In patients with idiopathic orthostatic intolerance, water drinking attenuated orthostatic tachycardia (123 +/- 23 beats per minute) at baseline to 108 +/- 21 beats per minute after water drinking ( P <0.001). CONCLUSION: Water drinking elicits a rapid pressor response in patients with autonomic failure and can be used to treat orthostatic and postprandial hypotension. Water drinking moderately reduces orthostatic tachycardia in patients with idiopathic orthostatic intolerance. Thus, water drinking may serve as an adjunctive treatment in patients with impaired orthostatic tolerance.

Shannon, John R.; Diedrich, Andre; Biaggioni, Italo; Tank, Jens; Robertson, Rose Marie; Robertson, David; Jordan, Jens

2002-01-01

223

Greenhouses that grow clean water: Solar aquatic treatment of waste water  

SciTech Connect

John Todd, an aquatic biologist who has found a way to use Mother Nature's secrets to turn toxic sludge into water pure enough to drink--cleaner, in fact, than many municipal water supplies. Todd, formerly a research scientist at the Woods Hole Oceanographic Institute in Massachusetts, U.S.A., has taken the developments of the last twenty years in rock marsh and wetland natural treatment of sewage one step further by putting the whole system under a greenhouse. Because of the quality of water his solar aquatic system produces, Todd prefers to call the ecologically engineered sewage treatment system he invented a waste water restoration system. With the diminution of sources of unpolluted water and, with rising population, an increasing demand for clean water, Todd's invention could be a godsend to urban centers. 1 ref.

Carroll, D. (SunWorld, Santa Fe, NM (USA))

1990-09-01

224

Significance and treatment of volatile organic compounds in water supplies  

SciTech Connect

Chapter 1 covers the statutory and regulatory basis for the control of chemicals in drinking water and the 1986 Amendments to the Safe Drinking Water Act. Chapter 2 reviews: (1) the nature and extent of groundwater contamination, and (2) management controls. Chapter 3 describes research methods for determination of aqueous VOCs. Chapter 4 reviews the EPA-approved analytical methods for VOC analysis in drinking water. Chapter 5 presents sampling and analysis procedures to minimize volatilization loss. Chapter 6 reviews past and present approaches of fiber optics to measure VOCs in groundwater. Chapter 7 reviews the national surveys of VOCs in ground and surface waters. Chapter 9 presents a conceptual overview of VOC transport in groundwater. Chapter 10 discusses the physical-chemical properties and fate of VOCs using the fugacity approach. Chapter 11 focuses on biologically mediated transformations that affect the fate of VOCs in the environment. Chapter 12 reviews the theory and applications of VOC removal from drinking water by adsorption. Chapter 13 presents a detailed model for a packed tower aeration (PTA) system. Chapter 14 describes oxidative treatment methods that convert VOCs to relatively harmless substances. Chapter 15 reviews research, being conducted by EPA's Drinking Water Research Division. Chapter 16 describes point-of-use/point-of-entry systems technology. Chapter 17 presents an economic analysis of GA and PTA. The remaining five chapters discuss the risks involved in water treatment for VOCs. Separate abstracts are processed for 21 chapters in this book for inclusion in the appropriate data bases.

Ram, N.M.; Christman, R.F.; Cantor, K.P. (ed.)

1990-01-01

225

Treatment of tunnel wash water and implications for its disposal.  

PubMed

The use of road tunnels in urban areas creates water pollution problems, since the tunnels must be frequently cleaned for traffic safety reasons. The washing generates extensive volumes of highly polluted water, for example, more than fivefold higher concentrations of suspended solids compared to highway runoff. The pollutants in the wash water have an affinity for particulate material, so sedimentation should be a viable treatment option. In this study, 12 in situ sedimentation trials were carried out on tunnel wash water, with and without addition of chemical flocculent. Initial suspended solids concentration ranged from 804 to 9,690 mg/L. With sedimentation times of less than 24 hours and use of a chemical flocculent, it was possible to reach low concentrations of suspended solids (<15 mg/L), PAH (<0.1 ?g/L), As (<1.0 ?g/L), Cd (<0.05 ?g/L), Hg (<0.02 ?g/L), Fe (<200 ?g/L), Ni (<8 ?g/L), Pb (<0.5 ?g/L), Zn (<60 ?g/L) and Cr (<8 ?g/L). Acute Microtox(®) toxicity, mainly attributed to detergents used for the tunnel wash, decreased significantly at low suspended solids concentrations after sedimentation using a flocculent. The tunnel wash water did not inhibit nitrification. The treated water should be suitable for discharge into recipient waters or a wastewater treatment plant. PMID:24845317

Hallberg, M; Renman, G; Byman, L; Svenstam, G; Norling, M

2014-01-01

226

Intravenous infusion of sterile water for the treatment of hypernatraemia.  

PubMed

Little research has been carried out into the infusion of intravenous sterile water for the treatment of hypernatraemia, and it remains a contentious issue. We conducted a review of the literature and extract results following an extensive search of Medline 1946, Embase 1974, ProQuest, evidence-based practice resources, national and international guideline sites and the publications of various professional bodies. The review is presented on the infusion of sterile water (hypotonic fluid) to lower serum sodium level in those circumstances when enteral supplementation of water is not possible, such as in postoperative patients or when other isotonic fluids (such as 5% dextrose in water infusion) are less than ideal-for example, hyperglycaemic patients on an insulin infusion. Absence of guidelines has limited the use of sterile water, even as an off-label drug when it can be administered relatively safely via a central line. PMID:24580394

Ramaswamykanive, H; Greaves, J

2014-03-01

227

Enteric illness risks before and after water treatment improvements.  

PubMed

This study evaluated whether occurrence of acute gastrointestinal illnesses declined after filtration and ozonation were added to a previously unfiltered, chlorinated high-quality surface water source in a northwest United States city. Enteric and other illnesses were recorded for two 6-month periods for control and intervention sites in the same city. During phase 1, chlorinated, unfiltered drinking water for both sites was obtained from protected watersheds. During phase 2, the intervention site received chlorinated, filtered and ozonated drinking water. The water was not altered in the control site. No overall differences were found in the risk of any of the illnesses after the new water treatment plant was completed. There was a significantly increased risk of diarrhoea and highly credible gastrointestinal illness in participants with three or more episodes of the same type of illness during phase 1. PMID:19590125

Frost, Floyd J; Tollestrup, Kristine; Roberts, Melissa; Kunde, Twila R; Craun, Gunther F; Harter, Lucy

2009-12-01

228

Supercritical water oxidation test bed effluent treatment study  

SciTech Connect

This report presents effluent treatment options for a 50 h Supercritical Water Test Unit. Effluent compositions are calculated for eight simulated waste streams, using different assumed cases. Variations in effluent composition with different reactor designs and operating schemes are discussed. Requirements for final effluent compositions are briefly reviewed. A comparison is made of two general schemes. The first is one in which the effluent is cooled and effluent treatment is primarily done in the liquid phase. In the second scheme, most treatment is performed with the effluent in the gas phase. Several unit operations are also discussed, including neutralization, mercury removal, and evaporation.

Barnes, C.M.

1994-04-01

229

WATER FACTORY 21: RECLAIMED WATER, VOLATILE ORGANICS, VIRUS, AND TREATMENT PERFORMANCE  

EPA Science Inventory

This report describes the performance of Water Factory 21, a 0.66 cu m/s advanced wastewater treatment plant designed to reclaim secondary effluent from a municipal wastewater treatment plant so that it can be used for injection and recharge of a groundwater system. Included in t...

230

Waste Water Management and Infectious Disease. Part II: Impact of Waste Water Treatment  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The ability of various treatment processes, such as oxidation ponds, chemical coagulation and filtration, and the soil mantle, to remove the agents of infectious disease found in waste water is discussed. The literature concerning the efficiency of removal of these organisms by various treatment processes is reviewed. (BT)

Cooper, Robert C.

1975-01-01

231

Problems of drinking water treatment along Ismailia Canal Province, Egypt*  

PubMed Central

The present drinking water purification system in Egypt uses surface water as a raw water supply without a preliminary filtration process. On the other hand, chlorine gas is added as a disinfectant agent in two steps, pre- and post-chlorination. Due to these reasons most of water treatment plants suffer low filtering effectiveness and produce the trihalomethane (THM) species as a chlorination by-product. The Ismailia Canal represents the most distal downstream of the main Nile River. Thus its water contains all the proceeded pollutants discharged into the Nile. In addition, the downstream reaches of the canal act as an agricultural drain during the closing period of the High Dam gates in January and February every year. Moreover, the wide industrial zone along the upstream course of the canal enriches the canal water with high concentrations of heavy metals. The obtained results indicate that the canal gains up to 24.06×106 m3 of water from the surrounding shallow aquifer during the closing period of the High Dam gates, while during the rest of the year, the canal acts as an influent stream losing about 99.6×106 m3 of its water budget. The reduction of total organic carbon (TOC) and suspended particulate matters (SPMs) should be one of the central goals of any treatment plan to avoid the disinfectants by-products. The combination of sedimentation basins, gravel pre-filtration and slow sand filtration, and underground passage with microbiological oxidation-reduction and adsorption criteria showed good removal of parasites and bacteria and complete elimination of TOC, SPM and heavy metals. Moreover, it reduces the use of disinfectants chemicals and lowers the treatment costs. However, this purification system under the arid climate prevailing in Egypt should be tested and modified prior to application.

Geriesh, Mohamed H.; Balke, Klaus-Dieter; El-Rayes, Ahmed E.

2008-01-01

232

Problems of drinking water treatment along Ismailia Canal Province, Egypt.  

PubMed

The present drinking water purification system in Egypt uses surface water as a raw water supply without a preliminary filtration process. On the other hand, chlorine gas is added as a disinfectant agent in two steps, pre- and post-chlorination. Due to these reasons most of water treatment plants suffer low filtering effectiveness and produce the trihalomethane (THM) species as a chlorination by-product. The Ismailia Canal represents the most distal downstream of the main Nile River. Thus its water contains all the proceeded pollutants discharged into the Nile. In addition, the downstream reaches of the canal act as an agricultural drain during the closing period of the High Dam gates in January and February every year. Moreover, the wide industrial zone along the upstream course of the canal enriches the canal water with high concentrations of heavy metals. The obtained results indicate that the canal gains up to 24.06x10(6) m3 of water from the surrounding shallow aquifer during the closing period of the High Dam gates, while during the rest of the year, the canal acts as an influent stream losing about 99.6x10(6) m3 of its water budget. The reduction of total organic carbon (TOC) and suspended particulate matters (SPMs) should be one of the central goals of any treatment plan to avoid the disinfectants by-products. The combination of sedimentation basins, gravel pre-filtration and slow sand filtration, and underground passage with microbiological oxidation-reduction and adsorption criteria showed good removal of parasites and bacteria and complete elimination of TOC, SPM and heavy metals. Moreover, it reduces the use of disinfectants chemicals and lowers the treatment costs. However, this purification system under the arid climate prevailing in Egypt should be tested and modified prior to application. PMID:18357626

Geriesh, Mohamed H; Balke, Klaus-Dieter; El-Rayes, Ahmed E

2008-03-01

233

DRINKING WATER TREATMENT AND RISK OF CANCER DEATH IN WISCONSIN  

EPA Science Inventory

A case control study of drinking water treatment practices and female cancer mortality was conducted in Wisconsin. Cancer deaths for 1972-1977 from 28 Wisconsin counties and non-cancer deaths matched to cancer deaths on age, year of death and county of residence, were compared fo...

234

Chlorine demand removal by biological treatment in cold water  

Microsoft Academic Search

A major strategy to reduce or prevent the formation of undesirable by?products is to reduce chlorine demand before the application of chlorine. The major objective of this study was to evaluate the performance of different water treatment processes at full scale, specifically the combination of ozonation and biological activated carbon (BAG) filtration, for the removal of chlorine demand over a

M. Prévost; R. Desjardins; D. Duchesne; C. Poirier

1991-01-01

235

NATURE OF ORGANICS REMOVED DURING TREATMENT OF MISSISSIPPI RIVER WATER  

EPA Science Inventory

In light of increasing concern for the organic content of potable water supplies and the production of potentially toxic chlorinated organic products, a better understanding of the character of organics removed by commonly used treatment processes is desirable. A variety of chemi...

236

REVERSE OSMOSIS FIELD TEST: TREATMENT OF WATTS NICKEL RINSE WATERS  

EPA Science Inventory

A field test was conducted to determine the feasibility of using a polyamide reverse-osmosis membrane in hollow fine fiber configuration for closed-loop treatment of rinse water from a Watts-type nickel bath. Performance of the membrane module was determined by measuring the prod...

237

A collaborative design appraisal system for water treatment engineering projects  

Microsoft Academic Search

Water treatment projects usually involve large capital investment. Design appraisal is crucial to ensure project quality and cost effectiveness. The aim of design appraisal is to give the design team an opportunity to evaluate a proposed solution at the design stage when the benefits for change are high and cost is low. Design appraisal is a collaborative decision-making process that

M Sun; N Bakis; G Aouad

2003-01-01

238

Evaluation of treatment technologies for water reuse in coal gasification  

Microsoft Academic Search

This investigation assessed significant issues and conducted bench scale experiments pertinent to management and reuse of coal coking and coal gasification process wastewaters. For the case of high-BTU coal gasification processes, the cooling tower is the most likely target for reuse of process wastewater. Treatment studies were performed with high BTU pilot coal gasification process quench waters to evaluate enhanced

R. G. Luthy; J. R. Campbell; L. McLaughlin; R. W. Walters

1980-01-01

239

ORGANOPHOSPHATE PESTICIDE DEGRADATION UNDER DRINKING WATER TREATMENT CONDITIONS  

EPA Science Inventory

Chlorpyrifos (CP) was used as a model compound to develop experimental methods and prototype modeling tools to forecast the fate of organophosphate (OP) pesticides under drinking water treatment conditions. CP was found to rapidly oxidize to chlorpyrifos oxon (CPO) in the presen...

240

Study of Salt Wash Water Toxicity on Wastewater Treatment  

Microsoft Academic Search

This research effort focused on evaluating the toxicity of the saline waste water generated from washing of Indiana Department of Transportation (INDOT) deicing trucks and to study the feasibility of discharging it into wastewater treatment plants. Performance of activated sludge treating wastewater under varying levels of salt concentration was studied by measuring the Chemical Oxygen Demand (COD), activated sludge oxygen

Mostafa F. Hashad; Surabhi Sharma; Loring F. Nies; James E. Alleman

2006-01-01

241

[Zosteriform leiomyomatosis--successful treatment by iontophoresis with tap water].  

PubMed

We report on a 44-year-old male patient with zosteriform leiomyomatosis on his right back (paravertebral Th 10-L2), who suffered from severe pain, especially after thermal or pressure irritation, in this area. Treatment with iontophoresis using tap water resulted in a gradual relief from the pain. PMID:2291291

Lindscheid, K R; Zabel, M

1990-10-01

242

Expert computer program for boiler-water treatment. Master's thesis  

SciTech Connect

AFR 91-40, Industrial Water Treatment, 24 September 1984, initiated a new era in Air Force boiler-water treatment. The study evaluates the current implementation status of this regulation through associated formal schools support, central laboratory use, check-analysis performance, and AFESC Corrosion Analysis Reports. The evaluation identifies a lack of expertise at base level due to lagging technology transfer. The study then investigates the development of an expert computer program following AFR 91-40 and AFP 91-41, Industrial Water Treatment Procedures, 18 September 1987, to improve this information transfer and bolster management emphasis. Initial validation against Maxwell AFB central energy plant data identifies problem areas confirmed by plant personnel. Using program output, the author recommends a pretreatment system and generic chemicals that have an estimated effective annual savings of $11,505. The study concludes that additional validation of the program is necessary and recommends a one-year test by graduates of AFIT's ENG 595, Industrial Water Treatment, course.

Kaminskas, M.J.

1988-01-01

243

COST MODELING FOR DRINKING WATER UNIT TREATMENT PROCESSES  

EPA Science Inventory

Current U.S. EPA research is underway to improve and expand upon a cost data base for use in estimating the economics of building and operating drinking water treatment facilities. his cost data is important to the EPA decision making process when formulating new regulations and ...

244

Potential Ozone Applications for Water\\/Wastewater Treatment  

Microsoft Academic Search

Several applications of ozonation were examined in this study for: i. the treatment of stabilized high strength municipal landfill leachates,ii. the reclamation potential and toxicity reduction of municipal secondary effluents, andiii. the removal potential of phytoplanktons from surface waters. The major parameters examined were the applied ozone dosage and the respective contact time. The application of single ozonation on leachates

A. Zouboulis; P. Samaras; X. Ntampou; M. Petala

2007-01-01

245

USE OF FERRATE IN SMALL DRINKING WATER TREATMENT SYSTEMS  

EPA Science Inventory

The proposed project will result in a document providing guidance for the beneficial use of ferrate in small systems. We will highlight the ways it can be used to improve water quality, lower cost and provide a more sustainable treatment alternative to other technologies. W...

246

Impact of Arsenic Treatment Techniques on Distribution Water Quality  

EPA Science Inventory

This presentation will summarize the results of the distribution water quality studies (arsenic, lead, and copper) of the demonstration program. The impact of the treatment systems by type of system (adsorptive media, coagulation/filtration, ion exchange, etc) will be shown by co...

247

Nitrate photosensitized degradation of atrazine during UV water treatment  

Microsoft Academic Search

Increasingly, ultraviolet radiation (UV) is being used to treat chemical contaminants in waste and drinking water. To understand the significance of indirect photolysis during such processes, the effect of nitrate on UV treatment of atrazine (ATZ) was investigated at pH 7 in phosphate buffer and solutions containing Suwannee River natural organic matter (NOM). With a medium-pressure mercury lamp, environmentally relevant

Charles M. Sharpless; Deborah A. Seibold; Karl G. Linden

2003-01-01

248

EVALUATING A COMPOSITE CARTRIDGE FOR SMALL SYSTEM DRINKING WATER TREATMENT  

EPA Science Inventory

A multi-layer, cartridge-based system that combines physical filtration with carbon adsorption and ultraviolet (UV) light disinfection has been developed to perform as a water treatment security device to protect homes against accidental or intentional contaminant events. A seri...

249

52. NORTHEASTERN EXTERIOR VIEW OF DOOROLIVER WAST WATER TREATMENT THICKENER ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

52. NORTHEASTERN EXTERIOR VIEW OF DOOR-OLIVER WAST WATER TREATMENT THICKENER No. 1. ELECTRIC POWERHOUSE No. 2 AND BLOW ENGINE HOUSE No. 3 IS IN THE BACKGROUND. (Jet Lowe) - U.S. Steel Duquesne Works, Blast Furnace Plant, Along Monongahela River, Duquesne, Allegheny County, PA

250

Coagulants Optimization of Low Turbidity Water Treatment in Feedwater Plant  

Microsoft Academic Search

This research aimed to determine the organic and turbidity removal efficiencies of different coagulants to raw water with low temperature and turbidity. The experiments employed poly aluminum chloride (PAC), poly aluminum ferric chloride (PAFC), poly ferric chloride (PFC) and poly aluminum ferric chloride collosol (AFO) as coagulants to simulate the treatment processing. The results indicated that the optimum doses of

Hui Liu; Di Guan; Zhen Zhang

2011-01-01

251

Bacterial Diversity in a Mine Water Treatment Plant? †  

PubMed Central

We investigated the microbial community in a pilot plant for treatment of acid mine water by biological ferrous iron oxidation using clone library analysis and calculated statistical parameters for further characterization. The microbial community in the plant was conspicuously dominated by a group of Betaproteobacteria affiliated with “Ferribacter polymyxa”.

Heinzel, Elke; Hedrich, Sabrina; Janneck, Eberhard; Glombitza, Franz; Seifert, Jana; Schlomann, Michael

2009-01-01

252

Optofluidic planar reactors for photocatalytic water treatment using solar energy  

Microsoft Academic Search

Optofluidics may hold the key to greater success of photocatalytic water treatment. This is evidenced by our findings in this paper that the planar microfluidic reactor can overcome the limitations of mass transfer and photon transfer in the previous photocatalytic reactors and improve the photoreaction efficiency by more than 100 times. The microreactor has a planar chamber (5 cm×1.8 cm×100

Lei Lei; Ning Wang; X. M. Zhang; Qidong Tai; Din Ping Tsai; Helen L. W. Chan

2010-01-01

253

7 CFR 1780.63 - Sewage treatment and bulk water sales contracts.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2013-01-01 true Sewage treatment and bulk water sales contracts. 1780.63 Section...DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE (CONTINUED) WATER AND WASTE LOANS AND GRANTS Planning...1780.63 Sewage treatment and bulk water sales contracts. Owners entering...

2014-01-01

254

Performance of a biological deoxygenation process for ships' ballast water treatment under very cold water conditions.  

PubMed

Water deoxygenation is listed among the promising on-board treatment technologies to treat ships' ballast waters to reduce the risk of species transfer. We assessed the performance of a yeast-based bioreactive deoxygenation process in very cold water (<2°C) and determined the potential toxicity of the residual treated waters. Experiments using two treatment levels (0.5% and 1% v/v) were conducted in large-volume (4.5m(3)) tanks over 19 days at mean temperature of 1.5°C. Time to hypoxia varied between 10.3 and 16 days, being slightly higher than the predicted time of 9.8 days from previous empirical relationships. Water deoxygenation was achieved when yeast density exceeded 5×10(5) viable cellsmL(-1) and variation in time to hypoxia was mainly explained by difference in yeast growth. There was no oxycline and no significant difference in yeast density over the 2-m deep water column. Results from six bioassays indicated weak toxic response of treated waters at the 1.0% level, but no potential toxic response at the 0.5% treatment level. Results confirmed that the potential application of a yeast-based deoxygenation process for treating ships' ballast waters extended over the range of water temperature typically encountered during most shipping operational conditions. Time to reach full deoxygenation may however be limiting for universal application of this treatment which should be preferably used for ships making longer voyages in cold environments. There was no evidence that biological deoxygenation at low temperature did increase toxicity risk of treated waters to impede their disposal at the time of discharge. PMID:24345863

de Lafontaine, Yves; Despatie, Simon-Pierre

2014-02-15

255

Evaluating a composite cartridge for small system drinking water treatment.  

PubMed

A pilot-scale evaluation was conducted at the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) Test & Evaluation (T&E) Facility in Cincinnati, Ohio, on a multi-layer, cartridge-based system that combines physical filtration with carbon adsorption and ultraviolet (UV) light disinfection to serve as a home-base water treatment security device against accidental or intentional contaminant events. The system was challenged with different levels of turbidity, a number of biological contaminants including Bacillus subtilis, Escherichia coli, MS2 bacteriophage and Polystyrene Latex (PSL) beads as a surrogate for Cryptosporidium and a number of chemical contaminants including super-chlorination, methyl tertiary butyl ether (MTBE), water chlorination disinfection byproducts (DBPs) and diazinon. The results demonstrated that the performance of the system varies as a function of the specific contaminant or surrogate. The overall performance indicated the potential of the system to improve the quality and safety of household water and to serve as an additional treatment barrier in circumstances where there is little or no treatment or where the quality of treated water may have deteriorated during distribution. The results also demonstrated that B. subtilis spore can serve as a more conservative surrogate for Cryptosporidium than PSL beads. PMID:20154385

Muhammad, Nur; Sinha, Rajib; Krishnan, Radha; Patterson, Craig L; Haught, Roy C; Harms, Harold H; Seville, Rick

2010-06-01

256

Cyanobacterial toxin removal in drinking water treatment processes and recreational waters.  

PubMed

Although federal drinking water regulations determine the quality of potable water, many specifics influence how each utility chooses to treatment water. Some of the specifics include source water quality, storage capacity, existing unit process, and space. An overview of the US recreational and drinking water regulations were discussed in context of cyanobacterial toxin removal and inactivation by ancillary as well as auxiliary treatment practices. Ancillary practice refers to the removal or inactivation of algal toxins by standard daily operational procedures where auxiliary treatment practice refers to intentional treatment. An example of auxiliary treatment would be the addition of powder activated carbon to remove taste and odor compounds. The implementation of new technologies as such ultraviolet disinfection and membrane filtration, to meet current and purposed regulations, can greatly affect the algal toxin removal and inactivation efficiencies. A discussion on meeting the current regulations by altering chemical disinfection, ozone, chlorine, chloramines and chlorine dioxide included their ancillary effects on the protection against algal toxins. Although much of the research has been on the efficiency of the removal and inactivation of microcystin LR and several microcystin variants, the discussion included other algal toxins: anatoxin-a, saxitoxins, and cyclindrospermopsin. PMID:18461774

Westrick, Judy A

2008-01-01

257

Understanding the Permeation of Solutes in Water Treatment Membranes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The responsible management of the world's water resources is essential to supporting human life on earth. The successful development of reverse osmosis seawater desalination makes it a crucial component in the portfolio of water supply options. However, other measures to alleviate the stresses on water supplies are necessary to responsibly and sustainably meet the worldwide demand for fresh water. Osmotically driven membrane processes (ODMP) are an emerging set of technologies that show promise in water conservation and reuse, as well as wastewater reclamation. The majority of research in the field has focused on predicting and enhancing water permeation through membranes, however, the effective operation of ODMP systems requires that the permeation of solutes across water treatment membranes be better understood. For example, the reverse flux of draw solute from the concentrated draw solution into the feed solution should be minimized. Additionally, due to the presence of solute-solute interactions that arise because of the unique geometry of ODMPs, the rejection of dilute solutes in these processes can be dramatically different than those observed in traditional pressure driven operations. In this talk, theoretical and experimental approaches are used to explore the permeation of solutes in osmotically driven membrane processes. Phenomenological models were developed that describe the forward and reverse permeation of the solutes across an asymmetric membrane in forward osmosis operation; and experiments were carried out to validate the model predictions. Using independently determined membrane transport coefficients, strong agreement between the model predictions and experimental results was observed.

Phillip, William

2013-03-01

258

Issues concerning spectral analysis of water samples for monitoring and treatment of public water resources.  

PubMed

Experimental measurements conducted in the laboratory, involving hyperspectral analysis of water samples taken from public water resources, have motivated a re-evaluation of issues concerning the potential application of this type of analysis for water monitoring, treatment and evaluation prior to filtration. One issue concerns hyperspectral monitoring of contaminants with respect to types and relative concentrations. This implies a need to better understand the statistical profiles of water contaminants in terms of spatial-temporal distributions of electromagnetic absorption spectra ranging from the ultraviolet to infrared, which are associated with specific water resources. This issue also implies the need to establish correlations between hyperspectral signatures and types of contaminants to be found within specific water resources. Another issue concerns the use of absorption spectra to determine changes in chemical and physical characteristics of contaminants after application of water treatments, in order to determine levels of toxicity with respect to the environment. This paper presents a prototype spectral analysis showing various aspects relevant to water monitoring and discusses the use of basic theory for the interpretation of spectral features associated with water contaminants, as well as discussing inverse analysis of hyperspectral measurements. PMID:24901633

Lee, M; Lambrakos, S G; Yapijakis, C; Huang, L; Ramsey, S; Shabaev, A; Massa, L; Peak, J

2014-01-01

259

Treatment methods for breaking certain oil and water emulsions  

DOEpatents

Disclosed are treatment methods for breaking emulsions of petroleum oil and salt water, fatty oil and water, and those resulting from liquefication of organic material. The emulsions are broken by heating to a predetermined temperature at or above about 200.degree. C. and pressurizing to a predetermined pressure above the vapor pressure of water at the predetermined temperature to produce a heated and pressurized fluid. The heated and pressurized fluid is contained in a single vessel at the predetermined temperature and pressure for a predetermined period of time to effectively separate the emulsion into substantially distinct first and second phases, the first phase comprising primarily the petroleum oil, the second phase comprising primarily the water. The first and second phases are separately withdrawn from the vessel at a withdraw temperature between about 200.degree. C. and 374.degree. C. and a withdraw pressure above the vapor pressure of water at the withdraw temperature. Where solids are present in the certain emulsions, the above described treatment may also effectively separate the certain emulsion into a substantially distinct third phase comprising primarily the solids.

Sealock, Jr., L. John (W. Richland, WA); Baker, Eddie G. (Richland, WA); Elliott, Douglas C. (Richland, WA)

1992-01-01

260

Benchmarking of municipal waste water treatment plants (an Austrian project).  

PubMed

An Austrian research project focused on the development of process indicators for treatment plants with different process and operation modes. The whole treatment scheme was subdivided into four processes, i.e. mechanical pretreatment (Process 1), mechanical-biological waste water treatment (Process 2), sludge thickening and stabilisation (Process 3) and further sludge treatment and disposal (Process 4). In order to get comparable process indicators it was necessary to subdivide the sample of 76 individual treatment plants all over Austria into five groups according to their mean organic load (COD) in the influent. The specific total yearly costs, the yearly operating costs and the yearly capital costs of the four processes have been related to the yearly average of the measured organic load expressed in COD (110 g COD/pe/d). The specific investment costs for the whole treatment plant and for Process 2 have been related to a calculated standard design capacity of the mechanical-biological part of the treatment plant expressed in COD. The capital costs of processes 1, 3 and 4 have been related to the design capacity of the treatment plant. For each group (related to the size of the plant) a benchmark band has been defined for the total yearly costs, the total yearly operational costs and the total yearly capital costs. For the operational costs of the Processes 1 to 4 one benchmark ([see symbol in text] per pe/year) has been defined for each group. In addition a theoretical cost reduction potential has been calculated. The cost efficiency in regard to water protection and some special sub-processes such as aeration and sludge dewatering has been analysed. PMID:15553485

Lindtner, S; Kroiss, H; Nowak, O

2004-01-01

261

Sunlight-induced photochemical decay of oxidants in natural waters: implications in ballast water treatment.  

PubMed

The transport and discharge of ship ballast water has been recognized as a major vector for the introduction of invasive species. Chemical oxidants, long used in drinking water and wastewater treatment, are alternative treatment methods for the control of invasive species currently being tested for use on ships. One concern when a ballasted vessel arrives in port is the adverse effects of residual oxidant in the treated water. The most common oxidants include chlorine (HOCl/OCl-), bromine (HOBr/OBr-), ozone (03), hydrogen peroxide (H2O2), chlorine dioxide (ClO2), and monochloramine (NH2Cl). The present study was undertaken to evaluate the sunlight-mediated photochemical decomposition of these oxidants. Sunlight photodecomposition was measured at various pH using either distilled water or oligotrophic Gulf Stream water for specific oxidants. For selected oxidants, quantum yields at specific wavelengths were obtained. An environmental photochemical model, GCSOLAR, also provided predictions of the fate (sunlight photolysis half-lives) of HOCI/OCl-, HOBr/OBr-, ClO2, and NH2Cl for two different seasons at latitude 40 degrees and in water with two different concentrations of chromophoric dissolved organic matter. These data are useful in assessing the environmental fate of ballast water treatment oxidants if they were to be discharged in port. PMID:17547204

Cooper, William J; Jones, Adam C; Whitehead, Robert F; Zika, Rod G

2007-05-15

262

40 CFR 141.403 - Treatment technique requirements for ground water systems.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...Treatment technique requirements for ground water systems. 141.403 Section 141.403...ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) WATER PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) NATIONAL PRIMARY DRINKING WATER REGULATIONS Ground Water Rule §...

2013-07-01

263

40 CFR 141.404 - Treatment technique violations for ground water systems.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...Treatment technique violations for ground water systems. 141.404 Section 141.404...ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) WATER PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) NATIONAL PRIMARY DRINKING WATER REGULATIONS Ground Water Rule §...

2013-07-01

264

40 CFR 141.404 - Treatment technique violations for ground water systems.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...Treatment technique violations for ground water systems. 141.404 Section 141.404...ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) WATER PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) NATIONAL PRIMARY DRINKING WATER REGULATIONS Ground Water Rule §...

2010-07-01

265

40 CFR 141.404 - Treatment technique violations for ground water systems.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...Treatment technique violations for ground water systems. 141.404 Section 141.404...ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) WATER PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) NATIONAL PRIMARY DRINKING WATER REGULATIONS Ground Water Rule §...

2012-07-01

266

40 CFR 141.403 - Treatment technique requirements for ground water systems.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...Treatment technique requirements for ground water systems. 141.403 Section 141.403...ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) WATER PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) NATIONAL PRIMARY DRINKING WATER REGULATIONS Ground Water Rule §...

2010-07-01

267

40 CFR 141.404 - Treatment technique violations for ground water systems.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...Treatment technique violations for ground water systems. 141.404 Section 141.404...ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) WATER PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) NATIONAL PRIMARY DRINKING WATER REGULATIONS Ground Water Rule §...

2011-07-01

268

40 CFR 141.403 - Treatment technique requirements for ground water systems.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...Treatment technique requirements for ground water systems. 141.403 Section 141.403...ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) WATER PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) NATIONAL PRIMARY DRINKING WATER REGULATIONS Ground Water Rule §...

2011-07-01

269

Settling characteristics of problem algae in the water treatment process.  

PubMed

The settling velocity or removal rates of problem algae in the water treatment process and their flocculants were measured with settling column (SETCOL) and fluorometric method. Our research who were centred on the algal density and shape affecting the settling. The settling velocities of large algae ranged from 0.1 cm/h to 2.6 cm/h, whereas those of small algae were below 1.0 cm/h. The settlings of algae in the stationary growth phase significantly increased and dead algae corresponded with the declining algae. The extent of deformation, which was expressed as the coefficient of form resistance of the algae had the great influences upon the settling. The most extreme deformed algae were needle-shaped ones like Synedra acus, which was known to be a problem in water treatment processes in Korea. Changes in the settling velocity of algae were correlated with algal volume and morphology rather than cell density. PMID:16752771

Choi, S K; Lee, J Y; Kwon, D Y; Cho, K J

2006-01-01

270

Water treatment plant simulation program, version 1. 21, user's manual  

SciTech Connect

The User's Manual for Version 1.21 of the Water Treatment Plant Simulation Program has been prepared to provide a basic understanding of (1) how to operate the program, and (2) the underlying assumptions and equations that are used to calculate the removal of natural organic matter and the formation of disinfection by-products. The manual represents the first public release of the program.

Not Available

1992-06-01

271

Treatment of gasoline-contaminated waters by advanced oxidation processes  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this study, the efficiency of advanced oxidative processes (AOPs) was investigated toward the degradation of aqueous solutions containing benzene, toluene and xylenes (BTX) and gasoline-contaminated waters. The results indicated that BTX can be effectively oxidized by near UV-assisted photo-Fenton process. The treatment permits almost total degradation of BTX and removal of more than 80% of the phenolic intermediates at

Elaine Regina Lopes Tiburtius; Patricio Peralta-Zamora; Alexandre Emmel

2005-01-01

272

Photocatalytic membrane reactors for water treatment from organic pollutants  

Microsoft Academic Search

The current status of research in the field of development and application of photocatalytic membrane reactors for water treatment\\u000a from organic pollutants has been analyzed. The main types of these reactors and the construction techniques and properties\\u000a of catalytically active membranes were discussed. The combination of photocatalysis and the membrane methods was shown to\\u000a facilitate the effective removal of different

V. M. Kochkodan; E. A. Rolya; V. V. Goncharuk

2009-01-01

273

CLASSIFICATION OF THE MGR POOL WATER TREATMENT AND COOLING SYSTEM  

SciTech Connect

The purpose of this analysis is to document the Quality Assurance (QA) classification of the Monitored Geologic Repository (MGR) pool water treatment and cooling system structures, systems and components (SSCs) performed by the MGR Safety Assurance Department. This analysis also provides the basis for revision of YMP/90-55Q, Q-List (YMP 1998). The Q-List identifies those MGR SSCs subject to the requirements of DOE/RW-0333P, ''Quality Assurance Requirements and Description'' (QARD) (DOE 1998).

J.A. Ziegler

1999-08-31

274

An evaluation of free water surface wetlands as tertiary sewage water treatment of micro-pollutants.  

PubMed

Increased attention is currently directed towards potential negative effects of pharmaceuticals and other micro-pollutants discharged into the aquatic environment via municipal sewage water. A number of additional treatment technologies, such as ozonation, have therefore been suggested as promising tools for improving the removal efficiency of pharmaceuticals in existing Sewage Treatment Plants (STPs). Constructed wetlands are also capable of removing a variety of micro-pollutants, including some pharmaceuticals, and could hence be a resource efficient complement to more advanced treatment technologies. The purpose of the present study was therefore to increase the knowledge base concerning the potential use of constructed wetlands as a treatment step to reduce emissions of organic micro-pollutants from municipal sewage effluents. Under cold winter conditions, incoming and outgoing waters from four Swedish free water surface wetlands, operated as final treatment steps of sewage effluent from municipal STPs, were sampled and analyzed for levels of a set of 92 pharmaceuticals and 22 inorganic components as well as assessed using subchronic ecotoxicity tests with a macro-alga and a crustacean. Sixty-five pharmaceuticals were detected in the range from 1 ng L(-1) to 7.6 ?g L(-1) in incoming and outgoing waters from the four investigated wetlands. Although the sampling design used in the present study lacks the robustness of volume proportional to 24h composite samples, the average estimated removal rates ranged from 42% to 52%, which correlates to previous published values. The effects observed in the ecotoxicity tests with the macro-alga (EC(50)s in the range of 7.5-46%) and the crustacean (LOECs in the range of 11.25-90%) could not be assigned to either pharmaceutical residues or metals, but in general showed that these treatment facilities release water with a relatively low toxic potential, comparable to water that has been treated with advanced tertiary treatments. From the present study it can be concluded that constructed wetlands may provide a complementary sewage treatment option, especially where other treatment is lacking today. To fully remove micro-pollutants from sewage effluent, however, other more advanced treatment technologies are likely needed. PMID:22192709

Breitholtz, Magnus; Näslund, Maria; Stråe, Daniel; Borg, Hans; Grabic, Roman; Fick, Jerker

2012-04-01

275

Characterization and treatment of coal-gasification condensate waters  

SciTech Connect

This thesis presents work performed to identify the organic constituents in coal-gasification condensate water, along with consideration of the alternatives for condensate water treatment. The characterization experiments performed were primarily limited to a condensate water received from the Lurgi slagging fixed-bed gasifier at the Morgantown Energy Technology Center; however, the analyses of one condensate water sample from the Grand Forks Energy Technology Center and one sample from the Great Plains Gasification Associates gasifier are also included. The characterization results indicated almost complete identification of the compounds contributing to the chemical oxygen demand (COD), total organic carbon (TOC), organic sulfur, and organic nitrogen measurements in the METC condensate water. Thiocyanate was found to contribute significantly to the COD, organic nitrogen, and oganic sulfur measurements of the condensate sample. In addition, polysulfides were also found to contribute to the COD and the organic sulfur measurements. Low-molecular-weight solutes (acetonitrile, acetone, and methanol) were not found to be appreciable in the METC sample but were found to a much greater extent in the GPGA and GFETC samples. Equilibrium distribution coefficients from water into methyl isobutyl ketone (MIBK) were determined for many of the condesnate water solutes. In addition, other extractants including benzophenone, tributyl phosphate (TBP), tributyrin, furan, and 4-methyl cyclohexanone were investigated. TBP was found to yield the highest distribution coefficients for the condensate solutes. Adsorption experiments revealed that both activated carbon and Amberlite XAD-7 were effective for removal of catechol and 5,5-dimethyl hydantoin from water. Both strong-base and weak-base anion-exchange resins were investigated for thiocyanate recovery. Use of weak-base resin was found to offer potential advantages over the strong-base resin. 23 figs., 36 tabs.

Senetar, J.J.; King, C.J.

1986-01-01

276

Health among municipal sewage and water treatment workers.  

PubMed

Municipal sewage treatment plant workers are potentially exposed to a multitude of industrial chemicals and pathogenic microorganisms. A questionnaire survey of working habits, lifestyle and symptoms of illness was conducted among 189 municipal sewage treatment plant workers processing between three and ten million gallons of wastewater daily in 16 plants in New York State between March and July of 1984. Water treatment plant workers in the same cities comprised the comparison group. Sewage workers reported a significantly higher frequency of headache, dizziness, sore throat, skin irritation and diarrhea within the month immediately preceding receipt of the questionnaire, after controlling for various possible confounders. Eye and skin irritation were significantly associated with exposure to mutagens. The health significance of these findings and possible sources of error in assessing risk are discussed. PMID:3686535

Scarlett-Kranz, J M; Babish, J G; Strickland, D; Lisk, D J

1987-09-01

277

Life Cycle Assesment of Daugavgriva Waste Water Treatment Plant  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper presents the assessment of the environmental impacts caused by the treatment of Riga's waste water in the Daugavgriva plant with biogas energy cogeneration through the life cycle assessment (LCA). The LCA seems to be a good tool to assess and evaluate the most serious environmental impacts of a facility The results showed clearly that the impact category contributing the most to the total impact -eutrophicationcomes from the wastewater treatment stage. Climate change also seems to be a relevant impact coming from the wastewater treatment stage and the main contributor to the Climate change is N2O. The main environmental benefits, in terms of the percentages of the total impact, associated to the use of biogas instead of any other fossil fuel in the cogeneration plant are equal to: 3,11% for abiotic depletation, 1,48% for climate change, 0,51% for acidification and 0,12% for eutrophication.

Romagnoli, F.; Sampaio, F.; Blumberga, D.

2009-01-01

278

Thermophilic treatment of paper machine white water in laboratory-scale membrane bioreactors  

Microsoft Academic Search

Paper mills consume large quantities of water and consequently produce large volume of effluent. Direct water reuse is not always possible because of poor effluent quality. Membrane biological reactor (MBR) treatment of paper machine white water is a technology that could allow for water reuse. This study examined the technical viability of thermophilic treatment of paper machine effluents (white water)

Cláudio Arcanjo de Sousa; Cláudio Mudado Silva; Nívea Moreira Vieira; Ann Honor Mounteer; Mateus Salomé Amaral; Marcos Rogério Tótola; Willian Gomes Nunes

2011-01-01

279

An Integrated Water Treatment Technology Solution for Sustainable Water Resource Management in the Marcellus Shale  

SciTech Connect

This Final Scientific/ Technical Report submitted with respect to Project DE-FE0000833 titled 'An Integrated Water Treatment Technology Solution for Sustainable Water Resource Management in the Marcellus Shale' in support of final reporting requirements. This final report contains a compilation of previous reports with the most current data in order to produce one final complete document. The goal of this research was to provide an integrated approach aimed at addressing the increasing water resource challenges between natural gas production and other water stakeholders in shale gas basins. The objective was to demonstrate that the AltelaRain{reg_sign} technology could be successfully deployed in the Marcellus Shale Basin to treat frac flow-back water. That objective has been successfully met.

Matthew Bruff; Ned Godshall; Karen Evans

2011-04-30

280

Household pasteurization of drinking-water: the chulli water-treatment system.  

PubMed

A simple flow-through system has been developed which makes use of wasted heat generated in traditional clay ovens (chullis) to pasteurize surface water. A hollow aluminium coil is built into the clay chulli, and water is passed through the coil during normal cooking events. By adjusting the flow rate, effluent temperature can be maintained at approximately 70 degrees C. Laboratory testing, along with over 400 field tests on chulli systems deployed in six pilot villages, showed that the treatment completely inactivated thermotolerant coliforms. The chulli system produces up to 90 litres per day of treated water at the household level, without any additional time or fuel requirement. The technology has been developed to provide a safe alternative source of drinking-water in arsenic-contaminated areas, but can also have wide application wherever people consume microbiologically-contaminated water. PMID:17366777

Islam, Mohammad Fakhrul; Johnston, Richard B

2006-09-01

281

Household Pasteurization of Drinking-water: The Chulli Water-treatment System  

PubMed Central

A simple flow-through system has been developed which makes use of wasted heat generated in traditional clay ovens (chullis) to pasteurize surface water. A hollow aluminium coil is built into the clay chulli, and water is passed through the coil during normal cooking events. By adjusting the flow rate, effluent temperature can be maintained at approximately 70 °C. Laboratory testing, along with over 400 field tests on chulli systems deployed in six pilot villages, showed that the treatment completely inactivated thermotolerant coliforms. The chulli system produces up to 90 litres per day of treated water at the household level, without any additional time or fuel requirement. The technology has been developed to provide a safe alternative source of drinking-water in arsenic-contaminated areas, but can also have wide application wherever people consume microbiologically-contaminated water.

Islam, Mohammad Fakhrul

2006-01-01

282

Disposal of water treatment wastes containing arsenic - a review.  

PubMed

Solid waste management in developing countries is often unsustainable, relying on uncontrolled disposal in waste dumps. Particular problems arise from the disposal of treatment residues generated by removing arsenic (As) from drinking water because As can be highly mobile and has the potential to leach back to ground and surface waters. This paper reviews the disposal of water treatment wastes containing As, with a particular emphasis on stabilisation/solidification (S/S) technologies which are currently used to treat industrial wastes containing As. These have been assessed for their appropriateness for treating As containing water treatment wastes. Portland cement/lime mixes are expected (at least in part) to be appropriate for wastes from sorptive filters, but may not be appropriate for precipitative sludges, because ferric flocs often used to sorb As can retard cement hydration. Brine resulting from the regeneration of activated alumina filters is likely to accelerate cement hydration. Portland cement can immobilize soluble arsenites and has been successfully used to stabilise As-rich sludges and it may also be suitable for treating sludges generated from precipitative removal units. Oxidation of As(III) to As(V) and the formation of calcium-arsenic compounds are important immobilisation mechanisms for As in cements. Geopolymers are alternative binder systems that are effective for treating wastes rich in alumina and metal hydroxides and may have potential for As wastes generated using activated alumina. The long-term stability of cemented, arsenic-bearing wastes is however uncertain, as like many cements, they are susceptible to carbonation effects which may result in the subsequent re-release of As. PMID:20153878

Sullivan, Colin; Tyrer, Mark; Cheeseman, Christopher R; Graham, Nigel J D

2010-03-15

283

[Organohalogen contamination of a dialysis-water treatment plant].  

PubMed

On March 2001 the regular quality control test of the water used for dialysis in an urban centre using a reverse osmosis system revealed a high level of organo-halogenated contamination. The compounds implicated were: trichloroethylene (trielene) [M.Wt. 131 D], tetrachloroethylene, trichloromethane (chloroform) [M.Wt. 121 D], chlorodibromomethane. The dialysis unit was closed. Water samples were analysed in duplicate. The table shows the values (in ppm or microgram/l) obtained for chloroform at the given times: March 8th, altered sample; March 12th, confirmation sample; March 16th, after osmosis membranes change; March 22nd, after carbon filtration replacement; March 26th, after softener resins substitution. The AAMI doesn't recommend any value for organo-halogenated compounds in dialysis water. In the past, the European Pharmacopoeia and the Italian Health Ministry released some reference values for tap water, values which were extended to water used for dialysis. The values are 1 ppm as reference value, 30 ppm as maximum accepted value for the sum of all organo-halogenated compounds, and 10 ppm as the recommended value. In conclusion, the problem was solved by progressive replacement of the components of the water treatment system, even though the real cause remained undetermined. No clinical symptom was recorded and no level of chloroform or trielene was detected in patients' sera despite the low molecular weight and low protein binding of the compounds. A strict control of the water quality and a more comprehensive and updated reference guide are needed for better and safer dialysis delivery. PMID:12369053

Formica, M; Vallero, A; Forneris, G; Cesano, G; Pozzato, M; Borca, M; Iadarola, G M; Quarello, F

2002-01-01

284

MICROBIOLOGICAL CHANGES IN SOURCE WATER TREATMENT: REFLECTIONS IN DISTRIBUTION WATER QUALITY  

EPA Science Inventory

Microbial quality in the distribution system is a reflection of raw source water characteristics, treatment process configurations and their modifications. ased on case history experiences there may at times be a microbial breakthrough that is caused by fluctuations in raw surfac...

285

The chulli water purifier: acceptability and effectiveness of an innovative strategy for household water treatment in Bangladesh.  

PubMed

To evaluate the effectiveness of the chulli water purifier, a new household water treatment strategy in Bangladesh that relies on passing water through a stove, we interviewed persons who had this water purifier. From households using it regularly, we tested untreated water, sand-filtered water without heat pasteurization, sand-filtered and heat pasteurized water, and household stored, treated water. Reasons for discontinuing use among 80 of 101 persons included mechanical problems (49%), inconvenience (35%), and high cost (10%). Only four households were regularly using the purifier. Three (19%) of 16 heat-treated samples were positive for Escherichia coli. The median log reduction from source water was > 5. Nine (56%) stored water samples were positive for E. coli, indicating recontamination. Poor durability, inconvenience, high cost, and post-treatment contamination limit the usefulness of the purifier. These issues, which are relevant for other household water treatment strategies, should be resolved before further implementation. PMID:18541780

Gupta, Sundeep K; Islam, M S; Johnston, Richard; Ram, Pavani Kalluri; Luby, Stephen P

2008-06-01

286

Water balance of rice plots under three different water treatments: monitoring activity and experimental results  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In the agricultural seasons 2012 and 2013, a broad monitoring activity was carried out at the Rice Research Centre of Ente Nazionale Risi (CRR-ENR) located in Castello d'Agogna (PV, Italy) with the purpose of comparing the water balance components of paddy rice (Gladio cv.) under different water regimes and assessing the possibility of reducing the high water inputs related to the conventional practice of continuous submergence. The experiments were laid out in six plots of about 20 m x 80 m each, with two replicates for each of the following water regimes: i) continuous flooding with wet-seeded rice (FLD), ii) continuous flooding from around the 3-leaf stage with dry-seeded rice (3L-FLD), and iii) surface irrigation every 7-10 days with dry-seeded rice (IRR). One out of the two replicates of each treatment was instrumented with: water inflow and outflow meters, set of piezometers, set of tensiometers and multi-sensor moisture probes. Moreover, an eddy covariance station was installed on the bund between the treatments FLD and IRR. Data were automatically recorded and sent by a wireless connection to a PC, so as to be remotely controlled thanks to the development of a Java interface. Furthermore, periodic measurements of crop biometric parameters (LAI, crop height and rooting depth) were performed in both 2012 and 2013 (11 and 14 campaigns respectively). Cumulative water balance components from dry-seeding (3L-FLD and IRR), or flooding (FLD), to harvest were calculated for each plot by either measurements (i.e. rainfall, irrigation and surface drainage) or estimations (i.e. difference in the field water storage, evaporation from both the soil and the water surface and transpiration), whereas the sum of percolation and capillary rise (i.e. the 'net percolation') was obtained as the residual term of the water balance. Incidentally, indices of water application efficiency (evapotranspiration over net water input) and water productivity (grain production over net water input) were calculated for each treatment. The outcomes show that the water application efficiencies of all treatments were higher in 2013 than in 2012 (by 23%, 25% and 4% for FLD, 3L-FLD, and IRR respectively). These results could be ascribed to the higher groundwater level observed in 2013 (about 10-15 cm closer to the soil surface), likely due to the conversion of the field beyond the monitored plots from soybean to flooded rice. Moreover, a small increase of the water application efficiency of 3L-FLD was found if compared to FLD (3% on average), while the water application efficiency of IRR was, on average, higher by 67% compared to FLD. The good performance of IRR is related to lower percolation rates and a relevant contribution of capillary rise due to the shallow groundwater table maintained by the continuous submergence of the surrounding paddy fields. The performed experiment highlighted that significant improvement in the water use efficiency at the field scale can be achieved. However, a widespread adoption of water regimes different from continuous flooding should be carefully evaluated by a larger-scale approach since a consequent drop in the groundwater table depth could have repercussions on the potential gains themselves.

Chiaradia, Enrico Antonio; Romani, Marco; Facchi, Arianna; Gharsallah, Olfa; Cesari de Maria, Sandra; Ferrari, Daniele; Masseroni, Daniele; Rienzner, Michele; Battista Bischetti, Gian; Gandolfi, Claudio

2014-05-01

287

Produced water treatment by micellar-enhanced ultrafiltration.  

PubMed

A water treatment approach combining ultrafiltration (UF) and micellar-enhanced ultrafiltration (MEUF) techniques was used for the removal of organic contaminants in field produced water samples from Canada and the United States. Free oil droplets and suspended solids were separated by initial UF treatments while MEUF was necessary for the removal of dissolved organics. It was shown that the amphiphilic characteristics of some organics commonly existing in produced water contributed to lowering the critical micelle concentration (CMC) of the surfactant employed. Lower surfactant concentrations could, therefore, be employed leading to lower fouling and back contamination and higher permeate flux. In addition, the incorporation of organic contaminants into the structure of cetylpyridinium chloride (CPC) micelles resulted in larger size and higher dissolution capacity of the "mixed micelles". The performance of polymeric and ceramic membranes of different molecular weight cutoffs (MWCOs) was evaluated by analyzing the permeate flux, recovery ratio, and solute percent rejection as functions of trans-membrane pressure (TMP). A mathematical model based on Darcy's law and the resistance in-series model successfully described the flux decline as a function of TMP for the two field samples and the two membranes studied. PMID:20121232

Deriszadeh, Ali; Husein, Maen M; Harding, Thomas G

2010-03-01

288

Enumeration of faecal indicator bacteria in large water volumes using on site membrane filtration to assess water treatment efficiency  

Microsoft Academic Search

With sample volumes as tested in routine microbiological monitoring for the presence and absence of faecal indicator bacteria in treated water the actual concentration in the final stages of water treatment cannot be assessed. Consequently, no accurate information can be obtained about the removal efficiency of a water treatment for microorganisms. Therefore a method for on site isolation of faecal

W. A. M. Hijnen; D. A Van Veenendaal; W. M. H. van der Speld; Ate Visser; W. Hoogenboezem; D. van der Kooij

2000-01-01

289

Water treatment plants assessment at Talkha power plant.  

PubMed

Talkha power plant is the only power plant located in El-Mansoura. It generates electricity using two different methods by steam turbine and gas turbine. Both plants drew water from River Nile (208 m3 /h). The Nile raw water passes through different treatment processes to be suitable for drinking and operational uses. At Talkha power plant, there are two purification plants used for drinking water supply (100 m3/h) and for water demineralization supply (108 m3/h). This study aimed at studying the efficiency of the water purification plants. For drinking water purification plant, the annual River Nile water characterized by slightly alkaline pH (7.4-8), high annual mean values of turbidity (10.06 NTU), Standard Plate Count (SPC) (313.3 CFU/1 ml), total coliform (2717/100 ml), fecal coliform (0-2400/100 ml), and total algae (3 x 10(4) org/I). The dominant group of algae all over the study period was green algae. The blue green algae was abundant in Summer and Autumn seasons. The pH range, and the annual mean values of turbidity, TDS, total hardness, sulfates, chlorides, nitrates, nitrites, fluoride, and residual chlorine for purified water were in compliance with Egyptian drinking water standards. All the SPC recorded values with an annual mean value of 10.13 CFU/1 ml indicated that chlorine dose and contact time were not enough to kill the bacteria. However, they were in compliance with Egyptian decree (should not exceed 50 CFU/1 ml). Although the removal efficiency of the plant for total coliform and blue green algae was high (98.5% and 99.2%, respectively), the limits of the obtained results with an annual mean values of 40/100 ml and 15.6 org/l were not in compliance with the Egyptian decree (should be free from total coliform, fecal coliform and blue green algae). For water demineralization treatment plant, the raw water was characterized by slightly alkaline pH. The annual mean values of conductivity, turbidity, and TDS were 354.6 microS/cm, 10.84 NTU, and 214.6 mg/I, respectively. There was an increase in the results of conductivity, turbidity, total hardness, and TDS in carbon filter effluent which was attributed to the desorption of adsorbed ions on the carbon media. The removal efficiencies of turbidity, total hardness, and TDS indicated the high efficiency of the cationic filter. The annual removal efficiencies of conductivity, turbidity, chloride, and TDS proved the efficiency of the anionic filter for removing the dissolved and suspended ions. All of the recorded values of the pH, conductivity, turbidity, chlorides, hardness, and TDS of the mixed bed effluent indicated that the water at this stage was of high quality for boiler feed. The study recommended adjustment of coagulant and residual chlorine doses as well as contact time, and continuous monitoring and maintenance of the different units. PMID:17216967

El-Sebaie, Olfat D; Abd El-Kerim, Ghazy E; Ramadan, Mohamed H; Abd El-Atey, Magda M; Taha, Sahr Ahmed

2002-01-01

290

Impact of Wastes from a Water Treatment Plant: Evaluative Procedures and Results.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This report summarized the procedures used and the results obtained in assessing the effects on a stream in Illinois of waste discharges from a water treatment plant that employs the clarification process. The water treatment plant serving Pontiac, Illino...

R. L. Evans D. H. Schnepper T. E. Hill

1979-01-01

291

Treatment Technology to Meet the Interim Primary Drinking Water Regulations for Inorganics: Part 3.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article is the third in a series summarizing existing treatment technology to meet the inorganic National Interim Primary Drinking Water Regulations. This report deals specifically with treatment methods for removing cadmium, lead, and silver from drinking water. (CS)

Sorg, Thomas J.; And Others

1978-01-01

292

Subtask 1.5 - Activated Carbon from Lignite for Water Treatment.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

High concentrations of humate in surface water result in the formation of excess amounts of chlorinated byproducts during disinfection treatment. These precursors can be removed in water treatment prior to disinfection using powdered activated carbon. In ...

E. S. Olson D. J. Stepan

2000-01-01

293

Use of Ceragenins To Create Novel Biofouling Resistant Water-Treatment Membranes.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Scoping studies have demonstrated that ceragenins, when linked to water-treatment membranes have the potential to create biofouling resistant water-treatment membranes. Ceragenins are synthetically produced molecules that mimic antimicrobial peptides. Evi...

A. L. Sanchez H. D. T. Jones L. K. McGrath M. Hibbs P. B. Savage S. J. Altman

2008-01-01

294

IDENTIFY THE OCCURRENCE OF DISINFECTION BY-PRODUCTS IN WATER TREATMENT SYSTEMS  

EPA Science Inventory

Due to concerns over trihalomethanes (THMs) and other halogenated by-products that can be formed during chlorination of drinking water, alternative disinfectants are being explored. Several drinking water treatment plants in the United States have altered their treatment methods...

295

Safety evaluation -- Spent water treatment system components inventory release  

SciTech Connect

Over the past few years various impediments to shipment of generated spent basin water treatment system components have resulted in the accumulation of quantities of these waste items at 100K. Specifically, there are (as of 01/01/95) 13 grout/culvert packaged cartridge filters (CF), four unpackaged cartridge filters, 60 spent ion exchange columns (IXC) and seven ion exchange modules (IXM) at 100K awaiting shipment for final waste disposal. As a result of the accumulation of this waste, the question has arisen regarding the consequences of potential releases of the inventory of radionuclides in these waste items relative to the K Area safety envelope. The purpose of this paper is to address this question. The initial step evaluating the consequences of potential release of material from the spent water treatment system components was to determine the individual and total radionuclide inventories of concern. Generally the radioisotopes of concern to the dose consequences were Sr/Y-90, Cs-137, and the transuranic (TRU) isotopes. The loading of these radioisotopes needed to be determined for each of the components of the total number of accumulated IXCs, IXMs and CFs. This evaluation examines four potential releases of material from the spent water treatment system components. These releases are: the release of material from all 39 IXCs stored in 183-KW; the release of material from the IXCs, IXMs and CFs at 105-KE and 105-KW; the release of material from the 13 CFs stored behind 105-KE; and the non-mechanistic release of the total stored waste inventory.

Dodd, E.N. Jr.

1995-01-24

296

Advanced treatment of sodium acetate in water by ozone oxidation.  

PubMed

Ozone oxidation is an advanced oxidation process for treatment of organic and inorganic wastewater. In this paper, sodium acetate (according to chemical oxygen demand [COD]) was selected as the model pollutant in water, and the degradation efficiencies and mechanism of sodium acetate in water by ozone oxidation were investigated. The results showed that the ozone oxidation was an effective treatment technology for advanced treatment of sodium acetate in water; the COD removal rate obtained the maximum value of 45.89% from sodium acetate solution when the pH value was 10.82, ozone concentration was 100 mg/L, reaction time was 30 minutes, and reaction temperature was 25 degrees C. The COD removal rate increased first and decreased subsequently with the bicarbonate (HCO3-) concentration from 0 to 200 mg/L, the largest decline being 20.35%. The COD removal rate declined by 25.38% with the carbonate (CO3(2-)) concentration from 0 to 200 mg/L; CO3(2-) has a more obvious scavenging effect to inhibit the formation of hydroxyl free radicals than HCO3-. Calcium chloride (CaCl2) and calcium hydroxide (Ca(OH)2) could enhance the COD removal rate greatly; they could reach 77.35 and 96.53%, respectively, after a reaction time of 30 minutes, which was increased by 31.46 and 50.64%, respectively, compared with only ozone oxidation. It was proved that the main ozone oxidation product of sodium acetate was carbon dioxide (CO2), and the degradation of sodium acetate in the ozone oxidation process followed the mechanism of hydroxyl free radicals. PMID:24645544

Yang, De-Min; Yuan, Jian-Mei

2014-02-01

297

Soluble microbial products from water biological treatment process: a review.  

PubMed

The relationship between soluble microbial products (SMPs) and extracellular polymeric substances is described, and the characteristics of SMPs in the biological wastewater treatment process, including molecular weight distribution, metal-chelating property, biodegradability, biotoxicity, and membrane fouling, are investigated. The SMPs produced by autotrophs are degradable and utilizable for heterotrophs, thereby confirming the biodegradation of SMPs. Soluble microbial product models are designed through three approaches: establishment of SMP kinetic models or combination with Monod equations, incorporation of SMP generation and degradation into the unified theory raised by Laspidou and Rittmann (2002a), and introduction of the concept of SMP into activated sludge models. The effects of process parameters on SMP concentration are elaborated, based on the optimum biological treatment process operating parameters that can effectively minimize SMP production. The progress of SMP research in water biotreatment systems is presented, and suggestions for future studies are made. PMID:24734470

Kang, Jia; Du, Gang; Gao, Xu; Zhao, Bin; Guo, Jinsong

2014-03-01

298

Determination of radium removal efficiencies in water treatment processes. Technical note  

Microsoft Academic Search

Numerous well-water supplies for public water systems contain naturally occurring radium-226. Methods for removing radium from drinking water are needed so that drinking water treatment plants may meet the limit set in the EPA drinking water regulations for radium in drinking water. Studies were performed by State agencies at 14 cities in Iowa and Illinois to determine the radium removal

W. L. Brinck; R. J. Schliekelman; D. L. Bennett; C. R. Bell; I. M. Markwood

1976-01-01

299

Mercury Bioaccumulation Potential from Wastewater Treatment Plants in Receiving Waters  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In early 2007, the Water Environment Research Foundation (WERF) mercury bioavailability project was initiated in response to the establishment of mercury Total Maximum Daily Load (TMDL) criteria around the country. While many TMDLs recognize that point sources typically constitute a small fraction of the mercury load to a water body, the question was raised concerning the relative bioavailablity of mercury coming from various sources. For instance, is the mercury discharged from a wastewater treatment plant more or less bioavailable than mercury contributed from other sources? This talk will focus on the results of a study investigating approaches to the estimation of bioavailability and potential bioaccumulation of mercury from wastewater treatment plants and other sources in receiving waters. From the outset, a working definition of bioavailability was developed which included not only methylmercury, the form that readily bioaccumulates in aquatic food chains, but also bioavailable inorganic mercury species that could be converted to methylmercury within a scientifically reasonable time frame. Factors that enhance or mitigate the transformation of inorganic mercury to methylmercury and its subsequent bioaccumulation were identified. Profiles were developed for various sources of mercury in watersheds, including wastewater treatment plants, with regard to methylmercury and inorganic bioavailable mercury, and the key factors that enhance or mitigate mercury bioavailability. Technologies that remove mercury from wastewater were reviewed and evaluated for their effect on bioavailability. A screening procedure was developed for making preliminary estimates of bioavailable mercury concentrations and fluxes in wastewater effluents and in fresh, estuarine and marine receiving waters. The procedure was validated using several diverse river and reservoir data sets. A "Bioavailability Tool" was developed which allows a user to estimate the bioavailability of an effluent and compare it to another, and to mix an effluent in a receiving water to estimate bioavailability in the near- and far-field. As part of this project, a study was undertaken to evaluate methylmercury and reactive mercury in wastewater effluents. Effluent samples from 7 municipal wastewater plants from around the Unites States were collected weekly over a ten week period from late June through August of 2008. These data represent the first comprehensive study of bioavailable mercury in wastewater effluents and have not been published elsewhere. Initial data suggest that bioavailable (methyl plus reactive) mercury is less than 30 percent of total unfiltered mercury. Reactive mercury percentages (relative to dissolved total mercury) are somewhat higher than were initially predicted from theoretical calculations. This presentation will overview the project as a whole with a focus on the bioavailability study of these 7 wastewater plants.

Dean, J. D.; Mason, R. P.

2008-12-01

300

Utilization of water hyacinths to upgrade heavily loaded waste-water treatment-plant effuents  

SciTech Connect

In recent years, considerable attention has been focused on the use of aquatic plants of various types to treat municipal wastewaters. While several species of plants have been found to be useful in this regard, water hyacinths appear to offer the most promise in areas where the climate is mild enough for them to flourish during most of the year. Accordingly, the primary purpose of this research was to test the acceptability of such systems for use in Southern States such as Alabama. A wastewater treatment plant located at Union Springs, Alabama was selected as the site for this study. The experimental water hyacinth system was configured as a set of two treatment trains with two growth channels in series for each train. One train was harvested and the other was not. Each growth channel was constructed of 3/4-inch marine plywood and was 8 feet wide, 2 feet deep and 32 feet long. The system was operated from May 1986 to October 1987. Observations from this study indicate that a water hyacinth treatment system can be a reliable method for upgrading secondary effluents to advance secondary levels in central Alabama. The reliable treatment period will extend from about May through December with no plant protection (possibly longer in Southern Alabama.)

McAnally, A.S.

1989-01-01

301

Regulatory Impact Analysis: Benefits and Costs of Final Surface Water Treatment Rule.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The report presents an analysis of the costs and benefits of controlling microbiological contaminants in public water systems using surface water sources through the criteria specified in the final Surface Water Treatment Rule (SWTR). The analysis was pre...

1989-01-01

302

Use of a resource-saving technology in water treatment systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

We present the results obtained from laboratory research works on studying the treatment of natural water by subjecting it to diaphragm electrolysis with addition of carbon dioxide into source water to achieve a higher degree of its softening and reduce the time for which water must dwell in the electrolyzer. The basic technological scheme of an industrial water treatment plant

Yu. M. Demidova; E. O. Shinkevich; A. G. Laptev

2010-01-01

303

Oxidation of pharmaceuticals during water treatment with chlorine dioxide.  

PubMed

The potential of chlorine dioxide (ClO2) for the oxidation of pharmaceuticals during water treatment was assessed by determining second-order rate constants for the reaction with selected environmentally relevant pharmaceuticals. Out of 9 pharmaceuticals only the 4 following compounds showed an appreciable reactivity with ClO2 (in brackets apparent second-order rate constants at pH 7 and T = 20 degrees C): the sulfonamide antibiotic sulfamethoxazole (6.7 x 10(3) M(-1) s(-1)), the macrolide antibiotic roxithromycin (2.2 x 10(2) M(-1) s(-1)), the estrogen 17alpha-ethinylestradiol (approximately 2 x 10(5) M(-1) s(-1)), and the antiphlogistic diclofenac (1.05 x 10(4) M(-1) s(-1)). Experiments performed using natural water showed that ClO2 also reacted fast with other sulfonamides and macrolides, the natural hormones estrone and 17beta-estradiol as well as 3 pyrazolone derivatives (phenazone, propylphenazone, and dimethylaminophenazone). However, many compounds in the study were ClO2 refractive. Experiments with lake water and groundwater that were partly performed at microgram/L to nanogram/L levels proved that the rate constants determined in pure water could be applied to predict the oxidation of pharmaceuticals in natural waters. Compared to ozone, ClO2 reacted more slowly and with fewer compounds. However, it reacted faster with the investigated compounds than chlorine. Overall, the results indicate that ClO2 will only be effective to oxidize certain compound classes such as the investigated classes of sulfonamide and macrolide antibiotics, and estrogens. PMID:16061268

Huber, Marc M; Korhonen, Susanna; Ternes, Thomas A; von Gunten, Urs

2005-09-01

304

7. OBLIQUE INTERIOR VIEW OF FILTRATION ROOM IN FILTRATION PLANT ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

7. OBLIQUE INTERIOR VIEW OF FILTRATION ROOM IN FILTRATION PLANT (#1773), LOOKING NORTHEAST, SHOWING PUMP NO. 1 AND METERING EQUIPMENT - Presidio Water Treatment Plant, Filtration Plant, East of Lobos Creek at Baker Beach, San Francisco, San Francisco County, CA

305

1. VIEW OF VALVE HOUSE (#1771), AND PUMPING STATION (#1772) ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

1. VIEW OF VALVE HOUSE (#1771), AND PUMPING STATION (#1772) BEYOND, LOOKING SOUTHEAST - Presidio Water Treatment Plant, Valve House, East of Lobos Creek at Baker Beach, San Francisco, San Francisco County, CA

306

1. OVERALL VIEW OF FLOCCULATION/SEDIMENTATION BASINS (#1778), LOOKING NORTHWEST ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

1. OVERALL VIEW OF FLOCCULATION/SEDIMENTATION BASINS (#1778), LOOKING NORTHWEST - Presidio Water Treatment Plant, Flocculation-Sedimentation Basins, East of Lobos Creek at Baker Beach, San Francisco, San Francisco County, CA

307

2. DETAIL VIEW OF FLOCCULATION/SEDIMENTATION BASINS (#1778), LOOKING SOUTHWEST ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

2. DETAIL VIEW OF FLOCCULATION/SEDIMENTATION BASINS (#1778), LOOKING SOUTHWEST - Presidio Water Treatment Plant, Flocculation-Sedimentation Basins, East of Lobos Creek at Baker Beach, San Francisco, San Francisco County, CA

308

Optofluidic planar reactors for photocatalytic water treatment using solar energy  

PubMed Central

Optofluidics may hold the key to greater success of photocatalytic water treatment. This is evidenced by our findings in this paper that the planar microfluidic reactor can overcome the limitations of mass transfer and photon transfer in the previous photocatalytic reactors and improve the photoreaction efficiency by more than 100 times. The microreactor has a planar chamber (5 cm×1.8 cm×100 ?m) enclosed by two TiO2-coated glass slides as the top cover and bottom substrate and a microstructured UV-cured NOA81 layer as the sealant and flow input?output. In experiment, the microreactor achieves 30% degradation of 3 ml 3×10?5M methylene blue within 5 min and shows a reaction rate constant two orders higher than the bulk reactor. Under optimized conditions, a reaction rate of 8% s?1 is achieved under solar irradiation. The average apparent quantum efficiency is found to be only 0.25%, but the effective apparent quantum efficiency reaches as high as 25%. Optofluidic reactors inherit the merits of microfluidics, such as large surface?volume ratio, easy flow control, and rapid fabrication and offer a promising prospect for large-volume photocatalytic water treatment.

Lei, Lei; Wang, Ning; Zhang, X. M.; Tai, Qidong; Tsai, Din Ping; Chan, Helen L. W.

2010-01-01

309

Removal of coagulant aluminum from water treatment residuals by acid.  

PubMed

Sediment sludge during coagulation and sedimentation in drinking water treatment is called "water treatment residuals (WTR)". Polyaluminum chloride (PAC) is mainly used as a coagulant in Japan. The recycling of WTR has been desired; one method for its reuse is as plowed soil. However, WTR reuse in this way is inhibited by the aluminum from the added PAC, because of its high adsorption capacity for phosphate and other fertilizer components. The removal of such aluminum from WTR would therefore be advantageous for its reuse as plowed soil; this research clarified the effect of acid washing on aluminum removal from WTR and on plant growth in the treated soil. The percentage of aluminum removal from raw WTR by sulphuric acid solution was around 90% at pH 3, the percentage decreasing to 40% in the case of a sun-dried sample. The maximum phosphate adsorption capacity was decreased and the available phosphorus was increased by acid washing, with 90% of aluminum removal. The enhancement of Japanese mustard spinach growth and the increased in plant uptake of phosphates following acid washing were observed. PMID:24835954

Okuda, Tetsuji; Nishijima, Wataru; Sugimoto, Mayo; Saka, Naoyuki; Nakai, Satoshi; Tanabe, Kazuyasu; Ito, Junki; Takenaka, Kenji; Okada, Mitsumasa

2014-09-01

310

Laboratory validation of an ozone device for recreational water treatment.  

PubMed

Obtaining an accurate assessment of a treatment system's antimicrobial efficacy in recreational water is difficult given the large scale and high flow rates of the water systems. A laboratory test system was designed to mimic the water conditions and potential microbial contaminants found in swimming pools. This system was utilized to evaluate the performance of an in situ ozone disinfection device against four microorganisms: Cryptosporidium parvum, bacteriophage MS2, Enterococcus faecium, and Pseudomonas aeruginosa. The sampling regimen evaluated the antimicrobial effectiveness in a single pass fashion, with samples being evaluated initially after exposure to the ozone unit, as well as at points downstream from the device. Based on the flow dynamics and log reductions, cycle threshold (Ct) values were calculated. The observed organism log reductions were as follows: >6.7 log for E. faecium and P. aeruginosa; >5.9 log for bacteriophage MS2; and between 2.7 and 4.1 log for C. parvum. The efficacy results indicate that the test system effectively functions as a secondary disinfection system as defined by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention's Model Aquatic Health Code. PMID:23708574

Donofrio, Robert S; Aridi, Sal; Saha, Ratul; Bechanko, Robin; Schaefer, Kevin; Bestervelt, Lorelle L; Hamil, Beth

2013-06-01

311

Optimization of conventional water treatment plant using dynamic programming.  

PubMed

In this research, the mathematical models, indicating the capability of various units, such as rapid mixing, coagulation and flocculation, sedimentation, and the rapid sand filtration are used. Moreover, cost functions were used for the formulation of conventional water and wastewater treatment plant by applying Clark's formula (Clark, 1982). Also, by applying dynamic programming algorithm, it is easy to design a conventional treatment system with minimal cost. The application of the model for a case reduced the annual cost. This reduction was approximately in the range of 4.5-9.5% considering variable limitations. Sensitivity analysis and prediction of system's feedbacks were performed for different alterations in proportion from parameters optimized amounts. The results indicated (1) that the objective function is more sensitive to design flow rate (Q), (2) the variations in the alum dosage (A), and (3) the sand filter head loss (H). Increasing the inflow by 20%, the total annual cost would increase to about 12.6%, while 20% reduction in inflow leads to 15.2% decrease in the total annual cost. Similarly, 20% increase in alum dosage causes 7.1% increase in the total annual cost, while 20% decrease results in 7.9% decrease in the total annual cost. Furthermore, the pressure decrease causes 2.95 and 3.39% increase and decrease in total annual cost of treatment plants. PMID:23625909

Mostafa, Khezri Seyed; Bahareh, Ghafari; Elahe, Dadvar; Pegah, Dadras

2013-04-26

312

Continuous water treatment by adsorption and electrochemical regeneration.  

PubMed

This study describes a process for water treatment by continuous adsorption and electrochemical regeneration using an air-lift reactor. The process is based on the adsorption of dissolved organic pollutants onto an adsorbent material (a graphite intercalation compound, Nyex(®)1000) and subsequent electrochemical regeneration of the adsorbent leading to oxidation of the adsorbed pollutant. Batch experiments were carried out to determine the adsorption kinetics and equilibrium isotherm for adsorption of a sample contaminant, the organic dye Acid Violet 17. The adsorbent circulation rate, the residence time distribution (RTD) of the reactor, and treatment by continuous adsorption and electrochemical regeneration were studied to investigate the process performance. The RTD behaviour could be approximated as a continuously stirred tank. It was found that greater than 98% removal could be achieved for continuous treatment by adsorption and electrochemical regeneration for feed concentrations of up to 300 mg L(-1). A steady state model has been developed for the process performance, assuming full regeneration of the adsorbent in the electrochemical cell. Experimental data and modelled predictions (using parameters for the adsorbent circulation rate, adsorption kinetics and isotherm obtained experimentally) of the dye removal achieved were found to be in good agreement. PMID:21511325

Mohammed, F M; Roberts, E P L; Hill, A; Campen, A K; Brown, N W

2011-05-01

313

Using phytoremediation technologies to upgrade waste water treatment in Europe  

Microsoft Academic Search

One of the burning problems of our industrial society is the high consumption of water and the high demand for clean drinking water. Numerous approaches have been taken to reduce water consumption, but in the long run it seems only possible to recycle waste water into high quality water. It seems timely to discuss alternative water remediation technologies that are

Peter Schröder; Juan Navarro-Aviñ'o; Hassan Azaizeh; Avi Golan Goldhirsh; Simona DiGregorio; Tamas Komives; Günter Langergraber; Anton Lenz; Elena Maestri; Abdul R. Memon; Alfonso Ranalli; Luca Sebastiani; Stanislav Smrcek; Tomas Vanek; Stephane Vuilleumier; Frieder Wissing

2007-01-01

314

FERRATES: SYNTHESIS, PROPERTIES AND APPLICATIONS IN WATER AND WASTEWATER TREATMENT.  

SciTech Connect

The higher oxidation states of iron (Fe(VI) and Fe(V) in particular) have been shown to be strongly oxidizing in enzymatic systems, where they can carry out aliphatic hydrogen abstraction. In addition, they have been postulated as intermediates in Fenton-type systems. Fe(VI) itself is relatively stable and has been shown to have potential as an oxidant in the so-called ''green'' treatment of polluted waters. By contrast, Fe(V) is a relatively short-lived transient when produced in aqueous solution in the absence of strongly bonding ligands other than hydroxide, a feature that has limited studies of its reactivity. Fe(VI) has been proposed to be useful in battery design and a very interesting study suggested that ferrate may be able to oxidize insoluble chromium to chromate and thus serve to remove chromium contamination in the Hanford radioactive waste tanks.

CABELLI, D.E.; SHARMA, V.K.

2006-05-19

315

Filtration of slime suspension in water-treatment precipitation clarifiers  

SciTech Connect

When water is treated in industrial clarifiers a slime suspension is produced that has a pH 11-12.5 and contains up to 5% solid phase. In order to utilize the excess alkalinity of the suspension and save fresh lime milk, the suspension is used to neutralize the acidic regenerates past the cation-exchanger columns. The operation of the vacuum filter is a narrow part of the wastewater treatment area. The filter cloth often gets choked, the sediment being sticky and difficult to remove from the cloth. We proposed to alter the mode of removal of the slime suspension by submitting it to filtration immediately after its exit from the clarifier. For mixing with the acidic regeneration from the cation-exchanger columns the filtrate was delivered after the vacuum filter.

Trofimenko, M.A.; Tyagnyryadno, L.A.; Korol'kov, N.M.; Zheleznyak, A.B.

1988-02-10

316

CHANGES IN THE MICROBIOLOGICAL WATER QUALITY ASSOCIATED WITH USING GRANULAR ACTIVATED CARBON IN DRINKING WATER TREATMENT PROCESSES  

Microsoft Academic Search

Granular activated carbon (GAC) is widely used in drinking water treatment for removal of organic compounds, primarily taste, odor, turbidity and the by-products formed during disinfection process. The possibility of replacement the rapid sand filter in the conventional treatment process by activated carbon filter was considered and the effect on microbiological quality of water produced was studied. The study was

Helmy T. El-Zanfaly; A. H. Mostafa; M. H. Mostafa

317

Sulfidogenic fluidized bed treatment of real acid mine drainage water.  

PubMed

The treatment of real acid mine drainage water (pH 2.7-4.3) containing sulfate (1.5-3.34 g/L) and various metals was studied in an ethanol-fed sulfate-reducing fluidized bed reactor at 35°C. The robustness of the process was tested by increasing stepwise sulfate, ethanol and metal loading rates and decreasing feed pH and hydraulic retention time. Highest sulfate reduction rate (4.6g/L day) was obtained with feed sulfate concentration of 2.5 g/L, COD/sulfate ratio of 0.85 and HRT of 12 h. The corresponding sulfate and COD removal efficiencies were about 90% and 80%, respectively. The alkalinity produced in sulfidogenic ethanol oxidation neutralized the acidic mine water. Highest metal precipitation efficiencies were observed at HRT of 24 h, the percent metal removal being over 99.9% for Al (initial concentration 55 mg/L), Co (9.0 mg/L), Cu (49 mg/L), Fe (435 mg/L), Ni (3.8 mg/L), Pb (7.5 mg/L) and Zn (6.6 mg/L), and 94% for Mn (7.21 mg/L). PMID:20832297

Sahinkaya, Erkan; Gunes, Fatih M; Ucar, Deniz; Kaksonen, Anna H

2011-01-01

318

Long-term Impact of Integration of Household Water Treatment and Hygiene Promotion with Antenatal Services on Maternal Water Treatment and Hygiene Practices in Malawi  

PubMed Central

A clinic-based program to integrate antenatal services with distribution of hygiene kits including safe water storage containers, water treatment solution (brand name WaterGuard), soap, and hygiene education, was implemented in Malawi in 2007 and evaluated in 2010. We surveyed 389 participants at baseline in 2007, and found and surveyed 232 (60%) participants to assess water treatment, test stored drinking water for residual chlorine (an objective measure of treatment), and observe handwashing technique at follow-up in 2010. Program participants were more likely to know correct water treatment procedures (67% versus 36%; P < 0.0001), treat drinking water with WaterGuard (24% versus 2%; P < 0.0001), purchase and use WaterGuard (21% versus 1%; P < 0.001), and demonstrate correct handwashing technique (50% versus 21%; P < 0.001) at the three-year follow-up survey than at baseline. This antenatal-clinic-based program may have contributed to sustained water treatment and proper handwashing technique among program participants.

Loharikar, Anagha; Russo, Elizabeth; Sheth, Anandi; Menon, Manoj; Kudzala, Amose; Tauzie, Blessius; Masuku, Humphreys D.; Ayers, Tracy; Hoekstra, Robert M.; Quick, Robert

2013-01-01

319

Long-term impact of integration of household water treatment and hygiene promotion with antenatal services on maternal water treatment and hygiene practices in Malawi.  

PubMed

A clinic-based program to integrate antenatal services with distribution of hygiene kits including safe water storage containers, water treatment solution (brand name WaterGuard), soap, and hygiene education, was implemented in Malawi in 2007 and evaluated in 2010. We surveyed 389 participants at baseline in 2007, and found and surveyed 232 (60%) participants to assess water treatment, test stored drinking water for residual chlorine (an objective measure of treatment), and observe handwashing technique at follow-up in 2010. Program participants were more likely to know correct water treatment procedures (67% versus 36%; P < 0.0001), treat drinking water with WaterGuard (24% versus 2%; P < 0.0001), purchase and use WaterGuard (21% versus 1%; P < 0.001), and demonstrate correct handwashing technique (50% versus 21%; P < 0.001) at the three-year follow-up survey than at baseline. This antenatal-clinic-based program may have contributed to sustained water treatment and proper handwashing technique among program participants. PMID:23243106

Loharikar, Anagha; Russo, Elizabeth; Sheth, Anandi; Menon, Manoj; Kudzala, Amose; Tauzie, Blessius; Masuku, Humphreys D; Ayers, Tracy; Hoekstra, Robert M; Quick, Robert

2013-02-01

320

AN OVERVIEW PRESENTATION OF USEPA AND USDA DRINKING WATER TREATMENT SYSTEM DEMONSTRATIONS IN CHINA  

EPA Science Inventory

Under an interagency agreement with the US Department of Agriculture, US EPA is coordinating support for several water treatment research demonstrations in China. EPA has installed two small drinking water treatment technologies (a bottled water system for a small community and ...

321

AN OVERVIEW PAPER OF USEPA AND USDA DRINKING WATER TREATMENT SYSTEM DEMONSTRATIONS IN CHINA  

EPA Science Inventory

Under an interagency agreement with the US Department of Agriculture, US EPA is coordinating support for several water treatment research demonstrations in China. EPA has installed two small drinking water treatment technologies (a bottled water system for a small community and ...

322

Determination of radium removal efficiencies in Iowa water supply treatment processes. Technical note  

Microsoft Academic Search

The study included sampling and analysis of waters from nine municipal water treatment plants in the state of Iowa to determine the efficiency of radium-226 removal in a variety of treatment processes and to provide cost data for these processes. Supplies with a high naturally occurring radium content over 5 pCi\\/l in Jordan and Dakota sandstone formation well waters were

Schliekelman

1976-01-01

323

Influences of Water Treatment Process on Iron and Copper Release in Distribution System  

Microsoft Academic Search

A pilot study was conducted to assess the effect of water quality changes on iron and copper release in distribution systems. Three finished waters were prepared from groundwater source by conventional treatment, lime softening and reverse osmosis (RO). To mimic desalinated seawater, sea salts were added to RO treated water. Both lime softening and RO treatment significantly decreased the calcium

Baoyou Shi; Weizhong Xiao; James S. Taylor

2006-01-01

324

In-line treatment of metal contaminated storm water by charred microporous polymers  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper examines the feasibility of using an in-line storm water treatment system to remove heavy metals from storm water discharges. There are a number of commercially available microporous carbons that have a demonstrated affinity for the uptake of metals. Industry currently utilizes in-line storm water treatment processes to remove settle able solids, oils and greases; these processes could easily

Kliem

1998-01-01

325

Study on the Alkalization Treatment of the Turbo-Generator's Inner Cooling Water  

Microsoft Academic Search

The applied technical condition and the water quality of two alkalization treatments, which are adding alkaline chemicals and sodium ion exchange treatment, are studied by tests. It is a good way to use alkalization treatment to promote the quality of turbo-generator inner cooling water and prevent the hollow copper lead from corrosion, and to assure safe and economical operation of

Xuejun Xie; Min Yan; He Jie; Xiao Peng; Pan Ling

2009-01-01

326

Arsenite Sorption by Drinking-Water Treatment Residuals: Redox Effects  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Arsenic (As) is a major human carcinogen and could pose a serious human health risk at concentrations as low as 50 ppb in drinking water. Elevated As concentrations in soils currently used for residential purposes (located on former agricultural lands amended with arsenical pesticides) have increased the possibility of human contact with soil-As. Studies have shown that As bioavailability in the environment is primarily a function of its chemical speciation, which depends upon the redox potential. Arsenic toxicity and carcinogenicity to living organisms is primarily due to exposure to the reduced species of As - arsenite, i.e., As(III), rather than the oxidized species - arsenate, i.e., As(V); the mobility of As(III) is much higher than As(V). One of the most promising methods to decrease the mobility of arsenite in the soil-water system is promoting its retention onto amorphous Fe/Al hydroxides. Drinking-Water Treatment Residuals (WTRs) are an inexpensive source of such Fe/Al hydroxides, which can be land-applied following the USEPA-regulated biosolids application rules. The WTRs are byproducts of drinking-water purification processes and generally contain sediment, organic carbon, and Al/Fe hydroxides. The hydroxides are typically amorphous and have tremendous affinity for oxyanions (e.g., arsenate). Preliminary work showed that WTRs are characterized by large internal surface area and porosity that partly explains their high affinity for As(V). The current study examines the potential of two WTRs (Fe-based and Al-based) to adsorb arsenite from solution. We hypothesize that As(III) adsorption onto the Fe-based WTR (whose stability is highly redox-sensitive) would be vastly different from the adsorption of As(III) onto the redox-insensitive Al-based WTR. Our main objective is to characterize As(III) sorption by both Fe- and Al-based WTRs by changing critical factors, such as the solid:solution ratio, contact time, and initial As(III) load. Results from this study are expected to identify the optimal conditions for As(III) sorption onto WTRs as a function of solution pH and redox potential. Potential desorption of the retained As will be assessed in batch studies using phosphate as the competing ligand.

Makris, K. C.; Sarkar, D.; Datta, R.

2005-05-01

327

MODIFIED REVERSE OSMOSIS SYSTEM FOR TREATMENT OF PRODUCED WATERS  

SciTech Connect

This report describes work performed during the first year of the project ''Modified Reverse Osmosis System for Treatment of Produced Waters.'' This research project has two objectives. The first objective is to test the use of clay membranes in the treatment of produced waters by reverse osmosis. The second objective is to test the ability of a system patented by the New Mexico Tech Research Foundation to remove salts from reverse osmosis waste streams as a solid. We performed 12 experiments using clay membranes in cross-flow experimental cells. We found that, due to dispersion in the porous frit used adjacent to the membrane, the concentration polarization layer seems to be completely (or nearly completely) destroyed at low flow rates. This observation suggests that clay membranes used with porous frit material many reach optimum rejection rates at lower pumping rates than required for use with synthetic membranes. The solute rejection efficiency decreases with increasing solution concentration. For the membranes and experiments reported here, the rejection efficiency ranged from 71% with 0.01 M NaCl solution down to 12% with 2.3 M NaCl solution. More compacted clay membranes will have higher rejection capabilities. The clay membranes used in our experiments were relatively thick (approximately 0.5 mm). The active layer of most synthetic membranes is only 0.04 {micro}m (0.00004 mm), approximately 1250 times thinner than the clay membranes used in these experiments. Yet clay membranes as thin as 12 {micro}m have been constructed (Fritz and Eady, 1985). Since Darcy's law states that the flow through a material of constant permeability is inversely proportional to it's the material's thickness, then, based on these experimental observations, a very thin clay membrane would be expected to have much higher flow rates than the ones used in these experiments. Future experiments will focus on testing very thin clay membranes. The membranes generally exhibited reasonable stable rejection rates over time for chloride for a range of concentrations between 0.01 and 2.5 M. One membrane ran in excess of three months with no apparent loss of usability. This suggests that clay membranes may have a long useable life. Twenty different hyperfiltration-induced solute precipitation experiments were either attempted or completed and are reported here. The results of these experiments suggest that hyperfiltration-induced solute precipitation is possible, even for very soluble substances such as NaCl. However, the precipitation rates obtained in the laboratory do not appear to be adequate for commercial application at this time. Future experiments will focus on making the clay membranes more compact and thinner in order to obtain higher flux rates. Two alternative methods of removing solutes from solution, for which the New Mexico Tech Research Foundation is preparing patent applications, are also being investigated. These methods will be described in the next annual report after the patent applications are filed. Technology transfer efforts included two meetings (one in Farmington NM, and one in Hobbs, NM) where the results of this research were presented to independent oil producers and other interested parties. In addition, members of the research team gave seven presentations concerning this research and because of this research project T. M. (Mike) Whitworth was asked to sit on the advisory board for development of a new water treatment facility for the City of El Paso, Texas. Several papers are in preparation for submission to peer-reviewed journals based on the data presented in this report.

T.M. Whitworth; Liangxiong Li

2002-09-15

328

Comparative health-effects assessment of drinking-water-treatment technologies. Final report  

SciTech Connect

On October 8-9, 1987 the Drinking Water Subcommittee of the Science Advisory Board's Environmental Health Committee met to independently review of Office of Drinking Water report to Congress entitled Comparative Health Effects Assessment of Drinking Water Treatment Technologies. The objective of the report is to compare the health effects resulting from the use of different drinking-water-treatment technologies with those prevented by biological treatment. The Subcommittee concludes that the constraints of time and available budget, the report adequately surveys the available information on health effects pf chemicals involved in water treatment, including cost estimates. The rationale for the specific approach used in examining water-treatment processes should be articulated. The introduction should also clearly state that there is a disparity in knowledge for the various treatment techniques.

Not Available

1988-03-09

329

ANALYSIS ON EFFLUENT WATER QUALITY AND ELECTRICITY CONSUMPTION AFTER INTRODUCING ADVANCED SEWAGE TREATMENT  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We analyze effluent water quality and electricity consumption after in troducing advanced treatment in sewage treatment plant. We define 'advanced treatment ratio' as volume of treated water through advanced treatment processes divided by total volume of treated water in plant. Advanced treatment ratio represents degree of introducing advanced treatment. We build two types of equation. One represents relation between effluent water quality and advanced treatment ratio, the other between electricity consumption and advanced treatment ratio. Each equation is fitted by least squares on 808 samples: 8 fiscal years operation data of 101 plants working in Kanagawa, Tokyo, Saitama and Chiba areas, and coefficient of advanced treatment ratio is estimated. The result is as follows. (1) After introducing advanced treatment aimed at nitrogen removal, T-N in effluent water decreases by 51.3% and electricity consum ption increases by 52.2%. (2) After introducing advanced treatment aimed at phosphorus removal, T-P in effluent water decreases by 27.8%. Using the above result, we try prioritizing 71 plants in Tokyo Bay watershed about raising advanced treatment ratio, so that, in total, pollutant in effluent water decreases with minimized increase of electricity consumption.

Shiojiri, Yasuo; Maekawa, Shunich

330

Evaluation of Sodium Aluminate as a Coagulant for Cost Savings at Water Treatment Plants.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The feasibility of using liquid sodium aluminate (SA) in a more cost effective way for maintaining or improving the finished water quality at water treatment plants was studied. Evaluation of all tests performed, together with calculations of theoretical ...

G. M. Huntley L. K. Wang W. Layer

1985-01-01

331

Feasibility Study for Upgrading of Potable Water Treatment Plants. Final Report.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The final report is intended to summarize findings from the project 'Feasibility Study for Upgrading of Potable Water Treatment Plants' conducted for the City of Istanbul Water and Sewer Administration (ISKI). The two-year project was initiated in October...

1999-01-01

332

Symposium on Environmental Technology and Management, 1986. Main Theme: Recent Advances in Water and Wastewater Treatment,  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Contents: Development of Innovative Sandfloat Systems for Water Purification and Pollution Control; Development of innovative Electroflotation Plant for Water Treatment by Single Families and Institutions; Application of Supracell Clarifier in the Paper a...

L. K. Wang

1986-01-01

333

TREATMENT TECHNOLOGY TO MEET THE INTERIM PRIMARY DRINKING WATER REGULATIONS FOR INORGANICS: PART 5  

EPA Science Inventory

The fifth in a series summarizing existing treatment technology to meet the inorganic National Interim Primary Drinking Water Regulations, this report describes current methods for removing barium and radionuclides from drinking water....

334

Comparative analysis of effluent water quality from a municipal treatment plant and two on-site wastewater treatment systems.  

PubMed

Though decentralized on-site technologies are extensively employed for wastewater treatment around the globe, an understanding of effluent water quality impairments associated with these systems remain less understood than effluent discharges from centralized municipal wastewater treatment facilities. Using a unique experimental facility, a novel comparative analysis of effluent water quality was performed from model decentralized aerobic (ATS) and septic (STS) on-site wastewater treatment systems and a centralized municipal wastewater treatment plant (MTP). The ATS and STS units did not benefit from further soil treatment. Each system received common influent wastewater from the Waco, Texas, USA Metropolitan Area Regional Sewerage System. We tested the hypothesis that MTP effluent would exhibit higher water quality than on-site effluents, based on parameters selected for study. A tiered testing approach was employed to assess the three effluent discharges: select routine water quality parameters (Tier I), whole effluent toxicity (Tier II), and select endocrine-active compounds (Tier III). Contrary to our hypothesis, ATS effluent was not statistically different from MTP effluents, based on Tier I and III parameters, but reproductive responses of Daphnia magna were slightly more sensitive to ATS than MTP effluents. STS effluent water quality was identified as most degraded of the three wastewater treatment systems. Parameters used to assess centralized wastewater treatment plant effluent water quality such as whole effluent toxicity and endocrine active substances appear useful for water quality assessments of decentralized discharges. Aerobic on-site wastewater treatment systems may represent more robust options than traditional septic systems for on-site wastewater treatment in watersheds with appreciable groundwater - surface water exchange. PMID:23557723

Garcia, Santos N; Clubbs, Rebekah L; Stanley, Jacob K; Scheffe, Brian; Yelderman, Joe C; Brooks, Bryan W

2013-06-01

335

DEVELOPMENT OF GIARDIA C.T VALUES FOR THE SURFACE WATER TREATMENT RULE  

EPA Science Inventory

As a consequence of the 1986 Amendments to the Safe Drinking Water Act (SDWA) the U.S. EPA has issued a Surface Water Treatment Rule (SWTR) for systems using surface and ground waters under the direct influence of surface water. n the Guidance Manual of the SWTR, the EPA recommen...

336

Monitoring and modeling of trihalomethanes (THMs) for a water treatment plant in Istanbul  

Microsoft Academic Search

Because of increasing concern for both microbial control and disinfection by-products (DBPs) formation, water utilities are strictly examining and optimizing disinfection practices. In this study, modeling of trihalomethanes (THMs) formation at processed water of the Kagithane water treatment plant in Istanbul City was conducted. Data for THMs and other water quality and operational parameters were generated through a 12-month sampling

V. Uyak; I. Toroz; S. Meriç

2005-01-01

337

Metal sorption to natural filter substrates for storm water treatment—column studies  

Microsoft Academic Search

Storm water generated from road runoff contains pollutants such as metals that are either dissolved in storm water or bound to particulates. Using detention ponds for the treatment of storm water from road runoff, where particles can settle, can reduce the level of particulate-bound metals in the water, while small particles and dissolved matter pass through the detention pond. Some

Carina Färm

2002-01-01

338

Treatment of dairy industry wastewater by reverse osmosis for water reuse  

Microsoft Academic Search

The dairy industry is among the most polluting of the food industries in volume in regard to its large water consumption. The present work was related to investigations about practices of water management of 11 dairy plants. Treatment of the process water produced in the starting, equilibrating, stopping and rinsing processing units was proposed to produce water for reuse in

Mickael Vourch; Béatrice Balannec; Bernard Chaufer; Gérard Dorange

2008-01-01

339

Study of water penetration in rock materials by Nuclear Magnetic Resonance Tomography: hydrophobic treatment effects  

Microsoft Academic Search

The penetration of water in rock materials is the main cause of deterioration of stone surfaces exposed to rainfall. Their protection is generally achieved using water-repellents, in order to reduce the absorption of water. Nuclear Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) provides a new tool to visualize the presence of water inside the stone and, hence, the performance of hydrophobic treatments. This

Giulio Cesare Borgia; Mara Camaiti; Fanny Cerri; Paola Fantazzini; Franco Piacenti

2000-01-01

340

Introduction of a boost of Legionella pneumophila into a stagnant-water model by heat treatment.  

PubMed

An environmentally representative stagnant-water model was developed to monitor the growth dynamics of Legionella pneumophila. This model was evaluated for three distinct water treatments: untreated tap water, heat-treated tap water, and heat-treated tap water supplemented with Pseudomonas putida, a known biofilm-forming bacterium. Bringing heat-treated tap water after subsequent cooling into contact with a densely formed untreated biofilm was found to promote the number of L. pneumophila by 4 log units within the biofilm, while the use of untreated water only sustained the L. pneumophila levels. Subsequent colonization of the water phase by L. pneumophila was noticed in the heat-treated stagnant-water models, with concentrations as high as 1 x 10(10) mip gene copies L(-1) stagnant water. Denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis in combination with clustering analysis of the prokaryotic community in the water phase and in the biofilm phase suggests that the different water treatments induced different communities. Moreover, boosts of L. pneumophila arising from heat treatment of water were accompanied by shifts to a more diverse eukaryotic community. Stimulated growth of L. pneumophila after heating of the water may explain the rapid recolonization of L. pneumophila in water systems. These results highlight the need for additional or alternative measures to heat treatment of water in order to prevent or abate potential outbreaks of L. pneumophila. PMID:17117999

Vervaeren, Han; Temmerman, Robin; Devos, Liesbet; Boon, Nico; Verstraete, Willy

2006-12-01

341

NONPHOTOSYNTHETIC PIGMENTED BACTERIA IN A POTABLE WATER TREATMENT AND DISTRIBUTION SYSTEM  

EPA Science Inventory

The occurrence of pigmented bacteria in potable water from raw source water through treatment to distribution water, including dead-end locations, was compared at sample sites in a large municipal water system. edia used to enumerate heterotrophic bacteria and differentiate pigme...

342

Use of a resource-saving technology in water treatment systems  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We present the results obtained from laboratory research works on studying the treatment of natural water by subjecting it to diaphragm electrolysis with addition of carbon dioxide into source water to achieve a higher degree of its softening and reduce the time for which water must dwell in the electrolyzer. The basic technological scheme of an industrial water treatment plant is proposed, and the economic effect from using it is calculated.

Demidova, Yu. M.; Shinkevich, E. O.; Laptev, A. G.

2010-08-01

343

Use of a resource-saving technology in water treatment systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

We present the results obtained from laboratory research works on studying the treatment of natural water by subjecting it\\u000a to diaphragm electrolysis with addition of carbon dioxide into source water to achieve a higher degree of its softening and\\u000a reduce the time for which water must dwell in the electrolyzer. The basic technological scheme of an industrial water treatment\\u000a plant

Yu. M. Demidova; E. O. Shinkevich; A. G. Laptev

2010-01-01

344

Over One-Year Operation of Lenox Water Treatment Plant. Part 1.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Lenox Water Treatment Plant is the first full-scale (1-MGD) potable flotation plant built in America. The treatment plant consisting of dissolved air flotation, automatic backwash filtration sludge lagoon, and flotation sludge thickener, has been serving ...

M. Krofta L. K. Wang

1983-01-01

345

Treatment of pulp mill sludges by supercritical water oxidation  

SciTech Connect

Supercritical water oxidation (SCWO) is new process that can oxidize organics very effectively at moderate temperatures (400 to 650{degree}C) and high pressure (3700 psi). It is an environmentally acceptable alternative for sludge treatment. In bench scale tests, total organic carbon (TOC) and total organic halide (TOX) reductions of 99 to 99.9% were obtained; dioxin reductions were 95 to 99.9%. A conceptual design for commercial systems has been completed and preliminary economics have been estimated. Comparisons confirm that SCWO is less costly than dewatering plus incineration for treating pulp mill sludges. SCWO can also compete effectively with dewatering plus landfilling where tipping fees exceed $35/yd{sup 3}. In some regions of the US, tipping fees are now $75/yd{sup 3} and rising steadily. In the 1995 to 2000 time frame, SCWO has a good chance of becoming the method of choice. MODEC's objective is to bring the technology to commercial availability by 1993. 10 refs., 6 figs., 19 tabs.

Modell, M.

1990-07-01

346

Lamella settlers for storm water treatment - performance and design recommendations.  

PubMed

Three lamella settlers were monitored over a period of 4 years. The main objective was to determine removal efficiencies for total suspended solids and associated pollutants. For this purpose a new sampling method based on large volume solid samplers was developed allowing a detailed analysis of solids. With regard to total suspended solids the average removal efficiency of the plants range from 49 to 68%. Similar values could be achieved for phosphorus and heavy metals mainly because of the high portion of fine particles in treatment plants' influent. A clear dependency between solid removal efficiency and the parameters maximum surface load and influent concentration could be observed on a single event basis. The aggregation of all findings result in a recommended maximum design surface loading rate (SLR) of 4 m/h. A solid removal rate of 50%, which is defined as minimum long-term efficiency, can be achieved safely at this SLR. In addition to the definition of the maximum SLR, a proper dissipation of the inflow energy and an equal collection of the clear water above the lamellas turn out to be essential. PMID:24473295

Fuchs, Stephan; Mayer, Ingo; Haller, Bernd; Roth, Hartmut

2014-01-01

347

Influence of water treatment residuals on dewaterability of wastewater biosolids.  

PubMed

Co-dewatering of water treatment residuals (WTR) and wastewater biosolids can potentially benefit municipalities by reducing processing equipment and costs. This study investigated dewaterability (using capillary suction time, CST) of combined alum residuals (Al-WTR) and anaerobically digested biosolids at various blending ratios (BR), defined as the mass ratio of WTR to biosolids on a dry solids basis. Without polymer addition, the CST was 160 s for a BR of 0.75 compared with 355 s for the biosolids alone. The optimum polymer dose (OPD), defined as the polymer dose yielding CST of 20 s, was reduced from 20.6 g kg(-1) dry solids for the biosolids alone to 16.3 and 12.6 g kg(-1) when BR was 0.75 and 1.5, respectively. Precipitated Al hydrous oxides in the WTR likely caused flocculation of the biosolids particles through heterocoagulation or charge neutralization. The solids contents of the blended materials and biosolids at their respective OPDs were not statistically different (? = 0.05) following dewatering by a belt-filter press. We conclude addition of Al-WTR improved biosolids dewaterability and reduced polymer dosage. In practice, the extent of these benefits may be limited by the quantity of WTR produced relative to the amount of wastewater solids generated by a municipality. PMID:23128637

Taylor, Malcolm; Elliott, Herschel A

2013-01-01

348

Treatment of surface water with Moringa Oleifera seed extract and alum – a comparative study using a pilot scale water treatment plant  

Microsoft Academic Search

The present study involved the use of a pilot scale water treatment plant to treat turbid surface water from a stream using processed Moringa oleifera seed and alum as primary coagulants. At low initial turbidity of 21.5 to 49.3 NTU, residual turbidities of 2.7, 1.8 and 1.4 NTU were achieved after treatment using Moringa oleifera, alum, and alum with Moringa

Suleyman Muyibi; Akif Alfugara

2003-01-01

349

Multistage treatment wetland for treatment of reject waters from digested sludge dewatering.  

PubMed

The paper presents the influence of sewage composition on treatment in pilot-scale facility for reject waters (RW) from sewage sludge centrifugation. The facility consisted of mechanical (two tanks with 10 d retention each) and biological parts composed of three subsurface flow reed beds working in batch. Two years of monitoring of the facility proved high efficiency removal of predominant pollutants: chemical oxygen demand (COD) 75-80%, biochemical oxygen demand (BOD) 82.2-95.5% and total nitrogen 78.7-93.9% for low ratio of BOD5/COD in discharged RW. The differences in efficiency removal were correlated with the composition of organics and nitrogen compounds rather than with concentrations. It was assumed that high concentration of colloidal fraction of Org-N and COD in discharged RW led to a decrease in efficiency removal. PMID:24056417

Gajewska, M; Obarska-Pempkowiak, H

2013-01-01

350

Removal of dissolved organic matter in water-hyacinth waste-water treatment lagoons  

SciTech Connect

Secondary treatment of domestic wastewater in water hyacinth lagoons was evaluated under experimental conditions to assess the role of the roots' bacterial biofilm in the removal of dissolved organic matter (DOM). Research was conducted to (1) quantify removal rates by the biofilm as a function of bulk DOM concentration, (2) formulate an analytical model of DOM removal incorporating biofilm activity, and (3) test the model response to variable organic loads in a pilot-scale plant. Removal of DOM by the biofilm was quantified in continuous-flow water hyacinth tanks at ten concentrations ranging from 45 to 330 g COD m {sup {minus}3} . Total DOM removal in the denitrifying, acetate-based experimental system was measured and partitioned into two fractions associated with the activity of biofilm and suspended bacteria. Calculated DOM removal by the biofilm was adjusted for the release of organic compounds by debris decomposition. Values of DOM removal were used to calculate oxygen transfer rates from the water hyacinth roots. A model of DOM removal in water hyacinth lagoons was formulated. The model, composed of four differential equations, was solved at steady-state conditions and the validity of its simulation results was tested in pilot-scale tanks. Hydraulic detection times ranging from 2 to 28 days were evaluated using biofilm density and concentrations of DOM and particulate organics as monitoring parameters of the model response. The observed decrease of suspended bacterial biomass along the tank was correctly simulated by the model, but predictions of effluent concentrations were not always consistent. Predicted values of biofilm bacterial mass were similar to those measured in the tanks, except when large algal populations were present in the film.

Victoria-Rueda, C.H.

1991-01-01

351

Effectiveness of water treatment for the removal of Cryptosporidium and Giardia spp.  

PubMed

Cryptosporidium and Giardia are intestinal parasites of humans and of many other species of animals. Water constitutes an important route of transmission for human infections in both developed and developing countries. In Poland, contamination of water sources with oocysts/cysts is not routinely monitored and scientific research in this field is scarce. Our aim was to compare the contamination of surface and treated water and thus the success of water treatment processes. Water samples (n=94) of between 30 l (surface water) to over 1000 l for tap water, were taken in the period of 2008-2009 using specially constructed equipment with cartridge filtration (Filta-Max; IDEXX, USA). Immunofluorescent assay, and nested polymerase chain reaction were used for the detection of parasites. Cryptosporidium oocysts were found in 85% of surface water and in 59% of raw (intake) water samples. Oocysts were also detected in treated water (16%) but were absent in samples of swimming pool water. The highest mean number of Cryptosporidium oocysts [geometric mean (GM)=61/10 l] was found in samples of rinsing water. Giardia cysts were observed in 61% of surface water samples, in 6% of raw water and in 19% of treated water, with the highest number of cysts noted in rinsing water samples (GM=70 cysts/10 l). Our study highlights the frequent occurrence of parasites in surface waters in Poland and the effectiveness of water treatment for the removal of parasites from drinking water. PMID:22217301

Bajer, A; Toczylowska, B; Bednarska, M; Sinski, E

2012-11-01

352

Characterization of natural organic matter in conventional water treatment processes for selection of treatment processes focused on DBPs control  

Microsoft Academic Search

Natural organic matter (NOM) from raw and process waters at a conventional water treatment plant was isolated into hydrophobic and hydrophilic fractions by physicochemical fractionation methods to investigate its characteristics. Formation potential of trihalomethanes (THMs) was highly influenced by the hydrophobic fraction, whereas haloacetic acids formation potential (HAAFP) depended more on the hydrophilic fraction. However the hydrophobic fraction was removed

Hyun-Chul Kim; Myong-Jin Yu

2005-01-01

353

ETV REPORT: REMOVAL OF CHEMICAL CONTAMINANTS IN DRINKING WATER ? PALL/KINETICO PUREFECTA DRINKING WATER TREATMENT SYSTEM  

EPA Science Inventory

The Pall/Kinetico Purefecta? POU drinking water treatment system was tested for removal of aldicarb, benzene, cadmium, carbofuran, cesium, chloroform, dichlorvos, dicrotophos, fenamiphos, mercury, mevinphos, oxamyl, strontium, and strychnine. The Purefecta? employs several compon...

354

THE TREATMENT OF CONTAMINATED WATER AT REMEDIAL WOOD PRESERVING SITES  

EPA Science Inventory

Contaminated groundwater and surface water have posed a great challenge in restoring wood preserving sites to beneficial use. Often contaminated groundwater plumes extend far beyond the legal property limits, adversely impacting drinking water supplies and crop lands. To contain,...

355

Impact of Drinking Water Treatment on Assimilable Organic Carbon.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Regrowth in the drinking water distribution system is a primary concern for water utilities. The disinfection process, although normally efficient for primary inactivation, is not always enough to discourage microbial regrowth if sufficient substrate is a...

E. M. Mogren P. V. Scarpino R. S. Summers

1990-01-01

356

IMPACT OF DRINKING WATER TREATMENT ON ASSIMILABLE ORGANIC CARBON  

EPA Science Inventory

Regrowth in the drinking water distribution system is a primary concern for water utilities. he disinfection process, although normally efficient for primary inactivation, is not always enough to discourage microbial regrowth if sufficient substrate is available. Previously, the,...

357

Cyanobacterial toxins: removal during drinking water treatment, and human risk assessment.  

PubMed Central

Cyanobacteria (blue-green algae) produce toxins that may present a hazard for drinking water safety. These toxins (microcystins, nodularins, saxitoxins, anatoxin-a, anatoxin-a(s), cylindrospermopsin) are structurally diverse and their effects range from liver damage, including liver cancer, to neurotoxicity. The occurrence of cyanobacteria and their toxins in water bodies used for the production of drinking water poses a technical challenge for water utility managers. With respect to their removal in water treatment procedures, of the more than 60 microcystin congeners, microcystin-LR (L, L-leucine; R, L-arginine) is the best studied cyanobacterial toxin, whereas information for the other toxins is largely lacking. In response to the growing concern about nonlethal acute and chronic effects of microcystins, the World Health Organization has recently set a new provisional guideline value for microcystin-LR of 1.0 microg/L drinking water. This will lead to further efforts by water suppliers to develop effective treatment procedures to remove these toxins. Of the water treatment procedures discussed in this review, chlorination, possibly micro-/ultrafiltration, but especially ozonation are the most effective in destroying cyanobacteria and in removing microcystins. However, these treatments may not be sufficient during bloom situations or when a high organic load is present, and toxin levels should therefore be monitored during the water treatment process. In order to perform an adequate human risk assessment of microcystin exposure via drinking water, the issue of water treatment byproducts will have to be addressed in the future.

Hitzfeld, B C; Hoger, S J; Dietrich, D R

2000-01-01

358

ADVANCES IN DRINKING WATER TREATMENT IN THE UNITED STATES  

EPA Science Inventory

The United States drinking water public health protection goal is to provide water that meets all health-based standards to ninety-five percent of the population served by public drinking water supplies by 2005. In 2002, the level of compliance with some eighty-five health-based ...

359

Elimination of micro-organisms in water treatment  

Microsoft Academic Search

Clean water supply and sanitation are regarded as major milestones in medical advances since the 19th century. Production and control of microbiologically safe drinking water has been an important challenge for the drinking water industry ever since. Based on recent progress in scientific literature the group of emerging waterborne pathogens has been changed and extended compared to well known pathogenic

W. A. M. Hijnen

2009-01-01

360

Review of technologies for oil and gas produced water treatment  

Microsoft Academic Search

Produced water is the largest waste stream generated in oil and gas industries. It is a mixture of different organic and inorganic compounds. Due to the increasing volume of waste all over the world in the current decade, the outcome and effect of discharging produced water on the environment has lately become a significant issue of environmental concern. Produced water

Ahmadun Fakhru’l-Razi; Alireza Pendashteh; Luqman Chuah Abdullah; Dayang Radiah Awang Biak; Sayed Siavash Madaeni; Zurina Zainal Abidin

2009-01-01

361

ETV REPORT: REMOVAL OF CHEMICAL CONTAMINANTS IN DRINKING WATER ? ECOWATER SYSTEMS, INC. ERO-R450E WATER TREATMENT SYSTEM  

EPA Science Inventory

The EcoWater Systems ERO-R450E POU drinking water treatment system was tested for removal of aldicarb, benzene, cadmium, carbofuran, cesium, chloroform, dichlorvos, dicrotophos, fenamiphos, mercury, mevinphos, oxamyl, strontium, and strychnine. The ERO-R450E employs a reverse os...

362

Chemical and photolytic degradation of polyacrylamides used in potable water treatment  

Microsoft Academic Search

Polyacrylamides (PAMs) are a class of polymers formed from acrylamide alone or copolymerized with other monomers. PAMs have been used in drinking water treatment as flocculants or coagulants in the highest volume among all the polymer types. In potable water treatment processes, polyacrylamides are often exposed to oxidants (e.g. chlorine and permanganate) and UV irradiation from sunlight or artificial sources.

Peiyao Cheng

2004-01-01

363

Water Treatment Plant Operation. Volume II. A Field Study Training Program.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The purpose of this water treatment field study training program is to: (1) develop new qualified water treatment plant operators; (2) expand the abilities of existing operators, permitting better service both to employers and public; and (3) prepare operators for civil service and certification examinations (examinations administered by…

California State Univ., Sacramento. School of Engineering.

364

Water Treatment Plant Operation Volume 2. A Field Study Training Program. Revised.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The purpose of this water treatment field study training program is to: (1) develop new qualified water treatment plant operators; (2) expand the abilities of existing operators, permitting better service both to employers and public; and (3) prepare operators for civil service and certification examinations (examinations administered by…

California State Univ., Sacramento. School of Engineering.

365

Water Treatment Plant Operation. Volume I. A Field Study Training Program.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The purpose of this water treatment field study training program is to: (1) develop new qualified water treatment plant operators; (2) expand the abilities of existing operators, permitting better service both to employers and public; and (3) prepare operators for civil service and certification examinations (examinations administered by…

California State Univ., Sacramento. School of Engineering.

366

ANALYTICAL ASPECTS OF OZONE TREATMENT OF WATER AND WASTEWATER - A MONOGRAPH  

EPA Science Inventory

With the ever-increasing interest in the application of ozone for water and wastewater treatment, several major questions arise in the minds of those new to the field: (1) What is the nature of ozone. (2) How is ozone applied in water and wastewater treatment. (3) How is ozone ap...

367

Mechanical properties of concrete produced with a composite of water treatment sludge and sawdust  

Microsoft Academic Search

In developing countries such as Brazil, the wastes generated in the decanters and filters of water treatment plants are discharged directly into the same rivers and streams that supply water for treatment. Another environmental problem is the unregulated discard of wood wastes. The lumber and wood products industry generates large quantities of this waste, from logging to the manufacture of

Almir Sales; Francis Rodrigues de Souza; Fernando do Couto Rosa Almeida

2011-01-01

368

Investigating the benefits of combined RO and UF treatment of pool water  

Microsoft Academic Search

For the treatment of swimming pool water, membrane technology is an interesting option for the near future, as it might have several benefits compared to other treatment technologies. Among these is an improved water quality with respect to microbial contaminants, turbidity and, in combination with powdered activated carbon (PAC), disinfection by-products (DBPs) as well as removal of DBP precursors. In

Florian G. Reißmann; Volker Albrecht; Wolfgang Uhl

369

Design Considerations for a Water Treatment System Utilizing Ultra- Violet Light Emitting Diodes.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

UV LED technology is in its infancy and research as it applies to UV water treatment is required to advance knowledge for practical application. This thesis focused on two subjects. First, the design, fabrication, and operation of a water treatment reacti...

M. J. Spencer

2014-01-01

370

Characterization of natural organic matter in conventional water treatment processes for selection of treatment processes focused on DBPs control.  

PubMed

Natural organic matter (NOM) from raw and process waters at a conventional water treatment plant was isolated into hydrophobic and hydrophilic fractions by physicochemical fractionation methods to investigate its characteristics. Formation potential of trihalomethanes (THMs) was highly influenced by the hydrophobic fraction, whereas haloacetic acids formation potential (HAAFP) depended more on the hydrophilic fraction. However the hydrophobic fraction was removed more than the hydrophilic fraction through conventional water treatment. Therefore residual hydrophilic NOM after conventional treatment needs to be removed to reduce HAAFP. Feasible additional processes are required to be evaluated by comparing preferential removal efficiency of hydrophilic NOM through pilot tests. The structural and chemical characteristics of hydrophobic NOM (i.e., humic substances (HS)) were further investigated to know how they are influenced by conventional treatment. The phenolic fraction in the hydrophobic NOM was mainly removed compared to the carboxylic fraction through water treatment, and a higher formation potential of THMs resulted from NOM with a higher phenolic content. The Fourier-transform infrared (FT-IR) and proton nuclear magnetic resonance ((1)H-NMR) employed for characterization of NOM through water treatment were insightful revealing that their results were quite close to each other. Decreases of ratio of UV absorbance at 253 and 203 nm, respectively (A(253)/A(203) ratio) and trihalomethane formation potential/dissolved organic carbon (THMFP/DOC) showed consistent trends; therefore, the A(253)/A(203) ratio may be a good indicator of tendency for the formation potential of disinfection by-products (DBPs). PMID:16253305

Kim, Hyun-Chul; Yu, Myong-Jin

2005-11-01

371

Roughing filtration as an effective pre-treatment system for high turbidity water.  

PubMed

Effective water treatment is the prime goal of every water treatment facility. Chakwal Water Treatment Plant in Pakistan has been treating high-turbidity surface water through crude coagulation, sedimentation and slow sand filtration since the early 1980s. The process has always been tedious in terms of high coagulant dosage, large volumes of sludge and short filter runs especially after wet spells. A laboratory-scale study was conducted to see if roughing filtration, as the pre-treatment process, would help in reducing coagulant dose and sludge volume and improving effluent quality. Results indicated that up-flow rouging filtration with media grades decreasing in the direction of flow could reduce wet weather raw water turbidity (by more than 90%) and coagulant dose. Overall, the plant could save over US $54,000 annually in terms of coagulant cost only. Longer filter runs, improved product water quality leading to lower chlorine dose requirement, would be additional benefits. PMID:22179638

Khan, Zahiruddin; Farooqi, Rahimuddin

2011-01-01

372

Waste water treatment with bacteria attached to fibers  

SciTech Connect

There are many landfills that are in danger of leaking chlorinated compounds into the drinking water supply. The bacterium Bacillus megaterium can degrade dioxin slowly, but a method for efficiently handling large volumes of water is needed. Fibers have a high area and when Zymomonas is attached to fibers and rotated, a fast reaction occurs converting sugar to alcohol. Metals can also be removed from water with Pseudomonas attached to fibers. Dioxin can be destroyed with UV light.

Clyde, R.

1983-12-01

373

WasteWater Treatment And Heavy Metals Removal In The A-01 Constructed Wetland 2003 Report  

SciTech Connect

The A-01 wetland treatment system (WTS) was designed to remove metals from the effluent at the A-01 NPDES outfall. The purpose of research conducted during 2003 was to evaluate (1) the ability of the A-01 wetland treatment system to remediate waste water, (2) retention of the removed contaminants in wetland sediment, and (3) the potential remobilization of these contaminants from the sediment into the water column. Surface water and sediment samples were collected and analyzed in this study.

ANNA, KNOX

2004-08-01

374

Characterization of Particles in Slow Sand Filtration at North Caribou Water Treatment Plant  

Microsoft Academic Search

Microscopic analysis of particles in water can indicate the size of filter media required, and can be used to monitor filter performance. This study investigat- ed a malfunctioning slow sand filter in a water treatment facility on a First Nations community in Northern Ontario. There has been a boil-water advisory in the community due to high turbidity in the drinking

BEATA GORCZYCA; DAVID LONDON

375

AN INTEGRATED KINETIC MODEL FOR WATER HYACINTH PONDS USED FOR WASTEWATER TREATMENT  

Microsoft Academic Search

Water hyacinth (Eichhornia crassipes) is a floating aquatic plant which has been employed for wastewater treatment in many parts of the world. By planting water hyacinth in a wastewater pond, part of the gaseous oxygen produced by photosynthetic activity of the green leaves is translocated to the stems and roots and to the water body; this oxygen is used by

CHONGRAK POLPRASERT; NAWA RAJ KHATIWADA

1998-01-01

376

ENTERIC VIRUS AND INDICATOR BACTERIA LEVELS IN A WATER TREATMENT SYSTEM MODIFIED TO REDUCE TRIHALOMETHANE PRODUCTION  

EPA Science Inventory

A drinking water treatment plant with high concentrations of trihalomethanes (THMs) in its finished water and large numbers of viruses in its source water was located. This plant was used to study the effect of an alteration in the point of chlorination from the first to last ste...

377

Purification of petroleum- and phenol-containing waters by electrical treatment  

Microsoft Academic Search

The use of electrical treatment for purification of waste water containing petroleum hydrocarbons, phenols, and surfactants was investigated. Experiments were carried out on waste waters from the Kherson oil refinery under static and dynamic conditions. The concentrations of phenols and surfactants were lowered in the waste waters by electrochemical oxidation, while removal of the petroleum hydrocarbons was due to electrocoagulation

L. G. Ivanova; V. D. Sidorenko; I. A. Udovenko; L. V. Kuchmii

1976-01-01

378

Tissue treatment under water with simultaneously fiber-guided erbium and holmium laser radiation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Non-contact fiber guided IR-tissue treatment under water requires the formation of a water vapor channel at the fiber tip to bridge the water layer between the fiber and the tissue surface and to allow transmission of the radiation. The formation of the channel, however, consumes most of the initial pulse energy which strongly restricts the ablation efficiency. The goal of

Hans Pratisto; Martin Frenz; Flurin Koenz; Michael Ith; Heinz P. Weber; Hans J. Altermatt

1996-01-01

379

Effectiveness and potential toxicological impact of the PERACLEAN ® Ocean ballast water treatment technology  

Microsoft Academic Search

The efficacy and the potential toxicological impact of a proposed ballast water treatment (PERACLEAN® Ocean) using peracetic acid (PAA) as active substances to control species introduction was assessed in both fresh- and salt water experiments at very cold water temperatures (1–2°C). Levels of PAA gradually declined over the 5-day experiments, while levels of hydrogen peroxide remained relatively stable. The rate

Yves de Lafontaine; Simon-Pierre Despatie; Chris Wiley

2008-01-01

380

Adapting water treatment design and operations to the impacts of global climate change  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

It is anticipated that global climate change will adversely impact source water quality in many areas of the United States and will therefore, potentially, impact the design and operation of current and future water treatment systems. The USEPA has initiated an effort called the Water Resources Adaptation Program (WRAP) which is intended to develop tools and techniques that can assess the impact of global climate change on urban drinking water and wastewater infrastructure. A three step approach for assessing climate change impacts on water treatment operation and design is being persude in this effort. The first step is the stochastic characterization of source water quality, the second step is the application of the USEPA Water Treatment Plant model and the third step is the application of cost algorithms to provide a metric that can be used to assess the coat impact of climate change. A model has been validated using data collected from Cincinnati's Richard Miller Water Treatment Plant for the USEPA Information Collection Rule (ICR) database. An analysis of the water treatment processes in response to assumed perturbations in raw water quality identified TOC, pH, and bromide as the three most important parameters affecting performance of the Miller WTP. The Miller Plant was simulated using the EPA WTP model to examine the impact of these parameters on selected regulated water quality parameters. Uncertainty in influent water quality was analyzed to estimate the risk of violating drinking water maximum contaminant levels (MCLs).Water quality changes in the Ohio River were projected for 2050 using Monte Carlo simulation and the WTP model was used to evaluate the effects of water quality changes on design and operation. Results indicate that the existing Miller WTP might not meet Safe Drinking Water Act MCL requirements for certain extreme future conditions. However, it was found that the risk of MCL violations under future conditions could be controlled by enhancing existing WTP design and operation or by process retrofitting and modification.

Clark, Robert M.; Li, Zhiwei; Buchberger, Steven G.

2011-12-01

381

Environmental Technology Verification Report: Removal of Microbial Contaminants in Drinking Water. Watts Premier, Inc., M-2400 Point-of-Entry Reverse Osmosis Drinking Water Treatment System.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The Watts Premier M-2400 POE RO Drinking Water Treatment System was tested at the NSF Drinking Water Treatment Systems Laboratory for removal of the viruses fr and MS2, the bacteria Brevundimonas diminuta, and chemicals aldicarb, benzene, cadmium, carbofu...

2006-01-01

382

Study on fouling materials in the membrane treatment process for potable water  

Microsoft Academic Search

Studies were made on a water treatment process which used hollow fiber microfiltration membranes for potable water. The influent, which was from a eutrophic lake named Kasumigaura, was provided directly into the treatment system, and no pre-treatment such as coagulation was done. Dead-end filtration was carried out under constant rate permeation, and membranes were washed by air-scrubbing. The trans-membrane pressure

Yoshihide Kaiya; Yoshikazu Itoh; Kenji Fujita; Satoshi Takizawa

1996-01-01

383

Biofouling of Water Treatment Membranes: A Review of the Underlying Causes, Monitoring Techniques and Control Measures  

PubMed Central

Biofouling is a critical issue in membrane water and wastewater treatment as it greatly compromises the efficiency of the treatment processes. It is difficult to control, and significant economic resources have been dedicated to the development of effective biofouling monitoring and control strategies. This paper highlights the underlying causes of membrane biofouling and provides a review on recent developments of potential monitoring and control methods in water and wastewater treatment with the aim of identifying the remaining issues and challenges in this area.

Nguyen, Thang; Roddick, Felicity A.; Fan, Linhua

2012-01-01

384

Assessing Waste Water Treatment Plant Effluent for Thyroid Hormone Disruption  

EPA Science Inventory

Much information has been coming to light on the estrogenic and androgenic activity of chemicals present in the waste water stream and in surface waters, but much less is known about the presence of chemicals with thyroid activity. To address this issue, we have utilized two assa...

385

Disinfection By-Products and Drinking Water Treatment  

EPA Science Inventory

The disinfection of drinking water has been rightly hailed as a public health triumph of the 20th century. Before its widespread use, millions of people died from waterborne diseases. Now, people in developed nations receive quality drinking water every day from their public wa...

386

Clean option: Berkeley Pit water treatment and resource recovery strategy  

Microsoft Academic Search

The US Department of Energy (DOE), Office of Technology Development, established the Resource Recovery Project (RRP) in 1992 as a five-year effort to evaluate and demonstrate multiple technologies for recovering water, metals, and other industrial resources from contaminated surface and groundwater. Natural water resources located throughout the DOE complex and the and western states have been rendered unusable because of

M. A. Gerber; R. J. Orth; M. R. Elmore; B. F. Monzyk

1995-01-01

387

SAFE DRINKING WATER FROM SMALL SYSTEMS: TREATMENT OPTIONS  

EPA Science Inventory

Bringing small water systems into compliance with the ever-increasing number of regulations will require flexibility in terms of technology application and institional procedures. his article looks at the means by which small systems can provide safe drinking water, focusing on t...

388

A preliminary study on cactus as coagulant in water treatment  

Microsoft Academic Search

The coagulation performance of cactus to act as natural macromolecular coagulant was studied by the jar test. The cactus coagulation attained comparatively high turbidity removal efficiency, and water with turbidity less than 5NTU could be obtained with initial turbidities from 20 to 200. When used to treat the same water sample, the optimum dosage of cactus coagulant was found similar

Jingdong Zhang; Fang Zhang; Yuhong Luo; Hong Yang

2006-01-01

389

TREATMENT OF ARSENIC RESIDUALS FROM DRINKING WATER REMOVAL PROCESSES  

EPA Science Inventory

The drinking water MCL was recently lowered from 0.05 mg/L to 0.01 mg/L. One concern was that reduction in the TCLP arsenic limit in response to the drinking water MCL could be problematic with regard to disposal of solid residuals generated at arsenic removal facilities. This pr...

390

60 FR 44023 - Floodplain and Wetlands Involvement for the Proposed High Explosives Waste Water Treatment...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Wetlands Involvement for the Proposed High Explosives Waste Water Treatment Facility at the...its treatment of wastewater from high explosives (HE) research and development activities. The proposed High Explosives Wastewater Treatment Facility (HEWTF...modifications, including installation of new equipment and improvements in...

1995-08-24

391

Sodium hydroxide treatment of field water in a biopolymer complex  

SciTech Connect

This paper describes a waterflood method for recovering hydrocarbonaceous fluids from an oil reservoir which has zones of varying permeability and which formation is penetrated by an injection and a production well. It comprises: first mixing into water a substantially small amount of an alkali or alkaline earth metal hydroxide sufficient to cause gelation within a substantially effective time period where the hydroxide is contained in an aqueous solution in an amount of from about 1 to about 500 ppm; thereafter placing into the solution a water thickening amount of a water soluble Xanthomonas biopolysaccharide; and complexing subsequently the biopolysaccharide with an amount of a water-soluble compound of a polyvalent metal ion selected from the group consisting of trivalent phosphorus, scandium, titanium, vanadium, chromium, manganese, iron, cobalt, copper, aluminum, arsenic, yttrium, zirconium, niobium, cadmium, tin, antimony, lanthanum, hafnium, tantalum, lead, and mixtures thereof, sufficient to cause substantially quicker gelation of the water soluble biopolysaccharide thereby forming a substantially more stable gel sufficient for use as a mobility or profile control medium in environments having low pH brines wherein the water soluble compound is added to the aqueous solution in an amount of from about 10 to about 1,000 ppm of the active polyvalent metal ion, injecting the stable gel into the reservoir via the injection well; and thereafter injecting water as a drive fluid behind the stable gel and recovering hydrocarbonaceous fluids.

Phelps, C.H.; Sampath, K.; Shu, P.

1990-12-18

392

Treatment and recycle of high explosive contaminated water  

SciTech Connect

A polysulfone ultrafilter membrane having a 0.04-{micro}m pore opening has been used to filter high explosive contaminated water. The water is being recycled for the coolant used during the machining of high explosive billets. High explosive contaminated wastewater is generated from the machining of high explosives at Pantex Plant. The water is used as the coolant during the machining operation. Typically, the water flow rate is from 2 to 3 gallons per minute. The water must be tempered to about room temperature so that it does not affect the dimensions of the explosive piece being machined. In normal operations, the wastewater and cuttings are allowed to flow to a centralized collection system. The solid explosives are separated from the water using a filtration and recycle system. The wastewater is collected in an air agitated receiving tank or sump. It is pumped from the sump to a settling cone where the solid particles are decanted off of the bottom. The overflow from the cone is collected in another tank and then pumped through two cyclone separators operated in series. This water is also collected in a holding tank prior to final filtration through a 25-{micro}m filter. The effluent from the particle filter flows through two activated carbon filters operated in series prior to being discharged to a drainage ditch. This results in an average discharge of about 2,000 gallons per operating day from Building 11-50.

Locke, J.G.

1994-09-01

393

Photocatalytic post-treatment in waste water reclamation systems  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A photocatalytic water purification process is described which effectively oxidizes organic impurities common to reclaimed waste waters and humidity condensates to carbon dioxide at ambient temperatures. With this process, total organic carbon concentrations below 500 ppb are readily achieved. The temperature dependence of the process is well described by the Arrhenius equation and an activation energy barrier of 3.5 Kcal/mole. The posttreatment approach for waste water reclamation described here shows potential for integration with closed-loop life support systems.

Cooper, Gerald; Ratcliff, Matthew A.; Verostko, Charles E.

1989-01-01

394

Control policies for a water-treatment system using the Markov Decision Process  

Microsoft Academic Search

In order to build a decision-making tool for choosing a control policy from a set of predefined policies for a water-treatment system, a simulation was developed. This technology-independent simulation focuses on the functions of a simplified representation of the water system based on documentation by NASA in the Baseline Value and Assumption Documents (BVAD). The clean-water requirement (consumption) and dirty-water

Tze Chiam; Cary Mitchell; Yuehwern Yih

2008-01-01

395

PVC-piping promotes growth of Ralstonia pickettii in dialysis water treatment facilities.  

PubMed

Biofilms forming inside dialysis water treatment systems are one of the main sources of microbiological contamination. Among the bacteria found in biofilms, Ralstonia pickettii is frequently encountered in dialysis water treatment systems and has been shown to develop extreme oligotrophic talents. In Austria, R. pickettii was exclusively detected in high numbers in dialysis water treatment facilities equipped with chlorinated polyvinyl chloride (PVC-C) piping. In this laboratory study it was shown that PVC-C effectively promotes growth of R. pickettii biofilms, while residual organic carbon in purified dialysis water is sufficient for promoting substantial growth of planktic R. pickettii. This provides evidence that PVC-C is an unsuitable material for piping in dialysis water treatment systems. PMID:23985526

Dombrowsky, Matthias; Kirschner, Alexander; Sommer, Regina

2013-01-01

396

Treatment Alternatives for Controlling Chlorinated Organic Contaminants in Drinking Water.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A pilot plant study was conducted by the City of Thornton, Colorado, to evaluate techniques for controlling chlorinated organic compounds formed in drinking water as a result of breakpoint, or free, chlorination. The pilot plant was operated for 46 months...

M. A. Speed A. Barnard R. P. Arber G. C. Budd F. J. Johns

1987-01-01

397

Clean option: Berkeley Pit water treatment and resource recovery strategy.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The US Department of Energy (DOE), Office of Technology Development, established the Resource Recovery Project (RRP) in 1992 as a five-year effort to evaluate and demonstrate multiple technologies for recovering water, metals, and other industrial resourc...

M. A. Gerber R. J. Orth M. R. Elmore B. F. Monzyk

1995-01-01

398

Treatment of arsenic-contaminated water using akaganeite adsorption  

DOEpatents

The present invention comprises a method and composition using akaganeite, an iron oxide, as an ion adsorption medium for the removal of arsenic from water and affixing it onto carrier media so that it can be used in filtration systems.

Cadena C., Fernando (Las Cruces, NM); Johnson, Michael D. (Las Cruces, NM)

2008-01-01

399

Fatal water intoxication during olanzapine treatment: a case report.  

PubMed

A man in his twenties was diagnosed with schizophrenia in his late teens. The night before his death, his family reported he drank a large amount of water, vomited, collapsed, and snored loudly while sleeping, but they did not view the event seriously as he did it routinely. The following morning, he was found dead. Autopsy revealed hyponatremia by water intoxication as the cause of death. Water intoxication has various causes. In this case, 610 ng/mL olanzapine was detected in serum samples. Although this concentration is not as high as the fatal concentrations reported in past studies, it might have caused some adverse effects. Furthermore, the observation that excessive drinking behavior started after the dose of olanzapine was increased suggests a possibility that olanzapine aggravated water intoxication. PMID:24388043

Nagasawa, Sayaka; Yajima, Daisuke; Torimitsu, Suguru; Abe, Hiroko; Iwase, Hirotaro

2014-03-01

400

Microbial Community Structures and Dynamics in the O3/BAC Drinking Water Treatment Process.  

PubMed

Effectiveness of drinking water treatment, in particular pathogen control during the water treatment process, is always a major public health concern. In this investigation, the application of PCR-DGGE technology to the analysis of microbial community structures and dynamics in the drinking water treatment process revealed several dominant microbial populations including: ?-Proteobacteria, ?-Proteobacteria, ?-Proteobacteria, Bacteroidetes, Actinobacteria Firmicutes and Cyanobacteria. ?-Proteobacteria and ?-Proteobacteria were the dominant bacteria during the whole process. Bacteroidetes and Firmicutes were the dominant bacteria before and after treatment, respectively. Firmicutes showed season-dependent changes in population dynamics. Importantly, ?-Proteobacteria, which is a class of medically important bacteria, was well controlled by the O3/biological activated carbon (BAC) treatment, resulting in improved effluent water bio-safety. PMID:24937529

Tian, Jian; Lu, Jun; Zhang, Yu; Li, Jian-Cheng; Sun, Li-Chen; Hu, Zhang-Li

2014-01-01

401

Microbial Community Structures and Dynamics in the O3/BAC Drinking Water Treatment Process  

PubMed Central

Effectiveness of drinking water treatment, in particular pathogen control during the water treatment process, is always a major public health concern. In this investigation, the application of PCR-DGGE technology to the analysis of microbial community structures and dynamics in the drinking water treatment process revealed several dominant microbial populations including: ?-Proteobacteria, ?-Proteobacteria, ?-Proteobacteria, Bacteroidetes, Actinobacteria Firmicutes and Cyanobacteria. ?-Proteobacteria and ?-Proteobacteria were the dominant bacteria during the whole process. Bacteroidetes and Firmicutes were the dominant bacteria before and after treatment, respectively. Firmicutes showed season-dependent changes in population dynamics. Importantly, ?-Proteobacteria, which is a class of medically important bacteria, was well controlled by the O3/biological activated carbon (BAC) treatment, resulting in improved effluent water bio-safety.

Tian, Jian; Lu, Jun; Zhang, Yu; Li, Jian-Cheng; Sun, Li-Chen; Hu, Zhang-Li

2014-01-01

402

Promoting Household Water Treatment through Women's Self Help Groups in Rural India: Assessing Impact on Drinking Water Quality and Equity  

PubMed Central

Household water treatment, including boiling, chlorination and filtration, has been shown effective in improving drinking water quality and preventing diarrheal disease among vulnerable populations. We used a case-control study design to evaluate the extent to which the commercial promotion of household water filters through microfinance institutions to women's self-help group (SHG) members improved access to safe drinking water. This pilot program achieved a 9.8% adoption rate among women targeted for adoption. Data from surveys and assays of fecal contamination (thermotolerant coliforms, TTC) of drinking water samples (source and household) were analyzed from 281 filter adopters and 247 non-adopters exposed to the program; 251 non-SHG members were also surveyed. While adopters were more likely than non-adopters to have children under 5 years, they were also more educated, less poor, more likely to have access to improved water supplies, and more likely to have previously used a water filter. Adopters had lower levels of fecal contamination of household drinking water than non-adopters, even among those non-adopters who treated their water by boiling or using traditional ceramic filters. Nevertheless, one-third of water samples from adopter households exceeded 100 TTC/100ml (high risk), and more than a quarter of the filters had no stored treated water available when visited by an investigator, raising concerns about correct, consistent use. In addition, the poorest adopters were less likely to see improvements in their water quality. Comparisons of SHG and non-SHG members suggest similar demographic characteristics, indicating SHG members are an appropriate target group for this promotion campaign. However, in order to increase the potential for health gains, future programs will need to increase uptake, particularly among the poorest households who are most susceptible to disease morbidity and mortality, and focus on strategies to improve the correct, consistent and sustained use of these water treatment products.

Freeman, Matthew C.; Trinies, Victoria; Boisson, Sophie; Mak, Gregory; Clasen, Thomas

2012-01-01

403

Promoting household water treatment through women's self help groups in Rural India: assessing impact on drinking water quality and equity.  

PubMed

Household water treatment, including boiling, chlorination and filtration, has been shown effective in improving drinking water quality and preventing diarrheal disease among vulnerable populations. We used a case-control study design to evaluate the extent to which the commercial promotion of household water filters through microfinance institutions to women's self-help group (SHG) members improved access to safe drinking water. This pilot program achieved a 9.8% adoption rate among women targeted for adoption. Data from surveys and assays of fecal contamination (thermotolerant coliforms, TTC) of drinking water samples (source and household) were analyzed from 281 filter adopters and 247 non-adopters exposed to the program; 251 non-SHG members were also surveyed. While adopters were more likely than non-adopters to have children under 5 years, they were also more educated, less poor, more likely to have access to improved water supplies, and more likely to have previously used a water filter. Adopters had lower levels of fecal contamination of household drinking water than non-adopters, even among those non-adopters who treated their water by boiling or using traditional ceramic filters. Nevertheless, one-third of water samples from adopter households exceeded 100 TTC/100ml (high risk), and more than a quarter of the filters had no stored treated water available when visited by an investigator, raising concerns about correct, consistent use. In addition, the poorest adopters were less likely to see improvements in their water quality. Comparisons of SHG and non-SHG members suggest similar demographic characteristics, indicating SHG members are an appropriate target group for this promotion campaign. However, in order to increase the potential for health gains, future programs will need to increase uptake, particularly among the poorest households who are most susceptible to disease morbidity and mortality, and focus on strategies to improve the correct, consistent and sustained use of these water treatment products. PMID:22957043

Freeman, Matthew C; Trinies, Victoria; Boisson, Sophie; Mak, Gregory; Clasen, Thomas

2012-01-01

404

A three step approach for removing organic matter from South African water sources and treatment plants  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The high variability in the levels and composition of natural organic matter (NOM) in South-African water sources in different regions means that no single treatment process can be prescribed for each water treatment plant operating in the country. In order to remove NOM from water in a water treatment train, the composition of the NOM in the source water must be taken into account, especially as it may not necessarily be uniform since the composition is dependent on local environmental situation. The primary objective of this study was to characterise the NOM present in South African source waters through an extensive sampling of representative water types across the country and then develop a rapid NOM characterisation protocol. Water samples were thus collected from eight different water treatment plants located throughout the country at different sites of their water treatment trains. Raw water samples, the intermediate samples before filtration and water samples before disinfection were collected at these drinking water treatment plants. The fluorescence excitation-emission matrices (FEEMs), biodegradable dissolved organic carbon (BDOC), ultraviolet (UV) characterisation (200-900 nm) and dissolved organic carbon (DOC) analysis were used to characterise the NOM in the water samples. The FEEM and UV results revealed that the samples were composed mainly of humic substances with a high UV-254 absorbance, while some samples had marine humic substances and non-humic substances. The sample’s DOC results were within the range of 3.25-21.44 mg C/L, which was indicative of the varying nature of the NOM composition in the regions where samples were obtained. The BDOC fraction of the NOM, on the other hand, ranged from 20% to 65%, depending on the geographical location of the sampling site. It is evident from the results obtained that the NOM composition varied per sampling site which would eventually have a bearing on its treatability. The various water treatment processes employed at the different treatment plants were able to effectively reduce NOM, as evidenced by a percentage DOC removal of between 11% and 85%. The highest DOC removal was achieved at the treatment plants that had highly humic and coloured raw water sources.

Nkambule, T. I.; Krause, R. W. M.; Haarhoff, J.; Mamba, B. B.

405

Preliminary Experiment of EM Technology on Waste Water Treatment  

Microsoft Academic Search

The objective of the experiment was to investigate the effect of EM4 on improving the quality of waste water. The experiment was conducted in two locations of candy factory, viz Nestle and Trebor Companies in Jakarta. The EM4 was treated in laboratory condition to the effluent of waste water of non adjusted pH (pH 4.0) and adjusted pH (pH 7.44)

Gede Ngurah Wididana

406

RO treatment of waste waters from dairy industry  

Microsoft Academic Search

An important problem in the dairy industry is posed by the disposal of very polluting wastes like milk whey (COD 60,000+70,000 mg\\/l) and washing waters. Reverse osmosis can be used to concentrate milk whey (C.F. 2.5+3) in the dairy industry thus obtaining a water stream that can be re-used for the process needs and a concentrated milk whey stream that

G. Del Re; G. Di Giacomo; L. Aloisio; M. Terreri

1998-01-01

407

Elimination of viruses and indicator bacteria at each step of treatment during preparation of drinking water at seven water treatment plants.  

PubMed Central

Seven drinking water treatment plants were sampled twice a month for 12 months to evaluate the removal of indicator bacteria and cytopathogenic enteric viruses. Samples were obtained at each level of treatment: raw water, postchlorination, postsedimentation, postfiltration, postozonation, and finished (tap) water. Raw water quality was usually poor, with total coliform counts exceeding 105 to 106 CFU/liter and the average virus count in raw water of 3.3 most probable number of cytopathogenic units (MPNCU)/liter; several samples contained more than 100 MPNCU/liter. All plants distributed finished water that was essentially free of indicator bacteria as judged by analysis of 1 liter for total coliforms, fecal coliforms, fecal streptococci, coagulase-positive staphylococci, and Pseudomonas aeruginosa. The total plate counts at 20 and 35 degrees C were also evaluated as a measure of the total microbial population and were usually very low. Viruses were detected in 7% (11 of 155) of the finished water samples (1,000 liters) at an average density of 0.0006 MPNCU/liter the highest virus density measured being 0.2 MPNCU/liter. The average cumulative virus reduction was 95.15% after sedimentation and 99.97% after filtration and did not significantly decrease after ozonation or final chlorination. The viruses isolated from treated waters were all enteroviruses: poliovirus types 1, 2, and 3, coxsackievirus types B3, B4, and B5, echovirus type 7, and untyped picornaviruses.

Payment, P; Trudel, M; Plante, R

1985-01-01

408

Drinking water treatment is not associated with an observed increase in neural tube defects in mice.  

PubMed

Disinfection by-products (DBPs) arise when natural organic matter in source water reacts with disinfectants used in the water treatment process. Studies have suggested an association between DBPs and birth defects. Neural tube defects (NTDs) in embryos of untreated control mice were first observed in-house in May 2006 and have continued to date. The source of the NTD-inducing agent was previously determined to be a component of drinking water. Tap water samples from a variety of sources were analyzed for trihalomethanes (THMs) to determine if they were causing the malformations. NTDs were observed in CD-1 mice provided with treated and untreated surface water. Occurrence of NTDs varied by water source and treatment regimens. THMs were detected in tap water derived from surface water but not detected in tap water derived from a groundwater source. THMs were absent in untreated river water and laboratory purified waters, yet the percentage of NTDs in untreated river water were similar to the treated water counterpart. These findings indicate that THMs were not the primary cause of NTDs in the mice since the occurrence of NTDs was unrelated to drinking water disinfection. PMID:24497082

Melin, Vanessa E; Johnstone, David W; Etzkorn, Felicia A; Hrubec, Terry C

2014-06-01

409

FEASIBILITY OF COMMERCIALIZED WATER TREATMENT TECHNIQUES FOR CONCENTRATED WASTE SPILLS  

EPA Science Inventory

The suitability and economics of using reverse osmosis, ultrafiltration, ion exchange, wet air oxidation, high purity oxygen activated sludge process, ultraviolet-ozone oxidation, and coagulation/precipitation for on-site treatment of concentrated wastes were evaluated. Published...

410

40 CFR 141.83 - Source water treatment requirements.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...compliance with this paragraph if the level of lead or copper at any sampling point is greater than the maximum permissible concentration designated by the State. (6) Modification of State treatment decisions. Upon its own initiative or in...

2009-07-01

411

Two Legionnaires' disease cases associated with industrial waste water treatment plants: a case report  

PubMed Central

Background Finnish and Swedish waste water systems used by the forest industry were found to be exceptionally heavily contaminated with legionellae in 2005. Case presentation We report two cases of severe pneumonia in employees working at two separate mills in Finland in 2006. Legionella serological and urinary antigen tests were used to diagnose Legionnaires' disease in the symptomatic employees, who had worked at, or close to, waste water treatment plants. Since the findings indicated a Legionella infection, the waste water and home water systems were studied in more detail. The antibody response and Legionella urinary antigen finding of Case A indicated that the infection had been caused by Legionella pneumophila serogroup 1. Case A had been exposed to legionellae while installing a pump into a post-clarification basin at the waste water treatment plant of mill A. Both the water and sludge in the basin contained high concentrations of Legionella pneumophila serogroup 1, in addition to serogroups 3 and 13. Case B was working 200 meters downwind from a waste water treatment plant, which had an active sludge basin and cooling towers. The antibody response indicated that his disease was due to Legionella pneumophila serogroup 2. The cooling tower was the only site at the waste water treatment plant yielding that serogroup, though water in the active sludge basin yielded abundant growth of Legionella pneumophila serogroup 5 and Legionella rubrilucens. Both workers recovered from the disease. Conclusion These are the first reported cases of Legionnaires' disease in Finland associated with industrial waste water systems.

2010-01-01

412

Radiation processing applications in the Czechoslovak water treatment technologies  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The regeneration of biologically clogged water wells by radiation proved to be a successful and economically beneficial process among other promising applications of ionizing radiation in the water supply technology. The application conditions and experience are mentioned. The potential pathogenic Mycobacteria occuring in the warm washing and bathing water are resistant against usual chlorine and ozone concentrations. The radiation sensitivity of Mycobacteria allowed to suggest a device for their destroying by radiation. Some toxic substances in the underground water can be efficiently degraded by gamma radiation directly in the wells drilled as a hydraulic barrier surrounding the contaminated land area. Substantial decrease of CN - concentration and C.O.D. value was observed in water pumped from such well equipped with cobalt sources and charcoal. The removing of pathogenic contamination remains to be the main goal of radiation processing in the water purification technologies. The decrease of liquid sludge specific filter resistance and sedimentation acceleration by irradiation have a minor technological importance. The hygienization of sludge cake from the mechanical belt filter press by electron beam appears to be the optimum application in the Czechoslovak conditions. The potatoes and barley crop yields from experimental plots treated with sludge were higher in comparison with using the manure. Biological sludge from the municipal and food industry water purification plants contains nutritive components. The proper hygienization is a necessary condition for using them as a livestock feed supplement. Feeding experiments with broilers and pigs confirmed the possibility of partial (e.g. 50%) replacement of soya-, bone- or fish flour in feed mixtures by dried sludge hygienized either by heat or by the irradiation.

Vacek, K.; Pastuszek, F.; Sedlá?ek, M.

413

Safe drinking water and clean air: An experimental study evaluating the concept of combining household water treatment and indoor air improvement using the Water Disinfection Stove (WADIS)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Indoor air pollution and unsafe water remain two of the most important environmental risk factors for the global burden of infectious diseases. Improved stoves and household water treatment (HWT) methods represent two of the most effective interventions to fight respiratory and diarrhoeal illnesses at household level. Since new improved stoves are highly accepted and HWT methods have their drawbacks regarding

Andri Christen; Carlos Morante Navarro; Daniel Mäusezahl

2009-01-01

414

Persistence of Nontuberculous Mycobacteria in a Drinking Water System after Addition of Filtration Treatment  

PubMed Central

There is evidence that drinking water may be a source of infections with pathogenic nontuberculous mycobacteria (NTM) in humans. One method by which NTM are believed to enter drinking water distribution systems is by their intracellular colonization of protozoa. Our goal was to determine whether we could detect a reduction in the prevalence of NTM recovered from an unfiltered surface drinking water system after the addition of ozonation and filtration treatment and to characterize NTM isolates by using molecular methods. We sampled water from two initially unfiltered surface drinking water treatment plants over a 29-month period. One plant received the addition of filtration and ozonation after 6 months of sampling. Sample sites included those at treatment plant effluents, distributed water, and cold water taps (point-of-use [POU] sites) in public or commercial buildings located within each distribution system. NTM were recovered from 27% of the sites. POU sites yielded the majority of NTM, with >50% recovery despite the addition of ozonation and filtration. Closely related electrophoretic groups of Mycobacterium avium were found to persist at POU sites for up to 26 months. Water collected from POU cold water outlets was persistently colonized with NTM despite the addition of ozonation and filtration to a drinking water system. This suggests that cold water POU outlets need to be considered as a potential source of chronic human exposure to NTM.

Hilborn, Elizabeth D.; Covert, Terry C.; Yakrus, Mitchell A.; Harris, Stephanie I.; Donnelly, Sandra F.; Rice, Eugene W.; Toney, Sean; Bailey, Stephanie A.; Stelma, Gerard N.

2006-01-01

415

Electrocoagulation-Microfiltration for Drinking Water Treatment: A Case Study with the Typical Micro-Polluted Source Waters  

Microsoft Academic Search

Treatment of slightly-polluted surface water by Electrocoagulation-Microfiltration (EC-MF) was studied. The factors influences on removal efficiencies of TOC, NH3-N and oil, such as current density, electrolytic time and pH value had been investigated. Based on the optimize experiments on the single factor, Xuzhou section of Beijing-Hangzhou Canal water was cleaned by EC-MF. The results showed that the above pollutants decreased

Feng Qiyan; Lu Ping; Li Xiangdong; Meng Qingjun; Sun Yue

2009-01-01

416

Time dependency and irreversibility of water desorption by drinking-water treatment residuals: Implications for sorption mechanisms  

Microsoft Academic Search

Drinking-water treatment residuals (WTRs) are being evaluated as cost-effective sorption media for use in environmental remediation. Data from previous work have suggested that intraparticle phosphorus (P) diffusion into micropores is the rate-limiting mechanism of P sorption by WTRs. We used isothermal thermogravimetric analysis (TG) to study water desorption\\/resorption dynamics as they relate to steric diffusion rate limitations for prospective sorbates.

Konstantinos C. Makris; Willie G. Harris

2006-01-01

417

Mobile water treatment plant special study. Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action Project  

SciTech Connect

Characterization of the level and extent of groundwater contamination in the vicinity of Title I mill sites began during the surface remedial action stage (Phase 1) of the Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action (UMTRA) Project. Some of the contamination in the aquifer(s) at the abandoned sites is attributable to milling activities during the years the mills were in operation. To begin implementation of Phase 11 groundwater remediation, the US Department of Energy (DOE) requested that (1) the Technical Assistance Contractor (TAC) conduct a study to provide for the design of a mobile water treatment plant to treat groundwater extracted during site characterization studies at completed Phase I UMTRA sites, and (2) the results of the TAC investigations be documented in a special study report. This special study develops the design criteria for a water treatment plant that can be readily transported from one UMTRA site to another and operated as a complete treatment system. The 1991 study provides the basis for selecting a mobile water treatment system to meet the operating requirements recommended in this special study. The scope of work includes the following: Determining contaminants, flows, and loadings. Setting effluent quality criteria. Sizing water treatment unit(s). Evaluating non-monetary aspects of alternate treatment processes. Comparing costs of alternate treatment processes. Recommending the mobile water treatment plant design criteria.

Not Available

1992-12-01

418

Characterization and treatment of by-product waters from selected oil shale retorting tests  

SciTech Connect

Oil shale retorting by-product waters from four surface retorting pilot tests and three simulated modified in situ retorting pilot tests were characterized for inorganic and organic chemical constituents. Eastern and western US shales were retorted for the tests. Ammonium bicarbonate, ammonium thiosulfate, various pyridines, and phenolic species were among the principal contaminants in the retort by-product water. The water also contains total dissolved solids up to 7000 ppM. When steam was used as a source of heat for oil shale retorting, the condensate that formed diluted the concentrations of contaminants, especially mineral dissolved solids, in the by-product water. The combined water treatment steps of hot-gas stripping followed by wet air oxidation at 600/degree/F (315/degree/C) and 2000 psi for 30 minutes removed 99% of the total organic carbon in the retort by-product water, producing a colorless and almost odor-free water. In one treatment test, the total organic carbon (TOC) was reduced from 3400 mg/L to less than 20 mg/L, with the 20 mg/L TOC remaining consisting of low molecular weight carboxylic acids. Only a partial TOC reduction occurred, with various alkylpyridines remaining as residuals when the retort waters were subjected to wet air oxidation as the only treatment step. Electrocoagulation as an initial water treatment step removed less than 30% of the TOC. 10 refs., 4 figs., 12 tabs.

Nordin, J.S.; Poulson, R.; Niss, N.; Laya, C.

1987-12-01

419

Package Water Treatment Plants. Volume 2. A Cost Evaluation.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Many small and rural systems have both cost and quality problems. Their unit costs tend to be higher because of the small number of connections they service. As shown by the Community Water Supply Survey of 1969, many small systems have trouble meeting mi...

R. G. Stevie R. M. Clark

1980-01-01

420

FIELD INVESTIGATION OF BIOLOGICAL TOILET SYSTEMS AND GREY WATER TREATMENT  

EPA Science Inventory

The objective of the field program was to determine the operational characteristics and overall acceptability of popular models of biological toilets and a few select grey water systems. A field observation scheme was devised to take advantage of in-use sites throughout the State...

421

Treatment Efficiencies of Slow Sand Filtration for Landscape Water  

Microsoft Academic Search

The performance of the slow sand filter was examined using the landscape water with the experimental period of 46 days. The filter installed was similar to the traditional slow sand filter; expect that the top 5-cm sand was changed to the quartz sand. In this study, the variations of the turbidity, COD, BOD and TN were measured based on the

Cui Li; Yifan Wu; Liangbo Zhang; Wen Liu

2010-01-01

422

Water pollution control by aquatic vegetation of treatment wetlands  

Microsoft Academic Search

Supplying polluted river water to nature reserves in The Netherlands often leads to eutrophication of the reserve. The eutrophication can be caused directly by the high nutrient input (external eutrophication) or indirectly by altering nutrient availability due to changes in nutrient desorption or mineralization. This paper investigates the potential of a ditch system that is tested for its potential to

Arthur F. M. Meuleman; Boudewijn Beltman; Robbert A. Scheffer

2004-01-01

423

Decontamination Methods For Drinking Water Treatment And Distribution Systems  

EPA Science Inventory

Once contamination has occurred in drinking water systems and the contaminated segment has been isolated from other parts of the system, there will be great urgency to decontaminate the areas as rapidly and cost effectively as possible. This article describes available and deve...

424

Cost and Pollutant Removal of StormWater Treatment Practices  

Microsoft Academic Search

Six storm-water best management practices BMPs for treating urban rainwater runoff were evaluated for cost and effective- ness in removing suspended sediments and total phosphorus. Construction and annual operating and maintenance O and M cost data were collected and analyzed for dry extended detention basins, wet basins, sand filters, constructed wetlands, bioretention filters, and infiltration trenches using literature that reported

Peter T. Weiss; John S. Gulliver; Andrew J. Erickson

2007-01-01

425

FATE OF PESTICIDES AND TOXIC CHEMICALS DURING DRINKING WATER TREATMENT  

EPA Science Inventory

Regulations require that all relevant routes of human consumption be considered in risk assessments for anthropogenic chemicals. A large percentage of the U.S. population consumes drinking water (DW) that is treated. Limited studies show that some pesticides and toxics occurrin...

426

Subtask 1.11 - Anaerobic Biological Treatment of Produced Water.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

During the production of oil and gas, large amounts of water are brought to the surface and must be disposed of in an environmentally sensitive manner. This is an especially difficult problem in offshore production facilities where space is a major constr...

J. R. Gallagher

2001-01-01

427

Sodium hydroxide treatment of field water in a biopolymer complex  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper describes a waterflood method for recovering hydrocarbonaceous fluids from an oil reservoir which has zones of varying permeability and which formation is penetrated by an injection and a production well. It comprises: first mixing into water a substantially small amount of an alkali or alkaline earth metal hydroxide sufficient to cause gelation within a substantially effective time period

C. H. Phelps; K. Sampath; P. Shu

1990-01-01

428

RESEARCH FOR THE TREATMENT OF ORGANICS IN DRINKING WATER  

EPA Science Inventory

The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency-Drinking Water Research Division uses a three tiered approach to research. The first step is bench-scale, where the chemical behavior of the organic contaminant can be investigated in a closely controlled environment. The next level, pilot...

429

Metagenomic Analyses of Drinking Water Receiving Different Disinfection Treatments  

EPA Science Inventory

A metagenome-based approach was utilized for assessing the taxonomic affiliation and function potential of microbial populations in free chlorine (CHL) and monochloramine (CHM) treated drinking water (DW). A total of 1,024, 242 (averaging 544 bp) and 849, 349 (averaging 554 bp) ...

430

Burkholderia pseudomallei traced to water treatment plant in Australia.  

PubMed Central

Burkholderia pseudomallei was isolated from environmental specimens 1 year after an outbreak of acute melioidosis in a remote coastal community in northwestern Australia. B. pseudomallei was isolated from a water storage tank and from spray formed in a pH-raising aerator unit. Pulsed-field gel electrophoresis confirmed the aerator and storage tank isolates were identical to the outbreak strain, WKo97.

Inglis, T. J.; Garrow, S. C.; Henderson, M.; Clair, A.; Sampson, J.; O'Reilly, L.; Cameron, B.

2000-01-01

431

REMOVAL OF ARSENIC FROM DRINKING WATER BY CONVENTIONAL TREATMENT METHODS  

EPA Science Inventory

The USEPA National Interim Primary Drinking Water Regulations (NIPDWR) established the maximum contaminant level (MCL) for arsenic at 0.05 mg/L in 1977. everal years ago the USEPA began to re-examine the arsenic health effects information and has indicated that the MCL could be s...

432

RADON REMOVAL USING POINT-OF-ENTRY WATER TREATMENT TECHNIQUES  

EPA Science Inventory

The purpose of the EPA Cooperative Agreement was to evaluate the performance of POE granular activated carbon (GAC), and diffused bubble and bubble place aeration systems treating a ground water supply containing radon (35,620 ±6,717 pCi/L). The pattern of loading to the uni...

433

RADON REMOVAL USING POINT-OF-ENTRY WATER TREATMENT TECHNIQUES  

EPA Science Inventory

The purpose of this EPA Cooperative Agreement was to evaluate the performance of POE granular activated carbon (GAG), and diffused bubble and bubble place aeration systems treating a ground water supply containing radon (35,620 + or - 6,717 pCi/L. he pattern of loading to the uni...

434

ORGANOPHOSPHATE PESTICIDE DEGRADATION UNDER DRINKING WATER TREATMENT CONDITIONS  

EPA Science Inventory

The Food Quality Protection Act (FQPA) of 1996 requires that all tolerances for pesticide chemical residuals in or on food be considered for anticipated exposure. Drinking water is considered a potential pathway for dietary exposure and there is reliable monitoring data for the ...

435

Method for Treatment of Water Containing Low Concentrations of Mercury.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A process employing magnetic filtering techniques has been devised for treating water containing concentrations on the order of 1 microgram/cubic centimeter of atomic or ionic mercury. A laboratory-scale system has been operated and can reduce the mercury...

D. J. Flood G. J. Kraynik

1973-01-01

436

Application of polyhydroxyalkanoates for denitrification in water and wastewater treatment  

Microsoft Academic Search

Application of polyhydroxyalkanoates (PHAs) and related biodegradable polymers has gained momentum in various areas of biotechnology. A promising application that started appearing in the past decade is the use of PHAs as the solid substrate for denitrification of water and wastewater. This type of denitrification, termed here \\

A. Hiraishi; S. T. Khan

2003-01-01

437

ADVANCED TREATMENT FOR WASTEWATER RECLAMATION AT WATER FACTORY 21  

EPA Science Inventory

The performance and reliability of Water Factory 21 (WF21) in Orange County, California, for removal of a broad range of organic, inorganic, and biological contaminants from activated-sludge treated municipal wastewater was evaluated. This full-scale facility has a capacity of 0....

438

Biological drinking water treatment of anaerobic groundwater in trickling filters  

Microsoft Academic Search

Drinking water production from anaerobic groundwater is usually achieved by so called conventional techniques such as aeration and sand filtration. The notion conventional implies a long history and general acceptation of the application, but doesn’t necessarily mean a thorough understanding of the processes involved. This is certainly the case for groundwater filtration, with groundwater being the major source for drinking

W. W. J. M. De Vet

2011-01-01

439

Treatment of Waste Water-Waste Oil Mixtures.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Cold reduction of steel strip results in the production of large quantities of waste water containing variable amounts of oil. A five stand tandem cold mill located at Armco Steel Corporation's Ashland, Kentucky Works produces 200 to 500 gpm of waste wate...

1970-01-01

440

The potential of solar water disinfection as a household water treatment method in peri-urban Zimbabwe  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The potential for reducing diarrhoea morbidity and improving the health status of children in developing countries using solar water disinfection (SODIS) has been demonstrated in past research. A baseline survey was conducted to explore the feasibility and necessity of introducing SODIS in peri-urban communities of Zimbabwe. The survey sought to establish drinking water quality in these areas and to determine the health and hygiene beliefs as well as practices related to water handling in the household. Microbiological water quality tests and personal interviews were carried out in Epworth township and Hopley farm, two peri-urban areas near the capital of Zimbabwe, Harare. These two areas are among the poorest settlements around Harare with 80% of inhabitants being informal settlers. Community meetings were held to introduce solar water disinfection prior to the survey. This was followed by administration of questionnaires, which aimed to investigate whether the community had ever heard about SODIS, whether they were practicing it, other means that were being used to treat drinking water as well as health and hygiene beliefs and practices. It was found out that most households cannot afford basic water treatment like boiling as firewood is expensive. People generally reported that the water was not palatable due to objectionable odour and taste. Microbiological water quality tests proved that drinking water was contaminated in both areas, which makes the water unsafe for drinking and shows the necessity of treatment. Although the majority of people interviewed had not heard of SODIS prior to the interview, attitudes towards its introduction were very positive and the intention to do SODIS in the future was high. Amongst the ones who had heard about SODIS before the study, usage was high. Plastic PET bottles, which were used for the SODIS experiments are currently unavailable and this has been identified as a potential hindrance to the successful implementation of SODIS.

Murinda, Sharon; Kraemer, Silvie

441

Study on the Heavy Water Management and Water Treatment in KMRR (Korea Multipurpose Research Reactor).  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Heavy water is used as reflector and moderator, while light water as coolant and moderator in the KMRR (Korea Multipurpose Research Reactor). The followings were considered as most important in this study. 1. To keep the heavy water quality at reactor gra...

Y. E. Kim K. W. Sung J. W. Jung H. S. Chung D. H. Ahn

1987-01-01

442

CONTROL OF CHELATOR-BASED UPSETS IN SURFACE FINISHING SHOP WASTE WATER TREATMENT SYSTEMS  

EPA Science Inventory

Actual surface finishing shop examples are used to illustrate the use of process chemistry understanding and analyses to identify immediate, interim and permanent response options for industrial waste water treatment plant (IWTP) upset problems caused by chelating agents. There i...

443

Handbook: Optimizing Water Treatment Plant Performance Using the Composite Correction Program.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The handbook is an interim version of a source document for individuals responsible for improving the performance of existing surface water treatment plants using conventional and direct filtration unit processes to achieve compliance with the Surface Wat...

B. A. Hegg E. M. Bissonette H. Schultz J. H. Bender R. C. Renner

1991-01-01

444

Evaluation of Physical-Chemical and Biological Treatment of Shale Oil Retort Water.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Bench scale studies were conducted to evaluate conventional physical-chemical and biological treatment processes for removal of pollutants from retort water produced by in situ shale oil recovery methods. Prior to undertaking these studies, very little in...

B. W. Mercer M. J. Mason R. R. Spencer A. L. Wong W. Wakamiya

1982-01-01

445

An Integrated System for Disposal of Sludges Originating from Water Softening and Sewage Treatment in Municipalities.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The objective was to explore the feasibility, both technically and economically, of developing an integrated system for the disposal of sludges originating from water softening and sewage treatment in municipalities. The proposed system consists of utiliz...

J. W. Moore

1971-01-01

446

Regulatory Impact Analysis for the Interim Enhanced Surface Water Treatment Rule.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This document addresses to expected impacts including both improvements to public health and costs to industry and consumers of the Interim Enhanced Surface Water Treatment Rule (IESWTR). Factors considered in this Regulatory Impact Analysis (RIA) were: p...

E. Bissonette E. Ryan F. Letkiewicz J. Albright J. Bender J. Cromwell M. Lustic P. Berger R. Odom T. Carpenter

1998-01-01

447

Chemical, Microbiological, and Mutagenic Effects of Using Alternative Disinfectants for Drinking Water Treatment.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Future Federal regulations for disinfection/disinfection by-products will potentially affect most water treatment plants in the United States. In anticipation of proposing regulations in June 1993, the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency is in the proces...

B. W. Lykins K. M. Schenck W. E. Koffskey M. H. Griese

1992-01-01

448

TREATMENT AND PRODUCT RECOVERY: SUPERCRITICAL WATER OXIDATION OF NYLON MONOMER MANUFACTURING WASTE  

EPA Science Inventory

EPA GRANT NUMBER: R822721C569 Title: Treatment and Product Recovery: Supercritical Water Oxidation of Nylon Monomer Manufacturing Waste Investigator: Earnest F. Gloyna Institution: University of Texas at Austin EPA Project Officer:...

449

An Assessment of Ozone and Chlorine Dioxide Technologies for Treatment of Municipal Water Supplies.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This research program and technology transfer effort was initiated in response to growing national concern about the generation of toxic and carcinogenic compounds in current U.S. drinking water treatment practices. The principal focus of this report is a...

C. M. Robson G. W. Miller R. G. Rice R. L. Scullin W. Kuhn

1978-01-01

450

Treatment of pulp mill sludges by supercritical water oxidation. Final report.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Supercritical water oxidation (SCWO) is new process that can oxidize organics very effectively at moderate temperatures (400 to 650(degree)C) and high pressure (3700 psi). It is an environmentally acceptable alternative for sludge treatment. In bench scal...

M. Modell

1990-01-01

451

ORGANOPHOSPHATE PESTICIDE DEGRADATION IN THE PRESENCE OF NATURALLY OCCURRING AQUATIC CONSTITUENTS UNDER DRINKING WATER TREATMENT CONDITIONS  

EPA Science Inventory

Little work to date has solely investigated the kinetics and pathways of pesticide transformations under drinking water treatment conditions. Free chlorine has been found to react with s-triazine, carbamate, and organophosphate pesticides. However, these experimental conditions...

452

COMETABOLISM OF TRIHALOMETHANES BY NITRIFYING BIOFILTERS UNDER DRINKING WATER TREATMENT PLANT CONDITIONS  

EPA Science Inventory

EPA Identifier: FP916412 Title: Cometabolism of Trihalomethanes by Nitrifying Biofilters Under Drinking Water Treatment Plant Conditions Fellow (Principal Investigator): David G. Wahman Institution: University of Texas at Austin EPA ...

453

Nanostructured Titanium Oxide Film- And Membrane-Based Photocatalysis For Water Treatment  

EPA Science Inventory

Titanium Oxide (TiO2) photocatalysis, one of the ultraviolet (UV)-based advanced oxidation technologies (AOTs) and nanotechnologies (AONs), has attracted great attention for the development of efficient water treatment and purification systems due to the effectiveness ...

454

EFFECTIVE RISK MANAGEMENT OF ENDOCRINE DISRUPTING CHEMICALS USING DRINKING WATER TREATMENT PROCESSES  

EPA Science Inventory

The conventional drinking water treamtent processes of coagulation, flocculation, and filtration as well as specialized treatment processes have been examined for their capacity to remove endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDCs). A groupf od EDCs including 4-nonylphenol, diethylphth...

455

Water Treatment Plant Sludges--An Update of the State of the Art: Part 2.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This report outlines the state of the art with respect to nonmechanical and mechanical methods of dewatering water treatment plant sludge, ultimate solids disposal, and research and development needs. (CS)

American Water Works Association Journal, 1978

1978-01-01

456

WASTEWATER TREATMENT FOR REUSE AND ITS CONTRIBUTION TO WATER SUPPLIES  

EPA Science Inventory

An 18 month study using cost effective municipal wastewater treatment technology coupled with a computerized data handling system, was conducted at the EPA/Washington, D.C. Blue Plains Pilot Plant to obtain data on the safety of the effluent for discharge upstream of drinking wat...

457

Impact of Arsenic Treatment Systems on Distribution System Water  

EPA Science Inventory

Under the USEPA Arsenic Demonstration Program, 50 arsenic removal treatment systems were installed and their performance evaluated over a period of one to three years. The program was limited to small systems whose population served were less than 10,000. Ten of the systems were ...

458

TREATMENT OF EFFLUENT WATERS FROM VEGETABLE OIL REFINING  

EPA Science Inventory

A detailed investigation was done to characterize the wastewater from a vegetable oil refinery. A calcium chloride chemical treatment was installed which resulted in a net decrease in waste load of 71 percent from .0135 lb BOD5 per pound oil processed to .0039 lb BOD5 per pound o...

459

Temperature of water heat treatments influences tomato fruit quality following low-temperature storage  

Microsoft Academic Search

Mature-green tomato fruit (Lycopersiconesculentum Mill. cv. Sunbeam) were treated in water for 1 h at 27 (ambient), 39, 42, 45, or 48°C, and then either ripened at 20°C (nonchilled) or stored at 2°C (chilled) for 14 days before ripening at 20°C. Treatment at 42°C reduced decay by 60%, whereas the other water temperatures were less effective. Heat treatment had no

R. E. McDonald; T. G. McCollum; E. A. Baldwin

1999-01-01

460

Assessment of the efficacy of Aspergillus sp . EL2 in textile waste water treatment  

Microsoft Academic Search

Fungal biomass has the ability to decolorize a wide variety of dyes successfully through a number of mechanisms. A brown rot\\u000a isolate, previously identified as Aspergillus sp. EL-2, was used in the aerobic treatment of textile waste water efficiently. In the current work, the treated waste water\\u000a was tested chemically using more than one combined treatment. Microbial toxicity, phytotoxicity, genotoxicity

Ola M. GomaaHussein; Hussein Abd El Kareem; Reham Fatahy

461

Evaluation of physical-chemical and biological treatment of shale oil retort water  

SciTech Connect

Bench scale studies were conducted to evaluate conventional physical-chemical and biological treatment processes for removal of pollutants from retort water produced by in situ shale oil recovery methods. Prior to undertaking these studies, very little information had been reported on treatment of retort water. A treatment process train patterned after that generally used throughout the petroleum refining industry was envisioned for application to retort water. The treatment train would consist of processes for removing suspended matter, ammonia, biodegradable organics, and nonbiodegradable or refractory organics. The treatment processes evaluated include anaerobic digestion and activated sludge for removal of biodegradable organics and other oxidizable substances; activated carbon adsorption for removal of nonbiodegradable organics; steam stripping for ammonia removal; and chemical coagulation, sedimentation and filtration for removal of suspended matter. Preliminary cost estimates are provided.

Mercer, B.W.; Mason, M.J.; Spencer, R.R.; Wong, A.L.; Wakamiya, W.

1982-09-01

462

Microbial fuel cell treatment of ethanol fermentation process water  

DOEpatents

The present invention relates to a method for removing inhibitor compounds from a cellulosic biomass-to-ethanol process which includes a pretreatment step of raw cellulosic biomass material and the production of fermentation process water after production and removal of ethanol from a fermentation step, the method comprising contacting said fermentation process water with an anode of a microbial fuel cell, said anode containing microbes thereon which oxidatively degrade one or more of said inhibitor compounds while producing electrical energy or hydrogen from said oxidative degradation, and wherein said anode is in electrical communication with a cathode, and a porous material (such as a porous or cation-permeable membrane) separates said anode and cathode.

Borole, Abhijeet P. (Knoxville, TN)

2012-06-05

463

Microbial mediated method for soil and water treatment  

US Patent & Trademark Office Database

Methods for treating aqueous/sedimentary systems, sediments and soils are disclosed for prevention of activation and for control or clean-up. The method involves intentionally adding to an aqueous system containing unwanted sulfur and phosphorus in the water and hydrocarbons in the sediment, iron species selected from the group consisting of elemental iron, iron carbonates and iron oxides. Iron-phosphorus compounds and iron-sulfur compounds are precipitated and thereby removed from the system. Hydrocarbons are convened into water, carbon dioxide and small amounts of methane. In a practice of this invention, propagation of aquatic vegetation dependent upon phosphorus species and sulfur species is inhibited by the removal of these species therefrom. Heavy metals are inactivated.

1997-04-15

464

Quantitative risk assessment of Cryptosporidium in surface water treatment.  

PubMed

Quantitative microbiological risk assessment requires quantitative data to assess consumer exposure to pathogens and the resulting health risk. The aim of this study was to evaluate data sets on the occurrence of Cryptosporidium oocysts in raw water and on the removal of model organisms (anaerobic spores, bacteriophages) to perform such a risk assessment. A tiered approach was used by first calculating approximate point estimates and when the point estimate was close to the required safety level (10(4) annual risk of infection), fitting the data to probability distributions and Monte Carlo analysis to calculate the distribution of the risk of infection. Sensitivity analysis showed that the variability in the Cryptosporidium data in raw water (largely introduced by the variability of the recovery efficiency of the detection method) determined most of the variance in the risk estimate. PMID:12639036

Medema, G J; Hoogenboezem, W; van der Veer, A J; Ketelaars, H A M; Hijnen, W A M; Nobel, P J

2003-01-01

465

Treatment of Wastewater Containing Copper by Modified Water Granulated Slag  

Microsoft Academic Search

The process and action mechanism of the copper wastewater adsorption accomplished by ferric salt and cerous salt modified water granulated slag were studied in this paper. Results showed that under the conditions of room temperature of 20?? , dosage of 6g\\/L, pH 7, reaction time of 60min to treat 100mL 20mg\\/L copper wastewater, the removal rate reached 93.64%.The adsorption of

Lirong Chen; Feihu Jia; Xin Meng

2011-01-01

466

Drinking Water Treatment at Home: a Trial in Dhaka, Bangladesh  

Microsoft Academic Search

The pilot trial on Aquatabs TM disinfectant tablets was undertaken over a period of one month (three 10-day period excluding the pre- and post-trial activities) during October-December 2004 in an area of low-income urban communities suffering from a lack of basic health serv- ices including a lack of adequate and safe water and sanitation facilities (Lalbagh) as well as adjacent

N. A. Molla; K. A. Mollah; A. Hossain; O. Shipin; H. P. Nur; I. Nimmi; A. Aminul

2009-01-01

467

Treatment of landscape water (LSW) by electrocoagulation process  

Microsoft Academic Search

The aim of this study was to utilize an aluminum electrocoagulation for the removal of algae and dissolved organic matter from landscape water, which was taken from an artificial lake and mixed with NaCl stock solutions to make its final concentration in the range of 0.5?3?g\\/l. The removal efficiency of chlorophyll-a, UV254 and turbidity was investigated under different current densities,

Haifeng Wang; Jia-Qian Jiang; Ran Xu; Fengting Li

2012-01-01

468

40 CFR 141.81 - Applicability of corrosion control treatment steps to small, medium-size and large water systems.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...treatment steps to small, medium-size and large water systems. 141.81 Section 141.81...ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) WATER PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) NATIONAL PRIMARY DRINKING WATER REGULATIONS Control of Lead and Copper...

2013-07-01

469

40 CFR 141.81 - Applicability of corrosion control treatment steps to small, medium-size and large water systems.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...treatment steps to small, medium-size and large water systems. 141.81 Section 141.81...ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) WATER PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) NATIONAL PRIMARY DRINKING WATER REGULATIONS Control of Lead and Copper...

2011-07-01

470

40 CFR 141.81 - Applicability of corrosion control treatment steps to small, medium-size and large water systems.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...treatment steps to small, medium-size and large water systems. 141.81 Section 141.81...ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) WATER PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) NATIONAL PRIMARY DRINKING WATER REGULATIONS Control of Lead and Copper...

2012-07-01

471

Managing water and salinity with desalination, conveyance, conservation, waste-water treatment and reuse to counteract climate variability in Gaza  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We include demands for water of different salinity concentrations as input parameters and decision variables in a regional hydro-economic optimization model. This specification includes separate demand functions for saline water. We then use stochastic non-linear programming to jointly identify the benefit maximizing set of infrastructure expansions, operational allocations, and use of different water quality types under climate variability. We present a detailed application for the Gaza Strip. The application considers building desalination and waste-water treatment plants and conveyance pipelines, initiating water conservation and leak reduction programs, plus allocating and transferring water of different qualities among agricultural, industrial, and urban sectors and among districts. Results show how to integrate a mix of supply enhancement, conservation, water quality improvement, and water quality management actions into a portfolio that can economically and efficiently respond to changes and uncertainties in surface and groundwater availability due to climate variability. We also show how to put drawn-down and saline Gaza aquifer water to more sustainable and economical use.

Rosenberg, D. E.; Aljuaidi, A. E.; Kaluarachchi, J. J.

2009-12-01

472

Nanostructuring of alumina optical waveguides by hot water treatment for tuning sensor output  

Microsoft Academic Search

A study of the nanostructuring of alumina integrated optical waveguides by means of hot water treatment to tune their outputs, namely, total internal reflection and scattering, is presented. Homogeneous alumina thin films fabricated by atomic layer deposition were exposed to hot water to form surface nano-pillars of various heights and densities. The 135-, 232- and 307-nm thick alumina films were

Mustafa M. Aslan

473

Polyelectrolytes: Wastewater and sewage treatment. (Latest citations from the Selected Water Resources Abstracts database). Published Search  

SciTech Connect

The bibliography contains citations concerning polyelectrolytes in wastewater and water treatment. Topics include flocculation, coagulation, separation techniques, pollutant identification, water pollution sources, and sludge dehydration. Hospital wastewater processing, methods of synthesizing polyelectrolyte complexes, and performance evaluations of polyelectrolytes are also discussed. (Contains 250 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.)

Not Available

1994-04-01

474

COMPUTER PROGRAM FOR CALCULATING THE COST OF DRINKING WATER TREATMENT SYSTEMS  

EPA Science Inventory

This FORTRAN computer program calculates the construction and operation/maintenance costs for 45 centralized unit treatment processes for water supply. The calculated costs are based on various design parameters and raw water quality. These cost data are applicable to small size ...

475

A surface acoustic wave sensor study of polyimide thin film surface treatments - effect on water uptake  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effects of surface treatments on the water uptake in thin (1 ?m) polyimide (PI) films were studied using a surface acoustic wave (SAW) sensor, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), external reflectance infrared (ERIR) spectroscopy, and contact angle measurements. Surface modification of PI films can affect film properties such as water uptake and adhesion. These properties, in turn, affect the performance

D. W. Galipeau; P. R. Story; C. Feger; K.-W. Lee

1994-01-01

476

Training Water-Treatment Plant Operators: The Problem and a Solution  

Microsoft Academic Search

The growing use of automatically controlled, monitored processes and the increasing complexity of water-treatment procedures demand highly qualified and knowledgeable water-utility operators. Although the need for proper training has been recognized, programs to improve training techniques have only recently received the emphasis they deserve.

Cary A. Counts

1974-01-01

477

Comprehensive assessment of precursors, diagenesis, and reactivity to water treatment of dissolved and colloidal organic matter  

Microsoft Academic Search

A comprehensive isolation, fractionation, and characterization research approach was developed for dissolved and colloidal organic matter (DOM) in water, and it was applied to various surface- and groundwaters to assess DOM precursors, DOM diagenesis, and DOM reactivity to water treatment processes. Major precursors for natural DOM are amino sugars, condensed tannins, and terpenoids. Amino sugar colloids derived from bacterial cell

J. A. Leenheer

2004-01-01

478

EVALUATION OF DRINKING WATER TREATMENT TECHNOLOGIES FOR REMOVAL OF ENDOCRINE DISRUPTING COMPOUNDS  

EPA Science Inventory

Many of the chemicals identified as potential endocrine disrupting compounds (EDCs) may be present in surface or ground waters used as drinking water sources due to their introduction from domestic and industrial sewage treatment systems and wet-weather runoff. In order to dec...

479

Microbial Survey of a Full-Scale, Biologically Active Filter for Treatment of Drinking Water  

PubMed Central

The microbial community of a full-scale, biologically active drinking water filter was surveyed using molecular techniques. Nitrosomonas, Nitrospira, Sphingomonadales, and Rhizobiales dominated the clone libraries. The results elucidate the microbial ecology of biological filters and demonstrate that biological treatment of drinking water should be considered a viable alternative to physicochemical methods.

DeBry, Ronald W.; Lytle, Darren A.

2012-01-01

480

Pretreatments at 38°C of 'Hass' Avocado Confer Thermotolerance to 50 °C Hot Water Treatments  

Microsoft Academic Search

Additional index words, fruit ripening, heat shock proteins, Persea americana, postharvest physiology, shelf life, disinfestation Abstract. 'Hass' avocados (Persea americana Mill.) were pretreated in water (38°C for up to 120 min) immediately before 50°C hot water treatments of up to 10 min. Fruit were stored for 1 week at 6°C and ripened at 20°C. External browning was evaluated immediately upon

Allan B. Woolf; Michael Lay-Yee

1997-01-01

481

In-line Treatment of Metal Contaminated Storm Water by Charred Microporous Polymers.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This paper examines the feasibility of using an in-line storm water treatment system to remove heavy metals from storm water discharges. There are a number of commercially available microporous carbons that have a demonstrated affinity for the uptake of m...

J. A. Kliem

1998-01-01

482

Physical stem-end treatment effects on cut rose and acacia vase life and water relations  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cut Rosa hybrida cv. High & Mighty flowers and Acacia holosericea (Velvet Leaf Wattle) foliage were subjected to various physical stem-end treatments as practised by florists. Their effects on longevity (vase life) and water relations [relative fresh weight (RFW) and vase solution uptake (VSU)] were quantified. All vase water contained sodium dichloroisocyanurate (DICA) biocide. Bark removal had either positive or

Iftikhar Ahmad; Daryl C. Joyce; John D. Faragher

2011-01-01

483

Biological Stability of Drinking Water Through Treatment Processes and Distribution Systems.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The objective of this study were: (1) evaluation of the biostability of drinking water in the distribution system of New York City using the attached growth rate estimate (AGRE) method; (2) evaluation of the effects of selected water treatment processes o...

V. Diyamandoglu S. V. Zima W. W. Faber D. Jolis

1999-01-01

484

PERSISTENCE OF INDIGENOUS VIRUSES THROUGH THE PROCESSING REGIMEN AT AN OPERATING WATER TREATMENT PLANT  

EPA Science Inventory

The levels of viable indigenous bacteriophages and human enteric viruses contained in raw water entering a full scale drinking water treatment facility were examined on a quarterly basis for a 1-year period. n these same sampling occasions, indigenous virus concentrations were al...

485