Sample records for presidio water treatment

  1. 11. Office of the Post Engineer, Presidio of San Francisco. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    11. Office of the Post Engineer, Presidio of San Francisco. Location of Water Lines, Presidio of San Francisco. Sheet 31. November 1943. SHOWING EASTERN PORTION OF AREA A; BUILDINGS 274, 275, AND 277; AND POST ENGINEER'S SHOP AND YARDS INCLUDING BUILDINGS 280, 282-285, AND 288. - Presidio of San Francisco, Storehouse & Administration, Crissy Field North cantonment, Allen Street, San Francisco, San Francisco County, CA

  2. Level 1 Water-Quality Inventory of Baseline Levels of Pesticides in Urban Creeks - Golden Gate National Recreation Area and the Presidio of San Francisco, California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hladik, Michelle L.; Orlando, James L.

    2008-01-01

    To characterize baseline water-quality levels of pesticides in Golden Gate National Recreation Area and the Presidio of San Francisco, the U.S. Geological Survey collected and analyzed surface-water and bed-sediment samples at 10 creeks during February, April, and July 2006. Pesticide data were obtained using previously developed methods. Samples from sites in the Presidio were analyzed only for pyrethroid insecticides, whereas the remaining samples were analyzed for pyrethroids and additional current and historical-use pesticides. Pesticide concentrations were low in both the water (below 30 ng/L) and sediment (below 3 ng/g). The pyrethroid bifenthrin was detected in water samples from two sites at concentrations below 2 ng/L. Other compounds detected in water included the herbicides dacthal (DCPA) and prometryn, the insecticide fipronil, the insecticide degradates p,p'-DDE and fipronil sulfone, and the fungicides cyproconazole, myclobutanil and tetraconazole. The only pesticides detected in the sediment samples were p,p'-DDT and its degradates (p,p'-DDD and p,p'-DDE). Pesticide information from the samples collected can provide a reference point for future sampling and can help National Park Service managers assess the water quality of the urban creeks.

  3. Water Treatment

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    New Jersey

    2006-01-01

    Water treatment on a large scale enables the supply of clean drinking water to communities. In this activity, learners develop methods to clean a polluted water sample, describe components of a water treatment process, and learn how humans impact Earth's freshwater supply. The activity simulates methods used in real water treatment including aeration, coagulation, sedimentation, filtration and disinfection. This activity would be an excellent adjunct to a guided tour of a local water treatment plant.

  4. Water Treatment

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    This web site showcases Lenntech's Complete Water treatment and Air filtration solutions. This company designs, manufactures and installs complete air and water treatment system solutions. Lenntech proclaims, "Our wide range of technologies and extended know-how in all water-related sectors will guarantee you a cost-efficient solution meeting your water quality requirements." Whether or not you're looking to purchase one of these fine water treatment systems, the site will still provide beneficial resources about how said systems operate.

  5. 2. POST ENGINEER'S SHOPS AND YARD BUILDINGS FROM PRESIDIO ENTRANCE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    2. POST ENGINEER'S SHOPS AND YARD BUILDINGS FROM PRESIDIO ENTRANCE GATE AT MASON STREET, LOOKING 270 DEGREES WEST - Presidio of San Francisco, Post Engineer's Headquarters Office, Crissy Field North cantonment, San Francisco, San Francisco County, CA

  6. Water Resources Water Quality and Water Treatment

    E-print Network

    Sohoni, Milind

    Water Resources TD 603 Lecture 1: Water Quality and Water Treatment CTARA Indian Institute of Technology, Bombay 2nd November, 2011 #12;OVERVIEW Water Quality WATER TREATMENT PLANTS WATER TREATMENT PLANTS WATER TREATMENT PLANTS WATER TRE OVERVIEW OF THE LECTURE 1. Water Distribution Schemes Hand Pump

  7. Treatment of Well Water

    MedlinePLUS

    ... CDC–INFO Drinking Water Home Public Water Systems Water Quality & Testing Consumer Confidence Reports Regulations Water Sources Water Treatment Disinfection with Chlorine & Chloramine Disinfection ...

  8. 17. 'BIRDSEYEVIEW, PRESIDIO OF MONTEREY, CAL., JAN. 1938.' No signature, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    17. 'BIRDSEYEVIEW, PRESIDIO OF MONTEREY, CAL., JAN. 1938.' No signature, photographer probably Anton C. Heidrick. This panoramic view looks west over Soldier Field from the upper floor or roof of the gymnasium. Original cool toned silver gelatin print measures 85.1 cm by 22.4 cm, flush mounted on mat board. - Presidio of Monterey, Soldier Field, Monterey, Monterey County, CA

  9. 21. Post Engineer Office, Presidio of San Francisco, Letterman Army ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    21. Post Engineer Office, Presidio of San Francisco, Letterman Army Hospital. EKG Cardiology Clinic, Building 1049. December 1955. BUILDING 1049. - Presidio of San Francisco, Letterman General Hospital, Building No. 12, Letterman Hospital Complex, Edie Road, San Francisco, San Francisco County, CA

  10. 22. Post Engineer Office, Presidio of San Francisco, Building # ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    22. Post Engineer Office, Presidio of San Francisco, Building # 1049 Letterman General Hospital. Alterations to EKG Cardiology Clinic. November 1963. BUILDING 1049. - Presidio of San Francisco, Letterman General Hospital, Building No. 12, Letterman Hospital Complex, Edie Road, San Francisco, San Francisco County, CA

  11. Presidio of San Francisco. Sheet 26. March 1943. SHOWING AREA ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Presidio of San Francisco. Sheet 26. March 1943. SHOWING AREA B, BUILDINGS 901-919; PART OF BUILDINGS 949 AND 950 ARE SHOWN IN UPPER LIFT CORNER OF DRAWING - Presidio of San Francisco, Enlisted Men's Barracks Type, West end of Crissy Field, between Pearce & Maudlin Streets, San Francisco, San Francisco County, CA

  12. Presidio of San Francisco. Sheet 27. June 1945. SHOWING EASTERN ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Presidio of San Francisco. Sheet 27. June 1945. SHOWING EASTERN PORTION OF AREA B, BUILDINGS 901-919 AND WESTERN PORTION OF CRISSY FIELD - Presidio of San Francisco, Enlisted Men's Barracks Type, West end of Crissy Field, between Pearce & Maudlin Streets, San Francisco, San Francisco County, CA

  13. 36 CFR 1011.12 - How will the Presidio Trust offset a Federal employee's salary to collect a debt?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...a Federal employee's salary to collect a debt? 1011.12 Section 1011.12 Parks, Forests, and Public Property PRESIDIO TRUST DEBT COLLECTION Procedures To Collect Presidio Trust Debts § 1011.12 How will the Presidio...

  14. 36 CFR 1011.12 - How will the Presidio Trust offset a Federal employee's salary to collect a debt?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...a Federal employee's salary to collect a debt? 1011.12 Section 1011.12 Parks, Forests, and Public Property PRESIDIO TRUST DEBT COLLECTION Procedures To Collect Presidio Trust Debts § 1011.12 How will the Presidio...

  15. 36 CFR 1011.12 - How will the Presidio Trust offset a Federal employee's salary to collect a debt?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...a Federal employee's salary to collect a debt? 1011.12 Section 1011.12 Parks, Forests, and Public Property PRESIDIO TRUST DEBT COLLECTION Procedures To Collect Presidio Trust Debts § 1011.12 How will the Presidio...

  16. 36 CFR 1011.12 - How will the Presidio Trust offset a Federal employee's salary to collect a debt?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...a Federal employee's salary to collect a debt? 1011.12 Section 1011.12 Parks, Forests, and Public Property PRESIDIO TRUST DEBT COLLECTION Procedures To Collect Presidio Trust Debts § 1011.12 How will the Presidio...

  17. Overview of buildings looking 90 degrees east Presidio of ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Overview of buildings looking 90 degrees east - Presidio of San Francisco, Enlisted Men's Barracks Type, West end of Crissy Field, between Pearce & Maudlin Streets, San Francisco, San Francisco County, CA

  18. Building No 909, corner details and concrete foundation Presidio ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Building No 909, corner details and concrete foundation - Presidio of San Francisco, Enlisted Men's Barracks Type, West end of Crissy Field, between Pearce & Maudlin Streets, San Francisco, San Francisco County, CA

  19. Building No. 909, door (typical for barracks) Presidio of ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Building No. 909, door (typical for barracks) - Presidio of San Francisco, Enlisted Men's Barracks Type, West end of Crissy Field, between Pearce & Maudlin Streets, San Francisco, San Francisco County, CA

  20. 14. 'TROOP A, OREGON CAVALRY IN CAMP AT PRESIDIO OF ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    14. 'TROOP A, OREGON CAVALRY IN CAMP AT PRESIDIO OF MONTEREY, CALIFORNIA, 1915.' Anton C. Heidrick, photographer. This panoramic view looks west from the lower end of Soldier Field, before construction of walls and roads. Original warm toned silver gelatin print measures 94.9 cm by 19.7 cm, flush mounted on mat board. - Presidio of Monterey, Soldier Field, Monterey, Monterey County, CA

  1. Water Treatment Process

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    This interactive diagram allows the user to follow a drop of water from the source through the treatment process. Water may be treated differently in different communities depending on the quality of the water which enters the plant. Groundwater is water located under ground and typically requires less treatment than water from lakes, rivers, and streams. Users are invited to click on each treatment point on the image to see a little information about that treatment point.

  2. Presidio AVA Assicurazione Qualit della Didattica_ agg. 2 del 19/06/2014

    E-print Network

    Presidio AVA Assicurazione Qualità della Didattica_ agg. 2 del 19/06/2014 1 Assicurazione Qualità) Attuazione del Sistema per l'Assicurazione Qualità 6) Procedure a supporto #12;Presidio AVA Presidio AVA di Ateneo; le azioni per il miglioramento continuo dei processi di gestione della qualità

  3. Water Treatment Process

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    In this activity students can follow a drop of water from the source through the treatment process. Stop at each treatment point and unscramble the words to show where the water is along the treatment path. Click on each treatment point on the image to view the unscrambled answer and a little information about that treatment point. The treatment points are: coagulation, sedimentation, filtration, disinfection, and storage.

  4. Drinking Water Treatment

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Matt Laposata

    This lesson provides an introduction to the treatment of drinking water to remove harmful or distasteful substances. Topics include the history of treatment and a brief listing of treatment processes. Students can examine a selection of online resources for more detailed information on modern treatment methods and potential contaminants. The lesson includes an activity in which they construct a model treatment plant and treat water that they have 'contaminated' themselves in order to observe firsthand the steps involved in purifying water for human consumption.

  5. Water Treatment Plant

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    In most parts of the United States, getting clean, safe water is as easy as turning on a faucet. Generally, this water comes from either groundwater or nearby streams and reservoirs. What most of us never see or have to worry about are the steps required to make this water drinkable. This video segment, adapted from a ZOOM television broadcast, shows how a water treatment facility in Cambridge, Massachusetts purifies its city's water. The segment is two minutes twenty seconds in length.

  6. 36 CFR 1011.22 - What does the Presidio Trust do upon receipt of a request to offset the salary of a Presidio...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...owed by the employee to another Federal agency? 1011.22 Section 1011.22 Parks...To Collect Debts Owed To Other Federal Agencies § 1011.22 What does the Presidio...owed by the employee to another Federal agency? (a) Notice to the Presidio...

  7. 36 CFR 1011.22 - What does the Presidio Trust do upon receipt of a request to offset the salary of a Presidio...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...owed by the employee to another Federal agency? 1011.22 Section 1011.22 Parks...To Collect Debts Owed To Other Federal Agencies § 1011.22 What does the Presidio...owed by the employee to another Federal agency? (a) Notice to the Presidio...

  8. 36 CFR 1011.22 - What does the Presidio Trust do upon receipt of a request to offset the salary of a Presidio...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...owed by the employee to another Federal agency? 1011.22 Section 1011.22 Parks...To Collect Debts Owed To Other Federal Agencies § 1011.22 What does the Presidio...owed by the employee to another Federal agency? (a) Notice to the Presidio...

  9. 36 CFR 1011.22 - What does the Presidio Trust do upon receipt of a request to offset the salary of a Presidio...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...owed by the employee to another Federal agency? 1011.22 Section 1011.22 Parks...To Collect Debts Owed To Other Federal Agencies § 1011.22 What does the Presidio...owed by the employee to another Federal agency? (a) Notice to the Presidio...

  10. 36 CFR 1011.22 - What does the Presidio Trust do upon receipt of a request to offset the salary of a Presidio...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...owed by the employee to another Federal agency? 1011.22 Section 1011.22 Parks...To Collect Debts Owed To Other Federal Agencies § 1011.22 What does the Presidio...owed by the employee to another Federal agency? (a) Notice to the Presidio...

  11. Water Treatment Technology - Springs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ross-Harrington, Melinda; Kincaid, G. David

    One of twelve water treatment technology units, this student manual on springs provides instructional materials for two competencies. (The twelve units are designed for a continuing education training course for public water supply operators.) The competencies focus on spring basin construction and spring protection. For each competency, student…

  12. Water Treatment Technology - Flouridation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ross-Harrington, Melinda; Kincaid, G. David

    One of twelve water treatment technology units, this student manual on flouridation provides instructional materials for three competencies. (The twelve units are designed for a continuing education training course for public water supply operators.) The competencies focus on the following areas: purpose and process of flouridation, correct…

  13. Water Treatment Technology - Wells.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ross-Harrington, Melinda; Kincaid, G. David

    One of twelve water treatment technology units, this student manual on wells provides instructional materials for five competencies. (The twelve units are designed for a continuing education training course for public water supply operators.) The competencies focus on the following areas: dug, driven, and chilled wells, aquifer types, deep well…

  14. Water Treatment Technology - Hydraulics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ross-Harrington, Melinda; Kincaid, G. David

    One of twelve water treatment technology units, this student manual on hydraulics provides instructional materials for three competencies. (The twelve units are designed for a continuing education training course for public water supply operators.) The competencies focus on the following areas: head loss in pipes in series, function loss in…

  15. Water Treatment Technology - Chlorination.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ross-Harrington, Melinda; Kincaid, G. David

    One of twelve water treatment technology units, this student manual on chlorination provides instructional materials for nine competencies. (The twelve units are designed for a continuing education training course for public water supply operators.) The competencies focus on the following areas: purpose and process of chlorination, chlorine…

  16. Water Treatment Technology - Pumps.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ross-Harrington, Melinda; Kincaid, G. David

    One of twelve water treatment technology units, this student manual on pumps provides instructional materials for three competencies. (The twelve units are designed for a continuing education training course for public water supply operators.) The competencies focus on the following areas: types of pumps in plant and distribution systems, pump…

  17. Water Treatment Technician

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    This video, created by ATETV and presented by WGBH, looks at a community college graduate working at a water treatment plant and how the skills he learned helped to prepare them for this career. The video also gives a basic tour of the plant and the processes involved to provide fresh drinking water. This video is helpful for students interested in water treatment technology, or anyone just looking to learn how community colleges can prepare graduates for a career in industry. Educators will also find a background essay, discussion questions, and standards alignment for the material. Running time for the video is 4:16.

  18. Basic Water Treatment Operation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ontario Ministry of the Environment, Toronto.

    This manual was developed for use at workshops designed to introduce the fundamentals of water treatment plant operations. The course consists of lecture-discussions and hands-on activities. Each of the fourteen lessons in this document has clearly stated behavioral objectives to tell the trainee what he should know or do after completing that…

  19. DRINKING WATER TREATMENT

    EPA Science Inventory

    The purpose of water treatment is threefold: 1. To improve the aethetic quality ofwater, 2. to remove toxic or health-hazardous chemicals, 3. to remove and/or inactivate any disease causing microorganisms. These objectives should be accomplished using a reasonable safety factor...

  20. Land use and macroclimate in Presidio County, Texas

    E-print Network

    Ellermeier, Duane Carl

    1970-01-01

    in degrees Fahrenheit from 1927-1968 20 TABLZ 2. Temperature summary for Narfa g2 in degrees Fahrenheit from 1959-1968 TABLE Temperature summary for Narfa C. A. A. in degrees Fahrerheit from 1948 ? 195f& TAPIZ 4. Temperature summary for Csrdelaria... in degree- Fahrenheit from 1964-1968 2Q TABLE 5. Record. maximum and minimum temperature extremes for Presidio from 1927-1968 2)0 TABLE 6. TABIZ 7. TABIZ 8. TABLE 9. TABLI', 10a. TABIZ 10b. TABlZ 10c. TABLE 11. 0 Number of days 90 or greater...

  1. Occupational Analysis: Water Treatment Technician

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    The Advanced Technology Environmental and Energy Center (ATEEC) has provided this document which includes an overview of general required competencies for water treatment technicians. General areas of competence such as water treatment processes, water sources and water quality are included,as well as specific tasks in each category.Users must download this resource for viewing, which requires a free log-in. There is no cost to download the item.

  2. Water treatment method

    DOEpatents

    Martin, F.S.; Silver, G.L.

    1991-04-30

    A method is described for reducing the concentration of any undesirable metals dissolved in contaminated water, such as waste water. The method involves uniformly reacting the contaminated water with an excess amount of solid particulate calcium sulfite to insolubilize the undesirable metal ions, followed by removal thereof and of the unreacted calcium sulfite.

  3. Water treatment method

    DOEpatents

    Martin, Frank S. (Farmersville, OH); Silver, Gary L. (Centerville, OH)

    1991-04-30

    A method for reducing the concentration of any undesirable metals dissolved in contaminated water, such as waste water. The method involves uniformly reacting the contaminated water with an excess amount of solid particulate calcium sulfite to insolubilize the undesirable metal ions, followed by removal thereof and of the unreacted calcium sulfite.

  4. Water Treatment Technology - Distribution Systems.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ross-Harrington, Melinda; Kincaid, G. David

    One of twelve water treatment technology units, this student manual on distribution systems provides instructional materials for six competencies. (The twelve units are designed for a continuing education training course for public water supply operators.) The competencies focus on the following areas: types of pipe for distribution systems, types…

  5. Pennsylvania Stream Water Treatment Systems

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    WPSU

    2007-04-04

    The video asks who will be around to keep water treatment systems going, monitor the quality of streams, and create new initiatives to keep water sources clean. A number of programs address these issues and get young people involved in environmental and conservation activities.

  6. Surface Water Treatment Workshop Manual.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ontario Ministry of the Environment, Toronto.

    This manual was developed for use at workshops designed to increase the knowledge of experienced water treatment plant operators. Each of the fourteen lessons in this document has clearly stated behavioral objectives to tell the trainee what he should know or do after completing that topic. Areas covered in this manual include: basic water

  7. 36 CFR 1009.5 - Indemnification of Presidio Trust directors and employees.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...within the scope of the duties or employment of the director or employee and that...Chair shall designate a director or employee of the Trust to fulfill the duties otherwise assigned to...indemnify a Presidio Trust director or employee or to...

  8. Underground Stream Water Treatment Systems

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    WPSU

    2007-04-04

    Cook’s Run has an underground water treatment program for a particularly high level of acid mine drainage. The technology used in Cook’s Run was transferred to Pennyslvania from Western metal mines and may prove helpful for other parts of the Appalachian coal region. A watershed group member notes the lack of aquatic life in many Pennsylvania streams as a disgrace.

  9. ENVIRONMENTAL ASSESSMENT WASTE WATER TREATMENT MODIFICATIONS

    E-print Network

    Ohta, Shigemi

    ENVIRONMENTAL ASSESSMENT FOR WASTE WATER TREATMENT MODIFICATIONS FOR IMPROVED EFFLUENT COMPLIANCE................................................38 5.3.4 Effects of the Enhanced Treatment Alternative on Water Resources........................39 5.................................................................................................. 21 4.3 Alternative 3 ­ Enhanced Effluent Treatment

  10. 36 CFR 1011.4 - What notice will the Presidio Trust send to a debtor when collecting a debt?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 3 2012-07-01... 1011.4 Section 1011.4 Parks, Forests, and Public Property PRESIDIO TRUST...salary, certain benefit payments (such as Social Security), retirement, vendor,...

  11. 36 CFR 1011.4 - What notice will the Presidio Trust send to a debtor when collecting a debt?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 3 2011-07-01... 1011.4 Section 1011.4 Parks, Forests, and Public Property PRESIDIO TRUST...salary, certain benefit payments (such as Social Security), retirement, vendor,...

  12. 36 CFR 1011.4 - What notice will the Presidio Trust send to a debtor when collecting a debt?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 3 2013-07-01... 1011.4 Section 1011.4 Parks, Forests, and Public Property PRESIDIO TRUST...salary, certain benefit payments (such as Social Security), retirement, vendor,...

  13. 36 CFR 1011.4 - What notice will the Presidio Trust send to a debtor when collecting a debt?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 3 2014-07-01... 1011.4 Section 1011.4 Parks, Forests, and Public Property PRESIDIO TRUST...salary, certain benefit payments (such as Social Security), retirement, vendor,...

  14. Polymers for waste water treatment

    Microsoft Academic Search

    D. Martin; M. Dragusin; M. Radoiu; R. Moraru; A. Radu; C. Oproiu; G. Cojocaru

    Two types of anionic polyelectrolites, co-polymer of the acrylamide-acrylic acid (PA type) and co-polymer of the acrylic acid-vinyl\\u000a acetate (PV type), obtained by gamma and electron beams irradiation, are presented. The experimental results concerning the\\u000a typical characteristics achieved for these polyelectrolites and their applications in real waste water treatments are also\\u000a presented. The influence of the chemical composition of the

  15. Drinking water safely during cancer treatment

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Disease Control and Prevention. A guide to drinking water treatment technologies for household use. http://www.cdc.gov/healthywater/drinking/travel/household_water_treatment.html. Accessed May 7, 2014.

  16. WATER TREATMENT COST CASE STUDY LIBRARY

    EPA Science Inventory

    Resource Purpose: The case study library is a collection of "real-world" examples of detailed water treatment costs for a variety of treatment technologies and water system sizes. This library allows comparisons between EPA's modeled water treatment costs and actual treatme...

  17. Water Treatment using Electrocoagulation Ritika Mohan

    E-print Network

    Fay, Noah

    1 Water Treatment using Electrocoagulation By Ritika Mohan (Senior, Department Reverse Osmosis (HEROTM). Semiconductor industrial waste water amounts to approximately 105 ­ 106 gal Acknowledgements University of Arizona, Technology and Research Initiative Fund 20082009, Water Sustainability

  18. Guidelines for sustainable building design: Recommendations from the Presidio of San Francisco energy efficiency design charrette

    SciTech Connect

    Brown, K.; Sartor, D.; Greenberg, S. [and others

    1996-05-01

    In 1994, the Bay Chapter of the Association of Energy Engineers{reg_sign} organized a two-day design charrette for energy-efficient redevelopment of buildings by the National Park Services (NPS) at the Presidio of San Francisco. This event brought together engineers, researchers, architects, government officials, and students in a participatory environment to apply their experience to create guidelines for the sustainable redesign of Presidio buildings. The venue for the charrette was a representative barracks building located at the Main Post of the Presidio. Examination of this building allowed for the development of design recommendations, both for the building and for the remainder of the facilities. The charrette was organized into a committee structure consisting of: steering, measurement and monitoring, modeling, building envelope and historic preservation (architectural), HVAC and controls, lighting, and presentation. Prior to the charrette itself, the modeling and measurement/monitoring committees developed substantial baseline data for the other committees during the charrette. An integrated design approach was initiated through interaction between the committees during the charrette. Later, committee reports were cross-referenced to emphasize whole building design and systems integration.

  19. Apparatus and process for water treatment

    DOEpatents

    Phifer, Mark A. (North Augusta, SC); Nichols, Ralph L. (North Augusta, SC)

    2001-01-01

    An apparatus is disclosed utilizing permeable treatment media for treatment of contaminated water, along with a method for enhanced passive flow of contaminated water through the treatment media. The apparatus includes a treatment cell including a permeable structure that encloses the treatment media, the treatment cell may be located inside a water collection well, exterior to a water collection well, or placed in situ within the pathway of contaminated groundwater. The passive flow of contaminated water through the treatment media is maintained by a hydraulic connection between a collecting point of greater water pressure head, and a discharge point of lower water pressure head. The apparatus and process for passive flow and groundwater treatment utilizes a permeable treatment media made up of granular metal, bimetallics, granular cast iron, activated carbon, cation exchange resins, and/or additional treatment materials. An enclosing container may have an outer permeable wall for passive flow of water into the container and through the enclosed treatment media to an effluent point. Flow of contaminated water is attained without active pumping of water through the treatment media. Remediation of chlorinated hydrocarbons and other water contaminants to acceptable regulatory concentration levels is accomplished without the costs of pumping, pump maintenance, and constant oversight by personnel.

  20. Developments in membrane technology for water treatment

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Bjarne Nicolaisen

    2003-01-01

    Membrane technology is widely accepted as a means of producing various qualities of water from surface water, well water, brackish water and seawater. Membrane technology is also used in industrial processes and in industrial wastewater treatment, and lately membrane technology has moved into the area of treating secondary and tertiary municipal wastewater and oil field produced water. In many cases

  1. Costing Summaries for Selected Water Treatment

    E-print Network

    Costing Summaries for Selected Water Treatment Processes Alix Montel Ecole Centrale de Nantes M funded from USEPA to the University of New Hampshire Water Treatment Technology Assistance Center #12) R2 = 0.90 #12;Construction Cost Variability · Site conditions · Water storage size variation

  2. ACTIVATED CARBON FROM LIGNITE FOR WATER TREATMENT

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Edwin S. Olson; Daniel J. Stepan

    2000-01-01

    High concentrations of humate in surface water result in the formation of excess amounts of chlorinated byproducts during disinfection treatment. These precursors can be removed in water treatment prior to disinfection using powdered activated carbon. In the interest of developing a more cost-effective method for removal of humates in surface water, a comparison of the activities of carbons prepared from

  3. 7 CFR 305.22 - Hot water immersion treatment schedules.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ...2010-01-01 false Hot water immersion treatment schedules. 305.22...Treatments § 305.22 Hot water immersion treatment schedules. (a) T102-d...water's surface in a hot water immersion treatment tank certified by...

  4. NORDIC WASTE WATER TREATMENT SLUDGE TREATMENT

    E-print Network

    Commission Environ- ment DG, http://ec.europa.eu/environment) Sludge treatment: l Reduces organic ingredients-Norway treats source separated household waste (food waste), organic industrial waste (food processing PRESECO OY 11 PÃ?YRY ENVIRONMENT OY 13 SIMON MOOS MASKINFABRIK A/S 14 SYKLI ENVIRONMENTAL SCHOOL OF FINLAND

  5. TREATMENT OF SEASONAL PESTICIDES IN SURFACE WATERS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Numerous pesticides were monitored in surface waters in agricultural areas. Atrazine, alachlor, metolachlor, cyanazine, metribuzin, carbofuran, linuron, and simazine were found in the influent to three water treatment plants in storm runoff following their application. Studies at...

  6. Apparatus for biological treatment of waste water

    Microsoft Academic Search

    D. Hornsey; R. G. Lee; G. Savard

    1981-01-01

    An apparatus is provided for treating waste water biologically and clarifying the biologically treated water; considerable economic advantage is obtained by conducting both the biological treatment and the clarification of biologically treated water in a single vessel rather than in separate vessels; it is further found possible to treat in this system water containing much higher concentrations of waste; in

  7. Water Treatment Technology - General Plant Operation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ross-Harrington, Melinda; Kincaid, G. David

    One of twelve water treatment technology units, this student manual on general plant operations provides instructional materials for seven competencies. (The twelve units are designed for a continuing education training course for public water supply operators.) The competencies focus on the following areas: water supply regulations, water plant…

  8. Discharges in water and applications to wasted water treatment

    Microsoft Academic Search

    C. Yamabe; S. Ihara

    2009-01-01

    An electrical discharge in a bubble in water and above the water surface were applied to generate active radicals such as atomic oxygen, ozone and hydroxyl for wasted water treatment. The discharge along the inside of the bubble was optically observed. The onset voltage for different gases was measured with the different water conductivity. The use of discharge above the

  9. Water Treatment of Fuel Cell

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Misumi, Yoshiteru; Iizuka, Hiroshi

    Received the award, we would like to take this opportunity to thank and to describe, where is water used in fuel cell system, how do we treat water dew to source of water, what we do to purify water for fuel cell system in commercial or home use, what are the problems remaining.

  10. Technology for Water Treatment (National Water Management)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1992-01-01

    The buildup of scale and corrosion is the most costly maintenance problem in cooling tower operation. Jet Propulsion Laboratory successfully developed a non-chemical system that not only curbed scale and corrosion, but also offered advantages in water conservation, cost savings and the elimination of toxic chemical discharge. In the system, ozone is produced by an on-site generator and introduced to the cooling tower water. Organic impurities are oxidized, and the dissolved ozone removes bacteria and scale. National Water Management, a NASA licensee, has installed its ozone advantage systems at some 200 cooling towers. Customers have saved money and eliminated chemical storage and discharge.

  11. Estimate the cost of water treatment technologies

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Szép Angéla; H Horváth Zsuzsanna; Véha Antal; Hodúr Cecilia

    One of the many problems faced in planning for a water treatment system is defining the cost with some accuracy. There are two stages where costs can be enumerated-first, in the planning phase and second, after the facility is in operation. We use a cost model, the WTCost (Water Treatment Cost Estimation Program) for the poultry wastewater purification process. The

  12. Magnetic water treatment: A coming attraction?

    Microsoft Academic Search

    1995-01-01

    United Airlines and pharmaceutical company Eli Lilly and Company are among a number of users that are controlling scale and corrosion in cooling tower loops with magnetic water treatment, a controversial technology that has met with skepticism, disbelief, and claims of fraud. Experts and hundreds of published papers disagree on whether magnetic water treatment works, and if so, how. No

  13. Biological Drinking Water Treatment: Benefiting from Bacteria

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jess C. Brown; Carollo Engineers

    While the use of microbial biomass for the degradation of contaminants, nutrients, and organics has been commonly used in the wastewater field since the early 1900s, the biological treatment of drinking water has been limited, particularly in the United States. However, recent developments in the drinking water treatment field are beginning to broaden the applicability, feasibility, and favorability of biological

  14. Uses of ozone in drinking water treatment

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Rip G. Rice; C. Michael Robson; G. Wade Miller; Archibald G. Hill

    1981-01-01

    Ozone has been used continuously for the treatment of drinking water since 1906, when it was first installed in the city of Nice, France, for disinfection purposes. Although many water treatment plants throughout the world still utilize ozone primarily for disinfection, most modern plants rely on ozone to perform one or more oxidation functions. Applications for ozonation now include oxidation

  15. Handbook of Industrial Water Treatment

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    This site contains a forty-chapter text including chapters on environmental consideration, aeration, filtration, membrane systems, ion exchange, boiler water systems, cooling water systems, wastewater and gas cleaning systems, and analytical methods and equipment.

  16. A Primer on Waste Water Treatment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Department of the Interior, Washington, DC. Federal Water Pollution Control Administration.

    This information pamphlet is for teachers, students, or the general public concerned with the types of waste water treatment systems, the need for further treatment, and advanced methods of treating wastes. Present day pollution control methods utilizing primary and secondary waste treatment plants, lagoons, and septic tanks are described,…

  17. Delta Drinking Water Quality and Treatment Costs

    E-print Network

    Pasternack, Gregory B.

    Delta Drinking Water Quality and Treatment Costs Technical Appendix H Wei-Hsiang Chen Kristine-San Joaquin Delta, prepared by a team of researchers from the Center for Watershed Sciences (University Acknowledgments v Acronyms vi Introduction 1 1. WATER QUALITY IN AND NEAR DELTA 2 Delta Drinking Water Intakes 2

  18. FOREST TREATMENT EFFECTS ON WATER YIELD

    Microsoft Academic Search

    ALDEN R. HIBBERT

    Results are reported for thirty-nine studies of the effect of altering forest cover on water yield. Taken collectively, these studies reveal that forest reduction increases water yield, and that reforestation de- creases water yield. Results of individual treatments vary widely and for the most part are unpredictable. First-year response to complete forest reduction varies from 34 mm to more than

  19. Household Water Treatments in Developing Countries

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smieja, Joanne A.

    2011-01-01

    Household water treatments (HWT) can help provide clean water to millions of people worldwide who do not have access to safe water. This article describes four common HWT used in developing countries and the pertinent chemistry involved. The intent of this article is to inform both high school and college chemical educators and chemistry students…

  20. Arsenic Removal Technologies for Drinking Water Treatment

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Kuan-Seong Ng; Zaini Ujang; Pierre Le-Clech

    2004-01-01

    Arsenic contamination as a consequence of human activities such as mining and pesticide use is affecting the water resource quality worldwide. Because of the high risk of arsenic exposure, specific water treatment processes are required to meet the anticipated more severe water quality standards. Better understanding of presently available processes is necessary to develop economic, efficient and effective methods for

  1. Water Treatment Technology - Chemistry/Bacteriology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ross-Harrington, Melinda; Kincaid, G. David

    One of twelve water treatment technology units, this student manual on chemistry/bacteriology provides instructional materials for twelve competencies. (The twelve units are designed for a continuing education training course for public water supply operators.) The competencies focus on the following areas: waterborne diseases, water sampling…

  2. Microbiology: wastewater treatment. [Water pollution

    SciTech Connect

    Pipes, W.O.; Minnaugh, H.A.

    1982-06-01

    A literature review dealing with the microbiology of the wastewater treatment process is presented. Microbiological oxidation of reduced nitrogen compounds in aerobic wastewater treatment processes and particularly the conditions that lead to inhibition of such oxidation were among the topics. Interactions among microoganisms in anaerobic sludge digestion were also reported.(KRM)

  3. Organic polyelectrolytes in water treatment

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Brian Bolto; John Gregory

    2007-01-01

    The use of polymers in the production of drinking water is reviewed, with emphasis on the nature of the impurities to be removed, the mechanisms of coagulation and flocculation, and the types of polymers commonly available. There is a focus on polymers for primary coagulation, their use as coagulant aids, in the recycling of filter backwash waters, and in sludge

  4. 36 CFR 1011.16 - When will the Presidio Trust refer debts to the Department of Justice?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    The Presidio Trust will refer debts having a principal balance over $100,000, or such higher amount as authorized by the Attorney General, to the Department of Justice for approval of any compromise of a debt or suspension or termination of collection activity. See the FCCS and § 1011.7 and...

  5. Evaluating Nanoparticle Breakthrough during Drinking Water Treatment

    PubMed Central

    Chalew, Talia E. Abbott; Ajmani, Gaurav S.; Huang, Haiou

    2013-01-01

    Background: Use of engineered nanoparticles (NPs) in consumer products is resulting in NPs in drinking water sources. Subsequent NP breakthrough into treated drinking water is a potential exposure route and human health threat. Objectives: In this study we investigated the breakthrough of common NPs—silver (Ag), titanium dioxide (TiO2), and zinc oxide (ZnO)—into finished drinking water following conventional and advanced treatment. Methods: NPs were spiked into five experimental waters: groundwater, surface water, synthetic freshwater, synthetic freshwater containing natural organic matter, and tertiary wastewater effluent. Bench-scale coagulation/flocculation/sedimentation simulated conventional treatment, and microfiltration (MF) and ultrafiltration (UF) simulated advanced treatment. We monitored breakthrough of NPs into treated water by turbidity removal and inductively coupled plasma–mass spectrometry (ICP-MS). Results: Conventional treatment resulted in 2–20%, 3–8%, and 48–99% of Ag, TiO2, and ZnO NPs, respectively, or their dissolved ions remaining in finished water. Breakthrough following MF was 1–45% for Ag, 0–44% for TiO2, and 36–83% for ZnO. With UF, NP breakthrough was 0–2%, 0–4%, and 2–96% for Ag, TiO2, and ZnO, respectively. Variability was dependent on NP stability, with less breakthrough of aggregated NPs compared with stable NPs and dissolved NP ions. Conclusions: Although a majority of aggregated or stable NPs were removed by simulated conventional and advanced treatment, NP metals were detectable in finished water. As environmental NP concentrations increase, we need to consider NPs as emerging drinking water contaminants and determine appropriate drinking water treatment processes to fully remove NPs in order to reduce their potential harmful health outcomes. Citation: Abbott Chalew TE, Ajmani GS, Huang H, Schwab KJ. 2013. Evaluating nanoparticle breakthrough during drinking water treatment. Environ Health Perspect 121:1161–1166;?http://dx.doi.org/10.1289/ehp.1306574 PMID:23933526

  6. MEMBRANES FOR DRINKING WATER TREATMENT

    EPA Science Inventory

    Various treatment technologies have proven effective in controlling halogenated disinfection by-products such as precursor removal and the use of alternative disinfectants. One of the most promising methods for halogenated by-product control includes removal of precursors before ...

  7. EPA's Drinking Water Treatment Research

    EPA Science Inventory

    Research conducted since EPA inception Research conducted by several EPA organizations in Cincinnati ORD NRMRL NERL NCEA NHSRC OGWDW TSC WSD USEPA drinking water research facilities in Cincinnati Andrew W. Breidenbach Environmental Research Center (AWBERC) Test and E...

  8. Water treatment process for nuclear reactors

    SciTech Connect

    Marwan, M.A.; Khattab, M.S.; Hanna, A.N. [AEA, Nuclear Research Center (Egypt)

    1993-12-31

    Water treatment for purification is very important in reactor cooling systems as well as in many industrial applications. Since impurities in water are main source of problems, it is necessary to achieve and maintain high purity of water before utilization in reactor cooling systems. The present work investigates water treatment process for nuclear reactor utilization. Analysis of outwater chemistry proved that demineralizing process is an appropriate method. Extensive experiments were conducted to determine economical concentration of the regenerants to obtain the optimum quantity of pure water which reached to 15 cubic-meter instead of 10 cubic-meter per regeneration. Running cost is consequently decreased by about 30%. Output water chemistry agrees with the recommended specifications for reactor utilization. The radionuclides produced in the primary cooling water due to reactor operation are determined. It is found that 70% of radioactive contaminants are retained by purification through resin of reactor filter. Decontamination factor and filter efficiency are also determined.

  9. Reuse Water Treatment Sludge for Hollow Concrete Block Manufacture

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Thaniya Kaosol

    Problem statement: This research reuses the water treatment sludge fro m a water treatment plant to make hollow concrete blocks. The main objectives are to increase the value of the water treatment sludge from a water treatment plant and t o make a sustainable and profitable disposal alternative for the water treatment sludge. Attempt s were made to utilize the

  10. Water/Wastewater Treatment Plant Operator Qualifications.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Water and Sewage Works, 1979

    1979-01-01

    This article summarizes in tabular form the U.S. and Canadian programs for classification of water and wastewater treatment plant personnel. Included are main characteristics of the programs, educational and experience requirements, and indications of requirement substitutions. (CS)

  11. ESTIMATION OF SMALL SYSTEM WATER TREATMENT COSTS

    EPA Science Inventory

    This report presents cost data for unit processes that are capable of removing contaminants included in the National Interim Primary Drinking Water Regulations. Construction and operation and maintenance cost data are presented for 45 centralized treatment unit processes that are...

  12. Renewable Energy Powered Water Treatment Systems 

    E-print Network

    Richards, Bryce S.; Schäfer, Andrea

    2009-01-01

    There are many motivations for choosing renewable energy technologies to provide the necessary energy to power water treatment systems for reuse and desalination. These range from the lack of an existing electricity grid, ...

  13. ALTERNATIVE DISINFECTION FOR DRINKING WATER TREATMENT

    EPA Science Inventory

    During a one-yr study at Jefferson Parish, La., the chemical, microbiological, and mutagenic effects os using the major drinkgin water disinfectants (chlorine, chlorine dioxide, chloramine, ozone) were evaluated. Tests were performed on samples collected from various treatment s...

  14. SUMMARY REPORT: SMALL COMMUNITY WATER AND WASTE- WATER TREATMENT

    EPA Science Inventory

    This summary report presents information on the unique needs of small communities facing new water and wastewater treatment requirements. t contains three main sections: technology overviews (each presents a process description, O&M requirements, technology limitations, and finan...

  15. The artificial water cycle: emergy analysis of waste water treatment.

    PubMed

    Bastianoni, Simone; Fugaro, Laura; Principi, Ilaria; Rosini, Marco

    2003-04-01

    The artificial water cycle can be divided into the phases of water capture from the environment, potabilisation, distribution, waste water collection, waste water treatment and discharge back into the environment. The terminal phase of this cycle, from waste water collection to discharge into the environment, was assessed by emergy analysis. Emergy is the quantity of solar energy needed directly or indirectly to provide a product or energy flow in a given process. The emergy flow attributed to a process is therefore an index of the past and present environmental cost to support it. Six municipalities on the western side of the province of Bologna were analysed. Waste water collection is managed by the municipal councils and treatment is carried out in plants managed by a service company. Waste water collection was analysed by compiling a mass balance of the sewer system serving the six municipalities, including construction materials and sand for laying the pipelines. Emergy analysis of the water treatment plants was also carried out. The results show that the great quantity of emergy required to treat a gram of water is largely due to input of non renewable fossil fuels. As found in our previous analysis of the first part of the cycle, treatment is likewise characterised by high expenditure of non renewable resources, indicating a correlation with energy flows. PMID:12817633

  16. Verifying Ballast Water Treatment Performance

    EPA Science Inventory

    The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, NSF International, Battelle, and U.S. Coast Guard are jointly developing a protocol for verifying the technical performance of commercially available technologies designed to treat ship ballast water for potentially invasive species. The...

  17. Water-conserving cooling tower treatment

    SciTech Connect

    Mathie, A.J. [A.J. Mathie Company, Roy, UT (United States)

    1996-12-31

    Water conservation in cooling towers and evaporative coolers can finally become a reality. Also, fouled closed hot and chilled water systems can be restored to near original efficiency using the same technology. The barrier limiting the traditional water treatment industry from serious involvement in water conservation is the lack of a really good chemical to control scale. Poor scale inhibitors are the reason for a heavy bleed. Minerals concentrated by evaporation is wasted to the sewer while low solids make-up water fills the tower. Water conservation is important because of the increasing usable water shortage, the cost to add infrastructure to deliver increasing amounts of water to accommodate growth and the limitations imposed on disposal to the sewer. Now, due to innovations in chemical treatment, users of cooling towers and evaporative coolers can conserve water. In this presentation the author assumes the audience has some knowledge of traditional water treatment. Except for a few general references to establish common understanding, the author confines his remarks to discussing an advanced technology developed by DIAS, Inc., and the economics of its use.

  18. Drinking Water Treatment: Activated Carbon Filtration

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Divorak, Bruce I.

    This site, presented by the University of Nebraska - Lincoln Extension, discusses the principles, processes and requirements of activated carbon filtration systems for the domestic (household) user. The site addresses contaminants removed, those not removed, water testing, principals of treatment and the equipment used in this treatment.

  19. Iowa's first electrodialysis reversal water treatment plant

    Microsoft Academic Search

    John Hays

    2000-01-01

    In 1979 the City of Washington was notified by the Iowa Department of Natural Resources (IDNR) that the City was in violation of the radium standard for drinking water. The City of Washington authorized an engineering study to determine the most cost-effective and practical way to remove radium and, at the same time, improve overall water quality. Several possible treatment

  20. Upgrading a Landmark Water Treatment Plant

    Microsoft Academic Search

    James G. Smith; David L. Tippin; Malichi C. Bennet III; Jagdish B. Salgaonkar

    1987-01-01

    By 1982, rapid growth in the metropolitan area of Tampa, Fla., had increased the demand for water beyond the capacity of the city's only water treatment plant. Designated an AWWA American Landmark, the Hillsborough River plant had been enlarged three times previously since its constructionin 1925. The latest expansion, which was completed last year, added 36 mgd (136,000 m³\\/d) of

  1. TREATMENT EFFECTIVENESS: OIL TANKER BALLAST WATER FACILITY

    EPA Science Inventory

    A study dealing with the effectiveness of large-scale treatment of ballast water was conducted at the terminal facility of the TransAlaska Pipeline in Valdez, Alaska. The plant was found to be generally effective in reducing the petroleum content of the ballast water. On the aver...

  2. Water Treatment Technology - Taste, Odor & Color.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ross-Harrington, Melinda; Kincaid, G. David

    One of twelve water treatment technology units, this student manual on taste, odor, and color provides instructional materials for three competencies. (The twelve units are designed for a continuing education training course for public water supply operators.) The competencies focus on the following areas: taste and odor determination, control of…

  3. Water Treatment Technology - Cross-Connections.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ross-Harrington, Melinda; Kincaid, G. David

    One of twelve water treatment technology units, this student manual on cross connections provides instructional materials for two competencies. (The twelve units are designed for a continuing education training course for public water supply operators.) The competencies focus on cross connections terminology and control devices. For each…

  4. Performance of small water treatment plants: The case study of Mutshedzi Water Treatment Plant

    Microsoft Academic Search

    R. Makungo; J. O. Odiyo; N. Tshidzumba

    2011-01-01

    The performance of small water treatment plants (SWTPs) was evaluated using Mutshedzi WTP as a case study. The majority of SWTPs in South Africa (SA) that supply water to rural villages face problems of cost recovery, water wastages, limited size and semi-skilled labour. The raw and final water quality analyses and their compliance were used to assess the performance of

  5. 043 DEVELOPMENT OF RESOURCE WATER QUALI TY OBJECTIVES FOR POTABLE WATER TREATMENT AT UMGENI WATER

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Felicia Tiba; Kim Hodgson

    Umgeni Water abstracts raw water from rivers and dams for potable water treatment, and therefore quality of the water resource is vital for the sustainability of its business. Areas of concern regarding the quality of water resource in the Umgeni Water operational area include eutrophication (nutrient enrichment and associated threats including algal blooms and weed infestations); faecal contamination and pathogen

  6. Saving Energy, Water, and Money with Efficient Water Treatment Technologies

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    2004-06-01

    Reverse Osmosis (RO) is a method of purifying water for industrial processes and human consumption; RO can remove mineral salts as well as contaminants such as bacteria and pesticides. Advances in water treatment technologies have enhanced and complemented the conventional RO process, reducing energy and water consumption, lowering capital and operating costs, and producing purer water. This publication of the Department of Energy's Federal Energy Management Program introduces RO, describes the benefits of high-efficiency reverse osmosis (HERO), and compares HERO with RO/electrodeionization (EDI) technology.

  7. Nanotechnology-based water treatment strategies.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Sandeep; Ahlawat, Wandit; Bhanjana, Gaurav; Heydarifard, Solmaz; Nazhad, Mousa M; Dilbaghi, Neeraj

    2014-02-01

    The most important component for living beings on the earth is access to clean and safe drinking water. Globally, water scarcity is pervasive even in water-rich areas as immense pressure has been created by the burgeoning human population, industrialization, civilization, environmental changes and agricultural activities. The problem of access to safe water is inevitable and requires tremendous research to devise new, cheaper technologies for purification of water, while taking into account energy requirements and environmental impact. This review highlights nanotechnology-based water treatment technologies being developed and used to improve desalination of sea and brackish water, safe reuse of wastewater, disinfection and decontamination of water, i.e., biosorption and nanoadsorption for contaminant removal, nanophotocatalysis for chemical degradation of contaminants, nanosensors for contaminant detection, different membrane technologies including reverse osmosis, nanofiltration, ultrafiltration, electro-dialysis etc. This review also deals with the fate and transport of engineered nanomaterials in water and wastewater treatment systems along with the risks associated with nanomaterials. PMID:24749460

  8. Innovations in nanotechnology for water treatment

    PubMed Central

    Gehrke, Ilka; Geiser, Andreas; Somborn-Schulz, Annette

    2015-01-01

    Important challenges in the global water situation, mainly resulting from worldwide population growth and climate change, require novel innovative water technologies in order to ensure a supply of drinking water and reduce global water pollution. Against this background, the adaptation of highly advanced nanotechnology to traditional process engineering offers new opportunities in technological developments for advanced water and wastewater technology processes. Here, an overview of recent advances in nanotechnologies for water and wastewater treatment processes is provided, including nanobased materials, such as nanoadsorbents, nanometals, nanomembranes, and photocatalysts. The beneficial properties of these materials as well as technical barriers when compared with conventional processes are reported. The state of commercialization is presented and an outlook on further research opportunities is given for each type of nanobased material and process. In addition to the promising technological enhancements, the limitations of nanotechnology for water applications, such as laws and regulations as well as potential health risks, are summarized. The legal framework according to nanoengineered materials and processes that are used for water and wastewater treatment is considered for European countries and for the USA. PMID:25609931

  9. Constructed wetland system for storm water treatment

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Johannes Laber

    2000-01-01

    An eleven year old constructed wetland system for storm water treatment at Stammersdorf near Vienna has to be redesigned. The small sand trap and the usage of loamy material as substrate for the main layer of the reed bed led to a rapid clogging of the system and to a very limited elimination rate. To obtain data for parameters (catchment

  10. Oxidative treatment of pharmaceuticals in water

    Microsoft Academic Search

    C. Zwiener; F. H. Frimmel

    2000-01-01

    Environmentally relevant pharmaceuticals were chosen according to human consumption and occurrence in the aquatic environment like sewage plant effluents, rivers and groundwater to investigate their behavior during oxidative water treatment. Derived from data compilation in literature the lipid lowering agent clofibric acid and the analgesic agents ibuprofen and diclofenac were selected. Analyses of the acidic compounds were carried out after

  11. Waste water treatment and metal recovery

    E-print Network

    Braun, Paul

    Waste water treatment and metal recovery Nickel catalysts for hydrogen production Nickel and single-crystal on experimental chromium-alloyed steels. Among them was Elwood Haynes, whose main interest was to improve his automobiles. An accomplished inventor, Haynes focused on hard, wear-resistant alloys and alloys suitable

  12. Hydrogen Sulfide in Drinking Water: Causes and Treatment Alternatives

    E-print Network

    McFarland, Mark L.; Provin, Tony

    1999-06-15

    of the problem and selection of the most effective and economical water treatment system. Treatment options for hydrogen sulfide The recommended treatment to remove hydro- gen sulfide from a water supply depends largely on the gas concentration. Trace amounts...

  13. ANAEROBIC BIOLOGICAL TREATMENT OF PRODUCED WATER

    SciTech Connect

    John R. Gallagher

    2001-07-31

    During the production of oil and gas, large amounts of water are brought to the surface and must be disposed of in an environmentally sensitive manner. This is an especially difficult problem in offshore production facilities where space is a major constraint. The chief regulatory criterion for produced water is oil and grease. Most facilities have little trouble meeting this criterion using conventional oil-water separation technologies. However, some operations have significant amounts of naphthenic acids in the water that behave as oil and grease but are not well removed by conventional technologies. Aerobic biological treatment of naphthenic acids in simulated-produced water has been demonstrated by others; however, the system was easily overloaded by the large amounts of low-molecular-weight organic acids often found in produced waters. The objective of this research was to determine the ability of an anaerobic biological system to treat these organic acids in a simulated produced water and to examine the potential for biodegradation of the naphthenic acids in the anaerobic environment. A small fixed-film anaerobic biological reactor was constructed and adapted to treat a simulated produced water. The bioreactor was tubular, with a low-density porous glass packing material. The inocula to the reactor was sediment from a produced-water holding pond from a municipal anaerobic digester and two salt-loving methanogenic bacteria. During start-up, the feed to the reactor contained glucose as well as typical produced-water components. When glucose was used, rapid gas production was observed. However, when glucose was eliminated and the major organic component was acetate, little gas was generated. Methane production from acetate may have been inhibited by the high salt concentrations, by sulfide, or because of the lack, despite seeding, of microbes capable of converting acetate to methane. Toluene, a minor component of the produced water (0.1 g/L) was removed in the reactor. Batch tests were conducted to examine naphthenic acid biodegradability under several conditions. The conditions used were seed from the anaerobic reactor, wetland sediments under aerobic and anaerobic conditions, and a sterile control. The naphthenic acid was from a commercial source isolated from Gulf Coast petroleum as was dosed at 2 mg/mL. The incubations were for 30 days at 30 C. The results showed that the naphthenic acids were not biodegraded under anaerobic conditions, but were degraded under aerobic conditions. Despite poor performance of the anaerobic reactor, it remains likely that anaerobic treatment of acetate, toluene, and, potentially, other produced-water components is feasible.

  14. Performance of small water treatment plants: The case study of Mutshedzi Water Treatment Plant

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Makungo, R.; Odiyo, J. O.; Tshidzumba, N.

    The performance of small water treatment plants (SWTPs) was evaluated using Mutshedzi WTP as a case study. The majority of SWTPs in South Africa (SA) that supply water to rural villages face problems of cost recovery, water wastages, limited size and semi-skilled labour. The raw and final water quality analyses and their compliance were used to assess the performance of the Mutshedzi WTP. Electrical conductivity (EC), p? and turbidity were measured in the field using a portable multimeter and a turbidity meter respectively. Atomic Absorption Spectrometry and Ion Chromatography were used to analyse metals and non-metals respectively. The results were compared with the Department of Water Affairs (DWA) guidelines for domestic use. The turbidity levels partially exceeded the recommended guidelines for domestic water use of 1 NTU. The concentrations of chemical parameters in final water were within the DWA guidelines for domestic water use except for fluoride, which exceeded the maximum allowable guideline of 1.5 mg/L in August 2009. Mutshedzi WTP had computed compliance for raw and final water analyses ranging from 79% to 93% and 86% to 93% throughout the sampling period, respectively. The results from earlier studies showed that the microbiological quality of final water in Mutshedzi WTP complied with the recommended guidelines, eliminating the slight chance of adverse aesthetic effects and infectious disease transmission associated with the turbidity values between 1 and 5 NTU. The study concluded that Mutshedzi WTP, though moving towards compliance, is still not producing adequate quality of water. Other studies also indicated that the quantity of water produced from Mutshedzi WTP was inadequate. The findings of the study indicate that lack of monitoring of quantity of water supplied to each village, dosage of treatment chemicals, the treatment capacity of the WTP and monitoring the quality of water treated are some of the factors that limit the performance of Mutshedzi WTP. These have been confirmed in literature to be widespread in similar WTPs in SA. It is recommended that water meters be provided and the community be advised to subsidise the cost of water supply. The study recommended that the treatments of turbidity and fluoride should form critical functions of the plant to ensure that final water for domestic use is always safe from any harmful substances or disease causing pathogens. The study concluded that the WTP only needs minor improvement to boost its efficiency with regard to the treatment of raw water. This will also ensure that the plant achieves 100% compliance for final water.

  15. Oilfield Produced Water Treatment by Ozone-Enhanced Flocculation

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Lihua Cheng; Xuejun Bi; Yantao Ni

    2011-01-01

    Due to the difficulty of oilfield produced water treatment and low efficiency of coagulation technology. A more efficient treatment technology was necessity. Produced water treatment by ozone enhanced coagulation was investigated in this study in order to develop a new method for oilfield produced water treatment. The results showed that addition of ozone could reduce the dosage of coagulant (PAC)

  16. Water Treatment Systems for Long Spaceflights

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    FLynn, Michael T.

    2012-01-01

    Space exploration will require new life support systems to support the crew on journeys lasting from a few days to several weeks, or longer. These systems should also be designed to reduce the mass required to keep humans alive in space. Water accounts for about 80 percent of the daily mass intake required to keep a person alive. As a result, recycling water offers a high return on investment for space life support. Water recycling can also increase mission safety by providing an emergency supply of drinking water, where another supply is exhausted or contaminated. These technologies also increase safety by providing a lightweight backup to stored supplies, and they allow astronauts to meet daily drinking water requirements by recycling the water contained in their own urine. They also convert urine into concentrated brine that is biologically stable and nonthreatening, and can be safely stored onboard. This approach eliminates the need to have a dedicated vent to dump urine overboard. These needs are met by a system that provides a contaminant treatment pouch, referred to as a urine cell or contaminant cell, that converts urine or another liquid containing contaminants into a fortified drink, engineered to meet human hydration, electrolyte, and caloric requirements, using a variant of forward osmosis (FO) to draw water from a urine container into the concentrated fortified drink as part of a recycling stage. An activated carbon pretreatment removes most organic molecules. Salinity of the initial liquid mix (urine plus other) is synergistically used to enhance the precipitation of organic molecules so that activated carbon can remove most of the organics. A functional osmotic bag is then used to remove inorganic contaminants. If a contaminant is processed for which the saline content is different than optimal for precipitating organic molecules, the saline content of the liquid should be adjusted toward the optimal value for that contaminant. A first urine treatment method converts urine into a fortified sports drink, resembling Gatorade, using a first urine cell.

  17. Characterization of drinking water treatment sludge after ultrasound treatment.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Zhiwei; Yang, Yanling; Li, Xing; Zhang, Yang; Guo, Xuan

    2015-05-01

    Ultrasonic technology alone or the combination of ultrasound with alkaline or thermal hydrolysis as pretreatment for anaerobic digestion of activated sludge has been extensively documented. However, there are few reports on ultrasound as pretreatment of drinking water treatment sludge (DWTS), and thereby the characteristic variability of sonicated DWTS has not been fully examined. This research presents a lab-scale study on physical, chemical and biological characteristics of a DWTS sample collected from a water plant after ultrasonic treatment via a bath/probe sonoreactor. By doing this work, we provide implications for using ultrasound as pretreatment of enhanced coagulation of recycling sludge, and for the conditioning of water and wastewater mixed sludge by ultrasound combined with polymers. Our results indicate that the most vigorous DWTS disintegration quantified by particles' size reduction and organic solubilization is achieved with 5W/ml for 30min ultra-sonication (specific energy of 1590kWh/kgTS). The Brunauer, Emmett and Teller (BET) specific surface area of sonicated DWTS flocs increase as ultra-sonication prolongs at lower energy densities (0.03 and 1W/ml), while decrease as ultra-sonication prolongs at higher energy densities (3 and 5W/ml). Additionally, the pH and zeta potential of sonicated DWTS slightly varies under all conditions observed. A shorter sonication with higher energy density plays a more effective role in restraining microbial activity than longer sonication with lower energy density. PMID:25443278

  18. Energy requirements for waste water treatment.

    PubMed

    Svardal, K; Kroiss, H

    2011-01-01

    The actual mathematical models describing global climate closely link the detected increase in global temperature to anthropogenic activity. The only energy source we can rely on in a long perspective is solar irradiation which is in the order of 10,000 kW/inhabitant. The actual primary power consumption (mainly based on fossil resources) in the developed countries is in the range of 5 to 10 kW/inhabitant. The total power contained in our nutrition is in the range of 0.11 kW/inhabitant. The organic pollution of domestic waste water corresponds to approximately 0.018 kW/inhabitant. The nutrients contained in the waste water can also be converted into energy equivalents replacing market fertiliser production. This energy equivalent is in the range of 0.009 kW/inhabitant. Hence waste water will never be a relevant source of energy as long as our primary energy consumption is in the range of several kW/inhabitant. The annual mean primary power demand of conventional municipal waste water treatment with nutrient removal is in the range of 0.003-0.015 kW/inhabitant. In principle it is already possible to reduce this value for external energy supply to zero. Such plants should be connected to an electrical grid in order to keep investment costs low. Peak energy demand will be supported from the grid and surplus electric energy from the plant can be is fed to the grid. Zero 'carbon footprint' will not be affected by this solution. Energy minimisation must never negatively affect treatment efficiency because water quality conservation is more important for sustainable development than the possible reduction in energy demand. This argument is strongly supported by economical considerations as the fixed costs for waste water infrastructure are dominant. PMID:22214091

  19. OBLIQUE VIEW OF NORTH AND WEST SIDES OF WATER TREATMENT ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    OBLIQUE VIEW OF NORTH AND WEST SIDES OF WATER TREATMENT PLANT, FIRE PUMP HOUSE IN BACKGROUND, VIEW TOWARDS SOUTHEAST - Ortona Lock, Lock No. 2, Water Treatment Plant, Caloosahatchee River, Cross-State Canal, Okeechobee Intracoastal Waterway, Ortona, Glades County, FL

  20. 4. Water treatment plant, view to NW, berm in foreground ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    4. Water treatment plant, view to NW, berm in foreground - Fort Benton Water Treatment Plant, Filtration Plant, Lots 9-13 of Block 7, Fort Benton Original Townsite at Missouri River, Fort Benton, Chouteau County, MT

  1. 5. Water treatment plant, view to N, berm in foreground ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    5. Water treatment plant, view to N, berm in foreground - Fort Benton Water Treatment Plant, Filtration Plant, Lots 9-13 of Block 7, Fort Benton Original Townsite at Missouri River, Fort Benton, Chouteau County, MT

  2. 2. WATER TREATMENT PUMPING AND STORAGE BUILDING, REAR AND RIGHT ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    2. WATER TREATMENT PUMPING AND STORAGE BUILDING, REAR AND RIGHT SIDES, LOOKING SOUTHWEST. - NIKE Missile Base SL-40, Water Treatment & Storage Building, Southern portion of launch area, southeast of Ready Building, Hecker, Monroe County, IL

  3. 4. PHOTOCOPY, ARCHITECTURAL DETAILS FOR WATER TREATMENT PUMPING AND STORAGE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    4. PHOTOCOPY, ARCHITECTURAL DETAILS FOR WATER TREATMENT PUMPING AND STORAGE BUILDING. - NIKE Missile Base SL-40, Water Treatment & Storage Building, Southern portion of launch area, southeast of Ready Building, Hecker, Monroe County, IL

  4. 1. WATER TREATMENT PUMPING AND STORAGE BUILDING, FRONT AND LEFT ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. WATER TREATMENT PUMPING AND STORAGE BUILDING, FRONT AND LEFT SIDES, LOOKING NORTHEAST. - NIKE Missile Base SL-40, Water Treatment & Storage Building, Southern portion of launch area, southeast of Ready Building, Hecker, Monroe County, IL

  5. OBLIQUE VIEW OF SOUTH AND EAST SIDES OF WATER TREATMENT ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    OBLIQUE VIEW OF SOUTH AND EAST SIDES OF WATER TREATMENT PLANT, VIEW TOWARDS NORTHWEST - Ortona Lock, Lock No. 2, Water Treatment Plant, Caloosahatchee River, Cross-State Canal, Okeechobee Intracoastal Waterway, Ortona, Glades County, FL

  6. 14. Water treatment plant interior view of chlorination room. View ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    14. Water treatment plant interior view of chlorination room. View to N - Fort Benton Water Treatment Plant, Filtration Plant, Lots 9-13 of Block 7, Fort Benton Original Townsite at Missouri River, Fort Benton, Chouteau County, MT

  7. 6. Water treatment plant, view NE, berm in foreground ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    6. Water treatment plant, view NE, berm in foreground - Fort Benton Water Treatment Plant, Filtration Plant, Lots 9-13 of Block 7, Fort Benton Original Townsite at Missouri River, Fort Benton, Chouteau County, MT

  8. 8. Water treatment plant, view to SE, berm in foreground ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    8. Water treatment plant, view to SE, berm in foreground covering settling tank - Fort Benton Water Treatment Plant, Filtration Plant, Lots 9-13 of Block 7, Fort Benton Original Townsite at Missouri River, Fort Benton, Chouteau County, MT

  9. 7. Water treatment plant, view to E, berm in foreground ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    7. Water treatment plant, view to E, berm in foreground covering settling tank - Fort Benton Water Treatment Plant, Filtration Plant, Lots 9-13 of Block 7, Fort Benton Original Townsite at Missouri River, Fort Benton, Chouteau County, MT

  10. OBLIQUE VIEW OF EAST AND NORTH SIDES OF WATER TREATMENT ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    OBLIQUE VIEW OF EAST AND NORTH SIDES OF WATER TREATMENT PLANT, LOCK TENDER'S HOUSE IN BACKGROUND, VIEW TOWARDS SOUTHWEST - Ortona Lock, Lock No. 2, Water Treatment Plant, Caloosahatchee River, Cross-State Canal, Okeechobee Intracoastal Waterway, Ortona, Glades County, FL

  11. 10. Water treatment plant, view to S. 1965 addition is ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    10. Water treatment plant, view to S. 1965 addition is in the foreground - Fort Benton Water Treatment Plant, Filtration Plant, Lots 9-13 of Block 7, Fort Benton Original Townsite at Missouri River, Fort Benton, Chouteau County, MT

  12. 13. Water treatment plant interior view of tanks in control ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    13. Water treatment plant interior view of tanks in control room. View to SW - Fort Benton Water Treatment Plant, Filtration Plant, Lots 9-13 of Block 7, Fort Benton Original Townsite at Missouri River, Fort Benton, Chouteau County, MT

  13. 3. Water treatment plant, view to W, detail of door ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    3. Water treatment plant, view to W, detail of door area - Fort Benton Water Treatment Plant, Filtration Plant, Lots 9-13 of Block 7, Fort Benton Original Townsite at Missouri River, Fort Benton, Chouteau County, MT

  14. 2. Water treatment plant entrance, view to W Fort ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    2. Water treatment plant entrance, view to W - Fort Benton Water Treatment Plant, Filtration Plant, Lots 9-13 of Block 7, Fort Benton Original Townsite at Missouri River, Fort Benton, Chouteau County, MT

  15. ACTIVATED CARBON FROM LIGNITE FOR WATER TREATMENT

    SciTech Connect

    Edwin S. Olson; Daniel J. Stepan

    2000-07-01

    High concentrations of humate in surface water result in the formation of excess amounts of chlorinated byproducts during disinfection treatment. These precursors can be removed in water treatment prior to disinfection using powdered activated carbon. In the interest of developing a more cost-effective method for removal of humates in surface water, a comparison of the activities of carbons prepared from North Dakota lignites with those of commercial carbons was conducted. Previous studies indicated that a commercial carbon prepared from Texas lignite (Darco HDB) was superior to those prepared from bituminous coals for water treatment. That the high alkali content of North Dakota lignites would result in favorable adsorptive properties for the very large humate molecules was hypothesized, owing to the formation of larger pores during activation. Since no standard humate test has been previously developed, initial adsorption testing was performed using smaller dye molecules with various types of ionic character. With the cationic dye, methylene blue, a carbon prepared from a high-sodium lignite (HSKRC) adsorbed more dye than the Darco HDB. The carbon from the low-sodium lignite was much inferior. With another cationic dye, malachite green, the Darco HDB was slightly better. With anionic dyes, methyl red and azocarmine-B, the results for the HSKRC and Darco HDB were comparable. A humate test was developed using Aldrich humic acid. The HSKRC and the Darco HDB gave equally high adsorption capacities for the humate (138 mg/g), consistent with the similarities observed in earlier tests. A carbon prepared from a high-sodium lignite from a different mine showed an outstanding improvement (201 mg/g). The carbons prepared from the low-sodium lignites from both mines showed poor adsorption capacities for humate. Adsorption isotherms were performed for the set of activated carbons in the humate system. These exhibited a complex behavior interpreted as resulting from two types of sorption sites. The effect of pH on adsorption was investigated using buffered solutions. The sorption capacity decreased with increasing pH. A study of the effect of activation conditions on the adsorption capacity of the resulting carbon showed that steam activation at 750 C provides the optimum activity with the high-sodium char. An attempt to scale up the carbon production to the 2-kg scale failed to produce the same high activity that was obtained in the 100-g batch unit. Although this research demonstrated that a highly active carbon for water treatment can be produced from high-sodium lignites, much further work is needed to understand what methods and equipment will be needed for large-scale production of this carbon.

  16. 77 FR 12227 - Long Term 2 Enhanced Surface Water Treatment Rule: Uncovered Finished Water Reservoirs; Public...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-02-29

    ...FRL-9641-3] Long Term 2 Enhanced Surface Water Treatment Rule: Uncovered Finished Water Reservoirs; Public Meeting AGENCY: Environmental...requirement in the Long Term 2 Enhanced Surface Water Treatment Rule (LT2 rule). At this meeting,...

  17. WIND DATA REPORT Scituate Waste Water Treatment Plant, MA

    E-print Network

    Massachusetts at Amherst, University of

    WIND DATA REPORT Scituate Waste Water Treatment Plant, MA December 1st to February 28th , 2007........................................................................................................................... 7 Sensor Statistics

  18. WIND DATA REPORT Scituate Waste Water Treatment Plant, MA

    E-print Network

    Massachusetts at Amherst, University of

    WIND DATA REPORT Scituate Waste Water Treatment Plant, MA June 1st to August 31st Prepared........................................................................................................................... 7 Sensor Statistics

  19. WIND DATA REPORT Scituate Waste Water Treatment Plant, MA

    E-print Network

    Massachusetts at Amherst, University of

    WIND DATA REPORT Scituate Waste Water Treatment Plant, MA September 1st to November 30th , 2006........................................................................................................................... 7 Sensor Statistics

  20. VIEW OF BUILDING 124, THE WATER TREATMENT PLANT, LOOKING NORTHEAST. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    VIEW OF BUILDING 124, THE WATER TREATMENT PLANT, LOOKING NORTHEAST. THE ROCKY FLATS PLANT WATER SUPPLY, TREATMENT, STORAGE, AND DISTRIBUTION SYSTEM HAS OPERATED CONTINUOUSLY SINCE 1953 - Rocky Flats Plant, Water Treatment Plant, West of Third Street, north of Cedar Avenue, Golden, Jefferson County, CO

  1. Cleaning Membranes with Focused Ultrasound Beams for Drinking Water Treatment

    E-print Network

    Lu, Jian-yu

    Cleaning Membranes with Focused Ultrasound Beams for Drinking Water Treatment Jian-yu Lu1 , Xi Du2: jilu@eng.utoledo.edu Abstract ­ Traditional methods for water treatment are not effective to remove to clean a large membrane area needed for a typical water treatment plant. In this paper, a focused

  2. Applications of nanotechnology in water and wastewater treatment

    E-print Network

    Alvarez, Pedro J.

    Applications of nanotechnology in water and wastewater treatment Xiaolei Qu, Pedro J.J. Alvarez Accepted 11 September 2012 Available online 26 March 2013 Keywords: Nanotechnology Nanomaterials Water. Nanotechnology holds great potential in advancing water and wastewater treatment to improve treatment efficiency

  3. Optimized alumina coagulants for water treatment

    DOEpatents

    Nyman, May D. (Albuquerque, NM); Stewart, Thomas A. (Albuquerque, NM)

    2012-02-21

    Substitution of a single Ga-atom or single Ge-atom (GaAl.sub.12 and GeAl.sub.12 respectively) into the center of an aluminum Keggin polycation (Al.sub.13) produces an optimal water-treatment product for neutralization and coagulation of anionic contaminants in water. GaAl.sub.12 consistently shows .about.1 order of magnitude increase in pathogen reduction, compared to Al.sub.13. At a concentration of 2 ppm, GaAl.sub.12 performs equivalently to 40 ppm alum, removing .about.90% of the dissolved organic material. The substituted GaAl.sub.12 product also offers extended shelf-life and consistent performance. We also synthesized a related polyaluminum chloride compound made of pre-hydrolyzed dissolved alumina clusters of [GaO.sub.4Al.sub.12(OH).sub.24(H.sub.2O).sub.12].sup.7+.

  4. Desalination and Water Treatment www.deswater.com

    E-print Network

    Messalem, Rami

    and water scarcity: need for irrigation with desalinated water? Water scarcity severely affects suffering from chronic water scarcity. Therefore, water supplies are increasingly being augmented throughDesalination and Water Treatment www.deswater.com 1944-3994 / 1944-3986 © 2009 Desalination

  5. 40 CFR 141.83 - Source water treatment requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Source water treatment requirements. 141.83 Section...ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) WATER PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) NATIONAL PRIMARY DRINKING WATER REGULATIONS Control of Lead and Copper...

  6. 40 CFR 141.83 - Source water treatment requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Source water treatment requirements. 141.83 Section...ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) WATER PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) NATIONAL PRIMARY DRINKING WATER REGULATIONS Control of Lead and Copper...

  7. 40 CFR 141.83 - Source water treatment requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Source water treatment requirements. 141.83 Section...ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) WATER PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) NATIONAL PRIMARY DRINKING WATER REGULATIONS Control of Lead and Copper...

  8. 40 CFR 141.83 - Source water treatment requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Source water treatment requirements. 141.83 Section...ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) WATER PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) NATIONAL PRIMARY DRINKING WATER REGULATIONS Control of Lead and Copper...

  9. 40 CFR 141.83 - Source water treatment requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Source water treatment requirements. 141.83 Section...ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) WATER PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) NATIONAL PRIMARY DRINKING WATER REGULATIONS Control of Lead and Copper...

  10. Onshore ballast water treatment: a viable option for major ports.

    PubMed

    Pereira, Newton Narciso; Brinati, Hernani Luiz

    2012-11-01

    Ballast water treatment consists of the elimination of exotic species. Currently, the development of alternative methods for this process is directed toward treatment onboard ships. However, we present onshore treatment as a viable alternative for ballast water treatment. We investigated onshore treatment in two iron ore ports with movement capacities of 25 and 90 million tons annually (Mta) that receive 7.5 and 25 million cubic meters annually (Mm(3)) of ballast water, respectively. Discrete event simulation was used as the method of analysis, considering the processes of arrival, berthing, ship loading and capture and treatment of ballast water. We analyzed data from 71 ships operating in these ports to validate our simulation model. We were able to demonstrate that onshore treatment does not impact the cargo capacity, occupation rate or average queuing time of ships at these ports. We concluded that implementation of onshore ballast water treatment may be practicable in ports that receive high volumes of ballast water. PMID:22920715

  11. forreading. Integrated Water Management for Environmental

    E-print Network

    Pasternack, Gregory B.

    by hu- mans, land use change, greenhouse gas emissions, and climate change. What are society's water needs, while rehabilitating some elements of the native ecosystem, considering the historic hydrology confluence with the RGB Basin and along the RGB Basin mainstem from the cities of Presidio-Ojinaga to Amistad

  12. 36 CFR 1002.63 - Boating and water use activities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    36 ? Parks, Forests, and Public Property ? 3 ? 2013-07-01 ? 2012-07-01 ? true ? Boating and water use activities. ? 1002.63 ? Section 1002.63 ? Parks, Forests, and Public Property ? PRESIDIO TRUST ? RESOURCE PROTECTION, PUBLIC USE AND RECREATION ? § 1002.63 ? Boating and water use activities....

  13. Standards and guides of water treatment and water-distribution systems. Manual for 1974-86

    Microsoft Academic Search

    L. K. Wang; M. H. S. Wang

    1987-01-01

    The following five important documents are compiled for design of municipal water treatment facilities and water distribution systems: (1) Ten States Recommended Standards for Water Works; (2) A Public Water Supply Guide--Designing Community Water Systems; (3) Water Supply Guide Lines for Public Water Systems; (4) American National Standard for the Thickness Design of Ductile-Iron Pipe; and (5) Designing for Cast

  14. 36 CFR 1011.10 - How will the Presidio Trust use administrative offset (offset of non-tax federal payments) to...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...federal payments) to collect a debt? 1011.10 Section 1011...Property PRESIDIO TRUST DEBT COLLECTION Procedures To Collect...example, when the validity of the debt turns on an issue of credibility...not to have been owed to the...

  15. 36 CFR 1011.10 - How will the Presidio Trust use administrative offset (offset of non-tax federal payments) to...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...federal payments) to collect a debt? 1011.10 Section 1011...Property PRESIDIO TRUST DEBT COLLECTION Procedures To Collect...example, when the validity of the debt turns on an issue of credibility...not to have been owed to the...

  16. 36 CFR 1011.10 - How will the Presidio Trust use administrative offset (offset of non-tax federal payments) to...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...federal payments) to collect a debt? 1011.10 Section 1011...Property PRESIDIO TRUST DEBT COLLECTION Procedures To Collect...example, when the validity of the debt turns on an issue of credibility...not to have been owed to the...

  17. 36 CFR 1011.10 - How will the Presidio Trust use administrative offset (offset of non-tax federal payments) to...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...federal payments) to collect a debt? 1011.10 Section 1011...Property PRESIDIO TRUST DEBT COLLECTION Procedures To Collect...example, when the validity of the debt turns on an issue of credibility...not to have been owed to the...

  18. 36 CFR 1011.10 - How will the Presidio Trust use administrative offset (offset of non-tax federal payments) to...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...federal payments) to collect a debt? 1011.10 Section 1011...Property PRESIDIO TRUST DEBT COLLECTION Procedures To Collect...example, when the validity of the debt turns on an issue of credibility...not to have been owed to the...

  19. Costs of water treatment due to diminished water quality: A case study in Texas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dearmont, David; McCarl, Bruce A.; Tolman, Deborah A.

    1998-04-01

    The cost of municipal water treatment due to diminished water quality represents an important component of the societal costs of water pollution. Here the chemical costs of municipal water treatment are expressed as a function of raw surface water quality. Data are used for a 3-year period for 12 water treatment plants in Texas. Results show that when regional raw water contamination is present, the chemical cost of water treatment is increased by 95 per million gallons (per 3785 m3) from a base of 75. A 1% increase in turbidity is shown to increase chemical costs by 0.25%.

  20. Putting A Price On Riparian Corridors As Water Treatment Facilities

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ann L. Riley

    Abstract The monetary value of natural riparian environments,that provide water quality treatment functions by processing nutrients, storing sediment, moderating temperatures, and other services can be estimated by calculating the costs associated with the construction of brick and mortar water treatment plantsbuilt to achieve similar functions. A demonstration urban runoff treatment plant built by the City of Santa Monica provides similar

  1. Hydraulic modelling of drinking water treatment plant operations

    Microsoft Academic Search

    G. I. M. Worm; G. A. M. Mesman; K. M. Van Schagen; K. J. Borger; L. C. Rietveld

    2009-01-01

    The flow through a unit of a drinking water treatment plant is one of the most important parameters in terms of a unit's effectiveness. In the present paper, a new EPAnet library is presented with the typical hydraulic elements for drinking water treatment processes well abstraction, rapid sand filtration and cascade and tower aeration. Using this treatment step library, a

  2. Drinking water treatment processes for removal of Cryptosporidium and Giardia

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Walter Q. Betancourt; Joan B. Rose

    2004-01-01

    Major waterborne cryptosporidiosis and giardiasis outbreaks associated with contaminated drinking water have been linked to evidence of suboptimal treatment. Cryptosporidium parvum oocysts are particularly more resistant than Giardia lamblia cysts to removal and inactivation by conventional water treatment (coagulation, sedimentation, filtration and chlorine disinfection); therefore, extensive research has been focused on the optimization of treatment processes and application of new

  3. Water treatment plant intelligent monitoring in large gas refinery

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Amir Firoozshahi; Li Mengyang

    2010-01-01

    Water treatment plants have to provide good water quality and at the same time low operational costs. Owing to various physical, chemical and biological interactions water treatment processes are often difficult to handle and reliable predictions for the course of processes are difficult to obtain. Developing monitoring in Automation Control System is a major industrial concern since those systems are

  4. Industrial and brackish water treatment with closed circuit reverse osmosis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Richard L. Stover

    2012-01-01

    Closed Circuit Desalination (CCD™) technology is an emerging platform for reverse osmosis (RO) water treatment and desalination. It lowers the feed pressure requirement, improves the membrane performance, increases the operational flexibility, and eliminates the need for energy recovery devices using only standard RO equipment. For industrial water treatment and brackish water desalination applications, CCD technology achieves maximum recovery in single-stage

  5. The New England Water Treatment Technology Assistance CenterThe New England Water Treatment Technology Assistance Center at theat the

    E-print Network

    Adjustable weir Vent Control valve Treated Water Effluent flow control structure Overflow Headspace #1211 The New England Water Treatment Technology Assistance CenterThe New England Water Treatment Partinoudi, M. Robin Collins, Mélanie Martin-Doole, Peter Dwyer Temperature Influences on Slow Sand

  6. Biological Treatment of Drinking Water: Applications, Advantages and Disadvantages

    EPA Science Inventory

    The fundamentals of biological treatment are presented to an audience of state drinking water regulators. The presentation covers definitions, applications, the basics of bacterial metabolism, a discussion of treatment options, and the impact that implementation of these options...

  7. Radium and Other Radiological Chemicals: Drinking Water Treatment Strategies

    EPA Science Inventory

    Radium and Other Radiological Chemicals: Drinking Water Treatment Technologies Topics include: Introduction to Rad Chemistry, Summary of the Rad, Regulations Treatment Technology, and Disposal. The introductions cover atoms, ions, radium and uranium and the removal of radioac...

  8. MICROBIAL ASPECTS OF WATER TREATMENT PROCESSES: A PROGRESS REPORT

    EPA Science Inventory

    Modifications in water treatment processes or in their sequential placement to optimize reductions in disinfection byproduct formation must be cautiously evaluated and monitored for their impact on microbial barriers. our major treatment concepts were investigated either in pilot...

  9. COMPUTER COST MODELS FOR POTABLE WATER TREATMENT PLANTS

    EPA Science Inventory

    A series of computer programs have been developed which calculate costs for specific unit treatment processes used in water treatment plants. The programs contained in this report are as follows: chlorination, chlorine dioxide, ozone, and granular activated carbon adsorption. Tab...

  10. 50. NORTHERN VIEW OF NONEVAPORATIVE WASTE WATER TREATMENT COOLING TOWERS ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    50. NORTHERN VIEW OF NON-EVAPORATIVE WASTE WATER TREATMENT COOLING TOWERS IN CENTER, AND EVAPORATIVE WASTE WATER COOLING TOWERS ON RIGHT. (Jet Lowe) - U.S. Steel Duquesne Works, Blast Furnace Plant, Along Monongahela River, Duquesne, Allegheny County, PA

  11. ORGANOPHOSPHATE PESTICIDE DEGRADATION UNDER DRINKING WATER TREATMENT CONDITIONS: MODELING PERSPECTIVES

    EPA Science Inventory

    The objectives of this work were to develop experimental approaches and a modeling philosophy to study degradation of organophosphate pesticides as a class under drinking water treatment conditions....

  12. K West integrated water treatment system subproject safety analysis document

    SciTech Connect

    SEMMENS, L.S.

    1999-02-24

    This Accident Analysis evaluates unmitigated accident scenarios, and identifies Safety Significant and Safety Class structures, systems, and components for the K West Integrated Water Treatment System.

  13. Two zone process for biological treatment of waste water

    Microsoft Academic Search

    D. Hornsey; R. G. Lee; G. Savard

    1980-01-01

    A process is provided for treating waste water biologically and clarifying the biologically treated water. Considerable economic advantage is obtained by conducting both the biological treatment and the clarification of biologically treated water in a single vessel rather than in separate vessels. It is further found possible to treat in this system water containing much higher concentration of waste; in

  14. Some physical and economic aspects of optimization of the degree of waste water and water treatment

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Rafar Mitaszewski; Marek Roman Warsaw

    The optimization problem is discussed on the basis of an elementary system con­ sisting of a waste water treatment plant, a water treatment plant and the river section between the waste water discharge and the water intake. Connections between the parameters describing this system are the physical basis of the optimization. The problem of the decision variables, optim­ ization criteria

  15. PLAYING CATCH-UP WITH CATCHMENT WATER QUALITY THE VAALKOP WATER TREATMENT PLANT UPGRADE CASE STUDY

    Microsoft Academic Search

    JJ van der Walt; CJ van der Walt

    The first phase of the Vaalkop water treatment plant was commissioned more than 30 years ago soon after the Vaalkop Dam was constructed. The quality of the water abstracted from the Vaalkop Dam was such that a conventional water treatment train utilizing flocculation, settling, sand filtration and disinfection was sufficient to treat the water to potable standards. However, many changes

  16. Water Treatment: Can You Purify Water for Drinking?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harris, Mary E.

    1996-01-01

    Presents a three-day mini unit on purification of drinking water that uses the learning cycle approach. Demonstrates the typical technology that water companies use to provide high-quality drinking water. (JRH)

  17. No Chemical, Zero Bleed Cooling Tower Water Treatment Process

    E-print Network

    Coke, A. L.

    towers, boilers. spas, swimming rools, municipal water treatment systems, sewage and industrial waste water disposal, etc. 225 ESL-IE-92-04-43 Proceedings from the 14th National Industrial Energy Technology Conference, Houston, TX, April 22-23, 1992...NO CHEMICAL, ZERO BLEED COOLING TOWER WATER TREATMENT PROCESS ALDEN L. COKE, CWS IV, PRESIDENT, AQUA-FLO, INC., BALTIMORE, MARYLAND ABSTRACT This paper describes a process to treat cooling tower water by means of a fully automated...

  18. Cost analysis of large scale membrane treatment systems for potable water treatment

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Pasa Hüseyin Ari; Hale Ozgun; Mustafa Evren Ersahin; Ismail Koyuncu

    2011-01-01

    Along with the increasing world population, the water sources are faced with considerably serious problems in terms of quantity, quality and all other sector-specific usages. Today, brackish water, surface water, seawater and even wastewater can be treated to supply drinking water. Reverse osmosis, nanofiltration, ultrafiltration and microfiltration are the most widely used membrane processes for the treatment of these water

  19. Applications of nanotechnology in water and wastewater treatment.

    PubMed

    Qu, Xiaolei; Alvarez, Pedro J J; Li, Qilin

    2013-08-01

    Providing clean and affordable water to meet human needs is a grand challenge of the 21st century. Worldwide, water supply struggles to keep up with the fast growing demand, which is exacerbated by population growth, global climate change, and water quality deterioration. The need for technological innovation to enable integrated water management cannot be overstated. Nanotechnology holds great potential in advancing water and wastewater treatment to improve treatment efficiency as well as to augment water supply through safe use of unconventional water sources. Here we review recent development in nanotechnology for water and wastewater treatment. The discussion covers candidate nanomaterials, properties and mechanisms that enable the applications, advantages and limitations as compared to existing processes, and barriers and research needs for commercialization. By tracing these technological advances to the physicochemical properties of nanomaterials, the present review outlines the opportunities and limitations to further capitalize on these unique properties for sustainable water management. PMID:23571110

  20. Influence of water quality on the embodied energy of drinking water treatment.

    PubMed

    Santana, Mark V E; Zhang, Qiong; Mihelcic, James R

    2014-03-01

    Urban water treatment plants rely on energy intensive processes to provide safe, reliable water to users. Changes in influent water quality may alter the operation of a water treatment plant and its associated energy use or embodied energy. Therefore the objective of this study is to estimate the effect of influent water quality on the operational embodied energy of drinking water, using the city of Tampa, Florida as a case study. Water quality and water treatment data were obtained from the David L Tippin Water Treatment Facility (Tippin WTF). Life cycle energy analysis (LCEA) was conducted to calculate treatment chemical embodied energy values. Statistical methods including Pearson's correlation, linear regression, and relative importance were used to determine the influence of water quality on treatment plant operation and subsequently, embodied energy. Results showed that influent water quality was responsible for about 14.5% of the total operational embodied energy, mainly due to changes in treatment chemical dosages. The method used in this study can be applied to other urban drinking water contexts to determine if drinking water source quality control or modification of treatment processes will significantly minimize drinking water treatment embodied energy. PMID:24517328

  1. Cost assessment of Produced Water Treatment

    Microsoft Academic Search

    John Hackney; Mark R. Wiesner

    1996-01-01

    includes produced water characterization with respect to quality and quantity, and an assessment of the technical and the economic feasibility of using a wide range of technologies to achieve various levels of treated water quality. The quality of the produced water is judged by quantifying the amounts of material present in categories of produced water contaminants. These categories are adsorbable

  2. SUSTAINABLE CATALYTIC TREATMENT OF WASTE ION EXCHANGE BRINES FOR REUSE DURING OXYANION TREATMENT IN DRINKING WATER

    EPA Science Inventory

    We expect the proposed work to result in the design of full-scale treatment systems for catalytic brine treatment that provides a more economical and sustainable option for removing mixtures of oxyanions from drinking water at small water treatment utilities. This will allo...

  3. Treatment efficiency and economic benefit of Zartech poultry slaughter house waste water treatment plant, Ibadan, Nigeria

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Yahaya Mijinyawa; Nurudeen Samuel Lawal

    The efficiency of the poultry wastewater treatment plant of Zartech Limited, Ibadan, Nigeria, was assessed based on percentage reduction of the various water contaminants while the unit cost of treated water was compared with that supplied through tankers. Wastewater and treated water samples were respectively collected from the points of generation and release after treatment for laboratory analysis for biochemical

  4. Economic Comparison of Waste Water Cleaning for Central Waste Water Treatment Plant and Decentralised System with Smaller Waste Water Treatment Plants

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. ZORKO; D. GORICANEC

    In presented paper two economic analysis of investments for integrated waste water collection and treatment in selected area are presented. The methods of Net present value (NPV) and Capitalised costs (CC) have been used to compare economic efficiency of construction central waste water treatment plant with collecting system and construction of decentralised waste water treatment plants with belonging collecting system

  5. High Conductivity Water Treatment Using Water Surface Discharge with Nonmetallic Electrodes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Xiaoping; Zhang, Xingwang; Lei, Lecheng

    2013-06-01

    Although electrohydraulic discharge is effective for wastewater treatment, its application is restricted by water conductivity and limited to the treatment of low conductivity water. For high conductivity water treatment, water-surface discharge is the preferred choice. However, the metallic electrodes are easily corroded because of the high temperature and strong oxidative environment caused by gas phase discharge and the electrochemical reaction in water. As a result, the efficiency of the water treatment might be affected and the service life of the reactor might be shortened. In order to avoid the corrosion problem, nonmetallic electrode water-surface discharge is introduced into high conductivity water treatment in the present study. Carbon-felt and water were used as the high voltage electrode and ground electrode, respectively. A comparison of the electrical and chemical characteristics showed that nonmetallic electrode discharge maintained the discharge characteristics and enhanced the energy efficiency, and furthermore, the corrosion of metal electrodes was avoided.

  6. Integrated Water Management for Environmental Flows in the Rio Grande

    E-print Network

    Pasternack, Gregory B.

    by hu- mans, land use change, greenhouse gas emissions, and climate change. What are society's water needs, while rehabilitating some elements of the native ecosystem, considering the historic hydrology confluence with the RGB Basin and along the RGB Basin mainstem from the cities of Presidio-Ojinaga to Amistad

  7. Integrated modeling of ozonation for optimization of drinking water treatment

    Microsoft Academic Search

    2007-01-01

    Drinking water treatment plants automation becomes more sophisticated, more on-line monitoring systems become available and integration of modeling environments with control systems becomes easier. This gives possibilities for model-based optimization. In operation of drinking water treatment plants, the processes are usually optimized individually on the basis of \\

  8. INORGANIC CHEMICAL CHARACTERIZATION OF WATER TREATMENT PLANT RESIDUALS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The study obtained field data on the inorganic contaminants and constituents in residuals produced by Water Treatment Plants (WTPs). Eight WTPs were studied based on treatment technology, contamination or suspected contamination of raw water, and efficiency in the removal of cont...

  9. Hydrogen Peroxide and Ultraviolet Irradiations in Water Treatment

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Anjana Rudra; Neeta P. Thacker; Sunil P. Pande

    2005-01-01

    Trihalomethanes (THMs) the by-products of chlorination in water treatment are recognised as a threat to public health due to their carcinogenicity. The photodegradation of THMs using hydrogen peroxide has been found to give increased removal efficiency and the outcome of the study may find, its application in designing a unit process for water treatment. Batch experiments were carried out using

  10. BARIUM AND RADIUM IN WATER TREATMENT PLANT WASTES

    EPA Science Inventory

    Water treatment plants at nine locations (10 plants) in Illinois and Iowa were studied to determine the characteristics and disposal practices for the sludge, brine, and backwash water containing radium (Ra) and/or barium (Ba). The treatment processes in these ten plants include ...

  11. BENEFICIAL DISPOSAL OF WATER PURIFICATION PLANT SLUDGES IN WASTEWATER TREATMENT

    EPA Science Inventory

    This report discusses the advantages and disadvantages of the disposal of waste alum sludge from a water treatment plant to a municipal wastewater treatment plant and is submitted in fulfillment of Grant No. 803336-01 by Novato Sanitary District and North Marin County Water Distr...

  12. 11. Water treatment plant interior view of pipes, stairs, and ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    11. Water treatment plant interior view of pipes, stairs, and pump in pump room. View to SW - Fort Benton Water Treatment Plant, Filtration Plant, Lots 9-13 of Block 7, Fort Benton Original Townsite at Missouri River, Fort Benton, Chouteau County, MT

  13. 12. Water treatment plant interior view of pipes and pump ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    12. Water treatment plant interior view of pipes and pump in heater room. View to W - Fort Benton Water Treatment Plant, Filtration Plant, Lots 9-13 of Block 7, Fort Benton Original Townsite at Missouri River, Fort Benton, Chouteau County, MT

  14. Dairy Waste Water Treatment by Combining Ozonation and Nanofiltration

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Zsuzsanna László; Szabolcs Kertész; Cecilia Hodúr

    2007-01-01

    The aim of this investigation was to examine the applicability of the membrane technique and the effect of preozonation in dairy waste water treatment technology. The best degree of surfactant removal from model anionic surfactant solution by nanofiltration was achieved at 20°C and 40 bar. Investigations on the effects of ozone treatment of the waste water indicated that preozonation decreased the

  15. Prestorage hot water treatments (immersion, rinsing and brushing)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Elazar Fallik

    2004-01-01

    This review summarizes the latest developments in hot water immersion treatment (HWT) and hot water rinsing and brushing (HWRB) technologies. These treatments kill pathogens that cause surface decay, while maintaining fruit quality during prolonged storage and marketing. They also are relatively easy to use, have a short operating time, and are efficient in heat transfer. The cost of a typical

  16. Silica Removal During Lime Softening in Water Treatment Plant

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ibrahim S. Al-Mutaz; Ibrahim Ali Al-Anezi

    2004-01-01

    Silica, SiO2, is typically found in well water supplies. Most of the silica found in well waters is a result of dissolving silica-containing rock. Silica content in brackish water is generally in the range of 20 to 60 ppm. In Salbukh water treatment plant, silica concentration of raw water is about 30 ppm. High concentration of silica causes membrane fouling

  17. Mobile Emergency Response Water Treatment Technology Results

    EPA Science Inventory

    When natural disasters like hurricanes, floods and earthquakes occur, safe drinking water can be compromised, limited or unavailable. Under such situations, communities have emergency response plans. One of many options for providing safe drinking water during emergency situati...

  18. Emergency Response and Protection Water Treatment Technologies

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Expeditionary Unit Water Purifier (EUWP) is supported and deployed by NFESC, the TARDEC, and the USBR. The EUWP was deployed to Biloxi, MS after Hurricane Katrina to supply potable water to a hospital, using seawater from the Gulf of Mexico as the source water. The EUWP ...

  19. CHARACTERIZING RAW SURFACE WATER AMENABLE TO MINIMAL WATER SUPPLY TREATMENT

    EPA Science Inventory

    The monitoring strategy must be sensitive to frequent and unpredictable fluctuations in water quality caused by major storm events and seasonal destratifications of the lake/impoundment. Therefore, daily monitoring of raw source water and the finished water quality entering distr...

  20. WATER QUALITY IN SOURCE WATER, TREATMENT, AND DISTRIBUTION SYSTEMS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Most drinking water utilities practice the multiple-barrier concept as the guiding principle for providing safe water. This chapter discusses multiple barriers as they relate to the basic criteria for selecting and protecting source waters, including known and potential sources ...

  1. Outsourcing water treatment chemicals and equipment -- guidelines for success

    SciTech Connect

    Loretitsch, G.A.; Puckorius, P.R. [Puckorius and Associates, Inc., Evergreen, CO (United States); Maxwell, R. [TechKNOWLEDGEY Strategic Group, Boulder, CO (United States)

    1998-12-31

    Outsourcing of water treatment chemicals, services and related equipment is a technique and process available to end users. Outsourcing enables the use of capital for plant equipment expansion and/or modernization of salable products -- not towards utilities. Outsourcing also enables reduced costs of water treatment chemicals and reduced plant labor for applying controlling and evaluating these chemicals. Today, the water business resembles a sort of market bazaar teeming with all variety of players -- equipment makers, specialty chemical producers, analytical monitoring firms, engineers and consultants, service providers, and system integrators. The industry is made up of a vast range of companies whose only real similarity in many cases is the ultimate goal of providing clean water to their varied markets. In recent years. the overall water treatment marketplace has grown dramatically and was recently estimated at $300 billion worldwide in all categories of water and wastewater treatment companies. One study has estimated that the international market could grow to more than $500 billion within just the next four years. Other reports are somewhat less sanguine and predict slightly smaller market sizes. However, no matter how one analyzes the field. one thing has become clear to all observers - the overall water services industry is a growing business whose true economic significance is gaining wider appreciation. Water markets are often broadly broken down into two key segments: (1) Industrial and process water and wastewater treatment; and (2) municipal potable water delivery and sewage treatment. In a simplistic sense, water markets can be divided into the following categories: (1) Heavy industrial process and high-purity water; (2) Light commercial and industrial water; and (3) Commercial and residential drinking water (point of use and water dispensers).

  2. Designing and constructing the Trap Falls water treatment plant

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Mark L. Johnson; Peter W. Doe

    1983-01-01

    The challenge of designing and building a 94-ML\\/d (25-mgd) water treatment plant to meet new water quality standards was successfully accomplished by the Bridgeport (Conn.) Hydraulic Company. A constricted site located near a highway and several dwellings called for an aesthetic architectural solution as well as the use of unusual water treatment technology. A fast-track design and construction program achieved

  3. Ballast water treatment technologies: hydrocyclonic a viable option

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Mazen M. Abu-Khader; Omar Badran; Menwer Attarakih

    2011-01-01

    Many governments, international maritime environmental entities and public health organizations have recognized the environmental,\\u000a economic and health threats caused by the translocation and release of ballast water. A wide variety of ballast water treatment\\u000a systems are available at both commercial and under evaluation levels. The available ballast water treatment technologies are\\u000a reviewed. This work reviews the various types of technologies

  4. Two-stage treatment reduces water/oil ratio

    SciTech Connect

    Wood, F.; Dairymple, D. (Halliburton Services, Duncan, OK (US)); McKown, K.; Matthews, B. (Halliburton Services, KS (US))

    1990-09-10

    This paper reports how a treatment of amphoteric polymer followed by chrome-complexed anionic polyacrylamide has successfully decreased the water/oil (WOR) ratio of wells producing from the Arbuckle dolomite formation in central Kansas. This technique, the fractured-matrix, water-control (FMWC) treatment, is designed to alter both primary and secondary permeability to water production. In 10 treated wells, the average WOR was reduced by a factor of five.

  5. Modelling of coagulant dosage in a water treatment plant

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Claude Gagnon; Bernard P. A. Grandjean; Jules Thibault

    1997-01-01

    The coagulation-flocculation is a major step in the drinkable water treatment process allowing the removal of colloidal particles. The water treatment facilities of the City of Sainte-Foy have been well instrumented and process variables such as temperature, pH, turbidity, conductivity of raw and treated water along with actual coagulant dosage available have been measured and stored each 5 min for

  6. Water footprint assessment for wastewater treatment: method, indicator, and application.

    PubMed

    Shao, Ling; Chen, G Q

    2013-07-16

    The water footprint in terms of the sum of both direct and indirect water cost of wastewater treatment is for the first time accounted in this work. On the basis of the hybrid method as a combination of process analysis and input-output analysis, a detailed water footprint accounting procedure is provided to cover the supply chain of a wastewater treatment plant. A set of indices intending to reveal the efficiency as well as renewability of wastewater treatment systems are devised as parallels of corresponding indicators in net energy analysis for energy supply systems. A case study is carried out for the Beijing Space City wastewater treatment plant as a landmark project. The high WROI (water return on investment) and low WIWP (water investment in water purified) indicate a high efficiency and renewability of the case system, illustrating the fundamental function of wastewater treatment for water reuse. The increasing of the wastewater and sludge treatment rates are revealed in an urgent need to reduce the water footprint of China and to improve the performance of wastewater treatment. PMID:23777208

  7. Simplifying design of water treatment plants for developing countries

    Microsoft Academic Search

    E. Glenn Wagner

    1983-01-01

    Water treatment plants in developing countries should be low in first cost and easy and economical to operate. Maximum use of gravity and hydraulic energy in the treatment process and use of Jabor instead of equipment in plant operation result in the most effective and economical treatment plant.

  8. Treatment of dairy wastewater by water hyacinth.

    PubMed

    Munavalli, G R; Saler, P S

    2009-01-01

    The present study addresses potential of water hyacinth for treating small-scale dairy wastewater to satisfy effluent standards for disposal into public sewers. The batch experiments were conducted on dairy wastewater using reactor with water hyacinth and without water hyacinth. The Chemical Oxygen Demand (COD) was varied from 507 mg/L to 4,672 mg/L and the maximum Hydraulic Retention Time (HRT) adopted was 8 days. The loss of water due to evapo-transpiration and evaporation was also measured. The water hyacinth system performed better when initial COD concentration was maintained less than 1,672 mg/L for six days HRT. The performance of water hyacinth system was more effective than reference by 30% to 45% for COD removal. However, water hyacinth had no significant impact in reducing Total Dissolved Solids (TDS). The evapo-transpiration loss was almost double than the evaporation loss. The first order reaction kinetics was applicable and reaction rate parameters were estimated for various organic strengths of wastewater. The reaction rate parameters for water hyacinth system were three times higher than a system without water hyacinth and also found to vary with initial COD values. Water hyacinth can be adopted to treat dairy wastewater from small-scale dairy effectively for disposal into public sewers. PMID:19237765

  9. SUPERCRITICAL WATER TREATMENT OF BIOMASS FOR ENERGY AND MATERIAL RECOVERY

    Microsoft Academic Search

    YUKIHIKO MATSUMURA; MITSURU SASAKI; KAZUHIDE OKUDA; SEIICHI TAKAMI; SATOSHI OHARA; MITSUO UMETSU; TADAFUMI ADSCHIRI

    2006-01-01

    Supercritical water liquefaction and gasification is reviewed with the introduction of some recent findings by the authors. Supercritical water gasification is suitable for recovery of energy from wet biomass while supercritical water liquefaction opens the door to effective treatment of biomass species in terms of material recovery. Cellulose, one of the main components of biomass, is completely dissolved in supercritical

  10. Analysis of energy usage at membrane water treatment plants

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Rajindar Singh

    2011-01-01

    The production and supply of potable water using seawater and brackish water desalination, and reclamation of wastewater for reuse by membrane processes has seen a rapid growth in the last decade to meet the growing demands of water in many regions of the world. Energy consumption plays a critical role in the selection of appropriate membrane treatment technologies for potable

  11. Texas refiner starts up new waste water treatment plant

    Microsoft Academic Search

    N. Al-Tell; R. Lueders

    1994-01-01

    Chevron Corp. has started up a new waste water treatment plant at its Port Arthur, Tex., refinery. The new facility has an hydraulic capacity of 10,000 gpm and will treat process waste water, cooling tower blowdown, and contaminated storm water. The plant includes: A process unit for removing free and emulsified oil; and equalization facility; a biological system for organics

  12. Drinking water treatment options for taste and odor control

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Erika E. Hargesheimer; Susan B. Watson

    1996-01-01

    The effectiveness of drinking water treatment options for eliminating seasonal taste and odor events caused by phytoplankton blooms in the source water were evaluated. Dissolved air flotation (DAF), conventional gravity sedimentation (CGS), ozonation and granulated activated carbon (GAC) filtration processes were studied in pilot plant-scale experiments. Clarification by DAF consistently produced water with lower turbidity and particle counts (NP >

  13. MAGNESIUM CARBONATE - A RECYCLED COAGULANT FROM WATER TREATMENT. CAPSULE REPORT

    EPA Science Inventory

    This Capsule Report explains the new magnesium recycle coagulation system for water treatment, which is based on a combination of water softening and conventional coagulation techniques which can be applied to all types of water. This system offers an alternative approach to chem...

  14. MORINGA OLEIFERA SEEDS AS NATURAL COAGULANT FOR WATER TREATMENT

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Eman N. Ali; Suleyman A. Muyibi; Hamzah M. Salleh

    Developing countries and third world countries are facing potable water supply problems because of inadequate financial resources. The cost of water treatment is increasing and the quality of river water is not stable due to suspended and colloidal particle load caused by land development and high storm runoff during the rainy seasons especially in a country like Malaysia. During the

  15. Drinking water treatment residuals: A Review of recent uses

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Coagulants such as alum [Al2(SO4)3•14H2O], FeCl3, or Fe2(SO4)3 are commonly used to remove particulate and dissolved constituents from water supplies in the production of drinking water. The resulting waste product, called water-treatment residuals (WTR), contains precipitated Al and Fe oxyhydroxide...

  16. Unique automatic water treatment plant at Silverdale Colliery

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Whitworth

    1978-01-01

    A continuously operating semi-automatic water treatment plant for treating 400 gallons per minute of acid mine drainage is described. The plant produces a clear water effluent which complies with the standards for disposal to the river system; some of the cleaned water is used by the colliery. Most of the plant is automatically controlled, but filtration is done only on

  17. Introducing Water-Treatment Subjects into Chemical Engineering Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Caceres, L.; And Others

    1992-01-01

    Proposes that inclusion of waste water treatment subjects within the chemical engineering curriculum can provide students with direct access to environmental issues from both a biotechnological and an ethical perspective. The descriptive details of water recycling at a copper plant and waste water stabilization ponds exemplify this approach from…

  18. A Review of Chlorine Dioxide in Drinking Water Treatment

    Microsoft Academic Search

    E. Marco Aieta; James D. Berg

    1986-01-01

    There is increased interest in using chlorine dioxide to treat drinking water for trihalomethane control, taste and odor control, oxidation of iron and manganese, and oxidant-enhanced coagulation-sedimentation. This article reviews the physical, chemical, and biological properties of chlorine dioxide as they relate to water treatment. The generation reactions as well as the reactions likely to occur in treated water are

  19. Desalination and Water Treatment www.deswater.com

    E-print Network

    the limitations associated with current desalination and water purification processes. Recent studies haveDesalination and Water Treatment www.deswater.com 1944-3994 / 1944-3986 © 2010 Desalination for enhancement of water recovery in desalination processes Tzahi Y. Cath Division of Environmental Science

  20. INL Bettis Water Treatment Project Report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    2009-06-01

    Bechtel Bettis Atomic Power Laboratory (Bettis), West Mifflin, PA, requested that the Idaho National Laboratory (INL) (Battelle Energy Alliance) perform tests using water simulants and three specified media to determine if those ion-exchange (IX) resins will be effective at removing the plutonium contamination from water. This report details the testing and results of the tests to determine the suitability of the media to treat plutonium contaminated water at near nuetral pH.

  1. Waste Water Treatment From Small Urban Areas

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ivana Mahríková

    This paper describes some actual specific problems by sewage systems in small urban centres. It is dilemma to find compliance\\u000a with measures, which is following the strict requirements of EU by discharging of waste waters in receiving waters with lack\\u000a of funds required for the construction of new sewage systems and WWTPs in small municipalities. In 2002 a new Water

  2. Design and Compilation of a Geodatabase of Existing Salinity Information for the Rio Grande Basin, from the Rio Arriba-Sandoval County Line, New Mexico, to Presidio, Texas, 2010

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Shah, Sachin D.; Maltby, David R., II

    2010-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers, compiled salinity-related water-quality data and information in a geodatabase containing more than 6,000 sampling sites. The geodatabase was designed as a tool for water-resource management and includes readily available digital data sources from the U.S. Geological Survey, U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, New Mexico Interstate Stream Commission, Sustainability of semi-Arid Hydrology and Riparian Areas, Paso del Norte Watershed Council, numerous other State and local databases, and selected databases maintained by the University of Arizona and New Mexico State University. Salinity information was compiled for an approximately 26,000-square-mile area of the Rio Grande Basin from the Rio Arriba-Sandoval County line, New Mexico, to Presidio, Texas. The geodatabase relates the spatial location of sampling sites with salinity-related water-quality data reported by multiple agencies. The sampling sites are stored in a geodatabase feature class; each site is linked by a relationship class to the corresponding sample and results stored in data tables.

  3. Evaluation of advanced wastewater treatment systems for water reuse in the era of advanced wastewater treatment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kon, Hisao; Watanabe, Masahiro

    This study focuses on effluent COD concentration from wastewater treatment in regards to the reduction of pathogenic bacteria and trace substances in public waters. The main types of secondary wastewater treatment were conventional activated sludge processes. Recently, however, advance wastewater treatment processes have been developed aimed at the removal of nitrogen and phosphorus, and the effluent quality of these processes was analyzed in this study. Treatment processes for water reclamation that make effluent to meet the target water quality for reuse purposes were selected and also optimum design parameters for these processes were proposed. It was found that the treatment cost to water reclamation was greatly affected by the effluent COD of the secondary treatment. It is important to maintain low COD concentration in the secondary treated effluent. Therefore, it is considered that adequate cost benefits would be obtained by achieving target COD quality through shifting from a conventional activated sludge process to an advanced treatment process.

  4. New England Water Treatment Technology Assistance Center

    E-print Network

    Corrosion Control in Small Water Systems Using Calcium Silicate Contactors O b j e c t i v e s The overall objective of this study was to learn how the dissolution of calcium silicate from wollastonite granulesH and calcium and silicate concentrations of the treated water for the purpose of increasing the utility

  5. Treatment of oil-in-water emulsions

    SciTech Connect

    Presley, C.T.; Harrison, R.J.

    1980-01-08

    Petroleum is separated from an oil-in-water emulsion containing water-soluble polymer such as polyacrylamide prior to refining by adding amphoteric metal cations (Zn, Al, Sn, and Co) to the emulsion to form a flocculate and then treating the resulting flocculate with a strong base to recover the oil and metal. 11 claims.

  6. Treatment of oil-in-water emulsions

    SciTech Connect

    Harrison, R.J.; Presley, C.T.

    1980-01-08

    Petroleum is separated from an ''oil-in-water'' emulsion containing water-soluble polymer prior to refining by adding amphoteric metal cations to the emulsion to form a flocculate and then treating the resulting flocculate with a strong base to recover the oil and metal.

  7. Biocide Polymers - New Opportunities in Water Treatment

    Microsoft Academic Search

    V. Marievsky

    According to the data of the World Health Organization (WHO) experts, the sickness and death rates of the world population could be reduced by 75 % by maintaining the necessary sanitary conditions and the quality of drinking water (Momukalo 2003). The profound studies of causes of diseases, initiated by drinking water, carried out during the last decade support that notion.

  8. Membrane technology in water treatment and monitoring

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Bharat B. Gupta

    2001-01-01

    12 Membranes play an important role in the wastewater and drinking water processing. Membrane processes are increasingly finding role in sensor and monitoring system design. The challenges facing the designing of such analytical systems and those of the conventional membrane processes have several similarities. In this presentation fundamentals of membrane technology, current trends and future possibilities pertinent to water industry

  9. Membrane technology in water treatment and monitoring

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gupta, Bharat B.

    2001-02-01

    12 Membranes play an important role in the wastewater and drinking water processing. Membrane processes are increasingly finding role in sensor and monitoring system design. The challenges facing the designing of such analytical systems and those of the conventional membrane processes have several similarities. In this presentation fundamentals of membrane technology, current trends and future possibilities pertinent to water industry are discussed.

  10. CAN MEMBRANES BE ACCEPTABLE TREATMENT TECHNOLOGY FOR DRINKING WATER TREATMENT?

    EPA Science Inventory

    Various treatment technologies have proven effective in controlling halogenated disinfection by-products such as precursor removal and the use of alternative disinfectants. ne of the most promising methods for halogenated by-product control includes removal of precursors before d...

  11. NF & RO Biostability Relative to Alternative Methods of Water Treatment

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Suibing Liu; Cheol Chang; Michael Le Puil; James S. Taylor; Andrew A. Randall

    The effect of blending different water qualities on distribution system water quality was investigated in a field study. Waters produced from five different treatment systems; aeration (G1), NF (G4), CSF-O3-GAC (S1), IMS (CSF-NF, or S2) and high pressure RO were blended and distributed to 18 different pilot distribution systems (PDS). G1, G4, and RO source waters were taken from the

  12. Exergy cost of water supply and water treatment technologies

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Amaya Martínez; Javier Uche; Carlos Rubio; Beatriz Carrasquer

    2010-01-01

    Exergy analysis (EA) has demonstrated to be useful in the assessment of the energy performance of technologies, including those regarding water management. In this paper, an EA-based index like the unit exergy cost (UEC) of different water-related technologies were obtained, from transport (pumping) to depuration and even brackish and seawater desalination. Those coefficients are important to quantify the additional energy

  13. Proposed water treatment approach for commercial tar sand wastewaters

    SciTech Connect

    Kocornik, D.

    1986-09-01

    Waters produced during the steamflood extraction of bitumen from tar sand require treatment before they can be recycled as feedwater for steam generation. The characterization of two waters from commercial-scale tar sand operations indicates that the levels of hardness, oil and grease, silica, suspended solids, and iron must be reduced before these waters can be reused in the bitumen extraction process. The Western Research Institute proposes two treatment methods (electrocoagulation and ultrafiltration) that may, when used in conjunction with standard practices, improve the efficiency of the overall treatment process. 21 refs., 3 tabs.

  14. Integrated water quality, emergy and economic evaluation of three bioremediation treatment systems for eutrophic water

    EPA Science Inventory

    This study was targeted at ?nding one or more environmentally efficient, economically feasible and ecologically sustainable bioremediation treatment modes for eutrophic water. Three biological species, i.e. water spinach (Ipomoea aquatica), loach (Misgurus anguillicaudatu...

  15. Water treatment facilities (excluding wastewater facilities). (Latest citations from the Selected Water Resources Abstracts database). Published Search

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-07-01

    The bibliography contains citations concerning the design, construction, costs, and operation of water treatment facilities. Facilities covered include those that provide drinking water, domestic water, and water for industrial use. Types of water treatment covered include reverse osmosis, chlorination, filtration, and ozonization. Waste water treatment facilities are excluded from this bibliography. (Contains 250 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.)

  16. Impact of Raw Water Ammonia on the Surface Water Treatment Processes and Its Removal by Nitrification

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M Alamgir Hossain; ANM Fakhruddin; Sirajul Islam Khan

    2007-01-01

    Impact of raw water ammonia on the treated water quality and removal of ammonia from surface water were studied. Raw water ammonia and physicochemical quality of treated water of Saidabad Water Treatment Plant were analyzed for the period of one year (January through December 2006). The monthly averages of maximum (7.55 mg\\/l) and minimum (0.34 mg\\/l) ammonia-N level of the

  17. Climate Adaptation Capacity for Conventional Drinking Water Treatment Facilities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Levine, A.; Goodrich, J.; Yang, J.

    2013-12-01

    Water supplies are vulnerable to a host of climate- and weather-related stressors such as droughts, intense storms/flooding, snowpack depletion, sea level changes, and consequences from fires, landslides, and excessive heat or cold. Surface water resources (lakes, reservoirs, rivers, and streams) are especially susceptible to weather-induced changes in water availability and quality. The risks to groundwater systems may also be significant. Typically, water treatment facilities are designed with an underlying assumption that water quality from a given source is relatively predictable based on historical data. However, increasing evidence of the lack of stationarity is raising questions about the validity of traditional design assumptions, particularly since the service life of many facilities can exceed fifty years. Given that there are over 150,000 public water systems in the US that deliver drinking water to over 300 million people every day, it is important to evaluate the capacity for adapting to the impacts of a changing climate. Climate and weather can induce or amplify changes in physical, chemical, and biological water quality, reaction rates, the extent of water-sediment-air interactions, and also impact the performance of treatment technologies. The specific impacts depend on the watershed characteristics and local hydrological and land-use factors. Water quality responses can be transient, such as erosion-induced increases in sediment and runoff. Longer-term impacts include changes in the frequency and intensity of algal blooms, gradual changes in the nature and concentration of dissolved organic matter, dissolved solids, and modulation of the microbiological community structure, sources and survival of pathogens. In addition, waterborne contaminants associated with municipal, industrial, and agricultural activities can also impact water quality. This presentation evaluates relationships between climate and weather induced water quality variability and the capacity of treatment facilities and supporting water infrastructure to deliver safe drinking water consistently and reliably. Simulation models of water treatment facilities are used to evaluate the outcome of specific source water quality scenarios on treatment system performance and reliability. Modeling results are used to evaluate the process and operational capacity to respond to transient water quality changes and adapt to longer-term variability in water quality and availability. In some cases, changes in temperature and mineral content serve to improve the overall treatment performance. In addition, the integration of microbially enhanced treatment systems such as biological filtration can provide additional capacity. Conversely, changes in the nutrient and temperature dynamics can trigger algal and cyanobacterial blooms that can impair performance. Research needs are identified and the importance of developing more integrated modeling systems is highlighted.

  18. COST COMPARISIONS OF WATER TREATMENT SYSTEMS TO IMPROVE WATER QUALITY FOR MUNICIPAL USE

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Naveen C Adusumilli; Lal K. Almas

    Drinking water quality is the key factor for sustainability of life and well being of the human population. The quality of water in Texas High Plains generally is suitable for irrigation but doesn't meet the drinking water standards with respect to certain dissolved constituents (dissolved solids\\/salinity, fluorides, chlorides and sulfate). Water treatment systems are costly and local communities have financial

  19. Optimisation of complex water supply systems with water quality, hydraulic and treatment plant aspects

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Dani Cohen; Uri Shamir; Gideon Sinai

    2009-01-01

    A model for optimal operation of a complex water supply system for drinking water and with water quality, hydraulic and desalination treatment plants developed by Cohen and others has been applied to a realistic regional network, in which water quality is defined by salinity, magnesium and sulphur. The model considers the hydraulics of the network, including pump stations, boosters and

  20. OZONATION AND BIOLOGICAL STABILITY OF WATER IN AN OPERATING WATER TREATMENT PLANT

    EPA Science Inventory

    Ozonation of drinking water may adversely affect the biological stability of the inished water. his study was designed assess the effect of ozone as a preoxidant on the nutrient status of water treated in a full-scale water treatment plant. he study was conducted over a ten week ...

  1. Drinking water treatment and distribution systems must comply with US EPA water quality regula-

    E-print Network

    Fay, Noah

    Drinking water treatment and distribution systems must comply with US EPA water quality regula trihalomethanes (THMs). Drinking water providers do frequent, costly testing for THMs. Field real-time sensors PROJECT GOALS The goal of this project was to bring a team of experts in drinking water, polymers

  2. ALTERNATIVE DISINFECTANTS FOR DRINKING WATER TREATMENT

    EPA Science Inventory

    During a one-year study at Jefferson Parish, Louisiana the chemical, microbiological, and mutagenic effects of using the major drinking water disinfectants (chlorine, chlorine dioxide, chloramine, ozone) were evaluated. ests were performed on samples collected from various treatm...

  3. ESTIMATING WATER TREATMENT COSTS. VOLUME 1. SUMMARY

    EPA Science Inventory

    This report discusses unit processes and combinations of unit processes that are capable of removing contaminants included in the National Interim Primary Drinking Water Regulations. Construction and operation and maintenance cost curves are presented for 99 unit processes that a...

  4. Water Treatment Systems Make a Big Splash

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    In the 1960s, NASA's Manned Space Center (now known as Johnson Space Center) and the Garrett Corporation, Air Research Division, conducted a research program to develop a small, lightweight water purifier for the Apollo spacecraft that would require minimal power and would not need to be monitored around-the-clock by astronauts in orbit. The 9-ounce purifier, slightly larger than a cigarette pack and completely chlorine-free, dispensed silver ions into the spacecraft s water supply to successfully kill off bacteria. A NASA Technical Brief released around the time of the research reported that the silver ions did not impart an unpleasant taste to the water. NASA s ingenuity to control microbial contamination in space caught on quickly, opening the doors for safer methods of controlling water pollutants on Earth.

  5. Factors influencing biological treatment of MTBE contaminated ground water

    SciTech Connect

    Stringfellow, William T.; Hines Jr., Robert D.; Cockrum, Dirk K.; Kilkenny, Scott T.

    2001-09-14

    Methyl tert-butyl ether (MTBE) contamination has complicated the remediation of gasoline contaminated sites. Many sites are using biological processes for ground water treatment and would like to apply the same technology to MTBE. However, the efficiency and reliability of MTBE biological treatment is not well documented. The objective of this study was to examine the operational and environmental variables influencing MTBE biotreatment. A fluidized bed reactor was installed at a fuel transfer station and used to treat ground water contaminated with MTBE and gasoline hydrocarbons. A complete set of chemical and operational data was collected during this study and a statistical approach was used to determine what variables were influencing MTBE treatment efficiency. It was found that MTBE treatment was more sensitive to up-set than gasoline hydrocarbon treatment. Events, such as excess iron accumulation, inhibited MTBE treatment, but not hydrocarbon treatment. Multiple regression analysis identified biomass accumulation and temperature as the most important variables controlling the efficiency of MTBE treatment. The influent concentration and loading of hydrocarbons, but not MTBE, also impacted MTBE treatment efficiency. The results of this study suggest guidelines for improving MTBE treatment. Long cell retention times in the reactor are necessary for maintaining MTBE treatment. The onset of nitrification only occurs when long cell retention times have been reached and can be used as an indicator in fixed film reactors that conditions favorable to MTBE treatment exist. Conversely, if the reactor can not nitrify, it is unlikely to have stable MTBE treatment.

  6. REMOVAL OF URANIUM FROM DRINKING WATER BY CONVENTIONAL TREATMENT METHODS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The USEPA currently does not regulate uranium in drinking water but will be revising the radionuclide regulations during 1989 and will propose a maximum contaminant level for uranium. The paper presents treatment technology information on the effectiveness of conventional method...

  7. SUMMARY REPORT - SMALL COMMUNITY WATER AND WASTEWATER TREATMENT

    EPA Science Inventory

    This summary report presents information on the unique needs of small communities facing new water and wastewater treatment requirements. t contains three main sections: technology overviews (each presents a process description, O&M requirements, technology limitations, and finan...

  8. Generic Protocol for the Verification of Ballast Water Treatment Technology

    EPA Science Inventory

    In anticipation of the need to address performance verification and subsequent approval of new and innovative ballast water treatment technologies for shipboard installation, the U.S Coast Guard and the Environmental Protection Agency?s Environmental Technology Verification Progr...

  9. 12. NORTHEAST VIEW OF THE WASTE WATER TREATMENT COMPLEX FOR ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    12. NORTHEAST VIEW OF THE WASTE WATER TREATMENT COMPLEX FOR THE PRIMARY AND 22 BAR MILLS. - U.S. Steel Duquesne Works, Auxiliary Buildings & Shops, Along Monongahela River, Duquesne, Allegheny County, PA

  10. 51. LOOKING NORTHEAST AT EIMCO WASTE WATER TREATMENT THICKENER No. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    51. LOOKING NORTHEAST AT EIMCO WASTE WATER TREATMENT THICKENER No. 2, ELECTRIC POWERHOUSE No. 2, AND OUTDOOR ELECTRICAL SUBSTATION IN BACKGROUND. (Jet Lowe) - U.S. Steel Duquesne Works, Blast Furnace Plant, Along Monongahela River, Duquesne, Allegheny County, PA

  11. MICROORGANISMS AND HIGHER PLANTS FOR WASTE WATER TREATMENT

    EPA Science Inventory

    Batch experiments were conducted to compare the waste water treatment efficiencies of plant-free microbial filters with filters supporting the growth of reeds (Phragmites communis), cattail (Typha latifolia), rush (Juncus effusus), and bamboo (Bambusa multiplex). The experimental...

  12. AERIAL VIEW LOOKING FURTHER SOUTH EAST, VILLAGE CREEK WATER TREATMENT ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    AERIAL VIEW LOOKING FURTHER SOUTH EAST, VILLAGE CREEK WATER TREATMENT PLANT ON RIGHT SIDE, ENSLEY IN BACKGROUND. - Birmingham Southern Railroad Yard, Thirty-fourth Street, Ensley, Jefferson County, AL

  13. Sacramento River Water Treatment Plant Intake Pier & Access Bridge, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Sacramento River Water Treatment Plant Intake Pier & Access Bridge, Spanning Sacramento River approximately 175 feet west of eastern levee on river; roughly .5 mile downstream from confluence of Sacramento & American Rivers, Sacramento, Sacramento County, CA

  14. TREATMENT TECHNOLOGY FOR REMOVING RADON FROM SMALL COMMUNITY WATER SUPPLIES

    EPA Science Inventory

    Radon contamination of drinking water primarily affects individual homeowners and communities using groundwater supplies. resently, three types of treatment processes have been used to remove radon: granular activated carbon adsorption (GAG>, diffused bubble aeration, and packed ...

  15. Acid mine water aeration and treatment system

    DOEpatents

    Ackman, Terry E. (Finleyville, PA); Place, John M. (Bethel Park, PA)

    1987-01-01

    An in-line system is provided for treating acid mine drainage which basically comprises the combination of a jet pump (or pumps) and a static mixer. The jet pump entrains air into the acid waste water using a Venturi effect so as to provide aeration of the waste water while further aeration is provided by the helical vanes of the static mixer. A neutralizing agent is injected into the suction chamber of the jet pump and the static mixer is formed by plural sections offset by 90 degrees.

  16. Rationales for Multiple Stage Ozonation in Drinking Water Treatment Plants

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Rip G. Rice

    1987-01-01

    Starting in the early 1970s, the application of ozone for drinking water treatment began to evolve from primarily single-purpose, single-stage use for disinfection, taste and odor control or iron and manganese oxidation, to multipurpose uses of ozone. As a result, most of the newer drinking water treatment plants have installed two- and even three-stages of ozonation. in order to maximize

  17. Using wastewater for cooling: Increasing water reuse poses treatment challenges

    SciTech Connect

    Lutey, R.W. [Buckman Labs. International Inc., Memphis, TN (United States)

    1996-04-01

    Technologies for control of biofouling, scale, corrosion and microbiologically influenced corrosion (MIC) in cooling water systems are discussed. Techniques involving water reuse and using wastewater as makeup are emphasized, and associated problems are identified. Appropriate chemical treatments, including biocides and biostats, biodispersants, sludge dispersants, corrosion inhibitors, and supplementary chemical treatments, are outlined. New and developing technologies reviewed include microorganism control based on biodispersants and on enzymes.

  18. Phosphorus Retention Mechanisms of a Water Treatment Residual

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. A. Ippolito; K. A. Barbarick; D. M. Heil; J. P. Chandler; E. F. Redente

    2003-01-01

    Water treatment residuals (WTRs) are a by-product of municipal drinking water treatment plants and can have the,capacity to adsorb tremendous amounts of P. Understanding the WTR phosphorus ad- sorption process is important for discerning the mechanrism and tenac- ity of P retention. We studied P adsorbing mechanism(s) of an alumi- num-based (A12(SO 4),14H 2O) WTR from Englewood, CO. In a

  19. Online Produced Water Treatment Catalog and Decision Tool

    SciTech Connect

    J. Arthur

    2012-03-31

    The objective of this project was to create an internet-based Water Treatment Technology Catalog and Decision Tool that will increase production, decrease costs and enhance environmental protection. This is to be accomplished by pairing an operator's water treatment cost and capacity needs to specific water treatments. This project cataloged existing and emerging produced water treatment technologies and allows operators to identify the most cost-effective approaches for managing their produced water. The tool captures the cost and capabilities of each technology and the disposal and beneficial use options for each region. The tool then takes location, chemical composition, and volumetric data for the operator's water and identifies the most cost effective treatment options for that water. Regulatory requirements or limitations for each location are also addressed. The Produced Water Treatment Catalog and Decision Tool efficiently matches industry decision makers in unconventional natural gas basins with: 1) appropriate and applicable water treatment technologies for their project, 2) relevant information on regulatory and legal issues that may impact the success of their project, and 3) potential beneficial use demands specific to their project area. To ensure the success of this project, it was segmented into seven tasks conducted in three phases over a three year period. The tasks were overseen by a Project Advisory Council (PAC) made up of stakeholders including state and federal agency representatives and industry representatives. ALL Consulting has made the catalog and decision tool available on the Internet for the final year of the project. The second quarter of the second budget period, work was halted based on the February 18, 2011 budget availability; however previous project deliverables were submitted on time and the deliverables for Task 6 and 7 were completed ahead of schedule. Thus the application and catalog were deployed to the public Internet. NETL did not provide additional funds and work on the project stopped on February 18, 2011. NETL ended the project on March 31, 2012.

  20. Photocatalytic water treatment: solar energy applications

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Detlef Bahnemann

    2004-01-01

    During the past 20 years research and development in the area of photocatalysis have been tremendous. One of the major applications of this technology is the degradation of organic pollutants in water and air streams which is considered as one of the so-called advanced oxidation processes. This overview briefly describes the basic principles of photocatalysis, focusing in particular on important

  1. PERFORMANCE CHARACTERISTICS OF PACKAGE WATER TREATMENT PLANTS

    EPA Science Inventory

    This study was undertaken to collect reliable onsite information on the quality of treated water produced by package plants. Six plants in operation year around were selected to be representative of those serving small populations and were monitored to assess their performance. P...

  2. Detection of Cyanotoxins During Potable Water Treatment

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In 2007, the U.S. EPA listed three cyanobacterial toxins on the CCL3 containment priority list for potable drinking waters. This paper describes all methodologies used for detection of these toxins, and assesses each on a cost/benefit basis. Methodologies for microcystin, cylindrospermopsin, and a...

  3. TREATMENT OF WATER FROM CONTAMINATED WELLS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The recently enacted Safe Drinking Water Act Amendments dictates the regulation of 83 contaminants within the next three years and at least 25 more by 1991. The paper describes the status of DWRD's research activities and provides a state-of-the-art summary of removal techniques....

  4. Linking ceragenins to water-treatment membranes to minimize biofouling.

    SciTech Connect

    Hibbs, Michael R.; Altman, Susan Jeanne; Feng, Yanshu (Brigham Young University, Provo, Utah); Savage, Paul B. (Brigham Young University, Provo, Utah); Pollard, Jacob (Brigham Young University, Provo, Utah); Branda, Steven S.; Goeres, Darla (Montana State University, Bozeman, MT); Buckingham-Meyer, Kelli (Montana State University, Bozeman, MT); Stafslien, Shane (North Dakota State University, Fargo, ND); Marry, Christopher; Jones, Howland D. T.; Lichtenberger, Alyssa; Kirk, Matthew F.; McGrath, Lucas K. (LMATA, Albuquerque, NM)

    2012-01-01

    Ceragenins were used to create biofouling resistant water-treatment membranes. Ceragenins are synthetically produced antimicrobial peptide mimics that display broad-spectrum bactericidal activity. While ceragenins have been used on bio-medical devices, use of ceragenins on water-treatment membranes is novel. Biofouling impacts membrane separation processes for many industrial applications such as desalination, waste-water treatment, oil and gas extraction, and power generation. Biofouling results in a loss of permeate flux and increase in energy use. Creation of biofouling resistant membranes will assist in creation of clean water with lower energy usage and energy with lower water usage. Five methods of attaching three different ceragenin molecules were conducted and tested. Biofouling reduction was observed in the majority of the tests, indicating the ceragenins are a viable solution to biofouling on water treatment membranes. Silane direct attachment appears to be the most promising attachment method if a high concentration of CSA-121a is used. Additional refinement of the attachment methods are needed in order to achieve our goal of several log-reduction in biofilm cell density without impacting the membrane flux. Concurrently, biofilm forming bacteria were isolated from source waters relevant for water treatment: wastewater, agricultural drainage, river water, seawater, and brackish groundwater. These isolates can be used for future testing of methods to control biofouling. Once isolated, the ability of the isolates to grow biofilms was tested with high-throughput multiwell methods. Based on these tests, the following species were selected for further testing in tube reactors and CDC reactors: Pseudomonas ssp. (wastewater, agricultural drainage, and Colorado River water), Nocardia coeliaca or Rhodococcus spp. (wastewater), Pseudomonas fluorescens and Hydrogenophaga palleronii (agricultural drainage), Sulfitobacter donghicola, Rhodococcus fascians, Rhodobacter katedanii, and Paracoccus marcusii (seawater), and Sphingopyxis spp. (groundwater). The testing demonstrated the ability of these isolates to be used for biofouling control testing under laboratory conditions. Biofilm forming bacteria were obtained from all the source water samples.

  5. Drinking Water Treatment Plant Design Incorporating Variability and Uncertainty

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Dominic L. Boccelli; Mitchell J. Small; Urmila M. Diwekar

    2007-01-01

    Both inherent natural variability and model parameter uncertainty must be considered in the development of robust and reliable designs for drinking water treatment. This study presents an optimization framework for investigating the effects of five variable influent parameters and three uncertain model parameters on the least-cost treatment plant configuration contact, direct, or nonsweep conventional filtration that reliably satisfies an effluent

  6. Costs and water quality effects of wastewater treatment plant centralization

    Microsoft Academic Search

    C. M. Macal; B. J. Broomfield

    1980-01-01

    The costs and water quality impacts of two regional configurations of municipal wastewater treatment plants in Northeastern Illinois are compared. In one configuration, several small treatment plants are consolidated into a smaller number of regional facilities. In the other, the smaller plants continue to operate. Costs for modifying the plants to obtain various levels of pollutant removal are estimated using

  7. COST ESTIMATION MODELS FOR DRINKING WATER TREATMENT UNIT PROCESSES

    EPA Science Inventory

    Cost models for unit processes typically utilized in a conventional water treatment plant and in package treatment plant technology are compiled in this paper. The cost curves are represented as a function of specified design parameters and are categorized into four major catego...

  8. EVALUATION OF DRINKING WATER TREATMENT TECHNIQUES FOR EDC REMOVAL

    EPA Science Inventory

    Many of the chemicals identified as potential endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDCs) may be present in surface or ground waters used as drinking water sources, due to their disposal via domestic and industrial sewage treatment systems and wet-weather runoff. In order to decrease t...

  9. WATER TREATMENT BY HETEROGENEOUS PHOTOCATALYSIS AN OVERVIEW1

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Radwan A. Al-Rasheed

    Photocatalysis process, as an environmental application is a relatively novel subject with tremendous potential in the near future. This paper describes the basics of heterogeneous photocatalysis, mainly on TiO2 and the application of photocatalytic processes to water purification and treatment. The paper also reviews more than 50 references covering the wide scale of heterogeneous water phase applications. Finally, a short

  10. Recent developments in photocatalytic water treatment technology: A review

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Meng Nan Chong; Bo Jin; Christopher W. K. Chow; Chris Saint

    2010-01-01

    In recent years, semiconductor photocatalytic process has shown a great potential as a low-cost, environmental friendly and sustainable treatment technology to align with the “zero” waste scheme in the water\\/wastewater industry. The ability of this advanced oxidation technology has been widely demonstrated to remove persistent organic compounds and microorganisms in water. At present, the main technical barriers that impede its

  11. Assessment of an integrated membrane system for surface water treatment

    Microsoft Academic Search

    K. Glucina; A. Alvarez; J. M. Laîné

    2000-01-01

    With the promulgation of more stringent regulations to guarantee that the drinking water presents minimal health risks, nanofiltration (NF) and low pressure reverse osmosis membrane (RO) processes are nowadays considered for surface water treatment. However, NF and RO spiral wound membranes are sensitive to fouling and an advanced pretreatment such as conventional train, microfiltration (MF) and ultrafiltration (UF) may be

  12. The future for electrocoagulation as a localised water treatment technology

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Peter K. Holt; Geoffrey W. Barton; Cynthia A. Mitchell

    2005-01-01

    Electrocoagulation is an electrochemical method of treating polluted water whereby sacrificial anodes corrode to release active coagulant precursors (usually aluminium or iron cations) into solution. Accompanying electrolytic reactions evolve gas (usually as hydrogen bubbles) at the cathode.Electrocoagulation has a long history as a water treatment technology having been employed to remove a wide range of pollutants. However electrocoagulation has never

  13. Treatment of Potato Processing Waste Water on Agricultural Land1

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. H. Smith

    1976-01-01

    The chemical oxygen demand (COD) and the total N and NO3 -N concentrations in potato (Solanum tuberosum L.) process- ing plant waste water and in the soil solution at several depths in a treatment field where the waste water was applied were studied for a 2-year period. The COD decreased 95 to 99% from 850 to 2,000 ppm in waste

  14. USEPA'S RESEARCH EFFORTS IN SMALL DRINKING WATER TREATMENT TECHNOLOGIES

    EPA Science Inventory

    Currently, in the United States there are approximately 50,000 small community and 130,000 non-community systems providing water to over 25 million people. The drinking water treatment systems at these locations are not always adequate to comply with current and pending regulati...

  15. Selenium adsorption to aluminum-based water treatment residuals

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Aluminum-based water treatment residuals (WTR) can adsorb water- and soil-borne P, As(V), As(III), and perchlorate, and may be able to adsorb excess environmental selenium. WTR, clay minerals, and amorphous aluminum hydroxide were shaken for 24 hours in selenate or selenite solutions at pH values o...

  16. Apparatus and a method for biological treatment of waste waters

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Besik

    1983-01-01

    An apparatus and a method for biological treatment of waste waters achieving biological oxidation of organic matter, biological nitrification and denitrification of nitrogenous compounds and biological removal of phosphorus and clarification of the treated waste water in a single reaction tank in a single suspended growth sludge system without the use of traditional compressors, mixers, recirculation pumps, piping and valving

  17. RECOVERY OF LIME AND MAGNESIUM IN POTABLE WATER TREATMENT

    EPA Science Inventory

    A hard, turbid surface water was successfully treated using the magnesium carbonate process in a 2 mgd pilot plant at the treatment works of Water District No. 1 of Johnson County, Kansas, for one year during 1975 and 1976. During this study, froth flotation was used to separate ...

  18. Benchmarking in the Dutch Waste-Water Treatment Sector

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Remco J. Admiraal; G. Jan van Helden

    2003-01-01

    The Dutch water boards have recently completed a performance measurement and evaluation project for waste-water treatment. This project was intended to strengthen the boards' accountability to their stakeholders and to identify starting points for performance improvement. The Balanced Scorecard was used as a framework to develop a broad set of performance indicators. This article describes the benchmarking project and how

  19. REVIEW ARTICLE Impacts of calcium water treatment residue

    E-print Network

    Ma, Lena

    REVIEW ARTICLE Impacts of calcium water treatment residue on the soil-water-plant system in citrus loading in surface runoff and citrus growth. Methods Soil and surface runoff samples were moni- tored over Introduction There is a growing environmental concern about the extent of Cu pollution in orchard soils

  20. ECONOMIC ASSESSMENT OF WASTE WATER AQUACULTURE TREATMENT SYSTEMS

    EPA Science Inventory

    This study attempted to ascertain the economic viability of aquaculture as an alternative to conventional waste water treatment systems for small municipalities in the Southwestern region of the United States. A multiple water quality objective level cost-effectiveness model was ...

  1. REVERSE OSMOSIS FIELD TEST: TREATMENT OF COPPER CYANIDE RINSE WATERS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Field tests of reverse osmosis (RO) were conducted on copper cyanide rinse waters at two different sites: Whyco Chromium Co. and New England Plating Co. At both sites, closed-loop treatment was used with plating chemicals recycled to the bath and purified water recycled to the ri...

  2. Bilogical Treatment for Ammonia Oxidation in Drinking Water Facilities

    EPA Science Inventory

    Ammonia is an unregulated compound, but is naturally occurring in many drinking water sources. It is also used by some treatment facilities to produce chloramines for disinfection purposes. Because ammonia is non-toxic, its presence in drinking water is often disregarded. Thro...

  3. BIOLOGICAL PROCESSES IN THE TREATMENT OF MUNICIPAL WATER SUPPLIES

    EPA Science Inventory

    The objective of this project was to study the use of Biologically Enhanced Granular Activated Carbon (BEGAC) technology in European water treatment plants and to determine its advantages and disadvantages for use in the United States. Seven European water works were visited in w...

  4. Surface water pollution by herbicides from effluents of waste water treatment plants

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Walter Schüssler

    1998-01-01

    Herbicide loads of urban and rural waste water treatment plant effluents were calculated over a one-year period by measuring the herbicide concentrations in 14-day mixed samples. More than three quarters of the total herbicide load of the effluent of the rural waste water treatment plant consists of isoproturon. Particularly large amounts of this substance contribute to the total herbicide load

  5. Copyright Awwa Research Foundation 2006 Advanced Water Treatment Impacts onAdvanced Water Treatment Impacts on

    E-print Network

    Keller, Arturo A.

    ... Alternative water sourcesAlternative water sources Unconventional sources of fresh water supply:Unconventional sources of fresh water supply: wastewater reuse, seawater, brackish groundwater,wastewater reuse, seawater Foundation 2006 AwwaRF Project 3056, Evaluation of Dynamic Energy Consumption of Advanced Water

  6. 40 CFR 749.68 - Hexavalent chromium-based water treatment chemicals in cooling systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...Hexavalent chromium-based water treatment chemicals in cooling systems. 749.68 Section...SUBSTANCES CONTROL ACT WATER TREATMENT CHEMICALS Air Conditioning and Cooling Systems...Hexavalent chromium-based water treatment chemicals in cooling systems. (a)...

  7. 40 CFR 749.68 - Hexavalent chromium-based water treatment chemicals in cooling systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...2011-07-01 false Hexavalent chromium-based water treatment chemicals in cooling systems...CONTINUED) TOXIC SUBSTANCES CONTROL ACT WATER TREATMENT CHEMICALS Air Conditioning...749.68 Hexavalent chromium-based water treatment chemicals in cooling...

  8. 40 CFR 403.19 - Provisions of specific applicability to the Owatonna Waste Water Treatment Facility.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...applicability to the Owatonna Waste Water Treatment Facility. 403.19 Section...applicability to the Owatonna Waste Water Treatment Facility. (a) For...discharging to the Owatonna Waste Water Treatment Facility in...

  9. 40 CFR 749.68 - Hexavalent chromium-based water treatment chemicals in cooling systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...2014-07-01 false Hexavalent chromium-based water treatment chemicals in cooling systems...CONTINUED) TOXIC SUBSTANCES CONTROL ACT WATER TREATMENT CHEMICALS Air Conditioning...749.68 Hexavalent chromium-based water treatment chemicals in cooling...

  10. 40 CFR 749.68 - Hexavalent chromium-based water treatment chemicals in cooling systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...2013-07-01 false Hexavalent chromium-based water treatment chemicals in cooling systems...CONTINUED) TOXIC SUBSTANCES CONTROL ACT WATER TREATMENT CHEMICALS Air Conditioning...749.68 Hexavalent chromium-based water treatment chemicals in cooling...

  11. 40 CFR 749.68 - Hexavalent chromium-based water treatment chemicals in cooling systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...2012-07-01 false Hexavalent chromium-based water treatment chemicals in cooling systems...CONTINUED) TOXIC SUBSTANCES CONTROL ACT WATER TREATMENT CHEMICALS Air Conditioning...749.68 Hexavalent chromium-based water treatment chemicals in cooling...

  12. 43 CFR 3904.40 - Long-term water treatment trust funds.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ...2013-10-01 false Long-term water treatment trust funds. 3904.40... § 3904.40 Long-term water treatment trust funds. (a) The...continuation of long-term treatment to achieve water quality standards and...

  13. 43 CFR 3904.40 - Long-term water treatment trust funds.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ...2014-10-01 false Long-term water treatment trust funds. 3904.40... § 3904.40 Long-term water treatment trust funds. (a) The...continuation of long-term treatment to achieve water quality standards and...

  14. 43 CFR 3904.40 - Long-term water treatment trust funds.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ...2011-10-01 false Long-term water treatment trust funds. 3904.40... § 3904.40 Long-term water treatment trust funds. (a) The...continuation of long-term treatment to achieve water quality standards and...

  15. 43 CFR 3904.40 - Long-term water treatment trust funds.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ...2012-10-01 false Long-term water treatment trust funds. 3904.40... § 3904.40 Long-term water treatment trust funds. (a) The...continuation of long-term treatment to achieve water quality standards and...

  16. Application of Nanoparticles in Waste Water Treatment

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Dhermendra K. Tiwari; J. Behari; Prasenjit Sen

    In the area of water purification, nanotechnology offers the possibility of an efficient removal of pollutants and germs. Today nanoparticles, nanomembrane and nanopowder used for detection and removal of chemical and biological substances include metals (e.g. Cadmium, copper, lead, mercury, nickel, zinc), nutrients (e.g. Phosphate, ammonia, nitrate and nitrite), cyanide, organics, algae (e.g. cyanobacterial toxins) viruses, bacteria, parasites and antibiotics.

  17. Alternative cooling tower water treatment methods

    SciTech Connect

    Wilsey, C.A. [Water Clear, Mound, MN (United States)

    1996-11-01

    The factors that contribute to proper water balance include total alkalinity, calcium hardness, and pH. In order to keep the cooling tower from scaling or corroding, a manipulation of these components is often necessary. This has traditionally been achieved with the use of chemicals, including but not limited to the following: acid, soda ash, sodium bicarbonate, calcium bicarbonate, algicide, and bactericide. Extensive research has shown that a balanced water system can also be achieved by using the proper combination of copper with a known halogen. Microbiologists have determined that a small amount of copper, acting as a supplement to chlorine at 0.4 ppm, has the same efficiency as 2.0 ppm free chlorine. Therefore, by using the following combination of components and procedures, the desired results can still be achieved: production of copper compound ions as a supplement to the chemical regimen; analysis and manipulation of make-up water; the use of copper as a coagulant for reduction of scale; copper as a supplemental bacterial disinfectant; and copper as an algicide.

  18. Microbiological treatment of uranium mine waters

    SciTech Connect

    Kauffman, J.W.; Laughlin, W.C.; Baldwin, R.A.

    1986-03-01

    Percolation of uranium mine discharge water through Ambrosia Lake, NM, soil is shown to be an effective method for lowering selenium, uranium, molybdenum, and sulfate concentrations in the mine water. Selenium concentrations were lowered from approx.1.6 to <0.05 mg/L by reduction of soluble selenate and selenite to insoluble selenium metal. This reaction is most likely performed by bacteria belonging to the genus Clostridium. In addition, sulfate-reducing bacteria in the soil, such as Desulfovibrio bacteria, metabolize sulfate to hydrogen sulfide, which reacts with uranyl and molybdate ions to form insoluble uranium and molybdenum species. The concentrations of sulfate, uranium, and molybdenum were reduced to less than 600, 0.1, and 0.05 mg/L, respectively. A qualitative understanding of the effects of mine water temperature, flow rate, and nutrients on metals removal is provided. The process was successfully field tested for 7 months in a soil column 1.5 m deep. 13 references, 3 figures, 4 tables.

  19. MSWT-01, flood disaster water treatment solution from common ideas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ananto, Gamawan; Setiawan, Albertus B.; Z, Darman M.

    2013-06-01

    Indonesia has a lot of potential flood disaster places with clean water problems faced. Various solution programs always initiated by Government, companies CSR, and people sporadical actions to provide clean water; with their advantages and disadvantages respectively. One solution is easy to operate for instance, but didn't provide adequate capacity, whereas the other had ideal performance but more costly. This situation inspired to develop a water treatment machine that could be an alternative favor. There are many methods could be choosed; whether in simple, middle or high technology, depends on water source input and output result quality. MSWT, Mobile Surface Water Treatment, is an idea for raw water in flood area, basically made for 1m3 per hour. This water treatment design adopted from combined existing technologies and related literatures. Using common ideas, the highlight is how to make such modular process put in compact design elegantly, and would be equipped with mobile feature due to make easier in operational. Through prototype level experiment trials, the machine is capable for producing clean water that suitable for sanitation and cooking/drinking purposes although using contaminated water input source. From the investment point of view, such machine could be also treated as an asset that will be used from time to time when needed, instead of made for project approach only.

  20. Pretreatment for membrane water treatment systems: a laboratory study

    SciTech Connect

    Wend, Christopher F.; Stewart, Philip S.; Jones, Warren L.; Camper, Anne K.

    2003-09-30

    The goal of the work was to determine if biological treatment of water containing soil-derived humic substances has the potential for reducing the fouling of membranes used in water treatment. Laboratory scale biological filters containing biologically active carbon or iron oxide coated sand were fed humic-laden water with or without prechlorination. This stream was split, with half being further treated by microfiltration. Treated water was assessed for total organic carbon removal and biofouling potential using a glass bead assay and membrane assay for total cell counts, fouling layer thickness, and flux reduction. A combination of these assays provided more insight than any single measurement. Compared to untreated control water, biological treatment was capable of reducing downstream fouling of membrane systems. For example, fouling layer thickness was reduced by half after biological treatment, and cell counts were reduced four- to five-fold. Biological treatment coupled with microfiltration provided the best reduction of fouling, while prechlorination did not appear to impact the process. These results suggest that biological treatment may be valuable in reducing membrane fouling while reducing the amount of disinfectants used in pretreatment.

  1. Urban and semi?urban planning in developing countries from a water and waste water treatment point of view

    Microsoft Academic Search

    S. V. R. Rao

    1988-01-01

    Several appropriate technology alternatives are suggested for water and wastewatei treatment in less developed countries. Large?scale water supply systems employing conventional water treatment methods should be replaced by several small?scale water treatment units utilizing appropriate water treatment methods.Conventional sewerage systems should be replaced by low cost on?site sanitation systems and several other low?cost wastewater treatment methods such as oxidation ponds,

  2. Alternative treatment strategy for tannery water reuse and material recovery.

    PubMed

    Nacheva, Mijaylova P; Chávez, Moeller G; Herrera, M Juárez

    2004-01-01

    Most tanneries use conventional systems for treatment of the mixture of all production effluents. Such an approach makes it possible to meet environmental regulations, but because of the high cost of the treatment facilities, its implementation has been scarce, especially in developing countries. With the waste reduction-elimination concept in view, an alternative strategy for water management is proposed based on individual treatment of the effluents from different processing steps to obtain multiquality recycled water for various reuse purposes, materials recovery and complete reuse of treated water. The methodology includes a database generation of tanneries in Mexico, a mass balance and pollution index determination, formulation of water management scenarios and technical-economical evaluation. To replace the traditionally used sulfde oxidation, a sulfide recovering was proposed. Chromium, grease and protein recovery were considered too. The proposed alternative allows a 90% fresh water reduction, the recovery of more than 95% of chromium and sulfide, 90% of grease, 65% of protein and zero discharge of wastewater. Simultaneous implementation of various water saving methods using in-house wastewater treatment techniques for recovering of chemicals and sub-products reduces substantially the cost of water management. PMID:15344782

  3. WATER TREATMENT PLANT CONDITIONS Publication No._____________

    E-print Network

    David Gerard Wahman; Gerald E. Speitel; Lynn E. Katz; Desmond F. Lawler; Mary Jo Kirisits; David Gerard Wahman; David Gerard Wahman, Ph.D.

    To my wife, Lauren, for her love and support. You are my best friend. Acknowledgements I would like to thank my wife Lauren, the love of my life, for her perpetual patience and support, keeping “Team Wahman ” moving towards our life goals. Thank you to my family, for their support over the years and knowing when to let me find my own way. Sometimes, the best support is to say nothing at all. I am grateful for funding provided by the American Water Works Association

  4. Changes in water quality in the Owabi water treatment plant in Ghana

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Akoto, Osei; Gyamfi, Opoku; Darko, Godfred; Barnes, Victor Rex

    2014-09-01

    The study was conducted on the status of the quality of water from the Owabi water treatment plant that supplies drinking water to Kumasi, a major city in Ghana, to ascertain the change in quality of water from source to point-of-use. Physico-chemical, bacteriological water quality parameters and trace metal concentration of water samples from five different treatment points from the Owabi water treatment plant were investigated. The raw water was moderately hard with high turbidity and colour that exceeds the WHO guideline limits. Nutrient concentrations were of the following order: NH3 < NO2 - < NO3 - < PO4 3- < SO4 2- and were all below WHO permissible level for drinking water in all the samples at different stages of treatment. Trace metal concentrations of the reservoir were all below WHO limit except chromium (0.06 mg/L) and copper (0.24 mg/L). The bacteriological study showed that the raw water had total coliform (1,766 cfu/100 mL) and faecal coliform (257 cfu/100 mL) that exceeded the WHO standard limits, rendering it unsafe for domestic purposes without treatment. Colour showed strong positive correlation with turbidity (r = 0.730), TSS (r ? 0.922) and alkalinity (0.564) significant at p < 0.01. The quality of the treated water indicates that colour, turbidity, Cr and Cu levels reduced and fall within the WHO permissible limit for drinking water. Treatment process at the water treatment plant is adjudged to be good.

  5. Drinking water treatment processes for removal of Cryptosporidium and Giardia.

    PubMed

    Betancourt, Walter Q; Rose, Joan B

    2004-12-01

    Major waterborne cryptosporidiosis and giardiasis outbreaks associated with contaminated drinking water have been linked to evidence of suboptimal treatment. Cryptosporidium parvum oocysts are particularly more resistant than Giardia lamblia cysts to removal and inactivation by conventional water treatment (coagulation, sedimentation, filtration and chlorine disinfection); therefore, extensive research has been focused on the optimization of treatment processes and application of new technologies to reduce concentrations of viable/infectious oocysts to a level that prevents disease. The majority of the data on the performance of treatment processes to remove cysts and oocysts from drinking water have been obtained from pilot-tests, with a few studies performed in full-scale conventional water treatment plants. These studies have demonstrated that protozoan cyst removal throughout all stages of the conventional treatment is largely influenced by the effectiveness of coagulation pretreatment, which along with clarification constitutes the first treatment barrier against protozoan breakthrough. Physical removal of waterborne Crytosporidium oocysts and Giardia cysts is ultimately achieved by properly functioning conventional filters, providing that effective pretreatment of the water is applied. Disinfection by chemical or physical methods is finally required to inactivate/remove the infectious life stages of these organisms. The effectiveness of conventional (chlorination) and alternative (chlorine dioxide, ozonation and ultra violet [UV] irradiation) disinfection procedures for inactivation of Cryptosporidium has been the focus of much research due to the recalcitrant nature of waterborne oocysts to disinfectants. This paper provides technical information on conventional and alternative drinking water treatment technologies for removal and inactivation of the protozoan parasites Cryptosporidium and Giardia. PMID:15567586

  6. Trace Element Analysis of Water and Sediment Before\\/After Passing a Waste Water Treatment Plant

    Microsoft Academic Search

    V. Orescanin; K. Nad; L. Kukec; A. Gajski; D. Sudac; V. Valkovic

    2003-01-01

    A system for waste water cleaning using activated red mud is described in this paper. This system was originally developed for heavy metals and turbidity removal from the waste water generated by pressure washing of the boats coated with antifouling paints. The major parts of the system are described. After the treatment clear water can be discharged directly into the

  7. Is biological treatment a viable alternative for micropollutant removal in drinking water treatment processes?

    PubMed

    Benner, Jessica; Helbling, Damian E; Kohler, Hans-Peter E; Wittebol, Janneke; Kaiser, Elena; Prasse, Carsten; Ternes, Thomas A; Albers, Christian N; Aamand, Jens; Horemans, Benjamin; Springael, Dirk; Walravens, Eddy; Boon, Nico

    2013-10-15

    In western societies, clean and safe drinking water is often taken for granted, but there are threats to drinking water resources that should not be underestimated. Contamination of drinking water sources by anthropogenic chemicals is one threat that is particularly widespread in industrialized nations. Recently, a significant amount of attention has been given to the occurrence of micropollutants in the urban water cycle. Micropollutants are bioactive and/or persistent chemicals originating from diverse sources that are frequently detected in water resources in the pg/L to ?g/L range. The aim of this review is to critically evaluate the viability of biological treatment processes as a means to remove micropollutants from drinking water resources. We first place the micropollutant problem in context by providing a comprehensive summary of the reported occurrence of micropollutants in raw water used directly for drinking water production and in finished drinking water. We then present a critical discussion on conventional and advanced drinking water treatment processes and their contribution to micropollutant removal. Finally, we propose biological treatment and bioaugmentation as a potential targeted, cost-effective, and sustainable alternative to existing processes while critically examining the technical limitations and scientific challenges that need to be addressed prior to implementation. This review will serve as a valuable source of data and literature for water utilities, water researchers, policy makers, and environmental consultants. Meanwhile this review will open the door to meaningful discussion on the feasibility and application of biological treatment and bioaugmentation in drinking water treatment processes to protect the public from exposure to micropollutants. PMID:24053940

  8. Produced Water Treatment Using Microbial Fuel Cell Technology

    SciTech Connect

    Borole, A. P.; Campbell, R. [Campbell Applied Physics] [Campbell Applied Physics

    2011-05-20

    ORNL has developed a treatment for produced water using a combination of microbial fuel cells and electrosorption. A collaboration between Campbell Applied Physics and ORNL was initiated to further investigate development of the technology and apply it to treatment of field produced water. The project successfully demonstrated the potential of microbial fuel cells to generate electricity from organics in produced water. A steady voltage was continuously generated for several days using the system developed in this study. In addition to the extraction of electrical energy from the organic contaminants, use of the energy at the representative voltage was demonstrated for salts removal or desalination of the produced water. Thus, the technology has potential to remove organic as well as ionic contaminants with minimal energy input using this technology. This is a novel energy-efficient method to treat produced water. Funding to test the technology at larger scale is being pursued to enable application development.

  9. Waste Water Treatment Apparatus and Methods

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Littman, Howard (Inventor); Plawsky, Joel L. (Inventor); Paccione, John D. (Inventor)

    2014-01-01

    An improved draft tube spout fluid bed (DTSFB) mixing, handling, conveying, and treating apparatus and systems, and methods for operating are provided. The apparatus and systems can accept particulate material and pneumatically or hydraulically conveying the material to mix and/or treat the material. In addition to conveying apparatus, a collection and separation apparatus adapted to receive the conveyed particulate material is also provided. The collection apparatus may include an impaction plate against which the conveyed material is directed to improve mixing and/or treatment. The improved apparatus are characterized by means of controlling the operation of the pneumatic or hydraulic transfer to enhance the mixing and/or reacting by controlling the flow of fluids, for example, air, into and out of the apparatus. The disclosed apparatus may be used to mix particulate material, for example, mortar; react fluids with particulate material; coat particulate material, or simply convey particulate material.

  10. Delta Drinking Water Quality and TreatmentDelta Drinking Water Quality and Treatment WeiWei--Hsiang ChenHsiang Chen

    E-print Network

    Pasternack, Gregory B.

    11 Delta Drinking Water Quality and TreatmentDelta Drinking Water Quality and Treatment Costs processes in the DeltaCurrent treatment processes in the Delta X X (a) X X (a) X X a X X a X X (a) X a X a ­ Ozonation (widely used for Delta water) ­ UV irradiation · Treatment processes for DBP precursor removal

  11. Nanofiltration technology in water treatment and reuse: applications and costs.

    PubMed

    Shahmansouri, Arash; Bellona, Christopher

    2015-01-01

    Nanofiltration (NF) is a relatively recent development in membrane technology with characteristics that fall between ultrafiltration and reverse osmosis (RO). While RO membranes dominate the seawater desalination industry, NF is employed in a variety of water and wastewater treatment and industrial applications for the selective removal of ions and organic substances, as well as certain niche seawater desalination applications. The purpose of this study was to review the application of NF membranes in the water and wastewater industry including water softening and color removal, industrial wastewater treatment, water reuse, and desalination. Basic economic analyses were also performed to compare the profitability of using NF membranes over alternative processes. Although any detailed cost estimation is hampered by some uncertainty (e.g. applicability of estimation methods to large-scale systems, labor costs in different areas of the world), NF was found to be a cost-effective technology for certain investigated applications. The selection of NF over other treatment technologies, however, is dependent on several factors including pretreatment requirements, influent water quality, treatment facility capacity, and treatment goals. PMID:25714628

  12. Carbon isotopic characterisation of dissolved organic matter during water treatment.

    PubMed

    Bridgeman, John; Gulliver, Pauline; Roe, Jessie; Baker, Andy

    2014-01-01

    Water treatment is a series of physio-chemical processes to aid organic matter (OM) removal, which helps to minimise the formation of potentially carcinogenic disinfection by-products and microbial regrowth. Changes in OM character through the treatment processes can provide insight into the treatment efficiency, but radiogenic isotopic characterisation techniques have yet to be applied. Here, we show for the first time that analysis of (13)C and (14)C of dissolved organic carbon (DOC) effectively characterises dissolved OM through a water treatment works. At the sites investigated: post-clarification, DOC becomes isotopically lighter, due to an increased proportion of relatively hydrophilic DOC. Filtration adds 'old' (14)C-DOC from abrasion of the filter media, whilst the use of activated carbon adds 'young' (14)C-DOC, most likely from the presence of biofilms. Overall, carbon isotopes provide clear evidence for the first time that new sources of organic carbon are added within the treatment processes, and that treated water is isotopically lighter and typically younger in (14)C-DOC age than untreated water. We anticipate our findings will precipitate real-time monitoring of treatment performance using stable carbon isotopes, with associated improvements in energy and carbon footprint (e.g. isotopic analysis used as triggers for filter washing and activated carbon regeneration) and public health benefits resulting from improved carbon removal. PMID:24075722

  13. Environmental occurrence, fate and transformation of benzodiazepines in water treatment.

    PubMed

    Kosjek, T; Perko, S; Zupanc, M; Zanoški Hren, M; Landeka Dragi?evi?, T; Zigon, D; Kompare, B; Heath, E

    2012-02-01

    Benzodiazepine derivatives are prescribed in large quantities globally and are potentially new emerging environmental contaminants. Unfortunately, a dearth of data exists concerning occurrence, persistence and fate in the environment. This paper redresses this by reviewing existing literature, assessing the occurrence of selected benzodiazepine anxiolytics (diazepam, oxazepam and bromazepam) in wastewater influent and effluent and surface water from Slovenia, evaluating their removal during water treatment and identifying the transformation products formed during water treatment. Their occurrence was monitored in hospital effluent, river water and in wastewater treatment plant influent and effluent. The study reveals the presence of benzodiazepine derivatives in all samples with the highest amounts in hospital effluents: 111 ng L(-1), 158 ng L(-1) and 72 ng L(-1) for diazepam, bromazepam and oxazepam, respectively. Removal efficiencies with respect to biological treatment of diazepam were 16-18% (oxic), 18-32% (anoxic?oxic), 53-76% (oxic?anoxic) and 83% (oxic?anoxic?oxic?anoxic cascade bioreactors), while the removal oxazepam was 20-24% under anoxic conditions. Coupled biological and photochemical treatment followed by the adsorption to activated carbon resulted in a removal efficiency of 99.99%. Results reveal the recalcitrant nature of benzodiazepine derivatives and suggest that only combinational treatment is sufficient to remove them. In addition, eight novel diazepam and four novel oxazepam transformation products are reported. PMID:22115636

  14. Innovative Treatment Technologies for Natural Waters and Wastewaters

    SciTech Connect

    Childress, Amy E.

    2011-07-01

    The research described in this report focused on the development of novel membrane contactor processes (in particular, forward osmosis (FO), pressure retarded osmosis (PRO), and membrane distillation (MD)) in low energy desalination and wastewater treatment applications and in renewable energy generation. FO and MD are recently gaining national and international attention as viable, economic alternatives for removal of both established and emerging contaminants from natural and process waters; PRO is gaining worldwide attention as a viable source of renewable energy. The interrelationship of energy and water are at the core of this study. Energy and water are inextricably bound; energy usage and production must be considered when evaluating any water treatment process for practical application. Both FO and MD offer the potential for substantial energy and resource savings over conventional treatment processes and PRO offers the potential for renewable energy or energy offsets in desalination. Combination of these novel technologies with each other, with existing technologies (e.g., reverse osmosis (RO)), and with existing renewable energy sources (e.g., salinity gradient solar ponds) may enable much less expensive water production and also potable water production in remote or distributed locations. Two inter-related projects were carried out in this investigation. One focused on membrane bioreactors for wastewater treatment and PRO for renewable energy generation; the other focused on MD driven by a salinity gradient solar pond.

  15. Public water supplies of North Carolina : a summary of water sources, use, treatment, and capacity of water-supply systems

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Mann, L.T., Jr.

    1978-01-01

    Data were collected during 1970-76 on 224 public water supply systems in North Carolina with 500 or more customers. This report summarizes these data that were previously published in five separate regional reports. The data are presented in order to Council of Government region, county, and water system name and include population served, average and maximum daily use, industrial use, water source, allowable draft of surface-water supplies, raw water pumping capacity, raw and finished water storage, type of water treatment, treatment plant capacity, and a summary of the chemical quality of finished water. Tables and maps provide cross references for system names, counties, Council of Government regions and water source.

  16. ETV REPORT: REMOVAL OF ARSENIC IN DRINKING WATER ORCA WATER TECHNOLOGIES KEMLOOP 1000 COAGULATION AND FILTRATION WATER TREATMENT SYSTEM

    EPA Science Inventory

    Verification testing of the ORCA Water Technologies KemLoop 1000 Coagulation and Filtration Water Treatment System for arsenic removal was conducted at the St. Louis Center located in Washtenaw County, Michigan, from March 23 through April 6, 2005. The source water was groundwate...

  17. An opacity-sampled treatment of water vapor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Alexander, David R.; Augason, Gordon C.; Johnson, Hollis R.

    1989-01-01

    Although the bands of H2O are strong in the spectra of cool stars and calculations have repeatedly demonstrated their significance as opacity sources, only approximate opacities are currently available, due both to the difficulty of accounting for the millions of lines involved and to the inadequacy of laboratory and theoretical data. To overcome these obstacles, a new treatment is presented, based upon a statistical representation of the water vapor spectrum derived from available laboratory data. This statistical spectrum of water vapor employs an exponential distribution of line strengths and random positions of lines whose overall properties are forced to reproduce the mean opacities observed in the laboratory. The resultant data set is then treated by the opacity-sampling method exactly as are all other lines, both molecular and atomic. Significant differences are found between the results of this improved treatment and the results obtained with previous treatments of water-vapor opacity.

  18. Transformation of sulfonylurea herbicides in simulated drinking water treatment processes.

    PubMed

    Wang, Binnan; Kong, Deyang; Lu, Junhe; Zhou, Quansuo

    2015-03-01

    Sulfonylurea herbicides (SUs) were detected in natural waters and could be potentially exposed to human beings via portable use. Thus, the removal of five representative SUs in simulated water treatment processes including coagulation, activated carbon adsorption, and chlorination disinfection was systematically investigated. Results showed that coagulation had little effect on the removal of the herbicides with the average removal less than 10 %. Powder-activated carbon adsorption was apparently more effective with removal rates of 50?~?70 %. SUs were also partially removed in chlorination process. A complete removal was achieved when the three treatments were performed in series. However, it was found that parts of the SUs were transformed into certain stable products with triazine/pyrimidine structures which might be of potential health risks in chlorination process. Thus, current drinking water treatment processes are not likely to provide sufficient protection for human population from exposure to SUs. PMID:25269843

  19. SMALL DRINKING WATER TREATMENT TECHNOLOGIES FOR COMPLIANCE WITH THE ENHANCED SURFACE WATER TREATMENT RULES

    EPA Science Inventory

    According to FY2003 statistics compiled by the Office of Ground Water and Drinking Water, the U.S. regulates about 160,000 small drinking water systems that impact close to 70 million people. Small systems (serving transient and non-transient populations of 10,000 people or less...

  20. Is hot water immersion an effective treatment for marine envenomation?

    PubMed Central

    Atkinson, P R T; Boyle, A; Hartin, D; McAuley, D

    2006-01-01

    Envenomation by marine creatures is common. As more people dive and snorkel for leisure, the incidence of envenomation injuries presenting to emergency departments has increased. Although most serious envenomations occur in the temperate or tropical waters of the Indo?Pacific region, North American and European waters also provide a habitat for many stinging creatures. Marine envenomations can be classified as either surface stings or puncture wounds. Antivenom is available for a limited number of specific marine creatures. Various other treatments such as vinegar, fig juice, boiled cactus, heated stones, hot urine, hot water, and ice have been proposed, although many have little scientific basis. The use of heat therapies, previously reserved for penetrating fish spine injuries, has been suggested as treatment for an increasing variety of marine envenomation. This paper reviews the evidence for the effectiveness of hot water immersion (HWI) and other heat therapies in the management of patients presenting with pain due to marine envenomation. PMID:16794088

  1. Enhanced drinking water supply through harvested rainwater treatment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Naddeo, Vincenzo; Scannapieco, Davide; Belgiorno, Vincenzo

    2013-08-01

    Decentralized drinking water systems represent an important element in the process of achieving the Millennium Development Goals, as centralized systems are often inefficient or nonexistent in developing countries. In those countries, most water quality related problems are due to hygiene factors and pathogens. A potential solution might include decentralized systems, which might rely on thermal and/or UV disinfection methods as well as physical and chemical treatments to provide drinking water from rainwater. For application in developing countries, decentralized systems major constraints include low cost, ease of use, environmental sustainability, reduced maintenance and independence from energy sources. This work focuses on an innovative decentralized system that can be used to collect and treat rainwater for potable use (drinking and cooking purposes) of a single household, or a small community. The experimented treatment system combines in one compact unit a Filtration process with an adsorption step on GAC and a UV disinfection phase in an innovative design (FAD - Filtration Adsorption Disinfection). All tests have been carried out using a full scale FAD treatment unit. The efficiency of FAD technology has been discussed in terms of pH, turbidity, COD, TOC, DOC, Escherichia coli and Total coliforms. FAD technology is attractive since it provides a total barrier for pathogens and organic contaminants, and reduces turbidity, thus increasing the overall quality of the water. The FAD unit costs are low, especially if compared to other water treatment technologies and could become a viable option for developing countries.

  2. Prototype spectral analysis of water samples for monitoring and treatment of public water resources

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lambrakos, S. G.; Lee, M.; Yapijakis, C.; Ramsey, L. S.; Huang, L.; Shabaev, A.; Massa, L.

    2014-06-01

    Experimental measurements conducted in the laboratory, involving hyperspectral analysis of water samples taken from public water resources in the New York City metro area, have motivated a reevaluation of issues concerning the potential application of this type of analysis for water monitoring, treatment and evaluation prior to filtration. One issue concerns hyperspectral monitoring of contaminants with respect to types and relative concentrations. This implies a need for better understanding the statistical profiles of water contaminants in terms of spatial-temporal distributions of electromagnetic absorption spectra ranging from the ultraviolet to infrared, which are associated with specific water resources. This issue also implies the need for establishing correlations between hyperspectral signatures and types of contaminants to be found within specific water resources. Another issue concerns the use of absorption spectra for determining changes in chemical and physical characteristics of contaminants after application of water treatments in order to determine levels of toxicity with respect to the environment.

  3. Biological treatment of fatty acid and nitrogen derivative waste water

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Emile F. Harp

    1975-01-01

    Armak Company’s McCook, Ill., plant has installed an aerobic biological treatment system to handle a portion of its waste\\u000a water flow prior to discharge to a municipal treatment plant operated by the Metropolitan Sanitary District of Greater Chicago.\\u000a The waste includes a mixture of animal and vegetable fats and oils, fatty acids, nitrogen derivatives of fatty acids, and\\u000a miscellaneous organic

  4. Technology assessment of aquaculture systems for municipal waste water treatment

    SciTech Connect

    Hyde, H.C.; Ross, R.S.; Sturmer, L.

    1984-08-01

    The innovative and alternative technology provisions of the Clean Water Act of 1977 (PL 95-217) provide financial incentives to communities that use wastewater treatment alternatives to reduce costs or energy consumption over conventional systems. Some of these technologies have been only recently developed and are not in widespread use in the United States. This document discusses the applicability and technical and economic feasibility of using aquaculture systems for municipal wastewater treatment facilities.

  5. Laboratory study of electro-coagulation–flotation for water treatment

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jia-Qian Jiang; Nigel Graham; Cecile André; Geoff H. Kelsall; Nigel Brandon

    2002-01-01

    An electro-coagulation–flotation process has been developed for water treatment. This involved an electrolytic reactor with aluminium electrodes and a separation\\/flotation tank. The water to be treated passed through the reactor and was subjected to coagulation\\/flotation, by Al(III) ions dissolved from the electrodes, the resulting flocs floating after being captured by hydrogen gas bubbles generated at cathode surfaces. Apparent current efficiencies

  6. The Effect of a Water-Droplet Spray and Gas Discharge in Water Treatment by Pulsed Power

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Taiki Handa; Yasushi Minamitani

    2009-01-01

    This paper presents the effect of a water-droplet spray and gas-phase discharge in a method of water treatment by spraying wastewater into nonthermal plasma. Three water-treatment methods by pulsed-power discharge were investigated. These are treatment methods by gas-phase discharge in the water-droplet spray, by ozone gas injected in water, and by ozone gas injected in the water-droplet spray. The comparison

  7. Water drinking as a treatment for orthostatic syndromes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shannon, John R.; Diedrich, Andre; Biaggioni, Italo; Tank, Jens; Robertson, Rose Marie; Robertson, David; Jordan, Jens

    2002-01-01

    PURPOSE: Water drinking increases blood pressure in a substantial proportion of patients who have severe orthostatic hypotension due to autonomic failure. We tested the hypothesis that water drinking can be used as a practical treatment for patients with orthostatic and postprandial hypotension, as well as those with orthostatic tachycardia. SUBJECTS AND METHODS: We studied the effect of drinking water on seated and standing blood pressure and heart rate in 11 patients who had severe orthostatic hypotension due to autonomic failure and in 9 patients who had orthostatic tachycardia due to idiopathic orthostatic intolerance. We also tested the effect of water drinking on postprandial hypotension in 7 patients who had autonomic failure. Patients drank 480 mL of tap water at room temperature in less than 5 minutes. RESULTS: In patients with autonomic failure, mean (+/- SD) blood pressure after 1 minute of standing was 83 +/- 6/53 +/- 3.4 mm Hg at baseline, which increased to 114 +/- 30/66 +/- 18 mm Hg (P <0.01) 35 minutes after drinking. After a meal, blood pressure decreased by 43 +/- 36/20 +/- 13 mm Hg without water drinking, compared with 22 +/- 10/12 +/- 5 mm Hg with drinking (P <0.001). In patients with idiopathic orthostatic intolerance, water drinking attenuated orthostatic tachycardia (123 +/- 23 beats per minute) at baseline to 108 +/- 21 beats per minute after water drinking ( P <0.001). CONCLUSION: Water drinking elicits a rapid pressor response in patients with autonomic failure and can be used to treat orthostatic and postprandial hypotension. Water drinking moderately reduces orthostatic tachycardia in patients with idiopathic orthostatic intolerance. Thus, water drinking may serve as an adjunctive treatment in patients with impaired orthostatic tolerance.

  8. Development of Effective Drinking Water Treatment Processes for Small Communities with Extremely Poor Quality Water on the Canadian Prairie

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Roberta Neapetung; Hans Peterson; Robert Pratt

    Microbially and chemically poor quality surface and ground water sources are frequently used for the production of drinking water by rural communities across Canada and indeed internationally. Canadian cities, in contrast, generally obtain drinking water from high quality source waters yet provide far more extensive treatment than rural water treatment plants when the opposite needs to be true. This realization

  9. Evaluation of Current Water Treatment and Distribution System Optimization to Provide Safe Drinking Water from Various Source Water Types and Conditions (Deliverable 5.2.C.1)

    EPA Science Inventory

    Increasingly, drinking water treatment plants (DWTPs) are being challenged by changes in the quality of their source waters and by their aging treatment and distribution system infrastructure. Individually or in combination, factors such as shrinking water and financial resources...

  10. Removal of antibiotics from surface and distilled water in conventional water treatment processes

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Adams, C.; Wang, Y.; Loftin, K.; Meyer, M.

    2002-01-01

    Conventional drinking water treatment processes were evaluated under typical water treatment plant conditions to determine their effectiveness in the removal of seven common antibiotics: carbadox, sulfachlorpyridazine, sulfadimethoxine, sulfamerazine, sulfamethazine, sulfathiazole, and trimethoprim. Experiments were conducted using synthetic solutions prepared by spiking both distilled/ deionized water and Missouri River water with the studied compounds. Sorption on Calgon WPH powdered activated carbon, reverse osmosis, and oxidation with chlorine and ozone under typical plant conditions were all shown to be effective in removing the studied antibiotics. Conversely, coagulation/flocculation/sedimentation with alum and iron salts, excess lime/soda ash softening, ultraviolet irradiation at disinfection dosages, and ion exchange were all relatively ineffective methods of antibiotic removal. This study shows that the studied antibiotics could be effectively removed using processes already in use many water treatment plants. Additional work is needed on by-product formation and the removal of other classes of antibiotics.

  11. Short communication Control of brown rot of stone fruits by brief heated water immersion treatments

    E-print Network

    Crisosto, Carlos H.

    Short communication Control of brown rot of stone fruits by brief heated water immersion treatments. Several studies have shown that hot water treatments by themselves or in combination with other treatments they require are an issue that has hindered the commercial adoption of hot water treatments. While higher water

  12. Nanotechnology for a safe and sustainable water supply: enabling integrated water treatment and reuse.

    PubMed

    Qu, Xiaolei; Brame, Jonathon; Li, Qilin; Alvarez, Pedro J J

    2013-03-19

    Ensuring reliable access to clean and affordable water is one of the greatest global challenges of this century. As the world's population increases, water pollution becomes more complex and difficult to remove, and global climate change threatens to exacerbate water scarcity in many areas, the magnitude of this challenge is rapidly increasing. Wastewater reuse is becoming a common necessity, even as a source of potable water, but our separate wastewater collection and water supply systems are not designed to accommodate this pressing need. Furthermore, the aging centralized water and wastewater infrastructure in the developed world faces growing demands to produce higher quality water using less energy and with lower treatment costs. In addition, it is impractical to establish such massive systems in developing regions that currently lack water and wastewater infrastructure. These challenges underscore the need for technological innovation to transform the way we treat, distribute, use, and reuse water toward a distributed, differential water treatment and reuse paradigm (i.e., treat water and wastewater locally only to the required level dictated by the intended use). Nanotechnology offers opportunities to develop next-generation water supply systems. This Account reviews promising nanotechnology-enabled water treatment processes and provides a broad view on how they could transform our water supply and wastewater treatment systems. The extraordinary properties of nanomaterials, such as high surface area, photosensitivity, catalytic and antimicrobial activity, electrochemical, optical, and magnetic properties, and tunable pore size and surface chemistry, provide useful features for many applications. These applications include sensors for water quality monitoring, specialty adsorbents, solar disinfection/decontamination, and high performance membranes. More importantly, the modular, multifunctional and high-efficiency processes enabled by nanotechnology provide a promising route both to retrofit aging infrastructure and to develop high performance, low maintenance decentralized treatment systems including point-of-use devices. Broad implementation of nanotechnology in water treatment will require overcoming the relatively high costs of nanomaterials by enabling their reuse and mitigating risks to public and environmental health by minimizing potential exposure to nanoparticles and promoting their safer design. The development of nanotechnology must go hand in hand with environmental health and safety research to alleviate unintended consequences and contribute toward sustainable water management. PMID:22738389

  13. Model-Based Control of Drinking-Water Treatment Plants

    Microsoft Academic Search

    K. M. Van Schagen

    2009-01-01

    The drinking water in the Netherlands is of high quality and the production cost is low. This is the result of extensive research in the past decades to innovate and optimise the treatment processes. The processes are monitored and operated by motivated and skilled operators and process technologists, which leads to an operator-dependent, subjective, variable and possibly suboptimal operation of

  14. Foothills: A State-of-the-Art Water Treatment Plant

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Robert K. Weir; Robert L. Chapman

    1987-01-01

    After three years of operation, the showcase Foothills water treatment plant, serving the base needs of the Denver, Colo., metropolitan area, has been performing at, or above, expectations. Taking hydraulic advantage of its location above the city, the plant's pumping costs are minimal and the plant's hydro turbine generates enough power to operate the facilities and sell excess electricity. A

  15. Aluminium–related osteomalacia: response to reverse osmosis water treatment

    Microsoft Academic Search

    George D Smith; Robin J Winney; Alexander McLean; James S Robson

    1987-01-01

    Aluminium–related osteomalacia: response to reverse osmosis water treatment. It is generally accepted that aluminium induces osteomalacia in chronic hemodialysis patients by binding to the calcification front, thereby inhibiting mineralization of osteoid. Because this form of osteomalacia is vitamin D resistant, the condition has often been assumed to be irreversible, although promising results have been achieved recently by using a chelating

  16. Water recycling using sequential membrane treatment in the electronics industry

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Minoru Okazaki; Masaru Uraki; Kunio Miura; Takaharu Nishida

    2000-01-01

    Sony Display Device in Singapore (SDS) has taken the radical initiative of installing a water recycling system (WRS) that draws over half its feed from reclaimed municipal wastewater. Pretreated plant wastewater collected from three fabrication processes is blended with filtered secondary sewage and processed through a dual membrane treatment system comprising Memcor continuous microfiltration (CMF) and reverse osmosis (RO). The

  17. ORGANOPHOSPHATE PESTICIDE DEGRADATION UNDER DRINKING WATER TREATMENT CONDITIONS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Chlorpyrifos (CP) was used as a model compound to develop experimental methods and prototype modeling tools to forecast the fate of organophosphate (OP) pesticides under drinking water treatment conditions. CP was found to rapidly oxidize to chlorpyrifos oxon (CPO) in the presen...

  18. 7. VIEW OF WATER TREATMENT PLANT, ADJACENT TO THE COAL ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    7. VIEW OF WATER TREATMENT PLANT, ADJACENT TO THE COAL CONVEYOR; IN THE DISTANCE IS THE FREQUENCY CHANGER HOUSE, WHICH IS ATTACHED TO SWITCH HOUSE NO. 1; LOOKING WEST. - Commonwealth Electric Company, Fisk Street Electrical Generating Station, 1111 West Cermak Avenue, Chicago, Cook County, IL

  19. Application of Ultrasonic Technology for Water and Wastewater Treatment

    Microsoft Academic Search

    AH Mahvi

    2009-01-01

    Ultrasonic technology as an innovative technology may be used for water and wastewater treatment for pollution removal. This technology acts as an advanced oxidation process. Application of this technology leads to the decomposition of many complex organic compounds to much simpler compounds during physical and chemical compounds during cavitation proc- ess. In this article review, some applications of this valuable

  20. Treatment of RO brine-towards sustainable water reclamation practice.

    PubMed

    Ng, H Y; Lee, L Y; Ong, S L; Tao, G; Viawanath, B; Kekre, K; Lay, W; Seah, H

    2008-01-01

    Treatment and disposal of RO brine is an important part in sustaining the water reclamation practice. RO brine generated from water reclamation contains high concentration of organic and inorganic compounds. Cost-effective technologies for treatment of RO brine are still relatively unexplored. Thus, this study aim to determine a feasible treatment process for removal of both organic and inorganic compounds in RO brine generated from NEWater production. The proposed treatment consists of biological activated carbon (BAC) column followed by capacitive deionization (CDI) process for organic and inorganic removals, respectively. Preliminary bench-scale study demonstrated about 20% TOC removal efficiency was achieved using BAC at 40 mins empty bed contact time (EBCT) while the CDI process was able to remove more than 90% conductivity reducing it from 2.19 mS/cm to only about 164 microS/cm. More than 90% cations and anions in the BAC effluent were removed using CDI process. In addition, TOC and TN removals of 78% and 91%, respectively were also attained through this process. About 90% water recovery was achieved. This process shows the potential of increased water recovery in the reclamation process while volume for disposal can be further minimized. Further studies on the sustainable operation and process optimization are ongoing. PMID:18776632

  1. Desalination and Water Treatment www.deswater.com

    E-print Network

    .22 µm. Seawater, reverse osmosis (RO) concentrate collected from a wastewater reclamation plant for the treatment of saline water and wastewater such as thermal distillation and reverse osmosis [2,3]. MD has several advantages compared to conventional thermal distillation and reverse osmosis processes [3

  2. Evaluation of treatment technologies for water reuse in coal gasification

    Microsoft Academic Search

    R. G. Luthy; J. R. Campbell; L. McLaughlin; R. W. Walters

    1980-01-01

    This investigation assessed significant issues and conducted bench scale experiments pertinent to management and reuse of coal coking and coal gasification process wastewaters. For the case of high-BTU coal gasification processes, the cooling tower is the most likely target for reuse of process wastewater. Treatment studies were performed with high BTU pilot coal gasification process quench waters to evaluate enhanced

  3. 49. LOOKING NORTH AT EVAPORATIVE WASTE WATER TREATMENT COOLING TOWERS, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    49. LOOKING NORTH AT EVAPORATIVE WASTE WATER TREATMENT COOLING TOWERS, WITH BLOW ENGINE HOUSE No. 3 ON RIGHT, AND FILTER CAKE HOUSE IN FOREGROUND. (Jet Lowe) - U.S. Steel Duquesne Works, Blast Furnace Plant, Along Monongahela River, Duquesne, Allegheny County, PA

  4. COST MODELING FOR DRINKING WATER UNIT TREATMENT PROCESSES

    EPA Science Inventory

    Current U.S. EPA research is underway to improve and expand upon a cost data base for use in estimating the economics of building and operating drinking water treatment facilities. his cost data is important to the EPA decision making process when formulating new regulations and ...

  5. UV Water Treatment Facility Funded by the GLRI

    USGS Multimedia Gallery

    Funding for the USGS Tunison Laboratory's UV water treatment facility and salmon rearing capabilities come from the Great Lakes Restoration Initiative and from a 2005 Congressional appropriation. Herring splash in oudoor containment channels beside the new facility. A new, sophisticated fish r...

  6. Parameter identification in dynamical models of anaerobic waste water treatment

    Microsoft Academic Search

    N. Noykova; M. Gyllenberg; J. Timmer

    2002-01-01

    Biochemical reactions can often be formulated mathematically as ordinary differential equations. In the process of modeling, the main questions that arise are concerned with structural identifiability, parameter estimation and practical identifiability. To clarify these questions and the methods how to solve them, we analyze two different second order models for anaerobic waste water treatment processes using two data sets obtained

  7. Fetal loss and work in a waste water treatment plant

    Microsoft Academic Search

    R. W. Morgan; L. Kheifets; D. L. Obrinsky; M. D. Whorton; D. E. Foliart

    1984-01-01

    We investigated pregnancy outcomes in 101 wives of workers employed in a waste water treatment plant (WWTP), and verified fetal losses by hospital records. Paternal work histories were compiled and each of the 210 pregnancies was assigned a paternal exposure category. The relative risk of fetal loss was increased when paternal exposure to the WWTP occurred around the time of

  8. Application of fuzzy causal networks to waste water treatment plants

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Y. C. Huang; X. Z. Wang

    1999-01-01

    A graphical model, the extended fuzzy causal network is introduced and applied to a case study of waste water treatment plants. The structure of the network is developed using parameter sensitivity studies and the relationships between connected parameters are obtained using a learning approach adapted from fuzzy neural networks. The graphical model is shown to be able to translate the

  9. Treatment for hydrazine-containing waste water solution

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yade, N.

    1986-01-01

    The treatment for waste solutions containing hydrazine is presented. The invention attempts oxidation and decomposition of hydrazine in waste water in a simple and effective processing. The method adds activated charcoal to waste solutions containing hydrazine while maintaining a pH value higher than 8, and adding iron salts if necessary. Then, the solution is aerated.

  10. An Analysis of the Waste Water Treatment Maintenance Mechanic Occupation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clark, Anthony B.; And Others

    The general purpose of the occupational analysis is to provide workable, basic information dealing with the many and varied duties performed in the waste water treatment mechanics occupation. The document opens with a brief introduction followed by a job description. The bulk of the document is presented in table form. Twelve duties are broken…

  11. An Analysis of the Waste Water Treatment Operator Occupation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clark, Anthony B.; And Others

    The occupational analysis contains a brief job description for the waste water treatment occupations of operator and maintenance mechanic and 13 detailed task statements which specify job duties (tools, equipment, materials, objects acted upon, performance knowledge, safety considerations/hazards, decisions, cues, and errors) and learning skills…

  12. COMPUTER ASSISTED PRELIMINARY DESIGN FOR DRINKING WATER TREATMENT PROCESS SYSTEMS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The purpose of the study was to develop an interactive computer program to aid the design engineer in evaluating the performance and cost for any proposed drinking water treatment system consisting of individual unit processes. The 25 unit process models currently in the program ...

  13. Biofilm characterization and activity analysis in water and wastewater treatment

    Microsoft Academic Search

    V. Lazarova; J. Manem

    1995-01-01

    Biofilm composition and activity are two important parameters for the successful operation and control of fixed film processes in water and wastewater treatment. Widely used parameters for biofilm characterization are biofilm thickness, total dry weight and total cell count. These parameters are, however, not sufficient to describe biofilm activity. Improved analytical methods and procedures are needed in order to understand

  14. 52. NORTHEASTERN EXTERIOR VIEW OF DOOROLIVER WAST WATER TREATMENT THICKENER ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    52. NORTHEASTERN EXTERIOR VIEW OF DOOR-OLIVER WAST WATER TREATMENT THICKENER No. 1. ELECTRIC POWERHOUSE No. 2 AND BLOW ENGINE HOUSE No. 3 IS IN THE BACKGROUND. (Jet Lowe) - U.S. Steel Duquesne Works, Blast Furnace Plant, Along Monongahela River, Duquesne, Allegheny County, PA

  15. Hydrogenotrophic denitrification with immobilized Alcaligenes eutrophus for drinking water treatment

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Chih Cheng Chang; Szu Kung Tseng; Hsien Kai Huang

    1999-01-01

    This paper used a new entrapment method for cell immobilization to elucidate the rate of autotrophic denitrification and obtain the appropriate operating conditions for drinking water treatment. Alcaligenes eutrophus, a hydrogenotrophic denitrifier, was immobilized in polyacrylamide and alginate copolymer to evaluate denitrification in continuous mode and batch mode in a fluidized-bed reactor. The total nitrogen removal rate in a continuous

  16. USE OF FERRATE IN SMALL DRINKING WATER TREATMENT SYSTEMS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The proposed project will result in a document providing guidance for the beneficial use of ferrate in small systems. We will highlight the ways it can be used to improve water quality, lower cost and provide a more sustainable treatment alternative to other technologies. W...

  17. DRINKING WATER TREATMENT AND RISK OF CANCER DEATH IN WISCONSIN

    EPA Science Inventory

    A case control study of drinking water treatment practices and female cancer mortality was conducted in Wisconsin. Cancer deaths for 1972-1977 from 28 Wisconsin counties and non-cancer deaths matched to cancer deaths on age, year of death and county of residence, were compared fo...

  18. Selenium-Water Treatment Residual Adsorption And Characterization

    EPA Science Inventory

    Aluminum-based water treatment residuals (WTR) have the ability to adsorb tremendous quantities of soil-borne P, and have been shown to adsorb other anions, such as As (V), As (III), and ClO4-. Environmental issues associated with Se in the Western US led us to study W...

  19. EVALUATING A COMPOSITE CARTRIDGE FOR SMALL SYSTEM DRINKING WATER TREATMENT

    EPA Science Inventory

    A multi-layer, cartridge-based system that combines physical filtration with carbon adsorption and ultraviolet (UV) light disinfection has been developed to perform as a water treatment security device to protect homes against accidental or intentional contaminant events. A seri...

  20. A Novel Electro Chemical Process for Water Treatment

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. S. Khanniche; P. G. Morgan; K. N. Khanniche; C. P. Jobling; N. Khanniche

    Advanced power electronics, instrumentation and real time control have been successfully applied to municipal drinking water as a pre-treatment process and to wastewater for the removal of phosphate. In addition the process has been successfully used for industrial effluent processing for the removal of heavy metals, hydrocarbon oils and greases and bacteria from coolants and other industrial waste streams. Typically,

  1. Anodic oxidation of phenol for waste water treatment

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ch. Comninellis; C. Pulgarin

    1991-01-01

    The electrochemical oxidation of phenol for waste water treatment was studied at a platinum anode. Analysis of reaction intermediates and a carbon balance has shown that the reaction occurs by two parallel pathways; chemical oxidation with electrogenerated hydroxyl radicals and direct combustion of adsorbed phenol or\\/and its aromatic intermediates to CO2.

  2. WATER FACTORY 21: RECLAIMED WATER, VOLATILE ORGANICS, VIRUS, AND TREATMENT PERFORMANCE

    EPA Science Inventory

    This report describes the performance of Water Factory 21, a 0.66 cu m/s advanced wastewater treatment plant designed to reclaim secondary effluent from a municipal wastewater treatment plant so that it can be used for injection and recharge of a groundwater system. Included in t...

  3. Integrated operation of drinking water treatment plant at Amsterdam water supply

    Microsoft Academic Search

    G. J. Bosklopper; L. C. Rietveld; R. Babuska; B. Smaal; J. Timmer

    Water treatment plants are in general robust and designs are based on the performance of individual processes with pre-set boundary conditions. It is assumed that an integral approach of the entire treatment plant can lead to more efficient operation. Taking into account the developments in sensoring, automation and computation, it is a challenge to improve quality and reliability of the

  4. Occurrence of Mycobacteria in Water Treatment Lines and in Water Distribution Systems

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Corinne Le Dantec; Jean-Pierre Duguet; Antoine Montiel; Nadine Dumoutier; Sylvie Dubrou; Veronique Vincent

    2002-01-01

    The frequency of recovery of atypical mycobacteria was estimated in two treatment plants providing drinking water to Paris, France, at some intermediate stages of treatment. The two plants use two different filtration processes, rapid and slow sand filtration. Our results suggest that slow sand filtration is more efficient for removing mycobacteria than rapid sand filtration. In addition, our results show

  5. Problems of drinking water treatment along Ismailia Canal Province, Egypt.

    PubMed

    Geriesh, Mohamed H; Balke, Klaus-Dieter; El-Rayes, Ahmed E

    2008-03-01

    The present drinking water purification system in Egypt uses surface water as a raw water supply without a preliminary filtration process. On the other hand, chlorine gas is added as a disinfectant agent in two steps, pre- and post-chlorination. Due to these reasons most of water treatment plants suffer low filtering effectiveness and produce the trihalomethane (THM) species as a chlorination by-product. The Ismailia Canal represents the most distal downstream of the main Nile River. Thus its water contains all the proceeded pollutants discharged into the Nile. In addition, the downstream reaches of the canal act as an agricultural drain during the closing period of the High Dam gates in January and February every year. Moreover, the wide industrial zone along the upstream course of the canal enriches the canal water with high concentrations of heavy metals. The obtained results indicate that the canal gains up to 24.06x10(6) m3 of water from the surrounding shallow aquifer during the closing period of the High Dam gates, while during the rest of the year, the canal acts as an influent stream losing about 99.6x10(6) m3 of its water budget. The reduction of total organic carbon (TOC) and suspended particulate matters (SPMs) should be one of the central goals of any treatment plan to avoid the disinfectants by-products. The combination of sedimentation basins, gravel pre-filtration and slow sand filtration, and underground passage with microbiological oxidation-reduction and adsorption criteria showed good removal of parasites and bacteria and complete elimination of TOC, SPM and heavy metals. Moreover, it reduces the use of disinfectants chemicals and lowers the treatment costs. However, this purification system under the arid climate prevailing in Egypt should be tested and modified prior to application. PMID:18357626

  6. Problems of drinking water treatment along Ismailia Canal Province, Egypt*

    PubMed Central

    Geriesh, Mohamed H.; Balke, Klaus-Dieter; El-Rayes, Ahmed E.

    2008-01-01

    The present drinking water purification system in Egypt uses surface water as a raw water supply without a preliminary filtration process. On the other hand, chlorine gas is added as a disinfectant agent in two steps, pre- and post-chlorination. Due to these reasons most of water treatment plants suffer low filtering effectiveness and produce the trihalomethane (THM) species as a chlorination by-product. The Ismailia Canal represents the most distal downstream of the main Nile River. Thus its water contains all the proceeded pollutants discharged into the Nile. In addition, the downstream reaches of the canal act as an agricultural drain during the closing period of the High Dam gates in January and February every year. Moreover, the wide industrial zone along the upstream course of the canal enriches the canal water with high concentrations of heavy metals. The obtained results indicate that the canal gains up to 24.06×106 m3 of water from the surrounding shallow aquifer during the closing period of the High Dam gates, while during the rest of the year, the canal acts as an influent stream losing about 99.6×106 m3 of its water budget. The reduction of total organic carbon (TOC) and suspended particulate matters (SPMs) should be one of the central goals of any treatment plan to avoid the disinfectants by-products. The combination of sedimentation basins, gravel pre-filtration and slow sand filtration, and underground passage with microbiological oxidation-reduction and adsorption criteria showed good removal of parasites and bacteria and complete elimination of TOC, SPM and heavy metals. Moreover, it reduces the use of disinfectants chemicals and lowers the treatment costs. However, this purification system under the arid climate prevailing in Egypt should be tested and modified prior to application. PMID:18357626

  7. Estrogen-related receptor gamma disruption of source water and drinking water treatment processes extracts.

    PubMed

    Li, Na; Jiang, Weiwei; Rao, Kaifeng; Ma, Mei; Wang, Zijian; Kumaran, Satyanarayanan Senthik

    2011-01-01

    Environmental chemicals in drinking water can impact human health through nuclear receptors. Additionally, estrogen-related receptors (ERRs) are vulnerable to endocrine-disrupting effects. To date, however, ERR disruption of drinking water potency has not been reported. We used ERRgamma two-hybrid yeast assay to screen ERRgamma disrupting activities in a drinking water treatment plant (DWTP) located in north China and in source water from a reservoir, focusing on agonistic, antagonistic, and inverse agonistic activity to 4-hydroxytamoxifen (4-OHT). Water treatment processes in the DWTP consisted of pre-chlorination, coagulation, coal and sand filtration, activated carbon filtration, and secondary chlorination processes. Samples were extracted by solid phase extraction. Results showed that ERRgamma antagonistic activities were found in all sample extracts, but agonistic and inverse agonistic activity to 4-OHT was not found. When calibrated with the toxic equivalent of 4-OHT, antagonistic effluent effects ranged from 3.4 to 33.1 microg/L. In the treatment processes, secondary chlorination was effective in removing ERRgamma antagonists, but the coagulation process led to significantly increased ERRgamma antagonistic activity. The drinking water treatment processes removed 73.5% of ERRgamma antagonists. To our knowledge, the occurrence of ERRgamma disruption activities on source and drinking water in vitro had not been reported previously. It is vital, therefore, to increase our understanding of ERRy disrupting activities in drinking water. PMID:21517005

  8. Economic assessment of membrane processes for water and waste water treatment

    Microsoft Academic Search

    G. Owen; M. Bandi; J. A. Howell; S. J. Churchouse

    1995-01-01

    Membrane processes are increasingly being considered as an alternative to conventional water and waste water treatment methods in anticipation of future demands for high standards and reduced environmental impact. However, the use of membranes for these applications is currently limited by the high capital and operating costs with which they are associated. This paper looks at the economics of membrane

  9. 7 CFR 1780.63 - Sewage treatment and bulk water sales contracts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ...2010-01-01 false Sewage treatment and bulk water sales contracts. 1780...AGRICULTURE (CONTINUED) WATER AND WASTE LOANS AND GRANTS Planning...Inspections § 1780.63 Sewage treatment and bulk water sales contracts....

  10. Assessment of didecyldimethylammonium chloride as a ballast water treatment method.

    PubMed

    van Slooten, Cees; Peperzak, Louis; Buma, Anita G J

    2015-02-01

    Ballast water-mediated transfer of aquatic invasive species is considered a major threat to marine biodiversity, marine industry and human health. A ballast water treatment is needed to comply with International Maritime Organization (IMO) ballast water discharge regulations. Didecyldimethylammonium chloride (DDAC) was tested for its applicability as a ballast water treatment method. The treatment of the marine phytoplankton species Tetraselmis suecica, Isochrysis galbana and Chaetoceros calcitrans showed that at 2.5?µL?L(-1) DDAC was able to inactivate photosystem II (PSII) efficiency and disintegrate the cells after 5 days of dark incubation. The treatment of natural marine plankton communities with 2.5?µL?L(-1) DDAC did not sufficiently decrease zooplankton abundance to comply with the IMO D-2 standard. Bivalve larvae showed the highest resistance to DDAC. PSII efficiency was inactivated within 5 days but phytoplankton cells remained intact. Regrowth occurred within 2 days of incubation in the light. However, untreated phytoplankton exposed to residual DDAC showed delayed cell growth and reduced PSII efficiency, indicating residual DDAC toxicity. Natural marine plankton communities treated with 5?µL?L(-1) DDAC showed sufficient disinfection of zooplankton and inactivation of PSII efficiency. Phytoplankton regrowth was not detected after 9 days of light incubation. Bacteria were initially reduced due to the DDAC treatment but regrowth was observed within 5 days of dark incubation. Residual DDAC remained too high after 5 days to be safely discharged. Two neutralization cycles of 50?mg?L(-1) bentonite were needed to inactivate residual DDAC upon discharge. The inactivation of residual DDAC may seriously hamper the practical use of DDAC as a ballast water disinfectant. PMID:25182049

  11. Evaluation of Water Treatment Methods for Endocrine Disrupting Compounds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thomas, S. M.; Murray, K. E.

    2006-05-01

    Endocrine disrupting compounds (EDCs) have caught recent attention as one of the major concerns in the environment. They are known to interfere with the activity of growth-related hormones and usually, as a result, cause disruption in normal functioning of the body. The compounds currently classified as EDCs range from a variety of both natural and synthetic organic compounds and also some heavy metals. Most of these compounds are used in household, pharmaceutical, industrial, agricultural activities, the consumption or usage of which increases with population. There is a lack of detailed chemical and biological analysis as to what concentrations each of these EDCs pose harmless to the environment because of the large number of the suspected compounds. However, several published reports have established that endocrine disruption is observed in aquatic species due to chronic exposure to concentrations of some EDCs as low as a few ng/l. Conventional water treatment facilities do not usually suffice to remove EDCs in concentrations below 1 ng/l. Available technologies for removal of EDCs include adsorption, degradation and membrane treatment. The removal rates, however, are dependant on the properties of the compound, such as molecular weight, water- octanol partition coefficient and vapor pressure; physiochemical conditions of the matrix such as, redox and temperature conditions; type and dose of degrading agent and the concentration of the EDCs. Since, EDCs comprise a vast variety of compounds, their response to each of these treatment methods will be different and hence it is plausible that a single treatment technique will not be sufficient to remove the EDCs to very low concentrations. Based on our review of existing water treatment methods, we believe that a sequential treatment technique that consists of an adsorption, a degradation and finally a fine membrane treatment, each optimized for favorable, efficient and inexpensive removal may be required to remove EDCs to the desired low concentrations.

  12. Treatment of drinking water to improve its sanitary or bacteriological quality is

    E-print Network

    Treatment of drinking water to improve its sanitary or bacteriological quality is referred that the first treatment of water with chlorine may not kill all bacteria. Subsequent treat- ments may contamination of water. This method also can be used by private- water-well owners. Water Wells Water wells

  13. Structural changes in microcrystalline cellulose in subcritical water treatment.

    PubMed

    Tolonen, Lasse K; Zuckerstätter, Gerhard; Penttilä, Paavo A; Milacher, Walter; Habicht, Wilhelm; Serimaa, Ritva; Kruse, Andrea; Sixta, Herbert

    2011-07-11

    Subcritical water is a high potential green chemical for the hydrolysis of cellulose. In this study microcrystalline cellulose was treated in subcritical water to study structural changes of the cellulose residues. The alterations in particle size and appearance were studied by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and those in the degree of polymerization (DP) and molar mass distributions by gel permeation chromatography (GPC). Further, changes in crystallinity and crystallite dimensions were quantified by wide-angle X-ray scattering and (13)C solid-state NMR. The results showed that the crystallinity remained practically unchanged throughout the treatment, whereas the size of the remaining cellulose crystallites increased. Microcrystalline cellulose underwent significant depolymerization in subcritical water. However, depolymerization leveled off at a relatively high degree of polymerization. The molar mass distributions of the residues showed a bimodal form. We infer that cellulose gets dissolved in subcritical water only after extensive depolymerization. PMID:21644577

  14. Treatment of produced waters by electrocoagulation and reverse osmosis

    SciTech Connect

    Tuggle, K.; Humenick, M.; Barker, F.

    1992-08-01

    Two oil field produced waters and one coal bed methane produced water from Wyoming were treated with electrocoagulation and reverse osmosis. All three produced waters would require treatment to meet the new Wyoming Department of Environmental Quality requirements for effluent discharge into a class III or IV stream. The removal of radium 226 and oil and grease was the primary focus of the study. Radium 226 and oil and grease were removed from the produced waters with electrocoagulation. The best removal of radium 226 (>84%) was achieved with use of a non-sacrificial anode (titanium). The best removal of oil and grease (>93%) was achieved using a sacrificial anode (aluminum). By comparison, reverse osmosis removed up to 87% of the total dissolved solids and up to 95% of the radium 226.

  15. Assessment of coliphage surrogates for testing drinking water treatment devices.

    PubMed

    Gerba, Charles P; Abd-Elmaksoud, Sherif; Newick, Huikheng; El-Esnawy, Nagwa A; Barakat, Ahmed; Ghanem, Hossam

    2015-03-01

    Test protocols have been developed by the United States Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA) and the World Health Organization (WHO) to test water treatment devices/systems that are used at the individual and home levels to ensure the removal of waterborne viruses. The goal of this study was to assess if coliphage surrogates could be used in this testing in place of the currently required use of animal or human enteric viruses. Five different coliphages (MS-2, PRD1, ?X-174, Q?, and fr) were compared to the removal of poliovirus type 1 (LSc-2ab) by eight different water treatment devices/systems using a general case and a challenge case (high organic load, dissolved solids, and turbidity) test water as defined by the USEPA. The performance of the units was rated as a pass/fail based on a 4 log removal/inactivation of the viruses. In all cases, a failure or a pass of the units/system for poliovirus also corresponded to a pass/fail by all of the coliphages. In summary, in using pass/fail criteria as recommended under USEPA guidelines for testing water treatment device/systems, the use of coliphages should be considered as an alternative to reduce cost and time of testing such devices/systems. PMID:25399400

  16. Evaluating a composite cartridge for small system drinking water treatment.

    PubMed

    Muhammad, Nur; Sinha, Rajib; Krishnan, Radha; Patterson, Craig L; Haught, Roy C; Harms, Harold H; Seville, Rick

    2010-06-01

    A pilot-scale evaluation was conducted at the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) Test & Evaluation (T&E) Facility in Cincinnati, Ohio, on a multi-layer, cartridge-based system that combines physical filtration with carbon adsorption and ultraviolet (UV) light disinfection to serve as a home-base water treatment security device against accidental or intentional contaminant events. The system was challenged with different levels of turbidity, a number of biological contaminants including Bacillus subtilis, Escherichia coli, MS2 bacteriophage and Polystyrene Latex (PSL) beads as a surrogate for Cryptosporidium and a number of chemical contaminants including super-chlorination, methyl tertiary butyl ether (MTBE), water chlorination disinfection byproducts (DBPs) and diazinon. The results demonstrated that the performance of the system varies as a function of the specific contaminant or surrogate. The overall performance indicated the potential of the system to improve the quality and safety of household water and to serve as an additional treatment barrier in circumstances where there is little or no treatment or where the quality of treated water may have deteriorated during distribution. The results also demonstrated that B. subtilis spore can serve as a more conservative surrogate for Cryptosporidium than PSL beads. PMID:20154385

  17. Review of technologies for oil and gas produced water treatment.

    PubMed

    Fakhru'l-Razi, Ahmadun; Pendashteh, Alireza; Abdullah, Luqman Chuah; Biak, Dayang Radiah Awang; Madaeni, Sayed Siavash; Abidin, Zurina Zainal

    2009-10-30

    Produced water is the largest waste stream generated in oil and gas industries. It is a mixture of different organic and inorganic compounds. Due to the increasing volume of waste all over the world in the current decade, the outcome and effect of discharging produced water on the environment has lately become a significant issue of environmental concern. Produced water is conventionally treated through different physical, chemical, and biological methods. In offshore platforms because of space constraints, compact physical and chemical systems are used. However, current technologies cannot remove small-suspended oil particles and dissolved elements. Besides, many chemical treatments, whose initial and/or running cost are high and produce hazardous sludge. In onshore facilities, biological pretreatment of oily wastewater can be a cost-effective and environmental friendly method. As high salt concentration and variations of influent characteristics have direct influence on the turbidity of the effluent, it is appropriate to incorporate a physical treatment, e.g., membrane to refine the final effluent. For these reasons, major research efforts in the future could focus on the optimization of current technologies and use of combined physico-chemical and/or biological treatment of produced water in order to comply with reuse and discharge limits. PMID:19505758

  18. Occurrence of mycobacteria in water treatment lines and in water distribution systems.

    PubMed

    Le Dantec, Corinne; Duguet, Jean-Pierre; Montiel, Antoine; Dumoutier, Nadine; Dubrou, Sylvie; Vincent, Véronique

    2002-11-01

    The frequency of recovery of atypical mycobacteria was estimated in two treatment plants providing drinking water to Paris, France, at some intermediate stages of treatment. The two plants use two different filtration processes, rapid and slow sand filtration. Our results suggest that slow sand filtration is more efficient for removing mycobacteria than rapid sand filtration. In addition, our results show that mycobacteria can colonize and grow on granular activated carbon and are able to enter distribution systems. We also investigated the frequency of recovery of mycobacteria in the water distribution system of Paris (outside buildings). The mycobacterial species isolated from the Paris drinking water distribution system are different from those isolated from the water leaving the treatment plants. Saprophytic mycobacteria (present in 41.3% of positive samples), potentially pathogenic mycobacteria (16.3%), and unidentifiable mycobacteria (54.8%) were isolated from 12 sites within the Paris water distribution system. Mycobacterium gordonae was preferentially recovered from treated surface water, whereas Mycobacterium nonchromogenicum was preferentially recovered from groundwater. No significant correlations were found among the presence of mycobacteria, the origin of water, and water temperature. PMID:12406720

  19. Occurrence of Mycobacteria in Water Treatment Lines and in Water Distribution Systems

    PubMed Central

    Le Dantec, Corinne; Duguet, Jean-Pierre; Montiel, Antoine; Dumoutier, Nadine; Dubrou, Sylvie; Vincent, Véronique

    2002-01-01

    The frequency of recovery of atypical mycobacteria was estimated in two treatment plants providing drinking water to Paris, France, at some intermediate stages of treatment. The two plants use two different filtration processes, rapid and slow sand filtration. Our results suggest that slow sand filtration is more efficient for removing mycobacteria than rapid sand filtration. In addition, our results show that mycobacteria can colonize and grow on granular activated carbon and are able to enter distribution systems. We also investigated the frequency of recovery of mycobacteria in the water distribution system of Paris (outside buildings). The mycobacterial species isolated from the Paris drinking water distribution system are different from those isolated from the water leaving the treatment plants. Saprophytic mycobacteria (present in 41.3% of positive samples), potentially pathogenic mycobacteria (16.3%), and unidentifiable mycobacteria (54.8%) were isolated from 12 sites within the Paris water distribution system. Mycobacterium gordonae was preferentially recovered from treated surface water, whereas Mycobacterium nonchromogenicum was preferentially recovered from groundwater. No significant correlations were found among the presence of mycobacteria, the origin of water, and water temperature. PMID:12406720

  20. Groundwater Treatment at the Fernald Preserve: Status and Path Forward for the Water Treatment Facility - 12320

    SciTech Connect

    Powel, J. [U.S. Department of Energy Office of Legacy Management, Harrison, Ohio (United States); Hertel, B.; Glassmeyer, C.; Broberg, K. [S.M. Stoller Corporation, Harrison, Ohio (United States)

    2012-07-01

    Operating a water treatment facility at the Fernald Preserve in Cincinnati, Ohio-to support groundwater remediation and other wastewater treatment needs-has become increasingly unnecessary. The Fernald Preserve became a U.S. Department of Energy Office of Legacy Management (LM) site in November 2006, once most of the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act environmental remediation and site restoration had been completed. Groundwater remediation is anticipated to continue beyond 2020. A portion of the wastewater treatment facility that operated during the CERCLA cleanup continued to operate after the site was transferred to LM, to support the remaining groundwater remediation effort. The treatment facility handles the site's remaining water treatment needs (for groundwater, storm water, and wastewater) as necessary, to ensure that uranium discharge limits specified in the Operable Unit 5 Record of Decision are met. As anticipated, the need to treat groundwater to meet uranium discharge limits has greatly diminished over the last several years. Data indicate that the groundwater treatment facility is no longer needed to support the ongoing aquifer remediation effort. (authors)

  1. Performance of a biological deoxygenation process for ships' ballast water treatment under very cold water conditions.

    PubMed

    de Lafontaine, Yves; Despatie, Simon-Pierre

    2014-02-15

    Water deoxygenation is listed among the promising on-board treatment technologies to treat ships' ballast waters to reduce the risk of species transfer. We assessed the performance of a yeast-based bioreactive deoxygenation process in very cold water (<2°C) and determined the potential toxicity of the residual treated waters. Experiments using two treatment levels (0.5% and 1% v/v) were conducted in large-volume (4.5m(3)) tanks over 19 days at mean temperature of 1.5°C. Time to hypoxia varied between 10.3 and 16 days, being slightly higher than the predicted time of 9.8 days from previous empirical relationships. Water deoxygenation was achieved when yeast density exceeded 5×10(5) viable cellsmL(-1) and variation in time to hypoxia was mainly explained by difference in yeast growth. There was no oxycline and no significant difference in yeast density over the 2-m deep water column. Results from six bioassays indicated weak toxic response of treated waters at the 1.0% level, but no potential toxic response at the 0.5% treatment level. Results confirmed that the potential application of a yeast-based deoxygenation process for treating ships' ballast waters extended over the range of water temperature typically encountered during most shipping operational conditions. Time to reach full deoxygenation may however be limiting for universal application of this treatment which should be preferably used for ships making longer voyages in cold environments. There was no evidence that biological deoxygenation at low temperature did increase toxicity risk of treated waters to impede their disposal at the time of discharge. PMID:24345863

  2. Treatment methods for breaking certain oil and water emulsions

    DOEpatents

    Sealock, Jr., L. John (W. Richland, WA); Baker, Eddie G. (Richland, WA); Elliott, Douglas C. (Richland, WA)

    1992-01-01

    Disclosed are treatment methods for breaking emulsions of petroleum oil and salt water, fatty oil and water, and those resulting from liquefication of organic material. The emulsions are broken by heating to a predetermined temperature at or above about 200.degree. C. and pressurizing to a predetermined pressure above the vapor pressure of water at the predetermined temperature to produce a heated and pressurized fluid. The heated and pressurized fluid is contained in a single vessel at the predetermined temperature and pressure for a predetermined period of time to effectively separate the emulsion into substantially distinct first and second phases, the first phase comprising primarily the petroleum oil, the second phase comprising primarily the water. The first and second phases are separately withdrawn from the vessel at a withdraw temperature between about 200.degree. C. and 374.degree. C. and a withdraw pressure above the vapor pressure of water at the withdraw temperature. Where solids are present in the certain emulsions, the above described treatment may also effectively separate the certain emulsion into a substantially distinct third phase comprising primarily the solids.

  3. Understanding the Permeation of Solutes in Water Treatment Membranes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Phillip, William

    2013-03-01

    The responsible management of the world's water resources is essential to supporting human life on earth. The successful development of reverse osmosis seawater desalination makes it a crucial component in the portfolio of water supply options. However, other measures to alleviate the stresses on water supplies are necessary to responsibly and sustainably meet the worldwide demand for fresh water. Osmotically driven membrane processes (ODMP) are an emerging set of technologies that show promise in water conservation and reuse, as well as wastewater reclamation. The majority of research in the field has focused on predicting and enhancing water permeation through membranes, however, the effective operation of ODMP systems requires that the permeation of solutes across water treatment membranes be better understood. For example, the reverse flux of draw solute from the concentrated draw solution into the feed solution should be minimized. Additionally, due to the presence of solute-solute interactions that arise because of the unique geometry of ODMPs, the rejection of dilute solutes in these processes can be dramatically different than those observed in traditional pressure driven operations. In this talk, theoretical and experimental approaches are used to explore the permeation of solutes in osmotically driven membrane processes. Phenomenological models were developed that describe the forward and reverse permeation of the solutes across an asymmetric membrane in forward osmosis operation; and experiments were carried out to validate the model predictions. Using independently determined membrane transport coefficients, strong agreement between the model predictions and experimental results was observed.

  4. 40 CFR 141.403 - Treatment technique requirements for ground water systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...Treatment technique requirements for ground water systems. 141.403 Section 141.403...ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) WATER PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) NATIONAL PRIMARY DRINKING WATER REGULATIONS Ground Water Rule §...

  5. 40 CFR 141.403 - Treatment technique requirements for ground water systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...Treatment technique requirements for ground water systems. 141.403 Section 141.403...ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) WATER PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) NATIONAL PRIMARY DRINKING WATER REGULATIONS Ground Water Rule §...

  6. 40 CFR 141.404 - Treatment technique violations for ground water systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...Treatment technique violations for ground water systems. 141.404 Section 141.404...ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) WATER PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) NATIONAL PRIMARY DRINKING WATER REGULATIONS Ground Water Rule §...

  7. 40 CFR 141.404 - Treatment technique violations for ground water systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...Treatment technique violations for ground water systems. 141.404 Section 141.404...ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) WATER PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) NATIONAL PRIMARY DRINKING WATER REGULATIONS Ground Water Rule §...

  8. 40 CFR 141.403 - Treatment technique requirements for ground water systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...Treatment technique requirements for ground water systems. 141.403 Section 141.403...ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) WATER PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) NATIONAL PRIMARY DRINKING WATER REGULATIONS Ground Water Rule §...

  9. 40 CFR 141.403 - Treatment technique requirements for ground water systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...Treatment technique requirements for ground water systems. 141.403 Section 141.403...ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) WATER PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) NATIONAL PRIMARY DRINKING WATER REGULATIONS Ground Water Rule §...

  10. 40 CFR 141.404 - Treatment technique violations for ground water systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...Treatment technique violations for ground water systems. 141.404 Section 141.404...ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) WATER PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) NATIONAL PRIMARY DRINKING WATER REGULATIONS Ground Water Rule §...

  11. 40 CFR 141.403 - Treatment technique requirements for ground water systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...Treatment technique requirements for ground water systems. 141.403 Section 141.403...ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) WATER PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) NATIONAL PRIMARY DRINKING WATER REGULATIONS Ground Water Rule §...

  12. 40 CFR 141.404 - Treatment technique violations for ground water systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...Treatment technique violations for ground water systems. 141.404 Section 141.404...ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) WATER PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) NATIONAL PRIMARY DRINKING WATER REGULATIONS Ground Water Rule §...

  13. 40 CFR 141.404 - Treatment technique violations for ground water systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...Treatment technique violations for ground water systems. 141.404 Section 141.404...ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) WATER PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) NATIONAL PRIMARY DRINKING WATER REGULATIONS Ground Water Rule §...

  14. WATER TREATMENT PLANT OPTIMIZATION BY CONTROLLING THE SUSPENDED SOLIDS PHYSICOCHEMICAL ENVIRONMENT

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Kamal El-Nahhas

    Optimizing water treatment plant operation is a concept should be applied to all plants because some operational improvements can always be made. Optimization at a water treatment plant can be considered achieved when certain goals are being met to attain the most efficient use of the water treatment plant facilities. The most important goals are to reduce the water wastes,

  15. Development of microbubble aerator for waste water treatment using aerobic activated sludge

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Koichi Terasaka; Ai Hirabayashi; Takanori Nishino; Satoko Fujioka; Daisuke Kobayashi

    2011-01-01

    In large-scale waste water treatment plants, the aerobic biochemical reactor is the most important process, where the oxygen supply into the microorganisms often limits the overall waste water treatment rate. On the other hand, several kinds of microbubble distributors have been developed to enrich the oxygen dissolution in water. Therefore, the application of microbubbles for a waste water treatment system

  16. Removal of NOM in the different stages of the water treatment process

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Anu Matilainen; Niina Lindqvist; Susanna Korhonen; Tuula Tuhkanen

    2002-01-01

    Natural organic matter (NOM) is abundant in natural waters in Finland and in many ways affects the unit operations in water purification. In this study, the organic matter content in water in different stages of a full-scale treatment process over 1 year was measured. The full-scale treatment sequence, studied at the Rusko water treatment plant in Tampere, Finland, consisted of

  17. The use of ozone and associated oxidation processes in drinking water treatment

    Microsoft Academic Search

    V Camel; A Bermond

    1998-01-01

    This paper summarizes the main applications of ozonation and associated oxidation processes in the treatment of natural waters (surface and ground waters) for drinking water production. In fact, oxidants may be added at several points throughout the treatment: pre-oxidation, intermediate oxidation or final disinfection. So, the numerous effects of chemical oxidation are discussed along the water treatment: removal of inorganic

  18. INTEC CPP-603 Basin Water Treatment System Closure: Process Design

    SciTech Connect

    Kimmitt, Raymond Rodney; Faultersack, Wendell Gale; Foster, Jonathan Kay; Berry, Stephen Michael

    2002-09-01

    This document describes the engineering activities that have been completed in support of the closure plan for the Idaho Nuclear Technology and Engineering Center (INTEC) CPP-603 Basin Water Treatment System. This effort includes detailed assessments of methods and equipment for performing work in four areas: 1. A cold (nonradioactive) mockup system for testing equipment and procedures for vessel cleanout and vessel demolition. 2. Cleanout of process vessels to meet standards identified in the closure plan. 3. Dismantlement and removal of vessels, should it not be possible to clean them to required standards in the closure plan. 4. Cleanout or removal of pipelines and pumps associated with the CPP-603 basin water treatment system. Cleanout standards for the pipes will be the same as those used for the process vessels.

  19. Towards development of an ozone compatible cooling water treatment

    SciTech Connect

    Rao, N.M. [Nalco Chemical Co., Naperville, IL (United States)

    1994-12-31

    The use of ozone as a biocide in conjunction with conventional chemical treatment for corrosion, scale and deposit control was investigated using bench top and process simulation experiments. Aspects of aqueous ozone chemistry relevant to cooling water operation were discussed. For a given water chemistry, the degradation kinetics of a given chemical vs. microbial kill rate was identified as the parameter of interest. A relatively ozone resistant phosphonate CaCO{sub 3} scale inhibitor and a calcium phosphate dispersant were identified. None of the commercially available yellow metal corrosion inhibitors, including tolyltriazole (TT) and butylbenzotriazole (BBT) were found to be ozone compatible. Results from a field application where ozone is used in conjunction with an identified ozone compatible treatment are presented.

  20. Marine testing board for certification of ballast water treatment technologies.

    PubMed

    Champ, Michael A

    2002-12-01

    The proposed MTB is a process to expedite the implementation of international standards and regulations, and the subsequent testing, certification, and regulatory approval of new ballast water treatment ("control") technologies. This would expedite their acceptance in the global marketplace and reduce risks of shipowners following international regulation. The cost to test and evaluate and certify new ballast water treatment technologies for the global marketplace has been estimated to be less than US $1 per day per ship. It is time for the shipping industry, national regulatory bodies, and IMO to endorse the concept of the MTB and for the shipping industry to support a proactive cost-saving solution for sustainable shipping and protecting the environment from unwanted invasions of aquatic species with their potential negative impacts. PMID:12523535

  1. Sunlight-induced photochemical decay of oxidants in natural waters: implications in ballast water treatment.

    PubMed

    Cooper, William J; Jones, Adam C; Whitehead, Robert F; Zika, Rod G

    2007-05-15

    The transport and discharge of ship ballast water has been recognized as a major vector for the introduction of invasive species. Chemical oxidants, long used in drinking water and wastewater treatment, are alternative treatment methods for the control of invasive species currently being tested for use on ships. One concern when a ballasted vessel arrives in port is the adverse effects of residual oxidant in the treated water. The most common oxidants include chlorine (HOCl/OCl-), bromine (HOBr/OBr-), ozone (03), hydrogen peroxide (H2O2), chlorine dioxide (ClO2), and monochloramine (NH2Cl). The present study was undertaken to evaluate the sunlight-mediated photochemical decomposition of these oxidants. Sunlight photodecomposition was measured at various pH using either distilled water or oligotrophic Gulf Stream water for specific oxidants. For selected oxidants, quantum yields at specific wavelengths were obtained. An environmental photochemical model, GCSOLAR, also provided predictions of the fate (sunlight photolysis half-lives) of HOCI/OCl-, HOBr/OBr-, ClO2, and NH2Cl for two different seasons at latitude 40 degrees and in water with two different concentrations of chromophoric dissolved organic matter. These data are useful in assessing the environmental fate of ballast water treatment oxidants if they were to be discharged in port. PMID:17547204

  2. CONVENTIONAL WATER TREATMENT AND DIRECT FILTRATION: TREATMENT AND REMOVAL OF TOTAL ORGANIC CARBON AND TRIHALOMETHANE PRECURSORS

    EPA Science Inventory

    After describing the fundamentals of coagulation of humic substances for alum and cationic polyelectrolytes, field studies of two conventional-type water treatment plants are discussed. THM formation through the plants is examined, and removals of total organic carbon (TOC) and T...

  3. Land disposal of water treatment plant sludge -- A feasibility analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Viraraghavan, T.; Multon, L.M.; Wasylenchuk, E.J.

    1998-07-01

    In this study, the following alternative disposal methods for the Buffalo Pound Water Treatment Sludge were evaluated: landfilling, discharge into sanitary sewers, long-term lagooning, use in manufacturing, co-composting, alum recovery and land application. Land application was chosen at the best disposal alternative. Preliminary design resulted in a 1% dry alum sludge loading rate (25 tonnes/ha), requiring 35 ha over a nine-year period and a phosphorus fertilizer supplement of about 50kg/ha.

  4. Coupling of waste water treatment with storage polymer production

    Microsoft Academic Search

    H. Chua; P. H. F. Yu; L. Y. Ho

    1997-01-01

    Storage polymers in bacterial cells can be extracted and used as biodegradable thermoplastics. However, widespread applications\\u000a have been limited by high production costs. In this study, activated sludge bacteria in a conventional waste water treatment\\u000a system were induced, by controlling the carbon-nitrogen (C:N) ratio in the reactor liquor, to accumulate storage polymers.\\u000a Specific polymer yield increased to a maximum of

  5. Influence of Water Treatment Residuals on Phosphorus Solubility and Leaching

    Microsoft Academic Search

    H. A. Elliott; G. A. O'Connor; P. Lu; S. Brinton

    2002-01-01

    Laboratory and greenhouse studies compared the ability of water treatment residuals (WTRs) to alter P solubility and leaching in Immo- kalee sandy soil (sandy, siliceous, hyperthermic Arenic Alaquod) amended with biosolids and triple superphosphate (TSP). Aluminum sulfate (Al-WTR) and ferric sulfate (Fe-WTR) coagulation residuals, a lime softening residual (Ca-WTR) produced during hardness re- moval, and pure hematite were examined. In

  6. Influence of softening sequencing on electrocoagulation treatment of produced water.

    PubMed

    Esmaeilirad, Nasim; Carlson, Ken; Omur Ozbek, Pinar

    2015-02-11

    Electrocoagulation has been used to remove solids and some metals from both water and wastewater sources for decades. Additionally, chemical softening is commonly employed in water treatment systems to remove hardness. This paper assesses the combination and sequence of softening and EC methods to treat hydraulic fracturing flowback and produced water from shale oil and gas operations. EC is one of the available technologies to treat produced water for reuse in frac fluids, eliminating not only the need to transport more water but also the costs of providing fresh water. In this paper, the influence of chemical softening on EC was studied. In the softening process, pH was raised to 9.5 and 10.2 before and after EC, respectively. Softening, when practiced before EC was more effective for removing turbidity with samples from wells older than one month (99% versus 88%). However, neither method was successful in treating samples collected from early flowback (1-day and 2-day samples), likely due to the high concentration of organic matter. For total organic carbon, hardness, Ba, Sr, and B removal, application of softening before EC appeared to be the most efficient approach, likely due to the formation of solids before the coagulation process. PMID:25464315

  7. Recovery of Iron Coagulants From Tehran Water-Treatment-Plant Sludge for Reusing in Textile Wastewater Treatment

    Microsoft Academic Search

    F Vaezi; F Batebi; Gh Moosavi

    Most of the water treatment plants in Iran discharge their sludge to the environment whithout consideration of possible side effects. Since this kind of sludge is generally considered pollutant, the sludge treatment of water industry seems to be an essential task. Obviously theweight and volume of solids produced during the coagulation process are much more than other wastes of water

  8. Reliability analysis of an advanced water treatment facility

    SciTech Connect

    Eisenberg, D.; Olivieri, A.; Soller, J.; Gagliardo, P.

    1998-07-01

    The evaluation of wastewater treatment plant reliability is an important component in the assessment of potential impacts associated with any wastewater discharge of water reuse project. The reliability of the San Diego Aqua III Advanced Water Treatment (AWT) facility is probabilistically analyzed using data collected between October 1994 and September 1995. Reliability is evaluated in terms of the facility's ability produce a consistent effluent quality and the probability of failure of mechanical components. The analysis includes characterizing the effluent from individual unit processes in terms of magnitude and variability of concentration of a number of pollutants, and expressing the mechanical reliability of the system in terms of equipment availability. Pollutants used to characterize treatment performance include physical parameters, nitrogen compounds, anions, trace and major metals, organic compounds, and bacteriological indicators. The results show that the Aqua III AWT produced a highly consistent effluent with minimal variation, and that the mechanical systems were available nearly 100% of the time. It is demonstrated that mechanical failures did not significantly affect effluent quality. The methodology that was used for this analysis is applicable to any continuous treatment or production process in which the effectiveness of individual process units can be determined by direct measurements or by analysis of specific or indicator constituents.

  9. Kinetics and mechanism of dimethoate chlorination during drinking water treatment.

    PubMed

    Tian, Fang; Liu, Wenjun; Guo, Guang; Qiang, Zhimin; Zhang, Can

    2014-05-01

    Dimethoate (DMT), a commonly used organophosphorus pesticide, is of great concern because of its toxicity and potentially harmful effects on water sources. The elimination of DMT as well as the toxicity and persistence of the byproducts formed during DMT degradation is most important for the safety of drinking water. This study first determined the reaction kinetics of DMT with free chlorine (FC) under typical water treatment conditions. The reaction between DMT and FC proceeded rapidly, exhibiting first-order with respect to each reactant. The degradation of DMT by FC was highly pH dependent, and the pseudo-first-order rate constant decreased obviously from 0.13 to 0.02 s(-1) with an increase in pH from 7.0 to 8.3. Bromide ion accelerated the reaction by acting as a catalyst, and the accelerated reaction rate was linearly proportional to the bromide concentration. As a ubiquitous component in natural waters, humic acid also increased the reaction rate. However, the presence of ammonium inhibited the degradation of DMT due to its rapid converting FC to chloramines. Omethoate (OMT) was identified as an important byproduct of DMT chlorination, but only accounted for ca. 28% of the DMT degraded; and other two organic byproducts were also identified. The acute toxicity of DMT solution increased after treatment with FC due to the formation of more toxic byproducts (e.g. OMT). PMID:24377445

  10. Selenium adsorption to aluminum-based water treatment residuals

    SciTech Connect

    Ippolito, James A.; Scheckel, Kirk G.; Barbarick, Ken A.; (US-Agriculture); (EPA); (CSU)

    2009-09-02

    Aluminum-based water treatment residuals (WTR) can adsorb water- and soil-borne P, As(V), As(III), and perchlorate, and may be able to adsorb excess environmental selenium. WTR, clay minerals, and amorphous aluminum hydroxide were shaken for 24 h in selenate or selenite solutions at pH values of 5-9, and then analyzed for selenium content. Selenate and selenite adsorption edges were unaffected across the pH range studied. Selenate adsorbed on to WTR, reference mineral phases, and amorphous aluminum hydroxide occurred as outer sphere complexes (relatively loosely bound), while selenite adsorption was identified as inner-sphere complexation (relatively tightly bound). Selenite sorption to WTR in an anoxic environment reduced Se(IV) to Se(0), and oxidation of Se(0) or Se(IV) appeared irreversible once sorbed to WTR. Al-based WTR could play a favorable role in sequestering excess Se in affected water sources.

  11. Natural organic matter removal by coagulation during drinking water treatment: A review

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Anu Matilainen; Mikko Vepsäläinen; Mika Sillanpää

    2010-01-01

    Natural organic matter (NOM) is found in all surface, ground and soil waters. An increase in the amount of NOM has been observed over the past 10–20years in raw water supplies in several areas, which has a significant effect on drinking water treatment. The presence of NOM causes many problems in drinking water and drinking water treatment processes, including (i)

  12. Characterization of hydraulic fracturing flowback water in Colorado: Implications for water treatment.

    PubMed

    Lester, Yaal; Ferrer, Imma; Thurman, E Michael; Sitterley, Kurban A; Korak, Julie A; Aiken, George; Linden, Karl G

    2015-04-15

    A suite of analytical tools was applied to thoroughly analyze the chemical composition of an oil/gas well flowback water from the Denver-Julesburg (DJ) basin in Colorado, and the water quality data was translated to propose effective treatment solutions tailored to specific reuse goals. Analysis included bulk quality parameters, trace organic and inorganic constituents, and organic matter characterization. The flowback sample contained salts (TDS=22,500mg/L), metals (e.g., iron at 81.4mg/L) and high concentration of dissolved organic matter (DOC=590mgC/L). The organic matter comprised fracturing fluid additives such as surfactants (e.g., linear alkyl ethoxylates) and high levels of acetic acid (an additives' degradation product), indicating the anthropogenic impact on this wastewater. Based on the water quality results and preliminary treatability tests, the removal of suspended solids and iron by aeration/precipitation (and/or filtration) followed by disinfection was identified as appropriate for flowback recycling in future fracturing operations. In addition to these treatments, a biological treatment (to remove dissolved organic matter) followed by reverse osmosis desalination was determined to be necessary to attain water quality standards appropriate for other water reuse options (e.g., crop irrigation). The study provides a framework for evaluating site-specific hydraulic fracturing wastewaters, proposing a suite of analytical methods for characterization, and a process for guiding the choice of a tailored treatment approach. PMID:25658325

  13. Water Quality Improvements with the Use of Ozone at the Los Angeles Water Treatment Plant

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Duane L. Georgeson; Ali A. Karimi

    1988-01-01

    At 600 mgd (2,270 ML\\/day), the recently completed Los Angeles Aqueduct Filtration Plant (LAAFP) is one of the world's largest water' treatment facilities utilizing ozone for pretreatment. The treatment process features direct filtration at rates of up to 13.5 gpm\\/ft (33 m\\/h). Under the optimized full-scale operation, preozonation has resulted in significantly reduced THM levels and very low effluent turbidity

  14. Effect of cascade biological pretreatment of raw water with algae on conventional water treatment process

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Guangcan Zhu; Chaowen Fan; Yue Zhou; Xiwu Lu

    2011-01-01

    A cascade biological pretreatment reactor(CBPR) was used to improve the removal rates of ammonia, small molecule organic compounds and microcystins from eutrophic raw water. The pilot-scale installation was run continually based on the conventional water treatment process(CWTP) and the process combined with biological pretreatment(BPTP). The effluents of each reactor were analyzed. The results show that CBPR removes more than 75%

  15. Disposal of water treatment wastes containing arsenic - a review.

    PubMed

    Sullivan, Colin; Tyrer, Mark; Cheeseman, Christopher R; Graham, Nigel J D

    2010-03-15

    Solid waste management in developing countries is often unsustainable, relying on uncontrolled disposal in waste dumps. Particular problems arise from the disposal of treatment residues generated by removing arsenic (As) from drinking water because As can be highly mobile and has the potential to leach back to ground and surface waters. This paper reviews the disposal of water treatment wastes containing As, with a particular emphasis on stabilisation/solidification (S/S) technologies which are currently used to treat industrial wastes containing As. These have been assessed for their appropriateness for treating As containing water treatment wastes. Portland cement/lime mixes are expected (at least in part) to be appropriate for wastes from sorptive filters, but may not be appropriate for precipitative sludges, because ferric flocs often used to sorb As can retard cement hydration. Brine resulting from the regeneration of activated alumina filters is likely to accelerate cement hydration. Portland cement can immobilize soluble arsenites and has been successfully used to stabilise As-rich sludges and it may also be suitable for treating sludges generated from precipitative removal units. Oxidation of As(III) to As(V) and the formation of calcium-arsenic compounds are important immobilisation mechanisms for As in cements. Geopolymers are alternative binder systems that are effective for treating wastes rich in alumina and metal hydroxides and may have potential for As wastes generated using activated alumina. The long-term stability of cemented, arsenic-bearing wastes is however uncertain, as like many cements, they are susceptible to carbonation effects which may result in the subsequent re-release of As. PMID:20153878

  16. Clean option: Berkeley Pit water treatment and resource recovery strategy

    SciTech Connect

    Gerber, M.A.; Orth, R.J.; Elmore, M.R.; Monzyk, B.F.

    1995-09-01

    The US Department of Energy (DOE), Office of Technology Development, established the Resource Recovery Project (RRP) in 1992 as a five-year effort to evaluate and demonstrate multiple technologies for recovering water, metals, and other industrial resources from contaminated surface and groundwater. Natural water resources located throughout the DOE complex and the and western states have been rendered unusable because of contamination from heavy metals. The Berkeley Pit, a large, inactive, open pit copper mine located in Butte, Montana, along with its associated groundwater system, has been selected by the RRP for use as a feedstock for a test bed facility located there. The test bed facility provides the infrastructure needed to evaluate promising technologies at the pilot plant scale. Data obtained from testing these technologies was used to assess their applicability for similar mine drainage water applications throughout the western states and at DOE. The objective of the Clean Option project is to develop strategies that provides a comprehensive and integrated approach to resource recovery using the Berkeley Pit water as a feedstock. The strategies not only consider the immediate problem of resource recovery from the contaminated water, but also manage the subsequent treatment of all resulting process streams. The strategies also employ the philosophy of waste minimization to optimize reduction of the waste volume requiring disposal, and the recovery and reuse of processing materials.

  17. Assessing the risk of ballast water treatment to human health.

    PubMed

    Banerji, Sangeeta; Werschkun, Barbara; Höfer, Thomas

    2012-04-01

    Ballast water management systems utilizing noxious chemicals have to be approved according to the Ballast Water Convention by the International Maritime Organization (IMO). The approval procedure requires human health risk assessment. Our objective was to evaluate the existing human health risk assessment process for ballast water management systems. Towards this end, we analyzed the available applications for IMO approval. Since the majority of active substances currently in use are oxidative compounds the corresponding treatment systems generate and release a large number of disinfection by-products. The application dossiers only select a number of by-products for risk assessment. We propose a more comprehensive approach based on the type of ballast water management system, the quality of water treated and the toxicity of compounds discharged into the environment. Subsequent to effects assessment we propose to classify substances according to a hazard evaluation procedure, based on an approach used for maritime transport. We identified a need for better exposure assessment. This requires knowledge of exposure situations. We provide a comprehensive listing of occupational and non-occupational exposure settings and quantification models for exposure assessment. PMID:22107915

  18. Water

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Dr. Frank Dunnivant

    2008-02-20

    Water is an environmental chemistry Flash video designed to give students and educators an informative look into Water Treatment and Waste Water Treatment. It covers a variety of water and waste water treatment plants and processes including: Watersheds, Ozonation, Chlorination, Flocculation, Sand Filtration, Trickling Filters, Activated Sludge, and more. This program includes both live video and animations.~~~~

  19. An Integrated Water Treatment Technology Solution for Sustainable Water Resource Management in the Marcellus Shale

    SciTech Connect

    Matthew Bruff; Ned Godshall; Karen Evans

    2011-04-30

    This Final Scientific/ Technical Report submitted with respect to Project DE-FE0000833 titled 'An Integrated Water Treatment Technology Solution for Sustainable Water Resource Management in the Marcellus Shale' in support of final reporting requirements. This final report contains a compilation of previous reports with the most current data in order to produce one final complete document. The goal of this research was to provide an integrated approach aimed at addressing the increasing water resource challenges between natural gas production and other water stakeholders in shale gas basins. The objective was to demonstrate that the AltelaRain{reg_sign} technology could be successfully deployed in the Marcellus Shale Basin to treat frac flow-back water. That objective has been successfully met.

  20. 1. DOMESTIC WATER SUPPLY TREATMENT HOUSE, ON PENSTOCK ABOVE SAR1. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. DOMESTIC WATER SUPPLY TREATMENT HOUSE, ON PENSTOCK ABOVE SAR-1. VIEW TO NORTWEST. - Santa Ana River Hydroelectric System, SAR-1 Domestic Water Supply Treatment House, Redlands, San Bernardino County, CA

  1. REGULATIONS ON THE DISPOSAL OF ARSENIC RESIDUALS FROM DRINKING WATER TREATMENT PLANTS

    EPA Science Inventory

    This report summarizes federal and selected state regulations that govern the management of residuals produced by small water treatment systems removing arsenic from drinking water. The document focuses on the residuals produced by five treatment processes: anion exchange, activa...

  2. Adsorption of Roxarsone onto Drinking Water Treatment Residuals: Preliminary Studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Salazar, J.; Sarkar, D.; Datta, R.; Sharma, S.

    2006-05-01

    Roxarsone (3-nitro-4-hydroxyphenyl-arsonic acid) is an organo-arsenical compound, commonly used as a feed additive in the broiler poultry industry to control coccidial intestinal parasites. Roxarsone is not toxic to the birds not only because of the low dose, and also because it most likely does not convert to toxic inorganic arsenic (As) in their systems. However, upon excretion, roxarsone may undergo transformation to inorganic As, posing a serious risk of contaminating the agricultural land and water bodies via surface runoff or leaching. The use of poultry litter as fertilizer results in As accumulation rates of up to 50 metric tons per year in agricultural lands. The immediate challenge, as identified by the various regulatory bodies in recent years is to develop an efficient, yet cost-effective and environmentally sound approach to cleaning up such As- contaminated soils. Recent studies conducted by our group have suggested that the drinking water treatment residuals (WTRs) can effectively retain As, thereby decreasing its mobility in the environment. The WTRs are byproducts of drinking water treatment processes and are typically composed of amorphous Fe/Al oxides, activated C and cationic polymers. They can be obtained free-of-cost from water treatment plants. It is well demonstrated that the environmental mobility of As is controlled by adsorption/desorption reactions onto mineral surfaces. Hence, knowledge of adsorption and desorption of As onto the WTRs is of environmental relevance. The reported study examined the adsorption and desorption characteristics of As using two types of WTRs, namely the Fe-WTRs (byproduct of Fe salt treatment), and the Al-WTRs (byproduct of Al salt treatment). All adsorption experiments were carried out in batch and As retention on the WTRs was investigated as a function of solid/solution ratio (1:5, 1:10, 1:25 and 1:50), equilibration time (10 min - 48 hr), pH (2 - 10) and initial As load (100, 500, 1000 and 2000 mg As/L). The above parameters were varied one at a time to study their effects on roxarsone adsorption. Desorption studies were carried out using 125 mg/L phosphorous at predetermined interval of time. In addition to analyzing for total As by an ICP-MS, aqueous speciation of As was performed using a coupled HPLC-ICP-MS system. Preliminary studies show significant roxarsone adsorption capacity of the WTRs.

  3. Solar trough concentration for fresh water production and waste water treatment

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. Scrivani; T. El Asmar; U. Bardi

    2007-01-01

    The present paper examines the concept of utilizing trough type solar concentration plants for water production, remediation and waste treatment. Solar trough plants are a mature technology which deserves to be diffused throughout the European Union and in the partner countries of the Mediterranean Area. The present study is intended to find applications of the solar through concentration technology beyond

  4. Mathematics for Water and Wastewater Treatment Plant Operators. Water and Wastewater Training Program.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    South Dakota Dept. of Environmental Protection, Pierre.

    This booklet is intended to aid the prospective waste treatment plant operator or drinking water plant operator in learning to solve mathematical problems, which is necessary for Class I certification. It deals with the basic mathematics which a Class I operator may require in accomplishing day-to-day tasks. The book also progresses into problems…

  5. MICROBIOLOGICAL CHANGES IN SOURCE WATER TREATMENT: REFLECTIONS IN DISTRIBUTION WATER QUALITY

    EPA Science Inventory

    Microbial quality in the distribution system is a reflection of raw source water characteristics, treatment process configurations and their modifications. ased on case history experiences there may at times be a microbial breakthrough that is caused by fluctuations in raw surfac...

  6. Introduction to Chemistry for Water and Wastewater Treatment Plant Operators. Water and Wastewater Training Program.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    South Dakota Dept. of Environmental Protection, Pierre.

    Presented are basic concepts of chemistry necessary for operators who manage drinking water treatment plants and wastewater facilities. It includes discussions of chemical terms and concepts, laboratory procedures for basic analyses of interest to operators, and discussions of appropriate chemical calculations. Exercises are included and answer…

  7. Evaluations of membrane fouling potential in water treatment applications

    SciTech Connect

    Tu, S.C.; Ravindran, V.; Pirbazari, M.

    1999-07-01

    Membrane processes such as ultrafiltration, nanofiltration, and reverse osmosis are becoming increasingly popular in water treatment utilities because of their ability to produce high finished water quality. A major problem affecting the economics of these processes is permeate flux decline due to membrane fouling. The types of membrane fouling can be broadly categorized as follows: organic fouling, biofouling, colloidal fouling, inorganic fouling, and precipitation scaling. The membrane performance with respect to resistance to fouling as well as rejection characteristics is an important consideration. Selection of appropriate membranes for performance improvement in water treatment applications mandates the evaluation of the fouling potential, an aspect related to the membrane material, membrane type, nature of feed solution, and interactions between membranes and solutes. In the present study, the membrane fouling potential is evaluated by membrane performance tests with respect to permeate flux and solute rejections, and by membrane surface characterization techniques including measurements of membrane sorption, zeta potential, contact angles, and membrane surface morphology. These surface characterization techniques are intended to evaluate membrane sorption characteristics (with respect to foulants), membrane surface hydrophobicity, membrane surface charge under different solution conditions, and changes on membrane surface topography on the clean and fouled membranes.

  8. Ferrates: greener oxidants with multimodal action in water treatment technologies.

    PubMed

    Sharma, Virender K; Zboril, Radek; Varma, Rajender S

    2015-02-17

    Conspectus One of the biggest challenges for humanity in the 21st century is easy access to purified and potable water. The presence of pathogens and toxins in water causes more than two million deaths annually, mostly among children under the age of five. Identifying and deploying effective and sustainable water treatment technologies is critical to meet the urgent need for clean water globally. Among the various agents used in the purification and treatment of water, iron-based materials have garnered particular attention in view of their special attributes such as their earth-abundant and environmentally friendly nature. In recent years, higher-valent tetraoxy iron(VI) (Fe(VI)O4(2-), Fe(VI)), commonly termed, ferrate, is being explored for a broad portfolio of applications, including a greener oxidant in synthetic organic transformations, a water oxidation catalyst, and an efficient agent for abatement of pollutants in water. The use of Fe(VI) as an oxidant/disinfectant and further utilization of the ensuing iron(III) oxides/hydroxide as coagulants are other additional attributes of ferrate for water treatment. This multimodal action and environmentally benign character of Fe(VI) are key advantages over other commonly used oxidants (e.g., chlorine, chlorine dioxide, permanganate, hydrogen peroxide, and ozone). This Account discusses current state-of-the-art applications of Fe(VI) and the associated unique chemistry of these high-valence states of iron. The main focus centers around the description and salient properties of ferrate species involving various electron transfer and oxygen-atom transfer pathways in terms of presently accepted mechanisms. The mechanisms derive the number of electron equivalents per Fe(VI) (i.e., oxidation capacity) in treating various contaminants. The role of pH in the kinetics of the reactions and in determining the removal efficiency of pollutants is highlighted; the rates of competing reactions of Fe(VI) with itself, water, and the contaminants, which are highly pH dependent, determine the optimum pH range of maximum efficacy. The main emphasis of this account is placed on cases where various modes of ferrate action are utilized, including the treatment of nitrogen- and sulfur-containing waste products, antibiotics, viruses, bacteria, arsenic, and heavy metals. For example, the oxidative degradation of N- and S-bearing contaminants by Fe(VI) yields either Fe(II) or Fe(III) via the intermediacy of Fe(IV) and Fe(V) species, respectively (e.g., Fe(VI) ? Fe(IV) ? Fe(II) and Fe(VI) ? Fe(V) ? Fe(III)). Oxidative transformations of antibiotics such as trimethoprim by Fe(VI) generate products with no residual antibiotic activity. Disinfection and inactivation of bacteria and viruses can easily be achieved by Fe(VI). Advanced applications involve the use of ferrate for the degradation of cyanobacteria and microcystin originating from algal blooms and for covalently embedding arsenic and heavy metals into the structure of formed magnetic iron(III) oxides, therefore preventing their leaching. Applications of state-of-the-art analytical techniques, namely, in situ Mössbauer spectroscopy, rapid-freeze electron paramagnetic resonance, nuclear forward scattering of synchrotron radiation, and mass spectrometry will enhance the mechanistic understanding of ferrate species. This will make it possible to unlock the true potential of ferrates for degrading emerging toxins and pollutants, and in the sustainable production and use of nanomaterials in an energy-conserving environment. PMID:25668700

  9. Current and Long-Term Effects of Delta Water Quality on Drinking Water Treatment Costs from Disinfection Byproduct Formation

    E-print Network

    Chen, Wei-Hsiang; Haunschild, Kristine; Lund, Jay R.; Fleenor, William E.

    2010-01-01

    Delta water Annualized Treatment Cost a ($ af -1 ) Plant andwater treatment plants to remove organic matter, so only annual O&M coststreatment plants to use other water sources or stored higher-quality waters to avoid additional treat- ment costs and

  10. INTERGRATING SOURCE WATER PROTECTION AND DRINKING WATER TREATMENT: U.S. ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY'S WATER SUPPLY AND WATER RESOURCES DIVISION

    EPA Science Inventory

    The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's (EPA) Water Supply and Water Resources Division (WSWRD) is an internationally recognized water research organization established to assist in responding to public health concerns related to drinking water supplies. WSWRD has evolved from...

  11. INTEGRATING SOURCE WATER PROTECTION AND DRINKING WATER TREATMENT: U.S. ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY'S WATER SUPPLY AND WATER RESOURCES DIVISION

    EPA Science Inventory

    The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's (EPA) Water Supply and Water Resources Division (WSWRD) is an internationally recognized water research organization established to assist in responding to public health concerns related to drinking water supplies. WSWRD has evolved from...

  12. Water balance of rice plots under three different water treatments: monitoring activity and experimental results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chiaradia, Enrico Antonio; Romani, Marco; Facchi, Arianna; Gharsallah, Olfa; Cesari de Maria, Sandra; Ferrari, Daniele; Masseroni, Daniele; Rienzner, Michele; Battista Bischetti, Gian; Gandolfi, Claudio

    2014-05-01

    In the agricultural seasons 2012 and 2013, a broad monitoring activity was carried out at the Rice Research Centre of Ente Nazionale Risi (CRR-ENR) located in Castello d'Agogna (PV, Italy) with the purpose of comparing the water balance components of paddy rice (Gladio cv.) under different water regimes and assessing the possibility of reducing the high water inputs related to the conventional practice of continuous submergence. The experiments were laid out in six plots of about 20 m x 80 m each, with two replicates for each of the following water regimes: i) continuous flooding with wet-seeded rice (FLD), ii) continuous flooding from around the 3-leaf stage with dry-seeded rice (3L-FLD), and iii) surface irrigation every 7-10 days with dry-seeded rice (IRR). One out of the two replicates of each treatment was instrumented with: water inflow and outflow meters, set of piezometers, set of tensiometers and multi-sensor moisture probes. Moreover, an eddy covariance station was installed on the bund between the treatments FLD and IRR. Data were automatically recorded and sent by a wireless connection to a PC, so as to be remotely controlled thanks to the development of a Java interface. Furthermore, periodic measurements of crop biometric parameters (LAI, crop height and rooting depth) were performed in both 2012 and 2013 (11 and 14 campaigns respectively). Cumulative water balance components from dry-seeding (3L-FLD and IRR), or flooding (FLD), to harvest were calculated for each plot by either measurements (i.e. rainfall, irrigation and surface drainage) or estimations (i.e. difference in the field water storage, evaporation from both the soil and the water surface and transpiration), whereas the sum of percolation and capillary rise (i.e. the 'net percolation') was obtained as the residual term of the water balance. Incidentally, indices of water application efficiency (evapotranspiration over net water input) and water productivity (grain production over net water input) were calculated for each treatment. The outcomes show that the water application efficiencies of all treatments were higher in 2013 than in 2012 (by 23%, 25% and 4% for FLD, 3L-FLD, and IRR respectively). These results could be ascribed to the higher groundwater level observed in 2013 (about 10-15 cm closer to the soil surface), likely due to the conversion of the field beyond the monitored plots from soybean to flooded rice. Moreover, a small increase of the water application efficiency of 3L-FLD was found if compared to FLD (3% on average), while the water application efficiency of IRR was, on average, higher by 67% compared to FLD. The good performance of IRR is related to lower percolation rates and a relevant contribution of capillary rise due to the shallow groundwater table maintained by the continuous submergence of the surrounding paddy fields. The performed experiment highlighted that significant improvement in the water use efficiency at the field scale can be achieved. However, a widespread adoption of water regimes different from continuous flooding should be carefully evaluated by a larger-scale approach since a consequent drop in the groundwater table depth could have repercussions on the potential gains themselves.

  13. Meeting the Need for Safe Drinking Water in Rural Mexico through Point-of-Use Treatment

    E-print Network

    Lang, Micah; Kaser, Forrest; Reygadas, Fermin; Nelson, Kara; Kammen, Daniel M.

    2006-01-01

    SODIS The lowest cost POU water treatment system is solarHigh initial costs put centralized water treatment and pipedcosts, the use of local labor and materials, and the provision of a residual that protects the water against recontamination following treatment.

  14. 21 CFR 1250.83 - Storage of water prior to treatment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ...2010-04-01 false Storage of water prior to treatment. 1250.83 Section...1250.83 Storage of water prior to treatment. The following requirements...respect to the storage of water on vessels prior to treatment must be met in order...

  15. Application of biologically activated sorptive columns for textile waste water treatment

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. Paprowicz; S. S?odczyk

    1988-01-01

    Technological studies of mixture of communal and industrial waste water treatment on a pilot ? scale are described in the paper. Treatment of waste waters mixture was carried out in the following stages: coagulation, sedimentation, filtration, and sorption. After pre ?treatment and the removal of the suspension, waste water was directed on 3 columns filled with granular activated carbon. Waste

  16. 21 CFR 1250.83 - Storage of water prior to treatment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ...2012-04-01 false Storage of water prior to treatment. 1250.83 Section...1250.83 Storage of water prior to treatment. The following requirements...respect to the storage of water on vessels prior to treatment must be met in order...

  17. www.barrandwray.com Barr + Wray 2013 The Treatment of Scottish Water

    E-print Network

    Painter, Kevin

    www.barrandwray.com © Barr + Wray 2013 The Treatment of Scottish Water for Private Communities + Wray 2013 Contents B+W Overview Our Approach Water Sources Treatment Decision Trees Case Study Water Treatment Company. Glasgow based SME with over 50 years experience. More than 200 reference sites

  18. A mathematical programming model for water usage and treatment network design

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ching-Huei Huang; Chuei-Tin Chang; Han-Chern Ling; C. C. Chang

    1999-01-01

    A mathematical programming model is proposed in this paper for determining the optimal water usage and treatment network (WUTN) in any chemical plant, which features the least amount of fresh water consumption and\\/or minimum wastewater treatment capacity. In particular, because design equations of all wastewater treatment facilities and all units which utilize either process or utility water are included in

  19. September 3, 1999 Characterization of Arsenic Occurrence in US Drinking Water Treatment

    E-print Network

    September 3, 1999 Characterization of Arsenic Occurrence in US Drinking Water Treatment Facility in treatment facility finished water may not be low enough to adequately reduce exposure to the carcinogen occurrence in raw water and the costs and removal efficiencies of various treatment options. J.R. Lockwood

  20. Modification and modeling of water ingress in limestone after application of a biocalcification treatment

    E-print Network

    to the water transfer properties of the stone, attributable to the bio- treatment, were measured and quantified. Bio-treatment has a limited service life over the period of the experimental run. Abstract Water. As water is involved in many types of stone decay [1], different surface treatments aimed at avoiding

  1. 21 CFR 1250.83 - Storage of water prior to treatment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ...2013-04-01 false Storage of water prior to treatment. 1250.83 Section...1250.83 Storage of water prior to treatment. The following requirements...respect to the storage of water on vessels prior to treatment must be met in order...

  2. 21 CFR 1250.83 - Storage of water prior to treatment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ...2014-04-01 false Storage of water prior to treatment. 1250.83 Section...1250.83 Storage of water prior to treatment. The following requirements...respect to the storage of water on vessels prior to treatment must be met in order...

  3. 21 CFR 1250.83 - Storage of water prior to treatment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ...2011-04-01 false Storage of water prior to treatment. 1250.83 Section...1250.83 Storage of water prior to treatment. The following requirements...respect to the storage of water on vessels prior to treatment must be met in order...

  4. Crumb rubber filtration: a potential technology for ballast water treatment.

    PubMed

    Tang, Zhijian; Butkus, Michael A; Xie, Yuefeng F

    2006-05-01

    The removal of turbidity, particles, phytoplankton and zooplankton in water by crumb rubber filtration was investigated. A substantial reduction was achieved. Of the three variables, filter depth, media size and filtration rate, media size had the most significant influence. Smaller media size favored higher removal efficiency of all targeted matter. There was no apparent relationship between removal efficiency and filter depth. Higher filtration rate resulted in lower removal efficiency and higher head loss. Compared with conventional granular media filters, crumb rubber filters required less backwash, and developed lower head loss. Consequently crumb rubber filters could be run for a longer time or allow a higher filtration rate. The results also indicate that the crumb rubber filtration alone did not achieve the target removal of invasive species. However, crumb rubber filtration could potentially be used as a primary treatment technology to enhance the efficiency of a secondary treatment process (e.g., disinfection). PMID:16458350

  5. Ship board testing of a deoxygenation ballast water treatment.

    PubMed

    McCollin, Tracy; Quilez-Badia, Gemma; Josefsen, Kjell D; Gill, Margaret E; Mesbahi, Ehsan; Frid, Chris L J

    2007-08-01

    A ship board trial of a deoxygenation method for treating ballast water was carried out during a voyage from Southampton (United Kingdom) to Manzanillo (Panama). A nutrient solution added to two ballast tanks encouraged bacterial growth, resulting in a gradual change to an anoxic environment. Samples were taken from two treated tanks and two untreated tanks to assess changes in the abundance and viability of zooplankton, phytoplankton and bacteria. The work was carried out before the International Maritime Organization (IMO) standard was agreed so only a broad indication of whether the results achieved the standard was given. For the zooplankton, the standard would have been achieved within 5 or 7 days but the phytoplankton results were inconclusive. The biological efficacy was the result of the combination of several factors, including the treatment, pump damage and an increase in the water temperature during the voyage. PMID:17574278

  6. Enhanced performance of crumb rubber filtration for ballast water treatment.

    PubMed

    Tang, Zhijian; Butkus, Michael A; Xie, Yuefeng F

    2009-03-01

    Waste-tire-derived crumb rubber was utilized as filter media to develop an efficient filter for ballast water treatment. In this study, the effects of coagulation, pressure filtration and dual-media (gravity) filtration on the performance of the crumb rubber filtration were investigated. The removal efficiencies of turbidity, phytoplankton and zooplankton, and head loss development were monitored during the filtration process. The addition of a coagulant enhanced the removal efficiencies of all targeted matter, but resulted in substantial increase of head loss. Pressure filtration increased filtration rates to 220 m(3)h(-1)m(-2) for 8-h operation and improved the zooplankton removal. Dual-media (crumb rubber/sand) gravity filtration also improved the removal efficiencies of phytoplankton and zooplankton over mono-media gravity crumb rubber filtration. However, these filtration techniques alone did not meet the criteria for removing indigenous organisms from ballast water. A combination of filtration and disinfection is suggested for future studies. PMID:19117590

  7. Treatment of oilfield produced water by waste stabilization ponds.

    PubMed

    Shpiner, R; Vathi, S; Stuckey, D C

    2007-01-01

    Produced water (PW) from oil wells can serve as an alternative water resource for agriculture if the main pollutants (hydrocarbons and heavy metals) can be removed to below irrigation standards. Waste stabilization ponds seem like a promising solution for PW treatment, especially in the Middle East where solar radiation is high and land is available. In this work, hydrocarbon removal from PW in a biological waste stabilization pond was examined at lab-scale followed by an intermittent slow sand filter. The system was run for 300 days and removed around 90% of the oil in the pond, and 95% after the sand filter. COD removal was about 80% in the pond effluent, and 85% after the filter. The system was tested under various operational modes and found to be stable to shock loads. Installation of oil booms and decantation of surface oil seem to be important in order to maintain good system performance over time. PMID:17591220

  8. Characterization and treatment of the phosphoric gypsum transport water.

    PubMed

    Orescanin, Visnja; Mikelic, Luka; Tomasic, Nenad; Medunic, Gordana; Kampic, Stefica; Mikulic, Nenad; Rubcic, Mirta; Lulic, Stipe; Harambasic, Matija

    2009-06-01

    This paper presents a new treatment procedure applied on phosphogypsum transport water. Untreated transport water is highly acidic (pH 1.79), having fluoride content of 1540 mg/L and elevated values of phosphates (215 mg/L) and heavy metals (Fe=25.8 mg/L; Zn=5.7 mg/L; Mn=2.7 mg/L, V=1.7 mg/L). Neutralization/purification of the transport water was carried out with wood fly ash, otherwise a rich source of calcium, composed of calcite, dipotassium calcium carbonate and hydroxylapatite. Maximum removal efficiency of fluoride was observed at pH 7 (99.99%) and phosphate at pH 9 (96.29%). The removal of fluorides was a consequence of the formation of fluorite and fluorapatite mineral phases derived from the reaction of calcium (released from the fly ash minerals) and fluorides (from the transport water). The removal of phosphates resulted from the formation of fluorapathite and hydroxilapatite. At the optimum conditions removal efficiencies for the elements Pb, V, Cr(VI), Mn, Fe, Ni, Cu, and Zn were 95%, 98.14%, 91.11%, 100%, 99.71%, 96.33%, 97.24%, and 99.65%, respectively. Optimal heavy metal removal occurred in major cases at pH 7. PMID:19412850

  9. Measurement of near-surface seismic compressional wave velocities using refraction tomography at a proposed construction site on the Presidio of Monterey, California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Powers, Michael H.; Burton, Bethany L.

    2012-01-01

    The U.S. Army Corps of Engineers is determining the feasibility of constructing a new barracks building on the U.S. Army Presidio of Monterey in Monterey, California. Due to the presence of an endangered orchid in the proposed area, invasive techniques such as exploratory drill holes are prohibited. To aid in determining the feasibility, budget, and design of this building, a compressional-wave seismic refraction survey was proposed by the U.S. Geological Survey as an alternative means of investigating the depth to competent bedrock. Two sub-parallel profiles were acquired along an existing foot path and a fence line to minimize impacts on the endangered flora. The compressional-wave seismic refraction tomography data for both profiles indicate that no competent rock classified as non-rippable or marginally rippable exists within the top 30 feet beneath the ground surface.

  10. New developments in upgrading waste-water treatment plant effluent using ultrafiltration

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jaap H. J. M. van der Graaf; Jelle H. Roorda

    2000-01-01

    In the Netherlands interest in advanced treatment is increasing now that almost all waste-water treatment plants apply full biological treatment and nutrient removal. Membrane filtration, especially ultrafiltration, of waste-water treatment plant effluent appears to be a very promising method. However, many experiments show a rapid decrease in flux, which means that frequent and intensive cleaning is required. Various methods for

  11. COST-EFFECTIVE ACID ROCK DRAINAGE WATER TREATMENT APPLIED TO MINING-IMPACTED WATERSHEDS1

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. A. Chermak; B. Wielinga; E. G. Wyatt; J. Taylor

    The application of three different Acid Rock Drainage (ARD) water treatment technologies will be discussed. The first water treatment technology results discussed are from laboratory and field treatability studies that used low volumes of high Total Dissolved Solids (TDS) ARD water to treat much larger volumes of lower TDS water to reach applicable ecological standards in the effluent stream. The

  12. Integrated optimization of a waste water treatment plant using statistical analysis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Frank Halters; Edwin Zondervan; Andre de Haan

    2010-01-01

    In this research, a waste water treatment plant is systematically optimized. The waste water treatment plant is used to remove aluminium from waste water using precipitation, flocculation and flotation. In total 40 variables influence the combined unit. After systematic selection, the number of variables was reduced to six: the waste water flow, pH, agitation velocity, amount of poly-electrolyte, amount of

  13. Management of Concentrated Waste Streams from High-Pressure Membrane Water Treatment Systems

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Stuart J. Khan; David Murchland; Michelle Rhodes; T. David Waite

    2009-01-01

    The sustainable management of concentrated waste streams from high-pressure membrane-based water treatment processes are commonly the greatest limitations to the implementation of such processes. This applies to seawater desalination, brackish water desalination, groundwater softening, surface water treatment, and municipal water reclamation. This review provides an analysis of the potential environmental implications of concentrate disposal to marine, freshwater, and terrestrial environments.

  14. Point-of-entry drinking-water treatment systems for Superfund applications

    Microsoft Academic Search

    C. D. Chambers; T. A. Janszen

    1989-01-01

    The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) and State Superfund agencies need a technical manual to assist their personnel in the selection of an effective drinking-water treatment system for individual households in areas where the drinking water has been adversely affected by Superfund site contaminants and no other alternative water supply is available or feasible. Commercially available water treatment systems for

  15. CONSTRUCTED WETLAND TREATMENT SYSTEMS FOR WATER QUALITY IMPROVEMENT

    SciTech Connect

    Nelson, E.

    2010-07-19

    The Savannah River National Laboratory implemented a constructed wetland treatment system (CWTS) in 2000 to treat industrial discharge and stormwater from the Laboratory area. The industrial discharge volume is 3,030 m{sup 3} per day with elevated toxicity and metals (copper, zinc and mercury). The CWTS was identified as the best treatment option based on performance, capital and continuing cost, and schedule. A key factor for this natural system approach was the long-term binding capacity of heavy metals (especially copper, lead, and zinc) in the organic matter and sediments. The design required that the wetland treat the average daily discharge volume and be able to handle 83,280 m{sup 3} of stormwater runoff in a 24 hour period. The design allowed all water flow within the system to be driven entirely by gravity. The CWTS for A-01 outfall is composed of eight one-acre wetland cells connected in pairs and planted with giant bulrush to provide continuous organic matter input to the system. The retention basin was designed to hold stormwater flow and to allow controlled discharge to the wetland. The system became operational in October of 2000 and is the first wetland treatment system permitted by South Carolina DHEC for removal of metals. Because of the exceptional performance of the A-01 CWTS, the same strategy was used to improve water quality of the H-02 outfall that receives discharge and stormwater from the Tritium Area of SRS. The primary contaminants in this outfall were also copper and zinc. The design for this second system required that the wetland treat the average discharge volume of 415 m{sup 3} per day, and be able to handle 9,690 m{sup 3} of stormwater runoff in a 24 hour period. This allowed the building of a system much smaller than the A-01 CWTS. The system became operational in July 2007. Metal removal has been excellent since water flow through the treatment systems began, and performance improved with the maturation of the vegetation during the first season of growth of each system. Sediment samples after the first and third years of operation indicated that copper was being bound in the sediments very rapidly after entering the treatment system. The design of the system encourages low redox and sulfide production in the sediments. The objective is to stabilize metals, including mercury, as sulfide compounds in the sediments. Costs for maintenance and operation of the systems are minimal, consisting primarily of ensuring that the pipes are not clogged and that water is flowing through the system. The treatment cost per thousand gallons is many times less than conventional wastewater treatment facilities. Life expectancy and function of the biological system is based on the life of the engineering aspects and not the wetland ecology.

  16. Removal of coagulant aluminum from water treatment residuals by acid.

    PubMed

    Okuda, Tetsuji; Nishijima, Wataru; Sugimoto, Mayo; Saka, Naoyuki; Nakai, Satoshi; Tanabe, Kazuyasu; Ito, Junki; Takenaka, Kenji; Okada, Mitsumasa

    2014-09-01

    Sediment sludge during coagulation and sedimentation in drinking water treatment is called "water treatment residuals (WTR)". Polyaluminum chloride (PAC) is mainly used as a coagulant in Japan. The recycling of WTR has been desired; one method for its reuse is as plowed soil. However, WTR reuse in this way is inhibited by the aluminum from the added PAC, because of its high adsorption capacity for phosphate and other fertilizer components. The removal of such aluminum from WTR would therefore be advantageous for its reuse as plowed soil; this research clarified the effect of acid washing on aluminum removal from WTR and on plant growth in the treated soil. The percentage of aluminum removal from raw WTR by sulphuric acid solution was around 90% at pH 3, the percentage decreasing to 40% in the case of a sun-dried sample. The maximum phosphate adsorption capacity was decreased and the available phosphorus was increased by acid washing, with 90% of aluminum removal. The enhancement of Japanese mustard spinach growth and the increased in plant uptake of phosphates following acid washing were observed. PMID:24835954

  17. THE USE OF RANDOMIZED CONTROLLED TRIALS OF IN-HOME DRINKING WATER TREATMENT TO STUDY ENDEMIC WATERBORNE DISEASE

    EPA Science Inventory

    Randomized trials of water treatment have demonstrated the ability of simple water treatments to significantly reduce the incidence of gastrointestinal illnesses in developing countries where drinking water is of poor quality. Whether or not additional treatment at the tap reduc...

  18. Optimization of conventional water treatment plant using dynamic programming.

    PubMed

    Mostafa, Khezri Seyed; Bahareh, Ghafari; Elahe, Dadvar; Pegah, Dadras

    2013-04-26

    In this research, the mathematical models, indicating the capability of various units, such as rapid mixing, coagulation and flocculation, sedimentation, and the rapid sand filtration are used. Moreover, cost functions were used for the formulation of conventional water and wastewater treatment plant by applying Clark's formula (Clark, 1982). Also, by applying dynamic programming algorithm, it is easy to design a conventional treatment system with minimal cost. The application of the model for a case reduced the annual cost. This reduction was approximately in the range of 4.5-9.5% considering variable limitations. Sensitivity analysis and prediction of system's feedbacks were performed for different alterations in proportion from parameters optimized amounts. The results indicated (1) that the objective function is more sensitive to design flow rate (Q), (2) the variations in the alum dosage (A), and (3) the sand filter head loss (H). Increasing the inflow by 20%, the total annual cost would increase to about 12.6%, while 20% reduction in inflow leads to 15.2% decrease in the total annual cost. Similarly, 20% increase in alum dosage causes 7.1% increase in the total annual cost, while 20% decrease results in 7.9% decrease in the total annual cost. Furthermore, the pressure decrease causes 2.95 and 3.39% increase and decrease in total annual cost of treatment plants. PMID:23625909

  19. Use of ceregenins to create novel biofouling resistant water water-treatment membranes.

    SciTech Connect

    Kirk, Matthew F.; Jones, Howland D. T.; Feng, Yanshu; McGrath, Lucas K.; Altman, Susan Jeanne; Pollard, Jacob; Hibbs, Michael R.; Savage, Paul B.

    2010-05-01

    Scoping studies have demonstrated that ceragenins, when linked to water-treatment membranes have the potential to create biofouling resistant water-treatment membranes. Ceragenins are synthetically produced molecules that mimic antimicrobial peptides. Evidence includes measurements of CSA-13 prohibiting the growth of and killing planktonic Pseudomonas fluorescens. In addition, imaging of biofilms that were in contact of a ceragenin showed more dead cells relative to live cells than in a biofilm that had not been treated with a ceragenin. This work has demonstrated that ceragenins can be attached to polyamide reverse osmosis (RO) membranes, though work needs to improve the uniformity of the attachment. Finally, methods have been developed to use hyperspectral imaging with multivariate curve resolution to view ceragenins attached to the RO membrane. Future work will be conducted to better attach the ceragenin to the RO membranes and more completely test the biocidal effectiveness of the ceragenins on the membranes.

  20. A Case Study of the DAF-based Drinking Water Treatment Plant in Korea

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Byeong-Yong Sohn; Tae-Joon Park; Byung Soo Oh; Soon-Buhm Kwon; Joon-Wun Kang

    2008-01-01

    Since 2003, a full-scale dissolved air flotation (DAF) process has been operated by the Korea Water Resources Corporation (K-Water) in the Songjeon drinking water treatment plant (SWTP). The SWPT was designed with an adaptable operation mode so that it is able to produce safe and stable drinking water, even when the raw water is in very poor condition. The adaptable

  1. FERRATES: SYNTHESIS, PROPERTIES AND APPLICATIONS IN WATER AND WASTEWATER TREATMENT.

    SciTech Connect

    CABELLI, D.E.; SHARMA, V.K.

    2006-05-19

    The higher oxidation states of iron (Fe(VI) and Fe(V) in particular) have been shown to be strongly oxidizing in enzymatic systems, where they can carry out aliphatic hydrogen abstraction. In addition, they have been postulated as intermediates in Fenton-type systems. Fe(VI) itself is relatively stable and has been shown to have potential as an oxidant in the so-called ''green'' treatment of polluted waters. By contrast, Fe(V) is a relatively short-lived transient when produced in aqueous solution in the absence of strongly bonding ligands other than hydroxide, a feature that has limited studies of its reactivity. Fe(VI) has been proposed to be useful in battery design and a very interesting study suggested that ferrate may be able to oxidize insoluble chromium to chromate and thus serve to remove chromium contamination in the Hanford radioactive waste tanks.

  2. Risk management program for the 283-W water treatment facility

    SciTech Connect

    GREEN, W.E.

    1999-05-11

    This Risk Management (RM) Program covers the 283-W Water Treatment Facility (283W Facility), located in the 200 West Area of the Hanford Site. A RM Program is necessary for this facility because it stores chlorine, a listed substance, in excess of or has the potential to exceed the threshold quantities defined in Title 40 of the Code of Federal Regulations (CFR) Part 68 (EPA, 1998). The RM Program contains data that will be used to prepare a RM Plan, which is required by 40 CFR 68. The RM Plan is a summary of the RM Program information, contained within this document, and will be submitted to the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) ultimately for distribution to the public. The RM Plan will be prepared and submitted separately from this document.

  3. A Comparative Risk Approach to Assessing Point-of-Use Water treatment Systems in Developing Countries

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. Varghese

    Unsafe water is a leadingcause of death and disease in economically disadvantaged societies. The development of centralized large-scale water treatment and supply systems has proven to be a slow, expensive strategy to provide safe drinking water in many low-income countries. Governments and non-governmental organizations have therefore increasingly been promoting point-of-use water treatment technologies in communities without reliable municipal water supplies.

  4. Economies of size in municipal water treatment technologies: Texas lower Rio Grande Valley

    E-print Network

    Boyer, Christopher Neil

    2008-10-10

    from four water treatment facilities in the Texas Lower Rio Grande Valley (LRGV). The methodology and results can have direct implications on future water planning. iv Economic and financial life-cycle costs were estimated for a “small”- conventional... for Cost of Treating Water at the 2.0 mgd Olmito Conventional Surface-Water Treatment Facility, in 2006 Dollars . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 38 Table 10. Baseline Life-Cycle Costs of Treating Water, by Cost...

  5. Long-term Impact of Integration of Household Water Treatment and Hygiene Promotion with Antenatal Services on Maternal Water Treatment and Hygiene Practices in Malawi

    PubMed Central

    Loharikar, Anagha; Russo, Elizabeth; Sheth, Anandi; Menon, Manoj; Kudzala, Amose; Tauzie, Blessius; Masuku, Humphreys D.; Ayers, Tracy; Hoekstra, Robert M.; Quick, Robert

    2013-01-01

    A clinic-based program to integrate antenatal services with distribution of hygiene kits including safe water storage containers, water treatment solution (brand name WaterGuard), soap, and hygiene education, was implemented in Malawi in 2007 and evaluated in 2010. We surveyed 389 participants at baseline in 2007, and found and surveyed 232 (60%) participants to assess water treatment, test stored drinking water for residual chlorine (an objective measure of treatment), and observe handwashing technique at follow-up in 2010. Program participants were more likely to know correct water treatment procedures (67% versus 36%; P < 0.0001), treat drinking water with WaterGuard (24% versus 2%; P < 0.0001), purchase and use WaterGuard (21% versus 1%; P < 0.001), and demonstrate correct handwashing technique (50% versus 21%; P < 0.001) at the three-year follow-up survey than at baseline. This antenatal-clinic-based program may have contributed to sustained water treatment and proper handwashing technique among program participants. PMID:23243106

  6. Reliable water supply by reusing wastewater after membrane treatment

    Microsoft Academic Search

    James Schaefer

    2001-01-01

    Wastewater reuse is a very reliable source of water supply for water short areas. Integrated membrane systems (IMS), microfiltration or ultrafiltration followed by reverse osmosis (RO), are frequently used for these applications to reliably produce high quality water for aquifer recharge, industrial uses, and irrigation. The reused water can guard against water shortages caused by droughts or increased potable-water usage,

  7. Evaluation of hybrid treatments to produce high quality reuse water.

    PubMed

    Luiz, D B; Silva, G S; Vaz, E A C; José, H J; Moreira, R F P M

    2011-01-01

    Four tertiary hybrid treatments to produce high quality reused water, fulfilling Brazilian drinking water regulations, from a slaughterhouse's secondary treated effluent were evaluated. The pilot plant with a capacity of 500 L h(-1) was set up and consisted of these stages: pre-filtration system (cartridge filter 50 micron, activated carbon filter, cartridge filter 10 micron), oxidation (H2O2) or second filtration (ceramic filter, UF) followed by UV radiation (90 L h(-1)). The best combination was T4: pre-filtration followed by H2O2 addition and UV radiation (AOP H2O2/UV). Disinfection kinetics by T4 followed pseudo first-order kinetics: k(T4) = 0.00943 s(-1) or 0.00101 cm2 mJ(-1). Three different zones (A, B, C) were observed in the UV254 degradation kinetics (pseudo-first order kinetics): k' decreased over time (k'(A) > k'(B) > k'(C)). PMID:21902048

  8. AN INVESTIGATION OF ARSENIC MOBILITY FROM IRON OXIDE SOLIDS PRODUCED DURING DRINKING WATER TREATMENT

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Arsenic Rule under the Safe Drinking Water Act will require certain drinking water suppliers to add to or modify their existing treatment in order to comply with the regulations. One of the treatment options is iron co-precipitation. This treatment is attractive because ars...

  9. AN OVERVIEW PAPER OF USEPA AND USDA DRINKING WATER TREATMENT SYSTEM DEMONSTRATIONS IN CHINA

    EPA Science Inventory

    Under an interagency agreement with the US Department of Agriculture, US EPA is coordinating support for several water treatment research demonstrations in China. EPA has installed two small drinking water treatment technologies (a bottled water system for a small community and ...

  10. AN OVERVIEW PRESENTATION OF USEPA AND USDA DRINKING WATER TREATMENT SYSTEM DEMONSTRATIONS IN CHINA

    EPA Science Inventory

    Under an interagency agreement with the US Department of Agriculture, US EPA is coordinating support for several water treatment research demonstrations in China. EPA has installed two small drinking water treatment technologies (a bottled water system for a small community and ...

  11. Dewatering behaviour of water treatment sludges associated with contaminated site remediation in Antarctica

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Kathy A. Northcott; Ian Snape; Peter J. Scales; Geoff W. Stevens

    2005-01-01

    Sludge reduction and dewatering is an important aspect of water and waste water treatment. This is especially true in the case of Australia's Antarctic contaminated site remediation program, where the reduction in volume of wastes to be returned to Australia can lead to significant transport and handling cost savings. The dewatering characterisation of water treatment sludges from an Antarctic contaminated

  12. Application of artificial neural networks to the real time operation of water treatment plants

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. Mirsepassi; B. Cathers; H. B. Dharmappa

    1995-01-01

    The water industry is facing increased pressure to produce higher quality treated water at a lower cost. The efficiency of a treatment process closely relates to the operation of the plant. To improve the operating performance, an artificial neural network (ANN) paradigm has been applied to a water treatment plant. An ANN which is able to learn the non-linear performance

  13. Recovery of alum from wasted sludge produced from water treatment plants

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. S. E. Abdo; K. T. Ewida; Y. M. Youssef

    1993-01-01

    Alum is used in the coagulation of raw water in almost all water treatment plants world?wide. The sludge produced from this process is usually thrown away i.e. wasted. In Egypt, thousands of tons of alum are used annually in water treatment plants across the country costing millions of dollars. This paper deals with the recovery of most alum available at

  14. Infield monitoring of cleaning efficiency in waste water treatment plants using two phenol-sensitive biosensors

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Catalin Nistor; Andreas Rose; Marinella Farré; Leonard Stoica; Ulla Wollenberger; Tautgirdas Ruzgas; Dorothea Pfeiffer; Damià Barceló; Lo Gorton; Jenny Emnéus

    2002-01-01

    Two amperometric biosensors based on the enzymes cellobiose dehydrogenase (CDH) and quinoprotein-dependent glucose dehydrogenase (GDH), have been applied for monitoring the phenolic content in water samples, collected at different stages of a waste water treatment process, thus representing different cleaning levels of two waste water treatment plants (WWTPs). The biosensor measurements were performed in-field, compared with the results obtained by

  15. Desalination and Water Treatment 16 (2010) 354380 www.deswater.com April

    E-print Network

    Lienhard V, John H.

    Desalination and Water Treatment 16 (2010) 354­380 www.deswater.com April 1944 and Water Treatment 16 (2010) 354­380 355 have important effects in system level design: density, specific in the development and design of desalination systems. Literature contain many data for the properties of sea- water

  16. Impact of backwashing on nitrification in the biological activated carbon filters used in drinking water treatment

    Microsoft Academic Search

    P. Laurent; A. Kihn; A. Andersson; P. Servais

    2003-01-01

    Nitrification during biological filtration is currently used in drinking water production to remove ammonia, which is the source of several water quality problems during treatment and distribution. We evaluated here the impact of backwashing on nitrification efficiency in filters used for drinking water treatment. Two different granular activated carbon (one open and one closed carbon superstructure) were tested. Ammonia removal

  17. Development of a Water Treatment Plant Operation Manual Using an Algorithmic Approach.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Counts, Cary A.

    This document describes the steps to be followed in the development of a prescription manual for training of water treatment plant operators. Suggestions on how to prepare both flow and narrative prescriptions are provided for a variety of water treatment systems, including: raw water, flocculation, rapid sand filter, caustic soda feed, alum feed,…

  18. Catalytic membrane reactor for water and wastewater treatment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heng, Samuel

    A double membrane reactor was fabricated and assessed for continuous treatment of water containing organic contaminants by ozonation. This innovative reactor consisted of a zeolite membrane prepared on the inner surface of a porous a-alumina support, which served as water selective extractor and active contactor, and a porous stainless membrane which was the ozone gas diffuser. The coupling of membrane separation and chemical oxidation was found to be highly beneficial to both processes. The total organic carbon (TOC) removal rate at the retentate was enhanced by up to 2.2 times, as compared to membrane ozonation. Simultaneously, clean water (< 2 mg C.L-1 ) was consistently produced on the permeate side, using a feed solution containing up to 1000 mg C.L-1, while the retentate was concentrated and treated. Most significantly, the addition of an adsorbing material, as a bed or a coated layer, onto the pores of the membrane support, was shown to further enhance TOC degradation, permeated TOC concentration, permeate flux, and moreover, ozone yield. The achievements of this project included: (1) The development of a novel low-temperature zeolite membrane activation method that generates consistently high quality membranes (i.e. high reproducibility and fewer defects). (2) The demonstration that gamma-alumina and gamma-alumina supported catalysts do not have significant activity and that the TOC removal enhancement usually observed during catalytic ozonation was due primarily to the contribution of adsorption and metal leaching. Thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) and elemental analysis (EA) of the spent catalyst showed that, during catalytic ozonation, oxygenated by-products of increased adsorbability were concentrated onto the gamma-alumina contactor, and were subsequently degraded. (3) The development of a method for coating high surface area gamma-alumina layers onto the grains of zeolite membrane support used as the active membrane contactor.

  19. Clean water recycle in sugar extraction process: Performance analysis of reverse osmosis in the treatment of sugar beet press water

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. Bogliolo; A. Bottino; G. Capannelli; M. De Petro; A. Servida; G. Pezzi; G. Vallini

    1997-01-01

    In the beet sugar manufacturing the treatment of the press water represents a challenging design task. In fact presently, press water is completely recycled to the extraction of sugar beet cossettes. Press water is essentially a dilute solution (1–3% total solids) containing, besides sugar (60–80% of the total solids), impurities in the form of dissolved species, salts, colloids, and suspended

  20. Relationship between Use of Water from Community-Scale Water Treatment Refill Kiosks and Childhood Diarrhea in Jakarta

    PubMed Central

    Sima, Laura C.; Desai, Mayur M.; McCarty, Kathleen M.; Elimelech, Menachem

    2012-01-01

    In developing countries, safe piped drinking water is generally unavailable, and bottled water is unaffordable for most people. Purchasing drinking water from community-scale decentralized water treatment and refill kiosks (referred to as isi ulang depots in Indonesia) is becoming a common alternative. This study investigates the association between diarrhea risk and community-scale water treatment and refill kiosk. We monitored daily diarrhea status and water source for 1,000 children 1–4 years of age in Jakarta, Indonesia, for up to 5 months. Among children in an urban slum, rate of diarrhea/1,000 child-days varied significantly by primary water source: 8.13 for tap water, 3.60 for bottled water, and 3.97 for water kiosks. In multivariable Poisson regression analysis, diarrhea risk remained significantly lower among water kiosk users (adjusted rate ratio [RR] = 0.49, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 0.29–0.83) and bottled water users (adjusted RR = 0.45, 95% CI = 0.21–0.97), compared with tap water users. In a peri-urban area, where few people purchased from water kiosk (N = 28, 6% of total population), diarrhea rates were lower overall: 2.44 for well water, 1.90 for bottled water, and 2.54 for water kiosks. There were no significant differences in diarrhea risk for water kiosk users or bottled water users compared with well water users. Purchasing water from low-cost water kiosks is associated with a reduction in diarrhea risk similar to that found for bottled water. PMID:23128290

  1. Relationship between use of water from community-scale water treatment refill kiosks and childhood diarrhea in Jakarta.

    PubMed

    Sima, Laura C; Desai, Mayur M; McCarty, Kathleen M; Elimelech, Menachem

    2012-12-01

    In developing countries, safe piped drinking water is generally unavailable, and bottled water is unaffordable for most people. Purchasing drinking water from community-scale decentralized water treatment and refill kiosks (referred to as isi ulang depots in Indonesia) is becoming a common alternative. This study investigates the association between diarrhea risk and community-scale water treatment and refill kiosk. We monitored daily diarrhea status and water source for 1,000 children 1-4 years of age in Jakarta, Indonesia, for up to 5 months. Among children in an urban slum, rate of diarrhea/1,000 child-days varied significantly by primary water source: 8.13 for tap water, 3.60 for bottled water, and 3.97 for water kiosks. In multivariable Poisson regression analysis, diarrhea risk remained significantly lower among water kiosk users (adjusted rate ratio [RR] = 0.49, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 0.29-0.83) and bottled water users (adjusted RR = 0.45, 95% CI = 0.21-0.97), compared with tap water users. In a peri-urban area, where few people purchased from water kiosk (N = 28, 6% of total population), diarrhea rates were lower overall: 2.44 for well water, 1.90 for bottled water, and 2.54 for water kiosks. There were no significant differences in diarrhea risk for water kiosk users or bottled water users compared with well water users. Purchasing water from low-cost water kiosks is associated with a reduction in diarrhea risk similar to that found for bottled water. PMID:23128290

  2. Arsenite Sorption by Drinking-Water Treatment Residuals: Redox Effects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Makris, K. C.; Sarkar, D.; Datta, R.

    2005-05-01

    Arsenic (As) is a major human carcinogen and could pose a serious human health risk at concentrations as low as 50 ppb in drinking water. Elevated As concentrations in soils currently used for residential purposes (located on former agricultural lands amended with arsenical pesticides) have increased the possibility of human contact with soil-As. Studies have shown that As bioavailability in the environment is primarily a function of its chemical speciation, which depends upon the redox potential. Arsenic toxicity and carcinogenicity to living organisms is primarily due to exposure to the reduced species of As - arsenite, i.e., As(III), rather than the oxidized species - arsenate, i.e., As(V); the mobility of As(III) is much higher than As(V). One of the most promising methods to decrease the mobility of arsenite in the soil-water system is promoting its retention onto amorphous Fe/Al hydroxides. Drinking-Water Treatment Residuals (WTRs) are an inexpensive source of such Fe/Al hydroxides, which can be land-applied following the USEPA-regulated biosolids application rules. The WTRs are byproducts of drinking-water purification processes and generally contain sediment, organic carbon, and Al/Fe hydroxides. The hydroxides are typically amorphous and have tremendous affinity for oxyanions (e.g., arsenate). Preliminary work showed that WTRs are characterized by large internal surface area and porosity that partly explains their high affinity for As(V). The current study examines the potential of two WTRs (Fe-based and Al-based) to adsorb arsenite from solution. We hypothesize that As(III) adsorption onto the Fe-based WTR (whose stability is highly redox-sensitive) would be vastly different from the adsorption of As(III) onto the redox-insensitive Al-based WTR. Our main objective is to characterize As(III) sorption by both Fe- and Al-based WTRs by changing critical factors, such as the solid:solution ratio, contact time, and initial As(III) load. Results from this study are expected to identify the optimal conditions for As(III) sorption onto WTRs as a function of solution pH and redox potential. Potential desorption of the retained As will be assessed in batch studies using phosphate as the competing ligand.

  3. Biological treatment of fruit and vegetable processing waste water

    Microsoft Academic Search

    R. M. Sterritt; J. N. Lester

    1982-01-01

    This paper reviews the methods available for the treatment of wastes from the vegetable and fruit processing and canning industries. Emphasis is placed upon biological treatment processes and the problems encountered in each case. The most successful methods of treatment are described in relation to optimising treatment efficiency and costs and potential developments in treatment technology are discussed.

  4. Comparative analysis of effluent water quality from a municipal treatment plant and two on-site wastewater treatment systems.

    PubMed

    Garcia, Santos N; Clubbs, Rebekah L; Stanley, Jacob K; Scheffe, Brian; Yelderman, Joe C; Brooks, Bryan W

    2013-06-01

    Though decentralized on-site technologies are extensively employed for wastewater treatment around the globe, an understanding of effluent water quality impairments associated with these systems remain less understood than effluent discharges from centralized municipal wastewater treatment facilities. Using a unique experimental facility, a novel comparative analysis of effluent water quality was performed from model decentralized aerobic (ATS) and septic (STS) on-site wastewater treatment systems and a centralized municipal wastewater treatment plant (MTP). The ATS and STS units did not benefit from further soil treatment. Each system received common influent wastewater from the Waco, Texas, USA Metropolitan Area Regional Sewerage System. We tested the hypothesis that MTP effluent would exhibit higher water quality than on-site effluents, based on parameters selected for study. A tiered testing approach was employed to assess the three effluent discharges: select routine water quality parameters (Tier I), whole effluent toxicity (Tier II), and select endocrine-active compounds (Tier III). Contrary to our hypothesis, ATS effluent was not statistically different from MTP effluents, based on Tier I and III parameters, but reproductive responses of Daphnia magna were slightly more sensitive to ATS than MTP effluents. STS effluent water quality was identified as most degraded of the three wastewater treatment systems. Parameters used to assess centralized wastewater treatment plant effluent water quality such as whole effluent toxicity and endocrine active substances appear useful for water quality assessments of decentralized discharges. Aerobic on-site wastewater treatment systems may represent more robust options than traditional septic systems for on-site wastewater treatment in watersheds with appreciable groundwater - surface water exchange. PMID:23557723

  5. Comparative health-effects assessment of drinking-water-treatment technologies. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1988-03-09

    On October 8-9, 1987 the Drinking Water Subcommittee of the Science Advisory Board's Environmental Health Committee met to independently review of Office of Drinking Water report to Congress entitled Comparative Health Effects Assessment of Drinking Water Treatment Technologies. The objective of the report is to compare the health effects resulting from the use of different drinking-water-treatment technologies with those prevented by biological treatment. The Subcommittee concludes that the constraints of time and available budget, the report adequately surveys the available information on health effects pf chemicals involved in water treatment, including cost estimates. The rationale for the specific approach used in examining water-treatment processes should be articulated. The introduction should also clearly state that there is a disparity in knowledge for the various treatment techniques.

  6. Upgrading Water Treatment Plants: An Alternative to New Construction

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Robert E. Forbes; Gary L. Nickerson; Herbert E. Hudson Jr.; Edmund G. Wagner

    1980-01-01

    Because of more stringent water quality requirements, many water utilities must reevaluate the operation of plant facilities to determine that optimum water quality is being provided in the most efficient and cost effective manner. Modifying unit processes of surface water filtration plants such as rapid mixing, flocculation, sedimentation, filtration, and process control can improve finished water quality, reduce operating costs,

  7. MODIFIED REVERSE OSMOSIS SYSTEM FOR TREATMENT OF PRODUCED WATERS

    SciTech Connect

    T.M. Whitworth; Liangxiong Li

    2002-09-15

    This report describes work performed during the first year of the project ''Modified Reverse Osmosis System for Treatment of Produced Waters.'' This research project has two objectives. The first objective is to test the use of clay membranes in the treatment of produced waters by reverse osmosis. The second objective is to test the ability of a system patented by the New Mexico Tech Research Foundation to remove salts from reverse osmosis waste streams as a solid. We performed 12 experiments using clay membranes in cross-flow experimental cells. We found that, due to dispersion in the porous frit used adjacent to the membrane, the concentration polarization layer seems to be completely (or nearly completely) destroyed at low flow rates. This observation suggests that clay membranes used with porous frit material many reach optimum rejection rates at lower pumping rates than required for use with synthetic membranes. The solute rejection efficiency decreases with increasing solution concentration. For the membranes and experiments reported here, the rejection efficiency ranged from 71% with 0.01 M NaCl solution down to 12% with 2.3 M NaCl solution. More compacted clay membranes will have higher rejection capabilities. The clay membranes used in our experiments were relatively thick (approximately 0.5 mm). The active layer of most synthetic membranes is only 0.04 {micro}m (0.00004 mm), approximately 1250 times thinner than the clay membranes used in these experiments. Yet clay membranes as thin as 12 {micro}m have been constructed (Fritz and Eady, 1985). Since Darcy's law states that the flow through a material of constant permeability is inversely proportional to it's the material's thickness, then, based on these experimental observations, a very thin clay membrane would be expected to have much higher flow rates than the ones used in these experiments. Future experiments will focus on testing very thin clay membranes. The membranes generally exhibited reasonable stable rejection rates over time for chloride for a range of concentrations between 0.01 and 2.5 M. One membrane ran in excess of three months with no apparent loss of usability. This suggests that clay membranes may have a long useable life. Twenty different hyperfiltration-induced solute precipitation experiments were either attempted or completed and are reported here. The results of these experiments suggest that hyperfiltration-induced solute precipitation is possible, even for very soluble substances such as NaCl. However, the precipitation rates obtained in the laboratory do not appear to be adequate for commercial application at this time. Future experiments will focus on making the clay membranes more compact and thinner in order to obtain higher flux rates. Two alternative methods of removing solutes from solution, for which the New Mexico Tech Research Foundation is preparing patent applications, are also being investigated. These methods will be described in the next annual report after the patent applications are filed. Technology transfer efforts included two meetings (one in Farmington NM, and one in Hobbs, NM) where the results of this research were presented to independent oil producers and other interested parties. In addition, members of the research team gave seven presentations concerning this research and because of this research project T. M. (Mike) Whitworth was asked to sit on the advisory board for development of a new water treatment facility for the City of El Paso, Texas. Several papers are in preparation for submission to peer-reviewed journals based on the data presented in this report.

  8. TREATMENT OF DRINKING WATER CONTAINING TRICHLOROETHYLENE AND RELATED INDUSTRIAL SOLVENTS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Volatile chlorinated and non-chlorinated compounds occur in both untreated and treated drinking water. Because volatilization is restricted, ground waters rather than surface waters are more likely to have high concentrations of these compounds. This document reviews properties, ...

  9. TREATMENT OF VOLATILE ORGANIC COMPOUNDS IN DRINKING WATER

    EPA Science Inventory

    Volatile chlorinated and non-chlorinated compounds occur in both untreated and treated drinking water. Because volatilization is restricted, ground waters rather than surface waters are more likely to have high concentrations of these compounds. This document reviews properties, ...

  10. Chemical Treatment Fosters Zero Discharge by Making Cooling Water Reusable

    E-print Network

    Boffardi, B. P.

    Over the past decade, the water requirements for cooling industrial manufacturing processes have changed dramatically. Once-through cooling has been largely replaced by open recirculating cooling water methods. This approach reduces water...

  11. Evaluation of Effectiveness Technological Process of Water Purification Exemplified on Modernized Water Treatment Plant at Otoczna

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jordanowska, Joanna; Jakubus, Monika

    2014-12-01

    The article presents the work of the Water Treatment Plant in the town of Otoczna, located in the Wielkopolska province, before and after the modernization of the technological line. It includes the quality characteristics of the raw water and treated water with particular emphasis on changes in the quality indicators in the period 2002 -2012 in relation to the physicochemical parameters: the content of total iron and total manganese, the ammonium ion as well as organoleptic parameters(colour and turbidity). The efficiency of technological processes was analysed, including the processes of bed start up with chalcedonic sand to remove total iron and manganese and ammonium ion. Based on the survey, it was found that the applied modernization helped solve the problem of water quality, especially the removal of excessive concentrations of iron, manganese and ammonium nitrogen from groundwater. It has been shown that one year after modernization of the technological line there was a high reduction degree of most parameters, respectively for the general iron content -99%, general manganese - 93% ammonia - 93%, turbidity - 94%. It has been proved, that chalcedonic turned out to be better filter material than quartz sand previously used till 2008. The studies have confirmed that the stage of modernization was soon followed by bed start-up for removing general iron from the groundwater. The stage of manganese removal required more time, about eight months for bed start-up. Furthermore, the technological modernization contributed to the improvement of the efficiency of the nitrification process.

  12. Household water treatment and safe storage options for Northern Region Ghana : consumer preference and relative cost

    E-print Network

    Green, Vanessa (Vanessa Layton)

    2008-01-01

    A range of household water treatment and safe storage (HWTS) products are available in Northern Region Ghana which have the potential to significantly improve local drinking water quality. However, to date, the region has ...

  13. Monitoring effective use of household water treatment and safe storage technologies in Ethiopia and Ghana

    E-print Network

    Stevenson, Matthew M

    2009-01-01

    Household water treatment and storage (HWTS) technologies dissemination is beginning to scale-up to reach the almost 900 million people without access to an improved water supply (WHO/UNICEF/JMP, 2008). Without well-informed ...

  14. 7 CFR 1780.63 - Sewage treatment and bulk water sales contracts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ...Sewage treatment and bulk water sales contracts. ...Section 1780.63 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) RURAL...SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE (CONTINUED) WATER AND WASTE LOANS...

  15. 7 CFR 1780.63 - Sewage treatment and bulk water sales contracts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ...Sewage treatment and bulk water sales contracts. ...Section 1780.63 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) RURAL...SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE (CONTINUED) WATER AND WASTE LOANS...

  16. 7 CFR 1780.63 - Sewage treatment and bulk water sales contracts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ...Sewage treatment and bulk water sales contracts. ...Section 1780.63 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) RURAL...SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE (CONTINUED) WATER AND WASTE LOANS...

  17. 7 CFR 1780.63 - Sewage treatment and bulk water sales contracts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ...Sewage treatment and bulk water sales contracts. ...Section 1780.63 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) RURAL...SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE (CONTINUED) WATER AND WASTE LOANS...

  18. Determining the removal effectiveness of flame retardants from drinking water treatment processes

    E-print Network

    Lin, Joseph C. (Joseph Chris), 1981-

    2004-01-01

    Low concentrations of xenobiotic chemicals have recently become a concern in the surface water environment. The concern expands to drinking water treatment processes, and whether or not they remove these chemicals while ...

  19. TREATMENT TECHNOLOGY TO MEET THE INTERIM PRIMARY DRINKING WATER REGULATIONS FOR INORGANICS: PART 5

    EPA Science Inventory

    The fifth in a series summarizing existing treatment technology to meet the inorganic National Interim Primary Drinking Water Regulations, this report describes current methods for removing barium and radionuclides from drinking water....

  20. Biological treatment of toxics in waste water: the problems and opportunities

    Microsoft Academic Search

    D. F. Bishop; N. A. Jaworski

    1987-01-01

    EPA research on toxics control in waste-water treatment involves three approaches: (1) specific toxics treatability to determine the respective contribution of the three removal mechanisms in conventional wastewater treatment; (2) toxicity detection and reduction in treatment and pretreatment; and (3) innovative concepts to enhance control of toxics in biological treatment. The goal of the treatability research is to develop predictive