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Sample records for pressure dbp readings

  1. Understanding Blood Pressure Readings

    MedlinePlus

    ... Pressure Tools & Resources Stroke More Understanding Blood Pressure Readings Updated:Aug 17,2016 Blood pressure is typically ... Your doctor should evaluate unusually low blood pressure readings. How is high blood pressure diagnosed? Your healthcare ...

  2. Measurement of arm blood pressure using different oscillometry manometers compared to auscultatory readings.

    PubMed

    Shahriari, Majid; Rotenberg, Daniel Kaminski; Nielsen, Jesper Kent; Wiinberg, Niels; Nielsen, Poul Ebbe

    2003-01-01

    Five different semiautomatic manometers were tested, where oscillometry is the measuring principle. Three of the manometers (Omron R4, A&D UB 322 and Braun) were wrist manometers, where the occluding cuff is placed around the volar surface of the wrist. Two of the manometers (A&D UA 777 and Omron M4) measure on the upper arm. The investigation included 72 patients with systolic blood pressure (SBP) ranging between 110 and 200, and diastolic blood pressure (DBP) between 62 and 114 mmHg. Forty-five of the subjects were on antihypertensive medication when the manometer tests were carried out. Each of the manometers was tested with double measurements of blood pressure against 2 x 2 auscultatory measurements done before and after the semiautomatic readings. The auscultatory measurements are all performed by the same observer, who was blinded for the measurements with semiautomatic manometers. The mean difference between the oscillometric recordings compared to auscultatory measurements varied from +1.2 to -8.5 mmHg for SBP and from -0.5 to -8.3 mmHg for DBP. However, the interindividual differences varied considerable with standard deviation of the difference varying from 8 to 18 mmHg for SBP with the highest values for wrist manometers. Concerning DBP, the standard deviation of difference for all five manometers was between 6 and 8 mmHg, with the highest values for wrist manometers. None of the tested manometers fulfilled the criteria for grading A or B in the previously introduced grading by the British Hypertension Society. To conclude, the upper-arm manometers have a measuring accuracy for SBP a little higher than that of the wrist manometers, while there is no bigger difference in the measuring accuracy of DBP. The most important point is that the measuring accuracy in a single patient is unpredictable. If home readings are prepared, a test of the accuracy against auscultatory recordings should be done in every single patient. In the clinical wards, it is

  3. Real-Time Detection of Dust Devils from Pressure Readings

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wagstaff, Kiri

    2009-01-01

    A method for real-time detection of dust devils at a given location is based on identifying the abrupt, temporary decreases in atmospheric pressure that are characteristic of dust devils as they travel through that location. The method was conceived for use in a study of dust devils on the Martian surface, where bandwidth limitations encourage the transmission of only those blocks of data that are most likely to contain information about features of interest, such as dust devils. The method, which is a form of intelligent data compression, could readily be adapted to use for the same purpose in scientific investigation of dust devils on Earth. In this method, the readings of an atmospheric- pressure sensor are repeatedly digitized, recorded, and processed by an algorithm that looks for extreme deviations from a continually updated model of the current pressure environment. The question in formulating the algorithm is how to model current normal observations and what minimum magnitude deviation can be considered sufficiently anomalous as to indicate the presence of a dust devil. There is no single, simple answer to this question: any answer necessarily entails a compromise between false detections and misses. For the original Mars application, the answer was sought through analysis of sliding time windows of digitized pressure readings. Windows of 5-, 10-, and 15-minute durations were considered. The windows were advanced in increments of 30 seconds. Increments of other sizes can also be used, but computational cost increases as the increment decreases and analysis is performed more frequently. Pressure models were defined using a polynomial fit to the data within the windows. For example, the figure depicts pressure readings from a 10-minute window wherein the model was defined by a third-degree polynomial fit to the readings and dust devils were identified as negative deviations larger than both 3 standard deviations (from the mean) and 0.05 mbar in magnitude. An

  4. Dual mode acoustic wave sensor for precise pressure reading

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mu, Xiaojing; Kropelnicki, Piotr; Wang, Yong; Randles, Andrew Benson; Chuan Chai, Kevin Tshun; Cai, Hong; Gu, Yuan Dong

    2014-09-01

    In this letter, a Microelectromechanical system acoustic wave sensor, which has a dual mode (lateral field exited Lamb wave mode and surface acoustic wave (SAW) mode) behavior, is presented for precious pressure change read out. Comb-like interdigital structured electrodes on top of piezoelectric material aluminium nitride (AlN) are used to generate the wave modes. The sensor membrane consists of single crystalline silicon formed by backside-etching of the bulk material of a silicon on insulator wafer having variable device thickness layer (5 μm-50 μm). With this principle, a pressure sensor has been fabricated and mounted on a pressure test package with pressure applied to the backside of the membrane within a range of 0 psi to 300 psi. The temperature coefficient of frequency was experimentally measured in the temperature range of -50 °C to 300 °C. This idea demonstrates a piezoelectric based sensor having two modes SAW/Lamb wave for direct physical parameter—pressure readout and temperature cancellation which can operate in harsh environment such as oil and gas exploration, automobile and aeronautic applications using the dual mode behavior of the sensor and differential readout at the same time.

  5. The effect of the first office blood pressure reading on hypertension-related clinical decisions.

    PubMed

    Oladipo, Idris; Ayoade, Adedokun

    2012-09-01

    The effect of the first office blood pressure reading (FBPR) on hypertension-related decisions was evaluated using blood pressure (BP) readings taken with the BpTRU BPM-100 device. BP readings were grouped into three pairs: (1) single readings (first and second readings), (2) computed average of three readings (one including and one excluding the first reading), and (3) computed average of five readings (one including and one excluding the first reading). Categorisation of BP readings under JNC-7 classes and distribution into < 140/90 and ≥ 140/90 mmHg groups were selected as parameters guiding hypertension-related decisions. Readings including FBPR had strong positive correlations to those excluding FBPR (Pearson's correlation coefficient ranged from 0.86-1.00). Also, FBPR-included and FBPR-excluded readings did not differ statistically in JNC-7 categorisation or distribution into < 140/90 or ≥ 140/90 mmHg groups. Our findings suggest that exclusion of FBPR may have no significant impact on hypertension-related clinical decisions. PMID:23044502

  6. Genomic structure of the human D-site binding protein (DBP) gene

    SciTech Connect

    Shutler, G.; Glassco, T.; Kang, Xiaolin

    1996-06-15

    The human gene for the D-Site Binding Protein (DBP) has been sequenced and characterized. This gene is a member of the b/ZIP family of transcription factors and is one of three genes forming the PAR sub-family. DBP has been implicated in the diurnal regulation of a variety of liver-specific genes. Examination of the genomic structure of DBP reveals that the gene is divided into four exons and is contained within a relatively compact region of approximately 6 kb. These exons appear to correspond to functional divisions the DBP protein. Exon 1 contains a long 5{prime} UTR, and conservation between the rat and the human genes of the presence of small open reading frames within this region suggests that is may play a role in translational control. Exon 2 contains a limited region of similarity to the other PAR domain genes, which may be part of a potential activation domain. Exon 3 contains the PAR domain and differs by only 1 of 71 amino acids between rat and human. Exon 4, containing both the basic and the leucine zipper domains, is likewise highly conserved. The overall degree of homology between the rat and the human cDNA sequences is 82% for the nucleic acid sequence and 92% for the protein sequence. comparison of the rat and human proximal promoters reveals extensive sequence conservation, with two previously characterized DNA binding sites being conserved at the functional and sequence levels. 31 refs., 4 figs.

  7. DBP formation of aquatic humic substances

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Pomes, M.L.; Green, W.R.; Thurman, E.M.; Orem, W.H.; Lerch, H.E.

    1999-01-01

    Aquatic humic substances (AHSs) in water generate potentially harmful disinfection by-products (DBPs) such as haloacetic acids (HAAs) and trihalomethanes (THMs) during chlorination. AHSs from two Arkansas reservoirs were characterized to define source, identify meta-dihydroxybenzene (m-DHB) structures as probable DBP precursors, and evaluate predicted HAA and THM formation potentials. Elemental nitrogen content 0.5 ??eq/mg, ??13C values of -27???, and low yields of syringyl phenols found by cupric oxide (CuO) oxidation suggest a pine tree source for the AHSs found in the Maumelle and Winona reservoirs in Little Rock, Ark. CuO oxidation yielded fewer m-DHB structures in Maumelle AHSs than in Winona AHSs. A higher 3,5-dihydroxybenzoic acid (3,5-DHBA) content correlated with increased HAA and THM formation potential. The 3,5-DHBA concentration in Winona AHSs was similar to the range found in AHSs extracted from deciduous leaf litter, twigs, and grass leachates.

  8. The control of N-DBP and C-DBP precursors with MIEX®.

    PubMed

    Gan, Xiaojie; Karanfil, Tanju; Kaplan Bekaroglu, S Sule; Shan, Junhong

    2013-03-01

    The objective of this study was to examine the potential of Magnetic Ion Exchange (MIEX(®)) technology for removing nitrogenous disinfection byproduct (N-DBP) precursors while minimizing carbonaceous DBP (C-DBP) precursors in (i) surface waters, and (ii) effluent impacted waters. Samples were collected from several drinking water source waters and wastewater treatment plant effluents. The effluent impacted source waters were simulated in the laboratory by mixing treated wastewater effluents with the same source water. Formation potential (FP) tests were conducted for regulated trihalomethanes (THMs), haloacetic acids (HAAs), and selected N-DBPs (nitrosamines and halonitromethanes (HNMs)) before and after the MIEX(®) treatment. The MIEX(®) process substantially lowered UV absorbance, total organic carbon, and THM and HAA FPs in all examined water samples, ranging from 39 to 87% reduction. A relatively small portion (9-33%) of HNM precursors was removed by the MIEX(®) treatment. On the other hand, an increase in N-nitrosodimethylamine (NDMA) FP was observed after the MIEX(®) process but only for the effluent impacted waters. Soluble metals, inorganic nitrogen, and bromide in effluent impacted waters did not correlate with the increase in NDMA FP. There was no effect of MIEX(®) treatment on the removal of other nitrosamine species precursors. Simulations of typical water treatment and distribution systems scenarios showed that NDMA concentrations remained below 10 ng/L, when chlorine alone or 40 min chlorine contact time prior to ammonia addition were employed for post-disinfection. However, when chlorine and ammonia were added simultaneously, NDMA concentration reached 36 ng/L for the water tested in the study. PMID:23286988

  9. Reading pulmonary vascular pressure tracings. How to handle the problems of zero leveling and respiratory swings.

    PubMed

    Kovacs, Gabor; Avian, Alexander; Pienn, Michael; Naeije, Robert; Olschewski, Horst

    2014-08-01

    The accuracy of pulmonary vascular pressure measurements is of great diagnostic and prognostic relevance. However, there is variability of zero leveling procedures, and the current recommendation of end-expiratory reading may not always be adequate. A review of physiological and anatomical data, supported by recent imaging, leads to the practical recommendation of zero leveling at the cross-section of three transthoracic planes, which are, respectively midchest frontal, transverse through the fourth intercostal space, and midsagittal. As for the inevitable respiratory pressure swings, end-expiratory reading at functional residual capacity allows for minimal influence of elastic lung recoil on pulmonary pressure reading. However, hyperventilation is associated with changes in end-expiratory lung volume and increased intrathoracic pressure, eventually exacerbated by expiratory muscle contraction and dynamic hyperinflation, all increasing pulmonary vascular pressures. This problem is amplified in patients with obstructed airways. With the exception of dynamic hyperinflation states, it is reasonable to assume that negative inspiratory and positive expiratory intrathoracic pressures cancel each other out, so averaging pulmonary vascular pressures over several respiratory cycles is most often preferable. This recommendation may be generalized for the purpose of consistency and makes sense, as pulmonary blood flow measurements are not corrected for phasic inspiratory and expiratory changes in clinical practice. PMID:24869464

  10. Dbp5, Gle1-IP6 and Nup159

    PubMed Central

    Folkmann, Andrew W.; Noble, Kristen N.; Cole, Charles N.

    2011-01-01

    Gene expression is a stepwise process involving distinct cellular processes including transcription, mRNA (mRNA) processing, mRNA export, and translation. As mRNAs are being synthesized, proteins associate with the RNA to form messenger ribonucleoprotein particles (mRNPs). Previous studies have demonstrated that the RNA-binding protein composition of these mRNPs is dynamic, changing as the mRNP moves through the different steps of gene expression, and playing a critical role in these events. An important step during this maturation process occurs at the cytoplasmic face of the nuclear pore complex (NPC) where the export protein Gle1 bound to inositol hexakisphosphate (IP6) spatially activates the ATP-hydrolysis and mRNP-remodeling activity of the DEAD-box protein Dbp5. Recent work from our laboratory and others has provided important insights into the function and regulation of Dbp5. These include a more detailed explanation of the mechanism of Dbp5 RNP remodeling, the role of Gle1-IP6 in stimulating Dbp5 ATPase activity, and the identification of a novel paradigm for regulation of Dbp5 by Nup159. Based on in vitro biochemical assays, X-ray crystallography, and corresponding in vivo phenotypes, we propose here an updated model of the Dbp5 cycle during mRNP export through the NPC. This takes into account all available data and provides a platform for future studies. PMID:22064466

  11. Reading.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mulford, Jeremy, Ed.

    1971-01-01

    A collection of articles reflecting the underlying concern of British contributors with continuity--conceiving reading and learning as a whole throughout the school years--comprises this special issue of "English in Education." Specific topics treated are: "What Children Learn in Learning to Read" by R. Morris; "Reading without Primers" by W.…

  12. Quality control of the blood pressure phenotype in the Gaoyou population study.

    PubMed

    Lu, Yi-Chao; Li, Shan-Shan; Zhang, Hai-Feng; Odili, Augustine N; Yao, Wen-Ming; Gong, Lei; Zhou, Yan-Li; Zhou, Fang; Yang, Rong; Sheng, Yan-Hui; Xu, Dong-Jie; Kong, Xiang-Qing; Staessen, Jan A; Li, Xin-Li

    2016-06-01

    The Korotkoff approach is the only blood pressure (BP) measurement technique that allows contemporary data to be compared with decades of research. We randomly recruited 4483 people (53.3% women; mean age 52.1 years) from Gaoyou County, Jiangsu Province, China. Nine observers recorded the participants™ BP three times consecutively following Chinese Society of Hypertension guidelines. We assessed the BP phenotype based on five criteria: completeness of readings, percentage of identical BP readings, odd BP readings, end-digit preference and trends in BP from the first to the third reading. The proportion of participants with identical readings were 2.0% and 3.1% for systolic (SBP) and diastolic blood pressure (DBP), respectively. Among 26,898 BP values, 0.3% ended in an odd number. Among observers, the prevalence of identical readings varied from 0% to 5.3% for SBP and from 0% to 6.8% for DBP. Compared with the expected frequency of 20%, those ending in 0 had a lower frequency (17.2%; p < 0.001), whereas those ending in 8 had a higher frequency (22.4%; p < 0.001). From the first to the third measurement, SBP and DBP decreased (p < 0.001) by 0.87 and 0.55 mmHg, respectively. In conclusion, the procedures set up in the Gaoyou study produced a high-quality BP phenotype. PMID:26581308

  13. DBP CONTROL IN DRINKING WATER: COST AND PERFORMANCE

    EPA Science Inventory

    The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (U.S. EPA) is currently attempting to balance the complex trade-offs in chemical and microbial risks associated with controlling disinfection and disinfection byproducts (D/DBP) in drinking water. In attempting to achieve this balance, the...

  14. RIVERBANK FILTRATION: FATE OF DBP PRECURSORS AND SELECTED MICROORGANISMS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The fate of disinfection by-product (DBP) precursors and selected microorganisms during riverbank filtration (RBF) was monitored at three different mid-Western drinking water utilities. At all three sites, filtration (RBF) was monitored at three different mid-Western drinking wa...

  15. IRIS Toxicological Review of Dibutyl Phthalate (Dbp) (Preliminary Assessment Materials)

    EPA Science Inventory

    In January 2015, EPA released the draft literature searches and associated search strategies, evidence tables, and exposure response arrays for DBP to obtain input from stakeholders and the public prior to developing the draft IRIS assessment. Specifically, EPA was interested in ...

  16. ANALYSIS OF ICR DATA TO PREDICT DBP FORMATION

    EPA Science Inventory

    This project is a cooperative agreement with the University of North Carolina and jointly funded by NRMRL/ORD and TSC/OGWDW/OW. It is entitled "Application of ICR Data to Analyze DBP Occurrence in the Context of Water Quality, Treatment and Distribution System Characteristics." ...

  17. DBP formation and disinfection under current and future climates - slides

    EPA Science Inventory

    How to predict and monitoring DBP formation under current and future climate is a challenge and important to water plant operations and water supply security. This presentation summarizes a system approach being developed at the EPA Water Resources Adaptation Program (WRAP).

  18. The Causal Effect of Vitamin D Binding Protein (DBP) Levels on Calcemic and Cardiometabolic Diseases: A Mendelian Randomization Study

    PubMed Central

    Leong, Aaron; Rehman, Waheed; Dastani, Zari; Greenwood, Celia; Timpson, Nicholas; Langsetmo, Lisa; Berger, Claudie; Fu, Lei; Wong, Betty Y. L.; Malik, Suneil; Malik, Rainer; Hanley, David A.; Cole, David E. C.; Goltzman, David; Richards, J. Brent

    2014-01-01

    Background Observational studies have shown that vitamin D binding protein (DBP) levels, a key determinant of 25-hydroxy-vitamin D (25OHD) levels, and 25OHD levels themselves both associate with risk of disease. If 25OHD levels have a causal influence on disease, and DBP lies in this causal pathway, then DBP levels should likewise be causally associated with disease. We undertook a Mendelian randomization study to determine whether DBP levels have causal effects on common calcemic and cardiometabolic disease. Methods and Findings We measured DBP and 25OHD levels in 2,254 individuals, followed for up to 10 y, in the Canadian Multicentre Osteoporosis Study (CaMos). Using the single nucleotide polymorphism rs2282679 as an instrumental variable, we applied Mendelian randomization methods to determine the causal effect of DBP on calcemic (osteoporosis and hyperparathyroidism) and cardiometabolic diseases (hypertension, type 2 diabetes, coronary artery disease, and stroke) and related traits, first in CaMos and then in large-scale genome-wide association study consortia. The effect allele was associated with an age- and sex-adjusted decrease in DBP level of 27.4 mg/l (95% CI 24.7, 30.0; n = 2,254). DBP had a strong observational and causal association with 25OHD levels (p = 3.2×10−19). While DBP levels were observationally associated with calcium and body mass index (BMI), these associations were not supported by causal analyses. Despite well-powered sample sizes from consortia, there were no associations of rs2282679 with any other traits and diseases: fasting glucose (0.00 mmol/l [95% CI −0.01, 0.01]; p = 1.00; n = 46,186); fasting insulin (0.01 pmol/l [95% CI −0.00, 0.01,]; p = 0.22; n = 46,186); BMI (0.00 kg/m2 [95% CI −0.01, 0.01]; p = 0.80; n = 127,587); bone mineral density (0.01 g/cm2 [95% CI −0.01, 0.03]; p = 0.36; n = 32,961); mean arterial pressure (−0.06 mm Hg [95% CI −0.19, 0.07]); p = 0.36; n

  19. Vitamin D and DBP: The free hormone hypothesis revisited

    PubMed Central

    Chun, Rene F.; Peercy, Bradford E.; Orwoll, Eric S.; Nielson, Carrie M.; Adams, John S.; Hewison, Martin

    2013-01-01

    The last five years have witnessed a remarkable renaissance in vitamin D research and a complete re-evaluation of its benefits to human health. Two key factors have catalyzed these changes. First, it now seems likely that localized, tissue-specific, conversion of 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25OHD) to 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D (1,25(OH)2D) drives many of the newly recognized effects of vitamin D on human health. The second key factor concerns the ongoing discussion as to what constitutes adequate or optimal serum vitamin D (25OHD) status, with the possibility that vitamin D-deficiency is common to communities across the globe. These two concepts appear to be directly linked when low serum concentrations of 25OHD compromise intracrine generation of 1,25(OH)2D within target tissues. But, is this an over-simplification? Pro-hormone 25OHD is a lipophilic molecule that is transported in the circulation bound primarily to vitamin D binding protein (DBP). While the association between 25OHD and DBP is pivotal for renal handling of 25OHD and endocrine synthesis of 1,25(OH)2D, what is the role of DBP for extra-renal synthesis of 1,25(OH)2D? We hypothesize that binding to DBP impairs delivery of 25OHD to the vitamin D-activating enzyme 1α-hydroxylase in some target cells. Specifically, it is unbound, ‘free’ 25OHD that drives many of the non-classical actions of vitamin D. Levels of ‘free’ 25OHD are dependent on the concentration of DBP and alternative serum binding proteins such as albumin, but will also be influenced by variations in DBP binding affinity for specific vitamin D metabolites. The aim of this review will be to discuss the merits of ‘free 25OHD’ as an alternative marker of vitamin D status, particularly in the context of non-classical responses to vitamin D. PMID:24095930

  20. A new automatic blood pressure kit auscultates for accurate reading with a smartphone

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Hongjun; Wang, Bingjian; Zhu, Xinpu; Chu, Guang; Zhang, Zhi

    2016-01-01

    Abstract The widely used oscillometric automated blood pressure (BP) monitor was continuously questioned on its accuracy. A novel BP kit named Accutension which adopted Korotkoff auscultation method was then devised. Accutension worked with a miniature microphone, a pressure sensor, and a smartphone. The BP values were automatically displayed on the smartphone screen through the installed App. Data recorded in the phone could be played back and reconfirmed after measurement. They could also be uploaded and saved to the iCloud. The accuracy and consistency of this novel electronic auscultatory sphygmomanometer was preliminarily verified here. Thirty-two subjects were included and 82 qualified readings were obtained. The mean differences ± SD for systolic and diastolic BP readings between Accutension and mercury sphygmomanometer were 0.87 ± 2.86 and −0.94 ± 2.93 mm Hg. Agreements between Accutension and mercury sphygmomanometer were highly significant for systolic (ICC = 0.993, 95% confidence interval (CI): 0.989–0.995) and diastolic (ICC = 0.987, 95% CI: 0.979–0.991). In conclusion, Accutension worked accurately based on our pilot study data. The difference was acceptable. ICC and Bland–Altman plot charts showed good agreements with manual measurements. Systolic readings of Accutension were slightly higher than those of manual measurement, while diastolic readings were slightly lower. One possible reason was that Accutension captured the first and the last korotkoff sound more sensitively than human ear during manual measurement and avoided sound missing, so that it might be more accurate than traditional mercury sphygmomanometer. By documenting and analyzing of variant tendency of BP values, Accutension helps management of hypertension and therefore contributes to the mobile heath service. PMID:27512876

  1. The impact of arm position and pulse pressure on the validation of a wrist-cuff blood pressure measurement device in a high risk population

    PubMed Central

    Khoshdel, Ali Reza; Carney, Shane; Gillies, Alastair

    2010-01-01

    Despite the increasing popularity of blood pressure (BP) wrist monitors for self-BP measurement at home, device validation and the effect of arm position remains an issue. This study focused on the validation of the Omron HEM-609 wrist BP device, including an evaluation of the impact of arm position and pulse pressure on BP measurement validation. Fifty patients at high risk for cardiovascular disease were selected (age 65 ± 10 years). Each patient had two measurements with a mercury sphygmomanometer and three measurements with the wrist BP device (wrist at the heart level while the horizontal arm supported [HORIZONTAL], hand supported on the opposite shoulder [SHOULDER], and elbow placed on a desk [DESK]), in random order. The achieved systolic BP (SBP) and diastolic BP (DBP) wrist-cuff readings were compared to the mercury device and the frequencies of the readings within 5, 10, and 15 mmHg of the gold standard were computed and compared with the British Hypertension Society (BHS) and Association for the Advancement of Medical Instrumentation (AAMI) protocols. The results showed while SBP readings with HORIZONTAL and SHOULDER positions were significantly different from the mercury device (mean difference = 7.1 and 13.3 mmHg, respectively; P < 0.05), the DESK position created the closest reading to mercury (mean difference = 3.8, P > 0.1). Approximately 71% of SBP readings with the DESK position were within ±10 mmHg, whereas it was 62.5% and 34% for HORIZONTAL and SHOULDER positions, respectively. Wrist DBP attained category D with BHS criteria with all three arm positions. Bland–Altman plots illustrated that the wrist monitor systematically underestimated SBP and DBP values. However a reading adjustment of 5 and 10 mmHg for SBP and DBP (DESK position) resulted in improvement with 75% and 77% of the readings being within 10 mmHg (grade B), respectively. AAMI criteria were not fulfilled due to heterogeneity. The findings also showed that the mismatch between

  2. Validation of the custo screen 400 ambulatory blood pressure-monitoring device according to the European Society of Hypertension International Protocol revision 2010

    PubMed Central

    Bramlage, Peter; Deutsch, Cornelia; Krüger, Ralf; Wolf, Andreas; Müller, Peter; Zwingers, Thomas; Beime, Beate; Mengden, Thomas

    2014-01-01

    Objective The aim of the present study was to validate the custo screen 400 ambulatory blood pressure-monitoring (ABPM) device according to the 2010 International Protocol revision of the European Society of Hypertension (ESH-IP). The device can be used for ABPM for up to 72 hours. Materials and methods Systolic and diastolic blood pressure (SBP and DBP, respectively) were sequentially measured in 33 adult subjects (13 males and 20 females) and compared with a standard mercury sphygmomanometer (two observers). A total of 99 comparison pairs were obtained. Results The custo screen 400 met the requirements of parts 1 and 2 of the ESH-IP revision 2010. The mean difference between the device and reference sphygmomanometer readings was −0.5±4.5 mmHg for SBP and −0.1±3.3 mmHg for DBP. All but one measurement were within the absolute difference of 10 mmHg between the device and the observers for SBP and DBP. The number of absolute differences between the device and the observers within a range of 5 mmHg was 84 of 99 readings for SBP, and 93 of 99 readings for DBP. Conclusion The custo screen 400 ABPM device met the requirements of the 2010 ESH-IP revision, and hence can be recommended for ABPM in adults. To our knowledge, the custo screen 400 is the first device to pass the revised ESH-IP 2010. PMID:24868162

  3. Under-recognition of Low Blood Pressure Readings in Patients with Duchenne Muscular Dystrophy.

    PubMed

    Masood, Syed Asif; Kazmouz, Suhaib; Heydemann, Peter; Li, Hong; Kenny, Damien

    2015-10-01

    Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD), a recessive sex-linked hereditary disorder, is characterized by degeneration, atrophy, and weakness of skeletal and cardiac muscle. The purpose of this study was to document the prevalence of abnormally low resting BP recordings in patients with DMD in our outpatient clinic. The charts of 31 patients with DMD attending the cardiology clinic at Rush University Medical Center were retrospectively reviewed. Demographic data, systolic, diastolic, and mean blood pressures along with current medications, echocardiograms, and documented clinical appreciation and management of low blood pressure were recorded in the form of 104 outpatient clinical visits. Blood pressure (BP) was classified as low if the systolic and/or mean BP was less than the fifth percentile for height for patients aged ≤17 years (n = 23). For patients ≥18 years (n = 8), systolic blood pressure (SBP) <90 mmHg or a mean arterial pressure (MAP) <60 mmHg was recorded as a low reading. Patients with other forms of myopathy or unclear diagnosis were excluded. Statistical analysis was done using PASW version 18. BP was documented at 103 (99.01 %) outpatient encounters. Low systolic and mean BP were recorded in 35 (33.7 %) encounters. This represented low recordings for 19 (61.3 %) out of a total 31 patients with two or more successive low recordings for 12 (38.7 %) patients. Thirty-one low BP encounters were in patients <18 years old. Hispanic patients accounted for 74 (71.2 %) visits and had low BP recorded in 32 (43.2 %) instances. The patients were non-ambulant in 71 (68.3 %) encounters. Out of 35 encounters with low BP, 17 patients (48.6 %) were taking heart failure medication. In instances when patients had low BP, 22 (66.7 %) out of 33 echocardiography encounters had normal left ventricular ejection fraction. Clinician comments on low BP reading were present in 11 (10.6 %) encounters, and treatment modification occurred in only 1 (1 %) patient. Age in years (p

  4. Noise in pressure transducer readings produced by variations in solar radiation

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Cain, S. F., III; Davis, G.A.; Loheide, S.P., II; Butler, J.J., Jr.

    2004-01-01

    Variations in solar radiation can produce noise in readings from gauge pressure transducers when the transducer cable is exposed to direct sunlight. This noise is a result of insolation-induced heating and cooling of the air column in the vent tube of the transducer cable. A controlled experiment was performed to assess the impact of variations in solar radiation on transducer readings. This experiment demonstrated that insolation-induced fluctuations in apparent pressure head can be as large as 0.03 m. The magnitude of these fluctuations is dependent on cable color, the diameter of the vent tube, and the length of the transducer cable. The most effective means of minimizing insolation-induced noise is to use integrated transducer-data logger units that fit within a well. Failure to address this source of noise can introduce considerable uncertainty into analyses of hydraulic tests when the head change is relatively small, as is often the case for tests in highly permeable aquifers or for tests using distant observation wells.

  5. Noise in pressure transducer readings produced by variations in solar radiation.

    PubMed

    Cain, Samuel F; Davis, Gregory A; Loheide, Steven P; Butler, James J

    2004-01-01

    Variations in solar radiation can produce noise in readings from gauge pressure transducers when the transducer cable is exposed to direct sunlight. This noise is a result of insolation-induced heating and cooling of the air column in the vent tube of the transducer cable. A controlled experiment was performed to assess the impact of variations in solar radiation on transducer readings. This experiment demonstrated that insolation-induced fluctuations in apparent pressure head can be as large as 0.03 m. The magnitude of these fluctuations is dependent on cable color, the diameter of the vent tube, and the length of the transducer cable. The most effective means of minimizing insolation-induced noise is to use integrated transducer-data logger units that fit within a well. Failure to address this source of noise can introduce considerable uncertainty into analyses of hydraulic tests when the head change is relatively small, as is often the case for tests in highly permeable aquifers or for tests using distant observation wells. PMID:15584307

  6. The Effect of Compressibility on the Pressure Reading of a Prandtl Pitot Tube at Subsonic Flow Velocity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Walchner, O

    1939-01-01

    Errors arising from yawed flow were also determined up to 20 degrees angle of attack. In axial flow, the Prandtl pitot tube begins at w/a approx. = 0.8 to give an incorrect static pressure reading, while it records the tank pressure correctly, as anticipated, up to sonic velocity. Owing to the compressibility of the air, the Prandtl pitot tube manifests compression shocks when the air speed approaches velocity of sound. This affects the pressure reading of the instrument. Because of the increasing importance of high speed in aviation, this compressibility effect is investigated in detail.

  7. Results of epidemiological studies of blood pressure are biased by continuous variation in arm size related to body mass.

    PubMed

    Ulijaszek, Stanley J; Henneberg, Maciej

    2012-08-01

    In cross-sectional epidemiological studies, blood pressure (BP) is often found to be positively correlated with fatness. Usually sphygmomanometers with only one cuff size for adults are used to measure BP while arm circumference (AC) influences BP readings. We have studied cross-sectional anthropometric and BP data of adult men and women from three populations: Cook Islanders (n = 259), Papua New Guinean: Purari (n = 295), and Ok Tedi (n = 274). These were selected because of their diverse socio-economic, anthropometric, and BP characteristics. Partial correlations and regressions were used to analyze these data. Systolic and diastolic pressures (SBP, DBP) showed dependence on AC, body mass index (BMI), and skinfold thickness. Stature had some effect on SBP and DBP, independent of BMI and AC. When effects of AC and stature were statistically controlled, BMI did not correlate with either SBP or DBP. People of larger body mass have greater AC, and this biases BP readings. Average values of SBP and DBP in groups of underweight, normal, overweight, and obese people predicted by AC (sex, age, and BMI being statistically controlled) closely matched observed SBP and DBP averages in those groups. Out of 24 pairwise comparisons (3 samples from different populations × 4 groups of BMI × 2 pressure readings) of predicted and actual BP, only two produced statistically significant differences while 21 of the differences were 5 mm Hg or less. Correlations between BP and obesity found in epidemiological studies may be severely biased by effects of variation in AC. Sphygmomanometric measurements of BP should be corrected for continuous variation in AC. PMID:23249317

  8. Repression of major histocompatibility complex I-A beta gene expression by dbpA and dbpB (mYB-1) proteins.

    PubMed Central

    Lloberas, J; Maki, R A; Celada, A

    1995-01-01

    The induction of major histocompatibility complex class II gene expression is mediated by three DNA elements in the promoters of these genes (W, X, and Y boxes). The Y box contains an inverted CCAAT box sequence, and the binding activity to the CAAT box is mediated by factor NF-Y, which is composed of subunits NF-YA and NF-YB. We have found that transfection of either dbpA or dbpB (mYB-1) or both inhibits I-A beta gene expression. Although the genes for some members of the Y-box family of binding proteins have been isolated by screening an expression library using the Y-box sequence, under our conditions no binding of dbpA or dbpB to the Y box of the I-A beta or I-E alpha promoter was detected. This suggested that repression of I-A beta gene expression by dbpA and dbpB was not due to competition for binding to the Y-box sequence. The results suggest two other mechanisms by which dbpA and dbpB can inhibit transcription from the I-A beta promoter. When dbpA was added, the binding of NF-YA to DNA increased, which could be explained by interaction between these two proteins whose purpose is to increase the binding affinity of NF-YA for DNA. However, this complex was unable to stimulate transcription from the I-A beta promoter. Thus, dbpA competed for the interaction between NF-YA and NF-YB by binding to NF-YA. When dbpB factor was added together with NF-YA and NF-YB, the binding of the NF-YA--NF-YB complex was reduced. This suggested that dbpB may complete with NF-YB for interaction with NF-YA. These results provide an example of how dbpA and dbpB may regulate transcription of promoters that utilize NF-Y as a transcription factor. PMID:7651426

  9. Characterization of a baculovirus lacking the DBP (DNA-binding protein) gene

    SciTech Connect

    Vanarsdall, Adam L.; Mikhailov, Victor S.; Rohrmann, George F. . E-mail: rohrmanng@orst.edu

    2007-08-01

    Autographa californica multiple nucleopolyhedrovirus (AcMNPV) encodes two proteins that possess properties typical of single-stranded DNA-binding proteins (SSBs), late expression factor-3 (LEF-3), and a protein referred to as DNA-binding protein (DBP). Whereas LEF-3 is a multi-functional protein essential for viral DNA replication, transporting helicase into the nucleus, and forms a stable complex with the baculovirus alkaline nuclease, the role for DBP in baculovirus replication remains unclear. Therefore, to better understand the functional role of DBP in viral replication, a DBP knockout virus was generated from an AcMNPV bacmid and analyzed. The results of a growth curve analysis indicated that the dbp knockout construct was unable to produce budded virus indicating that dbp is essential. The lack of DBP does not cause a general shutdown of the expression of viral genes, as was revealed by accumulation of early (LEF-3), late (VP39), and very late (P10) proteins in cells transfected with the dbp knockout construct. To investigate the role of DBP in DNA replication, a real-time PCR-based assay was employed and showed that, although viral DNA synthesis occurred in cells transfected with the dbp knockout, the levels were less than that of the control virus suggesting that DBP is required for normal levels of DNA synthesis or for stability of nascent viral DNA. In addition, analysis of the viral DNA replicated by the dbp knockout by using field inversion gel electrophoresis failed to detect the presence of genome-length DNA. Furthermore, analysis of DBP from infected cells indicated that similar to LEF-3, DBP was tightly bound to viral chromatin. Assessment of the cellular localization of DBP relative to replicated viral DNA by immunoelectron microscopy indicated that, at 24 h post-infection, DBP co-localized with nascent DNA at distinct electron-dense regions within the nucleus. Finally, immunoelectron microscopic analysis of cells transfected with the dbp knockout

  10. Characterization of a baculovirus lacking the DBP (DNA-binding protein) gene

    PubMed Central

    Vanarsdall, Adam L.; Mikhailov, Victor S.; Rohrmann, George F.

    2009-01-01

    Autographa californica multiple nucleopolyhedrovirus (AcMNPV) encodes two proteins that possess properties typical of single-stranded DNA-binding proteins (SSBs), late expression factor-3 (LEF-3), and a protein referred to as DNA-binding protein (DBP). Whereas LEF-3 is a multi-functional protein essential for viral DNA replication, transporting helicase into the nucleus, and forms a stable complex with the baculovirus alkaline nuclease, the role for DBP in baculovirus replication remains unclear. Therefore, to better understand the functional role of DBP in viral replication, a DBP knockout virus was generated from an AcMNPV bacmid and analyzed. The results of a growth curve analysis indicated that the dbp knockout construct was unable to produce budded virus indicating that dbp is essential. The lack of DBP does not cause a general shutdown of the expression of viral genes, as was revealed by accumulation of early (LEF-3), late (VP39), and very late (P10) proteins in cells transfected with the dbp knockout construct. To investigate the role of DBP in DNA replication, a real-time PCR-based assay was employed and showed that, although viral DNA synthesis occurred in cells transfected with the dbp knockout, the levels were less than that of the control virus suggesting that DBP is required for normal levels of DNA synthesis or for stability of nascent viral DNA. In addition, analysis of the viral DNA replicated by the dbp knockout by using pulsed-field gel electrophoresis failed to detect the presence of genome-length DNA. Furthermore, analysis of DBP from infected cells indicated that similar to LEF-3, DBP was tightly bound to viral chromatin. Assessment of the cellular localization of DBP relative to replicated viral DNA by immunoelectron microscopy indicated that, at 24 hours post-infection, DBP co-localized with replicated DNA at distinct electron-dense regions within the nucleus. Finally, immunoelectron microscopic analysis of cells transfected with the dbp

  11. Effects of Parity on Blood Pressure among African-American Women

    PubMed Central

    Taylor, Jacquelyn Y.; Chambers, Angelina N.; Funnell, Beth; Wu, Chun Yi

    2010-01-01

    It has been well established that age, ethnicity, weight, and lifestyle behaviors can affect blood pressure (BP). Co-morbid conditions such as HELLP syndrome (hemolysis, elevated liver enzymes, and low platelets), pre-eclampsia, and previous hypertension diagnosis might also be risks for chronic hypertension among women who have had children. Although parity has been linked to changes in blood pressure in White women, these findings have not been replicated among African-American women. The purpose of this study was to determine if the number of pregnancies urban African-American women have effects BMI and blood pressure readings later in life. Results indicated that women with a previous diagnosis of hypertension had higher SBP and DBP, and a slightly higher BMI than women who had never been diagnosed. Additionally, women with a prior history of hypertension had more children than those without a diagnosis of hypertension. As parity increased, SBP increased. However, DBP decreased after 3 to 4 children, even with increases in BMI. This study shows that parity may increase African-American women’s risk for hypertension in terms of increased SBP and BMI with increased parity. However, increased parity and BMI may also serve as protective factors in lowering DBP. Further studies, with larger samples followed throughout their pregnancies, is needed before more definitive statements may be drawn about the effects of parity on BMI and blood pressure readings among African-American women can be made. PMID:19397049

  12. Recovering strain readings from chirping fiber Bragg gratings in composite overwrapped pressure vessels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Strutner, Scott M.; Pena, Frank; Piazza, Anthony; Parker, Allen R.; Richards, W. Lance; Carman, Gregory P.

    2014-04-01

    This study reports on signal recovery of optical fiber Bragg gratings embedded in a carbon fiber composite overwrapped pressure vessel's (COPV) structure which have become chirped due to microcracks. COPVs are commonly used for the storage of high pressure liquids and gases. They utilize a thin metal liner to seal in contents, with a composite overwrap to strengthen the vessel with minimal additional mass. A COPV was instrumented with an array of surface mounted and embedded fiber Bragg gratings (FBGs) for structural health monitoring (SHM) via strain sensing of the material. FBGs have been studied as strain sensors for the last couple decades. Many of the embedded FBGs reflected a multi-peak, chirped response which was not able to be interpreted well by the current monitoring algorithm. Literature and this study found that the chirping correlated with microcracks. As loading increases, so does the number of chirped FBGs and microcracks. This study uses optical frequency domain reflectometry (OFDR) to demultiplex the array of FBGs, and then sub- divide individual FBGs. When a FBG is sub-divided using OFDR, the gratings' strain along its length is recovered. The sub-divided chirped FBGs have strain gradients along their length from microcracks. Applying this to all chirped gratings, nearly the entirety of the embedded sensors' readings can be recovered into a series of single peak responses, which show very large local strains throughout the structure. This study reports on this success in recovering embedded FBGs signal, and the strain gradient from microcracks.

  13. Augmented blood pressure measurement through the noninvasive estimation of physiological arterial pressure variability.

    PubMed

    Soueidan, Karen; Chen, Silu; Dajani, Hilmi R; Bolic, Miodrag; Groza, Voicu

    2012-06-01

    Current noninvasive blood pressure (BP) measurement methods, such as the oscillometric method, estimate the systolic and diastolic blood pressure (SBP and DBP) at two random instants in time and do not take into account the natural variability in BP. The standard for automated BP devices sets a maximum allowable system error of ±5 mmHg, even though natural BP variability often exceeds these limits. This paper proposes a new approach using simultaneous recordings of the oscillometric and continuous arterial pulse waveforms to augment the conventional noninvasive measurement by providing (1) the mean SBP and DBP over the measurement interval and the associated confidence intervals of the mean, (2) the standard deviation of SBP and DBP over the measurement interval, which indicates the degree of fluctuation in BP and (3) an indicator as to whether or not the oscillometric reading is an outlier. Recordings with healthy subjects demonstrate the potential utility of this approach to characterize BP, to detect outlier measurements, and that it does not suffer from bias relative to the conventional oscillometric method. PMID:22551623

  14. Contrahelicase activity of the mitochondrial transcription termination factor mtDBP

    PubMed Central

    Polosa, Paola Loguercio; Deceglie, Stefania; Roberti, Marina; Gadaleta, Maria Nicola; Cantatore, Palmiro

    2005-01-01

    The sea urchin mitochondrial D-loop binding protein (mtDBP) is a transcription termination factor that is able to arrest bidirectionally mitochondrial RNA chain elongation. The observation that the mtDBP binding site in the main non-coding region is located in correspondence of the 3′ end of the triplex structure, where the synthesis of heavy strand mitochondrial (mt) DNA is either prematurely terminated or allowed to continue, raised the question whether mtDBP could also regulate mtDNA replication. By using a helicase assay in the presence of the replicative helicase of SV40, we show that mtDBP is able to inhibit the enzyme thus acting as a contrahelicase. The impairing activity of mtDBP is bidirectional as it is independent of the orientation of the protein binding site. The inhibition is increased by the presence of the guanosine-rich sequence that flanks mtDBP binding site. Finally, a mechanism of abrogation of mtDBP contrahelicase activity is suggested that is based on the dissociation of mtDBP from DNA caused by the passage of the RNA polymerase through the protein–DNA complex. All these findings favour the view that mtDBP, besides serving as transcription termination factor, could also act as a negative regulator of mtDNA synthesis at the level of D-loop expansion. PMID:16006625

  15. The DbpA catalytic core unwinds double-helix substrates by directly loading on them.

    PubMed

    Childs, Jared J; Gentry, Riley C; Moore, Anthony F T; Koculi, Eda

    2016-03-01

    DbpA is a DEAD-box RNA helicase implicated in the assembly of the large ribosomal subunit. Similar to all the members of the DEAD-box family, the DbpA protein has two N-terminal RecA-like domains, which perform the RNA unwinding. However, unlike other members of this family, the DbpA protein also possesses a structured C-terminal RNA-binding domain that mediates specific tethering of DbpA to hairpin 92 of the Escherichia coli 23S ribosomal RNA. Previous studies using model RNA molecules containing hairpin 92 show that the RNA molecules support the DbpA protein's double-helix unwinding activity, provided that the double helix has a 3' single-stranded region. The 3' single-stranded region was suggested to be the start site of the DbpA protein's catalytic unwinding activity. The data presented here demonstrate that the single-stranded region 3' of the double-helix substrate is not required for the DbpA protein's unwinding activity and the DbpA protein unwinds the double-helix substrates by directly loading on them. PMID:26755693

  16. Validation of the Oregon Scientific BPU 330 for self-monitoring of blood pressure according to the International Protocol

    PubMed Central

    Li, Li; Zhang, XinYu; Yan, ChunHong; Liang, QingXiang

    2008-01-01

    Objective: Extensive marketing of devices for self-measurement of blood pressure has created a need for purchasers to be able to satisfy themselves that such devices have been evaluated according to agreed criteria. The Oregon Scientific BPU 330 blood pressure monitor is an electronic device for upper arm measurement. This study assessed the accuracy of the Oregon Scientific BPU 330 blood pressure monitor according to the International Protocol by the Working Group on Blood Pressure Monitoring of the European Society of Hypertension for validation of blood pressure measuring devices. Method: 52 participants over 30 years of age were studied in the validation. Nine blood pressure measurements were taken alternately with a mercury sphygmomanometer by two observers, and by the supervisor, using the BPU 330 device. A total of 33 participants were selected for the analysis. The validation was divided into two phases. Phase 1 included 15 participants. If the device passed phase 1, 18 more participants were included. The 99 pairs of measurements were compared according to the International Protocol. The device was given a pass/fail recommendation based on its accuracy compared with the mercury standard (within 5, 10, and 15 mmHg), as well as the number met in the ranges specified by the International Protocol. Results: The mean and standard deviation of the difference between the mean of the observers and the BPU 330 device were 1.7 ± 4.7 mmHg and 2.8 ± 3.9 mmHg for systolic blood pressure (SBP) and diastolic blood pressure (DBP), respectively. In phase 1, the device passed with a total of 33, 43, and 44 SBP readings; 38, 44, and 45 DBP readings were within 5, 10, and 15 mmHg, respectively. In phase 2.1, 81, 95, and 96 for SBP, and 83, 95, and 98 for DBP readings fell within the zones of 5, 10, and 15 mmHg, respectively. In phase 2.2, the last phase, 28 participants fell within the zone of two of the three comparisons, lying within 5 mmHg for SBP and 29 participants for

  17. Identifying Robust Variations Associated with Reading Comprehension Skill: The Search for Pressure Points

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Compton, Donald L.; Pearson, P. David

    2016-01-01

    This special issue of "JREE" ["Journal of Research on Educational Effectiveness"] features studies from three of the teams (Barnes, Stuebing, Fletcher, Barth, & Francis; Language and Reading Research Consortium, Arthur, & Davis; LaRusso et al.) supported by the Institute of Education Sciences--Reading for Understanding…

  18. Pharmacokinetics of Dibutyl Phthalate (DBP) in the Rat Determined by UPLC-MS/MS

    PubMed Central

    Chang, Li-Wen; Hou, Mei-Ling; Tsai, Tung-Hu

    2013-01-01

    Dibutyl phthalate (DBP) is commonly used to increase the flexibility of plastics in industrial products. However, several plasticizers have been illegally used as clouding agents to increase dispersion of aqueous matrix in beverages. This study thus develops a rapid and validated analytical method by ultra-performance liquid chromatography with tandem mass spectrometry (UPLC-MS/MS) for the evaluation of pharmacokinetics of DBP in free moving rats. The UPLC-MS/MS system equipped with positive electrospray ionization (ESI) source in multiple reaction monitoring (MRM) mode was used to monitor m/z 279.25→148.93 transitions for DBP. The limit of quantification for DBP in rat plasma and feces was 0.05 μg/mL and 0.125 μg/g, respectively. The pharmacokinetic results demonstrate that DBP appeared to have a two-compartment model in the rats; the area under concentration versus time (AUC) was 57.8 ± 5.93 min μg/mL and the distribution and elimination half-life (t1/2,α and t1/2,β) were 5.77 ± 1.14 and 217 ± 131 min, respectively, after DBP administration (30 mg/kg, i.v.). About 0.18% of the administered dose was recovered from the feces within 48 h. The pharmacokinetic behavior demonstrated that DBP was quickly degraded within 2 h, suggesting a rapid metabolism low fecal cumulative excretion in the rat. PMID:23344044

  19. Home and office blood pressure in children and adolescents: the role of obesity. The Arsakeion School Study.

    PubMed

    Karatzi, K; Protogerou, A; Rarra, V; Stergiou, G S

    2009-08-01

    Obesity is related to office blood pressure (OBP). Important discrepancies exist between OBP and home blood pressure (HBP), providing complementary information for the management of hypertension. The association between obesity and HBP has not been investigated in children. The evidence on the role of obesity in the predominance of systolic blood pressure (SBP) over diastolic (DBP) in paediatric hypertension is limited. A total of 778 healthy subjects aged 6-18 years were recruited in this study. OBP and HBP were measured using electronic devices validated in children. Anthropometric measurements were measured and expressed as z-scores for height or age. Among all indices of obesity (z-scores), body mass index (BMI) showed the best association with BP. The effect of obesity (BMI) was more pronounced on: (i) SBP than DBP and (ii) H-SBP than O-SBP (O-SBP: r2=0.09, O-DBP: r2=0.05, H-SBP: r2=0.12, H-DBP: r2=0.06). The prevalence of systolic hypertension was higher than that of diastolic hypertension. This difference was significant only in office readings and independent from obesity (normal weight: 6.3% systolic hypertension versus 1.2% diastolic; obese: 37.9% versus 6.9%, P<0.05 for both). These data imply that in children and adolescents the z-score of BMI is the most appropriate index of the association between BP and obesity. It also suggests that obesity is probably more closely associated with home than office BP. Finally, although obesity appears to affect SBP more than DBP, these results suggest that the predominance of systolic hypertension in children and adolescents might not be only related to obesity but also to the measurement setting (office). PMID:19129855

  20. Red blood cell invasion by Plasmodium vivax: structural basis for DBP engagement of DARC.

    PubMed

    Batchelor, Joseph D; Malpede, Brian M; Omattage, Natalie S; DeKoster, Gregory T; Henzler-Wildman, Katherine A; Tolia, Niraj H

    2014-01-01

    Plasmodium parasites use specialized ligands which bind to red blood cell (RBC) receptors during invasion. Defining the mechanism of receptor recognition is essential for the design of interventions against malaria. Here, we present the structural basis for Duffy antigen (DARC) engagement by P. vivax Duffy binding protein (DBP). We used NMR to map the core region of the DARC ectodomain contacted by the receptor binding domain of DBP (DBP-RII) and solved two distinct crystal structures of DBP-RII bound to this core region of DARC. Isothermal titration calorimetry studies show these structures are part of a multi-step binding pathway, and individual point mutations of residues contacting DARC result in a complete loss of RBC binding by DBP-RII. Two DBP-RII molecules sandwich either one or two DARC ectodomains, creating distinct heterotrimeric and heterotetrameric architectures. The DARC N-terminus forms an amphipathic helix upon DBP-RII binding. The studies reveal a receptor binding pocket in DBP and critical contacts in DARC, reveal novel targets for intervention, and suggest that targeting the critical DARC binding sites will lead to potent disruption of RBC engagement as complex assembly is dependent on DARC binding. These results allow for models to examine inter-species infection barriers, Plasmodium immune evasion mechanisms, P. knowlesi receptor-ligand specificity, and mechanisms of naturally acquired P. vivax immunity. The step-wise binding model identifies a possible mechanism by which signaling pathways could be activated during invasion. It is anticipated that the structural basis of DBP host-cell engagement will enable development of rational therapeutics targeting this interaction. PMID:24415938

  1. Cross-talk among structural domains of human DBP upon binding 25-hydroxyvitamin D

    PubMed Central

    Ray, Arjun; Swamy, Narasimha; Ray, Rahul

    2007-01-01

    Serum vitamin D-binding protein (DBP) is structurally very similar to serum albumin (ALB); both have three distinct structural domains and high cysteine-content. Yet, functionally they are very different. DBP possesses high affinity for vitamin D metabolites and G-actin, but ALB does not. It has been suggested that there may be cross-talk among the domains so that binding of one ligand may influence the binding of others. In this study we have employed 2-p-toluidinyl-6-sulphonate (TNS), a reporter molecule that fluoresces upon binding to hydrophobic pockets of DBP. We observed that recombinant domain III possesses strong binding for TNS, which is not influenced by 25-hydroxyvitamin D3 (25-OH-D3), yet TNS-fluorescence of the whole protein is quenched by 25-OH-D3. These results provide a direct evidence of cross-talk among the structural domains of DBP. PMID:18035050

  2. Lyophilization, Reconstitution, and DBP Formation in Reverse-Osmosis Concentrated Natural Organic Matter

    EPA Science Inventory

    Drinking water treatment and disinfection byproduct (DBP) research can be complicated by natural organic matter (NOM) temporal variability. NOM preservation by lyophilization (freeze-drying) has been long practiced to address this issue; however, its applicability for drinking w...

  3. Comparison of Chemical Composition of Complex Disinfection Byproduct (DBP) Mixtures Produced by Different Treatment Methods - slides

    EPA Science Inventory

    Analyses of the chemical composition of complex DBP mixtures, produced by different drinking water treatment processes, are essential to generate toxicity data required for assessing their risks to humans. For mixture risk assessments, whole mixture toxicology studies generally a...

  4. Comparison of Chemical Composition of Complex Disinfection Byproduct (DBP) Mixtures Produced by Different Treatment Methods

    EPA Science Inventory

    Analyses of the chemical composition of complex DBP mixtures, produced by different drinking water treatment processes, are essential to generate toxicity data required for assessing their risks to humans. For mixture risk assessments, whole mixture toxicology studies generally a...

  5. A new automatic blood pressure kit auscultates for accurate reading with a smartphone: A diagnostic accuracy study.

    PubMed

    Wu, Hongjun; Wang, Bingjian; Zhu, Xinpu; Chu, Guang; Zhang, Zhi

    2016-08-01

    The widely used oscillometric automated blood pressure (BP) monitor was continuously questioned on its accuracy. A novel BP kit named Accutension which adopted Korotkoff auscultation method was then devised. Accutension worked with a miniature microphone, a pressure sensor, and a smartphone. The BP values were automatically displayed on the smartphone screen through the installed App. Data recorded in the phone could be played back and reconfirmed after measurement. They could also be uploaded and saved to the iCloud. The accuracy and consistency of this novel electronic auscultatory sphygmomanometer was preliminarily verified here. Thirty-two subjects were included and 82 qualified readings were obtained. The mean differences ± SD for systolic and diastolic BP readings between Accutension and mercury sphygmomanometer were 0.87 ± 2.86 and -0.94 ± 2.93 mm Hg. Agreements between Accutension and mercury sphygmomanometer were highly significant for systolic (ICC = 0.993, 95% confidence interval (CI): 0.989-0.995) and diastolic (ICC = 0.987, 95% CI: 0.979-0.991). In conclusion, Accutension worked accurately based on our pilot study data. The difference was acceptable. ICC and Bland-Altman plot charts showed good agreements with manual measurements. Systolic readings of Accutension were slightly higher than those of manual measurement, while diastolic readings were slightly lower. One possible reason was that Accutension captured the first and the last korotkoff sound more sensitively than human ear during manual measurement and avoided sound missing, so that it might be more accurate than traditional mercury sphygmomanometer. By documenting and analyzing of variant tendency of BP values, Accutension helps management of hypertension and therefore contributes to the mobile heath service. PMID:27512876

  6. Mitogen-activated protein kinase pathway mediates DBP-maf-induced apoptosis in RAW 264.7 macrophages.

    PubMed

    Gumireddy, Kiranmai; Reddy, C Damodar; Swamy, Narasimha

    2003-09-01

    Vitamin D-binding protein-macrophage-activating factor (DBP-maf) is derived from serum vitamin D binding protein (DBP) by selective deglycosylation during inflammation. In the present study, we investigated the effect of DBP-maf on RAW 264.7 macrophages and the underlying intracellular signal transduction pathways. DBP-maf increased proapoptotic caspase-3, -8, and -9 activities and induced apoptosis in RAW 264.7 cells. However, DBP, the precursor to DBP-maf did not induce apoptosis in these cells. Cell cycle analysis of DBP-maf-treated RAW 264.7 cells revealed growth arrest with accumulation of cells in sub-G(0)/G(1) phase. We also investigated the role of mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) pathways in the DBP-maf-induced apoptosis of RAW264.7 cells. DBP-maf increased the phosphorylation of p38 and JNK1/2, while it decreased the ERK1/2 phosphorylation. Treatment with the p38 MAPK inhibitor, SB202190, attenuated DBP-maf-induced apoptosis. PD98059, a MEK specific inhibitor, did not show a significant inhibition of apoptosis induced by DBP-maf. Taken together, these results suggest that the p38 MAPK pathway plays a crucial role in DBP-maf-mediated apoptosis of macrophages. Our studies indicate that, during inflammation DBP-maf may function positively by causing death of the macrophages when activated macrophages are no longer needed at the site of inflammation. In summary, we report for the first time that DBP-maf induces apoptosis in macrophages via p38 and JNK1/2 pathway. PMID:12938159

  7. Hostility, cultural orientation, and casual blood pressure readings in African Americans.

    PubMed

    Daniels, I N; Harrell, J P; Floyd, L J; Bell, S R

    2001-01-01

    Evidence suggests that hostility correlates with blood pressure levels in African-American samples. However, some studies have reported an inverse relationship, while others have found the relationship between blood pressure and hostility to be positive. Other literature suggests health outcomes in general, and blood pressure in particular, are related to cultural orientation in African-American samples. In the present study, six casual measures of blood pressure and heart rate in a sample of 90 African-American college students were aggregated and correlated with measures of hostility and cultural orientation. Correlational and regression analyses revealed a weak positive relationship between hostility and systolic blood pressure. The relationships between the cardiovascular measures and cultural orientation were more consistent. The tendency to embrace mainstream Euro-American values, such as materialism, individuality, and competitiveness, was associated with more rapid heart rate and higher diastolic blood pressure levels for both men and women. The relationship between systolic blood pressure and cultural orientation emerged for men only. The findings encourage further research into the relationship between personality variables and cardiovascular activity in African-American samples. PMID:11763302

  8. Bayesian statistical modeling of disinfection byproduct (DBP) bromine incorporation in the ICR database.

    PubMed

    Francis, Royce A; Vanbriesen, Jeanne M; Small, Mitchell J

    2010-02-15

    Statistical models are developed for bromine incorporation in the trihalomethane (THM), trihaloacetic acids (THAA), dihaloacetic acid (DHAA), and dihaloacetonitrile (DHAN) subclasses of disinfection byproducts (DBPs) using distribution system samples from plants applying only free chlorine as a primary or residual disinfectant in the Information Collection Rule (ICR) database. The objective of this study is to characterize the effect of water quality conditions before, during, and post-treatment on distribution system bromine incorporation into DBP mixtures. Bayesian Markov Chain Monte Carlo (MCMC) methods are used to model individual DBP concentrations and estimate the coefficients of the linear models used to predict the bromine incorporation fraction for distribution system DBP mixtures in each of the four priority DBP classes. The bromine incorporation models achieve good agreement with the data. The most important predictors of bromine incorporation fraction across DBP classes are alkalinity, specific UV absorption (SUVA), and the bromide to total organic carbon ratio (Br:TOC) at the first point of chlorine addition. Free chlorine residual in the distribution system, distribution system residence time, distribution system pH, turbidity, and temperature only slightly influence bromine incorporation. The bromide to applied chlorine (Br:Cl) ratio is not a significant predictor of the bromine incorporation fraction (BIF) in any of the four classes studied. These results indicate that removal of natural organic matter and the location of chlorine addition are important treatment decisions that have substantial implications for bromine incorporation into disinfection byproduct in drinking waters. PMID:20095529

  9. Vitamin D binding protein-macrophage activating factor (DBP-maf) inhibits angiogenesis and tumor growth in mice.

    PubMed

    Kisker, Oliver; Onizuka, Shinya; Becker, Christian M; Fannon, Michael; Flynn, Evelyn; D'Amato, Robert; Zetter, Bruce; Folkman, Judah; Ray, Rahul; Swamy, Narasimha; Pirie-Shepherd, Steven

    2003-01-01

    We have isolated a selectively deglycosylated form of vitamin D binding protein (DBP-maf) generated from systemically available DBP by a human pancreatic cancer cell line. DBP-maf is antiproliferative for endothelial cells and antiangiogenic in the chorioallantoic membrane assay. DBP-maf administered daily was able to potently inhibit the growth of human pancreatic cancer in immune compromised mice (T/C=0.09). At higher doses, DBP-maf caused tumor regression. Histological examination revealed that treated tumors had a higher number of infiltrating macrophages as well as reduced microvessel density, and increased levels of apoptosis relative to untreated tumors. Taken together, these data suggest that DBP-maf is an antiangiogenic molecule that can act directly on endothelium as well as stimulate macrophages to attack both the endothelial and tumor cell compartment of a growing malignancy. PMID:12659668

  10. Vitamin D Binding Protein-Macrophage Activating Factor (DBP-maf) Inhibits Angiogenesis and Tumor Growth in Mice1

    PubMed Central

    Kisker, Oliver; Onizuka, Shinya; Becker, Christian M; Fannon, Michael; Flynn, Evelyn; D'Amato, Robert; Zetter, Bruce; Folkman, Judah; Ray, Rahul; Swamy, Narasimha; Pirie-Shepherd, Steven

    2003-01-01

    Abstract We have isolated a selectively deglycosylated form of vitamin D binding protein (DBP-maf) generated from systemically available DBP by a human pancreatic cancer cell line. DBP-maf is antiproliferative for endothelial cells and antiangiogenic in the chorioallantoic membrane assay. DBP-maf administered daily was able to potently inhibit the growth of human pancreatic cancer in immune compromised mice (T/C=0.09). At higher doses, DBP-maf caused tumor regression. Histological examination revealed that treated tumors had a higher number of infiltrating macrophages as well as reduced microvessel density, and increased levels of apoptosis relative to untreated tumors. Taken together, these data suggest that DBP-maf is an antiangiogenic molecule that can act directly on endothelium as well as stimulate macrophages to attack both the endothelial and tumor cell compartment of a growing malignancy. PMID:12659668

  11. Short term exposure to di-n-butyl phthalate (DBP) disrupts ovarian function in young CD-1 mice.

    PubMed

    Sen, Nivedita; Liu, Xiaosong; Craig, Zelieann R

    2015-06-01

    Di-n-butyl phthalate (DBP) is present in many beauty and medical products. Human exposure estimates range from 0.007-0.01 mg/kg/day in the general population and up to 0.233 mg/kg/day in patients taking DBP-coated medications. Levels of phthalates tend to be higher in women, thus, evaluating ovarian effects of DBP exposure is of great importance. Mice were given corn oil (vehicle) or DBP at 0.01, 0.1, and 1000 mg/kg/day (high dose) for 10 days to test whether DBP causes ovarian toxicity. Estrous cyclicity, steroidogenesis, ovarian morphology, and apoptosis and steroidogenesis gene expression were evaluated. DBP exposure decreased serum E2 at all doses, while 0.1DBP increased FSH, decreased antral follicle numbers, and increased mRNA encoding pro-apoptotic genes (Bax, Bad, Bid). Interestingly, mRNAs encoding the steroidogenic enzymes Hsd17b1, Cyp17a1 and Cyp19a1 were increased in all DBP-treated groups. These novel findings show that DBP can disrupt ovarian function in mice at doses relevant to humans. PMID:25765776

  12. Effects of Di-butyl Phthalate (DBP) on Developing Medaka Embryos

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tang, Sherry

    2012-01-01

    Plasticizers are chemical additives that enhance plastic flexibility. They are ubiquitous environmental contaminants and are commonly found in river and lake waters (Fromme et al 2002). The present study aimed to investigate the effects of a water-soluble plasticizer, dibutyl phthalate (DBP) on developing Medaka ("Oryzias latipes") embryos. Three…

  13. Integrated Disinfection Byproducts (DBPs) Mixtures Research: DBP Concentration via Reverse Osmosis Membrane Techniques

    EPA Science Inventory

    With the completion of the 4-lab project, the NOM concentration aspect of 4-lab is being continued with renewed focus on creating drinking water relevant freeze-dried NOM isolates that can be used for many drinking water research efforts from DBP investigations to water reuse inv...

  14. PI3K regulates BMAL1/CLOCK-mediated circadian transcription from the Dbp promoter.

    PubMed

    Morishita, Yoshikazu; Miura, Daiki; Kida, Satoshi

    2016-06-01

    The circadian rhythm generated by circadian clock underlies a molecular mechanism of rhythmic transcriptional regulation by transcription factor BMAL1/CLOCK. Importantly, the circadian clock is coordinated by exogenous cues to accommodate to changes in the external environment. However, the molecular mechanisms by which intracellular-signaling pathways mediate the adjustments of the circadian transcriptional rhythms remain unclear. In this study, we found that pharmacological inhibition or shRNA-mediated knockdown of phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K) blocked upregulation of Dbp mRNA induced by serum shock in NIH 3T3 cells. Moreover, the inhibition of PI3K significantly reduced the promoter activity of the Dbp gene, as well as decreased the recruitment of BMAL1/CLOCK to the E-box in the Dbp promoter. Interestingly, the inhibition of PI3K blocked heterodimerization of BMAL1 and CLOCK. Our findings suggest that PI3K signaling plays a modulatory role in the regulation of the transcriptional rhythm of the Dbp gene by targeting BMAL1 and CLOCK. PMID:27022680

  15. Teratogenicity of di(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP) and di-n-butyl phthalate (DBP) in mice.

    PubMed Central

    Shiota, K; Nishimura, H

    1982-01-01

    Di(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP) and di-n-butyl phthalate (DBP) were mixed with diet at graded levels of 0.05, 0.1, 0.2. 0.4 and 1.0 wt-% and given to pregnant ICR mice throughout gestation. Maternal weight gain was suppressed and fetal resorption increased at 0.2, 0.4 and 1.0% levels of DEHP and 1.0% level of DBP. All the implanted ova died early in rats fed 0.4 and 1.0% levels of DEHP. External malformations increased significantly by 0.2% DEHP, and 1.0% DBP showed borderline significance. The major malformations in treated groups were neural tube defects (exencephaly and myeloschisis), suggesting that the phthalic acid esters (PAEs) affect neural tube closure in developing embryos. Treatment with the compounds caused intrauterine growth retardation and delayed ossification with an apparently dose-related response pattern. These results indicate that a high dose of DEHP and DBP might be embryotoxic and teratogenic in mice. The maximum nonembryotoxic doses of PAEs in mice were more than 2000 times the estimated level of human intake through the food chain. Thus it is assumed that the current "normal" exposure level of PAEs dose not pose an imminent threat to human fetal development. PMID:7140698

  16. Structural Analysis of the Synthetic Duffy Binding Protein (DBP) Antigen DEKnull Relevant for Plasmodium vivax Malaria Vaccine Design

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Edwin; Salinas, Nichole D.; Ntumngia, Francis B.; Adams, John H.; Tolia, Niraj H.

    2015-01-01

    The Plasmodium vivax vaccine candidate Duffy Binding Protein (DBP) is a protein necessary for P. vivax invasion of reticulocytes. The polymorphic nature of DBP induces strain-specific immune responses that pose unique challenges for vaccine development. DEKnull is a synthetic DBP based antigen that has been engineered through mutation to enhance induction of blocking inhibitory antibodies. We determined the x-ray crystal structure of DEKnull to identify if any conformational changes had occurred upon mutation. Computational and experimental analyses assessed immunogenicity differences between DBP and DEKnull epitopes. Functional binding assays with monoclonal antibodies were used to interrogate the available epitopes in DEKnull. We demonstrate that DEKnull is structurally similar to the parental Sal1 DBP. The DEKnull mutations do not cause peptide backbone shifts within the polymorphic loop, or at either the DBP dimerization interface or DARC receptor binding pockets, two important structurally conserved protective epitope motifs. All B-cell epitopes, except for the mutated DEK motif, are conserved between DEKnull and DBP. The DEKnull protein retains binding to conformationally dependent inhibitory antibodies. DEKnull is an iterative improvement of DBP as a vaccine candidate. DEKnull has reduced immunogenicity to polymorphic regions responsible for strain-specific immunity while retaining conserved protein folds necessary for induction of strain-transcending blocking inhibitory antibodies. PMID:25793371

  17. A role for the cytoplasmic DEAD box helicase Dbp21E2 in rhodopsin maturation and photoreceptor viability

    PubMed Central

    Hibbard, Karen L.; O’Tousa, Joseph. E.

    2013-01-01

    The Dbp21E2 (Dead box protein 21E2) is a member of a family of DEAD box helicases active in RNA processing and stability. We used genetic mosaics to identify mutants in Dbp21E2 that affect rhodopsin biogenesis and the maintenance of photoreceptor structure. Analysis of a GFP-tagged Rh1 rhodopsin construct placed under control of a heat shock promoter showed that Dbp21E21 fails to efficiently transport Rh1 from the photoreceptor cell body to the rhabdomere. Retinal degeneration is not dependent on the Rh1 transport defects. We also show that GFP- and RFP-tagged Dbp21E2 proteins are localized to discrete cytoplasmic structures that are not associated with organelles known to be active in rhodopsin transport. The molecular genetic analysis described here reveals an unexpected role for the Dbp21E2 helicase and provides an experimental system to further characterize its function. PMID:22794106

  18. Blood Pressure Profile in School Children (6–16 Years) of Southern India: A Prospective Observational Study

    PubMed Central

    Sayeemuddin, Mohammad; Sharma, Deepak; Pandita, Aakash; Sultana, Tabassum; Shastri, Sweta

    2015-01-01

    Aims and objective: To determine normal blood pressure (BP) in apparently healthy, asymptomatic school children in the age group of 6–16 years and to determine the correlation of BP values with different sex, weight, height, and body mass index (BMI) and also to find out prevalence of hypertension in school going population. Materials and methods: This prospective, observational study enrolled 3,302 urban children (1,658 boys and 1,644 girls) in the age group of 6–16 years. These were analyzed to study the distribution pattern of systolic blood pressure (SBP) and diastolic blood pressure (DBP) at different ages, sex, weight, height, and BMI. The SBP and DBP were noted as per age and sex. The association was seen between mean SBP and mean DBP with weight, height, and BMI. Information was collected about the family history of hypertension and was correlated with the obtained SBP and DBP readings. Results: The mean SBP in males at 6 years was 99.69 ± 3.62 mm of Hg, at 10 years was 102.20 ± 2.16 mm of Hg, and at 16 years was 115.33 ± 1.26 mm of Hg. The mean SBP in females at 6 years was 96.55 ± 2.86 mm of Hg, at 10 years was 101.16 ± 2.12 mm of Hg, and at 16 years was 112.41 ± 1.06 mm of Hg. The correlation coefficient for relationship between age and SBP in males and females was 0.89 and 0.91, respectively, and for DBP was 0.92 and 0.90, respectively. The correlation coefficient for relationship between height and SBP in males and females was 0.91 and 0.93, respectively, and for DBP was 0.92 and 0.88, respectively. The correlation coefficient for relationship between weight and SBP in males and females was 0.92 and 0.92, respectively, and for DBP was 0.94 and 0.91, respectively. In the nomogram obtained in the study, 95% of study population fall between mean +2SD and −2SD. Conclusion: The blood pressure (BP) (SBP and DBP) tends to increase with age, weight, height, and BMI. The BP values (SBP and DBP

  19. Inhibition of angiogenesis by vitamin D-binding protein: characterization of anti-endothelial activity of DBP-maf.

    PubMed

    Kalkunte, Satyan; Brard, Laurent; Granai, Cornelius O; Swamy, Narasimha

    2005-01-01

    Angiogenesis is a complex process involving coordinated steps of endothelial cell activation, proliferation, migration, tube formation and capillary sprouting with participation of intracellular signaling pathways. Regulation of angiogenesis carries tremendous potential for cancer therapy. Our earlier studies showed that vitamin D-binding protein-macrophage activating factor (DBP-maf) acts as a potent anti-angiogenic factor and inhibits tumor growth in vivo. The goal of this investigation was to understand the effect of DBP-maf on human endothelial cell (HEC) and the mechanism of angiogenesis inhibition. DBP-maf inhibited human endothelial cell (HEC) proliferation by inhibiting DNA synthesis (IC(50) = 7.8 +/- 0.15 microg/ml). DBP-maf significantly induced S- and G0/G1-phase arrest in HEC in 72 h. DBP-maf potently blocked VEGF-induced migration, tube-formation of HEC in a dose dependent manner. In addition, DBP-maf inhibited growth factor-induced microvessel sprouting in rat aortic ring assay. Moreover, DBP-maf inhibited VEGF signaling by decreasing VEGF-mediated phosphorylation of VEGFR-2 and ERK1/2, a downstream target of VEGF signaling cascade. However, Akt activation was not affected. These studies collectively demonstrate that DBP-maf inhibits angiogenesis by blocking critical steps such as HEC proliferation, migration, tube formation and microvessel sprouting. DBP-maf exerts its effect by inhibiting VEGR-2 and ERK1/2 signaling cascades. Understanding the cellular and molecular mechanisms of anti-endothelial activity of DBP-maf will allow us to develop it as an angiogenesis targeting novel drug for tumor therapy. PMID:16400520

  20. Measuring Helicase Inhibition of the DEAD-box Protein Dbp2 by Yra1

    PubMed Central

    Ma, Wai Kit; Tran, Elizabeth J.

    2016-01-01

    Despite the highly conserved helicase core, individual DEAD-box proteins are specialized in diverse RNA metabolic processes. One mechanism that determines DEAD-box protein specificity is enzymatic regulation by other protein cofactors. In this chapter, we describe a protocol for purifying the Saccharomyces cerevisiae DEAD-box RNA helicase Dbp2 and RNA-binding protein Yra1 and subsequent analysis of helicase regulation. The experiments described here can be adapted to RNA helicase and purified co-factor. PMID:25579587

  1. Dimerization of Plasmodium vivax DBP is induced upon receptor binding and drives recognition of DARC

    PubMed Central

    Batchelor, Joseph D.; Zahm, Jacob A.; Tolia, Niraj H.

    2011-01-01

    Plasmodium vivax and Plasmodium knowlesi depend on the Duffy-Binding Protein DBL domain (RII-PvDBP or RII-PkDBP) engaging Duffy Antigen/Receptor for Chemokines on red blood cells during invasion. Inhibition of this key interaction provides an excellent opportunity for parasite control. There are competing models for whether Plasmodium ligands engage receptors as monomers or dimers, resolution of which has profound implications for parasite biology and control. We report crystallographic, solution and functional studies of RII-PvDBP, showing dimerization is required for and driven by receptor engagement. This work provides a unifying framework for prior studies and accounts for the action of naturally-acquired blocking-antibodies and the mechanism of immune evasion. We show dimerization is conserved in DBL-domain receptor-engagement, and propose receptor-mediated ligand-dimerization drives receptor affinity and specificity. Since dimerization is prevalent in signaling, our studies raise the possibility that induced dimerization activates pathways for invasion. PMID:21743458

  2. CspE is Overproduced by Temperature Downshift in the Acinetobacter johnsonii DBP-3.

    PubMed

    Su, Dan; Hao, Linlin; Chen, Fuwang; Li, Siming; Abdelrahman, Ahmed Mohamed; Zhang, Yu; Yu, Hao; Liu, Songcai; Li, Mingtang

    2016-05-01

    The denitrifying bacterium Acinetobacter johnsonii strain DBP-3 which was capable of removing phosphate, nitrate, and ammoniacal salt is psychrotolerant, whereas, the cold shock response mechanisms or the cold shock proteins (Csps) was unclear. In this article, the optimal growth temperature (25 °C) and cold shock temperature (7.5 °C) were determined firstly by an Arrhenius plot of the growth of the strain DBP-3. Then, among the seven cold shock-like protein genes which were cloned and identified referenced by A. johnsonii SH046 genome, qRT-PCR and shotgun-LTQ mass spectrometry showed that Csp3 and Csp4 were overexpressed under cold shock condition. Furthermore, Western blotting confirmed the result with the antibodies against Csp3 and Csp4 prepared by ourselves. Finally, the phylogenetic analysis showed that the similarity percent between Csp3 and Csp4 was 76.85 %, and Csp3 and Csp4 belonged to CspE family. The results indicated that CspE is overproduced by temperature downshift and may play an important role in the psychrotolerant process of strain DBP-3. PMID:26794214

  3. Particles in swimming pool filters--does pH determine the DBP formation?

    PubMed

    Hansen, Kamilla M S; Willach, Sarah; Mosbæk, Hans; Andersen, Henrik R

    2012-04-01

    The formation was investigated for different groups of disinfection byproducts (DBPs) during chlorination of filter particles from swimming pools at different pH-values and the toxicity was estimated. Specifically, the formation of the DBP group trihalomethanes (THMs), which is regulated in many countries, and the non-regulated haloacetic acids (HAAs) and haloacetonitriles (HANs) were investigated at 6.0≤pH≤8.0, under controlled chlorination conditions. The investigated particles were collected from a hot tub with a drum micro filter. In two series of experiments with either constant initial active or initial free chlorine concentrations the particles were chlorinated at different pH-values in the relevant range for swimming pools. THM and HAA formations were reduced by decreasing pH while HAN formation increased with decreasing pH. Based on the organic content the relative DBP formation from the particles was higher than previously reported for body fluid analogue and filling water. The genotoxicity and cytotoxicity estimated from formation of DBPs from the treated particle suspension increased with decreasing pH. Among the quantified DBP groups the HANs were responsible for the majority of the toxicity from the measured DBPs. PMID:22285035

  4. Suppression of grp78 core promoter element-mediated stress induction by the dbpA and dbpB (YB-1) cold shock domain proteins.

    PubMed Central

    Li, W W; Hsiung, Y; Wong, V; Galvin, K; Zhou, Y; Shi, Y; Lee, A S

    1997-01-01

    The highly conserved grp78 core promoter element plays an important role in the induction of grp78 under diverse stress signals. Previous studies have established a functional region in the 3' half of the core (stress-inducible change region [SICR]) which exhibits stress-inducible changes in stressed nuclei. The human transcription factor YY1 is shown to bind the SICR and transactivate the core element under stress conditions. Here we report that expression library screening with the core element has identified two new core binding proteins, YB-1 and dbpA. Both proteins belong to the Y-box family of proteins characterized by an evolutionarily conserved DNA binding motif, the cold shock domain (CSD). In contrast to YY1, which binds only double-stranded SICR, the Y-box/CSD proteins much prefer the lower strand of the SICR. The Y-box proteins can repress the inducibility of the grp78 core element mediated by treatment of cells with A23187, thapsigargin, and tunicamycin. In gel shift assays, YY1 binding to the core element is inhibited by either YB-1 or dbpA. A yeast interaction trap screen using LexA-YY1 as a bait and a HeLa cell cDNA-acid patch fusion library identified YB-1 as a YY1-interacting protein. In cotransfection experiments, the Y-box proteins antagonize the YY1-mediated enhancement of transcription directed by the grp78 core in stressed cells. Thus, the CSD proteins may be part of the stress signal transduction mechanism in the mammalian system. PMID:8972186

  5. Time course of large ribosomal subunit assembly in E. coli cells overexpressing a helicase inactive DbpA protein.

    PubMed

    Gentry, Riley C; Childs, Jared J; Gevorkyan, Jirair; Gerasimova, Yulia V; Koculi, Eda

    2016-07-01

    DbpA is a DEAD-box RNA helicase implicated in Escherichia coli large ribosomal subunit assembly. Previous studies have shown that when the ATPase and helicase inactive DbpA construct, R331A, is expressed in E. coli cells, a large ribosomal subunit intermediate accumulates. The large subunit intermediate migrates as a 45S particle in a sucrose gradient. Here, using a number of structural and fluorescent assays, we investigate the ribosome profiles of cells lacking wild-type DbpA and overexpressing the R331A DbpA construct. Our data show that in addition to the 45S particle previously described, 27S and 35S particles are also present in the ribosome profiles of cells overexpressing R331A DbpA. The 27S, 35S, and 45S independently convert to the 50S subunit, suggesting that ribosome assembly in the presence of R331A and the absence of wild-type DbpA occurs via multiple pathways. PMID:27194011

  6. Smad2/3 Upregulates the Expression of Vimentin and Affects Its Distribution in DBP-Exposed Sertoli Cells

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Xi; Wang, Xiaogang; Liu, Taixiu; Mo, Min; Ao, Lin; Liu, Jinyi; Cao, Jia; Cui, Zhihong

    2015-01-01

    Sertoli cells (SCs) in the testes provide physical and nutritional support to germ cells. The vimentin cytoskeleton in SCs is disrupted by dibutyl phthalate (DBP), which leads to SCs dysfunction. In a previous study, we found that peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor alpha (PPARα) influenced the distribution of vimentin by affecting its phosphorylation in DBP-exposed SCs. In the present study, we investigated the role of Smad2/3 in regulating the expression of vimentin in DBP-exposed SCs. We hypothesized that Smad2/3 affects the distribution of vimentin by regulating its expression and that there is cross talk between Smad2/3 and PPARα. The real-time PCR and ChIP-qPCR results showed that SB431542 (an inhibitor of Smad2/3) could significantly attenuate the expression of vimentin induced by DBP in SCs. Phosphorylated and soluble vimentin were both downregulated by SB431542 pretreatment. WY14643 (an agonist of PPARα) pretreatment stimulated, while GW6471 (an antagonist of PPARα) inhibited, the activity of Smad2/3; SB431542 pretreatment also inhibited the activity of PPARα, but it did not rescue the DBP-induced collapse in vimentin. Our results suggest that, in addition to promoting the phosphorylation of vimentin, DBP also stimulates the expression of vimentin by activating Smad2/3 in SCs and thereby induces irregular vimentin distribution. PMID:26819576

  7. Experimental investigations on PVC-LiAsF 6-DBP polymer electrolyte systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rajendran, S.; Uma, T.

    Poly(vinyl chloride) (PVC)-LiAsF 6 polymer electrolytes plasticized with dibutyl phthalate in different mole ratios have been studied by means of X-ray diffraction (XRD), infrared spectroscopy (IR) and a.c. impedance spectroscopy. The complexation has been confirmed from XRD and IR studies. A maximum room temperature conductivity (3.938×10 -5 S cm -1) has been observed for PVC: LiAsF 6: DBP (10:5:85 mol%) complex. The log σ vs. 1/ T plots ( σ=electrical conductivity; T=temperature) show Arrhenius behaviour. The activation energy is estimated and the results are discussed.

  8. Comparison of responses by bacteriophages and bacteria to pressures on the base composition of open reading frames.

    PubMed

    Mortimer, James R; Forsdyke, Donald R

    2003-01-01

    Differences in the base composition of genomes can occur because of GC pressure, purine-loading pressure (AG pressure) and RNY pressure, for which there are possible functional explanations, and because of the more abstract pressures exerted by individual bases. The graphical approach of Muto and Osawa was used to analyse how bacteriophages and bacteria balance potentially conflicting pressures on their genomes. Phages generally respond to AG pressure by increasing A while keeping T constant, and by decreasing C while keeping G constant. In contrast, bacteria generally increase both A and T, the former more so, and decrease both G and C, the latter more so. These differences largely occur at third codon positions, which are more responsive than first and second codon positions to AG pressure and GC pressure. Phages respond to AG pressure more in the third codon position than bacteria, whereas bacteria respond more in the first codon position than phages. Conversely, bacteria respond to GC pressure more in the third codon position than phages, whereas phages respond more in the first codon position than bacteria. As GC pressure increases, A is traded for C and AG pressure decreases; first and second codon positions, having more A than T, are most responsive to this negative effect of increased GC pressure; third positions either do not respond (phages) or respond weakly (bacteria). In a set of 48 phage-host pairs, degrees of purine loading were less correlated between phage and host than were GC percentages. These results suggest that pressures on conventional and genome phenotypes operate differentially in phages and bacteria, generating both general differences in base composition and specific differences characteristic of particular phage-host pairs. The reciprocal relationship between GC pressure and AG pressure implies that effects attributed to GC pressure may actually be due to AG pressure, and vice versa. PMID:15130833

  9. The toothless osteopetrotic rat has a normal vitamin D-binding protein-macrophage activating factor (DBP-MAF) cascade and chondrodysplasia resistant to treatments with colony stimulating factor-1 (CSF-1) and/or DBP-MAF.

    PubMed

    Odgren, P R; Popoff, S N; Safadi, F F; MacKay, C A; Mason-Savas, A; Seifert, M F; Marks, S C

    1999-08-01

    The osteopetrotic rat mutation toothless (tl) is characterized by little or no bone resorption, few osteoclasts and macrophages, and chondrodysplasia at the growth plates. Short-term treatment of tl rats with colony-stimulating factor-1 (CSF-1) has been shown to increase the number of osteoclasts and macrophages, producing dramatic resolution of skeletal sclerosis at some, but not all, sites. Defects in production of vitamin D-binding protein-macrophage activating factor (DBP-MAF) have been identified in two other independent osteopetrotic mutations of the rat (op and ia), and two in the mouse (op and mi), in which macrophages and osteoclasts can be activated by the administration of exogenous DBP-MAF. The present studies were undertaken to examine the histology and residual growth defects in tl rats following longer CSF-1 treatments, to investigate the possibility that exogenous DBP-MAF might act synergistically with CSF-1 to improve the tl phenotype, and to assess the integrity of the endogenous DBP-MAF pathway in this mutation. CSF-1 treatment-with or without DBP-MAF-induced resorption of metaphyseal bone to the growth plate on the marrow side, improved slightly but did not normalize long bone growth, and caused no improvement in the abnormal histology of the growth plate. Injections of lysophosphatidylcholine (lyso-Pc) to prime macrophage activation via the DBP-MAF pathway raised superoxide production to similar levels in peritoneal macrophages from both normal and mutant animals, indicating no defect in the DBP-MAF pathway in tl rats. Interestingly, pretreatments with CSF-1 alone also increased superoxide production, although the mechanism for this remains unknown. In summary, we find that, unlike other osteopetrotic mutations investigated to date, the DBP-MAF pathway does not appear to be defective in the tl rat; that additional DBP-MAF does not augment the beneficial skeletal effects seen with CSF-1 alone; and that the growth plate chondrodystrophy seen in

  10. Reduced Fgf10/Fgfr2 and androgen receptor (AR) in anorectal malformations male rats induced by di-n-butyl phthalate (DBP): A study on the local and systemic toxicology of DBP.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Jun-Tao; Xu, Hong-Li; Zhu, Yi-Ping; Wood, Kristofer; Li, En-Hui; Sun, Wen-Lan; Yuan, Quan; Xu, Dong-Liang; Liu, Zhi-Hong; Zhao, Wei; Xia, Shu-Jie

    2015-12-01

    Previous study have demonstrated that not only the anorectal development but also the general conditions of anorectal malformations (ARMs) male rats are severely affected by di-n-butyl phthalate (DBP) maternal exposure. However, the mechanisms underlying DBP-induced congenital defects remain elusive. Reportedly, Fgf10/Fgfr2 and androgen receptor (AR) are pivotal for the development of multiple organs. In this study, we therefore investigated the expression of Fgf10/Fgfr2 together with AR in the terminal rectum and multiple organs of ARM male rats induced by in utero exposure to DBP. DBP was administered to pregnant rats to establish the model and the incidence of ARMs in male offspring was 39.5%. On postnatal day(PND)1, the gross photograph and histopathological staining confirmed the abnormal manifestations in these organs of newborn ARMs. Decreased anogenital distance, body weight and serum testosterone level were observed in ARM male offspring. The reduced expression of Fgf10/Fgfr2 mRNA and protein was seen in terminal rectum and kidney, spleen, liver, heart in ARM male rats, whereas the reduced expression of AR was only observed in the kidney and terminal rectum. Our findings suggest the potential involvement of altered Fgf10/Fgfr2 signaling and AR in pathogenesis of local and systemic development defects in ARMs male rats induce by DBP. PMID:26514922

  11. Self-Assembly of Tetraphenyldibenzoperiflanthene (DBP) Films on Ag(111) in the Monolayer Regime.

    PubMed

    Kirchhuebel, Tino; Gruenewald, Marco; Sojka, Falko; Kera, Satoshi; Bussolotti, Fabio; Ueba, Takahiro; Ueno, Nobuo; Rouillé, Gaël; Forker, Roman; Fritz, Torsten

    2016-03-01

    Tetraphenyldibenzoperiflanthene (DBP) is a promising candidate as a component of highly efficient organic photovoltaic cells and organic light-emitting diodes. The structural properties of thin films of this particular lander-type molecule on Ag(111) were investigated by complementary techniques. Highly ordered structures were obtained, and their mutual alignment was characterized by means of low-energy electron diffraction (LEED). Scanning tunneling microscopy (STM) images reveal two slightly different arrangements within the first monolayer (ML), both describable as specific herringbone patterns with two molecules per unit cell whose dibenzoperiflanthene framework is parallel to the surface. In contrast, single DBP molecules in the second ML were imaged with much higher intramolecular resolution, resembling the shape of the frontier orbitals in the gas phase as calculated by means of density functional theory (DFT). Further deposition leads to the growth of highly ordered bilayer islands on top of the first ML with identical unit cell dimensions and orientation but slightly inclined molecules. This suggests that the first ML acts as a template for the epitaxial growth of further layers. Simultaneously, a significant number of second-layer molecules mainly located at step edges or scattered over narrow terraces do not form highly ordered aggregates. PMID:26844381

  12. Evaluation of riverbank infiltration as a process for removing particles and DBP precursors

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, J.; Smith, J.; Dooley, L.

    1996-11-01

    Recent outbreaks of waterborne disease attributed to Cryptosporidium in drinking water have raised serious concerns over the effectiveness of conventional water treatment processes to produce safe drinking water supplies. Past studies have shown Cryptosporidium and Giardia to be prevalent in surface water supplies, particularly in urban-impacted surface waters such as the Ohio River which Louisville Water Company (LWC) treatment facilities utilize as their source water. Such indications of the widespread occurrence of these pathogens in source waters underscore the need for the water supply industry to evaluate alternative technologies to conventional water treatment to reduce the risk of waterborne disease occurrence. Public health concerns, shared by the water utility industry, drinking water regulators, and public water supply consumers alike, prompted the US Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA) to propose regulatory action aimed at balancing the risks of microbial disease occurrence and the health risks associated with exposure to potentially harmful compounds formed during drinking water disinfection. In pursuit of this objective, USEPA proposed the Enhanced Surface Water Treatment Rule (ESWTR) to improve public water supply treatment performance for microbial removal and proposed the Disinfectant/Disinfection Byproduct (D/DBP) Rule to reduce DBP exposure levels. As a consequence of these rules, many water utilities will be tasked with the challenge of developing treatment capabilities which improve microbial removal performance while minimizing the production of DBPs.

  13. The Effect of Chance Variability in Blood Pressure Readings on the Decision Making of General Practitioners: An Internet-Based Case Vignette Study

    PubMed Central

    Mohammed, Mohammed A.; Marshall, Tom; Gill, Paramjit

    2012-01-01

    Background Guidelines for the management of blood pressure (BP) in primary care generally suggest that decisions be made on the basis of specific threshold values (e.g. BP 140/90 mmHg); but this fails to adequately accommodate a common cause of variation – the play of chance. Objective To determine the impact of chance variability in BP readings on the clinical decision making of general practitioners (GPs) regarding anti-hypertensive treatment and cardiovascular risk management. Method We used an internet based study design, where 109 GPs were assigned to manage one of eight case vignettes (guidelines would recommend treatment for only one of the eight) and presented with blood pressure readings that were randomly selected from an underlying population. Results Seventeen (15.6%, 17/109) GPs consulted the vignette for whom treatment was recommended, but only 7/17 (41.2%) GPs prescribed treatment, whereas 14/92 (15.2%) GPs prescribed medication to the other vignettes. When deciding to follow-up a vignette GPs were influenced by threshold values for systolic and diastolic BP, but not by the overall cardiovascular risk. If the first reading was a low BP (systolic <140, diastolic <90) GPs were highly likely to discharge the vignette and follow-up a high BP reading (diastolic >90 or systolic BP≥140). Similar factors predicted the decision to prescribe a drug, although the vignette’s cardiovascular risk (>20%) was now statistically significant (p = 0.03). Conclusions GP decision making, whilst generally consistent with guidelines, appears to be compromised by chance variation leading to under and over treatment. Interventions to adequately accommodate chance variability into clinical decision making are required. PMID:23133591

  14. The Relationship Between Preoperative and Primary Care Blood Pressure Among Veterans Presenting from Home for Surgery. Is There Evidence for Anesthesiologist-Initiated Blood Pressure Referral?

    PubMed Central

    Schonberger, Robert B.; Burg, Matthew M.; Holt, Natalie; Lukens, Carrie L.; Dai, Feng; Brandt, Cynthia

    2011-01-01

    SBP≥146mmHg had 95.9% estimated specificity (95% CI 94.4 to 97.0) for identifying subsequent primary care SBP≥140mmHg and estimated sensitivity of 26.8% (95% CI 22.0 to 32.0). A similarly high specificity using a single DOS SBP required a threshold SBP≥160mmHg, for which estimated specificity was 95.2% (95% CI 94.2 to 96.1). For DBP, a presenting DOS DBP≥92mmHg had 95.7% specificity (95% CI 94.8 to 96.4) for subsequent primary care DBP≥90mmHg with a sensitivity of 18.8% (95% CI 14.4 to 24.0). Conclusion A small bias toward higher DOS blood pressures relative to subsequent primary care measurements was observed. DOS factors predicted only a small proportion of the observed variation. Accounting for the observed bias, a two-stage SBP threshold and a single-reading DBP threshold were highly specific though insensitive for identifying subsequent primary care blood pressure elevation. PMID:22075017

  15. Prenatal exposure to di-n-butyl phthalate (DBP) differentially alters androgen cascade in undeformed versus hypospadiac male rat offspring.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Jun-Tao; Zhong, Chen; Zhu, Yi-Ping; Xu, Dong-Liang; Wood, Kristofer; Sun, Wen-Lan; Li, En-Hui; Liu, Zhi-Hong; Zhao, Wei; Ruan, Yuan; Xia, Shu-Jie

    2016-06-01

    This study was to compare the alterations of androgen cascades in di-n-butyl phthalate (DBP)-exposed male offspring without hypospadias (undeformed) versus those with hypospadias. To induce hypospadias in male offspring, pregnant rats received DBP via oral gavage at a dose of 750mg/kg BW/day during gestational days 14-18. The mRNA expression levels of genes downstream of the androgen signaling pathway, such as androgen receptor (AR) and Srd5a2, in testes of undeformed rat pups were similar to those in controls; in hypospadiac rat pups these levels were significantly lower than those of control pups. In contrast, both undeformed and hypospadiac rats had decreased serum testosterone levels, reduced mRNA expression of key enzymes in the androgen synthetic pathway in the testes, and ablated genes of developmental pathways, such as Shh, Bmp4, Fgf8, Fgf10 and Fgfr2, in the genital tubercle (GT) as compared to those in DBP-unexposed controls, albeit hypospadiac rats had a more severe decrement than those of undeformed rats. Although other possibilities cannot be excluded, our findings suggest that the relatively normal levels of testosterone-AR-Srd5a2 may contribute to the resistance to DBP toxicity in undeformed rats. In conclusion, our results showed a potential correlation between decreased testosterone levels, reduced mRNA expression of AR and Srd5a2 and the occurrence of hypospadias in male rat offspring prenatally exposed to DBP. PMID:26948521

  16. The Relationship between Self-Efficacy and Resting Blood Pressure in Spousal Alzheimer’s Caregivers

    PubMed Central

    Harmell, Alexandrea L.; Mausbach, Brent T; Roepke, Susan K.; Moore, Raeanne; von Känel, Roland; Patterson, Thomas L; Dimsdale, Joel E; Mills, Paul J; Ziegler, Michael G.; Allison, Matthew A.; Ancoli-Israel, Sonia; Grant, Igor

    2011-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To examine whether increased self-efficacy for using problem-focused coping was significantly related to several resting blood pressure measures in spousal Alzheimer’s disease caregivers. METHODS Participants included 100 older caregivers (mean age= 73.8 ± 8.14 years) providing in home care for a spouse with Alzheimer’s disease (AD). All participants completed a 13 item short form of the coping self-efficacy scale and underwent an in-home assessment where a visiting nurse took the average of three serial blood pressure readings. Multiple regression was used to examine the relationship between self-efficacy and mean arterial pressure (MAP), systolic blood pressure (SBP), diastolic blood pressure (DBP), and pulse pressure (PP) after controlling for age, gender, smoking history, body mass index, the care recipient’s clinical dementia rating (CDR), diabetes, alcohol use, and the use of anti-hypertensive medications. RESULTS Overall, increased self-efficacy (as measured by the Coping Self-efficacy scale) was significantly related to lower resting MAP (β = −.26, t(90) = −2.47, p = .016) and SBP (β=−.28, t(90)= −2.74, p= .007) . Self-efficacy was marginally associated with resting DBP, but not significant (β = −.20, t(90) = −1.91, p= .06). Lastly, self-efficacy was significantly related to pulse pressure (β = −.21, t(90) = −2.31 p= .023). In addition, 1 standard deviation increase in self-efficacy was associated with a decrease of approximately 4 mmHg in SBP. CONCLUSIONS These results suggest an association between high self-efficacy on resting blood pressure. Because psychosocial interventions for Alzheimer’s caregivers have potential to increase self-efficacy, it appears possible that these interventions could have a beneficial impact on caregivers’ cardiovascular function. PMID:21489059

  17. Cellular DBP and E4BP4 proteins are critical for determining the period length of the circadian oscillator.

    PubMed

    Yamajuku, Daisuke; Shibata, Yasutaka; Kitazawa, Masashi; Katakura, Toshie; Urata, Hiromi; Kojima, Tomoko; Takayasu, Satoko; Nakata, Osamu; Hashimoto, Seiichi

    2011-07-21

    The phenotypes of mice carrying clock gene mutations have been critical to understanding the mammalian clock function. However, behavior does not necessarily reflect cell-autonomous clock phenotypes, because of the hierarchical dominance of the central clock. We performed cell-based siRNA knockdown and cDNA overexpression and monitored rhythm using bioluminescent reporters of clock genes. We found that knockdown of DBP, D-box positive regulator, in our model led to a short-period phenotype, whereas overexpressing of DBP produced a long-period rhythm when compared to controls. Furthermore, knockdown and overexpressing of E4BP4, D-box negative regulator, led to an opposite effect of DBP. Our experiments demonstrated that D-box regulators play a crucial role in determining the period length of Per1 and Per2 promoter-driven circadian rhythms in Rat-1 fibroblasts. PMID:21635892

  18. Teaching Reading

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Day, Richard R.

    2013-01-01

    "Teaching Reading" uncovers the interactive processes that happen when people learn to read and translates them into a comprehensive easy-to-follow guide on how to teach reading. Richard Day's revelations on the nature of reading, reading strategies, reading fluency, reading comprehension, and reading objectives make fascinating…

  19. Recruitment, Duplex Unwinding and Protein-Mediated Inhibition of the Dead-Box RNA Helicase Dbp2 at Actively Transcribed Chromatin.

    PubMed

    Ma, Wai Kit; Paudel, Bishnu P; Xing, Zheng; Sabath, Ivan G; Rueda, David; Tran, Elizabeth J

    2016-03-27

    RNA helicases play fundamental roles in modulating RNA structures and facilitating RNA-protein (RNP) complex assembly in vivo. Previously, our laboratory demonstrated that the DEAD-box RNA helicase Dbp2 in Saccharomyces cerevisiae is required to promote efficient assembly of the co-transcriptionally associated mRNA-binding proteins Yra1, Nab2, and Mex67 onto poly(A)(+)RNA. We also found that Yra1 associates directly with Dbp2 and functions as an inhibitor of Dbp2-dependent duplex unwinding, suggestive of a cycle of unwinding and inhibition by Dbp2. To test this, we undertook a series of experiments to shed light on the order of events for Dbp2 in co-transcriptional mRNP assembly. We now show that Dbp2 is recruited to chromatin via RNA and forms a large, RNA-dependent complex with Yra1 and Mex67. Moreover, single-molecule fluorescence resonance energy transfer and bulk biochemical assays show that Yra1 inhibits unwinding in a concentration-dependent manner by preventing the association of Dbp2 with single-stranded RNA. This inhibition prevents over-accumulation of Dbp2 on mRNA and stabilization of a subset of RNA polymerase II transcripts. We propose a model whereby Yra1 terminates a cycle of mRNP assembly by Dbp2. PMID:26876600

  20. Blood pressure measurement

    MedlinePlus

    Diastolic blood pressure; Systolic blood pressure; Blood pressure reading; Measuring blood pressure ... or your health care provider will wrap the blood pressure cuff snugly around your upper arm. The ...

  1. Blood pressure measurement

    MedlinePlus

    Diastolic blood pressure; Systolic blood pressure; Blood pressure reading; Measuring blood pressure ... your health care provider will wrap the blood pressure cuff snugly around your upper arm. The lower ...

  2. Application of a standardised protocol for hepatic venous pressure gradient measurement improves quality of readings and facilitates reduction of variceal bleeding in cirrhotics

    PubMed Central

    Tey, Tze Tong; Gogna, Apoorva; Irani, Farah Gillan; Too, Chow Wei; Lo, Hoau Gong Richard; Tan, Bien Soo; Tay, Kiang Hiong; Lui, Hock Foong; Chang, Pik Eu Jason

    2016-01-01

    INTRODUCTION Hepatic venous pressure gradient (HVPG) measurement is recommended for prognostic and therapeutic indications in centres with adequate resources and expertise. Our study aimed to evaluate the quality of HVPG measurements at our centre before and after introduction of a standardised protocol, and the clinical relevance of the HVPG to variceal bleeding in cirrhotics. METHODS HVPG measurements performed at Singapore General Hospital from 2005–2013 were retrospectively reviewed. Criteria for quality HVPG readings were triplicate readings, absence of negative pressure values and variability of ≤ 2 mmHg. The rate of variceal bleeding was compared in cirrhotics who achieved a HVPG response to pharmacotherapy (reduction of the HVPG to < 12 mmHg or by ≥ 20% of baseline) and those who did not. RESULTS 126 HVPG measurements were performed in 105 patients (mean age 54.7 ± 11.4 years; 55.2% men). 80% had liver cirrhosis and 20% had non-cirrhotic portal hypertension (NCPH). The mean overall HVPG was 13.5 ± 7.2 mmHg, with a significant difference between the cirrhosis and NCPH groups (p < 0.001). The proportion of quality readings significantly improved after the protocol was introduced. HVPG response was achieved in 28 (33.3%, n = 84) cirrhotics. Nine had variceal bleeding over a median follow-up of 29 months. The rate of variceal bleeding was significantly lower in HVPG responders compared to nonresponders (p = 0.025). CONCLUSION The quality of HVPG measurements in our centre improved after the introduction of a standardised protocol. A HVPG response can prognosticate the risk of variceal bleeding in cirrhotics. PMID:26996384

  3. Genotoxicity of sub-lethal di-n-butyl phthalate (DBP) in Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) / Genotoksičnost subletalne koncentracije di-n-butil ftalata (DBP-a) u nilskoj tilapiji (Oreochromis niloticus).

    PubMed

    Benli, Aysel Çağlan Karasu; Erkmen, Belda; Erkoç, Figen

    2016-03-01

    This study aimed to assess genotoxicity in Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) erythrocytes after exposure to a sub-lethal concentration of 10 mg L-1 di-n-butyl phthalate (DBP) for 24 and 96 h. The results showed that mean MN frequencies in both DBP and ethyl methane-sulfonate (EMS, positive control for MN bioassay) groups were significantly different (p<0.01) with respect to control and solvent control groups, in both exposure scenarios. When analysing nuclear abnormalities, the frequency of notched nuclei was significantly different (p<0.05) but the frequencies of other subtypes did not change. The 96-h exposure led to an increase in the mean frequencies of notched nuclei, and also caused significant differences between MN frequencies in all groups (p<0.01). Our findings indicate that sub-lethal DBP concentrations when tested in controlled laboratory conditions have genotoxic potential towards Nile tilapia. Further detailed studies should be done for the determination of the environmental risk assessment for aquatic life since DBP is a high risk contaminant of freshwater and marine ecosystems. PMID:27092636

  4. THE CARCINOGENIC RESPONSE TO A MIXTURE OF DRINKING WATER DISINFECTION BY-PRODUCTS (DBP) WAS LESS THAN ADDITIVE

    EPA Science Inventory

    THE CARCINOGENIC RESPONSE TO A MIXTURE OF DRINKING WATER DISINFECTION BY -PRODUCTS (DBP) W AS LESS THAN ADDITIVE.

    Current default risk assessments for chemical mixtures assume additivity of carcinogenic effects but this may under or over represent the actual biological res...

  5. EPA Peer Consultation Workshop Report on the Review of the Draft IRIS Toxicological Review of Dibutyl Phthalate (DBP)

    EPA Science Inventory

    The U.S. EPA finalized comments gathered from a public peer review of the scientific basis supporting the human health hazard and dose-response assessment of dibutyl phthalate (DBP) that will appear on the Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS) database. The peer review has en...

  6. THE OCCURRENCE OF DISINFECTION BY-PRODUCTS OF HEALTH CONCERN IN DRINKING WATER: RESULTS OF A NATIONWIDE DBP OCCURRENCE STUDY

    EPA Science Inventory

    The motivation for this Nationwide Disinfection By-product (DBP) Occurrence Study was two-fold: First, more than 500 DBPs have been reported in the literature, yet there is almost no quantitative occurrence information for most. As a result, there is significant uncertainty ove...

  7. MODULATION OF THE CYTOTOXICITY AND GENOTOXICITY OF THE DRINKING WATER DBP IODOACETIC ACID BY SUPPRESSORS OF OXIDATIVE STRESS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Drinking water disinfection by-products (DBPs) are generated by the chemical disinfection of water and may pose a hazard to the public health. Previously we demonstrated that iodoacetic acid was the most cytotoxic and genotoxic DBP analyzed in a mammalian cell system. Little is k...

  8. Maternal exposure to di-n-butyl phthalate (DBP) induces combined anorectal and urogenital malformations in male rat offspring.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Yi-Ping; Li, En-Hui; Sun, Wen-Lan; Xu, Dong-Liang; Liu, Zhi-Hong; Zhao, Wei; Wood, Kristofer; Xia, Shu-Jie; Jiang, Jun-Tao

    2016-06-01

    Anorectal malformations in combination with hypospadias (ARMs & hypospadias) are a type of complex congenital malformations. The underlying mechanisms of this deformity are largely unknown. In this study, we comprehensively characterized the dysplasia, histological malformations, and genetic changes of ARMs & hypospadias in male rats after maternal exposure to di-n-butyl phthalate (DBP) by gastric intubation at doses of 850mg/kg bw/day during GD11-15. On postnatal day 1, anatomical and histopathological analysis confirmed combined malformations of the genital tubercle (GT), terminal rectum (TR) and testes. DBP-induced dysplasia was also seen in the kidney, lung, spleen, heart and liver of ARMs & hypospadias male rats. Moreover, decreased levels of serum testosterone, as well as reduced expression of genes related to the androgen signaling pathway (Cyp11a1, Hsd3b, Scarb1, Star, AR, Srd5a2) were found in the testes of ARMs & hypospadias male rats after DBP exposure as compared to untreated controls. Further, decreased mRNA levels of Shh, Fgf10, Gli2, Gli3, Bmp4, Wnt5a, Hoxa13, Hoxd13, Fgfr2 and AR were observed in TR and GT in the ARMs & hypospadias group. These results provide evidence that prenatal exposure to DBP can lead to combined anorectal and urogenital malformations as well as dysplasia of the testes. PMID:27079746

  9. RENAL CARCINOGENICITY OF INDIVIDUAL AND A MIXTURE OF DRINKING WATER DISINFECTION BY-PRODUCTS (DBP) IN EKER RATS

    EPA Science Inventory

    RENAL CARCINOGENICITY OF INDIVIDUAL AND A MIXTURE OF DRINKING / WATER DISINFECTION BY -PRODUCTS (DBP) IN EKER RATS.

    Eker rats develop hereditary renal cell carcinoma secondary to a germline mutation in the tuberous sclerosis 2 tumor suppressor gene, and are highly suscepti...

  10. Blood pressure as a predictor of cardiovascular events in the elderly: the William Hale Research Program.

    PubMed

    Masley, S C; Phillips, S E; Schocken, D D

    2006-06-01

    This study evaluates the association between blood pressure (BP) and the risk of developing cardiovascular disease (CVD) events in the elderly. The Morton Plant Mease Foundation has followed 4,008 elderly patients >64 years of age for at least 5 years. Systolic and diastolic blood pressure (SBP and DBP) was divided into categories. Cardiovascular disease events were classified as myocardial infarction, stroke, and CVD-related deaths reported from the National Death Index. Cox proportional hazard ratios were used to assess the relationship between BP and CVD events and controlled for weight, gender, smoker, and alcohol use. Ages <75 and >or=75 years were assessed separately. After 11.1 years of follow-up, elevated SBP (P=<0.0001) is strongly associated with developing a future CVD event; the relationship is linear and graded and holds for ages above and below 75 years. The frequency of CVD events was lowest in the SBP <120 mm Hg group. In subjects <75 years of age, DBP elevations were not a significant risk factor for CVD events. (relative risk (RR): DBP 70 to <80 mm Hg=0.92; DBP 80 to <90 mm Hg=0.88; DBP >or=90 mm Hg=1.02.) With subjects >or=75 years of age, a DBP between 80 and 90 is associated with the lowest significant risk for CVD (RR: DBP 70 to <80 mm Hg=0.74; DBP 80 to <90 mm Hg=0.59; DBP >or=90=0.71). In conclusion, these findings support the Joint National Committee on Hypertension recommendations for SBP in the elderly. Further studies are warranted to identify optimal DBP for the elderly at various ages. PMID:16543911

  11. Validation of the FM-800 ambulatory blood pressure monitor according to the Association for the Advancement of Medical Instrumentation criteria and the International Protocol.

    PubMed

    Nakamura, Kaori; Kikuya, Masahiro; Hara, Azusa; Hirose, Takuo; Obara, Taku; Metoki, Hirohito; Asayama, Kei; Inoue, Ryusuke; Ohkubo, Takayoshi; Totsune, Kazuhito; Imai, Yutaka

    2010-01-01

    To validate the FM-800 device (Fukuda Denshi Co., Ltd., Tokyo, Japan) for ambulatory blood pressure monitoring (ABPM), this validation study was performed based on the European Society of Hypertension (ESH) protocol and the Association for the Advancement of Medical Instrumentation (AAMI) criteria. Thirty-three participants were included (15 in phase 1 and an additional 18 in phase 2) in the ESH protocol. The device was tested on 85 participants according to the AAMI criteria, which require a mean device-observers discrepancy within 5 ± 8 mmHg. The tested device passed all the criteria for both systolic blood pressure (SBP) and diastolic blood pressure (DBP), and for the Korotkoff and oscillometric methods according to the ESH protocol. The test device also fulfilled the AAMI accuracy criteria for the 85 participants; the mean ± SD of the SBP/DBP differences between the tested device and the mean of the observer readings were -1.1 ± 4.2/-0.8 ± 4.2 mmHg for the Korotkoff method and 2.3 ± 3.9/-2.3 ± 3.9 mmHg for the oscillometric method. The FM-800 device for ABPM passed all the validation criteria of the ESH and AAMI and can, therefore, be recommended for clinical use in an adult population. PMID:21091358

  12. Nuclear Export of Pre-Ribosomal Subunits Requires Dbp5, but Not as an RNA-Helicase as for mRNA Export

    PubMed Central

    Neumann, Bettina; Wu, Haijia; Hackmann, Alexandra; Krebber, Heike

    2016-01-01

    The DEAD-box RNA-helicase Dbp5/Rat8 is known for its function in nuclear mRNA export, where it displaces the export receptor Mex67 from the mRNA at the cytoplasmic side of the nuclear pore complex (NPC). Here we show that Dbp5 is also required for the nuclear export of both pre-ribosomal subunits. Yeast temperature-sensitive dbp5 mutants accumulate both ribosomal particles in their nuclei. Furthermore, Dbp5 genetically and physically interacts with known ribosomal transport factors such as Nmd3. Similar to mRNA export we show that also for ribosomal transport Dbp5 is required at the cytoplasmic side of the NPC. However, unlike its role in mRNA export, Dbp5 does not seem to undergo its ATPase cycle for this function, as ATPase-deficient dbp5 mutants that selectively inhibit mRNA export do not affect ribosomal transport. Furthermore, mutants of GLE1, the ATPase stimulating factor of Dbp5, show no major ribosomal export defects. Consequently, while Dbp5 uses its ATPase cycle to displace the export receptor Mex67 from the translocated mRNAs, Mex67 remains bound to ribosomal subunits upon transit to the cytoplasm, where it is detectable on translating ribosomes. Therefore, we propose a model, in which Dbp5 supports ribosomal transport by capturing ribosomal subunits upon their cytoplasmic appearance at the NPC, possibly by binding export factors such as Mex67. Thus, our findings reveal that although different ribonucleoparticles, mRNAs and pre-ribosomal subunits, use shared export factors, they utilize different transport mechanisms. PMID:26872259

  13. Reading(s).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Summerfield, Geoffrey; Summerfield, Judith

    Developed for college English courses, this book presents selections of poetry, short stories, and commentary intended to invite different ways of reading and interpreting literature. An introduction provides an overview of the book's content, as well as a discussion of how to read. The first section, "Entering a Language," considers the…

  14. Correlation between SUVA and DBP formation during chlorination and chloramination of NOM fractions from different sources.

    PubMed

    Hua, Guanghui; Reckhow, David A; Abusallout, Ibrahim

    2015-07-01

    Natural organic matter (NOM) is the major precursor to the formation of disinfection byproducts (DBPs) during drinking water treatment. Specific ultraviolet absorbance (SUVA) is a widely used surrogate parameter to characterize NOM and predict its DBP formation potential. The objective of this study was to determine the relationships between SUVA and different classes of DBPs formed by NOM fractions from different sources. Three natural waters with a wide SUVA range were fractionated into differing hydrophobicity and molecular weight groups using XAD-4 and XAD-8 resins and ultrafiltration membranes. Each NOM fraction was treated with chlorine and monochloramine under controlled laboratory conditions. Different classes of DBPs showed different relationships with SUVA. SUVA correlated strongly with trihaloacetic acids (THAAs) and unknown total organic halogen (UTOX) yields whereas weak correlations were observed between SUVA and trihalomethane (THM) and dihaloacetic acid (DHAA) yields during chlorination. These results reinforce the hypothesis that DHAAs and THAAs form through different precursors and reaction pathways. Strong correlation between SUVA and UTOX was also observed during chloramination. However, no significant relationship was observed between SUVA and chloramination THMs and DHAAs. Overall, SUVA is a good indicator for the formation of unknown DBPs. This indicates that UV absorbing compounds and aromatic carbon within NOM are the primary sources of precursors for unknown DBPs. PMID:25862949

  15. Reproducibility of ambulatory blood pressure load.

    PubMed

    Zachariah, P K; Sheps, S G; Bailey, K R; Wiltgen, C M; Moore, A G

    1990-12-01

    Twenty-two hypertensive patients were monitored during two separate drug-free occasions with a Del Mar Avionics ambulatory device. Blood pressure loads (percentage of systolic and diastolic readings more than 140 and 90 mmHg, respectively) and mean BP were measured both to determine their reproducibility and to examine how they correlate with each other. The systolic and diastolic mean awake BPs for day 1 and day 2 were 140/93 mmHg and 140/91 mmHg, respectively, and BP loads were 45%/55% and 43%/54%. Moreover, mean BP loads correlated highly (r = 0.93) with mean BP values taken on the same day. Both ambulatory mean SBP and BP load were highly reproducible (r = 0.87 and 0.80, respectively, during the awake hours), and mean DBP and load were fairly reproducible (r = 0.59 and 0.39, respectively, during the awake hours). Clinically, however, both were consistent from day 1 to day 2. Mean and individual standard deviations also were reproducible for both systolic and diastolic pressures and loads. PMID:2096203

  16. The K+-dependent GTPase Nug1 is implicated in the association of the helicase Dbp10 to the immature peptidyl transferase centre during ribosome maturation

    PubMed Central

    Manikas, Rizos-Georgios; Thomson, Emma; Thoms, Matthias; Hurt, Ed

    2016-01-01

    Ribosome synthesis employs a number of energy-consuming enzymes in both eukaryotes and prokaryotes. One such enzyme is the conserved circularly permuted GTPase Nug1 (nucleostemin in human). Nug1 is essential for 60S subunit assembly and nuclear export, but its role and time of action during maturation remained unclear. Based on in vitro enzymatic assays using the Chaetomium thermophilum (Ct) orthologue, we show that Nug1 exhibits a low intrinsic GTPase activity that is stimulated by potassium ions, rendering Nug1 a cation-dependent GTPase. In vivo we observe 60S biogenesis defects upon depletion of yeast Nug1 or expression of a Nug1 nucleotide-binding mutant. Most prominently, the RNA helicase Dbp10 was lost from early pre-60S particles, which suggested a physical interaction that could be reconstituted in vitro using CtNug1 and CtDbp10. In vivo rRNA–protein crosslinking revealed that Nug1 and Dbp10 bind at proximal and partially overlapping sites on the 60S pre-ribosome, most prominently to H89 that will constitute part of the peptidyl transferase center (PTC). The binding sites of Dbp10 are the same as those identified for the prokaryotic helicase DbpA bound to the 50S subunit. We suggest that Dbp10 and DbpA are performing a conserved role during PTC formation in all organisms. PMID:26823502

  17. The K⁺-dependent GTPase Nug1 is implicated in the association of the helicase Dbp10 to the immature peptidyl transferase centre during ribosome maturation.

    PubMed

    Manikas, Rizos-Georgios; Thomson, Emma; Thoms, Matthias; Hurt, Ed

    2016-02-29

    Ribosome synthesis employs a number of energy-consuming enzymes in both eukaryotes and prokaryotes. One such enzyme is the conserved circularly permuted GTPase Nug1 (nucleostemin in human). Nug1 is essential for 60S subunit assembly and nuclear export, but its role and time of action during maturation remained unclear. Based on in vitro enzymatic assays using the Chaetomium thermophilum (Ct) orthologue, we show that Nug1 exhibits a low intrinsic GTPase activity that is stimulated by potassium ions, rendering Nug1 a cation-dependent GTPase. In vivo we observe 60S biogenesis defects upon depletion of yeast Nug1 or expression of a Nug1 nucleotide-binding mutant. Most prominently, the RNA helicase Dbp10 was lost from early pre-60S particles, which suggested a physical interaction that could be reconstituted in vitro using CtNug1 and CtDbp10. In vivo rRNA-protein crosslinking revealed that Nug1 and Dbp10 bind at proximal and partially overlapping sites on the 60S pre-ribosome, most prominently to H89 that will constitute part of the peptidyl transferase center (PTC). The binding sites of Dbp10 are the same as those identified for the prokaryotic helicase DbpA bound to the 50S subunit. We suggest that Dbp10 and DbpA are performing a conserved role during PTC formation in all organisms. PMID:26823502

  18. Sea urchin mtDBP is a two-faced transcription termination factor with a biased polarity depending on the RNA polymerase

    PubMed Central

    Fernandez-Silva, Patricio; Polosa, Paola Loguercio; Roberti, Marina; Di Ponzio, Barbara; Gadaleta, Maria Nicola; Montoya, Julio; Cantatore, Palmiro

    2001-01-01

    The sea urchin mitochondrial displacement (D)-loop binding protein mtDBP has been previously identified and cloned. The polypeptide (348 amino acids) displays a significant homology with the human mitochondrial transcription termination factor mTERF. This similarity, and the observation that the 3′ ends of mitochondrial RNAs coded by opposite strands mapped in correspondence of mtDBP-binding sites, suggested that mtDBP could function as transcription termination factor in sea urchin mitochondria. To investigate such a role we tested the capability of mtDBP bound to its target sequence in the main non-coding region to affect RNA elongation by mitochondrial and bacteriophage T3 and T7 RNA polymerases. We show that mtDBP was able to terminate transcription bidirectionally when initiated by human mitochondrial RNA polymerase but only unidirectionally when initiated by T3 or T7 RNA polymerases. Time-course experiments indicated that mtDBP promotes true transcription termination rather than transcription pausing. These results indicate that mtDBP is able to function as a bipolar transcription termination factor in sea urchin mitochondria. The functional significance of such an activity could be linked to the previously proposed dual role of the protein in modulating mitochondrial DNA transcription and replication. PMID:11713324

  19. P(I) Release Limits the Intrinsic and RNA-Stimulated ATPase Cycles of DEAD-Box Protein 5 (Dbp5).

    PubMed

    Wong, Emily V; Cao, Wenxiang; Vörös, Judit; Merchant, Monique; Modis, Yorgo; Hackney, David D; Montpetit, Ben; De La Cruz, Enrique M

    2016-01-29

    mRNA export from the nucleus depends on the ATPase activity of the DEAD-box protein Dbp5/DDX19. Although Dbp5 has measurable ATPase activity alone, several regulatory factors (e.g., RNA, nucleoporin proteins, and the endogenous small molecule InsP6) modulate catalytic activity in vitro and in vivo to facilitate mRNA export. An analysis of the intrinsic and regulator-activated Dbp5 ATPase cycle is necessary to define how these factors control Dbp5 and mRNA export. Here, we report a kinetic and equilibrium analysis of the Saccharomyces cerevisiae Dbp5 ATPase cycle, including the influence of RNA on Dbp5 activity. These data show that ATP binds Dbp5 weakly in rapid equilibrium with a binding affinity (KT~4 mM) comparable to the KM for steady-state cycling, while ADP binds an order of magnitude more tightly (KD~0.4 mM). The overall intrinsic steady-state cycling rate constant (kcat) is limited by slow, near-irreversible ATP hydrolysis and even slower subsequent phosphate release. RNA increases kcat and rate-limiting Pi release 20-fold, although Pi release continues to limit steady-state cycling in the presence of RNA, in conjunction with RNA binding. Together, this work identifies RNA binding and Pi release as important biochemical transitions within the Dbp5 ATPase cycle and provides a framework for investigating the means by which Dbp5 and mRNA export is modulated by regulatory factors. PMID:26730886

  20. Towards reducing DBP formation potential of drinking water by favouring direct ozone over hydroxyl radical reactions during ozonation.

    PubMed

    De Vera, Glen Andrew; Stalter, Daniel; Gernjak, Wolfgang; Weinberg, Howard S; Keller, Jurg; Farré, Maria José

    2015-12-15

    When ozonation is employed in advanced water treatment plants to produce drinking water, dissolved organic matter reacts with ozone (O3) and/or hydroxyl radicals (OH) affecting disinfection byproduct (DBP) formation with subsequently used chlorine-based disinfectants. This study presents the effects of varying exposures of O3 and •OH on DBP concentrations and their associated toxicity generated after subsequent chlorination. DBP formation potential tests and in vitro bioassays were conducted after batch ozonation experiments of coagulated surface water with and without addition of tertiary butanol (t-BuOH, 10 mM) and hydrogen peroxide (H2O2, 1 mg/mg O3), and at different pH (6-8) and transferred ozone doses (0-1 mg/mg TOC). Although ozonation led to a 24-37% decrease in formation of total trihalomethanes, haloacetic acids, haloacetonitriles, and trihaloacetamides, an increase in formation of total trihalonitromethanes, chloral hydrate, and haloketones was observed. This effect however was less pronounced for samples ozonated at conditions favoring molecular ozone (e.g., pH 6 and in the presence of t-BuOH) over •OH reactions (e.g., pH 8 and in the presence of H2O2). Compared to ozonation only, addition of H2O2 consistently enhanced formation of all DBP groups (20-61%) except trihalonitromethanes. This proves that •OH-transformed organic matter is more susceptible to halogen incorporation. Analogously, adsorbable organic halogen (AOX) concentrations increased under conditions that favor •OH reactions. The ratio of unknown to known AOX, however, was greater at conditions that promote direct O3 reactions. Although significant correlation was found between AOX and genotoxicity with the p53 bioassay, toxicity tests using 4 in vitro bioassays showed relatively low absolute differences between various ozonation conditions. PMID:26378731

  1. Impact of DBP on histology and expression of HSP 70 in gill and liver tissue of Cyprinus carpio.

    PubMed

    Agus, Hizlan H; Erkmen, Belda; Sümer, Sibel; Sepici-Dinçel, Aylin; Erkoç, Figen

    2015-09-01

    Di-n-butyl phthalate (DBP) widely used plasticizer in the plastic industry, affects regulation of the endocrine system and causes toxicity in animals. In the present study, the aim was to study the toxic effects/damages of DBP exposure using Hsp70 levels and histopathological changes in Carp liver and gill. Hsp70 expression levels were assessed as specific biomarker of in vivo ecotoxicological stress. Carp (Cyprinus carpio) were exposed to sub-lethal concentration of DBP (di-n-butyl phthalate, 1 mg/L) for 4, 24 and 96 h. Gill and liver tissues were evaluated histopathologically and RNA quantifications for Hsp70 expression levels were carried out using a two-step real-time RT-PCR. In liver, a rapid but non-significant increase in mRNA levels in the first 4 h was observed. mRNA levels significantly increased up to 2-3 fold after 24 and 96 h (p < 0.05). However, irregular mRNA level changes were also recorded: Gill specific and time-dependent regulation of Hsp70 expression were 4-5 fold inhibition after 4 and 24 h (p < 0.05), then increased up to 4 fold after 96 h (p < 0.05). Histopathological findings support altered transcription results as: Epithelial lifting, hyperplasia, fusion of secondary lamellae, telangiectasis, passive hyperemia and hydropic degeneration. Significant alterations of Hsp70 levels were likely due to a tissue specific response against chemical stress, cellular damage and lesions due to DBP. Carp was found to be a suitable experimental model for toxicology, and Hsp70 mRNA levels are reliable, specific biomarkers. PMID:26311152

  2. Development of quantitative structure activity relationship (QSAR) model for disinfection byproduct (DBP) research: A review of methods and resources.

    PubMed

    Chen, Baiyang; Zhang, Tian; Bond, Tom; Gan, Yiqun

    2015-12-15

    Quantitative structure-activity relationship (QSAR) models are tools for linking chemical activities with molecular structures and compositions. Due to the concern about the proliferating number of disinfection byproducts (DBPs) in water and the associated financial and technical burden, researchers have recently begun to develop QSAR models to investigate the toxicity, formation, property, and removal of DBPs. However, there are no standard procedures or best practices regarding how to develop QSAR models, which potentially limit their wide acceptance. In order to facilitate more frequent use of QSAR models in future DBP research, this article reviews the processes required for QSAR model development, summarizes recent trends in QSAR-DBP studies, and shares some important resources for QSAR development (e.g., free databases and QSAR programs). The paper follows the four steps of QSAR model development, i.e., data collection, descriptor filtration, algorithm selection, and model validation; and finishes by highlighting several research needs. Because QSAR models may have an important role in progressing our understanding of DBP issues, it is hoped that this paper will encourage their future use for this application. PMID:26142156

  3. Reading Faster

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nation, Paul

    2009-01-01

    This article describes the visual nature of the reading process as it relates to reading speed. It points out that there is a physical limit on normal reading speed and beyond this limit the reading process will be different from normal reading where almost every word is attended to. The article describes a range of activities for developing…

  4. Reading Recovery.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jones, Joanna R., Ed.

    1992-01-01

    This issue of the Arizona Reading Journal focuses on the theme "reading recovery" and includes the following articles: "Why Is an Inservice Programme for Reading Recovery Teachers Necessary?" (Marie M. Clay); "What Is Reading Recovery?" (Gay Su Pinnell); "Teaching a Hard To Teach Child" (Constance A. Compton); "Reading Recovery in Arizona--A…

  5. Genome-wide association study identifies six new loci influencing pulse pressure and mean arterial pressure

    PubMed Central

    Wain, Louise V; Verwoert, Germaine C; O’Reilly, Paul F; Shi, Gang; Johnson, Toby; Johnson, Andrew D; Bochud, Murielle; Rice, Kenneth M; Henneman, Peter; Smith, Albert V; Ehret, Georg B; Amin, Najaf; Larson, Martin G; Mooser, Vincent; Hadley, David; Dörr, Marcus; Bis, Joshua C; Aspelund, Thor; Esko, Tõnu; Janssens, A Cecile JW; Zhao, Jing Hua; Heath, Simon; Laan, Maris; Fu, Jingyuan; Pistis, Giorgio; Luan, Jian’an; Arora, Pankaj; Lucas, Gavin; Pirastu, Nicola; Pichler, Irene; Jackson, Anne U; Webster, Rebecca J; Zhang, Feng; Peden, John F; Schmidt, Helena; Tanaka, Toshiko; Campbell, Harry; Igl, Wilmar; Milaneschi, Yuri; Hotteng, Jouke-Jan; Vitart, Veronique; Chasman, Daniel I; Trompet, Stella; Bragg-Gresham, Jennifer L; Alizadeh, Behrooz Z; Chambers, John C; Guo, Xiuqing; Lehtimäki, Terho; Kühnel, Brigitte; Lopez, Lorna M; Polašek, Ozren; Boban, Mladen; Nelson, Christopher P; Morrison, Alanna C; Pihur, Vasyl; Ganesh, Santhi K; Hofman, Albert; Kundu, Suman; Mattace-Raso, Francesco US; Rivadeneira, Fernando; Sijbrands, Eric JG; Uitterlinden, Andre G; Hwang, Shih-Jen; Vasan, Ramachandran S; Wang, Thomas J; Bergmann, Sven; Vollenweider, Peter; Waeber, Gérard; Laitinen, Jaana; Pouta, Anneli; Zitting, Paavo; McArdle, Wendy L; Kroemer, Heyo K; Völker, Uwe; Völzke, Henry; Glazer, Nicole L; Taylor, Kent D; Harris, Tamara B; Alavere, Helene; Haller, Toomas; Keis, Aime; Tammesoo, Mari-Liis; Aulchenko, Yurii; Barroso, Inês; Khaw, Kay-Tee; Galan, Pilar; Hercberg, Serge; Lathrop, Mark; Eyheramendy, Susana; Org, Elin; Sõber, Siim; Lu, Xiaowen; Nolte, Ilja M; Penninx, Brenda W; Corre, Tanguy; Masciullo, Corrado; Sala, Cinzia; Groop, Leif; Voight, Benjamin F; Melander, Olle; O’Donnell, Christopher J; Salomaa, Veikko; d’Adamo, Adamo Pio; Fabretto, Antonella; Faletra, Flavio; Ulivi, Sheila; Del Greco, M Fabiola; Facheris, Maurizio; Collins, Francis S; Bergman, Richard N; Beilby, John P; Hung, Joseph; Musk, A William; Mangino, Massimo; Shin, So-Youn; Soranzo, Nicole; Watkins, Hugh; Goel, Anuj; Hamsten, Anders; Gider, Pierre; Loitfelder, Marisa; Zeginigg, Marion; Hernandez, Dena; Najjar, Samer S; Navarro, Pau; Wild, Sarah H; Corsi, Anna Maria; Singleton, Andrew; de Geus, Eco JC; Willemsen, Gonneke; Parker, Alex N; Rose, Lynda M; Buckley, Brendan; Stott, David; Orru, Marco; Uda, Manuela; van der Klauw, Melanie M; Zhang, Weihua; Li, Xinzhong; Scott, James; Chen, Yii-Der Ida; Burke, Gregory L; Kähönen, Mika; Viikari, Jorma; Döring, Angela; Meitinger, Thomas; Davies, Gail; Starr, John M; Emilsson, Valur; Plump, Andrew; Lindeman, Jan H; ’t Hoen, Peter AC; König, Inke R; Felix, Janine F; Clarke, Robert; Hopewell, Jemma C; Ongen, Halit; Breteler, Monique; Debette, Stéphanie; DeStefano, Anita L; Fornage, Myriam; Mitchell, Gary F; Smith, Nicholas L; Holm, Hilma; Stefansson, Kari; Thorleifsson, Gudmar; Thorsteinsdottir, Unnur; Samani, Nilesh J; Preuss, Michael; Rudan, Igor; Hayward, Caroline; Deary, Ian J; Wichmann, H-Erich; Raitakari, Olli T; Palmas, Walter; Kooner, Jaspal S; Stolk, Ronald P; Jukema, J Wouter; Wright, Alan F; Boomsma, Dorret I; Bandinelli, Stefania; Gyllensten, Ulf B; Wilson, James F; Ferrucci, Luigi; Schmidt, Reinhold; Farrall, Martin; Spector, Tim D; Palmer, Lyle J; Tuomilehto, Jaakko; Pfeufer, Arne; Gasparini, Paolo; Siscovick, David; Altshuler, David; Loos, Ruth JF; Toniolo, Daniela; Snieder, Harold; Gieger, Christian; Meneton, Pierre; Wareham, Nicholas J; Oostra, Ben A; Metspalu, Andres; Launer, Lenore; Rettig, Rainer; Strachan, David P; Beckmann, Jacques S; Witteman, Jacqueline CM; Erdmann, Jeanette; van Dijk, Ko Willems; Boerwinkle, Eric; Boehnke, Michael; Ridker, Paul M; Jarvelin, Marjo-Riitta; Chakravarti, Aravinda; Abecasis, Goncalo R; Gudnason, Vilmundur; Newton-Cheh, Christopher; Levy, Daniel; Munroe, Patricia B; Psaty, Bruce M; Caulfield, Mark J; Rao, Dabeeru C

    2012-01-01

    Numerous genetic loci influence systolic blood pressure (SBP) and diastolic blood pressure (DBP) in Europeans 1-3. We now report genome-wide association studies of pulse pressure (PP) and mean arterial pressure (MAP). In discovery (N=74,064) and follow-up studies (N=48,607), we identified at genome-wide significance (P= 2.7×10-8 to P=2.3×10-13) four novel PP loci (at 4q12 near CHIC2/PDGFRAI, 7q22.3 near PIK3CG, 8q24.12 in NOV, 11q24.3 near ADAMTS-8), two novel MAP loci (3p21.31 in MAP4, 10q25.3 near ADRB1) and one locus associated with both traits (2q24.3 near FIGN) which has recently been associated with SBP in east Asians. For three of the novel PP signals, the estimated effect for SBP was opposite to that for DBP, in contrast to the majority of common SBP- and DBP-associated variants which show concordant effects on both traits. These findings indicate novel genetic mechanisms underlying blood pressure variation, including pathways that may differentially influence SBP and DBP. PMID:21909110

  6. The Relative Utility of Home, Ambulatory, and Office Blood Pressures in the Prediction of End-Organ Damage

    PubMed Central

    Shimbo, Daichi; Pickering, Thomas G.; Spruill, Tanya M.; Abraham, Dennis; Schwartz, Joseph E.; Gerin, William

    2007-01-01

    Background Home blood pressure (HBP) monitoring plays an increasingly important role in the diagnosis and treatment of hypertension. We evaluated the independent value of HBP compared to ambulatory blood pressure (ABP) and office blood pressure (OBP) in the prediction of cardiovascular end-organ damage in normotensive subjects and untreated patients with mild hypertension. Methods 163 subjects underwent measurements of OBP, HBP, ABP, and echocardiography. A physician using a mercury column sphygmomanometer performed three OBP measurements. ABP was recorded using a noninvasive ambulatory monitor (mean 35.4 awake readings per subject). Participants took HBP readings with an automatic, oscillometric device over a 10-week period (mean 277.9 readings per subject). Left ventricular mass index (LVMI) was calculated from measurements obtained from 2-dimensionally guided M-mode or linear tracings on echocardiography. Results For systolic and diastolic blood pressures (SBP/DBP), the correlation coefficients of LVMI with OBP, awake ABP, and HBP were .29/.27, .41/.26, and .47/.35 respectively (all ps<.01). In a multivariate regression analysis in which age, sex, body mass index, OBP, awake ABP, and HBP were included, only age, sex, and HBP were significant predictors of LVMI. When only the first 12 home readings were used, the superiority of HBP was no longer evident. Conclusions In contrast to OBP and ABP, HBP measurements, when averaged over a 10-week period, are independently related to LVMI. HBP adds prognostic information over and above OBP and ABP in the prediction of cardiovascular end-organ damage, but this relation appears to depend on the number of readings taken. PMID:17485006

  7. Maternal Blood Pressure During Pregnancy and Early Childhood Blood Pressures in the Offspring

    PubMed Central

    Lim, Wai-Yee; Lee, Yung-Seng; Yap, Fabian Kok-Peng; Aris, Izzudin Mohd; Ngee, Lek; Meaney, Michael; Gluckman, Peter D.; Godfrey, Keith M.; Kwek, Kenneth; Chong, Yap-Seng; Saw, Seang-Mei; Pan, An

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Although epidemiological studies suggest that offspring of women with preeclampsia are at increased risk to higher blood pressures and cardiovascular disease, little is known about the nature of blood pressures between the mother and her offspring. As blood pressures comprise of both pulsatile (systolic blood pressure [SBP] and pulse pressure [PP]) and stable (diastolic blood pressure [DBP]) components, and they differ between central and peripheral sites, we sought to examine maternal peripheral and central blood pressure components in relation to offspring early childhood blood pressures. A prospective birth cohort of 567 Chinese, Malay, and Indian mother–offspring with complete blood pressure information were studied. Maternal brachial artery SBP, DBP, and PP were measured at 26 to 28 weeks gestation; and central SBP and PP were estimated from radial artery waveforms. Offspring brachial artery SBP, DBP, and PP were measured at 3 years of age. Associations between continuous variables of maternal blood pressures (peripheral SBP, DBP, PP, central SBP, and PP) and offspring blood pressures (peripheral SBP, DBP, and PP) were examined using multiple linear regression with adjustment for maternal characteristics (age, education level, parity, smoking status, alcohol consumption and physical activity during pregnancy, and pre-pregnancy BMI) and offspring characteristics (sex, ethnicity, BMI, and height at 3 years of age). In the multivariate models, offspring peripheral SBP increased by 0.08 (95% confidence interval 0.00–0.17, P = 0.06) mmHg with every 1-mmHg increase in maternal central SBP, and offspring peripheral PP increased by 0.10 (0.01–0.18, P = 0.03) mmHg for every 1-mmHg increase in maternal central PP. The relations of maternal-offspring peripheral blood pressures (SBP, DBP, and PP) were positive but not statistically significant, and the corresponding values were 0.05 (−0.03 to 0.13; P = 0.21), 0.03 (−0.04 to 0.10; P = 0

  8. Reading Comics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tilley, Carol L.

    2008-01-01

    Many adults, even librarians who willingly add comics to their collections, often dismiss the importance of comics. Compared to reading "real" books, reading comics appears to be a simple task and compared to reading no books, reading comics might be preferable. After all, comics do have words, but the plentiful pictures seem to carry most of the…

  9. Reading Rituals

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Manzo, Kathleen Kennedy

    2007-01-01

    The Ogden, Utah schools have used the mandates of the federal Reading First grant program to transform reading instruction and student achievement in low-performing schools. Reading First was approved by Congress in 2001 under the No Child Left Behind Act to bring scientifically based reading methods and materials to struggling schools. The $1…

  10. High blood pressure

    MedlinePlus

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/000468.htm High blood pressure To use the sharing features on ... body. Hypertension is the term used to describe high blood pressure. Blood pressure readings are given as ...

  11. The DBP Phenotype Gc-1f/Gc-1f Is Associated with Reduced Risk of Cancer. The Tromsø Study

    PubMed Central

    Jorde, Rolf; Schirmer, Henrik; Wilsgaard, Tom; Bøgeberg Mathiesen, Ellisiv; Njølstad, Inger; Løchen, Maja-Lisa; Joakimsen, Ragnar Martin; Grimnes, Guri

    2015-01-01

    Background and Objective In addition to its role as a transport protein, the vitamin D binding protein (DBP) may also affect lipid metabolism, inflammation and carcinogenesis. There are three common variants of the DBP, Gc1s (1s), Gc1f (1f), Gc2 (2) that result in six common phenotypes (1s/1s, 1s/1f, 1s/2, 1f/1f, 1f/2, and 2/2). These phenotypes can be identified by genotyping for the two single nucleotide polymorphisms rs7041 and rs4588 in the GC gene. The DBP variants have different binding coefficients for the vitamin D metabolites, and accordingly there may be important relations between DBP phenotypes and health. Methods DNA was prepared from subjects who participated in the fourth survey of the Tromsø Study in 1994-1995 and who were registered with the endpoints myocardial infarction (MI), type 2 diabetes (T2DM), cancer or death as well as a randomly selected control group. The endpoint registers were complete up to 2010- 2013. Genotyping was performed for rs7041 and rs4588 and serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH)D) was measured. Results Genotyping for rs7041 and rs4588 was performed successfully in 11 704 subjects. Among these, 1660 were registered with incident MI, 958 with T2DM, 2410 with cancer and 4318 had died. Subjects with the DBP phenotype 1f/1f had 23 – 26 % reduced risk of incident cancer compared to the 1s/1s and 2/2 phenotypes (P < 0.02, Cox regression with gender as covariate). Differences in serum 25(OH)D levels could not explain the apparent cancer protective effect of the DBP variant 1f. In addition to cancer and 25(OH)D, there were significant associations between DBP phenotype and body height, hip circumference and serum calcium. Conclusion There are important biological differences between the common DBP phenotypes. If the relation between the DBP variant 1f and cancer is confirmed in other studies, determination of DBP phenotype may have clinical importance. PMID:25993554

  12. An insight of disinfection by-product (DBP) formation by alternative disinfectants for swimming pool disinfection under tropical conditions.

    PubMed

    Yang, Linyan; Schmalz, Christina; Zhou, Jin; Zwiener, Christian; Chang, Victor W-C; Ge, Liya; Wan, Man Pun

    2016-09-15

    Sodium hypochlorite (NaClO) is the most commonly used disinfectant in pool treatment system. Outdoor pools usually suffer from the strong sunlight irradiation which degrades the free chlorine rapidly. In addition, more pools start to adopt the recirculation of swimming pool water, which intensifies the disinfection by-product (DBP) accumulation issue. Given these potential drawbacks of using NaClO in the tropical environment, two alternative organic-based disinfectants, trichloroisocyanuric acid (TCCA, C3Cl3N3O3) and bromochlorodimethylhydantoin (BCDMH, C5H6BrClN2O2), were investigated and compared to NaClO in terms of their self-degradation and the formation of DBPs, including trihalomethanes (THMs) and haloacetic acids (HAAs), under simulated tropical climate conditions. The result reveals that halogen stabilizer, TCCA, had the advantages of slower free chlorine degradation and lower DBP concentration compared to NaClO, which makes it a good alternative disinfectant. BCDMH was not recommended mainly due to the highly reactive disinfecting ingredient, hypobromous acid (HBrO), which fails to sustain the continuous disinfection requirement. Total disinfectant dosage was the main factor that affects residual chlorine/bromine and THM/HAA formation regardless of different disinfectant dosing methods, e.g. shock dosing (one-time spiking) in the beginning, and continuous dosing during the whole experimental period. Two-stage second-order-kinetic-based models demonstrate a good correlation between the measured and predicted data for chlorine decay (R(2) ≥ 0.95), THM (R(2) ≥ 0.99) and HAA (R(2) ≥ 0.83) formation. Higher temperature was found to enhance the DBP formation due to the temperature dependence of reaction rates. Thus, temperature control of pools, especially for those preferring higher temperatures (e.g. hydrotherapy and spa), should take both bather comfort and DBP formation potential into consideration. It is also observed that chlorine competition

  13. THE RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN CIRCADIAN BLOOD PRESSURE VARIATION AND AGE ANALYSED FROM 7-DAY MONITORING

    PubMed Central

    SIEGELOVÁ, J.; DUŠEK, J.; FIŠER, B.; HOMOLKA, P.; VANK, P.; MAŠEK, M.; HAVELKOVÁ, A.; CORNÉLISSEN, G.; HALBERG, F.

    2009-01-01

    The relationship between age and circadian blood pressure (BP) variation was the aim of the present study. One hundred and eighty-seven subjects (130 males, 57 females), 20-77 years old, were recruited for seven-day BP monitoring. Colin medical instruments (Komaki, Japan) were used for ambulatory BP monitoring (oscillation method, 30-minute interval between measurements). A sinusoidal curve was fitted (minimum square method) and the mean value and amplitude of the curve (double amplitude corresponds to the night-day difference) were evaluated on every day of monitoring. The average 7-day values of the mean (M) and of double amplitude (2A) for systolic BP (SBP), diastolic BP (DBP), and heart rate (HR) were determined in each subject. The mean values of M (±SD) for the whole group were: SBP- 127±8, DBP - 79±6 mmHg, HR - 70±6 bpm; of 2A: SBP - 21±7, DBP - 15±5 mmHg, HR - 15±6 bpm. A linear relationship between M of SBP and age (r=0.341, p< 0.001) and DBP and age (r=0.384, p<0.001) was found (difference between 20 and 77 years: SBP - 16, DBP - 12 mmHg). 2A of SBP and DBP was increasing with age up to 35 years, then the curve remained relatively flat up to 55 years (maximum at 45 years), and then it decreased again (difference between 45 and 77 years: SBP - 13mmHg, DBP - 12 mmHg). Heart rate M and 2A were age-independent. The mean values of SBP and DBP were increasing with age up to 75 years, but the night-day difference of SBP and DBP reached its maximum value at 45 years and then decreased. PMID:19436777

  14. Aluminum electrocoagulation as pretreatment during microfiltration of surface water containing NOM: A review of fouling, NOM, DBP, and virus control.

    PubMed

    Chellam, Shankararaman; Sari, Mutiara Ayu

    2016-03-01

    Electrocoagulation (EC) is the intentional corrosion of sacrificial anodes (typically aluminum or iron) by passing electricity to release metal-ion coagulant species and destabilize a wide range of suspended, dissolved, and macromolecular contaminants. It can be integrated ahead of microfiltration (MF) to effectively control turbidity, microorganisms, and disinfection by-products (DBPs) and simultaneously maintain a high MF specific flux. This manuscript summarizes the current knowledge on MF pretreatment by aluminum EC particularly focusing on mechanisms of (i) electrocoagulant dosing, (ii) (bio)colloid destabilization, (iii) fouling reductions, and (iv) enhanced removal of viruses, natural organic matter (NOM), and DBP precursors. Electrolysis efficiently removes hydrophobic NOM, viruses, and siliceous foulants. Aluminum effectively electrocoagulates viruses by physically encapsulating them in flocs, neutralizing their surface charge and reducing electrostatic repulsion, and increasing hydrophobic interactions between any sorbed NOM and free viruses. New results included herein demonstrate that EC achieves DBP control by removing NOM, reducing chlorine-reactivity of remaining NOM, and inducing a slight shift toward more brominated trihalomethanes and haloacetic acids. EC reduces MF fouling by forming large flocs that tend to deposit on the membrane surface, i.e. decrease pore penetration and forming more permeable cakes and by reducing foulant mass in case of significant floc-flotation. PMID:26619048

  15. Clock-controlled output gene Dbp is a regulator of Arnt/Hif-1β gene expression in pancreatic islet β-cells

    SciTech Connect

    Nakabayashi, Hiroko; Ohta, Yasuharu Yamamoto, Masayoshi; Susuki, Yosuke; Taguchi, Akihiko; Tanabe, Katsuya; Kondo, Manabu; Hatanaka, Masayuki; Nagao, Yuko; Tanizawa, Yukio

    2013-05-03

    Highlights: •Arnt mRNA expressed in a circadian manner in mouse pancreatic islets. •Expressions of Dbp and Arnt damped in the islets of a diabetic model mouse. •DBP and E4BP4 regulate Arnt promoter activity by direct binding. •Arnt may have a role in connecting circadian rhythm and metabolism. -- Abstract: Aryl hydrocarbon receptor nuclear translocator (ARNT)/hypoxia inducible factor-1β (HIF-1β) has emerged as a potential determinant of pancreatic β-cell dysfunction and type 2 diabetes in humans. An 82% reduction in Arnt expression was observed in islets from type 2 diabetic donors as compared to non-diabetic donors. However, few regulators of Arnt expression have been identified. Meanwhile, disruption of the clock components CLOCK and BMAL1 is known to result in hypoinsulinemia and diabetes, but the molecular details remain unclear. In this study, we identified a novel molecular connection between Arnt and two clock-controlled output genes, albumin D-element binding protein (Dbp) and E4 binding protein 4 (E4bp4). By conducting gene expression studies using the islets of Wfs1{sup −/−} A{sup y}/a mice that develop severe diabetes due to β-cell apoptosis, we demonstrated clock-related gene expressions to be altered in the diabetic mice. Dbp mRNA decreased by 50%, E4bp4 mRNA increased by 50%, and Arnt mRNA decreased by 30% at Zeitgever Time (ZT) 12. Mouse pancreatic islets exhibited oscillations of clock gene expressions. E4BP4, a D-box negative regulator, oscillated anti-phase to DBP, a D-box positive regulator. We also found low-amplitude circadian expression of Arnt mRNA, which peaked at ZT4. Over-expression of DBP raised both mRNA and protein levels of ARNT in HEK293 and MIN6 cell lines. Arnt promoter-driven luciferase reporter assay in MIN6 cells revealed that DBP increased Arnt promoter activity by 2.5-fold and that E4BP4 competitively inhibited its activation. In addition, on ChIP assay, DBP and E4BP4 directly bound to D-box elements within the

  16. 2014 CRL Blood Pressure Study of Life Insurance Applicants.

    PubMed

    Fulks, Michael; Dolan, Vera F; Stout, Robert L

    2015-01-01

    Objective .- Define the relative mortality risk by systolic (SBP) and diastolic blood pressure (DBP) in a relatively healthy cohort split by age and sex with adjustment for smoking status, other findings and admitted heart disease history. Method .- Blood pressure (BP in mm Hg), build, laboratory studies and limited medical history are collected when people apply for individual life insurance. Information on 2,472,706 applicants tested by Clinical Reference Laboratory from 1993 to 2007 was utilized with follow-up for vital status using the September 2011 Social Security Death Master File identifying 31,033 deaths. Data was analyzed by SBP and DBP split by age and sex accounting for smoking and for BMI, urine protein/creatinine ratio and history of heart disease in a Cox multivariate survival analysis. Separate analysis by admitted hypertension history was also conducted. Results are presented by SBP and DBP for 4 age-sex groups with and without added covariates beyond age and smoking status. Results .- Relative mortality progressively increased by SBP level from the 90 to 119 band (down to 80 in younger women) upward with little additional impact by DBP. Addition of covariates beyond age and smoking resulted in a 5% to 10% reduction in relative risk. Although high DBP had limited impact, a pulse pressure/SBP ratio >½ identified 1% of applicants at high mortality risk, with little difference in risk for ratios ≤½. Hypertension history with current BP control was associated with a 10% to 25% increase in relative mortality risk as compared to those with similar BP but no such history. Conclusion .- Increasing SBP is closely associated with increasing relative mortality, starting from the lowest SBP. Increasing DBP has little additional impact, but a pulse pressure/SBP ratio >½ is a potent marker of increased risk as well. Accounting for build and other laboratory findings reduces risk modestly. A history of hypertension with current control increases risk. PMID

  17. Pathway modeling of microarray data: A case study of pathway activity changes in the testis following in utero exposure to dibutyl phthalate (DBP)

    SciTech Connect

    Ovacik, Meric A.; Sen, Banalata; Euling, Susan Y.; Gaido, Kevin W.; Ierapetritou, Marianthi G.; Androulakis, Ioannis P.

    2013-09-15

    Pathway activity level analysis, the approach pursued in this study, focuses on all genes that are known to be members of metabolic and signaling pathways as defined by the KEGG database. The pathway activity level analysis entails singular value decomposition (SVD) of the expression data of the genes constituting a given pathway. We explore an extension of the pathway activity methodology for application to time-course microarray data. We show that pathway analysis enhances our ability to detect biologically relevant changes in pathway activity using synthetic data. As a case study, we apply the pathway activity level formulation coupled with significance analysis to microarray data from two different rat testes exposed in utero to Dibutyl Phthalate (DBP). In utero DBP exposure in the rat results in developmental toxicity of a number of male reproductive organs, including the testes. One well-characterized mode of action for DBP and the male reproductive developmental effects is the repression of expression of genes involved in cholesterol transport, steroid biosynthesis and testosterone synthesis that lead to a decreased fetal testicular testosterone. Previous analyses of DBP testes microarray data focused on either individual gene expression changes or changes in the expression of specific genes that are hypothesized, or known, to be important in testicular development and testosterone synthesis. However, a pathway analysis may inform whether there are additional affected pathways that could inform additional modes of action linked to DBP developmental toxicity. We show that Pathway activity analysis may be considered for a more comprehensive analysis of microarray data.

  18. Baculovirus-expressed vitamin D-binding protein-macrophage activating factor (DBP-maf) activates osteoclasts and binding of 25-hydroxyvitamin D(3) does not influence this activity.

    PubMed

    Swamy, N; Ghosh, S; Schneider, G B; Ray, R

    2001-01-01

    Vitamin D-binding protein (DBP) is a multi-functional serum protein that is converted to vitamin D-binding protein-macrophage activating factor (DBP-maf) by post-translational modification. DBP-maf is a new cytokine that mediates bone resorption by activating osteoclasts, which are responsible for resorption of bone. Defective osteoclast activation leads to disorders like osteopetrosis, characterized by excessive accumulation of bone mass. Previous studies demonstrated that two nonallelic mutations in the rat with osteopetrosis have independent defects in the cascade involved in the conversion of DBP to DBP-maf. The skeletal defects associated with osteopetrosis are corrected in these mutants with in vivo DBP-maf treatment. This study evaluates the effects of various forms of DBP-maf (native, recombinant, and 25-hydroxyvitamin D(3) bound) on osteoclast function in vitro in order to determine some of the structural requirements of this protein that relate to bone resorbing activities. Osteoclast activity was determined by evaluating pit formation using osteoclasts, isolated from the long bones of newborn rats, incubated on calcium phosphate coated, thin film, Ostologic MultiTest Slides. Incubation of osteoclasts with ex vivo generated native DBP-maf resulted in a dose dependent, statistically significant, activation of the osteoclasts. The activation was similar whether or not the vitamin D binding site of the DBP-maf was occupied. The level of activity in response to DBP-maf was greater than that elicited by optimal doses of other known stimulators (PTH and 1,25(OH(2)D(3)) of osteoclast function. Furthermore, another potent macrophage activating factor, interferon--gamma, had no effect on osteoclast activity. The activated form of a full length recombinant DBP, expressed in E. coli showed no activity in the in vitro assay. Contrary to this finding, baculovirus-expressed recombinant DBP-maf demonstrated significant osteoclast activating activity. The normal

  19. How Is High Blood Pressure Treated?

    MedlinePlus

    ... blood pressure and maintain normal blood pressure readings. Healthy Eating To help treat high blood pressure, health care ... Read more about the DASH eating plan. Heart-Healthy Eating Your health care provider also may recommend heart- ...

  20. Multicultural Reading

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Veltze, Linda

    2004-01-01

    Multicultural reading advocates believe in the power of literature to transform and to change people's lives. They take seriously the arguments that racism and prejudice can be lessened through multicultural reading, and also that children from undervalued societal groups who read books that depict people like themselves in a positive light will…

  1. Maternal Blood Pressure During Pregnancy and Early Childhood Blood Pressures in the Offspring: The GUSTO Birth Cohort Study.

    PubMed

    Lim, Wai-Yee; Lee, Yung-Seng; Yap, Fabian Kok-Peng; Aris, Izzudin Mohd; Ngee, Lek; Meaney, Michael; Gluckman, Peter D; Godfrey, Keith M; Kwek, Kenneth; Chong, Yap-Seng; Saw, Seang-Mei; Pan, An

    2015-11-01

    Although epidemiological studies suggest that offspring of women with preeclampsia are at increased risk to higher blood pressures and cardiovascular disease, little is known about the nature of blood pressures between the mother and her offspring. As blood pressures comprise of both pulsatile (systolic blood pressure [SBP] and pulse pressure [PP]) and stable (diastolic blood pressure [DBP]) components, and they differ between central and peripheral sites, we sought to examine maternal peripheral and central blood pressure components in relation to offspring early childhood blood pressures. A prospective birth cohort of 567 Chinese, Malay, and Indian mother-offspring with complete blood pressure information were studied. Maternal brachial artery SBP, DBP, and PP were measured at 26 to 28 weeks gestation; and central SBP and PP were estimated from radial artery waveforms. Offspring brachial artery SBP, DBP, and PP were measured at 3 years of age. Associations between continuous variables of maternal blood pressures (peripheral SBP, DBP, PP, central SBP, and PP) and offspring blood pressures (peripheral SBP, DBP, and PP) were examined using multiple linear regression with adjustment for maternal characteristics (age, education level, parity, smoking status, alcohol consumption and physical activity during pregnancy, and pre-pregnancy BMI) and offspring characteristics (sex, ethnicity, BMI, and height at 3 years of age). In the multivariate models, offspring peripheral SBP increased by 0.08 (95% confidence interval 0.00-0.17, P = 0.06) mmHg with every 1-mmHg increase in maternal central SBP, and offspring peripheral PP increased by 0.10 (0.01-0.18, P = 0.03) mmHg for every 1-mmHg increase in maternal central PP. The relations of maternal-offspring peripheral blood pressures (SBP, DBP, and PP) were positive but not statistically significant, and the corresponding values were 0.05 (-0.03 to 0.13; P = 0.21), 0.03 (-0.04 to 0.10; P = 0.35), and 0.05 (-0

  2. Pressure and temperature dependent viscosity of two glass forming liquids: Glycerol and dibutyl phthalate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cook, Richard L.; King, H. E., Jr.; Herbst, Chris A.; Herschbach, Dudley R.

    1994-04-01

    The pressure and temperature dependent viscosities of two glass forming liquids, glycerol and dibutyl phthalate (DBP), have been studied in the range P=0-3 GPa, T=0-125 °C, and η=101-1010 cP. These studies were made using a combination of a rolling-ball and a centrifugal-force diamond anvil cell viscometer. The majority of the results extend up to viscosities of 107 cP, with those at 22.5 °C going to 1010 cP. The overall precision of the data are approximately 10% or better throughout. This level of precision allows us to define a viscosity surface which can then be extrapolated to the glass transition along both temperature and pressure cuts. The T-dependence of viscosity is larger for glycerol than DBP but the P-dependence smaller for glycerol than for DBP, whereas the T-dependence is much more pressure sensitive for DBP. These data provide an assessment of the T-dependence of an isothermal model (free volume), the P-dependence of an isobaric model (Vogel-Tammann-Fulcher) and by extension that for isochoric conditions. Fragility parameters are evaluated for these three isometric conditions. For glycerol and (less conclusively) DBP under isobaric conditions, the fragility increases markedly at high pressure. Under isochoric conditions, the fragility for both glycerol and DBP increases with increasing density. This is dramatic for DBP, which goes from a strong to an intermediate-strength liquid. For the isothermal model, we derive a new measure of fragility. Using this, DBP shows a trend common to several liquids, a decrease in fragility with increasing temperature. Glycerol, however, becomes more fragile over the same temperature range. For glycerol, the trends towards increased fragility at elevated pressure and temperature are consistent with diminished hydrogen bonding under those conditions. The P-dependence of the glass transition is also determined over a wide range of T. The slope, dTg/dP, is positive with the pressure dependence for glycerol being

  3. Dbp73D, a Drosophila gene expressed in ovary, encodes a novel D-E-A-D box protein.

    PubMed Central

    Patterson, L F; Harvey, M; Lasko, P F

    1992-01-01

    Proteins of the D-E-A-D family of putative ATP-dependent RNA helicases have been implicated in translation initiation and RNA splicing in a variety of organisms from E. coli to man. The Drosophila vasa protein, a member of this family, is required in the female germ line for fertility and for specification of germ line and posterior positional information in progeny embryos. We report the isolation of another D-E-A-D gene from Drosophila, which, like vasa, is expressed in germ line tissue. The predicted amino acid sequence of this new gene, Dbp73D, contains all of the highly conserved helicase motifs, but is otherwise the farthest-diverged member of the family so far identified. Images PMID:1620603

  4. Chlorine Decay and DBP formation under Different Flow Regions in PVC and Ductile Iron Pipes: Preliminary Results on the Role of flow Velocity and Radial Mass Transfer - Paper

    EPA Science Inventory

    A systematic experimental study was conducted using a pilot-scale drinking water distribution system simulator to quantify the effect of hydrodynamics, total organic carbon (TOC), initial disinfectant levels, and pipe materials on chlorine decay and disinfection by-product (DBP) ...

  5. Chlorine decay and DBP formation under different flow regions in PVC and ductile iron pipes: Preliminary results on the role of flow velocity and radial mass transfer

    EPA Science Inventory

    A systematic experimental study was conducted using a pilot-scale drinking water distribution system simulator to quantify the effect of hydrodynamics, total organic carbon (TOC), initial disinfectant levels, and pipe materials on chlorine decay and disinfection by-product (DBP) ...

  6. Toxicity and molecular effects of di-n-butyl phthalate (DBP) on CYP1A, SOD, and GPx in Cyprinus carpio (common carp).

    PubMed

    Agus, Hizlan H; Sümer, Sibel; Erkoç, Figen

    2015-07-01

    Di-n-butyl phthalate (DBP), a widely used plasticizer in the plastic industry, affects regulation of the endocrine system and causes toxicity in animals. In the present study, we evaluated a series of ecotoxicological stress biomarkers in the common carp (Cyprinus carpio) as an experimental model to test for alterations in gene expression at a sublethal concentration of 1 mg/L DBP for 4, 24, and 96 h. In gills, an immediate increase in CYP1A messenger RNA (mRNA) levels was observed within the first 4 h and persisted for 96 h. Protein levels were nearly consistent with mRNA levels. However, a time-dependent inhibition was observed in CYP1A levels in the liver within 96 h. Superoxide dismutase (SOD) and glutathione peroxidase (GPx) levels increased gradually in liver with exposure time to a maximum level of 11-fold. Varied responses of different tissues were likely due to xenobiotic metabolism of DBP. In conclusion, evaluating the tissue-specific alterations of CYP1A, SOD, and GPx levels can be used as specific and effective biomarkers for ecotoxicological monitoring of DBP pollution. We strongly recommend using molecular tools to ecotoxicologists for aquatic monitoring of newly emerging pollutants. PMID:26065888

  7. AN APPROACH TO USING TOXICOGENOMIC DATA IN U.S. EPA HUMAN HEALTH RISK ASSESSMENTS: A DIBUTYL PHTHALATE (DBP) CASE STUDY (EXTERNAL REVIEW DRAFT)

    EPA Science Inventory

    This draft report is a description of an approach to evaluate genomic data for use in risk assessment and a case study to illustrate the approach. The dibutyl phthalate (DBP) case study example focuses on male reproductive developmental effects and the qualitative application of...

  8. MALFORMATIONS IN GUBERNACULAR LIGAMENT DEVELOPMENT INDUCED BY DEHP, DBP, AND BBP ARE ASSOCIATED WITH DECREASES IN INSL3 GENE EXPRESSION IN THE FETAL RAT TESTIS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Malformations in gubernacular ligament development induced by DEHP, DBP, and BBP are associated with decreases in insl3 gene expression in the fetal rat testis.
    Vickie S.Wilson, Christy Lambright, Johnathan Furr, Carmen Wood, Gary Held, L. Earl Gray Jr. U.S. EPA, ORD, NHEER...

  9. Effect of Pressurized Cement Insertion on Cardiopulmonary Parameters during Cemented Hip Hemiarthroplasty: A Randomized Prospective Study

    PubMed Central

    Song, Woo Suk; Kim, Tae Hyun; Oh, Sang Hoon; Park, Sub Ri; Park, Byoung Hark

    2014-01-01

    Purpose We aimed to investigate the cardiopulmonary effects of pressurized cement insertion in elderly patients undergoing cemented hip hemiarthroplasty. Materials and Methods We conducted a randomized prospective study on elderly patients undergoing cemented hip hemiarthroplasty. Patients were divided into pressurized and non-pressurized groups based on the pressure application during cement insertion. We measured mean arterial blood pressure (MAP), systolic blood pressure (SBP), diastolic blood pressure (DBP), heart rate (HR), arterial blood gases and serotonin concentration in blood. These variables were measured before bone cement insertion, and 3 and 5 minute after insertion. They were also measured immediately and 15 minutes after reduction. Results In cemented hip hemiarthroplasty, there were no significant change in MAP (P=0.92), SBP (P=0.85), DBP (P=0.98), HR (P=0.97) and serotonin concentration over time. There were no statistically significant difference between the two groups in MAP, SBP, DBP, HR, PO2, PaCO2, SaO2 and serotonin concentration, though three minutes after cement insertion, both groups showed decreases in SBP, DBP and MBP. Conclusion The pressurization method in cemented hip hemiarthroplasty was not found to be related with development of bone cement syndromes in elderly patients.

  10. Clock-controlled output gene Dbp is a regulator of Arnt/Hif-1β gene expression in pancreatic islet β-cells.

    PubMed

    Nakabayashi, Hiroko; Ohta, Yasuharu; Yamamoto, Masayoshi; Susuki, Yosuke; Taguchi, Akihiko; Tanabe, Katsuya; Kondo, Manabu; Hatanaka, Masayuki; Nagao, Yuko; Tanizawa, Yukio

    2013-05-01

    Aryl hydrocarbon receptor nuclear translocator (ARNT)/hypoxia inducible factor-1β (HIF-1β) has emerged as a potential determinant of pancreatic β-cell dysfunction and type 2 diabetes in humans. An 82% reduction in Arnt expression was observed in islets from type 2 diabetic donors as compared to non-diabetic donors. However, few regulators of Arnt expression have been identified. Meanwhile, disruption of the clock components CLOCK and BMAL1 is known to result in hypoinsulinemia and diabetes, but the molecular details remain unclear. In this study, we identified a novel molecular connection between Arnt and two clock-controlled output genes, albumin D-element binding protein (Dbp) and E4 binding protein 4 (E4bp4). By conducting gene expression studies using the islets of Wfs1(-/-) A(y)/a mice that develop severe diabetes due to β-cell apoptosis, we demonstrated clock-related gene expressions to be altered in the diabetic mice. Dbp mRNA decreased by 50%, E4bp4 mRNA increased by 50%, and Arnt mRNA decreased by 30% at Zeitgever Time (ZT) 12. Mouse pancreatic islets exhibited oscillations of clock gene expressions. E4BP4, a D-box negative regulator, oscillated anti-phase to DBP, a D-box positive regulator. We also found low-amplitude circadian expression of Arnt mRNA, which peaked at ZT4. Over-expression of DBP raised both mRNA and protein levels of ARNT in HEK293 and MIN6 cell lines. Arnt promoter-driven luciferase reporter assay in MIN6 cells revealed that DBP increased Arnt promoter activity by 2.5-fold and that E4BP4 competitively inhibited its activation. In addition, on ChIP assay, DBP and E4BP4 directly bound to D-box elements within the Arnt promoter in MIN6 cells. These results suggest that in mouse pancreatic islets mRNA expression of Arnt fluctuates significantly in a circadian manner and that the down-regulation of Dbp and up-regulation E4bp4 contribute to direct suppression of Arnt expression in diabetes. PMID:23567972

  11. Why should I read? - A cross-cultural investigation into adolescents' reading socialisation and reading attitude

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Broeder, Peter; Stokmans, Mia

    2013-06-01

    While reading behaviour of adolescents is a frequent object of research, most studies in this field are restricted to a single country. This study investigates reading as a leisure-time activity across social groups from three regions differing in reading tradition as well as in the facilities available for reading. The authors analyse the reading behaviour of a total of 2,173 adolescents in the Netherlands, in Beijing (China), and in Cape Town (South Africa). Taking Icek Ajzen's Theory of Planned Behaviour as a starting point, the authors adjusted it to model the three most important determinants of reading behaviour, namely (1) reading attitude; (2) subjective norms (implicit and explicit social pressure to read); and (3) perceived behavioural control, which includes reading proficiency and appropriateness of the available books (book supply). While they found the adjusted model to fit the Dutch and Beijing situation quite well, it appeared to be inappropriate for the Cape Town situation. Despite considerable cultural and situational differences between the Netherlands and Beijing, the results show a similar pattern for these two environments. The most important determinants turn out to be: the hedonic reading attitude, the implicit norm of family and friends, the attractiveness of the available choice of books, and the perceived reading proficiency.

  12. Read Arizona.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arizona State Dept. of Library, Archives and Public Records, Phoenix.

    This manual, designed to help public libraries in Arizona to plan their summer reading programs for children, celebrates the 25th anniversary of the Arizona Reading Program. The material in the manual is prepared for libraries to adapt for their own uses. Chapters of the manual include: (1) Introductory Materials; (2) Goals, Objectives and…

  13. Required Reading

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Janko, Edmund

    2002-01-01

    In this article, the author insists that those seeking public office prove their literary mettle. As an English teacher, he does have a litmus test for all public officials, judges and senators included--a reading litmus test. He would require that all candidates and nominees have read and reflected on a nucleus of works whose ideas and insights…

  14. Reading Lab.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burt, Lorna

    This guide is intended for use in conducting a reading lab for a broad group of workers ranging from nonreaders to persons reading at a fifth-grade level. Presented first is a course overview that includes the following: information on the course's targeted population, student selection process, and demographics; strategies for adult remediation;…

  15. Repeated Reading.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moyer, Sandra B.

    1982-01-01

    The article reviews research on the use of multiple oral rereading (MOR) with reading disabled students. MOR uses daily practice on a selection of little difficulty. Its effectiveness in increasing fluency (accuracy and speed) is examined, and the role of redundancy in three types of reading models is analyzed. (CL)

  16. Against Readings

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Edmundson, Mark

    2009-01-01

    Edmundson states that if he could make one wish for the members of his profession, college and university professors of literature, he would wish that for one year, two, three, or five, they would give up readings. By "a reading," he means the application of an analytical vocabulary to describe and (usually) to judge a work of literary art.…

  17. Reading Aloud

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Delo, Lynda

    2008-01-01

    Many resources are available to elementary teachers who wish to support science learning with literature. Unfortunately, somewhere between middle school and high school, the emphasis on using literature to teach science content--particularly the exercise of reading aloud--has all but disappeared. However, the practice of reading aloud is helpful…

  18. Reading Programs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Au, Kathryn

    2001-01-01

    Notes that a major issue in literacy instruction today is whether commercial reading programs emphasizing phonemic awareness and phonics are more effective than teacher-designed programs that focus on literature-based reading and process writing with integrated skill instruction. Reviews two books that address this controversy. Presents seven…

  19. Reading Remixed

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Valenza, Joyce Kasman; Stephens, Wendy

    2012-01-01

    Critics claim that digital technologies are killing reading, but these teacher-librarians have observed that teens are as excited about reading as they ever were. Online communities give these readers opportunities to get to know authors, communicate with other fans, and learn more about books of interest. Publishers and authors are responding to…

  20. Teaching Reading.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ricketts, Mary

    1980-01-01

    Described are five approaches to teaching reading: Language Experience, Modified Alphabet, Linguistic, Programmed, and Basal. It is suggested that a good teacher, well trained, certified in his or her profession, an active participant in professional organizations, can teach reading successfully using almost any approach. (KC)

  1. Evidence for a major gene influencing 7-year increases in diastolic blood pressure with age

    SciTech Connect

    Li Shu-Chuan Cheng; Carmelli, D.; Hunt, S.C.

    1995-11-01

    The contribution of genetic factors to blood pressure levels is well established. The contribution of genes to the longitudinal change in blood pressure has been less well studied, because of the lack of longitudinal family data. The present study investigated a possible major-gene effect on the observed increase with age in diastolic blood pressure (DBP) levels. Subjects included 965 unmedicated adults (age {ge}18 years) in 73 pedigrees collected in Utah as part of a longitudinal cardiovascular family study. Segregation analysis of DBP change over 7.2 years of follow-up identified a recessive major-gene effect with a gene frequency of p = .23. There was also a significant age effect on the genotypic means, which decreased expression of the major gene at older ages. For those inferred to have the genotype responsible for large DBP increases, DBP increased 32.3%, compared with a 1.5% increase in the nonsusceptible group (P < .0001). The relative risk of developing hypertension between the susceptible and nonsusceptible groups after 7.2 years was 2.4 (P = .006). Baseline DBP reactivities to mental arithmetic (P < .0001) and isometric hand-grip (P < .0001) stress tests were greatest in those assigned to the susceptible genotype. We conclude that age-related changes in DBP are influenced by a major gene. Characteristics of this major-gene effect for greater age-related blood pressure increases include greater reactivity to mental and physical stressors. The present study thus provides evidence for genetic control of changes in blood pressure, in addition to the previously suggested genetic control of absolute blood pressure level. 28 refs., 6 tabs.

  2. Systolic blood pressure goals to reduce cardiovascular disease among older adults.

    PubMed

    Muntner, Paul; Bowling, C Barrett; Shimbo, Daichi

    2014-08-01

    The 2014 Evidence-Based Guideline for the Management of High Blood Pressure in Adults Report From the Panel Members Appointed to the Eighth Joint National Committee (JNC 8) was recently published. This guideline recommended that older adults (≥60 years) without diabetes or chronic kidney disease with systolic blood pressure (SBP) ≥150 mm Hg or diastolic blood pressure (DBP) ≥90 mm Hg be initiated on antihypertensive medication with a treatment goal SBP/DBP <150/90 mm Hg. In contrast, the previous 3 JNC guidelines recommended treatment for these individuals be initiated at SBP/DBP ≥140/90 mm Hg with goal SBP/DBP <140/90 mm Hg. In this article, we review randomized trials of antihypertensive medication and observational data on SBP and DBP with cardiovascular outcomes among older adults, possible explanations underlying the different findings from these randomized trials and observational studies, and contemporary antihypertensive treatment patterns among older U.S. adults. In closing, we highlight future research needs related to hypertension and outcomes among older adults. PMID:24978394

  3. Effects of vitamin D binding protein-macrophage activating factor (DBP-MAF) infusion on bone resorption in two osteopetrotic mutations.

    PubMed

    Schneider, G B; Benis, K A; Flay, N W; Ireland, R A; Popoff, S N

    1995-06-01

    Osteopetrosis is a heterogeneous group of bone diseases characterized by an excess accumulation of bone and a variety of immune defects. Osteopetrosis (op) and incisors absent (ia) are two nonallelic mutations in the rat which demonstrated these skeletal defects as a result of reduced bone resorption. Osteopetrotic (op) rats have severe sclerosis as a result of reduced numbers of osteoclasts which are structurally abnormal. The sclerosis in ia rats is not as severe as in op mutants; they have elevated numbers of osteoclasts, but they are also morphologically abnormal, lacking a ruffled border. Both of these mutations have defects in the inflammation-primed activation of macrophages. They demonstrate independent defects in the cascade involved in the conversion of vitamin D binding protein (DBP) to a potent macrophage activating factor (DBP-MAF). Because this factor may also play a role in the pathogenesis of osteoclastic dysfunction, the effects of ex vivo-generated DBP-MAF were evaluated on the skeletal system of these two mutations. Newborn ia and op rats and normal littermate controls were injected with DBP-MAF or vehicle once every 4 days from birth until 2 weeks of age, at which time bone samples were collected to evaluate a number of skeletal parameters. DBP-MAF treated op rats had an increased number of osteoclasts and the majority of them exhibited normal structure. There was also reduced bone volume in the treated op animals and an associated increased cellularity of the marrow spaces. The skeletal sclerosis was also corrected in the ia rats; the bone marrow cavity size was significantly enlarged and the majority of the osteoclasts appeared normal with extensive ruffled borders. PMID:7669443

  4. Pathway modeling of microarray data: a case study of pathway activity changes in the testis following in utero exposure to dibutyl phthalate (DBP).

    PubMed

    Ovacik, Meric A; Sen, Banalata; Euling, Susan Y; Gaido, Kevin W; Ierapetritou, Marianthi G; Androulakis, Ioannis P

    2013-09-15

    Pathway activity level analysis, the approach pursued in this study, focuses on all genes that are known to be members of metabolic and signaling pathways as defined by the KEGG database. The pathway activity level analysis entails singular value decomposition (SVD) of the expression data of the genes constituting a given pathway. We explore an extension of the pathway activity methodology for application to time-course microarray data. We show that pathway analysis enhances our ability to detect biologically relevant changes in pathway activity using synthetic data. As a case study, we apply the pathway activity level formulation coupled with significance analysis to microarray data from two different rat testes exposed in utero to Dibutyl Phthalate (DBP). In utero DBP exposure in the rat results in developmental toxicity of a number of male reproductive organs, including the testes. One well-characterized mode of action for DBP and the male reproductive developmental effects is the repression of expression of genes involved in cholesterol transport, steroid biosynthesis and testosterone synthesis that lead to a decreased fetal testicular testosterone. Previous analyses of DBP testes microarray data focused on either individual gene expression changes or changes in the expression of specific genes that are hypothesized, or known, to be important in testicular development and testosterone synthesis. However, a pathway analysis may inform whether there are additional affected pathways that could inform additional modes of action linked to DBP developmental toxicity. We show that Pathway activity analysis may be considered for a more comprehensive analysis of microarray data. PMID:20850466

  5. Blood Pressure over Height Ratios: Simple and Accurate Method of Detecting Elevated Blood Pressure in Children.

    PubMed

    Galescu, Ovidiu; George, Minu; Basetty, Sudhakar; Predescu, Iuliana; Mongia, Anil; Ten, Svetlana; Bhangoo, Amrit

    2012-01-01

    Background. Blood pressure (BP) percentiles in childhood are assessed according to age, gender, and height. Objective. To create a simple BP/height ratio for both systolic BP (SBP) and diastolic BP (DBP). To study the relationship between BP/height ratios and corresponding BP percentiles in children. Methods. We analyzed data on height and BP from 2006-2007 NHANES data. BP percentiles were calculated for 3775 children. Receiver-operating characteristic (ROC) curve analyses were performed to calculate sensitivity and specificity of BP/height ratios as diagnostic tests for elevated BP (>90%). Correlation analysis was performed between BP percentiles and BP/height ratios. Results. The average age was 12.54 ± 2.67 years. SBP/height and DBP/height ratios strongly correlated with SBP & DBP percentiles in both boys (P < 0.001, R(2) = 0.85, R(2) = 0.86) and girls (P < 0.001, R(2) = 0.85, R(2) = 0.90). The cutoffs of SBP/height and DBP/height ratios in boys were ≥0.75 and ≥0.46, respectively; in girls the ratios were ≥0.75 and ≥0.48, respectively with sensitivity and specificity in range of 83-100%. Conclusion. BP/height ratios are simple with high sensitivity and specificity to detect elevated BP in children. These ratios can be easily used in routine medical care of children. PMID:22577400

  6. Blood Pressure over Height Ratios: Simple and Accurate Method of Detecting Elevated Blood Pressure in Children

    PubMed Central

    Galescu, Ovidiu; George, Minu; Basetty, Sudhakar; Predescu, Iuliana; Mongia, Anil; Ten, Svetlana; Bhangoo, Amrit

    2012-01-01

    Background. Blood pressure (BP) percentiles in childhood are assessed according to age, gender, and height. Objective. To create a simple BP/height ratio for both systolic BP (SBP) and diastolic BP (DBP). To study the relationship between BP/height ratios and corresponding BP percentiles in children. Methods. We analyzed data on height and BP from 2006-2007 NHANES data. BP percentiles were calculated for 3775 children. Receiver-operating characteristic (ROC) curve analyses were performed to calculate sensitivity and specificity of BP/height ratios as diagnostic tests for elevated BP (>90%). Correlation analysis was performed between BP percentiles and BP/height ratios. Results. The average age was 12.54 ± 2.67 years. SBP/height and DBP/height ratios strongly correlated with SBP & DBP percentiles in both boys (P < 0.001, R2 = 0.85, R2 = 0.86) and girls (P < 0.001, R2 = 0.85, R2 = 0.90). The cutoffs of SBP/height and DBP/height ratios in boys were ≥0.75 and ≥0.46, respectively; in girls the ratios were ≥0.75 and ≥0.48, respectively with sensitivity and specificity in range of 83–100%. Conclusion. BP/height ratios are simple with high sensitivity and specificity to detect elevated BP in children. These ratios can be easily used in routine medical care of children. PMID:22577400

  7. Which is More Accurate in Measuring the Blood Pressure? A Digital or an Aneroid Sphygmomanometer

    PubMed Central

    Dasgupta, Aparajita; Sarkar, Kaushik; Sahoo, Sanjaya Kumar

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Hypertension is one of the major public health problem affecting the whole world so its accurate measurement is of utmost importance for its early diagnosis and management. Concerns related to the potential ill effects of mercury on health and environment, has led to the widespread use of non-mercury sphygmomanometers. Aim A study was conducted to compare the accuracy of readings of aneroid and digital sphygmomanometers in reference to mercury sphygmomanometers and determine the hypertensive classification agreement between the mercury and non-mercury devices. Materials and Methods The study was conducted in an OPD of a health centre in a rural community of West Bengal which is the rural field practice area of our institute. An aneroid and a digital sphygmomanometer were compared to a properly calibrated mercury sphygmomanometer. All the subjects above the age of 25 years, in two days per week, selected randomly from five working days per week in a period of one month were selected. Two blood pressure readings of each of 218 study subjects was recorded with each pretested sphygmomanometer. Paired t-test, Kappa coefficients, sensitivity and specificity tests were done. Receiver Operating Characteristics curve analysis was done and Youden index was estimated to detect the optimal cut off point for the diagnosis of hypertension by non-mercury sphygmomanometers. Results Data analysis of 218 study subjects showed the mean difference of the mercury reading and the test device was much less for aneroid than that of the digital device for both systolic and diastolic blood pressure. More than 89% of aneroid readings and less than 44% of the readings by digital device had absolute difference of 5mm Hg. when compared with the mercury readings for both systolic and diastolic blood pressure. Sensitivity and specificity of aneroid device was higher (86.7% and 98.7%) than digital device (80% and 67.7%). Receiver Operating Characteristic curve had larger area under

  8. Does the position or contact pressure of the stethoscope make any difference to clinical blood pressure measurements: an observational study.

    PubMed

    Pan, Fan; Zheng, Dingchang; He, Peiyu; Murray, Alan

    2014-12-01

    This study aimed to investigate the effect of stethoscope position and contact pressure on auscultatory blood pressure (BP) measurement. Thirty healthy subjects were studied. Two identical stethoscopes (one under the cuff, the other outside the cuff) were used to simultaneously and digitally record 2 channels of Korotkoff sounds during linear cuff pressure deflation. For each subject, 3 measurements with different contact pressures (0, 50, and 100 mm Hg) on the stethoscope outside the cuff were each recorded at 3 repeat sessions. The Korotkoff sounds were replayed twice on separate days to each of 2 experienced listeners to determine systolic and diastolic BPs (SBP and DBP). Variance analysis was performed to study the measurement repeatability and the effect of stethoscope position and contact pressure on BPs. There was no significant BP difference between the 3 repeat sessions, between the 2 determinations from each listener, between the 2 listeners and between the 3 stethoscope contact pressures (all P > 0.06). There was no significant SBP difference between the 2 stethoscope positions at the 2 lower stethoscope pressures (P = 0.23 and 0.45), but there was a small (0.4 mm Hg, clinically unimportant) significant difference (P = 0.005) at the highest stethoscope pressure. The key result was that, DBP from the stethoscope under the cuff was significantly lower than that from outside the cuff by 2.8 mm Hg (P < 0.001, 95% confidence interval -3.5 to -2.1 mm Hg). Since it is known that the traditional Korotkoff sound method, with the stethoscope outside the cuff, tends to give a higher DBP than the true intra-arterial pressure, this study could suggest that the stethoscope position under the cuff, and closer to the arterial occlusion, might yield measurements closer to the actual invasive DBP. PMID:25546675

  9. Does the Position or Contact Pressure of the Stethoscope Make Any Difference to Clinical Blood Pressure Measurements

    PubMed Central

    Pan, Fan; Zheng, Dingchang; He, Peiyu; Murray, Alan

    2014-01-01

    Abstract This study aimed to investigate the effect of stethoscope position and contact pressure on auscultatory blood pressure (BP) measurement. Thirty healthy subjects were studied. Two identical stethoscopes (one under the cuff, the other outside the cuff) were used to simultaneously and digitally record 2 channels of Korotkoff sounds during linear cuff pressure deflation. For each subject, 3 measurements with different contact pressures (0, 50, and 100 mm Hg) on the stethoscope outside the cuff were each recorded at 3 repeat sessions. The Korotkoff sounds were replayed twice on separate days to each of 2 experienced listeners to determine systolic and diastolic BPs (SBP and DBP). Variance analysis was performed to study the measurement repeatability and the effect of stethoscope position and contact pressure on BPs. There was no significant BP difference between the 3 repeat sessions, between the 2 determinations from each listener, between the 2 listeners and between the 3 stethoscope contact pressures (all P > 0.06). There was no significant SBP difference between the 2 stethoscope positions at the 2 lower stethoscope pressures (P = 0.23 and 0.45), but there was a small (0.4 mm Hg, clinically unimportant) significant difference (P = 0.005) at the highest stethoscope pressure. The key result was that, DBP from the stethoscope under the cuff was significantly lower than that from outside the cuff by 2.8 mm Hg (P < 0.001, 95% confidence interval −3.5 to −2.1 mm Hg). Since it is known that the traditional Korotkoff sound method, with the stethoscope outside the cuff, tends to give a higher DBP than the true intra-arterial pressure, this study could suggest that the stethoscope position under the cuff, and closer to the arterial occlusion, might yield measurements closer to the actual invasive DBP. PMID:25546675

  10. The anabolic effects of vitamin D-binding protein-macrophage activating factor (DBP-MAF) and a novel small peptide on bone.

    PubMed

    Schneider, Gary B; Grecco, Kristina J; Safadi, Fayez F; Popoff, Steven N

    2003-01-01

    Vitamin D-binding protein-macrophage activating factor (DBP-MAF) has previously been shown to stimulate bone resorption and correct the skeletal defects associated with osteopetrosis in two nonallelic mutations in rats. This same protein and a small fragment of the protein have now been shown to demonstrate an anabolic effect on the skeleton of both newborn and young adult, intact rats. The novel peptide fragment was synthetically produced based on the human amino acid sequence at the site of glycosylation in the third domain of the native protein (DBP). The peptide tested is 14 amino acids in length and demonstrates no homologies other than to that region of DBP. Newborn rats were injected i.p. with saline, peptide (0.4 ng/g body wt.) or DBP-MAF (2 ng/g body wt.) every other day from birth to 14 days of age. On day 16 the rats were euthanized and the long bones collected for bone densitometry by pQCT. After 2 weeks of treatment with either the whole protein (DBP-MAF) or the small peptide, bone density was significantly increased in the treated animals compared to the saline controls. Young adult female rats (180 grams) were given s.c. injections of saline or peptide (0.4 ng/g body wt. or 5 ng/g body wt.) every other day for 2 weeks; 2 days after the final injections, the rats were euthanized and the femurs and tibias collected for bone densitometry. Both doses of the peptide resulted in significant increases in bone density as determined by pQCT. Young adult rats were injected locally with a single dose of the peptide (1 microg) or saline into the marrow cavity of the distal femur. One week after the single injection, the bones were collected for radiographic and histological evaluation. The saline controls showed no evidence of new bone formation, whereas the peptide-treated animals demonstrated osteoinduction in the marrow cavity and osteogenesis of surrounding cortical and metaphyseal bone. These data suggest that DBP-MAF and the synthetic peptide represent

  11. Does E-Reading Enhance Reading Fluency?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Akbar, Rahima S.; Taqi, Hanan A.; Dashti, Abdulmohsin A.; Sadeq, Taiba M.

    2015-01-01

    Extensive reading is reading as much as possible, for one's own pleasure, at a difficulty level at which one can read smoothly and quickly. In the domain of reading, this paper investigates the effect of extensive reading from e-books, through utilizing a number of downloadable reading application programs on the students' e-devices, as opposed to…

  12. Reading Research in Hungary.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kamaras, Istvan; Nagy, Attila

    1981-01-01

    Notes that most recent reading research conducted in Hungary has focused on the formation of readers' attitudes and value judgments. Discusses studies conducted in the areas of reading psychology, children's reading, reading habits, reading motivation, and readers' responses. (FL)

  13. How Reading Volume Affects Both Reading Fluency and Reading Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Allington, Richard L.

    2014-01-01

    Long overlooked, reading volume is actually central to the development of reading proficiencies, especially in the development of fluent reading proficiency. Generally no one in schools monitors the actual volume of reading that children engage in. We know that the commonly used commercial core reading programs provide only material that requires…

  14. 25(OH)D2 Half-Life Is Shorter Than 25(OH)D3 Half-Life and Is Influenced by DBP Concentration and Genotype

    PubMed Central

    Assar, S.; Harnpanich, D.; Bouillon, R.; Lambrechts, D.; Prentice, A.; Schoenmakers, I.

    2014-01-01

    Context: There is uncertainty over the equivalence of vitamins D2 and D3 to maintain plasma 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH)D). Objective: The objective of the study was to compare the plasma half-lives of 25(OH)D2 and 25(OH)D3 in two distinct populations with different dietary calcium intake and 25(OH)D status. Participants: Healthy men (aged 24 and 39 y), resident in The Gambia (n = 18) or the United Kingdom (n = 18) participated in the study. Interventions: The intervention included an oral tracer dose of deuterated-25(OH)D2 and deuterated-25(OH)D3 (both 40 nmol). Blood samples were collected over 33 days. Main Outcome Measures: 25(OH)D2 and 25(OH)D3 plasma half-lives, concentrations of 25(OH)D, and vitamin D binding protein (DBP) and DBP genotypes were measured. Results: 25(OH)D2 half-life [mean (SD)] [13.9 (2.6) d] was shorter than 25(OH)D3 half-life [15.1 (3.1) d; P = .001] for countries combined, and in Gambians [12.8 (2.3) d vs 14.7 (3.5) d; P < .001], but not in the United Kingdom [15.1 (2.4) d vs 15.6 (2.5) d; P = .3]. 25(OH)D concentration was 69 (13) and 29 (11) nmol/L (P < .0001), and the DBP concentration was 259 (33) and 269 (23) mg/L (P = .4) in The Gambia and United Kingdom, respectively. Half-lives were positively associated with plasma DBP concentration for countries combined [25(OH)D2 half-life: regression coefficient (SE) 0.03 (0.01) d per 1 mg/L DBP, P = .03; 25(OH)D3 half-life: 0.04 (0.02) d, P = .02] and in Gambians [25(OH)D2 half-life: 0.04 (0.01) d; P = .02; 25(OH)D3 half-life: 0.06 (0.02) d, P = .01] but not in UK participants. The DBP concentration × country interactions were not significant. DBP Gc1f/1f homozygotes had shorter 25(OH)D2 half-lives compared with other combined genotypes (P = .007) after correction for country. Conclusions: 25(OH)D2 half-life was shorter than 25(OH)D3 half-life, and half-lives were affected by DBP concentration and genotype. The stable isotope 25(OH)D half-life measurements provide a novel tool to investigate

  15. Cloning and characterisation of mtDBP, a DNA-binding protein which binds two distinct regions of sea urchin mitochondrial DNA.

    PubMed Central

    Loguercio Polosa, P; Roberti, M; Musicco, C; Gadaleta, M N; Quagliariello, E; Cantatore, P

    1999-01-01

    The cDNA for the sea urchin mitochondrial D-loop-binding protein (mtDBP), a 40 kDa protein which binds two homologous regions of mitochondrial DNA (the D-loop region and the boundary between the oppositely transcribed ND5 and ND6 genes), has been cloned. Four different 3'-untranslated regions have been detected that are related to each other in pairs and do not contain the canonical polyadenylation signal. The in vitro synthesised mature protein (348 amino acids), deprived of the putative signal sequence, binds specifically to its DNA target sequence and produces a DNase I footprint identical to that given by the natural protein. mtDBP contains two leucine zippers, one of which is bipartite, and two small N- and C-terminal basic domains. A deletion mutation analysis of the recombinant protein has shown that the N-terminal region and the two leucine zippers are necessary for the binding. Furthermore, evidence was provided that mtDBP binds DNA as a monomer. This rules out a dimerization role for the leucine zippers and rather suggests that intramolecular interactions between leucine zippers take place. A database search has revealed as the most significative homology a match with the human mitochondrial transcription termination factor (mTERF), a protein that also binds DNA as a monomer and contains three leucine zippers forming intramolecular interactions. These similarities, and the observation that mtDBP-binding sites contain the 3'-ends of mtRNAs coded by opposite strands and the 3'-end of the D-loop structure, point to a dual function of the protein in modulating sea urchin mitochondrial DNA transcription and replication. PMID:10101198

  16. Cloning and characterisation of mtDBP, a DNA-binding protein which binds two distinct regions of sea urchin mitochondrial DNA.

    PubMed

    Loguercio Polosa, P; Roberti, M; Musicco, C; Gadaleta, M N; Quagliariello, E; Cantatore, P

    1999-04-15

    The cDNA for the sea urchin mitochondrial D-loop-binding protein (mtDBP), a 40 kDa protein which binds two homologous regions of mitochondrial DNA (the D-loop region and the boundary between the oppositely transcribed ND5 and ND6 genes), has been cloned. Four different 3'-untranslated regions have been detected that are related to each other in pairs and do not contain the canonical polyadenylation signal. The in vitro synthesised mature protein (348 amino acids), deprived of the putative signal sequence, binds specifically to its DNA target sequence and produces a DNase I footprint identical to that given by the natural protein. mtDBP contains two leucine zippers, one of which is bipartite, and two small N- and C-terminal basic domains. A deletion mutation analysis of the recombinant protein has shown that the N-terminal region and the two leucine zippers are necessary for the binding. Furthermore, evidence was provided that mtDBP binds DNA as a monomer. This rules out a dimerization role for the leucine zippers and rather suggests that intramolecular interactions between leucine zippers take place. A database search has revealed as the most significative homology a match with the human mitochondrial transcription termination factor (mTERF), a protein that also binds DNA as a monomer and contains three leucine zippers forming intramolecular interactions. These similarities, and the observation that mtDBP-binding sites contain the 3'-ends of mtRNAs coded by opposite strands and the 3'-end of the D-loop structure, point to a dual function of the protein in modulating sea urchin mitochondrial DNA transcription and replication. PMID:10101198

  17. The Effect of CardioWaves Interval Training on Resting Blood Pressure, Resting Heart Rate, and Mind-Body Wellness

    PubMed Central

    NIELSON, CAMILLA M.; LOCKHART, BARBARA D.; HAGER, RONALD L.; GEORGE, JAMES D.; EGGETT, DENNIS L.; STEFFEN, PATRICK R.; MITCHELL, ULRIKE H.; BAILEY, BRUCE W.

    2016-01-01

    An experimental study to examine the effects of CardioWaves interval training (CWIT) and continuous training (CT) on resting blood pressure, resting heart rate, and mind-body wellness. Fifty-two normotensive (blood pressure <120/80 mmHg), pre-hypertensive (120–139/80–89 mmHg), and hypertensive (>140/90 mmHg) participants were randomly assigned and equally divided between the CWIT and CT groups. Both groups participated in the assigned exercise protocol 30 minutes per day, four days per week for eight weeks. Resting blood pressure, resting heart rate, and mind-body wellness were measured pre- and post-intervention. A total of 47 participants (15 females and 32 males) were included in the analysis. The CWIT group had a non-significant trend of reduced systolic blood pressure (SBP) and increased diastolic blood pressure (DBP) while the CT group had a statistically significant decrease in awake SBP (p = 0.01) and total SBP (p = 0.01) and a non-significant decrease in DBP. With both groups combined, the female participants had a statistically significant decrease in awake SBP (p = 0.002), asleep SBP (p = 0.01), total SBP (p = 0.003), awake DBP (p = 0.02), and total DBP (p = 0.05). The male participants had an increase in SBP and DBP with total DBP showing a statistically significant increase (p = 0.05). Neither group had a consistent change in resting heart rate. Both groups showed improved mind-body wellness. CWIT and CT reduced resting blood pressure, with CT having a greater effect. Resting heart rate did not change in either group. Additionally, both CWIT and CT improved mind-body wellness. PMID:27182421

  18. Tap and Dbp5, but not Gag, are involved in DR-mediated nuclear export of unspliced Rous sarcoma virus RNA

    SciTech Connect

    LeBlanc, Jason J.; Uddowla, Sabena; Abraham, Benjamin; Clatterbuck, Sarah; Beemon, Karen L. . E-mail: KLB@jhu.edu

    2007-07-05

    All retroviruses must circumvent cellular restrictions on the export of unspliced RNAs from the nucleus. While the unspliced RNA export pathways for HIV and Mason-Pfizer monkey virus are well characterized, that of Rous sarcoma virus (RSV) is not. We have previously reported that the RSV direct repeat (DR) elements are involved in the cytoplasmic accumulation of unspliced viral RNA. Here, using fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH), we demonstrate that unspliced viral RNAs bearing a single point mutation (G8863C) in the DR exhibit a restricted cellular localization in and around the nucleus. In contrast, wild type unspliced viral RNA had a diffuse localization throughout the nucleus and cytoplasm. Since the RSV Gag protein has a transient localization in the nucleus, we examined the effect of Gag over-expression on a DR-mediated reporter construct. While Gag did not enhance DR-mediated nuclear export, the dominant-negative expression of two cellular export factors, Tap and Dbp5, inhibited expression of the same reporter construct. Furthermore, FISH studies using the dominant-negative Dbp5 demonstrated that unspliced wild type RSV RNA was retained within the nucleus. Taken together, these results further implicate the DR in nuclear RNA export through interactions with Tap and Dbp5.

  19. Plastics Derived Endocrine Disruptors (BPA, DEHP and DBP) Induce Epigenetic Transgenerational Inheritance of Obesity, Reproductive Disease and Sperm Epimutations

    PubMed Central

    Manikkam, Mohan; Tracey, Rebecca; Guerrero-Bosagna, Carlos; Skinner, Michael K.

    2013-01-01

    Environmental compounds are known to promote epigenetic transgenerational inheritance of adult onset disease in subsequent generations (F1–F3) following ancestral exposure during fetal gonadal sex determination. The current study was designed to determine if a mixture of plastic derived endocrine disruptor compounds bisphenol-A (BPA), bis(2-ethylhexyl)phthalate (DEHP) and dibutyl phthalate (DBP) at two different doses promoted epigenetic transgenerational inheritance of adult onset disease and associated DNA methylation epimutations in sperm. Gestating F0 generation females were exposed to either the “plastics” or “lower dose plastics” mixture during embryonic days 8 to 14 of gonadal sex determination and the incidence of adult onset disease was evaluated in F1 and F3 generation rats. There were significant increases in the incidence of total disease/abnormalities in F1 and F3 generation male and female animals from plastics lineages. Pubertal abnormalities, testis disease, obesity, and ovarian disease (primary ovarian insufficiency and polycystic ovaries) were increased in the F3 generation animals. Kidney and prostate disease were only observed in the direct fetally exposed F1 generation plastic lineage animals. Analysis of the plastics lineage F3 generation sperm epigenome previously identified 197 differential DNA methylation regions (DMR) in gene promoters, termed epimutations. A number of these transgenerational DMR form a unique direct connection gene network and have previously been shown to correlate with the pathologies identified. Observations demonstrate that a mixture of plastic derived compounds, BPA and phthalates, can promote epigenetic transgenerational inheritance of adult onset disease. The sperm DMR provide potential epigenetic biomarkers for transgenerational disease and/or ancestral environmental exposures. PMID:23359474

  20. Impact of wastewater treatment processes on organic carbon, organic nitrogen, and DBP precursors in effuent organic matter.

    PubMed

    Krasner, Stuart W; Westerhoff, Paul; Chen, Baiyang; Rittmann, Bruce E; Nam, Seong-Nam; Amy, Gary

    2009-04-15

    Unintentional, indirect wastewater reuse often occurs as wastewater treatment plant (WWTP) discharges contaminate receiving waters serving as drinking-water supplies. A survey was conducted at 23 WWTPs that utilized a range of treatment technologies. Samples were analyzed for typical wastewater and drinking-water constituents, chemical characteristics of the dissolved organic matter (DOM), and disinfection byproduct (DBP) precursors present in the effluent organic matter (EfOM). This was the first large-scale assessment of the critical water quality parameters that affect the formation of potential carcinogens during drinking water treatment relative to the discharge of upstream WWTPs. This study considered a large and wide range of variables, including emerging contaminants rarely studied at WWTPs and never before in one study. This paper emphasizesthe profound impact of nitrification on many measures of effluent water quality, from the obvious wastewater parameters (e.g., ammonia, biochemical oxygen demand) to the ones specific to downstream drinking water treatment plants (e.g., formation potentialsfor a diverse group of DBPs of health concern). Complete nitrification reduced the concentration of biodegradable dissolved organic carbon (BDOC) and changed the ratio of BDOC/DOC. Although nitrification reduced ultraviolet absorbance (UVA) at 254 nm, it resulted in an increase in specific UVA (UVA/DOC). This is attributed to preferential removal of the less UV-absorbing (nonhumic) fraction of the DOC during biological treatment. EfOM is composed of hydrophilic and biodegradable DOM, as well as hydrophobic and recalcitrant DOM, whose proportions change with advanced biological treatment. The onset of nitrification yielded lower precursor levels for haloacetic acids and nitrogenous DBPs (haloacetonitriles, N-nitrosodimethylamine). However, trihalomethane precursors were relatively unaffected by the level of wastewater treatment Thus, one design/operations parameter in

  1. PPCP degradation by UV/chlorine treatment and its impact on DBP formation potential in real waters.

    PubMed

    Yang, Xin; Sun, Jianliang; Fu, Wenjie; Shang, Chii; Li, Yin; Chen, Yiwei; Gan, Wenhui; Fang, Jingyun

    2016-07-01

    The ultraviolet/chlorine (UV/chlorine) water purification process was evaluated for its ability to degrade the residues of pharmaceuticals and personal care products (PPCPs) commonly found in drinking water sources. The disinfection byproducts (DBPs) formed after post-chlorination were documented. The performance of the UV/chlorine process was compared with that of the UV/hydrogen peroxide (UV/H2O2) process in treating three types of sand-filtered natural water. Except caffeine and carbamazepine residues, the UV/chlorine process was found to be 59-99% effective for feed water with a high level of dissolved organic carbon and alkalinity, and 27-92% effective for water with a high ammonia content. Both chlorine radicals and hydroxyl radicals were found to contribute to the observed PPCP degradation. The removal efficiencies of chlorine- and UV-resistant PPCPs such as carbamazepine and caffeine were 2-3 times greater than in the UV/H2O2 process in waters not enriched with ammonia. UV/chlorine treatment slightly enhanced the formation chloral hydrate (CH), haloketone (HK) and trichloronitromethane (TCNM). It reduced haloacetonitrile (HAN) formation during the post-chlorination in comparison with the UV/H2O2 process. In waters with high concentrations of ammonia, the UV/chlorine process was only 5-7% more effective than the UV/H2O2 process, and it formed slightly more THMs, HKs and TCNM along with reduced formation of CH and HAN. The UV/chlorine process is thus recommended as a good alternative to UV/H2O2 treatment for its superior PPCP removal without significantly enhancing DBP formation. PMID:27110887

  2. STUDIES OF DBP INTERACTIONS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The trihalomethanes (THMs), chloroform, bromodichloromethane (BDCM), chlorodibromomethane and bromoform, were selected as the first class of chemicals for investigation. We examined in the male F-344 rat the assumption of additivity for acute exposure to mixtures of BDCM and chlo...

  3. Does Schumann resonance affect our blood pressure?

    PubMed Central

    Mitsutake, G.; Otsuka, K.; Hayakawa, M.; Sekiguchi, M.; Cornélissen, G.; Halberg, F.

    2008-01-01

    Objectives To investigate whether Schumann resonance (SR) affects blood pressure (BP), heart rate (HR), and depression and, if so, whether the putative BP reactivity to SR (BPR-SR) is associated with health-related lifestyle (HLS), disease-related illnesses (DRI), and depression. Methods A sample of 56 adults in Urausu, Hokkaido, Japan, wore an ambulatory BP monitor, except for the time in the shower, for seven consecutive days. They completed the Geriatric Depression Scale-Short Form and a health survey questionnaire on HLS and DRI. Group mean differences and within-individual differences in systolic (S) and diastolic (D) BP, mean arterial pressure (MAP), double product (DP), and HR were, respectively, compared between normal and enhanced SR days, using Student’s t-test. Correlations between BPR-SR and other characteristics (i.e. age, gender, HLS, DRI, subjective health, and depression) were analyzed, using Pearson’s product moment correlation. Results and discussion Group mean SBP, DBP, MAP, and DP for enhanced SR days were lower than those for normal days (P = 0.005-0.036). DRI was negatively associated with BPR-SR in SBP, DBP, MAP, and DP (P = 0.003-0.024), suggesting a better health status for those who showed lower BP on enhanced SR days. HLS was negatively associated with BPR-SR in DBP and MAP (P = 0.016-0.029). Males showed higher BPR-SR in DBP and MAP than females (P = 0.0044-0.016). Neither subjective health nor depression was significantly associated with BPR-SR. Future studies based on larger sample sizes are planned to see whether possible health effects can be generalized. PMID:16275477

  4. Blood pressure control in treated hypertensive patients: clinical performance of general practitioners.

    PubMed Central

    Frijling, B D; Spies, T H; Lobo, C M; Hulscher, M E; van Drenth, B B; Braspenning, J C; Prins, A; van der Wouden, J C; Grol, R P

    2001-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The blood pressure of many treated hypertensive patients remains above recommended target levels. This discrepancy may be related to general practitioners' (GPs') actions. AIM: To assess clinical performance of GPs in blood pressure control in treated hypertensive patients and to explore the influence of patient and GP characteristics on clinical performance. DESIGN OF STUDY: Cross-sectional study conducted on 195 GPs with invitations to participate made via bulletins and by letter. SETTING: One hundred and thirty-two practices in the southern half of The Netherlands from November 1996 to April 1997. METHOD: Performance criteria were selected from Dutch national hypertension guidelines for general practice. GPs completed self-report forms immediately after follow-up visits of hypertensive patients treated with antihypertensive medication. RESULTS: The GPs recorded 3526 follow-up visits. In 63% of these consultations the diastolic blood pressure (DBP) was 90 mmHg or above. The median performance rates of the GPs were less than 51% for most of the recommended actions, even at a DBP of > or = 100 mmHg. Performance of non-pharmacological actions increased gradually with increasing DBP; prescribing an increase in antihypertensive medication and making a follow-up appointment scheduled within six weeks rose steeply at a DBP of > or = 100 mmHg. Patient and GP characteristics contributed little to clinical performance. Action performance rates varied considerably between GPs. CONCLUSION: GPs seem to target their actions at a DBP of below 100 mmHg, whereas guidelines recommend targeting at a DBP of below 90 mmHg. PMID:11271892

  5. Blood pressure change and antihypertensive treatment in old and very old people: evidence of age, sex and cohort effects.

    PubMed

    Molander, L; Lövheim, H

    2013-03-01

    The epidemiology of blood pressure in very old age has not been thoroughly studied. The objective of this study was to study blood pressure changes throughout old age and changes in blood pressure and antihypertensive drug use from 1981 to 2005. The study includes 1133 blood pressure measurements from two studies carried out in Umeå, Sweden. The U70 study (1981-1990) included individuals aged 70-88 and the Umeå 85+/GERDA study (2000-2005) covered people aged 85, 90 or ≥95 years. The impact of age, sex and year of investigation on blood pressure was investigated using linear regression. Mean diastolic blood pressure (DBP) decreased by 0.35 mm Hg (P<0.001) for each year of age. An inverted U-shaped relation was found between age and systolic blood pressure (SBP), with SBP reaching its maximum at 74.5 years. Mean SBP and DBP also decreased over time (SBP by 0.44 mm Hg per year, P<0.001 and DBP by 0.34 mm Hg per year, P<0.001). The proportion of participants on antihypertensive drugs increased from 39.0% in 1981 to 69.4% in 2005. In this study of people aged ≥70 years, mean SBP and DBP decreased with higher age and later investigation year. Antihypertensive drug use increased with time, which might partly explain the observed cohort effect. PMID:22513755

  6. Does Extensive Reading Promote Reading Speed?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    He, Mu

    2014-01-01

    Research has shown a wide range of learning benefits accruing from extensive reading. Not only is there improvement in reading, but also in a wide range of language uses and areas of language knowledge. However, few research studies have examined reading speed. The existing literature on reading speed focused on students' reading speed…

  7. Oral Reading Fluency in Second Language Reading

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jeon, Eun Hee

    2012-01-01

    This study investigated the role of oral reading fluency in second language reading. Two hundred and fifty-five high school students in South Korea were assessed on three oral reading fluency (ORF) variables and six other reading predictors. The relationship between ORF and other reading predictors was examined through an exploratory factor…

  8. Reading Transformation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reeves, Melinda

    2006-01-01

    The parents of students who attend Decatur High School thought that there was little hope of their kids going on to college. After a year or so in Decatur's reading program, their sons and daughters were both transformed and college bound. In this article, the author describes how Decatur was able to successfully transform their students. Seven…

  9. Reading Poverty.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shannon, Patrick

    The central purpose of this book is to challenge current social constructions of poverty, reading education, and the putative relationship between the two. It explores how official and popular representations of poverty are bound to specific historical, social, and economic conditions of their own production. The book offers four stances of…

  10. The effect of low-sodium dialysate on ambulatory blood pressure measurement parameters in patients undergoing hemodialysis

    PubMed Central

    Akdag, Serkan; Akyol, Aytac; Cakmak, Huseyin Altug; Tosu, Aydin Rodi; Asker, Muntecep; Yaman, Mehmet; Babat, Naci; Soyoral, Yasemin; Cegin, Muhammed Bilal; Gur, Ali Kemal; Gumrukcuoglu, Hasan Ali

    2015-01-01

    Background End stage renal disease is related to increased cardiovascular mortality and morbidity. Hypertension is an important risk factor for cardiovascular disorder among hemodialysis (HD) patients. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of low-sodium dialysate on the systolic blood pressure (SBP) and diastolic blood pressure (DBP) levels detected by ambulatory BP monitoring (ABPM) and interdialytic weight gain (IDWG) in patients undergoing sustained HD treatment. Patients and methods The study included 46 patients who had creatinine clearance levels less than 10 mL/min/1.73 m2 and had been on chronic HD treatment for at least 1 year. After the enrollment stage, the patients were allocated low-sodium dialysate or standard sodium dialysate for 6 months via computer-generated randomization. Results Twenty-four hour SBP, daytime SBP, nighttime SBP, and nighttime DBP were significantly decreased in the low-sodium dialysate group (P<0.05). No significant reduction was observed in both groups in terms of 24-hour DBP and daytime DBP (P=NS). No difference was found in the standard sodium dialysate group in terms of ABPM. Furthermore, IDWG was found to be significantly decreased in the low-sodium dialysate group after 6 months (P<0.001). Conclusion The study revealed that low-sodium dialysate leads to a decrease in ABPM parameters including 24-hour SBP, daytime SBP, nighttime SBP, and nighttime DBP and it also reduces the number of antihypertensive drugs used and IDWG. PMID:26715849

  11. Albuminuria in relation to the single and combined effects of systolic and diastolic blood pressure in Chinese.

    PubMed

    Sheng, Chang-Sheng; Liu, Ming; Zou, Jun; Huang, Qi-Fang; Li, Yan; Wang, Ji-Guang

    2013-06-01

    We investigated the single and combined effects of systolic (SBP) and diastolic blood pressure (DBP) on albuminuria in Chinese. We measured blood pressure (BP), anthropometry and urinary excretions of albumin and creatinine, and defined albuminuria as a urinary albumin-to-creatinine ratio of at least 17 and 25 mg/g in men and women, respectively. The 1068 participants (mean age 56.3 years) included 407 (38.5%) men and 410 (38.4%) hypertensive patients. A J-shaped relationship between the risk of albuminuria and BP was observed for both SBP (mean ± SD, 126.1 ± 18.9 mmHg) and DBP (77.1 ± 9.4 mmHg) with nadir levels of 110 mmHg and 70 mmHg, respectively. The risk of albuminuria was significantly (p ≤ 0.01) associated with DBP in the subjects with a SBP of at least 130 mmHg and with SBP in subjects with a DBP of at least 80 mmHg, and inversely and significantly (p = 0.04) associated with SBP in subjects with a DBP below 70 mmHg. In conclusion, as far as albuminuria is concerned, there is indeed a J-shaped phenomenon. However, it has a nadir level far below the currently recommended target BP of 140/90 or 130/80 mmHg. PMID:23244371

  12. The Effect of Anthocyanins on Blood Pressure

    PubMed Central

    Zhu, Yongjian; Bo, Yacong; Wang, Xi; Lu, Wenjie; Wang, Xule; Han, Zhanying; Qiu, Chunguang

    2016-01-01

    Abstract The findings of clinical studies concerning the association between anthocyanins supplementation and blood pressure (BP) are inconsistent. In order to provide a more precise estimate of the overall effect of anthocyanins on systolic blood pressure (SBP) and diastolic blood pressure (DBP), we conducted a meta-analysis of clinical trials about anthocyanins supplementation and BP. PubMed, Web of Science, Wanfang Database, and China National Knowledge Infrastructure (CNKI) (until October 2015) were searched to identify potential studies with information on anthocyanins extract supplementation and arterial BP. The weighted mean difference (WMD) and 95% confidence interval (CI) were used as a summary statistic. Net changes in SBP and DBP between anthocyanins supplementation and placebo groups were calculated by subtracting the values at end of follow-up from those at baseline. Meta regression was used to explore the potential moderators of effect size. The publication bias was assessed using Begger's Funnel plots and Egger's tests; P < 0.05 was considered to be statistically significant. Finally, 6 clinical studies with 472 participants for the effect of anthocyanins consumption on BP were included in the present meta-analysis. There is no significant effect on either SBP (WMD: 1.15 mm Hg, 95% CI: −3.17 to 5.47, I2 = 56%) or DBP (WMD: 1.06 mm Hg, 95% CI: −0.71 to 2.83, I2 = 0%) following supplementation with anthocyanins. In summary, results from this meta-analysis do not favor any clinical efficacy of supplementation with anthocyanins in improving blood pressure. Further well-designed large randomized controlled trials (RCTs) with long follow-up period are needed to verify the association of anthocyanins supplementation and blood pressure. PMID:27082604

  13. DBP formation in hot and cold water across a simulated distribution system: effect of incubation time, heating time, pH, chlorine dose, and incubation temperature.

    PubMed

    Liu, Boning; Reckhow, David A

    2013-10-15

    This paper demonstrates that disinfection byproducts (DBP) concentration profiles in heated water were quite different from the DBP concentrations in the cold tap water. Chloroform concentrations in the heated water remained constant or even decreased slightly with increasing distribution system water age. The amount of dichloroacetic acid (DCAA) was much higher in the heated water than in the cold water; however, the maximum levels in heated water with different distribution system water ages did not differ substantially. The levels of trichloroacetic acid (TCAA) in the heated water were similar to the TCAA levels in the tap water, and a slight reduction was observed after the tap water was heated for 24 h. Regardless of water age, significant reductions of nonregulated DBPs were observed after the tap water was heated for 24 h. For tap water with lower water ages, there were significant increases in dichloroacetonitrile (DCAN), chloropicrin (CP), and 1,1-dichloropropane (1,1-DCP) after a short period of heating. Heating of the tap water with low pH led to a more significant increase of chloroform and a more significant short-term increase of DCAN. High pH accelerated the loss of the nonregulated DBPs in the heated water. The results indicated that as the chlorine doses increased, levels of chloroform and DCAA in the heated water increased significantly. However, for TCAA, the thermally induced increase in concentration was only notable for the chlorinated water with very high chlorine dose. Finally, heating may lead to higher DBP concentrations in chlorinated water with lower distribution system temperatures. PMID:24044418

  14. The Stress-Buffering Effects of Functional Social Support on Ambulatory Blood Pressure

    PubMed Central

    Bowen, Kimberly S.; Uchino, Bert N.; Birmingham, Wendy; Carlisle, McKenzie; Smith, Timothy W.; Light, Kathleen C.

    2014-01-01

    Objective Social support is a reliable predictor of cardiovascular health. According to the buffering hypothesis, stress is one mechanism by which support is able to affect physiological processes. However, most of the experimental evidence for the hypothesis comes from laboratory studies. Ambulatory blood pressure protocols examine participants in their natural environment, where they are more likely to encounter personally relevant real-world stressors. Furthermore, prior work shows that examining support by its specific functional components reveals additional independent links to health. Methods The current study aimed to examine the stress-buffering effects of functional social support on ABP. 188 participants completed a one day ABP assessment along with measures of functional social support and both global perceived stress and momentary stress at time of reading. Results Results indicated main effects for both stress measures. Global support, emotional, tangible, and informational support only moderated the effects of momentary stress, but not global stress, in predicting ABP. Informational support was the most consistent stress-buffering predictor of ABP, predicting both ambulatory SBP and DBP. Conclusions The predicted values in ABP for informational support achieved health-relevant differences, emphasizing the value of examining functional support beyond global support alone. PMID:24245843

  15. Pulsatile and steady components of blood pressure and subclinical cerebrovascular disease: the Northern Manhattan Study

    PubMed Central

    Gutierrez, Jose; Elkind, Mitchell S.V.; Cheung, Ken; Rundek, Tatjana; Sacco, Ralph L.; Wright, Clinton B.

    2016-01-01

    OBJECTIVES To assess whether pulse pressure (PP) is associated, independently of mean arterial pressure (MAP), with perivascular spaces (PVS), lacunar lesions presumably ischemic (LPI), and white matter hyperintensity volume (WMHV) seen on brain MRI. METHODS Participants in the Northern Manhattan Study had their blood pressure (BP) taken during their baseline enrollment visit and again during a visit for a brain MRI a mean of 7 years later. We assessed small and large PVS, lacunar LPI, and WMHV on MRI. We examined the association of systolic (SBP), diastolic (DBP), MAP, and PP at baseline with subclinical markers of cerebrovascular disease using generalized linear models and adjusting for vascular risk factors. RESULTS Imaging and BP data were available for 1009 participants (mean age 68 ± 8 years, 60% women, 60% Hispanic). DBP was associated with lacunar LPI and WMHV, while SBP was associated with small and large PVS. Using MAP and PP together disclosed that the effect size for PP was greater for large PVS while the effect of MAP was greater for lacunar LPI and WMHV. The effects of DBP were flat or negative at any degree of SBP > 120 mm Hg for small and large PVS, while a positive association was noted for lacunar LPI and WMHV with any DBP increase over any degree of SBP. CONCLUSIONS We report here a segregated association between the pulsatile and steady components of the BP with subclinical markers of cerebrovascular disease. These differential associations may reflect the underlying pathology of these biomarkers. PMID:26259124

  16. Slow Reading: Reading along "Lectio" Lines

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Badley, K. Jo-Ann; Badley, Ken

    2011-01-01

    The medieval monastic movement preserved and developed reading practices--lectio--from ancient Greek pedagogy as a slow, mindful approach to reading for formation. This ancient way of reading, now better known as lectio divina, challenges the fast, pragmatic reading so characteristic of our time. We propose that the present moment may be ripe for…

  17. Reading Together: A Successful Reading Fluency Intervention

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Young, Chase; Mohr, Kathleen A. J.; Rasinski, Timothy

    2015-01-01

    The article describes a reading fluency intervention called Reading Together that combines the method of repeated readings (Samuels, 1979) and the Neurological Impress Method (Heckelman, 1969). Sixteen volunteers from various backgrounds were recruited and trained to deliver the Reading Together intervention to struggling readers in third through…

  18. Pleasure Reading and Reading Rate Gains

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beglar, David; Hunt, Alan

    2014-01-01

    This study investigated the effects of (a) the amount of pleasure reading completed, (b) the type of texts read (i.e., simplified or unsimplified books), and (c) the level of simplified texts read by 14 Japanese university students who made the largest reading rate gains over one academic year. The findings indicated that the participants who made…

  19. Oscillometric blood pressure measurements: differences between measured and calculated mean arterial pressure.

    PubMed

    Kiers, H D; Hofstra, J M; Wetzels, J F M

    2008-12-01

    Mean arterial pressure (MAP) is often used as an index of overall blood pressure. In recent years, the use of automated oscillometric blood pressure measurement devices is increasing. These devices directly measure and display MAP; however, MAP is often calculated from systolic blood pressure (SBP) and diastolic blood pressure (DBP) as displayed by the device. In this study we have analysed measured and calculated MAP, obtained by two different oscillometric BP measurement devices in two different patient cohorts. The first cohort included 242 healthy subjects (male 40.5%, 50+/-13 years). BP measurements were performed with a Welch Allyn 5300P device. We found a small but significant difference between measured MAP and calculated MAP (MAP(m-c:) -1.8 mmHg, range -5.7 to 12.9 mmHg, p < 0.001). MAP(m-c) showed a significant, but weak correlation with DBP and SBP. The second cohort included included 134 patients with glomerular diseases (male 63%, 50+/14 years). BP measurements were performed with a Dinamap 487210 device. In this group we also observed a small difference between measured MAP and calculated MAP (+1.7 mmHg, range -15.3 to 28.2 mmHg, p<0.001). MAP (m-c) correlated with age, all blood pressure indices and heart rate. An overall analysis showed that age, SBP, DBP, and type of device are all independently related to MAP (m-c). There is a significant difference between measured and calculated MAP. The difference is small on average; however, this MAP(m-c) can be large in the individual patient. Moreover, there are differences of reported MAP between devices. Our data suggest that calculated and measured MAP cannot be used interchangeably. PMID:19075313

  20. Does pulmonary rehabilitation reduce peripheral blood pressure in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease?

    PubMed

    Canavan, Jane L; Kaliaraju, Djeya; Nolan, Claire M; Clark, Amy L; Jones, Sarah E; Kon, Samantha S C; Polkey, Michael I; Man, William D-C

    2015-08-01

    Pulmonary rehabilitation (PR) can improve aerobic exercise capacity, health-related quality of life and dyspnoea in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). Recent studies have suggested that exercise training may improve blood pressure and arterial stiffness, albeit in small highly selected cohorts. The aim of the study was to establish whether supervised outpatient or unsupervised home PR can reduce peripheral blood pressure. Resting blood pressure was measured in 418 patients with COPD before and after outpatient PR, supervised by a hospital-based team (HOSP). Seventy-four patients with COPD undergoing an unsupervised home-based programme acted as a comparator group (HOME). Despite significant improvements in mean (95% confidence interval) exercise capacity in the HOSP group (56 (50-60) m, p < 0.001) and HOME group (30 (17-42) m, p < 0.001) systolic blood pressure (SBP), diastolic blood pressure (DBP) and mean arterial blood pressure (MAP) did not change in either the HOSP (SBP: p = 0.47; DBP: p = 0.06; MAP: p = 0.38) or HOME group (SBP: p = 0.67; DBP: p = 0.38; MAP: p = 0.76). Planned subgroup analysis of HOSP patients with known hypertension and/or cardiovascular disease showed no impact of PR upon blood pressure. PR is unlikely to reduce blood pressure, and by implication, makes a mechanism of action in which arterial stiffness is reduced, less likely. PMID:26015460

  1. Cuff width alters the amplitude envelope of wrist cuff pressure pulse waveforms.

    PubMed

    Jilek, Jiri; Stork, Milan

    2010-07-01

    The accuracy of noninvasive blood pressure (BP) measurement with any method is affected by cuff width. Measurement with a too narrow cuff overestimates BP and measurement with a too wide cuff underestimates BP. Automatic wrist cuff BP monitors use permanently attached narrow cuffs with bladders about 6 cm wide. Such narrow cuffs should result in under-cuffing for wrist circumferences larger than 15 cm. The objective of this qualitative study was to show that a narrow wrist cuff results in increased BP values when a cuff pulse amplitude ratio algorithm is used. According to the algorithm used in this study, systolic pressure (SBP) corresponds to the point of 50% of maximal amplitude; for diastolic pressure (DBP) the ratio is 70%. Data were acquired from 12 volunteers in the sitting position. The mean wrist circumference was 18 cm. The acquired cuff pulse data were used to compute SBP, mean pressure (MAP) and DBP. The mean values for a 6 cm cuff were SBP = 144 mmHg, MAP = 104 mmHg and DBP = 88 mmHg. The values for a 10 cm cuff were SBP = 128 mmHg, MAP = 93 mmHg and DBP = 78 mmHg. The reference BP values were SBP = 132 mmHg, MAP = 96 mmHg and DBP = 80 mmHg. All narrow (6 cm) cuff BP values were higher than wide (10 cm) cuff or reference BP values. The results indicate that wider wrist cuffs may be desirable for more accurate and reliable BP measurement with wrist monitors. PMID:20505218

  2. Validating sample preservation techniques and holding times for the approved compliance monitoring methods for haloacetic acids under the US EPA's stage 1 D/DBP rule.

    PubMed

    Pepich, Barry V; Domino, Mark M; Dattilio, Teri A; Fair, Patricia S; Munch, David J

    2004-02-01

    Haloacetic acids (HAAs), which are formed during the disinfection of drinking waters with chlorine, are regulated by the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) under the Stage 1 Disinfectant/Disinfection Byproducts (D/DBP) Rule. Recently, three studies have been reported indicating that low concentrations of HAAs can also be formed during disinfection with chloramines. Methods currently approved for compliance monitoring under the Stage 1 Rule arrest the chlorine-mediated formation of HAAs by adding ammonium chloride, which forms chloramines. Studies were undertaken using an in-process water that favored the formation of HAAs with moderate total organic carbon concentration and high levels of chlorine to investigate the potential formation of HAAs under sample storage conditions. The ammonium chloride-quenched sample did form a small amount of HAAs, but total formation over a period equal to the 14-day sample storage time was less than 2 microg/l, whereas the unquenched samples increased 41 microg/l during the same period. Pour plate studies indicated that chlorinated drinking waters quenched with ammonium chloride are protected from microbial growth, which is an important additional advantage to this preservation scheme. The presence of a combined chlorine residual should prevent microbial degradation of HAAs in samples. These studies support the preservation protocols and the sample storage times promulgated for compliance monitoring under the Stage 1 D/DBP Rule. PMID:14769409

  3. Association of ambulatory heart rate and atherosclerosis risk factors with blood pressure in young non-hypertensive adults

    PubMed Central

    Cheng, Cynthia; Daskalakis, Constantine

    2016-01-01

    Objective The study objective was to assess the association between 24 h ambulatory heart rate (HR), atherosclerosis risk factors and blood pressure (BP) in young non-hypertensive patients. Methods We recruited 186 participants aged 18–45 years from a large urban academic Family Medicine outpatient practice, serving 40 000 individuals for this observational study. The main analyses were based on multiple linear regression, with mean 24 h BP (systolic BP (SBP) or diastolic BP (DBP)) as the outcomes, mean 24 h HR as the main predictor of interest, and controlling for age, gender, race, insulin sensitivity/resistance and endothelial function measured by strain gauge venous occlusion plethysmography. Results HR was independently associated with mean 24 h SBP and DBP (SBP and DBP: p=0.042 and 0.001, respectively). In our analyses, associations were markedly stronger for ambulatory compared with office BP measurements. Endothelial dysfunction was associated with higher SBP (p=0.013); plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 was significantly associated with both SBP and DBP (p=0.041 and 0.015, respectively), while insulin resistance was not associated with either SBP or DBP. Insulin resistance and C reactive protein were significant predictors of HR (p=0.013 and 0.007, respectively). Conclusions These findings suggest that HR may be a potential marker of elevated cardiovascular risk in young asymptomatic individuals, prior to the development of clinical hypertension or cardiovascular disease. PMID:26925242

  4. Beyond Cognition: Reading Motivation and Reading Comprehension

    PubMed Central

    Wigfield, Allan; Gladstone, Jessica; Turci, Lara

    2016-01-01

    The authors review research on children’s reading motivation and its relation to their reading comprehension. They begin by discussing work on the development of school motivation in general and reading motivation in particular, reviewing work showing that many children’s reading motivation declines over the school years. Girls tend to have more positive motivation for reading than do boys, and there are ethnic differences in children’s reading motivation. Over the last 15 years researchers have identified in both laboratory and classroom-based research instructional practices that positively impact students’ reading motivation and ultimately their reading comprehension. There is a strong need for researchers to build on this work and develop and study in different age groups of children effective classroom-based reading motivation instructional programs for a variety of narrative and informational materials.

  5. High Blood Pressure (Hypertension) (For Parents)

    MedlinePlus

    ... KidsHealth in the Classroom What Other Parents Are Reading Upsetting News Reports? What to Say Vaccines: Which ... when the sounds disappear. When a blood pressure reading is taken, the higher number represents the systolic ...

  6. Discrepancies in Goldmann tonometer readings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hamaoui, Marie; Tahi, Hassan; Nose, Izuru; Fantes, Francisco; Parel, Jean-Marie A.

    1999-06-01

    Purpose: To evaluate discrepancies in Goldmann tonometer readings in eyes with varying degrees of corneal hydration and stromal amount. Methods. 6 Eye Bank eyes, donated by Florida Lion's Eye Bank, were evaluated. Each eye was affixed to a customized artificial orbit system with intraocular pressure (IOP) measured directly by a pressure transducer inserted into the vitreous and with a Goldmann tonometric readings. The eyes were dehydrated for 5-minute intervals in a 30% Dextran-BSS solution, with readings taken between each submersion. Once corneal thickness stabilized, a corneal trephination of 6mm was made. The corneal buttons were frozen and dehydrated by lyophilization and weighed. Results. Preliminary results show a possible overestimation in thicker corneas and an underestimation in thinner corneas, as previously published. Corresponding data on the weight of corneal material is provided. Further studies need to be conducted to determine statistical significance of the data. Conclusion. This study uses Eye Bank eyes with a protocol that produces results similar to previously published results. Further studies in correlating the amount of corneal stroma and discrepancies in Goldmann tonometer readings of intraocular pressure are important especially with the increasing acceptance of corneal refractive surgeries.

  7. Reading Recovery. [Fact Sheets].

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reading Recovery Council of North America, Columbus, OH.

    This set of 10 fact sheets (each 2 to 4 pages long) addresses aspects of Reading Recovery, a program that helps children to be proficient readers and writers by the end of the first grade. It discusses the basic facts of Reading Recovery; Reading Recovery for Spanish literacy; Reading Recovery lessons; Reading Recovery professional development;…

  8. Reading Consultant's Handbook.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bourgeois, Penny, Comp.; And Others

    This handbook contains brief essays concerning aspects of reading and reading skills, activities designed to promote those skills, and biographies of reading specialists. The first section of the handbook discusses reading readiness, word recognition, word analysis, word meaning, comprehension, and content area reading. After discussion of each…

  9. Blood pressure levels and variance assessed by ambulatory monitoring: optimal parameters.

    PubMed

    Yates, F E; Benton, L A

    1990-01-01

    We obtained multiple ambulatory blood pressure monitoring (ABPM) records over five years from two trained, normotensive subjects experienced in wearing the apparatus. The resulting time series data on systolic blood pressure (SBP), diastolic blood pressure (DBP), and heart rate (HR) were used to suggest optimal parameters for monitoring by two instruments (Colin Medical Instruments ABPM-630 and Del Mar Avionics Pressurometer) and to compare two indirect methods (auscultatory and oscillometric). A 10-min sampling interval day and night provided sufficient density of data to support spectral analysis for ultradian rhythms in the frequency range of one cycle per hour to one cycle per 9 h on a 24-h record. Rhythms with major periods of approximately 3, 6, and 9 h were variously found in 94 normotensive subjects, aged 20 to 95 years, including the two trained subjects. When the monitoring period was extended to 72 h, the circadian (approximately 24 h) rhythm could be more sharply defined, as well as a 12-h harmonic. In some studies the two trained subjects wore two monitors, one on each arm, set to read simultaneously. From the simultaneous measurements on both arms, it was shown that averaging across three points (30 min of record) reduced the coefficient of variation between the two simultaneous records to 6% or less. Auscultatory and oscillometric methods were equally reliable. Echocardiographic data were obtained in five normotensive subjects and compared to their ABPM data. The ABPM records provided additional information about cardiovascular function not merely duplicating that obtained by acute stress tests, such as exercise or cold pressor responses, or echocardiography. Standards for ABPM are suggested. PMID:2221507

  10. Inter-Arm Difference in Brachial Blood Pressure in the General Population of Koreans

    PubMed Central

    Song, Bo Mi; Shim, Jee-Seon; Lee, Myung Ha; Choi, Dong Phil

    2016-01-01

    Background and Objectives We investigated the inter-arm difference in blood pressure of the general Korean population to identify associated factors. Subjects and Methods A total of 806 participants aged 30 to 64 years without history of major cardiovascular disease were analyzed in this cross-sectional study. They participated in the Cardiovascular and Metabolic Disease Etiology Research Center cohort study that began in 2013. Brachial blood pressure was measured simultaneously for both arms using an automated oscillometric device equipped with two cuffs in seated position. After five minutes of rest, systolic blood pressure (SBP) and diastolic blood pressure (DBP) were measured three times. The average of the three measurements was used for analysis. Multivariate logistic regression models were used to identify factors associated with inter-arm differences in blood pressure. Results The mean inter-arm difference was 3.3 mmHg for SBP and 2.0 mmHg for DBP. Large inter-arm differences (≥10 mmHg) in SBP and in DBP were found in 3.7% and 0.9% of subjects, respectively. A large inter-arm difference in SBP was associated with mean SBP (p=0.002) and C-reactive protein (p=0.014) while a large inter-arm different in DBP was only associated with body mass index (p=0.015). Sex, age, and anti-hypertensive medication use were not associated with differences in inter-arm blood pressure. Conclusion Large inter-arm difference in blood pressure is only present in a small portion of healthy Korean adults. Our findings suggest that high SBP, chronic inflammation, and obesity may be associated with larger difference in inter-arm blood pressure. PMID:27275174

  11. Children Can Love Reading.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zibart, Rosemary

    1980-01-01

    Describes the Reading Is Fundamental Program (RIF), whose reading motivation concept is simple: young people who get the opportunity to freely choose and to own books may begin to experience reading as a pleasurable activity. (Author/LLS)

  12. Reading: The Human Touch.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roswell, Florence G.

    1978-01-01

    Reading programs must be reassessed, and fragmented, isolated, and repetitive exercises must be eliminated. The goal of any reading program is to get the child to experience the joys of reading and learning. (Author/WI)

  13. Cosmetology Reading Strategies. 1980 Vocational Reading Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thornton, L. Jay; And Others

    Cosmetology Reading Strategies is one of five instructional guides in the Reading Strategies in Vocational Education Series. Developed to assist teachers working with students considered disadvantaged because of reading deficiency, the guide contains several strategies, suitable for adaptation, specifically related to cosmetology instruction. Each…

  14. Promoting Reading Motivation by Reading Together

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Monteiro, Vera

    2013-01-01

    In the present project we tested the hypothesis that tutorial situations with peers would benefit children's reading motivation. Participants were from elementary school--80 fourth-graders and 80 second-graders. We used a questionnaire to assess reading motivation. In the tutorial sessions we developed a Paired Reading Program. The children who…

  15. Teaching Reading Comprehension through Collaborative Strategic Reading.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vaughn, Sharon; Klingner, Janette Kettman

    1999-01-01

    Provides an overview of collaborative strategic reading (CSR) as an approach to enhancing the reading-comprehension skills of students with learning disabilities. Procedures for implementing CSR with collaborative groups and techniques for teaching reading-comprehension skills are provided. The role of the teacher is described and sample teaching…

  16. Preparing Teachers of Reading and Reading Specialists.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Austin, Mary C.

    There is an immediate need for improving the training of reading teachers and specialists. A new program should provide additional instruction at the undergraduate and graduate levels. Preservice teachers whether elementary or secondary, need some formal education in the teaching of reading. Graduate reading specialists should have (1) a minimum…

  17. Extensive Reading Quizzes and Reading Attitudes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stoeckel, Tim; Reagan, Nevitt; Hann, Fergus

    2012-01-01

    Extensive reading (ER) has become a common feature of many English as a second or foreign language (ESL/EFL) programs. There is evidence that reading large amounts of easy, interesting material may improve foreign language skills, most notably in vocabulary, reading rates, and overall proficiency. However, teacher evaluation of extensive reading…

  18. Association between Macronutrients Intake, Visceral Obesity and Blood Pressure in a Sample of Obese Egyptian Women

    PubMed Central

    Hassan, Nayera E.; El Shebini, Salwa M.; Ahmed, Nihad H.; Selim Mostafa, Mohamed

    2015-01-01

    AIM: Study the association between the total caloric intake, protein, lipid, and some classes of fatty acids of the diet, and their effects on blood pressure in a sample of Egyptian obese women with and without visceral obesity. METHODS: Five hundred forty-nine obese women were included in the study with mean age of 38.1 ± 11.56 years and mean Body mass index [BMI] of 36.17 ± 7.23. They enrolled in a program for losing weight. Visceral fat was determined using ultrasound. Blood pressure was measured 3 times and the mean was recorded. Twenty four hours dietary recall was reported. RESULTS: Thirty point four percentages of samples has visceral obesity ≥ 7cm; they were the older, showed higher values of BMI, visceral obesity and blood pressure. Significant difference was found between groups regarding mean value of BMI, visceral obesity, both systolic blood pressure SBP and diastolic blood pressure DBP and most of the daily macronutrients intake. In groups (2&3) positive significant correlation was recorded between (SBP) & (DBP) and total daily intake of total calories, carbohydrate, total fat, saturated fatty acids and cholesterol, and negative significant correlation with total daily intake of total protein, animal and vegetable protein, linolenic and linoleic fatty acids, while oleic fatty acid showed negative correlation with SBP&DBP in all groups. CONCLUSION: This study emphasizes the hypothesis that the macronutrients composition of diet influences blood pressure in different ways, in obese patients with visceral obesity. PMID:27275219

  19. Short-term exposure to noise, fine particulate matter and nitrogen oxides on ambulatory blood pressure: A repeated-measure study.

    PubMed

    Chang, Li-Te; Chuang, Kai-Jen; Yang, Wei-Ting; Wang, Ven-Shing; Chuang, Hsiao-Chi; Bao, Bo-Ying; Liu, Chiu-Shong; Chang, Ta-Yuan

    2015-07-01

    Exposure to road traffic noise, fine particulate matter (aerodynamic diameter ≤2.5 μm; PM2.5) and nitrogen oxides (NOx) has been associated with transient changes in blood pressure, but whether an interaction exists remains unclear. This panel study investigated whether noise, PM2.5 and NOx exposure were independently associated with changes in 24-h ambulatory blood pressure. We recruited 33 males and 33 females aged 18-32 years as study subjects. Personal noise exposure and ambulatory blood pressure were monitored simultaneously in 2007. During the data collection periods, 24-h data on PM2.5 and NOx from five air-quality monitors within 6 km of participants' home addresses were used to estimate their individual exposures. Linear mixed-effects regression models were used to estimate single and combined effects on ambulatory blood pressure. Exposure to both noise and PM2.5 was significantly associated with increased systolic blood pressure (SBP) and diastolic blood pressure (DBP) over 24h; NOx exposure was only significantly related to elevated DBP. Twenty-four-hour ambulatory blood pressure increased with the current noise exposure of 5 A-weighted decibels (dBA) (SBP 1.44 [95% confidence interval: 1.16, 1.71] mmHg and DBP 1.40 [1.18, 1.61] mmHg) and PM2.5 exposure of 10-µg/m(3) (SBP 0.81 [0.19, 1.43] mmHg and DBP 0.63 [0.17, 1.10] mmHg), as well as the current NOx exposure of 10-ppb (DBP 0.54 [0.12, 0.97] mmHg) after simultaneous adjustment. These findings suggest that exposure to noise and air pollutants may independently increase ambulatory blood pressure and the risk of cardiovascular diseases. PMID:26073201

  20. Relationship of adiposity and cardiorespiratory fitness with resting blood pressure of South African adolescents: the PAHL Study.

    PubMed

    Awotidebe, A; Monyeki, M A; Moss, S J; Strydom, G L; Amstrong, M; Kemper, H C G

    2016-04-01

    Obesity and low level of cardiorespiratory fitness are associated with high blood pressure in both adolescents and adults. The objective of this study was to assess the relationship of adiposity and cardiorespiratory fitness with resting blood pressure in 14-year-old male and female adolescents. Cross-sectional data on 310 adolescents (31.8% boys) from six high schools, who were participating in the on-going Physical Activity and Health Longitudinal Study, were collected. Height, weight, body mass index (BMI), percentage of body fat, waist circumference, waist-to-height ratio, predicted and resting systolic (SBP) and diastolic blood pressure (DBP) were assessed according to standard procedures. The prevalence of elevated SBP and DBP were 4.9% and 6.5%, respectively. The highest prevalence of elevated blood pressure (SBP=10% and DBP=15%) were measured in overweight adolescents, who also performed poorly for predicted (M=26.66 ml kg(-1 )min(-1)±6.44) compared with underweight and normal-weight adolescents. Multiple regression showed that BMI was positively associated with SBP (β=0.77, P=0.005) and was negatively associated with DBP (β=-0.43, P=0.001). Overweight adolescents presented with a relatively high prevalence of elevated blood pressure and poor health-related fitness. Fatness and poor cardiorespiratory fitness were positively associated with elevated SBP and DBP, respectively. In view of the health implications of these findings, strategic interventions are needed to promote obesity-reduction programmes and physical activities in adolescents. PMID:26202691

  1. Low job control is associated with higher diastolic blood pressure in men with mildly elevated blood pressure: the Rosai Karoshi study.

    PubMed

    Hattori, Tomomi; Munakata, Masanori

    2015-01-01

    Job strain is a risk factor for hypertension, but it is not fully understood if components of job strain, or job demand or job control per se could be related to blood pressure (BP), and if so, whether the relationship differs between normotension and mildly elevated BP. We examined resting BP, and job stress components in 113 Japanese male hospital clerks (38.1 ± 4.4 yr). Subjects were classified into normotensive (NT) (<130/85 mmHg, n=83) and mildly elevated BP (ME) (≥130/85 mmHg) groups. Diastolic BP (DBP) showed a significant interaction between group and job control level (p=0.013). Subjects with low job control demonstrated higher DBP than those with high job control (89.1 ± 2.1 vs. 82.3 ± 2.3 mmHg, p=0.042) in ME group even after adjustments for covariates while DBP did not differ between low and high job control subjects in NT group. Systolic BP (SBP) did not differ between high and low job control subjects in both groups. Neither SBP nor DBP differed between high and low demand groups in either group. Among job strain components, job control may be independently related to BP in Japanese male workers with mildly elevated BP. PMID:25914072

  2. Low job control is associated with higher diastolic blood pressure in men with mildly elevated blood pressure: the Rosai Karoshi study

    PubMed Central

    HATTORI, Tomomi; MUNAKATA, Masanori

    2015-01-01

    Job strain is a risk factor for hypertension, but it is not fully understood if components of job strain, or job demand or job control per se could be related to blood pressure (BP), and if so, whether the relationship differs between normotension and mildly elevated BP. We examined resting BP, and job stress components in 113 Japanese male hospital clerks (38.1 ± 4.4 yr). Subjects were classified into normotensive (NT) (<130/85 mmHg, n=83) and mildly elevated BP (ME) (≥130/85 mmHg) groups. Diastolic BP (DBP) showed a significant interaction between group and job control level (p=0.013). Subjects with low job control demonstrated higher DBP than those with high job control (89.1 ± 2.1 vs. 82.3 ± 2.3 mmHg, p=0.042) in ME group even after adjustments for covariates while DBP did not differ between low and high job control subjects in NT group. Systolic BP (SBP) did not differ between high and low job control subjects in both groups. Neither SBP nor DBP differed between high and low demand groups in either group. Among job strain components, job control may be independently related to BP in Japanese male workers with mildly elevated BP. PMID:25914072

  3. Does hormone therapy affect blood pressure changes in the Diabetes Prevention Program?

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Catherine; Golden, Sherita H.; Kong, Shengchun; Nan, Bin; Mather, Kieren J.; Barrett-Connor, Elizabeth

    2013-01-01

    Objectives To examine whether blood pressure reductions differ by estrogen use among overweight glucose-intolerant women. Methods We conducted a secondary analysis of postmenopausal Diabetes Prevention Program participants who used oral estrogen with or without progestogen at baseline and at 1-year follow-up (n=324) vs. those who did not use at either time point (n=382). Systolic (SBP) and diastolic blood pressure (DBP) changes were examined by randomization arm (intensive lifestyle change (ILS), metformin 850 mg twice daily, or placebo). Associations between changes in blood pressure with changes in sex hormone binding globulin, estradiol, testosterone, and dehydroepiandrosterone were also examined. Results Estrogen users and non-users had similar prevalences of baseline hypertension (33% vs. 34%, p=0.82) and use of blood pressure medications at baseline (p=0.25) and follow-up (p=0.10). Estrogen users and non-users randomized to ILS had similar decreases in SBP (-3.3 vs. -4.7 mmHg, p=0.45) and DBP (-3.1 vs. -4.7 mmHg, p=0.16). Among estrogen users, women randomized to ILS had significant declines in SBP (p=0.016) and DBP (p=0.009) vs. placebo. Among non-users, women randomized to ILS had significant declines in DBP (p=0.001) vs. placebo, but declines in SBP were not significant (p=0.11). Metformin was not associated with blood pressure reductions vs. placebo regardless of estrogen therapy. Blood pressure changes were not associated with changes in sex hormones regardless of estrogen therapy. Conclusions Among overweight women with dysglycemia, the magnitude of blood pressure reductions after ILS was unrelated to postmenopausal estrogen use. PMID:23942251

  4. Focus on Reading.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sheridan, Harriet W., Ed.

    1972-01-01

    The theme of this issue of the "Minnesota English Journal" is reading. The contents include "Preamblings," which discusses some of the current concerns in reading instruction; "The State of Minnesota's Right to Read Program," which looks at the Minnesota plan for building the reading program in conjunction with inservice education, and for…

  5. What Should Students Read?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wolk, Steven

    2010-01-01

    The reading students are required to do for school bears little semblance to the reading they do outside of school. Students today are reading the same texts in school that students read a generation ago, but the varieties of text used outside of school are much different. One result is that many students are unmotivated to become readers.…

  6. Designing the Reading Curriculum.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ediger, Marlow

    The design of the reading curriculum presents a vision of what will be stressed in reading instruction. A first ingredient to discuss in developing the reading curriculum emphasizes the degree to which different curriculum areas should be related in teaching and learning. Reading then could be taught as a separate subject matter area from the…

  7. Failure Free Reading.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Education Commission of the States, Denver, CO.

    This paper provides an overview of Failure Free Reading, a program with the primary goal of providing a basic understanding of the reading process to students in grades K-12 with pronounced reading difficulty and move them into traditional reading programs. The program is targeted to and most effective with at-risk and English as a Second Language…

  8. Big Read, Big ROI

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dempsey, Beth

    2008-01-01

    In 2004, the National Endowment for the Arts (NEA) released a grim report on the state of literary reading in America. "Reading at Risk" (www.nea.gov/pub/ReadingAtRisk.pdf) detailed a dramatic decline in recreational reading across all segments of the American population--young and old, black, brown, and white. It also included the projected…

  9. Narration in Reading Remediation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kersting, Frank; Ferguson, Janice

    A case study examined the whole-part application of the language experience approach to reading as used for students whose reading development is severely delayed. The subject, a third-grade female student reading on the first-grade level as determined by the Woodcock Reading Mastery Tests-Revised (Woodcock, 1987), participated in a reading…

  10. Reading Assessment: Looking Ahead

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Afflerbach, Peter

    2016-01-01

    In this article, I focus on three areas of reading assessment that I believe to be crucial for students' reading development: developing comprehensive formative assessments, assessing the wide array of factors that contribute to students' reading development, and fostering student independence by helping students learn to use reading assessment on…

  11. Reading and Comprehension.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eagan, Ruth L.

    For years, reading teachers in the schools have emphasized word identification skills and believed that reading is comprised of a set of subskills that a child must master before he or she can learn to read. To teach a child to read, however, instruction must focus on comprehension. Therefore, word attack skills should be taught in conjunction…

  12. Reading Therapy Project.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McCarty, Roxanne

    2002-01-01

    Examines the results of using the Phono-Graphix reading method, designed for students with reading disabilities, to teach nine prison inmates to read. Reports that inmates' average basic reading skills standard score gains were 17 points (more than one standard deviation) after 33 one-hour sessions, an average gain of 1.9 standard points per…

  13. Age, arterial stiffness, and components of blood pressure in Chinese adults.

    PubMed

    Zheng, Meili; Xu, Xiping; Wang, Xiaobin; Huo, Yong; Xu, Xin; Qin, Xianhui; Tang, Genfu; Xing, Houxun; Fan, Fangfang; Cui, Wei; Yang, Xinchun

    2014-12-01

    Blood pressure (BP) changes with age. We conducted a cross-sectional study in rural Chinese adults to investigate: (1) what is the relationship between age, arterial stiffness, and BP in Chinese men and women; and (2) to what degree can the age-BP relationship be explained by arterial stiffness, controlling for other covariables. These analyses included a total of 1688 subjects (males/females: 623/1065), aged 40 to 88 years. Among them, 353 (20.9%) had hypertension (defined as systolic blood pressure (SBP) ≥ 140 mm Hg or diastolic blood pressure (DBP) ≥ 90 mm Hg). Arterial stiffness was measured by brachial-ankle pulse wave velocity (baPWV). baPWV appeared to be more strongly correlated with BP (including SBP, DBP, mean arterial pressure [MAP], pulse pressure [PP]) than age (P < 0.001 for comparisons between Spearman correlation coefficients). Furthermore, baPWV was associated with BP (including SBP, DBP, MAP, and PP) and risk of hypertension in a dose-response fashion, independent of age; in contrast, the age-BP associations were either attenuated or became negative after adjusting for baPWV. Arterial stiffness appears to be an independent contributor to hypertension, even after adjusting for age and other covariables. In contrast, age-BP associations became attenuated or negative after adjusting for baPWV. The utility of baPWV as a diagnostic, prognostic, and therapeutic indicator for hypertension warrants further investigation. PMID:25546666

  14. Interactions of Genetic Variants with Physical Activity are Associated with Blood Pressure in Chinese: The GenSalt Study

    PubMed Central

    Montasser, May E.; Gu, Donfeng; Chen, Jing; Shimmin, Lawrence C.; Gu, Charles; Kelly, Tanika N.; Jaquish, Cashell E.; Rice, Treva; Rao, DC; Cao, Jie; Chen, Jichun; Liu, De-pei; Whelton, Paul; He, Jiang; Hixson, James E.

    2016-01-01

    Background Blood pressure (BP) homeostasis involves complex interactions among genetic and non-genetic factors, providing major challenges to dissection of the genetic components that influence BP and hypertension. In this study, we examine the effects of interaction of genetic variants with physical activity on BP in a relatively genetically homogenous cohort of rural Chinese villagers. Methods Generalized estimating equations analysis was used to test for associations of systolic blood pressure (SBP) and diastolic blood pressure (DBP) with variants in 24 genes in BP pathways (196 SNPs) among 3,142 Chinese participants divided according to physical activity (active versus inactive groups). Results In the physically active group, 2 SNPs in NR3C2 were significantly associated with lower SBP, and a SNP in SCNN1B was significantly associated with lower SBP and DBP. In the physically inactive group, a SNP in APLNR was associated with lower SBP, a SNP in GNB3 was associated with higher SBP and DBP, and a SNP in BDKRB2 was associated with lower DBP. Cumulative effects in carriers of minor alleles of these SNPs showed reductions of SBP and DBP as large as 8 and 5 mmHg, respectively, in the active individuals compared to inactive individuals carrying the same number of minor alleles. Conclusions We found that physical activity modifies the effects of genetic variants on BP. However, our results also show that active individuals with specific genotypes always have lower BP than inactive individuals with the same genotypes, demonstrating the overall beneficial effects of physical activity on blood pressure. PMID:21654856

  15. Controlled aerobic exercise training reduces resting blood pressure in sedentary older adults.

    PubMed

    Huang, Guoyuan; Shi, Xiangrong; Gibson, Cheryl A; Huang, Sunny C; Coudret, Nadine A; Ehlman, Mary C

    2013-12-01

    The results of existing controlled clinical trials were synthesized to determine effects of aerobic exercise training on resting systolic (SBP) and diastolic blood pressure (DBP) among previously sedentary older adults, to quantify the magnitude of observed changes, and to examine the influence of the associated interventional variables on these changes. Studies were identified via a systematic computer database search, hand searching, and cross-referencing of previously located articles. All potentially eligible articles were carefully reviewed and examined with the established inclusion criteria. Twenty-three studies, representing a total of 1226 older subjects, were included in the final analysis. Robust statistically significant effects were found in terms of the pooled standardized effect size of - 0.33 ± 0.06 (p < 0.0001) in SBP and - 0.39 ± 0.09 (p < 0.0001) in DBP. When compared with the control group, net decreases in both SBP (- 5.39 ± 1.21 mmHg, p < 0.0001) and DBP (-3.68 ± 0.83 mmHg, p < 0.0001) were observed in older exercisers, representing a 3.9% and a 4.5% reduction, respectively. This meta-analytic study provides robust quantitative data to support the efficacy and effectiveness of controlled endurance exercise training in decreasing resting SBP and DBP among previously sedentary older adults. PMID:23550511

  16. What Oral Text Reading Fluency Can Reveal about Reading Comprehension

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Veenendaal, Nathalie J.; Groen, Margriet A.; Verhoeven, Ludo

    2015-01-01

    Text reading fluency--the ability to read quickly, accurately and with a natural intonation--has been proposed as a predictor of reading comprehension. In the current study, we examined the role of oral text reading fluency, defined as text reading rate and text reading prosody, as a contributor to reading comprehension outcomes in addition to…

  17. High Blood Pressure: Unique to Older Adults

    MedlinePlus

    ... below to read more. High Blood Pressure and Edema : You may notice swelling in some parts of ... blood pressure. This buildup of fluids, called peripheral edema, usually occurs in your ankles, feet, lower legs, ...

  18. Improved Measurement of Blood Pressure by Extraction of Characteristic Features from the Cuff Oscillometric Waveform

    PubMed Central

    Lim, Pooi Khoon; Ng, Siew-Cheok; Jassim, Wissam A.; Redmond, Stephen J.; Zilany, Mohammad; Avolio, Alberto; Lim, Einly; Tan, Maw Pin; Lovell, Nigel H.

    2015-01-01

    We present a novel approach to improve the estimation of systolic (SBP) and diastolic blood pressure (DBP) from oscillometric waveform data using variable characteristic ratios between SBP and DBP with mean arterial pressure (MAP). This was verified in 25 healthy subjects, aged 28 ± 5 years. The multiple linear regression (MLR) and support vector regression (SVR) models were used to examine the relationship between the SBP and the DBP ratio with ten features extracted from the oscillometric waveform envelope (OWE). An automatic algorithm based on relative changes in the cuff pressure and neighbouring oscillometric pulses was proposed to remove outlier points caused by movement artifacts. Substantial reduction in the mean and standard deviation of the blood pressure estimation errors were obtained upon artifact removal. Using the sequential forward floating selection (SFFS) approach, we were able to achieve a significant reduction in the mean and standard deviation of differences between the estimated SBP values and the reference scoring (MLR: mean ± SD = −0.3 ± 5.8 mmHg; SVR and −0.6 ± 5.4 mmHg) with only two features, i.e., Ratio2 and Area3, as compared to the conventional maximum amplitude algorithm (MAA) method (mean ± SD = −1.6 ± 8.6 mmHg). Comparing the performance of both MLR and SVR models, our results showed that the MLR model was able to achieve comparable performance to that of the SVR model despite its simplicity. PMID:26087370

  19. Everyday Discrimination and Nocturnal Blood Pressure Dipping in Black and White Americans

    PubMed Central

    Tomfohr, Lianne; Cooper, Denise C.; Mills, Paul J.; Nelesen, Richard A.; Dimsdale, Joel E.

    2010-01-01

    Objective Attenuated nocturnal blood pressure (BP) dipping is closely linked to cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. Self-reported experiences of everyday discrimination have also been associated with negative cardiovascular health outcomes. This study investigated whether an association exists between experiences of everyday discrimination and BP dipping in a biracial sample of Black and White adults. Methods Seventy-eight hypertensive and normotensive women and men (30 Black and 48 White) reported on their experiences of everyday discrimination (the Everyday Discrimination Scale) and underwent two separate 24-hour ambulatory blood pressure monitoring (ABPM) sessions approximately one week apart. Results Correlation analysis revealed that higher endorsement of everyday discrimination was significantly associated with less diastolic blood pressure (DBP) and systolic blood pressure (SBP) dipping (p <0.05). Subsequent hierarchical regression analyses indicated that everyday discrimination explained 8-11% of the variance in SBP and DBP dipping above and beyond other demographic and lifestyle-related factors including race, age, 24-hour BP, body mass index (BMI), and current socioeconomic status (SES). The relationship between discrimination and dipping was significantly stronger on the second night of monitoring. Finally, analyses revealed that everyday discrimination mediated the relationship between race and BP dipping. Conclusions These findings suggest that experiences of everyday discrimination are associated with less nocturnal SBP and DBP dipping above and beyond the effect of known covariates. The use of multiple ABPM sessions may facilitate the detection of relationships between psychological variables and BP dipping. PMID:20124424

  20. Blood pressure and antihypertensive medication profile in a multiethnic Asian population of stable chronic kidney disease patients

    PubMed Central

    Teo, Boon Wee; Chua, Horng Ruey; Wong, Weng Kin; Haroon, Sabrina; Subramanian, Srinivas; Loh, Ping Tyug; Sethi, Sunil; Lau, Titus

    2016-01-01

    INTRODUCTION Clinical practice guidelines recommend different blood pressure (BP) goals for chronic kidney disease (CKD) patients. Usage of antihypertensive medication and attainment of BP targets in Asian CKD patients remain unclear. This study describes the profile of antihypertensive agents used and BP components in a multiethnic Asian population with stable CKD. METHODS Stable CKD outpatients with variability of serum creatinine levels < 20%, taken > 3 months apart, were recruited. Mean systolic blood pressure (SBP) and diastolic blood pressure (DBP) were measured using automated manometers, according to practice guidelines. Serum creatinine was assayed and the estimated glomerular filtration rate (GFR) calculated using the CKD Epidemiology Collaboration equation. BP and antihypertensive medication profile was examined using univariate analyses. RESULTS 613 patients (55.1% male; 74.7% Chinese, 6.4% Indian, 11.4% Malay; 35.7% diabetes mellitus) with a mean age of 57.8 ± 14.5 years were recruited. Mean SBP was 139 ± 20 mmHg, DBP was 74 ± 11 mmHg, serum creatinine was 166 ± 115 µmol/L and GFR was 53 ± 32 mL/min/1.73 m2. At a lower GFR, SBP increased (p < 0.001), whereas DBP decreased (p = 0.0052). Mean SBP increased in tandem with the number of antihypertensive agents used (p < 0.001), while mean DBP decreased when ≥ 3 antihypertensive agents were used (p = 0.0020). CONCLUSION Different targets are recommended for each BP component in CKD patients. A majority of patients cannot attain SBP targets and/or exceed DBP targets. Research into monitoring and treatment methods is required to better define BP targets in CKD patients. PMID:27212015

  1. Reading: Putting the Pieces Together.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hayes, Bernard L., Ed.; Camperell, Kay, Ed.

    1994-01-01

    The papers in this yearbook focus on the strategies, practices, and research related to elementary reading, secondary reading, adult reading, literature, philosophy of reading, psychology of reading, affective issues, administration, supervision, research, teacher training, assessment that affect reading and reading instruction. Papers in the book…

  2. Is there a causal role for homocysteine concentration in blood pressure? A Mendelian randomization study12

    PubMed Central

    Hartwig, Fernando P; Oliveira, Isabel O; Horta, Bernardo L

    2016-01-01

    Background: An understanding of whether homocysteine is a cause or a marker of increased blood pressure is relevant because blood homocysteine can be effectively lowered by safe and inexpensive interventions (e.g., vitamin B-6, B-9, and B-12 supplementation). Objective: The aim was to assess the causal influence of homocysteine on systolic and diastolic blood pressure (SBP and DBP, respectively) in adults with the use of Mendelian randomization (MR). Design: Data from the 1982 Pelotas Birth Cohort (Brazil) were used. A total of 4297 subjects were evaluated in 2004–2005 (mean age: 22.8 y). The association of homocysteine concentration with SBP and DBP was assessed by conventional ordinary least-squares (OLS) linear regression and 2-stage least-squares (2SLS) regression (MR analysis). The single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) C677T (rs1801133) was used as proxy for homocysteine concentration. We also applied MR to data from the International Consortium for Blood Pressure (ICBP) genomewide association studies (>69,000 participants) using rs1801133 and additional homocysteine-associated SNPs as instruments. Results: In OLS regression, a 1-SD unit increase in log homocysteine concentration was associated with an increase of 0.9 (95% CI: 0.4, 1.4) mm Hg in SBP and of 1.0 (95% CI: 0.6, 1.4) mm Hg in DBP. In 2SLS regression, for the same increase in homocysteine, the coefficients were −1.8 mm Hg for SBP (95% CI: −3.9, 0.4 mm Hg; P = 0.01) and 0.1 mm Hg for DBP (95% CI: −1.5, 1.7 mm Hg; P = 0.24). In the MR analysis of ICBP data, homocysteine concentration was not associated with SBP (β = 0.6 mm Hg for each 1-SD unit increase in log homocysteine; 95% CI: −0.8, 1.9 mm Hg) but was positively associated with DBP (β = 1.1 mm Hg; 95% CI: 0.2, 1.9 mm Hg). The association of genetically increased homocysteine with DBP was not consistent across different SNPs. Conclusion: Overall, the present findings do not corroborate the

  3. Lights, Camera, Read! Arizona Reading Program Manual.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arizona State Dept. of Library, Archives and Public Records, Phoenix.

    This document is the manual for the Arizona Reading Program (ARP) 2003 entitled "Lights, Camera, Read!" This theme spotlights books that were made into movies, and allows readers to appreciate favorite novels and stories that have progressed to the movie screen. The manual consists of eight sections. The Introduction includes welcome letters from…

  4. Beginning Readers' Reading Performance and Reading Habits

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leppanen, Ulla; Aunola, Kaisa; Nurmi, Jari-Erik

    2005-01-01

    This study investigated the prospective relationships between reading performance and reading habits among Finnish children during the first and second grades of primary school. One hundred and ninety-five children were examined twice during their first primary school year and once during the spring term of Grade 2. The results showed, first, that…

  5. Reading Disabilities and PASS Reading Enhancement Programme

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mahapatra, Shamita

    2016-01-01

    Children experience difficulties in reading either because they fail to decode the words and thus are unable to comprehend the text or simply fail to comprehend the text even if they are able to decode the words and read them out. Failure in word decoding results from a failure in phonological coding of written information, whereas reading…

  6. Toddler Reading Time

    MedlinePlus

    ... Studies show that kids with active exposure to language have social and educational advantages over their peers — ... reading is one of the best exposures to language. Reading to toddlers sets the foundation for later ...

  7. What Are Reading Disorders?

    MedlinePlus

    ... Information Clinical Trials Resources and Publications What are reading disorders? Skip sharing on social media links Share ... for more information about these problems. Types of Reading Disorders Dyslexia is a brain-based type of ...

  8. Assessing Motivation to Read.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gambrell, Linda B.; And Others

    1996-01-01

    Describes the Motivation to Read Profile (MRP), which assesses children's self-concepts as readers and the value they see in reading. Discusses its development and offers suggestions for its use with elementary students. Includes the MRP. (SR)

  9. Impacts of measurement protocols on blood pressure tracking from childhood into adulthood: a metaregression analysis.

    PubMed

    Chen, Xiaoli; Wang, Youfa; Appel, Lawrence J; Mi, Jie

    2008-03-01

    The best approach for blood pressure (BP) measurement in children remains controversial, specifically regarding the choice of Korotkoff phase 4 versus Korotkoff phase 5 for diastolic BP (DBP) and the use of automated devices. To examine the impacts of different BP measurement protocols on BP tracking from childhood into adulthood, we conducted a meta-analysis of 50 related studies published between 1970 and 2006 identified based on a systematic search of PubMed. These studies provided 617 data points (tracking correlation coefficient, our outcome variable) for systolic BP and 547 data points for DBP for our meta-analysis. The explanatory variables included the use of Korotkoff phase 4/Korotkoff phase 5, BP device, and number of BP measurements per visit. Analyses were adjusted for potential confounders, including sex, baseline age, follow-up length, publication year, and study country. Tracking correlation coefficients for DBP measured using Korotkoff phase 4 was higher than that of Korotkoff phase 5 by 0.035 but not significant. DBP tracking assessed by automated device was higher than that of Korotkoff phase 5 by 0.152 (P=0.024) and higher than the mercury manometer by 0.223 (P=0.005). BP tracking was slightly higher with multiple BP measurements per visit, but measurements of >or=3 times did not improve the tracking further compared with 2 measurements. Although policy-making bodies currently recommend the use of Korotkoff phase 5 to assess DBP in children, our metaregression analysis did not support the recommendation. In general, Korotkoff phase 4 seems to be different from Korotkoff phase 5, and automated device is a promising approach for BP assessment in childhood. PMID:18212267

  10. Predictors of the short-term effect of isoleucine-proline-proline/valine-proline-proline lactotripeptides from casein on office and ambulatory blood pressure in subjects with pharmacologically untreated high-normal blood pressure or first-degree hypertension.

    PubMed

    Cicero, A F G; Rosticci, M; Ferroni, A; Bacchelli, S; Veronesi, M; Strocchi, E; Borghi, C

    2012-01-01

    Our aim was to evaluate the predictors of Isoleucine-Proline-Proline/Valine-Proline-Proline (IPP-VPP) lactotripeptides (LTPs) antihypertensive effect in the context of a short-term large double-blind randomized clinical trial involving 164 pharmacologically untreated subjects in primary prevention for cardiovascular disease. When compared with the baseline, office systolic blood pressure (SBP) (-3.42 mm Hg, P < .001) and diastolic blood pressure (DBP) (-2.35 mm Hg, P < .001) significantly decreased, in the LTP-treated patients only. No significant change in predictors during the study of ambulatory blood pressure measurement (ABPM) parameters was observed. A short-term supplementation with LTPs significantly improves the office SBP and DBP, especially in male subjects. The main predictor of LTP antihypertensive effect was the baseline BP. PMID:22574612

  11. An assessment of discriminatory power of office blood pressure measurements in predicting optimal ambulatory blood pressure control in people with type 2 diabetes

    PubMed Central

    Kengne, Andre Pascal; Libend, Christelle Nong; Dzudie, Anastase; Menanga, Alain; Dehayem, Mesmin Yefou; Kingue, Samuel; Sobngwi, Eugene

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Ambulatory blood pressure (BP) measurements (ABPM) predict health outcomes better than office BP, and are recommended for assessing BP control, particularly in high-risk patients. We assessed the performance of office BP in predicting optimal ambulatory BP control in sub-Saharan Africans with type 2 diabetes (T2DM). Methods Participants were a random sample of 51 T2DM patients (25 men) drug-treated for hypertension, receiving care in a referral diabetes clinic in Yaounde, Cameroon. A quality control group included 46 non-diabetic individuals with hypertension. Targets for BP control were systolic (and diastolic) BP. Results Mean age of diabetic participants was 60 years (standard deviation: 10) and median duration of diabetes was 6 years (min-max: 0-29). Correlation coefficients between each office-based variable and the 24-h ABPM equivalent (diabetic vs. non-diabetic participants) were 0.571 and 0.601 for systolic (SBP), 0.520 and 0.539 for diastolic (DBP), 0.631 and 0.549 for pulse pressure (PP), and 0.522 and 0.583 for mean arterial pressure (MAP). The c-statistic for the prediction of optimal ambulatory control from office-BP in diabetic participants was 0.717 for SBP, 0.494 for DBP, 0.712 for PP, 0.582 for MAP, and 0.721 for either SBP + DBP or PP + MAP. Equivalents in diabetes-free participants were 0.805, 0.763, 0.695, 0.801 and 0.813. Conclusion Office DBP was ineffective in discriminating optimal ambulatory BP control in diabetic patients, and did not improve predictions based on office SBP alone. Targeting ABPM to those T2DM patients who are already at optimal office-based SBP would likely be more cost effective in this setting. PMID:25838859

  12. Learning to Read Again.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Adams, O. F., McCreery, Liz

    1988-01-01

    A project was developed which successfully taught individuals with visual impairments to read commercial large-print books, with either their own reading spectacles or with lower levels of magnification than usually prescribed. Over the course of the project, print sizes were systematically reduced and healthy reading habits were re-taught. (JDD)

  13. Reading/Language Arts.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Illinois State Office of Education, Springfield.

    These seven projects comprise the reading and language arts section of a report on Elementary Secondary Education Act Title IV programs for the state of Illinois. Complete descriptions are furnished for the following: a multi-text, individualized reading skills program for grades four through eight; a reading program which stresses phonetic and…

  14. Reading in Mathematics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Taschow, Horst G.

    Difficulties inherent in the reading of mathematics at secondary and college levels are discussed. Special emphasis is placed on the reading of arithmetic numerals, literal numbers, operational symbols, and expressions of relationships, as well as the reading of technical vocabularies and specialized meanings of general words. While each…

  15. Family Reading Night

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hutchins, Darcy; Greenfeld, Marsha; Epstein, Joyce

    2007-01-01

    This book offers clear and practical guidelines to help engage families in student success. It shows families how to conduct a successful Family Reading Night at their school. Family Night themes include Scary Stories, Books We Love, Reading Olympics, Dr. Seuss, and other themes. Family reading nights invite parents to come to school with their…

  16. Monster Moose Reading.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Finney, Frank

    Monster Moose (MM) Reading is a program specifically aimed at improving children's language, beginning reading, and self-concept development through the creation and utilization of student-authored reading materials which feature a series of wordless picture books about a magical moose. The MM Program is based on the following general principles…

  17. Supervising the Reading Clinician.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ridout, Susan Ramp; Bailey, Kevin Sue

    Designed for graduate students supervising undergraduate work in a reading clinic, this practicum manual provides guidelines and materials needed for the graduate section of the Reading Practicum (Methods of Teaching Reading II) at Indiana University Southeast. In addition to the syllabus, which includes course description and objectives, course…

  18. The Reading Clinic.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ridout, Susan Ramp; Bailey, Kevin Sue

    Organized to allow undergraduate and graduate students to work together in helping children learn to read, this practicum manual provides guidelines and materials needed for the undergraduate section of the Methods of Teaching Reading II Reading Practicum at Indiana University Southeast. In addition to the syllabus, which includes a course…

  19. Reading and Writing Connections.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mason, Jana M., Ed.

    This collection of papers, from a conference on reading and writing connections held at the University of Illinois in October 1986, reflects the value of demonstrating connections between reading instruction and writing. The book shows practitioners how writing can be blended with reading instruction and how writing activities can be used not just…

  20. Time for Reading?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fowler, William R.

    1989-01-01

    Reading for pleasure and enlightenment is a critical, and endangered, element in a well-informed citizenry. As a basis for intellectual growth, reading is threatened by media misuse and lack of encouragement of recreational reading. Solutions include emphasis on integrated skills, improved time allocation, and cooperation among parents, teachers,…

  1. Guided Reading and Motivation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hauptman, Allyson L.

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the relationship between Guided Reading and student motivation to read across fourth, fifth, and sixth grades. The study defined literacy motivation as: (a) task value; (b) self-perceived competence; (c) students' perceptions of the Guided Reading format. Factor analysis and repeated measures ANOVAs were…

  2. ELLs' Perceptions of Reading

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Howard, Rachael M.

    2012-01-01

    This research investigated reading support and book preferences of fourth grade English language learners (ELLs) who were struggling readers. This qualitative research focused on three case studies. Interviews were conducted to explore ELLs' perceptions on reading motivation, reading programs, and types of support they received. Descriptions of…

  3. Reading, Language Arts & Literacy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Matthew, Kathy, Ed.

    This document contains the following papers on educational technology issues related to reading, language arts, and literacy: (1) "The Infusion of Technology into a Teacher Education Course: Issues and Strategies" (Mary Ann Kolloff); (2) "Project READ: Developing Online Course Materials for a Reading Methods Class" (Judith A. Crowe); (3) "Reading…

  4. Free Reading Is UTOPIA

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    LeCrone, Nancy

    2010-01-01

    In high school students get tied up in extracurricular activities and have little time for pleasure reading. It is true that with rigorous academic schedules they have little time for pleasure reading. Thus began a conversation with a sophomore English teacher at the author's high school. As they were discussing the plight of free reading he was…

  5. The Future of Reading

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Peters, Tom

    2009-01-01

    The future of reading is very much in doubt. In this century, reading could soar to new heights or crash and burn. Some educators and librarians fear that sustained reading for learning, for work, and for pleasure may be slowly dying out as a widespread social practice. Several social and technological developments of the 20th century, such as…

  6. The Roots of Reading.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Segel, Elizabeth

    2000-01-01

    School-community partnership programs can help teachers reach children in the crucial years from birth to 4, thereby preventing reading difficulties and raising future test scores. Many organizations help families in starting their children on the road to lifetime reading by distributing free books and pamphlets on reading aloud to children. (SM)

  7. Content Reading Strategies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Belk, Elizabeth Joann; Seed, Allen H.; Abdi, Wali

    2005-01-01

    Reading comprehension skills promote achievement in science, so how can teachers help students to develop these skills? Research indicates that students who read well are more likely to be successful in school and in life (Belk 1999). Furthermore, there is a direct link between science skills and reading skills (Carter and Simpson 1978). There are…

  8. Summer Library Reading Programs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fiore, Carole D.

    2007-01-01

    Virtually all public libraries in the United States provide some type of summer library reading program during the traditional summer vacation period. Summer library reading programs provide opportunities for students of many ages and abilities to practice their reading skills and maintain skills that are developed during the school year. Fiore…

  9. Developing a Reading Course.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Creemers, F. H. Th.; And Others

    A course for improving Dutch reading proficiency of entering university students was developed by the Linguistic and Literacy Studies department of the University of Tilburg in the Netherlands. Dutch secondary school students receive instruction in text-specific approaches to reading but no instruction in reading methodology. The course focuses on…

  10. The Reading Book.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barrs, Myra, Ed.; Thomas, Anne, Ed.

    Noting the persistent tendency to polarize questions of reading instruction into diametrically opposed or simplified positions, this book (developed in the United Kingdom) is a teacher's guide to learning to read. The first part of the book surveys what is known about reading, in chapters corresponding to the four major partners in the reading…

  11. Reading difficulties in Albanian.

    PubMed

    Avdyli, Rrezarta; Cuetos, Fernando

    2012-10-01

    Albanian is an Indo-European language with a shallow orthography, in which there is an absolute correspondence between graphemes and phonemes. We aimed to know reading strategies used by Albanian disabled children during word and pseudoword reading. A pool of 114 Kosovar reading disabled children matched with 150 normal readers aged 6 to 11 years old were tested. They had to read 120 stimuli varied in lexicality, frequency, and length. The results in terms of reading accuracy as well as in reading times show that both groups were affected by lexicality and length effects. In both groups, length and lexicality effects were significantly modulated by school year being greater in early grades and later diminish in length and just the opposite in lexicality. However, the reading difficulties group was less accurate and slower than the control group across all school grades. Analyses of the error patterns showed that phonological errors, when the letter replacement leading to new nonwords, are the most common error type in both groups, although as grade rises, visual errors and lexicalizations increased more in the control group than the reading difficulties group. These findings suggest that Albanian normal children use both routes (lexical and sublexical) from the beginning of reading despite of the complete regularity of Albanian, while children with reading difficulties start using sublexical reading and the lexical reading takes more time to acquire, but finally both routes are functional. PMID:22739980

  12. Reading Difficulties in Albanian

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Avdyli, Rrezarta; Cuetos, Fernando

    2012-01-01

    Albanian is an Indo-European language with a shallow orthography, in which there is an absolute correspondence between graphemes and phonemes. We aimed to know reading strategies used by Albanian disabled children during word and pseudoword reading. A pool of 114 Kosovar reading disabled children matched with 150 normal readers aged 6 to 11 years…

  13. Current Issues in Reading.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    French, Michael P., Ed.

    1985-01-01

    Articles in this journal issue focus on reading acquisition and instruction. The titles and authors are as follows: (1) "10 Good Ways to Involve Parents in the Reading Program," by Nickolas Criscuolo; (2) "A Parent Guide for Helping the Child with A Reading Disability," by Frederick Duffelmeyer and Dale Baum; (3) "Promoting a Good Attitude toward…

  14. Reading to Learn

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Herman, Phillip; Wardrip, Peter

    2012-01-01

    Science teachers expect high school students to know how to read, understand, and learn from texts at the core of the curriculum. But though students learn to read in grade school, many do not know how to "read to learn" science. And science teachers are often too busy teaching science to actively help students increase their science reading…

  15. Psycholinguistics and Reading.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Frank, (Ed.)

    Psycholinguistics has offered many new insights into the development of reading, e.g., only a small part of the information necessary for reading comprehension comes from the printed page, comprehension must precede the identification of individual words, and reading is not decoding to spoken language. These views are elaborated in this collection…

  16. Creative Reading: Other Voices.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Padgett, Ron

    1990-01-01

    Discusses subvocalization and other ways in which people read silently. Comments on authorial voice and offers ways to experiment with creative reading aloud. Notes how the proliferation of advertising, the media "explosion," and the influence of modernism in literature has changed the fundamental sense of what reading is and how to do it. (MG)

  17. Literature without Reading.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Knighten, Katherine W.

    During one term at a laboratory school, reading was systematically deleted from activites in one secondary level class and replaced with film, lecture, oral reading, slides, and other audiovisual aids. The Nelson-Denny Reading Test served as pretest-posttest for the twelve-week experiment, with 19 of 25 students completing both tests. The results…

  18. Issues in Reading Instruction.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ediger, Marlow

    Presently, reading is much discussed by senators, representatives, and state legislatures--the debate is on the following issues in reading instruction: (1) having all students in public school achieve at grade level as a reading minimum; (2) accountability of teachers for student achievement; (3) teachers having high achievement expectations from…

  19. Method specificity of non-invasive blood pressure measurement: oscillometry and finger pulse pressure vs acoustic methods.

    PubMed

    De Mey, C; Schroeter, V; Butzer, R; Roll, S; Belz, G G

    1995-10-01

    1. The agreement of blood pressure measurements by stethoscope auscultation (SBPa, DBPa-IV and DBPa-V), oscillometry (Dinamap; SBPo, and DBPo) and digital photoplethysmography (Finapres; SBPf, and DBPf) with the graphical analysis of the analogue microphone signals of vascular wall motion sound (SBPg and DBPg) was evaluated in eight healthy subjects in the presence of responses to the intravenous infusion of 1 microgram min-1 isoprenaline. 2. In general, there was good agreement between the SBP/DBP-measurements based on auscultatory Korotkoff-I- and IV-criteria and the reference method; the average method difference in estimating the isoprenaline responses for SBPa-SBPg was: -1.1, 95% CI: -5.4 to 3.1 mm Hg with a within-subject between-method repeatability coefficient (REP) of 11.6 mm Hg and for DBPa-IV-DBPg: 3.5, 95% CI: -0.5 to 6.5 mm Hg, REP: 11.5 mm Hg. The ausculatation of Korotkoff-V substantially overestimated the isoprenaline induced reduction of DBP: method difference DBPa-V-DBPg: -11.3, 95% CI: -17.8 to -4.7 mm Hg, REP: 31.8 mm Hg. 3. Oscillometry yielded good approximations for the SBP response to isoprenaline (average method difference SBPo-SBPg: -2.9, 95% CI: -9.0 to 3.3 mm Hg, REP: 17.6 mm Hg) but was poorly sensitive with regard to the DBP responses: method difference DBPo-DBPg: 6.5, 95% CI: -1.3 to 14.3 mm Hg, REP: 25.7 mm Hg. 4. Whilst the finger pulse pressure agreed well with regard to DBP (method difference for the DBP responses to isoprenaline: DBPf-DBPg: 1.8, 95% CI: -5.1 to 8.6 mm Hg, REP: 18.5 mm Hg) it was rather unsatisfactory with regard to SBP (method difference SBPf-SBPg: -14.1, 95% CI: -28.2 to -0.1 mm Hg, REP: 49.9 mm Hg).(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:8554929

  20. Standardized Reading Tests and the Postsecondary Reading Curriculum.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wood, Nancy V.

    To help college reading teachers develop an awareness of what standardized reading tests do and do not reveal about students' reading abilities, a study examined the testing of reading and criticized four major standardized tests. Results indicated that reading is tested through (1) reading passages accompanied by multiple choice questions, (2)…

  1. How to Read Drug Labels

    MedlinePlus

    ... and alternative medicine Healthy Aging How to read drug labels Printer-friendly version How to Read Drug ... read drug labels How to read a prescription drug label View a text version of this picture. ...

  2. Sibling composition during childhood and adult blood pressure among native Amazonians in Bolivia.

    PubMed

    Zeng, Wu; Undurraga, Eduardo A; Nyberg, Colleen; Eisenberg, Dan T A; Parida, Sabita; Zycherman, Ariela; Magvanjav, Oyunbileg; Reyes-García, Victoria; Tanner, Susan; Godoy, Ricardo

    2013-07-01

    Sibling configuration, including birth order, or the number, age, and sex of siblings is associated with parental resource allocation between children and is thus associated with a person's well-being. Little is known about the association between specific types of siblings and adult health outcomes. Here we test several hypotheses about sibling composition (number of older brothers, older sisters, younger sisters, younger brothers) and adult blood pressure in a foraging-farming society of native Amazonians in Bolivia (Tsimane'). We collected data in 2007 from 374 adults (16-60years of age) from 196 households in 13 villages. Household random-effects multiple regressions were run using systolic (SBP) or diastolic blood pressure (DBP) as outcomes; covariates included the four sibling categories and control variables (e.g., sex, age, education, body mass index [BMI]). Mean SBP and DBP were 114 (SD=14) and 66 (SD=11)mmHg. The prevalence of hypertension was 5.08%. Having an additional younger brother bore a small (3.3-5.9%) positive association with both SBP and DBP, with the effect weakening as people aged. Having an additional younger sister was associated with a small (3.8%) increase in SBP among women, with the magnitude shrinking as people aged. In a large family, the number of younger brothers may exert an impact on an individual's blood pressure. PMID:23021349

  3. Blood pressure and heart rate effects, weight loss and maintenance during long-term phentermine pharmacotherapy for obesity.

    PubMed

    Hendricks, Ed J; Greenway, Frank L; Westman, Eric C; Gupta, Alok K

    2011-12-01

    There is a perception that phentermine pharmacotherapy for obesity increases blood pressure and heart rate (HR), exposing treated patients to increased cardiovascular risk. We collected data from phentermine-treated (PT) and phentermine-untreated (P0) patients at a private weight management practice, to examine blood pressure, HR, and weight changes. Records of 300 sequential returning patients were selected who had been treated with a low-carbohydrate ketogenic diet if their records included complete weight, blood pressure, and HR data from seven office examinations during the first 12 weeks of therapy. The mean time in therapy, time range, and mode was 92 (97.0), 12-624, and 52 weeks. 14% were normotensive, 52% were prehypertensive, and 34% were hypertensive at their first visit or had a previous diagnosis of hypertension. PT subjects systolic blood pressure/diastolic blood pressure (SBP/DBP) declined from baseline at all data points (SBP/DBP -6.9/-5.0 mm Hg at 26, and -7.3/-5.4 at 52 weeks). P0 subjects' declines of SBP/DBP at both 26 and 52 weeks were -8.9/-6.3 but the difference from the treated cohort was not significant. HR changes in treated/untreated subjects at weeks 26 (-0.9/-3.5) and 52 (+1.2/-3.6) were not significant. Weight loss was significantly greater in the PT cohort for week 1 through 104 (P = 0.0144). These data suggest phentermine treatment for obesity does not result in increased SBP, DBP, or HR, and that weight loss assisted with phentermine treatment is associated with favorable shifts in categorical blood pressure and retardation of progression to hypertension in obese patients. PMID:21527891

  4. Correlation of arterial blood pressure and compliance with left ventricular structure and function in the very elderly.

    PubMed

    Rosendorff, Clive; Go, Orson; Schmeidler, James; Silverman, Jeremy M; Beeri, Michal S

    2012-01-01

    There are very few data on the relationship between systolic blood pressure (SBP), diastolic blood pressure (DBP), arterial compliance, and left ventricular structure and function, particularly left ventricular hypertrophy (LVH), in the very elderly (>75 years). SBP and arterial stiffness increase with age, and the question is: which of the two is the main stimulus to LVH? This is a cross-sectional study to compare blood pressure and arterial stiffness measures with regard to their correlations with echocardiographic parameters of LV structure and function, controlling for age and cardiovascular risk factors, in a very elderly population. Arterial stiffness was determined by radial pulse waveform using pulse contour analysis. LV dimensions were measured by transthoracic M-mode echocardiography, and diastolic function by tissue Doppler measurements of diastolic mitral annular velocities. There were 179 subjects, all male, with a mean age of 81.8 years. Using age-adjusted partial correlations, SBP, DBP, and mean arterial pressure (MAP) were correlated with parameters of LV structure and function. Correlation coefficients were: SBP versus left ventricular mass index (LVMI), r = 0.246; SBP versus early diastolic mitral annular velocity (MAV), r = -0.179; DBP versus LVMI, r = 0.199; DBP versus MAV, r = -0.199; MAP versus LVMI, r = 0.276; and MAP versus MAV, r = -0.206, all with P < .05. However, neither capacitative nor reflective arterial compliance was significantly correlated with any parameter of LV structure and function. After controlling for age and 10 cardiovascular and metabolic risk factors, the correlation between blood pressure and the measured LV parameters was substantially unchanged, as was the lack of correlation between indices of arterial compliance and the LV indices. Arterial blood pressure is correlated with LV structure and function in the very elderly, but arterial stiffness, as measured by diastolic pulse contour analysis, is not. PMID:22243840

  5. Genetic variants in adiponectin and blood pressure responses to dietary sodium or potassium interventions: a family-based association study.

    PubMed

    Chu, C; Wang, Y; Ren, K-Y; Yan, D-Y; Guo, T-S; Zheng, W-L; Yuan, Z-Y; Mu, J-J

    2016-09-01

    Previous studies have shown that genetic factors might have an important role in blood pressure (BP) responses to dietary salt or potassium intake. The aim of this study was to assess the association of common genetic variants of the adiponectin gene with BP responses to controlled dietary sodium or potassium interventions. Subjects (n=334) from 124 families in rural areas of Northern China were recruited. After a 3-day baseline observation, participants sequentially maintained a 7-day low-sodium diet (NaCl, 3 g per day; or sodium, 51.3 mmol per day), followed by a 7-day high-sodium diet (NaCl, 18 g per day; or sodium, 307.8 mmol per day) and a 7-day high-sodium plus potassium supplementation intervention (KCl, 4.5 g per day; or potassium, 60 mmol per day). A total of seven single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in the adiponectin gene were selected as the study sites. After adjustment for multiple testing, the adiponectin SNP rs16861205 was significantly associated with the diastolic BP (DBP) response to low-salt intervention, and the DBP and mean arterial pressure (MAP) responses to high-salt intervention (P=0.028, 0.023 and 0.027, respectively). SNP rs822394 was associated with the DBP and MAP responses to low-salt intervention and the DBP response to high-salt intervention (P=0.023, 0.030 and 0.033 respectively). Meanwhile, significant association also existed between SNP rs16861194 and the systolic BP response to potassium supplementation intervention (P=0.026). In addition, SNP rs822394 was significantly associated with basal DBP after adjustment for multiple testing (P=0.033). Our study indicated that the genetic polymorphisms in the adiponectin gene are significantly associated with BP responses to dietary sodium and potassium intake. PMID:27011258

  6. Genetic variants in adiponectin and blood pressure responses to dietary sodium or potassium interventions: a family-based association study

    PubMed Central

    Chu, C; Wang, Y; Ren, K-y; Yan, D-y; Guo, T-s; Zheng, W-l; Yuan, Z-y; Mu, J-j

    2016-01-01

    Previous studies have shown that genetic factors might have an important role in blood pressure (BP) responses to dietary salt or potassium intake. The aim of this study was to assess the association of common genetic variants of the adiponectin gene with BP responses to controlled dietary sodium or potassium interventions. Subjects (n=334) from 124 families in rural areas of Northern China were recruited. After a 3-day baseline observation, participants sequentially maintained a 7-day low-sodium diet (NaCl, 3 g per day; or sodium, 51.3 mmol per day), followed by a 7-day high-sodium diet (NaCl, 18 g per day; or sodium, 307.8 mmol per day) and a 7-day high-sodium plus potassium supplementation intervention (KCl, 4.5 g per day; or potassium, 60 mmol per day). A total of seven single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in the adiponectin gene were selected as the study sites. After adjustment for multiple testing, the adiponectin SNP rs16861205 was significantly associated with the diastolic BP (DBP) response to low-salt intervention, and the DBP and mean arterial pressure (MAP) responses to high-salt intervention (P=0.028, 0.023 and 0.027, respectively). SNP rs822394 was associated with the DBP and MAP responses to low-salt intervention and the DBP response to high-salt intervention (P=0.023, 0.030 and 0.033 respectively). Meanwhile, significant association also existed between SNP rs16861194 and the systolic BP response to potassium supplementation intervention (P=0.026). In addition, SNP rs822394 was significantly associated with basal DBP after adjustment for multiple testing (P=0.033). Our study indicated that the genetic polymorphisms in the adiponectin gene are significantly associated with BP responses to dietary sodium and potassium intake. PMID:27011258

  7. Effect of garlic on blood pressure: A systematic review and meta-analysis

    PubMed Central

    Ried, Karin; Frank, Oliver R; Stocks, Nigel P; Fakler, Peter; Sullivan, Thomas

    2008-01-01

    Background Non-pharmacological treatment options for hypertension have the potential to reduce the risk of cardiovascular disease at a population level. Animal studies have suggested that garlic reduces blood pressure, but primary studies in humans and non-systematic reviews have reported mixed results. With interest in complementary medicine for hypertension increasing, it is timely to update a systematic review and meta-analysis from 1994 of studies investigating the effect of garlic preparations on blood pressure. Methods We searched the Medline and Embase databases for studies published between 1955 and October 2007. Randomised controlled trials with true placebo groups, using garlic-only preparations, and reporting mean systolic and/or diastolic blood pressure (SBP/DBP) and standard deviations were included in the meta-analysis. We also conducted subgroup meta-analysis by baseline blood pressure (hypertensive/normotensive), for the first time. Meta-regression analysis was performed to test the associations between blood pressure outcomes and duration of treatment, dosage, and blood pressure at start of treatment. Results Eleven of 25 studies included in the systematic review were suitable for meta-analysis. Meta-analysis of all studies showed a mean decrease of 4.6 ± 2.8 mm Hg for SBP in the garlic group compared to placebo (n = 10; p = 0.001), while the mean decrease in the hypertensive subgroup was 8.4 ± 2.8 mm Hg for SBP (n = 4; p < 0.001), and 7.3 ± 1.5 mm Hg for DBP (n = 3; p < 0.001). Regression analysis revealed a significant association between blood pressure at the start of the intervention and the level of blood pressure reduction (SBP: R = 0.057; p = 0.03; DBP: R = -0.315; p = 0.02). Conclusion Our meta-analysis suggests that garlic preparations are superior to placebo in reducing blood pressure in individuals with hypertension. PMID:18554422

  8. A Machine that Reads (Reading Technology).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rickelman, Robert J.; Henk, William A.

    1990-01-01

    Discusses the Xerox/Kurzweil Personal Reader which is an advanced optical scanner that reads a greater range of typeset or typewritten text than its predecessors, and converts it into highly naturalistic speech. (MG)

  9. Association of Inter-arm Blood Pressure Difference with Asymptomatic Intracranial and Extracranial Arterial Stenosis in Hypertension Patients.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yan; Zhang, Jin; Qian, Yuesheng; Tang, Xiaofeng; Ling, Huawei; Chen, Kemin; Li, Yan; Gao, Pingjin; Zhu, Dingliang

    2016-01-01

    Inter-arm blood pressure (BP) difference has been associated with ischemic stroke. Local atherosclerosis of stroke differ among vulnerable individuals, whereas intracranial arterial stenosis (ICAS) is more frequently affected Asians, and extracranial arterial stenosis (ECAS) is more prevalent among whites. We hereby sought to explore the association of inter-arm BP difference with ICAS and ECAS in stroke-free hypertensive patients in Chinese population. All the 885 subjects were evaluated of ICAS and ECAS through computerized tomographic angiography. Both arm BP was measured simultaneously by Vascular Profiler-1000 device. In the continuous study, ICAS was significantly associated with age, male, average brachial SBP, diabetes, anti-hypertensive treatment and inter-arm DBP difference. ECAS was associated with age, inter-arm SBP and LDL. In the categorical study, subjects with the top quartile of inter-arm DBP difference (≥4 mmHg) showed significantly higher risk of ICAS (OR = 2.109; 95% CI, 1.24-3.587). And the participants with the top quartile of inter-arm SBP difference (≥6 mmHg) showed significantly higher risk of ECAS (OR = 2.288; 95% CI, 1.309-3.998). In conclusion, we reported a diverse association of inter-arm SBP/DBP difference with the ICAS/ECAS. Inter-arm DBP difference might be the early symbol of ICAS in Chinese population, which need further verification in long-term cohort study. PMID:27412818

  10. Association between pre hemodialysis serum sodium concentration and blood pressure: results from a retrospective analysis from the international monitoring dialysis outcomes (MONDO) initiative.

    PubMed

    Raimann, J G; Canaud, B; Etter, M; Kooman, J P; Levin, N W; Marcelli, D; Marelli, C; Power, A; Duncan, N; van der Sande, F M; Carioni, P; Thijssen, S; Xu, X; Usvyat, L A; Wang, Y; Kotanko, P

    2016-07-01

    A recent study from the United Kingdom indicates an association between pre hemodialysis (HD) serum sodium (SNa(+)) and systolic and diastolic blood pressure (SBP and DBP) in chronic HD patients. We extend this analysis to an international cohort of incident HD patients. The Monitoring Dialysis Outcomes initiative encompasses patients from 41 countries. Over 2 years monthly pre-HD SNa(+) levels were used as predictors of pre-HD SBP and DBP in a linear mixed model (LMM) adjusted for age, gender, interdialytic weight gain, diabetes, serum albumin and calcium. Similar models were constructed with DBP as outcome. Analyses were carried out stratified by continent (North and South America; Europe and Asia). LMMs were also constructed for the entire observation period of 2 years, and separately the first and the second year after HD initiation. We studied 17 050 incident patients and found SNa(+) to have a significant slope estimate in the LMM predicting pre-HD SBP and DBP (ranging from 0.22 to 0.29 and 0.10 to 0.21 mm Hg per mEq l(-1), respectively, between the continents). The findings were similar in subsets of SBP and SNa(+) tertiles, and separately analyzed for the first and second year. Our analysis shows an independent association between SNa, SBP and DBP in a large intercontinental database, indicating that this relation is a profound biological phenomenon in incident and prevalent HD patients, generalizable to an international level and independent of SBP and DBP magnitude. PMID:26223346

  11. Teachers Sourcebook for Extensive Reading

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jacobs, George; Farrell, Thomas S. C.

    2012-01-01

    The best way for students to learn to read and to come to love reading is--surprise, surprise--by reading in quantity. Unfortunately, many of today's students read far too little. This lack of time spent reading is particularly unfortunate, as reading constitutes a bedrock skill, essential in all subject areas. Thus, we teachers need to devote…

  12. Significant improvement of the recombinant Borrelia-specific immunoglobulin G immunoblot test by addition of VlsE and a DbpA homologue derived from Borrelia garinii for diagnosis of early neuroborreliosis.

    PubMed

    Schulte-Spechtel, Ulrike; Lehnert, Gisela; Liegl, Gaby; Fingerle, Volker; Heimerl, Christiane; Johnson, Barbara J B; Wilske, Bettina

    2003-03-01

    We investigated whether the recombinant Borrelia Western blot test previously described (B. Wilske, C. Habermann, V. Fingerle, B. Hillenbrand, S. Jauris-Heipke, G. Lehnert, I. Pradel, D. Rössler, and U. Schulte-Spechtel, Med. Microbiol. Immunol. 188:139-144, 1999) can be improved by the addition of VlsE and additional DbpA and OspC homologues. By using a panel of sera from 36 neuroborreliosis patients and 67 control patients, the diagnostic sensitivity of the recombinant immunoblot test was significantly increased (86.1% versus 52.7%) without loss of specificity and was higher (86.1% versus 63.8%) than that of the conventional whole-cell lysate immunoblot test (U. Hauser, G. Lehnert, R. Lobentanzer, and B. Wilske, J. Clin. Microbiol. 35:1433-1444, 1997). Improvement was mainly due to the presence of VlsE and DbpA. PMID:12624072

  13. Reading Skill Development: A Survey of Need and Responsibility

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Polkinghorne, Frederick W.; Hagler, Barbara; Anderson, Marcia

    2010-01-01

    Background: According to research, adolescent reading skills tend to be poor, and increased pressure from Federal legislation has been placed on educators to improve these skills. Research lacks on business teacher educators' preparation to provide reading skill instruction. Purpose: The research purpose was to better understand the perceptions of…

  14. How Physical Education Teachers Can Help Encourage Students to Read

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Richardson, Maurine; Richardson, James; Sacks, Mary Kathleen

    2012-01-01

    The pressure to ensure that all children learn to read and become lifelong readers has never been as strong at it is now. For this to become a reality for all students, including those that are not motivated to read, teachers must use any and all appropriate strategies. With this in mind, literacy teachers should enlist assistance from other…

  15. A study of the association between atmospheric particulate matter and blood pressure in the population.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Huawei; Qian, Jin; Zhao, Haiping; Wang, Jinda; Zhu, Hang; Zhou, Ying; Wang, Juan; Guo, Jin; Gehendra, Mahara; Qiu, Hongyan; Sun, Zhijun; He, Dian

    2016-06-01

    This systematic review and meta-analysis was conducted to assess the association between the level of atmospheric particulate matter (PM) and the increase in blood pressure (BP) for different exposure terms (≤ 7 vs > 7 days) and age groups (< 65 vs ≥ 65 years). Some databases were searched to investigate the association between increased atmospheric PM (diameter < 2.5 mm [PM2.5] or < 10 mm [PM10]) and BP (systolic blood pressure [SBP] and diastolic blood pressure [DBP]). Among a total of 719 identified articles, 68 were reviewed in depth, of which only 20 satisfied the inclusion criteria. A significant association was found between PM10 levels and higher BP. The β values were 0.270mmHg (95% confidence interval [CI] 0.068-0.482) for SBP and 0.215mmHg (95% CI 0.058-0.372) for DBP. These β values mean that, for every 10 mg/m(3) increase in PM10, SBP increased by 0.270mmHg and DBP by 0.215 mmHg. Subgroup analyses were conducted for different exposure terms and age groups. A positive association was seen between PM2.5 and SBP. The β value of SBP was 0.495mmHg (95% CI 0.03-0.96) with every 10 mg/m(3) increase in PM2.5. There were no significant associations in both age groups and non-older groups. There was no significant association between PM2.5 and DBP, either in the overall effect or in the subgroup effects. In conclusion, significant associations were found between higher BP and higher PM10 levels, but the association between BP and levels of PM2.5 levels was unclear. PMID:26634767

  16. Effective exciton blocking by the hole-transporting material 5,10,15-tribenzyl-5H-diindolo[3,2-a:3‧,2‧-c]-carbazole (TBDI) in the tetraphenyldibenzoperiflanthene (DBP) based organic photovoltaic cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Jing; Yang, Fang; Zheng, Yanqiong; Wei, Bin; Zhang, Xiaowen; Zhang, Jianhua; Wang, Zixing; Pu, Wenhong; Yang, Changzhu

    2015-12-01

    To explore the novel application of the hole-transporting material (HTM) as exciton blocking layer (EBL) in small molecule organic photovoltaic (OPV) cells, we introduce a recently reported HTM, 5,10,15-tribenzyl-5H-diindolo[3,2-a:3‧,2‧-c]-carbazole (TBDI), and the other two traditional HTMs, N,N‧-diphenyl-N,N‧-bis(1-naphthyl)-1,1‧-biphenyl-4,4‧-diamine (NPB) and 1,1‧-bis(di-4-tolylaminophenyl) cyclohexane (TAPC), to serve as EBLs in the tetraphenyldibenzoperiflanthene (DBP) based planar heterojunction cells. Due to the large band gap of these materials, the EBLs successfully block the misdirected electrons. The optimized devices including the EBLs of TBDI, NPB and TAPC achieve power conversion efficiency (ηPCE) of 1.70%, 1.33%, and 1.33%, respectively, whereas the control device without any EBL shows a ηPCE of only 1.25%. The optical simulation indicates that the maximum optical electric fields for the PHJs including 10-nm EBLs at the wavelength of 610 nm are significantly enhanced relative to that for the 20-nm DBP based control device. By impedance spectroscopy measurement, the device with TBDI EBL shows lower series resistance and total resistance than the device without TBDI, suggesting fast internal carrier mobility and smaller carrier recombination. The novel HTM TBDI better contributes to the device performance relative to the other two HTMs, stemming from its shallower lowest unoccupied molecule orbits (LUMO) level, stronger prevention of exciton quenching, and a smoother TBDI/DBP surface. These results suggest that TBDI is an excellent candidate as EBL for the DBP based OPVs. The overall ηPCE is further enhanced via optimizing the cathode buffer.

  17. Identification of Normal Blood Pressure in Different Age Group

    PubMed Central

    Lin, Jiunn-Diann; Chen, Yen-Lin; Wu, Chung-Ze; Hsieh, Chang-Hsun; Pei, Dee; Liang, Yao-Jen; Chang, Jin-Biou

    2016-01-01

    Abstract The concept of using single criterion of normal blood pressure with systolic blood pressure (SBP) < 140 mmHg and diastolic blood pressure (DBP) < 90 mmHg for all ages is still disputable. The aim of the study is to identify the cutoff value of normotension in different age and sex groups. Totally, 127,922 (63,724 men and 64,198 women) were enrolled for the analysis. Finally, four fifths of them were randomly selected as the study group and the other one fifths as the validation group. Due the tight relationship with comorbidities from cardiovascular disease (CVD), metabolic syndrome (MetS) was used as a surrogate to replace the actual cardiovascular outcomes in the younger subjects. For SBP, MetS predicted by our equation had a sensitivity of 55% and specificity of 67% in males and 65%, 83% in females, respectively. At the same time, they are 61%, 73% in males and 73%, 86% in females for DBP, respectively. These sensitivity, specificity, odds ratio, and area under the receiver operating characteristic curve from our equations are all better than those derived from the criteria of 140/90 or 130/85 mmHg in both genders. By using the presence of MetS as the surrogate of CVD, the regression equations between SBP, DBP, and age were built in both genders. These new criteria are proved to have better sensitivity and specificity for MetS than either 140/90 or 130/85 mmHg. These simple equations should be used in clinical settings for early prevention of CVD. PMID:27057846

  18. Exploring the Relationship between Adolescent's Reading Skills, Reading Motivation and Reading Habits

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McGeown, Sarah P.; Duncan, Lynne G.; Griffiths, Yvonne M.; Stothard, Sue E.

    2015-01-01

    The present study examines the extent to which adolescents' reading affect (reading motivation) and behaviour (reading habits) predict different components of reading (word reading, comprehension, summarisation and text reading speed) and also adds to the limited research examining group differences (gender, age, ability) in adolescents' reading…

  19. Association of genetic variation with systolic and diastolic blood pressure among African Americans: the Candidate Gene Association Resource study

    PubMed Central

    Fox, Ervin R.; Young, J. Hunter; Li, Yali; Dreisbach, Albert W.; Keating, Brendan J.; Musani, Solomon K.; Liu, Kiang; Morrison, Alanna C.; Ganesh, Santhi; Kutlar, Abdullah; Ramachandran, Vasan S.; Polak, Josef F.; Fabsitz, Richard R.; Dries, Daniel L.; Farlow, Deborah N.; Redline, Susan; Adeyemo, Adebowale; Hirschorn, Joel N.; Sun, Yan V.; Wyatt, Sharon B.; Penman, Alan D.; Palmas, Walter; Rotter, Jerome I.; Townsend, Raymond R.; Doumatey, Ayo P.; Tayo, Bamidele O.; Mosley, Thomas H.; Lyon, Helen N.; Kang, Sun J.; Rotimi, Charles N.; Cooper, Richard S.; Franceschini, Nora; Curb, J. David; Martin, Lisa W.; Eaton, Charles B.; Kardia, Sharon L.R.; Taylor, Herman A.; Caulfield, Mark J.; Ehret, Georg B.; Johnson, Toby; Chakravarti, Aravinda; Zhu, Xiaofeng; Levy, Daniel; Munroe, Patricia B.; Rice, Kenneth M.; Bochud, Murielle; Johnson, Andrew D.; Chasman, Daniel I.; Smith, Albert V.; Tobin, Martin D.; Verwoert, Germaine C.; Hwang, Shih-Jen; Pihur, Vasyl; Vollenweider, Peter; O'Reilly, Paul F.; Amin, Najaf; Bragg-Gresham, Jennifer L.; Teumer, Alexander; Glazer, Nicole L.; Launer, Lenore; Zhao, Jing Hua; Aulchenko, Yurii; Heath, Simon; Sõber, Siim; Parsa, Afshin; Luan, Jian'an; Arora, Pankaj; Dehghan, Abbas; Zhang, Feng; Lucas, Gavin; Hicks, Andrew A.; Jackson, Anne U.; Peden, John F.; Tanaka, Toshiko; Wild, Sarah H.; Rudan, Igor; Igl, Wilmar; Milaneschi, Yuri; Parker, Alex N.; Fava, Cristiano; Chambers, John C.; Kumari, Meena; JinGo, Min; van der Harst, Pim; Kao, Wen Hong Linda; Sjögren, Marketa; Vinay, D.G.; Alexander, Myriam; Tabara, Yasuharu; Shaw-Hawkins, Sue; Whincup, Peter H.; Liu, Yongmei; Shi, Gang; Kuusisto, Johanna; Seielstad, Mark; Sim, Xueling; Nguyen, Khanh-Dung Hoang; Lehtimäki, Terho; Matullo, Giuseppe; Wu, Ying; Gaunt, Tom R.; Charlotte Onland-Moret, N.; Cooper, Matthew N.; Platou, Carl G.P.; Org, Elin; Hardy, Rebecca; Dahgam, Santosh; Palmen, Jutta; Vitart, Veronique; Braund, Peter S.; Kuznetsova, Tatiana; Uiterwaal, Cuno S.P.M.; Campbell, Harry; Ludwig, Barbara; Tomaszewski, Maciej; Tzoulaki, Ioanna; Palmer, Nicholette D.; Aspelund, Thor; Garcia, Melissa; Chang, Yen-Pei C.; O'Connell, Jeffrey R.; Steinle, Nanette I.; Grobbee, Diederick E.; Arking, Dan E.; Hernandez, Dena; Najjar, Samer; McArdle, Wendy L.; Hadley, David; Brown, Morris J.; Connell, John M.; Hingorani, Aroon D.; Day, Ian N.M.; Lawlor, Debbie A.; Beilby, John P.; Lawrence, Robert W.; Clarke, Robert; Collins, Rory; Hopewell, Jemma C.; Ongen, Halit; Bis, Joshua C.; Kähönen, Mika; Viikari, Jorma; Adair, Linda S.; Lee, Nanette R.; Chen, Ming-Huei; Olden, Matthias; Pattaro, Cristian; Hoffman Bolton, Judith A.; Köttgen, Anna; Bergmann, Sven; Mooser, Vincent; Chaturvedi, Nish; Frayling, Timothy M.; Islam, Muhammad; Jafar, Tazeen H.; Erdmann, Jeanette; Kulkarni, Smita R.; Bornstein, Stefan R.; Grässler, Jürgen; Groop, Leif; Voight, Benjamin F.; Kettunen, Johannes; Howard, Philip; Taylor, Andrew; Guarrera, Simonetta; Ricceri, Fulvio; Emilsson, Valur; Plump, Andrew; Barroso, Inês; Khaw, Kay-Tee; Weder, Alan B.; Hunt, Steven C.; Bergman, Richard N.; Collins, Francis S.; Bonnycastle, Lori L.; Scott, Laura J.; Stringham, Heather M.; Peltonen, Leena; Perola, Markus; Vartiainen, Erkki; Brand, Stefan-Martin; Staessen, Jan A.; Wang, Thomas J.; Burton, Paul R.; SolerArtigas, Maria; Dong, Yanbin; Snieder, Harold; Wang, Xiaoling; Zhu, Haidong; Lohman, Kurt K.; Rudock, Megan E.; Heckbert, Susan R.; Smith, Nicholas L.; Wiggins, Kerri L.; Shriner, Daniel; Veldre, Gudrun; Viigimaa, Margus; Kinra, Sanjay; Prabhakaran, Dorairajan; Tripathy, Vikal; Langefeld, Carl D.; Rosengren, Annika; Thelle, Dag S.; MariaCorsi, Anna; Singleton, Andrew; Forrester, Terrence; Hilton, Gina; McKenzie, Colin A.; Salako, Tunde; Iwai, Naoharu; Kita, Yoshikuni; Ogihara, Toshio; Ohkubo, Takayoshi; Okamura, Tomonori; Ueshima, Hirotsugu; Umemura, Satoshi; Eyheramendy, Susana; Meitinger, Thomas; Wichmann, H.-Erich; Cho, Yoon Shin; Kim, Hyung-Lae; Lee, Jong-Young; Scott, James; Sehmi, Joban S.; Zhang, Weihua; Hedblad, Bo; Nilsson, Peter; Smith, George Davey; Wong, Andrew; Narisu, Narisu; Stančáková, Alena; Raffel, Leslie J.; Yao, Jie; Kathiresan, Sekar; O'Donnell, Chris; Schwartz, Steven M.; Arfan Ikram, M.; Longstreth, Will T.; Seshadri, Sudha; Shrine, Nick R.G.; Wain, Louise V.; Morken, Mario A.; Swift, Amy J.; Laitinen, Jaana; Prokopenko, Inga; Zitting, Paavo; Cooper, Jackie A.; Humphries, Steve E.; Danesh, John; Rasheed, Asif; Goel, Anuj; Hamsten, Anders; Watkins, Hugh; Bakker, Stephan J.L.; van Gilst, Wiek H.; Janipalli, Charles S.; Radha Mani, K.; Yajnik, Chittaranjan S.; Hofman, Albert; Mattace-Raso, Francesco U.S.; Oostra, Ben A.; Demirkan, Ayse; Isaacs, Aaron; Rivadeneira, Fernando; Lakatta, Edward G.; Orru, Marco; Scuteri, Angelo; Ala-Korpela, Mika; Kangas, Antti J.; Lyytikäinen, Leo-Pekka; Soininen, Pasi; Tukiainen, Taru; Würz, Peter; Twee-Hee Ong, Rick; Dörr, Marcus; Kroemer, Heyo K.; Völker, Uwe; Völzke, Henry; Galan, Pilar; Hercberg, Serge; Lathrop, Mark; Zelenika, Diana; Deloukas, Panos; Mangino, Massimo; Spector, Tim D.; Zhai, Guangju; Meschia, James F.; Nalls, Michael A.; Sharma, Pankaj; Terzic, Janos; Kranthi Kumar, M.J.; Denniff, Matthew; Zukowska-Szczechowska, Ewa; Wagenknecht, Lynne E.; Fowkes, Gerald R.; Charchar, Fadi J.; Schwarz, Peter E.H.; Hayward, Caroline; Guo, Xiuqing; Bots, Michiel L.; Brand, Eva; Samani, Nilesh J.; Polasek, Ozren; Talmud, Philippa J.; Nyberg, Fredrik; Kuh, Diana; Laan, Maris; Hveem, Kristian; Palmer, Lyle J.; van der Schouw, Yvonne T.; Casas, Juan P.; Mohlke, Karen L.; Vineis, Paolo; Raitakari, Olli; Wong, Tien Y.; Shyong Tai, E.; Laakso, Markku; Rao, Dabeeru C.; Harris, Tamara B.; Morris, Richard W.; Dominiczak, Anna F.; Kivimaki, Mika; Marmot, Michael G.; Miki, Tetsuro; Saleheen, Danish; Chandak, Giriraj R.; Coresh, Josef; Navis, Gerjan; Salomaa, Veikko; Han, Bok-Ghee; Kooner, Jaspal S.; Melander, Olle; Ridker, Paul M.; Bandinelli, Stefania; Gyllensten, Ulf B.; Wright, Alan F.; Wilson, James F.; Ferrucci, Luigi; Farrall, Martin; Tuomilehto, Jaakko; Pramstaller, Peter P.; Elosua, Roberto; Soranzo, Nicole; Sijbrands, Eric J.G.; Altshuler, David; Loos, Ruth J.F.; Shuldiner, Alan R.; Gieger, Christian; Meneton, Pierre; Uitterlinden, Andre G.; Wareham, Nicholas J.; Gudnason, Vilmundur; Rettig, Rainer; Uda, Manuela; Strachan, David P.; Witteman, Jacqueline C.M.; Hartikainen, Anna-Liisa; Beckmann, Jacques S.; Boerwinkle, Eric; Boehnke, Michael; Larson, Martin G.; Järvelin, Marjo-Riitta; Psaty, Bruce M.; Abecasis, Gonçalo R.; Elliott, Paul; van Duijn , Cornelia M.; Newton-Cheh, Christopher

    2011-01-01

    The prevalence of hypertension in African Americans (AAs) is higher than in other US groups; yet, few have performed genome-wide association studies (GWASs) in AA. Among people of European descent, GWASs have identified genetic variants at 13 loci that are associated with blood pressure. It is unknown if these variants confer susceptibility in people of African ancestry. Here, we examined genome-wide and candidate gene associations with systolic blood pressure (SBP) and diastolic blood pressure (DBP) using the Candidate Gene Association Resource (CARe) consortium consisting of 8591 AAs. Genotypes included genome-wide single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) data utilizing the Affymetrix 6.0 array with imputation to 2.5 million HapMap SNPs and candidate gene SNP data utilizing a 50K cardiovascular gene-centric array (ITMAT-Broad-CARe [IBC] array). For Affymetrix data, the strongest signal for DBP was rs10474346 (P= 3.6 × 10−8) located near GPR98 and ARRDC3. For SBP, the strongest signal was rs2258119 in C21orf91 (P= 4.7 × 10−8). The top IBC association for SBP was rs2012318 (P= 6.4 × 10−6) near SLC25A42 and for DBP was rs2523586 (P= 1.3 × 10−6) near HLA-B. None of the top variants replicated in additional AA (n = 11 882) or European-American (n = 69 899) cohorts. We replicated previously reported European-American blood pressure SNPs in our AA samples (SH2B3, P= 0.009; TBX3-TBX5, P= 0.03; and CSK-ULK3, P= 0.0004). These genetic loci represent the best evidence of genetic influences on SBP and DBP in AAs to date. More broadly, this work supports that notion that blood pressure among AAs is a trait with genetic underpinnings but also with significant complexity. PMID:21378095

  20. Association of genetic variation with systolic and diastolic blood pressure among African Americans: the Candidate Gene Association Resource study.

    PubMed

    Fox, Ervin R; Young, J Hunter; Li, Yali; Dreisbach, Albert W; Keating, Brendan J; Musani, Solomon K; Liu, Kiang; Morrison, Alanna C; Ganesh, Santhi; Kutlar, Abdullah; Ramachandran, Vasan S; Polak, Josef F; Fabsitz, Richard R; Dries, Daniel L; Farlow, Deborah N; Redline, Susan; Adeyemo, Adebowale; Hirschorn, Joel N; Sun, Yan V; Wyatt, Sharon B; Penman, Alan D; Palmas, Walter; Rotter, Jerome I; Townsend, Raymond R; Doumatey, Ayo P; Tayo, Bamidele O; Mosley, Thomas H; Lyon, Helen N; Kang, Sun J; Rotimi, Charles N; Cooper, Richard S; Franceschini, Nora; Curb, J David; Martin, Lisa W; Eaton, Charles B; Kardia, Sharon L R; Taylor, Herman A; Caulfield, Mark J; Ehret, Georg B; Johnson, Toby; Chakravarti, Aravinda; Zhu, Xiaofeng; Levy, Daniel

    2011-06-01

    The prevalence of hypertension in African Americans (AAs) is higher than in other US groups; yet, few have performed genome-wide association studies (GWASs) in AA. Among people of European descent, GWASs have identified genetic variants at 13 loci that are associated with blood pressure. It is unknown if these variants confer susceptibility in people of African ancestry. Here, we examined genome-wide and candidate gene associations with systolic blood pressure (SBP) and diastolic blood pressure (DBP) using the Candidate Gene Association Resource (CARe) consortium consisting of 8591 AAs. Genotypes included genome-wide single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) data utilizing the Affymetrix 6.0 array with imputation to 2.5 million HapMap SNPs and candidate gene SNP data utilizing a 50K cardiovascular gene-centric array (ITMAT-Broad-CARe [IBC] array). For Affymetrix data, the strongest signal for DBP was rs10474346 (P= 3.6 × 10(-8)) located near GPR98 and ARRDC3. For SBP, the strongest signal was rs2258119 in C21orf91 (P= 4.7 × 10(-8)). The top IBC association for SBP was rs2012318 (P= 6.4 × 10(-6)) near SLC25A42 and for DBP was rs2523586 (P= 1.3 × 10(-6)) near HLA-B. None of the top variants replicated in additional AA (n = 11 882) or European-American (n = 69 899) cohorts. We replicated previously reported European-American blood pressure SNPs in our AA samples (SH2B3, P= 0.009; TBX3-TBX5, P= 0.03; and CSK-ULK3, P= 0.0004). These genetic loci represent the best evidence of genetic influences on SBP and DBP in AAs to date. More broadly, this work supports that notion that blood pressure among AAs is a trait with genetic underpinnings but also with significant complexity. PMID:21378095

  1. Serum testosterone levels and arterial blood pressure in the elderly.

    PubMed

    Fogari, Roberto; Preti, Paola; Zoppi, Annalisa; Fogari, Elena; Rinaldi, Andrea; Corradi, Luca; Mugellini, Amedeo

    2005-08-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the relationship between serum testosterone levels and arterial blood pressure (BP) in the elderly. We studied 356 non-diabetic, non-smoking, non-obese men aged 60 to 80 years and untreated for hypertension. All subjects were evaluated in the morning after an overnight fast. Evaluation included measurements of the following: BP (by mercury sphygmomanometer, Korotkoff I and V), body weight, height and free testosterone (T) plasma levels (by radioimmunoassay). According to the BP values, the subjects were classified as normotensives (NT; n=112; SBP/DBP<140/90 mmHg), systolic and diastolic hypertensives (HT; n=127; SBP/DBP>140/90 mmHg), and isolated systolic hypertensives (ISH; n=117; SBP>140 mmHg and DBP<90 mmHg). T values decreased with increasing age in all 3 groups and was significantly lower in HT (-15%) and ISH men (-21%) than in NT men (p<0.05). In each group, the T levels showed a highly significant negative correlation with BMI (p<0.001). A significant negative correlation was also found between T levels and SBP in NT (r=-0.35, p<0.001), ISH (r=-0.67, p<0.001), and HT (r=-0.19, p<0.05) men, whereas a negative correlation with DBP was observed only in the NT men (r=-0.19, p<0.05). Adjusting for the BMI confirmed a significant difference in plasma T levels between ISH and NT men, but not between HT and NT men. Multiple regression analysis employing BP as a dependent variable confirmed a strong relationship between T levels and SBP in all 3 groups, whereas a significant relationship between T levels and DBP was found only in NT men. In conclusion, although further studies are needed to clarify the relationship between plasma T levels and BP, our findings suggest that in elderly men with ISH, the reduced plasma levels of testosterone might contribute to the increased arterial stiffness typical of these subjects. PMID:16392765

  2. EPIDEMIOLOGICAL WORK ON DBP EXPOSURES

    EPA Science Inventory

    This effort was based on several completed or existing projects where disinfection by-products ( or DBPs) have been the primary exposure of interest. Previous epidemiologic results on reproductive or developmental risks that may be associated with consumption of disinfected drink...

  3. Homozygosity by descent mapping of blood pressure in the Old Order Amish: evidence for sex specific genetic architecture

    PubMed Central

    McArdle, Patrick F; Dytch, Harvey; O'Connell, Jeffery R; Shuldiner, Alan R; Mitchell, Braxton D; Abney, Mark

    2007-01-01

    Background High blood pressure is a well established risk factor for morbidity and mortality acting through heart disease, stroke and cardiovascular disease. Genome wide scans have linked regions of nearly every human chromosome to blood pressure related traits. We have capitalized on beneficial qualities of the Old Order Amish of Lancaster, PA, a closed founder population with a relatively small number of founders, to perform a genome wide homozygosity by descent mapping scan. Each individual in the study has a non zero probability of consanguinity. Systolic and diastolic blood pressures are shown to have appreciable dominance variance components. Results Areas of two chromosomes were identified as suggestive of linkage to SBP and 5 areas to DBP in either the overall or sex specific analyses. The strongest evidence for linkage in the overall sample was to Chromosome 18q12 (LOD = 2.6 DBP). Sex specific analyses identified a linkage on Chromosome 4p12-14 (LOD in men only = 3.4 SBP). At Chromosome 2q32-33, an area where we previously reported significant evidence for linkage to DBP using a conventional identity by descent approach, the LOD was 1.4; however an appreciable sex effect was observed with men accounting for most of the linkage (LOD in men only = 2.6). Conclusion These results add evidence to a sex specific genetic architecture to blood pressure related traits, particularly in regions of linkage on chromosome 2, 4 and 18. PMID:17908314

  4. Can Read, Can Write

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Melia, Ed

    2008-01-01

    Linda Worden always loved books. She liked the way they felt in her hands and the way they smelled. The only problem was she could not read them--until she took part in Channel 4's "Can't Read, Can't Write". This article tells the story of Linda Worden and how learning to read changed her life. Her attempts to learn as an adult are a shocking…

  5. A preliminary report relating frequency of vaginal intercourse to heart rate variability, Valsalva ratio, blood pressure, and cohabitation status.

    PubMed

    Brody, S; Veit, R; Rau, H

    2000-04-01

    The relationship between recalled frequency of penile-vaginal intercourse (FSI) and resting heart rate variability (HRV; an index of parasympathetic tone), resting diastolic blood pressure (DBP) and heart rate (HR) response to the Valsalva maneuver was examined in 51 healthy adults aged 20-47 (subjects scoring above the 86th percentile on the Lie scale of the Eysenck Personality Inventory (EPI) were excluded). As hypothesized, greater HRV and lower DBP were both associated with greater FSI (but not masturbation or non-coital sex with a partner) in cohabiting subjects, but not in non-cohabiting subjects. Valsalva ratio was unrelated to sexual behavior. Results are discussed in terms of both the modulating role of blood pressure on a number of psychological functions and the role of parasympathetic tone in HRV, FSI, and possibly pair-bonding. PMID:10725567

  6. Relationships between micronutrient losses in sweat and blood pressure among heat-exposed steelworkers.

    PubMed

    Tang, Yong-Mei; Wang, Dao-Gang; Li, Jun; Li, Xing-Hua; Wang, Qian; Liu, Nan; Liu, Wei-Tian; Li, Ying-Xue

    2016-06-10

    We aimed to examine the effect of micronutrient losses through sweat on blood pressure (BP) among heat-exposed steelworkers. A total of 224 heat-exposed male steelworkers from an ironworks facility were evaluated in July 2012. We measured the Wet Bulb Globe Temperature Index to evaluate the level of heat stress in the workplace. We collected sweat from the workers during an eight-hour work, and then we measured the micronutrients in the sweat. We also measured the BP of each worker. The results revealed that vitamin C, potassium, and calcium losses in sweat were positively correlated with systolic (SBP) and diastolic (DBP) blood pressure (all P<0.05). A linear stepwise regression analysis revealed that potassium, and calcium losses in sweat adversely affected SBP and DBP (all P<0.05). An analysis of covariance showed that SBP increased when potassium or calcium losses in sweat were >900 mg, or >100 mg, respectively. Further, DBP increased when potassium or calcium losses in sweat were >600 mg or >130 mg, respectively. Therefore, vitamin C, potassium, and calcium losses in sweat may adversely effect BP. To help steelworkers maintain healthy BP, facilities with high temperatures should try to lower environmental temperatures to reduce vitamin C, potassium, and calcium losses in sweat. Additionally, heat-exposed steelworkers may need to increase their dietary intakes of vitamin C, potassium, and calcium. Further research is needed to confirm these findings and support these recommendations. PMID:27087421

  7. Ambulatory blood pressure reduction following high-intensity interval exercise performed in water or dryland condition.

    PubMed

    Sosner, Philippe; Gayda, Mathieu; Dupuy, Olivier; Garzon, Mauricio; Lemasson, Christopher; Gremeaux, Vincent; Lalongé, Julie; Gonzales, Mariel; Hayami, Douglas; Juneau, Martin; Nigam, Anil; Bosquet, Laurent

    2016-05-01

    We aimed to compare blood pressure (BP) responses following moderate-intensity continuous exercise (MICE), high-intensity interval exercise (HIIE) in dry land or HIIE in immersed condition, using 24-hour ambulatory BP monitoring. Forty-two individuals (65 ± 7 years, 52% men) with a baseline BP ≥ 130/85 mm Hg (systolic/diastolic blood pressures [SBP/DBP]) were randomly assigned to perform one of the three following exercises on a stationary cycle: MICE (24 minutes at 50% peak power output) or HIIE in dry land (two sets of 10 minutes with phases of 15 seconds 100% peak power output interspersed by 15 seconds of passive recovery) or HIIE in up-to-the-chest immersed condition. While MICE modified none of the 24-hour average hemodynamic variables, dryland HIIE induced a 24-hour BP decrease (SBP: -3.6 ± 5.7/DBP: -2.8 ± 3.0 mm Hg, P < .05) and, to a much greater extent, immersed HIIE (SBP: -6.8 ± 9.5/DBP: -3.0 ± 4.5 mm Hg, P < .05). The one condition that modified 24-hour pulse-wave velocity was immersed HIIE (-0.21 ± 0.30 m/s, P < .05). PMID:27026570

  8. Relationships between micronutrient losses in sweat and blood pressure among heat-exposed steelworkers

    PubMed Central

    TANG, Yong-Mei; WANG, Dao-Gang; LI, Jun; LI, Xing-Hua; WANG, Qian; LIU, Nan; LIU, Wei-Tian; LI, Ying-Xue

    2016-01-01

    We aimed to examine the effect of micronutrient losses through sweat on blood pressure (BP) among heat-exposed steelworkers. A total of 224 heat-exposed male steelworkers from an ironworks facility were evaluated in July 2012. We measured the Wet Bulb Globe Temperature Index to evaluate the level of heat stress in the workplace. We collected sweat from the workers during an eight-hour work, and then we measured the micronutrients in the sweat. We also measured the BP of each worker. The results revealed that vitamin C, potassium, and calcium losses in sweat were positively correlated with systolic (SBP) and diastolic (DBP) blood pressure (all P<0.05). A linear stepwise regression analysis revealed that potassium, and calcium losses in sweat adversely affected SBP and DBP (all P<0.05). An analysis of covariance showed that SBP increased when potassium or calcium losses in sweat were >900 mg, or >100 mg, respectively. Further, DBP increased when potassium or calcium losses in sweat were >600 mg or >130 mg, respectively. Therefore, vitamin C, potassium, and calcium losses in sweat may adversely effect BP. To help steelworkers maintain healthy BP, facilities with high temperatures should try to lower environmental temperatures to reduce vitamin C, potassium, and calcium losses in sweat. Additionally, heat-exposed steelworkers may need to increase their dietary intakes of vitamin C, potassium, and calcium. Further research is needed to confirm these findings and support these recommendations. PMID:27087421

  9. Read Hard, Play Later: Putting Summer Reading into Action.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wemett, Lisa C.; Bolan, Kimberly

    1998-01-01

    Provides an overview of "Read on the Wild Side," a summer reading program for young adults established by the Webster (New York) Public Library, and "Read Hard, Play Later," a young adult summer reading program of the Pioneer Library System (New York). Highlights include reading logs, T-shirts, publicity, program evaluation, benefits, summer…

  10. Invent the Future--READ! 2000 Texas Reading Club Manual.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bass, Martha; Davis, Robin Works; Harris, Marlive; Marcum, Paul

    The Texas Reading Club is designed to encourage youth to read for pleasure and to promote library usage.A statewide theme is selected each year that emphasizes ways in which reading expands young minds and encourages children to use their imaginations. The year 2000's theme, "Invent the future! READ!," emphasizes ways in which reading expands…

  11. Motivating Reading Comprehension: Concept-Oriented Reading Instruction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Guthrie, John T., Ed.; Wigfield, Allan, Ed.; Perencevich, Kathleen C., Ed.

    2004-01-01

    Concept Oriented Reading Instruction (CORI) is a unique, classroom-tested model of reading instruction that breaks new ground by explicitly showing how content knowledge, reading strategies, and motivational support all merge in successful reading instruction. A theoretical perspective (engagement in reading) frames the book and provides a…

  12. The Effect of Guided Reading Instruction on Reading Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Underwood, Vanda Lea

    2010-01-01

    Although reading achievement correlates highly with a student's ability to do well in school, not all children achieve in reading. The purpose of this mixed-method study was to investigate whether reading instruction provided in small groups at the child's own reading level, known as "guided reading instruction," would result in significant…

  13. Assisted Reading with Digital Audiobooks for Students with Reading Disabilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Esteves, Kelli J.; Whitten, Elizabeth

    2011-01-01

    The goal of this study was to compare the efficacy of assisted reading with digital audiobooks with the traditional practice of sustained silent reading (SSR) in terms of reading fluency and reading attitude with upper elementary students with reading disabilities. Treatment group participants selected authentic children's literature and engaged…

  14. Casein-Derived Lactotripeptides Reduce Systolic and Diastolic Blood Pressure in a Meta-Analysis of Randomised Clinical Trials

    PubMed Central

    Fekete, Ágnes A.; Givens, D. Ian; Lovegrove, Julie A.

    2015-01-01

    There is an urgent need to treat individuals with high blood pressure (BP) with effective dietary strategies. Previous studies suggest a small, but significant decrease in BP after lactotripeptides (LTP) ingestion, although the data are inconsistent. The study aim was to perform a comprehensive meta-analysis of data from all relevant randomised controlled trials (RCT). Medline, Cochrane library, EMBASE and Web of Science were searched until May 2014. Eligibility criteria were RCT that examined the effects of LTP on BP in adults, with systolic BP (SBP) and diastolic BP (DBP) as outcome measures. Thirty RCT met the inclusion criteria, which resulted in 33 sets of data. The pooled treatment effect for SBP was −2.95 mmHg (95% CI: −4.17, −1.73; p < 0.001), and for DBP was −1.51 mmHg (95% CI: −2.21, −0.80; p < 0.001). Sub-group analyses revealed that reduction of BP in Japanese studies was significantly greater, compared with European studies (p = 0.002 for SBP and p < 0.001 for DBP). The 24-h ambulatory BP (AMBP) response to LTP supplementation was statistically non-significant (p = 0.101 for SBP and p = 0.166 for DBP). Both publication bias and “small-study effect” were identified, which shifted the treatment effect towards less significant SBP and non-significant DBP reduction after LTP consumption. LTP may be effective in BP reduction, especially in Japanese individuals; however sub-group, meta-regression analyses and statistically significant publication biases suggest inconsistencies. PMID:25608938

  15. Effects of nattokinase on blood pressure: a randomized, controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Kim, Ji Young; Gum, Si Nae; Paik, Jean Kyung; Lim, Hyo Hee; Kim, Kyong-Chol; Ogasawara, Kazuya; Inoue, Kenichi; Park, Sungha; Jang, Yangsoo; Lee, Jong Ho

    2008-08-01

    The objective of this study was to examine the effects of nattokinase supplementation on blood pressure in subjects with pre-hypertension or stage 1 hypertension. In a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial, 86 participants ranging from 20 to 80 years of age with an initial untreated systolic blood pressure (SBP) of 130 to 159 mmHg received nattokinase (2,000 FU/capsule) or a placebo capsule for 8 weeks. Seventy-three subjects completed the protocol. Compared with the control group, the net changes in SBP and diastolic blood pressure (DBP) were -5.55 mmHg (95% confidence interval [CI], -10.5 to -0.57 mmHg; p<0.05) and -2.84 mmHg (CI, -5.33 to -0.33 mmHg; p<0.05), respectively, after the 8-week intervention. The corresponding net change in renin activity was -1.17 ng/mL/h for the nattokinase group compared with the control group (p<0.05). In conclusion, nattokinase supplementation resulted in a reduction in SBP and DBP. These findings suggest that increased intake of nattokinase may play an important role in preventing and treating hypertension. PMID:18971533

  16. Is Pulse Pressure an Independent Risk Factor for Incident Stroke, REasons for Geographic And Racial Differences in Stroke

    PubMed Central

    Halberg, Daniel L.; Sands, Charles D.; Mosher, Aleena; Muntner, Paul M.; Howard, George

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND Pulse pressure (PP) is a potential risk factor of stroke. The relationship of incident stroke with systolic blood pressure (SBP), diastolic blood pressure (DBP), mean arterial pressure (MAP), and PP was examined. METHODS Data were from the REasons for Geographic And Racial Differences in Stroke national cohort study of 30,239 black and white participants aged ≥45 years, enrolled between 2003 and 2007. PP (SBP−DBP) and MAP (MAP = DBP + 1/3*PP) were calculated. Telephone follow-up occurred every six months for self or proxy-reported suspected stroke events, confirmed using expert adjudication. Cox-proportional hazards models examined the association of incident stroke for the different BP measurements with multivariable adjustment for sociodemographic and clinical risk factors including gender and race. RESULTS Men and women without prevalent stroke at baseline were analyzed (n = 25,462). During follow-up (mean 6.3±2.3 years, maximum 10 years), 916 strokes occurred. Unadjusted PP (hazard ratio [HR] = 1.30; 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.24–1.35), SBP (HR = 1.22; 95% CI 1.18–1.32), MAP (HR = 1.24; 95% CI 1.16–1.32), and DBP (HR = 1.09; 95% CI 1.01–1.17) were associated with stroke risk; however, after adjustment for SBP and other risk factors, the association with PP was attenuated (HR = 0.98; 95% CI 0.90–1.07), whereas SBP persisted as a predictor (HR = 1.14; 95% CI 1.06–1.23). These associations were consistent across age (younger vs. older >70 years) and race (black vs. white). CONCLUSIONS PP is positively associated with incident stroke, but not independently from SBP; and, there were no significant gender, racial, or regional differences in that association. PMID:25588699

  17. The Impact of Read Right: Semester-Only versus Year-Long Inplementation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sell, John B.

    2013-01-01

    Faced with meeting the requirements of the No Child Left Behind Act of 2001, schools are under pressure to have 100% of their students meet national standards in reading by 2014. For the 2010-2011 and 2011-2012 school years, Sussex Technical High School (STHS) in Georgetown, Delaware chose to adopt Read Right, a reading comprehension improvement…

  18. The Association between the Phenotype of Excessive Daytime Sleepiness and Blood Pressure in Patients with Obstructive Sleep Apnea-Hypopnea Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Qimin; Zhang, Cheng; Jia, Peng; Zhang, Jing; Feng, Liping; Wei, Shumin; Luo, Yiping; Su, Li; Zhao, Can; Dong, Hui; Ma, Jing; Wang, Guangfa

    2014-01-01

    Objective Investigate the clinical features and the blood pressure (BP) pattern of the phenotype of excessive daytime sleepiness (EDS) in OSAHS. Methods A total of 508 Chinese adults with suspected OSAHS were referred to our sleep laboratory from October 2009 to May 2012. On the same night of polysomnography (PSG), the levels of blood pressure were measured before sleeping (bedtime BP) and immediately after waking up in the next morning (morning BP). EDS was recognized as Epworth Sleepiness Scale (ESS)≥9. Subjects were classified into four groups based on the apnea-hypopnea index (AHI) from PSG as follows: control (simple snoring) group (control, n=104) with AHI<5; mild group (mild, n=89) with AHI≥5 and <15; moderate group (moderate, n=70) with AHI≥15 and<30; and severe group (severe, n=245) with AHI ≥30. The differences and correlations between BP and PSG parameters in EDS and non-EDS group of OSAHS patients were analyzed. Results In all subjects, ESS was positively correlated with morning diastolic blood pressure (DBP), Mean arterial pressure (MAP) and bedtime DBP (r=0.144, 0.102 and 0.114, respectively, each P value<0.05). In OSAHS patients, ESS was only positively correlated with morning DBP (r=0.137, P<0.05). OSAHS patients with EDS phenotype were younger and were more likely to have the symptom of waking up feeling tired (36.1% vs. 23.2%, p=0.023), who had lower MSaO2, longer SIT90 (the ratio of time of SpO2 below 90% in total sleep time) and higher DBP (bedtime as well as morning). In patients with AHI≥15, ESS was correlated positively with both bedtime and morning DBP after controlling the confounding effects of age, sex, BMI, AHI and nadir nocturnal oxygen saturation( r=0.126,0.143, respectively, both P values<0.05). And in OSAHS patients of EDS phenotype, the bedtime DBP, bedtime MAP, morning DBP, and morning MAP were 3~5 mm Hg higher than that in patients of non-EDS phenotype(P<0.05). In the moderate and severe OSAHS group, patients with EDS

  19. Diver First Class Reading Ability.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bain, E. C., III; Berghage, T. E.

    The Nelson-Denny reading test was administered to thirty Navy first class diver candidates to evaluate the group's vocabulary, reading comprehension, reading rate and over-all reading ability. Reading rate and comprehension were at the twelfth grade level, while vocabulary ability was equal to the college freshman norm. (Author)

  20. SILENT SPEECH DURING SILENT READING.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    MCGUIGAN, FRANK J.

    EFFORTS WERE MADE IN THIS STUDY TO (1) RELATE THE AMOUNT OF SILENT SPEECH DURING SILENT READING TO LEVEL OF READING PROFICIENCY, INTELLIGENCE, AGE, AND GRADE PLACEMENT OF SUBJECTS, AND (2) DETERMINE WHETHER THE AMOUNT OF SILENT SPEECH DURING SILENT READING IS AFFECTED BY THE LEVEL OF DIFFICULTY OF PROSE READ AND BY THE READING OF A FOREIGN…

  1. The Beginning Stages of Reading.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilkie, Fiona, Comp.

    Noting that in the beginning stages of reading it is helpful for children to be surrounded by the written word and to be read to by adults, this article offers brief encapsulations of and responses to five articles about beginning reading and reading readiness. The five articles are as follows: (1) "Three-Year-Olds in Their Reading Corner" by…

  2. A School Policy for Reading.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Medwell, Jane

    1992-01-01

    Offers a school policy for reading, arrived at as a product of a whole school inservice program. Discusses word recognition, sound-symbol correspondence, prediction, classroom environment, reading with an adult, parents and reading, assessment of reading, and reading material selection. (RS)

  3. Reading with a Special Touch.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McCool, Mary

    Disadvantaged secondary school students with special reading needs can be motivated in the reading room. The school year can start with "popcorn" reading involving materials that are funny, interesting, and exciting. The teacher reads to the students or the students read silently, using materials on the students' independent rather than…

  4. Reading Activities of American Adults.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sharon, Amiel T.

    A reading activities survey as part of the Targeted Research and Development Reading Program was done by interviewing 3,504 adults, aged 16 years or older, selected by area probability sampling. Among the preliminary findings was that the most frequent type of reading is newspaper reading. Seven out of 10 people read or look at a newspaper during…

  5. Paraprofessionals and Reading.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vick, Marian L.

    This pamphlet suggests guidelines to follow for the selection, training, and supervision of paraprofessionals and volunteers in teaching reading and reading-related activities. The contents include: criteria by which paraprofessionals should be selected (emotional stability, ability to relate well to people, ethics, and formal and informal…

  6. Television and Reading.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shaughnessy, Michael F.

    While the influence of television on reading has only been minimally researched, it is obvious that the more television watching children do, the less time is spent on reading. Over 10 years, the cumulative effects of television viewing can be devastating. Watching television is a passive, receptive activity. Children also watch MTV, rent movies,…

  7. EXPERIMENTS IN KINDERGARTEN READING.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    BAKER, EVA L.; AND OTHERS

    FOUR PAPERS GIVEN AT THE READING SYMPOSIUM OF THE 1968 AMERICAN EDUCATIONAL RESEARCH ASSOCIATION PRESENT DISCUSSIONS OF THE SOUTHWEST REGIONAL LABORATORY (SWRL) READING PROGRAM. THE FIRST PAPER DESCRIBES OBJECTIVES, CLASSROOM MATERIALS, AND PROCEDURES. OBJECTIVES FOR SIGHT-RECOGNITION, WORD-ATTACK SKILLS, AND COMPREHENSION SKILLS ARE EXPRESSED IN…

  8. Keep Them Reading

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vanneman, Susan

    2010-01-01

    The relentless quest of the school librarian is finding the right book for each student, searching for the home-run book for every child, and keeping students reading book after book after book. A considerable amount of the school librarian's time, effort, and creativity are devoted not only to motivating students to read, but to keeping them…

  9. Books for Summer Reading.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Phi Delta Kappan, 1996

    1996-01-01

    Suggests several novels for educators' summer reading enjoyment, including classics by Robert Pirsig, Robertson Davies, John Steinbeck, Albert Camus, and Charles Dickens. Educators might also read Alex Kotlowitz's "There Are No Children Here" (Doubleday, 1991) and Sharon Quint's "Schooling Homeless Children" (Teachers College Press, 1994) to gain…

  10. Philosophy of Reading Instruction.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ediger, Marlow

    Reading teachers need to provide for individual differences so that each pupil might attain optimally. Methods of teaching reading should be varied and thus reflect diverse philosophies of instruction. These philosophies should be analyzed and used to guide optimal pupil achievement. A philosophy of phoneme/grapheme relationships should be…

  11. Reading: Process and Program.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goodman, Kenneth S.; Niles, Olive S.

    Broad and major concerns dealing with reading are set forth in this monograph to provoke discussion and examination by both researchers and practitioners. In Part 1, Kenneth S. Goodman presents a psycholinguistic view of language and reading (within a transformational-generative framework) as essentially a set of processes of recoding, decoding,…

  12. Visual Search and Reading.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Calfee, Robert C.; Jameson, Penny

    The effect on reading speed of the number of target items being searched for and the number of target occurrences in the text was examined. The subjects, 24 college undergraduate volunteers, were presented with a list of target words, and then they read a passage for comprehension which contained occurrences of the target words (Experiment1) or…

  13. Maryland Reading First.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maryland State Dept. of Education, Baltimore.

    In years past, Maryland has provided little guidance toward adoption and implementation of Scientifically Based Reading Research (SBRR) programs. Only recently, with the implementation of the Comprehensive School Reform Demonstration program and the Reading Excellence Act (REA) program, have schools or local education agencies been required to…

  14. Savoring Reading Schoolwide

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reis, Sally M.; Fogarty, Elizabeth A.

    2006-01-01

    Over the past four years, educators and researchers from the University of Connecticut have worked with urban high-poverty schools to implement an alternative reading instruction program called the Schoolwide Enrichment Model in Reading (SEM-R). Based on Renzulli's Enrichment Triad Model, the SEM-R works through planned enrichment experiences to…

  15. INTERMEDIATE READINGS IN TAGALOG.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    BOWEN, J. DONALD, ED.

    THE SECOND IN A SERIES OF TEXTS DESIGNED TO HELP THE STUDENT ACHIEVE AN UNDERSTANDING OF FILIPINO CULTURE AND ACQUIRE ENOUGH PROFICIENCY IN TAGALOG TO COMMUNICATE EASILY AND MEANINGFULLY, THESE INTERMEDIATE READINGS ARE COORDINATED WITH THE EDITOR'S "BEGINNING TAGALOG" (ED 014 696). INCLUDED IN PART I ARE READINGS WRITTEN ESPECIALLY FOR THIS TEXT…

  16. Reading Is Fundamental, 1977.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smithsonian Institution, Washington, DC. National Reading is Fun-damental Program.

    Reading Is Fundamental (RIF) is a national, nonprofit organization designed to motivate children to read by making a wide variety of inexpensive books available to them and allowing the children to choose and keep books that interest them. This annual report for 1977 contains the following information on the RIF project: an account of the…

  17. Can India's "Literate" Read?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kothari, Brij; Bandyopadhyay, Tathagata

    2010-01-01

    This paper takes a close look at India's literacy rate by exploring whether the officially "literate" can read and at what level. In a large sample, aged 7+, drawn from four Hindi-speaking states, two methods were used to measure literacy. One was the standard Census Method (CM) which relies on self-reporting and the other was a Reading Method…

  18. Summer Reading Loss

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mraz, Maryann; Rasinski, Timothy V.

    2007-01-01

    Summer reading loss is a documented reality for many students. It is often of greatest concern for those who are already at risk, who typically have limited access to reading materials at home and whose parents or caregivers may be reluctant or unsure of how to help. By raising parents' awareness of the importance of supporting their children's…

  19. Reading and Postmodernism.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alexander, James C.

    One of the main differences between the whole language position and the more traditional views lies in the epistemological base upon which whole language is rooted. Although whole language proponents may not have clearly put forth an epistemology upon which their views of reading acquisition and the reading process are based, still a careful…

  20. Reading for Meaning: Questioning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Trinkle, Catherine

    2009-01-01

    An essential literacy skill is asking questions. Because reading comprehension strategies should be taught directly and explicitly, students need to be told that they should ask questions throughout their research and that all questions are valid. While library media specialists are not reading teachers, the work they do with students in the…

  1. [Reading Teacher Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Palmatier, Robert A., Ed.

    1976-01-01

    This issue of "Epistle," the publication forum of Professors of Reading Teacher Educators, contains three papers as well as the regular features on job openings and on miscellaneous facts. Titles and authors of the articles are: "Doctoral Education in Reading: The State of the Art," by Richard Allington; "The Virtues of Being a Toad and What That…

  2. Entrepreneurship Education: Supplementary Readings.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Scanlan, Thomas J.; And Others

    This third volume in the Entrepreneurship Education curriculum materials includes readings and suggested additional resources which complement the instructional strategies contained in the first two volumes. Three sections are included in the guide: critical incidents, readings in entrepreneurial skills, and management skill area resources.…

  3. Using Collaborative Strategic Reading.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Klingner, Janette K.; Vaughn, Sharon

    1998-01-01

    Describes collaborative strategic reading (CSR), a technique for teaching students, such as those with learning disabilities, reading comprehension and vocabulary skills in a cooperative setting. Covers teaching the four strategies of CSR (preview, click and clunk, get the gist, and wrap up), as well as teaching students cooperative learning group…

  4. Making Textbook Reading Meaningful

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Guthrie, John T.; Klauda, Susan Lutz

    2012-01-01

    When students enter middle school, they are confronted with the necessity of learning from complex content-area textbooks. Many students find these texts boring, and they may lack the higher-order reading comprehension skills they need to tackle complex text. Yet the ability to read informational text is essential to success in middle school and…

  5. VISION AND READING ABILITY.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    MANGRUM, CHARLES T.

    SIGNIFICANT RESEARCH ON THE PHYSIOLOGICAL AND FUNCTIONAL ASPECTS OF VISION AND READING DISABILITY IS SURVEYED. CONCLUSIONS BASED ON THE LITERATURE IN THE FIELD ARE DISCUSSED. A BIBLIOGRAPHY OF 70 REFERENCES AND A GLOSSARY OF TERMS ARE APPENDED. A TABLE SUMMARIZING REFRACTIVE ERRORS AND EYE DEFECTS CONTRIBUTING TO READING DISABILITY IS INCLUDED.…

  6. CRITICAL READING DEVELOPS EARLY.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    LEE, DORRIS; AND OTHERS

    THIS ISSUE OF THE READING AIDS SERIES PRESENTS A DISCUSSION OF THE POTENTIAL FOR CRITICAL READING AMONG YOUNG CHILDREN AND HOW IT CAN BE DEVELOPED. IT OFFERS SUGGESTIONS FOR THE MAXIMUM DEVELOPMENT OF THINKING SKILLS AND ATTITUDES OF INQUIRY AND EVALUATION. SOME OF THE TOPICS DISCUSSED ARE -- (1) THE DEVELOPMENT OF PERCEPTS, CONCEPTS, AND COMMON…

  7. American Reading Instruction.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Nila Banton

    A presentation of the history of reading instruction in the United States, this book is a special edition of Nila Banton Smith's original 1965 volume with the addition of a prologue on her life, and an epilogue which updates the history of reading instruction from 1965 to 1985. Chapter headings consist of: (1) The Beginnings of Reading…

  8. The Virtues of Reading

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kupfer, Joseph

    2002-01-01

    In Danny DeVito's film "Matilda," Harry Wormwood berates his young daughter, the title character, when she insists on reading. He tells her, "There's nothing you can get from a book that you can't get faster from television." Matilda's would-be visionary father, however, is blind to crucial habits of mind fostered by reading books that are not…

  9. An Individualized Reading Program.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davis, Nancy B.

    The operating procedures of a university reading and study skills center for completely individualized reading instruction are described. The program is offered as a student service (no fee) on a voluntary, noncredit basis. A prepared set of instructional tapes is used whereby students can largely serve themselves, proceeding at their own rates,…

  10. Against Reading Lists

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davis, Lennard J.

    2012-01-01

    A course's reading list is the skeleton of a semester's body of thought, the inventory that a professor writes up for the departmental Web site and the schedule of courses that lists the goods. Despite the obvious utility of fixed reading lists, one should jettison them when possible. The author has been conducting an informal experiment using a…

  11. Teaching Reading in Homeschool.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yambo, Idalia

    This paper discusses the home-schooling trend and identifies reading instructional methods used by home-schooling parents. Interviews were conducted with 5 home-schooling families of children ranging in age from 1 to 14 years. Parents reported that they began reading instruction with their child at about age 5 and agreed that instruction in…

  12. Reading in Kazakhstan.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beisembaeva, Zhanat Abaevna

    1995-01-01

    Analyzes sociological research conducted by Kazakhstan libraries between 1991 and 1994. Highlights include discussions on the sociology of reading, research results, and library facilities. It was found that reading is characterized by frequent changes in demands of readers caused by dramatic shifts in ideology, politics, and economics in the…

  13. Anything but Reading

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Krashen, Stephen

    2009-01-01

    Both the popular media and professional literature are filled with suggestions on how to improve reading, but the one approach that always works is rarely mentioned: provide readers with a supply of interesting and comprehensible books. Instead, people are given advice that is dead wrong as a means of improving reading (e.g., roller skating and…

  14. Reading Field Experience Program.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ceaser, Lisbeth

    The lessons included in this collection were written by California Polytechnic State University Reading Specialist Credential candidates in the Salinas Cohort Project of 1992 as partial fulfillment for an education course titled "Bilingual Special Education Reading Problems." Each lesson is research-based. A rationale describes the reading…

  15. The Reading Tutor.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rosberg, Merilee A.

    As a direct result of the passage of the America Reads Challenge Act in 1997, Mt. Mercy College, Cedar Rapids, Iowa, has developed a reading tutor program. The program includes a college credit course and on-site visits by college faculty supervising student tutors. This article includes the rationale for development of a credit course for reading…

  16. Reading with an Infant.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lamme, Linda Leonard

    1980-01-01

    Emphasizes that parents' reading to infants fosters interest in literature and provides foundation for basic reading skills. Titles of musical books, point-and-say books, touch and smell books, cardboard books, cloth books, plastic books, and early stories are provided. (Author/DB)

  17. Connecting Males and Reading

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Buddy, Juanita Warren

    2011-01-01

    The problems facing males and reading continues to be a topic of concern and discussion in communities across the country. The author has interviewed school librarians and teachers, however, who are coordinating programs that are successfully connecting male students and reading. This article includes summaries of those interviews. The author has…

  18. Little Herder Reading Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bureau of Indian Affairs (Dept. of Interior), Washington, DC.

    The Little Herder Reading Series is comprised of 4 volumes based on the life of a Navajo Indian girl. The books are written in English blank verse and describe many facets of Indian life. The volumes contain illustrations by Hoke Denetsosie which give a pictorial representation of the printed verse. The reading level is for the middle and upper…

  19. Teaching Reading and Writing.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Manning, Maryann; Manning, Gary

    1996-01-01

    Introduces Earth Day. Encourages the use of reading, writing, and theme immersion to increase student participation in such activities. Provides information on several organizations which students can obtain concerning environmental awareness. Recommends reading materials that can be obtained in hard copy as well as on the Internet. (MOK)

  20. Reading and Math.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baldwin, Anna; And Others

    This publication contains materials used in the three phases of the reading and mathematics components of work-specific classes. Each section begins with an overview of developments in that phase. Section 1 focuses on Phase 1 during which math and reading were taught as separate components. It contains a math placement appraisal, worksheets and…

  1. Education: Is Reading Important?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    USA Today, 1980

    1980-01-01

    Summarizes arguments in favor of teaching people to read. Arguments include that television and radio cannot help individuals adapt and retrain quickly in their jobs; promotion in the armed services and elsewhere depends upon a certain degree of reading expertise; and people are unable to fill out income tax and other forms if they do not possess…

  2. Motivating Students To Read.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kane, Roberta S.; Warner, Dori

    This action research project implemented a program for motivating students to read so that they would become enthusiastic, lifelong readers. The targeted population consisted of first- and second-grade students in a middle class community located in a western suburb of Chicago, Illinois. The problem of lack of motivation in reading was documented…

  3. Children's Reading Strategies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, Rexel E., Ed.

    1980-01-01

    This issue of the "Journal of Children and Youth" focuses on children's strategies for decoding and comprehending written language and teacher's strategies for facilitating this process. The issue includes eleven papers by members of the Indiana Reading Professors division of the Indiana State Reading Council and several invited guests. Peggy…

  4. Reading and Perestroika.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Plotnikov, Sergei N.

    1992-01-01

    Presents a short historical and sociological analysis of reading in the Soviet Union from the beginning of the twentieth century to perestroika. Discusses some sociocultural problems associated with reading, including the prevailing social, economic and political crises in all spheres of life, particularly the cultural. (RS)

  5. Reading Where It Counts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miller, Harry

    2014-01-01

    In this article, teachers are reminded that their content subject areas require acquainting children with special words or symbols related to that subject area (e.g. mathematics or social studies). Because children can read well does not mean they would be understanding of any special reading skill required in a content subject area; that the…

  6. Reading Methods Comparison

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Montgomery, Joel R.

    2008-01-01

    This working paper explores contemporary research related to methods for teaching reading in Spanish and English in bilingual, foreign language, and English as a second language (ESL) classrooms. Changes stemming from innovations in research and learning are identified and a table is provided to compare methods of teaching reading in Spanish and…

  7. Reading for Life

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McKearney, Miranda

    2009-01-01

    The Reading Agency has been backing and building a movement in libraries called reader development. The movement is creating a livelier, more interventionist reading service that's both much more attractive and socially relevant. A focus on reader development is changing the way public libraries work, and transforming people's lives in the…

  8. Cerebral Laterality and Reading.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mackworth, Jane F.

    Recent research has confirmed that hemispheric patterns of dominance are related to reading skills. Reading is more complex than speech because it includes a visuo-spatial element. In the great majority of people, the left hemisphere deals with speech and sequencing skills. Visual matching of printed words requires the spatial skills of the right…

  9. Reading Stars. 2013 Report

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Literacy Trust, 2013

    2013-01-01

    The National Literacy Trust's Premier League Reading Stars has now been running for 10 years. During this time, hundreds of thousands of children and families have been inspired by the power of football to develop a love of reading. Although the programme has grown and evolved over this period, the premise remains the same: harnessing the…

  10. Extending Extensive Reading

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Day, Richard R.

    2015-01-01

    The April 2015 issue of "Reading in a Foreign Language" featured a discussion forum on extensive reading (ER). Most of the authors, recognized authorities on ER, discussed their views of the principles of ER, particularly in establishing and conducting ER programs. The purpose of this discussion is to review developments in the practice…

  11. The Roots of Reading.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Montoya, Colleen, Ed.

    2002-01-01

    This newsletter covers educational issues affecting schools in the Western Regional Educational Laboratory's 4-state region (Arizona, California, Nevada, and Utah) and nationwide. The following articles appear in the Volume 4, Number 1 issue: (1) "The Roots of Reading"; (2) "Breaking the Code: Reading Literacy in K-3"; (3) "Improving Secondary…

  12. Superheroes and Summer Reading.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Meyer, Ron; Buckner, Joyce

    1980-01-01

    To combat summer learning loss among remedial readers, teachers and consultants in the Omaha, Nebraska, Title I program designed a series of comic-book reading units and mailed them to students' homes. Parents were pleased with the project and it appeared that less reading skill had been lost by September. (SJL)

  13. Learn to Read.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Appelson, Marilyn; And Others

    The Learn to Read project was designed to provide a supportive setting in which functionally illiterate adult students from suburban Cook County, Illinois, and surrounding areas could develop reading and writing skills. The target population included English-dominant adults with basic oral competency but no literacy skills, as well as…

  14. PASS and Reading Achievement.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kirby, John R.

    Two studies examined the effectiveness of the PASS (Planning, Attention, Simultaneous, and Successive cognitive processes) theory of intelligence in predicting reading achievement scores of normally achieving children and distinguishing children with reading disabilities from normally achieving children. The first study dealt with predicting…

  15. Measuring Reading Performance Informally.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Powell, William R.

    To improve the accuracy of the informal reading inventory (IRI), a differential set of criteria is necessary for both word recognition and comprehension scores for different levels and reading conditions. In initial evaluation, word recognition scores should reflect only errors of insertions, omissions, mispronunciations, substitiutions, unkown…

  16. Readings in Reading: Practice, Theory, Research.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schubert, Delwyn G., Ed.; Torgerson, Theodore L., Ed.

    Designed to give teachers, specialists, and students insight into the historical development of trends, theory, research, and current practices in reading instruction, 82 selections written over a period of nearly 150 years have been compiled from books, monographs, pamphlets, yearbooks, conference proceedings, and education periodicals. The…

  17. Comparison of high-definition oscillometry -- a non-invasive technology for arterial blood pressure measurement -- with a direct invasive method using radio-telemetry in awake healthy cats.

    PubMed

    Martel, Eric; Egner, Beate; Brown, Scott A; King, Jonathan N; Laveissiere, Arnaud; Champeroux, Pascal; Richard, Serge

    2013-12-01

    This study compared indirect blood pressure measurements using a non-invasive method, high-definition oscillometry (HDO), with direct measurements using a radio-telemetry device in awake cats. Paired measurements partitioned to five sub-ranges were collected in six cats using both methods. The results were analysed for assessment of correlation and agreement between the two methods, taking into account all pressure ranges, and with data separated in three sub-groups, low, normal and high ranges of systolic (SBP) and diastolic (DBP) blood pressure. SBP data displayed a mean correlation coefficient of 0.92 ± 0.02 that was reduced for low SBP. The agreement level evaluated from the whole data set was high and slightly reduced for low SBP values. The mean correlation coefficient of DBP was lower than for SBP (ie, 0.81 ± 0.02). The bias for DBP between the two methods was 22.3 ± 1.6 mmHg, suggesting that HDO produced lower values than telemetry. These results suggest that HDO met the validation criteria defined by the American College of Veterinary Internal Medicine consensus panel and provided a faithful measurement of SBP in conscious cats. For DBP, results suggest that HDO tended to underestimate DBP. This finding is clearly inconsistent with the good agreement reported in dogs, but is similar to outcomes achieved in marmosets and cynomolgus monkeys, suggesting that this is not related to HDO but is species related. The data support that the HDO is the first and only validated non-invasive blood pressure device and, as such, it is the only non-invasive reference technique that should be used in future validation studies. PMID:23813147

  18. Effects of Differentiated Reading on Elementary Students' Reading Comprehension and Attitudes toward Reading

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shaunessy-Dedrick, Elizabeth; Evans, Linda; Ferron, John; Lindo, Myriam

    2015-01-01

    In this investigation, we examined the effects of a differentiated reading approach on fourth grade students' reading comprehension and attitudes toward reading. Eight Title I schools within one urban district were randomly assigned to treatment (Schoolwide Enrichment Model-Reading [SEM-R]) or control (district reading curriculum) conditions.…

  19. The Effects of Extensive Reading and Reading Strategies on Reading Self-Efficacy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burrows, Lance

    2012-01-01

    This study is a quasi-experimental, longitudinal investigation into the role that extensive reading and reading strategies play in the cultivation of reading self-efficacy. Conducted over the course of one academic year, how changes in reading self-efficacy translate into changes in reading comprehension was examined. In addition, the…

  20. The Effects of Sustained Silent Reading on Reading Achievement and Reading Attitudes of Fourth Grade Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gray, Holly Lynn

    2012-01-01

    This study tested the effects of a Sustained Silent Reading program on reading achievement and reading attitude. The study accessed scores from the DIBELS Oral Reading Fluency (Good, Kaminski, & Dill, 2007) to measure reading achievement. This measure was given before and after a twelve week period, during which the treatment group…

  1. Role of Reading Engagement in Mediating Effects of Reading Comprehension Instruction on Reading Outcomes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wigfield, Allan; Guthrie, John T.; Perencevich, Kathleen C.; Taboada, Ana; Klauda, Susan Lutz; McRae, Angela; Barbosa, Pedro

    2008-01-01

    The engagement model of reading development suggests that instruction improves students' reading comprehension to the extent that it increases students' engagement processes in reading. We compared how Concept-Oriented Reading Instruction (CORI) (support for cognitive and motivational processes in reading), strategy instruction (support for…

  2. Long-Lasting Reduction of Blood Pressure by Electroacupuncture in Patients with Hypertension: Randomized Controlled Trial

    PubMed Central

    Li, Peng; Cheng, Ling; Liu, Dongmei; Painovich, Jeannette; Vinjamury, Sivarama; Longhurst, John C.

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Background: Acupuncture at specific acupoints has experimentally been found to reduce chronically elevated blood pressure. Objective: To examine effectiveness of electroacupuncture (EA) at select acupoints to reduce systolic blood pressure (SBP) and diastolic blood pressures (DBP) in hypertensive patients. Design: Two-arm parallel study. Patients: Sixty-five hypertensive patients not receiving medication were assigned randomly to one of the two acupuncture intervention (33 versus 32 patients). Intervention: Patients were assessed with 24-hour ambulatory blood pressure monitoring. They were treated with 30-minutes of EA at PC 5-6+ST 36-37 or LI 6-7+GB 37-39 once weekly for 8 weeks. Four acupuncturists provided single-blinded treatment. Main outcome measures: Primary outcomes measuring effectiveness of EA were peak and average SBP and DBP. Secondary outcomes examined underlying mechanisms of acupuncture with plasma norepinephrine, renin, and aldosterone before and after 8 weeks of treatment. Outcomes were obtained by double-blinded evaluation. Results: After 8 weeks, 33 patients treated with EA at PC 5-6+ST 36-37 had decreased peak and average SBP and DBP, compared with 32 patients treated with EA at LI 6-7+GB 37-39 control acupoints. Changes in blood pressures significantly differed between the two patient groups. In 14 patients, a long-lasting blood pressure–lowering acupuncture effect was observed for an additional 4 weeks of EA at PC 5-6+ST 36-37. After treatment, the plasma concentration of norepinephrine, which was initially elevated, was decreased by 41%; likewise, renin was decreased by 67% and aldosterone by 22%. Conclusions: EA at select acupoints reduces blood pressure. Sympathetic and renin-aldosterone systems were likely related to the long-lasting EA actions. PMID:26392838

  3. Reduced short-term complexity of heart rate and blood pressure dynamics in patients with diabetes mellitus type 1: multiscale entropy analysis.

    PubMed

    Trunkvalterova, Z; Javorka, M; Tonhajzerova, I; Javorkova, J; Lazarova, Z; Javorka, K; Baumert, M

    2008-07-01

    Multiscale entropy (MSE) analysis provides information about complexity on various time scales. The aim of this study was to test whether MSE is able to detect autonomic dysregulation in young patients with diabetes mellitus (DM). We analyzed heart rate (HR) oscillations, systolic (SBP) and diastolic blood pressure (DBP) signals in 14 patients with DM type 1 and 14 age- and sex-matched healthy controls. SampEn values (scales 1-10) and linear measures were computed. HR: among the linear measures of heart rate variability significant differences between groups were only found for RMSSD (p = 0.043). MSE was significantly reduced on scales 2 and 3 in DM (p = 0.023 and 0.010, respectively). SBP and DBP: no significant differences were detected with linear measures. In contrast, MSE analysis revealed significantly lower SampEn values in DM on scale 3 (p = 0.039 for SBP; p = 0.015 for DBP). No significant correlations were found between MSE and linear measures. In conclusion, MSE analysis of HR, SBP and DBP oscillations is able to detect subtle abnormalities in cardiovascular control in young patients with DM and is independent of standard linear measures. PMID:18583725

  4. Relationship between body mass index changes and blood pressure changes from childhood to adulthood in a general Chinese population: a 26 year cohort follow-up study.

    PubMed

    Wang, Man; Chu, Chao; Mu, Jianjun

    2016-10-01

    The aim of this study was to estimate the relationship between body mass index (BMI) and blood pressure (BP) in a Chinese population with 26 year follow-up. The study included 4211 schoolchildren aged 6-17 years in Hanzhong, Shaanxi Province, China. Body weight, height, waist circumference, and BP were measured in 1987, 1989, 1992, 1995 and 2013. Cox proportional hazards model were fitted to examine the effect of BMI on BP. At the 26 year follow-up, 6.93% of male and 3.43% of female subjects had high SBP, and 12.8% of male and 4.56% of female had high DBP. The average age of subjects with high SBP was 40.3 years in males and 41.4 years in females; while the average age with high DBP was 38.1 years in males and 38.9 years in females. Obese subjects were 2.96 times and 2.88 times more likely to have high SBP and high DBP than normal weight counterparts, respectively; while overweight subjects were 1.81 times and 2.03 times more likely to have high SBP and high DBP, respectively. These findings underscore the urgent need to prevent increasing body weight. Targeting intervention in adolescence may be a critical method for preventing high BP in later life. PMID:27138219

  5. Interruptions disrupt reading comprehension.

    PubMed

    Foroughi, Cyrus K; Werner, Nicole E; Barragán, Daniela; Boehm-Davis, Deborah A

    2015-06-01

    Previous research suggests that being interrupted while reading a text does not disrupt the later recognition or recall of information from that text. This research is used as support for Ericsson and Kintsch's (1995) long-term working memory (LT-WM) theory, which posits that disruptions while reading (e.g., interruptions) do not impair subsequent text comprehension. However, to fully comprehend a text, individuals may need to do more than recognize or recall information that has been presented in the text at a later time. Reading comprehension often requires individuals to connect and synthesize information across a text (e.g., successfully identifying complex topics such as themes and tones) and not just make a familiarity-based decision (i.e., recognition). The goal for this study was to determine whether interruptions while reading disrupt reading comprehension when the questions assessing comprehension require participants to connect and synthesize information across the passage. In Experiment 1, interruptions disrupted reading comprehension. In Experiment 2, interruptions disrupted reading comprehension but not recognition of information from the text. In Experiment 3, the addition of a 15-s time-out prior to the interruption successfully removed these negative effects. These data suggest that the time it takes to process the information needed to successfully comprehend text when reading is greater than that required for recognition. Any interference (e.g., an interruption) that occurs during the comprehension process may disrupt reading comprehension. This evidence supports the need for transient activation of information in working memory for successful text comprehension and does not support LT-WM theory. PMID:25867225

  6. Attention and reading skills.

    PubMed

    Commodari, Elena; Guarnera, Maria

    2005-04-01

    Attention plays a critical role in information processing. Its adequate functioning is required for correct development of complex cognitive abilities and regular scholastic progress. Children with attention deficits often have difficulties in reading, writing, and arithmetic. The present study investigated interactions among reading skills, overall scholastic performance as rated by teachers, and components of attention: visual reaction time, simple immediate span of attention, and selectivity. The sample was 98 students in the first and second years of public junior high school (age range 11-14 years, M = 12.6, SD = 1.2), i.e., with expected already well-established reading. Reading was evaluated using Comprehension, Accuracy, and Speed tests. Overall scholastic performance was obtained by means of teachers' ratings. Simple Reaction Time, Digit Span, and Color-Word Interference, included in a multitask computerized test, assessed attention. Analysis confirmed the hypothesis that the reading skills are strongly predictive of the Scholastic Assessment rated by the teachers. High scholastic ratings were correlated with Reading Speed and Accuracy rather than Reading Comprehension. Poor readers showed worse performances on the Digit Span test which measures simple immediate span of attention. Good and poor readers obtained a similar score on the Color-Word Interference task. This observation seems to contrast with the more common interpretation of this effect, suggesting that reading is an automatic process and, therefore, the semantic dimension overcomes the controlled perceptual one. According to other studies, an alternative explanation is suggested. In conclusion, present results confirm the hypothesis of a strong link among reading speed and accuracy, scholastic assessment as rated by teachers, simple immediate span of attention, and visual reaction time. PMID:15974348

  7. Effect of Smoking on Blood Pressure and Resting Heart Rate: A Mendelian Randomisation Meta-Analysis in the CARTA Consortium

    PubMed Central

    Linneberg, Allan; Jacobsen, Rikke K.; Skaaby, Tea; Taylor, Amy E.; Fluharty, Meg E.; Jeppesen, Jørgen L.; Bjorngaard, Johan H.; Åsvold, Bjørn O.; Gabrielsen, Maiken E.; Campbell, Archie; Marioni, Riccardo E.; Kumari, Meena; Marques-Vidal, Pedro; Kaakinen, Marika; Cavadino, Alana; Postmus, Iris; Ahluwalia, Tarunveer S.; Wannamethee, S. Goya; Lahti, Jari; Räikkönen, Katri; Palotie, Aarno; Wong, Andrew; Dalgård, Christine; Ford, Ian; Ben-Shlomo, Yoav; Christiansen, Lene; Kyvik, Kirsten O.; Kuh, Diana; Eriksson, Johan G.; Whincup, Peter H.; Mbarek, Hamdi; de Geus, Eco J.C.; Vink, Jacqueline M.; Boomsma, Dorret I.; Smith, George Davey; Lawlor, Debbie A.; Kisialiou, Aliaksei; McConnachie, Alex; Padmanabhan, Sandosh; Jukema, J. Wouter; Power, Chris; Hyppönen, Elina; Preisig, Martin; Waeber, Gerard; Vollenweider, Peter; Korhonen, Tellervo; Laatikainen, Tiina; Salomaa, Veikko; Kaprio, Jaakko; Kivimaki, Mika; Smith, Blair H.; Hayward, Caroline; Sørensen, Thorkild I.A.; Thuesen, Betina H.; Sattar, Naveed; Morris, Richard W.; Romundstad, Pål R.; Munafò, Marcus R.; Jarvelin, Marjo-Riitta; Husemoen, Lise Lotte N.

    2015-01-01

    Background Smoking is an important cardiovascular disease risk factor, but the mechanisms linking smoking to blood pressure are poorly understood. Methods and Results Data on 141,317 participants (62,666 never, 40,669 former, 37,982 current smokers) from 23 population-based studies were included in observational and Mendelian randomisation (MR) meta-analyses of the associations of smoking status and smoking heaviness with systolic and diastolic blood pressure (SBP, DBP), hypertension, and resting heart rate. For the MR analyses, a genetic variant rs16969968/rs1051730 was used as a proxy for smoking heaviness in current smokers. In observational analyses, current as compared with never smoking was associated with lower SBP, DBP, and lower hypertension risk, but with higher resting heart rate. In observational analyses amongst current smokers, one cigarette/day higher level of smoking heaviness was associated with higher (0.21 beats/minute; 95% CI 0.19; 0.24) resting heart rate, and slightly higher DBP (0.05 mmHg; 95% CI 0.02; 0.08) and SBP (0.08 mmHg; 95% CI 0.03; 0.13). However, in MR analyses amongst current smokers, while each smoking increasing allele of rs16969968/rs1051730 was associated with higher resting heart rate (0.36 beats/minute/allele; 95% CI 0.18; 0.54), there was no strong association with DBP, SBP, or hypertension. This would suggest a 7 beats/minute higher heart rate in those who smoke 20 cigarettes/day. Conclusions This MR meta-analysis supports a causal association of smoking heaviness with higher level of resting heart rate, but not with blood pressure. These findings suggest that part of the cardiovascular risk of smoking may operate through increasing resting heart rate. PMID:26538566

  8. Effectiveness and safety of 1 vs 4 h blood pressure profile with clinical and laboratory assessment for the exclusion of gestational hypertension and pre-eclampsia: a retrospective study in a university affiliated maternity hospital

    PubMed Central

    McCarthy, Elizabeth Anne; Carins, Thomas A; Hannigan, Yolanda; Bardien, Nadia; Shub, Alexis; Walker, Susan P

    2015-01-01

    Objective We asked whether 60 compared with 240 min observation is sufficiently informative and safe for pregnancy day assessment (PDAC) of suspected pre-eclampsia (PE). Design A retrospective study of 209 pregnant women (475 PDAC assessments, 6 months) with routinely collected blood pressure (BP), symptom and laboratory information. We proposed a 60 min screening algorithm comprising: absence of symptoms, normal laboratory parameters and ≤1high-BP reading (systolic blood pressure, SBP 140 mm Hg or higher or diastolic blood pressure, DBP 90 mm Hg or higher). We also evaluated two less inclusive screening algorithms. We determined short-term outcomes (within 4 h): severe hypertension, proteinuric hypertension and pregnancy-induced hypertension, as well as long-term outcome: PE-related diagnoses up to the early puerperium. We assessed performance of alternate screening algorithms performance using 2×2 tables. Results 1 in 3 women met all screen negative criteria at 1 h. Their risk of hypertension requiring treatment in the next 3 h was 1.8% and of failing to diagnose proteinuric hypertensive PE at 4 h was 5.1%. If BP triggers were 5 mm Hg lower, 1 in 6 women would be screen-negative of whom 1.1% subsequently develops treatment-requiring hypertension and 4.5% demonstrate short-term proteinuric hypertension. We present sensitivity, specificity, negative and positive likelihood ratios for alternate screening algorithms. Conclusions We endorse further research into the safest screening test where women are considered for discharge after 60 min. Safety, patient and staff satisfaction should be assessed prospectively. Any screening test should be used in conjunction with good clinical care to minimise maternal and perinatal hazards of PE. PMID:26582404

  9. Reading, Writing, and Running.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Detherage, Jim

    1980-01-01

    Describes an English course that capitalizes on the popularity of running, integrating running with reading and writing activities. Notes the positive results of this interdisciplinary approach. Provides samples of student writings. (RL)

  10. Developmental reading disorder

    MedlinePlus

    ... important. Many students with learning disabilities have poor self-esteem. Psychological counseling may be helpful. ... Problems in school, including behavior problems Loss of self-esteem Reading problems that continue Problems with job performance

  11. Reading the Future

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marturano, Arlene

    1976-01-01

    A learning activity is described in which the children become involved in dialogs with the Earth and its resources, and in turn the eye reads the surroundings and becomes more skilled at observation. (EB)

  12. Reading the Body.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dressman, Mark; Abbott, Judy

    2001-01-01

    Presents brief summaries of 26 children's books (published between 1996 and 2001) about physiology, health and sexuality, and sports and recreation. Also presents new books of professional interest that might provoke some visceral reaction from their reading. (SG)

  13. Can India's ``literate'' read?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kothari, Brij; Bandyopadhyay, Tathagata

    2010-12-01

    This paper takes a close look at India's literacy rate by exploring whether the officially "literate" can read and at what level. In a large sample, aged 7+, drawn from four Hindi-speaking states, two methods were used to measure literacy. One was the standard Census Method (CM) which relies on self-reporting and the other was a Reading Method (RM) which required the same individuals to actually read a simple text at grade 2 level. The findings revealed a substantial difference between the reading literacy rates obtained by CM and RM. CM over-reported RM by 16%. The overestimation was higher for males. Decoding skills were found to erode in most cases after completion of primary schooling, assuming no further education. A minimum grade 8-9 education was required for decoding skills to not deteriorate after schooling.

  14. A School Reading Policy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dawson, Alan

    1978-01-01

    Defines a school-based reading policy and explores the issues involved in setting up a program, including awareness and use of school resources, recording student progress, evaluation, parental involvement, and classroom organization and teaching methods. (FL)

  15. The "Enigma" Reading Program.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sachs, Frances Greenberg; Banas, Norma

    1985-01-01

    Approaches are discussed for constructing and implementing the ENIGMA (Engineering Individual Growth Through Manipulative Associations) reading program, a language-based activity using teacher-made puzzles and stories in a manipulative-associative manner. (CL)

  16. Reading Improvement Through Art

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Corwin, Sylvia K.

    1977-01-01

    A team of enthusiastic, dedicated teachers proved that for problem readers in today's high schools, in a setting where trained reading teachers collaborated with studio teachers, the visual arts can be an important tool for learning. (Author)

  17. Philosophy of Teaching Reading.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ediger, Marlow

    2003-01-01

    Lists advantages and disadvantages of statewide testing. Presents examples of highly specific objectives, as emphasized by realism as a philosophy of education. Considers the advantages idealism/perennialism, as a philosophy of instruction, has in a quality reading curriculum. (SG)

  18. Reading-Boxing Class

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kravitz, Richard; Shapiro, Marvin

    1969-01-01

    The physical education department of the Pennsylvania Advancement School of Philadelphia has established a reading and communication skill project that uses the appeal of sports to help students improve their basic skills. (Author)

  19. Developmental reading disorder

    MedlinePlus

    ... people with DRD have normal or above-average intelligence. DRD may appear with other problems. These can ... causes of learning and reading disabilities, such as: Emotional disorders Intellectual disability Brain diseases Certain cultural and ...

  20. Teachers' Role in Fostering Reading Skill: Effective and Successful Reading

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jose, G. Rexlin; Raja, B. William Dharma

    2011-01-01

    Reading bestows enjoyment and enlightenment. It unlocks the unknown. It is a complex cognitive activity that is indispensable for the kind of knowledge society. So the students of today's world must know how to learn from reading and to enter the present literate society. One who reads can lead others to light. People who read can be free because…

  1. Developing New Reading Assessments to Promote Beginning Reading in Singapore

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Koh, Kim H.; Paris, Scott G.

    2011-01-01

    Effective reading instruction and intervention are rooted in effective assessments of children's developing skills in reading. The article aims to describe the development of new reading assessments to help promote beginning reading in Singapore primary schools. We begin with an introduction to the educational landscape and policies before…

  2. The Potency of "READS" to Inform Students' Reading Ability

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mohamed, Abdul Rashid; Eng, Lin Siew; Mohamed Ismail, Shaik Abdul Malik

    2012-01-01

    This paper shares an initiative conducted in Malaysia in terms of knowledge to gauge students' Reading Age and to inform teachers of their students' reading progress and learning. Ensuring teachers understand the needs of students' reading ability and preparing students to read and comprehend texts are the two most fundamental parallel tasks in…

  3. Improving EFL Learners' Reading Levels through Extensive Reading

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mermelstein, Aaron David

    2014-01-01

    Today there is an increasing amount of research promoting the effectiveness of extensive reading (ER) towards increasing learners' vocabulary, comprehension, reading speed, and motivation towards reading. However, little has been done to measure the effects of ER on learners' reading levels. This quantitative study examined the effects…

  4. When Reading Gets Ruff: Canine-Assisted Reading Programs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lane, Holly B.; Zavada, Shannon D. W.

    2013-01-01

    Canine-assisted reading programs show promise as an innovative method for engaging reluctant readers and motivating them to practice. In such programs, specially trained dogs visit classrooms and libraries, and children read to them. Children who struggle with reading may be motivated to read more because they find dogs to be calming and…

  5. Parents' Reading-Related Knowledge and Children's Reading Acquisition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ladd, Megan; Martin-Chang, Sandra; Levesque, Kyle

    2011-01-01

    Teacher reading-related knowledge (phonological awareness and phonics knowledge) predicts student reading, however little is known about the reading-related knowledge of parents. Participants comprised 70 dyads (children from kindergarten and grade 1 and their parents). Parents were administered a questionnaire tapping into reading-related…

  6. Summer Reading Summer Not: How Project READS Can Advance Equity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kim, James S.

    2010-01-01

    This paper has three goals. First, it describes the broader research on summer reading loss. Second, it discusses how research and development efforts informed the key components of Project READS (Reading Enhances Achievement During Summer), a scaffolded voluntary summer reading intervention for children in grades 3 to 5. The second part of the…

  7. A Developmental Path to Reading: Reading the Signs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mitchell, Kevin, Ed.

    2000-01-01

    This issue focuses on the developmental path that children typically take when learning to read. The purpose is to help parents take steps to ensure that their children will make the transition from learning to read to reading to learn by the end of third grade. An introductory section includes two articles: "Parents, Children, and Reading" (Carol…

  8. Reading Motivation and Reading Engagement: Clarifying Commingled Conceptions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Unrau, Norman J.; Quirk, Matthew

    2014-01-01

    The constructs of motivation for reading and reading engagement have frequently become blurred and ambiguous in both research and discussions of practice. To address this commingling of constructs, the authors provide a concise review of the literature on motivation for reading and reading engagement and illustrate the blurring of those concepts…

  9. Teen Summer Reading Program, 1999. Read around the World.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Virginia State Library, Richmond.

    This guide for the 1999 Virginia teen summer reading program for public libraries, "Read around the World," includes the following chapters: (1) "Reading and Teens," including serving the underserved, tips for teens, and a recipe for choosing a book to read for fun; (2) "Programming and Teens," including "The Why of YA [Youth Adult] Programming"…

  10. Reading Every Single Day: A Journey to Authentic Reading

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hudson, Alida K.; Williams, Joan A.

    2015-01-01

    This article details one teacher's implementation of reading workshop in her second grade classroom. She provided a framework for authentic reading using the five components of reading workshop: time, choice, response, community, and structure. She found that reading workshop is a highly effective practice for not only increasing students'…

  11. Family Reading Habits and Children's Progress in Reading.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lamme, Linda; Olmsted, Pat

    This study examined the influences of the home on children's attitudes toward reading, perceptions of reading, reading habits, and reading achievement. Participating in the study were 38 low-income white children (and their parents) from nine first-grade classrooms involved in the Florida Parent Education Follow Through project. Data were obtained…

  12. Reading Acts: An Inquiry into Reading and Teaching

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sams, Brandon L.

    2012-01-01

    This text performs reading for teaching in an audit culture. Two teachers, myself and Steven, read the memoir "Hole in My Life" by Jack Gantos and, while reading, recorded our experiences as readers and planned to teach the book to Steven's English class. This study is an inquiry into the phenomenon of "reading to teach,"…

  13. READING MANUAL, A GUIDEBOOK FOR ILLINOIS WORKSHOPS IN READING REMEDIATION.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    COVEY, CATHERINE

    THE IMPORTANCE OF ADAPTING READING INSTRUCTION TO EACH CHILD'S NEEDS IS STRESSED IN THIS HANDBOOK FOR TEACHERS OF REMEDIAL READING. INFORMATION IS ORGANIZED AROUND SIX TOPICS--(1) THE NATURE OF THE READING PROCESS, (2) CRITERIA FOR A GOOD ELEMENTARY READING PROGRAM, (3) REMEDIAL READERS, THE SYMPTOMS AND CAUSES (PHYSICAL, INTELLECTUAL,…

  14. Reconsidering Children's Readings: Insights into the Reading Process

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arya, Poonam; Feathers, Karen M.

    2012-01-01

    This study highlights the complex reading processes of two primary grade struggling readers. It provides a more complete picture of the readers' use of all parts of a text, verbal and visual, to construct meaning during reading. The oral reading data show that students used various linguistic strategies to read words, and the eye-tracking data…

  15. Reading Rates of Young Braille-Reading Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wormsley, D. P.

    1996-01-01

    Three tables present data from 22 braille-reading blind children, ages 6 to 12, including demographic data (such as years of braille use, IQ, age, hand movement type, and reading rate); highest and lowest reading rates, by years of braille instruction and IQ scores; and oral reading rates. The methodology used is suggested for teachers doing…

  16. Accuracy of the visomat handy wrist blood pressure measuring device according to the International Protocol.

    PubMed

    Saladini, Francesca; Benetti, Elisabetta; Palatini, Paolo

    2010-10-01

    The objective of this study is to determine the accuracy of the UEBE visomat handy device for blood pressure measurement in the wrist of patients tested according to the requirements of the International Protocol of the European Society of Hypertension (ESH). Device evaluation was done in 33 patients whose age and blood pressure were within the intervals required by the ESH protocol. Their mean±standard deviation age was 53.8±16.5 years (range 30-86 years), systolic blood pressure (SBP) was 143.5±20.2 mmHg (range 110-180 mmHg), diastolic blood pressure (DBP) was 87.4±12.9 mmHg (range 68-110 mmHg), arm circumference was 29.0±3.7 cm (range 21-38 cm), and wrist circumference was 17.3±1.5 cm (range 14.0-21.0 cm). During the measurements, which were taken in a sitting position, the patient's wrist was kept extended at the heart level putting a support under the forearm. In total, 45 measurements were available for analysis in the first phase of the validation process, and 99 measurements in the second phase. The visomat handy device passed all three phases of the ESH protocol for SBP and DBP. Mean blood pressure differences for the visomat handy monitor (device-observer) were -2.0±8.1 mmHg for SBP and -0.9±4.1 mmHg for DBP. These data show that the UEBE visomat handy wrist monitor met the requirements for validation by the International Protocol and can be recommended for clinical use in the adult population. PMID:20729724

  17. Validation of the visocor HM40 wrist blood pressure measuring device according to the International Protocol.

    PubMed

    Dorigatti, Francesca; Bonso, Elisa; Saladini, Francesca; Palatini, Paolo

    2009-04-01

    The objective of this study was to determine the accuracy of the UEBE visocor HM40 device for blood pressure measurement at the wrist, tested according to the requirements of the International Protocol of the European Society of Hypertension (ESH). Device evaluation was performed in 33 patients whose age and blood pressure were within the intervals required by the ESH protocol. Their mean +/- SD age was 53.2 +/- 15.5 years (range 30-85 years), systolic blood pressure (SBP) was 142.8 +/- 21.8 mmHg (range 108-178 mmHg), diastolic blood pressure (DBP) was 87.0 +/- 15.4 mmHg (range 62-112 mmHg), and wrist circumference was 18.7 +/- 2.7 cm (range 15.5-21.5 cm). During the measurements, which were performed in the supine position, the patient's wrist was kept extended at the heart level with a support under the forearm. In total, 45 measurements were available for analysis in the first phase of the validation process, and 99 measurements in the second phase. The visocor HM40 passed all three phases of the ESH protocol for SBP and DBP. Mean blood pressure differences for the visocor HM40 monitor (device-observer) were -2.0 +/- 5.0 mmHg for SBP and -1.7 +/- 5.3 mmHg for DBP, respectively. These data show that the UEBE visocor HM40 wrist monitor met the requirements for validation by the International Protocol and can be recommended for clinical use in the adult population. PMID:19317033

  18. Interactions of several lipid-related gene polymorphisms and cigarette smoking on blood pressure levels.

    PubMed

    Yin, Rui-Xing; Wu, Dong-Feng; Wu, Jin-Zhen; Cao, Xiao-Li; Aung, Lynn Htet Htet; Miao, Lin; Long, Xing-Jiang; Liu, Wan-Ying; Zhang, Lin; Li, Meng

    2012-01-01

    The interactions of single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) and cigarette smoking on blood pressure levels are limited. The present study was undertaken to detect nine lipid-related SNPs and their interactions with cigarette smoking on blood pressure levels. Genotyping of ATP-binding cassette transporter A1 (ABCA-1) V825I, acyl-CoA:cholesterol acyltransferase-1 (ACAT-1) rs1044925, low density lipoprotein receptor (LDL-R) AvaⅡ, hepatic lipase gene (LIPC) -250G>A, endothelial lipase gene (LIPG) 584C>T, methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) 677C>T, proprotein convertase subtilisin-like kexin type 9 (PCSK9) E670G, peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor delta (PPARD) +294T>C, and Scavenger receptor class B type 1 (SCARB1) rs5888 was performed in 935 nonsmokers and 845 smokers. The interactions were detected by factorial regression analysis. The frequencies of genotypes (ACAT-1 and LIPG), alleles (ABCA-1), and both genotypes and alleles (LDL-R, LIPC, PPARD and SCARB1) were different between nonsmokers and smokers (P < 0.05-0.001). The levels of pulse pressure (PP, ABCA-1), and systolic, diastolic blood pressure (SBP, DBP) and PP (LIPC) in nonsmokers were different among the genotypes (P < 0.01-0.001). The levels of SBP (ABCA-1, ACAT-1, LIPG and PCSK9), DBP (ACAT-1, LDL-R, LIPC, PCSK9 and PPARD), and PP (LIPC, LIPG, MTHFR and PCSK9) in smokers were different among the genotypes (P < 0.01-0.001). The SNPs of ABCA-1, ACAT-1 and PCSK9; ACAT-1, LDL-R, MTHFR and PCSK9; and ABCA-1, LIPC, PCSK9 and PPARD were shown interactions with cigarette smoking to influence SBP, DBP and PP levels (P < 0.05-0.001); respectively. The differences in blood pressure levels between the nonsmokers and smokers might partly result from different interactions of several SNPs and cigarette smoking. PMID:22606049

  19. Air Pollution from Industrial Swine Operations and Blood Pressure of Neighboring Residents

    PubMed Central

    Horton, Rachel Avery; Rose, Kathryn M.

    2012-01-01

    Background: Industrial swine operations emit odorant chemicals including ammonia, hydrogen sulfide (H2S), and volatile organic compounds. Malodor and pollutant concentrations have been associated with self-reported stress and altered mood in prior studies. Objectives: We conducted a repeated-measures study of air pollution, stress, and blood pressure in neighbors of swine operations. Methods: For approximately 2 weeks, 101 nonsmoking adult volunteers living near industrial swine operations in 16 neighborhoods in eastern North Carolina sat outdoors for 10 min twice daily at preselected times. Afterward, they reported levels of hog odor on a 9-point scale and measured their blood pressure twice using an automated oscillometric device. During the same 2- to 3-week period, we measured ambient levels of H2S and PM10 at a central location in each neighborhood. Associations between systolic and diastolic blood pressure (SBP and DBP, respectively) and pollutant measures were estimated using fixed-effects (conditional) linear regression with adjustment for time of day. Results: PM10 showed little association with blood pressure. DBP [β (SE)] increased 0.23 (0.08) mmHg per unit of reported hog odor during the 10 min outdoors and 0.12 (0.08) mmHg per 1-ppb increase of H2S concentration in the same hour. SBP increased 0.10 (0.12) mmHg per odor unit and 0.29 (0.12) mmHg per 1-ppb increase of H2S in the same hour. Reported stress was strongly associated with BP; adjustment for stress reduced the odor–DBP association, but the H2S–SBP association changed little. Conclusions: Like noise and other repetitive environmental stressors, malodors may be associated with acute blood pressure increases that could contribute to development of chronic hypertension. PMID:23111006

  20. Reading Knee-Deep

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jewett, Pamela

    2007-01-01

    Freire told his audience at a seminar at the University of Massachusetts, "You need to read knee-deep in texts, for deeper than surface meanings, and you need to know the words to be able to do it" (quoted in Cleary, 2003). In a children's literature class, fifteen teachers and I traveled along a path that moved us toward reading knee-deep as we…

  1. Comparison of stethoscope bell and diaphragm, and of stethoscope tube length, for clinical blood pressure measurement

    PubMed Central

    Griffiths, Clive; Murray, Alan; Zheng, Dingchang

    2016-01-01

    Objective This study investigated the effect of stethoscope side and tube length on auscultatory blood pressure (BP) measurement. Methods Thirty-two healthy participants were studied. For each participant, four measurements with different combinations of stethoscope characteristics (bell or diaphragm side, standard or short tube length) were each recorded at two repeat sessions, and eight Korotkoff sound recordings were played twice on separate days to one experienced listener to determine the systolic and diastolic BPs (SBP and DBP). Analysis of variance was carried out to study the measurement repeatability between the two repeat sessions and between the two BP determinations on separate days, as well as the effects of stethoscope side and tube length. Results There was no significant paired difference between the repeat sessions and between the repeat determinations for both SBP and DBP (all P-values>0.10, except the repeat session for SBP using short tube and diaphragm). The key result was that there was a small but significantly higher DBP on using the bell in comparison with the diaphragm (0.66 mmHg, P=0.007), and a significantly higher SBP on using the short tube in comparison with the standard length (0.77 mmHg, P=0.008). Conclusion This study shows that stethoscope characteristics have only a small, although statistically significant, influence on clinical BP measurement. Although this helps understand the measurement technique and resolves questions in the published literature, the influence is not clinically significant. PMID:26741415

  2. Cardiovascular risk factors in a French-Canadian population: resolution of genetic and familial environmental effects on blood pressure by using extensive information on environmental correlates.

    PubMed Central

    Pérusse, L; Rice, T; Bouchard, C; Vogler, G P; Rao, D C

    1989-01-01

    Genetic and environmental influences on systolic blood pressure (SBP), diastolic blood pressure (DBP), and mean arterial blood pressure (MBP) were examined in 371 French-Canadian families by using path analysis. Familial environment was estimated with environmental indices constructed from as many as 14 (of a pool of more than 100) correlates of blood pressure (BP). Approximately 20% of the variance in BP can be accounted for by the composite index, and the types of variables and the direction of their effects vary as a function of age and of the multivariate context. Path analysis of the family data suggests that genetic heritability is relatively high in children (from 0.49 for SBP to 0.56 for MBP) but much smaller in adults (from 0.08 for DBP to 0.18 for SBP). The proportion of variability explained by familial environment is estimated to be the same in children and adults and is much higher than reported to date (from 0.30 for SBP to 0.42 for DBP). In addition, sibships share significant nontransmitted environmental effects, and there is no evidence to suggest specific maternal effects in the aggregation of BP. Two unique findings emerge from this study. First, unlike in most earlier studies, we were able to arrive at the same parsimonious model for each of the BP variables. Second, the familial environment accounts for a substantial proportion of the variability in BP, which has been considerably underestimated in earlier studies. PMID:2757030

  3. Child maltreatment and blood pressure in young adulthood☆

    PubMed Central

    Gooding, Holly C.; Milliren, Carly; McLaughlin, Katie A.; Richmond, Tracy K.; Katz-Wise, Sabra L.; Rich-Edwards, Janet; Austin, S. Bryn

    2014-01-01

    Adverse childhood experiences are associated with hypertension in older adults. This study assessed whether an association between child maltreatment and blood pressure is detectable in young adults and whether any association differs by sex or is modified by genetic polymorphisms known to be involved in stress sensitivity. We examined these patterns in a sample of 12,420 young adults ages 24–32 years who participated in Wave IV of the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health. Participants retrospectively reported history of physical, emotional, or sexual abuse before age 18 years. Participants with a systolic blood pressure (SBP) ≥140 mmHg or a diastolic blood pressure (DBP) ≥90 mmHg were classified as hypertensive. We used sex-stratified linear and logistic regression models to assess associations between each type of childhood maltreatment and SBP, DBP, and hypertension. We created interaction terms to assess for effect modification of any relationship between maltreatment and blood pressure by sex or SLC64A genotype. Fifteen percent of females and 31.5% of males were hypertensive. Frequent physical abuse in childhood was reported by 5%, frequent emotional abuse by 12%, and any sexual abuse by 5%. No association was observed between abuse history and blood pressure in either males or females, nor was effect modification present by SLC64A genotype. Child maltreatment exposure was not associated with blood pressure or hypertension in young adults in this study. Future studies should investigate additional critical windows for the effect of child maltreatment on cardiovascular health. PMID:25245501

  4. Child maltreatment and blood pressure in young adulthood.

    PubMed

    Gooding, Holly C; Milliren, Carly; McLaughlin, Katie A; Richmond, Tracy K; Katz-Wise, Sabra L; Rich-Edwards, Janet; Austin, S Bryn

    2014-11-01

    Adverse childhood experiences are associated with hypertension in older adults. This study assessed whether an association between child maltreatment and blood pressure is detectable in young adults and whether any association differs by sex or is modified by genetic polymorphisms known to be involved in stress sensitivity. We examined these patterns in a sample of 12,420 young adults ages 24-32 years who participated in Wave IV of the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health. Participants retrospectively reported history of physical, emotional, or sexual abuse before age 18 years. Participants with a systolic blood pressure (SBP) ≥140 mmHg or a diastolic blood pressure (DBP) ≥90 mmHg were classified as hypertensive. We used sex-stratified linear and logistic regression models to assess associations between each type of childhood maltreatment and SBP, DBP, and hypertension. We created interaction terms to assess for effect modification of any relationship between maltreatment and blood pressure by sex or SLC64A genotype. Fifteen percent of females and 31.5% of males were hypertensive. Frequent physical abuse in childhood was reported by 5%, frequent emotional abuse by 12%, and any sexual abuse by 5%. No association was observed between abuse history and blood pressure in either males or females, nor was effect modification present by SLC64A genotype. Child maltreatment exposure was not associated with blood pressure or hypertension in young adults in this study. Future studies should investigate additional critical windows for the effect of child maltreatment on cardiovascular health. PMID:25245501

  5. Reading Networks at Rest

    PubMed Central

    Kelly, Clare; Shehzad, Zarrar; Penesetti, Deepak; Castellanos, F. Xavier; Milham, Michael P.

    2010-01-01

    Resting-state functional connectivity (RSFC) approaches offer a novel tool to delineate distinct functional networks in the brain. In the present functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) study, we elucidated patterns of RSFC associated with 6 regions of interest selected primarily from a meta-analysis on word reading (Bolger DJ, Perfetti CA, Schneider W. 2005. Cross-cultural effect on the brain revisited: universal structures plus writing system variation. Hum Brain Mapp. 25: 92–104). In 25 native adult readers of English, patterns of positive RSFC were consistent with patterns of task-based activity and functional connectivity associated with word reading. Moreover, conjunction analyses highlighted the posterior left inferior frontal gyrus and the posterior left middle temporal gyrus (post-LMTG) as potentially important loci of functional interaction among 5 of the 6 reading networks. The significance of the post-LMTG has typically been unappreciated in task-based studies on unimpaired readers but is frequently reported to be a locus of hypoactivity in dyslexic readers and exhibits intervention-induced changes of activity in dyslexic children. Finally, patterns of negative RSFC included not only regions of the so-called default mode network but also regions involved in effortful controlled processes, which may not be required once reading becomes automatized. In conclusion, the current study supports the utility of resting-state fMRI for investigating reading networks and has direct relevance for the understanding of reading disorders such as dyslexia. PMID:20139150

  6. Binocular advantages in reading.

    PubMed

    Jainta, Stephanie; Blythe, Hazel I; Liversedge, Simon P

    2014-03-01

    Reading, an essential skill for successful function in today's society, is a complex psychological process involving vision, memory, and language comprehension. Variability in fixation durations during reading reflects the ease of text comprehension, and increased word frequency results in reduced fixation times. Critically, readers not only process the fixated foveal word but also preprocess the parafoveal word to its right, thereby facilitating subsequent foveal processing. Typically, text is presented binocularly, and the oculomotor control system precisely coordinates the two frontally positioned eyes online. Binocular, compared to monocular, visual processing typically leads to superior performance, termed the "binocular advantage"; few studies have investigated the binocular advantage in reading. We used saccade-contingent display change methodology to demonstrate the benefit of binocular relative to monocular text presentation for both parafoveal and foveal lexical processing during reading. Our results demonstrate that denial of a unified visual signal derived from binocular inputs provides a cost to the efficiency of reading, particularly in relation to high-frequency words. Our findings fit neatly with current computational models of eye movement control during reading, wherein successful word identification is a primary determinant of saccade initiation. PMID:24530062

  7. Effects of music on systolic blood pressure, diastolic blood pressure, and heart rate: a meta-analysis

    PubMed Central

    Loomba, Rohit S.; Arora, Rohit; Shah, Parinda H.; Chandrasekar, Suraj; Molnar, Janos

    2012-01-01

    There are a handful of studies that have been done investigating the effect of music on various vital signs, namely systolic blood pressure (SBP), diastolic blood pressure (DBP), and heart rate (HR). Many studies have also assessed effects of music on self-reported anxiety level, attributing some degree of music-induced anxiety relief to the beneficial impacts of music on vital signs. Several randomised studies have shown varying effects of music on these vital parameters and so a metaanalysis was done to compare the effect of music on them. The fixed effects model was used as studies were homogenous. A two-sided alpha error < 0.05 was considered to be statistically significant. Compared to those who did not receive music therapy, those who did receive music therapy had a significantly greater decrease in SBP before and after (difference in means, −2.629, confidence interval (CI), −3.914 to −1.344, P < 0.001), a significantly greater decrease in DBP (difference in means, −1.112, CI, −1.692 to −0.532, P < 0.001), and a significantly greater decrease in HR (difference in means, −3.422, CI, −5.032 to −1.812, P < 0.001). PMID:22664817

  8. The relationship of dietary sodium, potassium, fruits, and vegetables intake with blood pressure among Korean adults aged 40 and older

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Kirang; Shin, Min-Ho; Shin, Dong Hoon; Lee, Young-Hoon; Chun, Byung-Yeol; Choi, Bo Youl

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES The inverse relationships of combined fruits and vegetables intake with blood pressure have been reported. However, whether there are such relationships with salty vegetables has rarely been investigated in epidemiologic studies. We evaluated the relation of combined and separate intake of fruits, vegetable intakes, and salty vegetables, as well as sodium and potassium, with blood pressure among the middle-aged and elderly populations. SUBJECTS/METHODS The present cross-sectional analysis of a prospective cohort baseline survey was performed with 6,283 subjects (2,443 men and 3,840 women) and free of hypertension, diabetes, cardiovascular diseases, and cancer. Dietary data were collected by trained interviewers using food frequency questionnaire. RESULTS The significantly inverse linear trend of diastolic blood pressure (DBP) was found in fruits and non-pickled vegetables (81.2 mmHg in the lowest quintile vs 79.0 mmHg in the highest quintile, P for trend = 0.0040) and fruits only (80.9 mmHg in the lowest quintile vs 79.4 mmHg in the highest quintile, P for trend = 0.0430) among men. In contrast, sodium and sodium to potassium ratio were positively related with blood pressure among men (DBP, 78.8 mmHg in the lowest quintile vs 80.6 mmHg in the highest quintile, P for trend = 0.0079 for sodium; DBP, 79.0 mmHg in the lowest quintile vs 80.7 mmHg in the highest quintile, P for trend = 0.0199 and SBP, 123.8 mmHg in the lowest quintile vs 125.9 mmHg in the highest quintile for sodium/potassium). Kimchies consumption was positively related to DBP for men (78.2 mmHg in the lowest quintile vs 80.9 mmHg in the highest quintile for DBP, P for trend = 0.0003). Among women, these relations were not found. CONCLUSION Fruits and/or non-pickled vegetables may be inversely, but sodium, sodium to potassium, and Kimchies may be positively related to blood pressure among men. PMID:25110567

  9. The Many Fibers of Reading

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leloup, Dennis

    2009-01-01

    How can library media specialists encourage kids to read outside the curriculum and maintain this reading beyond elementary school? What does it take to get children involved in recreational reading and turn their focus to books? At Sycamore Elementary School in Avon, Indiana, library media specialists have organized reading programs which have…

  10. Woodcock Diagnostic Reading Battery (WDRB).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Simon, Janet

    1999-01-01

    This article describes the Woodcock Diagnostic Reading Battery, an instrument designed to assess the abilities and achievements of individuals ages 4 through 90 in the areas of basic reading skills, reading comprehension, phonological awareness, oral language comprehension, and reading aptitude. Its administration, standardization, reliability,…

  11. Focus on Reading. New Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hood, Susan; Solomon, Nicky; Burns, Anne

    The handbook is designed as an introductory text on reading instruction for teachers of English as a Second Language. The first chapter explores the nature of reading through a series of activities that help identify the kind of knowledge one draws on and the strategies one uses in reading. Chapter 2 reviews key theories of reading that have…

  12. Reading and the Slow Learner.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ediger, Marlow

    Advocates of high standards and expectations usually believe that gaps in reading achievement can be eliminated with good teaching, but slow readers need a specially designed reading curriculum. The teacher first needs to use an informal reading inventory to determine the student's reading level. Functioning generally on a higher level than…

  13. DEVELOPING HIGH SCHOOL READING PROGRAMS.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DAWSON, MILDRED A.

    FORTY-FOUR REPRINTS CONCERNING HIGH SCHOOL READING PROGRAMS SELECTED FROM "THE READING TEACHER" AND THE "JOURNAL OF READING" AND THE PROCEEDINGS OF THE INTERNATIONAL READING ASSOCIATION ARE PRESENTED. THE CRITERIA FOR SELECTION WERE CONSISTENCY WITH ACCEPTED CURRICULAR AND INSTRUCTIONAL PRINCIPLES, CURRENT APPROPRIATENESS, DUPLICATION, AND…

  14. Reading and the Special Learner.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hedley, Carolyn N., Ed.; Hicks, John S., Ed.

    Compiled from papers presented at the annual Reading/Special Education Institute at Fordham University, this collection of essays addresses reading problems of special education students. The book is divided into three sections. The first section covers reading assessment and reading intervention; section 2 addresses the specific learner and the…

  15. Dyslexia: Problems of Reading Disabilities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goldberg, Herman K.; Schiffman, Gilbert B.

    The purpose of this book is to provide an understanding of both the educational and medical aspects of reading and to show how they are interrelated in reading disabilities. The various aspects of reading disabilities are presented in the following chapters: Introduction to the Reading Problem; Early Predictive Studies; Psychological Evaluation;…

  16. What Is a Reading Error?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Labov, William; Baker, Bettina

    2010-01-01

    Early efforts to apply knowledge of dialect differences to reading stressed the importance of the distinction between differences in pronunciation and mistakes in reading. This study develops a method of estimating the probability that a given oral reading that deviates from the text is a true reading error by observing the semantic impact of the…

  17. Explorations in Second Language Reading

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cohen, Roger, Ed.

    2009-01-01

    The chapters in "Explorations in Second Language Reading" reveal the importance of reading in the classroom and how instructors can use reading as a bridge to improve learners' other linguistic and interpersonal skills. Most significantly, each author prompts us to rediscover how enjoyable ESOL reading can be and how it can increase learner…

  18. Paired Reading: Psycholinguistics in Practice.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barrett, James Martin

    1987-01-01

    Contends that children need to learn phonic skills, not necessarily through early direct teaching, but through reading experience. Suggests using Paired Reading, which is validated by psycholinguistic reading theory and provides opportunities to learn to read from context and use innate syntactic and semantic knowledge. (SKC)

  19. Effective interventions for reading disability.

    PubMed

    Williams, M C; Lecluyse, K; Rock-Faucheux, A

    1992-06-01

    A simple, readily accessible, and inexpensive intervention which produces immediate improvements in the reading comprehension abilities of reading-disabled children has been found. The intervention consists of colored overlays, or overlays which reduce the contrast of printed materials. This intervention produces reading comprehension gains in approximately 80 percent of the reading-disabled children tested. PMID:1378860

  20. Improving Reading to Improve Math

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Glenberg, Arthur; Willford, Jonathan; Gibson, Bryan; Goldberg, Andrew; Zhu, Xiaojin

    2012-01-01

    Reading provides information across the curriculum. Thus, to the extent that fundamental (i.e., generalizable) reading comprehension strategies can be taught, the benefits should be found in multiple domains. To test this claim, children in the third and fourth grades read by simulating text content using the two-part, embodied "Moved by Reading"…

  1. Student Accountability: Guided Reading Kidstations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Guastello, E. Francine; Lenz, Claire

    2005-01-01

    Guided reading is a major component of a comprehensive or balanced reading program. Most teachers understand the value of guided reading in the classroom but have difficulty managing effective implementation. They often ask, "What will the other students be doing when I am working with a guided reading group, and how do I manage all the children…

  2. Reading in the Geography Curriculum.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ediger, Marlow

    To become an efficient reader of subject matter in geography, students need to have adequate background information to read the ensuing content. Vocabulary considerations thoroughly enter into the reading act. A major problem for the teacher when students read geographical content is to develop meaning. To assist students in reading and…

  3. Reading in the Secondary School.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Teaching English, 1976

    1976-01-01

    The topic of discussion of this issue of the journal "Teaching English" is reading instruction in the secondary school. Articles include "Reading in the Primary School" (Alastair Hendry), "Patterns of Progress" (Fergus McBride), "Teaching Reading--Whose Business?" (James Maxwell), "A Reading Policy for the Secondary School" (Iain McGillivray),…

  4. Early Reading and Concrete Operations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Polk, Cindy L. Howes; Goldstein, David

    1980-01-01

    Indicated that early readers are more likely to be advanced in cognitive development than are nonearly-reading peers. After one year of formal reading instruction, early readers maintained their advantage in reading achievement. Measures of concrete operations were found to predict reading achievement for early and nonearly readers. (Author/DB)

  5. When Do Children Read Books?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    van Ours, Jan C.

    2008-01-01

    This paper investigates the reading of fiction books by 15 year olds in 18 OECD countries. It appears that girls read fiction books more often than boys, whereas boys read comic books more often than girls. Parental education, family structure, and the number of books and televisions at home influence the intensity with which children read fiction…

  6. Getting used to academic public speaking: global self-esteem predicts habituation in blood pressure response to repeated thesis presentations.

    PubMed

    Elfering, Achim; Grebner, Simone

    2012-06-01

    Global self-esteem was tested to predict quicker cardiovascular adaptation during stressful oral thesis presentation and faster habituation from the first to the second and third thesis presentations. Nineteen graduate students initially rated their global self-esteem and afterwards orally presented their theses proposals in 20-min presentations to their thesis supervisor and peers. A second and third presentation of the revised thesis concepts took place at 4-weeks intervals. Ambulatory blood pressure and heart rate were assessed repeatedly during the presentations. Post-talk self ratings of stressfulness indicated presentations to be a strong public speaking stressor. One hundred and thirty-eight measurements of systolic (SBP), diastolic blood pressure (DBP), and heart rate (HR) showed a significant adaptation (decrease) during presentations. There was an overall mean level decrease from the first to the second, and the second to the third presentations in HR, but not in SBP and DBP. However, habituation in SBP and DBP across three presentations was significantly faster (p < .05) in those participants who initially reported higher levels of global self-esteem. Higher global self-esteem did not foster adaptation within the presentations. Self-esteem is discussed as an important individual resource that allows successful coping with recurring evaluative threats. PMID:22392261

  7. High Blood Pressure and Related Factors Among Individuals at High Risk for HIV/Sexually Transmitted Infections.

    PubMed

    Nam, Soohyun; Whittemore, Robin; Jeon, Sangchoon; Davey-Rothwell, Melissa A; Latkin, Carl

    2016-06-01

    Data from a social network-based human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)/sexually transmitted infection (STI) prevention study with a total of 330 men and women at high risk for HIV/STIs were used to examine the relationships between substance use, depressive symptoms, general health, cardiovascular disease risk factors, sociodemographic characteristics, and systolic/diastolic blood pressure (SBP/DBP). Approximately 60% of the participants had prehypertension to stage 2 hypertension. In the base model, older patients (P<.0001), men (P=.003), and patients with poorer self-reported health (P=.029) were significantly associated with high SBP, whereas older age (P<.001) and higher body mass index (P<.001) were significantly associated with higher DBP. After adjusting for the base model, high frequency of alcohol drinking and high frequency of binge drinking remained significant for high SBP and DBP. These data suggest that future cardiovascular disease programs should target moderate alcohol consumption to improve blood pressure among individuals at high risk for HIV/STIs. PMID:26514661

  8. Effects of established blood pressure loci on blood pressure values and hypertension risk in an Algerian population sample.

    PubMed

    Lardjam-Hetraf, S A; Mediene-Benchekor, S; Ouhaibi-Djellouli, H; Meroufel, D N; Boulenouar, H; Hermant, X; Hamani-Medjaoui, I; Saidi-Mehtar, N; Amouyel, P; Houti, L; Goumidi, L; Meirhaeghe, A

    2015-05-01

    Genome-wide association studies and subsequent replication studies have pinpointed 29 genetic variants associated with blood pressure (BP). None of these studies included North African populations. We therefore looked at whether or not these genetic variants modulated BP and hypertension (HTN) risk in an Algerian population sample. Twenty-nine single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) were genotyped in a representative sample of 787 subjects from the InSulino-résistance à ORan (ISOR) study (378 men and 409 women aged between 30 and 64 years and recruited from within the city of Oran, Algeria). Genetic variants were considered both individually and when combined as genetic predisposition scores (GPSs) for systolic BP (SBP), diastolic BP (DBP) and HTN risk. The SNPs in CYP1A1-ULK3, HFE and SH2B3 were significantly associated with BP and/or HTN. The SBP-GPS, DBP-GPS and HTN-GPS were associated with higher levels of DBP (+0.24 mm Hg P=0.05, +0.23 mm Hg P = 0.05 and +0.26 mm Hg P = 0.03, respectively). Moreover, the three GPSs tended to be associated with a 6% higher risk of HTN. Our study is the first to show that some of the BP loci validated in subjects of European descent were associated (either individually or when combined as GPSs) with BP traits and/or the HTN risk in an Algerian population, but to a lesser extent than in European populations. Although larger studies and meta-analyses of North African populations are needed to confirm the present results, our data contribute to a better understanding of genetic susceptibility to HTN. PMID:25231511

  9. The Role of Independent Reading in a "Balanced" Reading Program: Re-Thinking California's Reading Initiative.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jonson, Kathleen F.

    1998-01-01

    Notes that California undertook a new commitment to improve the basic reading skills of its elementary students; lists several components of this commitment, the "California Reading Initiative." Describes the state's definition of a balanced and comprehensive approach to reading. Argues that independent reading is a crucial component and should…

  10. Reading to Learn and Reading to Integrate: New Tasks for Reading Comprehension Tests?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Trites, Latricia; McGroarty, Mary

    2005-01-01

    To address the concern that most traditional reading comprehension tests only measure basic comprehension, this study designed measures to assess more complex reading tasks: Reading to Learn and Reading to Integrate. The new measures were taken by 251 participants: 105 undergraduate native speakers of English, 106 undergraduate nonnative speakers,…

  11. Reading Improvement in English- and Hebrew-Speaking Children with Reading Difficulties after Reading Acceleration Training

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Horowitz-Kraus, Tzipi; Cicchino, Nicole; Amiel, Merav; Holland, Scott K.; Breznitz, Zvia

    2014-01-01

    A reading acceleration program known to improve reading fluency in Hebrew-speaking adults was tested for its effect on children. Eighty-nine Hebrew- and English-speaking children with reading difficulties were divided into a waiting list group and two training groups (Hebrew and English) and underwent 4 weeks of reading acceleration training.…

  12. Improving Reading Rate Activities for EFL Students: Timed Reading and Repeated Oral Reading

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chang, Anna C. -S.

    2012-01-01

    This study investigates the effect of timed reading (TR) and repeated oral reading (RR) on 35 adult students of English as a foreign language. Students in the TR (n =18) and RR (n =17) groups read 52 and 26 passages respectively over a 13-week period. Reading rates and comprehension levels were measured at three occasions: pre-intervention,…

  13. Developing Reading Fluency in EFL: How Assisted Repeated Reading and Extensive Reading Affect Fluency Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Taguchi, Etsuo; Takayasu-Maass, Miyoko; Gorsuch, Greta J.

    2004-01-01

    Extensive research on reading in a first language has shown the critical role fluency plays in successful reading. Fluency alone, however, does not guarantee successful reading. Cognitive and metacognitive reading strategies and schemata that readers utilize also play important roles in constructing meaning from text. Most research, however,…

  14. Students' Self-Perception of Reading Ability, Enjoyment of Reading and Reading Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Jeffrey K.; Smith, Lisa F.; Gilmore, Alison; Jameson, Madgerie

    2012-01-01

    Using data from New Zealand's National Education Monitoring Project, a light sampling, low stakes performance based national school assessment program, reading self-efficacy, reading enjoyment, and reading achievement were examined in samples of 8 and 12 year old children. Sample sizes were n = 480 for each group. While reading achievement…

  15. Effects of race and sex on blood pressure and hemodynamic stress response as a function of the menstrual cycle.

    PubMed

    Ahwal; Mills; Kalshan; Nelesen

    1997-08-01

    OBJECTIVE: To examine the influence of race and sex on responses to cardiovascular stress during two menstrual cycle phases. METHODS: Subjects were exposed to two stressors, a mirror star-tracing task and a speaking task. Blood pressure, heart rate, and impedance cardiography measures of reactivity were recorded. Women were examined both during the follicular and during the luteal phase of their menstrual cycle with men matched for the number of days between testing sessions (approximately 6 weeks). The subjects were 33 black and white women and 37 black and white men who were healthy, normotensive, and not being administered medication. RESULTS: For black women, the reactivity of the diastolic blood pressure (DBP) to the speaking task was less in the luteal phase than it was in the follicular phase, whereas for white women (and men) there was no difference between the two phases (testing sessions) (P < 0.04). Women had greater heart rate reactivities in both menstrual phases than did men (P < 0.05). During the stage of preparing to speak, black and white women had greater DBP reactivities than did men; however, their DBP responses were attenuated during the luteal phase compared with the follicular phase (P < 0.05). In reponse to the mirror star task, white men and women had greater DBP than did blacks (P < 0.05) whereas blacks had less of a decrease in stroke volume than did whites (P < 0.04). CONCLUSIONS: The present investigation confirms results from previous studies on the effects of sex and menstrual cycle on the response to hemodynamic stress. Our findings also suggest that racial differences in stress reactivity may influence this phenomenon. PMID:10234110

  16. Isosorbide 5-mononitrate reverses high blood pressure in NG-nitro-L-arginine methyl ester treated rats.

    PubMed

    Albino-Teixeira, A; Soares-da-Silva, P

    1994-11-01

    1. The present study has evaluated the effect of iosorbide 5-mononitrate (IS-5-MN) and L-arginine on blood pressure profile during chronic administration of the nitric oxide (NO) synthase inhibitor NG-nitro-L-arginine methyl ester (L-NAME). 2. After a 7 day period of stabilization, normotensive male Wistar rats (n = 10) were selected and given L-NAME (50 micrograms/ml) in drinking water. Control rats (n = 10) were studied simultaneously for direct comparison of cardiovascular parameters. Blood pressure (systolic, SBP; diastolic, DBP) and heart rate were measured using a photoelectric tail cuff pulse detector; SBP and DBP were, in normotensive rats 106 +/- 2 and 78 +/- 2 mmHg (n = 10), respectively. The average water consumption per animal was about 35 ml/day resulting in a mean intake of L-NAME of about 10 mg/kg/day. 3. Twenty four hours after exposure to L-NAME, both SBP and DBP were found to be increased by 20 mm Hg; heart rate slightly decreased. During the next 13 days both SBP and DBP increased progressively reaching 170 +/- 3 and 116 +/- 3 mm Hg, respectively. 4. On day 14, six animals of either group were sacrificed and the heart, kidneys, liver, spleen, mesenteric and caudal arteries, brain stem, hypothalamus and parietal cortex were taken from determination of noradrenaline and dopamine content; blood from the renal vein was also collected and plasma concentrations of noradrenaline, adrenaline and 3,4-dihydroxyphenylethylglycol (DOPEG) determined.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:7896042

  17. Postural-induced phase shift of respiratory sinus arrhythmia and blood pressure variations: insight from respiratory-phase domain analysis.

    PubMed

    Kotani, Kiyoshi; Takamasu, Kiyoshi; Jimbo, Yasuhiko; Yamamoto, Yoshiharu

    2008-03-01

    The purpose of this study is to evaluate the multiple effects of respiration on cardiovascular variability in different postures, by analyzing respiratory sinus arrhythmia (RSA) and respiratory-related blood pressure (BP) variations for systolic BP (SBP), diastolic BP (DBP), and pulse pressure (PP) in the respiratory-phase domain. The measurements were conducted for 420 s on healthy humans in the sitting and standing positions, while the subjects were continuously monitored for heart rate and BP variability and instantaneous lung volume. The waveforms of RSA and respiratory-related BP variations were extracted as a function of the respiratory phase. In the standing position, the waveforms of the BP variations for SBP, DBP, and PP show their maxima at around the end of expiration (pi rad) and the minima at around the end of inspiration (2 pi rad), while the waveform of RSA is delayed by approximately 0.35 pi rad compared with the BP waveforms. On the other hand, in the sitting position, the phase of the DBP waveform (1.69 pi rad) greatly and significantly (P < 0.01) differs from that in the standing position (1.20 pi rad). Also, the phase of PP is delayed and that of RSA is advanced in the sitting position (P < 0.01). In particular, the phase shift of the DBP waveform is sufficiently large to alter whole hemodynamic fluctuations, affecting the amplitudes of SBP and PP variations. We conclude that the postural change associated with an altered autonomic balance affects not only the amplitude of RSA, but also the phases of RSA and BP variations in a complicated manner, and the respiratory-phase domain analysis used in this study is useful for elucidating the dynamic mechanisms of RSA. PMID:18223194

  18. Effects of maternal smoking during pregnancy on offspring blood pressure in late adolescence

    PubMed Central

    Högberg, Lovisa; Cnattingius, Sven; D’Onofrio, Brian M.; Lundholm, Cecilia; Iliadou, Anastasia N

    2013-01-01

    Objectives Previous studies suggest that maternal smoking during pregnancy is associated with elevated offspring blood pressure during childhood. We aimed to investigate whether this association remained in late adolescence and, if so, whether it could be attributed to an intrauterine effect or to familial confounding. Methods We used a national cohort of 87 223 young Swedish men born between 1983 and 1988 with information on both maternal smoking during pregnancy and blood pressure at military conscription. The cohort included 780 full brothers discordant for maternal smoking. Generalized estimation equations were used to estimate regression coefficients (b) with 95% confidence intervals (95% CIs). Results We found a small but significant increase in both SBP and DBP for young men whose mothers had been daily smokers during pregnancy compared with sons of nonsmoking mothers: 0.26 (95% CI 0.09 to 0.44) and 0.45mmHg (95% CI 0.31 to 0.59) for SBP and DBP, respectively. In a within-sibling analysis comparing full brothers discordant for maternal smoking exposure, point estimates were similar but not statistically significant: 0.85 (95% CI _0.19 to 1.90) for DBP and 0.81 (_0.56 to 2.19) for SBP. Conclusion Maternal smoking during pregnancy is associated with a small but statistically significant increase in offspring blood pressure in late adolescence. Because the association does not appear to be explained by familial confounding, our results support an intrauterine effect of prenatal smoking exposure on blood pressure in late adolescence. PMID:22388229

  19. Blood pressure and mortality: using offspring blood pressure as an instrument for own blood pressure in the HUNT study

    PubMed Central

    Wade, Kaitlin H; Carslake, David; Ivar Nilsen, Tom; Timpson, Nicholas J; Davey Smith, George; Romundstad, Pål

    2015-01-01

    Given that observational associations may be inaccurate, we used offspring blood pressure (BP) to provide alternative estimates of the associations between own BP and mortality. Observational associations between BP and mortality, estimated as hazard ratios (HRs) from Cox regression, were compared to HRs obtained using offspring BP as an instrumental variable (IV) for own BP (N = 32,227 mother-offspring and 27,535 father-offspring pairs). Observationally, there were positive associations between own BP and mortality from all-causes, cardiovascular disease (CVD), coronary heart disease (CHD), stroke and diabetes. Point estimates of the associations between BP and mortality from all-causes, CVD and CHD were amplified in magnitude when using offspring BP as an IV. For example, the HR for all-cause mortality per standard deviation (SD) increase in own systolic BP (SBP) obtained in conventional observational analyses increased from 1.10 (95% CI: 1.09–1.12; P < 0.0001) to 1.31 (95% CI: 1.19–1.43; P < 0.0001). Additionally, SBP was positively associated with diabetes and cancer mortality (HRs: 2.00; 95% CI: 1.12–3.35; P = 0.02 and 1.20; 95% CI: 1.02–1.42; P = 0.03, respectively), and diastolic BP (DBP) with stroke mortality (HR: 1.30; 95% CI: 1.02–1.66; P = 0.03). Results support positive associations between BP and mortality from all-causes, CVD, and CHD, SBP on cancer mortality, and DBP on stroke mortality. PMID:26198310

  20. A Vision of Reading.

    PubMed

    Grainger, Jonathan; Dufau, Stéphane; Ziegler, Johannes C

    2016-03-01

    Different fields of research within the cognitive sciences have investigated basic processes in reading, but progress has been hampered by limited cross-fertilization. We propose a theoretical framework aimed at facilitating integration of findings obtained via these different approaches with respect to the impact of visual factors on reading. We describe a specialized system for parallel letter processing that assigns letter identities to different locations along the horizontal meridian within the limits imposed by visual acuity and crowding. Spatial attention is used to set up this system during reading development, and difficulty in doing so has repercussions in terms of efficient translation of the orthographic code into its phonological counterpart, and fast access to semantics from print. PMID:26809725

  1. Drugstore Reading Glasses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Erlichson, Herman

    2006-03-01

    The occasion for this paper was my reading of a paper in the February 2005 issue of TPT. As one gets older the near point of the eye begins to recede.2 This is called presbyopia.3 An alternative to purchasing glasses from an optometrist is to purchase an inexpensive pair of reading glasses in a pharmacy. The pharmacy has these glasses ordered by diopters corresponding to the strength of the lens needed for a particular presbyopic eye. The glasses are, of course, not available for myopic eyes.

  2. SOL Tests Create Unfair Pressure.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ernst, Katie

    2000-01-01

    A seventh-grader explains why the Virginia Standards of Learning tests unfairly pressure her and her teachers. She wants her free reading time restored and wishes politicians would worry more about students understanding--not just memorizing--facts. She praises teachers who go beyond the SOL. (MLH)

  3. CC Pressure Test

    SciTech Connect

    Dixon, K.; /Fermilab

    1990-07-12

    The inner vessel heads including bypass and beam tubes had just been welded into place and dye penetrant checked. The vacuum heads were not on at this time but the vacuum shell was on covering the piping penetrating into the inner vessel. Signal boxes with all feed through boards, the instrumentation box, and high voltage boxes were all installed with their pump outs capped. All 1/4-inch instrumentation lines were terminated at their respective shutoff valves. All vacuum piping used for pumping down the inner vessel was isolated using o-ring sealed blind flanges. PV215A (VAT Series 12), the 4-inch VRC gate valve isolating the cyropump, and the rupture disk had to be removed and replaced with blind flanges before pressurizing due to their pressure limitations. Stresses in plates used as blind flanges were checked using Code calcualtions. Before the CC test, vacuum style blanks and clamps were hydrostatically pressure tested to 150% of the maximum test pressure, 60 psig. The Code inspector and Research Division Safety had all given their approval to the test pressure and procedure prior to filling the vessel with argon. The test was a major success. Based on the lack of any distinguishable pressure drop indicated on the pressure gages, the vessel appeared to be structurally sound throughout the duration of the test (approx. 3 hrs.). A major leak in the instrumentation tubing was discovered at half of the maximum test pressure and was quickly isolated by crimping and capping with a compression fitting. There were some slight deviations in the actual procedure used. The 44 psig relief valve located just outside the cleanroom had to be capped until the pressure in the vessel indicated 38 psi. This was to allow higher supply pressures and hence, higher flows through the pressurizing line. Also, in order to get pressure readings at the cryostat without exposing any personnel to the potentially dangerous stored energy near the maximum test pressure, a camera was installed

  4. SchemaOnRead Manual

    SciTech Connect

    North, Michael J.

    2015-09-30

    SchemaOnRead provides tools for implementing schema-on-read including a single function call (e.g., schemaOnRead("filename")) that reads text (TXT), comma separated value (CSV), raster image (BMP, PNG, GIF, TIFF, and JPG), R data (RDS), HDF5, NetCDF, spreadsheet (XLS, XLSX, ODS, and DIF), Weka Attribute-Relation File Format (ARFF), Epi Info (REC), Pajek network (PAJ), R network (NET), Hypertext Markup Language (HTML), SPSS (SAV), Systat (SYS), and Stata (DTA) files. It also recursively reads folders (e.g., schemaOnRead("folder")), returning a nested list of the contained elements.

  5. Vocabulary Assistance before and during Reading

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alessi, Stephen; Dwyer, Angelique

    2008-01-01

    Intermediate learners of Spanish read a Spanish newspaper article with vocabulary assistance either before reading, while reading, both, or without any such assistance. Reading performance was significantly better for students receiving vocabulary assistance during reading, but not for those receiving it before reading. Reading time of the…

  6. A Read-Aloud for Science (Read It Aloud).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Richardson, Judy S.; Breen, Margaret

    1996-01-01

    Recommends a young adult read-aloud selection for science classes on endangered species. Describes listening, writing, discussing, investigating, and debating activities capitalizing on this read-aloud. (SR)

  7. Children with Reading Disorders--I. Efficacy of Reading Remediation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gittelman, Rachel; Feingold, Ingrid

    1983-01-01

    The efficacy of reading remediation, which emphasizes phonic decoding, was examined in 61 children (ages 7 through 13 years) with pure reading disorders. Comparisons between pre- and post intervention data clearly support the efficacy of remediation. (MP)

  8. Differential effect of beetroot bread on postprandial DBP according to Glu298Asp polymorphism in the eNOS gene: a pilot study.

    PubMed

    Hobbs, D A; George, T W; Lovegrove, J A

    2014-12-01

    Our objective was to investigate whether the presence of Glu298Asp polymorphism in the endothelial NO synthase (eNOS) gene differentially affects the postprandial blood pressure response to dietary nitrate-rich beetroot bread. A randomised, single-blind, controlled, crossover acute pilot study was performed in 14 healthy men (mean age: 34±9 years) who were retrospectively genotyped for Glu298Asp polymorphism (7GG; T carriers 7). Volunteers were randomised to receive 200 g beetroot-enriched bread (1.1 mmol nitrate) or control bread (no beetroot; 0.01 mmol nitrate) on two separate occasions 10 days apart. Baseline and incremental area under the curve of blood pressure and NOx (nitrate/nitrite) were measured for a 6-h postprandial period. A treatment × genotype interaction was observed for diastolic blood pressure (P<0.02), which was significantly lower in T carriers (P<0.01) after consumption of beetroot bread compared with control bread. No significant differences were observed in the GG group. The beneficial diastolic blood pressure reduction was observed only in the T carriers of the Glu298Asp polymorphism in the eNOS gene after consumption of nitrate-rich beetroot bread. These data require confirmation in a larger population group. PMID:24670328

  9. Blood pressure

    MedlinePlus Videos and Cool Tools

    Normal blood pressure is important for proper blood flow to the body’s organs and tissues. The force of the blood on the walls of the arteries is called blood pressure. Blood pressure is measured both as the heart ...

  10. Blood pressure

    MedlinePlus Videos and Cool Tools

    Normal blood pressure is important for proper blood flow to the body’s organs and tissues. The force of the blood on the walls of the arteries is called blood pressure. Blood pressure is measured both ...

  11. Reading improvement in English- and Hebrew-speaking children with reading difficulties after reading acceleration training.

    PubMed

    Horowitz-Kraus, Tzipi; Cicchino, Nicole; Amiel, Merav; Holland, Scott K; Breznitz, Zvia

    2014-10-01

    A reading acceleration program known to improve reading fluency in Hebrew-speaking adults was tested for its effect on children. Eighty-nine Hebrew- and English-speaking children with reading difficulties were divided into a waiting list group and two training groups (Hebrew and English) and underwent 4 weeks of reading acceleration training. Results of pre- and post-testing of reading abilities point to a significant main effect of the test, demonstrating improvements in silent contextual reading speed, reading comprehension, and speed of processing in both Hebrew and English training groups as compared to their performance before the intervention. This study indicates that the Reading Acceleration Program might be an effective program for improving reading abilities in children, independent of language. PMID:24919641

  12. Reading, Writing, and Rings!

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aschbacher, Pamela; Li, Erika; Hammon, Art

    2008-01-01

    "Reading, Writing, and Rings!" was created by a team of elementary teachers, literacy experts, and scientists in order to integrate science and literacy. These free units bring students inside NASA's Cassini-Huygens mission to Saturn. The authors--a science teacher and education outreach specialist and two evaluators of educational programs--have…

  13. Speaking of Reading.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rosenthal, Nadine

    Written in the tradition of Studs Terkel, this book presents oral histories of 77 diverse readers (from avid to infrequent readers) about how reading affects their lives. Sprinkled throughout the book are narratives of nationally recognized personalities, such as Maxine Hong-Kingston, Robert MacNeil, Gloria Steinem, Linus Pauling, Julie Harris,…

  14. Reading Crash Course

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Corrall, Inga

    1977-01-01

    The vast majority of children need have no real difficulty with reading. A short, structured course, together with a large amount of effort and goodwill from the teachers, appears to have success at coping with many of those children entering a secondary school as poor or hesitant readers. (Author)

  15. Time for Reading

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Waters, Lindsay

    2007-01-01

    Over the last 50 years, certain ideas have become dominant that make learning to read different than it once was than the ideas that children are neurologically "wired" to use language "competently" in certain ways. Noam Chomsky has promoted the idea that there are certain "syntactic structures" hard-wired in the human brain. That view, the author…

  16. Teaching Reading Vocabulary

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nicholson, Tom; Dymock, Sue

    2010-01-01

    Would you like your students to be excited when they read a new word and keen to work out its meaning straight away? This book will turn them into word detectives, ready to tackle any new word they come across. And when writing, would you like them to make sentences that have interesting and descriptive words like "shamble," "ravenous" or…

  17. Chicano Special Reading Selections.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Feeney, Joan V., Comp.

    The purpose of this selective bibliography of approximately 350 works is to draw the various materials on Mexican American culture together for use by students at different age levels. The materials are separated into lists for preschool and primary, intermediate, and advanced students. The reading selections provide information in the following…

  18. Reading Tailored to Fit?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Trimble, Nan

    1971-01-01

    Relates the experiences of a remedial teacher in Great Britain with an intermediate grade boy suffering from high frequency hearing loss, perceptual weakness, emotional maladjustment, poor speech, and reading difficulty in attempting to provide a program suited to his particular needs. (MB)

  19. Increasing Reading Comprehension.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dixon, Mary; Harris, Linda; McGrath, Marianne; O'Neill, Sheila; Swanson, Sandra

    This report describes a program for improving reading comprehension. The targeted population consists of first, second, third, and fourth grade classrooms in a middle class community located in a suburb of a large midwestern city. The problem regarding poor comprehension skills is evident from teacher observation, student performance, previous…

  20. Reading Current Events Items.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ediger, Marlow

    People who live in a democracy should be well informed of local, state, national, and international happenings. Students should become curious about news items and relate current happenings to the personal self. They must possess skills in word recognition and in diverse kinds of comprehension since reading is an important way to glean current…

  1. Books for Summer Reading.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Phi Delta Kappan, 1993

    1993-01-01

    Recommends fine fiction for summer reading, including Nadine Gordimer's "My Son's Story" (1991), Lillian Smith's "Strange Fruit" (1944), Josephine Hart's "Damage" (1991), Jane Smiley's "A Thousand Acres" (1991), and George Eliot's "Middlemarch" (1874). Nonfiction suggestions include Harlan Lane's "Mask of Benevolence" (1992), Diane Ackerman's "A…

  2. Summative Evaluation in Reading.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ediger, Marlow

    Summative evaluation of student achievement in reading emphasizes determining learner progress at the end of a unit of study, end of course, or end of the school year. Generally, state mandated tests stress an end of the school year percentile which is to indicate the present state of learner achievement. This paper discusses and analyzes…

  3. Mobility and Reading Achievement.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Waters, Theresa Z.

    A study examined the effect of geographic mobility on elementary school students' achievement. Although such mobility, which requires students to make multiple moves among schools, can have a negative impact on academic achievement, the hypothesis for the study was that it was not a determining factor in reading achievement test scores. Subjects…

  4. Personal Achievement Reading: Agriculture.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rozeboom, Deborah A.

    Exercises are provided in a set of five workbooks designed to aid students in agricultural programs in building vocabulary and reading skills. Each workbook borrows from terminology of agriculture to provide explanations and exercises for a sequential series of instructional objectives. One workbook concentrates on the ability to determine word…

  5. Parents & Children Enjoy Reading.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chapman, Madie; Ferris, Angie

    The Parents and Children Enjoy Reading project in the East End of London is an adult literacy and numeracy program based on the principle that one of the strongest motivations for adults entering a basic education program is the desire to be able to help their own children learn. Volunteers work in one-on-one or group tutoring settings to offer…

  6. Reading for Basic Understanding.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mercer County Community Coll., Trenton, NJ.

    This document offers materials for a year-long course on general basic reading skills that was part of a workplace literacy project developed by Mercer County Community College (New Jersey), and its partners. The document contains the following: (1) outlines (each of which contains objectives, a topical outline, and list of textbooks) for two…

  7. Reading in Place

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Price, Leah

    2012-01-01

    The digital age is rendering books more common, not less. It is true that there is nothing new about "furniture books": The trade in reading material has long been dwarfed by the market for coffee-table books, books that steakhouse chains buy by the yard, empty bindings that interior decorators use to accessorize the upholstery. As coffee-table…

  8. Evaluation in Reading.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Randolph, Huberta V., Ed.

    Evaluation in reading must be a continuous process. The assessment of readiness, progress, and mastery in the development of skills, concepts, and behaviors must be an ongoing process if the best decisions are to be made for each learner. The articles included in this yearbook offer a variety of assessment techniques, using both objective and…

  9. Books for Summer Reading.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    [Editors

    2001-01-01

    Teachers and education professors suggest various nonfiction and fiction books for summer reading enjoyment, from Robert Putnam's "Bowling Alone," C.A. Bowers's "Let Them Eat Data," and Larry McMurtry's "Roads: Driving America's Great Highways" to Kent Hauf's "Plainsong, J.M. Coetzee's "Disgrace," and Michael Cunningham's "The Hours." (MLH)

  10. Rystrom Reading Comprehension Test.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rystrom, Richard

    Designed to measure specific dimensions of reading comprehension, the items for this test are based on a comprehension model which suggests that comprehension can be defined as six different skill areas: vocabulary, syntax, item recall, item sequence, interpretation, and evaluation. The test is divided into sections to correspond to each of the…

  11. Saccadic Inhibition in Reading

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reingold, Eyal M.; Stampe, Dave M.

    2004-01-01

    In 5 experiments, participants read text that was briefly replaced by a transient image for 33 ms at random intervals. A decrease in saccadic frequency, referred to as saccadic inhibition, occurred as early as 60-70 ms following the onset of abrupt changes in visual input. It was demonstrated that the saccadic inhibition was influenced by the…

  12. Books for Summer Reading.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Phi Delta Kappan, 2000

    2000-01-01

    Recommends leisurely reading for teachers: biographies on St. Augustine and Charles Lindbergh; novels by Edwidge Danticat, Kate Chopin, and Velma Allis; Edward Tufte's three volumes on the visual presentation of information; Jean Vanier's "Becoming Human;" the Harry Potter series, and Michael Tolkin's novel "The Player." (MLH)

  13. Reading Angles in Maps

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Izard, Véronique; O'Donnell, Evan; Spelke, Elizabeth S.

    2014-01-01

    Preschool children can navigate by simple geometric maps of the environment, but the nature of the geometric relations they use in map reading remains unclear. Here, children were tested specifically on their sensitivity to angle. Forty-eight children (age 47:15-53:30 months) were presented with fragments of geometric maps, in which angle sections…

  14. SEMANTICS AND CRITICAL READING.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    FLANIGAN, MICHAEL C.

    PROFICIENCY IN CRITICAL READING CAN BE ACCELERATED BY MAKING STUDENTS AWARE OF VARIOUS SEMANTIC DEVICES THAT HELP CLARIFY MEANINGS AND PURPOSES. EXCERPTS FROM THE ARTICLE "TEEN-AGE CORRUPTION" FROM THE NINTH-GRADE SEMANTICS UNIT WRITTEN BY THE PROJECT ENGLISH DEMONSTRATION CENTER AT EUCLID, OHIO, ARE USED TO ILLUSTRATE HOW SEMANTICS RELATE TO…

  15. Why Paraprofessionals in Reading?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mauser, August J.

    Although reading paraprofessionals are not to be considered as teacher substitutes, (they are frequently used in routine and mechanical matters, freeing the regular teacher for more individualized instruction and lesson planning), they can make significant contributions in classroom instruction, student motivation, and public relations. Research…

  16. [Focus on Reading Materials.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cooper, J. David, Ed.; Pringle, Dorothy A., Ed.

    1977-01-01

    This journal issue provides information for those involved in making decisions about basal readers. It includes guidelines for establishing a textbook selection committee and for examining instructional materials, a discussion of the adoption of nonsexist textbooks, and reviews of four basal reading series. Regular columns present activity ideas…

  17. Third Grade Reading Policies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rose, Stephanie

    2012-01-01

    In 2012, 14 states passed legislation geared toward improving 3rd-grade literacy through identification, intervention, and/or retention initiatives. Today, a total of 32 states and the District of Columbia have policies in statute aimed at improving 3rd-grade reading proficiency. The majority of these states require early assessment and…

  18. Medication and Reading Disability.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Humphries, Laurie L.

    1981-01-01

    The clinical syndrome which relates most frequently to the reading-disabled child is the attention deficity disorder. The child psychiatrist will generally resort to medication only when behavioral management techniques have failed. The two most frequently used medications are Ritalin and Dexedrine, central nervous system stimulants. (JN)

  19. Reading about Real Scientists

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cummins, Sunday

    2015-01-01

    Although students do need hands-on experiences to master key skills in science, technology, and engineering, Cummins asserts, K-12 teachers should also help students understand key STEM concepts by reading, writing, and talking about the work of professional scientists and engineers. Cummins lists high-quality texts that help young people…

  20. Books Still Worth Reading.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McLeod, Alan M., Ed.

    1983-01-01

    The 10 major articles in this special journal issue deal with literary works designated by individual educators as "still worth reading." The works discussed are (1) "Madeline" by L. Bemelmans; (2) "The Assistant" by B. Malamud; (3) "The Pitfalls for Readers of Fiction" by H. Sample, the first of the pamphlet publications by the National Council…

  1. Celebrate Summer with Reading

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Texley, Juliana

    2007-01-01

    School is out and the summer is full of both official and unofficial holidays that prompt us to enjoy science and the profession of sharing it. As in past years, the reviewers and editors of "NSTA Recommends"--ready and willing to share their enthusiasm for reading with you--have been gathering suggestions for the summer. So along with your beach…

  2. Comprehension Processes in Reading.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Balota, D. A., Ed.; And Others

    Focusing on the process of reading comprehension, this book contains chapters on some central topics relevant to understanding the processes associated with comprehending text. The articles and their authors are as follows: (1) "Comprehension Processes: Introduction" (K. Rayner); (2) "The Role of Meaning in Word Recognition" (D. A. Balota); (3)…

  3. Assessment for Reading Instruction.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McKenna, Michael C.; Stahl, Steven A.

    Combining essential background knowledge with hands-on tools, this practical resource and textbook provides a detailed road map for conducting multidimensional reading assessment. The book presents effective ways to evaluate K-6 students' spelling, word recognition, fluency, comprehension, strategic knowledge, and more. Intended for preservice and…

  4. Reading and Writing Poetry.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hillman, Judith

    Intended for elementary school language arts and reading teachers, this paper presents classroom activities using poetry to encourage divergent thinking and to give children the chance to play with language and to practice English language conventions in order to be effective readers and writers. The 12 activities are (1) combining poetry and…

  5. Conversations on Reading.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fowler, Dottie; Parker, Emelie; Cuda, Suzanne

    1999-01-01

    Three highly acclaimed teachers from Virginia elementary schools reflect on how they have put research into practice to the benefit of their students, discussing their experiences in teaching reading and presenting information on how their school encourages the type of professional-development activities that provide for the careful examination of…

  6. Reading to Learn

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Spor, Mary W.

    2005-01-01

    Reading is fundamental to learning from textbooks and other written materials in all content areas. Unfortunately, most children are brought up on a diet of narrative literature, but by the time they get to third grade, their textbooks are mainly informational (expository) instead of narrative, and sentence structures evolve from simple to…

  7. CALIPSO Data Read Software

    Atmospheric Science Data Center

    2015-11-02

      CALIPSO Data Read Software Callable routines in Interactive Data Language ... Solutions . CALIPSO_READERS_3.5v1 Software (IDL) tar (611.5 KB) zip (261 KB) ... CALIPSO_READERS_3.4v1 Software (IDL) tar  (612.9 KB) zip  (261.4 KB) ...

  8. Terrorism: Current Readings.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    El-Sherbini, Magda

    1990-01-01

    Presents selected readings published in the English language on the subject of terrorism dating from 1985 to the present. Materials covered include books, periodicals, encyclopedias and dictionaries, directories, bibliographies, and online databases that cover definitions of terrorism, psychological and religious aspects of terrorism, and how to…

  9. Reading disorders in children.

    PubMed

    Olitsky, Scott E; Nelson, Leonard B

    2003-02-01

    Reading difficulties are a complex set of disorders. Current research indicates that these disorders are not caused by vision abnormalities. Treatment of these disorders requires a multidisciplinary approach involving educators, psychologists, and physicians. Parents, physicians, and school officials should understand that there are no quick cures for these children. PMID:12713114

  10. Teachers Reading Aloud

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McQuillan, Kristin

    2009-01-01

    Creating research-based expectations and education strategies for all teachers to implement consistently are the beginning steps in giving all students access to standards-based curriculum and in creating readers, writers, and content learners. Reading aloud is one research-based practice that enhances achievement for all students, whether they…

  11. Selecting Microform Reading Equipment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McIntosh, Melinda

    1983-01-01

    Cites sources of information concerning selection of microform reading equipment and provides step-by-step outline of selection process. Defining specific needs for which equipment is used, determining what equipment is being marketed, and examining and evaluating readers' design features in terms of practicability and aesthetics are discussed.…

  12. Reading Graduated Scales.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hall, Lucien T., Jr.

    1982-01-01

    Ways of teaching students to read scales are presented as process instructions that are probably overlooked or taken for granted by most instructors. Scales on such devices as thermometers, rulers, spring scales, speedometers, and thirty-meter tape are discussed. (MP)

  13. Reading as Scientists

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shanahan, Marie-Claire

    2010-01-01

    Using an adapted version of a recently published scientific article, a group of sixth graders worked together identifying conclusions, deciding on appropriate evidence, suggesting improvements for the study, and recommending further investigations for scientists. This experience provided opportunities for these students to use reading to decide on…

  14. Rules or Reading?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ruefle, Anne E.

    2011-01-01

    Research shows that an important step in the development of readers is having access to books. Steven Krashen, in "The Power of Reading," cites multiple studies that demonstrate access to books is crucial in developing strong readers: "the richer the print environment, the better the literacy development." Limiting access runs counter to research…

  15. Extensive Reading in Japanese

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hitosugi, Claire Ikumi; Day, Richard R.

    2004-01-01

    This article discusses how we incorporated an extensive reading (ER) program into a second semester Japanese course at the University of Hawai'i using Japanese children's literature. After summarizing the ten principles of ER, we describe how we addressed six critical issues faced while introducing ER into the course. We also discuss the outcomes…

  16. Construction Print Reading.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marine Corps Inst., Washington, DC.

    Developed as part of the Marine Corps Institute (MCI) correspondence training program, this course on construction print reading is designed to provide Marines of all ranks and Military Occupation Specialities with the basic information to recognize the terms and symbols used in construction prints; it is adaptable for nonmilitary instruction.…

  17. The Reading Connection.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Link, Gordon H.

    A study examined the beliefs of parents in relation to their responsibilities and the school's responsibilities in the area of teaching reading. Parent interviews were conducted with three sets of parents of children receiving remedial instruction and two sets of parents of gifted children, all in fifth grade. All parents were from a rural area…

  18. Personal Achievement Reading: Business.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Swinton, Janet R.

    Exercises are provided in this set of four workbooks designed to aid students in business programs in building vocabulary and reading skills. Each workbook borrows from business terminology to provide explanations and exercises for a sequential series of instructional objectives. One workbook concentrates on developing the ability to determine…

  19. Reading the Future.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nettle, Keith

    Given the strong sense of passing time which seems to be wired into human beings, it is only natural that the Year 2000, or Y2K in contemporary jargon, should lead to serious speculation about the future. Reading and literacy, old skills relatively speaking, continue rightly to figure in those predictions (along with the technologically advanced…

  20. The Right to Read.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kvapil, Charline R.; Schellenberg, Louise S.

    1969-01-01

    A group of citizens in Phoenix, Arizona, in 1968, organized Right to Read, Inc., to combat potential censors. The purpose of the group is "to promote freedom of access to knowledge and to resist interference with that freedom," especially in schools and libraries. The members hope to improve the community climate before issues on censorship arise…