Sample records for pressure palsies hnpp

  1. Characteristic features of hereditary neuropathy with liability to pressure palsy (HNPP) presenting with brachial plexopathy in soldiers.

    PubMed

    Kim, Kyoung-Eun

    2014-11-15

    A brachial plexus lesion is not common in hereditary neuropathy with liability to pressure palsy (HNPP). We report the clinical and electrodiagnostic features of young soldiers with HNPP presenting with brachial plexopathy. By reviewing 2year medical records from Korean military hospitals, we identified soldiers with brachial plexus lesions. Among them, patients diagnosed with HNPP were determined and clinical and electrophysiological findings were compared between HNPP and non-HNPP patients with a brachial plexus lesion. Thirteen patients (6.8%) were diagnosed with HNPP among 189 patients with a brachial plexus lesion. Push-ups, as either a punishment or an exercise, was the most frequent preceding event in HNPP patients (76.9%), whereas it was rare in non-HNPP patients. The distal motor latency of the median nerve showed the highest sensitivity (90.9%) and specificity (100%) for HNPP in patients with a brachial plexus lesion. In conclusion, HNPP should be suspected in patients with brachial plexopathy if brachial plexopathy develops after push-ups or if the distal motor latency of median nerves is prolonged. PMID:25175852

  2. Molecular genetic analysis of the 17p11.2 region in patients with hereditary neuropathy with liability to pressure palsies (HNPP).

    PubMed

    Timmerman, V; Löfgren, A; Le Guern, E; Liang, P; De Jonghe, P; Martin, J J; Verhalle, D; Robberecht, W; Gouider, R; Brice, A; Van Broeckhoven, C

    1996-01-01

    Hereditary neuropathy with liability to pressure palsies (HNPP) is in most cases associated with an interstitial deletion of the same 1.5-Mb region at 17p11.2 that is duplicated in Charcot-Marie-Tooth type 1A (CMT1A) patients. Unequal crossing-over following misalignment at flanking repeat sequences (CMT1A-REP), either leads to tandem duplication in CMT1A patients or deletion in HNPP patients. With the use of polymorphic DNA markers located within the CMT1A/HNPP duplication/deletion region we detected the HNPP deletion in 16 unrelated HNPP patients, 11 of Belgian and 5 of French origin. In all cases, the 1.5-Mb size of the HNPP deletion was confirmed by EcoRI dosage analysis using a CMT1A-REP probe. In the 16 HNPP patients, the same 370/320-kb EagI deletion-junction fragments were detected with pulsed field gel electrophoresis (PFGE), while in CMT1A patients, a 150-kb EagI duplication-junction fragment was seen. Thus, PFGE analysis of EagI-digested DNA with a CMT1A-REP probe allows direct detection of the HNPP deletion or the CMT1A duplication for DNA diagnostic purposes. PMID:8557256

  3. A de novo case of hereditary neuropathy with liability to pressure palsies (HNPP) of maternal origin: a new mechanism for deletion in 17p11.2?

    PubMed

    LeGuern, E; Gouider, R; Ravisé, N; Lopes, J; Tardieu, S; Gugenheim, M; Abbas, N; Bouche, P; Agid, Y; Brice, A

    1996-01-01

    Hereditary neuropathy with liability to pressure palsies (HNPP) is an autosomal dominant neuropathy, most often associated with a deletion of the 17p11.2 region, which is duplicated in 70% of patients with Charcot-Marie-Tooth type 1 (CMT1A). Most de novo CMT1A and HNPP cases have been of paternal origin. A rare case of de novo HNPP of maternal origin was analysed to determine the underlying mechanism. Affected individuals in the family carried a deletion corresponding to the CMT1A/HNPP monomer unit associated with a rearrangement of the CMT1A-REP sequences. Segregation analysis of 17p11-p12 markers in the family indicated that the deletion was not generated by unequal crossing over between homologous 17 chromosomes, as in de novo cases from paternal origin, but rather by an intrachromosomal rearrangement. Two distinct mechanisms can therefore lead to the same 17p11.2 deletion. This result suggests that intrachromosomal rearrangement may be specific to maternal transmissions. PMID:8789446

  4. Microsatellite mapping of the deletion in patients with hereditary neuropathy with liability to pressure palsies (HNPP): new molecular tools for the study of the region 17p12 --> p11 and for diagnosis.

    PubMed

    LeGuern, E; Ravise, N; Gouider, R; Gugenheim, M; Lopes, J; Bouche, P; Agid, Y; Brice, A

    1996-01-01

    Hereditary neuropathy with liability to pressure palsies (HNPP) is an autosomal dominant peripheral neuropathy characterized by recurrent episodes of nerve palsies. We have analyzed 11 microsatellite markers from chromosome 17p12 --> p11 in nine French families with HNPP. The three microsatellites D17S839 (afm200yb12), D17S955 (afm317ygl), and D17S921 (afm191xh12) were localized in the deleted region. In allele segregation analyses, the microsatellite D17S793 (afm165zd4) detected two chromosome 17-linked loci, one of which was deleted in HNPP patients. Using these STR markers, we found that the deletion coincided with the CMT1A/HNPP monomer unit in eight of the nine families. In the remaining pedigree, the deletion lay between the centromeric microsatellite D17S805 (afm234tal) and the telomeric marker D17S922 (afm197xh6), which flank the CMT1A monomer unit. Comparison of these data with the available genetic and physical maps of 17p12 --> p11 shows that this region, which is frequently subject to rearrangement-inducing diseases, such as Smith-Magenis syndrome, Charcot-Marie-Tooth type 1A, and HNPP, presents recombination hot spots. Finally, this study demonstrates the usefulness of the D17S122 (RM11GT) and D17S921 (afm191xh12) microsatellites as tools for the molecular diagnosis of HNPP. PMID:8565626

  5. Screening of the 17p11.2--p12 region in a large cohort of patients with Charcot-Marie-Tooth (CMT) disease or hereditary neuropathy with liability to pressure palsies (HNPP).

    PubMed

    Kabzinska, D; Pierscinska, J; Kochanski, A

    2009-01-01

    Within the last decade, numerous methods have been applied to detect the most common mutation in patients affected with Charcot-Marie-Tooth (CMT) disease, i.e. submicroscopic duplication in the 17p11.2--p12 region. In 1993, another neuropathy - known as hereditary neuropathy with liability to pressure palsies (HNPP) - has been shown to be caused by a 17p11.2--p12 deletion. Historically, Southern blot analysis was the first approach to identify CMT1A duplication or HNPP deletion. This time- and labor-consuming method requires prior selection of DNA samples. In fact, only CMT patients affected with the demyelinating form of CMT1 have been screened for CMT1A duplication. After the 17p11.2--p12 duplication was identified in the CMT1 families, subsequent studies revealed additional axonal features in the patients harboring the 17p11.2--p12 duplication. Thus it seems reasonable to test all patients affected with CMT for the presence of the 17p11.2--p12 duplication. To evaluate the utility of real-time polymerase chain reaction (Q-PCR) and restriction fragment length polymorphism PCR (RFLP-PCR), we screened a large group of 179 families with the diagnosis of CMT/HNPP for the presence of the 17p11.2--p12 duplication/deletion. Due to a high frequency of CMT1A duplication in familial cases of CMT, we propose (in contrast to the previous studies) to perform Q-PCR analysis in all patients diagnosed with CMT. PMID:19638685

  6. Is carpal tunnel decompression warranted for HNPP?

    PubMed

    Earle, Nicholas; Zochodne, Douglas W

    2013-12-01

    The role of carpal tunnel decompression surgery for patients that have hereditary neuropathy with liability to pressure palsy (HNPP) is currently unknown. Since recovery from carpal tunnel compression is often associated with remyelination or nodal reconstruction rather than axonal regeneration, it is uncertain whether the PMP22 deletion associated with HNPP interrupts myelin or nodal reconstitution. We describe two patients with genetically confirmed HNPP and symptomatic carpal tunnel syndrome that had clinical and electrophysiological improvement after surgical decompression. The findings indicate a capacity for conduction repair in HNPP. They also suggest a need for further investigation and discussion around whether to offer carpal tunnel decompression to symptomatic HNPP patients. PMID:24171697

  7. A newly identified Thr99fsX110 mutation in the PMP22 gene associated with an atypical phenotype of the hereditary neuropathy with liability to pressure palsies.

    PubMed

    Moszy?ska, Izabela; Kabzi?ska, Dagmara; Sinkiewicz-Darol, Elena; Kocha?ski, Andrzej

    2009-01-01

    Hereditary neuropathy with liability to pressure palsies (HNPP) is manifested by a spectrum of phenotypes, from the classical HNPP course associated with intermittent nerve palsies to a neuropathy resembling Charcot-Marie-Tooth type 1 (CMT1) disease. The majority of HNPP cases are associated with submicroscopical deletions in the 17p11.2-p12 region containing the PMP22 gene, while PMP22 point mutations are rare, representing about 15% of HNPP cases. In this study, we present a patient manifesting with atypical HNPP phenotype associated with a new Thr99fsX110 mutation in the PMP22 gene. We conclude that all patients who fulfill the electrophysiological criteria of HNPP, even if they lack the typical HNPP phenotype, should be tested for point mutations in the PMP22 gene. PMID:19830275

  8. Hereditary neuralgic amyotrophy and hereditary neuropathy with liability to pressure palsies: two distinct clinical, electrophysiologic, and genetic entities.

    PubMed

    Gouider, R; LeGuern, E; Emile, J; Tardieu, S; Cabon, F; Samid, M; Weissenbach, J; Agid, Y; Bouche, P; Brice, A

    1994-12-01

    Hereditary neuralgic amyotrophy (HNA) is an autosomal disease characterized by painful episodes of brachial palsy. The presence of tomacula in some patients suggested that HNA might be genetically related to hereditary neuropathy with liability to pressure palsies (HNPP), caused by point mutations in the PMP22 gene or deletion of the region containing this gene. In a clinical, electrophysiologic, and molecular study of two families with HNA, we show that the PMP22 gene is not deleted, duplicated, or mutated in HNA and that the disease is not linked to any other gene in the HNPP deleted region. We conclude that HNA and HNPP are distinct genetic entities. PMID:7991107

  9. Clinical, electrophysiological and magnetic resonance findings in a family with hereditary neuropathy with liability to pressure palsies caused by a novel PMP22 mutation.

    PubMed

    Yurrebaso, Izaskun; Casado, Oscar L; Barcena, Joseba; Perez de Nanclares, Guiomar; Aguirre, Urko

    2014-01-01

    Hereditary neuropathy with liability to pressure palsies (HNPP) is a disorder mainly caused by a 1.5-Mb deletion at 17p11.2-12 (and in some rare cases by point mutations) and clinically associated with recurrent painless palsies. Here, we performed electrophysiological (motor, sensory and terminal latency index), MRI and genetic studies in a family referred for ulnar neuropathy with pain. Surprisingly, we found typical neurophysiological features of HNPP (prolongation of distal motor latencies and diffuse SNCV slowing with significant slowing of motor nerve conduction velocities). Besides, the proband presented conduction block in left ulnar, left median and both peroneal nerves. MRI findings were consistent with an underlying neuropathy. Molecular studies identified a novel frameshift mutation in PMP22 confirming the diagnosis of HNPP. Our data suggest that neurophysiological studies are essential to characterize underdiagnosed HNPP patients referred for peripheral neuropathy. Our experience shows that MRI could be a complementary tool for the diagnosis of these patients. PMID:24239057

  10. Clinical, electrophysiologic, and molecular correlations in 13 families with hereditary neuropathy with liability to pressure palsies and a chromosome 17p11.2 deletion.

    PubMed

    Gouider, R; LeGuern, E; Gugenheim, M; Tardieu, S; Maisonobe, T; Léger, J M; Vallat, J M; Agid, Y; Bouche, P; Brice, A

    1995-11-01

    Hereditary neuropathy with liability to pressure palsies (HNPP) is an autosomal dominant disease characterized by recurrent episodes of acute nerve palsies. We performed a clinical, electrophysiologic, and molecular study of 13 French families with HNPP associated with a chromosome 17p11.2 deletion in 36 individuals. There were electrophysiologic abnormalities in all symptomatic (n = 28) and asymptomatic (n = 8) deletion carriers, even in childhood. Bilateral delayed distal motor latency of the median nerve at the wrist, reduced sensory velocity in the palm-wrist segment, and delayed distal motor latency or reduced motor velocity in the peroneal nerve was diagnostic in at-risk relatives. This large series confirms the reliability of molecular analysis combined with a simplified electrophysiologic examination for the diagnosis of HNPP associated with 17p11.2 deletion. PMID:7501152

  11. Detection of the CMT1A/HNPP recombination hotspot in unrelated patients of European descent.

    PubMed Central

    Timmerman, V; Rautenstrauss, B; Reiter, L T; Koeuth, T; Löfgren, A; Liehr, T; Nelis, E; Bathke, K D; De Jonghe, P; Grehl, H; Martin, J J; Lupski, J R; Van Broeckhoven, C

    1997-01-01

    Charcot-Marie-Tooth type 1 disease (CMT1) and hereditary neuropathy with liability to pressure palsies (HNPP) are common inherited disorders of the peripheral nervous system. The majority of CMT1 patients have a 1.5Mb tandem duplication (CMT1A) in chromosome 17p11.2 while most HNPP patients have a deletion of the same 1.5 Mb region. The CMT1A duplication and HNPP deletion are the reciprocal products of an unequal crossing over event between misaligned flanking CMT1A-REP elements. We analysed 162 unrelated CMT1A duplication patients and HNPP deletion patients from 11 different countries for the presence of a recombination hotspot in the CMT1A-REP sequences. A hotspot for unequal crossing over between the misaligned flanking CMT1A-REP elements was observed through the detection of novel junction fragments in 76.9% of 130 unrelated CMT1A patients and in 71.9% of 32 unrelated HNPP patients. This recombination hotspot was also detected in eight out of 10 de novo CMT1A duplication and in two de novo HNPP deletion patients. These data indicate that the hotspot of unequal crossing over occurs in several populations independently of ethnic background and is directly involved in the pathogenesis of CMT1A and HNPP. We conclude that the detection of junction fragments from the CMT1A-REP element on Southern blot analysis is a simple and reliable DNA diagnostic tool for the identification of the CMT1A duplication and HNPP deletion in most patients. Images PMID:9032649

  12. The LITAF/SIMPLE I92V sequence variant results in an earlier age of onset of CMT1A/HNPP diseases.

    PubMed

    Sinkiewicz-Darol, Elena; Lacerda, Andressa Ferreira; Kostera-Pruszczyk, Anna; Potulska-Chromik, Anna; Soko?owska, Beata; Kabzi?ska, Dagmara; Brunetti, Craig R; Hausmanowa-Petrusewicz, Irena; Kocha?ski, Andrzej

    2015-01-01

    Charcot-Marie-Tooth disease type 1A (CMT1A) and hereditary neuropathy with liability to pressure palsies (HNPP) represent the most common heritable neuromuscular disorders. Molecular diagnostics of CMT1A/HNPP diseases confirm clinical diagnosis, but their value is limited to the clinical course and prognosis. However, no biomarkers of CMT1A/HNPP have been identified. We decided to explore if the LITAF/SIMPLE gene shared a functional link to the PMP22 gene, whose duplication or deletion results in CMT1A and HNPP, respectively. By studying a large cohort of CMT1A/HNPP-affected patients, we found that the LITAF I92V sequence variant predisposes patients to an earlier age of onset of both the CMT1A and HNPP diseases. Using cell transfection experiments, we showed that the LITAF I92V sequence variant partially mislocalizes to the mitochondria in contrast to wild-type LITAF which localizes to the late endosome/lysosomes and is associated with a tendency for PMP22 to accumulate in the cells. Overall, this study shows that the I92V LITAF sequence variant would be a good candidate for a biomarker in the case of the CMT1A/HNPP disorders. PMID:25342198

  13. Uncompacted myelin in hereditary neuropathy with liability to pressure palsies with the 17 p11.2 deletion.

    PubMed

    Jedrzejowska, H; Fidzia?ska, A; Kocha?ski, A

    1999-01-01

    A 16-year-old girl with a typical features of hereditary neuropathy with liability to pressure palsies (HNPP) and deletion on chromosome 17p11.2 was described. In the mother who was asymptomatic the same genetic defect was found. In a sural nerve biopsy obtained from the girl myelin thickenings characteristic for this disease and de- and remyelination in nerve fibers were found. Special attention was paid to the occurrence of uncompacted myelin, which was present in diffuse and focal forms. It is concluded that high amount of uncompacted myelin is characteristic for HNPP and it is probably related to the under-expression of peripheral myelin protein 22. PMID:10705641

  14. Overlap phenotype between CMT1A and hereditary neuropathy with liability to pressure palsies caused by the novel small in-frame deletion c.407_418del12 in PMP22 gene.

    PubMed

    Vill, Katharina; Kuhn, Marius; Gläser, Dieter; Müller-Felber, Wolfgang

    2015-02-01

    We report monozygotic twins, who presented with a clinical picture of Charcot-Marie-Tooth disease type 1 (CMT1) with bilateral foot drop, pes cavus, thoracic kyphosis, and scoliosis. Hereditary neuropathy with liability to pressure palsies (HNPP) showed up in one of them. Neurography showed demyelinating neuropathy, typical for CMT1, and transient conduction block in the ulnar nerve correlating with clinical ulnar palsy due to minor mechanical stress in only one of them. Genetic analysis revealed novel small de novo deletion c.407_418del12 in the PMP22 gene. Our patient shows the rarely reported combination of CMT1A and HNPP, caused by an in-frame deletion in the PMP22 gene. HNPP is in the majority of cases correlated with heterozygous deletion of the whole PMP22 gene or other mutations leading to functional haploinsufficiency. The cases give further evidence that pathogenesis of HNPP is not completely understood and can obviously result from existence of a defective protein, too. The intrafamiliar phenotypic variability, even in monozygotic twins, confirms the well-known fact that factors apart from genetics contribute to the clinical course. PMID:25265422

  15. A new quantitative PCR multiplex assay for rapid analysis of chromosome 17p11.2-12 duplications and deletions leading to HMSN\\/HNPP

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Christian T Thiel; Cornelia Kraus; Anita Rauch; Arif B Ekici; Bernd Rautenstrauss; André Reis

    2003-01-01

    A 1.4-Mb tandem duplication, including the gene for peripheral myelin protein 22 (PMP22) in chromosome 17p11.2-12 is responsible for 70% of the cases of the demyelinating type 1 of Charcot-Marie-Tooth disease or hereditary motor and sensory neuropathy I (CMT1A\\/HMSN I). A reciprocal deletion of this CMT1A region causes the hereditary neuropathy with liability to pressure palsies (HNPP). The CMT1A duplication

  16. Genetics Home Reference: Hereditary neuropathy with liability to pressure palsies

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Recent literature OMIM Genetic disorder catalog Conditions > Hereditary neuropathy with liability to pressure palsies On this page: ... Glossary definitions Reviewed April 2007 What is hereditary neuropathy with liability to pressure palsies? Hereditary neuropathy with ...

  17. Hereditary Neuropathy with Liability to Pressure Palsy Presenting as an Acute Brachial Plexopathy: A Lover's Palsy

    PubMed Central

    Wedderburn, Sarah; Pateria, Puraskar; Panegyres, Peter K.

    2014-01-01

    It is generally regarded that patients with hereditary neuropathy to pressure palsies, due to a deletion in the PMP22 gene, show recurrent pressure palsy and generalised peripheral neuropathy (pes cavus and hammer toes sometimes develop). Brachial plexopathy is rarely identified as a first presentation of hereditary neuropathy to pressure palsies. We describe a young man who developed a painless flail upper limb with a clinical diagnosis of a brachial plexopathy after his partner slept on his arm – a PMP22 deletion was found. His father, who had a symmetrical polyneuropathy without recurrent mononeuropathies, shared the PMP22 deletion. PMID:25685136

  18. Human meiotic recombination products revealed by sequencing a hotspot for homologous strand exchange in multiple HNPP deletion patients.

    PubMed Central

    Reiter, L T; Hastings, P J; Nelis, E; De Jonghe, P; Van Broeckhoven, C; Lupski, J R

    1998-01-01

    The HNPP (hereditary neuropathy with liability to pressure palsies) deletion and CMT1A (Charcot-Marie-Tooth disease type 1A) duplication are the reciprocal products of homologous recombination events between misaligned flanking CMT1A-REP repeats on chromosome 17p11. 2-p12. A 1.7-kb hotspot for homologous recombination was previously identified wherein the relative risk of an exchange event is 50 times higher than in the surrounding 98.7% identical sequence shared by the CMT1A-REPs. To refine the region of exchange further, we designed a PCR strategy to amplify the recombinant CMT1A-REP from HNPP patients as well as the proximal and distal CMT1A-REPs from control individuals. By comparing the sequences across recombinant CMT1A-REPs to that of the proximal and distal CMT1A-REPs, the exchange was mapped to a 557-bp region within the previously identified 1.7-kb hotspot in 21 of 23 unrelated HNPP deletion patients. Two patients had recombined sequences suggesting an exchange event closer to the mariner-like element previously identified near the hotspot. Five individuals also had interspersed patches of proximal or distal repeat specific DNA sequence indicating potential gene conversion during the exchange of genetic material. Our studies provide a direct observation of human meiotic recombination products. These results are consistent with the hypothesis that minimum efficient processing segments, which have been characterized in Escherichia coli, yeast, and cultured mammalian cells, may be required for efficient homologous meiotic recombination in humans. PMID:9545397

  19. Recombination hot spot in a 3.2-kb region of the Charcot-Marie-Tooth type 1A repeat sequences: new tools for molecular diagnosis of hereditary neuropathy with liability to pressure palsies and of Charcot-Marie-Tooth type 1A. French CMT Collaborative Research Group.

    PubMed Central

    Lopes, J.; LeGuern, E.; Gouider, R.; Tardieu, S.; Abbas, N.; Birouk, N.; Gugenheim, M.; Bouche, P.; Agid, Y.; Brice, A.

    1996-01-01

    Charcot-Marie-Tooth type 1A (CMT1A) disease and hereditary neuropathy with liability to pressure palsies (HNPP) are autosomal dominant neuropathies, associated, respectively, with duplications and deletions of the same 1.5-Mb region on 17p11.2-p12. These two rearrangements are the reciprocal products of an unequal meiotic crossover between the two chromosome 17 homologues, caused by the misalignment of the CMT1A repeat sequences (CMT1A-REPs), the homologous sequences flanking the 1.5-Mb CMT1A/HNPP monomer unit. In order to map recombination breakpoints within the CMT1A-REPs, a 12.9-kb restriction map was constructed from cloned EcoRI fragments of the proximal and distal CMT1A-REPs. Only 3 of the 17 tested restriction sites were present in the proximal CMT1A-REP but absent in the distal CMT1A-REP, indicating a high degree of homology between these sequences. The rearrangements were mapped in four regions of the CMT1A-REPs by analysis of 76 CMT1A index cases and 38 HNPP patients, who where unrelated. A hot spot of crossover breakpoints, located in a 3.2-kb region, accounted for three-quarters of the rearrangements, detected after EcoRI/SacI digestion, by the presence of 3.2-kb and 7.8-kb junction fragments in CMT1A and HNPP patients, respectively. These junction fragments, which can be detected on classical Southern blots, permit molecular diagnosis. Other rearrangements can also be detected by gene dosage on the same Southern blots. Images Figure 2 Figure 3 PMID:8651299

  20. Recombination hot spot in a 3.2-kb region of the Charcot-Marie-Tooth type 1A repeat sequences: new tools for molecular diagnosis of hereditary neuropathy with liability to pressure palsies and of Charcot-Marie-Tooth type 1A. French CMT Collaborative Research Group.

    PubMed

    Lopes, J; LeGuern, E; Gouider, R; Tardieu, S; Abbas, N; Birouk, N; Gugenheim, M; Bouche, P; Agid, Y; Brice, A

    1996-06-01

    Charcot-Marie-Tooth type 1A (CMT1A) disease and hereditary neuropathy with liability to pressure palsies (HNPP) are autosomal dominant neuropathies, associated, respectively, with duplications and deletions of the same 1.5-Mb region on 17p11.2-p12. These two rearrangements are the reciprocal products of an unequal meiotic crossover between the two chromosome 17 homologues, caused by the misalignment of the CMT1A repeat sequences (CMT1A-REPs), the homologous sequences flanking the 1.5-Mb CMT1A/HNPP monomer unit. In order to map recombination breakpoints within the CMT1A-REPs, a 12.9-kb restriction map was constructed from cloned EcoRI fragments of the proximal and distal CMT1A-REPs. Only 3 of the 17 tested restriction sites were present in the proximal CMT1A-REP but absent in the distal CMT1A-REP, indicating a high degree of homology between these sequences. The rearrangements were mapped in four regions of the CMT1A-REPs by analysis of 76 CMT1A index cases and 38 HNPP patients, who where unrelated. A hot spot of crossover breakpoints, located in a 3.2-kb region, accounted for three-quarters of the rearrangements, detected after EcoRI/SacI digestion, by the presence of 3.2-kb and 7.8-kb junction fragments in CMT1A and HNPP patients, respectively. These junction fragments, which can be detected on classical Southern blots, permit molecular diagnosis. Other rearrangements can also be detected by gene dosage on the same Southern blots. PMID:8651299

  1. Lack of autonomic nervous dysfunction in progressive supranuclear palsy, a study of blood pressure variability

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Christine Brefel-Courbon; Claire Thalamas; Oliver Rascol; Jean-Louis Montastruc; Jean-Michel Senard

    2000-01-01

    Blood pressure and heart rate variability were analyzed in eight patients with progressive supranuclear palsy in comparison with two control groups (10 healthy patients and 10 patients with multiple system atrophy). Blood pressure and heart rate were recorded using digital photoplethysmography with the patient in supine position and during a head-up-tilt test (70° for 10 minutes). Spectral analysis was performed

  2. Cerebral Palsy

    MedlinePLUS

    ... do just what everyone else does. What Is Cerebral Palsy? Cerebral palsy (CP for short) is a disorder ... part of the brain is involved. How Does Cerebral Palsy Affect People? The three types of cerebral palsy ...

  3. Cerebral Palsy

    MedlinePLUS

    Cerebral palsy is a group of disorders that affect a person's ability to move and to maintain balance ... do not get worse over time. People with cerebral palsy may have difficulty walking. They may also have ...

  4. Cerebral palsy

    MedlinePLUS

    Cerebral palsy is a group of disorders that can involve brain and nervous system functions, such as movement, ... and thinking. There are several different types of cerebral palsy, including spastic, dyskinetic, ataxic, hypotonic, and mixed.

  5. Bell's Palsy

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Bell's palsy can happen when someone has a viral infection like herpes (the virus that causes cold sores ), Epstein-Barr (the virus that causes mono ), or the flu . Someone who is infected with Lyme ... everyone who has a viral infection or Lyme disease will get Bell's palsy — most ...

  6. Cerebral palsy - resources

    MedlinePLUS

    Resources - cerebral palsy ... The following organizations are good resources for information on cerebral palsy : National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke - www.ninds.nih.gov/disorders/cerebral_palsy/cerebral_palsy. ...

  7. Conjugate Gaze Palsies

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Nerve Disorders Overview of the Cranial Nerves Internuclear Ophthalmoplegia Conjugate Gaze Palsies Palsies of Cranial Nerves That ... Nerve Disorders Overview of the Cranial Nerves Internuclear Ophthalmoplegia Conjugate Gaze Palsies Palsies of Cranial Nerves That ...

  8. Bell's Palsy

    MedlinePLUS

    ... conditions that cause injuries and damage to nerves. Knowledge gained from this research may help scientists find the definitive cause of Bell's palsy, leading to the discovery of new effective treatments for the disorder. Other ...

  9. Bell's Palsy

    MedlinePLUS

    ... to Z Age-related Macular Degeneration (AMD) Allergies Amblyopia (Lazy Eye) Astigmatism Bacterial Keratitis Bell's Palsy Blepharitis ... Refractive Surgery & LASIK Sunglasses Living EyeSmart About Ophthalmologists Adults Under 40 Adults 40 to 60 Adults Over ...

  10. Continuous positive airway pressure with pressure support ventilation is effective in treating acute-onset bilateral recurrent laryngeal nerve palsy.

    PubMed

    Leung, Yiuka; Fikry, Karim; Shah, Bhavika; Madapu, Manokanth; Gaz, Randall D; Leffert, Lisa R; Jiang, Yandong

    2015-06-01

    Acute bilateral recurrent laryngeal nerve injury leading to acute vocal cord paralysis (VCP) is a serious complication of head and neck surgery, often requiring emergent surgical intervention. Although well documented, its presentation may be sudden and unexpected, occurring despite lack of obvious intraoperative nerve injury. There is limited literature on airway management strategies for patients with acute bilateral VCP before attaining a secure airway. We report a case of acute VCP that was successfully treated with continuous positive airway pressure via facemask ventilation. This effective temporizing strategy allowed clinicians to plan and prepare for tracheostomy, minimizing potential complications. PMID:26035222

  11. Cerebral Palsy (For Parents)

    MedlinePLUS

    ... child who is living with the condition. About Cerebral Palsy Cerebral palsy is one of the most common ... does not get worse over time. Causes of Cerebral Palsy The exact causes of most cases of CP ...

  12. Cerebral Palsy

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Patient Education Institute

    This patient education program explains cerebral palsy (CP), the causes and risk factors, symptoms and complications, diagnosis, prevention, and treatment options. It also reviews brain anatomy, particularly that of the motor skills areas. This resource is a MedlinePlus Interactive Health Tutorial from the National Library of Medicine, designed and developed by the Patient Education Institute. NOTE: This tutorial requires a special Flash plug-in, version 4 or above. If you do not have Flash, you will be prompted to obtain a free download of the software before you start the tutorial. You will also need an Acrobat Reader, available as a free download, in order to view the Reference Summary.

  13. [Etiology of cerebral palsy].

    PubMed

    Jaisle, F

    1996-01-01

    The "perinatal asphyxia" is regarded to be one of the causes of cerebral palsy, though in the very most of the children with cerebral palsy there is found no hypoxia during labour. It should be mentioned, that the definition of "perinatal" and "asphyxia" neither are unic nor concret. And also there is no correlation between nonreassuring fetal heart rate patterns and acidosis in fetal blood with the incidence of cerebral palsy. Numerous studies in pregnant animals failed in proving an acute intrapartal hypoxia to be the origin of the cerebral palsy. Myers (1975) describes four patterns of anatomic brain damage after different injuries. Only his so called oligo-acidotic hypoxia, which is protracted and lasts over a longer time is leading to brain injury, which can be regarded in analogy to the injury of children with cerebral palsy. Summarising the update publications about the causes of cerebral palsy and the studies in pregnant animals there is no evidence that hypoxia during labour may be the cause of cerebral palsy. There is a great probability of a pre(and post-)natal origin of brain injury (for instance a periventricular leucomalacia found after birth) which leads to cerebral palsy. Short after labour signs of a so called "asphyxia" may occur in addition to this preexisting injury and misrepresent the cause of cerebral palsy. Finally the prepartal injury may cause both: Cerebral palsy and hypoxia. PMID:9035826

  14. Progressive Supranuclear Palsy

    MedlinePLUS

    Progressive supranuclear palsy (PSP) is a rare brain disease. It affects brain cells that control the movement of your eyes. This leads to ... speech, vision and swallowing problems. Doctors sometimes confuse PSP with Parkinson's disease or Alzheimer's disease. PSP has ...

  15. Bell's Palsy Symptoms

    MedlinePLUS

    ... to Z Age-related Macular Degeneration (AMD) Allergies Amblyopia (Lazy Eye) Astigmatism Bacterial Keratitis Bell's Palsy Blepharitis ... Refractive Surgery & LASIK Sunglasses Living EyeSmart About Ophthalmologists Adults Under 40 Adults 40 to 60 Adults Over ...

  16. Bell's Palsy Treatment

    MedlinePLUS

    ... to Z Age-related Macular Degeneration (AMD) Allergies Amblyopia (Lazy Eye) Astigmatism Bacterial Keratitis Bell's Palsy Blepharitis ... Refractive Surgery & LASIK Sunglasses Living EyeSmart About Ophthalmologists Adults Under 40 Adults 40 to 60 Adults Over ...

  17. Transient Oculomotor Palsy after Influenza Vaccination: Short Report

    PubMed Central

    de Almeida, Diogo Fraxino; Teodoro, Adilson Teixeira; Radaeli, Rafael de Figueiredo

    2011-01-01

    Several neurological complications have been described after influenza vaccination. Oculomotor palsy has not been yet related with influenza vaccine. We report a 79-year-old man who developed an acute transient right oculomotor palsy two days after a routine influenza vaccination, for which no other cause was identified. There was no evidence of diabetes, glucose intolerance, high blood pressure, hipercholesterolemia, smoking, obesity, systemic vasculitis, or other risk factor for ischemic neuropathy. The cerebrospinal fluid was normal as well as the MRI and MRA scans. The differential diagnosis and the possible relationship between the vaccine and the oculomotor palsy are discussed. PMID:22389831

  18. Rapid Real-Time Fluorescent PCR Gene Dosage Test for the Diagnosis of DNA Duplications and Deletions

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Clara Ruiz-Ponte; Lourdes Loidi; Ana Vega; Angel Carracedo; Francisco Barros

    2000-01-01

    Background: Current methods to determine gene dos- age are time-consuming and labor-intensive. We de- scribe a new and rapid method to assess gene copy number for identification of DNA duplications or dele- tions occurring in Charcot-Marie-Tooth disease type 1A (CMT1A) and hereditary neuropathy with liability to pressure palsies (HNPP), respectively. Methods: We studied 16 patients with HNPP, 4 with CMT1A,

  19. Histological Perspective of Cerebral Palsy

    E-print Network

    Gleeson, Joseph G.

    Page 1 Histological Perspective of Cerebral Palsy Lucas Smith 18 November 2008 #12;Page 2 Cerebral Palsy Background Incidence of 2 per 1,000 live births in developed nations Spectrum Disease - Orthotics/Braces - Baclofen - BOTOX - Surgery Graham H, Selber P. Musculoskeletal aspects of cerebral palsy

  20. Cerebral palsy and multiple births

    Microsoft Academic Search

    P O Pharoah; T Cooke

    1996-01-01

    AIM: To compare the birthweight specific prevalence of cerebral palsy in singleton and multiple births. METHODS: Registered births of babies with cerebral palsy born to mothers resident in the counties of Merseyside and Cheshire during the period 1982 to 1989 were ascertained. RESULTS: The crude prevalence of cerebral palsy was 2.3 per 1000 infant survivors in singletons, 12.6 in twins,

  1. Cerebral Palsy Litigation

    PubMed Central

    Sartwelle, Thomas P.

    2015-01-01

    The cardinal driver of cerebral palsy litigation is electronic fetal monitoring, which has continued unabated for 40 years. Electronic fetal monitoring, however, is based on 19th-century childbirth myths, a virtually nonexistent scientific foundation, and has a false positive rate exceeding 99%. It has not affected the incidence of cerebral palsy. Electronic fetal monitoring has, however, increased the cesarian section rate, with the expected increase in mortality and morbidity risks to mothers and babies alike. This article explains why electronic fetal monitoring remains endorsed as efficacious in the worlds’ labor rooms and courtrooms despite being such a feeble medical modality. It also reviews the reasons professional organizations have failed to condemn the use of electronic fetal monitoring in courtrooms. The failures of tort reform, special cerebral palsy courts, and damage limits to stem the escalating litigation are discussed. Finally, the authors propose using a currently available evidence rule—the Daubert doctrine that excludes “junk science” from the courtroom—as the beginning of the end to cerebral palsy litigation and electronic fetal monitoring’s 40-year masquerade as science. PMID:25183322

  2. Progressive supranuclear palsy

    PubMed Central

    Rehman, H

    2000-01-01

    Progressive supranuclear palsy (PSP) or Steele-Richardson-Olszewski syndrome is a neurodegenerative disease of middle and late age. It is under-diagnosed not only by general physicians but also by neurologists. The cause of PSP is not known. Exposure to toxins and viruses has been proposed in the aetiology of PSP without any concrete evidence. The features of PSP resemble those of Parkinson's disease and the two diseases are often confused. Corticobasal degeneration and multisystem atrophy are other differential diagnoses. Despite certain common features with Parkinson's disease, corticobasal degeneration, and mutisystem atrophy, there are important differences that help to differentiate it from these disorders.???Keywords: progressive supranuclear palsy; Steele-Richardson-Olszewski syndrome PMID:10824045

  3. United Cerebral Palsy

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Started in 1949 by parents of children with cerebral palsy, United Cerebral Palsy (UCP) has advocated and provided support services for not only people with cerebral palsy, but also a wide range of disabilities, including Down Syndrome, Autism Spectrum Disorder, and traumatic brain injury. The UCP website provides visitors with a range of resources which they have acquired from their 60 years of dealing with disability issues. The "Resources" tab near the top of the page offers visitors a "One-Stop Resource Guide" as well as a dozen topics, such as "Education," "Assistive Technology," "Disability Etiquette," and "State Resource Guides" that are covered in more depth. The "Ask Lara" blog link at the bottom of the Resources page is a great way to keep up with current news, studies, conferences, and resources that affect people with disabilities. One of the blog entries is about Bookshare, which is a free online library of digital books for those with print disabilities and visitors won't want to miss it.

  4. Peripheral facial palsy in children.

    PubMed

    Y?lmaz, Unsal; Cubukçu, Duygu; Y?lmaz, Tuba Sevim; Ak?nc?, Gülçin; Ozcan, Muazzez; Güzel, Orkide

    2014-11-01

    The aim of this study is to evaluate the types and clinical characteristics of peripheral facial palsy in children. The hospital charts of children diagnosed with peripheral facial palsy were reviewed retrospectively. A total of 81 children (42 female and 39 male) with a mean age of 9.2 ± 4.3 years were included in the study. Causes of facial palsy were 65 (80.2%) idiopathic (Bell palsy) facial palsy, 9 (11.1%) otitis media/mastoiditis, and tumor, trauma, congenital facial palsy, chickenpox, Melkersson-Rosenthal syndrome, enlarged lymph nodes, and familial Mediterranean fever (each 1; 1.2%). Five (6.1%) patients had recurrent attacks. In patients with Bell palsy, female/male and right/left ratios were 36/29 and 35/30, respectively. Of them, 31 (47.7%) had a history of preceding infection. The overall rate of complete recovery was 98.4%. A wide variety of disorders can present with peripheral facial palsy in children. Therefore, careful investigation and differential diagnosis is essential. PMID:24097851

  5. Therapeutic interventions in cerebral palsy.

    PubMed

    Patel, Dilip R

    2005-11-01

    Various therapeutic interventions have been used in the management of children with cerebral palsy. Traditional physiotherapy and occupational therapy are widely used interventions and have been shown to be of benefit in the treatment of cerebral palsy. Evidence in support of the effectiveness of the neurodevelopmental treatment is equivocal at best. There is evidence to support the use and effectiveness of neuromuscular electrical stimulation in children with cerebral palsy. The effectiveness of many other interventions used in the treatment of cerebral palsy has not been clearly established based on well-controlled trials. These include: sensory integration, body-weight support treadmill training, conductive education, constraint-induced therapy, hyperbaric oxygen therapy, and the Vojta method. This article provides an overview of salient aspects of popular interventions used in the management of children with cerebral palsy. PMID:16391455

  6. [Bell and his palsy].

    PubMed

    van Gijn, Jan; Gijselhart, Joost P

    2011-01-01

    Unlike his eponymous fame suggests, Sir Charles Bell (1774-1842) was an anatomist, draughtsman and surgeon rather than purely a physiologist. He was born and educated in Edinburgh but spent most of his working life in London (1804 to 1836). It was there he started a School of Anatomy, alongside a fledgling surgical practice, just as his elder brother John had done in Edinburgh. In 1814 he joined the surgical staff at the Middlesex Hospital. In 1810 he surmised from occasional animal experiments that the anterior and posterior spinal roots differed in function. Yet it was left to the Frenchman Magendie to identify that these functions were motor and sensory: a discovery that induced Bell into an ungentlemanly feud. Bell also slightly erred on the functions of the trigeminal and facial nerve, but his description of the features of idiopathic facial palsy is unrivalled. PMID:21771360

  7. Screening and Diagnosis of Cerebral Palsy

    MedlinePLUS

    ... For... Media Policy Makers Screening and Diagnosis of Cerebral Palsy Language: English Español (Spanish) Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir Diagnosing cerebral palsy (CP) at an early age is important to ...

  8. Life expectancy of children with cerebral palsy

    E-print Network

    Hutton, Jane

    Life expectancy of children with cerebral palsy J L Hutton, K Hemming and UKCP collaboration What is UKCP? Information about the physical effects of cerebral palsy on the everyday lives of children with cerebral palsy which collect information about children within specific local areas. They are the Mersey

  9. Neuroevolutional Approach to Cerebral Palsy and Speech.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mysak, Edward D.

    Intended for cerebral palsy specialists, the book emphasizes the contribution that a neuroevolutional approach to therapy can make to habilitation goals of the child with cerebral palsy and applies the basic principles of the Bobath approach to therapy. The first section discusses cerebral palsy as a reflection of disturbed neuro-ontogenisis and…

  10. Cerebral Palsy: A Dental Update

    PubMed Central

    Sehrawat, Nidhi; Bansal, Kalpana; Chopra, Radhika

    2014-01-01

    ABSTRACT Special and medically compromised patients present a unique population that challenges the dentist’s skill and knowledge. Providing oral care to people with cerebral palsy (CP) requires adaptation of the skills we use everyday. In fact, most people with mild or moderate forms of CP can be treated successfully in the general practice setting. This article is to review various dental considerations and management of a CP patient. How to cite this article: Sehrawat N, Marwaha M, Bansal K, Chopra R. Cerebral Palsy: A Dental Update. Int J Clin Pediatr Dent 2014;7(2):109-118. PMID:25356010

  11. Genetic factors for nerve susceptibility to injuries – lessons from PMP22 deficiency

    PubMed Central

    Li, Jun

    2014-01-01

    Genetic factors may be learnt from families with gene mutations that render nerve-injury susceptibility even to ordinary physical activities. A typical example is hereditary neuropathy with liability to pressure palsies (HNPP). HNPP is caused by a heterozygous deletion of PMP22 gene. PMP22 deficiency disrupts myelin junctions (such as tight junction and adherens junctions), leading to abnormally increased myelin permeability that explains the nerve susceptibility to injury. This finding should motivate investigators to identify additional genetic factors contributing to nerve vulnerability of injury. PMID:25374586

  12. Orthopaedic Management of Cerebral Palsy

    Microsoft Academic Search

    James E. Robb; Reinald Brunner

    \\u000a Ingram has provided a suitable description:\\u000a \\u000a Cerebral palsy is used as an inclusive term to describe a group of non-progressive disorders occurring in young children in\\u000a which disease of the brain causes impairment of motor function. Impairment of motor function may be the result of paresis,\\u000a involuntary movement, or incoordination, but motor dysfunctions which are transient, or are the result

  13. Cerebral Palsy in Tottori, Japan

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Kenzo Takeshita; Yukinori Ando; Kyoiti Ohtani; Satio Takashima

    1989-01-01

    From the changing incidence of cerebral palsy (CP) in the Tottori joint study, the absolute number of saved non-CP babies in the period 1955–1984 in the whole of Japan was calculated as about 33,000. The significant decrease of the incidence in the period 1955–1980 was mainly related to the advances made in perinatal medicine. In contrast, the recent reincrease is

  14. Cerebral Palsy After Perinatal Arterial Ischemic Stroke

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Meredith R. Golomb; Bhuwan P. Garg; Chandan Saha; Faouzi Azzouz; Linda S. Williams

    2008-01-01

    The frequency of cerebral palsy, degree of disability, and predictors of disability were assessed in children in a perinatal arterial stroke database. Risk factors were assessed at the univariate level using the Pearson ?2 and Fisher exact test and at the multivariate level using logistic regression analysis. Seventy-six of 111 children with perinatal stroke (68%) had cerebral palsy, most commonly

  15. Mobility Experiences of Adolescents with Cerebral Palsy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Palisano, Robert J.; Shimmell, Lorie J.; Stewart, Debra; Lawless, John J.; Rosenbaum, Peter L.; Russell, Dianne J.

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to describe how youth with cerebral palsy experience mobility in their daily lives using a phenomenological approach. The participants were 10 youth with cerebral palsy, 17 to 20 years of age, selected using purposeful sampling with maximum variation strategies. A total of 14 interviews were completed. Transcripts…

  16. Rule Based Expert System for Cerebral Palsy *Rajdeep Borgohain

    E-print Network

    Sanyal, Sugata

    1 Rule Based Expert System for Cerebral Palsy Diagnosis *Rajdeep Borgohain Department of Computer of Cerebral Palsy. The expert system takes user input and depending on the symptoms of the patient, diagnoses if the patient is suffering from Cerebral Palsy. The Expert System also classifies the Cerebral Palsy as mild

  17. Weather conditions and Bell's palsy: five-year study and review of the literature

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Vasilis Danielides; George Patrikakos; Christina-Sophia Nousia; Aristides Bartzokas; Haralampos J Milionis; Christos Lolis; Antonios Skevas

    2001-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Climatic or meteorological condition changes have been implicated in the pathogenesis of Bell's palsy (BP). We evaluate the influence of meteorological parameters, such as temperature, humidity, and atmospheric pressure, and their variation and covariation on the incidence of BP and present a review of the literature on the effect of meteorological conditions on facial nerve function. METHODS: A total

  18. Transient unilateral oculomotor palsy and severe headache in childhood Kawasaki disease.

    PubMed

    Thapa, Rajoo; Mallick, Debkrishna; Biswas, Biswajit; Chakrabartty, Subroto

    2011-01-01

    Transient affliction of the cranial nerves may at times be either the presenting feature or complication of otherwise uncomplicated Kawasaki disease (KD) in infants and children. The present report describes a 6 year 9 month old boy with classical KD who developed right-sided oculomotor nerve palsy (manifested by ipsilateral ptosis and medial rectus palsy) resulting in symptoms like severe nausea, intense frontal headache and double vision. The palsy resolved within 5 days of intravenous immunoglobulin therapy, with no residual ophthalmological abnormality at 6 weeks. Besides increased intracranial pressure, which commonly occurs during the course of KD in children, secondary to aseptic meningitis, intense headache in such children may have cranial nerve paresis as accentuating factors. PMID:19823842

  19. Effects of Cerebral Palsy on Neuropsychological Function

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Kathryn Straub; John E. Obrzut

    2009-01-01

    Cerebral Palsy (CP) is a muscle and movement disorder that affects children and is the result of early brain injury. The causes\\u000a and nature of the brain damage may vary considerably, which renders children with cerebral palsy a heterogeneous group. Only\\u000a recently has research begun to utilize technology to determine the nature of the brain injury and the relation to

  20. Trends in birth prevalence of cerebral palsy

    Microsoft Academic Search

    P O Pharoah; T Cooke; I Rosenbloom; R W Cooke

    1987-01-01

    A register of children with cerebral palsy born in the period 1966-77 to mothers resident in the Mersey region was compiled from several different data sources. There were 685 cases, with a male:female ratio of 1.4:1. The birth prevalence of cerebral palsy ranged from 1.18 to 1.97 per 1000 live births each year, with a mean of 1.51 per 1000

  1. Life expectancy of children with cerebral palsy

    Microsoft Academic Search

    David J. Strauss; Robert M. Shavelle; Terence W. Anderson

    1998-01-01

    Risk factors for mortality of young children with cerebral palsy were studied using a sample of 12,709 children aged 0.5–3.5 years with cerebral palsy who had received services from the State of California between 1980 and 1995. The most powerful prognostic factors for survival were simple functional items: mobility and feeding skills. Once these were known, factors such as severity

  2. Management of peripheral facial nerve palsy

    PubMed Central

    2008-01-01

    Peripheral facial nerve palsy (FNP) may (secondary FNP) or may not have a detectable cause (Bell’s palsy). Three quarters of peripheral FNP are primary and one quarter secondary. The most prevalent causes of secondary FNP are systemic viral infections, trauma, surgery, diabetes, local infections, tumor, immunological disorders, or drugs. The diagnosis of FNP relies upon the presence of typical symptoms and signs, blood chemical investigations, cerebro-spinal-fluid-investigations, X-ray of the scull and mastoid, cerebral MRI, or nerve conduction studies. Bell’s palsy may be diagnosed after exclusion of all secondary causes, but causes of secondary FNP and Bell’s palsy may coexist. Treatment of secondary FNP is based on the therapy of the underlying disorder. Treatment of Bell’s palsy is controversial due to the lack of large, randomized, controlled, prospective studies. There are indications that steroids or antiviral agents are beneficial but also studies, which show no beneficial effect. Additional measures include eye protection, physiotherapy, acupuncture, botulinum toxin, or possibly surgery. Prognosis of Bell’s palsy is fair with complete recovery in about 80% of the cases, 15% experience some kind of permanent nerve damage and 5% remain with severe sequelae. PMID:18368417

  3. Bell's palsy before Bell: Cornelis Stalpart van der Wiel's observation of Bell's palsy in 1683.

    PubMed

    van de Graaf, Robert C; Nicolai, Jean-Philippe A

    2005-11-01

    Bell's palsy is named after Sir Charles Bell (1774-1842), who has long been considered to be the first to describe idiopathic facial paralysis in the early 19th century. However, it was discovered that Nicolaus Anton Friedreich (1761-1836) and James Douglas (1675-1742) preceded him in the 18th century. Recently, an even earlier account of Bell's palsy was found, as observed by Cornelis Stalpart van der Wiel (1620-1702) from The Hague, The Netherlands in 1683. Because our current knowledge of the history of Bell's palsy before Bell is limited to a few documents, it is interesting to discuss Stalpart van der Wiel's description and determine its additional value for the history of Bell's palsy. It is concluded that Cornelis Stalpart van der Wiel was the first to record Bell's palsy in 1683. His manuscript provides clues for future historical research. PMID:16272948

  4. Etiologic yield of cerebral palsy: a contemporary case series

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Michael I Shevell; Annette Majnemer; Isabelle Morin

    2003-01-01

    Cerebral palsy is an established symptom complex that results from heterogeneous etiologies. Our understanding of the relative contribution of underlying etiologies to the occurrence of cerebral palsy is largely derived from studies lacking systematic neurologic evaluation or the application of contemporary imaging modalities. Throughout a 10-year inclusive period, the case records of all consecutive patients diagnosed with cerebral palsy in

  5. Supranuclear gaze palsy and eyelid apraxia in postencephalitic parkinsonism

    Microsoft Academic Search

    G. K. Wenning; K. Jellinger; I. Litvan

    1997-01-01

    Summary We describe six patients with clinicopathologically confirmed postencephalitic parkinsonism (PEP) in whom oculomotor abnormalities developed several years after suffering the initial episode of encephalitis lethargica. Four of the cases had vertical supranuclear gaze palsy and two eyelid apraxia, features typically associated with progressive supranuclear palsy (PSP). Our findings indicate that the presence of gaze palsy alone may not be

  6. Cerebral palsy refers to a group of neurological disorders that

    E-print Network

    Stansfield, Sharon

    Background Cerebral palsy refers to a group of neurological disorders that appear in infancy and affect movement and coordination. Many children with cerebral palsy have difficulty with upper extremity of virtual reality to improve motor control in children with cerebral palsy is very limited. The Game

  7. Erb-Duchenne and Dejerine-Klumpke Palsies

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Duchenne and Dejerine-Klumpke Palsies Information Page Synonym(s): Brachial Plexus Birth Injuries, Dejerine-Klumpke Palsy Table of Contents ( ... are Erb-Duchenne and Dejerine-Klumpke Palsies? The brachial plexus is a network of nerves that conducts signals ...

  8. Peripheral myelin protein 22 gene duplication with atypical presentations: a new example of the wide spectrum of Charcot-Marie-Tooth 1A disease.

    PubMed

    Mathis, Stéphane; Corcia, Philippe; Tazir, Meriem; Camu, William; Magdelaine, Corinne; Latour, Philippe; Biberon, Julien; Guennoc, Anne-Marie; Richard, Laurence; Magy, Laurent; Funalot, Benoît; Vallat, Jean-Michel

    2014-06-01

    Charcot-Marie-Tooth type 1A (CMT1A) and hereditary neuropathy with liability to pressure palsies (HNPP) are both autosomal-dominant disorders linked to peripheral myelin anomalies. CMT1A is associated with a Peripheral Myelin Protein 22 (PMP22) duplication, whereas HNPP is due to a PMP22 deletion on chromosome 17. In spite of this crucial difference, we report three observations of patients with the 1.4 megabase CMT1A duplication and atypical presentation (electrophysiological, clinical or pathological): a 10 year-old girl with tomaculous lesions on nerve biopsy; a 26 year-old woman with recurrent paresthesiae and block conduction on the electrophysiological study; a 46 year-old woman with transient recurrent nerve palsies mimicking HNPP. These observations highlight the wide spectrum of CMT1A and the overlap between CMT1A and HNPP (both linked to the PMP22 gene), and finally illustrate the complexity of the genotype-phenotype correlations in Charcot-Marie-Tooth diseases. PMID:24792522

  9. Hand functioning in children with cerebral palsy.

    PubMed

    Arnould, Carlyne; Bleyenheuft, Yannick; Thonnard, Jean-Louis

    2014-01-01

    Brain lesions may disturb hand functioning in children with cerebral palsy (CP), making it difficult or even impossible for them to perform several manual activities. Most conventional treatments for hand dysfunction in CP assume that reducing the hand dysfunctions will improve the capacity to manage activities (i.e., manual ability, MA). The aim of this study was to investigate the directional relationships (direct and indirect pathways) through which hand skills influence MA in children with CP. A total of 136 children with CP (mean age: 10?years; range: 6-16?years; 35 quadriplegics, 24 diplegics, 77 hemiplegics) were assessed. Six hand skills were measured on both hands: touch-pressure detection (Semmes-Weinstein esthesiometer), stereognosis (Manual Form Perception Test), proprioception (passive mobilization of the metacarpophalangeal joints), grip strength (GS) (Jamar dynamometer), gross manual dexterity (GMD) (Box and Block Test), and fine finger dexterity (Purdue Pegboard Test). MA was measured with the ABILHAND-Kids questionnaire. Correlation coefficients were used to determine the linear associations between observed variables. A path analysis of structural equation modeling was applied to test different models of causal relationships among the observed variables. Purely sensory impairments did seem not to play a significant role in the capacity to perform manual activities. According to path analysis, GMD in both hands and stereognosis in the dominant hand were directly related to MA, whereas GS was indirectly related to MA through its relationship with GMD. However, one-third of the variance in MA measures could not be explained by hand skills. It can be concluded that MA is not simply the integration of hand skills in daily activities and should be treated per se, supporting activity-based interventions. PMID:24782821

  10. Hand Functioning in Children with Cerebral Palsy

    PubMed Central

    Arnould, Carlyne; Bleyenheuft, Yannick; Thonnard, Jean-Louis

    2014-01-01

    Brain lesions may disturb hand functioning in children with cerebral palsy (CP), making it difficult or even impossible for them to perform several manual activities. Most conventional treatments for hand dysfunction in CP assume that reducing the hand dysfunctions will improve the capacity to manage activities (i.e., manual ability, MA). The aim of this study was to investigate the directional relationships (direct and indirect pathways) through which hand skills influence MA in children with CP. A total of 136 children with CP (mean age: 10?years; range: 6–16?years; 35 quadriplegics, 24 diplegics, 77 hemiplegics) were assessed. Six hand skills were measured on both hands: touch-pressure detection (Semmes–Weinstein esthesiometer), stereognosis (Manual Form Perception Test), proprioception (passive mobilization of the metacarpophalangeal joints), grip strength (GS) (Jamar dynamometer), gross manual dexterity (GMD) (Box and Block Test), and fine finger dexterity (Purdue Pegboard Test). MA was measured with the ABILHAND-Kids questionnaire. Correlation coefficients were used to determine the linear associations between observed variables. A path analysis of structural equation modeling was applied to test different models of causal relationships among the observed variables. Purely sensory impairments did seem not to play a significant role in the capacity to perform manual activities. According to path analysis, GMD in both hands and stereognosis in the dominant hand were directly related to MA, whereas GS was indirectly related to MA through its relationship with GMD. However, one-third of the variance in MA measures could not be explained by hand skills. It can be concluded that MA is not simply the integration of hand skills in daily activities and should be treated per se, supporting activity-based interventions. PMID:24782821

  11. Hypertropia in unilateral isolated abducens palsy

    PubMed Central

    Pihlblad, Matthew S.; Demer, Joseph L.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose To evaluate the incidence and features of hypertropia in abducens nerve palsy. Methods The records of consecutive patients with unilateral, isolated, previously unoperated abducens nerve palsy were reviewed for binocular alignment on cover testing, Krimsky measurement, or Hess screen testing. Patients with associated cranial nerve palsy (including bilateral abducens palsies), orbital disease, myasthenia gravis, Horner syndrome, hemiplegia, cerebellar signs, arteritis, or previous strabismus surgery were excluded. Control subjects underwent complete examination to confirm normality. Results A total of 79 patients were included (40 males; mean age 49.2 years). Hypertropia in lateral or central gazes was present in 15 of 79 cases (19%) on alternate cover or Krimsky testing, in 32 of 56 cases (57%) on Hess screen testing, and absent in all 30 normal controls. Of cases with hypertropia, the mean of the greatest hypertropia in lateral or central gaze on was 5.0? ± 2.3? (standard deviation; range, 1?–8?) routine clinical examination, and 5.8? ± 4.2? (range, 2?–24?) on Hess screen testing. Of 39 cases with partial abducens palsy evaluated by Hess screen testing, the ipsilesional eye was hypertropic in 24 (61%) and hypotropic in 15 cases (39%). Conclusions Small-angle hypertropia is common in isolated, unilateral abducens and does not necessarily imply existence of multiple cranial neuropathies or skew deviation. PMID:24924275

  12. Co-segregation of LMNA and PMP22 gene mutations in the same family

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Elena Pegoraro; Bruno F. Gavassini; Sara Benedetti; Immacolata Menditto; Gabriella Zara; Roberta Padoan; Maria Luisa Mostacciuolo; Maurizio Ferrari; Corrado Angelini

    2005-01-01

    We report here clinical, electrophysiological, and molecular findings in a family affected with two inherited genetic diseases: limb girdle muscular dystrophy type 1B (LGMD1B) and hereditary neuropathy with liability to pressure palsies (HNPP). Members of the family carry a novel missense mutation in the LMNA gene and a nonsense mutation in the PMP22 gene. Interestingly, the double LMNA\\/PMP22 mutations carriers

  13. Obstetrical brachial plexus palsy: electrodiagnostical study and functional outcome.

    PubMed

    Toupchizadeh, V; Abdavi, Y; Barzegar, M; Eftekharsadat, B; Tabrizi, I

    2010-12-15

    Obstetrical Brachial Plexus Palsy (OBPP) is a complication of difficult delivery and resulted from excessive traction on the brachial plexus during delivery. Erb palsy, klumpke paralysis and panplexus palsy reported in 46, 0.6 and 20% of patients, respectively. Unilateral injury is more common than bilateral injury. Risk factors include macrosomia, multiparity, prior delivery of a child with OBPP, breech delivery shoulder dystocia, vacium and forceps assisted delivery and excessive maternal weight gain. The recovery rate is usually reported to be between 80 and 90%. We evaluated 42 children with OBPP. Out of them, we could follow only 28 cases during two years. Poor to moderate recovery occurred in 13 cases. Good to complete (expected) recovery occurred in 15 cases. Most of the patients were females. Right side palsy was more prevalent than left side palsy. Vaginal delivery without forceps was the most mode of delivery. Vertex was the most common presentation. Most of the patients were term. The mean weight of the birth was 3.8 kg. Erb palsy and pan-plexus palsy consisted of 71.4 and 28.6% of lesions. In patients with Erb palsy, there were preganglionic palsy in 3 (15.8%) and postganglionic palsy in 16 (84.2%) cases, while all the patients with panplexus palsy had postganglionic palsy. All patients with complete recovery (9 of 15) had Erb palsy and postganglionic lesion. Erb palsy was present in 71.4% and panplexus palsy was present in 28.6% of cases. Also, 23.8% of cases had preganglionic and 76.2% of cases had postganglionic injures. PMID:21313897

  14. Dermatoglyphs and brachial plexus palsy.

    PubMed

    Polovina, Svetislav; Cvjeticanin, Miljenko; Milici?, Jasna; Prolosci?, Tajana Polovina

    2006-09-01

    Perinatal brachial plexus palsy (PBPP) is a handicap quite commonly encountered in daily routine. Although birth trauma is considered to be the major cause of the defect, it has been observed that PBPP occurs only in some infants born under identical or nearly identical conditions. The aim of this study was to test the hypothesis of genetic predisposition for PBPP. It is well known that digito-palmar dermatoglyphs can be used to determine hereditary roots of some diseases. Thus, we found it meaningful to do a study analysis of digito-palmar dermatoglyphs in this disease as well, conducting it on 140 subjects (70 males and 70 females) diagnosed with PBPP. The control group was composed of fingerprints obtained from 400 adult and phenotypically healthy subjects (200 males and 200 females) from the Zagreb area. The results of multivariate and univariate analysis of variance have shown statistically significant differences between the groups observed. In spite of lower percentage of accurately classified female subjects by discriminant analysis, the results of quantitative analysis of digito-palmar dermatoglyphs appeared to suggest a genetic predisposition for the occurrence of PBPP. PMID:17058524

  15. Pathophysiology of muscle contractures in cerebral palsy.

    PubMed

    Mathewson, Margie A; Lieber, Richard L

    2015-02-01

    Patients with cerebral palsy present with a variety of adaptations to muscle structure and function. These pathophysiologic symptoms include functional deficits such as decreased force production and range of motion, in addition to changes in muscle structure such as decreased muscle belly size, increased sarcomere length, and altered extracellular matrix structure and composition. On a cellular level, patients with cerebral palsy have fewer muscle stem cells, termed satellite cells, and altered gene expression. Understanding the nature of these changes may present opportunities for the development of new muscle treatment therapies. PMID:25479779

  16. Vocational rehabilitation for cerebral palsy victims

    E-print Network

    Morgan, James Howard

    1965-01-01

    965 439'7&8 TABLE OF CONTENTS Chapter Page I . INTRODUCTION II . HISTORY III . CEREBRAL PALSY . 17 IV. REHABILITATION FOR THE CEREBRAL PALSIED V . CONCLUSION 51 BIBLIOGRAPHY 56 111 CHAPTER I INTRODUC TION Rehabilitation is rapidly becoming... of intermittent attempts to help him in his 1 H y H. K i . ii I'. Dilitati, f, th Fh ~ 1 ll H di d, Columbia University Press?N. Y. 1947, p. vii. I struggle against superior odds. Because of the serious emotional resist- ance that the term "cripple" evokes...

  17. Evaluation of force-sensing resistors for gait event detection to trigger electrical stimulation to improve walking in the child with cerebral palsy

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Brian T. Smith; Daniel J. Coiro; Richard Finson; Randal R. Betz; James McCarthy

    2002-01-01

    Force-sensing resistors (FSRs) were used to detect the transitions between five main phases of gait for the control of electrical stimulation (ES) while walking with seven children with spastic diplegia, cerebral palsy. The FSR positions within each child's insoles were customized based on plantar pressure profiles determined using a pressure-sensitive membrane array (Tekscan Inc., Boston, MA). The FSRs were placed

  18. Vestibular evoked myogenic potentials in Bell's palsy.

    PubMed

    Krbot Skoric, Magdalena; Adamec, Ivan; Habek, Mario

    2014-10-01

    The aim of the present study was to evaluate vestibular nerve involvement in patients with Bell's palsy with ocular and cervical vestibular evoked myogenic potentials (oVEMP and cVEMP). Ten patients who were diagnosed with Bell's palsy and ten healthy controls were included. All patients underwent VEMP recordings within 6 days after their initial presentation. Patients with Bell's palsy had greater oVEMP asymmetry ratio comparing to healthy controls (-38.4 ± 28.7 % vs -1.3 ± 19.3 %, p = 0.005). As well N10 latencies of the oVEMP response were prolonged comparing to healthy controls (11.575 vs 9.72 ms). There was no difference in cVEMP asymmetry ratio or latencies between groups. We found no correlation between House-Brackmann grading scale and oVEMP asymmetry ratio (r = 0.003, p = 0.994). There are three possible explanations for increased oVEMP amplitudes on the affected side: (1) oVEMP response on the ipsilateral eye could be contaminated by facial nerve activity (blink reflex); (2) the amplitude of N10-P33 could be affected through the stapedial reflex; and (3) increased oVEMP amplitude could be the consequence of the vestibular nerve dysfunction itself, with prolonged latencies of the N10 oVEMP further supporting this explanation. The results of this study indicate possible involvement of the superior branch of the vestibular nerve in patients with Bell's palsy. PMID:24916836

  19. Complementary and Alternative Therapies for Cerebral Palsy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Liptak, Gregory S.

    2005-01-01

    The optimal practice of medicine includes integrating individual clinical expertise with the best available clinical evidence from systematic research. This article reviews nine treatment modalities used for children who have cerebral palsy (CP), including hyperbaric oxygen, the Adeli Suit, patterning, electrical stimulation, conductive education,…

  20. Birthweight specific trends in cerebral palsy

    Microsoft Academic Search

    P O Pharoah; T Cooke; R W Cooke; L Rosenbloom

    1990-01-01

    A register of infants with cerebral palsy born to mothers resident in the Mersey region from 1967-84 has been maintained using various sources of information. A total of 1056 patients are registered of whom 331 (31%) have hemiplegia or mixed hemiplegia, 236 (22%) have diplegias or mixed diplegia, and 369 (35%) have quadriplegia or mixed quadriplegia. The remainder have dyskinetic

  1. Cerebral Palsy Spasticity. Selective Posterior Rhizotomy

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Warwick J. Peacock; Leila J. Arens; Barbara Berman

    1987-01-01

    We have performed selective posterior rhizotomies on 60 children with cerebral palsy. The procedure involves lumbar laminectomy with stimulation of the rootlets (fascicles) of the second lumbar to the first sacral posterior roots bilaterally; those rootlets associated with an abnormal motor response, as evidenced by sustained or diffused muscular contraction, are divided leaving intact rootlets associated with a brief localized

  2. Narrative Ability in Children with Cerebral Palsy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Holck, Pernille; Sandberg, Annika Dahlgren; Nettelbladt, Ulrika

    2011-01-01

    In a previous study a group of children with cerebral palsy (CP) were found to have considerable difficulties with narratives, performing several standard deviations below the criteria for the Information score of the Bus Story Test (BST). To examine in depth the performance of children with CP and a control group with typically developing (TD)…

  3. Gait Stability in Children with Cerebral Palsy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bruijn, Sjoerd M.; Millard, Matthew; van Gestel, Leen; Meyns, Pieter; Jonkers, Ilse; Desloovere, Kaat

    2013-01-01

    Children with unilateral Cerebral Palsy (CP) have several gait impairments, amongst which impaired gait stability may be one. We tested whether a newly developed stability measure (the foot placement estimator, FPE) which does not require long data series, can be used to asses gait stability in typically developing (TD) children as well as…

  4. Cochlear implant and delayed facial palsy.

    PubMed

    Joseph, Shawn Thadathil; Vishwakarma, Rajesh; Ramani, Mukesh Kumar; Aurora, Rupa

    2009-12-01

    Delayed facial nerve palsy following cochlear implant surgery is less documented though it poses diagnostic and therapeutic challenges. Apart from the functional, aesthetic and emotional concerns, it can raise important medico legal issues. The objectives of this study were: to report a case of delayed facial palsy following cochlear implant surgery in a patient who had positive viral antibody markers pre operatively; and to review the literature on delayed onset facial paralysis following viral reactivation and its relation to cochlear implant surgery. An extensive literature review was done using internet and medical search engines and library facilities. Important articles on the topic were identified and summarised. Data on delayed facial palsy following cochlear implant surgery were collected, constructed in a coherent way and details discussed. Postulated mechanisms of delayed facial palsy include neural oedema, vasospasm and viral reactivation. Of these, reactivation of previous herpes simplex virus infection has special significance, as many of these patients are positive for viral antibody markers. Manipulation of sensory branches of the facial nerve and chorda tympani can be a mechanism in such cases. Correlation of clinical presentation and pre operative positive viral antibody markers with positive polymerase chain reaction can be strongly suggestive of viral reactivation. It is concluded that patients with positive viral antibody markers are more susceptible to facial palsy from viral reactivation. Corticosteroids, antiviral agents and physiotherapy can be useful in producing a quicker and complete recovery. An experienced cochlear implant surgery team and pre operative radiological evaluations are mandatory to decrease the chances of direct facial nerve trauma. Proper irrigation lowers the risk of neural oedema. PMID:19194876

  5. Pressure

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Wolfgang Christian

    This page contains three Physlets that are able to share data using a connection made by a common superclass, SApplet. The ensemble walls keep track of the change in momentum, i.e., the pressure, during each time step, dt, and provides this data to the DataGraph Physlet and the DataTable Physlet.

  6. The diagnostic yield of neuroimaging in sixth nerve palsy - Sankara Nethralaya Abducens Palsy Study (SNAPS): Report 1

    PubMed Central

    Nair, Akshay Gopinathan; Ambika, Selvakumar; Noronha, Veena Olma; Gandhi, Rashmin Anilkumar

    2014-01-01

    Aims: The aim was to assess the etiology of sixth nerve palsy and on the basis of our data, to formulate a diagnostic algorithm for the management in sixth nerve palsy. Design: Retrospective chart review. Results: Of the 104 neurologically isolated cases, 9 cases were attributable to trauma, and 95 (86.36%) cases were classified as nontraumatic, neurologically isolated cases. Of the 95 nontraumatic, isolated cases of sixth nerve palsy, 52 cases were associated with vasculopathic risk factors, namely diabetes and hypertension and were classified as vasculopathic sixth nerve palsy (54.7%), and those with a history of sixth nerve palsy from birth (6 cases) were classified as congenital sixth nerve palsy (6.3%). Of the rest, neuroimaging alone yielded a cause in 18 of the 37 cases (48.64%). Of the other 19 cases where neuroimaging did not yield a cause, 6 cases were attributed to preceding history of infection (3 upper respiratory tract infection and 3 viral illnesses), 2 cases of sixth nerve palsy were found to be a false localizing sign in idiopathic intracranial hypertension and in 11 cases, the cause was undetermined. In these idiopathic cases of isolated sixth nerve palsy, neuroimaging yielded no positive findings. Conclusions: In the absence of risk factors, a suggestive history, or positive laboratory and clinical findings, neuroimaging can serve as a useful diagnostic tool in identifying the exact cause of sixth nerve palsy. Furthermore, we recommend an algorithm to assess the need for neuroimaging in sixth nerve palsy. PMID:25449936

  7. Current concepts for eyelid reanimation in facial palsy.

    PubMed

    Momeni, Arash; Khosla, Rohit K

    2014-02-01

    The treatment of facial palsy is a complex and challenging area of plastic surgery. Two distinct anatomical regions and functions are the focus of interest when managing facial palsy: (1) reanimation of the eyelids and (2) reconstruction of the smile. This review will focus on the treatment of ocular manifestations of facial palsy. The principles of eyelid rehabilitation will be presented along with a discussion of surgical and nonsurgical treatment options. PMID:23241787

  8. Genetics Home Reference: Horizontal gaze palsy with progressive scoliosis

    MedlinePLUS

    ... understanding HGPPS? autosomal ; autosomal recessive ; bilateral ; brainstem ; cell ; congenital ; encephalopathy ; familial ; gene ; idiopathic ; inherited ; motor ; ophthalmoplegia ; palsy ; protein ; recessive ; scoliosis ; sensory nerve ; surgery ; voluntary ...

  9. Herpes zoster ophthalmicus associated with abducens palsy.

    PubMed

    Chaker, Nibrass; Bouladi, Mejda; Chebil, Ahmed; Jemmeli, Mehdi; Mghaieth, Fatma; El Matri, Leila

    2014-04-01

    The extraocular muscle palsies associated with herpes zoster ophthalmicus (HZO) are transient, self-limiting conditions, usually seen in elderly patients. There are different treatment recommendations for paralytic complications, but prognosis has generally reported to be favorable. A 75-year-old male patient presented with diplopia. Clinical history revealed left facial vesicular eruptions and pain treated by oral aciclovir 1 week following symptom onset. On examination, we observed cicatricial lesions with crusts involving left hemiface, a limitation in abduction of the left eye, and a superficial punctuate keratitis (SPK) with decreased visual acuity (4/10). Examination of the right eye was unremarkable. Hess screen test confirmed left six nerve palsy. PMID:24966563

  10. The `subcortical dementia' of progressive supranuclear palsy

    PubMed Central

    Albert, Martin L.; Feldman, Robert G.; Willis, Anne L.

    1974-01-01

    Progressive supranuclear palsy (Steele et al.) has a characteristic pattern of dementia: (1) forgetfulness, (2) slowing of thought processes, (3) emotional or personality changes (apathy or depression with occasional outbursts of irritability), and (4) impaired ability to manipulate acquired knowledge. In many neurological disease states associated with subcortical pathology a similar pattern of dementia exists. The neurobehavioural changes of progressive supranuclear palsy thus typify a clinical pattern which may be referred to as subcortical dementia. The subcortical dementias have a striking clinical resemblance to the dementia which occurs after bifrontal lobe disease. However, the subcortical dementias can be clearly distinguished clinically from cortical dementias, other than frontal dementias. We propose as a tentative hypothesis that there may be common pathophysiological mechanisms underlying the subcortical dementias—in particular, disturbances of timing and activation. There are immediate practical implications of this hypothesis: drugs which have an effect on subcortical timing and activating mechanisms may be useful in the treatment of subcortical dementias. PMID:4819905

  11. Obstetrical palsy: early treatment and secondary procedures.

    PubMed

    Duclos, L; Gilbert, A

    1995-11-01

    Obstetrical palsy has been described since a long time. Unfortunately, until the last 20 years, few options were available to correct its sequelae. During the last two decades, there has been a regain of interest because of the possibility to microsurgically repair these lesions. Tassin in 1984 demonstrated that babies who have no recovery of the biceps function by three months of age should be operated without delay. At brachial plexus exploration, in the presence of neuroma, nerve grafting is usually necessary. In cases of root avulsion, internal or external neurotization should be performed depending on the severity of the lesions. Physiotherapy and long-term follow-up of these patients are primordial to prevent joint ankylosis and to identify the patients who will benefit from secondary surgery. Our results are presented either after early treatment or after secondary procedures. These results justify aggressive management of obstetrical brachial plexus palsy because of children's great capacity for regeneration and accommodation. PMID:8838992

  12. Bilateral brachial plexus compressive neuropathy (crutch palsy).

    PubMed

    Raikin, S; Froimson, M I

    1997-01-01

    Brachial plexus compressive neuropathy following the use of axillary crutches (crutch palsy) is a rare but well-recognized entity. Most reported cases involve the posterior cord of the brachial plexus in children and have resolved spontaneously within 8-12 weeks. We recently treated a 36-year-old man who was using axillary crutches for mobilization after a supracondylar femoral fracture. Bilateral posterior cord (predominantly radial nerve) compressive neuropathy subsequently developed, with lesser involvement of the ulnar and median nerves. The patient had little to no improvement clinically 8 weeks after the estimated onset of the palsy, and an electromyogram at that time confirmed the presence of a severe axonotmesis lesion of the radial, median, and ulnar nerves bilaterally. The patient was treated with static cock-up wrist splinting and discontinuation of the axillary crutches. Return of sensory and motor function was delayed but occurred within 9 months. PMID:9057152

  13. Tendon Transfers Part II: Transfers for Ulnar Nerve Palsy and Median Nerve Palsy

    PubMed Central

    Sammer, Douglas M.; Chung, Kevin C.

    2009-01-01

    Objectives After reading this article (part II of II), the participant should be able to: 1. Describe the anatomy and function of the median and ulnar nerves in the forearm and hand. 2. Describe the clinical deficits associated with injury to each nerve. 3. Describe the indications, benefits, and drawbacks for various tendon transfer procedures used to treat median and ulnar nerve palsy.4. Describe the treatment of combined nerve injuries. 5. Describe postoperative care and possible complications associated with these tendon transfer procedures. Summary This article discusses the use of tendon transfer procedures for treatment of median and ulnar nerve palsy as well as combined nerve palsies. Postoperative management and potential complications are also discussed. PMID:19730287

  14. Life expectancy in children with cerebral palsy.

    PubMed Central

    Hutton, J. L.; Cooke, T.; Pharoah, P. O.

    1994-01-01

    OBJECTIVE--To determine life expectancy of children with cerebral palsy. DESIGN--Cohort analysis, by means of register compiled from multiple sources of ascertainment, of all children with cerebral palsy born during 1966-84 to mothers resident in Mersey region. Status of children was determined by flagging through NHS central register. SUBJECTS--1258 subjects with idiopathic cerebral palsy, of whom 1251 were traced and included in analysis. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES--Effect of functional ability (ambulation, manual dexterity, and mental ability), sex, birth weight, and gestational age on survival. RESULTS--20 year survival for whole cohort was 89.3% for females and 86.9% for males. For subjects with no severe functional disabilities 20 year survival was 99% (95% confidence interval 98% to 100%), while subjects severely disabled in all three functional groups had 20 year survival of 50% (42% to 58%). Subjects with birth weight < or = 2500 g had 20 year survival of 92% (89% to 95%), while those with birth weight > 2500 g had survival of 87% (84% to 89%). Subjects with gestational age of > 37 weeks had 20 year survival of 93% (91% to 96%), while those with gestational age > or = 37 weeks had survival of 85% (83% to 88%). Birth weight and gestational age were less predictive of survival than functional disability. Best statistical model used gestational age and number of severe functional disabilities as predictors. CONCLUSIONS--Life expectancy of this cohort of children with cerebral palsy was greater than has been suggested in some previous studies. This has important implications for social, educational, and health services. PMID:7920125

  15. Cerebral palsy—An etiological study

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Nonica Laisram; V. K. Srivastava; R. K. Srivastava

    1992-01-01

    Five hundred and forty four cases of cerebral palsy were studied to find the etiology. Male to female ratio was 1.9?1. Prenatal,\\u000a natal and postnatal factors were found in 42 (7.72%), 238 (43.75%) and 142 (26.1%) cases respectively. Only 79 (14.52%) cases\\u000a were found to have more than one factor which could have contributed to brain darnage. In 43 (7.9%)

  16. Treating cerebral palsy with aculaser therapy

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Shahzad Anwar; Malik M. Nazir Khan; Malik M. Nadeem Khan; Faiza M. Qazi; Abid H. Awan; Irfan Dar

    2008-01-01

    A single, open and non comparative study was conducted at Anwar Shah Trust for C.P. & Paralysis in collaboration with the Departments of Neurology and Neurosurgery, Children Hospital Lahore, Pakistan to evaluate the effects of ACULASER THERAPY in childern suffering from Cerebral Palsy (C.P.) and associated Neurological Disorders like epilepsy, cortical blindness, spasticity, hemiplegia, paraplegia, diplegia, quadriplegia, monoplegia, sensory-neural deafness

  17. Vocational rehabilitation for cerebral palsy victims 

    E-print Network

    Morgan, James Howard

    1965-01-01

    , according to David Hinshaw, is a neuromuscular disability caused by injury to the motor centers of the brain. Erroneously called spastic paralysis, the condition causes impairment or loss of muscular 2 control, Resultant disability may be very severe... pable . 2. David Hinshaw . Take U Th Bed and 'Salk, G. P. Putnam's Sons, N. Y. , 1948, p. xiii. 3 Ibid . , p. xvi. The author hopes that this thesis will throw some light on the problems of rehabilitating cerebral palsy victims by the following ways...

  18. Surgical Treatment of Spasticity in Cerebral Palsy

    Microsoft Academic Search

    V. A. Fasano; G. Broggi; G. Barolat-Romana; A. Sguazzi

    1978-01-01

    Since 1971, we have surgically treated spasticity in 109 cases of cerebral palsy with posterior rhizotomy. The best results have been obtained with functional posterior rhizotomy, an original modification of Foerster’s technique, in which the selection of the roots\\/rootlets to be sectioned is based on functional exploration of the spinal circuits involved in the maintenance of spasticity, using intra-operative electrostimulation

  19. Wrist arthrodesis in children with cerebral palsy.

    PubMed

    Alexander, R D; Davids, J R; Peace, L C; Gidewall, M A

    2000-01-01

    Wrist arthrodesis was performed on 19 upper extremities in 18 children with cerebral palsy to correct volar flexion and ulnar deviation deformities. Mean age at the time of surgery was 15.8 years, and mean follow-up was 4.7 years. Review of medical records and radiographs and follow-up clinical examination, including standardized functional testing and a child/parent questionnaire, were performed to assess outcome in technical, functional, and satisfaction domains. Technical domain outcomes were best when arthrodesis was performed by proximal row carpectomy with plate fixation. Functional improvement, as documented by the House scale, averaged 1.8 levels, with 14 children (83.3%) showing improvement. Child/parent satisfaction with cosmetic, hygienic, and functional outcomes was high, ranging from 72 to 94%. Wrist arthrodesis, when combined with appropriate procedures for the forearm, fingers, and thumb, provided excellent technical, functional, and satisfaction domain outcomes for children with cerebral palsy, particularly those with more severe upper extremity involvement, dyskinetic type cerebral palsy, or poor motivation for rehabilitation. PMID:10912606

  20. Horizontal gaze palsy with progressive scoliosis in a Moroccan family.

    PubMed

    Handor, H; Laghmari, M; Hafidi, Z; Daoudi, R

    2014-04-01

    Horizontal gaze palsy with progressive scoliosis (HGPPS) is a rare clinical condition characterized by a combination of horizontal gaze palsy, pendular nystagmus and scoliosis. Only a few cases have been previously described in the literature. Our observations serve to document the first cases in Morocco. PMID:24559884

  1. Gait Analysis of Cerebral Palsy Children before and after Rhizotomy

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Christopher L. Vaughan; Barbara Berman; Loretta A. Staudt; Warwick J. Peacock

    1988-01-01

    Over the past decade, selective posterior rhizotomy has been used successfully to reduce spasticity in patients with cerebral palsy. Although clinical evaluation of these patients revealed functional improvement following surgery, more objective analysis of the outcome of this surgery was sought. Kinematic gait analysis of 14 patients with spastic cerebral palsy was performed before and after selective posterior rhizotomy. Measurements

  2. Intrathecal Baclofen for Management of Spastic Cerebral Palsy: Multicenter Trial

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Richard Gilmartin; Derek Bruce; Bruce B. Storrs; Rick Abbott; Linda Krach; John Ward; Karen Bloom; William H. Brooks; Dennis L. Johnson; Joseph R. Madsen; John F. McLaughlin; Joseph Nadell

    2000-01-01

    Intrathecal baclofen infusion has demonstrated effectiveness in decreasing spasticity of spinal origin. Oral antispasticity medication is minimally effective or not well tolerated in cerebral palsy. This study assessed the effectiveness of intrathecal baclofen in reducing spasticity in cerebral palsy. Candidates were screened by randomized, double-blind, intrathecal injections of baclofen and placebo. Responders were defined as those who experienced an average

  3. Cerebral palsy: why we must plan for survival

    Microsoft Academic Search

    P M Evans; S J Evans; E Alberman

    1990-01-01

    The survival of children in the South East Thames region, born between 1970 and 1979 and diagnosed as having some form of cerebral palsy was investigated. Of the 732 children studied, 651 (90%) are still alive, and hence cerebral palsy must be regarded as a condition with which people live rather than a condition of which they die. Survival varies

  4. Quality of Arithmetic Education for Children with Cerebral Palsy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jenks, Kathleen M.; de Moor, Jan; van Lieshout, Ernest C. D. M.; Withagen, Floortje

    2010-01-01

    The aim of this exploratory study was to investigate the quality of arithmetic education for children with cerebral palsy. The use of individual educational plans, amount of arithmetic instruction time, arithmetic instructional grouping, and type of arithmetic teaching method were explored in three groups: children with cerebral palsy (CP) in…

  5. Design and validation of automated femoral bone morphology measurements in cerebral palsy

    E-print Network

    Lee, Jehee

    Design and validation of automated femoral bone morphology measurements in cerebral palsy Noyeol the progress of bony deformation in patients with cerebral palsy. The purpose of the study was to develop palsy, automatic morphology quantification, statistical shape model #12;1. Introduction Cerebral palsy

  6. Do oral steroids aid recovery in children with Bell's palsy?

    PubMed

    Ismail, Abdul Qader; Alake, Oluwaseyi; Kallappa, Chetana

    2014-10-01

    There is growing evidence that steroids are not beneficial for treatment of paediatric patients with Bell's palsy. To investigate, we conducted a retrospective longitudinal study examining notes of 100 children, over 12 years coded for facial nerve palsy. Of the 79 diagnosed with Bell's palsy, all recovered, and for 46 patients we had data on interval from onset of symptoms to resolution (median duration in treated group = 5 weeks, range = 39; median duration in untreated group = 6 weeks, range = 11; P = .86). From our results, we conclude that all children with Bell's palsy recovered, with or without steroid treatment, with no statistically significant difference in symptoms duration. Complications of unresolved Bell's palsy can have important long-term functional and psychosocial consequences. Therefore, we need further research on use of steroids in children with complete/severe cases; it would be a shame to omit treatment due to "absence of evidence" rather than "evidence of absence." PMID:24141272

  7. [Epidemiology of cerebral palsy in children].

    PubMed

    Battistella, P A; Drigo, P; Laverda, A M

    1983-01-01

    Cerebral palsy is not a simple clinical or even aetiological entity, nevertheless is a chronic disability characterized by aberrant control of movement or posture appearing early in life. As for as incidence and prevalence studies are concerned, comparison of studies of age--specific prevalence rates is made difficult by differences in definition, methods and parameters used for medical evaluation. The epidemiology of CP is very important in the defining the entity of the problem, the need for facilities and services. The need for a current and perhaps continuing national statistical survey of the incidence and prevalence of CP is stressed. PMID:6681065

  8. Abducens nerve palsy after schwannoma resection.

    PubMed

    Bobbio, Antonio; Hamelin-Canny, Emelyne; Roche, Nicolas; Taillia, Herve; Alifano, Marco

    2015-02-01

    Tumors of the posterior mediastinum are mostly neurogenic and could involve the intervertebral foramen and the medullary canal. We describe the case of a patient who underwent surgery for a nerve sheet tumor originating at the level of the right second neural root. Resection was associated with an incidental dural tear and cerebrospinal fluid leak that was promptly repaired. One week after surgery, horizontal diplopia occurred. A palsy of the left abducens nerve secondary to intracranial hypotension was diagnosed. We present the pathogenic cascade leading to this ocular complication after posterior mediastinal surgery. The surgical techniques to prevent this complication are discussed. PMID:25639411

  9. Vocal cord palsy: An uncommon presenting feature of myasthenia gravis

    PubMed Central

    Sethi, Prahlad K.; Batra, Anuradha; Sethi, Nitin K.; Torgovnick, Josh; Arsura, Edward

    2011-01-01

    Vocal cord palsy can have myriad causes. Unilateral vocal cord palsy is common and frequently asymptomatic. Trauma, head, neck and mediastinal tumors as well as cerebrovascular accidents have been implicated in causing unilateral vocal cord palsy. Viral neuronitis accounts for most idiopathic cases. Bilateral vocal cord palsy, on the other hand, is much less common and is a potentially life-threatening condition. Myasthenia gravis, an autoimmune disorder caused by antibodies targeting the post-synaptic acetylcholine receptor, has been infrequently implicated in its causation. We report here a case of bilateral vocal cord palsy developing in a 68-year-old man with no prior history of myasthenia gravis 2 months after he was operated on for diverticulitis of the large intestine. Delay in considering the diagnosis led to endotracheal intubation and prolonged mechanical ventilation with attendant complications. Our case adds to the existing literature implicating myasthenia gravis as an infrequent cause of bilateral vocal cord palsy. Our case is unusual as, in our patient, acute-onset respiratory distress and stridor due to bilateral vocal cord palsy was the first manifestation of a myasthenic syndrome. PMID:21655204

  10. Unilateral hypoglossal nerve palsy after use of the laryngeal mask airway supreme.

    PubMed

    Takahoko, Kenichi; Iwasaki, Hajime; Sasakawa, Tomoki; Suzuki, Akihiro; Matsumoto, Hideki; Iwasaki, Hiroshi

    2014-01-01

    Purpose. Hypoglossal nerve palsy after use of the laryngeal mask airway (LMA) is an exceptionally rare complication. We present the first case of unilateral hypoglossal nerve palsy after use of the LMA Supreme. Clinical Features. A healthy 67-year-old female was scheduled for a hallux valgus correction under general anesthesia combined with femoral and sciatic nerve blocks. A size 4?LMA Supreme was inserted successfully at the first attempt and the cuff was inflated with air at an intracuff pressure of 60?cmH2O using cuff pressure gauge. Anesthesia was maintained with oxygen, nitrous oxide (67%), and sevoflurane under spontaneous breathing. The surgery was uneventful and the duration of anesthesia was two hours. The LMA was removed as the patient woke and there were no immediate postoperative complications. The next morning, the patient complained of dysarthria and dysphasia. These symptoms were considered to be caused by the LMA compressing the nerve against the hyoid bone. Conservative treatment was chosen and the paralysis recovered completely after 5 months. Conclusion. Hypoglossal nerve injury may occur despite correct positioning of the LMA under the appropriate intracuff pressure. A follow-up period of at least 6 months should be taken into account for the recovery. PMID:25254120

  11. Qualitative dermatoglyphic traits in brachial plexus palsy.

    PubMed

    Polovina, Svetislav; Milici?, Jasna; Cvjeticanin, Miljenko; Prolosci?, Tajana Polovina

    2007-12-01

    It has been considered for many years that the cause of perinatal brachial plexus palsy (PBPP) is excessive lateral traction applied to the fetal head at delivery, in association with anterior shoulder dystocia, but this do not explain all cases of brachial plexus palsy. The incidence found in several family members could be suggestive for inheritance with variable expression. The aim of this study was to prove early found confirmations of genetic predisposition for PBPP In the previous studies, the quantitative dermatoglyphic analysis showed some differences in digito-palmar dermatoglyphs between patients with PBPP and healthy controls. Now this qualitative analysis will try to determine hereditary of those diseases. We analyzed digito-palmar dermatoglyphics from 140 subjects (70 males and 70 females) diagnosed with PBPP and 400 phenotypically healthy adults (200 males and 200 females) from Zagreb area as control group. The results of Chi-square test showed statistically significant differences for frequencies of patterns on fingers in females between the groups observed. Statistically significant differences were found on palms in III and IV interdigital areas in both males and females and in thenar and I interdigital area only in females. As it was found in previous researches on quantitative dermatoglyphic traits, more differences are found between females with PBPP and control group, than between males. The fact, that the main presumed cause of PBPP is obstetrical trauma, it could be associated with congenital variability in formation of brachial plexus. PMID:18217462

  12. Evaluation of facial palsy by moire topography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Inokuchi, Ikuo; Kawakami, Shinichiro; Maeta, Manabu; Masuda, Yu

    1991-08-01

    Society of Facial Research is used frequently. It is of great value clinically, but the method has several weak points concerning objective and quantitative assessment. This study uses moire topography to solve these problems. mA moire camera, FM3013, of the lattice irradiation type was used for measurement of the face. Five moire photographs were taken: at rest, wrinkling the forehead, closing the eyes lightly, blowing out the cheeks and grinning. The degree of facial palsy was determined by the Asymmetry Index (AI) as a measure of the degree of facial deviation. Total AI was expressed as the average AI based on calculations of the measurement in 5 photos. Severe paralysis is represented by an AI of more than 20%. Partial paralysis has a range of 20-8%. Nearly normal is judged to be less than 8%. Ten normal individuals are measured as control and show an AI of 3% or less. Moire topography is useful in assessing the recovery process because it has the benefit of making the site and grade of palsy easily achieved by the AI and the deviation in its patterns. The authors propose that the moire method is better for an objective and quantitative evaluation than the society's method.

  13. Hereditary thermosensitive neuropathy: an autosomal dominant disorder of the peripheral nervous system.

    PubMed

    Magy, L; Birouk, N; Vallat, J M; Gouider, R; Maisonobe, T; Bouche, P; Lyon-Caen, O; Fontaine, B

    1997-06-01

    We report the clinical and electrophysiologic characteristics of eight patients (four men and four women) with a hereditary neuropathy with probable thermosensitivity (HTN) of autosomal dominant inheritance. Patients presented reversible episodes of ascending muscle weakness, paresthesiae, and areflexia apparently triggered by an elevation of body temperature over 38.5 degrees C. Mean age at onset was 13 +/- 12 (SD; range 6 to 43). Four patients had suffered up to five attacks. EMG and pathologic findings were compatible with a reversible demyelinating neuropathy such as Guillain-Barré syndrome. We excluded loci causing other hereditary demyelinating neuropathies, such as Charcot-Marie-Tooth disease type I (CMT type I) and hereditary neuropathy with liability to pressure palsies (HNPP), by linkage analysis; thus, HTN is not allelic to either CMT type I or to HNPP. PMID:9191787

  14. Speech Performance, Dysphagia and Oral Reflexes in Cerebral Palsy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Love, Russell J.; And Others

    1980-01-01

    The adequacy of biting, sucking, swallowing, and chewing as well as the presence or absence of nine infantile oral reflexes were assessed in 60 cerebral palsied individuals (ages 3 to 23). (Author/PHR)

  15. Design of an Exergaming Station for Children with Cerebral Palsy

    E-print Network

    Graham, Nick

    attributed to disturbances in the development of the fetal or infant brain [21]. As children with cerebral palsy become teenagers, they can experience a cycle of deconditioning resulting in deteriorating

  16. Neuroimaging of isolated and non-isolated third nerve palsies

    PubMed Central

    Lo, C-P; Huang, C-F; Hsu, C-C; Kuo, C-C; Liu, C-C; Wang, Y-M; Wang, W-Y

    2012-01-01

    A variety of aetiologies may cause third nerve palsy (TNP), and some manifestations may herald neurological emergencies. This article describes and illustrates various diseases that lead to TNP. PMID:22253341

  17. Pediatric Cerebral Palsy in Africa: Where Are We?

    PubMed

    Donald, Kirsten A; Kakooza, Angelina M; Wammanda, Robinson D; Mallewa, Macpherson; Samia, Pauline; Babakir, Haydar; Bearden, David; Majnemer, Annette; Fehlings, Darcy; Shevell, Michael; Chugani, Harry; Wilmshurst, Jo M

    2015-07-01

    Cerebral palsy is the most common cause of physical disability in children worldwide. However, little is reported on this condition in the African context. Doctors from 22 countries in Africa, and representatives from a further 5 countries outside Africa, met to discuss the challenges in the evaluation and management of children with cerebral palsy in Africa and to propose service needs and further research. Basic care is limited by the poor availability of diagnostic facilities or medical personnel with experience and expertise in managing cerebral palsy, exacerbated by lack of available interventions such as medications, surgical procedures, or even regular therapy input. Relevant guidelines are lacking. In order to guide services for children with existing disabilities, to effectively target the main etiologies and to develop preventive strategies for the continent, research priorities must include multicenter collaborative studies looking at the prevalence, risk factors, and treatment of cerebral palsy. PMID:25296926

  18. Management of Spasticity in Children with Cerebral Palsy

    PubMed Central

    Shamsoddini, Alireza; Amirsalari, Susan; Hollisaz, Mohammad-Taghi; Rahimnia, Alireza; Khatibi-Aghda, Amideddin

    2014-01-01

    Cerebral palsy is the most common cause of spasticity and physical disability in children and spasticity is one of the commonest problems in those with neurological disease. The management of spasticity in children with cerebral palsy requires a multidisciplinary effort and should be started as early as possible. There are a number of treatments available for the management of spasticity. This article reviews the variety of options available for the clinical management of spasticity. PMID:25755853

  19. Acute Peripheral Facial Palsy after Chickenpox: A Rare Association

    PubMed Central

    Lopes, Andreia

    2014-01-01

    Chickenpox, resulting from primary infection by the varicella-zoster virus, is an exanthematous disease very common during childhood and with good prognosis. However, serious complications, namely, neurological syndromes, may develop during its course, especially in risk groups, including adolescents. Peripheral facial palsy is a rare neurologic complication that has been previously described. Conclusion. We report the case of a teenager with peripheral facial palsy as a complication of chickenpox, aiming to increase the awareness of this rare association. PMID:25057424

  20. Skull base osteomyelitis presenting with an isolated hypoglossal nerve palsy

    PubMed Central

    Kasfiki, Eirini Vasileiou; Kelly, Ciaran; Smith, John; Nicolaides, Andreas

    2013-01-01

    This is the first case of skull base osteomyelitis presenting with isolated bilateral hypoglossal nerve palsy reported in the literature. A 75-year-old man presented with tongue paralysis without any other cranial nerve palsy. He was otherwise well apart from recently having a high prostate-specific antigen level recorded. Investigations for malignancy or cerebrovascular insult were negative with the diagnosis of skull base osteomyelitis confirmed using CT. Following treatment with intravenous antibiotics for 6?weeks, symptoms resolved. PMID:23853016

  1. Complementary and alternative therapies for cerebral palsy.

    PubMed

    Liptak, Gregory S

    2005-01-01

    The optimal practice of medicine includes integrating individual clinical expertise with the best available clinical evidence from systematic research. This article reviews nine treatment modalities used for children who have cerebral palsy (CP), including hyperbaric oxygen, the Adeli Suit, patterning, electrical stimulation, conductive education, equine-assisted therapy, craniosacral therapy, Feldenkrais therapy, and acupuncture. Unfortunately, these modalities have different degrees of published evidence to support or refute their effectiveness. Uncontrolled and controlled trials of hippotherapy have shown beneficial effects on body structures and functioning. Studies of acupuncture are promising, but more studies are required before specific recommendations can be made. Most studies of patterning have been negative and its use cannot be recommended. However, for the other interventions, such as hyperbaric oxygen, more evidence is required before recommendations can be made. The individual with CP and his or her family have a right to full disclosure of all possible treatment options and whatever knowledge currently is available regarding these therapies. PMID:15977320

  2. Cerebral palsy: introduction and diagnosis (part I).

    PubMed

    Jones, Martha Wilson; Morgan, Elaine; Shelton, Jean E; Thorogood, Christine

    2007-01-01

    Cerebral palsy (CP), a static, nonprogressive disorder caused by brain insult or injury in the prenatal, perinatal, and postnatal time period, is the major developmental disability affecting function in children. It is characterized by the inability to normally control motor functions, and it has the potential to have an effect on the overall development of a child by affecting the child's ability to explore, speak, learn, and become independent. Effective management can improve the quality of life for the child and family. The first step for the nurse practitioner is to understand the definition of CP and how to make the diagnosis. This article is part one of two articles on CP. The first article will focus on the diagnosis of CP, and the second will focus on a review of systems approach for management as well as resources for the family and practitioner. PMID:17478303

  3. Cerebral palsy in very preterm infants: new epidemiological insights.

    PubMed

    O'Shea, T Michael

    2002-01-01

    The focus of this review is on new insights from recent epidemiological research on cerebral palsy in preterm infants. These include: 1) a better understanding of issues related to diagnosis and classification; 2) new information about the brain abnormalities underlying cerebral palsy in preterm infants; and 3) a better understanding of biological mechanisms that may underlie previously described epidemiological associations. Ongoing efforts to improve the diagnosis and classification of cerebral palsy have been enhanced by findings from serial examinations of cohorts of very preterm infants. Cranial ultrasonography through the anterior fontanelle of very preterm infants has provided information about grossly evident brain damage, found in about one-half of preterm infants who develop cerebral palsy. Insights into the pathophysiologic basis for certain epidemiologic associations have come from studies of experimental brain damage in animals and clinical studies of neurologic disorders in adults. Much of the current epidemiological research into the causes of cerebral palsy in preterm infants has focused on two potential mechanisms of brain damage. One mechanism involves insufficient cerebral perfusion; the other, cytokine-mediated damage, potentially triggered by events such as maternal infection (e.g., intrauterine or periodontal infection), neonatal infection (e.g., sepsis and necrotizing enterocolitis), and neonatal oxygen- or ventilator-induced lung injury. In addition to the preterm infant's increased exposure to such damaging factors, the high frequency of cerebral palsy in these infants might be due, in part, to insufficient levels of developmentally regulated protective substances, such as thyroid hormone and glucocorticoids. Models of causation currently are being investigated using recently developed methods for quantifying, with small quantities of blood, biomolecules that are suspected to either promote or protect against brain damage in the neonate. Clinical investigations now under way can be expected to identify strategies to be tested in clinical trials that could lower the risk of cerebral palsy in very preterm infants. PMID:12216057

  4. Bilateral Sciatic Nerve Palsy: A New Presentation of Toilet Bowl Neuropathy

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Lt. Elizabeth A. Dubil; Maj. James M. Dahle; Michael D. Owens

    2010-01-01

    Background: Presentations of lower extremity compression palsies are rare and exist only in case reports. The true incidence of emergency department (ED) presentations of bilateral sciatic nerve palsy, “toilet bowl neuropathy,” is unknown. The following is a case of a 28-year-old active duty Navy woman who presented to our ED via ambulance with bilateral sciatic nerve palsy from prolonged immobility.

  5. SPARCLEA Study of Participation and Quality of Life of Children with Cerebral Palsy Living in Europe

    E-print Network

    Paxton, Anthony T.

    SPARCLEA Study of Participation and Quality of Life of Children with Cerebral Palsy Living, recreational, leisure and sporting activities" This report is about 8-12 year old children with cerebral palsy by researchers. Children with cerebral palsy have difficulty making movements due to injury to their brain

  6. Computer modeling of gait abnormalities in cerebral palsy: application to treatment planning

    E-print Network

    Delp, Scott

    Computer modeling of gait abnormalities in cerebral palsy: application to treatment planning A. S, Stanford, CA, USA The treatment of gait abnormalities in persons with cerebral palsy is chal- lenging in children with cerebral palsy is challenging. Musculoskeletal surgeries and other treatments, such as tone

  7. Achilles Tendon Length and Medial Gastrocnemius Architecture in Children With Cerebral Palsy

    E-print Network

    Valero-Cuevas, Francisco

    Achilles Tendon Length and Medial Gastrocnemius Architecture in Children With Cerebral Palsy with cerebral palsy (CP) and equinus gait, with or without contracture. We also examined a small number with cereb- ral palsy (CP).1,2 Dynamic equinus can usually be addres- sed with bracing, physical therapy

  8. Bone density and size in ambulatory children with cerebral palsy TISHYA AL WREN1

    E-print Network

    Valero-Cuevas, Francisco

    Bone density and size in ambulatory children with cerebral palsy TISHYA AL WREN1 | DAVID C LEE1 properties in ambulatory children with cerebral palsy (CP) to functional (Gross Motor Function Classification, it is important to study bone acquisition in all children with CP. Children with cerebral palsy (CP) have

  9. An Inertial Sensor-based System to Develop Motor Capacity in Children with Cerebral Palsy

    E-print Network

    Sukhatme, Gaurav S.

    An Inertial Sensor-based System to Develop Motor Capacity in Children with Cerebral Palsy Shuo Qiao periods of time. Index Terms--Cerebral Palsy, Accelerometer, Gyroscope, Game, Motor Skills I. INTRODUCTION with cerebral palsy (CP). Typical operation of these devices requires controlled motor interaction

  10. Gait training facilitates central drive to ankle dorsiflexors in children with cerebral palsy.

    PubMed

    Willerslev-Olsen, Maria; Petersen, Tue Hvass; Farmer, Simon Francis; Nielsen, Jens Bo

    2015-03-01

    Foot drop and toe walking are frequent concerns in children with cerebral palsy. The main underlying cause of these problems is early damage and lack of maturation of the corticospinal tract. In the present study we investigated whether 4 weeks of daily treadmill training with an incline may facilitate corticospinal transmission and improve the control of the ankle joint in children with cerebral palsy. Sixteen children with cerebral palsy (Gross Motor Classification System I:6, II:6, III:4) aged 5-14 years old, were recruited for the study. Evaluation of gait ability and intramuscular coherence was made twice before and twice after training with an interval of 1 month. Gait kinematics were recorded by 3D video analysis during treadmill walking with a velocity chosen by the child at the first evaluation. Foot pressure was measured by force sensitive foot soles during treadmill and over ground walking. EMG-EMG coherence was calculated from two separate electrode recordings placed over the tibialis anterior muscle. Training involved 30 min of walking daily on a treadmill with an incline for 30 days. Gait training was accompanied by significant increases in gait speed, incline on the treadmill, the maximal voluntary dorsiflexion torque, the number and amplitude of toe lifts late in the swing phase during gait and the weight exerted on the heel during the early stance phase of the gait cycle. EMG-EMG coherence in the beta and gamma frequency bands recorded from tibialis anterior muscle increased significantly when compared to coherence before training. The largest changes in coherence with training were observed for children <10 years of age. Importantly, in contrast to training-induced EMG increases, the increase in coherence was maintained at the follow-up measurement 1 month after training. Changes in the strength of coherence in the beta and gamma band were positively correlated with improvements in the subjects' ability to lift the toes in the swing phase. These data show that daily intensive gait training increases beta and gamma oscillatory drive to ankle dorsiflexor motor neurons and that it improves toe lift and heel strike in children with cerebral palsy. We propose that intensive gait training may produce plastic changes in the corticospinal tract, which are responsible for improvements in gait function. PMID:25623137

  11. Mesencephalic cholinergic nuclei in progressive supranuclear palsy.

    PubMed

    Juncos, J L; Hirsch, E C; Malessa, S; Duyckaerts, C; Hersh, L B; Agid, Y

    1991-01-01

    Using an antibody against choline acetyltransferase (ChAT), mesencephalic cholinergic cell nuclei were studied in autopsy material from 3 cases of progressive supranuclear palsy (PSP) and 4 controls. ChAT-immunoreactive neurons were quantified in sections that spanned the rostrocaudal extent of each nucleus. In PSP, there was a significant decrease in the number of neurons with detectable immunoreactivity for ChAT in and adjacent to the central gray substance in the following nuclei: the nucleus of Edinger-Westphal (69%); the rostral interstitial nucleus of the medial longitudinal fasciculus (97%); the interstitial nucleus of Cajal (78%). A cell loss was also evident in a group of neurons found in the deep layers of the superior colliculus (93%). In contrast, the estimated number of ChAT-immunoreactive cell bodies in cranial nerves III and IV, in the mesencephalic reticular formation, and in the parabigeminal nucleus was not different from that of controls. The results are compatible with the notion that, in PSP, there is a regionally selective destruction of cholinergic neurons. PMID:1985290

  12. Locomotion patterns in cerebral palsy syndromes.

    PubMed

    Bottos, M; Puato, M L; Vianello, A; Facchin, P

    1995-10-01

    Locomotion patterns were studied in 160 children with cerebral palsy. Ten patterns were distinguished, which were typical of the type of impairment: (1) crawling--mildly impaired children who will achieve independent walking; (2) creeping and crawling--diplegic children with moderate motor impairment; (3) creeping, never leading to independent walking--children with severe diplegia or tetraplegia; (4) bottom shuffling--children with hemiplegia and ataxia and minimal or mild motor impairment; (5) bunny-hopping--dyskinetic children with marked motor impairment but generally not mentally retarded; (6) rolling--severely diplegic and dyskinetic children; (7) other forms of locomotion, such as bridging or grub-type creeping, rare and typical of children with ataxic elements; (8) just walk--children with hemiplegia, diplegia, ataxic diplegia or ataxia, generally in cases of mild motor impairment but mental retardation; (9) just walk with aids--children with severe diplegia; and (10) no mobility. The locomotion pattern, age at onset and even manner of execution all influenced prognosis for walking. Severe deformity affected the choice of locomotion pattern. Though physiotherapy probably would not greatly influence the adoption of a particular locomotion pattern, early intervention might help prevent deformities. PMID:7493722

  13. Gait stability in children with cerebral palsy

    PubMed Central

    Bruijn, Sjoerd M.; Millard, Matthew; van Gestel, Leen; Meyns, Pieter; Jonkers, Ilse; Desloovere, Kaat

    2013-01-01

    Children with unilateral Cerebral Palsy (CP) have several gait impairments, amongst which impaired gait stability may be one. We tested whether a newly developed stability measure (the foot placement estimator, FPE) which does not require long data series, can be used to asses gait stability in typically developing (TD) children as well as children with CP. In doing so, we tested the FPE’s sensitivity to the assumptions needed to calculate this measure, as well as the ability of the FPE to detect differences in stability between children with CP and TD children, and differences in walking speed. Participants were asked to walk at two different speeds, while gait kinematics were recorded. From these data, the FPE, as well as the error that violations of assumptions of the FPE could have caused were calculated. The results showed that children with CP walked with marked instabilities in anterior-posterior and mediolateral directions. Furthermore, errors caused by violations of assumptions in calculation of FPE were only small (~1.5 cm), while effects of walking speed (~20 cm per m/s increase in walking speed) and group (~5cm) were much larger. These results suggest that the FPE may be used to quantify gait stability in TD children and children with CP. PMID:23500163

  14. Symptom burden in individuals with cerebral palsy

    PubMed Central

    Hirsh, Adam T.; Gallegos, Juan C.; Gertz, Kevin J.; Engel, Joyce M.; Jensen, Mark P.

    2011-01-01

    The current study sought to (1) determine the relative frequency and severity of eight symptoms in adults with cerebral palsy (CP), (2) examine the perceived course of these eight symptoms over time, and (3) determine the associations between the severity of these symptoms and psychosocial functioning. Eighty-three adults with CP completed a measure assessing the frequency, severity, and perceived course of eight symptoms (pain, weakness, fatigue, imbalance, numbness, memory loss, vision loss, and shortness of breath). Respondents also completed measures of community integration and psychological functioning. The results indicated that pain, fatigue, imbalance, and weakness were the most common and severe symptoms reported. All symptoms were reported to have either stayed the same or worsened, rather than resolved, over time. The symptoms were more closely related to social integration than to home integration, productive activity, or psychological functioning. Memory loss was a unique predictor of social integration in the multivariate context. This study highlighted several common and problematic symptoms experienced by adults with CP. Additional research is needed to identify the most effective treatments for those symptoms that affect community integration and psychological functioning as a way to improve the quality of life of individuals with CP. PMID:21174251

  15. Rehabilitation Outcomes of Children with Cerebral Palsy

    PubMed Central

    Yalcinkaya, Ebru Yilmaz; Caglar, Nil Say?ner; Tugcu, Betul; Tonbaklar, Aysegul

    2014-01-01

    [Purpose] To evaluate the results of Bobath-based rehabilitation performed at a pediatric cerebral palsy (CP) inpatient clinic. [Subjects and Methods] The study subjects were 28 children with CP who were inpatients at a pediatric service. Inclusion criteria were: being an inpatient of our hospital aged 2–12 with a diagnosis of CP; having one permanent primary caregiver; and the caregiver having no medical or psychotic problems. All of the patients received Bobath treatment for 1 hour per day, 5 days a week. The locomotor system, neurologic and orthopedic examination, Gross Motor Function Measure (GMFM) of the patients, and Short Form-36 (SF-36) of permanent caregivers were evaluated at the time of admission to hospital, discharge from hospital, and at 1 and 3 months after discharge. [Results] Post-admission scores of GMFM at discharge, and 1 and 3 months later showed significant increase. Social function and emotional role subscores of SF-36 had increased significantly at discharge. [Conclusion] Bobath treatment is promising and randomized controlled further studies are needed for rehabilitation technics. PMID:24648650

  16. Common peroneal nerve palsy: a clinical and electrophysiological review.

    PubMed Central

    Berry, H; Richardson, P M

    1976-01-01

    In a series of 70 patients (75 cases of common peroneal nerve palsy) the common causes were trauma about the knee or about the hip, compression, and underlying neuropathy. A few palsies occurred spontaneously for no apparent reason. The prognosis was uniformly good in the compression group; recovery was delayed but usually satisfactory in patients who had suffered stretch injuries. In the acute stage, when clinical paralysis appears to be complete, electrophysiological studies are a useful guide to prognosis. They may also indicate an underlying neuropathy and they detect early evidence of recovery. The anatomical peculiarities of the common peroneal nerve are noted and aspects of the clinical picture, management, and prognosis of palsy are discussed. PMID:1011026

  17. Dexmedetomidine suppressed involuntary movement in a patient with cerebral palsy.

    PubMed

    Dayton, Dustin; Kowalczyk, Anna K

    2014-08-01

    Involuntary movements in patients with cerebral palsy can interfere with invasive procedures performed under sedation. We present a case of a 58-year-old man with cerebral palsy, who successfully underwent a cardiac catheterization while sedated with IV dexmedetomidine. The patient's involuntary movements were suppressed, which allowed the cardiologist to perform the procedure on an immobile, cooperative patient, all while maintaining patient comfort, stable hemodynamics, as well as adequate oxygenation and ventilation. This novel use of dexmedetomidine might facilitate monitored anesthesia care in patients otherwise requiring general anesthesia. PMID:25611139

  18. Key emerging issues in progressive supranuclear palsy and corticobasal degeneration.

    PubMed

    Josephs, Keith A

    2015-03-01

    It has been approximately 50 years since neurologists were introduced to the entities, "progressive supranuclear palsy" and "corticobasal degeneration". Since the two seminal publications, there have been significant advancements in our understanding of these two neurodegenerative diseases, particularly the fact that both are associated with tau. Recent advances over the past 3 years that are notable to the field are discussed in this review that covers clinical diagnosis, pathological features, neuroimaging and CSF biomarkers, genetic associations and clinical trials related to progressive supranuclear palsy and corticobasal degeneration. PMID:25701010

  19. Parental infertility and cerebral palsy in children

    PubMed Central

    Zhu, Jin Liang; Hvidtjørn, Dorte; Basso, Olga; Obel, Carsten; Thorsen, Poul; Uldall, Peter; Olsen, Jørn

    2010-01-01

    BACKGROUND Children born after in vitro fertilization (IVF) or intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI) have been reported to have a higher risk of cerebral palsy (CP), perhaps due to the higher frequency of preterm birth, multiple births or vanishing embryo in the pregnancies. However, it has been suggested that the underlying infertility may be part of the pathway. In this study, we examined whether untreated subfecundity (measured by time to pregnancy) or infertility treatment was associated with an increased risk of CP in the offspring. METHODS Using the Danish National Birth Cohort (1997–2003), we compared children born after 0–2 months of waiting time to pregnancy (n = 35 848) with those born after a time to pregnancy of 3–5 months (n = 15 361), 6–12 months (n = 11 528) and >12 months (n = 7387), as well as those born after IVF/ICSI (n = 3617), ovulation induction with or without intrauterine insemination (n = 3000), and unplanned pregnancies (n = 13 462). CP cases were identified through the Danish CP Register. RESULTS In total, 165 (0.18%) children were diagnosed with CP in the entire cohort. We found no significant association between time to pregnancy and the risk of CP in children conceived spontaneously. Children born after IVF/ICSI had an increased risk of CP, even after adjustment for preterm birth and multiplicity (hazard ratio 2.30, 95% confidence interval 1.12–4.73). CONCLUSIONS Subfecundity per se did not appear to be associated with the risk of CP in children, whereas being born after IVF/ICSI conferred an increased risk. PMID:21045245

  20. Treating cerebral palsy with aculaser therapy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anwar, Shahzad; Nazir Khan, Malik M.; Nadeem Khan, Malik M.; Qazi, Faiza M.; Awan, Abid H.; Dar, Irfan

    2008-03-01

    A single, open and non comparative study was conducted at Anwar Shah Trust for C.P. & Paralysis in collaboration with the Departments of Neurology and Neurosurgery, Children Hospital Lahore, Pakistan to evaluate the effects of ACULASER THERAPY in childern suffering from Cerebral Palsy (C.P.) and associated Neurological Disorders like epilepsy, cortical blindness, spasticity, hemiplegia, paraplegia, diplegia, quadriplegia, monoplegia, sensory-neural deafness and speech disorders. In all 250 childern were treated and the data was gathered during a period of 3 years from December 2003 till December 2006. These children were further classified according to the type of C.P. (spastic, athetoid, mixed) they suffered from and associated Neurological Disorders. This article shows results in C.P. childern who were treated with ACULASER THERAPY for minimum 6 weeks and more or had minimum of 15 treatment sessions and more. This article also shows that those childern who were given a break in the treatment for 1 month to 1 year did not show any reversal of the signs and symptoms. Analysis of the data showed that out of 171 children with Spasticity and Stiffness 147 showed marked improvement showing 87% success rate, out of 126 children with Epileptic fits, there was a significant reduction in the intensity, frequency and duration of Epileptic fits in 91 children showing 72% success rate, out of 48 children with Cortical Blindness 30 children showed improvement accounting for 63% efficacy rate, out of 105 children with Hearing Difficulties, 63 showed marked improvement accounting for 60% improvement rate, out of 190 children with Speech Disorders 122 showed improvement reflecting 64% improvement rate, out of 96 children with Hemiplegia 71 showed improvement in movement, tone and power accounting for 74% improvement rate, out of 76 children with Quadriplegia 52 showed improvement in gross and fine motor functions showing 69% success rate and out of 58 children with Paraplegia of lower limbs 44 showed improvement in weight bearing, standing and movement accounting for 76% improvement rate.

  1. Cerebral palsy: definition, assessment and rehabilitation.

    PubMed

    Richards, Carol L; Malouin, Francine

    2013-01-01

    Over the last 25 years the definition and classification of cerebral palsy (CP) have evolved, as well as the approach to rehabilitation. CP is a disorder of the development of movement and posture, causing activity limitations attributed to nonprogressive disturbances of the fetal or infant brain that may also affect sensation, perception, cognition, communication, and behavior. Motor control during reaching, grasping, and walking are disturbed by spasticity, dyskinesia, hyperreflexia, excessive coactivation of antagonist muscles, retained developmental reactions, and secondary musculoskeletal malformations, together with paresis and defective programing. Weakness and hypoextensibility of the muscles are due not only to inadequate recruitment of motor units, but also to changes in mechanical stresses and hormonal factors. Two methods, the General Movements Assessment and the Test of Infant Motor Performance, now permit the early detection of CP, while the development of valid and reliable outcome measures, particularly the Gross Motor Function Measure (GMFM), have made it possible to evaluate change over time and the effects of clinical interventions. The GMFM has further led to the development of predictive curves of motor function while the Gross Motor Classification System and the Manual Ability Classification System provide standardized means to classify the severity of the movement disability. With the emergence of the task-oriented approach, the focus of therapy in rehabilitation has shifted from eliminating deficits to enhancing function across all performance domains by emphasizing fitness, function, participation, and quality of life. There is growing evidence supporting selected interventions and interest for the therapy and social integration of adults with CP. PMID:23622163

  2. Growth and Nutrition Disorders in Children with Cerebral Palsy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kuperminc, Michelle N.; Stevenson, Richard D.

    2008-01-01

    Growth and nutrition disorders are common secondary health conditions in children with cerebral palsy (CP). Poor growth and malnutrition in CP merit study because of their impact on health, including psychological and physiological function, healthcare utilization, societal participation, motor function, and survival. Understanding the etiology of…

  3. Isolated Oculomotor Nerve Palsy due to Dural Cavernous Sinus Fistula

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Pérez Sempere; Martinez Menéndez; Cabeza Alvarez; Calandre Hoenigsfeld

    1991-01-01

    Two patients with a dural carotid-cavernous sinus fistula presented with unilateral oculomotor nerve palsies without signs of ocular congestion or proptosis. According to this, dural carotid-cavernous sinus fistula should be included in the differential diagnosis of any case of painful ophthalmoplegia, even in the absence of other ocular signs.Copyright © 1991 S. Karger AG, Basel

  4. The Determinants of Daily Function in Children with Cerebral Palsy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tseng, Mei-Hui; Chen, Kuan-Lin; Shieh, Jeng-Yi; Lu, Lu; Huang, Chien-Yu

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this study was to identify determinants of daily function in a population-based sample of children with cerebral palsy (CP). The study took into consideration factors from the entire scope of the International Classification of Functioning, Disability, and Health (ICF). Furthermore, the determinants of daily function were examined from…

  5. Body composition in children with spastic quadriplegic cerebral palsy

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Virginia A. Stallings; Christine E. Cronk; Babette S. Zemel; Edward B. Charney

    1995-01-01

    Objective: To determine the pattern of body composition and nutritional status in a group of prepubertal children with spastic quadriplegic cerebral palsy (SQCP) compared with healthy control children. Study design: Subjects were enrolled for this cross-sectional study from two tertiary care settings. One hundred thirty-six subjects with SQCP, 2 to 12 years of age, were evaluated by anthropometric measures, or

  6. Validity of Messages from Quadriplegic Persons with Cerebral Palsy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sappington, John; And Others

    1989-01-01

    A procedure was devised in which message content was provided to four nonvocal, severely palsied quadriplegic adults in advance, and investigators elicited the messages via subjects' yes/no gestures. Results indicated reasonably high correspondence between stimulus messages and messages elicited. (Author/JDD)

  7. Behaviour in Children with Cerebral Palsy with and without Epilepsy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carlsson, Malin; Olsson, Ingrid; Hagberg, Gudrun; Beckung, Eva

    2008-01-01

    The aim of the study was to describe behavioural problems in children with cerebral palsy (CP) with and without epilepsy. The children were sampled from the Western Sweden CP register and were part of a European Union project. The Strength and Difficulties Questionnaire and questions on epilepsy were answered by one parent of each child. Medical…

  8. MASGUTOVA METHOD OF REFLEX INTEGRATION FOR CHILDREN WITH CEREBRAL PALSY

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Svetlana Masgutova; Susan Wenberg; Mary Retschler

    2008-01-01

    Childhood Cerebral Palsy - the group of diseases concerned with motor disorders as the result of brain damage or dysfunction of certain brain centers - is usually acquired during the first years of life, at the time when the system of primary movement patterns is developing. Primary movements are genetically programmed for protection and survival, and also for the development

  9. Towards an Intelligent Wheelchair System for Cerebral Palsy Users

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Luis Montesano; Javier Minguez; Sonu Bhaskar

    This paper describes and evaluates an intelligent wheelchair, adapted for cognitively disabled subjects with mo- bility impairement. The study focused on cerebral palsy pa- tients, one of the most common congenital disorders that affect muscle control and coordination, thereby impairing movement. The wheelchair concept is an assistive device that allows the subject to select arbitrary local destinations through a tactile

  10. Towards an Intelligent Wheelchair System for Users With Cerebral Palsy

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Luis Montesano; Marta Díaz; Sonu Bhaskar; Javier Minguez

    2010-01-01

    This paper describes and evaluates an intelligent wheelchair, adapted for users with cognitive disabilities and mobility impairment. The study focuses on patients with cerebral palsy, one of the most common disorders affecting muscle control and coordination, thereby impairing movement. The wheelchair concept is an assistive device that allows the user to select arbitrary local destinations through a tactile screen interface.

  11. Feeding and Gastrointestinal Problems in Children with Cerebral Palsy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Erkin, Gulten; Culha, Canan; Ozel, Sumru; Kirbiyik, Eylem Gulsen

    2010-01-01

    The aim of our study was to identify feeding and gastrointestinal system (GIS) problems in children with cerebral palsy (CP), and to evaluate the relationship between these problems and the severity of CP. A total of 120 children with CP were enrolled consecutively into the study (67 males, 53 females; mean age: 6.0[plus or minus]2.4 years; range:…

  12. Pathological, clinical and genetic heterogeneity in progressive supranuclear palsy

    Microsoft Academic Search

    H. R. Morris; G. Gibb; R. Katzenschlager; N. W. Wood; D. P. Hanger; C. Strand; T. Lashley; S. E. Daniel; A. J. Lees; B. H. Anderton; T. Revesz

    2002-01-01

    Summary We have identified two groups of patients with clinically typical and atypical, pathologically diagnosed progres- sive supranuclear palsy (PSP), and investigated their genetic and molecular pathological characteristics. Those with clinically typical PSP are more likely to have the PSP susceptibility genotype and to have the depos- ition of PSP-type hyperphosphorylated tau protein. The clinically atypical PSP group contains a

  13. Physical and Sedentary Activity in Adolescents with Cerebral Palsy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maher, Carol A.; Williams, Marie T.; Olds, Tim; Lane, Alison E.

    2007-01-01

    Participation in regular physical activity (PA) provides health, psychological, and physiological benefits for people with and without a physical disability. This study investigated the physical and sedentary activity patterns of adolescents with cerebral palsy (CP). A cross-sectional, descriptive, postal survey was used, consisting of the…

  14. Multiple concomitant cranial nerve palsies secondary to preeclampsia.

    PubMed

    Gilca, Marina; Luneau, Katie

    2015-06-01

    A 32-year-old primigravid woman developed pre-eclampsia after delivery of twins along with left fifth, sixth, and seventh cranial neuropathies. She also had evidence of hepatic and renal involvement. Results of patient evaluation were otherwise unremarkable, and the palsies completely resolved over 3 months after treatment with valacyclovir and systemic corticosteroids. PMID:25768245

  15. Rating Scales for Dystonia in Cerebral Palsy: Reliability and Validity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Monbaliu, E.; Ortibus, E.; Roelens, F.; Desloovere, K.; Deklerck, J.; Prinzie, P.; De Cock, P.; Feys, H.

    2010-01-01

    Aim: This study investigated the reliability and validity of the Barry-Albright Dystonia Scale (BADS), the Burke-Fahn-Marsden Movement Scale (BFMMS), and the Unified Dystonia Rating Scale (UDRS) in patients with bilateral dystonic cerebral palsy (CP). Method: Three raters independently scored videotapes of 10 patients (five males, five females;…

  16. Aerobic Capacity in Children and Adolescents with Cerebral Palsy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Verschuren, Olaf; Takken, Tim

    2010-01-01

    This study described the aerobic capacity [VO[subscript 2peak] (ml/kg/min)] in contemporary children and adolescents with cerebral palsy (CP) using a maximal exercise test protocol. Twenty-four children and adolescents with CP classified at Gross Motor Functional Classification Scale (GMFCS) level I or level II and 336 typically developing…

  17. Childhood Educational Experiences of Women with Cerebral Palsy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Freeborn, Donna; Mandleco, Barbara

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the childhood experiences of women with cerebral palsy (CP), from the perspectives of these women. Using the feminist biographical method, eight women with CP participated in two in-depth interviews. Participants ranged in age from 22 to 55 years and had moderate to severe athetoid or spastic CP. Four…

  18. Reproducibility of Tactile Assessments for Children with Unilateral Cerebral Palsy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Auld, Megan Louise; Ware, Robert S.; Boyd, Roslyn Nancy; Moseley, G. Lorimer; Johnston, Leanne Marie

    2012-01-01

    A systematic review identified tactile assessments used in children with cerebral palsy (CP), but their reproducibility is unknown. Sixteen children with unilateral CP and 31 typically developing children (TDC) were assessed 2-4 weeks apart. Test-retest percent agreements within one point for children with unilateral CP (and TDC) were…

  19. Bathing Techniques for Children Who Have Cerebral Palsy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dunaway, Avtar; Klein, Marsha Dunn

    Helpful techniques are offered for making bathtime easier, safer, and more fun for children who have cerebral palsy. Safety in the bathtub is stressed, both for the child who needs protection from slippery surfaces and extreme water temperature, and for the caregiver who must lift and carry the child without causing injury to the lower back.…

  20. Intermittent versus Continuous Physiotherapy in Children with Cerebral Palsy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Christiansen, Annette Sandahl; Lange, Christa

    2008-01-01

    The aim of this study was to compare the effect of the delivery of the same amount of intermittent versus continuous physiotherapy given to children with cerebral palsy (CP). This was organized either in an intermittent regime four times a week for 4 weeks alternating with a 6-week treatment pause, or a continuous once or twice a week regime, both…

  1. Progressive supranuclear palsy: what do we know about it?

    PubMed

    Long, Ling; Cai, Xiao-Dong; Wei, Xiao-Bo; Liao, Jin-Chi; Xu, Yun-Qi; Gao, Hui-Min; Chen, Xiao-Hong; Wang, Qing

    2015-01-01

    Progressive supranuclear palsy (PSP) is a progressive tauopathy characterized by supranuclear ophthalmoplegia, pseudobulbar palsy, dysarthria, axial rigidity, frontal lobe dysfunction, and dementia. The typical pathology includes neuronal loss, gliosis and microtubule-associated protein tau (MAPT)-positive inclusions in neurons and glial cells, primarily in basal ganglia, brainstem and cerebellum. The pathogenesis of PSP is not yet completely understood; however, there are several hypotheses. This article reviews the present knowledge about PSP, and the concepts underlying mitochondrial dysfunction, lipoperoxidation, and gene mutations. The clinical features of PSP are also discussed; these include vertical gaze palsy, pseudobulbar palsy, aphasia, dysarthria, axial rigidity, and neuropsychiatric symptoms, such as amnesia, irritability, loss of interest, and dementia. In terms of diagnosis, there is considerable interest in neuroimaging for detecting PSP; therefore, neuroimaging techniques such as magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and [18F]- fluorodeoxyglucose positron-emission tomography (FDG-PET) are reviewed. A definitive diagnosis of PSP depends on pathology, and the introduction of new clinical subtypes challenges presents the widely adopted diagnosis criteria. PSP treatments such as serotonin antagonists, ?2 receptor antagonists, and coenzyme Q10 are also discussed. There is no curative therapy for PSP; all of the available treatments are palliative. PMID:25732053

  2. Cerebral palsy symptoms in children decreased following massage therapy

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Tiffany Field; Shay Largie; Miguel Diego; Natasha Manigat; Jacqueline Seoanes; Joan Bornstein

    2005-01-01

    Twenty young children (mean age?=?32 months) with cerebral palsy (CP) recruited from early intervention programs received 30 minutes of massage or reading twice weekly for 12 weeks. The children receiving massage therapy showed fewer physical symptoms including reduced spasticity, less rigid muscle tone overall and in the arms, and improved fine and gross motor functioning. In addition, the massage group

  3. Training Guide to Cerebral Palsy Sports. Third Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jones, Jeffery A., Ed.

    This official training manual of the United States Cerebral Palsy Athletic Association includes the latest coaching and training techniques specific to all sports in the national program. The book features guidelines for coaching over a dozen sports, including soccer, swimming, cycling, and track and field. It contains everything coaches,…

  4. Functional Electrical Stimulation in Children and Adolescents with Cerebral Palsy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    van der Linden, Marietta

    2012-01-01

    In this article, the author talks about functional electrical stimulation in children and adolescents with cerebral palsy. Functional electrical stimulation (FES) is defined as the electrical stimulation of muscles that have impaired motor control, in order to produce a contraction to obtain functionally useful movement. It was first proposed in…

  5. Neuro-ophthalmological approach to facial nerve palsy.

    PubMed

    Portelinha, Joana; Passarinho, Maria Picoto; Costa, João Marques

    2015-01-01

    Facial nerve palsy is associated with significant morbidity and can have different etiologies. The most common causes are Bell's palsy, Ramsay-Hunt syndrome and trauma, including surgical trauma. Incidence varies between 17 and 35 cases per 100,000. Initial evaluation should include accurate clinical history, followed by a comprehensive investigation of the head and neck, including ophthalmological, otological, oral and neurological examination, to exclude secondary causes. Routine laboratory testing and diagnostic imaging is not indicated in patients with new-onset Bell's palsy, but should be performed in patients with risk factors, atypical cases or in any case without resolution within 4 months. Many factors are involved in determining the appropriate treatment of these patients: the underlying cause, expected duration of nerve dysfunction, anatomical manifestations, severity of symptoms and objective clinical findings. Systemic steroids should be offered to patients with new-onset Bell's palsy to increase the chance of facial nerve recovery and reduce synkinesis. Ophthalmologists play a pivotal role in the multidisciplinary team involved in the evaluation and rehabilitation of these patients. In the acute phase, the main priority should be to ensure adequate corneal protection. Treatment depends on the degree of nerve lesion and on the risk of the corneal damage based on the amount of lagophthalmos, the quality of Bell's phenomenon, the presence or absence of corneal sensitivity and the degree of lid retraction. The main therapy is intensive lubrication. Other treatments include: taping the eyelid overnight, botulinum toxin injection, tarsorrhaphy, eyelid weight implants, scleral contact lenses and palpebral spring. Once the cornea is protected, longer term planning for eyelid and facial rehabilitation may take place. Spontaneous complete recovery of Bell's palsy occurs in up to 70% of cases. Long-term complications include aberrant regeneration with synkinesis. FNP after acoustic neuroma surgery remains the most common indication for FN rehabilitation. PMID:25859138

  6. Dermatoglyphic analyses in children with cerebral palsy.

    PubMed

    Simsek, S; Taskiran, H; Karakaya, N; Fistik, T; Solak, M; Cakmak, E A

    1998-01-01

    This study was intended to elucidate the diagnostic values of dermatoglyphic features on the 45 cerebral palsy (CP) patients (28 boys and 17 girls). There were 50 healthy children in the control group. Dermatoglyphic samples were obtained from the both groups by using the paper and ink method and than analysed. The types of dermal patterns of fingertips, the counts of total ridges, the counts of a-b ridges, the values of atd angles, presence or absence of dermal patterns in the hypothenar, thenar/I, II, III, IV interdigital areas, presence of absence of the palmar flexion lines, were compared between the children with CP and control group. It was found that arch, radial loop, whorl prints have increased and ulnar print has decreased in boys investigated which was significant statistically (p < 0.001). No difference was found between investigation and control groups of girls (p > 0.05). The total ridge counts in boys and girls of the investigation group were found significantly decreasing according to the control group (p < 0.001). There was an important decrease in the counts of a-b ridges of investigation group as compared to controls. It was significant in boys (p < 0.01) but not in girls (p > 0.05). The values of atd angles of the investigation group have increased in the control group (p < 0.001 in girls and p < 0.01 in boys). The dermal prints in the hypothenar, thenar/I, II, III and IV interdigital areas showed important differences in the investigation group when compared with the control group (p < 0.01). No clear distinction occurred between the two groups from the viewpoint of palmar flexion lines (p > 0.05). In conclusion, remarkable differences in comparison to controls were found in the dermatoglyphic features of CP cases. In our opinion, by undertaking more studies on the subject and examining a higher number of cases it will be possible to obtain useful data in CP cases indicative of etiologically. PMID:9778656

  7. Can Walking Ability Enhance the Effectiveness of Breathing Exercise in Children with Spastic Cerebral Palsy?

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Hye Young; Kim, Kyoung

    2014-01-01

    [Purpose] The purpose of this study was to compare differences in respiratory pressure and pulmonary function and the effectiveness of respiratory feedback training according to walking ability in children with cerebral palsy (CP). [Subjects and Methods] Twenty-three children with spastic CP were enrolled in the final analysis and were divided into an independent walking group (n=12) and non-independent walking group. All children received respiratory feedback training for four weeks. Before and after the training, respiratory muscle strength was measured and a pulmonary function test was performed. [Results] Comparison of respiratory pressure and pulmonary function test results between the two revealed that the independent walking group had significantly higher respiratory function than the other group in all variables except peak expiratory flow. In comparison of changes in respiratory function between the two groups, the independent walking group showed significantly higher improvement of respiratory function in terms of maximal inspiratory pressure, maximal expiratory pressure, and forced vital capacity. [Conclusion] These findings showed that children with independent walking ability had better respiratory muscle strength and pulmonary function compared with children without independent walking ability. Understanding respiratory function and the effectiveness of respiratory training according to walking ability will be valuable clinical information for respiratory assessment and therapy in children with CP. PMID:24764629

  8. The Cerebral Palsy Research Registry: Development and Progress Toward National Collaboration in the United States

    PubMed Central

    Hurley, Donna S.; Sukal-Moulton, Theresa; Msall, Michael E.; Gaebler-Spira, Deborah; Krosschell, Kristin J.; Dewald, Julius P.

    2011-01-01

    Cerebral palsy is the most common neurodevelopmental motor disability in children. The condition requires medical, educational, social, and rehabilitative resources throughout the life span. Several countries have developed population-based registries that serve the purpose of prospective longitudinal collection of etiologic, demographic, and functional severity. The United States has not created a comprehensive program to develop such a registry. Barriers have been large population size, poor interinstitution collaboration, and decentralized medical and social systems. The Cerebral Palsy Research Registry was created to fill the gap between population and clinical-based cerebral palsy registries and promote research in the field. This is accomplished by connecting persons with cerebral palsy, as well as their families, to a network of regional researchers. This article describes the development of an expandable cerebral palsy research registry, its current status, and the potential it has to affect families and persons with cerebral palsy in the United States and abroad. PMID:21677201

  9. The cerebral palsy research registry: development and progress toward national collaboration in the United States.

    PubMed

    Hurley, Donna S; Sukal-Moulton, Theresa; Msall, Michael E; Gaebler-Spira, Deborah; Krosschell, Kristin J; Dewald, Julius P

    2011-12-01

    Cerebral palsy is the most common neurodevelopmental motor disability in children. The condition requires medical, educational, social, and rehabilitative resources throughout the life span. Several countries have developed population-based registries that serve the purpose of prospective longitudinal collection of etiologic, demographic, and functional severity. The United States has not created a comprehensive program to develop such a registry. Barriers have been large population size, poor interinstitution collaboration, and decentralized medical and social systems. The Cerebral Palsy Research Registry was created to fill the gap between population and clinical-based cerebral palsy registries and promote research in the field. This is accomplished by connecting persons with cerebral palsy, as well as their families, to a network of regional researchers. This article describes the development of an expandable cerebral palsy research registry, its current status, and the potential it has to affect families and persons with cerebral palsy in the United States and abroad. PMID:21677201

  10. Three-dimensional In Vivo Quantification of Knee Kinematics in Cerebral Palsy

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Frances T. Sheehan; Andrea R. Seisler; Katharine E. Alter

    2008-01-01

    Cerebral palsy is the most common disabling condition in childhood, involving a diverse group of movement and posture disorders\\u000a of varying etiologies. Yet, much is unknown about how cerebral palsy affects individual joints because currently applied techniques\\u000a cannot quantify the three-dimensional kinematic parameters at the joint level. We quantified the effects of cerebral palsy\\u000a at the knee using fast phase

  11. Isolated hypoglossal nerve palsy due to endovascular treatment of a dural arteriovenous fistula with Onyx-18.

    PubMed

    Pei, W; Huai-Zhang, S; Shan-Cai, X; Cheng, G; Di, Z

    2010-09-01

    We describe a patient with dural arteriovenous fistula (DAVF) treated with Onyx-18 who developed isolated hypoglossal nerve palsy. This is the first case of isolated hypoglossal nerve palsy caused by Onyx-18 embolization. This complication suggests that over embolization with Onyx-18 in the treatment of hypoglossal canal DAVFs should be avoided, and transvenous embolization may be safer. Furthermore, prednisolone therapy should be carried out in the prophase of nerve palsy. PMID:20977862

  12. Hyperbaric oxygen for children with cerebral palsy: a randomised multicentre trial

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jean-Paul Collet; Michel Vanasse; Pierre Marois; Maxime Amar; Joanne Goldberg; Jean Lambert; Maryse Lassonde; Paule Hardy; Josée Fortin; Stéphane D Tremblay; David Montgomery; Jacques Lacroix; Ann Robinson; Annette Majnemer

    2001-01-01

    Summary Background The use of hyperbaric oxygen for children with cerebral palsy has spread worldwide, despite little scientific evidence of efficacy. We did a randomised trial to assess the efficacy and side-effects of this form of therapy in children with cerebral palsy. Methods 111 children with cerebral palsy aged 3-12 years were randomly assigned hyperbaric oxygen (n=57) or slightly pressurised

  13. Pathological tau burden and distribution distinguishes progressive supranuclear palsy-parkinsonism from Richardson's syndrome

    Microsoft Academic Search

    David R. Williams; Janice L. Holton; Catherine Strand; Alan Pittman; Rohan de Silva; Andrew J. Lees; Tamas Revesz

    2007-01-01

    Clinical syndromes associated with progressive supranuclear palsy-tau pathology now include progressive supranuclear palsy-parkinsonism (PSP-P), in addition to classic Richardson's syndrome (RS) and pure akinesia with gait freezing (PAGF). Although pathological heterogeneity of progressive supranuclear palsy (PSP) has also been established, attempts to correlate this with clinical findings have only rarely provided conclusive results. The aim of this study was to

  14. A clinical algorithm for the management of facial nerve palsy from an oculoplastic perspective

    Microsoft Academic Search

    S A Sadiq; R N Downes

    1998-01-01

    Background\\/Aims Facial nerve palsy can be a sight-threatening complication. We have developed a flow diagram to aid in the management of these patients so that corneal complications may be avoided. This involves the recognition of a facial palsy and institution of treatment as guided by the flow chart.Method Fifty-six patients suffered a facial nerve palsy following acoustic neuroma surgery. All

  15. Isolated Hypoglossal Nerve Palsy Due to Endovascular Treatment of a Dural Arteriovenous Fistula with Onyx-18

    PubMed Central

    Pei, W.; Huai-Zhang, S.; Shan-Cai, X.; Cheng, G.; Di, Z.

    2010-01-01

    Summary We describe a patient with dural arteriovenous fistula (DAVF) treated with Onyx-18 who developed isolated hypoglossal nerve palsy. This is the first case of isolated hypoglossal nerve palsy caused by Onyx-18 embolization. This complication suggests that over embolization with On- yx-18 in the treatment of hypoglossal canal DAVFs should be avoided, and transvenous em- bolization may be safer. Furthermore, pred- nisolone therapy should be carried out in the prophase of nerve palsy. PMID:20977862

  16. Isolated and bilateral simultaneous facial palsy disclosing early human immunodeficiency virus infection

    PubMed Central

    Sathirapanya, Pornchai

    2015-01-01

    Bilateral lower motor neuron type facial palsy is an unusual neurological disorder. There are few reports that associate it with the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection on initial presentation. A 51-year-old married woman, who was previously healthy and had no risk of HIV infection, presented solely with bilateral simultaneous facial palsy. A positive HIV serology test was confirmed by an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay test. Following a short course of oral prednisolone, the patient recovered completely from facial palsy in three months, even though an antiretroviral treatment was suspended. Exclusion of HIV infection in patients with bilateral facial palsy is essential for early diagnosis and management of HIV.

  17. Complete Oculomotor Nerve Palsy Caused by Direct Compression of the Posterior Cerebral Artery.

    PubMed

    Jo, Yoon-Sik; Kim, Shin Kyoung; Kim, Dae Ho; Kim, Jae-Hwan; Na, Sang-Jun

    2015-07-01

    Oculomotor nerve palsy frequently occurs because of external compression by an internal carotid-posterior communicating artery aneurysm and diabetes mellitus. In addition, pontine infarction, cavernous sinus tumors, demyelinating disease, and autoimmune disorder are well-known causes of oculomotor nerve palsy. However, cases of complete oculomotor nerve palsy by neurovascular conflicts presented with a sudden onset of clinical symptoms are extremely rare. We experienced a rare case of complete oculomotor nerve palsy because of direct vascular compression of the oculomotor nerve by the posterior cerebral artery. PMID:25939862

  18. Tardy ulnar nerve palsy after fracture non-union medial epicondyle of humerus - An unusual case.

    PubMed

    Thiyam, Rajesh; Lalchandani, Rajesh

    2015-06-01

    Tardy ulnar nerve palsy is a chronic clinical condition characterised by delayed onset ulnar neuropathy. Typically tardy ulnar nerve palsy occurs as a consequence of non-union of lateral condyle in child resulting in cubitus valgus deformity which ultimately is the cause of ulnar nerve palsy. However very few literature are available for tardy ulnar nerve palsy as a result of old fracture of medial epicondyle without cubitus varus or valgus deformity. We report a rare case of tardy ulnar nerve in an adult male with fracture non-union of medial epicondyle of humerus. PMID:25983522

  19. Sixth cranial nerve palsy caused by compression from a dolichoectatic vertebral artery.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Ying; Thulborn, Keith; Curnyn, Kimberlee; Goodwin, James

    2005-06-01

    A 68-year-old man had an unremitting left sixth cranial nerve palsy immediately after completing a long bicycle trip. High-resolution (3 Tesla) magnetic resonance imaging disclosed a dolichoectatic vertebral artery that compressed the left sixth cranial nerve against the belly of the pons at its root exit zone. It was postulated that increased blood flow in the vessel during the unusually prolonged aerobic exercise precipitated the palsy. Compressive palsies of cranial nerves caused by a dolichoectatic basilar artery have often been documented; compressive palsy caused by a dolichoectatic vertebral artery is less well-recognized. PMID:15937439

  20. Relationship between static postural control and the level of functional abilities in children with cerebral palsy

    PubMed Central

    Pavão, Sílvia L.; Nunes, Gabriela S.; Santos, Adriana N.; Rocha, Nelci A. C. F.

    2014-01-01

    Background: Postural control deficits can impair functional performance in children with cerebral palsy (CP) in daily living activities. Objective: To verify the relationship between standing static postural control and the functional ability level in children with CP. Method: The postural control of 10 children with CP (gross motor function levels I and II) was evaluated during static standing on a force platform for 30 seconds. The analyzed variables were the anteroposterior (AP) and mediolateral (ML) displacement of the center of pressure (CoP) and the area and velocity of the CoP oscillation. The functional abilities were evaluated using the mean Pediatric Evaluation of Disability Inventory (PEDI) scores, which evaluated self-care, mobility and social function in the domains of functional abilities and caregiver assistance. Results: Spearman's correlation test found a relationship between postural control and functional abilities. The results showed a strong negative correlation between the variables of ML displacement of CoP, the area and velocity of the CoP oscillation and the PEDI scores in the self-care and caregiver assistance domains. Additionally, a moderate negative correlation was found between the area of the CoP oscillation and the mobility scores in the caregiver assistance domain. We used a significance level of 5% (p <0.05). Conclusions: We observed that children with cerebral palsy with high CoP oscillation values had lower caregiver assistance scores for activities of daily living (ADL) and consequently higher levels of caregiver dependence. These results demonstrate the repercussions of impairments to the body structure and function in terms of the activity levels of children with CP such that postural control impairments in these children lead to higher requirements for caregiver assistance. PMID:25054383

  1. Cerebral Palsy: A Lifelong Challenge Asks for Early Intervention

    PubMed Central

    Panteliadis, Christos P; Hagel, Christian; Karch, Dieter; Heinemann, Karl

    2015-01-01

    One of the oldest and probably well-known examples of cerebral palsy is the mummy of the Pharaoh Siptah about 1196–1190 B.C., and a letter from Hippocrates (460–390 B.C.). Cerebral palsy (CP) is one of the most common congenital or acquired neurological impairments in paediatric patients, and refers to a group of children with motor disability and related functional defects. The visible core of CP is characterized by abnormal coordination of movements and/or muscle tone which manifest very early in the development. Resulting from pre- or perinatal brain damage CP is not a progressive condition per se. However, without systematic medical and physiotherapeutic support the dystonia leads to muscle contractions and to deterioration of the handicap. Here we review the three general spastic manifestations of CP hemiplegia, diplegia and tetraplegia, describe the diagnostic procedures and delineate a time schedule for an early intervention.

  2. Testicular Torsion in Cerebral Palsy – Resident’s Grey Area

    PubMed Central

    N, Babitha; Maibam, Chetan; Sharma, M Birkumar; Singh, TH Sudhir Chandra

    2014-01-01

    The association of testicular torsion and cerebral palsy is a well-known fact. But the infrequent presentation to emergency room makes the clinician sceptical. Such a presentation often puzzles the residents regarding the diagnosis and the treatment. Here we present a case of an adolescent boy aged with cerebral palsy 13 years with incessant crying and not feeding well for last 3days. Right inguinal region showed a tender globular swelling with absence of testis in scrotum along with signs of septicaemia. The inguinal exploration was performed under general anaesthesia which revealed gangrenous right testis. Right orchidectomy and left orchidopexy was performed and the patient recovered well. This case is reported for its complexity due to lack of reliable history, delayed presentation and associated comorbidities posing challenges to the treating surgeons. PMID:25478396

  3. Horizontal gaze palsy with progressive scoliosis: CT and MR findings.

    PubMed

    Bomfim, Rodrigo C; Távora, Daniel G F; Nakayama, Mauro; Gama, Rômulo L

    2009-02-01

    Horizontal gaze palsy with progressive scoliosis (HGPPS) is a rare congenital disorder characterized by absence of conjugate horizontal eye movements and progressive scoliosis developing in childhood and adolescence. We present a child with clinical and neuroimaging findings typical of HGPPS. CT and MRI of the brain demonstrated pons hypoplasia, absence of the facial colliculi, butterfly configuration of the medulla and a deep midline pontine cleft. We briefly discuss the imaging aspects of this rare entity in light of the current literature. PMID:19020872

  4. Pain in ischaemic ocular motor cranial nerve palsies

    Microsoft Academic Search

    S C Wilker; J C Rucker; N J Newman; V Biousse; R L Tomsak

    2009-01-01

    Aim:Pain is a common feature of microvascular ischaemic ocular motor cranial nerve palsies (MP). The natural history of pain in this condition has not been studied. The purpose of this report is to define the spectrum of pain in isolated MP, with special reference to diabetic versus non-diabetic patients.Design and methods:Retrospective and prospective chart review was performed on 87 patients

  5. Treatment of the spasticity in children with cerebral palsy.

    PubMed

    Meholji?-Fetahovi?, Ajsa

    2007-11-01

    Botulinum toxin is a natural purified protein and one of the strongest biological poisons--neurotoxin. It is produced by the bacterium Clostridium botulinum. Its medical usage started in USA in 1981 and in Europe in 1992. There are seven different immune types of the toxin: A, B, C1, D, E, F and G. Toxin types A and B are used to decrease muscular spasticity. Botulinum toxin prevents the formation of acetylcholine from cholinergic nerve tissues in muscles, which in the end irreversibly destroys neuromuscular synapses. It is called temporary local chemodenervation. It does not affect the synthesis of acetylcholine. As it affects neuromuscular bond it also affects one of the symptoms of cerebral palsy--spasticity. Decreasing the spasticity of children with cerebral palsy leads to the improvement of conscious movements, muscles are less toned, passive mobility is improved, orthosis tolerance is also improved, and the child is enabled to perform easier and better motor functions such as crawling, standing and walking. Since the action of Botulinum toxin is limited to 2-6 months, new neural collaterals are formed and neuromuscular conductivity is reestablished which in the end once again develops a muscular spasm. This leads to a conclusion that botulinum toxin should again be applied into spastic muscles. It is very important for good effect of Botulinum toxin to set the goals of the therapy in advance. The goals include improvement of a function, prevention of contractions and deformities, ease of care and decrease of pain for children with cerebral palsy. After application of botulinum toxin, it is necessary to perform adequate and intensive physical treatment with regular monitoring of effects. This work shows a case of a boy with spastic form of cerebral palsy. After being rehabilitated using Vojta therapy and Bobath concept and the conduct of certain physical procedures, botulinum toxin is administered into his lower limbs' muscles and kinesiotherapy is intensified. After the administration of botulinum toxin significant functional improvement is noted. PMID:18039197

  6. Combination of Citicoline and Physiotherapy in Children with Cerebral Palsy

    PubMed Central

    Nasiri, Jafar; Kargar, Mehran

    2014-01-01

    Background: The most common cause of physical disability in children is cerebral palsy. This study was aimed to evaluate the effect of citicoline in combination to physiotherapy versus physiotherapy alone, to improve the functional outcome in pediatric cerebral palsy. Methods: The clinical trial was performed on 50 pediatric patients aged 18-75 months with spastic diplegia or quadriplegic cerebral palsy. Patients were assessed in two groups: case group, under treatment, using injection of citicoline (10 mg/kg) every other day for 3 months and physiotherapy. Gross motor function classification system (GMFCS) levels were assessed in all patients before and after treatment. Results: Patient's mean age was 38.7 ± 17.2 months, and 52% were girls. Differences in the frequency of GMFCS levels between groups were not statistically significant, before (P = 0.09) and after (P = 0.47) treatment. In case group improving in GMFCS, level was occurred in 9/11 with level 2 to level 1, 3/5 with level 3 to other levels and 3/7 with level 4 to other levels. In the control group improving in GMFCS, level was occurred in 3/9 with level 2 to level 1, 3/10 with level 3 to other levels, and 2/4 with level 4 other levels. GMFCS level in 64% of cases was improved, whereas in control group, 32% was improved (P = 0.02). Conclusions: Results demonstrated that citicoline in combination to physiotherapy appears to be a promising agent to improve gross motor function in patients with cerebral palsy versus physiotherapy alone. Although, further studies are need to be done. PMID:25400890

  7. Major surgical procedures in children with cerebral palsy.

    PubMed

    Theroux, Mary C; DiCindio, Sabina

    2014-03-01

    There are 3 surgical procedures that patients with cerebral palsy (CP) undergo that may be considered major procedures: femoral osteotomies combined with pelvic osteotomies, spine fusion, and intrathecal baclofen pump implant for the treatment of spasticity. Many complications are known to occur at a higher rate in this population, and some may be avoided with prior awareness of the preoperative pathophysiology of the patient with CP. PMID:24491650

  8. Mutations in Gamma Adducin are Associated With Inherited Cerebral Palsy

    PubMed Central

    Kruer, Michael C; Jepperson, Tyler; Dutta, Sudeshna; Steiner, Robert D; Cottenie, Ellen; Sanford, Lynn; Merkens, Mark; Russman, Barry S; Blasco, Peter A; Fan, Guang; Pollock, Jeffrey; Green, Sarah; Woltjer, Randall L; Mooney, Catherine; Kretzschmar, Doris; Paisán-Ruiz, Coro; Houlden, Henry

    2013-01-01

    Objective Cerebral palsy is estimated to affect nearly 1 in 500 children, and although prenatal and perinatal contributors have been well characterized, at least 20% of cases are believed to be inherited. Previous studies have identified mutations in the actin-capping protein KANK1 and the adaptor protein-4 complex in forms of inherited cerebral palsy, suggesting a role for components of the dynamic cytoskeleton in the genesis of the disease. Methods We studied a multiplex consanguineous Jordanian family by homozygosity mapping and exome sequencing, then used patient-derived fibroblasts to examine functional consequences of the mutation we identified in vitro. We subsequently studied the effects of adducin loss of function in Drosophila. Results We identified a homozygous c.1100G>A (p.G367D) mutation in ADD3, encoding gamma adducin in all affected members of the index family. Follow-up experiments in patient fibroblasts found that the p.G367D mutation, which occurs within the putative oligomerization critical region, impairs the ability of gamma adducin to associate with the alpha subunit. This mutation impairs the normal actin-capping function of adducin, leading to both abnormal proliferation and migration in cultured patient fibroblasts. Loss of function studies of the Drosophila adducin ortholog hts confirmed a critical role for adducin in locomotion. Interpretation Although likely a rare cause of cerebral palsy, our findings indicate a critical role for adducins in regulating the activity of the actin cytoskeleton, suggesting that impaired adducin function may lead to neuromotor impairment and further implicating abnormalities of the dynamic cytoskeleton as a pathogenic mechanism contributing to cerebral palsy. PMID:23836506

  9. The health status of women with cerebral palsy

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Margaret A. Turk; Cynthia A. Geremski; Paula F. Rosenbaum; Robert J. Weber

    1997-01-01

    Objective: To determine preliminary associations between collected health status variables of women with cerebral palsy (CP) residing in the community.Design: Cross-sectional study using survey research.Participants: Sixty-three women residing in the community were administered the Telephone Questionnaire when contacted to arrange their visit to the study site located within the medical clinic of a local developmental services office. During the course

  10. Functional outcomes of strength training in spastic cerebral palsy

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Diane L. Damiano; Mark F. Abel

    1998-01-01

    Objective: To determine clinical effectiveness of strength training in children with spastic cerebral palsy.Design: Prospective before and after trial in which subjects participated in a 6-week strength training program. All received before and after isometric strength evaluation of eight muscle groups in both lower extremities with a hand-held dynamometer, 3-D gait analysis at free and fast speeds, administration of the

  11. Grip Force Coordination during Bimanual Tasks in Unilateral Cerebral Palsy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Islam, Mominul; Gordon, Andrew M.; Skold, Annika; Forssberg, Hans; Eliasson, Ann-Christin

    2011-01-01

    Aim: The aim of the study was to investigate coordination of fingertip forces during an asymmetrical bimanual task in children with unilateral cerebral palsy (CP). Method: Twelve participants (six males, six females; mean age 14y 4mo, SD 3.3y; range 9-20y;) with unilateral CP (eight right-sided, four left-sided) and 15 age-matched typically…

  12. Saccadic palsy following cardiac surgery: a review and new hypothesis.

    PubMed

    Eggers, Scott D Z; Horn, Anja K E; Roeber, Sigrun; Härtig, Wolfgang; Nair, Govind; Reich, Daniel S; Leigh, R John

    2015-04-01

    The ocular motor system provides several advantages for studying the brain, including well-defined populations of neurons that contribute to specific eye movements. Generation of rapid eye movements (saccades) depends on excitatory burst neurons (EBN) and omnipause neurons (OPN) within the brainstem, both types of cells are highly active. Experimental lesions of EBN and OPN cause slowing or complete loss of saccades. We report a patient who developed a permanent, selective saccadic palsy following cardiac surgery. When she died several years later, surprisingly, autopsy showed preservation of EBN and OPN. We therefore considered other mechanisms that could explain her saccadic palsy. Recent work has shown that both EBN and OPN are ensheathed by perineuronal nets (PN), which are specialized extracellular matrix structures that may help stabilize synaptic contacts, promote local ion homeostasis, or play a protective role in certain highly active neurons. Here, we review the possibility that damage to PN, rather than to the neurons they support, could lead to neuronal dysfunction-such as saccadic palsy. We also suggest how future studies could test this hypothesis, which may provide insights into the vulnerability of other active neurons in the nervous system that depend on PN. PMID:25721480

  13. [Spasticity in children cerebral palsy: diagnosis and treatment strategies].

    PubMed

    Kurenkov, A L; Batysheva, T T; Vinogradov, A V; Ziuziaeva, E K

    2012-01-01

    Spasticity in children cerebral palsy has its own peculiarities due to the presence of pathological tonic reflexes, pathological sinkinetic activity during arbitrary movements, disturbance of coordinative interactions of muscle synergists and antagonists, increase of total reflex excitability. Physiotherapeutic methods, massage, therapeutic exercises, kinesitherapy, biological feedback training (BFT), methods of orthopedic correction, neurosurgery are widely used in the treatment of spasticity. The use of botulinum toxin type A is a new effective approach to the treatment of spasticity that improves motor functions and quality of life of children with children cerebral palsy. It is being used in the treatment of children and adolescence in a polyclinic unit of the Moscow psychoneurological hospital since 2001. The experience of treatment with botulinum and wide implementation of this method indicated that botulinum toxin injections in the complex treatment of spasticity allow to optimize approaches to treatment of children and adolescence with children cerebral palsy and to increase significantly the quality of medical-social rehabilitation of patients. PMID:23330188

  14. [Progressive supranuclear palsy: a clinical, natural history and disability study].

    PubMed

    Macia, F; Ballan, G; Yekhlef, F; Delmer, O; Vital, C; Lagueny, A; Tison, F

    2003-01-01

    We studied the clinical features, the natural history and disability in 47 progressive supranuclear palsy patients and brain imaging aspects by routinely performed MRI in a subgroup of 25. Unexplained falls together with atypical parkinsonism (symmetric, levodopa unresponsive without resting tremor) are good clinical pointers of the early diagnosis, since they occurred within the first year. Cognitive slowness and unspecific visual complains are also early symptoms, while usual cardinal signs such as supranuclear palsy are more delayed. Blepharospasm and eyelid opening apraxia as well as deep sighs are also quite characteristic clinical features (1/3 of cases). Cardinal signs (falls, pseudobulbar signs, supranuclear gaze palsy) worsened rapidly (20 to 30 months) towards a major disability. In the 20 patients deceased during follow-up, the mean survival time was about 5 years. The MRI study showed typical cortical fronto-temporo-parietal atrophy, mesencephalic and quadrigeminal plate atrophy with third ventricle dilatation. In conclusion, unexplained falls associated with atypical parkinsonism are contributive for the early clinical diagnosis. Non specific visual complains could be useful pointers in the absence of supranuclear ophthalmoplegia. MRI contributes to the clinical diagnosis even in the first 3 years of the disease course. PMID:12618651

  15. The 5' regulatory sequence of the PMP22 in the patients with Charcot-Marie-Tooth disease.

    PubMed

    Sinkiewicz-Darol, Elena; Kabzi?ska, Dagmara; Moszy?ska, Izabela; Kocha?ski, Andrzej

    2010-01-01

    Little is known about the molecular background of clinical variability of Charcot-Marie-Tooth type 1A (CMT1A) disease and hereditary neuropathy with liability to pressure palsies (HNPP). The CMT1A and HNPP disorders result from duplication and deletion of the PMP22 gene respectively. In a series of studies performed on affected animal transgenic models of CMT1A disease, expression of the PMP22 gene (gene dosage) was shown to correlete with severity of CMT course (gene dosage effect). In this study we hypothesized that single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) located within the 5' regulatory sequence of PMP22 gene may be responsible for the CMT1A/HNPP clinical variability. We have sequenced the PMP22 5' upstream regulatory sequence in a group of 45 CMT1A/HNPP patients harboring the PMP22 duplication (37) /deletion (8). We have identified five SNPs in the regulatory sequence of the PMP22 gene. Three of them i.e. -819C>T, -4785G>T, -4800C>T were detected both in the patients and in the control group. Thus, their pathogenic role in the regulation of the expression of the PMP22 gene seems not to be significant. Two SNPs i.e. -4210T>C and -4759T>A were found only in the CMT patients. Their role in the regulation of the PMP22 gene expression can not be excluded. Additionally we have detected the Thr118Met variant in exon 4 of the PMP22 gene, which was previously reported by other authors, in one patient. We conclude that the 5' regulatory sequence of the PMP22 gene is conserved at the nucleotiode level, however rarely occurring SNPs variant in the PMP22 regulatory sequence may be associated with the gene dosage effect. PMID:20842290

  16. Abstract --Cerebral palsy is a non-progressive neurological disorder caused by disturbances to the developing brain.

    E-print Network

    Abstract -- Cerebral palsy is a non-progressive neurological disorder caused by disturbances forms of therapy for children with cerebral palsy are effective in minimizing symptoms, many children Cerebral palsy describes a group of permanent physical disorders caused by disturbances to the fetal

  17. Understanding Mealtime Changes for Adults with Cerebral Palsy and the Implications for Support Services

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Balandin, Susan; Hemsley, Bronwyn; Hanley, Leah; Sheppard, Justine Joan

    2009-01-01

    Background: Changes in the swallowing capabilities of adults with cerebral palsy as they age may impact on their health, safety, and well-being. Method: Thirty-two adults with cerebral palsy aged between 30 and 69 years participated in in-depth interviews about their experiences of changes in their swallowing and related management of their…

  18. Endurance exercises versus treadmill training in improving muscle strength and functional activities in hemiparetic cerebral palsy

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Khaled A. Olama

    Weakness of the sound side in hemiparetic cerebral palsy is one of the serious complications which affect these children. Many children with hemiparetic cerebral palsy have diminished muscle power in the neglected sound side, and the application of strengthening exercises aim to improve the muscle strength and function activities and so may be helpful in the management of such cases.

  19. Antenatal and delivery risk factors simultaneously associated with neonatal death and cerebral palsy in preterm infants

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Arsenio Spinillo; Ezio Capuzzo; Simona Orcesi; Mauro Stronati; Marco Di Mario; Elisa Fazzi

    1997-01-01

    To evaluate the simultaneous effects of antenatal and delivery risk factors on neonatal death and cerebral palsy in preterm infants, we conducted a cohort study of 363 singleton pregnancies delivered between 24 and 33 weeks gestation. Neurodevelopmental outcome of the infants was evaluated at 2 years of corrected age. Risk factors associated with death or cerebral palsy were analysed by

  20. Treadmill Training in a Child with Cerebral Palsy: A Case Report

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Crowley, Julie P.; Arnold, Sandra H.; McEwen, Irene R.; James, Shirley

    2009-01-01

    This case report describes the use of treadmill training without body weight support to improve walking speed in a child with diplegic cerebral palsy. The child was a six-year-old girl with spastic diplegic cerebral palsy. She walked short distances independently using a posterior support walker but was unable to keep up with her peers walking…

  1. The Physical Fitness of Adolescents with Cerebral Palsy. Project UNIQUE II. Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Winnick, Joseph P.; Short, Francis X.

    The final report describes a 2-year project of the State University of New York, College at Brockport, to study the physical fitness of nonretarded and retarded adolescents with cerebral palsy. The UNIQUE Physical Fitness Test was administered to 203 cerebral palsied adolescents throughout the United States and from segregated and nonsegregated…

  2. Handling the Cerebral Palsied Child: Multi-Level Skills Transfer in Pakistan.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miles, M.; Frizzell, Yvonne

    1990-01-01

    The majority of children with cerebral palsy in developing countries have no access to trained therapists; for example, in Pakistan, there is less than one trained general physiotherapist per million population. In Pakistan, cerebral palsy handling skills were taught to a group of parents, teachers, and paraprofessionals in a series of practical…

  3. CePal: An InfraRed Based Remote Control for Cerebral Palsy Patients

    Microsoft Academic Search

    P. Garg; H. Sabnani; M. Maheshwari; R. Bagree; P. Ranjan

    2010-01-01

    This paper discusses the design and implementation details of a light weight, cost effective, portable tilt-based remote control to assist Cerebral Palsy patients. The remote control is used for controlling Infrared (IR) based appliances using an accelerometer and a microcontroller. Our objective is to ensure self reliance of Cerebral Palsy affected in controlling IR based appliances by means of a

  4. Intrathecal baclofen therapy improves functional intelligibility of speech in cerebral palsy

    Microsoft Academic Search

    S M Leary; P Gilpin; L Lockley; L Rodriguez; L Jarrett; V L Stevenson

    2006-01-01

    Objective: To assess the effect of intrathecal baclofen on spastic dysarthia in cerebral palsy.Design: Single case study.Methods: Functional outcome measures, including the Assessment of Intelligibility of Dysarthric Speech, were performed before and after a trial of intrathecal baclofen in an adult patient with spastic dysarthria due to cerebral palsy. The patient proceeded to intrathecal baclofen pump implantation and was reassessed

  5. Atypical progressive supranuclear palsy underlying progressive apraxia of speech and nonfluent aphasia

    Microsoft Academic Search

    K. A. Josephs; B. F. Boeve; J. R. Duffy; G. E. Smith; D. S. Knopman; J. E. Parisi; R. C. Petersen; D. W. Dickson

    2005-01-01

    Progressive supranuclear palsy (PSP) is a clinicopathological entity typically presenting as an akinetic rigid syndrome with early falls, axial rigidity, vertical supranuclear gaze palsy and levodopa resistance. Pathological features consist of tau deposition in neuronal and glial cells located mainly in subcortical and brainstem structures. Rare cases with the pathological diagnosis of atypical PSP have been described in which neocortical

  6. Growth of an NGO: The Indian Institute of Cerebral Palsy from 1974 to 2006

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sen, Reena; Goldbart, Juliet; Kaul, Sudha

    2008-01-01

    The Indian Institute for Cerebral Palsy (IICP) has been providing education and other services in Kolkata, Eastern India, for children and young adults with cerebral palsy and related disabilities for over 30 years. IICP started by providing education for just two children, and was highly dependent on western expertise. Described is the history of…

  7. The Cerebral Palsy Quality of Life for Children (CP QOL-Child): Evidence of Construct Validity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chen, Kuan-Lin; Wang, Hui-Yi; Tseng, Mei-Hui; Shieh, Jeng-Yi; Lu, Lu; Yao, Kai-Ping Grace; Huang, Chien-Yu

    2013-01-01

    The Cerebral Palsy Quality of Life for Children (CP QOL-Child) is the first health condition-specific questionnaire designed for measuring QOL in children with cerebral palsy (CP). However, its construct validity has not yet been confirmed by confirmatory factor analysis (CFA). Hence, this study assessed the construct validity of the caregiver…

  8. Psychological Problems in Children with Cerebral Palsy: A Cross-Sectional European Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Parkes, Jackie; White-Koning, Melanie; Dickinson, Heather O.; Thyen, Ute; Arnaud, Catherine; Beckung, Eva; Fauconnier, Jerome; Marcelli, Marco; McManus, Vicki; Michelsen, Susan I.; Parkinson, Kathryn; Colver, Allan

    2008-01-01

    Objectives: To describe psychological symptoms in 8-12-year-old children with cerebral palsy; to investigate predictors of these symptoms and their impact on the child and family. Design: A cross-sectional multi-centre survey. Participants: Eight hundred and eighteen children with cerebral palsy, aged 8-12 years, identified from population-based…

  9. Adaptations and deficits in the vestibulo-ocular reflex after peripheral ocular motor palsies.

    PubMed

    Sharpe, James A; Tweed, Douglas; Wong, Agnes M F

    2003-10-01

    Palsy of a nerve might be expected to lower vestibulo-ocular reflex (VOR) responses in its fields of motion, but effects of peripheral neuromuscular disease were unknown. We recorded the VOR during sinusoidal head rotations in yaw, pitch, and roll at 0.5-2 Hz and static torsional gain in 43 patients with unilateral nerve palsies. Sixth nerve palsy (n = 21) reduced both abduction and adduction VOR gains in darkness. In light, horizontal visually enhanced VOR (VVOR) gains were normal in moderate and mild palsy. In severe palsy, horizontal VVOR gains remained low in the paretic eye when it was fixating, whereas gains in the nonparetic eye became higher than normal. Third nerve palsy (n = 10) decreased VOR and VVOR gains during abduction, adduction, elevation, depression, extorsion, and intorsion. Fourth nerve palsy (n = 13) reduced VOR gains of the paretic eye during intorsion, extorsion, elevation, depression, abduction, and adduction, but in light vertical and horizontal VVOR gains were normal. In the nonparetic eye, all gains were normal. Reduced VOR gains in the direction of paretic muscles and also in the direction of their antagonists, together with normal gains in the nonparetic eye, indicate a selective adjustment to the antagonists of paretic muscles. Increase of VVOR gains to normal in the paretic eye, when used for fixation, without conjugate increase in gains in the occluded nonparetic eye, provides further evidence of selective adaptation for the paretic eye. Motions of the eyes after nerve palsies indicate monocular VOR adaptation in three dimensions. PMID:14662452

  10. Position as a Cause of Deformity in Children with Cerebral Palsy (1976)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Scrutton, David

    2008-01-01

    Deformities in the child with cerebral palsy have been ascribed to muscle imbalance (Sharrard 1961) and increased tone (Pollock 1959) or to the type of cerebral palsy (Bobath and Bobath 1975). As far as we know, the position in which the child is nursed, especially during the first year of life, has not been considered as a cause of deformity. It…

  11. Trends in the prevalence of cerebral palsy among very preterm infants (<31 weeks’ gestational age)

    PubMed Central

    Vincer, Michael J; Allen, Alexander C; Allen, Victoria M; Baskett, Thomas F; O’Connell, Colleen M

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The birth prevalence of cerebral palsy varies over time among very preterm infants, and the reasons are poorly understood. OBJECTIVE: To describe the variation in the prevalence of cerebral palsy among very preterm infants over time, and to relate these differences to other maternal or neonatal factors. METHODS: A population-based cohort of very preterm infants was evaluated over a 20-year period (1988 to 2007) divided into four equal epochs. RESULTS: The prevalence of cerebral palsy peaked in the third epoch (1998 to 2002) while mortality rate peaked in the second epoch (1993 to 1997). Maternal anemia, tocolytic use and neonatal need for home oxygen were highest in the third epoch. CONCLUSIONS: Lower mortality rates did not correlate well with the prevalence of cerebral palsy. Maternal risk factors, anemia and tocolytic use, and the newborn need for home oxygen were highest during the same epoch as the peak prevalence of cerebral palsy. PMID:24855414

  12. The phenotype of the Gly94fsX222 PMP22 insertion.

    PubMed

    de Vries, Sara D J; Verhamme, Camiel; van Ruissen, Fred; van Paassen, Barbara W; Arts, Willem F; Kerkhoff, Henk; van Engelen, Baziel G M; Lammens, Martin; de Visser, Marianne; Baas, Frank; van der Kooi, Anneke J

    2011-06-01

    Point mutations in PMP22 are relatively rare and the phenotype may vary from mild hereditary neuropathy with liability to pressure palsies (HNPP) to severe Charcot-Marie-Tooth type 1 (CMT1). We describe the phenotype of the Gly94fsX222 mutation in the PMP22 gene. Medical records of all patients were reviewed and 11 patients were re-examined. EMG was carried out in nine patients and nerve biopsy in one. Thirteen patients originating from seven families with a Gly94fsX222 mutation were included and consisted of 10 women and 3 men with a median age of 41 years (range 7-67). Five index patients were originally suspected of CMT1. Ten patients had abnormal motor skills during childhood. Nine patients had a history of pressure palsies. Involvement of the olfactory, trigeminal, facial, and pudendal nerves occurred in three patients. Twelve patients had pes cavus and one scoliosis. Distal anterior leg and distal arm weakness were found in 12 and 4 patients, respectively. Twelve patients had distal leg sensory abnormalities. Electrophysiological examination revealed a demyelinating sensorimotor neuropathy, both resembling CMT1 and HNPP. Sural nerve biopsy showed demyelinating neuropathy with presence of tomacula. More than three-fourths of the patients with Gly94fsX222 mutation demonstrated a CMT1 phenotype combined with transient deficits. Clinicians should test for this mutation in those patients exhibiting a generalised neuropathy combined with compressive like episodes. PMID:21692910

  13. Saccadic Palsy following Cardiac Surgery: Possible Role of Perineuronal Nets

    PubMed Central

    Roeber, Sigrun; Härtig, Wolfgang; Nair, Govind; Reich, Daniel S.

    2015-01-01

    Objective Perineuronal nets (PN) form a specialized extracellular matrix around certain highly active neurons within the central nervous system and may help to stabilize synaptic contacts, promote local ion homeostasis, or play a protective role. Within the ocular motor system, excitatory burst neurons and omnipause neurons are highly active cells that generate rapid eye movements – saccades; both groups of neurons contain the calcium-binding protein parvalbumin and are ensheathed by PN. Experimental lesions of excitatory burst neurons and omnipause neurons cause slowing or complete loss of saccades. Selective palsy of saccades in humans is reported following cardiac surgery, but such cases have shown normal brainstem neuroimaging, with only one clinicopathological study that demonstrated paramedian pontine infarction. Our objective was to test the hypothesis that lesions of PN surrounding these brainstem saccade-related neurons may cause saccadic palsy. Methods Together with four controls we studied the brain of a patient who had developed a permanent selective saccadic palsy following cardiac surgery and died several years later. Sections of formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded brainstem blocks were applied to double-immunoperoxidase staining of parvalbumin and three different components of PN. Triple immunofluorescence labeling for all PN components served as internal controls. Combined immunostaining of parvalbumin and synaptophysin revealed the presence of synapses. Results Excitatory burst neurons and omnipause neurons were preserved and still received synaptic input, but their surrounding PN showed severe loss or fragmentation. Interpretation Our findings support current models and experimental studies of the brainstem saccade-generating neurons and indicate that damage to PN may permanently impair the function of these neurons that the PN ensheathe. How a postulated hypoxic mechanism could selectively damage the PN remains unclear. We propose that the well-studied saccadic eye movement system provides an accessible model to evaluate the role of PN in health and disease. PMID:26135580

  14. Sphenoidal mucocele presenting as acute cranial nerve palsies.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Clarissa S M; Sanjay, Srinivasan; Yip, Chee Chew; Yuen, Heng-Wai

    2012-10-01

    Sphenoidal sinus mucoceles are indolent lesions that, when sufficiently large, can compress on the optic canal or superior orbital fissure, rapidly causing loss of vision, optic neuropathy, ptosis, pain, ophthalmoplegia, and diplopia. We herein report a 72-year-old gentleman who presented acutely with Cranial Nerve II, III, and IV palsies secondary to a sphenoidal sinus mucocele that was confirmed on magnetic resonance imaging and successfully treated with endoscopic drainage. This cause of orbital apex syndrome is important for clinicians to know as early diagnosis and treatment is critical in recovering visual potential. PMID:23961035

  15. Assessment of feeding performance in patients with cerebral palsy.

    PubMed

    Yilmaz, Sule; Basar, Pinar; Gisel, Erika G

    2004-12-01

    Patients with cerebral palsy (CP) frequently manifest oral-ingestive problems ranging from mild to severe. Drooling, rejection of solid foods, choking, coughing and spillage during eating may contribute to these problems. The aim of this study was to assess functional feeding skills of patients with CP, aged 4-25 years. They were assessed with the Modified Functional Feeding Assessment Scale (FFAm). Mothers had expressed concern regarding drooling and reluctance in accepting solid foods. None of the mothers thought that there was a major problem with adequate ingestion. However, the study revealed that patients had disabilities in spoon feeding, biting, chewing, cup drinking, straw drinking, swallowing and clearing. PMID:15572999

  16. Cerebral palsy and stereotactic neurosurgery: long term results.

    PubMed Central

    Speelman, D; van Manen, J

    1989-01-01

    A retrospective study was performed on a group of 28 patients with cerebral palsy, who had undergone a stereotactic encephalotomy for hyperkinesia or dystonia. The mean postoperative follow up period was 21 years (range: 12-27). Eighteen patients were available for follow up, nine had died, and one could not be traced. A positive result was obtained in eight of the 18 reassessed patients. Determining factors for the outcome were the degree of preoperative disability, side effects of the operation, and ageing since operation. The more favourable results were obtained in patients with hyperkinesia, tremor, and predominantly unilateral dystonia. PMID:2651566

  17. Surgical correction of unilateral and bilateral facial palsy

    PubMed Central

    Harrison, D

    2005-01-01

    Unilateral and bilateral facial palsies are debilitating and depressing conditions for the patient. For the past 30 years attempts have been made to improve the reanimation of these patients. The ability to transfer axons over significant distances with nerve grafts and the transfer of muscle that can be revascularised by microvascular surgery greatly improves results of this surgery. The revascularisation of muscle has been the important step forward but the re-focusing of interest in this condition has brought about a number of peripheral advances. PMID:16143684

  18. Cranial Nerve Palsies: Sarcoidosis to Systemic Lupus Erythematosus

    PubMed Central

    Aslam, Fawad; Bannout, Firas; Russell, Elizabeth B.

    2013-01-01

    Cranial palsies are a very rare feature of SLE. Similarly, peripheral sensory-motor axonal neuropathy is very uncommon in SLE. The combination of the two as the presenting symptoms of SLE is a diagnostic challenge particularly in an elderly male patient with a known diagnosis of sarcoidosis. This case serves to highlight the diagnostic considerations in such a patient. The lack of response to standard therapy and the presence of subtle clues like anemia, proteinuria, and mild serositis should prompt the physician to look for alternate diagnoses. The potential association of SLE and sarcoidosis is also discussed. SLE can be present in elderly male patients with cranial and peripheral neuropathy. PMID:23401835

  19. A population-based study of communication impairment in cerebral palsy.

    PubMed

    Zhang, James Yue; Oskoui, Maryam; Shevell, Michael

    2015-03-01

    To explore factors associated with communication impairments in children with cerebral palsy. Data were obtained on children born between 1999 and 2008 from the Quebec Cerebral Palsy Registry (REPACQ). Out of 535 children with cerebral palsy, 297 were identified to have communication impairments (55.5%). Of these, 96 were unable to communicate verbally (32.3%), 195 had some verbal communication (65.7%), and 6 were unspecified (2.0%). These children were significantly more likely to have a more severe motor deficit (Gross Motor Function Classification System levels IV and V and Manual Ability Classification System levels IV and V), to have spastic quadriplegia or dyskinetic subtypes of cerebral palsy, and gray matter injury on neuroimaging. Communication impairment is a common comorbidity in cerebral palsy and is associated with a more severe motor deficit, spastic quadriplegic or dyskinetic subtype of cerebral palsy, and gray matter injury on neuroimaging. This information allows clinicians to better predict and manage communication impairment in children with cerebral palsy. PMID:25051968

  20. Incidence and management of diaphragmatic palsy in patients after cardiac surgery

    PubMed Central

    Mehta, Yatin; Vats, Mayank; Singh, Ajmer; Trehan, Naresh

    2008-01-01

    Background: Diaphragm is the most important part of the respiratory system. Diaphragmatic palsy following cardiac surgery is not uncommon and can cause deterioration of pulmonary functions and attendant pulmonary complications. Objectives: Aim of this study was to observe the incidence of diaphragmatic palsy after off pump coronary artery bypass grafting (OPCAB) as compared to conventional CABG and to assess the efficacy of chest physiotherapy on diaphragmatic palsy in post cardiac surgical patients. Design and Setting: An observational prospective interventional study done at a tertiary care cardiac centre. Patients: 2280 consecutive adult patients who underwent cardiac surgery from February 2005 to august 2005. Results: 30 patients out of 2280 (1.31%) developed diaphragmatic palsy. Patients were divided based on the presence or absence of symptoms viz. breathlessness at rest or exertion or with the change of posture along with hypoxemia and / or hypercapnia. Group I included 14 patients who were symptomatic (CABG n=13, post valve surgery n=1), While Group II included 16 asymptomatic patients (CABG n=12, post valve surgery n=4), 9 patients (64%) from Group I (n=14) and 4 patients (25%) from group II showed complete recovery from diaphragmatic palsy as demonstrated ultrasonographically. Conclusion: The incidence of diaphragmatic palsy was remarkably less in our adult cardiac surgical patients because most of the cardiac surgeries were performed off pump and intensive chest physiotherapy beginning shortly after extubation helped in complete or near complete recovery of diaphragmatic palsy. Chest Physiotherapy led to marked improvement in functional outcome following post cardiac surgery diaphragmatic palsy. We also conclude that ultrasonography is a simple valuable bed-side tool for rapid diagnosis of diaphragmatic palsy PMID:19742255

  1. The truth is in the water: metastatic prostate cancer presenting as an intermittent facial nerve palsy.

    PubMed

    Wooles, N; Gupta, S; Wilkin-Crowe, H; Juratli, A

    2015-01-01

    An elderly man presented to the acute ear, nose and throat (ENT) services with a history of intermittent, self-limiting facial nerve palsy. Full ENT examination was normal, with all cranial nerves and peripheral neurology intact. Multiple imaging modalities suggested an aggressive bony lesion, secondary to locally advanced prostate malignancy with extensive metastatic infiltration. Prostate cancer is known to preferentially metastasise to bone and has been known to cause multiple cranial nerve palsies and ophthalmoplegia. This is the first case described in the literature of metastatic prostate cancer presenting with intermittent facial nerve palsy. PMID:25911361

  2. Occipital Condyle Fracture With Isolated Unilateral Hypoglossal Nerve Palsy

    PubMed Central

    Yoon, Jin Won; Lim, Oh Kyung; Park, Ki Deok

    2014-01-01

    Occipital condyle fractures (OCFs) with selective involvement of the hypoglossal canal are rare. OCFs usually occur after major trauma and combine multiple fractures. We describe a 38-year-old man who presented with neck pain and a tongue deviation to the right side after a traffic accident. Severe limitations were detected during active and passive range of neck motion in all directions. A physical examination revealed a normal gag reflex and normal mobility of the palate, larynx, and shoulder girdle. He had normal taste and general sensation in his tongue. However, he presented with a tongue deviation to the right side on protrusion. A videofluoroscopic swallowing study revealed piecemeal deglutition due to decreased tongue mobility but no aspiration of food. Plain X-ray film findings were negative, but a computed tomography study with coronal reconstruction demonstrated a right OCF involving the hypoglossal canal. An electrodiagnostic study revealed evidence of right hypoglossal nerve palsy. We report a rare case of isolated hypoglossal nerve palsy caused by an OCF. PMID:25379499

  3. Mirror book therapy for the treatment of idiopathic facial palsy.

    PubMed

    Barth, Jodi Maron; Stezar, Gincy L; Acierno, Gabriela C; Kim, Thomas J; Reilly, Michael J

    2014-09-01

    We conducted a retrospective chart review to determine the effectiveness of treating idiopathic facial palsy with mirror book therapy in conjunction with facial physical rehabilitation. We compared outcomes in 15 patients who underwent mirror book therapy in addition to standard therapy with those of 10 patients who underwent standard rehabilitation therapy without the mirror book. Before and after treatment, patients in both groups were rated according to the Facial Grading System (FGS), the Facial Disability Index-Physical (FDIP), and the Facial Disability Index-Social (FDIS). Patients in the mirror therapy group had a mean increase of 24.9 in FGS score, 22.0 in FDIP score, and 25.0 in FDIS score, all of which represented statistically significant improvements over their pretreatment scores. Those who did not receive mirror book therapy had mean increases of 20.8, 19.0, 14.6, respectively; these, too, represented significant improvements over baseline, and thus there was no statistically significant difference in improvement between the two groups. Nevertheless, our results show that patients who used mirror book therapy in addition to standard facial rehabilitation therapy experienced significant improvements in the treatment of idiopathic facial palsy. While further studies are necessary to determine if it has a definitive, statistically significant advantage over standard therapy, we recommend adding this therapy to the rehabilitation program in view of its ease of use, low cost, and lack of side effects. PMID:25255351

  4. People With Cerebral Palsy: Effects of and Perspectives for Therapy

    PubMed Central

    Mayston, Margaret J.

    2001-01-01

    The movement disorder of cerebral palsy (CP) is expressed in a variety of ways and to varying degrees in each individual. The condition has become more complex over the last 20 years with the increasing survival of children born at less than 28 to 30 weeks gestationai age. Impairments present in children with CP as a direct result of the brain injury or occurring indirectly to compensate for underlying problems include abnormal muscle tone; weakness and lack of fitness; limited variety of muscle synergies; contracture and altered biomechanics, the net result being limited functional ability. Other contributors to the motor disorder include sensory, cognitive and perceptual impairments. In recent years understanding of the motor problem has increased, but less is known about effects of therapy. Evidence suggests that therapy can improve functional possibilities for children with cerebral palsy but is inconclusive as to which approach might be most beneficial. The therapist requires an understanding of the interaction of all systems, cognitive/perceptual, motor, musculoskeletal, sensory and behavioral, in the context of the development and plasticity of the CNS. It is necessary to understand the limitations of the damaged immature nervous system, but important to optimize the child's functional possibilities. PMID:11530888

  5. Children with cerebral palsy effectively modulate postural control to perform a supra-postural task.

    PubMed

    Schmit, Jennifer; Riley, Michael; Cummins-Sebree, Sarah; Schmitt, Laura; Shockley, Kevin

    2015-06-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine whether signatures of adaptive postural control remain present in children with cerebral palsy (CP) when they performed a supra-postural task (i.e., a task performed above and beyond the control of posture) requiring them to balance a marble inside a tube held in the hands. Measures of center of pressure (COP) dynamics (how regular or predictable were the COP data as quantified by the sample entropy metric) and variability (as quantified by the COP standard deviation) were obtained from a sample of children with CP (n=30) and compared to the same measures taken from typically developing (TD) children. Children with CP demonstrated an apparent inefficiency in postural control (greater irregularity, greater sway variability) relative to TD peers during a quiet-stance (no supra-postural task) condition (p<.05). During supra-postural task performance, those differences were attenuated, though they remained statistically different (p<.05). The findings illustrate flexibility and adaptability in the postural control system, despite the pathological features associated with CP. PMID:25913503

  6. Seat surface inclination may affect postural stability during Boccia ball throwing in children with cerebral palsy.

    PubMed

    Tsai, Yung-Shen; Yu, Yi-Chen; Huang, Po-Chang; Cheng, Hsin-Yi Kathy

    2014-12-01

    The aim of the study was to examine how seat surface inclination affects Boccia ball throwing movement and postural stability among children with cerebral palsy (CP). Twelve children with bilateral spastic CP (3 with gross motor function classification system Level I, 5 with Level II, and 4 with Level III) participated in this study. All participants underwent pediatric reach tests and ball throwing performance analyses while seated on 15° anterior- or posterior-inclined, and horizontal surfaces. An electromagnetic motion analysis system was synchronized with a force plate to assess throwing motion and postural stability. The results of the pediatric reach test (p = 0.026), the amplitude of elbow movement (p = 0.036), peak vertical ground reaction force (PVGRF) (p < 0.001), and movement range of the center of pressure (COP) (p < 0.020) were significantly affected by seat inclination during throwing. Post hoc comparisons showed that anterior inclination allowed greater amplitude of elbow movement and PVGRF, and less COP movement range compared with the other inclines. Posterior inclination yielded less reaching distance and PVGRF, and greater COP movement range compared with the other inclines. The anterior-inclined seat yielded superior postural stability for throwing Boccia balls among children with bilateral spastic CP, whereas the posterior-inclined seat caused difficulty. PMID:25241116

  7. Influence of artificial saddle riding on postural stability in children with cerebral palsy.

    PubMed

    Kuczy?ski, M; S?onka, K

    1999-10-01

    Stability of quiet upright stance was investigated in 25 children with cerebral palsy at the beginning and the end of a 3-month period of therapy involving 20 min microprocessor-controlled saddle riding, performed twice a week. The traditional parameters of postural sway based on the centre-of-pressure analysis (range, standard deviation, mean speed and mean radius) dropped significantly over time confirming advantageous influence of this treatment. As a complementary tool, an autoregressive modelling technique was used allowing us to establish after each single ride considerable decreases in the frequency of the feet adjustments, which represent the control variable of the postural system in sagittal plane. These changes reflect diminished ankle joints stiffness resulting from a single session, and are supposedly a basic reason for substantial progress of the patients. The autoregressive approach proved to be a powerful method, which corroborates and reinforces stabilographic investigations. The findings confirm that the therapy led to a noteworthy improvement in the postural performance of the CP children in sagittal as well in frontal planes. Moreover, they let us to infer about biomechanical properties of joints involved in maintaining posture, thus giving more insight into the operation of the neuro-muscular system and allowing us to better understand the reason of progress in motor control of posture. PMID:10502649

  8. Treatment of os odontoideum in a patient with spastic quadriplegic cerebral palsy.

    PubMed

    Akpolat, Yusuf T; Fegale, Ben; Cheng, Wayne K

    2015-08-01

    Severe atlantoaxial instability due to os odontoideum in a patient with spastic cerebral palsy has not been well described. There is no consensus on treatment, particularly with regard to conservative or surgical options. Our patient was a 9-year-old girl with spastic cerebral palsy and unstable os odontoideum as an incidental finding. During the waiting period for elective surgical treatment, the patient developed respiratory compromise. Surgery was performed to reduce the subluxation and for C1-C2 arthrodesis and the girl regained baseline respiratory function. A CT scan was obtained 1year after the initial surgery and revealed adequate maintenance of reduction and patency of the spinal canal. This patient highlights the fact that unstable os odontoideum can cause mortality due to respiratory distress in patients with spastic cerebral palsy. This is an important factor in deciding treatment options for cerebral palsy patients with low functional demand. We review the relevant literature. PMID:25913747

  9. MIT Skywalker : a novel robot for gait rehabilitation of stroke and cerebral palsy patients

    E-print Network

    Susko, Tyler Gregory

    2015-01-01

    Every two minutes, 3 people in the United States will have a stroke and every hour an American baby is born with cerebral palsy. The only method available to recover from motor impairments associated with these brain ...

  10. Predictors of Reading Comprehension in Children with Cerebral Palsy and Typically Developing Children

    PubMed Central

    Asbell, Shana; Donders, Jacobus; Van Tubbergen, Marie; Warschausky, Seth

    2010-01-01

    Predictors of reading comprehension were evaluated in 41 children with cerebral palsy and 74 typically developing children between the ages of 6 and 12 years. Regression analyses were conducted to determine the relative contributions of measures of phonemic awareness, receptive vocabulary, and general reasoning to variance in reading comprehension. All three independent variables were statistically significant predictors of reading comprehension in both groups of participants. The impact of phonemic awareness on reading comprehension was moderated by age, but only in the typically developing group. Within the group with cerebral palsy, there was an indirect effect of functional expressive ability on reading comprehension, mediated by phonemic awareness. It is concluded that largely the same variables predict reading comprehension in children with cerebral palsy as in typically developing children, but that children with cerebral palsy continue to rely on phonological processing for a more protracted period of time. PMID:20455127

  11. [Constipation in patients with quadriplegic cerebral palsy: intestinal reeducation using massage and a laxative diet].

    PubMed

    Faleiros-Castro, Fabiana Santana; de Paula, Elenice Dias Ribeiro

    2013-08-01

    Constipation affects 74% of individuals with cerebral palsy. This study aimed to evaluate the results of nursing interventions for treating intestinal constipation associated with cerebral palsy. This quantitative, prospective, comparative study included 50 patients with quadriplegic cerebral palsy and constipation. The main conservative measures included daily consumption of laxative foods and vegetable oils, increase in fluid intake, and daily intestinal massage. Total or partial constipation relief was observed in 90% of the patients, with improvement in quality-of-life aspects such as sleep, appetite, and irritability, and a significant decrease in rectal bleeding, anal fissure, voluntary retention of stools, crying, and pain on defecation. Only 10% of the patients required laxative medications. It is recommended that conservative measures be used for treating cerebral palsy-related constipation and medications be used solely as adjuvants, if needed. PMID:24310680

  12. Gait changes following myofascial structural integration (Rolfing) observed in 2 children with cerebral palsy.

    PubMed

    Hansen, Alexis B; Price, Karen S; Loi, Elizabeth C; Buysse, Christina A; Jaramillo, Theresa M; Pico, Elaine L; Feldman, Heidi M

    2014-10-01

    Children with spastic cerebral palsy experience difficulty with ambulation. Structural changes in muscle and fascia may play a role in abnormal gait. Myofascial structural integration (Rolfing) is a manual therapy that manipulates muscle and soft tissues to loosen fascia layers, reposition muscles, and facilitate alignment. This study aimed to document (1) gait characteristics of 2 children with cerebral palsy and (2) effects of myofascial structural integration on their gait. Children received 3 months of weekly therapy sessions by an experienced practitioner. Gait parameters were recorded at baseline and after treatment using an electronic walkway. Children with cerebral palsy demonstrated abnormal velocity and cadence, decreased step length and single support times, and increased double support time. After treatment, both children demonstrated improvement for 3 months in cadence and double support time. The objective gait analyses demonstrated temporary improvements after myofascial structural integration in children with spastic cerebral palsy. PMID:24989994

  13. Insight in Progressive Supranuclear Palsy (PSP): A study of Intra-individual awareness 

    E-print Network

    Poveda, Blanca

    2008-12-04

    , Seltzer, Foss and Vanderbrook 1995). Due to the frontal pathology present in Progressive Supranuclear Palsy (PSP), many patients suffer from awareness deficits. However, the study of awareness in PSP has only recently been studied (O’Keeffe, et al., 2007...

  14. The Evaluation and Cultivation of Spatial and Linguistic Abilities in Individuals with Cerebral Palsy

    E-print Network

    Weir, Sylvia

    1979-10-01

    The work of the Cerebral Palsy project (members: Seymour Papert, Sylvia Weir, Jose Valente and Gary Drescher) over the past eighteen months is summarized, and the next phase of activity is outlined. The issues to be ...

  15. Maffucci syndrome and intracranial chondrosarcomas: a case report featuring spontaneous resolution of sixth nerve palsy.

    PubMed

    Munro, Monique; Costello, Fiona; Burrowes, David; Yau, Ryan

    2015-03-01

    Maffucci syndrome is a rare disease process characterized by enchondromatosis with cutaneous hemangiomatosis. We report a 20-year-old woman with Maffucci syndrome with a 5-day history of diplopia. She was found to have a left sixth nerve palsy due to a parasellar chondrosarcoma. Three weeks later, the patient's diplopia spontaneously resolved. This unusual clinical course prompted us to review frequency of sixth nerve palsy with skull base neoplasms and the phenomenon of spontaneous resolution of diplopia. PMID:24978479

  16. The Association of Cerebral Palsy with Other Disability in Children with Perinatal Arterial Ischemic Stroke

    PubMed Central

    Golomb, Meredith R.; Saha, Chandan; Garg, Bhuwan P.; Azzouz, Faouzi; Williams, Linda S.

    2008-01-01

    The association of cerebral palsy with other disability in children with perinatal stroke has not been well-studied. We examined this association in 111 children with perinatal stroke, 67 with neonatal presentation and 44 with delayed presentation. Seventy-six children (68%) had cerebral palsy, which was hemiplegic in 66 and tri- or quadriplegic in 10. Fifty-five (72%) of the children with cerebral palsy had at least one other disability: 45 (59%) had cognitive/speech impairment which was moderate-severe in 20, and 36 (47%) had epilepsy which was moderate-severe in 11. In children with neonatal presentation, cerebral palsy was associated with epilepsy (0.0076) and cognitive impairment (0.0001); these associations could not be tested in children with delayed presentation because almost all children in this group had cerebral palsy. In another analysis with multivariate logistic regression for children with cerebral palsy, children who had both neonatal presentation and a history of cesarean section delivery were more likely to have epilepsy (p=0.001). Children with cerebral palsy after perinatal stroke who had neonatal presentation were more likely to have severe cognitive impairment (OR 7.78; 95% CI 1.80–47.32) or severe epilepsy (OR 6.64; 95% CI 1.21–69.21) than children with delayed presentation. Children with cerebral palsy after perinatal stroke are likely to have additional disability; those with neonatal presentation are more likely to have severe disability. These findings will help pediatricians in planning long-term rehabilitative care. PMID:17903667

  17. Effects of Prolonged Standing on Gait in Children with Spastic Cerebral Palsy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Salem, Yasser; Lovelace-Chandler, Venita; Zabel, Reta J.; McMillan, Amy Gross

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the effects of prolonged standing on gait characteristics in children with spastic cerebral palsy. Six children with spastic cerebral palsy participated in this study with an average age of 6.5 years (SD = 2.5, range = 4.0-9.8 years). A reverse baseline design (A-B-A) was used over a 9-week period. During…

  18. Irreducible dislocation of the hip in cerebral palsy patients treated by Schanz proximal femoral valgus osteotomy

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Alena Schejbalova; Vojtech Havlas; Tomas Trc

    2009-01-01

    Palliative Schanz proximal femoral valgus osteotomy is considered a common option for treatment of irreducible hip dislocation\\u000a in cerebral palsy. From 1992 to 2005, Schanz osteotomy was indicated on 55 occasions in 35 nonambulatory patients with the\\u000a quadriplegic form of cerebral palsy aged 9–18. Postoperatively, the main emphasis focussed on clinical presentation, improvement\\u000a of hip range of motion, and pain

  19. Isolated III cranial nerve palsy: a surprising presentation of an acute on chronic subdural haematoma

    PubMed Central

    Abdul Jalil, Muhammad Fahmi; Tee, Jin Wee; Han, Tiew

    2013-01-01

    Many aetiologies have been associated with isolated oculomotor nerve palsies. They are ischaemic microangiopathy, posterior communicating artery aneurysm, uncal herniation, neoplasia, traumatic and inflammatory conditions. We report the case of a patient who presented with left oculomotor cranial nerve palsy with an associated large volume left acute on chronic subdural haematoma. Coincidentally, this woman was also found to have a recent history of herpes zoster ophthalmicus. PMID:23784767

  20. MRI of progressive supranuclear palsy, corticobasal degeneration and multiple system atrophy

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Kimihito Arai

    2006-01-01

    \\u000a Abstract\\u000a   The characteristics of progressive supranuclear palsy (PSP), corticobasal degeneration (CBD) and multiple system atrophy (MSA)\\u000a on routine magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) are reviewed. In PSP, atrophy of the midbrain tegmentum, truncus of corpus callosum\\u000a and anterior cingulate cortex was seen on midsagittal plane MRI. These findings probably relate to supranuclear gaze palsy,\\u000a motor programming dysfunction and emotional dysfunction. In

  1. Potentially asphyxiating conditions and spastic cerebral palsy in infants of normal birth weight

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Karin B. Nelson; Judith K. Grether

    1998-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Our purpose was to examine the association of cerebral palsy with conditions that can interrupt oxygen supply to the fetus as a primary pathogenetic event.STUDY DESIGN: A population-based case-control study was performed in four California counties, 1983 through 1985, comparing birth records of 46 children with disabling spastic cerebral palsy without recognized prenatal brain lesions and 378 randomly selected

  2. Peripheral facial palsy in the past: contributions from Avicenna, Nicolaus Friedreich and Charles Bell.

    PubMed

    Resende, Luiz Antonio de Lima; Weber, Silke

    2008-09-01

    This study provides historical documents of peripheral facial palsy from Egypt, Greece and Rome, through the middle ages, and the renaissance, and into the last four centuries. We believe that the history of peripheral facial palsy parallels history of the human race itself. Emphasis is made on contributions by Avicenna and Nicolaus Friedreich. Controversies about the original clinical description by Charles Bell are also discussed. PMID:18949283

  3. Fourth Cranial Nerve Palsy in a Collegiate Lacrosse Player: A Case Report

    PubMed Central

    Stiller-Ostrowski, Jennifer L.

    2010-01-01

    Abstract Objective: To present the case of a National Collegiate Athletic Association Division I men's lacrosse athlete with fourth cranial nerve injury as the result of a minor traumatic blow. Background: The athlete was struck on the right side of his head during a lacrosse game. On-field evaluation revealed no cervical spine involvement or loss of consciousness. He complained of headache and dizziness, with delayed reports of visual disturbance. Sideline visual acuity and cranial nerve screenings appeared within normal limits. Consultation with the team physician indicated that immediate referral to the emergency department was unnecessary. Differential Diagnosis: Concussion, third cranial nerve palsy, fourth cranial nerve palsy. Treatment: The certified athletic trainer safely removed the athlete from the playing field and monitored him on the sideline. After being seen by the team physician, the patient was referred to a neurologist, ophthalmologist, and finally a neuro-ophthalmologist before a definitive diagnosis was made. The palsy did not necessitate surgical intervention, resolving with conservative treatment. The athlete was able to return to full athletic ability at his preinjury level by 8 months postinjury. Uniqueness: Superior oblique palsy as the result of fourth cranial nerve injury is the most frequent isolated cranial nerve palsy; however, these palsies are often underdiagnosed by health professionals. Such palsies are uncommon within the athletic realm, making timely diagnosis even less likely. Conclusions: Cranial nerve palsy may present very subtly in patients. Therefore, on-field health care providers should be aware of the descriptions and types of compensations that signal nerve injury. PMID:20617917

  4. CP or not CP? A review of diagnoses in a cerebral palsy register.

    PubMed

    Zarrinkalam, Rosa; Russo, Remo N; Gibson, Catherine S; van Essen, Phillipa; Peek, Ann K; Haan, Eric A

    2010-03-01

    The purpose of this study was to document the inaccuracy rate of diagnosis of cerebral palsy recorded on the South Australian Cerebral Palsy Register. A total of 402 children born in South Australia from 1993 to 2002 and notified to the Register as having cerebral palsy were identified through the Register database, and 21 children (5.2%) were later identified to have a noncerebral palsy diagnosis. Of these, 5 had either a metabolic or a neurodegenerative disorder and 2 had a syndromic disorder (1 Joubert syndrome and 1 Sotos syndrome); the remaining 14 children had one of the following final diagnoses: developmental delay, gross motor delay, perinatal myositis, spinal subdural and subarachnoid arteriovenous malformation, and Erb's palsy. In 16 of 21 children (76%), the diagnosis was changed at 5 years of age or older. Studies based on population registers may need to take into account the possibility of misclassification, estimated to be at least 5.2% in this study. A complete clinical assessment at the time of diagnosis followed by regular reassessment would enable the clinician to exclude children with alternative diagnoses, which has important implications for clinical management and research based on cerebral palsy registers. PMID:20159426

  5. A clinical study of autologous bone marrow mononuclear cells for cerebral palsy patients: a new frontier.

    PubMed

    Sharma, Alok; Sane, Hemangi; Gokulchandran, Nandini; Kulkarni, Pooja; Gandhi, Sushant; Sundaram, Jyothi; Paranjape, Amruta; Shetty, Akshata; Bhagwanani, Khushboo; Biju, Hema; Badhe, Prerna

    2015-01-01

    Cerebral palsy is a nonprogressive heterogeneous group of neurological disorders with a growing rate of prevalence. Recently, cellular therapy is emerging as a potential novel treatment strategy for cerebral palsy. The various mechanisms by which cellular therapy works include neuroprotection, immunomodulation, neurorestoration, and neurogenesis. We conducted an open label, nonrandomized study on 40 cases of cerebral palsy with an aim of evaluating the benefit of cellular therapy in combination with rehabilitation. These cases were administered autologous bone marrow mononuclear cells intrathecally. The follow-up was carried out at 1 week, 3 months, and 6 months after the intervention. Adverse events of the treatment were also monitored in this duration. Overall, at six months, 95% of patients showed improvements. The study population was further divided into diplegic, quadriplegic, and miscellaneous group of cerebral palsy. On statistical analysis, a significant association was established between the symptomatic improvements and cell therapy in diplegic and quadriplegic cerebral palsy. PET-CT scan done in 6 patients showed metabolic improvements in areas of the brain correlating to clinical improvements. The results of this study demonstrate that cellular therapy may accelerate the development, reduce disability, and improve the quality of life of patients with cerebral palsy. PMID:25788947

  6. Age Specificity in General and Rehabilitation Medical Services in Children With Cerebral Palsy

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Dong-A; Hong, Hyun-Sook; Lee, Hee-Yeon; Lee, Hye-Sun

    2014-01-01

    Objective To review the medical utilization in children with cerebral palsy according to age and discern particularities Methods From January 2007 to December 2007, 10,659 children and adolescents between 1 and 18 years of age who had filed national insurance claims for a diagnosis of cerebral palsy were selected. Age was chosen as an independent variable, and the population was categorized into specific age groups to verify any differences in medical service utilization. Admission duration to rehabilitation, number of visits to rehabilitation outpatient clinics, numbers of admission dates and outpatient clinic visits for general medical services, number of rehabilitation utilizations, and type of rehabilitations treatment were selected as dependent variables. One-way ANOVA was used for statistical evaluation, and analysis was done with SAS software. Results In general medical use, adolescences diagnosed with cerebral palsy had the highest mean admission duration (p<0.001). The mean visit day to outpatient clinics for general medical services was highest for infants (p<0.001). In rehabilitation treatment, infants diagnosed with cerebral palsy had the highest mean admission duration (p<0.001). The mean visit day to outpatient clinics for rehabilitation treatment was highest for infants (p<0.001). Conclusion Significant differences in use of general and rehabilitation medical services among pediatric age groups with cerebral palsy were evident. This implies that particular attention is necessary when setting up a national medical care policy for patient with cerebral palsy. PMID:25566477

  7. De novo point mutations in patients diagnosed with ataxic cerebral palsy.

    PubMed

    Parolin Schnekenberg, Ricardo; Perkins, Emma M; Miller, Jack W; Davies, Wayne I L; D'Adamo, Maria Cristina; Pessia, Mauro; Fawcett, Katherine A; Sims, David; Gillard, Elodie; Hudspith, Karl; Skehel, Paul; Williams, Jonathan; O'Regan, Mary; Jayawant, Sandeep; Jefferson, Rosalind; Hughes, Sarah; Lustenberger, Andrea; Ragoussis, Jiannis; Jackson, Mandy; Tucker, Stephen J; Németh, Andrea H

    2015-07-01

    Cerebral palsy is a sporadic disorder with multiple likely aetiologies, but frequently considered to be caused by birth asphyxia. Genetic investigations are rarely performed in patients with cerebral palsy and there is little proven evidence of genetic causes. As part of a large project investigating children with ataxia, we identified four patients in our cohort with a diagnosis of ataxic cerebral palsy. They were investigated using either targeted next generation sequencing or trio-based exome sequencing and were found to have mutations in three different genes, KCNC3, ITPR1 and SPTBN2. All the mutations were de novo and associated with increased paternal age. The mutations were shown to be pathogenic using a combination of bioinformatics analysis and in vitro model systems. This work is the first to report that the ataxic subtype of cerebral palsy can be caused by de novo dominant point mutations, which explains the sporadic nature of these cases. We conclude that at least some subtypes of cerebral palsy may be caused by de novo genetic mutations and patients with a clinical diagnosis of cerebral palsy should be genetically investigated before causation is ascribed to perinatal asphyxia or other aetiologies. PMID:25981959

  8. Factors influencing adherence to a home-based strength-training programme for young people with cerebral palsy

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Nicholas F Taylor; Karen J Dodd; Helen McBurney; H. Kerr Graham

    2004-01-01

    Background and purpose There is evidence that strength training can be beneficial for young people with cerebral palsy. To successfully implement a strength-training programme the physiotherapist should consider factors that can affect adherence. This study explored factors that influence adherence to a home-based strength-training programme for young people with cerebral palsy.Methods Eleven young people with cerebral palsy and their parents

  9. Therapeutic Potential of Autologous Stem Cell Transplantation for Cerebral Palsy

    PubMed Central

    Purandare, Chaitanya; Shitole, D. G.; Belle, Vaijayantee; Kedari, Aarti; Bora, Neeta; Joshi, Meghnad

    2012-01-01

    Background. Cerebral palsy (CP) is a severe disabling disease with worldwide incidence being 2 to 3 per 1000 live births. CP was considered as a noncurable, nonreparative disorder, but stem cell therapy offers a potential treatment for CP. Objective. The present study evaluates the safety and efficacy of autologous bone-marrow-derived mononuclear cell (BMMNCs) transplantation in CP patient. Material and Methods. In the present study, five infusions of autologous stem cells were injected intrathecally. Changes in neurological deficits and improvements in function were assessed using Gross Motor Function Classification System (GMFCS-E&R) scale. Results. Significant motor, sensory, cognitive, and speech improvements were observed. Bowel and bladder control has been achieved. On the GMFCS-E&R level, the patient was promoted from grade III to I. Conclusion. In this study, we report that intrathecal infusion of autologous BMMNCs seems to be feasible, effective, and safe with encouraging functional outcome improvements in CP patient. PMID:23259143

  10. Platelet-Rich Plasma in a Patient with Cerebral Palsy.

    PubMed

    Alcaraz, Jesús; Oliver, Antonio; Sánchez, Juana María

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND The use of platelet-rich plasma is a now a common medical technique known as regenerative medicine, through power cell activation and differentiation, which produces growth factors called platelets derived both locally and systematically. Here, we report the case of a cerebral palsy patient who received intravenous platelet-rich plasma. CASE REPORT We administered an intravenous injection of concentrated platelet-rich plasma (25 cc) in a 6-year-old boy with perinatal cerebral palsy, cognitive impairment, and marked and severe generalized spasticity. We performed follow-up at 3 and 6 months after the injection. All serum samples for determination were obtained by ELISA technique. Cognitive scales (Bayley, Battelle, M.S.C.A, Kaufman ABC, and Stanford-Binet Intelligence scale) were used before and after treatment. The determination protocol that was applied before the analysis was performed manually and the autotransfusion was considered suitable for treatment. We determined the plasma levels of factor similar to insulin-1 (IGF-1), platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF), vasculo-endothelial growth factor (VEGF), and transforming growth factor B (TGF-B) before and during treatment monitoring. CONCLUSIONS No adverse effects were observed in the patient except for a small hematoma in the area channeling venous access. We observed a clear improvement in the cognitive sphere (memory, ability to perform more complex tasks, and acquisition of new skills) and in language, maintaining stable levels of growth factor in plasma 3-5 times higher than average for his age group at both 3- and 6-month follow-up. Positron emission tomography (PET) images showed an evident increased demarcation in the cerebral cortex. We propose that this therapy is useful in these patients to harness the neurostimulative and neuroregenerative power of endogenous growth factors derived from platelets. PMID:26185982

  11. [Measurement of external pressure of peroneal nerve tract coming in contact with lithotomy leg holders using pressure distribution measurement system BIG-MAT®].

    PubMed

    Mizuno, Ju; Namba, Chikara; Takahashi, Toru

    2014-10-01

    We investigated external pressure on peroneal nerve tract coming in contact with two kinds of leg holders using pressure distribution measurement system BIG- MAT® (Nitta Corp., Osaka) in the lithotomy position Peak contact (active) pressure at the left fibular head region coming in contact with knee-crutch-type leg holder M® (Takara Belmont Corp., Osaka), which supports the left popliteal fossa, was 78.0 ± 26.4 mmHg. On the other hand, peak contact pressure at the left lateral lower leg region coming in contact with boot-support-type leg holder Bel Flex® (Takara Belmont Corp., Osaka), which supports the left lower leg and foot was 26.3±7.9 mmHg. These results suggest that use of knee-crutch-type leg holder is more likely to induce common peroneal nerve palsy at the fibular head region, but use of boot-support-type leg holder dose not easily induce superficial peroneal nerve palsy at the lateral lower leg region, because capillary blood pressure is known to be 32 mmHg. Safer holders for positioning will be developed to prevent nerve palsy based on the analysis of chronological change in external pressure using BIG-MAT® system during anesthesia. PMID:25693355

  12. C5 Nerve root palsies following cervical spine surgery: A review

    PubMed Central

    Epstein, Nancy E.; Hollingsworth, Renee

    2015-01-01

    Background: Cervical C5 nerve root palsies may occur in between 0% and 30% of routine anterior or posterior cervical spine operations. They are largely attributed to traction injuries/increased cord migration following anterior/posterior decompressions. Of interest, almost all studies cite spontaneous resolution of these deficits without surgery with 3–24 postoperative months. Methods: Different studies cite various frequencies for C5 root palsies following anterior or posterior cervical spine surgery. In their combined anterior/posterior series involving C4-C5 level decompressions, Libelski et al. cited up to a 12% incidence of C5 palsies. In Gu et al. series, C5 root palsies occurred in 3.1% of double-door laminoplasty, 4.5% of open-door laminoplasty, and 11.3% of laminectomy. Miller et al. observed an intermediate 6.9% frequency of C5 palsies followed by posterior cervical decompressions and fusions (PCDF). Results: Gu et al. also identified multiple risk factors for developing C5 palsies following posterior surgery; male gender, ossification of the posterior longitudinal ligament (OPLL), narrower foramina, laminectomy, and marked dorsal spinal cord drift. Miller et al. also identified an average $1918 increased cost for physical/occupational therapy for patients with C5 palsies. Conclusions: The incidence of C5 root deficits for anterior/posterior cervical surgery at C4-C5 was 12% in one series, and ranged up to 11.3% for laminectomies, while others cited 0–30%. Although identification of preoperative risk factors for C5 root deficits may help educate patients regarding these risks, there is no clear method for their avoidance at this time. PMID:26005577

  13. New Predictive Parameters of Bell’s Palsy: Neutrophil to Lymphocyte Ratio and Platelet to Lymphocyte Ratio

    PubMed Central

    Atan, Do?an; ?kincio?ullar?, Aykut; Köseo?lu, Sabri; Özcan, Kür?at Murat; Çetin, Mehmet Ali; Ensari, Serdar; Dere, Hüseyin

    2015-01-01

    Background: Bell’s palsy is the most frequent cause of unilateral facial paralysis. Inflammation is thought to play an important role in the pathogenesis of Bell’s palsy. Aims: Neutrophil to lymphocyte ratio (NLR) and platelet to lymphocyte ratio (PLR) are simple and inexpensive tests which are indicative of inflammation and can be calculated by all physicians. The aim of this study was to reveal correlations of Bell’s palsy and degree of paralysis with NLR and PLR. Study Design: Case-control study. Methods: The retrospective study was performed January 2010 and December 2013. Ninety-nine patients diagnosed as Bell’s palsy were included in the Bell’s palsy group and ninety-nine healthy individuals with the same demographic characteristics as the Bell’s palsy group were included in the control group. As a result of analyses, NLR and PLR were calculated. Results: The mean NLR was 4.37 in the Bell’s palsy group and 1.89 in the control group with a statistically significant difference (p<0.001). The mean PLR was 137.5 in the Bell’s palsy group and 113.75 in the control group with a statistically significant difference (p=0.008). No statistically significant relation was detected between the degree of facial paralysis and NLR and PLR. Conclusion: The NLR and the PLR were significantly higher in patients with Bell’s palsy. This is the first study to reveal a relation between Bell’s palsy and PLR. NLR and PLR can be used as auxiliary parameters in the diagnosis of Bell’s palsy.

  14. Efficacy and tolerability of eperisone in patients with spastic palsy: a cross-over, placebo-controlled dose-ranging trial

    Microsoft Academic Search

    N. BRESOLIN; C. ZUCCA; A. PECORI; Maggiore Policlinico; E. Medea

    2009-01-01

    Background and Objectives: Central muscle relaxants are a clinical option in patients with spastic palsy. Eperisone is a cen- tral muscle relaxant used in several conditions, but its therapeutic potential in spastic palsy needs to be verified. This dose-ranging trial compares two doses of eperisone in patients with spastic palsy associated to cerebral or spinal diseases. Patients and Methods: In

  15. ABSTRACT: The motions of lower-limb extension, adduction, and internal rotation are frequently coupled in persons with cerebral palsy (CP) and are

    E-print Network

    Delp, Scott

    coupled in persons with cerebral palsy (CP) and are commonly referred to as an extension synergy. However ABNORMAL COUPLING OF KNEE AND HIP MOMENTS DURING MAXIMAL EXERTIONS IN PERSONS WITH CEREBRAL PALSY DARRYL G, such as walking, because the ob- Abbreviations: A/D, analog-to-digital; CP, cerebral palsy; EMG, electro- myogram

  16. Analysis of correlative risk factors for C5 palsy after anterior cervical decompression and fusion

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Haiying; Zhang, Xu; Lv, Bing; Ding, Wenyuan; Shen, Yong; Yang, Dalong; Bai, Zhilong

    2015-01-01

    Background: It has been reported that C5 palsy is a potential complication of both anterior and posterior cervical spine surgery, although several mechanisms of C5 palsy following posterior cervical surgery have been proposed, few reports about correlative risk factors have been elaborated on C5 palsy after anterior cervical decompression and fusion (ACDF). Objective: The purpose of this study was to investigate the correlative risk factors of C5 palsy after anterior cervical decompression and fusion. Methods: This is a retrospective study. A total of 161 patients (108 males and 53 females) who underwent ACDF between 2007 and 2012 were included in this study. C5 palsy is characterized by deltoid and/or biceps brachii weakness. The patients were divided into two groups: one that had experienced C5 palsy (group A) and the other one had not (group B). In both groups, the age, gender, duration of disease, diagnosis, No. of surgical levels, cervical curvature correction, occupying rate of spinal canal at C4/5, diameter of the C4/5 foramen, intervertebral height variation, decompression width and preoperative high-signal intensity zone (HIZ) of spinal cord in T2-weighted MRI at C4/5 were measured and evaluated. The risk factors of C5 palsy were detected with logistic regression analysis. Results: There were no significant differences in age, gender, duration of disease, diagnosis, No. of surgical levels, rate of spinal canal at C4/5 and HIZ of spinal cord in T2-weighted MRI at C4/5. Cervical curvature correction, diameter of the C4/5 foramen, intervertebral height variation and decompression width had significant differences between the two groups (P<0.05). Logistic regression analysis revealed that cervical curvature, diameter of the C4/5 foramen, intervertebral height and decompression width were the pivotal risk factors for the incidence of C5 palsy. Conclusion: For patients with ACDF, greater cervical curvature correction, narrow diameter of the C4/5 foramen, improper intervertebral height variation and larger decompression width were the correlative risk factors for C5 palsy after ACDF.

  17. Novel transcriptional profile in wrist muscles from cerebral palsy patients

    PubMed Central

    Smith, Lucas R; Pontén, Eva; Hedström, Yvette; Ward, Samuel R; Chambers, Henry G; Subramaniam, Shankar; Lieber, Richard L

    2009-01-01

    Background Cerebral palsy (CP) is an upper motor neuron disease that results in a progressive movement disorder. Secondary to the neurological insult, muscles from CP patients often become spastic. Spastic muscle is characterized by an increased resistance to stretch, but often develops the further complication of contracture which represents a prominent disability in children with CP. This study's purpose is to characterize alterations of spastic muscle on the transcriptional level. Increased knowledge of spastic muscle may lead to novel therapies to improve the quality of life for children with CP. Method The transcriptional profile of spastic muscles were defined in children with cerebral palsy and compared to control patients using Affymetrix U133A chips. Expression data were verified using quantitative-PCR (QPCR) and validated with SDS-PAGE for select genes. Significant genes were determined using a 2 × 2 ANOVA and results required congruence between 3 preprocessing algorithms. Results CP patients clustered independently and 205 genes were significantly altered, covering a range of cellular processes. Placing gene expression in the context of physiological pathways, the results demonstrated that spastic muscle in CP adapts transcriptionally by altering extracellular matrix, fiber type, and myogenic potential. Extracellular matrix adaptations occur primarily in the basal lamina although there is increase in fibrillar collagen components. Fiber type is predominately fast compared to normal muscle as evidenced by contractile gene isoforms and decrease in oxidative metabolic gene transcription, despite a paradoxical increased transcription of slow fiber pathway genes. We also found competing pathways of fiber hypertrophy with an increase in the anabolic IGF1 gene in parallel with a paradoxical increase in myostatin, a gene responsible for stopping muscle growth. We found evidence that excitation-contraction coupling genes are altered in muscles from patients with CP and may be a significant component of disease. Conclusion This is the first transcriptional profile performed on spastic muscle of CP patients and these adaptations were not characteristic of those observed in other disease states such as Duchenne muscular dystrophy and immobilization-induced muscle atrophy. Further research is required to understand the mechanism of muscle adaptation to this upper motor neuron lesion that could lead to the development of innovative therapies. PMID:19602279

  18. Physical Activity in the Life of a Woman with Cerebral Palsy: Physiotherapy, Social Exclusion, Competence, and Intimacy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gaskin, Cadeyrn J.; Andersen, Mark B.; Morris, Tony

    2012-01-01

    Although physical activity can have substantial mental and physical health benefits, people with cerebral palsy usually lead sedentary lives. To understand, at an individual level, this inactivity, we interviewed a 29-year-old minimally active woman with cerebral palsy (Alana) about the meanings and experiences of physical activity throughout her…

  19. Late-onset frontotemporal dementia associated with progressive supranuclear palsy\\/argyrophilic grain disease\\/Alzheimer’s disease pathology

    Microsoft Academic Search

    G. A. Rippon; B. F. Boeve; J. E. Parisi; D. W. Dickson; R. I. Ivnik; C. R. Jack; M. Hutton; M. Baker; K. A. Josephs; D. S. Knopman; R. C. Petersen

    2005-01-01

    Progressive supranuclear palsy (PSP) is typically manifested by vertical supranuclear gaze palsy, frequent falls early in the disease course, axial rigidity and poor response to levodopa. Prominent anterograde memory dysfunction with subsequent impairment in other cognitive domains is characteristic of Alzheimer’s disease (AD). No clear clinical syndrome has been identified in argyrophilic grain disease (AGD). Frontotemporal dementia (FTD) is characterized

  20. Description and Psychometric Properties of the CP QOL-Teen: A Quality of Life Questionnaire for Adolescents with Cerebral Palsy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davis, Elise; Mackinnon, Andrew; Davern, Melanie; Boyd, Roslyn; Bohanna, India; Waters, Elizabeth; Graham, H. Kerr; Reid, Susan; Reddihough, Dinah

    2013-01-01

    To assess the measurement properties of a new QOL instrument, the Cerebral Palsy Quality of Life Questionnaire-Teen (CP QOL-Teen), in adolescents with cerebral palsy (CP) aged 13-18 years, examining domain structure, reliability, validity and adolescent-caregiver concordance. Based on age, 695 eligible families were invited to participate by mail.…

  1. Effect of Cardiorespiratory Training on Aerobic Fitness and Carryover to Activity In Children with Cerebral Palsy: A Systematic Review

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Butler, Jane M.; Scianni, Aline; Ada, Louise

    2010-01-01

    The question under consideration was does cardiorespiratory training improve aerobic fitness in children with cerebral palsy and is there any carryover into activity? The study design consisted of a systematic review of randomized trials using the Cochrane Collaboration guidelines. Participants were children of school age with cerebral palsy.…

  2. Amniotic fluid inflammatory cytokines (interleukin-6, interleukin-1?, and tumor necrosis factor-?), neonatal brain white matter lesions, and cerebral palsy

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Bo Hyun Yoon; Jong Kwan Jun; Roberto Romero; Kyo Hoon Park; Ricardo Gomez; Jung-Hwan Choi

    1997-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Ultrasonographically detectable neonatal brain white matter lesions are the most important identifiable risk factor for cerebral palsy. Inflammatory cytokines released during the course of intrauterine infections have been implicated in the genesis of brain white matter lesions and subsequent cerebral palsy. This study was undertaken to determine whether fetuses who subsequently were diagnosed to have periventricular brain white matter

  3. Abnormalities of horizontal gaze. Clinical, oculographic and magnetic resonance imaging findings. II. Gaze palsy and internuclear ophthalmoplegia

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A M Bronstein; P Rudge; M A Gresty; G Du Boulay; J Morris

    1990-01-01

    The site of lesions responsible for horizontal gaze palsy and various types of internuclear ophthalmoplegia (INO) was established by identifying the common areas where the abnormal MRI signals from patients with a given ocular-motor disorder overlapped. Patients with unilateral gaze palsy had lesions in the paramedian area of the pons, including the abducens nucleus, the lateral part of the nucleus

  4. Constraint-Induced Movement Therapy for Children with Obstetric Brachial Plexus Palsy: Two Single-Case Series

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Buesch, Francisca Eugster

    2010-01-01

    The objective of this pilot study was to investigate the feasibility of constraint-induced movement therapy (CIMT) in children with obstetric brachial plexus palsy and receive preliminary information about functional improvements. Two patients (age 12 years) with obstetric brachial plexus palsy were included for a 126-h home-based CIMT…

  5. Diffusion tensor imaging demonstrated radiologic differences between diplegic and quadriplegic cerebral palsy.

    PubMed

    Chang, Min Cheol; Jang, Sung Ho; Yoe, Sang Seok; Lee, Eunsil; Kim, Saeyoon; Lee, Dong Gyu; Son, Su Min

    2012-03-14

    Little information is available on the use of imaging for the classification of cerebral palsy patients. The present study examined the radiological differences between quadriplegic cerebral palsy patients (QCP), diplegic cerebral palsy patients (DCP) and normal control subjects (NC) by performing diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) of the corticospinal tract (CST) of upper and lower extremities. Twenty-three cerebral palsy patients (11 QCP, 12 DCP) and 12 NC were enrolled. DTI were scanned using a 1.5 T and the CST images were analyzed using FMRIB software. We measured the fractional anisotropy (FA) and apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) values of the CST. Compared to DCP and NC, QCP had decreased mean FA and increased mean ADC values of the CSTs of upper and lower extremities. The mean FA values of the lower extremities in DCP were significantly decreased, compared to NC; however this was not observed for the mean FA value of the upper extremities. The DTI results of the CST in QCP and DCP significantly corresponded with their typical clinical manifestation. DTI may thus be a very powerful modality to assess the state of CST in cerebral palsy patients. PMID:22330748

  6. Recurrent laryngeal nerve palsy and substernal goiter. An Italian multicenter study.

    PubMed

    Testini, M; Gurrado, A; Bellantone, R; Brazzarola, P; Cortese, R; De Toma, G; Fabiola Franco, I; Lissidini, G; Pio Lombardi, C; Minerva, F; Di Meo, G; Pasculli, A; Piccinni, G; Rosato, L

    2014-06-01

    The aim of this retrospective multicenter study was to verify whether the substernal goiter and the type of surgical access could be risk factors for recurrent laryngeal nerve palsy during total thyroidectomy. Between 1999-2008, 14,993 patients underwent total thyroidectomy. Patients were divided into three groups: group A (control; n=14.200, 94.7%), cervical goiters treated through collar incision; group B (n=743, 5.0%) substernal goiters treated by cervical approach; group C (n=50, 0.3%) in which a manubriotomy was performed. Transient and permanent unilateral palsy occurred significantly more frequently in B+C vs. A (P?.001) and in B vs. A (P?.001). Transient bilateral palsy was significantly more frequent in B+C vs. A (P?.043) and in C vs. A (P?.016). Permanent bilateral palsy was significantly more frequent in B+C vs. A (P?.041), and in B vs. A (P?.037). Extension of the goiter into the mediastinum was associated to increased risk of recurrent nerve palsy during total thyroidectomy. PMID:24880605

  7. Bell's palsy and partial hypoglossal to facial nerve transfer: Case presentation and literature review

    PubMed Central

    Socolovsky, Mariano; Páez, Miguel Domínguez; Masi, Gilda Di; Molina, Gonzalo; Fernández, Eduardo

    2012-01-01

    Background: Idiopathic facial nerve palsy (Bell's palsy) is a very common condition that affects active population. Despite its generally benign course, a minority of patients can remain with permanent and severe sequelae, including facial palsy or dyskinesia. Hypoglossal to facial nerve anastomosis is rarely used to reinnervate the mimic muscle in these patients. In this paper, we present a case where a direct partial hypoglossal to facial nerve transfer was used to reinnervate the upper and lower face. We also discuss the indications of this procedure. Case Description: A 53-year-old woman presenting a spontaneous complete (House and Brackmann grade 6) facial palsy on her left side showed no improvement after 13 months of conservative treatment. Electromyography (EMG) showed complete denervation of the mimic muscles. A direct partial hypoglossal to facial nerve anastomosis was performed, including dissection of the facial nerve at the fallopian canal. One year after the procedure, the patient showed House and Brackmann grade 3 function in her affected face. Conclusions: Partial hypoglossal–facial anastomosis with intratemporal drilling of the facial nerve is a viable technique in the rare cases in which severe Bell's palsy does not recover spontaneously. Only carefully selected patients can really benefit from this technique. PMID:22574255

  8. Bell's palsy: a summary of current evidence and referral algorithm.

    PubMed

    Glass, Graeme E; Tzafetta, Kallirroi

    2014-12-01

    Spontaneous idiopathic facial nerve (Bell's) palsy leaves residual hemifacial weakness in 29% which is severe and disfiguring in over half of these cases. Acute medical management remains the best way to improve outcomes. Reconstructive surgery can improve long term disfigurement. However, acute and surgical options are time-dependent. As family practitioners see, on average, one case every 2 years, a summary of this condition based on common clinical questions may improve acute management and guide referral for those who need specialist input. We formulated a series of clinical questions likely to be of use to family practitioners on encountering this condition and sought evidence from the literature to answer them. The lifetime risk is 1 in 60, and is more common in pregnancy and diabetes mellitus. Patients often present with facial pain or paraesthesia, altered taste and intolerance to loud noise in addition to facial droop. It is probably caused by ischaemic compression of the facial nerve within the meatal segment of the facial canal probably as a result of viral inflammation. When given early, high dose corticosteroids can improve outcomes. Neither antiviral therapy nor other adjuvant therapies are supported by evidence. As the facial muscles remain viable re-innervation targets for up to 2 years, late referrals require more complex reconstructions. Early recognition, steroid therapy and early referral for facial reanimation (when the diagnosis is secure) are important features of good management when encountering these complex cases. PMID:25208543

  9. Abnormalities of optokinetic nystagmus in progressive supranuclear palsy

    PubMed Central

    Garbutt, S; Riley, D; Kumar, A; Han, Y; Harwood, M; Leigh, R

    2004-01-01

    Objectives: To measure vertical and horizontal responses to optokinetic (OK) stimulation and investigate directional abnormalities of quick phases in progressive supranuclear palsy (PSP). Methods: Saccades and OK nystagmus were studied in six PSP patients, five with Parkinson's disease (PD), and 10 controls. The OK stimulus subtended 72° horizontally, 60° vertically, consisted of black and white stripes, and moved at 10–50°/s. Results: All PSP patients showed slowed voluntary vertical saccades and nystagmus quick phases compared with PD or controls. Small, paired, horizontal saccadic intrusions (SWJ) were more frequent and larger in PSP during fixation. Vertical saccades were transiently faster at the time of SWJ and horizontal saccades in PSP. During vertical OK nystagmus, small quick phases were often combined with horizontal SWJ in all subjects; in PSP the vector was closer to horizontal. Vertical OK slow phase gain was reduced in PSP but, in most PD patients, was similar to normals. The average position of gaze shifted in the direction of vertical OK stimulus in PSP patients with preserved slow phase responses but impaired quick phases. Conclusions: Vertical OK responses in PSP show impaired slow phase responses, and quick phases that are slowed and combined with SWJ to produce an oblique vector. SWJ facilitate vertical saccades and quick phases in PSP, but it is unclear whether this is an adaptive process or a result of the disease. A large OK stimulus is useful to induce responses that can be quantitatively analysed in patients with limited voluntary range of vertical gaze. PMID:15377682

  10. Towards an intelligent wheelchair system for users with cerebral palsy.

    PubMed

    Montesano, Luis; Díaz, Marta; Bhaskar, Sonu; Minguez, Javier

    2010-04-01

    This paper describes and evaluates an intelligent wheelchair, adapted for users with cognitive disabilities and mobility impairment. The study focuses on patients with cerebral palsy, one of the most common disorders affecting muscle control and coordination, thereby impairing movement. The wheelchair concept is an assistive device that allows the user to select arbitrary local destinations through a tactile screen interface. The device incorporates an automatic navigation system that drives the vehicle, avoiding obstacles even in unknown and dynamic scenarios. It provides the user with a high degree of autonomy, independent from a particular environment, i.e., not restricted to predefined conditions. To evaluate the rehabilitation device, a study was carried out with four subjects with cognitive impairments, between 11 and 16 years of age. They were first trained so as to get acquainted with the tactile interface and then were recruited to drive the wheelchair. Based on the experience with the subjects, an extensive evaluation of the intelligent wheelchair was provided from two perspectives: 1) based on the technical performance of the entire system and its components and 2) based on the behavior of the user (execution analysis, activity analysis, and competence analysis). The results indicated that the intelligent wheelchair effectively provided mobility and autonomy to the target population. PMID:20071276

  11. Prevalance of Obesity in Children with Cerebral Palsy

    PubMed Central

    Bansal, Ankita; Diwan, Jasmin; Vyas, Neeta

    2014-01-01

    Introduction: Obesity are epidemic among children and adolescents. There is worldwide tendency of increasing prevalence of obesity in children. Cerebral palsy (CP) is leading cause of childhood disability.studies have proposed mechanism of children with disability leading towards obesity and related health risks. So this study is aimed at determining whether such trend of obesity exists in children with CP in terms of BMI and WHR. Study Design: Cross -sectional study. Materials and Methods: Participants: 40 children diagnosed as CP age 2-18 years, GMFCS I-IV. Procedure: BMI; kg/m2 was calculated from height and weight. WHR was calculated by measuring waist circumference and hip circumference. BMI percentiles were reported according to sex-specific age group standards for growth set by the WHO growth charts. Results: Out of total CP subjects 40% were found to be underweight, 45%, 7.5% and 7.5% were found to be normal, overweight and obese respectively according to BMI. Whereas 20%, 20% 60% were found to be at high risk, moderate risk and high risk of obesity respectively according to WHR. Conclusion: In our patient population, analysis of BMI and WHR suggests that children with CP have a high rate of overweight and are at risk of overweight, particularly of central obesity. PMID:25302187

  12. Wrist fusion in patients with severe quadriplegic cerebral palsy.

    PubMed

    Thabet, Ahmed M; Kowtharapu, Durga Nagaraju; Miller, Freeman; Dabney, Kirk W; Shah, Suken A; Rogers, Kenneth; Holmes, Laurens

    2012-12-01

    We report clinical and radiographic outcomes of wrist fusion achieved with pin or plate fixation in 14 patients with severe quadriplegic cerebral palsy (CP) (19 wrists). Average patient age at the time of surgery was 16.8 ± 1.7 years (14-20 years). Mean follow-up time for the 14 patients was 5.9 ± 3.1 years (range, 1-11 years). Indication for surgery was severe wrist deformity that interfered with hygienic care. Few complications occurred, and outcomes were satisfactory. Statistically significant mean difference was shown between the pre- and postoperative radiographic angles (37°, P = 0.001, and 24°, P = 0.04, for lateral and anteroposterior views, respectively). Caregivers reported that appearance was the most perceived rationale for surgery (63 %). Improved hygienic care was the primary perceived benefit. The majority (88 %) were satisfied with the results. We recommend wrist fusion to improve hygienic care, positioning, and appearance of the wrist, hand, and fingers in patients with severe quadriplegic CP. PMID:22893448

  13. Clinical correlations of microstructural changes in progressive supranuclear palsy.

    PubMed

    Tessitore, Alessandro; Giordano, Alfonso; Caiazzo, Giuseppina; Corbo, Daniele; De Micco, Rosa; Russo, Antonio; Liguori, Sara; Cirillo, Mario; Esposito, Fabrizio; Tedeschi, Gioacchino

    2014-10-01

    In patients with progressive supranuclear palsy (PSP), previous reports have shown a severe white matter (WM) damage involving supra and infratentorial regions including cerebellum. In the present study, we investigated potential correlations between WM integrity loss and clinical-cognitive features of patients with PSP. By using magnetic resonance imaging and diffusion tensor imaging with tract based spatial statistic analysis, we analyzed WM volume in 18 patients with PSP and 18 healthy controls (HCs). All patients and HCs underwent a detailed clinical and neuropsychological evaluation. Relative to HCs, patients with PSP showed WM changes encompassing supra and infratentorial areas such as corpus callosum, fornix, midbrain, inferior fronto-occipital fasciculus, anterior thalamic radiation, superior cerebellar peduncle, superior longitudinal fasciculus, uncinate fasciculus, cingulate gyrus, and cortico-spinal tract bilaterally. Among different correlations between motor-cognitive features and WM structural abnormalities, we detected a significant association between fronto-cerebellar WM loss and executive cognitive impairment in patients with PSP. Our findings, therefore, corroborate the hypothesis that cognitive impairment in PSP may result from both "intrinsic" and "extrinsic" frontal lobe dysfunction, likely related to cerebellar disconnection. PMID:24786632

  14. Intra-partum fever and cerebral palsy in Khartoum, Sudan

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Cerebral palsy (CP) is a major cause of childhood disability. There are various maternal and neonatal predictors associated with the development of CP, and they are variable across different populations. This case–control study was designed to investigate maternal and neonatal predictors of CP at Khartoum pediatric neurology clinics. Data (maternal sociodemographic characteristics and neonatal expected predictors) were collected from mothers of children with CP and healthy controls using questionnaires. Results One hundred and eleven cases of CP and 222 controls were included. Spastic CP was the most common type (69.4%). In logistic regression, maternal age, parity, birth weight, and sex were not associated with CP. However, maternal fever (OR = 8.4, CI = 2.3–30.5; P = 0.001), previous neonatal death (OR = 5.4, CI = 1.8–16.2; P = 0.003), and poor sucking (OR = 30.5, CI = 10.0–93.1; P < 0.001) were predictors of CP. Conclusions Fever during labor is a significant risk factor for developing CP in children. Further efforts are required for labor management to prevent CP in this setting. PMID:23618409

  15. Behavior and cognition in corticobasal degeneration and progressive supranuclear palsy.

    PubMed

    Kertesz, Andrew; McMonagle, Paul

    2010-02-15

    Progressive supranuclear palsy (PSP) and corticobasal degeneration (CBD), previously described as Parkinsonian syndromes are also cognitive disorders, and biologically related to the frontotemporal dementia or Pick's disease. PSP and CBD overlap clinically, pathologically and genetically, sharing tau haplotypes and mutations. In our series of CBD/PSP patients with cognitive presentation (n=36), primary progressive aphasia (PPA) was particularly common, but behavioral onset occurred also. CBD or PSP as motor presentations developed significant language disorder in 17/19. The underlying pathology is predictably tau positive in these clinical combinations, regardless of the presentation. Other cognitive features of CBDS include apraxia, alien hand and apathy, but often frontal lobe dementia with disinhibition develops also. CBDS also has visuospatial deficit, because of the parietal involvement. PSP was considered the prototype of subcortical dementia, with bradyphrenia, poor recall and executive deficit, but cortical features were recognized to be important also. Language testing and a behavioral inventory should be part of neuropsychological tests to facilitate diagnosis and to quantify the deficit. The clinical, genetic and pathological relationship is strong between CBD /PSP and the aphasic and behavioral components of the Pick complex. PMID:19733862

  16. Bimanual force coordination in children with spastic unilateral cerebral palsy.

    PubMed

    Smits-Engelsman, B C M; Klingels, K; Feys, H

    2011-01-01

    In this study bimanual grip-force coordination was quantified using a novel "Gripper" system that records grip forces produced while holding a lower and upper unit, in combination with the lift force necessary to separate these units. Children with unilateral cerebral palsy (CP) (aged 5-14 years, n=12) were compared to age matched typically developing (TD) children (n=23). Compared to TD, the CP-group is much slower and takes 50% more time to generate grip and lift forces with more fixating force before lifting the upper unit. In addition the coordination between forces in both hands is reduced. The CP-group increases the lift force in the upper hand 2.5 times more than the holding force when pulling the two units apart, while this is only 1.5 times in TD. Moreover, the correlation between forces generated in both hands in the CP-group is lower. The lack of fine tuning of the forces, measured by the linearity error is increased, especially when the magnet load keeping the unit together is low. The results indicate an impaired pull-hold synergy between upper and lower hand and the lift force. Bimanual tasks evaluating bimanual grip and lift forces in children with CP and can give us new insights in the underlying force control mechanisms of the spastic hand. PMID:21592724

  17. Survey Results of Pain Treatments in Adults with Cerebral Palsy

    PubMed Central

    Hirsh, Adam T.; Kratz, Anna L.; Engel, Joyce M.; Jensen, Mark P.

    2011-01-01

    Objectives To identify the types and frequencies of pain treatments used by individuals with cerebral palsy (CP); examine the perceived effectiveness of these treatments; and identify the types of healthcare providers that were accessed for pain-related services. Design A cross-sectional survey design was employed. 83 adults (mean age=40.3 years, SD=13.6) with CP indicated their pain location and intensity during the past 3 months. Next, they indicated their use of 24 different pain treatments and the effectiveness of each. Finally, participants indicated the frequency of pain-related healthcare visits to specific providers over the past 6 months. Results 63% of participants reported experiencing chronic pain and rated their pain intensity over the past week as 5.1/10, on average. The most common pain locations were the lower back, hips, and legs. Physical interventions (e.g., physical therapy, strengthening) were the most common pain treatments reportedly used, and were rated as moderately effective. Many other treatments were also used, and participants sought pain-related care from a variety of providers. Conclusions Although participants reportedly accessed pain care from a variety of providers, and perceived that several types of treatments were effective, many of the treatments rated as effective were rarely used or provided. Future research using clinical trial methods would further elucidate the specific pain treatments that are most beneficial for adults with CP. PMID:21273894

  18. Somatosensory-evoked cortical activity in spastic diplegic cerebral palsy.

    PubMed

    Wingert, Jason R; Sinclair, Robert J; Dixit, Sachin; Damiano, Diane L; Burton, Harold

    2010-11-01

    Somatosensory deficits have been identified in cerebral palsy (CP), but associated cortical brain activity in CP remains poorly understood. Functional MRI was used to measure blood oxygenation level-dependent (BOLD) responses during three tactile tasks in 10 participants with spastic diplegia (mean age: 18.70 years, SD: 7.99 years; 5 females) and 10 age-matched controls (mean age: 18.60 years, SD: 3.86 years; 5 females). Tactile stimulation involved servo-controlled translation of smooth or embossed surfaces across the right index finger pad; the discrimination tasks with embossed surfaces involved judging whether (1) paired shapes were similar or different, and (2) a rougher set of horizontal gratings preceded or followed a smoother one. Velocity and duration of surface translation was identical across all trials. In addition, an event-related design revealed response dynamics per trial in both groups. Compared to controls, individuals with spastic diplegia had significantly reduced spatial extents in activated cortical areas and smaller BOLD response magnitudes in cortical areas for somatosensation, motor, and goal-directed/attention behaviors. These results provide mechanisms for the widespread somatosensory deficits in CP. The reduced activation noted across multiple cortical areas might contribute to motor deficits in CP. PMID:20205249

  19. Relationship of Hypertropia and Excyclotorsion in Superior Oblique Palsy

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Jung Jin; Chun, Ko I; Baek, Seung-Hee

    2013-01-01

    Purpose To evaluate the correlation between hypertropia and excyclotorsion in acquired superior oblique palsy (SOP). Methods Thirty-one patients with acquired unilateral SOP were recruited for this study. The torsional angle of each patient was assessed via one objective method (fundus photography) and two subjective methods (double Maddox rod test and major amblyoscope). The patient population was divided into two groups (concordance group, n = 19 and discordance group, n = 12) according to the correspondence between the hypertropic eye (paralytic eye) and the more extorted eye (non-fixating eye), which was evaluated by fundus photography. Results The mean value of objective torsion was 5.09° ± 3.84°. The subjective excyclotorsion degrees were 5.18° ± 4.11° and 3.65° ± 1.93° as measured by double Maddox rod test and major amblyoscope, respectively. Hypertropia and the excyclotorsional angle did not differ significantly between the groups (p = 0.257). Although no correlation was found in the discordance group, the concordance group showed a significant and positive correlation between hypertropia and excyclotorsion (p = 0.011). Conclusions Torsional deviation was not related to hypertropia. However, in the concordance patients in whom the hypertropic eye showed excyclotorsion, a significant positive correlation was found between hypertropia and excyclotorsion. PMID:23372378

  20. A 3-Year Review of Cranial Nerve Palsies from the University of Port Harcourt Teaching Hospital Eye Clinic, Nigeria

    PubMed Central

    Pedro-Egbe, Chinyere Nnenne; Fiebai, Bassey; Awoyesuku, Elizabeth Akon

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: To provide the types, frequency and clinical information on common cranial nerve palsies seen at the Eye Clinic at the University of Port Harcourt Teaching Hospital. Materials and Methods: A chart review was performed of patients who presented with cranial nerve palsy at the Eye Clinic over a 3-year period (January 2009-December 2011). Data were collected on age, sex, type of cranial nerve palsy, a history of systemic disease such as diabetes mellitus (DM), hypertension and cerebrovascular disease. Exclusion criteria included medical charts with incomplete data. Data was analyzed using Epi-info Version 6.04D. Statistical significance was indicated by P < 0.05. Results: Twenty-four patients had cranial nerve palsies. There were 11 males and 13 females with a mean age of 34.50 ± 18.41 years. Four patients (26.6%) had exotropia while three patients (20%) had esotropia. Complete ophthalmoplegia was noted in two patients (13.3%). The 3rd and 6th cranial nerves were affected in seven patients each (29.2%) and five patients (20.8%) had 7th cranial nerve palsy. Approximately 38% of patients with cranial nerve palsies had systemic disorders (16.7% systemic hypertension; 12.5% DM). The relationship between cranial nerve palsy and systemic disorder was statistically significant (P < 0.01). Conclusion: This is the first study in the literature on ocular cranial nerve palsies in Southern Nigeria. Third and sixth cranial nerve palsies were the most common cases to present to the University of Port Harcourt Teaching Hospital Eye Clinic. There was a statistically significant association to systemic disorders such as hypertension and DM and majority of cases with 6th cranial nerve palsy. PMID:24791110

  1. Saccadic Palsy after Cardiac Surgery: Serial Neuroimaging Findings during a 6-Year Follow-Up

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Eun-Joo; Choi, Kwang-Dong; Kim, Jeong Eun; Kim, Seong-Jang; Kim, Ji-Soo; Kim, Jong S.

    2014-01-01

    Background Patients who develop horizontal and vertical saccadic palsy after cardiac surgery have rarely been described. Although most such patients exhibit distinct neurological deficits, their brain MRI findings are almost normal. In addition, functional neuroimaging of such patients has never been reported. Case Report A 43-year-old woman with dysarthria, dysphagia, and horizontal and vertical saccadic palsy after cardiac surgery was followed up for about 6 years; serial brain MRIs has been performed during this period, including susceptibility-weighted imaging (SWI) and [18F]-fluoro-2-deoxy-D-glucose positron emission tomography (FDG-PET). Multiple microbleeds in the cerebral cortex, cerebellum, and brainstem, and glucose hypometabolism in the brainstem, cerebellum, and multiple cortical areas. Conclusions To the best of our knowledge, this is the first reported case of saccadic palsy after cardiac surgery with serial SWI and [18F]-FDG-PET performed to explore the possible cerebral lesions. PMID:25324889

  2. Sensorimotor development in cerebral-palsied infants assessed with the Uzgiris-Hunt scales.

    PubMed

    Cioni, G; Paolicelli, P B; Sordi, C; Vinter, A

    1993-12-01

    The cognitive development of a group of 89 cerebral-palsied infants, aged six to 24 months, was investigated using the Uzgiris-Hunt scales. The results were compared with normative data for the Italian population and with data obtained in a group of low-risk term and preterm infants, 11 to 13 months old. The test was easy to carry out, even on infants with a severe motor impairment. The majority of the infants showed cognitive delay on most of the scales. Tetraplegic patients performed significantly worse than those with diplegia or hemiplegia. There were no differences between preterm and term infants, for either normal or cerebral palsy groups, if age was corrected for preterm birth. Sensorimotor development appeared to be organized similarly for cerebral-palsied infants and normal controls; however, these data raise the question of the role of action in early cognitive development. PMID:7504638

  3. Levodopa does not improve function in individuals with dystonic cerebral palsy.

    PubMed

    Pozin, Inna; Bdolah-Abram, Tali; Ben-Pazi, Hilla

    2014-04-01

    Although levodopa is the main treatment for dystonia, its role in cerebral palsy has not been assessed. We hypothesized that levodopa will improve upper limb function in individuals with cerebral palsy. Nine participants (age 16.8 ± 5.6 years) with quadriplegic cerebral palsy and upper limb dystonia were enrolled in this randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, crossover study. Function was assessed before and after 2 weeks of treatment of levodopa and placebo using box-and-blocks, 9-hole pegs, dynamometer recordings, and Quality of Upper Extremity Skills Test. No benefits for upper limb functional performance were found following levodopa (6.65 ± 1.66 mg/kg/d) treatment compared to placebo. No side effects were reported. PMID:23349519

  4. Churg-Strauss Syndrome Presented With Hearing Impairment and Facial Palsy

    PubMed Central

    Byun, Jeong-Hyun; Lee, Jong-Hoo

    2014-01-01

    Churg-Strauss syndrome (CSS) is a rare systemic necrotizing vasculitis. Cranial nerve involvement is very rare in CSS. A 59-year-old woman had complained of both hearing impairments for eight months and left facial palsy for three months. Left facial and cochlear neuropathies were detected in electrodiagnostic studies. Paranasal sinus computed tomography (CT) showed chronic pansinusitis. Chest CT revealed eosinophilic infiltration in the right upper lobe. Tissue biopsy of the right inferior turbinate displayed necrotizing vasculitis with eosinophilic infiltration. She was diagnosed as CSS, based on the presence of eosinophilia, pulmonary infiltration, paranasal sinusitis, and biopsy containing blood vessels with extravascular eosinophils. She was treated with intravenous and oral steroids and azathioprine, showing relatively good prognosis on facial palsy and hearing impairment. We report a very rare case of CSS presented with hearing impairment and facial palsy. PMID:25566487

  5. Upper limb function evaluation scales for individuals with cerebral palsy: a systematic review

    PubMed Central

    Santos, Cibele Almeida; Franco de Moura, Renata Calhes; Lazzari, Roberta Delasta; Dumont, Arislander Jonathan Lopes; Braun, Luiz Alfredo Ferreira; Oliveira, Claudia Santos

    2015-01-01

    [Purpose] The aim of the present study was to perform a systematic review of the literature on the scales and methods most often used for the evaluation of upper limb function in individuals with cerebral palsy. [Materials and Methods] Searches were conducted in the Medline, PEDro, Lilacs, Scielo, and PubMed databases. The following inclusion criteria were used for the selection of articles: randomized controlled study, evaluation of upper limb function in individuals with cerebral palsy, and publication between 2006 and 2014. The methodological quality of the articles was evaluated using the PEDro evidence scale. [Results] Five articles met the inclusion criteria and achieved 6 points or higher on the PEDro scale of methodological quality. [Conclusion] The studies analyzed used different evaluation scales, but no consensus has been reached thus far on which scale is the most appropriate. Thus, further studies are needed to establish an adequate method for the evaluation of upper limb function in individuals with cerebral palsy.

  6. ANCA-Negative Wegener's Granulomatosis with Multiple Lower Cranial Nerve Palsies

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Sung-Hee; Park, Jin; Bae, Jung Ho; Cho, Min-Sun; Park, Kee Duk

    2013-01-01

    Wegener's granulomatosis (WG) is a systemic vasculitis affecting small and medium-sized vessels with granulomatous formation. Though it is known for respiratory tract and kidney involvement, neurologic manifestation has been also reported. Herein we report a patient who suffered pansinusitis with multiple lower cranial nerve palsies but reached remission by immunosuppressant after the diagnosis of WG. A 54-yr-old female visited with headache, hearing difficulty, and progressive bulbar symptoms. She experienced endoscopic sinus surgeries due to refractory sinusitis. Neurologic examination revealed multiple lower cranial nerve palsies. Vasculitic markers showed no abnormality. Nasal biopsy revealed granulomatous inflammation and vasculitis involving small vessels. Given cyclophosphamide and prednisolone, her symptoms were prominently improved. WG should be considered in the patient with multiple cranial nerve palsies, especially those with paranasal sinus disease. Because WG can be lethal if delayed in treatment, prompt immunosuppressant is warranted after the diagnostic tissue biopsy. PMID:24265538

  7. Social cognitive deficits and their neural correlates in progressive supranuclear palsy

    PubMed Central

    Calder, Andrew J.; Peers, Polly V.; Lawrence, Andrew D.; Acosta-Cabronero, Julio; Pereira, João M.; Hodges, John R.; Rowe, James B.

    2012-01-01

    Although progressive supranuclear palsy is defined by its akinetic rigidity, vertical supranuclear gaze palsy and falls, cognitive impairments are an important determinant of patients’ and carers’ quality of life. Here, we investigate whether there is a broad deficit of modality-independent social cognition in progressive supranuclear palsy and explore the neural correlates for these. We recruited 23 patients with progressive supranuclear palsy (using clinical diagnostic criteria, nine with subsequent pathological confirmation) and 22 age- and education-matched controls. Participants performed an auditory (voice) emotion recognition test, and a visual and auditory theory of mind test. Twenty-two patients and 20 controls underwent structural magnetic resonance imaging to analyse neural correlates of social cognition deficits using voxel-based morphometry. Patients were impaired on the voice emotion recognition and theory of mind tests but not auditory and visual control conditions. Grey matter atrophy in patients correlated with both voice emotion recognition and theory of mind deficits in the right inferior frontal gyrus, a region associated with prosodic auditory emotion recognition. Theory of mind deficits also correlated with atrophy of the anterior rostral medial frontal cortex, a region associated with theory of mind in health. We conclude that patients with progressive supranuclear palsy have a multimodal deficit in social cognition. This deficit is due, in part, to progressive atrophy in a network of frontal cortical regions linked to the integration of socially relevant stimuli and interpretation of their social meaning. This impairment of social cognition is important to consider for those managing and caring for patients with progressive supranuclear palsy. PMID:22637582

  8. Abnormalities of the Oculomotor Nerve in Congenital Fibrosis of the Extraocular Muscles and Congenital Oculomotor Palsy

    PubMed Central

    Lim, Key Hwan; Engle, Elizabeth C.; Demer, Joseph L.

    2008-01-01

    Purpose High-resolution magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) can now directly demonstrate innervation to extraocular muscles and quantify optic nerve size. A quantitative MRI technique was developed to study the oculomotor nerve (CN3) and applied to congenital fibrosis of extraocular muscles (CFEOM) and congenital oculomotor palsy. Methods The subarachnoid portions of the CN3s were imaged with a 1.5-T MRI scanner and conventional head coils, acquiring heavily T2-weighted oblique axial planes 1-mm thick and parallel to the optic chiasm. Thirteen normal subjects, 14 with CFEOM, and 3 with congenital CN3 palsy were included. Digital image analysis was used to measure CN3 diameter, which was correlated with motility findings. Results In CFEOM, CN3 diameter was bilaterally subnormal in eight subjects, unilaterally subnormal in three subjects, and normal in three subjects. Mean ± SD CN3 diameter in CFEOM was 1.14 ± 0.61 mm, significantly smaller than the diameter in normal subjects, which measured 2.01 ± 0.36 mm (P < 0.001). CN3 diameter variably correlated with clinical function. One subject with congenital CN3 palsy showed bilateral CN3 hypoplasia, but CN3 diameter was normal in two other subjects with congenital CN3 palsy. Conclusions Unilateral or bilateral hypoplasia of CN3 is quantitatively demonstrable using MRI in many cases of CFEOM and occasionally in congenital CN3 palsy. Variations in CN3 diameter in CFEOM and congenital CN3 palsy suggest mechanistic heterogeneity of these disorders that may be clarified by further imaging and genetic studies. PMID:17389489

  9. Intrathecal baclofen treatment in dystonic cerebral palsy: a randomized clinical trial: the IDYS trial

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Dystonic cerebral palsy is primarily caused by damage to the basal ganglia and central cortex. The daily care of these patients can be difficult due to dystonic movements. Intrathecal baclofen treatment is a potential treatment option for dystonia and has become common practice. Despite this widespread adoption, high quality evidence on the effects of intrathecal baclofen treatment on daily activities is lacking and prospective data are needed to judge the usefulness and indications for dystonic cerebral palsy. The primary aim of this study is to provide level one clinical evidence for the effects of intrathecal baclofen treatment on the level of activities and participation in dystonic cerebral palsy patients. Furthermore, we hope to identify clinical characteristics that will predict a beneficial effect of intrathecal baclofen in an individual patient. Methods/Design A double blind placebo-controlled multi-center randomized clinical trial will be performed in 30 children with dystonic cerebral palsy. Patients aged between 4 and 25 years old with a confirmed diagnosis of dystonic cerebral palsy, Gross Motor Functioning Classification System level IV or V, with lesions in the cerebral white matter, basal ganglia or central cortex and who are eligible for intrathecal baclofen treatment will be included. Group A will receive three months of continuous intrathecal baclofen treatment and group B will receive three months of placebo treatment, both via an implanted pump. After this three month period, all patients will receive intrathecal baclofen treatment, with a follow-up after nine months. The primary outcome measurement will be the effect on activities of and participation in daily life measured by Goal Attainment Scaling. Secondary outcome measurements on the level of body functions include dystonia, spasticity, pain, comfort and sleep-related breathing disorders. Side effects will be monitored and we will study whether patient characteristics influence outcome. Discussion The results of this study will provide data for evidence-based use of intrathecal baclofen in dystonic cerebral palsy. Trial registration Nederlands Trial Register, NTR3642 PMID:24165282

  10. Glufosinate herbicide intoxication causing unconsciousness, convulsion, and 6th cranial nerve palsy.

    PubMed

    Park, Jae-seok; Kwak, Soo-Jung; Gil, Hyo-wook; Kim, So-Young; Hong, Sae-yong

    2013-11-01

    Although glufosinate ammonium herbicides are considered safe when used properly, ingestion of the undiluted form can cause grave outcomes. Recently, we treated a 34-yr-old man who ingested glufosinate ammonium herbicide. In the course of treatment, the patient developed apnea, mental deterioration, and sixth cranial nerve palsy; he has since been discharged with full recovery after intensive care. This case report describes the clinical features of glufosinate intoxication with a focus on sixth cranial nerve palsy. Our observation suggests that neurologic manifestations after ingestion of a "low-grade toxicity herbicide" are variable and more complex than that was previously considered. PMID:24265537

  11. Mucocele of the sphenoid sinus: A rare cause of reversible 3rd nerve palsy

    PubMed Central

    Kataria, Rashim; Gupta, Swati; Chopra, Sanjeev; Bagaria, H.; Sinha, V. D.

    2012-01-01

    Ophthalmoplegia due to 3rd nerve palsy is a common occurrence, and is usually a sign of diabetes mellitus or a serious intracranial disease. We report a rare case of pupil sparing 3rd nerve palsy caused by mucocele of the sphenoid sinus. The patient regained 3rd nerve functions after successful decompression of the mucocele. Early and correct diagnosis of this relatively benign condition is important to prevent permanent neurological deficits, including visual loss by optic nerve atrophy. Etiology, clinical manifestations and treatment of the sphenoid mucoceles is discussed and available literature is reviewed. PMID:22566736

  12. Cerebral palsy, epilepsy, and severe intellectual disability in a patient with 3q29 microduplication syndrome.

    PubMed

    Fernández-Jaén, Alberto; Castellanos, María del Carmen; Fernández-Perrone, Ana Laura; Fernández-Mayoralas, Daniel Martín; de la Vega, Alberto González; Calleja-Pérez, Beatriz; Fernández, Ester Corbacho; Albert, Jacobo; Hombre, María Carmen Sánchez

    2014-08-01

    Interstitial microduplication of 3q29 has been recently described. Individuals with this syndrome have widely variable phenotypes. We describe the first clinical case with a 1.607 Mb duplication at 3q29 (chr3: 195,731,956-197,339,329), accompanied by severe intellectual disability, epilepsy, and cerebral palsy. This duplication involves 22 genes; PAK2, DLG1, BDH1, and FBXO45 are implicated in neuronal development and synaptic function and could play an important role in this syndrome. We propose considering genetic studies, particularly array comparative genomic hybridization, in patients with epilepsy and/or cerebral palsy of unknown etiology when dysmorphic features are present. PMID:24838842

  13. [A case with clinical features of progressive supranuclear palsy with apraxia--corticobasal degeneration?].

    PubMed

    Takeda, M; Okuda, B; Tachibana, H; Sugita, M

    1994-11-01

    We report a 65-year-old female who have suffered from progressive gait disturbance for 3 years, followed by disorientation and forgetfulness. Neurological examination revealed dementia, constructional disability, limb kinetic apraxia, supranuclear gaze palsy, especially on downward gaze, symmetrical muscle rigidity and bradykinesia. Involuntary movements were undetectable. Brain MRI showed significant brain atrophy in the left fronto-parietal lobe. The three-dimensional surface display with 131I-IMP demonstrated decreased cerebral blood flow in the left frontoparietal cortex. The diagnosis of this case is discussed with regard to either progressive supranuclear palsy or corticobasal degeneration or both. PMID:7729100

  14. Restless Leg Syndrome in Different Types of Demyelinating Neuropathies: A Single-Center Pilot Study

    PubMed Central

    Luigetti, Marco; Del Grande, Alessandra; Testani, Elisa; Bisogni, Giulia; Losurdo, Anna; Giannantoni, Nadia Mariagrazia; Mazza, Salvatore; Sabatelli, Mario; Della Marca, Giacomo

    2013-01-01

    Objective: to determine the prevalence of restless legs syndrome (RLS) in a cohort of patients with demyelinating neuropathies. Methods: Patients were retrospectively recruited from our cohort of different forms of demyelinating neuropathies, including chronic inflammatory demyelinating neuropathy (CIDP), Charcot-Marie-Tooth 1A (CMT1A), and hereditary neuropathy with liability to pressure palsies (HNPP) referred to our Department of Neurology in a 10-year period. The validated 4-item RLS questionnaire was used for diagnosis of RLS. All patients with RLS who fulfilled criteria underwent a suggested immobilization test to confirm the diagnosis. A group of outpatients referred to the sleep disorders unit and data from published literature were used as controls. Results: Prevalence of RLS in demyelinating neuropathy group was higher than prevalence observed in control population (p = 0.0142) or in the literature data (p = 0.0007). In particular, in comparison with both control population and literature data, prevalence of RLS was higher in CIDP group (p = 0.0266 and p = 0.0063, respectively) and in CMT1A group (p = 0.0312 and p = 0.0105, respectively), but not in HNPP (p = 1.000 and p = 0.9320, respectively). Conclusions: our study confirms a high prevalence of RLS in inflammatory neuropathies as CIDP and, among inherited neuropathies, in CMT1A but not in HNPP. Considering that this is only a small cohort from a single-center retrospective experience, the link between RLS and neuropathy remains uncertain, and larger multicenter studies are probably needed to clarify the real meaning of the association between RLS and neuropathy. Citation: Luigetti M; Del Grande A; Testani E; Bisogni G; Losurdo A; Giannantoni NM; Mazza S; Sabatelli M; Della Marca G. Restless leg syndrome in different types of demyelinating neuropathies: a single-center pilot study. J Clin Sleep Med 2013;9(9):945-949. PMID:23997707

  15. Congenital Cerebral Palsy, Child Sex and Parent Cardiovascular Risk

    PubMed Central

    Streja, Elani; Wu, Chunsen; Uldall, Peter; Grove, Jakob; Arah, Onyebuchi; Olsen, Jørn

    2013-01-01

    Objective Genes associated with cardiovascular disease may also be risk factors for congenital cerebral palsy (CP) and these associations may be modified by sex, since there is an increased risk of CP in male children. We investigated the association between CP of the child with cardiovascular disease in parents, taking sex of the child into consideration. Methods All parents of non-adopted singletons born in Denmark between 1973 and 2003 were included. Parents of a child with CP, confirmed by the Danish National CP registry, were considered exposed. Cox proportional hazards regressions were used to model risk of cardiovascular outcomes for exposed parents compared to all other parents beginning at the child’s 10th birthday. Results We identified 733,730 mothers and 666,652 fathers among whom 1,592 and 1,484, respectively, had a child with CP. The mean age for mothers at end of follow up was 50±8 years. After adjustment for maternal age, parental education, child’s sex, child’s residence, child being small for gestational age and maternal hypertensive disorder during pregnancy, mothers of CP male children had an excess risk of cardiovascular disease (HR: 1.52, 95% CI: 1.16-2.00), attributable mostly to an increased incidence of hypertension and cerebrovascular disease. After additional adjustment for preterm birth, the association was markedly attenuated for cardiovascular disease (1.34, 95%CI: 1.02 - 1.76), became nonsignificant for hypertension, but remained significant for cerebrovascular disease (HR: 2.73, 95% CI: 1.45- 5.12). There was no increased risk of cardiovascular events in mothers of female CP children, or fathers of CP children of any sex. Conclusions Women that have a male child with CP are at increased risk for premature cardiovascular disease. Part of this association may be related to risk factors for preterm births. PMID:24223882

  16. Bilateral pedunculopontine nucleus stimulation for progressive supranuclear palsy.

    PubMed

    Doshi, Paresh K; Desai, Joy D; Karkera, Bharati; Wadia, Pettarusp M

    2015-01-01

    The pedunculopontine nucleus (PPN) is a potential target for gait disorders. We report 4 cases of bilateral PPN stimulation in progressive supranuclear palsy (PSP) patients with short-term (6 months) and long-term (18 months) follow-ups. Patients with PSP who had gait disturbances, but were able to walk with or without assistance, were selected. The patients' median age was 64 years and the disease duration 3 years. Bilateral PPN deep brain stimulation (DBS) was performed. The pacemaker was programmed using a bipolar mode and lower frequencies (20-45 Hz). The PSP rating scores (PSPRS) and their gait subscores (No. 25, 26, 27 and 28) along with PSP staging scores were used as primary end points. The total Unified Parkinson's Disease Rating Scale (UPDRS), UPDRS III and the 39-item Parkinson's Disease Questionnaire were considered as secondary end points. Video recordings of the gaits were performed before surgery and at the 6- and 18-month follow-ups. These were retrospectively reviewed by a blinded neurologist for the primary end points. At the 6- and 18-month follow-ups, the median change in PSPRS was from 33 (baseline) to 37.5 and 47, respectively. Similarly, the PSP staging changed from 3 to 2.5 and 3.5, item 25 from 1.5 to 2 and 3.5, item 26 from 2.5 to 2 and 3.5, item 27 from 3.5 to 3 and 3.5 and item 28 from 1.5 to 1.5 and 3. Two patients in the study with the PSP-parkinsonism phenotype experienced improvement in their gait until the last follow-up. Bilateral PPN DBS can be safely performed in PSP patients despite mid-brain atrophy. PMID:25662728

  17. Gait improvement surgery in ambulatory children with diplegic cerebral palsy.

    PubMed

    Terjesen, Terje; Lofterød, Bjørn; Skaaret, Ingrid

    2015-08-01

    Background and purpose - Instrumented 3-D gait analyses (GA) in children with cerebral palsy (CP) have shown improved gait function 1 year postoperatively. Using GA, we assessed the outcome after 5 years and evaluated parental satisfaction with the surgery and the need for additional surgery. Patients and methods - 34 ambulatory children with spastic diplegia had preoperative GA. Based on this GA, the children underwent 195 orthopedic procedures on their lower limbs at a mean age of 11.6 (6-19) years. On average, 5.7 (1-11) procedures per child were performed. Outcome measures were evaluation of gait quality using the gait profile score (GPS) and selected kinematic parameters, functional level using the functional mobility scale (FMS), and the degree of parental satisfaction. Results - The mean GPS improved from 20.7° (95% CI: 19-23) preoperatively to 15.4° (95% CI: 14-17) 5 years postoperatively. There was no significant change in GPS between 1 and 5 years. The individual kinematic parameters at the ankle, knee, and hip improved statistically significantly, as did gait function (FMS). The mean parental satisfaction, on a scale from 0 to 10, was 7.7 (2-10) points. There was a need for additional surgical procedures in 14 children; this was more frequent in those who had the index operation at an early age. Interpretation - The main finding was that orthopedic surgery based on preoperative GA gave marked improvements in gait function and quality, which were stable over a 5-year period. Nevertheless, additional orthopedic procedures were necessary in almost half of the children and further follow-up with GA for more than 1 year postoperatively is recommended in children with risk factors for such surgery. PMID:25637100

  18. Ocular disorders in children with spastic subtype of cerebral palsy

    PubMed Central

    Ozturk, A.Taylan; Berk, A.Tulin; Yaman, Aylin

    2013-01-01

    AIM To document common ocular abnormalities in children with spastic subtype of cerebral palsy (CP) and to find out whether any correlation exists between their occurance and etiologic factors. METHODS Totally 194 patients with the diagnosis of spastic type CP were enrolled in this retrospective study. Detailed ophthalmic examinations were performed. Demographic data and neuroradiological findings were documented. Kruskal-Wallis, Mann Whitney U, Pearson Chi-square tests and Student's t tests were used in the statistical analysis. RESULTS The mean age was 64.7±44.2 months on the first ophthalmic examination. Prevalences of diplegia (47.4%) and tetraplegia (36.1%) were found to be higher than the frequency of hemiplegia (16.5%) in our study population. Etiologic factor was asphyxia in 60.8% of the patients. Abnormal ocular findings were present in 78.9% of the patients. Statistically significant poor vision was detected in tetraplegia group among all the spastic ubtypes of CP (P=0.000). Anisometropia and significant refractive error were found in 14.4% and 70.1% of the patients, respectively. Thirty-six children (18.6%) had nystagmus and 107 children (55.2%) had strabismus. Lower gestational age and birth weight were statistically higher in patients with esotropia than exotropia (P=0.009 and P=0.024, respectively). Abnormal morphology of the optic disc was present in 152 eyes (39.2%). Severe periventricular leukomalacia (PVL) was found in 48 patients and statistically significant poor vision was detected in the presence of PVL (P=0.000). CONCLUSION Spastic diplegic or tetraplegic CP patients with positive neuroradiological symptoms, younger gestational age and lower birth weight ought to have detailed ophthalmic examinations as early as possible to provide best visual rehabilitation. PMID:23638425

  19. Finger movement at birth in brachial plexus birth palsy

    PubMed Central

    Nath, Rahul K; Benyahia, Mohamed; Somasundaram, Chandra

    2013-01-01

    AIM: To investigate whether the finger movement at birth is a better predictor of the brachial plexus birth injury. METHODS: We conducted a retrospective study reviewing pre-surgical records of 87 patients with residual obstetric brachial plexus palsy in study 1. Posterior subluxation of the humeral head (PHHA), and glenoid retroversion were measured from computed tomography or Magnetic resonance imaging, and correlated with the finger movement at birth. The study 2 consisted of 141 obstetric brachial plexus injury patients, who underwent primary surgeries and/or secondary surgery at the Texas Nerve and Paralysis Institute. Information regarding finger movement was obtained from the patient’s parent or guardian during the initial evaluation. RESULTS: Among 87 patients, 9 (10.3%) patients who lacked finger movement at birth had a PHHA > 40%, and glenoid retroversion < -12°, whereas only 1 patient (1.1%) with finger movement had a PHHA > 40%, and retroversion < -8° in study 1. The improvement in glenohumeral deformity (PHHA, 31.8% ± 14.3%; and glenoid retroversion 22.0° ± 15.0°) was significantly higher in patients, who have not had any primary surgeries and had finger movement at birth (group 1), when compared to those patients, who had primary surgeries (nerve and muscle surgeries), and lacked finger movement at birth (group 2), (PHHA 10.7% ± 15.8%; Version -8.0° ± 8.4°, P = 0.005 and P = 0.030, respectively) in study 2. No finger movement at birth was observed in 55% of the patients in this study group. CONCLUSION: Posterior subluxation and glenoid retroversion measurements indicated significantly severe shoulder deformities in children with finger movement at birth, in comparison with those lacked finger movement. However, the improvement after triangle tilt surgery was higher in patients who had finger movement at birth. PMID:23362472

  20. Risk of Cerebral Palsy among the Offspring of Immigrants

    PubMed Central

    Ray, Joel G.; Redelmeier, Donald A.; Urquia, Marcelo L.; Guttmann, Astrid; McDonald, Sarah D.; Vermeulen, Marian J.

    2014-01-01

    Background Cerebral palsy (CP) has a multifactorial etiology, and placental vascular disease may be one major risk factor. The risk of placental vascular disease may be lower among some immigrant groups. We studied the association between immigrant status and the risk of CP. Methods We conducted a population-based retrospective cohort study of all singleton and twin livebirths in Ontario between 2002–2008, and who survived ?28 days after birth. Each child was assessed for CP up to age 4 years, based on either a single inpatient or ?2 outpatient pediatric diagnoses of CP. Relative to non-immigrants (n?=?566,668), the risk of CP was assessed for all immigrants (n?=?177,390), and further evaluated by World region of origin. Cox proportional hazard ratios (aHR) were adjusted for maternal age, income, diabetes mellitus, obesity, tobacco use, Caesarean delivery, year of delivery, physician visits, twin pregnancy, preterm delivery, as well as small- and large-for-gestational age birthweight. Results There were 1346 cases of CP, with a lower rate among immigrants (1.45 per 1000) than non-immigrants (1.92 per 1000) (aHR 0.77, 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.67 to 0.88). Mothers from East Asia and the Pacific (aHR 0.54, 95% CI 0.39 to 0.77) and the Caribbean (aHR 0.58, 95% CI 0.37 to 0.93) were at a significantly lower risk of having a child with CP. Whether further adjusting for preeclampsia, gestational hypertension, placental abruption or placental infraction, or upon using a competing risk analysis that further accounted for stillbirth and neonatal death, these results did not change. Conclusions Immigration and ethnicity appear to attenuate the risk of CP, and this effect is not fully explained by known risk factors. PMID:25019202

  1. PET Imaging of Neuropathology in Tauopathies: Progressive Supranuclear Palsy

    PubMed Central

    Kepe, Vladimir; Bordelon, Yvette; Boxer, Adam; Huang, Sung-Cheng; Liu, Jie; Thiede, Frederick C.; Mazziotta, John C.; Mendez, Mario F.; Donoghue, Natacha; Small, Gary W.; Barrio, Jorge R.

    2013-01-01

    Objective Currently [F-18]FDDNP is the only PET imaging probe with the ability to visualize hyperphosphorylated tau fibrillar aggregates in living subjects. In this work, we evaluate in vivo [F-18]FDDNP labeling of brain neuropathology, primarily tau fibrillar aggregates, in patients with progressive supranuclear palsy (PSP), a human tauopathy usually lacking ?-amyloid deposits. Methods Fifteen patients with PSP received [F-18]FDDNP PET scanning. [F-18]FDDNP distribution volume ratios (DVR), in reference to cerebellar gray matter, were determined for cortical and subcortical areas and compared with those of patients with Parkinson’s disease (PD) with short disease duration, and age-matched control subjects without neurodegenerative disorders. Results [F-18]FDDNP binding was present in subcortical areas (e.g., striatum, thalamus, subthalamic region, midbrain and cerebellar white matter) regardless of disease severity, with progressive subcortical and cortical involvement as disease severity increased. Brain patterns of [F-18]FDDNP binding were entirely consistent with the known pathology distribution for PSP. High midbrain and subthalamic region [F-18]FDDNP binding was distinctive for PSP subjects and separated them from controls and patients with PD. Conclusions These results provide evidence that [F-18]FDDNP is a sensitive in vivo PET imaging probe to map and quantify the dynamic regional localization of tau fibrillar aggregates in PSP. Furthermore, [F-18]FDDNP PET may provide a tool to detect changes in tau pathology distribution either associated with disease progression or as a treatment biomarker for future tau-specific therapies. Patterns of [F-18]FDDNP binding may also be useful in diagnosis early in disease presentation when clinical distinction among neurodegenerative disorders is often difficult. PMID:23579330

  2. Early Intervention to Improve Hand Function in Hemiplegic Cerebral Palsy

    PubMed Central

    Basu, Anna Purna; Pearse, Janice; Kelly, Susan; Wisher, Vicki; Kisler, Jill

    2015-01-01

    Children with hemiplegic cerebral palsy often have marked hand involvement with excessive thumb adduction and flexion and limited active wrist extension from infancy. Post-lesional aberrant plasticity can lead to progressive abnormalities of the developing motor system. Disturbances of somatosensory and visual function and developmental disregard contribute to difficulties with hand use. Progressive soft tissue and bony changes may occur, leading to contractures, which further limit function in a vicious cycle. Early intervention might help to break this cycle, however, the precise nature and appropriateness of the intervention must be carefully considered. Traditional approaches to the hemiplegic upper limb include medications and botulinum toxin injections to manage abnormalities of tone, and surgical interventions. Therapist input, including provision of orthoses, remains a mainstay although many therapies have not been well evaluated. There has been a recent increase in interventions for the hemiplegic upper limb, mostly aimed outside the period of infancy. These include trials of constraint-induced movement therapy (CIMT) and bimanual therapy as well as the use of virtual reality and robot-assisted therapy. In future, non-invasive brain stimulation may be combined with therapy. Interventions under investigation in the infant age group include modified CIMT and action observation therapy. A further approach which may be suited to the infant with thumb-in-palm deformity, but which requires evaluation, is the use of elastic taping. Enhanced cutaneous feedback through mechanical stimulation to the skin provided by the tape during movement has been postulated to modulate ongoing muscle activity. If effective, this would represent a low-cost, safe, widely applicable early intervention. PMID:25610423

  3. Aculaser therapy for the treatment of cerebral palsy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anwar, Shahzad; Nazir Khan, Malik M.; Nadeem Khan, Malik M.; Qazi, Faiza M.; Awan, Abid H.; Ammad, Haseeb U.

    2012-03-01

    A single, open and non comparative study was conducted at Anwar Shah Trust for C.P. & Paralysis in collaboration with the Departments of Neurology and Neurosurgery, Children Hospital Lahore, Pakistan to evaluate the effects of ACULASER THERAPY in childern suffering from Cerebral Palsy (C.P.) and associated Neurological Disorders like epilepsy, cortical blindness, spasticity, hemiplegia, paraplegia, diplegia, quadriplegia, monoplegia, sensoryneural deafness and speech disorders. In all 500 children were treated and the data was gathered during a period of 4 years from December 2006 till December 2010. These children were further classified according to the type of C.P. (spastic, athetoid, mixed) they suffered from and associated Neurological Disorders. This article shows results in C.P. childern who were treated with ACULASER THERAPY for a minimum of 08 weeks and more or had minimum of 15 treatment sessions and more. This article also shows that those childern who were given a break in the treatment for 1 month to 1 year did not show any reversal of the signs and symptoms. Analysis of the data showed that out of 342 children with Spasticity and Stiffness 294 showed marked improvement showing 87% success rate, out of 252 children with Epileptic fits, there was a significant reduction in the intensity, frequency and duration of Epileptic fits in 182 children showing 72% success rate, out of 96 children with Cortical Blindness 60 children showed improvement accounting for 63% efficacy rate, out of 210 children with Hearing Difficulties, 126 showed marked improvement accounting for 60% improvement rate, out of 380 children with Speech Disorders 244 showed improvement reflecting 64 % improvement rate, out of 192 children with Hemiplegia 142 showed improvement in movement, tone and power accounting for 74% improvement rate, out of 152 children with Quadriplegia 104 showed improvement in gross and fine motor functions showing 69% success rate and out of 116 children with Paraplegia of lower limbs 88 showed improvement in weight bearing, standing and movement accounting for 76% improvement rate.

  4. Early intervention to improve hand function in hemiplegic cerebral palsy.

    PubMed

    Basu, Anna Purna; Pearse, Janice; Kelly, Susan; Wisher, Vicki; Kisler, Jill

    2014-01-01

    Children with hemiplegic cerebral palsy often have marked hand involvement with excessive thumb adduction and flexion and limited active wrist extension from infancy. Post-lesional aberrant plasticity can lead to progressive abnormalities of the developing motor system. Disturbances of somatosensory and visual function and developmental disregard contribute to difficulties with hand use. Progressive soft tissue and bony changes may occur, leading to contractures, which further limit function in a vicious cycle. Early intervention might help to break this cycle, however, the precise nature and appropriateness of the intervention must be carefully considered. Traditional approaches to the hemiplegic upper limb include medications and botulinum toxin injections to manage abnormalities of tone, and surgical interventions. Therapist input, including provision of orthoses, remains a mainstay although many therapies have not been well evaluated. There has been a recent increase in interventions for the hemiplegic upper limb, mostly aimed outside the period of infancy. These include trials of constraint-induced movement therapy (CIMT) and bimanual therapy as well as the use of virtual reality and robot-assisted therapy. In future, non-invasive brain stimulation may be combined with therapy. Interventions under investigation in the infant age group include modified CIMT and action observation therapy. A further approach which may be suited to the infant with thumb-in-palm deformity, but which requires evaluation, is the use of elastic taping. Enhanced cutaneous feedback through mechanical stimulation to the skin provided by the tape during movement has been postulated to modulate ongoing muscle activity. If effective, this would represent a low-cost, safe, widely applicable early intervention. PMID:25610423

  5. Excitability properties of motor axons in adults with cerebral palsy

    PubMed Central

    Klein, Cliff S.; Zhou, Ping; Marciniak, Christina

    2015-01-01

    Cerebral palsy (CP) is a permanent disorder caused by a lesion to the developing brain that significantly impairs motor function. The neurophysiological mechanisms underlying motor impairment are not well understood. Specifically, few have addressed whether motoneuron or peripheral axon properties are altered in CP, even though disruption of descending inputs to the spinal cord may cause them to change. In the present study, we have compared nerve excitability properties in seven adults with CP and fourteen healthy controls using threshold tracking techniques by stimulating the median nerve at the wrist and recording the compound muscle action potential over the abductor pollicis brevis. The excitability properties in the CP subjects were found to be abnormal. Early and late depolarizing and hyperpolarizing threshold electrotonus was significantly larger (i.e., fanning out), and resting current–threshold (I/V) slope was smaller, in CP compared to control. In addition resting threshold and rheobase tended to be larger in CP. According to a modeling analysis of the data, an increase in leakage current under or through the myelin sheath, i.e., the Barrett–Barrett conductance, combined with a slight hyperpolarization of the resting membrane potential, best explained the group differences in excitability properties. There was a trend for those with greater impairment in gross motor function to have more abnormal axon properties. The findings indicate plasticity of motor axon properties far removed from the site of the lesion. We suspect that this plasticity is caused by disruption of descending inputs to the motoneurons at an early age around the time of their injury. PMID:26089791

  6. Herpes zoster ophthalmicus with isolated trochlear nerve palsy in an otherwise healthy 13-year-old girl.

    PubMed

    Ryu, Won Yeol; Kim, Nam Yeong; Kwon, Yoon Hyung; Ahn, Hee Bae

    2014-04-01

    Herpes zoster ophthalmicus is rare in healthy children. It is occasionally associated with extraocular muscle palsies and rarely with isolated trochlear nerve palsy. We report a case of unilateral isolated trochlear nerve palsy associated with herpes zoster ophthalmicus in an immunocompetent 13-year-old girl who presented with diplopia and blurred vision in her right eye. The right cornea had multiple subepithelial opacities. Ocular motility returned to normal and diplopia and corneal opacification resolved with steroid therapy. To our knowledge, this is the first such case involving the troclear nerve in a child. PMID:24582467

  7. Operative Management of Sciatic Nerve Palsy due to Impingement on the Metal Cage after Total Hip Revision: Case Report

    PubMed Central

    Bistolfi, Alessandro; Massazza, Giuseppe; Deledda, Davide; Lioce, Elisa; Crova, Maurizio

    2011-01-01

    This paper discusses a sciatic nerve palsy developed after a right total hip revision with a Burch-Schneider metal cage. A sciatalgic nerve pain appeared after surgery, while the palsy developed in about fifteen days. An electromyography showed the delay of the nerve impulse gluteal level. During the surgical exploration of the hip, a compression of the nerve on the metal cage was observed. The nerve was isolated, released from the fibrotic tissue and from the impingement, and was protected with a muscular flap. The recover from the pain was immediate, while the palsy recovered one month later. PMID:21876701

  8. Operative Management of Sciatic Nerve Palsy due to Impingement on the Metal Cage after Total Hip Revision: Case Report.

    PubMed

    Bistolfi, Alessandro; Massazza, Giuseppe; Deledda, Davide; Lioce, Elisa; Crova, Maurizio

    2011-01-01

    This paper discusses a sciatic nerve palsy developed after a right total hip revision with a Burch-Schneider metal cage. A sciatalgic nerve pain appeared after surgery, while the palsy developed in about fifteen days. An electromyography showed the delay of the nerve impulse gluteal level. During the surgical exploration of the hip, a compression of the nerve on the metal cage was observed. The nerve was isolated, released from the fibrotic tissue and from the impingement, and was protected with a muscular flap. The recover from the pain was immediate, while the palsy recovered one month later. PMID:21876701

  9. Clinical implications of peripheral myelin protein 22 for nerve compression and neural regeneration: a review.

    PubMed

    Hui-Chou, Helen G; Hashemi, Sharyhar S; Hoke, Ahmet; Dellon, A Lee

    2011-01-01

    Peripheral myelin protein 22 (PMP22) is a major component of the peripheral myelin sheath. The PMP22 gene is located on chromosome 17p11.2, and defects in PMP22 gene have been implicated in several common inherited peripheral neuropathies. Hereditary neuropathy with liability to pressure palsies (HNPP), Charcot-Marie Tooth disease type 1A (CMT1A), Dejerine-Sottas syndrome, and congenital hypomyelinating neuropathy are all associated with defects in PMP22 gene. The disease phenotypes mirror the range of expression of PMP22 due to the corresponding genetic defect. HNPP, characterized by a milder recurrent episodic focal demyelinating neuropathy, is attributed to a deletion leading to PMP22 underexpression. On the other end of the spectrum, CMT1A leads to a more uniform demyelination and axonal loss, resulting in severe progressive distal weakness and paresthesias; it is due to a duplication at 17p11.2 leading to PMP22 overexpression. Additional point mutations result in varying phenotypes due to dysfunction of the resultant PMP22 protein. All inherited neuropathies are diagnosed with a combination of physical findings on examination, electromyography, sural nerve biopsies, and genetic testing. Treatment and management of these disorders differ depending on the underlying genetic defect, nerves involved, and resulting functional impairments. A review of current literature elucidates clinical, microsurgical implications, and management of patients with PMP22-related neuropathy. PMID:20976668

  10. Brachial plexus lesions after backpack carriage in young adults.

    PubMed

    Mäkelä, Jyrki P; Ramstad, Raimo; Mattila, Ville; Pihlajamäki, Harri

    2006-11-01

    Carrying a heavy backpack exerts compression on shoulders, with the potential to cause brachial plexopathy. We evaluated the incidence and predisposing factors of compression plexopathy of the shoulder region in 152,095 military conscripts, hypothesizing that a low body mass index and poor physical fitness predispose to the plexus lesion. Reports of conscripts with neural lesions of the upper arm associated with load carriage were reviewed retrospectively for details associated with the condition onset, symptoms, signs, nerve conduction studies, and electromyographic examinations. Height, weight, and physical fitness scores were obtained from their military training data. The incidence of neural compression after shoulder load carriage in Finnish soldiers was 53.7 (95% confidence interval, 39.5-67.8) per 100,000 conscripts per year. The long thoracic nerve was affected in 19, the axillary nerve in 13, the suprascapular nerve in seven, and the musculocutaneous nerve in six patients. Four patients (7%) had hereditary neuropathy with susceptibility to pressure palsies (HNPP). Symptoms were induced by lighter loads in patients with HNPP. Vulnerability to brachial plexopathy was not predictable from body structure or physical fitness level. To prevent these lesions, awareness of the condition and its symptoms should be increased and backpack designs should be improved. PMID:16906084

  11. Classification of equinus in ambulatory children with cerebral palsy - discrimination between dynamic tightness and fixed contracture

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ernst B. Zwick; Lutz Leistritz; Berko Milleit; Vinay Saraph; Gertrude Zwick; Miroslaw Galicki; Herbert Witte; Gerhardt Steinwender

    2004-01-01

    In this study a generalised dynamic neural network (GDNN) was designed to process gait analysis parameters to evaluate equinus deformity in ambulatory children with cerebral palsy. The aim was to differentiate dynamic calf muscle tightness from fixed muscle contracture. Patients underwent clinical examination and had instrumented gait analysis before evaluating their equinus under anaesthesia and muscle relaxation at the time

  12. Intra- and Inter-Observer Reliability of the Trunk Impairment Scale for Children with Cerebral Palsy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Saether, Rannei; Jorgensen, Lone

    2011-01-01

    Standardized scales to evaluate qualities of trunk movements in children with dysfunction are sparse. An examination of the reliability of scales that may be useful in the clinic is important. The aim of this study was to examine the reliability of the Trunk Impairment Scale (TIS) for children with cerebral palsy (CP). Standardized scales are…

  13. A Systematic Review of Measures of Activity Limitation for Children with Cerebral Palsy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harvey, Adrienne; Robin, Jonathan; Morris, Meg E.; Graham, H. Kerr; Baker, Richard

    2008-01-01

    This systematic review critically appraises the literature on the psychometric properties and clinical utility of evaluative activity limitation outcome measures used for children with cerebral palsy (CP). The search strategy yielded 29 articles for eight outcome measures that met the inclusion criteria for the review. The Gross Motor Function…

  14. Physical Activity Measurement Instruments for Children with Cerebral Palsy: A Systematic Review

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Capio, Catherine M.; Sit, Cindy H. P.; Abernethy, Bruce; Rotor, Esmerita R.

    2010-01-01

    Aim: This paper is a systematic review of physical activity measurement instruments for field-based studies involving children with cerebral palsy (CP). Method: Database searches using PubMed Central, MEDLINE, CINAHL Plus, PsycINFO, EMBASE, Cochrane Library, and PEDro located 12 research papers, identifying seven instruments that met the inclusion…

  15. Changes in Trunk and Head Stability in Children with Cerebral Palsy after Hippotherapy: A Pilot Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shurtleff, Tim L.; Engsberg, Jack R.

    2010-01-01

    Hippotherapy (HPOT) is a therapy that uses horse movement. This pilot investigation objectively evaluated the efficacy of HPOT in improving head/trunk stability in children with cerebral palsy (CP). The participants were six children with spastic diplegia and six children without disability. Head and trunk stability was challenged by using a…

  16. Single dose intravenous methyl prednisolone versus oral prednisolone in Bell's palsy: A randomized controlled trial

    PubMed Central

    Giri, Prithvi; Garg, Ravindra Kumar; Singh, Maneesh Kumar; Verma, Rajesh; Malhotra, Hardeep Singh; Sharma, Praveen Kumar

    2015-01-01

    Objectives: Corticosteroids have been used in the treatment of Bell's palsy and several other postinfectious neurological conditions. We hypothesized that administration of a single dose of intravenous (IV) methylprednisolone might be an effective alternative to oral prednisolone. Materials and Methods: In this open label, randomized trial, patients with acute Bell's palsy were randomized into two groups. One group received single dose (500 mg) of IV methylprednisolone while the other group received 10 days of oral prednisone. Outcome was assessed at 1 and 3 months with House–Brackmann scale. Results: At 3 months, 93 (79.48%) patients had completely recovered. IV methylprednisolone and oral prednisolone groups had similar recovery rates (80% vs. 78.33%, P > 0.05). Patients with Grade 2 and 3 recovered completely. In patients with Grade 6, the recovery rate was 20%. A better outcome was observed if corticosteroids were administered within 3 days of onset of palsy. Conclusion: Intravenous methylprednisolone and oral prednisolone showed equivalent benefit in patients with acute Bell's palsy. PMID:25878371

  17. Physical Activity in a Total Population of Children and Adolescents with Cerebral Palsy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lauruschkus, Katarina; Westbom, Lena; Hallstrom, Inger; Wagner, Philippe; Nordmark, Eva

    2013-01-01

    The aims of this study were to describe the participation in physical activity of children with cerebral palsy (CP) at school and during leisure time and to identify characteristics associated with physical activity. The frequency of receiving physiotherapeutic interventions were described as a variable of interest. A total population of 364…

  18. STRESS AMONG MOTHERS OF CHILDREN WITH CEREBRAL PALSY ATTENDING SPECIAL SCHOOLS

    Microsoft Academic Search

    P. V. Vijesh; P. S. Sukumaran

    This paper draws attention to the stress experienced by mothers of children with cerebral palsy attending special schools in Kerala State, India. Stress level was assessed using the local language version of the Questionnaire on Resources and Stress and the data were analysed with respect to certain child related and mother related variables. The study reveals that stress experienced by

  19. Outcome Assessments in Children with Cerebral Palsy, Part II: Discriminatory Ability of Outcome Tools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bagley, Anita M; Gorton, George; Oeffinger, Donna; Barnes, Douglas; Calmes, Janine; Nicholson, Diane; Damiano, Diane; Abel, Mark; Kryscio, Richard; Rogers, Sarah; Tylkowski, Chester

    2007-01-01

    Discriminatory ability of several pediatric outcome tools was assessed relative to Gross Motor Function Classification System (GMFCS) level in patients with cerebral palsy. Five hundred and sixty-two patients (400 with diplegia, 162 with hemiplegia; 339 males, 223 females; age range 4-18y, mean 11y 1mo [SD 3y 7mo]), classified as GMFCS Levels I to…

  20. Determinants of Intensity of Participation in Leisure and Recreational Activities by Children with Cerebral Palsy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Palisano, Robert J.; Chiarello, Lisa A.; Orlin, Margo; Oeffinger, Donna; Polansky, Marcy; Maggs, Jill; Bagley, Anita; Gorton, George

    2011-01-01

    Aim: To test a model of child, family, and service determinants of intensity of participation in leisure and recreational activities by children with cerebral palsy (CP). Method: Participants were 288 children with CP, age range 6 to 12 years (mean 9y 8mo, SD 2y), and their parents from seven children's hospitals. The sample comprised 166 (57.6%)…

  1. Ambulatory Activity of Children with Cerebral Palsy: Which Characteristics Are Important?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    van Wely, Leontien; Becher, Jules G.; Balemans, Astrid C. J.; Dallmeijer, Annet J.

    2012-01-01

    Aim: To assess ambulatory activity of children with cerebral palsy (CP), aged 7 to 13 years, and identify associated characteristics. Method: Sixty-two children with spastic CP (39 males, 23 females; mean age 10y 1mo, SD 1y 8mo; age range 7-13y), classified as Gross Motor Function Classification System (GMFCS) levels I to III, participated.…

  2. The Use of Standing Frames for Contracture Management for Nonmobile Children with Cerebral Palsy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gibson, Susan K.; Sprod, Judy A.; Maher, Carol A.

    2009-01-01

    The objective of this study was to determine whether static weight-bearing in a standing frame affected hamstring length and ease of activities of daily living (ADLs) in nonambulant children with cerebral palsy (CP). A convenient sample of nonambulant children with CP was recruited for this one-group quasi-experimental study. Participants stood in…

  3. Spinal anaesthesia for orthopaedic surgery in children with cerebral palsy: Analysis of 36 patients

    PubMed Central

    Onal, Ozkan; Apiliogullari, Seza; Gunduz, Ergun; Celik, Jale Bengi; Senaran, Hakan

    2015-01-01

    Background and Objective: Cerebral palsy is one of the most common childhood neuromuscular diseases in the world. Spinal anaesthesia in children is an evolving technique with many advantages in perioperative management. The aim of this retrospective study was to provide first-hand reports of children with cerebral palsy who underwent orthopaedic surgery under spinal anaesthesia. Methods: Records of the children with cerebral palsy who underwent orthopaedic surgery under spinal anaesthesia between May 2012 and June 2013 at Selcuk University Hospital were investigated. In all patients, lumbar puncture was performed in lateral decubitus position with mask sevoflurane-nitrous oxide anaesthesia. In patients who were calm prior the spinal block, inhalation anaesthesia was terminated. In patients who were restless before the spinal block, anaesthesia was combined with light sevoflurane anaesthesia and a laryngeal mask. From anaesthesia records, the number of attempts required to complete the lumbar puncture, and the success rates of spinal anaesthesia and perioperative complications were noted. Data were expressed as numbers and percentages. Results: The study included 36 patients (20 girls and 16 boys). The mean age was 71 months. The rate of reaching subarachnoid space on first attempt was 86%. In all patients, spinal anaesthesia was considered successful. In 26 patients, laryngeal mask and light sevoflurane anaesthesia were required to maintain ideal surgical conditions. No major perioperative complications were observed. Conclusion: Spinal anaesthesia alone or combined with light sevoflurane anaesthesia is a reliable technique with high success rates in children with cerebral palsy undergoing orthopaedic surgery. PMID:25878641

  4. Being in Pain: A Phenomenological Study of Young People with Cerebral Palsy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Castle, Kirstyn; Imms, Christine; Howie, Linsey

    2007-01-01

    This study explored the experience and impact of chronic pain on the lives of adolescents and young adults with cerebral palsy (CP). Six participants with CP (four males, two females; age range 14-24y) who were known to experience chronic pain participated in individual in-depth interviews. Five participants had quadriplegia and used wheelchairs;…

  5. Sit-to-Stand Movement in Children with Cerebral Palsy: A Critical Review

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    dos Santos, Adriana Neves; Pavao, Silvia Leticia; Rocha, Nelci Adriana Cicuto Ferreira

    2011-01-01

    Sit-to-stand (STS) movement is widely performed in daily life and an important pre requisite for acquisition of functional abilities. However, STS is a biomechanical demanding task which requires high levels of neuromuscular coordination, muscle strength and postural control. As children with cerebral palsy (CP) exhibit a series of impairments in…

  6. Self-Concept of Children with Cerebral Palsy Compared with that of Children without Impairment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shields, Nora; Loy, Yijun; Murdoch, Alison; Taylor, Nicholas F.; Dodd, Karen J

    2007-01-01

    This study examined whether the self-concept of children with cerebral palsy (CP) differed from that of children without impairment. Forty-seven children (24 males, 23 females; mean age 11y 8mo [SD 2y 6mo]) with spastic diplegia or hemiplegia were matched with children without impairment. The level of disability of the children with CP was…

  7. The Use of Communication Boards with Cerebral Palsied Non-Speaking Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ottman, Ronald A.

    The article is intended to help speech pathologists, classroom teachers, and parents interested in using a communication board strategy for a cerebral palsied, nonspeaking child. The first of four areas of concern in the use of a communicaton board covers factors influencing the use of such a system. Such factors as level of intellectual…

  8. A Predictive Mathematical Model of Muscle Forces for Children with Cerebral Palsy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Samuel C. K.; Ding, Jun; Prosser, Laura A.; Wexler, Anthony S.; Binder-Macleod, Stuart A.

    2009-01-01

    Aim: The purpose of this study was to determine if our previously developed muscle model could be used to predict forces of the quadriceps femoris and triceps surae muscles of children with spastic diplegic cerebral palsy (CP). Method: Twenty-two children with CP (12 males, 10 females; mean age 10y, SD 2y, range 7-13y; Gross Motor Function…

  9. Bispectral Index Monitoring: A Comparison Between Normal Children and Children with Quadriplegic Cerebral Palsy

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Dinesh K. Choudhry; B. Randall Brenn

    2002-01-01

    We performed this study to compare the correlation of bispectral index (BIS) values with different sevoflurane concentrations between normal children and those with quadriplegic cerebral palsy with mental retarda- tion (CPMR). Twenty children with CPMR (Group I) and 21 normal children (Group II) between 2 and 14 yr of age were studied. Anesthesia was induced and main- tained with sevoflurane

  10. Energy expenditure and body composition in children with spastic quadriplegic cerebral palsy

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Maria P. Azcue; Gordon A. Zello; Lance D. Levy; Paul B. Pencharz

    1996-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To determine the relationship between resting energy expenditure and body cell mass in a group of children with spastic quadriplegic cerebral palsy (SQCP) in comparison with a group of healthy volunteers. SUBJECTS AND METHODS: Children with SQCP (n = 13) and healthy control subjects (n = 21) participated in the study. Resting energy expenditure (REE) by indirect calorimetry, as

  11. Acquisition and Maintenance of Toothbrushing Skills by Students with Cerebral Palsy and Mental Retardation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Snell, Martha E.; And Others

    1989-01-01

    Three elementary-aged students with quadriplegic cerebral palsy and severe/profound mental retardation were taught three toothbrushing tasks (brushing teeth, rinsing, and wiping mouth) using time delay to fade physical prompts, reinforcement, and error correction. Two students reached criterion on all three tasks; one student reached criterion on…

  12. Brain iron in progressive supranuclear palsy: clinical, magnetic resonance imaging, and neuropathological findings.

    PubMed

    Coffey, C E; Alston, S; Heinz, E R; Burger, P C

    1989-01-01

    A patient with progressive supranuclear palsy demonstrated a region-specific decrease in T2 signal during high-field-strength brain magnetic resonance imaging. At autopsy the T2-signal hypointensity was found to correspond topographically to increased deposition of ferric iron. The potential clinical, radiologic, and pathophysiologic implications of these findings are discussed. PMID:2521091

  13. Inferential Ability in Children with Cerebral Palsy, Spina Bifida and Pragmatic Language Impairment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Holck, Pernille; Sandberg, Annika Dahlgren; Nettelbladt, Ulrika

    2010-01-01

    The aim of the study was to investigate and compare the ability to make inferences in three groups of children ranging from 5;2 to 10;9 years: 10 children with cerebral palsy (CP), 10 children with spina bifida and hydrocephalus (SBH) and 10 children with pragmatic language impairment (PLI). The relationship between inferential and literal…

  14. Children with Cerebral Palsy, Spina Bifida and Pragmatic Language Impairment: Differences and Similarities in Pragmatic Ability

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Holck, Pernille; Nettelbladt, Ulrika; Sandberg, Annika Dahlgren

    2009-01-01

    Pragmatically related abilities were studied in three clinical groups of children from 5 to 11 years of age; children with cerebral palsy (CP; n = 10), children with spina bifida and hydrocephalus (SBH; n = 10) and children with pragmatic language impairment (PLI; n = 10), in order to explore pragmatic abilities within each group. A range of…

  15. Functional Changes in Children, Adolescents, and Young Adults with Cerebral Palsy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Krakovsky, Gina; Huth, Myra Martz; Lin, Li; Levin, Ron S.

    2007-01-01

    Children with multiple handicaps, including cerebral palsy (CP), often lose or regress in their functional ability through adolescence and young adulthood. The purpose of this study was to examine functional and psychosocial changes in children, adolescents, and young adults with CP. A retrospective chart review and a prospective telephone…

  16. Health, Functioning, and Participation of Adolescents and Adults with Cerebral Palsy: A Review of Outcomes Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Frisch, Dana; Msall, Michael E.

    2013-01-01

    With medical advances, more individuals with cerebral palsy (CP) syndromes who reside in developed countries are surviving to adolescence and adulthood. However, there continues to be a paucity of research examining long-term health, functional activities, and participatory outcomes over their life-course. This article reviews the current…

  17. Sensory Feedback Training for Improvement of Finger Perception in Cerebral Palsy

    PubMed Central

    Alves-Pinto, Ana; Aschmann, Simon; Lützow, Ines; Lampe, Renée

    2015-01-01

    Purpose. To develop and to test a feedback training system for improvement of tactile perception and coordination of fingers in children and youth with cerebral palsy. Methods. The fingers of 7 probands with cerebral palsy of different types and severity were stimulated using small vibration motors integrated in the fingers of a hand glove. The vibration motors were connected through a microcontroller to a computer and to a response 5-button keyboard. By pressing an appropriate keyboard button, the proband must indicate in which finger the vibration was felt. The number of incorrect responses and the reaction time were measured for every finger. The perception and coordination of fingers were estimated before and after two-week training using both clinical tests and the measurements. Results. Proper functioning of the developed system in persons with cerebral palsy was confirmed. The tactile sensation of fingers was improved in five of seven subjects after two weeks of training. There was no clear tendency towards improvement of selective use of fingers. Conclusion. The designed feedback system could be used to train tactile perception of fingers in children and youth with cerebral palsy. An extensive study is required to confirm these findings. PMID:26124965

  18. Voluntary muscle activation, contractile properties, and fatigability in children with and without cerebral palsy

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Scott K. Stackhouse; Stuart A. Binder-Macleod; Samuel C. K. Lee

    2005-01-01

    Cerebral palsy (CP) may lead to profound weakness in af- fected portions of the extremities and trunk. Knowing the mechanisms underlying muscle weakness will help to better design interventions for increasing force production in children with CP. This study quantified volun- tary muscle activation, contractile properties, and fatigability of the quadri- ceps femoris and triceps surae in children with and

  19. The Effectiveness of Therapeutic Intervention with Infants Who Have Cerebral Palsy or Motor Delay.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Parette, Howard P., Jr.; Hourcade, Jack

    Eighteen studies (1952-1982) evaluating early therapeutic intervention for children with cerebral palsy are reviewed. Studies are explained to feature provisions of some type of traditional, neurophysiological/sensorimotor, or eclectic therapy and to have excluded pharmacological, dietary, or other specialized treatment procedures. Analysis is…

  20. Trends in perinatal mortality and cerebral palsy in Western Australia, 1967 to 1985

    Microsoft Academic Search

    F. J. Stanley; L. Watson

    1992-01-01

    OBJECTIVE--To analyse the trends in stillbirths, neonatal deaths, and cerebral palsy in all infants born in Western Australia from 1967 to 1985. To relate these trends to changes in perinatal care, particularly in relation to avoidance of intrapartum asphyxia in term infants and the increased survival of low birthweight infants. DESIGN--Descriptive epidemiological study calculating population rates for perinatal deaths and

  1. Twenty Weeks of Computer-Training Improves Sense of Agency in Children with Spastic Cerebral Palsy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ritterband-Rosenbaum, A.; Christensen, M. S.; Nielsen, J. B.

    2012-01-01

    Children with cerebral palsy (CP) show alteration of perceptual and cognitive abilities in addition to motor and sensory deficits, which may include altered sense of agency. The aim of this study was to evaluate whether 20 weeks of internet-based motor, perceptual and cognitive training enhances the ability of CP children to determine whether they…

  2. Exploring Issues of Participation among Adolescents with Cerebral Palsy: What's Important to Them?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Livingston, Michael H.; Stewart, Debra; Rosenbaum, Peter L.; Russell, Dianne J.

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this cross-sectional study was to determine what participation issues are important to adolescents with cerebral palsy (CP). Two hundred and three adolescents with CP (mean age 16.0 [plus or minus] 1.8 years) were assessed using the Canadian Occupational Performance Measure (COPM). This was done through semistructured interviews by…

  3. The Relationship between Manual Ability and Ambulation in Adolescents with Cerebral Palsy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Majnemer, Annette; Shikako-Thomas, Keiko; Shevell, Michael; Poulin, Chantal; Lach, Lucyna; Law, Mary; Schmitz, Norbert

    2013-01-01

    This study examined the relationship between gross motor function and manual ability in 120 adolescents with cerebral palsy (CP) (15.2, SD 2.1 years, 59.8% male). Adolescents were evaluated using the Gross Motor Function Classification System (GMFCS) and the Manual Ability Classification System (MACS). A neurologist classified CP subtype. Most…

  4. Unmet Health Care Needs in Children with Cerebral Palsy: A Cross-Sectional Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jackson, Katie E.; Krishnaswami, Shanthi; McPheeters, Melissa

    2011-01-01

    Children with potentially severe health conditions such as cerebral palsy (CP) are at risk for unmet health care needs. We sought to determine whether children with CP had significantly greater unmet health care needs than children with other special health care needs (SHCN), and whether conditions associated with CP increased the odds of unmet…

  5. Downward Vertical Gaze Palsy As A Prominent Manifestation Of Episodic Ataxia Type 2: A Case Report

    PubMed Central

    SHERVIN BADV, Reza; NIKSIRAT, Ali

    2013-01-01

    Objective Episodic ataxia type 2 (EA2) is an inherited autosomal dominant disorder characterized by intermittent ataxia, nausea, vomiting, dysarthria, or nystagmus. We report a case of EA2, which downward gaze palsy exists as a common sign in all her attacks. Responsiveness of EA2 to acetazolamide was observed in this patient. PMID:24665320

  6. Development of spasticity with age in a total population of children with cerebral palsy

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Gunnar Hägglund; Philippe Wagner

    2008-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The development of spasticity with age in children with cerebral palsy (CP) has, to our knowledge, not been studied before. In 1994, a register and a health care program for children with CP in southern Sweden were initiated. In the programme the child's muscle tone according to the modified Ashworth scale is measured twice a year until six years

  7. Context Therapy: A New Intervention Approach for Children with Cerebral Palsy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Darrah, Johanna; Law, Mary C.; Pollock, Nancy; Wilson, Brenda; Russell, Dianne J.; Walter, Stephen D.; Rosenbaum, Peter; Galuppi, Barb

    2011-01-01

    Aim: To describe the development of context therapy, a new intervention approach designed for a randomized controlled trial. Method: Therapists were trained to change task and environmental factors to achieve parent-identified functional goals for children with cerebral palsy. Therapists did not provide any remediation strategies to change the…

  8. Analysis of fifty cases of facial palsy due to otitis media

    Microsoft Academic Search

    H. Takahashi; H. Nakamura; M. Yui; H. Mori

    1985-01-01

    Fifty cases of facial palsy (FP) due to otitis media treated in our hospital during the 10-year period from 1972 to 1981 were analyzed. The averaged percentage of this incidence was 3.1% of all the FP occurring. FP due to otitis media acuta (OMA) was frequently seen in infants. FP due to otitis media chronica (OMC) tended to occur in

  9. Abnormal postural reflex activity and voice usage deviations in cerebral palsy.

    PubMed

    Keesee, P D

    1976-12-01

    A relationship is considered between abnormal postural reflex activity and its effect on vocal processes in infants and very young children having cerebral palsy. Neurodevelopmental treatment concepts are interpreted as they may apply to evaluation and intiial management of hypertonic children who exhibit voice usage deviations. Interdisciplinary team function in the areas of physical therapy, occupational therapy, and speech pathology is suggested. PMID:996091

  10. Longitudinal MRI in progressive supranuclear palsy and multiple system atrophy: rates and regions of atrophy

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Dominic C. Paviour; Shona L. Price; Marjan Jahanshahi; Andrew J. Lees; Nick C. Fox

    2006-01-01

    The rate of brain atrophy and its relationship to clinical disease progression in progressive supranuclear palsy (PSP) and multiple system atrophy (MSA) is not clear. Twenty-four patients with PSP, 11 with MSA-P (Parkinsonian variant), 12 with Parkinson's disease, and 18 healthy control subjects were recruited for serial MRI scans, clinical assessments and formal neuropsychological evaluations in order to measure brain

  11. Ballooned neurons in progressive supranuclear palsy are usually due to concurrent argyrophilic grain disease

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Takashi Togo; Dennis W. Dickson

    2002-01-01

    Progressive supranuclear palsy (PSP) is a sporadic multisystem neurodegenerative disorder that is one of the major causes of parkinsonism, which shares common biochemical and genetic features with corticobasal degeneration (CBD). Ballooned neurons (BN) are one of the histopathologic hallmarks of CBD and their presence is a neuropathologic feature that helps differentiate PSP from CBD, since BN are uncommon in PSP.

  12. The Influence of Motor Impairment on Autonomic Heart Rate Modulation among Children with Cerebral Palsy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zamuner, Antonio Roberto; Cunha, Andrea Baraldi; da Silva, Ester; Negri, Ana Paola; Tudella, Eloisa; Moreno, Marlene Aparecida

    2011-01-01

    The study of heart rate variability is an important tool for a noninvasive evaluation of the neurocardiac integrity. The present study aims to evaluate the autonomic heart rate modulation in supine and standing positions in 12 children diagnosed with cerebral palsy and 16 children with typical motor development (control group), as well as to…

  13. Epilepsy in Hemiplegic Cerebral Palsy Due to Perinatal Arterial Ischaemic Stroke

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wanigasinghe, Jithangi; Reid, Susan M.; Mackay, Mark T.; Reddihough, Dinah S.; Harvey, A. Simon; Freeman, Jeremy L.

    2010-01-01

    Aim: The aim of this study was to describe the frequency, risk factors, manifestations, and outcome of epilepsy in children with hemiplegic cerebral palsy (CP) due to perinatal arterial ischaemic stroke (AIS). Method: The study group comprised 63 participants (41 males, 22 females) from a population-based CP register whose brain imaging showed…

  14. The Effect of Otitis Media on Articulation in Children with Cerebral Palsy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Van der Vyver, Marguerite; And Others

    1988-01-01

    A study involving 20 Afrikaans-speaking children with cerebral palsy found that recurrent otitis media in early childhood had a negative effect on articulation abilities of the 7 to 11-year-old children but that other factors such as intelligence also played a role. (JDD)

  15. What are the Best Animal Models for Testing Early Intervention in Cerebral Palsy?

    PubMed Central

    Clowry, Gavin John; Basuodan, Reem; Chan, Felix

    2014-01-01

    Interventions to treat cerebral palsy should be initiated as soon as possible in order to restore the nervous system to the correct developmental trajectory. One drawback to this approach is that interventions have to undergo exceptionally rigorous assessment for both safety and efficacy prior to use in infants. Part of this process should involve research using animals but how good are our animal models? Part of the problem is that cerebral palsy is an umbrella term that covers a number of conditions. There are also many causal pathways to cerebral palsy, such as periventricular white matter injury in premature babies, perinatal infarcts of the middle cerebral artery, or generalized anoxia at the time of birth, indeed multiple causes, including intra-uterine infection or a genetic predisposition to infarction, may need to interact to produce a clinically significant injury. In this review, we consider which animal models best reproduce certain aspects of the condition, and the extent to which the multifactorial nature of cerebral palsy has been modeled. The degree to which the corticospinal system of various animal models human corticospinal system function and development is also explored. Where attempts have already been made to test early intervention in animal models, the outcomes are evaluated in light of the suitability of the model. PMID:25538677

  16. A Systematic Review of Common Physiotherapy Interventions in School-Aged Children with Cerebral Palsy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martin, Liz; Baker, Richard; Harvey, Adrienne

    2010-01-01

    This systematic review focused on the common conventional physiotherapy interventions used with children with cerebral palsy (CP), aged 4 to 18 years, and critically appraised the recent evidence of each of these interventions using the Oxford Centre for Evidence-Based Medicine Levels of Evidence. The search strategy yielded 34 articles after…

  17. Identification of common variants influencing risk of the tauopathy progressive supranuclear palsy

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Günter U Höglinger; Nadine M Melhem; Dennis W Dickson; Patrick M A Sleiman; Li-San Wang; Lambertus Klei; Rosa Rademakers; Rohan de Silva; Irene Litvan; David E Riley; John C van Swieten; Peter Heutink; Zbigniew K Wszolek; Ryan J Uitti; Jana Vandrovcova; Howard I Hurtig; Rachel G Gross; Walter Maetzler; Stefano Goldwurm; Eduardo Tolosa; Barbara Borroni; Pau Pastor; Roger L Albin; Elena Alonso; Angelo Antonini; Manuela Apfelbacher; Steven E Arnold; Jesus Avila; Thomas G Beach; Sherry Beecher; Daniela Berg; Thomas D Bird; Nenad Bogdanovic; Agnita J W Boon; Yvette Bordelon; Alexis Brice; Herbert Budka; Margherita Canesi; Wang Zheng Chiu; Roberto Cilia; Carlo Colosimo; Peter P De Deyn; Justo García de Yebenes; Laura Donker Kaat; Ranjan Duara; Alexandra Durr; Sebastiaan Engelborghs; Giovanni Fabbrini; NiCole A Finch; Robyn Flook; Matthew P Frosch; Carles Gaig; Douglas R Galasko; Thomas Gasser; Marla Gearing; Evan T Geller; Bernardino Ghetti; Neill R Graff-Radford; Murray Grossman; Deborah A Hall; Lili-Naz Hazrati; Matthias Höllerhage; Joseph Jankovic; Jorge L Juncos; Anna Karydas; Hans A Kretzschmar; Isabelle Leber; Virginia M Lee; Andrew P Lieberman; Kelly E Lyons; Claudio Mariani; Eliezer Masliah; Luke A Massey; Catriona A McLean; Nicoletta Meucci; Bruce L Miller; Brit Mollenhauer; Jens C Möller; Huw R Morris; Chris Morris; Sean S O'Sullivan; Wolfgang H Oertel; Donatella Ottaviani; Alessandro Padovani; Rajesh Pahwa; Gianni Pezzoli; Stuart Pickering-Brown; Werner Poewe; Alberto Rabano; Alex Rajput; Stephen G Reich; Gesine Respondek; Sigrun Roeber; Jonathan D Rohrer; Owen A Ross; Martin N Rossor; Giorgio Sacilotto; William W Seeley; Klaus Seppi; Laura Silveira-Moriyama; Salvatore Spina; Karin Srulijes; Peter St. George-Hyslop; Maria Stamelou; David G Standaert; Silvana Tesei; Wallace W Tourtellotte; Claudia Trenkwalder; Claire Troakes; John Q Trojanowski; Juan C Troncoso; Vivianna M Van Deerlin; Jean Paul G Vonsattel; Gregor K Wenning; Charles L White; Pia Winter; Chris Zarow; Anna L Zecchinelli; Laura B Cantwell; Mi Ryung Han; Allissa Dillman; Marcel P van der Brug; J Raphael Gibbs; Mark R Cookson; Dena G Hernandez; Andrew B Singleton; Matthew J Farrer; Chang-En Yu; Lawrence I Golbe; Tamas Revesz; John Hardy; Andrew J Lees; Bernie Devlin; Hakon Hakonarson; Ulrich Müller; Gerard D Schellenberg

    2011-01-01

    Progressive supranuclear palsy (PSP) is a movement disorder with prominent tau neuropathology. Brain diseases with abnormal tau deposits are called tauopathies, the most common of which is Alzheimer's disease. Environmental causes of tauopathies include repetitive head trauma associated with some sports. To identify common genetic variation contributing to risk for tauopathies, we carried out a genome-wide association study of 1,114

  18. Hip status in cerebral palsy after one year of continuous intrathecal baclofen infusion

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Linda E Krach; Robert L Kriel; Richard C Gilmartin; Dale M Swift; Bruce B Storrs; Rick Abbott; John D Ward; Karen K Bloom; William H Brooks; Joseph R Madsen; John F McLaughlin; Joseph M Nadell

    2004-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to assess whether reduction of muscle tone by continuous intrathecal baclofen infusion affects the progression of hip subluxation in persons with cerebral palsy. This prospective, open-label, case series was conducted at multiple specialty referral centers. There were 33 subjects, ages 4 to 31 years. All had a pretreatment lower extremity Ashworth score of ?3;

  19. Effects of interactive games on motor performance in children with spastic cerebral palsy

    PubMed Central

    AlSaif, Amer A.; Alsenany, Samira

    2015-01-01

    [Purpose] Motor control and muscle strength impairments are the prime reasons for motor behavior disorders in children with spastic cerebral palsy. These impairments lead to histological changes in muscle growth and the learning of motor skills. Therefore, such children experience reduced muscle force generation and decreased muscle flexibility. We investigated the effect of training with Nintendo Wii Fit games on motor performance in children with spastic cerebral palsy. [Subjects and Methods] Forty children with cerebral palsy spastic diplegia aged 6–10?years diagnosed with level-3 functional capabilities according to the Gross Motor Classification System (GMFCS) were enrolled. Participants were divided randomly into equal groups: group (A) that practiced with the Nintendo Wii Fit game for at least 20 minutes/day for 12 weeks and group (B) that underwent no training (control group). The Movement Assessment Battery for Children-2 (mABC-2) was used to assess motor performance, because it mainly involves motor tasks very similar to those involved in playing Nintendo Wii Fit games, e.g., goal-directed arm movements, balancing, and jumping. [Results] There were significant improvements in the subscales of the motor performance test of those who practiced with the Nintendo Wii, while the control group showed no significant changes. [Conclusion] Using motion interactive games in home rehabilitation is feasible for children with cerebral palsy. PMID:26180367

  20. Enabling the Children with Cerebral Palsy to Interact Seluk ARTUT, PhD

    E-print Network

    Yanikoglu, Berrin

    Enabling the Children with Cerebral Palsy to Interact Selçuk ARTUT, PhD Sabanci University Abstract of children between the ages of 4 to 7 living with Cerebral Palsyn (CP) who are studying at the TSCF (Turkish Spastic Children Foundation - www.tscv.org.tr) institution. Keywords Human Computer Interaction, Cerebral

  1. Recommendations for the use of botulinum toxin type A in the management of cerebral palsy

    Microsoft Academic Search

    H. Kerr Graham; K. Roger Aoki; Ilona Autti-Rämö; Roslyn N Boyd; Mauricio R Delgado; Deborah J Gaebler-Spira; Mark E Gormley; Barry M Guyer; Florian Heinen; Andrew F Holton; Dennis Matthews; Guy Molenaers; Francesco Motta; Pedro J Garc??a Ruiz; Jörg Wissel

    2000-01-01

    Botulinum toxin type A (BTX-A) is increasingly being used for the treatment of childhood spasticity, particularly cerebral palsy. However, until very recently, all such use in this indication has been unapproved with no generally accepted treatment protocols, resulting in considerable uncertainty and variation in its use as a therapeutic agent. In view of the increasing awareness of, and interest in,

  2. Prenatal and perinatal factors and cerebral palsy in very low birth weight infants

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Judith K. Grether; Karin B. Nelson; E. Stanley Emery; Susan K. Cummins

    1996-01-01

    OBJECTIVE. To identify prenatal and perinatal characteristics associated with cerebral palsy (CP) in infants born weighing <1500 gm (very low birth weight, VLBW). DESIGN. All 42 VLBW singleton infants with CP born in the period from 1983 to 1985 in a defined population were compared with 75 randomly selected VLBW control infants. RESULTS. Birth in a level I facility was

  3. Prevalence of feeding problems and oral motor dysfunction in children with cerebral palsy: A community survey

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Sheena Reilly; David Skuse; Ximena Poblete

    1996-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To determine the prevalence and nature of feeding difficulties and oral motor dysfunction among a representative sample of 49 children with cerebral palsy (12 to 72 months of age). STUDY DESIGN: A population survey was undertaken by means of a combination of interview and home observational measures. RESULTS: Sucking (57%) and swallowing (38%) problems in the first 12 months

  4. Measurement of Habitual Physical Activity Performance in Adolescents with Cerebral Palsy: A Systematic Review

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clanchy, Kelly M.; Tweedy, Sean M.; Boyd, Roslyn

    2011-01-01

    Aim: This systematic review compares the validity, reliability, and clinical use of habitual physical activity (HPA) performance measures in adolescents with cerebral palsy (CP). Method: Measures of HPA across Gross Motor Function Classification System (GMFCS) levels I-V for adolescents (10-18y) with CP were included if at least 60% of items…

  5. Assessment of Postural Control in Children with Cerebral Palsy: A Review

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pavao, Silvia Leticia; dos Santos, Adriana Neves; Woollacott, Marjorie Hines; Rocha, Nelci Adriana Cicuto Ferreira

    2013-01-01

    This paper aimed to review studies that assessed postural control (PC) in children with cerebral palsy (CP) and describe the methods used to investigate postural control in this population. It also intended to describe the performance of children with CP in postural control. An extensive database search was performed using the keywords: postural…

  6. Effectiveness of Adaptive Pretend Play on Affective Expression and Imagination of Children with Cerebral Palsy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hsieh, Hsieh-Chun

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: Children with cerebral palsy (CP) have difficulty participating in role-pretending activities. The concept of adaptive play makes play accessible by modifying play materials for different needs or treatment goals for children with CP. This study examines the affective expressions and imagination in children with CP as a function of…

  7. Perception-Action and Adaptation in Postural Control of Children and Adolescents with Cerebral Palsy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barela, Jose A.; Focks, Grietje M. Jaspers; Hilgeholt, Toke; Barela, Ana M. F.; Carvalho, Raquel de P.; Savelsbergh, Geert J. P.

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this study was to examine the coupling between visual information and body sway and the adaptation in this coupling of individuals with cerebral palsy (CP). Fifteen children with and 15 without CP, 6-15 years old, were required to stand upright inside of a moving room. All children first performed two trials with no movement of the room…

  8. Autism Spectrum Disorder Phenotype in Children with Ambulatory Cerebral Palsy: A Descriptive Cross-Sectional Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smile, S.; Dupuis, A.; MacArthur, C.; Roberts, W.; Fehlings, D.

    2013-01-01

    The current study aims to describe the cognitive profile, autism profile, medical and behavioral presentation of children with a dual diagnosis of cerebral palsy (CP) and autism spectrum disorder (ASD). Little is known about the dual presentation of CP and ASD. Timely diagnosis is imperative as early intervention may impact a child's developmental…

  9. Relationship between Kinematics, F2 Slope and Speech Intelligibility in Dysarthria Due to Cerebral Palsy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rong, Panying; Loucks, Torrey; Kim, Heejin; Hasegawa-Johnson, Mark

    2012-01-01

    A multimodal approach combining acoustics, intelligibility ratings, articulography and surface electromyography was used to examine the characteristics of dysarthria due to cerebral palsy (CP). CV syllables were studied by obtaining the slope of F2 transition during the diphthong, tongue-jaw kinematics during the release of the onset consonant,…

  10. Development of Non-Verbal Intellectual Capacity in School-Age Children with Cerebral Palsy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smits, D. W.; Ketelaar, M.; Gorter, J. W.; van Schie, P. E.; Becher, J. G.; Lindeman, E.; Jongmans, M. J.

    2011-01-01

    Background: Children with cerebral palsy (CP) are at greater risk for a limited intellectual development than typically developing children. Little information is available which children with CP are most at risk. This study aimed to describe the development of non-verbal intellectual capacity of school-age children with CP and to examine the…

  11. Control of Angular Momentum during Walking in Children with Cerebral Palsy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bruijn, Sjoerd M.; Meyns, Pieter; Jonkers, Ilse; Kaat, Desloovere; Duysens, Jacques

    2011-01-01

    Children with hemiparetic Cerebral Palsy (CP) walk with marked asymmetries. For instance, we have recently shown that they have less arm swing on the affected side, and more arm swing at the unaffected side. Such an increase in arm swing at the unaffected side may be aimed at controlling total body angular momentum about the vertical axis,…

  12. Assessment of Specific Characteristics of Abnormal General Movements: Does It Enhance the Prediction of Cerebral Palsy?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hamer, Elisa G.; Bos, Arend F.; Hadders-Algra, Mijna

    2011-01-01

    Aim: Abnormal general movements at around 3 months corrected age indicate a high risk of cerebral palsy (CP). We aimed to determine whether specific movement characteristics can improve the predictive power of definitely abnormal general movements. Method: Video recordings of 46 infants with definitely abnormal general movements at 9 to 13 weeks…

  13. Medical Expenditures Attributable to Cerebral Palsy and Intellectual Disability among Medicaid-Enrolled Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kancherla, Vijaya; Amendah, Djesika D.; Grosse, Scott D.; Yeargin-Allsopp, Marshalyn; Van Naarden Braun, Kim

    2012-01-01

    This study estimated medical expenditures attributable to cerebral palsy (CP) among children enrolled in Medicaid, stratified by the presence of co-occurring intellectual disability (ID), relative to children without CP or ID. The MarketScan[R] Medicaid Multi-State database was used to identify children with CP for 2003-2005 by using the…

  14. Relationships between Respiratory Muscle Strength and Daily Living Function in Children with Cerebral Palsy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wang, Hui-Yi; Chen, Chien-Chih; Hsiao, Shih-Fen

    2012-01-01

    Cerebral palsy (CP) is a common childhood disorder characterized by motor disability. Children with CP are at risk of developing significant respiratory problems associated with insufficient respiratory muscle strength. It is crucial to identify important factors which are associated with the limitations in daily living function in such children.…

  15. Functional Seating for School-Age Children with Cerebral Palsy: An Evidence-Based Tutorial

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Costigan, F. Aileen; Light, Janice

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: This tutorial is designed to teach speech-language pathologists (SLPs) best practices to support functional seating of children with cerebral palsy (CP) in the classroom and in school-based therapy sessions. This tutorial teaches SLPs to (a) recognize the positive effects of seating intervention, (b) identify the characteristics of…

  16. Social Participation of Adolescents with Cerebral Palsy: Trade-Offs and Choices

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stewart, Debra A.; Lawless, John J.; Shimmell, Lorie J.; Palisano, Robert J.; Freeman, Matthew; Rosenbaum, Peter L.; Russell, Dianne J.

    2012-01-01

    This article reports on the findings of a qualitative study about the experiences and perceptions of adolescents with cerebral palsy (CP) in relation to social participation. A phenomenological approach was used to interview 10 adolescents with CP, 17 to 20 years of age, selected using purposeful sampling. An iterative process of data collection…

  17. Motor Learning of a Bimanual Task in Children with Unilateral Cerebral Palsy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hung, Ya-Ching; Gordon, Andrew M.

    2013-01-01

    Children with unilateral cerebral palsy (CP) have been shown to improve their motor performance with sufficient practice. However, little is known about how they learn goal-oriented tasks. In the current study, 21 children with unilateral CP (age 4-10 years old) and 21 age-matched typically developed children (TDC) practiced a simple bimanual…

  18. Action Planning in Typically and Atypically Developing Children (Unilateral Cerebral Palsy)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Craje, Celine; Aarts, Pauline; Nijhuis-van der Sanden, Maria; Steenbergen, Bert

    2010-01-01

    In the present study, we investigated the development of action planning in children with unilateral Cerebral Palsy (CP, aged 3-6 years, n = 24) and an age matched control group. To investigate action planning, participants performed a sequential movement task. They had to grasp an object (a wooden play sword) and place the sword in a hole in a…

  19. Fundamental Movement Skills and Physical Activity among Children with and without Cerebral Palsy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Capio, Catherine M.; Sit, Cindy H. P.; Abernethy, Bruce; Masters, Rich S. W.

    2012-01-01

    Fundamental movement skills (FMS) proficiency is believed to influence children's physical activity (PA), with those more proficient tending to be more active. Children with cerebral palsy (CP), who represent the largest diagnostic group treated in pediatric rehabilitation, have been found to be less active than typically developing children. This…

  20. Psychiatric Disorders among Children with Cerebral Palsy at School Starting Age

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bjorgaas, H. M.; Hysing, M.; Elgen, I.

    2012-01-01

    The aim of the present population study was to estimate the prevalence of psychiatric disorders in children with cerebral palsy (CP), as well as the impact of comorbid conditions. A cohort of children with CP born 2001-2003, and living in the Western Health Region of Norway were evaluated at school starting age. Parents were interviewed with the…

  1. Neuro-Ophthalmological Disorders in Cerebral Palsy: Ophthalmological, Oculomotor, and Visual Aspects

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fazzi, Elisa; Signorini, Sabrina G.; La Piana, Roberta; Bertone, Chiara; Misefari, Walter; Galli, Jessica; Balottin, Umberto; Bianchi, Paolo Emilio

    2012-01-01

    Aim: Cerebral visual impairment (CVI) is a disorder caused by damage to the retrogeniculate visual pathways. Cerebral palsy (CP) and CVI share a common origin: 60 to 70% of children with CP also have CVI. We set out to describe visual dysfunction in children with CP. A further aim was to establish whether different types of CP are associated with…

  2. Orthodromic Transfer of the Temporalis Muscle in Incomplete Facial Nerve Palsy

    PubMed Central

    Aum, Jae Ho; Oh, Sang Ah; Gu, Ja Hea

    2013-01-01

    Background Temporalis muscle transfer produces prompt surgical results with a one-stage operation in facial palsy patients. The orthodromic method is surgically simple, and the vector of muscle action is similar to the temporalis muscle action direction. This article describes transferring temporalis muscle insertion to reconstruct incomplete facial nerve palsy patients. Methods Between August 2009 and November 2011, 6 unilateral incomplete facial nerve palsy patients underwent surgery for orthodromic temporalis muscle transfer. A preauricular incision was performed to expose the mandibular coronoid process. Using a saw, the coronoid process was transected. Three strips of the fascia lata were anchored to the muscle of the nasolabial fold through subcutaneous tunneling. The tension of the strips was adjusted by observing the shape of the nasolabial fold. When optimal tension was achieved, the temporalis muscle was sutured to the strips. The surgical results were assessed by comparing pre- and postoperative photographs. Three independent observers evaluated the photographs. Results The symmetry of the mouth corner was improved in the resting state, and movement of the oral commissure was enhanced in facial animation after surgery. Conclusions The orthodromic transfer of temporalis muscle technique can produce prompt results by applying the natural temporalis muscle vector. This technique preserves residual facial nerve function in incomplete facial nerve palsy patients and produces satisfying cosmetic outcomes without malar muscle bulging, which often occurs in the turn-over technique. PMID:23898430

  3. Facts and myths about therapeutic interventions in cerebral palsy: integrated goal development.

    PubMed

    Logan, Lynne R

    2002-11-01

    This article explores a variety of myths and facts about therapy for children who have cerebral palsy. Current evidence is used to refute popular myths and debunk harmful ones. A way of integrating interventions is suggested and a planning process for timing interventions is proposed. PMID:12465570

  4. Efficacy of Intensive Versus Nonintensive Physiotherapy in Children with Cerebral Palsy: A Metaanalysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arpino, Carla

    2010-01-01

    A commonly used treatment for cerebral palsy in children is so-called "conventional therapy", which includes physiotherapy or the neurodevelopmental approach. Although more intensive rehabilitative treatment is thought to be more effective than less intensive interventions, this assumption has not been proven. In this study we compared the…

  5. Construct Validity of the Quality of Upper Extremity Skills Test for Children with Cerebral Palsy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thorley, Megan; Lannin, Natasha; Cusick, Anne; Novak, Iona; Boyd, Roslyn

    2012-01-01

    Aim: The aim of the study was to investigate the construct validity of the Quality of Upper Extremity Skills Test (QUEST) in children with cerebral palsy (CP). Method: A total of 170 QUEST assessments from a convenience sample of 94 children with CP involved in clinical and research treatment programmes (54 males, 40 females; mean age 6y 10mo, SD…

  6. Pre and Postsurgical Evaluation of Hand Function in Hemiplegic Cerebral Palsy: Exemplar Cases

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Chester Sharps; K KOTT

    2008-01-01

    Evaluation of hand function for treatment planning and outcome documentation in individuals with cerebral palsy (CP) proves challenging. Because of the complexity of multisystem involvement and time constraints during physician clinic visits, we developed a comprehensive evaluation protocol to assist with team surgical decision making in CP. We report findings from three adolescents with hemiplegic CP who were evaluated pre-\\/post-intervention

  7. Clinical deficits correlate with regional cerebral atrophy in progressive supranuclear palsy

    Microsoft Academic Search

    N. J. Cordato; A. J. Duggins; G. M. Halliday; J. G. L. Morris; C. Pantelis

    2005-01-01

    Summary Most cerebral imaging studies of patients with progressive supranuclear palsy (PSP) have noted subtle atrophy, although the full extent of atrophy and any correlates to clinical features have not been determined. We used voxel-based morphometry analysis of grey matter, white matter and CSF on MRI brain scans to map the statistical probability of regional tissue atrophy in 21 patients

  8. Typical and Atypical (Cerebral Palsy) Development of Unimanual and Bimanual Grasp Planning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Janssen, Loes; Steenbergen, Bert

    2011-01-01

    In the present study we tested 13 children with cerebral palsy (CP) and 24 typically developing children (7-12 years old) in a unimanual and bimanual motor planning task. We focused on two research questions: (1) How does motor planning develop in children with and without CP? and (2) Is motor planning facilitated when the task is performed with…

  9. Clinimetric Properties of the Assessment of Preschool Children's Participation in Children with Cerebral Palsy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chen, Chia-ling; Chen, Chung-yao; Shen, I-hsuan; Liu, I-Shu; Kang, Lin-ju; Wu, Ching-yi

    2013-01-01

    This study examines the criterion-related validity and clinimetric properties of the Assessment of Preschool Children's Participation (APCP) for children with cerebral palsy (CP). Eighty-two children with CP (age range, two to five years and 11 months) and their caregivers participated in this study. The APCP consists of diversity and intensity…

  10. Diagnosis and treatment of restless legs syndrome in progressive supranuclear palsy.

    PubMed

    Moccia, Marcello; Picillo, Marina; Erro, Roberto; Allocca, Roberto; Barone, Paolo; Vitale, Carmine

    2015-03-15

    Restless legs syndrome (RLS) has only been recently investigated in a small cohort of progressive supranuclear palsy (PSP) patients and it has been reported to have variable prevalence (among 3.7-58%). However little is known about its management. Here, we report a case of severe RLS occurring during the course of PSP. Diagnostic issues and therapeutic approaches are discussed. PMID:25697711

  11. Transient neonatal radial nerve palsy. A case series and review of the literature.

    PubMed

    Carsi, M Belen; Clarke, Anna M; Clarke, Nicholas P

    2015-01-01

    Transient neonatal radial nerve palsy manifests at birth by wrist drop and intact elbow and shoulder function. Spontaneous resolution is universal. We present a case series, including two bilateral cases, and a review of the cases found in the English literature, hypothesizing how this condition is probably misdiagnosed as brachial plexus injury. PMID:25835250

  12. Neuromuscular Adaptations to Eccentric Strength Training in Children and Adolescents with Cerebral Palsy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reid, Siobhan; Hamer, Peter; Alderson, Jacqueline; Lloyd, David

    2010-01-01

    Aim: To determine the neuromuscular outcomes of an eccentric strength-training programme for children and adolescents with cerebral palsy (CP). Method: In this randomised, parallel-group trial with waiting control, 14 participants with CP (six males, eight females; mean age 11y, SD 2y range 9-15y), diagnosed with upper-limb spasticity were…

  13. Characterization of Spasticity in Cerebral Palsy: Dependence of Catch Angle on Velocity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wu, Yi-Ning; Ren, Yupeng; Goldsmith, Ashlee; Gaebler, Deborah; Liu, Shu Q.; Zhang, Li-Qun

    2010-01-01

    Aim: To evaluate spasticity under controlled velocities and torques in children with cerebral palsy (CP) using a manual spasticity evaluator. Method: The study involved 10 children with spastic CP (six males, four females; mean age 10y 1mo, SD 2y 9mo, range 7-16y; one with quadriplegia, six with right hemiplegia, three with left hemiplegia; Gross…

  14. Muscle Force and Range of Motion as Predictors of Standing Balance in Children with Cerebral Palsy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lowes, Linda Pax; Westcott, Sarah L.; Palisano, Robert J.; Effgen, Susan K.; Orlin, Margo N.

    2004-01-01

    Children with cerebral palsy frequently receive therapeutic intervention to remediate standing balance deficits. Evaluation of the impairments associated with poor balance could facilitate more effective treatment programs. This study evaluated the relationship between lower extremity force production, range of motion and standing balance in…

  15. Effect of a single session of transcranial direct-current stimulation on balance and spatiotemporal gait variables in children with cerebral palsy: A randomized sham-controlled study

    PubMed Central

    Grecco, Luanda A. C.; Duarte, Natália A. C.; Zanon, Nelci; Galli, Manuela; Fregni, Felipe; Oliveira, Claudia S.

    2014-01-01

    Background: Transcranial direct-current stimulation (tDCS) has been widely studied with the aim of enhancing local synaptic efficacy and modulating the electrical activity of the cortex in patients with neurological disorders. Objective: The purpose of the present study was to determine the effect of a single session of tDCS regarding immediate changes in spatiotemporal gait and oscillations of the center of pressure (30 seconds) in children with cerebral palsy (CP). Method: A randomized controlled trial with a blinded evaluator was conducted involving 20 children with CP between six and ten years of age. Gait and balance were evaluated three times: Evaluation 1 (before the stimulation), Evaluation 2 (immediately after stimulation), and Evaluation 3 (20 minutes after the stimulation). The protocol consisted of a 20-minute session of tDCS applied to the primary motor cortex at an intensity of 1 mA. The participants were randomly allocated to two groups: experimental group - anodal stimulation of the primary motor cortex; and control group - placebo transcranial stimulation. Results: Significant reductions were found in the experimental group regarding oscillations during standing in the anteroposterior and mediolateral directions with eyes open and eyes closed in comparison with the control group (p<0.05). In the intra-group analysis, the experimental group exhibited significant improvements in gait velocity, cadence, and oscillation in the center of pressure during standing (p<0.05). No significant differences were found in the control group among the different evaluations. Conclusion: A single session of tDCS applied to the primary motor cortex promotes positive changes in static balance and gait velocity in children with cerebral palsy. PMID:25372004

  16. The Effects of Hippotherapy and a Horse Riding Simulator on the Balance of Children with Cerebral Palsy

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Chae-Woo; Kim, Seong Gil; Na, Sang Su

    2014-01-01

    [Purpose] We with respect to their effects on the compared hippotherapy with a horseback riding simulator (JOBA, Panasonic Inc. JP) static and dynamic balance of children with cerebral palsy (CP). [Subjects and Methods] Twenty-six children were randomly divided into two groups: a hippotherapy group that included 13 children, and a horseback riding simulator (JOBA, Panasonic Inc., Japan) group, which was also composed of 13 children. The two groups participated in 1 hour of exercise per day, 3 times a week, for 12 weeks. The subjects’ static balance ability was measured using BPM (software 5.3, SMS Healthcare Inc., UK) as the center of pressure sway length while standing for 30 seconds with their eyes open and looking to the front. Dynamic balance ability was measured using the PBS (Pediatric Balance Scale). [Results] Both groups showed significant improvements in static and dynamic balance but significant differences between the two groups were not found. [Conclusion] The horseback riding simulator could be a useful alternative to hippotherapy for the improvement of static and dynamic balance of children with CP. PMID:24707098

  17. [Does intraoperative nerve monitoring reduce the rate of recurrent nerve palsies during thyroid surgery?].

    PubMed

    Timmermann, W; Dralle, H; Hamelmann, W; Thomusch, O; Sekulla, C; Meyer, Th; Timm, S; Thiede, A

    2002-05-01

    Two different aspects of the influence of neuromonitoring on the possible reduction of post-operative recurrent laryngeal nerve palsies require critical examination: the nerve identification and the monitoring of it's functions. Due to the additional information from the EMG signals, neuromonitoring is the best method for identifying the nerves as compared to visual identification alone. There are still no randomized studies available that compare the visual and electrophysiological recurrent laryngeal nerve detection in thyroid operations with respect to the postoperative nerve palsies. Nevertheless, comparisons with historical collectives show that a constant low nerve-palsy-rate was achieved with electrophysiological detection in comparison to visual detection. The rate of nerve identification is normally very high and amounts to 99 % in our own patients. The data obtained during the "Quality assurance of benign and malignant Goiter" study show that in hemithyreoidectomy and subtotal resection, lower nerve-palsy-rates are achieved with neuromonitoring as compared to solely visual detection. Following subtotal resection, this discrepancy becomes even statistically significant. While monitoring the nerve functions with the presently used neuromonitoring technique, it is possible to observe the EMG-signal remaining constant or decreasing in volume. Assuming that a constant neuromonitoring signal represents a normal vocal cord, our evaluation shows that there is a small percentage of false negative and positive results. Looking at the permanent recurrent nerve palsy rates, this method has a specificity of 98 %, a sensitivity of 100 %, a positive prognostic value of 10 %, and a negative prognostic value of 100 %. Although an altered neuromonitoring signal can be taken as a clear indication of eventual nerve damage, an absolutely reliable statement about the postoperative vocal cord function is presently not possible with intraoperative neuromonitoring. PMID:12058296

  18. Central ocular motor disorders, including gaze palsy and nystagmus.

    PubMed

    Strupp, M; Kremmyda, O; Adamczyk, C; Böttcher, N; Muth, C; Yip, C W; Bremova, T

    2014-09-01

    An impairment of eye movements, or nystagmus, is seen in many diseases of the central nervous system, in particular those affecting the brainstem and cerebellum, as well as in those of the vestibular system. The key to diagnosis is a systematic clinical examination of the different types of eye movements, including: eye position, range of eye movements, smooth pursuit, saccades, gaze-holding function and optokinetic nystagmus, as well as testing for the different types of nystagmus (e.g., central fixation nystagmus or peripheral vestibular nystagmus). Depending on the time course of the signs and symptoms, eye movements often indicate a specific underlying cause (e.g., stroke or neurodegenerative or metabolic disorders). A detailed knowledge of the anatomy and physiology of eye movements enables the physician to localize the disturbance to a specific area in the brainstem (midbrain, pons or medulla) or cerebellum (in particular the flocculus). For example, isolated dysfunction of vertical eye movements is due to a midbrain lesion affecting the rostral interstitial nucleus of the medial longitudinal fascicle, with impaired vertical saccades only, the interstitial nucleus of Cajal or the posterior commissure; common causes with an acute onset are an infarction or bleeding in the upper midbrain or in patients with chronic progressive supranuclear palsy (PSP) and Niemann-Pick type C (NP-C). Isolated dysfunction of horizontal saccades is due to a pontine lesion affecting the paramedian pontine reticular formation due, for instance, to brainstem bleeding, glioma or Gaucher disease type 3; an impairment of horizontal and vertical saccades is found in later stages of PSP, NP-C and Gaucher disease type 3. Gaze-evoked nystagmus (GEN) in all directions indicates a cerebellar dysfunction and can have multiple causes such as drugs, in particular antiepileptics, chronic alcohol abuse, neurodegenerative cerebellar disorders or cerebellar ataxias; purely vertical GEN is due to a midbrain lesion, while purely horizontal GEN is due to a pontomedullary lesion. The pathognomonic clinical sign of internuclear ophthalmoplegia is an impaired adduction while testing horizontal saccades on the side of the lesion in the ipsilateral medial longitudinal fascicule. The most common pathological types of central nystagmus are downbeat nystagmus (DBN) and upbeat nystagmus (UBN). DBN is generally due to cerebellar dysfunction affecting the flocculus bilaterally (e.g., due to a neurodegenerative disease). Treatment options exist for a few disorders: miglustat for NP-C and aminopyridines for DBN and UBN. It is therefore particularly important to identify treatable cases with these conditions. PMID:25145891

  19. Fetal exposure to an intra-amniotic inflammation and the development of cerebral palsy at the age of three years

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Bo Hyun Yoon; Roberto Romero; Joong Shin Park; Chong Jai Kim; Seung Hyup Kim; Jung Hwan Choi; Tai Ryoon Han

    2000-01-01

    Objective:The aim of this study was to determine whether fetal exposure to intra-amniotic inflammation and a systemic fetal inflammatory response (funisitis) are associated with the development of cerebral palsy at the age of 3 years.

  20. Case-control study of antenatal and intrapartum risk factors for cerebral palsy in very preterm singleton babies

    Microsoft Academic Search

    D. J Murphy; A. M Johnson; S Sellers; I. Z MacKenzie

    1995-01-01

    SummaryThe increase in survival of very preterm babies during the 1980s was accompanied by a sharp increase in the rate of cerebral palsy in this group. The relation between antenatal and intrapartum factors and cerebral palsy in such babies has not been well defined. To identify adverse and protective antenatal and intrapartum factors we undertook a case-control study of 59

  1. Adapted version of constraint-induced movement therapy promotes functioning in children with cerebral palsy: a randomized controlled trial

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Marina de Brito Brandão; Marisa Cotta Mancini; Daniela Virgínia Vaz; Ana Paula Pereira de Melo; Sérgio Teixeira Fonseca

    2010-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the effects of constraint-induced movement therapy on the use of the affected arm and on daily functioning in children with hemiplegic cerebral palsy.Design: A single-blinded randomized clinical trial.Subjects: Sixteen children with cerebral palsy randomized to intervention (n = 8, 4 males, 4 females, mean age 5 years and 6 months) and control groups (n = 8, 4

  2. Cranial Ultrasound Lesions in the NICU Predict Cerebral Palsy at Age 2 Years in Children Born at Extremely Low Gestational Age

    PubMed Central

    Kuban, Karl C. K.; Allred, Elizabeth N.; O’Shea, T. Michael; Paneth, Nigel; Pagano, Marcello; Dammann, Olaf; Leviton, Alan; Du Plessis, Adré; Westra, Sjirk J.; Miller, Cindy R.; Bassan, Haim; Krishnamoorthy, Kalpathy; Junewick, Joseph; Olomu, Nicholas; Romano, Elaine; Seibert, Joanna; Engelke, Steve; Karna, Padmani; Batton, Daniel; O’Connor, Sunila E.; Keller, Cecelia E.

    2009-01-01

    Our prospective cohort study of extremely low gestational age newborns evaluated the association of neonatal head ultrasound abnormalities with cerebral palsy at age 2 years. Cranial ultrasounds in 1053 infants were read with respect to intraventricular hemorrhage, ventriculomegaly, and echolucency, by multiple sonologists. Standardized neurological examinations classified cerebral palsy, and functional impairment was assessed. Forty-four percent with ventriculomegaly and 52% with echolucency developed cerebral palsy. Compared with no ultrasound abnormalities, children with echolucency were 24 times more likely to have quadriparesis and 29 times more likely to have hemiparesis. Children with ventriculomegaly were 17 times more likely to have quadriparesis or hemiparesis. Forty-three percent of children with cerebral palsy had normal head ultrasound. Focal white matter damage (echolucency) and diffuse damage (late ventriculomegaly) are associated with a high probability of cerebral palsy, especially quadriparesis. Nearly half the cerebral palsy identified at 2 years is not preceded by a neonatal brain ultrasound abnormality. PMID:19168819

  3. Pressure &Pressure & TemperatureTemperature

    E-print Network

    California at Santa Cruz, University of

    to measure atmospheric pressure, and thermometer toprobe to measure atmospheric pressure, and thermometer toprobe to measure atmospheric pressure, and thermometer toprobe to measure atmospheric pressurePressure &Pressure & TemperatureTemperature vs.vs. AltitudeAltitude #12;Presented by:Presented by

  4. Clinical features, ARIX and PHOX2B nucleotide changes in three families with congenital superior oblique muscle palsy.

    PubMed

    Imai, Sayuri; Matsuo, Toshihiko; Itoshima, Emi; Ohtsuki, Hiroshi

    2008-02-01

    We analyzed nucleotide changes in 3 genes, ARIX, PHOX2B, and KIF21A, in 6 patients of 3 families with congenital superior oblique muscle palsy. Three exons of ARIX, 3 exons of PHOX2B, and exons 8, 20, and 21 of KIF21A were amplified by polymerase chain reaction from genomic DNA isolated from the peripheral blood. The DNA fragments were directly sequenced in both directions. In 2 different families, a heterozygous nucleotide change, ARIX 153G>A, in the 5'.-untranslated region was found in common between a father and daughter with muscle palsy and between a mother and daughter with muscle palsy (Family No. 1 and No. 3). In the other family (Family No. 2), a heterozygous 15-nucleotide deletion, PHOX2B 1124del15, resulting in loss of 5 alanine residues in the alanine repeat of the protein, was found in the daughter with muscle palsy and her father with normal traits, but was not found in the mother with muscle palsy. No KIF21A nucleotide change was found in any patients. The ARIX 153G>A polymorphism might be a genetic risk factor for the development of congenital superior oblique muscle palsy. PMID:18323871

  5. Therapies for children with cerebral palsy: A Web of Science-based literature analysis

    PubMed Central

    Mu, Yaping; Li, Na; Guan, Lijun; Wang, Chunnan; Shang, Shuyun; Wang, Yan

    2012-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To identify global research trends in three therapies for children with cerebral palsy. DATA RETRIEVAL: We performed a bibliometric analysis of studies on therapies for children with cerebral palsy from 2002 to 2011 retrieved from Web of Science. SELECTION CRITERIA: Inclusion criteria: (a) peer-reviewed published articles on botulinum toxin, constraint-induced movement therapy, or acupuncture for children with cerebral palsy indexed in Web of Science; (b) original research articles, reviews, meeting abstracts, proceedings papers, book chapters, editorial material, and news items; and (c) publication between 2002 and 2011. Exclusion criteria: (a) articles that required manual searching or telephone access; (b) documents that were not published in the public domain; and (c) a number of corrected papers from the total number of articles. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: (1) Number of publications on the three therapies; (2) annual publication output, distribution by journals, distribution by institution, and top-cited articles on botulinum toxin; (3) annual publication output, distribution by journal, distribution by institution, and top-cited articles on constraint-induced movement therapy; (4) annual publication, distribution by journal, distribution by institution, and top-cited articles on acupuncture. RESULTS: This analysis, based on Web of Science articles, identified several research trends in studies published over the past 10 years of three therapies for children with cerebral palsy. More articles on botulinum toxin for treating children with cerebral palsy were published than the articles regarding constraint-induced movement therapy or acupuncture. The numbers of publications increased over the 10-year study period. Most papers appeared in journals with a focus on neurology, such as Developmental Medicine and Child Neurology and Journal of Child Neurology. Research institutes publishing on botulinum toxin treatments for this population are mostly in the Netherlands, the United States of America, and Australia; those publishing on constraint-induced movement therapy are mostly in Australia and the United States of America; and those publishing on acupuncture are mostly in China, Sweden and the United States of America. CONCLUSION: Analysis of literature and research trends indicated that there was no one specific therapy to cure cerebral palsy. Further studies are still necessary. PMID:25368640

  6. Surgical effects of nasal transposition of inferior rectus muscle - 135 cases of acquired superior oblique palsy.

    PubMed

    Okamoto, Mana; Kimura, Akiko; Masuda, Akiko; Mimura, Osamu

    2015-01-01

    Nasal transposition of the inferior rectus (IR) muscle, which is transposed nasally with the insertion parallel to the spiral of Tillaux, could correct excyclotropia. However, as far as we are aware, there have been no reports examining the surgical effects of this procedure in multiple cases. Therefore, we examined the surgical effects of IR nasal transposition in 135 cases with acquired trochlear nerve palsy at Hyogo College of Medicine Hospital, Nishinomiya, Japan. One muscle width of IR nasal transposition corrected an average 5.6° in excyclotorsion, while bilateral IR nasal transposition corrected average 10.9°. This result shows this procedure is accurate quantitatively. Moreover, IR nasal transposition in combination with IR recession or resection can correct vertical deviation and excyclotorsion simultaneously. The results of this study suggest that IR nasal transposition should become first-line treatment for acquired superior oblique palsy. PMID:25945030

  7. Femoral nerve palsy after mandibular reconstruction with microvascular iliac flap: a complication under anticoagulation therapy.

    PubMed

    Toro, C; Millesi, W; Zerman, N; Robiony, M; Politi, M

    2007-03-01

    Pharmacological prophylaxis and intervention are used extensively in head and neck reconstructions with microvascular flaps. There is no universally accepted protocol, but the microvascular surgery literature recommends intraoperative anticoagulation with heparin. Here is reported a case of iliacus haematoma with subsequent femoral nerve palsy after the harvest of a microvascular iliac flap for mandibular reconstruction in a patient who had been treated with heparin. The association between femoral nerve palsy and anticoagulant therapy has been well described. It remains unclear as to why the iliacus muscle is particularly vulnerable to intramuscular haemorrhage. Femoral nerve neuropathy is also an uncommon but recognized complication after abdominopelvic surgery. Iliacus haematoma secondary to microvascular surgery has not been previously reported. This case illustrates the need to be aware of this type of complication and its clinical manifestations for patients under anticoagulant therapy in the perioperative period during microvascular reconstructions. PMID:17079115

  8. Concomitant progressive supranuclear palsy and chronic traumatic encephalopathy in a boxer

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    We report the case of a 75-year-old ex-professional boxer who developed diplopia and eye movement abnormalities in his 60’s followed by memory impairment, low mood and recurrent falls. Examination shortly before death revealed hypomimia, dysarthria, vertical supranuclear gaze palsy and impaired postural reflexes. Pathological examination demonstrated 4-repeat tau neuronal and glial lesions, including tufted astrocytes, consistent with a diagnosis of progressive supranuclear palsy. In addition, neurofibrillary tangles composed of mixed 3-repeat and 4-repeat tau and astrocytic tangles in a distribution highly suggestive of chronic traumatic encephalopathy were observed together with limbic TDP-43 pathology. Possible mechanisms for the co-occurrence of these two tau pathologies are discussed. PMID:24559032

  9. Concomitant abducens and facial nerve palsies following blunt head trauma associated with bone fracture.

    PubMed

    Ji, Min-Jeong; Han, Sang-Beom; Lee, Seung-Jun; Kim, Moosang

    2015-01-01

    A 22-year-old man was referred for horizontal diplopia that worsened on left gaze. He had been admitted for a head trauma caused by a traffic accident. Brain CT scan showed a longitudinal fracture of the left temporal bone with extension to the left carotid canal and central skull base, including sphenoid lateral wall and roof, and left orbit medial wall non-displaced fracture. Prism cover test revealed 20 prism diopters of esotropia and abduction limitation in the left eye. Hess screening test results were compatible with left abducens nerve paralysis. Symptoms suggesting complete lower motor neuron palsy of the left facial nerve, such as unilateral facial drooping, inability to raise the eyebrow and difficulty closing the eye, were present. As there was no improvement in facial paralysis, the patient received surgical intervention using a transmastoidal approach. Three months postoperatively, prism cover test showed orthotropia, however, the facial nerve palsy persisted. PMID:26178005

  10. [Professor Dong Gui-rong's experiences in treatment of child cerebral palsy].

    PubMed

    Yang, Guan-nan; Li, Cheng-jia; Bao, Chun-ling

    2014-09-01

    According to the characteristics of the etiology and pathogenesis of child cerebral palsy, on the basis of "regulating the mind in treatment of all kinds of diseases" and "regulating the functions of five zang organs with back-shu points", Professor DONG Gui-rong applied the penetrating needling technique on the scalp points and acupuncture at back-shu points of five zang organs in the treatment of child cerebral palsy. The valuable clinical experiences have been summarized as "regulating the mind with scalp needling technique, benefiting the brain and opening the orifice", "regulating five zang organs with back-shu points" and "integration of acupuncture and rehabilitation, and function reconstruction". Two effective cases were introduced. PMID:25509746

  11. [A case of isolated hypoglossal nerve palsy with acute lymphoblastic leukemia].

    PubMed

    Kamii, Yasuhiro; Hashimoto, Masaya; Suzuki, Masahiko; Sakimoto, Yoshihiro; Kawasaki, Keiichi; Yoshioka, Masayuki

    2013-01-01

    We report a case of isolated hypoglossal nerve palsy with acute lymphoblastic leukemia. A 47-year-old woman had fever unknown origin during two months. Her tongue bent to the right and cephalalgia developed. She complained unable to speech and swallow. On admission, right isolated hypoglossal nerve palsy presented. Blood examination showed the mild elevation of CRP and soluble IL2 receptor. Examination of cerebrospinal fluid was negative. Gadolinium enhanced magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of brain showed abnormal intensity on sphenoid bone. 2-[(18)F] fluoro-2-deoxy-D-glucose (FDG)-positron emission tomography (PET) showed abnormal accumulation on sphenoid bone, spleen, the left supraclavicular node, mesenteric lymph node. Blast cells appeared in peripheral blood afterwards. Acute lymphatic leukemia (ALL) was diagnosed by bone marrow biopsy. The central nervous system disorder by ALL tends to the invasion to meninges or cerebrovascular disorder. This is the first case report that isolated hypoglossal nerve paralysis resulted from ALL. PMID:23524607

  12. Isolated acute sphenoid sinusitis presenting with hemicranial headache and ipsilateral abducens nerve palsy.

    PubMed

    Gupta, Rahul; Shukla, Rakesh; Mishra, Anupam; Parihar, Anit

    2015-01-01

    Isolated sphenoid sinusitis is a rare disorder and may present with complications due to its anatomical location and proximity to the intracranial and orbital contents. It is frequently misdiagnosed, because the sphenoid sinus is not visualised adequately with routine sinus radiographs and is not accessible to direct clinical examination. We report a case who presented with hemicranial headache and ipsilateral abducens nerve palsy as the presenting feature of sphenoid sinusitis. The symptoms disappeared within a week of conservative treatment. Sphenoid sinusitis should be kept in the differential diagnosis of isolated sixth cranial nerve palsy, especially in the presence of headache, and all patients should be investigated with CT/MRI brain. Prompt diagnosis and management before intracranial extension can prevent devastating complications. PMID:26055599

  13. Myotatic reflex responses of non-disabled children and children with spastic cerebral palsy.

    PubMed

    Leonard, C T; Hirschfeld, H

    1995-09-01

    Surface electromyography (EMG) was used to examine lower-extremity myotatic reflex responses following patellar or Achilles tendon taps to normally developing, non-disabled infants and to individuals with cerebral palsy (CP). Reflex irradiation was present in non-disabled infants and infants with CP under two years of age. The only significant differences in myotatic reflex responses between the two groups at this age was the higher amplitude of the directly stimulated muscle of children with CP. After two years the amplitude did not differ between groups. Reflex irradiation, however, was greatly reduced in the non-disabled children but not in the children with cerebral palsy. These findings and those of non-human animal studies indicate the possible neural mechanisms that underlie reflex irradiation of individuals with CP. The potential clinical relevance of these findings is discussed. PMID:7589861

  14. Acute expansion of an asymptomatic posterior communicating artery aneurysm resulting in oculomotor nerve palsy

    PubMed Central

    Etame, Arnold B; Bentley, J Nicole; Pandey, Aditya S

    2013-01-01

    Acute expansion of an intracranial aneurysm is an extremely rare event. In this report, we describe the unusual radiographic documentation of acute expansion of a posterior communicating artery (PCOM) aneurysm from 4 to 8?mm, resulting in complete oculomotor nerve palsy. A 40-year-old man was admitted to our institution with a 3-week history of persistent occipital headaches but was otherwise neurologically intact. CT angiography demonstrated a 4?mm left PCOM aneurysm. Digital subtraction angiography performed several hours following presentation demonstrated an expansion in aneurysm size to 8?mm with new-onset complete oculomotor nerve palsy. The aneurysm was successfully obliterated by clip ligation. Although growth in aneurysm size is often a progressive phenomenon, acute expansions of aneurysms can occur. PMID:23761613

  15. Effect of translucency on transparency and symbol learning for children with and without cerebral palsy.

    PubMed

    Huang, Chih-Hsiung; Chen, Ming-Chung

    2011-01-01

    Based on the concept of iconicity, the iconicity hypothesis was emphasized for decades. The aims of this study were to explore the effect of translucency on transparency and symbol learning for children with and without cerebral palsy. Twenty children with cerebral palsy and forty typical peers participated in the study. Ten symbols with high translucency and ten with low translucency were used as experimental material. The results of transparency testing demonstrated the positive relationship between translucency and transparency. The effect of translucency on symbol learning was supported partially, all children with and without CP could learn the low translucent symbols only after two teaching sessions, or three sessions at most. The authors also provided some suggestions for further study based the results of this study. PMID:21531118

  16. A systematic review of arm activity measures for children with hemiplegic cerebral palsy

    Microsoft Academic Search

    K. Klingels; E. Jaspers; A. Van de Winckel; P. De Cock; G. Molenaers; H. Feys

    2010-01-01

    Objective: To identify psychometrically sound and clinically feasible assessments of arm activities in children with hemiplegic cerebral palsy for implementation in research and clinical practice.Data sources: PubMed, CINAHL, Cochrane Library, Web of Science and reference lists of relevant articles were searched.Review methods: A systematic search was performed based on the following inclusion criteria: (1) evaluative tools at the activity level

  17. Ferritin is associated with the aberrant tau filaments present in progressive supranuclear palsy.

    PubMed Central

    Pérez, M.; Valpuesta, J. M.; de Garcini, E. M.; Quintana, C.; Arrasate, M.; López Carrascosa, J. L.; Rábano, A.; García de Yébenes, J.; Avila, J.

    1998-01-01

    Tau-containing filaments purified from the brain of progressive supranuclear palsy (PSP) patients were isolated and characterized. These filaments co-purify with regular particles that biophysical and biochemical methods identified as ferritin shells. In vivo, brain tau accumulation in PSP co-localized with ferritin. These results suggest that ferritin/iron could modulate the formation of tau aggregates in PSP. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 4 Figure 6 PMID:9626057

  18. Unusual case of temporal dermoid cyst presenting as oculomotor nerve palsy

    PubMed Central

    Adulkar, Namrata G; Arunkumar, M J; Kumar, S Mahesh; Kim, Usha

    2014-01-01

    Dermoid cysts are choristomas resulting from the inclusion of ectodermal tissue during closure of the neural tube and occur along the epithelial lines of fusion. Frontotemporal dermoids are the most common type and generally present as an asymptomatic mass. We present an unusual case of frontotemporal dermoid presenting as sudden onset oculomotor nerve palsy in young male patient and describe the neurosurgical approach in its management. PMID:25449944

  19. Obsessive-Compulsive Behavior as a Symptom of Dementia in Progressive Supranuclear Palsy

    Microsoft Academic Search

    T. Fukui; E. Lee; H. Hosoda; K. Okita

    2010-01-01

    Aims: To describe obsessive-compulsive symptoms (OCS) as under-recognized behavioral and psychological symptoms of dementia of progressive supranuclear palsy (PSP) and to discuss possible mechanisms based on MRI and SPECT findings. Methods: We studied 74 PSP patients. OCS are defined as persistent and unreasonable, but non-delusional\\/hallucinatory, ideas and behaviors. Demography, cognition, the widths of middle cerebellar peduncles (MCP) and the inter-caudate

  20. Muscle Strength Enhancement Following Home-Based Virtual Cycling Training in Ambulatory Children with Cerebral Palsy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chen, Chia-Ling; Hong, Wei-Hsien; Cheng, Hsin-Yi Kathy; Liaw, Mei-Yun; Chung, Chia-Ying; Chen, Chung-Yao

    2012-01-01

    This study is the first well-designed randomized controlled trial to assess the effects of a novel home-based virtual cycling training (hVCT) program for improving muscle strength in children with spastic cerebral palsy (CP). Twenty-eight ambulatory children with spastic CP aged 6-12 years were randomly assigned to an hVCT group (n = 13) or a…

  1. Quality of life assessment in facial palsy: validation of the Dutch Facial Clinimetric Evaluation Scale.

    PubMed

    Kleiss, Ingrid J; Beurskens, Carien H G; Stalmeier, Peep F M; Ingels, Koen J A O; Marres, Henri A M

    2015-08-01

    This study aimed at validating an existing health-related quality of life questionnaire for patients with facial palsy for implementation in the Dutch language and culture. The Facial Clinimetric Evaluation Scale was translated into the Dutch language using a forward-backward translation method. A pilot test with the translated questionnaire was performed in 10 patients with facial palsy and 10 normal subjects. Finally, cross-cultural adaption was accomplished at our outpatient clinic for facial palsy. Analyses for internal consistency, test-retest reliability, construct validity and responsiveness were performed. Ninety-three patients completed the Dutch Facial Clinimetric Evaluation Scale, the Dutch Facial Disability Index, and the Dutch Short Form (36) Health Survey. Cronbach's ?, representing internal consistency, was 0.800. Test-retest reliability was shown by an intraclass correlation coefficient of 0.737. Correlations with the House-Brackmann score, Sunnybrook score, Facial Disability Index physical function, and social/well-being function were -0.292, 0.570, 0.713, and 0.575, respectively. The SF-36 domains correlate best with the FaCE social function domain, with the strongest correlation between the both social function domains (r = 0.576). The FaCE score did statistically significantly increase in 35 patients receiving botulinum toxin type A (P = 0.042, Student t test). The domains 'facial comfort' and 'social function' improved statistically significantly as well (P = 0.022 and P = 0.046, respectively, Student t-test). The Dutch Facial Clinimetric Evaluation Scale shows good psychometric values and can be implemented in the management of Dutch-speaking patients with facial palsy in the Netherlands. Translation of the instrument into other languages may lead to widespread use, making evaluation and comparison possible among different providers. PMID:25628237

  2. Factors associated with self-esteem in pre-adolescents and adolescents with cerebral palsy

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Janeen C Manuel; Rajesh Balkrishnan; Fabian Camacho; Beth Paterson Smith; L. Andrew Koman

    2003-01-01

    AbstractPredictors of self-esteem were examined in 50 pre-adolescents and adolescents with cerebral palsy. On average, self-esteem was high, although 30% scored below a cut-point for low self-esteem. Self-esteem was bivariately associated with female gender, better physician-assessed functional ability, greater perception of the impact of the disability, and higher perceived parent overprotectiveness. In a multivariate model, only perceived impact of the

  3. Sexuality of Young Adults with Cerebral Palsy: Experienced Limitations and Needs

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Diana WiegerinkMarij; Marij Roebroeck; Jim Bender; Henk Stam; Peggy Cohen-Kettenis

    2011-01-01

    Objective of this study is to describe the problems young adults with Cerebral Palsy (CP) experience in the various stages\\u000a of the sexual response cycle, and the physical and emotional obstacles they experience with sexuality. In this prospective\\u000a cohort study 74 young adults (46 men; 28 women) with CP and average intelligence participated, aged 20–24 years. Twenty percent\\u000a of these young

  4. Myotatic reflex development in normal children and children with cerebral palsy.

    PubMed

    Leonard, C T; Hirschfeld, H; Moritani, T; Forssberg, H

    1991-03-01

    Neonatal neuronal exuberance and its retention following neonatal brain damage have been demonstrated in a number of species but not in humans. The purpose of the present ongoing study is to determine if there is any evidence of neonatal neuronal exuberance and its retention following damage to the CNS in the human. Of equal concern is the determination of the neurological mechanisms underlying abnormal movement and reflex development in children with cerebral palsy. PMID:1999236

  5. Lung vital capacity and oxygen saturation in adults with cerebral palsy

    PubMed Central

    Lampe, Renée; Blumenstein, Tobias; Turova, Varvara; Alves-Pinto, Ana

    2014-01-01

    Background Individuals with infantile cerebral palsy have multiple disabilities. The most conspicuous syndrome being investigated from many aspects is motor movement disorder with a spastic gait pattern. The lung function of adults with spasticity attracts less attention in the literature. This is surprising because decreased thoracic mobility and longstanding scoliosis should have an impact on lung function. With increasing age and the level of disability, individuals become susceptible to lung infections and reflux illness, and these are accompanied by increased aspiration risk. This study examined, with different methods, to what extent adults with congenital cerebral palsy and acquired spastic paresis – following traumatic brain injury – showed restriction of lung function. It also assessed the contribution of disability level on this restriction. Methods The oxygen saturation of 46 adults with a diagnosis of cerebral palsy was measured with an oximeter. Lung vital capacity was measured with a mobile spirometer and excursion of the thorax was clinically registered. The gross motor function levels and the presence or absence of scoliosis were determined. Results A significantly positive correlation between lung vital capacity and chest expansion was established. Both the lung vital capacity and the thorax excursion decreased with increases in gross motor function level. Oxygen saturation remained within the normal range in all persons, in spite of reduced values of the measured lung parameters. No statistically significant dependency between lung vital capacity and oxygen saturation, and between chest expansion and oxygen saturation was found. The scoliotic deformities of the spine were associated with an additional decrease in the vital capacity, but this did not affect blood oxygen supply. Conclusion Despite the decreased chest expansion and the significantly reduced lung volume in adults with cerebral palsy, sufficient oxygen supply was registered. PMID:25525345

  6. Progressive supranuclear palsy-like syndrome after aortic aneurysm repair: a case series.

    PubMed

    Nandipati, Sirisha; Rucker, Janet C; Frucht, Steven J

    2013-01-01

    The syndrome of progressive supranuclear palsy-like syndrome is a rare complication of ascending aortic aneurysm repair. We report two patients with videos and present a table of prior reported cases. To our knowledge there is no previously published video of this syndrome. The suspected mechanism is brainstem injury though neuroimaging is often negative for an associated infarct. We hope our report will increase recognition of this syndrome after aortic surgery, especially in patients with visual complaints. PMID:24386607

  7. Clinical studies of photodynamic therapy for malignant brain tumors: facial nerve palsy after temporal fossa photoillumination

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Muller, Paul J.; Wilson, Brian C.; Lilge, Lothar D.; Varma, Abhay; Bogaards, Arjen; Fullagar, Tim; Fenstermaker, Robert; Selker, Robert; Abrams, Judith

    2003-06-01

    In two randomized prospective studies of brain tumor PDT more than 180 patients have been accrued. At the Toronto site we recognized two patients who developed a lower motor neuron (LMN) facial paralysis in the week following the PDT treatment. In both cases a temporal lobectomy was undertaken and the residual tumor cavity was photo-illuminated. The surface illuminated included the temporal fossa floor, thus potentially exposing the facial nerve to the effect of PDT. The number of frontal, temporal, parietal, and occipital tumors in this cohort was 39, 24, 12 and 4, respectively. Of the 24 temporal tumors 18 were randomized to Photofrin-PDT. Of these 18 a temporal lobectomy was carried out exposing the middle fossa floor as part of the tumor resection. In two of the 10 patients where the lobectomy was carried out and the fossa floor was exposed to light there occurred a postoperative facial palsy. Both patients recovered facial nerve function in 6 and 12 weeks, respectively. 46 J/cm2 were used in the former and 130 J/cm2 in the latter. We did not encounter a single post-operative LMN facial plasy in the 101 phase 2 patients treated with Photofrin-PDT. Among 688 supratentorial brain tumor operations in the last decade involving all pathologies and all locations no case of early post-operative LMN facial palsy was identified in the absence of PDT. One further patient who had a with post-PDT facial palsy was identified at the Denver site. Although it is possible that these patients had incidental Bell's palsy, we now recommend shielding the temporal fossa floor during PDT.

  8. Short-Term Memory in Young Adults With Spastic Diplegic Cerebral Palsy

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Aaro Toomela

    2012-01-01

    We examined short-term memory activation processes and task-relevant, task-irrelevant, and dynamic inhibitory processes in a group of young adults with hypoxic-ischaemic prenatal spastic diplegic cerebral palsy (HI-CP, N?=?27) with group-level and person-oriented methods of data analysis. Performance was compared with age, sex, and education of a matched control group (N?=?135). We found that HI-CP is accompanied with low level of

  9. Trends in the Prevalence of Cerebral Palsy in a Population-Based Study

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Sarah Winter; Andrew Autry; Coleen Boyle; Marshalyn Yeargin-Allsopp

    2002-01-01

    ABSTRACT. Objective. To determine trends in the prevalence of congenital cerebral palsy (CP) over a 16- year period for 1-year survivors using a large, popula- tion-based surveillance program. Methods. We determined birth weight-specific trends in the prevalence of CP in live birth and 1-year survivor cohorts of children in a 5-county metropolitan Atlanta area for the periods from 1975–1977, 1981–1985,

  10. Fingertip force control during bimanual object lifting in hemiplegic cerebral palsy

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Bert Steenbergen; Jeanne Charles; Andrew M. Gordon

    2008-01-01

    In the present study we examined unimanual and bimanual fingertip force control during grasping in children with hemiplegic\\u000a cerebral palsy (CP). Participants lifted, transported and released an object with one hand or both hands together in order\\u000a to examine the effect on fingertip force control for each hand separately and to determine whether any benefit exists for\\u000a the affected hand

  11. Perspectives on glenohumeral joint contractures and shoulder dysfunction in children with perinatal brachial plexus palsy.

    PubMed

    Gharbaoui, Idris S; Gogola, Gloria R; Aaron, Dorit H; Kozin, Scott H

    2015-01-01

    Shoulder joint deformities continue to be a challenging aspect of treating upper plexus lesions in children with perinatal brachial plexus palsy (PBPP). It is increasingly recognized that PBPP affects the glenohumeral joint specifically, and that abnormal scapulothoracic movements are a compensatory development. The pathophysiology and assessment of glenohumeral joint contractures, the progression of scapular dyskinesia and skeletal dysplasia, and current shoulder imaging techniques are reviewed. PMID:25835253

  12. The effect of the photobiomodulation in the treatment of Bell's palsy: clinical experience

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Colombo, Fabio; Marques, Aparecida Maria C.; Carvalho, Carolina M.; Paraguassu, Gardenia M.; de Sousa, José A. C.; Magalhaes, Edival; Cangussu, Maria Cristina T.; de A. Reis, Silvia Regina; Pinheiro, Antonio Luiz B.

    2012-03-01

    The Bell's palsy (G51) consists of a unilateral face paralysis that sudden begins with unknown cause and can result in complete mimic loss or partial paralysis of the face. Damage to the VII cranial nerve can be found in the pathology, promoting mussel's inactivity. The light Photobiomodulation (LPBM) has presented ability of rush the tissue repair, favoring the regeneration of neural structures. The present study aimed to assess the effectiveness use of the 780nm laser and 850nm LED (light-emitting diode) in the treatment of the face paralysis. Were evaluated 14 patients that suffer of Bell's palsy whom were submitted to the light administration, on the Laser Clinic of the UFBA between 2005 and 2010. The treatment was performed by infrared Laser in 11 patients (78.57%), and by LED in 3 patients (21.42%). At the end of the 12 sections, 11 patients (78.57%) had presented themselves cure or with substantial improvement of the initial picture, however 3 patients (21.42%) dealt with infra-red Laser ?780nm had not evolution. The light presented as an effective method for the treatment of Bell's palsy, but the association with the physiotherapy and medications is important.

  13. Nerve growth factor for Bell’s palsy: A meta-analysis

    PubMed Central

    SU, YIPENG; DONG, XIAOMENG; LIU, JUAN; HU, YAOZHI; CHEN, JINBO

    2015-01-01

    A meta-analysis was performed to evaluate the efficacy and safety of nerve growth factor (NGF) in the treatment of Bell’s palsy. PubMed, the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, Embase and a number of Chinese databases, including the China National Knowledge Infrastructure, China Biology Medicine disc, VIP Database for Chinese Technical Periodicals and Wan Fang Data, were used to collect randomised controlled trials (RCTs) of NGF for Bell’s palsy. The span of the search covered data from the date of database establishment until December 2013. The included trials were screened comprehensively and rigorously. The efficacies of NGF were pooled via meta-analysis performed using Review Manager 5.2 software. Odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were calculated using the fixed-effects model. The meta-analysis of eight RCTs showed favorable effects of NGF on the disease response rate (n=642; OR, 3.87; 95% CI, 2.13–7.03; P<0.01; I2=0%). However, evidence supporting the effectiveness of NGF for the treatment of Bell’s palsy is limited. The number and quality of trials are too low to form solid conclusions. Further meticulous RCTs are required to overcome the limitations identified in the present study. PMID:25574223

  14. Cerebral palsy for the pediatric eye care team part 1: epidemiology, pathogenesis, and systemic findings.

    PubMed

    Arnoldi, Kyle; Jackson, Jorie Hart

    2005-01-01

    Cerebral palsy (CP) is a term used to describe a spectrum of neurological deficits resulting from damage to the immature brain. It is a chronic, nonprogressive motor disorder that affects posture, muscle tone, and movement, and therefore commonly results in ophthalmologic abnormalities such as strabismus and eye movement disorders. A basic understanding of CP and its effects will assist the clinician in the diagnosis, prognosis, and management of associated ophthalmologic disorders. This first, in a series of three articles, reviews the definition, epidemiology, pathogenesis, and classification of CP, as well as current management of the postural and motor effects. Results include a retrospective review of 131 consecutive cases of cerebral palsy referred to the Department of Ophthalmology by the Cerebral Palsy Center at the St. Louis Children's Hospital. The second article in the series will present the frequency, diagnosis, and management of the ocular motor deficits associated with CP. Article three will discuss the evaluation of visual acuity, management of decreased vision, and the frequency and type of binocular vision deficits associated with CP. PMID:21149117

  15. Electrophysiological findings of acute peripheral facial palsy in diabetic and non-diabetic patients.

    PubMed

    Kiziltan, Meral E; Uluduz, Derya; Yaman, Mehmet; Uzun, Nurten

    2007-05-18

    The aim of this study is to investigate the role of diabetes mellitus on the clinical and electrophysiological findings of peripheral facial palsy (PFP), the effect of the diabetes duration and polyneuropathy on the electrophysiological parameters. A total of 32 diabetic and 40 non-diabetic patients with peripheral facial palsy were included. All patients were divided into two subgroups based on the time of electrophysiological examinations: within the first 15 days versus within 16-30 days. Neuropathy symptoms and the results of neurological examinations and electrophysiological findings were recorded. The findings of electroneurography (EnoG), blink reflex (BR) evaluation, and needle electromyography (EMG) indicated statistically significant blink reflex abnormalities in diabetic patients compared to non-diabetics. Delay in the latency was more remarkable in the R2 component than in the R1 (p<0.001). The delay in the R1 latency was also observed in the non-affected side for diabetic patients. The longer duration of the diabetes caused significant delay on the blink reflex latency on both the affected and non-affected sides for R1 component (p=0.019, p=0.041, respectively). In contrary, neither the diabetes duration nor the age of the patients correlated with the clinical severity of facial palsy, fiber loss, fibular nerve compound muscle action potential amplitudes, and the nerve conduction velocities. PMID:17400385

  16. Effects of frequency of feedback on the learning of motor skill in individuals with cerebral palsy.

    PubMed

    Hemayattalab, Rasool; Rostami, Leila Rashidi

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of frequency of knowledge of results (KR) on the learning of dart in individuals with cerebral palsy type I. Twenty-four individuals with cerebral palsy (CP) between the ages of 5 and 17 were chosen for this study. They were put into 3 homogenous groups according to their records after 20 throws and practiced for 8 sessions. The first group (0% KR) received no KR for any trials, the second group (50% KR) received KR for half of their trials (50%), and the third group (100% KR) received KR for all their trials (100%). The acquisition test was run immediately after the last session and the retention test was run 3 days later. Paired sample t-test and one-way ANOVA were used to analyze the data from the acquisition and retention tests. According to the results of this study, those with cerebral palsy have the ability of acquiring and retaining a new motor skill under the condition of feedback provision. Interestingly it was found that too much feedback interferes with learning of tasks in individuals with CP as in the average population. This finding shows that rules regarding feedback also apply to people afflicted with CP. PMID:19864110

  17. Long-term outcome of reconstruction of the hip in young children with cerebral palsy.

    PubMed

    Dhawale, A A; Karatas, A F; Holmes, L; Rogers, K J; Dabney, K W; Miller, F

    2013-02-01

    We reviewed the long-term radiological outcome, complications and revision operations in 19 children with quadriplegic cerebral palsy and hip dysplasia who underwent combined peri-iliac osteotomy and femoral varus derotation osteotomy. They had a mean age of 7.5 years (1.6 to 10.9) and comprised 22 hip dislocations and subluxations. We also studied the outcome for the contralateral hip. At a mean follow-up of 11.7 years (10 to 15.1) the Melbourne cerebral palsy (CP) hip classification was grade 2 in 16 hips, grade 3 in five, and grade 5 in one. There were five complications seen in four hips (21%, four patients), including one dislocation, one subluxation, one coxa vara with adduction deformity, one subtrochanteric fracture and one infection. A recurrent soft-tissue contracture occurred in five hips and ten required revision surgery. In pre-adolescent children with quadriplegic cerebral palsy good long-term outcomes can be achieved after reconstruction of the hip; regular follow-up is required. PMID:23365039

  18. Subtrochanteric valgus osteotomy with monolateral external fixator in hips for patients with severe cerebral palsy.

    PubMed

    Agashe, Mandar; Song, Sang-Heon; Tong, Xue-Bo; Hong, Jin-Ho; Song, Hae-Ryong

    2013-02-01

    Subtrochanteric valgus osteotomy has been used for painful hip joint dislocation in patients with severe cerebral palsy. The goal of this study was to evaluate 11 patients (17 hips) with severe cerebral palsy who had chronically dislocated and painful hips treated with subtrochanteric valgus osteotomy using a monolateral external fixator. A retrospective review was performed of 11 patients (average age, 17.8 years) with severe quadriplegic cerebral palsy with flexion-adduction contractures due to chronically dislocated and painful hips. A subtrochanteric valgus osteotomy with a monolateral fixator was performed in all patients. Patients were analyzed clinicoradiologically, and caregivers were asked about ease of handling, transfers, and perineal care. At an average follow-up of 37 months (range, 14-72 months), all caregivers were satisfied with the surgery and felt that their child was more comfortable and could sit with support for a longer time period and that perineal care, wheelchair mobilization, and transfers were much easier. A total of 11 complications in 7 patients were observed, including pin-tract infections, delayed consolidation, abduction deformity, and hypostatic pneumonia. The complication rate of subtrochanteric valgus osteotomy was comparable with other methods, and this method had the advantage of shorter surgical time, ease of application, no internal implant with lesser chance of infection or heterotopic calcification, and less intraoperative blood loss with less morbidity. PMID:23379924

  19. The gait of children with and without cerebral palsy: work, energy, and angular momentum.

    PubMed

    Russell, Shawn; Bennett, Bradford; Sheth, Pradip; Abel, Mark

    2011-05-01

    This paper describes a method to characterize gait pathologies like cerebral palsy using work, energy, and angular momentum. For a group of 24 children, 16 with spastic diplegic cerebral palsy and 8 typically developed, kinematic data were collected at the subjects self selected comfortable walking speed. From the kinematics, the work-internal, external, and whole body; energy-rotational and relative linear; and the angular momentum were calculated. Our findings suggest that internal work represents 53% and 40% respectively of the whole body work in gait for typically developed children and children with cerebral palsy. Analysis of the angular momentum of the whole body, and other subgroupings of body segments, revealed a relationship between increased angular momentum and increased internal work. This relationship allows one to use angular momentum to assist in determining the kinetics and kinematics of gait which contribute to increased internal work. Thus offering insight to interventions which can be applied to increase the efficiency of bipedal locomotion, by reducing internal work which has no direct contribution to center of mass motion, in both normal and pathologic populations. PMID:21576717

  20. The effects of vestibular stimulation on a child with hypotonic cerebral palsy

    PubMed Central

    An, Sun-Joung Leigh

    2015-01-01

    [Purpose] The purpose of this case report is to present the effects of vestibular stimulation on a child with hypotonic cerebral palsy through the use of swings. [Case Description] The subject was a 19-month-old boy with a diagnosis of hypotonic cerebral palsy (CP) and oscillating nystagmus. The subject had received both physical therapy and occupational therapy two times per week since he was 5 months old but showed little to no improvement. [Methods] Pre and post-intervention tests were completed by the researcher using the Bayley Scales of Infant and Toddler Development II. The subject was provided with vestibular stimulation 3 times per week for 10 weeks in 1 hour sessions conducted by his mother as instructed by the researcher. During this research all other therapies were stopped to determine the effects of the vestibular stimulation and to exclude the effects of other therapies. [Results] The subject demonstrated improvement of 4 months in motor skills and of 3 months in mental skills as shown by the Bayley Scales of Infant and Toddler Development II. [Conclusion] Vestibular stimulation was effective in improving postural control, movement, emotional well-being, and social participation of a child with hypotonic cerebral palsy. PMID:25995606

  1. [A 65-year-old man with rigid-bradykinetic parkinsonism, vertical gaze palsy, difficulty of eye-lid opening, and marked pseudo-bulbar palsy].

    PubMed

    Noda, Kazuyuki; Kobayashi, Tomonori; Matsuoka, Shuji; Takanashi, Masashi; Kanazawa, Akira; Mizuno, Yoshikuni

    2005-01-01

    We report a 65-year-old man with rigid-bradykinetic parkinsonism, vertical gaze palsy, difficulty in eye-lid opening, and marked pseudo-bulbar palsy. He felt difficulty of it, hand movement at 59 years old. When he was 60 years old, monotonous speech and slowness of movement appeared. He visited a neurologist who noted vertical gaze palsy, neck rigidity, and bradykinesia. He was diagnosed as progressive supranuclear palsy (PSP) and given 300 mg L-Dopa/Benserazide by the neurologist. This medication improved his rigidity and bradykinesia. At 62 years of the age, his eye-lids closed involuntary and it was difficult to open. In addition, he began to complain of wearing-off, autonomic symptoms, and dysphagia. Anti-parkinsonian drugs were increased, but his bradykinesia progressed. At 64 years of the age, he was admitted to the Neurology Service of Juntendo Hospital. On admission, he was alert and not demented. No aphasia, apraxia, or agnosia was noted. In the cranial nerves, upward and downward gaze were markedly restricted. His face was hypomimic and seborrhoic. It was difficult to swallow liquid or solid for him. No weakness was noted, but he walked in small steps with freezing and falling tendency to backward. Rigidity was noted on his extremities and stronger on his left side than right. Tremor was absent. Bradykinesia of his body and extremities was marked. No cerebellar ataxia was noted. Deep tendon reflexes were within normal range. Planter response was flexor bilaterally. Myerson's sign was noted. Sensory and autonomic function were normal. He was treated with L-Dopa, Pergolide, and Bromocriptine. However, these medications improved his bradykinesia and gait disturbance only slightly, dysphagia became progressively worse. He developed aspiration pneumonia when he was 65 years old and admitted to Juntendo Hospital. A large amount of sputum was aspirated from his trachea. Two days after from admission, he was found dead on his bed. He was discussed in a neurological CPC and the chief discussant arrived at a conclusion that the patient had progressive supranuclear palsy (PSP). Other differential diagnoses included Parkinson's disease, pallido-nigroluysian atrophy (PNLA), multiple system atrophy (MSA), and corticobasal degeneration(CBD). Many participants considered that PSP or PNLA was most likely. Post-mortem exmination revealed marked nigral neuronal loss and gliosis. The globus pallidus and the luysian body changed mildly. However, the frontal cortex was relatively spared, there were many ballooned neurons in the cortical layer. Other parts were spared. With sliver (Bodian and Gallyas-Braak) and anti-phsphorylated tau stain, abundant astrocytic plaques, neurofibrillary tangles, and argyrophilic threads on the frontal cortex, striatum, and substantia nigra were seen. There was no tufted astrocyte which was hallmark of diagnosis of PSP. In addition, several Lewy bodies were seen in the brainstem. Because astrocyte plaque was considered specific for pathology of CBD, the pathologist revealed that the pathological diagnosis of this patient was CBD. Nevertheless, discussion was focused on the relatively mild degeneration of the frontal cortex for CBD. PMID:15782604

  2. Botulinum Toxin Type A Injections to Salivary Glands: Combination With Single Event Multilevel Chemoneurolysis in 2 Children With Severe Spastic Quadriplegic Cerebral Palsy

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Heakyung Kim; Yung Lee; Daniel Weiner; Robin Kaye; Anne Marie Cahill; Marc Yudkoff

    2006-01-01

    Kim H, Lee Y, Weiner D, Kaye R, Cahill AM, Yudkoff M. Botulinum toxin type A injections to salivary glands: combination with single event multilevel chemoneurolysis in 2 children with severe spastic quadriplegic cerebral palsy.We describe 2 children with severe spastic quadriplegic cerebral palsy (CP) who have significant drooling and frequent aspiration pneumonia. They underwent simultaneous botulinum toxin type A

  3. The effect of robotic reinforced movement learning technology on the development of prone mobility in infants at low and high risk for cerebral palsy

    E-print Network

    Fagg, Andrew H.

    in infants at low and high risk for cerebral palsy AUTHOR BLOCK: *H. T. KOLOBE 1 , A. H. FAGG 2 , P. PIDCOE 3. of Oklahoma, Norman, OK; 3 Virginia Commonwealth Univ., Richmond, VA Abstract: Children at risk for cerebral palsy (CP) have a wide range of mobility constraints that impact functional independence across

  4. Wii-based Balance Therapy to Improve Balance Function of Children with Cerebral Palsy: A Pilot Study

    PubMed Central

    Tarakci, Devrim; Ozdincler, Arzu Razak; Tarakci, Ela; Tutuncuoglu, Fatih; Ozmen, Meral

    2013-01-01

    [Purpose] Cerebral palsy is a sensorimotor disorder that affects the control of posture and movement. The Nintendo® Wii Fit offers an inexpensive, enjoyable, suitable alternative to more complex systems for children with cerebral palsy. The aim of this study was to investigate the efficacacy of Wii-based balance therapy for children with ambulatory cerebral palsy. [Subjects] This pilot study design included fourteen ambulatory patients with cerebral palsy (11 males, 3 females; mean age 12.07 ± 3.36?years). [Methods] Balance functions before and after treatment were evaluated using one leg standing, the functional reach test, the timed up and go test, and the 6-minute walking test. The physiotherapist prescribed the Wii Fit activities,and supervised and supported the patients during the therapy sessions. Exercises were performed in a standardized program 2 times a week for 12 weeks. [Results] Balance ability of every patient improved. Statistically significant improvements were found in all outcome measures after 12 weeks. [Conclusion] The results suggest that the Nintendo® Wii Fit provides a safe, enjoyable, suitable and effective method that can be added to conventional treatments to improve the static balance of patients with cerebral palsy; however, further work is required. PMID:24259928

  5. The effects of horseback riding participation on the muscle tone and range of motion for children with spastic cerebral palsy.

    PubMed

    Baik, Kwang; Byeun, Jung-Kyun; Baek, Jae-Keun

    2014-10-01

    The objective of this research is to verify the effects of horseback riding participation on the muscle tone of pelvic limbs and articular range of motion for children with spastic cerebral palsy. The research target is 16 children with spastic cerebral palsy, 8 children for the experimental group and 8 children for the control group. As a tool to measure the muscle tone, Modified Ashworth Scale (MAS), was used and a goniometer was used to measure the range of motion (ROM). A therapeutic horseback riding program was conducted to an experimental group of 8 children with spastic cerebral palsy in the therapeutic horseback riding for 60 min a day, 2 days a week and a total of 12 weeks. The results are as follows: First, the participation in the therapeutic horseback riding program showed a statistically significant difference in the muscle tone for the knee of children with spastic cerebral palsy (P< 0.01). Second, though the difference in knee muscle tone between the experimental group and the control group was statistically insignificant, the average was improved by the participation. Third, the participation in the therapeutic horseback riding program showed a statistically significant difference in the hip-joint motion range for the knee of children with spastic cerebral palsy (P< 0.01). Fourth, though the difference in the hip joint motion range between the experimental group and the control group was statistically insignificant, the average was improved by the participation. PMID:25426462

  6. The effects of horseback riding participation on the muscle tone and range of motion for children with spastic cerebral palsy

    PubMed Central

    Baik, Kwang; Byeun, Jung-Kyun; Baek, Jae-Keun

    2014-01-01

    The objective of this research is to verify the effects of horseback riding participation on the muscle tone of pelvic limbs and articular range of motion for children with spastic cerebral palsy. The research target is 16 children with spastic cerebral palsy, 8 children for the experimental group and 8 children for the control group. As a tool to measure the muscle tone, Modified Ashworth Scale (MAS), was used and a goniometer was used to measure the range of motion (ROM). A therapeutic horseback riding program was conducted to an experimental group of 8 children with spastic cerebral palsy in the therapeutic horseback riding for 60 min a day, 2 days a week and a total of 12 weeks. The results are as follows: First, the participation in the therapeutic horseback riding program showed a statistically significant difference in the muscle tone for the knee of children with spastic cerebral palsy (P< 0.01). Second, though the difference in knee muscle tone between the experimental group and the control group was statistically insignificant, the average was improved by the participation. Third, the participation in the therapeutic horseback riding program showed a statistically significant difference in the hip-joint motion range for the knee of children with spastic cerebral palsy (P< 0.01). Fourth, though the difference in the hip joint motion range between the experimental group and the control group was statistically insignificant, the average was improved by the participation. PMID:25426462

  7. Under Pressure: Your Blood Pressure

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    2012-06-26

    During this lesson, learners will determine their blood pressure and learn about systolic and diastolic pressures. They also investigate how blood pressure works with an activity that uses a balloon and a film canister, and learn about factors that contribute to high blood pressure.

  8. [Activities and participation of children with cerebral palsy according to the International Classification of Functioning, Disability, and Health].

    PubMed

    Brasileiro, Ismênia de Carvalho; Moreira, Thereza Maria Magalhães; Jorge, Maria Salete Bessa; Queiroz, Maria Veraci Oliveira; Mont'Alverne, Daniele Gardano Bucharles

    2009-01-01

    Cerebral palsy is among the most common motor disabilities in our midst that limits individuals from carrying out their normal daily routines. The adjacent alterations, characterization, and participation of the child in these activities is not appropriated explored in the literature. The objective of this survey was to describe the capacity and performance of the children with cerebral palsy treated at an institution in the city of Fortaleza as to their capacity to carry out tasks and participate in daily life activities as stated in the International Classification of Functioning, Disability, and Health. Thirty-two children were evaluated. The data collected was grouped by the software Statistical Package of Social of Science (SPSS). The ICF had proportioned an objective description from cerebral palsy disabilities. It was clear that the impact that the disease has on the life of the children. PMID:19768323

  9. Differing patterns of striatal sup 18 F-dopa uptake in Parkinson's disease, multiple system atrophy, and progressive supranuclear palsy

    SciTech Connect

    Brooks, D.J.; Ibanez, V.; Sawle, G.V.; Quinn, N.; Lees, A.J.; Mathias, C.J.; Bannister, R.; Marsden, C.D.; Frackowiak, R.S. (Hammersmith Hospital, London (England))

    1990-10-01

    Using positron emission tomography (PET), we studied regional striatal 18F-dopa uptake in 16 patients with L-dopa-responsive Parkinson's disease (PD), 18 patients with multiple system atrophy, and 10 patients with progressive supranuclear palsy. Results were compared with those of 30 age-matched normal volunteers. The patients with PD showed significantly reduced mean uptake of 18F-dopa in the caudate and putamen compared to controls, but while function in the posterior part of the putamen was severely impaired (45% of normal), function in the anterior part of the putamen and in the caudate was relatively spared (62% and 84% of normal). Mean 18F-dopa uptake in the posterior putamen was depressed to similar levels in all patients. Unlike patients with PD, the patients with progressive supranuclear palsy showed equally severe impairment of mean 18F-dopa uptake in the anterior and posterior putamen. Caudate 18F-dopa uptake was also significantly lower in patients with progressive supranuclear palsy than in patients with PD, being depressed to the same level as that in the putamen. Mean 18F-dopa uptake values in the anterior putamen and caudate in patients with multiple system atrophy lay between PD and progressive supranuclear palsy levels. Locomotor disability of individual patients with PD or multiple system atrophy correlated with decline in striatal 18F-dopa uptake, but this was not the case for the patients with progressive supranuclear palsy. We conclude that patients with PD have selective nigral pathological features with relative preservation of the dopaminergic function in the anterior putamen and caudate, whereas there is progressively more extensive nigral involvement in multiple system atrophy and progressive supranuclear palsy.

  10. Sphenoid sinus mucocele as a cause of isolated pupil-sparing oculomotor nerve palsy mimicking diabetic ophthalmoplegia.

    PubMed

    Mohebbi, Alireza; Jahandideh, Hesam; Harandi, Ali Amini

    2013-12-01

    A 37-year-old woman presented with isolated right-sided oculomotor nerve palsy. Neurologic examination revealed no other disorder. Computed tomography of the paranasal sinuses demonstrated complete opacification of the sphenoid sinus. Dense mucoid fluid was drained from the sphenoid sinus via an endoscopic transseptal sphenoidotomy. A biopsy confirmed the diagnosis of sphenoid sinus mucocele. At follow-up 4 weeks postoperatively, the patient's ocular symptoms were markedly alleviated. Considering rare causes of isolated oculomotor nerve palsy, such as sphenoid sinus mucocele, is important in the differential diagnosis, even in patients with well-known risk factors such as diabetes mellitus. PMID:24366704

  11. Long-standing postsurgical lower cranial nerve palsy mimicking a pharyngolaryngeal submucosal mass in an elderly patient.

    PubMed

    Pichi, Barbara; Terenzi, Valentina; Marchesi, Paolo; Vidiri, Antonello; Spriano, Giuseppe

    2011-09-01

    Changes that occur as a natural part of senescence in the complex action of deglutition predispose to dysphagia and aspiration. This dysfunction is worsened in patients with preexisting anatomic or functional alteration such as in case of a postsurgical lower cranial nerve palsy. We present the case of a 72-year-old woman who underwent surgical resection of a right jugulotympanic tumor 33 years ago, resulting in lower cranial nerve palsy, and came to our attention referring a 4 months' history of progressive dysphagia in which a pharyngolaryngeal submucosal mass was suspected. PMID:21959475

  12. Slow pseudoperiodic lateralized epileptiform discharges in nonconvulsive status epilepticus in a patient with cerebral palsy and a large central meningioma

    PubMed Central

    Imam, Y.Z.; Deleu, D.; Mesraoua, B.; D'souza, A.; Al Hail, H.; Kaplan, P.W.

    2014-01-01

    The presence of cerebral palsy and that of slow growing brain tumors are risk factors for convulsive and nonconvulsive status epilepticus. Nonconvulsive status epilepticus (NCSE) needs electroencephalographic (EEG) monitoring to be confirmed as it may be clinically subtle. Furthermore, it may present with a variety of ictal EEG morphologies. We report a case of a patient with cerebral palsy and a large central meningioma. Electroencephalogram showed a slow pattern of periodic lateralized epileptiform discharges (PLEDs) (a pattern considered as being situated in the ictal–interictal continuum) on an alpha background. The patient was treated for NCSE successfully with benzodiazepines followed by up-titration of his antiepileptic drug doses. PMID:25667901

  13. Acupuncture and vitamin B12 injection for Bell’s palsy: no high-quality evidence exists

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Li-li; Guan, Ling; Hao, Peng-liang; Du, Jin-long; Zhang, Meng-xue

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To assess the efficacy of acupuncture combined with vitamin B12 acupoint injection versus acupuncture alone to reduce incomplete recovery in patients with Bell’s palsy. DATA RETRIEVAL: A computer-based online retrieval of Medline, Web of Science, CNKI, CBM databases until April 2014 was performed for relevant trials, using the key words “Bell’s palsy or idiopathic facial palsy or facial palsy” and “acupuncture or vitamin B12 or methylcobalamin”. STUDY SELECTION: All randomized controlled trials that compared acupuncture with acupuncture combined with vitamin B12 in patients with Bell’s palsy were included in the meta-analysis. The initial treatment lasted for at least 4 weeks. The outcomes of incomplete facial recovery were monitored. The scoring index varied and the definition of healing was consistent. The combined effect size was calculated by using relative risk (RR) with 95% confidence interval (CI) using the fixed effect model of Review Manager. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Incomplete recovery rates were chosen as the primary outcome. RESULTS: Five studies involving 344 patients were included in the final analysis. Results showed that the incomplete recovery rate of Bell’s palsy patients was 44.50% in the acupuncture combined with vitamin B12 group but 62.57% in the acupuncture alone group. The major acupoints were Taiyang (EX-HN5), Jiache (ST6), Dicang (ST4) and Sibai (ST2). The combined effect size showed that acupuncture combined with vitamin B12 was better than acupuncture alone for the treatment of Bell’s palsy (RR = 0.71, 95%CI: 0.58–0.87; P = 0.001), this result held true when 8 patients lost to follow up in one study were included into the analyses (RR = 0.70, 95%CI: 0.58–0.86; P = 0.0005). In the subgroup analyses, the therapeutic effect in patients of the electroacupuncture subgroup was better than in the non-electroacupuncture subgroup (P = 0.024). There was no significant difference in the incomplete recovery rate by subgroup analysis on drug types and treatment period. Most of the included studies were moderate or low quality, and bias existed. CONCLUSION: In patients with Bell’s palsy, acupuncture combined with vitamin B12 can reduce the risk of incomplete recovery compared with acupuncture alone in our meta-analysis. Because of study bias and methodological limitations, this conclusion is uncertain and the clinical application of acupuncture combined with vitamin B12 requires further exploration.

  14. Air Pressure

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    University of Illinois

    2009-01-01

    In this experiment, learners use a blow dryer and water bottle to observe and record changes in air pressure caused by changes in temperature. Educators can use this activity to explain how changes in temperature cause changes in air pressure which cause wind. This activity guide contains background information on air pressure, instructions for an extension experiment, and links to useful online resources.

  15. Feeling Pressured

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    2012-07-12

    In this activity, learners (at least three) work together to explore the effects of atmospheric pressure. A learner (at least 100 lbs) will step inside an extra large trash bag, while another reduces the air pressure in the bag slightly with a vacuum cleaner. The bag will squeeze the occupant due to the differences in external and internal pressure.

  16. Measuring intellectual ability in children with cerebral palsy: can we do better?

    PubMed

    Sherwell, Sarah; Reid, Susan M; Reddihough, Dinah S; Wrennall, Jacquie; Ong, Ben; Stargatt, Robyn

    2014-10-01

    Standard intelligence tests such as the WPPSI-III have limitations when testing children with motor impairment. This study aimed to determine the proportion of children with cerebral palsy with sufficient verbal and motor skills to complete the WPPSI-III, to determine their comparative ability to complete tasks with and without a significant motor component, and to investigate short forms of the WPPSI-III as alternatives. Participants were 78 of 235 eligible 4-5 year old children with cerebral palsy resident in the Australian state of Victoria. Verbal IQ (VIQ), Performance IQ (PIQ), and Full-scale IQ (FSIQ) were determined using the WPPSI-III. Initial screening for pointing and verbal abilities determined which tests were attempted. The impact of speed was investigated by comparing scores on the Block Design subtest with and without an imposed time limit. FSIQ scores were calculated from two short forms of the WPPSI-III and compared to the full form. On screening, 16 children had inadequate pointing (14) and verbal abilities (2). FSIQ was obtained in 62 (82%) children. Strong associations were seen between completion of the entire test battery and topographical pattern, level of manual ability and level of gross motor function. Scores on subtests requiring manual ability were depressed relative to other scores. Children performed better using short forms of the WPPSI-III and, for a minority, when time limits were disregarded. In summary, children with cerebral palsy often lack the fine and gross motor skills necessary to complete the WPPSI-III, scoring relatively poorly on tasks requiring a fine motor response. Using short-form estimations of FSIQ comprised of subtests without a significant fine motor component has the potential to increase a child's FSIQ by approximately 5 points. These findings have important clinical implications when assessing a child with both motor and cognitive limitations. PMID:25005064

  17. Post Traumatic Delayed Bilateral Facial Nerve Palsy (FNP): Diagnostic Dilemma of Expressionless Face.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Rakesh; Mittal, Radhey Shyam

    2015-04-01

    Bilateral facial nerve palsy [FNP] is a rare condition. Mostly it is idiopathic. Post traumatic bilateral FNP is even more rare and having unique neurosurgical considerations. Post traumatic delayed presentation of bilateral FNP is socially debilitating and also having diagnostic challenge. Due to lack of facial asymmetry as present in unilateral facial paralysis, it is difficult to recognize. We are presenting a case of delayed onset bilateral FNP who developed FNP after 12 days of head injury with a brief discussion of its diagnostic dilemma and management along with literature review. PMID:26023597

  18. Tinnitus in fourth nerve palsy: an indicator for an intra-axial lesion.

    PubMed

    Choi, Seo Young; Song, Jae Jin; Hwang, Jeong Min; Kim, Ji Soo

    2010-12-01

    Accompanying neurological symptoms and signs are diagnostic hallmarks of fourth nerve palsy (4NP) from an intra-axial lesion. Due to the proximity of the trochlear nucleus and fascicles to the inferior colliculus (IC), auditory symptoms including tinnitus may occur with an intra-axial 4NP. A 53-year-old man with hypertension and diabetes developed right 4NP with a sudden worsening of tinnitus. MRI disclosed an infarction involving the trochlear fascicle and IC in the left dorsal midbrain. Tinnitus may be a symptom indicating an intra-axial lesion causing a 4NP. PMID:20581691

  19. [Peripheral facial palsy after embolization of a dural arteriovenous fistula with Onyx®].

    PubMed

    Kupfer, T J; Aumann, K; Laszig, R; Meckel, S

    2011-05-01

    Dural arteriovenous fistulas (DAVF) are intracranial vascular malformations which can cause severe complications, such as intracranial bleeding and neurological deficits. We report the case of a patient presenting with pulsatile tinnitus caused by a DAVF. The DAVF was endovascularly treated including transarterial embolization with the liquid embolic agent Onyx®. The fistula and tinnitus were cured successfully, however, the rare complication of facial nerve palsy due to reflux of Onyx® into the vasa nervorum occurred. This could be confirmed directly during surgery and by histological analysis. PMID:21505930

  20. Synergistic convergence and split pons in horizontal gaze palsy and progressive scoliosis in two sisters.

    PubMed

    Jain, Nitin R; Jethani, Jitendra; Narendran, Kalpana; Kanth, L

    2011-01-01

    Synergistic convergence is an ocular motor anomaly where on attempted abduction or on attempted horizontal gaze, both the eyes converge. It has been related to peripheral causes such as congenital fibrosis of extraocular muscles (CFEOM), congenital cranial dysinnervation syndrome, ocular misinnervation or rarely central causes like horizontal gaze palsy with progressive scoliosis, brain stem dysplasia. We hereby report the occurrence of synergistic convergence in two sisters. Both of them also had kyphoscoliosis. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) brain and spine in both the patients showed signs of brain stem dysplasia (split pons sign) differing in degree (younger sister had more marked changes). PMID:21350292

  1. Post Traumatic Delayed Bilateral Facial Nerve Palsy (FNP): Diagnostic Dilemma of Expressionless Face

    PubMed Central

    Mittal, Radhey Shyam

    2015-01-01

    Bilateral facial nerve palsy [FNP] is a rare condition. Mostly it is idiopathic. Post traumatic bilateral FNP is even more rare and having unique neurosurgical considerations. Post traumatic delayed presentation of bilateral FNP is socially debilitating and also having diagnostic challenge. Due to lack of facial asymmetry as present in unilateral facial paralysis, it is difficult to recognize. We are presenting a case of delayed onset bilateral FNP who developed FNP after 12 days of head injury with a brief discussion of its diagnostic dilemma and management along with literature review. PMID:26023597

  2. The social context of occupations: analysis of a father feeding his daughter diagnosed with cerebral palsy.

    PubMed

    Bonsall, Aaron

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to examine a father feeding his daughter who is diagnosed with cerebral palsy in order to identify the contexts that make this occupation significant. The analysis of direct observation and interviews demonstrates significant moments where two individuals make intersubjective connections. Themes that are presented are the Intensity of Mealtime, Connections Between Participants, and Adapted Forms of Communication. Both the difficulties and rewards of mealtime are illustrated within these themes. This analysis reveals the structure and importance of doing together in influencing and determining occupations. From a clinical perspective, the meaningfulness of fathering occupations highlights the importance of including fathers in family-centered care. PMID:25347757

  3. Sixth Cranial Nerve Palsy Caused by Gastric Adenocarcinoma Metastasis to the Clivus

    PubMed Central

    Chang, Kee-hyun; Hong, Hyunsook; Kim, Heekyung

    2015-01-01

    Tumors of the clivus and metastases to the clivus are very rare. Metastasis involving the clivus has previously been described in only two case reports. In skull metastasis, the breast and prostate are the most common primary foci, while metastasis from gastric carcinoma is extremely rare. A review of the English literature revealed only one published case of clivus metastases from gastric adenocarcinoma. There is no literature thoroughly explaining the differential diagnosis between chordoma and metastasis. Here we report a rare case of metastasis to the clivus from a gastric adenocarcinoma in a 42-year-old female patient with sudden blurry vision, presenting as bilateral cranial nerve VI palsy. PMID:25810862

  4. Incomplete peripheral facial nerve palsy and ulnar neuropathy due to leprosy mistaken as faciobrachial stroke.

    PubMed

    Lalla, Rakesh; Mulherkar, Rupal Vijay; Misar, Parag Vijay

    2015-01-01

    A middle-aged woman was referred to our hospital emergency ward in view of acute onset left faciobrachial weakness. An urgent MRI of the brain was performed, which did not reveal any abnormality and hence a neurology consultation was arranged in order to rule out acute stroke. However, examination and retrospective history taking proved to be a valuable aid in this patient's diagnosis. The incomplete lower motor neuron facial nerve palsy and hand weakness due to leprosy in reaction was confused by the general practitioner as a faciobrachial stroke. PMID:26106179

  5. A Case of Transient Local Anesthetic Induced Bilateral Vocal Cord Palsy

    PubMed Central

    Rafiq, M.; Al-Zoraigi, U.; Alzahrani, S.; Alabdulkarim, Y.

    2015-01-01

    We report a rare case of bilateral vocal cord palsy following total thyroidectomy with successful extubation within 12 hours. The patient is a 33-year-old lady who underwent uneventful total thyroidectomy for compressive symptoms. Thirty minutes after extubation, she developed stridor and the flexible laryngoscopy showed bilaterally adducted vocal cords. The patient, thus, was reintubated and after 12 hours she met the extubation parameters and so she was extubated successfully. The repeated flexible laryngoscopy showed normal vocal cords. A review of the literature revealed limited information on this transient condition.

  6. Medicine and art: facial palsy depicted in archaic Greek art on Crete.

    PubMed

    Pirsig, W; Helidonis, E; Velegrakis, G

    1995-01-01

    A small earthenware statuette was evacuated from the votive-depot of acropolis of Gortys, an ancient town in South-Crete/Greece. This ex-voto is dated approximately 7th to 6th century BC and very probably represents some symptoms of a stroke, especially the left facial palsy and the contracture of the left arm. Since the Minoan time until today, people of Crete have been offering ex-votos to gods or saints to ask for help in specific diseases. PMID:7793511

  7. [Evaluation of voluntary movement organization in the late residual stage of cerebral palsy].

    PubMed

    Mugerman, B I

    2009-01-01

    The functional state of agonists and antagonists involving in providing of supporting function of feet and walking in adolescences, aged 13-15 years, with cerebral palsy has been studied using electromyography and polymyography. The electromyographical examination showed infringements of reciprocal innervation and potentials of fasciculation on the curves received from resting muscles of symmetric extremities. Polymyographic curves revealed the elongation of latent time of muscle tension and full period of relaxation against a background of expressed amplitude decay of the dynamometer card. Results obtained are thought to facilitate the more effective implementation of different rehabilitative measures in the late residual disease stage. PMID:19672238

  8. Rhinocerebral mucormycosis with isolated sixth nerve palsy in an immunocompetent patient.

    PubMed

    Jain, Shraddha; Kumar, Sunil; Kaushal, Amit

    2011-10-01

    We report a case of rhinocerebral mucormycosis in a 31 year old immunocompetent female presenting initially like acute rhinosinusitis with nasal stuffiness, severe headache, vomiting who soon developed isolated right lateral rectus palsy. Computed tomography (CT) scan of the Post-Nasal Spaces(PNS) showed an ill defined expansile heterogenous density mass in the sphenoid with extension into the ethmoids, nasal cavity, optic canal, superior orbital fissure, clivus and right temporal lobe with signal void in Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI). The debris and polypoid mucosa obtained on nasal endoscopy revealed mucormycosis on histopathologic examination. The patient was managed with urgent surgical debridement and medical management. PMID:22299566

  9. Retrospective review of the epidemiology of epilepsy in special schools for children with cerebral palsy, learning difficulties, and language and communication difficulties

    PubMed Central

    Peet, Danielle Samar

    2006-01-01

    Purpose of the study: To determine in children the proportion and characteristics of epilepsy associated with cerebral palsy, learning difficulties and language and communication difficulties in a specific population of two special schools. Basic procedures: Retrospective review of case notes for 142 children in two special schools (school A and school B) in Newcastle, UK Main findings: School A had more children with learning difficulties (X2 = 32.41, p < 0.01) and active epilepsy (X2 = 3.03, p=0.08) than school B. There were more children with cerebral palsy (X2 = 9.56, p < 0.01) and language and communication problems (X2 = 4.25, p = 0.03) at school B compared to school A. Active epilepsy is significantly more common in children with cerebral palsy (X2 = 7.58, p = 0.01). All children with cerebral palsy and learning difficulties had epilepsy (n = 6). Although not statistically significant, those children who developed epilepsy within the first 24 hours of life were more likely to have cerebral palsy than those who developed epilepsy later in life (X2 = 3.10, p = 0.08). Those children with cerebral palsy tended to have a lower birth weight (t = 3.15, p < 0.01) and a shorter gestation (t = 3.17, p < 0.01) than children without cerebral palsy. Principal conclusions: The data supports evidence from previous studies, demonstrating that epilepsy commonly accompanies cerebral palsy, thus complicating this difficult chronic condition. We show an association between both low birth weight and gestational age, and early age of onset of seizures, in children with cerebral palsy. This illustrates the importance, in these children, of past medical history from birth to determine risk factors for epilepsy later in life. PMID:19529804

  10. Ultrahigh pressures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jayaraman, A.

    1986-06-01

    This article reviews mainly the use of the diamond anvil cell (DAC) for ultrahigh-pressure generation (a few hundred GPa) and the various techniques employed in studying the high-pressure behavior of solids. A brief historical introduction to devices used in the prediamond-anvil era is presented in Sec. I. The basic principles of the modern DAC, ultrahigh-pressure generation, and pressure calibration are presented. Among the techniques used, x-ray diffraction, optical spectroscopy including Raman and Brillouin spectroscopy, microscopy, electrical resistance,and Mössbauer measurements, and positron annihilation studies with the DAC are reviewed. High-temperature-high-pressure (HT-HP) and low-temperature-high-pressure (LT-HP) generation in the DAC, and the problems associated with pressure calibration under these conditions are discussed. A brief section is devoted to the sintered diamond-tipped anvil apparatus, for it offers a very convenient way of studying resistance changes and superconductivity to 50-GPa pressure at normal and at liquid-He temperatures. In Sec. IV, Raman studies on solid H2 and solid N2 to about 150 GPa, p-v studies on Xe, CsI to 50 GPa, the metallization of CsI, and superconductivity of Si high-pressure polymorphs are presented. Present trends and future possibilities for ultrahigh-pressure research are briefly set out in Sec. V.

  11. Video-assisted gastrocnemius-soleus and hamstring lengthening in cerebral palsy patients.

    PubMed

    Poul, Jan; T?ma, Jirí; Bajerová, Jaroslava

    2008-03-01

    The aim of the study was to present the results of video-assisted fractional lengthening of the triceps surae muscle and the hamstrings in children with spastic cerebral palsy. In the period from September 2003 to December 2004, triceps surae muscle contractures were treated in 35 lower extremities (22 patients) and hamstring lengthening was performed in 12 knees (eight patients). The patients were between 4 and 10 years of age. Lengthening of the gastrocnemius-soleus was sufficient for achieving 10 degrees dorsiflexion of the foot in 31 of the 35 extremities. The short-term follow-up, at least 1 year after operation, did not reveal any complications. The hamstring lengthening resulted in full correction in nine knees; one endoscopic procedure required conversion to open surgery owing to bleeding. In one case, incomplete sciatic nerve palsy developed. Video-assisted gastrocnemius-soleus recession as well as video-assisted lengthening of the hamstrings proved to be fully efficient in the group reported here. PMID:18510164

  12. A rat pup model of cerebral palsy induced by prenatal inflammation and hypoxia?

    PubMed Central

    Hu, Yanrong; Chen, Gang; Wan, Hong; Zhang, Zhiyou; Zhi, Hong; Liu, Wei; Qian, Xinwei; Chen, Mingzhao; Wen, Linbao; Gao, Feng; Li, Jianxin; Zhao, Lihui

    2013-01-01

    Animal models of cerebral palsy established by simple infection or the hypoxia/ischemia method cannot effectively simulate the brain injury of a premature infant. Healthy 17-day-pregnant Wistar rats were intraperitoneally injected with lipopolysaccharide then subjected to hypoxia. The pups were used for this study at 4 weeks of age. Simultaneously, a hypoxia/ischemia group and a control group were used for comparison. The results of the footprint test, the balance beam test, the water maze test, neuroelectrophysiological examination and neuropathological examination demonstrated that, at 4 weeks after birth, footprint repeat space became larger between the forelimbs and hindlimbs of the rats, the latency period on the balance beam and in the Morris water maze was longer, place navigation and ability were poorer, and the stimulus intensity that induced the maximal wave amplitude of the compound muscle action potential was greater in the lipopolysaccharide/hypoxia and hypoxia/ischemia groups than in the control group. We observed irregular cells around the periventricular area, periventricular leukomalacia and breakage of the nuclear membrane in the lipopolysaccharide/hypoxia and hypoxia/ischemia groups. These results indicate that we successfully established a Wistar rat pup model of cerebral palsy by intraperitoneal injection of lipopolysaccharide and hypoxia. PMID:25206729

  13. LMN Facial Palsy in Pregnancy: An Opportunity to Predict Preeclampsia—Report and Review

    PubMed Central

    Aditya, Vani

    2014-01-01

    Facial paralysis is the most frequent unilateral cranial nerve pathology affecting pregnant population 2 to 4 times more often than the nonpregnant population. There exists an association with preeclampsia but this has largely been overlooked. Clinicians often dismiss it for idiopathic palsy as seen in the present case. A 30-year-old woman, Gravida 4, Para 3, presented at 26 weeks pregnancy with complaints of facial weakness, blurring of vision, altered taste sensation, increased noise sensitivity for 1 month, headache since 18 days, and vomiting since 2­3 days. Her pulse was 90/min, BP was 170/120, and RR was 18/min. Uterus was 18 weeks size and proteinuria++ was present. Ultrasonography revealed a 26 weeks fetus, severe bradycardia, and absent liquor. HELLP syndrome was diagnosed after investigations. Six units of fresh frozen plasma were transfused. An informed decision for termination of pregnancy was made. She delivered a 450?gram stillborn. The third stage was complicated with postpartum hemorrhage but it was managed successfully. Women with Bell's palsy during pregnancy should be evaluated critically as in some it may precede preeclampsia which has serious maternal and fetal implications. Therefore, these women should be in regular followup of the obstetrician. PMID:24772359

  14. Cervical myelopathy in athetoid and dystonic cerebral palsy: retrospective study and literature review

    PubMed Central

    Rech, Celia; Garreau de Loubresse, Christian

    2010-01-01

    The early onset of degenerative cervical lesions has been well described in patients suffering from athetoid or dystonic cerebral palsy. Myelopathy can occur and aggravate of their unstable neurological status. Diagnosis and treatment are delayed and disrupted by the abnormal movements. This retrospective study was implemented to evaluate the symptoms, the anatomical findings, and the surgical management of seven patients from 20 to 56 years old suffering from cervical myelopathy and athetoid or dystonic cerebral palsy. The mean delay in diagnosis was 15 months and the mean follow-up was 33 months. The initial symptoms were spasticity, limbs weakness, paresthesias and vesico-sphinteric dysfunction. In addition to abnormal movements, imaging demonstrated disc herniation, spinal stenosis and instability. All patients were managed surgically by performing simultaneous spinal cord decompression and fusion. Two patients benefited from preoperative botulinum toxin injections, which facilitated postoperative care and immobilization. Strict postoperative immobilization was achieved for 3 months by a Philadelphia collar or a cervico-thoracic orthosis. All patients improved functionally with a mean Japanese Orthopaedic Association score gain of 1.5 points, in spite of the permanent disabilities of the myelopathy. Complications occurred with wound infection, metal failure and relapse of cervical myelopathy at an adjacent level in one case each. All the previous authors advised against isolated laminectomy but no consensus emerged from the literature analysis. Spinal fusion is usually recommended but can be complicated by degenerative adjacent deterioration. Surgical management provides good outcomes but requires a long-term follow-up. PMID:20066444

  15. Gait Pattern Differences between Children with Mild Scoliosis and Children with Unilateral Cerebral Palsy

    PubMed Central

    Domagalska-Szopa, Ma?gorzata; Szopa, Andrzej

    2014-01-01

    This study was conducted to investigate the effects of asymmetrical body posture alone, i.e., the effects seen in children with mild scoliosis, vs. the effects of body posture control impairment, i.e., those seen in children with unilateral cerebral palsy on gait patterns. Three-dimensional instrumented gait analysis (3DGA) was conducted in 45 children with hemiplegia and 51 children with mild scoliosis. All the children were able to walk without assistance devices. A set of 35 selected spatiotemporal gait and kinematics parameters were evaluated when subjects walked on a treadmill. A cluster analysis revealed 3 different gait patterns: a scoliotic gait pattern and 2 different hemiplegic gait patterns. The results showed that the discrepancy in gait patterns was not simply a lower limb kinematic deviation in the sagittal plane, as expected. Additional altered kinematics, such as pelvic misorientation in the coronal plane in both the stance and swing phases and inadequate stance phase hip ad/abduction, which resulted from postural pattern features, were distinguished between the 3 gait patterns. Our study provides evidence for a strong correlation between postural and gait patterns in children with unilateral cerebral palsy. Information on differences in gait patterns may be used to improve the guidelines for early therapy for children with hemiplegia before abnormal gait patterns are fully established. The gait pathology characteristic of scoliotic children is a potential new direction for treating scoliosis that complements the standard posture and walking control therapy exercises with the use of biofeedback. PMID:25089908

  16. Influence of mechanical hippotherapy on skin temperature responses in lower limbs in children with cerebral palsy.

    PubMed

    Zurek, G; Dudek, K; Pirogowicz, I; Dziuba, A; Pokorski, M

    2008-12-01

    Therapeutic horse riding is often employed for disabled children. The aim of the present paper was to determine the influence of exercise in a mechanical saddle, imitating horse's walk, on the skin temperature responses in lower limbs in children with cerebral palsy. Sixteen children, aged 14-16, were enrolled into the study. Skin surface temperature was assessed with thermography, using an infrared thermovision camera, AGEMA 550, before and directly after 20 +/-5 min of exercise. The findings demonstrate that mechanical hippotherapy provides an exercise stimulus that is capable of inducing a visible change in skin temperature of paralyzed limbs. The change, however, is one of a decrease in skin temperature, which points to acute vasoconstrictive effects of exercise and to decreased skin blood flow. The results, therefore, do not support the use of mechanical hippotherapy in children suffering from cerebral palsy, with a hope to stimulate blood circulation to spastically altered limb muscles and thereby to improve physical disability, at least in a short-term exercise paradigm. PMID:19218709

  17. Long-Lasting Cranial Nerve III Palsy as a Presenting Feature of Chronic Inflammatory Demyelinating Polyneuropathy.

    PubMed

    Spataro, Rossella; La Bella, Vincenzo

    2015-01-01

    We describe a patient with chronic inflammatory demyelinating polyneuropathy (CIDP) in which an adduction deficit and ptosis in the left eye presented several years before the polyneuropathy. A 52-year-old man presented with a 14-year history of unremitting diplopia, adduction deficit, and ptosis in the left eye. At the age of 45 a mild bilateral foot drop and impaired sensation in the four limbs appeared, with these symptoms showing a progressive course. The diagnostic workup included EMG/ENG which demonstrated reduced conduction velocity with bilateral and symmetrical sensory and motor involvement. Cerebrospinal fluid studies revealed a cytoalbuminologic dissociation. A prolonged treatment with corticosteroids allowed a significant improvement of the limb weakness. Diplopia and ptosis remained unchanged. This unusual form of CIDP presented as a long-lasting isolated cranial nerve palsy. A diagnostic workup for CIDP should therefore be performed in those patients in which an isolated and unremitting cranial nerve palsy cannot be explained by common causes. PMID:25960744

  18. Case study: auditory brain responses in a minimally verbal child with autism and cerebral palsy

    PubMed Central

    Yau, Shu H.; McArthur, Genevieve; Badcock, Nicholas A.; Brock, Jon

    2015-01-01

    An estimated 30% of individuals with autism spectrum disorders (ASD) remain minimally verbal into late childhood, but research on cognition and brain function in ASD focuses almost exclusively on those with good or only moderately impaired language. Here we present a case study investigating auditory processing of GM, a nonverbal child with ASD and cerebral palsy. At the age of 8 years, GM was tested using magnetoencephalography (MEG) whilst passively listening to speech sounds and complex tones. Where typically developing children and verbal autistic children all demonstrated similar brain responses to speech and nonspeech sounds, GM produced much stronger responses to nonspeech than speech, particularly in the 65–165 ms (M50/M100) time window post-stimulus onset. GM was retested aged 10 years using electroencephalography (EEG) whilst passively listening to pure tone stimuli. Consistent with her MEG response to complex tones, GM showed an unusually early and strong response to pure tones in her EEG responses. The consistency of the MEG and EEG data in this single case study demonstrate both the potential and the feasibility of these methods in the study of minimally verbal children with ASD. Further research is required to determine whether GM's atypical auditory responses are characteristic of other minimally verbal children with ASD or of other individuals with cerebral palsy.

  19. Case study: auditory brain responses in a minimally verbal child with autism and cerebral palsy.

    PubMed

    Yau, Shu H; McArthur, Genevieve; Badcock, Nicholas A; Brock, Jon

    2015-01-01

    An estimated 30% of individuals with autism spectrum disorders (ASD) remain minimally verbal into late childhood, but research on cognition and brain function in ASD focuses almost exclusively on those with good or only moderately impaired language. Here we present a case study investigating auditory processing of GM, a nonverbal child with ASD and cerebral palsy. At the age of 8 years, GM was tested using magnetoencephalography (MEG) whilst passively listening to speech sounds and complex tones. Where typically developing children and verbal autistic children all demonstrated similar brain responses to speech and nonspeech sounds, GM produced much stronger responses to nonspeech than speech, particularly in the 65-165 ms (M50/M100) time window post-stimulus onset. GM was retested aged 10 years using electroencephalography (EEG) whilst passively listening to pure tone stimuli. Consistent with her MEG response to complex tones, GM showed an unusually early and strong response to pure tones in her EEG responses. The consistency of the MEG and EEG data in this single case study demonstrate both the potential and the feasibility of these methods in the study of minimally verbal children with ASD. Further research is required to determine whether GM's atypical auditory responses are characteristic of other minimally verbal children with ASD or of other individuals with cerebral palsy. PMID:26150768

  20. [Reflexotherapy combined with cortexin in the complex treatment of speech disorders in patients with cerebral palsy].

    PubMed

    Ukhanova, T A; Gorbunov, F E; Ivanova, V V

    2011-01-01

    Authors studied 78 outpatients with children cerebral palsy, aged from 2 to 7 years, in the children department of neurology and reflexotherapy. All children had speech disorders of different severity: from a severe mental-speech deficit to muscle asinergia of the speech apparatus. Combined microcurrent reflexotherapy (MCRT) in the author's technique and the neuroprotector cortexin were used for treatment. The main group included 40 patients who received the treatment of MCRT in the combination with cortexin, the comparison group consisted of 38 patients who received only MCRT. MCRT consisted of 15 sessions with one month interval after the first treatment and two months after the second one. The treatment with cortexin included sessions of 10 injections each after the end of the first and the third MCRT sessions. Patient state was measured at baseline and at the end of 6 month treatment program. An analysis of results of the complex treatment demonstrated its high efficacy in the recovery of speech functions in children with cerebral palsy compared to patients of the comparison group. PMID:21946134

  1. Association between executive/attentional functions and caries in children with cerebral palsy.

    PubMed

    Dourado, Maurício da Rocha; Andrade, Peterson Marco Oliveira; Ramos-Jorge, Maria Letícia; Moreira, Rafaela Nogueira; Oliveira-Ferreira, Fernanda

    2013-09-01

    The aim of the present study was to evaluate the existence of an association between attention/executive functions and the development of dental caries in individuals with cerebral palsy (CP). Seventy-six children with CP were selected from a physical rehabilitation center and a school serving children with disabilities. The control group was made up of 89 children without neurological impairment. Socioeconomic status, presence of teeth with cavities due to caries, degree of motor impairment and intellectual, executive and attentional functions were assessed. Mean age of participants was 8.9 years (SD=3.56). The CP group had a significantly lower performance (p<0.05, Mann-Whitney test) on the intelligence, attentional function and executive function tests in comparison to the control group. Controlling for the clinical diagnosis (CP or control group), motor impairment and intellectual function, the significant explanatory variables for the presence of teeth with cavities were performance on the Complex Rey figure test (OR=0.941) and the Digit Span subtest of the Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children in backward order (OR=0.581). After controlling for intellectual function, clinical diagnosis and motor impairment, deficits in executive and attentional functions increased the odds of developing dental caries in children with cerebral palsy. PMID:23751295

  2. Parent and Professional Reports of the Quality of Life of Children with Cerebral Palsy and Associated Intellectual Impairment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    White-Koning, Melanie; Grandjean, Helene; Colver, Allan; Arnaud, Catherine

    2008-01-01

    To examine parent-professional agreement in proxy-reports of child quality of life (QoL) and the factors associated with low child QoL in children with cerebral palsy (CP) and associated intellectual impairment. Professional (teacher, therapist, or residential carer) and parent reports of QoL for 204 children (127 males, 77 females, mean age 10y…

  3. Physical Activity in the Life of a Woman with Severe Cerebral Palsy: Showing Competence and Being Socially Connected

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gaskin, Cadeyrn J.; Andersen, Mark B.; Morris, Tony

    2009-01-01

    We used a life-history approach to investigate the meanings and experiences of physical activity in the life of a 25-year-old woman with severe cerebral palsy (Amy). Amy and her mother were interviewed about Amy's life and her involvement in physical activity. The conversation was audio-recorded and transcribed verbatim. We interpreted Amy's story…

  4. Common Peroneal Nerve Palsy with Multiple-Ligament Knee Injury and Distal Avulsion of the Biceps Femoris Tendon.

    PubMed

    Oshima, Takeshi; Nakase, Junsuke; Numata, Hitoaki; Takata, Yasushi; Tsuchiya, Hiroyuki

    2015-01-01

    A multiple-ligament knee injury that includes posterolateral corner (PLC) disruption often causes palsy of the common peroneal nerve (CPN), which occurs in 44% of cases with PLC injury and biceps femoris tendon rupture or avulsion of the fibular head. Approximately half of these cases do not show functional recovery. This case report aims to present a criteria-based approach to the operation and postoperative management of CPN palsy that resulted from a multiple-ligament knee injury in a 22-year-old man that occurred during judo. We performed a two-staged surgery. The first stage was to repair the injuries to the PLC and biceps femoris. The second stage involved anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction. The outcomes were excellent, with a stable knee, excellent range of motion, and improvement in the palsy. The patient was able to return to judo competition 27 weeks after the injury. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first case report describing a return to sports following CPN palsy with multiple-ligament knee injury. PMID:26064740

  5. The Transition to Adulthood for Children With Cerebral Palsy What Do We Know About Their Health Care Needs?

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Nancy L. Young

    here have been significant changes in the clinical management of cerebral palsy (CP) during the past 2 decades. Gastrostomy tubes and nutritional supplements have been paramount in enhancing the life expectancy of those with CP. The literature shows that as many as 90% of children with CP can now expect to live to adulthood.1Y4 As a result, CP is no

  6. Validity, Responsiveness, Minimal Detectable Change, and Minimal Clinically Important Change of "Pediatric Balance Scale" in Children with Cerebral Palsy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chen, Chia-ling; Shen, I-hsuan; Chen, Chung-yao; Wu, Ching-yi; Liu, Wen-Yu; Chung, Chia-ying

    2013-01-01

    This study examined criterion-related validity and clinimetric properties of the pediatric balance scale ("PBS") in children with cerebral palsy (CP). Forty-five children with CP (age range: 19-77 months) and their parents participated in this study. At baseline and at follow up, Pearson correlation coefficients were used to determine…

  7. Magnesium Sulfate in Labor and Risk of Neonatal Brain Lesions and Cerebral Palsy in Low Birth Weight Infants

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Nigel Paneth; James Jetton; Jennifer Pinto-Martin; Mervyn Susser

    Objectives. We tested the hypothesis that administration of magnesium sulfate in labor pro- tects against the development of neonatal brain lesions and cerebral palsy (CP) in low birth weight infants. Methods. Magnesium exposure was ascertained in a population-based cohort of 1105 infants weighing 2000 g or less through review of medical records of maternal magnesium sulfate administration and, where available,

  8. Common Peroneal Nerve Palsy with Multiple-Ligament Knee Injury and Distal Avulsion of the Biceps Femoris Tendon

    PubMed Central

    Oshima, Takeshi; Nakase, Junsuke; Numata, Hitoaki; Takata, Yasushi

    2015-01-01

    A multiple-ligament knee injury that includes posterolateral corner (PLC) disruption often causes palsy of the common peroneal nerve (CPN), which occurs in 44% of cases with PLC injury and biceps femoris tendon rupture or avulsion of the fibular head. Approximately half of these cases do not show functional recovery. This case report aims to present a criteria-based approach to the operation and postoperative management of CPN palsy that resulted from a multiple-ligament knee injury in a 22-year-old man that occurred during judo. We performed a two-staged surgery. The first stage was to repair the injuries to the PLC and biceps femoris. The second stage involved anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction. The outcomes were excellent, with a stable knee, excellent range of motion, and improvement in the palsy. The patient was able to return to judo competition 27 weeks after the injury. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first case report describing a return to sports following CPN palsy with multiple-ligament knee injury. PMID:26064740

  9. Diagnostic imaging and pathogenesis of the traumatic intratumoural haemorrhage of schwannoma causing acute high radial nerve palsy: case report.

    PubMed

    Okada, Mitsuhiro; Takada, Jun; Ohsawa, Masahiko; Nakamura, Hiroaki

    2012-12-01

    We describe the first report of haemorrhaged schwannoma presenting with acute high radial nerve palsy after traumatic injury of the upper arm. Anticoagulant therapy may induce intratumoural haemorrhage, resulting in symptomatic increases in size within the limited space of the upper arm. The radiological, surgical and pathological findings are discussed. PMID:22612066

  10. Low bone density management via capacitively coupled electrical fields and low intensity pulsed ultrasound in hemiparetic cerebral palsy

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Khaled A. Olama

    Osteoporosis is being increasingly recognized in pediatric practice as a consequence of several factors. These include the increasing complexity of chronic conditions and the associated treatments managed by pediatricians. In addition, the improved care provided to children with chronic illness has led to many of them living long enough to develop osteoporosis. Many children with cerebral palsy have diminished bone

  11. Cytokine immunoreactivity in cortical and subcortical neurons in periventricular leukomalacia: are cytokines implicated in neuronal dysfunction in cerebral palsy?

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Hazim Kadhim; Brahim Tabarki; Carine De Prez; Guillaume Sébire

    2003-01-01

    The major neuropathological substrate associated with cerebral palsy (CP) is a form of white matter (WM) injury known as periventricular leukomalacia (PVL). Proinflammatory cytokines were recently shown to be implicated in PVL pathogenesis. Many PVL patients develop cortical and deep gray neuronal dysfunctions such as epilepsy, cognitive deficits and extrapyramidal disorders. The precise nature of the relationship between the WM

  12. Knee Muscle Strength at Varying Angular Velocities and Associations with Gross Motor Function in Ambulatory Children with Cerebral Palsy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hong, Wei-Hsien; Chen, Hseih-Ching; Shen, I-Hsuan; Chen, Chung-Yao; Chen, Chia-Ling; Chung, Chia-Ying

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the relationships of muscle strength at different angular velocities and gross motor functions in ambulatory children with cerebral palsy (CP). This study included 33 ambulatory children with spastic CP aged 6-15 years and 15 children with normal development. Children with CP were categorized into level I (n =…

  13. Prevalence and Predictors of Drooling in 7- to 14-Year-Old Children with Cerebral Palsy: A Population Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reid, Susan M.; McCutcheon, Jennifer; Reddihough, Dinah S.; Johnson, Hilary

    2012-01-01

    Aim: To establish a prevalence estimate for drooling and explore factors associated with drooling in a population sample of children with cerebral palsy (CP) aged 7 to 14 years living in Victoria, Australia. Method: A self-report questionnaire was used to collect data on drooling from parents of children born between 1996 and 2001, and registered…

  14. The Operation of a Computer Adaptive Switch by a Child with Cerebral Palsy Using Two Body Sites.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tanaka, Nannette K.; Lian, Ming-Gon John

    1995-01-01

    This study tested the efficiency of two different body sites (the head and the left hand) for operation of a computer adaptive switch by an adolescent with spastic quadriplegic cerebral palsy. Data were collected during an assessment phase and a motor training phase. Results after analysis of the collected data were contradictory and inconclusive.…

  15. PRELIMINARY FINDINGS OF A STUDY OF THE EFFECT OF FUNCTIONAL ELECTRICAL STIMULATION ON THE GAIT OF CHILDREN WITH CEREBRAL PALSY

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Stevens CHH; Durham S; Eve L; Ewins DJ

    The study attempts to find out if Functional Electrical Stimulation using a single channel dropped foot stimulator on tibialis anterior, with timing controlled by a foot switch can help children with cerebral palsy who walk with a toe gait. Baseline kinematic and other data of their usual gait was taken using a computerized motion analysis system. Data collection was repeated

  16. Intrathecal Baclofen in Children with Spastic Cerebral Palsy: A Double-Blind, Randomized, Placebo-Controlled, Dose-Finding Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hoving, Marjanke A.; van Raak, Elisabeth P. M.; Spincemaille, Geert H. J. J.; Palmans, Liesbeth J.; Sleypen, Frans A. M.; Vles, Johan S. H.

    2007-01-01

    Intrathecal baclofen (ITB) therapy can be very effective in the treatment of intractable spasticity, but its effectiveness and safety have not yet been thoroughly studied in children with cerebral palsy (CP). The aims of this double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled, dose-finding study were to select children eligible for continuous ITB…

  17. Physically Handicapped/Special Health Problems/Cerebral Palsy Research; A Selective Bibliography. Exceptional Child Bibliography Series No. 655.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Council for Exceptional Children, Reston, VA. Information Center on Exceptional Children.

    The selected bibliography of research on physically handicapped children, children with special health problems, and children with cerebral palsy contains approximately 100 abstracts and associated indexing information drawn from the computer file of abstracts representing the Council for Exceptional Children Information Center's complete holdings…

  18. Reliability of the Quality of Upper Extremity Skills Test for Children with Cerebral Palsy Aged 2 to 12 Years

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thorley, Megan; Lannin, Natasha; Cusick, Anne; Novak, Iona; Boyd, Roslyn

    2012-01-01

    Aim: To investigate reliability of the Quality of Upper Extremity Skills Test (QUEST) scores for children with cerebral palsy (CP) aged 2-12 years. Method: Thirty-one QUESTs from 24 children with CP were rated once by two raters and twice by one rater. Internal consistency of total scores, inter- and intra-rater reliability findings for total,…

  19. THE HIGH ENERGY COST OF WALKING IN CHILDREN AND ADOLESCENTS WITH SPASTIC CEREBRAL PALSY: PHYSIOLOGIC, ELECTROMYOGRAPHIC AND BIOMECHANICAL IMPLICATIONS

    Microsoft Academic Search

    DESIREE B. MALTAIS

    2004-01-01

    Six studies (Studies 1-6) were performed to gain insight into selected physiologic (metabolic, cardiorespiratory, thermoregulatory), electromyographic, and biomechanical implications of the high energy cost of walking in children and adolescents with mild cerebral palsy (CP). Controls (CON) were also tested in Studies 3 and 4. Studies 1 and 2 examined issues related to habituation to treadmill walking. The purpose of

  20. Effect of Seat Surface Inclination on Postural Stability and forward Reaching Efficiency in Children with Spastic Cerebral Palsy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cherng, Rong-Ju; Lin, Hui-Chen; Ju, Yun-Huei; Ho, Chin-Shan

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the effect of seat surface inclination on postural stability and forward reaching efficiency in 10 children with spastic cerebral palsy (CP) and 16 typically developing (TD) children. The children performed a static sitting and a forward reaching task while sitting on a height- and inclination-adjustable…