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1

Characteristic features of hereditary neuropathy with liability to pressure palsy (HNPP) presenting with brachial plexopathy in soldiers.  

PubMed

A brachial plexus lesion is not common in hereditary neuropathy with liability to pressure palsy (HNPP). We report the clinical and electrodiagnostic features of young soldiers with HNPP presenting with brachial plexopathy. By reviewing 2year medical records from Korean military hospitals, we identified soldiers with brachial plexus lesions. Among them, patients diagnosed with HNPP were determined and clinical and electrophysiological findings were compared between HNPP and non-HNPP patients with a brachial plexus lesion. Thirteen patients (6.8%) were diagnosed with HNPP among 189 patients with a brachial plexus lesion. Push-ups, as either a punishment or an exercise, was the most frequent preceding event in HNPP patients (76.9%), whereas it was rare in non-HNPP patients. The distal motor latency of the median nerve showed the highest sensitivity (90.9%) and specificity (100%) for HNPP in patients with a brachial plexus lesion. In conclusion, HNPP should be suspected in patients with brachial plexopathy if brachial plexopathy develops after push-ups or if the distal motor latency of median nerves is prolonged. PMID:25175852

Kim, Kyoung-Eun

2014-11-15

2

Molecular genetic analysis of the 17p11.2 region in patients with hereditary neuropathy with liability to pressure palsies (HNPP)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Hereditary neuropathy with liability to pressure palsies (HNPP) is in most cases associated with an interstitial deletion of the same 1.5-Mb region at 17p11.2 that is duplicated in Charcot-Marie-Tooth type 1A (CMT1A) patients. Unequal crossing-over following misalignment at flanking repeat sequences (CMT1A-REP), either leads to tandem duplication in CMT1A patients or deletion in HNPP patients. With the use of polymorphic

Vincent Timmerman; Ann Löfgren; Eric Guern; Ping Liang; Peter Jonghe; Jean-Jacques Martin; Damienne Verhalle; Wim Robberecht; Riadh Gouider; Alexis Brice; Christine Broeckhoven

1996-01-01

3

Sonographic Evaluation of the Peripheral Nerves in Hereditary Neuropathy With Liability to Pressure Palsies: A Case Report  

PubMed Central

Hereditary neuropathy with liability to pressure palsies (HNPP) is an autosomal dominantly inherited disorder that affects peripheral nerves by repeated focal pressure. HNPP can be diagnosed by clinical findings, electrodiagnostic studies, histopathological features, and genetic analysis. Ultrasonography is increasingly used for the diagnosis of neuromuscular diseases; however, sonographic features of HNPP have not been clearly defined. We report the sonographic findings and comparative electrodiagnostic data in a 73-year-old woman with HNPP, confirmed by genetic analysis. The cross-sectional areas of peripheral nerves were enlarged at typical nerve entrapment sites, but enlargement at non-entrapment sites was uncommon. These sonographic features may be helpful for diagnosis of HNPP when electrodiagnostic studies are suspicious of HNPP and/or gene study is not compatible. PMID:24639934

Kim, Se Hwa; Yoon, Joon Shik; Park, Bum Jun

2014-01-01

4

Progress in molecular diagnosis of Charcot-Marie-Tooth-disease type 1 (CMT 1, HMSN I) and hereditary neuropathy with liability to pressure palsies (HNPP) by fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH)-detection of a potential genetic mosaicism  

SciTech Connect

We tested 20 CMT 1 patients characterized according to the criteria of the European CMT consortium by Southern hybridization of MspI restricted genomic DNA with probes pVAW409R1, pVAW412Hec and pEW401HE. In 11 of the 20 CMT 1 cases (55%), we observed a duplication in 17q11.2; one patient had a dinucleotide insertion in exon 6 of the PO-gene (5%). One HNPP case had a typical 17p11.2 deletion. Analysis of CA-repeats was performed with primers RM11GT and Mfd41; SSCP-analysis of the PO, PMP22 and Cx32-genes is in progress. FISH was carried out with probe pVAW409R1. 125 interphase nuclei were analyzed for each proband by counting the signals per nucleus. Normal cells show a characteristic distribution of signals: 1 signal in 5.9% of nuclei, 2 in 86.3% and 3 in 7.8%. A duplication is indicated by a shift to 3 signals in more than approximately 60% and 2 in less than 25% of the nuclei. In contrast, the 17p11.2 deletion of the HNPP patient shifts to 82.4% of nuclei with a single hybridization signal versus 14.4% with 2 signals. We detected one case with significantly abnormal distribution of interphase nuclei hybridization signals compared to cultures of normal cells and to those with 17p11.2 duplication or deletion: 3.2% nuclei revealed 1 signal, 48.0% two signals and 48.8% 3 signals, indicating a pathogenic but moderate dosis increase compared to the throughout duplicated cases. FISH with probe pVAW409R1 is a versatile tool to detect the HNPP deletion both in interphase nuclei and in metaphase chromosomes. In CMT 1 disease interphase nuclei are required for FISH analysis due to the small duplication of 1.5 Mbp. In contrast to Southern techniques, FISH is able to detect genetic mosaicism.

Bathke, K.; Liehr. T.; Ekici, A. [Institute for Human Genetics, Erlange (Germany)] [and others

1994-09-01

5

Hereditary neuropathy with liability to pressure palsies: case report and discussion.  

PubMed

Hereditary neuropathy with liability to pressure palsies (HNPP) is an uncommon diagnosis that should be considered in patients with multiple compressive neuropathies. We present the case of a woman who presented with bilateral hand numbness and weakness. Electrodiagnostic testing revealed bilateral carpal tunnel syndrome, bilateral ulnar neuropathy at the elbow, left peroneal neuropathy at the fibular head, and a primarily demyelinating generalized sensorimotor neuropathy. Subsequent genetic testing identified a deletion at chromosome 17p11.2 to confirm the diagnosis of HNPP. Treatment of this largely self-limiting disease is controversial, and this patient suffered minimal disability with treatment including splinting and surgical releases. PMID:18751796

Grossman, Marc J; Feinberg, Joseph; DiCarlo, Edward F; Birchansky, Sherri B; Wolfe, Scott W

2007-09-01

6

Partial Gene Deletions of PMP22 Causing Hereditary Neuropathy with Liability to Pressure Palsies  

PubMed Central

Hereditary neuropathy with liability to pressure palsies (HNPP) is an autosomal neuropathy that is commonly caused by a reciprocal 1.5?Mb deletion on chromosome 17p11.2, at the site of the peripheral myelin protein 22 (PMP22) gene. Other patients with similar phenotypes have been shown to harbor point mutations or small deletions, although there is some clinical variation across these patients. In this report, we describe a case of HNPP with copy number changes in exon or promoter regions of PMP22. Multiplex ligation-dependent probe analysis revealed an exon 1b deletion in the patient, who had been diagnosed with HNPP in the first decade of life using molecular analysis. PMID:25506001

Cho, Sun-Mi; Kim, Yoonjung; Lee, Sang Guk; Yang, Jin-Young

2014-01-01

7

New mutations in CMT 1 and HNPP  

SciTech Connect

The majority of mutations in CMT 1 (Charcot-Marie-Tooth disease type 1) are due to a duplication of a 1.5 Mb fragment from chromosome 17 containing the PMP22 myelin gene. In addition, micromutations are found in the genes for PMP22 and myelin Po. We collected data from over one hundred families with a duplication in 17p11.2. In about 10% of these families, a de novo mutation was observed. All parents were clinically examined as normal and correct paternity was confirmed. Some families were informative for polymorphic probes located in the duplicated region, and we could deduce a majority of new mutations to be from paternal origin. HNPP (hereditary neuropathy with liability to pressure palsies) is believed to be the reciprocal product of an unequal crossing over underlying the CMT 1 mutation and is due to a deletion of the 1.5 Mb fragment. One new HNPP mutation was found among 7 deleted HNPP families. This mutation is of paternal origin. Clinically assigned CMT 1 patients without a duplication are screened for micromutations applying the SSCP technique. In one family, a de novo mutation was found in the gene for Po.

Vandenberghe, A.; Boucherat, M. [Faculty of Pharmacy, Lyon (France); Bonnebouche, C. [Hopital de l`Antiquaille, Lyon (France)] [and others

1994-09-01

8

Hereditary neuropathy with liability to pressure palsy presenting with hand drop in a young child.  

PubMed

Hereditary neuropathy with liability to pressure palsy (HNPP) results from the deletion of the PMP22 gene in chromosome 17p11.2. Clinically, it presents with painless pressure palsies, typically in the 2nd and 3rd decades of life, being a rare entity in childhood. We present the case study of a six-year-old male child who presented with left hand drop that he kept for over four weeks. Electrophysiological studies suggested HNPP and genetic studies confirmed it. With this paper, we pretend to create awareness to this entity as a diagnosis to be considered in a child with painless monoparesis and to emphasize the importance of electrophysiological studies in the diagnosis. PMID:22953141

Sobreira, Inês; Sousa, Cátia; Raposo, Ana; Soares, M Rita; Soudo, Ana; Dias, Ana Isabel

2012-01-01

9

Hereditary Neuropathy with Liability to Pressure Palsy Presenting with Hand Drop in a Young Child  

PubMed Central

Hereditary neuropathy with liability to pressure palsy (HNPP) results from the deletion of the PMP22 gene in chromosome 17p11.2. Clinically, it presents with painless pressure palsies, typically in the 2nd and 3rd decades of life, being a rare entity in childhood. We present the case study of a six-year-old male child who presented with left hand drop that he kept for over four weeks. Electrophysiological studies suggested HNPP and genetic studies confirmed it. With this paper, we pretend to create awareness to this entity as a diagnosis to be considered in a child with painless monoparesis and to emphasize the importance of electrophysiological studies in the diagnosis. PMID:22953141

Sobreira, Inês; Sousa, Cátia; Raposo, Ana; Soares, M. Rita; Soudo, Ana; Dias, Ana Isabel

2012-01-01

10

Hereditary Neuropathy with Liability to Pressure Palsies: Case Report and Discussion  

Microsoft Academic Search

Hereditary neuropathy with liability to pressure palsies (HNPP) is an uncommon diagnosis that should be considered in patients\\u000a with multiple compressive neuropathies. We present the case of a woman who presented with bilateral hand numbness and weakness.\\u000a Electrodiagnostic testing revealed bilateral carpal tunnel syndrome, bilateral ulnar neuropathy at the elbow, left peroneal\\u000a neuropathy at the fibular head, and a primarily

Marc J. Grossman; Joseph Feinberg; Edward F. DiCarlo; Sherri B. Birchansky; Scott W. Wolfe

2007-01-01

11

A 1.5 Mb submicroscopic deletion in 17p11.2-p12 is frequently observed in Italian families with hereditary neuropathy with liability to pressure palsies  

SciTech Connect

Hereditary neuropathy with liability to pressure palsies (HNPP) is an autosomal dominant disorder characterized by recurrent mononeuropathies that was recently associated with a 1.5 Mb deletion in chromosome 17p11.2-p12. Duplication of the same region is known to be associated with Charcot-Marie-Tooth disease type 1A (CMT1A), a more severe peripheral neuropathy characterized by symmetrically slowed nerve conduction velocity. The CMT1A duplication and HNPP deletion are reciprocal recombination products involving a repeat element (CMT1A-REP) which flanks the 1.5 Mb region involved in the duplication/deletion. Patients from 9 unrelated HNPP Italian families were clinically, electrophysiologically and histologically evaluated. Families were typed with a polymorphic (CA){sub n} repeat and with RFLPs corresponding to loci D17S122, D17S125 and D17S61, which all map within the deleted region. Lack of allelic transmission from affected parent to affected offspring was observed in four informative families, suggesting the presence of deletion. Southern blot analysis of EcoRI digested genomic DNA from HNPP patients and control subjects was performed using a probe mapping within the CMT1A-REP elements. A reduced hybridization signal of a 6.0 kb EcoRI fragment, mapping within the distal CMT1A-REP, was observed in all HNPP patients suggesting the loss of one copy of this fragment in the HNPP-deleted chromosome. PFGE analysis of SacII digested genomic DNA from selected HNPP subjects showed the presence of a junction fragment which has previously been found in association with the 1.5 Mb HNPP deletion. Evidence for deletion could be demonstrated in all 9 families suggesting that the 17p11.2-p12 deletion is commonly associated with HNPP.

Lorenzetti, D.; Roa, B.B.; Abbas, N.E. [Baylor College of Medicine, Houston, TX (United States)] [and others

1994-09-01

12

A 1.5-Mb deletion in 17p11.2-p12 is frequently observed in Italian families with hereditary neuropathy with liability to pressure palsies  

SciTech Connect

Hereditary neuropathy with liability to pressure palsies (HNPP) is an autosomal dominant disorder characterized by recurrent mononeuropathies. A 1.5-Mb deletion in chromosome 17p11.2-p12 has been associated with HNPP. Duplication of the same 1.5-Mb region is known to be associated with Charcot-Marie-Tooth disease type 1 (CMT1A), a more severe peripheral neuropathy characterized by symmetrically slowed nerve conduction velocity (NCV). The CMT1A duplication and HNPP deletion appear to be the reciprocal products of a recombination event involving a repeat element (CMT1A-REP) that flanks the 1.5-Mb region involved in the duplication/deletion. Patients from nine unrelated Italian families who were diagnosed with HNPP on the basis of clinical, electrophysiological, and histological evaluations were analyzed by molecular methods for DNA deletion on chromosome 17p. In all nine families, Southern analysis using a CMT1A-REP probe detected a reduced hybridization signal of a 6.0-kb EcoRI fragment mapping within the distal CMT1A-REP, indicating deletion of one copy of CMT1A-REP in these HNPP patients. Families were also typed with a polymorphic (CA){sub n} repeat and with RFLPs corresponding to loci D17S122, D17S125, and D17S61, which all map within the deleted region. Lack of allelic transmission from affected parent to affected offspring was observed in four informative families, providing an independent indication for deletion. Furthermore, pulsed-field gel electrophoresis analysis of SacII-digested genomic DNA detected junction fragments specific to the 1.5-Mb HNPP deletion in seven of nine Italian families included in this study. These findings suggest that a 1.5-Mb deletion on 17p11.2-p12 is the most common mutation associated with HNPP. 51 refs., 5 figs., 1 tab.

Lorenzetti, D.; Pandolfo, M. [Istituto Nazionale Neurologico, Milan (Italy)]|[Baylor College of Medicine, Houston, TX (United States); Pareyson, D.; Sghirlanzoni, A.; Di Donato, S. [Istituto Nazionale Neurologico, Milan (Italy); Roa, B.B.; Abbas, N.E.; Lupski, J.R. [Baylor College of Medicine, Houston, TX (United States)

1995-01-01

13

Mechanisms for Nonrecurrent Genomic Rearrangements Associated with CMT1A or HNPP: Rare CNVs as a Cause for Missing Heritability  

Microsoft Academic Search

Genomic rearrangements involving the peripheral myelin protein gene (PMP22) in human chromosome 17p12 are associated with neuropathy: duplications cause Charcot-Marie-Tooth disease type IA (CMT1A), whereas deletions lead to hereditary neuropathy with liability to pressure palsies (HNPP). Our previous studies showed that >99% of these rearrangements are recurrent and mediated by nonallelic homologous recombination (NAHR). Rare copy number variations (CNVs) generated

Feng Zhang; Pavel Seeman; Pengfei Liu; Marian A. J. Weterman; Claudia Gonzaga-Jauregui; Charles F. Towne; Sat Dev Batish; Els De Vriendt; Peter De Jonghe; Bernd Rautenstrauss; Klaus-Henning Krause; Mehrdad Khajavi; Jan Posadka; Antoon Vandenberghe; Francesc Palau; Lionel Van Maldergem; Frank Baas; Vincent Timmerman; James R. Lupski

2010-01-01

14

Genetics Home Reference: Hereditary neuropathy with liability to pressure palsies  

MedlinePLUS

... disorder catalog Conditions > Hereditary neuropathy with liability to pressure palsies On this page: Description Genetic changes Inheritance ... 2007 What is hereditary neuropathy with liability to pressure palsies? Hereditary neuropathy with liability to pressure palsies ...

15

Overlap phenotype between CMT1A and hereditary neuropathy with liability to pressure palsies caused by the novel small in-frame deletion c.407_418del12 in PMP22 gene.  

PubMed

We report monozygotic twins, who presented with a clinical picture of Charcot-Marie-Tooth disease type 1 (CMT1) with bilateral foot drop, pes cavus, thoracic kyphosis, and scoliosis. Hereditary neuropathy with liability to pressure palsies (HNPP) showed up in one of them. Neurography showed demyelinating neuropathy, typical for CMT1, and transient conduction block in the ulnar nerve correlating with clinical ulnar palsy due to minor mechanical stress in only one of them. Genetic analysis revealed novel small de novo deletion c.407_418del12 in the PMP22 gene. Our patient shows the rarely reported combination of CMT1A and HNPP, caused by an in-frame deletion in the PMP22 gene. HNPP is in the majority of cases correlated with heterozygous deletion of the whole PMP22 gene or other mutations leading to functional haploinsufficiency. The cases give further evidence that pathogenesis of HNPP is not completely understood and can obviously result from existence of a defective protein, too. The intrafamiliar phenotypic variability, even in monozygotic twins, confirms the well-known fact that factors apart from genetics contribute to the clinical course. PMID:25265422

Vill, Katharina; Kuhn, Marius; Gläser, Dieter; Müller-Felber, Wolfgang

2015-02-01

16

PMP22 related neuropathies: Charcot-Marie-Tooth disease type 1A and Hereditary Neuropathy with liability to Pressure Palsies  

PubMed Central

PMP22 related neuropathies comprise (1) PMP22 duplications leading to Charcot-Marie-Tooth disease type 1A (CMT1A), (2) PMP22 deletions, leading to Hereditary Neuropathy with liability to Pressure Palsies (HNPP), and (3) PMP22 point mutations, causing both phenotypes. Overall prevalence of CMT is usually reported as 1:2,500, epidemiological studies show that 20-64% of CMT patients carry the PMP22 duplication. The prevalence of HNPP is not well known. CMT1A usually presents in the first two decades with difficulty walking or running. Distal symmetrical muscle weakness and wasting and sensory loss is present, legs more frequently and more severely affected than arms. HNPP typically leads to episodic, painless, recurrent, focal motor and sensory peripheral neuropathy, preceded by minor compression on the affected nerve. Electrophysiological evaluation is needed to determine whether the polyneuropathy is demyelinating. Sonography of the nerves can be useful. Diagnosis is confirmed by finding respectively a PMP22 duplication, deletion or point mutation. Differential diagnosis includes other inherited neuropathies, and acquired polyneuropathies. The mode of inheritance is autosomal dominant and de novo mutations occur. Offspring of patients have a chance of 50% to inherit the mutation from their affected parent. Prenatal testing is possible; requests for prenatal testing are not common. Treatment is currently symptomatic and may include management by a rehabilitation physician, physiotherapist, occupational therapist and orthopaedic surgeon. Adult CMT1A patients show slow clinical progression of disease, which seems to reflect a process of normal ageing. Life expectancy is normal. PMID:24646194

2014-01-01

17

Diagnosis of CMT1A duplications and HNPP deletions by interphase FISH: Implications for testing in the cytogenetics laboratory  

SciTech Connect

Charcot-Marie-Tooth (CMT) disease type 1A is an inherited peripheral neuropathy characterized by slowly progressive distal muscle wasting and weakness, decreased nerve conduction velocities, and genetic linkage to 17p12. Most (>98%) CMT1A cases are caused by a DNA duplication of a 1.5-Mb region in 17p12 containing the PMP22 gene. The reciprocal product of the CMT1A duplication is a 1.5-Mb deletion which causes hereditary neuropathy with liability to pressure palsies (HNPP). The most informative current diagnostic testing requires pulsed-field gel electrophoresis to detect DNA rearrangement-specific junction fragments. We investigated the use of interphase FISH for the detection of duplications and deletions for these disorders in the clinical molecular cytogenetics laboratory. Established cell lines or blood specimens from 23 individuals with known molecular diagnoses and 10 controls were obtained and scored using a two-color FISH assay. At least 70%, of CMT1A cells displayed three signals consistent with duplications. Using this minimum expected percentile to make a CMT1A duplication diagnosis, all patients with CMT1A showed a range of 71-92% of cells displaying at least three signals. Of the HNPP cases, 88% of cells displayed only one hybridization signal, consistent with deletions. The PMP22 locus from normal control individuals displayed a duplication pattern in {approximately}9% of cells, interpreted as replication of this locus. The percentage of cells showing replication was significantly lower than in those cells displaying true duplications. We conclude that FISH can be reliably used to diagnose CMT1A and HNPP in the clinical cytogenetics laboratory and to readily distinguish the DNA rearrangements associated with these disorders from individuals without duplication or deletion of the PMP22 locus. 43 refs., 4 figs., 2 tabs.

Shaffer, L.G.; Kennedy, G.M.; Spikes, A.S. [Baylor College of Medicine, Houston, TX (United States)] [and others] [Baylor College of Medicine, Houston, TX (United States); and others

1997-03-31

18

Recombination hot spot in 3.2-kb region of the Charcot-Marie Tooth type 1A repeat sequences: New tools for molecular diagnosis of hereditary neuropathy with liability to pressure palsies and of Charcot-Marie-Tooth type 1A  

SciTech Connect

Charcot-Marie-Tooth type 1A (CMT1A) disease and hereditary neuropathy with liability to pressure palsies (HNPP) are autosomal dominant neuropathies, associated, respectively, with duplications and deletions of the same 1.5-Mb region on 17p11.2-p12. These two rearrangements are the reciprocal products of an unequal meiotic crossover between the two chromosome 17 homologues, caused by the misalignment of the CMT1A repeat sequences (CMT1A-REPs), the homologous sequences flanking the 1.5-Mb CMT1A/HNPP monomer unit. In order to map recombination breakpoints within the CMT1A-REPs, a 12.9-kb restriction map was constructed from cloned EcoRI fragments of the proximal and distal CMT1A-REPs. Only 3 of the 17 tested restriction sites were present in the proximal CMT1A-REP but absent in the distal CMT1A-REP, indicating a high degree of homology between these sequences. The rearrangements were mapped in four regions of the CMT1A-REPs by analysis of 76 CMT1A index cases and 38 HNPP patients, who were unrelated. A hot spot of crossover breakpoints located in a 3.2-kb region accounted for three-quarters of the rearrangements, detected after EcoRI/SacI digestion, by the presence of 3.2-kb and 7.8-kb junction fragments in CMT1A and HNPP patients, respectively. These junction fragments, which can be detected on classical Southern blots, permit molecular diagnosis. Other rearrangements can also be detected by gene dosage on the same Southern blots. 25 refs., 4 figs., 2 tabs.

Lopes, J.; LeGuern, E.; Gouider, R.; Tardieu, S.; Abbas, N. [Hopital de la Salpetriere, Paris (France)] [and others

1996-06-01

19

A 1.5-Mb cosmid contig of the CMT1A duplication/HNPP deletion critical region in 17p11.2-p12  

SciTech Connect

Charcot-Marie-Tooth disease type 1A (CMT1A) is associated with a 1.5-Mb tandem duplication in chromosome 17p11.2-p12, and hereditary neuropathy with liability to pressure palsies (HNPP) is associated with a 1.5-Mb deletion at this locus. Both diseases appear to result from an altered copy number of the peripheral myelin protein-22 gene, PMP22, which maps within the critical region. To identify additional genes and characterize chromosomal elements, a 1.5-Mb cosmid contig of the CMT1A duplication/HNPP deletion critical region was assembled using a yeast artificial chromosome (YAC)-based isolation and binning strategy. Whole YAC probes were used for screening a high-density arrayed chromosome 17-specific cosmid library. Selected cosmids were spotted on dot blots and assigned to bins defined by YACs. This binning of cosmids facilitated the subsequent fingerprint analysis. The 1.5-Mb region was covered by 137 cosmids with a minimum overlap set of 52 cosmids assigned to 17 bins and 9 contigs. 20 refs., 2 figs.

Murakami, Tatsufumi; Lupski, J.R. [Baylor College of Medicine, Houston, TX (United States)] [Baylor College of Medicine, Houston, TX (United States)

1996-05-15

20

Abnormal sitting pressures of hemiplegic cerebral palsy children on a school chair.  

PubMed

[Purpose] The purpose of this study was to investigate the differences in symmetry of sitting posture between typical developmental (TD) children and hemi-cerebral palsy (CP) children. [Subjects and Methods] A school chair mounted on a force platform was used to assess the quiet-sitting pressure distribution of 10 TD and 10 CP children. [Results] The symmetry index of the TD children was significantly closer to zero than that of the CP children irrespective of the latter group's hemiparetic side. [Conclusions] Sitting posture on school chairs of CP children was more asymmetrical than that of TD children. PMID:25729201

Lee, In-Hee; Park, Sang-Young

2015-02-01

21

Abnormal sitting pressures of hemiplegic cerebral palsy children on a school chair  

PubMed Central

[Purpose] The purpose of this study was to investigate the differences in symmetry of sitting posture between typical developmental (TD) children and hemi-cerebral palsy (CP) children. [Subjects and Methods] A school chair mounted on a force platform was used to assess the quiet-sitting pressure distribution of 10 TD and 10 CP children. [Results] The symmetry index of the TD children was significantly closer to zero than that of the CP children irrespective of the latter group’s hemiparetic side. [Conclusions] Sitting posture on school chairs of CP children was more asymmetrical than that of TD children. PMID:25729201

Lee, In-Hee; Park, Sang-young

2015-01-01

22

Hereditary Neuropathy with Liability to Pressure Palsy: A Recurrent and Bilateral Foot Drop Case Report  

PubMed Central

Hereditary neuropathy with liability to pressure palsy is characterized by acute, painless, recurrent mononeuropathies secondary to minor trauma or compression. A 16-year-old boy had the first episode of right foot drop after minor motorcycle accident. Electromyography revealed conduction block and slowing velocity conduction of the right deep peroneal nerve at the fibular head. After motor rehabilitation, he fully recovered. Six months later he had the second episode of foot drop in the opposite site after prolonged squatting position. Electromyography revealed sensorimotor polyneuropathy of left peroneal, sural, posterior tibial, and deep peroneal nerves and also of ulnar, radial, and median nerves of both upper limbs. Histological examination revealed sensory nerve demyelination and focal thickenings of myelin fibers. The diagnosis of hereditary neuropathy with liability to pressure palsy was confirmed by PMP22 deletion of chromosome 17p11.2. He started motor rehabilitation and avoidance of stressing factors with progressive recovery. After one-year followup, he was completely asymptomatic. Recurrent bilateral foot drop history, “sausage-like” swellings of myelin in histological examination, and the results of electromyography led the authors to consider the diagnosis despite negative family history. The authors highlight this rare disease in pediatric population and the importance of high index of clinical suspicion for its diagnosis. PMID:24251057

Flor-de-Lima, Filipa; Taipa, Ricardo; Melo-Pires, Manuel; Rodrigues, Maria Lurdes

2013-01-01

23

Correction versus bedding: wheelchair pressure distribution measurements in children with cerebral palsy  

PubMed Central

Purpose Most children with cerebral palsy classification Levels IV and V in the Gross Motor Function Classification System (GMFCS) are unable to walk and, therefore, spend almost all day in a sitting position in their wheelchairs. As a result of the spastic muscle contraction, malpositions of joints or a scoliosis develop, which require a decision to be made on whether to correct the posture or simply find the best soft bedding position. Methods The distribution of pressure on the seat while sitting in a wheelchair was measured with a pressure distribution measuring mat. The different distribution patterns were analyzed. Results Pressure distribution measurement allows to find a compromise between posture correction and soft bedding. Additionally, pressure-reducing seats were examined on their effectiveness. We also focused our measurements and data analyses on recognizing the causes for pain. Sometimes, the origin of the problems and pain of children in wheelchairs is not clear. Conclusions Using the above-mentioned measuring equipment, the causes of these problems can be detected much more easily than just by clinical examination. The pressure measuring mat can help to optimize the seating position for the spastically handicapped children and adapt technical aids. Examples demonstrate the most frequently occurring problems of these children in their wheelchairs which are typical for neuro-orthopedic diseases. PMID:21804890

Mitternacht, Jürgen

2010-01-01

24

Cerebral Palsy  

MedlinePLUS

... do just what everyone else does. What Is Cerebral Palsy? Cerebral palsy (CP for short) is a disorder ... part of the brain is involved. How Does Cerebral Palsy Affect People? The three types of cerebral palsy ...

25

Bell's Palsy  

MedlinePLUS

... therapies such as physical therapy, facial massage or acupuncture may provide a potential small improvement in facial ... Information Bell's Palsy Fact Sheet Bell's Palsy (facial paralysis) information sheet compiled by the National Institute of ...

26

Cerebral palsy  

MedlinePLUS

Cerebral palsy is a group of disorders that can involve brain and nervous system functions, such as movement, ... and thinking. There are several different types of cerebral palsy, including spastic, dyskinetic, ataxic, hypotonic, and mixed.

27

Cerebral Palsy  

MedlinePLUS

Cerebral palsy is a group of disorders that affect a person's ability to move and to maintain balance ... do not get worse over time. People with cerebral palsy may have difficulty walking. They may also have ...

28

A novel PMP22 mutation Ser22Phe in a family with hereditary neuropathy with liability to pressure palsies and CMT1A phenotypes  

Microsoft Academic Search

We describe a Cypriot family in which some family members presented with episodes of pressure palsies, while other family members had a slowly progressive chronic polyneuropathy typical of the Charcot-Marie-Tooth type 1 phenotype. All family members were evaluated clinically, with nerve conduction studies, and with genetic testing. In all affected individuals there was clinical and electrophysiological evidence of diffuse demyelinating

Kleopas A. Kleopa; Domna-Maria Georgiou; Paschalis Nicolaou; Pantelitsa Koutsou; Eleftherios Papathanasiou; Theodoros Kyriakides; Kyproula Christodoulou

2004-01-01

29

Cerebral palsy - resources  

MedlinePLUS

Resources - cerebral palsy ... The following organizations are good resources for information on cerebral palsy : National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke - www.ninds.nih.gov/disorders/cerebral_palsy/cerebral_palsy. ...

30

Cerebral Palsy  

MedlinePLUS

... years of life, brain infections such as bacterial meningitis or viral encephalitis, or head injury from a motor vehicle accident, a fall, or child abuse. Is there any treatment? Cerebral palsy can’ ...

31

Bell's Palsy  

MedlinePLUS

... also associated with the infectious agent that causes Lyme disease . Of course, this doesn't mean that everyone who has a viral infection or Lyme disease will develop Bell's palsy — most people don't. ...

32

Associations of Sedentary Behaviour, Physical Activity, Blood Pressure and Anthropometric Measures with Cardiorespiratory Fitness in Children with Cerebral Palsy  

PubMed Central

Background Children with cerebral palsy (CP) have poor cardiorespiratory fitness in comparison to their peers with typical development, which may be due to low levels of physical activity. Poor cardiorespiratory fitness may contribute to increased cardiometabolic risk. Purpose The aim of this study was to determine the association between sedentary behaviour, physical activity and cardiorespiratory fitness in children with CP. An objective was to determine the association between cardiorespiratory fitness, anthropometric measures and blood pressure in children with CP. Methods This study included 55 ambulatory children with CP [mean (SD) age 11.3 (0.2) yr, range 6-17 yr; Gross Motor Function Classification System (GMFCS) levels I and II]. Anthropometric measures (BMI, waist circumference and waist-height ratio) and blood pressure were taken. Cardiorespiratory fitness was measured using a 10 m shuttle run test. Children were classified as low, middle and high fitness according to level achieved on the test using reference curves. Physical activity was measured by accelerometry over 7 days. In addition to total activity, time in sedentary behaviour and light, moderate, vigorous, and sustained moderate-to-vigorous activity (?10 min bouts) were calculated. Results Multiple regression analyses revealed that vigorous activity (? = 0.339, p<0.01), sustained moderate-to-vigorous activity (? = 0.250, p<0.05) and total activity (? = 0.238, p<0.05) were associated with level achieved on the shuttle run test after adjustment for age, sex and GMFCS level. Children with high fitness spent more time in vigorous activity than children with middle fitness (p<0.05). Shuttle run test level was negatively associated with BMI (r2 = -0.451, p<0.01), waist circumference (r2 = -0.560, p<0.001), waist-height ratio (r2 = -0.560, p<0.001) and systolic blood pressure (r2 = -0.306, p<0.05) after adjustment for age, sex and GMFCS level. Conclusions Participation in physical activity, particularly at a vigorous intensity, is associated with high cardiorespiratory fitness in children with CP. Low cardiorespiratory fitness is associated with increased cardiometabolic risk. PMID:25835955

Ryan, Jennifer M.; Hensey, Owen; McLoughlin, Brenda; Lyons, Alan; Gormley, John

2015-01-01

33

Cerebral Palsy (For Parents)  

MedlinePLUS

... child who is living with the condition. About Cerebral Palsy Cerebral palsy is one of the most common ... does not get worse over time. Causes of Cerebral Palsy The exact causes of most cases of CP ...

34

Cerebral palsy  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cerebral palsy (CP) is a group of disorders of movement and posture resulting from non-progressive disturbances of the fetal\\u000a or neonatal brain. More than 80% of cases of CP in term infants originate in the prenatal period; in premature infants, both\\u000a prenatal or postnatal causes contribute. The most prevalent pathological lesion seen in CP is periventricular white matter\\u000a injury (PWMI)

Michael V. Johnston; Alexander H. Hoon

2006-01-01

35

Bell's palsy  

PubMed Central

Introduction Bell's palsy is characterised by an acute, unilateral, partial or complete paralysis of the face, which may occur with mild pain, numbness, increased sensitivity to sound, and altered taste. Bell's palsy remains idiopathic, but a proportion may be caused by reactivation of herpes viruses from cranial nerve ganglia. Bell's palsy is most common in people aged 15-40 years, affecting 1 in 60 in their lifetime. Most make a spontaneous recovery within 1 month, but up to 30% have delayed or incomplete recovery. Methods and outcomes We conducted a systematic review and aimed to answer the following clinical question: What are the effects of treatments in adults and children? We searched: Medline, Embase, The Cochrane Library and other important databases up to February 2006 (BMJ Clinical Evidence reviews are updated periodically, please check our website for the most up-to-date version of this review). We included harms alerts from relevant organisations such as the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) and the UK Medicines and Healthcare products Regulatory Agency (MHRA). Results We found eight systematic reviews, RCTs, or observational studies that met our inclusion criteria. We performed a GRADE evaluation of the quality of evidence for interventions. Conclusions In this systematic review we present information relating to the effectiveness and safety of the following interventions: antiviral treatment, corticosteroids (alone or plus antiviral treatment), facial nerve decompression surgery, and mime therapy. PMID:19450338

2008-01-01

36

Employees with Cerebral Palsy  

MedlinePLUS

... SOAR) at http://AskJAN.org/soar. Information about Cerebral Palsy (CP) What is CP? Cerebral palsy is a term used to describe a group ... ability to adequately control movement and posture (United Cerebral Palsy, 2010). "Cerebral" refers to the brain and "palsy" ...

37

Bell's palsy  

PubMed Central

Introduction Bell's palsy is characterised by an acute, unilateral, partial, or complete paralysis of the face (i.e., lower motor neurone pattern). The weakness may be partial (paresis) or complete (paralysis), and may be associated with mild pain, numbness, increased sensitivity to sound, and altered taste. Bell's palsy remains idiopathic, but a proportion of cases may be caused by reactivation of herpes viruses from the geniculate ganglion of the facial nerve. Bell's palsy is most common in people aged 15 to 40 years, with a 1 in 60 lifetime risk. Most make a spontaneous recovery within 1 month, but up to 30% show delayed or incomplete recovery. Methods and outcomes We conducted a systematic review to answer the following clinical question: What are the effects of treatments in adults and children? We searched: Medline, Embase, The Cochrane Library, and other important databases up to June 2010 (Clinical Evidence reviews are updated periodically, please check our website for the most up-to-date version of this review). We included harms alerts from relevant organisations such as the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) and the UK Medicines and Healthcare products Regulatory Agency (MHRA). Results We found 14 systematic reviews, RCTs, or observational studies that met our inclusion criteria. We performed a GRADE evaluation of the quality of evidence for interventions. Conclusions In this systematic review we present information relating to the effectiveness and safety of the following interventions: antiviral treatment, corticosteroids (alone or plus antiviral treatment), hyperbaric oxygen therapy, facial nerve decompression surgery, and facial retraining. PMID:21375786

2011-01-01

38

Differences in respiratory pressure and pulmonary function among children with spastic diplegic and hemiplegic cerebral palsy in comparison with normal controls.  

PubMed

[Purpose] The purpose of this study was to determine differences in respiratory pressure and pulmonary function among children with spastic diplegic and hemiplegic cerebral palsy (CP) in comparison with children with normal development. [Subjects and Methods] Fourteen children with spastic diplegic CP, 11 children with hemiplegic CP, and 14 children with normal development were recruited. Respiratory pressure was measured and the pulmonary function test (PFT) was performed to evaluate the strength of the respiratory muscles and lung volumetric capacity. [Results] Regarding respiratory pressure, children with spastic diplegic and hemiplegic CP showed significantly lower functions in terms of MIP and MEP compared with children with normal development, although no significant differences were found between children with the two types of CP. In the pulmonary function test, children with spastic diplegic CP showed significantly higher pulmonary function than children with normal development in terms of only FVC and FEV1. [Conclusion] Children with CP showed relatively lower function in terms of respiratory pressure and lung capacity, in comparison with children with normal development. Therefore, respiratory function in children with CP should be carefully evaluated and should receive more attention in a rehabilitation setting. PMID:25729178

Kwon, Yong Hyun; Lee, Hye Young

2015-02-01

39

Differences in respiratory pressure and pulmonary function among children with spastic diplegic and hemiplegic cerebral palsy in comparison with normal controls  

PubMed Central

[Purpose] The purpose of this study was to determine differences in respiratory pressure and pulmonary function among children with spastic diplegic and hemiplegic cerebral palsy (CP) in comparison with children with normal development. [Subjects and Methods] Fourteen children with spastic diplegic CP, 11 children with hemiplegic CP, and 14 children with normal development were recruited. Respiratory pressure was measured and the pulmonary function test (PFT) was performed to evaluate the strength of the respiratory muscles and lung volumetric capacity. [Results] Regarding respiratory pressure, children with spastic diplegic and hemiplegic CP showed significantly lower functions in terms of MIP and MEP compared with children with normal development, although no significant differences were found between children with the two types of CP. In the pulmonary function test, children with spastic diplegic CP showed significantly higher pulmonary function than children with normal development in terms of only FVC and FEV1. [Conclusion] Children with CP showed relatively lower function in terms of respiratory pressure and lung capacity, in comparison with children with normal development. Therefore, respiratory function in children with CP should be carefully evaluated and should receive more attention in a rehabilitation setting. PMID:25729178

Kwon, Yong Hyun; Lee, Hye Young

2015-01-01

40

Cerebral Palsy  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This patient education program explains cerebral palsy (CP), the causes and risk factors, symptoms and complications, diagnosis, prevention, and treatment options. It also reviews brain anatomy, particularly that of the motor skills areas. This resource is a MedlinePlus Interactive Health Tutorial from the National Library of Medicine, designed and developed by the Patient Education Institute. NOTE: This tutorial requires a special Flash plug-in, version 4 or above. If you do not have Flash, you will be prompted to obtain a free download of the software before you start the tutorial. You will also need an Acrobat Reader, available as a free download, in order to view the Reference Summary.

Patient Education Institute

41

Aging and Cerebral Palsy.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This special edition of "The Networker" contains several articles focusing on aging and cerebral palsy (CP). "Aging and Cerebral Palsy: Pathways to Successful Aging" (Jenny C. Overeynder) reports on the National Invitational Colloquium on Aging and Cerebral Palsy held in April 1993. "Observations from an Observer" (Kathleen K. Barrett) describes…

Networker, 1993

1993-01-01

42

Cerebral palsy.  

PubMed

Cerebral palsy (CP) is a group of disorders of movement and posture resulting from nonprogressive disturbances of the fetal or neonatal brain. More than 80% of cases of CP in term infants originate in the prenatal period; in premature infants, both prenatal or postnatal causes contribute. The most prevalent pathological lesion seen in CP is periventricular white matter injury (PWMI) resulting from vulnerability of the immature oligodendrocytes (pre-OLs) before 32 wk of gestation. PWMI is responsible for the spastic diplegia form of CP and a spectrum of cognitive and behavioral disorders. Oxidative stress and excitotoxicity resulting from excessive stimulation of ionotropic glutamate receptors on preOLs are the most prominent molecular mechanisms for PWMI. Asphyxia around the time of birth in term infants accounts for less than 15% of CP in developed countries but the incidence is higher in underdeveloped areas. Asphyxia causes a different pattern of brain injury and CP than is seen after preterm injuries. This type of CP is associated with the clinical syndrome of hypoxic-ischemic encephalopathy shortly after the insult, and the cortex, basal ganglia, and brainstem are selectively vulnerable to injury. Experimental models indicate that neurons in the neonatal brain are more likely to die by delayed apoptosis extending over days to weeks than those in the adult brain. Neurons die by glutamate-mediated excitotoxicity involving downstream caspase-dependent and caspase-independent cell death pathways. Recent reports indicate that males and females preferentially utilize different pathways. Clinical trials indicate that mild hypothermia reduces death or disability in term infants following asphyxia and basic research suggests that this approach might be combined with pharmacological strategies in the future. PMID:17028368

Johnston, Michael V; Hoon, Alexander H

2006-01-01

43

[Etiology of cerebral palsy].  

PubMed

The "perinatal asphyxia" is regarded to be one of the causes of cerebral palsy, though in the very most of the children with cerebral palsy there is found no hypoxia during labour. It should be mentioned, that the definition of "perinatal" and "asphyxia" neither are unic nor concret. And also there is no correlation between nonreassuring fetal heart rate patterns and acidosis in fetal blood with the incidence of cerebral palsy. Numerous studies in pregnant animals failed in proving an acute intrapartal hypoxia to be the origin of the cerebral palsy. Myers (1975) describes four patterns of anatomic brain damage after different injuries. Only his so called oligo-acidotic hypoxia, which is protracted and lasts over a longer time is leading to brain injury, which can be regarded in analogy to the injury of children with cerebral palsy. Summarising the update publications about the causes of cerebral palsy and the studies in pregnant animals there is no evidence that hypoxia during labour may be the cause of cerebral palsy. There is a great probability of a pre(and post-)natal origin of brain injury (for instance a periventricular leucomalacia found after birth) which leads to cerebral palsy. Short after labour signs of a so called "asphyxia" may occur in addition to this preexisting injury and misrepresent the cause of cerebral palsy. Finally the prepartal injury may cause both: Cerebral palsy and hypoxia. PMID:9035826

Jaisle, F

1996-01-01

44

Bell's Palsy  

MedlinePLUS

... 7th cranial nerve-travels through a narrow, bony canal (called the Fallopian canal) in the skull, beneath the ear, to the ... to the infection, causing pressure within the Fallopian canal and leading to ischemia (the restriction of blood ...

45

Cerebral Palsy: An Overview  

Microsoft Academic Search

The presentation of cerebral palsy can be global mental and physical dysfunction or isolated disturbances in gait, cogni- tion, growth, or sensation. It is the most common childhood physical disability and affects 2 to 2.5 children per 1,000 born in the United States. The differential diagnosis of cerebral palsy includes metabolic and genetic disorders. The goals of treatment are to

KAREN W. KRIGGER; M. ED

46

Recurrences of Bell's palsy  

PubMed Central

Introduction. Bell’s palsy in known as the most common cause of facial paralysis, determined by the acute onset of lower motor neuron weakness of the facial nerve with no detectable cause. With a lifetime risk of 1 in 60 and an annual incidence of 11-40/100,000 population, the condition resolves completely in around 71% of the untreated cases. Clinical trials performed for Bell’s palsy have reported some recurrences, ipsilateral or contralateral to the side affected in the primary episode of facial palsy. Only few data are found in the literature. Melkersson-Rosenthal is a rare neuromucocutaneous syndrome characterized by recurrent facial paralysis, fissured tongue (lingua plicata), orofacial edema. Purpose. We attempted to analyze some clinical and epidemiologic aspects of recurrent idiopathic palsy, and to develop relevant correlations between the existing data in literature and those obtained in this study. Methods & Materials. This is a retrospective study carried out on a 10-years period for adults and a five-year period for children. Results. A number of 185 patients aged between 4 and 70 years old were analyzed. 136 of them were adults and 49 were children. 22 of 185 patients with Bell’s palsy (12%) had a recurrent partial or complete facial paralysis with one to six episodes of palsy. From this group of 22 cases, 5 patients were diagnosed with Melkersson-Rosenthal syndrome. The patients’ age was between 4 and 70 years old, with a medium age of 27,6 years. In the group studied, fifteen patients, meaning 68%, were women and seven were men. The majority of patients in our group with more than two facial palsy episodes had at least one episode on the contralateral side. Conclusions. Our study found a significant incidence of recurrences of idiopathic facial palsy. Recurrent idiopathic facial palsy and Melkersson-Rosenthal syndrome is diagnosed more often in young females. Recurrence is more likely to occur in the first two years from the onset, which leads to the conclusion that we should have a follow up of patients diagnosed with Bell’s palsy for at least two years from the onset, especially in children’ case. The frequency of recurrent facial palsy in children was similar to that in adults. Recurrent idiopathic facial palsy is not known enough and needs further controlled studies.

Cirpaciu, D; Goanta, CM; Cirpaciu, MD

2014-01-01

47

Cerebral Palsy (CP) Quiz  

MedlinePLUS

... Stages & Populations Travelers' Health Workplace Safety & Health Features Media Sign up for Features Get Email Updates To ... Home Cerebral Palsy Data & Statistics Developmental Milestones Features Media Sign up for Features Get Email Updates To ...

48

Bell's Palsy Treatment  

MedlinePLUS

... treatment usually includes using lubricating eye drops or artificial tears during the day, and an ointment at ... you have had Bell’s Palsy? I have double vision. Would prism glasses (like the ones Hillary Clinton ...

49

Nanomedicine in cerebral palsy  

PubMed Central

Cerebral palsy is a chronic childhood disorder that can have diverse etiologies. Injury to the developing brain that occurs either in utero or soon after birth can result in the motor, sensory, and cognitive deficits seen in cerebral palsy. Although the etiologies for cerebral palsy are variable, neuroinflammation plays a key role in the pathophysiology of the brain injury irrespective of the etiology. Currently, there is no effective cure for cerebral palsy. Nanomedicine offers a new frontier in the development of therapies for prevention and treatment of brain injury resulting in cerebral palsy. Nanomaterials such as dendrimers provide opportunities for the targeted delivery of multiple drugs that can mitigate several pathways involved in injury and can be delivered specifically to the cells that are responsible for neuroinflammation and injury. These materials also offer the opportunity to deliver agents that would promote repair and regeneration in the brain, resulting not only in attenuation of injury, but also enabling normal growth. In this review, the current advances in nanotechnology for treatment of brain injury are discussed with specific relevance to cerebral palsy. Future directions that would facilitate clinical translation in neonates and children are also addressed. PMID:24204146

Balakrishnan, Bindu; Nance, Elizabeth; Johnston, Michael V; Kannan, Rangaramanujam; Kannan, Sujatha

2013-01-01

50

Cerebral Palsy -- Hope through Research  

MedlinePLUS

... baby with cerebral palsy. Mothers with thyroid abnormalities, intellectual disability, excess protein in the urine, or seizures. Mothers ... What other conditions are associated with cerebral palsy? Intellectual disability. Approximately 30 – 50 percent of individuals with CP ...

51

Cerebral palsy and multiple births  

Microsoft Academic Search

AIM: To compare the birthweight specific prevalence of cerebral palsy in singleton and multiple births. METHODS: Registered births of babies with cerebral palsy born to mothers resident in the counties of Merseyside and Cheshire during the period 1982 to 1989 were ascertained. RESULTS: The crude prevalence of cerebral palsy was 2.3 per 1000 infant survivors in singletons, 12.6 in twins,

P O Pharoah; T Cooke

1996-01-01

52

Interferons and cerebral palsy  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: To explore the association of neonatal interferons (IFNs) with spastic cerebral palsy (CP) and with other measured substances. Study design: Assays of archived neonatal blood of 31 predominantly term children with CP and 65 children in a control group were obtained by recycling immunoaffinity chromatography with laser-enhanced fluorescence and chemiluminescence detection. Results: Fourteen of 31 children with spastic CP

Judith K. Grether; Karin B. Nelson; James M. Dambrosia; Terry M. Phillips

1999-01-01

53

Japanese neuropathy patients with peripheral myelin protein-22 gene aneuploidy  

SciTech Connect

Peripheral myelin protein (PMP-22) gene aneuploidy results in Charcot-Marie-Tooth disease Type 1A (CMT1A) and the Hereditary Neuropathy with Liability to Pressure Palsy (HNPP) in Japanese patients as well as Caucasian Americans. Charcot-Marie-Tooth disease (CMT), the most common genetic neuropathy, results when expression of one of at least seven genes is defective. CMT1A, about half of all CMT mutations, is usually associated with a duplication spanning the peripheral myelin protein-22 gene on distal chromosome band 17p11.2. Autosomal dominant HNPP (hereditary pressure and sensory neuropathy, HPSN) results from a deletion of the CMT1A gene region. Multicolor in situ hybridization with PMP-22 gene region probe characterized HNPP deletion reliably and detected all different size duplications reported previously. In summary, 72% of 28 Japanese CMT1 (HMSNI) patients tested had the CMT1A duplication, while none of the CMT2 (HMSNII) or CMT3 (HMSNIII) patients had a duplication. Three cases of HNPP were identified by deletion of the CMT1A gene region on chromosome 17p. HNPP and CMT1A have been reported to result simultaneously from the same unequal recombination event. The lower frequency of HNPP compared to CMT1A suggests that HNPP patients have a lower reproductive fitness than CMT1A patients. This result, along with a CMT1A duplication found in an Asian Indian family, demonstrates the broad geographic distribution and high frequency of PMP-22 gene aneuploidy.

Lebo, R.V.; Li, L.Y.; Flandermeyer, R.R. [Univ. of California, San Francisco, CA (United States)] [and others

1994-09-01

54

The prognostic value of concurrent phrenic nerve palsy in newborn children with Erb's palsy  

Microsoft Academic Search

The prognostic value of concurrent phrenic nerve palsy in newborn babies with Erb’s palsy was investigated. The records of 191 babies with Erb’s palsy were reviewed retrospectively at two institutions. Poor spontaneous return of the motor function of the limb was found for infants both with and without concurrent phrenic nerve palsy. Concurrent phrenic nerve palsy in newborn babies with

M. M. Al-Qattan; H. M. Clarke; C. G. Curtis

1998-01-01

55

Peripheral facial palsy in children.  

PubMed

The aim of this study is to evaluate the types and clinical characteristics of peripheral facial palsy in children. The hospital charts of children diagnosed with peripheral facial palsy were reviewed retrospectively. A total of 81 children (42 female and 39 male) with a mean age of 9.2 ± 4.3 years were included in the study. Causes of facial palsy were 65 (80.2%) idiopathic (Bell palsy) facial palsy, 9 (11.1%) otitis media/mastoiditis, and tumor, trauma, congenital facial palsy, chickenpox, Melkersson-Rosenthal syndrome, enlarged lymph nodes, and familial Mediterranean fever (each 1; 1.2%). Five (6.1%) patients had recurrent attacks. In patients with Bell palsy, female/male and right/left ratios were 36/29 and 35/30, respectively. Of them, 31 (47.7%) had a history of preceding infection. The overall rate of complete recovery was 98.4%. A wide variety of disorders can present with peripheral facial palsy in children. Therefore, careful investigation and differential diagnosis is essential. PMID:24097851

Y?lmaz, Unsal; Cubukçu, Duygu; Y?lmaz, Tuba Sevim; Ak?nc?, Gülçin; Ozcan, Muazzez; Güzel, Orkide

2014-11-01

56

Erb's palsy without shoulder dystocia  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objectives: The purpose of this commentary is to review certain articles which have provided evidence that Erb's palsy can occur without associated shoulder dystocia. The mechanism of the specific cause of the injury will be described. Methods: Prior to the last 10–12 years it was assumed that Erb's palsy occurred exclusively with and was the result of shoulder dystocia. Gonik

H. F. Sandmire; R. K. DeMott

2002-01-01

57

Anterior interosseous nerve palsy: spontaneous recovery in two patients  

PubMed Central

The case histories of two patients who developed an anterior interosseous nerve palsy apparently as a result of an external pressure injury are reported. Both patients recovered fully without surgical exploration, one 19 months and the other nine months after the onset. It is stressed that complete recovery may occur spontaneously. PMID:4374508

Gardner-Thorpe, Christopher

1974-01-01

58

Progressive supranuclear palsy.  

PubMed

Progressive supranuclear palsy is a disorder of tau protein aggregation. Its clinical spectrum is now known to be wider than originally described, with a phenotype resembling Parkinson disease accounting for a third of cases. However, at least half of the patients with PSP exhibit the classic bradykinesia with disproportionate postural instability, erect posture with nuchal rigidity, frontal behavioral and cognitive changes, vertical gaze palsy, and other disabling brainstem deficits. Nonmendelian genetic risk factors exist, but PSP is almost entirely sporadic, with a prevalence of five to six persons per 100,000, mean onset age of 63, and median survival of 7 years. Clinical diagnostic criteria with excellent specificity and a clinical rating scale sensitive to progression are available. Diagnosis remains clinical, although magnetic resonance imaging and cerebrospinal fluid measures are showing promise as early-stage screening tools. Multiple candidate neuroprotective medications have proven ineffective to date. Treatment remains supportive, although coenzyme Q-10 has shown preliminary symptomatic efficacy and levodopa may provide transient, modest benefit. PMID:24963674

Golbe, Lawrence I

2014-04-01

59

Facial palsy: unusual etiology.  

PubMed

This is a report of three patients who presented at the Mayo Clinic over a two-year period. All were initially diagnosed as having Bell's palsy but were later found to have a malignant neoplasm causing the paralysis. Two of the patients had breast carcinoma metastases involving the mastoid portion of the facial nerve. The third patient had an adenocarcinoma of the deep lobe of the parotid that involved the facial nerve distal to the stylomastoid foramen. The course of the facial paralysis in the two patients with the metastitic breast disease was almost identical. It consisted of episodes of pain in the mastoid area. generally in the late evening or during the night, often awakening the patient from sleep. This was then followed by peripheral facial-nerve paralysis, sometimes partial and at other times complete. These episodes lasted from 10 minutes to several hours and then resolved completely. They recurred over several months. The patients were completely asymptomatic and normal on examination in the intervals between episodes of paralysis until it became permanent. Metastatic lesions causing facial paralysis are extremely rare in the literature. In those cases that have been reported, the paralysis was progressive from the start and in the vast majority of cases was either painless or associated with other aural symptoms such as otorrhea, hearing loss, and periauricular swelling. There are two unusual features of these two cases: 1. the initial presentation of a breast metastasis as a facial paralysis; in the first case there were no other metastatic lesions present at diagnosis, whereas the second patient had other, asymptomatic, metastatic nodules; and 2. the multiple, brief, recurring episodes of facial paralysis, which have not previously been reported as a mode of presentation of metastitic disease. The third patient was diagnosed as having Bell's palsy. A facial nerve decompression was performed, and the nerve apparently looked normal. The paralysis failed to resolve. He was later found to have adenocarcinoma of the deep lobe of the parotid that involved the facial nerve distal to the stylomastoid foramen. A report of only one similar case could be found in the literature. The sequence of events in these three cases emphasizes the importance of submitting a patient suspected of having Bell's palsy to a thorough otoneurologic examination. PMID:831048

Breadon, G E; Cody, D T; Weiland, L H

1977-01-01

60

[MR imaging of cerebral palsy].  

PubMed

We evaluated 35 patients with cerebral palsy on the basis of MR imaging findings in the brain. The types of palsy were spastic quadriplegia (n = 11), spastic diplegia (n = 9), spastic hemiplegia (n = 2), double hemiplegia (n = 1), athetosis (n = 10) and mixed (n = 2). Of all patients, 28 (80%) generated abnormal findings. In spastic quadriplegia, although eight cases revealed severe brain damage, two cases showed no abnormal findings in the brain. One of the three had cervical cord compression caused by atlanto-axial subluxation. In spastic diplegia, the findings were divided according to whether the patient was born at term or preterm. If the patient had been born prematurely, the findings showed periventricular leukomalacia and abnormally high intensity in the posterior limbs of the internal capsule on T2-weighted images. MR imaging in spastic hemiplegia revealed cerebral infarction. In the athetoid type, half of all cases showed either no abnormal findings or slight widening of the lateral ventricle. Three cases showed abnormal signals of the basal ganglia. The reason why athetoid-type palsy did not show severe abnormality is unknown. We believe that MR imaging is a useful diagnostic modality to detect damage in the brain in cerebral palsy and plays an important role in the differentiation of cerebral palsy from the spastic palsy disease. PMID:8692665

Saginoya, T; Yamaguchi, K; Kuniyoshi, K; Moromizato, H; Ohgane, T; Horikawa, A; Shinzato, S; Matayoshi, T; Nakada, Y; Takaesu, E; Nakano, M

1996-06-01

61

[Bell and his palsy].  

PubMed

Unlike his eponymous fame suggests, Sir Charles Bell (1774-1842) was an anatomist, draughtsman and surgeon rather than purely a physiologist. He was born and educated in Edinburgh but spent most of his working life in London (1804 to 1836). It was there he started a School of Anatomy, alongside a fledgling surgical practice, just as his elder brother John had done in Edinburgh. In 1814 he joined the surgical staff at the Middlesex Hospital. In 1810 he surmised from occasional animal experiments that the anterior and posterior spinal roots differed in function. Yet it was left to the Frenchman Magendie to identify that these functions were motor and sensory: a discovery that induced Bell into an ungentlemanly feud. Bell also slightly erred on the functions of the trigeminal and facial nerve, but his description of the features of idiopathic facial palsy is unrivalled. PMID:21771360

van Gijn, Jan; Gijselhart, Joost P

2011-01-01

62

Differences in standing balance between patients with diplegic and hemiplegic cerebral palsy.  

PubMed

Maintaining standing postural balance is important for walking and handling abilities in patients with cerebral palsy. This study included 23 patients with cerebral palsy (seven with spastic diplegia and 16 with spastic hemiplegia), aged from 7 to 16 years of age. Standing posture balance measurements were performed using an AMTI model OR6-7 force platform with the eyes open and closed. Patients with diplegic cerebral palsy exhibited greater center of pressure displacement areas with the eyes open and greater center of pressure sway in the medial-lateral direction with the eyes open and closed compared with hemiplegic patients. Thus, diplegic patients exhibited weaker postural balance control ability and less standing stability compared with hemiplegic cerebral palsy patients. PMID:25206558

Rojas, Valeska Gatica; Rebolledo, Guillermo Méndez; Muñoz, Eduardo Guzman; Cortés, Natalia Ibarra; Gaete, Caterine Berrios; Delgado, Carlos Manterola

2013-09-15

63

Differences in standing balance between patients with diplegic and hemiplegic cerebral palsy  

PubMed Central

Maintaining standing postural balance is important for walking and handling abilities in patients with cerebral palsy. This study included 23 patients with cerebral palsy (seven with spastic diplegia and 16 with spastic hemiplegia), aged from 7 to 16 years of age. Standing posture balance measurements were performed using an AMTI model OR6-7 force platform with the eyes open and closed. Patients with diplegic cerebral palsy exhibited greater center of pressure displacement areas with the eyes open and greater center of pressure sway in the medial-lateral direction with the eyes open and closed compared with hemiplegic patients. Thus, diplegic patients exhibited weaker postural balance control ability and less standing stability compared with hemiplegic cerebral palsy patients. PMID:25206558

Rojas, Valeska Gatica; Rebolledo, Guillermo Méndez; Muñoz, Eduardo Guzman; Cortés, Natalia Ibarra; Gaete, Caterine Berrios; Delgado, Carlos Manterola

2013-01-01

64

Short-Term Effect of Botulinum Toxin A Injection on Spastic Equinovarus Foot in Cerebral Palsy Patients: A Study Using the Foot Pressure Measurement System  

PubMed Central

Objective To evaluate the therapeutic effect of botulinum toxin A (BTX-A) injection on spastic gastrocnemius (GCM) and tibialis posterior muscles (TPo) by using the foot pressure measurement system (FPMS). Methods Eighteen ambulatory CP patients were recruited in this study. BTX-A was injected into the GCM at a dose of 6-12 units/kg and TPo at a dose of 4-9 units/kg according to the severity of equinus and varus deformity. Foot contact pattern, pressure time integral (PTI), coronal index using the FPMS and Modified Ashworth Scale (MAS), and visual inspection of gait pattern were used for evaluation of the therapeutic effect of BTX-A injection. Clinical and FPMS data were statistically analyzed according to the muscle group. Results A significant decrease in the MAS score of the GCM and TPo was observed, and spastic equinovarus pattern during gait showed improvement after injection. The GCM+TPo injection group showed a significant decrease in forefoot, lateral forefoot pad, and lateral column PTI, and a significant increase in hindfoot PTI and coronal index. In the GCM only injection group, forefoot PTI and lateral column PTI were significantly decreased and hindfoot PTI was significantly increased. The TPo only injection group showed a significant decrease in lateral column PTI and a significant increase in the coronal index. Change in PTI in the hindfoot showed a significant correlation with the change in MAS score of the GCM. Change in PTI of the lateral column and coronal index showed a significant correlation with the change in MAS score of the TPo. Conclusion The FPMS demonstrated the quantitative therapeutic effect of BTX-A on abnormal pressure distribution in equinovarus foot in detail. The FPMS can be a useful additional tool for evaluation of the effect of BTX-A injection.

Son, Su Min; Park, In Sik

2015-01-01

65

Life expectancy of children with cerebral palsy  

E-print Network

Life expectancy of children with cerebral palsy J L Hutton, K Hemming and UKCP collaboration What is UKCP? Information about the physical effects of cerebral palsy on the everyday lives of children with cerebral palsy which collect information about children within specific local areas. They are the Mersey

Hutton, Jane

66

Parental age, genetic mutation, and cerebral palsy  

Microsoft Academic Search

Parental age and birth order were studied in 251 patients with cerebral palsy. No parental age or birth order effects were observed in spastic quadriplegia or diplegia, but a paternal age effect was detected in those with athetoid\\/dystonic cerebral palsy and congenital hemiplegia. These observations indicate that some cases of athetoid\\/dystonic or hemiplegic cerebral palsy might arise by fresh dominant

N A Fletcher; J Foley

1993-01-01

67

Epilepsy in Children With Cerebral Palsy  

Microsoft Academic Search

Epilepsy occurs in 15-60% of children with cerebral palsy; however, its clinical course is not well defined. This retrospective study reviewed the prevalence, nature, and prognosis of epilepsy in cerebral palsy. Thirty-two of 85 children with cerebral palsy seen in the Neurodevelopmental Clinic in Tuen Mun Hospital between 1990 and 1995 had epilepsy. A control group of 59 epileptic children

Karen L. Kwong; Sik N. Wong; Kwan T. So

1998-01-01

68

Neuroevolutional Approach to Cerebral Palsy and Speech.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Intended for cerebral palsy specialists, the book emphasizes the contribution that a neuroevolutional approach to therapy can make to habilitation goals of the child with cerebral palsy and applies the basic principles of the Bobath approach to therapy. The first section discusses cerebral palsy as a reflection of disturbed neuro-ontogenisis and…

Mysak, Edward D.

69

Isolated facial palsy: a new lacunar syndrome  

Microsoft Academic Search

Three cases of sudden isolated upper motor neuron facial palsy and two with associated pseudobulbar palsy have been seen. All were without significant limb weakness. Computed tomography demonstrated small deep infarcts in the internal capsular\\/corona radiata regions. Pure upper motor neuron facial palsy may be another lacunar syndrome, due to a lesion in the internal capsule or corona radiata.

C Y Huang; G Broe

1984-01-01

70

Cerebral palsy: a dental update.  

PubMed

Special and medically compromised patients present a unique population that challenges the dentist's skill and knowledge. Providing oral care to people with cerebral palsy (CP) requires adaptation of the skills we use everyday. In fact, most people with mild or moderate forms of CP can be treated successfully in the general practice setting. This article is to review various dental considerations and management of a CP patient. How to cite this article: Sehrawat N, Marwaha M, Bansal K, Chopra R. Cerebral Palsy: A Dental Update. Int J Clin Pediatr Dent 2014;7(2):109-118. PMID:25356010

Sehrawat, Nidhi; Marwaha, Mohita; Bansal, Kalpana; Chopra, Radhika

2014-05-01

71

Cerebral Palsy: A Dental Update  

PubMed Central

ABSTRACT Special and medically compromised patients present a unique population that challenges the dentist’s skill and knowledge. Providing oral care to people with cerebral palsy (CP) requires adaptation of the skills we use everyday. In fact, most people with mild or moderate forms of CP can be treated successfully in the general practice setting. This article is to review various dental considerations and management of a CP patient. How to cite this article: Sehrawat N, Marwaha M, Bansal K, Chopra R. Cerebral Palsy: A Dental Update. Int J Clin Pediatr Dent 2014;7(2):109-118. PMID:25356010

Sehrawat, Nidhi; Bansal, Kalpana; Chopra, Radhika

2014-01-01

72

Cerebral palsy and aging  

PubMed Central

Cerebral palsy (CP), the most common major disabling motor disorder of childhood, is frequently thought of as a condition that affects only children. Deaths in children with CP, never common, have in recent years become very rare, unless the child is very severely and multiply disabled. Thus, virtually all children assigned the diagnosis of CP will survive into adulthood. Attention to the adult with CP has been sparse, and the evolution of the motor disorder as the individual moves through adolescence, young adulthood, middle age, and old age is not well understood. Nor do we know what happens to other functional domains, such as communication and eating behavior, in adults with CP. Although the brain injury that initially causes CP by definition does not progressively worsen through the lifetime, the effects of CP manifest differently throughout the life span. The aging process must inevitably interact with the motor disorder, but we lack systematic, large-scale follow-up studies of children with CP into adulthood and through adulthood with thorough assessments performed over time. In this paper we summarize what is known of the epidemiology of CP throughout the life span, beginning with mortality and life expectancy, then survey what is known of functioning, ability, and quality of life of adults with CP. We conclude by describing a framework for future research on CP and aging that is built around the World Health Organization's International Classification of Functioning, Disability, and Health (ICF) and suggest specific tools and approaches for conducting that research in a sound manner. PMID:19740206

Haak, Peterson; Lenski, Madeleine; Hidecker, Mary Jo Cooley; Li, Min; Paneth, Nigel

2014-01-01

73

Chronic Lung Disease Cerebral Palsy  

E-print Network

0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 100 Chronic Lung Disease Diabetes Cerebral Palsy Sickle Cell Disease Hem ophilia Solid organ transplant Inflam m atory Bowel Disease Epilepsy Cystic Fibrosis Com plex Congential HeartDisease Acute Lym phoblastic Leukem ia Spina Bifida Medianencountersperyear Outpatient

Kay, Mark A.

74

Histological Perspective of Cerebral Palsy  

E-print Network

Page 1 Histological Perspective of Cerebral Palsy Lucas Smith 18 November 2008 #12;Page 2 - Chorioamnionitis Present histologically in >50% of preterm deliveries - Often subclinical Can lead to fetal, Pizzardi A, Vergani P, Salafia CM. Amnioinfusion in preterm PROM: effects on amnion and cord histology. J

Gleeson, Joseph G.

75

Erb's palsy contrasted with Klumpke's and total palsy: Different mechanisms are involved  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: The purpose of this study was to examine the available evidence regarding the nature of the forces that were involved in the production of a lower plexus palsy or a total (whole arm) palsy, as contrasted with the nature of the forces that resulted in an upper plexus palsy. Study Design: This was a review of studies that dealt

Raymond J. Jennett; Theodore J. Tarby; Robert L. Krauss

2002-01-01

76

Bone age in cerebral palsy  

PubMed Central

Objective To compare the chronological age and bone age among cerebral palsy patients in the outpatient clinic and its correlation with the type of neurological involvement, gender and functional status. Methods 401 patients with spastic cerebral palsy, and ages ranging from three months to 20 years old, submitted to radiological examination for bone age and analyzed by two independent observers according Greulich & Pyle. Results In the topographic distribution, there was a significant delay (p<0.005) in tetraparetic (17.7 months), hemiparetic (10.1 months), and diparetic patients (7.9 months). In the hemiparetic group, the mean bone age in the affected side was 96.88 months and the uncompromised side was 101.13 months (p<0.005). Regarding functional status, the ambulatory group showed a delay of 18.73 months in bone age (p<0.005). Comparing bone age between genders, it was observed a greater delay in males (13.59 months) than in females (9.63 months), but not statistically significant (p = 0.54). Conclusion There is a delay in bone age compared to chronological age influenced by the topography of spasticity, functional level and gender in patients with cerebral palsy. Level of Evidence IV, Case Series. PMID:24453693

Miranda, Eduardo Régis de Alencar Bona; Palmieri, Maurício D'arc; de Assumpção, Rodrigo Montezuma César; Yamada, Helder Henzo; Rancan, Daniela Regina; Fucs, Patrícia Maria de Moraes Barros

2013-01-01

77

Common questions about Bell palsy.  

PubMed

Bell palsy is an acute affliction of the facial nerve, resulting in sudden paralysis or weakness of the muscles on one side of the face. Testing patients with unilateral facial paralysis for diabetes mellitus or Lyme disease is not routinely recommended. Patients with Lyme disease typically present with additional manifestations, such as arthritis, rash, or facial swelling. Diabetes may be a comorbidity of Bell palsy, but testing is not needed in the absence of other indications, such as hypertension. In patients with atypical symptoms, magnetic resonance imaging with contrast enhancement can be used to rule out cranial mass effect and to add prognostic value. Steroids improve resolution of symptoms in patients with Bell palsy and remain the preferred treatment. Antiviral agents have a limited role, and may improve outcomes when combined with steroids in patients with severe symptoms. When facial paralysis is prolonged, surgery may be indicated to prevent ocular desiccation secondary to incomplete eyelid closure. Facial nerve decompression is rarely indicated or performed. Physical therapy modalities, including electrostimulation, exercise, and massage, are neither beneficial nor harmful. PMID:24506123

Albers, Janet R; Tamang, Stephen

2014-02-01

78

Peripheral Facial Palsy: Etiology, Diagnosis and Treatment  

Microsoft Academic Search

Treatment options for peripheral facial palsy (PFP) are an often discussed problem in neurologic practice. Following a short description of the complex anatomy of the seventh cranial nerve we therefore review possible etiologies in the context of leading clinical signs, with idiopathic PFP or Bell’s palsy (BP) being most frequent. A rather typical clinical course of BP allows to focus

Gudrun Roob; Franz Fazekas; Hans-Peter Hartung

1999-01-01

79

Epilepsy in Children With Cerebral Palsy  

Microsoft Academic Search

To study the spectrum of epilepsy in children with cerebral palsy, 105 consecutive children with cerebral palsy and active epilepsy, between 1 and 14 years of age, were studied prospectively. A detailed history and examination, electroencephalography (EEG), and computed tomography (CT) were done in all cases. The social quotient was assessed using the Vineland Social Maturity Scale. A retrospective cohort

Pratibha Singhi; Sujeet Jagirdar; Narendra Khandelwal; Prahbhjot Malhi

2003-01-01

80

Preeclampsia, preterm delivery and infant cerebral palsy  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: To evaluate the association between preeclampsia and cerebral palsy among preterm infants. Study design: A cohort study of 345 singleton preterm (24 to 33 weeks gestation) infants delivered at an institution where no mothers received magnesium sulphate. We investigated the relationship of preeclampsia to the development of infant cerebral palsy (spastic quadriplegia, hemiplegia or diplegia) at two years' corrected

Arsenio Spinillo; Ezio Capuzzo; Anna Cavallini; Mauro Stronati; Antonella De Santolo; Elisa Fazzi

1998-01-01

81

UNDERSTANDING CEREBRAL PALSY, A HANDBOOK FOR PARENTS.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

THIS MANUAL, WRITTEN BY A PSYCHOLOGIST, PROVIDES BASIC INFORMATION ABOUT THE NATURE OF CEREBRAL PALSY AND DISCUSSES FEELINGS AND REACTIONS OF PARENTS OF CEREBRAL PALSIED CHILDREN. INFORMATION ABOUT THE BRAIN AND BRAIN DAMAGE IN RELATION TO MOTOR AND EMOTIONAL FUNCTION, PERCEPTION AND INTELLIGENCE IS PRESENTED. PART TWO GIVES INSIGHT INTO PROBLEMS…

HATTON, DANIEL A.

82

Rule Based Expert System for Cerebral Palsy *Rajdeep Borgohain  

E-print Network

1 Rule Based Expert System for Cerebral Palsy Diagnosis *Rajdeep Borgohain Department of Computer of Cerebral Palsy. The expert system takes user input and depending on the symptoms of the patient, diagnoses if the patient is suffering from Cerebral Palsy. The Expert System also classifies the Cerebral Palsy as mild

Sanyal, Sugata

83

Valacyclovir for the treatment of Bell's palsy.  

PubMed

Despite recent evidence suggesting that Bell's palsy is associated with reactivation of alfa-herpes viruses, the disease has been treated empirically, and the use of valacyclovir has not been definitively established. In 2007, two prospective, randomised, placebo-controlled trials evaluating valacyclovir were reported in patients with Bell's palsy. One demonstrated that valacyclovir/prednisolone therapy was statistically more effective than placebo/prednisolone therapy in improving the recovery of patients with Bell's palsy, excluding zoster sine herpete. However, considering the cost-benefit ratio of this treatment and the limitations of virological diagnoses, we recommend that valacyclovir should be used in cases of severe palsy within 3 days after the onset of Bell's palsy. PMID:18778190

Hato, Naohito; Sawai, Naoki; Teraoka, Masato; Wakisaka, Hiroyuki; Takahashi, Hirotaka; Hinohira, Yasuyuki; Gyo, Kiyofumi

2008-10-01

84

Phrenic nerve palsy: A rare cause of respiratory distress in newborn  

PubMed Central

Birth injury is defined as an impairment of a newborn's body function or structure due to adverse influences that occurred at birth. Phrenic nerve palsy may result from birth trauma during a traumatic neonatal delivery from a stretch injury due to lateral hyperextension of the neck at birth. This could be a rare cause of respiratory distress in the newborn period with irregular respiration. Respiratory distress due to phrenic nerve damage leading to paralysis of the ipsilateral diaphragm may require continuous positive airway pressure or mechanical ventilation and if unresponsive, surgical plication of diaphragm. Herein, we report a case of phrenic nerve palsy in a newborn presenting with respiratory distress. PMID:23560016

Murty, V. S. S. Yerramilli; Ram, K. Dinedra

2012-01-01

85

Congenital oculo-bulbar palsy.  

PubMed Central

A girl developed progressive weakness of bulbar and ocular muscles starting before the age of two years. Electromyography revealed a widespread subclinical myopathy. An intercostal muscle biopsy showed complex abnormalities including occasional neurofilamentous accumulations and honeycomb-like membranous material in terminal axons. Endplates were small and some secondary synaptic clefts were abnormally deep. Acetylcholine receptors extended unusually deeply into the clefts of the junctional folds. Muscle fibres showed subsarcolemmal vacuolation at some places. This form of congenital oculo-bulbar palsy does not appear to have been described previously. Images PMID:1602315

Jennekens, F G; Veldman, H; Vroegindeweij-Claessens, L J; Molenaar, P C; Op de Coul, A A

1992-01-01

86

Orthopedic management of spasticity in cerebral palsy  

Microsoft Academic Search

Introduction  This article summarizes our experience with cerebral palsy. The primary and secondary deformities that occur with cerebral\\u000a palsy are described, followed by a brief overview of the nature and role of gait analysis in the treatment of gait problems\\u000a in cerebral palsy. The concept of lever-arm dysfunction is introduced.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Discussion  Our current treatment program is then presented and subsequently illustrated by

Tom F. Novacheck; James R. Gage

2007-01-01

87

Genetics Home Reference: Progressive supranuclear palsy  

MedlinePLUS

... as tauopathies, which are characterized by an abnormal buildup of tau in the brain. Researchers suspect that other genetic and environmental factors also contribute to progressive supranuclear palsy. For example, ...

88

Management of peripheral facial nerve palsy  

Microsoft Academic Search

Peripheral facial nerve palsy (FNP) may (secondary FNP) or may not have a detectable cause (Bell’s palsy). Three quarters\\u000a of peripheral FNP are primary and one quarter secondary. The most prevalent causes of secondary FNP are systemic viral infections,\\u000a trauma, surgery, diabetes, local infections, tumor, immunological disorders, or drugs. The diagnosis of FNP relies upon the\\u000a presence of typical symptoms

Josef Finsterer

2008-01-01

89

Life expectancy of children with cerebral palsy  

Microsoft Academic Search

Risk factors for mortality of young children with cerebral palsy were studied using a sample of 12,709 children aged 0.5–3.5 years with cerebral palsy who had received services from the State of California between 1980 and 1995. The most powerful prognostic factors for survival were simple functional items: mobility and feeding skills. Once these were known, factors such as severity

David J. Strauss; Robert M. Shavelle; Terence W. Anderson

1998-01-01

90

Trends in birth prevalence of cerebral palsy  

Microsoft Academic Search

A register of children with cerebral palsy born in the period 1966-77 to mothers resident in the Mersey region was compiled from several different data sources. There were 685 cases, with a male:female ratio of 1.4:1. The birth prevalence of cerebral palsy ranged from 1.18 to 1.97 per 1000 live births each year, with a mean of 1.51 per 1000

P O Pharoah; T Cooke; I Rosenbloom; R W Cooke

1987-01-01

91

Effects of Cerebral Palsy on Neuropsychological Function  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cerebral Palsy (CP) is a muscle and movement disorder that affects children and is the result of early brain injury. The causes\\u000a and nature of the brain damage may vary considerably, which renders children with cerebral palsy a heterogeneous group. Only\\u000a recently has research begun to utilize technology to determine the nature of the brain injury and the relation to

Kathryn Straub; John E. Obrzut

2009-01-01

92

Management of peripheral facial nerve palsy  

PubMed Central

Peripheral facial nerve palsy (FNP) may (secondary FNP) or may not have a detectable cause (Bell’s palsy). Three quarters of peripheral FNP are primary and one quarter secondary. The most prevalent causes of secondary FNP are systemic viral infections, trauma, surgery, diabetes, local infections, tumor, immunological disorders, or drugs. The diagnosis of FNP relies upon the presence of typical symptoms and signs, blood chemical investigations, cerebro-spinal-fluid-investigations, X-ray of the scull and mastoid, cerebral MRI, or nerve conduction studies. Bell’s palsy may be diagnosed after exclusion of all secondary causes, but causes of secondary FNP and Bell’s palsy may coexist. Treatment of secondary FNP is based on the therapy of the underlying disorder. Treatment of Bell’s palsy is controversial due to the lack of large, randomized, controlled, prospective studies. There are indications that steroids or antiviral agents are beneficial but also studies, which show no beneficial effect. Additional measures include eye protection, physiotherapy, acupuncture, botulinum toxin, or possibly surgery. Prognosis of Bell’s palsy is fair with complete recovery in about 80% of the cases, 15% experience some kind of permanent nerve damage and 5% remain with severe sequelae. PMID:18368417

2008-01-01

93

Cerebral Palsy Gait, Clinical Importance  

PubMed Central

ABSTRACT Cerebral palsy refers to a lesion on an immature brain, that determines permanent neurological disorders. Knowing the exact cause of the disease does not alter the treatment management. The etiology is 2-2.5/1000 births and the rate is constant in the last 40-50 years because advances in medical technologies have permitted the survival of smaller and premature new born children. Gait analysis has four directions: kinematics (represents body movements analysis without calculating the forces), kinetics (represents body moments and forces), energy consumption (measured by oximetry), and neuromuscular activity (measured by EMG). Gait analysis can observe specific deviations in a patient, allowing us to be more accurate in motor diagnoses and treatment solutions: surgery intervention, botulinum toxin injection, use of orthosis, physical kinetic therapy, oral medications, baclofen pump. PMID:24790675

TUGUI, Raluca Dana; ANTONESCU, Dinu

2013-01-01

94

Clinical Phenotypes of Different MPZ (P 0) Mutations May Include Charcot–Marie–Tooth Type 1B, Dejerine–Sottas, and Congenital Hypomyelination  

Microsoft Academic Search

Hereditary demyelinating peripheral neuropathies consist of a heterogeneous group of genetic disorders that includes hereditary neuropathy with liability to pressure palsies (HNPP), Charcot–Marie–Tooth disease (CMT), Dejerine–Sottas syndrome (DSS), and congenital hypomyelination (CH). The clinical classification of these neuropathies into discrete categories can sometimes be difficult because there can be both clinical and pathologic variation and overlap between these disorders. We

Laura E Warner; Max J Hilz; Stanley H Appel; James M Killian; Edwin H Kolodny; George Karpati; Stirling Carpenter; Gordon V Watters; Calvin Wheeler; David Witt; Adria Bodell; Eva Nelis; Christine Van Broeckhoven; James R Lupski

1996-01-01

95

Molecular mechanism for duplication 17p11.2— the homologous recombination reciprocal of the Smith-Magenis microdeletion  

Microsoft Academic Search

Recombination between repeated sequences at various loci of the human genome are known to give rise to DNA rearrangements associated with many genetic disorders. Perhaps the most extensively characterized genomic region prone to rearrangement is 17p12, which is associated with the peripheral neuropathies, hereditary neuropathy with liability to pressure palsies (HNPP) and Charcot-Marie-Tooth disease type 1A (CMT1A;ref. 2). Homologous recombination

Lorraine Potocki; Ken-Shiung Chen; Sung-Sup Park; Doreen E. Osterholm; Marjorie A. Withers; Virginia Kimonis; Anne M. Summers; Wendy S. Meschino; Kwame Anyane-Yeboa; Catherine D. Kashork; Lisa G. Shaffer; James R. Lupski

2000-01-01

96

Bell's palsy before Bell: Cornelis Stalpart van der Wiel's observation of Bell's palsy in 1683.  

PubMed

Bell's palsy is named after Sir Charles Bell (1774-1842), who has long been considered to be the first to describe idiopathic facial paralysis in the early 19th century. However, it was discovered that Nicolaus Anton Friedreich (1761-1836) and James Douglas (1675-1742) preceded him in the 18th century. Recently, an even earlier account of Bell's palsy was found, as observed by Cornelis Stalpart van der Wiel (1620-1702) from The Hague, The Netherlands in 1683. Because our current knowledge of the history of Bell's palsy before Bell is limited to a few documents, it is interesting to discuss Stalpart van der Wiel's description and determine its additional value for the history of Bell's palsy. It is concluded that Cornelis Stalpart van der Wiel was the first to record Bell's palsy in 1683. His manuscript provides clues for future historical research. PMID:16272948

van de Graaf, Robert C; Nicolai, Jean-Philippe A

2005-11-01

97

Diagnosis, treatment, and prevention of cerebral palsy.  

PubMed

Cerebral palsy is the most prevalent cause of persisting motor function impairment with a frequency of about 1/500 births. In developed countries, the prevalence rose after introduction of neonatal intensive care, but in the past decade, this trend has reversed. A recent international workshop defined cerebral palsy as "a group of permanent disorders of the development of movement and posture, causing activity limitation, that are attributed to non-progressive disturbances that occurred in the developing fetal or infant brain." In a majority of cases, the predominant motor abnormality is spasticity; other forms of cerebral palsy include dyskinetic (dystonia or choreo-athetosis) and ataxic cerebral palsy. In preterm infants, about one-half of the cases have neuroimaging abnormalities, such as echolucency in the periventricular white matter or ventricular enlargement on cranial ultrasound. Among children born at or near term, about two-thirds have neuroimaging abnormalities, including focal infarction, brain malformations, and periventricular leukomalacia. In addition to the motor impairment, individuals with cerebral palsy may have sensory impairments, cognitive impairment, and epilepsy. Ambulation status, intelligence quotient, quality of speech, and hand function together are predictive of employment status. Mortality risk increases incrementally with increasing number of impairments, including intellectual, limb function, hearing, and vision. The care of individuals with cerebral palsy should include the provision of a primary care medical home for care coordination and support; diagnostic evaluations to identify brain abnormalities, severity of neurologic and functional abnormalities, and associated impairments; management of spasticity; and care for associated problems such as nutritional deficiencies, pain, dental care, bowel and bladder continence, and orthopedic complications. Current strategies to decrease the risk of cerebral palsy include interventions to prolong pregnancy (eg, 17alpha-progesterone), limiting the number of multiple gestations related to assisted reproductive technology, antenatal steroids for mothers expected to deliver prematurely, caffeine for extremely low birth weight neonates, and induced hypothermia for a subgroup of neonates diagnosed with hypoxic-ischemic encephalopathy. PMID:18981805

O'Shea, Thomas Michael

2008-12-01

98

Facial nerve palsy associated with Rickettsia conorii infection  

PubMed Central

Facial nerve palsy has been occasionally attributed to infectious agents, but Rickettsiae species have not been documented as causative agents. We report two adolescent girls with facial nerve palsy and serological evidence of R conorii infection. These cases indicate that rickettsioses should be included among the causes of facial nerve palsy, particularly in endemic areas.?? PMID:11420202

Bitsori, M; Galanakis, E; Papadakis, C; Sbyrakis, S

2001-01-01

99

Increase in cerebral palsy in normal birthweight babies  

Microsoft Academic Search

A register has been compiled of the 421 children with congenital cerebral palsy born between 1960 and 1975 from a defined geographical area of North East England (population 770 000). There was a fall in the rate of cerebral palsy among very low birthweight babies between 1964 and 1975 and also in the small group with dyskinetic cerebral palsy. The

S N Jarvis; J S Holloway; E N Hey

1985-01-01

100

Cerebral palsy refers to a group of neurological disorders that  

E-print Network

Background Cerebral palsy refers to a group of neurological disorders that appear in infancy and affect movement and coordination. Many children with cerebral palsy have difficulty with upper extremity of virtual reality to improve motor control in children with cerebral palsy is very limited. The Game

Stansfield, Sharon

101

Auditory Selective Attention in Cerebral-Palsied Individuals.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

To examine differences between auditory selective attention abilities of normal and cerebral-palsied individuals, 23 cerebral-palsied and 23 normal subjects (5-21) were asked to repeat a series of 30 items in presence of intermittent white noise. Results indicated that cerebral-palsied individuals perform significantly more poorly when the…

Laraway, Lee Ann

1985-01-01

102

Etiologic yield of cerebral palsy: a contemporary case series  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cerebral palsy is an established symptom complex that results from heterogeneous etiologies. Our understanding of the relative contribution of underlying etiologies to the occurrence of cerebral palsy is largely derived from studies lacking systematic neurologic evaluation or the application of contemporary imaging modalities. Throughout a 10-year inclusive period, the case records of all consecutive patients diagnosed with cerebral palsy in

Michael I Shevell; Annette Majnemer; Isabelle Morin

2003-01-01

103

Cerebral Palsy In Adults Consequences of Non Progressive Pathology  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: Cerebral palsy (CP) is a disability that affects individuals throughout their lifespan. This study was conducted to evaluate the clinical status of adults with cerebral palsy. Methods: A cross-sectional study was carried out during the period of February 2001 to June 2002, in Baghdad, Iraq. Fifty young adult men with cerebral palsy were evaluated by reviewing their medical records

Mohammed Abdulelah Mezaal; Kasid A. Nouri; Shareefa Abdool; Khalid Al Safar; Ahmed S. M. Nadeem

2009-01-01

104

Hand Functioning in Children with Cerebral Palsy  

PubMed Central

Brain lesions may disturb hand functioning in children with cerebral palsy (CP), making it difficult or even impossible for them to perform several manual activities. Most conventional treatments for hand dysfunction in CP assume that reducing the hand dysfunctions will improve the capacity to manage activities (i.e., manual ability, MA). The aim of this study was to investigate the directional relationships (direct and indirect pathways) through which hand skills influence MA in children with CP. A total of 136 children with CP (mean age: 10?years; range: 6–16?years; 35 quadriplegics, 24 diplegics, 77 hemiplegics) were assessed. Six hand skills were measured on both hands: touch-pressure detection (Semmes–Weinstein esthesiometer), stereognosis (Manual Form Perception Test), proprioception (passive mobilization of the metacarpophalangeal joints), grip strength (GS) (Jamar dynamometer), gross manual dexterity (GMD) (Box and Block Test), and fine finger dexterity (Purdue Pegboard Test). MA was measured with the ABILHAND-Kids questionnaire. Correlation coefficients were used to determine the linear associations between observed variables. A path analysis of structural equation modeling was applied to test different models of causal relationships among the observed variables. Purely sensory impairments did seem not to play a significant role in the capacity to perform manual activities. According to path analysis, GMD in both hands and stereognosis in the dominant hand were directly related to MA, whereas GS was indirectly related to MA through its relationship with GMD. However, one-third of the variance in MA measures could not be explained by hand skills. It can be concluded that MA is not simply the integration of hand skills in daily activities and should be treated per se, supporting activity-based interventions. PMID:24782821

Arnould, Carlyne; Bleyenheuft, Yannick; Thonnard, Jean-Louis

2014-01-01

105

Dystonia in progressive supranuclear palsy.  

PubMed Central

OBJECTIVES: To document the nature, distribution, and frequency of dystonic symptoms in progressive supranuclear palsy (PSP). METHODS: Charts and videotapes of all clinically diagnosed patients with PSP seen between 1983 and 1993 were reviewed and the occurrence, nature, and distribution of all dystonic symptoms were recorded. RESULTS: Of 83 identified cases 38 had some dystonic features. Twenty (24%) had blepharospasm (one was induced by levodopa), 22 (27%) had limb dystonia (one was induced by electroconvulsive therapy and another by levodopa), 14 (17%) had axial dystonia in extension, one had oromandibular dystonia induced by levodopa, and two had other cranial dystonias. Six patients had limb dystonia as an early or presenting feature, sometimes leading to misdiagnosis of cortical-basal ganglionic degeneration. All three patients who had postmortem confirmation of the diagnosis had other concurrent disease. One patient with bilateral limb dystonia and blepharospasm had evidence of previous hydrocephalus and severe arteriosclerotic changes. One with arm dystonia also had cerebrovascular disease and one with hemidystonia also had rare swollen chromatolytic neurons in the frontotemporal cortex. CONCLUSIONS: Dystonia is a common manifestation of PSP. Limb dystonia is particularly common and may indicate the presence of concurrent disease. When dystonia occurs in PSP, dopaminergic medication should be cautiously reduced or discontinued to rule out the possibility of treatment induced symptoms. PMID:9120447

Barclay, C L; Lang, A E

1997-01-01

106

Children with cerebral palsy exhibit greater and more regular postural sway than typically developing children  

Microsoft Academic Search

Following recent advances in the analysis of centre-of-pressure (COP) recordings, we examined the structure of COP trajectories\\u000a in ten children (nine in the analyses) with cerebral palsy (CP) and nine typically developing (TD) children while standing\\u000a quietly with eyes open (EO) and eyes closed (EC) and with concurrent visual COP feedback (FB). In particular, we quantified\\u000a COP trajectories in terms

Stella F. Donker; Annick Ledebt; Melvyn Roerdink; Geert J. P. Savelsbergh; Peter J. Beek

2008-01-01

107

Evaluation of force-sensing resistors for gait event detection to trigger electrical stimulation to improve walking in the child with cerebral palsy  

Microsoft Academic Search

Force-sensing resistors (FSRs) were used to detect the transitions between five main phases of gait for the control of electrical stimulation (ES) while walking with seven children with spastic diplegia, cerebral palsy. The FSR positions within each child's insoles were customized based on plantar pressure profiles determined using a pressure-sensitive membrane array (Tekscan Inc., Boston, MA). The FSRs were placed

Brian T. Smith; Daniel J. Coiro; Richard Finson; Randal R. Betz; James McCarthy

2002-01-01

108

Narrative Ability in Children with Cerebral Palsy  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In a previous study a group of children with cerebral palsy (CP) were found to have considerable difficulties with narratives, performing several standard deviations below the criteria for the Information score of the Bus Story Test (BST). To examine in depth the performance of children with CP and a control group with typically developing (TD)…

Holck, Pernille; Sandberg, Annika Dahlgren; Nettelbladt, Ulrika

2011-01-01

109

Birthweight specific trends in cerebral palsy  

Microsoft Academic Search

A register of infants with cerebral palsy born to mothers resident in the Mersey region from 1967-84 has been maintained using various sources of information. A total of 1056 patients are registered of whom 331 (31%) have hemiplegia or mixed hemiplegia, 236 (22%) have diplegias or mixed diplegia, and 369 (35%) have quadriplegia or mixed quadriplegia. The remainder have dyskinetic

P O Pharoah; T Cooke; R W Cooke; L Rosenbloom

1990-01-01

110

Cerebral Palsy Spasticity. Selective Posterior Rhizotomy  

Microsoft Academic Search

We have performed selective posterior rhizotomies on 60 children with cerebral palsy. The procedure involves lumbar laminectomy with stimulation of the rootlets (fascicles) of the second lumbar to the first sacral posterior roots bilaterally; those rootlets associated with an abnormal motor response, as evidenced by sustained or diffused muscular contraction, are divided leaving intact rootlets associated with a brief localized

Warwick J. Peacock; Leila J. Arens; Barbara Berman

1987-01-01

111

Electrodiagnostic confirmation of long thoracic nerve palsy  

Microsoft Academic Search

Long thoracic nerve latencies were measured in 25 normal subjects. The nerve was stimulated at Erb's point. Monopolar electrodes were used to record the motor evoked response from the serratus anterior muscle. The mean long thoracic nerve latency was 3.9 +\\/- 0.6 ms. Four athletes with unilateral, isolated long thoracic nerve palsies were compared with the control group and with

P E Kaplan

1980-01-01

112

Cognitive Styles of Students With Cerebral Palsy.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Because the Matching Familiar Figures Test has a heavy visual perceptual loading, its usefulness for measuring cognitive style was examined with cerebral palsied students, frequently characterized by ocular anomalies and visual perceptual deficits. The students' cognitive styles were qualitatively similar to nonhandicapped. Extraocular movements…

Junkala, John; Talbot, Michael L.

1982-01-01

113

Multiple Sequential Stereotaxic Surgery for Cerebral Palsy  

Microsoft Academic Search

The increasing safety and benefit shown from symmetrically bilateral simultaneous stereotaxic surgeries for cerebral palsy has suggested combining the benefits of lesioning multiple areas in the same patient. Unilateral dentateotomy helps to relax the spasticity of infantile spastic hemiplegia. Bilateral simultaneous dentateotomy as suggested by Fraioli and Balasubramaniam has increased the benefit for cerebral diplegia over that derived from unilateral

Robert F. Heimburger

1975-01-01

114

The `subcortical dementia' of progressive supranuclear palsy  

Microsoft Academic Search

Progressive supranuclear palsy (Steele et al.) has a characteristic pattern of dementia: (1) forgetfulness, (2) slowing of thought processes, (3) emotional or personality changes (apathy or depression with occasional outbursts of irritability), and (4) impaired ability to manipulate acquired knowledge. In many neurological disease states associated with subcortical pathology a similar pattern of dementia exists. The neurobehavioural changes of progressive

Martin L. Albert; Robert G. Feldman; Anne L. Willis

1974-01-01

115

Complementary and Alternative Therapies for Cerebral Palsy  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The optimal practice of medicine includes integrating individual clinical expertise with the best available clinical evidence from systematic research. This article reviews nine treatment modalities used for children who have cerebral palsy (CP), including hyperbaric oxygen, the Adeli Suit, patterning, electrical stimulation, conductive education,…

Liptak, Gregory S.

2005-01-01

116

Cochlear implant and delayed facial palsy.  

PubMed

Delayed facial nerve palsy following cochlear implant surgery is less documented though it poses diagnostic and therapeutic challenges. Apart from the functional, aesthetic and emotional concerns, it can raise important medico legal issues. The objectives of this study were: to report a case of delayed facial palsy following cochlear implant surgery in a patient who had positive viral antibody markers pre operatively; and to review the literature on delayed onset facial paralysis following viral reactivation and its relation to cochlear implant surgery. An extensive literature review was done using internet and medical search engines and library facilities. Important articles on the topic were identified and summarised. Data on delayed facial palsy following cochlear implant surgery were collected, constructed in a coherent way and details discussed. Postulated mechanisms of delayed facial palsy include neural oedema, vasospasm and viral reactivation. Of these, reactivation of previous herpes simplex virus infection has special significance, as many of these patients are positive for viral antibody markers. Manipulation of sensory branches of the facial nerve and chorda tympani can be a mechanism in such cases. Correlation of clinical presentation and pre operative positive viral antibody markers with positive polymerase chain reaction can be strongly suggestive of viral reactivation. It is concluded that patients with positive viral antibody markers are more susceptible to facial palsy from viral reactivation. Corticosteroids, antiviral agents and physiotherapy can be useful in producing a quicker and complete recovery. An experienced cochlear implant surgery team and pre operative radiological evaluations are mandatory to decrease the chances of direct facial nerve trauma. Proper irrigation lowers the risk of neural oedema. PMID:19194876

Joseph, Shawn Thadathil; Vishwakarma, Rajesh; Ramani, Mukesh Kumar; Aurora, Rupa

2009-12-01

117

The diagnostic yield of neuroimaging in sixth nerve palsy - Sankara Nethralaya Abducens Palsy Study (SNAPS): Report 1  

PubMed Central

Aims: The aim was to assess the etiology of sixth nerve palsy and on the basis of our data, to formulate a diagnostic algorithm for the management in sixth nerve palsy. Design: Retrospective chart review. Results: Of the 104 neurologically isolated cases, 9 cases were attributable to trauma, and 95 (86.36%) cases were classified as nontraumatic, neurologically isolated cases. Of the 95 nontraumatic, isolated cases of sixth nerve palsy, 52 cases were associated with vasculopathic risk factors, namely diabetes and hypertension and were classified as vasculopathic sixth nerve palsy (54.7%), and those with a history of sixth nerve palsy from birth (6 cases) were classified as congenital sixth nerve palsy (6.3%). Of the rest, neuroimaging alone yielded a cause in 18 of the 37 cases (48.64%). Of the other 19 cases where neuroimaging did not yield a cause, 6 cases were attributed to preceding history of infection (3 upper respiratory tract infection and 3 viral illnesses), 2 cases of sixth nerve palsy were found to be a false localizing sign in idiopathic intracranial hypertension and in 11 cases, the cause was undetermined. In these idiopathic cases of isolated sixth nerve palsy, neuroimaging yielded no positive findings. Conclusions: In the absence of risk factors, a suggestive history, or positive laboratory and clinical findings, neuroimaging can serve as a useful diagnostic tool in identifying the exact cause of sixth nerve palsy. Furthermore, we recommend an algorithm to assess the need for neuroimaging in sixth nerve palsy. PMID:25449936

Nair, Akshay Gopinathan; Ambika, Selvakumar; Noronha, Veena Olma; Gandhi, Rashmin Anilkumar

2014-01-01

118

Narakas classification of obstetric brachial plexus palsy revisited.  

PubMed

Narakas classified babies with obstetric palsy into four groups: upper Erb's, extended Erb's, total palsy, and total palsy with a Horner. Over the last 15 years, it was noted at our obstetric palsy clinic that good spontaneous recovery in newborns with extended Erb's palsy (C5, C6, C7 injury) was more likely if they recovered active wrist extension against gravity before 2 months of age. A hypothesis was made that newborns with extended Erb's palsy (Narakas Group II) may be subclassified into two groups according to this 'early recovery of wrist extension.' In a retrospective study of 581 cases with strict inclusion criteria, the hypothesis was found to be true: patients with extended Erb's and 'early recovery of wrist extension' have significantly higher percentages of good spontaneous recovery of limb function than those with extended Erb's and 'no early recovery of wrist extension' (P<0.0001 by chi-squared test). PMID:19786407

Al-Qattan, M M; El-Sayed, A A F; Al-Zahrani, A Y; Al-Mutairi, S A; Al-Harbi, M S; Al-Mutairi, A M; Al-Kahtani, F S

2009-12-01

119

[A case of syphilitic meningitis presenting the seventh nerve and the eighth nerve palsies].  

PubMed

Here we described a case of syphilitic meningitis presenting the seventh nerve and the eighth nerve palsies. A 56-year-old man was admitted because of left facial palsy and hearing loss of bilateral ears. He had a penile chancre five months before admission. Cerebrospinal fluid examination showed high pressure, pleocytosis predominantly with mononuclear cells and high protein content. STS and TPHA of serum and CSF were positive. High dose penicillin G was effective, and he was discharged with only mild hearing loss in the left. Considering the penetration of penicillin G into the CSF and the minimum fully treponemicidal concentration of penicillin, the administration of large doses of aqueous penicillin G intravenously or intramuscularly was effective in such a case to prevent permanent deafness, though CDC recommends relatively low dose. PMID:2223261

Komachi, H; Ikeda, M; Asano, Y; Tsukagoshi, H

1990-07-01

120

Pressure  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This page contains three Physlets that are able to share data using a connection made by a common superclass, SApplet. The ensemble walls keep track of the change in momentum, i.e., the pressure, during each time step, dt, and provides this data to the DataGraph Physlet and the DataTable Physlet.

Wolfgang Christian

121

Facial palsy in Kawasaki disease: report of two cases.  

PubMed

Facial palsy is an unusual complication associated with Kawasaki disease, with only a few published case reports. We report two patients with typical Kawasaki disease and facial palsy. Both had coronary artery aneurysms and were treated with intravenous immunoglobulin. The facial palsy resolved completely over the next several months in both patients. Coronary artery aneurysms resolved completely in one patient, and the other has not regressed to normal till now. The incidence of coronary artery aneurysm appears to be higher in the handful of reported cases of Kawasaki disease with facial palsy. PMID:18581725

Li, Sung-Tse; Chiu, Nan-Chang; Ho, Che-Sheng; Chen, Ming-Ren

2008-01-01

122

[Cytomegalovirus mononucleosis complicated with peripheral facial palsy].  

PubMed

A 36-year-old woman was admitted to our hospital for further examination of an acute febrile illness with liver dysfunction. A peripheral blood smear displayed atypical lymphocytes. Cytomegalovirus (CMV) mononucleosis was diagnosed based on the detection of CMV-specific IgM and conventional CMV pp65 antigen. The physical examination on admission revealed signs of lower motor neuron right facial palsy. There were no significant cerebrospinal fluid findings, nor were there other neurological abnormalities. After receiving a short-course of oral corticosteroids, the patient gradually recovered from the facial paralysis. A one-month follow-up examination indicated that she had fully recovered neurologically, showing disappearance of CMV-DNA and a significant increase in the anti-CMV IgG titer. To our knowledge, there has been only one previous report describing CMV as the cause of an isolated facial palsy combined with CMV mononucleosis. PMID:24681941

Hirano, Taichi; Tsuji, Takahiro; Yamasaki, Hiroshi; Tsuda, Hiroyuki

2014-03-01

123

Benign recurrent VI nerve palsy in childhood.  

PubMed

The case of a child with six documented episodes of benign recurrent unilateral VI nerve palsy between the ages of 2 1/2 months and 3 years is presented. Despite the recognized self-limiting course of this disorder, its possible evolution into a comitant esotropia makes close follow-up mandatory. The practical aspects of management including maintenance occlusion therapy are stressed as well as the need for prompt surgical intervention once the acquired stabismus has become stabilized. The etiology of benign VI nerve palsy of childhood may have the same immunological basis as other cases of para-infectious neuropathy. This isolated postinfective cranial mononeuropathy easily blends into the continuum of neurological involvement seen with the Landry-Guillian-Barre syndrome. With recovery from the initial episode, the abducens nerve may have become predisposed to recurrent inflammatory episodes and recurrent loss of function. Most often these recurrences are triggered by febrile illnesses of childhood. PMID:7264848

Bixenman, W W; von Noorden, G K

1981-01-01

124

[Cause of Bell's palsy: herpes simplex virus].  

PubMed

At present Bell's palsy (BP) is still defined as idiopathic unilateral facial paralysis of sudden onset. More than 20 years ago an aetiological link between herpes simplex virus (HSV) and BP was proposed. Numerous experiments in animals and in humans have been performed to test this hypothesis. However, the human facial nerve tissue itself was investigated in only a few of these studies. Two research lines were followed: (a) search for presence of latent HSV in the facial nerve of asymptomatic individuals (as shown earlier in the trigeminal nerve); (b) find 'active' HSV in tissues from BP patients with recent onset of disease. The application of new molecular biological techniques, notably polymerase chain reaction (PCR), to facial nerve tissues has provided ample evidence for a causal relationship between BP and HSV. Therefore it might now be the time to change the name 'Bell's palsy' into 'herpetic facial paralysis'. PMID:9562755

Mulkens, P S; Schirm, J

1998-02-28

125

Tendon Transfers Part II: Transfers for Ulnar Nerve Palsy and Median Nerve Palsy  

PubMed Central

Objectives After reading this article (part II of II), the participant should be able to: 1. Describe the anatomy and function of the median and ulnar nerves in the forearm and hand. 2. Describe the clinical deficits associated with injury to each nerve. 3. Describe the indications, benefits, and drawbacks for various tendon transfer procedures used to treat median and ulnar nerve palsy.4. Describe the treatment of combined nerve injuries. 5. Describe postoperative care and possible complications associated with these tendon transfer procedures. Summary This article discusses the use of tendon transfer procedures for treatment of median and ulnar nerve palsy as well as combined nerve palsies. Postoperative management and potential complications are also discussed. PMID:19730287

Sammer, Douglas M.; Chung, Kevin C.

2009-01-01

126

Surgical Treatment of Spasticity in Cerebral Palsy  

Microsoft Academic Search

Since 1971, we have surgically treated spasticity in 109 cases of cerebral palsy with posterior rhizotomy. The best results have been obtained with functional posterior rhizotomy, an original modification of Foerster’s technique, in which the selection of the roots\\/rootlets to be sectioned is based on functional exploration of the spinal circuits involved in the maintenance of spasticity, using intra-operative electrostimulation

V. A. Fasano; G. Broggi; G. Barolat-Romana; A. Sguazzi

1978-01-01

127

Cerebral palsy: New approaches to therapy  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cerebral palsy is the most common developmental disorder causing a physical disability arising from an injury to the central\\u000a nervous system. The majority of pediatric neurologists remain minimally involved in the rehabilitation of these children.\\u000a Recent advances in basic and clinical neuroscience give hope that effective rehabilitation strategies, based on motor learning\\u000a science, can be developed for these children. The

Marjorie A. Garvey; Margot L. Giannetti; Katharine E. Alter; Peter S. Lum

2007-01-01

128

Epilepsy in children with cerebral palsy  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objectives: To study the occurrence, associated factors, nature and prognosis of seizures in children with cerebral palsy (CP).Design: A prospective, descriptive, hospital-based, case-control study.Setting: Tertiary level University Teaching Hospitals in the Al Ain Medical District, United Arab Emirates.Patients: Fifty-six children with CP and seizures seen in the neurodevelopmental clinics at Al Ain and Tawam University Hospitals during the period of

A. K. GURURAJ; L. SZTRIHA; A. BENER; A. DAWODU; V. EAPEN

2003-01-01

129

Nongoitrous autoimmune thyroiditis with facial palsy.  

PubMed

We report a case of severe hypothyroidism with nongoitrous, autoimmune thyroiditis and pituitary hyperplasia in a 13-year-old boy, who presented with sudden palsy on the left side of his face. Prednisolone and antiviral medication was administered. However, the facial palsy did not improve completely. The medications were replaced with thyroxine, and the facial palsy recovered. Endocrinological testing showed severe hypothyroidism as follows: thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH) level >100 µIU/mL, T4 of 1.04 µg/dL, T3 of 0.31 ng/mL, and free T4 of 0.07 ng/dL. Level of serum antithyroid peroxidase antibodies was 1,933.39 IU/mL, and that of antithyroglobulin antibodies was 848.16 IU/mL. Level of TSH receptor antibodies was >40 IU/L. Bioassay result for TSH receptor stimulating antibodies was negative. Thyroid sonography revealed no increase in the size or vascularity of the bilateral gland. Thyroid scintigraphy with 99mTc showed decreased uptake, and magnetic resonance imaging demonstrated an enlarged pituitary gland. PMID:24904880

Lee, Hyung Jik; Kim, Jin Kyung

2013-12-01

130

[Prognostic value of electrodiagnosis of Bell's palsy].  

PubMed

Many papers report on a poor rate of complete restitution of Bell's palsy if signs of degeneration can be detected in neuromyography (NMG) or electromyography (EMG). In 119 patients who underwent infusion therapy (as developed by Stennert) 39% showed signs of degeneration in EMG or NMG. Complete restitution was achieved in 93% of these patients. Degeneration was more frequent in elderly patients (< 20 years: 20%, > 60 years: 55%). This did not affect the rate of complete restitution, which was constantly high for every age. If infusion therapy was started within 7 days after onset of the disease, no defects in restitution were observed, which was frequently so if therapy was started later. After one year the rate of complete restitution was about equal in cases with signs of degeneration (91%) and non-degenerative cases (94%). But 80% of the non-degenerative cases showed complete restitution within 3 months after onset of the palsy, whereas 80% of cases with signs of degeneration healed after this date (mean 6.1 months). After oral therapy with cortisol exclusively half of the degenerative cases did not attain complete restitution. After infusion therapy EMG and NMG do not answer the question if a Bell's palsy will heal completely or not but enable us to predict when this will probably be the case. PMID:7520243

Laskawi, R; Drobik, C; Baaske, C

1994-06-01

131

Surgical management of third nerve palsy.  

PubMed Central

AIMS--A surgical technique has been developed in order to obtain ocular alignment in the primary position in patients with third nerve palsy. METHODS--A method for surgically correcting the vertical deviation and the pseudoptosis is described in three patients with longstanding third nerve palsy. By decreasing the ability of the non-involved eye to elevate, a fixation duress was created which eliminated the secondary deviation that characteristically occurs in such patients when the involved eye fixates. As a result of this technique, both eyes in all patients on attempted fixation were under similar duress, therefore requiring equal amounts of stimulation to move into the primary position. When the fixation duress was sufficient, elimination of the hypotropia and ptosis was achieved. Additionally, in order to correct the exotropia, generous recession and resection procedures in the involved eye and recession of the lateral rectus in the noninvolved eye were performed. RESULTS--Between 8 and 10 prism dioptres of esotropia were achieved and maintained in two patients. One patient had 20 prism dioptres of exotropia. Two patients had no residual ptosis and one required an additional anterior levator resection to achieve a satisfactory result. CONCLUSION--Patients with a third nerve palsy and a pseudoptosis may be candidates for this approach. Images PMID:7612553

Noonan, C P; O'Connor, M

1995-01-01

132

Frequent detection of Mycoplasma pneumoniae in Bell’s palsy  

Microsoft Academic Search

The cause of Bell’s palsy (BP) remains unknown despite various hints to an infectious etiology. Mycoplasma pneumoniae is a common pathogen of the respiratory tract causing pharyngitis, tracheobronchitis or pneumonia. Neurological complications are the most frequent extrapulmonary manifestation. So far, only a few case reports suggested an association between cranial nerve palsy and M. pneumoniae infection. Patients with a BP

C. Völter; J. Helms; B. Weissbrich; P. Rieckmann; M. Abele-Horn

2004-01-01

133

Intrathecal Baclofen for Management of Spastic Cerebral Palsy: Multicenter Trial  

Microsoft Academic Search

Intrathecal baclofen infusion has demonstrated effectiveness in decreasing spasticity of spinal origin. Oral antispasticity medication is minimally effective or not well tolerated in cerebral palsy. This study assessed the effectiveness of intrathecal baclofen in reducing spasticity in cerebral palsy. Candidates were screened by randomized, double-blind, intrathecal injections of baclofen and placebo. Responders were defined as those who experienced an average

Richard Gilmartin; Derek Bruce; Bruce B. Storrs; Rick Abbott; Linda Krach; John Ward; Karen Bloom; William H. Brooks; Dennis L. Johnson; Joseph R. Madsen; John F. McLaughlin; Joseph Nadell

2000-01-01

134

Cerebral palsy: why we must plan for survival  

Microsoft Academic Search

The survival of children in the South East Thames region, born between 1970 and 1979 and diagnosed as having some form of cerebral palsy was investigated. Of the 732 children studied, 651 (90%) are still alive, and hence cerebral palsy must be regarded as a condition with which people live rather than a condition of which they die. Survival varies

P M Evans; S J Evans; E Alberman

1990-01-01

135

Spontaneous vaginal delivery: A risk factor for Erb's palsy?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: Our purpose was to determine whether Erb's palsies occurring in the absence of shoulder dystocia differ from those occurring after shoulder dystocia. Study Design: We compared the time course of resolution and incidence of persistent injury at 1 year of age in 17 cases of Erb's palsy without shoulder dystocia and 23 cases associated with shoulder dystocia. Results: The

Robert B. Gherman; Joseph G. Ouzounian; David A. Miller; Lori Kwok; T. Murphy Goodwin

1998-01-01

136

Erb-Duchenne and Dejerine-Klumpke Palsies  

MedlinePLUS

... caused by damage to those nerves. Erb-Duchenne (Erb's) palsy refers to paralysis of the upper brachial plexus. ... and treat these disorders. NIH Patient Recruitment for Erb-Duchenne and Dejerine-Klumpke Palsies Clinical Trials At NIH Clinical Center Throughout the ...

137

Gait Classificaiton in Children with Cerebral Palsy by Bayesian Approach  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cerebral palsy (CP) is generally considered as a nonprogressive neuro-developmental condition that occurs in early childhood and is associated with a motor impairment, usually affecting mobility and posture. Automatic accurate identification of cerebral palsy gait has many potential applications, for example, assistance in diagnosis, clinical decisionmaking and communication among the clinical professionals. In previous studies, support vector machine (SVM) and

Bai-ling Zhang; Yanchun Zhang; Tuan D. Pham; Rezaul K. Begg

2007-01-01

138

Ophthalmic Management of Facial Nerve Palsy: A Review  

Microsoft Academic Search

Facial nerve palsy affects individuals of all ages, races, and sexes. Psychological and functional implications of the paralysis present a devastating management problem to those afflicted, as well as the carriers. Since Sir Charles Bell's original description of facial palsy in 1821, our understanding and treatment options have expanded. It is essential that a multidisciplinary approach, encompassing ophthalmologists; Ear, Nose,

Imran Rahman; S. Ahmed Sadiq

2007-01-01

139

Occupational therapy for children with cerebral palsy: a systematic review  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: Occupational therapy (OT) for cerebral palsy focuses on the development of skills necessary for the performance of activities of daily living. The aim of this systematic review was to determine whether OT interventions improve outcome for children with cerebral palsy (CP).Methods: An extensive search in MEDLINE, CINAHL, EMBASE, AMED and SCISEARCH was performed. Studies with controlled and uncontrolled designs

Esther M. J. Steultjens; Joost Dekker; Lex M. Bouter; Brigitte L. M. Lambregts; Cornelia H. M. Van Den Ende

2004-01-01

140

Transient third nerve palsy after electrometallicthrombosis of carotid cavernous fistulae  

Microsoft Academic Search

Three patients had oculomotor nerve palsy as a complication of the treatment of carotid cavernous fistulae by electrometallicthrombosis of the cavernous sinus. In two, third nerve function returned without misdirection in two months or less. One was left with a partial third nerve palsy, also without misdirection.

W B Wilson; P R Bringewald; Y Hosobuchi; W F Hoyt

1976-01-01

141

Quality of Arithmetic Education for Children with Cerebral Palsy  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The aim of this exploratory study was to investigate the quality of arithmetic education for children with cerebral palsy. The use of individual educational plans, amount of arithmetic instruction time, arithmetic instructional grouping, and type of arithmetic teaching method were explored in three groups: children with cerebral palsy (CP) in…

Jenks, Kathleen M.; de Moor, Jan; van Lieshout, Ernest C. D. M.; Withagen, Floortje

2010-01-01

142

Design and validation of automated femoral bone morphology measurements in cerebral palsy  

E-print Network

Design and validation of automated femoral bone morphology measurements in cerebral palsy Noyeol the progress of bony deformation in patients with cerebral palsy. The purpose of the study was to develop palsy, automatic morphology quantification, statistical shape model #12;1. Introduction Cerebral palsy

Lee, Jehee

143

Alterations of hamstring muscle properties in patients with varying severity of spastic cerebral palsy  

E-print Network

palsy Lucas Smith Background: Cerebral palsy (CP) is a disorder in which children experience a non: How does the altered neuronal input of muscle contraction associated with spastic cerebral palsy: Spastic muscle in cerebral palsy is in a pathologic state that has fundamentally different mechanical

Gleeson, Joseph G.

144

The Effect of Long-Term Training Program on Balance in Children with Cerebral Palsy: Results of a Pilot Study for Individually Based Functional Exercises  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study examines the effects of long-term training program on balance and center of pressure (COP) for four male children (13 years of age) with cerebral palsy (CP). These children were classified into one hemiplegic (level II), one diplegic (level II) and two quadriplegic children (levels III and II) using the Gross Motor Function…

Uzun, Selda

2013-01-01

145

Reliability and comparison of electromyographic and kinetic measurements during a standing reach task in children with and without cerebral palsy  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purposes of this study of children with cerebral palsy (CP) and with typical development (TD) were to determine: (1) within session test–retest reliability of electromyography (EMG) of postural muscles [using motor coordination patterns (cMCP)] and center of pressure (COP) measures, (2) relationships between cMCP and COP measures, and (3) differences between children with CP and with TD. Data were

Christopher A. Zaino; Sarah Westcott McCoy

2008-01-01

146

Epidural analgesia in children with cerebral palsy  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose  Two modalities of epidural analgesia in children with two types of cerebral palsy (CP) were compared for differences in the\\u000a incidence of common complications (inadequate analgesia, hypopnea, hypoxaemia, sedation, vomiting, pruritus, urinary retention,\\u000a and seizures).\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Methods  Demographic, procedural and postoperative complication data were collected on children with CP receiving epidural analgesia.\\u000a Information was recorded contemporaneously with the child’s care by one

B. Randall Brenn; Robert P. Brislin; John B. Rose

1998-01-01

147

[Advantage of facial rehabilitation after facial palsy].  

PubMed

Visible and immediate trauma, facial palsy (FP) covers functional but also psychological damage and it is essential to evaluate before a comprehensive therapeutic care tailored. Few patients, however, are emerging with a prescription for rehabilitation after a consultation. Why? This rehabilitation is it ignored? Is it absolutely necessary? It is evident in the extension of medical care to minimize the effects. Yet the foundation of rehabilitation is sadly little known and often poorly enforced. In addition to its specificity, this therapy preceded by a report called "pretreatments offers a prognosis for recovery to patient" regardless of the origin and degree of involvement of the PF. PMID:22046678

Gatignol, Peggy; Lannadère, Elodie; Bernat, Isabelle; Tankéré, Frédéric; Lamas, Georges

2011-10-01

148

Peripheral Facial Nerve Palsy after Therapeutic Endoscopy  

PubMed Central

Peripheral facial nerve palsy (FNP) is a mononeuropathy that affects the peripheral part of the facial nerve. Primary causes of peripheral FNP remain largely unknown, but detectable causes include systemic infections (viral and others), trauma, ischemia, tumor, and extrinsic compression. Peripheral FNP in relation to extrinsic compression has rarely been described in case reports. Here, we report a case of a 71-year-old man who was diagnosed with peripheral FNP following endoscopic submucosal dissection. This case is the first report of the development of peripheral FNP in a patient undergoing therapeutic endoscopy. We emphasize the fact that physicians should be attentive to the development of peripheral FNP following therapeutic endoscopy.

Kim, Eun Jeong; Lee, Ji Woon; Lee, Jun Hyung; Park, Chol Jin; Kim, Young Dae; Lee, Hyun Jin

2015-01-01

149

Fetal deformations: a risk factor for obstetrical brachial plexus palsy?  

PubMed

The purpose of this report is to discuss the association of brachial plexus palsy and congenital deformations. We reviewed all charts of patients less than 1 year of age with obstetrical brachial plexus palsy evaluated by one of the authors (IA) between January 1998 and October 2005 at Miami Children's Hospital Brachial Plexus Center. Of 158 patients with obstetrical brachial plexus palsy, 7 had deformations (4.4%). Deformations were present in 32% of patients delivered by cesarean section, but in only 2% of patients delivered vaginally. The deformations were ipsilateral, involving the chest in two patients, distal arms in two patients, proximal arm in one patient, ear in one patient, and the leg in one patient. All patients with deformations had unilateral Erb's palsies. None had a history of maternal uterine malformation. Two presumptive mechanisms of injury, one causing the deformation (compressive forces) and one causing brachial plexus palsy at the time of delivery (traction forces), were present in all cases. The higher incidence of deformation in patients with obstetrical brachial plexus palsy born by cesarean sections and the presence of two presumptive mechanisms in all of the cases presented here raises the possibility that fetal deformations are a risk factor for obstetrical brachial plexus palsy. PMID:16996396

Alfonso, Israel; Diaz-Arca, Gemma; Alfonso, Daniel T; Shuhaiber, Hans H; Papazian, Oscar; Price, Andrew E; Grossman, John A I

2006-10-01

150

Contralateral diaphragmatic palsy in acute stroke: an interesting observation.  

PubMed

Diaphragmatic palsy in hemiparetic stroke is not well recognized. Further, its implications on stroke outcome have not been studied. Here, we report a patient with left-sided diaphragmatic palsy due to an acute right middle cerebral artery territory infarction. The diagnosis was suspected on finding an elevated dome of the diaphragm on the left side in a routine chest radiograph and was confirmed by finding decreased movements of the left hemidiaphragm on fluoroscopic examination. We hypothesize that this condition is probably under-recognized in clinical practice and its clinical importance not well known. The pathophysiological basis of diaphragmatic palsy in acute stroke and its possible clinical implications are discussed. PMID:19881177

Kumar, Sudhir; Reddy, Rajesh; Prabhakar, Subhashini

2009-01-01

151

Growth hormone deficiency and cerebral palsy  

PubMed Central

Cerebral palsy (CP) is a catastrophic acquired disease, occurring during development of the fetal or infant brain. It mainly affects the motor control centres of the developing brain, but can also affect cognitive functions, and is usually accompanied by a cohort of symptoms including lack of communication, epilepsy, and alterations in behavior. Most children with cerebral palsy exhibit a short stature, progressively declining from birth to puberty. We tested here whether this lack of normal growth might be due to an impaired or deficient growth hormone (GH) secretion. Our study sample comprised 46 CP children, of which 28 were male and 18 were female, aged between 3 and 11 years. Data obtained show that 70% of these children lack normal GH secretion. We conclude that GH replacement therapy should be implemented early for CP children, not only to allow them to achieve a normal height, but also because of the known neurotrophic effects of the hormone, perhaps allowing for the correction of some of the common disabilities experienced by CP children. PMID:20856687

Devesa, Jesús; Casteleiro, Nerea; Rodicio, Cristina; López, Natalia; Reimunde, Pedro

2010-01-01

152

Dopa-responsive dystonia simulating cerebral palsy.  

PubMed

Five patients presented in infancy or early childhood with various combinations of pyramidal and extrapyramidal signs with normal cognitive function. Their perinatal courses were unremarkable. In each patient, initial impressions listed by several examiners included spastic diplegia or cerebral palsy. Later in each course, either extrapyramidal features or progression suggested dopa-responsive dystonia. In 4 of the 5 children, cerebrospinal fluid was obtained and disclosed reduced levels of biopterin, neopterin, and homovanillic acid in all 4. Levodopa therapy resulted in prompt improvement with normal function returning within 6 months. The disappearance of the "spasticity," extensor plantar responses, and extrapyramidal signs, following levodopa therapy, confirmed the diagnosis of doparesponsive dystonia in these patients. Three had apparently sporadic disease; the other 2 were siblings with an affected paternal grandmother. Three had onset in infancy with delayed sitting and walking before the appearance of overt dystonia; infantile onset is infrequent in dopa-responsive dystonia. The other 2 had normal milestones, but developed gait disorders with prominent imbalance in early childhood. The diagnosis of dopa-responsive dystonia should be considered in children with unexplained or atypical "cerebral palsy." PMID:7880338

Nygaard, T G; Waran, S P; Levine, R A; Naini, A B; Chutorian, A M

1994-10-01

153

Bell's Palsy: Treatment with Steroids and Antiviral Drugs  

MedlinePLUS

... slight. BELL’S PALSY: TREATMENT WITH STEROIDS AND ANTIVIRAL DRUGS © 2012 American Academy of Neurology Copies of this ... is usually safe and well tolerated. Likewise, antiviral drugs are fairly well tolerated. Antiviral drugs can be ...

154

Palsies of Cranial Nerves That Control Eye Movement  

MedlinePLUS

... Disorders 4 Palsies of Cranial Nerves That Control Eye Movement These disorders involve paralysis of one of the cranial nerves that control eye movement (the 3rd, 4th, or 6th nerve), impairing the ...

155

Neuroimaging of isolated and non-isolated third nerve palsies  

PubMed Central

A variety of aetiologies may cause third nerve palsy (TNP), and some manifestations may herald neurological emergencies. This article describes and illustrates various diseases that lead to TNP. PMID:22253341

Lo, C-P; Huang, C-F; Hsu, C-C; Kuo, C-C; Liu, C-C; Wang, Y-M; Wang, W-Y

2012-01-01

156

Idiopathic Diaphragmatic Paralysis: Bell’s Palsy of the Diaphragm?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Study Objectives Idiopathic diaphragm paralysis is probably more common and responsible for more morbidity than generally appreciated. Bell’s\\u000a palsy, or idiopathic paralysis of the seventh cranial nerve, may be seen as an analogous condition. The roles of zoster sine\\u000a herpete and herpes simplex have increasingly been recognized in Bell’s palsy, and there are some data to suggest that antiviral\\u000a therapy

Robert S. Crausman; Eleanor M. Summerhill; F. Dennis McCool

2009-01-01

157

Management of Spasticity in Children with Cerebral Palsy  

PubMed Central

Cerebral palsy is the most common cause of spasticity and physical disability in children and spasticity is one of the commonest problems in those with neurological disease. The management of spasticity in children with cerebral palsy requires a multidisciplinary effort and should be started as early as possible. There are a number of treatments available for the management of spasticity. This article reviews the variety of options available for the clinical management of spasticity. PMID:25755853

Shamsoddini, Alireza; Amirsalari, Susan; Hollisaz, Mohammad-Taghi; Rahimnia, Alireza; Khatibi-Aghda, Amideddin

2014-01-01

158

Oculomotor nerve palsy secondary to aberrant posterior cerebral artery.  

PubMed

The authors report a rare case of an oculomotor nerve palsy attributed to mass effect from an aberrant posterior cerebral artery. The patient presented with complete ptosis, mydriasis and ophthalmoplegia of the affected eye. MRI demonstrated distortion of the oculomotor nerve as it traversed inferior to the non-aneurysmal P1 segment of an aberrant posterior cerebral artery. The oculomotor nerve palsy resolved spontaneously. PMID:24980999

Tan, Terence; Tee, Jin Wee; Wang, Yi Yuen

2014-01-01

159

SELF-MUTILATION IN CHILDREN WITH OBSTETRIC BRACHIAL PLEXUS PALSY  

Microsoft Academic Search

In a prospective study, the incidence and clinical presentation of self-mutilation was documented in 127 consecutive cases of obstetric brachial plexus injury. Six out of the 127 cases (4.7%) had clinical evidence of self-mutilation. The incidence of self-mutilation was much higher among children with total palsy (4\\/37) than Erb's palsy (2\\/90). All affected children were able to bring the mutilated

M. M AL-QATTAN

1999-01-01

160

Cerebral palsy and juvenile-onset bipolar disorder  

Microsoft Academic Search

.   Cerebral palsy refers to a heterogeneous group of congenital and early acquired brain disorders. Children with cerebral palsy\\u000a and other brain disorders have an increased rate of psychiatric disorder. The pattern of disorder is not particularly distinctive\\u000a and no specific association has been found.\\u000a \\u000a We report two cases of spastic diplegia of prematurity comorbid with juvenile onset bipolar disorder,

C. Craven; A. James; M. Murphy

2002-01-01

161

Candidate Genes and Cerebral Palsy: A Population Based Study  

Microsoft Academic Search

OBJECTIVE. The objective of this study was to examine whether selected genetic poly- morphisms in the infant are associated with later-diagnosed cerebral palsy. METHODS. A population-based case-control study was conducted of 28 single-nucle- otide polymorphisms measured in newborn screening blood spots. A total of 413 children with later-diagnosed cerebral palsy were born to white women in South Australia in 1986

Catherine S. Gibson; Alastair H. MacLennan; Gustaaf A. Dekker; Paul N. Goldwater; Thomas R. Sullivan; David J. Munroe; Shirley Tsang; Karin B. Nelson

2010-01-01

162

Stability and Harmony of Gait in Children with Cerebral Palsy  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The aim of this study was to quantitatively assess the stability and harmony of gait in children with cerebral palsy. Seventeen children with spastic hemiplegia due to cerebral palsy (5.0 [plus or minus] 2.3 years old) who were able to walk autonomously and seventeen age-matched children with typical development (5.7 [plus or minus] 2.5 years old,…

Iosa, Marco; Marro, Tiziana; Paolucci, Stefano; Morelli, Daniela

2012-01-01

163

Obstetric brachial plexus palsy associated with breech delivery.  

PubMed

A review of the English literature revealed that only two birth palsy centers have specifically reviewed their experience with obstetrical palsy associated with breech delivery. The aim of this paper is to review the author's center's experience with birth palsy associated with breech delivery, compare their epidemiological and surgical findings with previous studies, and describe their management approach to this unique injury. A total of 34 limbs were studied. Erb's palsy was seen in 32 limbs and total palsy was seen in the remaining 2 limbs. The mean birth weight was low (2.3 kg). Six patients had bilateral lesions and 3 patients had phrenic nerve palsy. In their center, the indication for primary brachial plexus exploration is the lack of active elbow flexion against gravity at 4 months of age. A study of the natural history showed that 58% of limbs had full spontaneous recovery, 21% had good but partial recovery, and the prognosis was considered to be poor in the remaining 21% of limbs because active elbow flexion was not evident by 4 months of age. Intraoperatively, the usual lesion was C5/C6 avulsion or avulsion in situ, which seemed to be specific for breech deliveries. Their approach for management is described, including the role of Oberlin's ulnar nerve to biceps nerve transfer in these cases. Finally, the lack of contractures at the shoulder and elbow in these patients are explained. PMID:12966236

Al-Qattan, M M

2003-09-01

164

Bilateral Facial Nerve Palsy: A Diagnostic Dilemma  

PubMed Central

Introduction. Bilateral facial nerve palsy (FNP) is a rare condition, representing less than 2% of all cases of FNP. Majority of these patients have underlying medical conditions, ranging from neurologic, infectious, neoplastic, traumatic, or metabolic disorders. Objective. The differential diagnosis of its causes is extensive and hence can present as a diagnostic challenge. Emergency physicians should be aware of these various diagnostic possibilities, some of which are potentially fatal. Case Report. We report a case of a 43-year-old female who presented to the emergency department with sequential bilateral facial nerve paralysis which could not be attributed to any particular etiology and, hence, presented a diagnostic dilemma. Conclusion. We reinforce the importance of considering the range of differential diagnosis in all cases presenting with bilateral FNP. These patients warrant admission and prompt laboratory and radiological investigation for evaluation of the underlying cause and specific further management as relevant. PMID:23326715

Pothiawala, Sohil; Lateef, Fatimah

2012-01-01

165

A case of atypical progressive supranuclear palsy  

PubMed Central

Background Progressive supranuclear palsy (PSP) is a neurodegenerative extrapyramidal syndrome. Studies have demonstrated that PSP can present clinically as an atypical dementing syndrome dominated by a progressive apraxia of speech (AOS) and aphasia. Aim We aimed to investigate the clinical presentation of PSP, using a comprehensive multidimensional evaluation, and the disease response to various pharmacological treatments. Methods A 72-year-old right-handed male, with 17 years education, who first presented with aphasia, AOS, depression, apathy, and postural instability at 69 years; a complete neuropsychological evaluation, tapping the different cognitive domains, was performed. Results Testing revealed a moderate global cognitive deficit (Mini-Mental State Examination test score =20), low memory test scores (story recall, Rey’s 15-word Immediate and Delayed Recall), and poor phonemic and semantic fluency. The patient’s language was characterized by AOS, with slow speech rate, prolonged intervals between syllables and words, decreased articulatory accuracy, sound distortions, and anomia. Behavioral changes, such as depression, anxiety, apathy, and irritability, were reported. The neurological examination revealed supranuclear vertical gaze palsy, poor face miming, and a mild balance deficit. Magnetic resonance imaging showed only widespread cortical atrophy. Single photon emission computed tomography demonstrated left > right frontotemporal cortical abnormalities. After 6 months, a further neuropsychological assessment showed a progression in cognitive deficits, with additional attention deficits. The patient reported frequent falls, but the neurological deficits remained unchanged. Neuroimaging tests showed the same brain involvement. Conclusion Our case highlights the heterogeneity of the clinical features in this syndrome, demonstrating that atypical PSP can present as AOS and aphasia, without the classical features or involvement of the subcortical gray and brainstem region, commonly affected in typical PSP. PMID:24368882

Spaccavento, Simona; Del Prete, Marina; Craca, Angela; Loverre, Anna

2014-01-01

166

Monoparesis. Complication of constant positive airways pressure  

Microsoft Academic Search

Erb's palsy has been observed in 2 infants who had been treated with constant positive airways pressure for idiopathic respiratory distress syndrome. Both infants made complete neurological recovery from what was thought to be an acquired injury from the neck seal.

T Turner; J Evans; J K Brown

1975-01-01

167

Prednisolone and acupuncture in Bell's palsy: study protocol for a randomized, controlled trial  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background  There are a variety of treatment options for Bell's palsy. Evidence from randomized controlled trials indicates corticosteroids\\u000a can be used as a proven therapy for Bell's palsy. Acupuncture is one of the most commonly used methods to treat Bell's palsy\\u000a in China. Recent studies suggest that staging treatment is more suitable for Bell's palsy, according to different path-stages\\u000a of this

Feng Xia; Junliang Han; Xuedong Liu; Jingcun Wang; Zhao Jiang; Kangjun Wang; Songdi Wu; Gang Zhao

2011-01-01

168

[Accuracy of the prognostic diagnosis in acute peripheral facial palsy].  

PubMed

The important factors in the prognostic diagnosis of acute peripheral facial palsy are (1) the causal disease, (2) the site of injury and (3) the degree of injury, although the age of the patient, complication, treatment method and initial day of treatment are also important. Among these 3 factors, the degree of injury is most strongly related to the prognosis. However, the diagnosis of etiology is the most important for the selection of the treatment method. Above all, the differential diagnosis between Bell's palsy and zoster sine herpete (Ramsay Hunt syndrome), is the most significant. However, it is impossible to diagnose all patients with complete accuracy within 3 days after the onset of palsy, even using molecular biological examination including polymerase chain reaction analysis. The diagnosis of the site of injury does not contribute to the prediction of prognosis or the selection of treatment method, except for the determination of the approaching route of the facial nerve decompression for traumatic facial palsy. The scoring system of facial movement (40-point method), nerve excitability test (NET), electroneurography (ENoG), transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) and stapedial reflex (SR) are commonly used to estimate the degree of injury. To estimate the accuracy of these examinations, sensitivity and specificity of the tests were calculated according to the findings within 3 days after the onset of palsy and the outcome of 116 patients with Bell's palsy and 31 with Ramsay Hunt syndrome. According to the results, none of these tests seem to be a perfect diagnostic examination for the completely precise prediction of prognosis. However, a patient is predicted to have a good prognosis, if the following 3 findings are observed: (1) more than 10 points in the 40-point scoring system of facial movement, (2) a positive response to TMS and (3) a positive response to SR. An antidromic facial nerve response probably contributes to a precise prediction of prognosis within 3 days after the onset of facial palsy. PMID:15712490

Aoyagi, Masaru

2005-01-01

169

Herpes simplex virus type 1 reactivation and antiviral therapy in patients with acute peripheral facial palsy  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: Recent studies provide compelling data for the hypothesis that herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1) is implicated in the pathogenesis of idiopathic peripheral facial palsy (Bell's palsy). The present study analyzed the severity of facial palsy in patients with HSV-1 reactivation and sought to determine the efficacy of acyclovir–prednisone therapy for these patients. Materials and methods: In total, 176

Yasushi Furuta; Fumio Ohtani; Eiji Chida; Yasushi Mesuda; Satoshi Fukuda; Yukio Inuyama

2001-01-01

170

FEASABILITY OF A MOBILE ROBOT WITH ALTERNATIVE CONTROL SYSTEM FOR A CHILD WITH CEREBRAL PALSY  

E-print Network

1 FEASABILITY OF A MOBILE ROBOT WITH ALTERNATIVE CONTROL SYSTEM FOR A CHILD WITH CEREBRAL PALSY]. In the case of cerebral palsy, the most common cause of motor disability in children, the estimation ranges with cerebral palsy, with spastic and athetoid features. The child's gross motor mobility is limited to rolling

Stansfield, Sharon

171

Computer modeling of gait abnormalities in cerebral palsy: application to treatment planning  

E-print Network

Computer modeling of gait abnormalities in cerebral palsy: application to treatment planning A. S, Stanford, CA, USA The treatment of gait abnormalities in persons with cerebral palsy is chal- lenging in children with cerebral palsy is challenging. Musculoskeletal surgeries and other treatments, such as tone

Delp, Scott

172

An Inertial Sensor-based System to Develop Motor Capacity in Children with Cerebral Palsy  

E-print Network

An Inertial Sensor-based System to Develop Motor Capacity in Children with Cerebral Palsy Shuo Qiao periods of time. Index Terms--Cerebral Palsy, Accelerometer, Gyroscope, Game, Motor Skills I. INTRODUCTION with cerebral palsy (CP). Typical operation of these devices requires controlled motor interaction

Sukhatme, Gaurav S.

173

SPARCLEA Study of Participation and Quality of Life of Children with Cerebral Palsy Living in Europe  

E-print Network

SPARCLEA Study of Participation and Quality of Life of Children with Cerebral Palsy Living, recreational, leisure and sporting activities" This report is about 8-12 year old children with cerebral palsy by researchers. Children with cerebral palsy have difficulty making movements due to injury to their brain

Paxton, Anthony T.

174

Achilles Tendon Length and Medial Gastrocnemius Architecture in Children With Cerebral Palsy  

E-print Network

Achilles Tendon Length and Medial Gastrocnemius Architecture in Children With Cerebral Palsy with cerebral palsy (CP) and equinus gait, with or without contracture. We also examined a small number with cereb- ral palsy (CP).1,2 Dynamic equinus can usually be addres- sed with bracing, physical therapy

Valero-Cuevas, Francisco

175

TENDON TRANSFER TO RECONSTRUCT WRIST EXTENSION IN CHILDREN WITH OBSTETRIC BRACHIAL PLEXUS PALSY  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study reports on 20 children with obstetric brachial plexus palsy who underwent a tendon transfer to reconstruct wrist extension. The mean age at the time of tendon transfer was 8 years. There were seven patients with Erb's palsy and the remaining 13 had total palsy. The flexor carpi ulnaris was utilized 15 times and the flexor carpi radialis five

M. M. Al-QATTAN

2003-01-01

176

Perinatal complications and socio-economic differences in cerebral palsy in Sweden – a national cohort study  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: There is a controversy regarding the existence of a socio-economic gradient for cerebral palsy. Perinatal emergencies and preterm birth increase the risk for the offspring to develop cerebral palsy. The aim of this study was to investigate the association of socio-economic indicators with cerebral palsy (CP) and the role of perinatal health as mediator of this association. METHODS: Register

Anders Hjern; Kristina Thorngren-Jerneck

2008-01-01

177

Spastic Cerebral Palsy: Clinical Magnetic Resonance Imaging Correlation of 129 Children  

Microsoft Academic Search

A prospective study was undertaken of 129 children with spastic cerebral palsy to clarify the relationship between magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) findings and clinical features of cerebral palsy. Low birth weight, asphyxia, prematurity, seizures, mental development, Gross Motor Function Classification System, and MRI findings were analyzed. Significant abnormalities relevant to the cerebral palsy were evident on imaging in 123 (95.3%).

Wojciech Ku?ak; Wojciech Sobaniec; Bozena Kubas; Jerzy Walecki; Joanna Smigielska-Kuzia; Leszek Bockowski; Barbara Artemowicz; Krzysztof Sendrowski

2007-01-01

178

Twins, triplets, and cerebral palsy in births in Western Australia in the 1980s  

Microsoft Academic Search

OBJECTIVES--To examine the rate of cerebral palsy in twins and triplets in births from 1980 to 1989 in Western Australia and to identify factors associated with increase in risk. DESIGN--Pluralities for all births in Western Australia were identified through the standardised midwives' notification system, and cases of cerebral palsy were identified from the Western Australian cerebral palsy register. MAIN OUTCOME

B Petterson; K B Nelson; L Watson

1993-01-01

179

Familial risk of cerebral palsy: population based cohort study  

PubMed Central

Objective To investigate risks of recurrence of cerebral palsy in family members with various degrees of relatedness to elucidate patterns of hereditability. Design Population based cohort study. Setting Data from the Medical Birth Registry of Norway, linked to the Norwegian social insurance scheme to identify cases of cerebral palsy and to databases of Statistics Norway to identify relatives. Participants 2?036?741 Norwegians born during 1967-2002, 3649 of whom had a diagnosis of cerebral palsy; 22?558 pairs of twins, 1?851?144 pairs of first degree relatives, 1?699?856 pairs of second degree relatives, and 5?165?968 pairs of third degree relatives were identified. Main outcome measure Cerebral palsy. Results If one twin had cerebral palsy, the relative risk of recurrence of cerebral palsy was 15.6 (95% confidence interval 9.8 to 25) in the other twin. In families with an affected singleton child, risk was increased 9.2 (6.4 to 13)-fold in a subsequent full sibling and 3.0 (1.1 to 8.6)-fold in a half sibling. Affected parents were also at increased risk of having an affected child (6.5 (1.6 to 26)-fold). No evidence was found of differential transmission through mothers or fathers, although the study had limited power to detect such differences. For people with an affected first cousin, only weak evidence existed for an increased risk (1.5 (0.9 to 2.7)-fold). Risks in siblings or cousins were independent of sex of the index case. After exclusion of preterm births (an important risk factor for cerebral palsy), familial risks remained and were often stronger. Conclusions People born into families in which someone already has cerebral palsy are themselves at elevated risk, depending on their degree of relatedness. Elevated risk may extend even to third degree relatives (first cousins). The patterns of risk suggest multifactorial inheritance, in which multiple genes interact with each other and with environmental factors. These data offer additional evidence that the underlying causes of cerebral palsy extend beyond the clinical management of delivery. PMID:25028249

Wilcox, Allen J; Lie, Rolv T; Moster, Dag

2014-01-01

180

Ulnar nerve palsy associated with closed midshaft forearm fractures.  

PubMed

Ulnar nerve palsy is a rare complication of closed midshaft forearm fractures; only 8 cases have been reported. This article describes a case of ulnar nerve palsy associated with a midshaft forearm fracture. A 12-year-old girl sustained a right midshaft forearm fracture. Whether she had a peripheral nerve injury was unknown due to strong pain. She underwent emergency manual reduction and intramedullary pinning. However, ulnar nerve palsy was remarkable postoperatively and gradually worsened. Therefore, neurolysis was performed 9 weeks later. The nerve had adhered to surrounding scar tissue. Six months after a second surgery, she had no motor dysfunction. The pathogenesis of ulnar nerve palsy complicated with midshaft forearm fractures varies and may be the result of direct contusion, direct damage by a bony spike, bony entrapment after closed reduction, and entrapment by a scar. In the current case, the patient was uncooperative at initial examination. Therefore, it is unknown whether she presented with immediate ulnar nerve palsy after the fracture. However, the ulnar nerve was not entrapped at the fracture site, and the surrounding muscle was intact but adhered to the surrounding scar tissue. The etiology of this case was considered to be entrapment by scar formation. According to a literature search, the authors recommend exploring the nerve approximately 8 to 10 weeks after primary surgery, after which neurological symptoms do not tend to improve. PMID:23127466

Suganuma, Seigo; Tada, Kaoru; Hayashi, Hiroyuki; Segawa, Takeshi; Tsuchiya, Hiroyuki

2012-11-01

181

Heerfordt’s Syndrome Presenting with Recurrent Facial Nerve Palsy  

PubMed Central

Heerfordt’s syndrome is defined as a combination of facial palsy, parotid swelling, uveitis and fever in sarcoidosis cases. Heerfordt’s syndrome as a cause of facial palsy is very rare. We report a case of alternating facial nerve palsy in a 52-year-old female initially treated for Bell’s palsy. The patient was referred to the All India Institute of Medical Sciences, Bhubaneswar, India, in January 2013 for clinical evaluation. She was found to have a parotid swelling and anterior intermediate uveitis. A pathoradiological evaluation suggested sarcoidosis and a final diagnosis of Heerfordt’s syndrome was made. Steroid treatment was initiated which led to an improvement in the facial palsy and uveitis as well as the disappearance of the parotid swelling with a corresponding decrease in angiotensin-converting enzyme levels. An English literature review was carried out to analyse the varied presentation of this syndrome. The analysis focused on presenting symptoms, biochemical markers and radiological findings of Heerfordt’s syndrome cases. PMID:25685372

Chappity, Preetam; Kumar, Rajeev; Sahoo, Anjan K.

2015-01-01

182

Laser Phototherapy As Modality of Clinical Treatment in Bell's Palsy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Bell's palsy is defined as a peripheral facial nerve palsy, idiophatic, and sudden onset and is considered the most common cause of this pathology. It is caused by damage to cranial nerves VII, resulting in complete or partial paralysis of the facial mimic. May be associated with taste disturbances, salivation, tearing and hyperacusis. It is diagnosed after ruling out all possible etiologies, because its cause is not fully understood.Some researches shows that herpes virus may cause this type of palsy due to reactivation of the virus or by imunnomediated post-viral nerve demielinization. Physical therapy, corticosteroids and antiviral therapy have become the most widely accepted treatments for Bell's palsy. Therapy with low-level laser (LLLT) may induce the metabolism of injured nerve tissue for the production of proteins associated with its growth and to improve nerve regeneration. The success of the treatment of Bell's palsy by using laser phototherapy isolated or in association with other therapeutic approach has been reported on the literature. In most cases, the recovery occurs without uneventfully (complications), the acute illness is not associated with serious disorders. We will present a clinical approach for treating this condition.

Marques, A. M. C.; Soares, L. G. P.; Marques, R. C.; Pinheiro, A. L. B.; Dent, M.

2011-08-01

183

Gait training facilitates central drive to ankle dorsiflexors in children with cerebral palsy.  

PubMed

Foot drop and toe walking are frequent concerns in children with cerebral palsy. The main underlying cause of these problems is early damage and lack of maturation of the corticospinal tract. In the present study we investigated whether 4 weeks of daily treadmill training with an incline may facilitate corticospinal transmission and improve the control of the ankle joint in children with cerebral palsy. Sixteen children with cerebral palsy (Gross Motor Classification System I:6, II:6, III:4) aged 5-14 years old, were recruited for the study. Evaluation of gait ability and intramuscular coherence was made twice before and twice after training with an interval of 1 month. Gait kinematics were recorded by 3D video analysis during treadmill walking with a velocity chosen by the child at the first evaluation. Foot pressure was measured by force sensitive foot soles during treadmill and over ground walking. EMG-EMG coherence was calculated from two separate electrode recordings placed over the tibialis anterior muscle. Training involved 30 min of walking daily on a treadmill with an incline for 30 days. Gait training was accompanied by significant increases in gait speed, incline on the treadmill, the maximal voluntary dorsiflexion torque, the number and amplitude of toe lifts late in the swing phase during gait and the weight exerted on the heel during the early stance phase of the gait cycle. EMG-EMG coherence in the beta and gamma frequency bands recorded from tibialis anterior muscle increased significantly when compared to coherence before training. The largest changes in coherence with training were observed for children <10 years of age. Importantly, in contrast to training-induced EMG increases, the increase in coherence was maintained at the follow-up measurement 1 month after training. Changes in the strength of coherence in the beta and gamma band were positively correlated with improvements in the subjects' ability to lift the toes in the swing phase. These data show that daily intensive gait training increases beta and gamma oscillatory drive to ankle dorsiflexor motor neurons and that it improves toe lift and heel strike in children with cerebral palsy. We propose that intensive gait training may produce plastic changes in the corticospinal tract, which are responsible for improvements in gait function. PMID:25623137

Willerslev-Olsen, Maria; Petersen, Tue Hvass; Farmer, Simon Francis; Nielsen, Jens Bo

2015-03-01

184

Symptom burden in individuals with cerebral palsy  

PubMed Central

The current study sought to (1) determine the relative frequency and severity of eight symptoms in adults with cerebral palsy (CP), (2) examine the perceived course of these eight symptoms over time, and (3) determine the associations between the severity of these symptoms and psychosocial functioning. Eighty-three adults with CP completed a measure assessing the frequency, severity, and perceived course of eight symptoms (pain, weakness, fatigue, imbalance, numbness, memory loss, vision loss, and shortness of breath). Respondents also completed measures of community integration and psychological functioning. The results indicated that pain, fatigue, imbalance, and weakness were the most common and severe symptoms reported. All symptoms were reported to have either stayed the same or worsened, rather than resolved, over time. The symptoms were more closely related to social integration than to home integration, productive activity, or psychological functioning. Memory loss was a unique predictor of social integration in the multivariate context. This study highlighted several common and problematic symptoms experienced by adults with CP. Additional research is needed to identify the most effective treatments for those symptoms that affect community integration and psychological functioning as a way to improve the quality of life of individuals with CP. PMID:21174251

Hirsh, Adam T.; Gallegos, Juan C.; Gertz, Kevin J.; Engel, Joyce M.; Jensen, Mark P.

2011-01-01

185

Cerebral palsy lifetime care - four musculoskeletal conditions.  

PubMed

Cerebral palsy (CP) has always been considered a static condition in the neurological sense. Secondary and associated conditions that occur in the patient with CPcan progress over time and cause unwanted sequelae. This paper discusses four musculoskeletal conditions that present across the lifetime and can lead to progressive loss of function in the patient with CP. Patella alta can be particularly painful in the early adult years, limiting mobility particularly when associated with crouch gait. Adults with lower-extremity weight-bearing status having hip dysplasia, progressive over time, often develop pain and severe degenerative arthritis, with or without arthrodesis. Spondylolysis, particularly at the L5 S1 level, is fairly common in the ambulatory adult with diplegia and may, if not diagnosed early, progress to spondylolisthesis. Cervical stenosis appears to be more prevalent in adults with spastic quadriparesis and dystonia and is often associated with myelomalacia and/or radiculopathy. All four of these conditions may be lessened, or even prevented, with intervention and diagnosis in the younger years. Possible interventions and outcomes over time are discussed in the context of multidisciplinary team management of the individual with CP. PMID:19740208

Murphy, Kevin P

2009-10-01

186

Lip segmentation and tracking for facial palsy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We developed the asymmetry analyzing system for facial palsy patient's rehabilitation progress study. Using PC standard imaging device, captured 640*480 RGB image is converted into HSV space. A Lip-shape mask is extracted by thresholding. By taking 5 regions consisted in one region on lip and four regions on face skin, reasonable thresholds are determined by Fuzzy C-Means clustering. The extreme points on the lip shape mask are extracted to get the seeds for tracking. Segmented seed points are tracking by Iterative Lucas-Kanade tracking method in pyramids at 30 fps and recording simultaneously. To reduce the disk writing load on computer, we use asynchronous mode file writing, which is going to transfer to and review by clinician. Tracking shows quite reliable results, but sometimes the tracked points are following along the lip line because of the similar contrasts. Therefore, the first strategy to improve the reliability of tracking is using the high contrast points, such as left and right maximal point of lip shape. The second is clustering some points near the maximal points and eliminating outlying tracking points. The third is rechecking the lip shape using lip segmentation when the operator confirms that subject's maximal lip moving. Left and right tracking points are compared in forms of trajectory plot.

Park, MinJae; Seo, JongMo; Park, KwangSuk

2006-02-01

187

Recurrent Isolated Oculomotor Nerve Palsy after Radiation of a Mesencephalic Metastasis. Case Report and Mini Review  

PubMed Central

Introduction: Recurrent oculomotor nerve palsies are extremely rare clinical conditions. Case report: Here, we report on a unique case of a short-lasting recurrent unilateral incomplete external and complete internal oculomotor nerve palsy. The episodic palsies were probably caused by an ipsilateral mesencephalic metastasis of a breast carcinoma and occurred after successful brain radiation therapy. Discussion: While the pathogenic mechanism remains unclear, the recurrent sudden onset and disappearance of the palsies and their decreasing frequency after antiepileptic treatment suggest the occurrence of epilepsy-like brainstem seizures. A review of case reports of spontaneous reversible oculomotor nerve palsies is presented. PMID:25104947

Grabau, Olga; Leonhardi, Jochen; Reimers, Carl D.

2014-01-01

188

Diagnosis and management of patients with Bell's palsy.  

PubMed

Bell's palsy (idiopathic facial paralysis) is the most common cause of acute unilateral facial nerve paralysis. Although it is usually a self-limiting condition, it can be distressing for the patient. Many people who experience one-sided facial paralysis fear that it is a symptom of stroke. However, there are subtle differences between Bell's palsy and stroke. This article discusses potential causes of the condition and identifies the differences between Bell's palsy and stroke. In addition, appropriate strategies for the care of patients with the condition are suggested. Management includes antiviral medication, corticosteroid therapy, eye care, botulinum toxin type A injection, physiotherapy, surgery and acupuncture. Psychological and emotional care of these patients is also important because any facial disability caused by facial nerve paralysis can result in anxiety and stress. PMID:24299386

Mooney, Tracy

189

Progressive supranuclear palsy (Steele-Richardson-Olszewski disease)  

PubMed Central

Progressive supranuclear palsy is a neurodegenerative disease which affects the brainstem and basal ganglia. Patients present with disturbance of balance, a disorder of downward gaze and L-DOPA-unresponsive parkinsonism and usually develop progressive dysphagia and dysarthria leading to death from the complications of immobility and aspiration. Treatment remains largely supportive but, potentially, treatments based on cholinergic therapy may be useful. As in Alzheimer's disease, the neuronal degeneration is associated with the deposition of hyperphosphorylated tau protein as neurofibrillary tangles but there are important distinctions between the two diseases. Evidence from familial fronto-temporal dementia with parkinsonism linked to chromosome 17 suggests that tau protein deposition is a primary pathogenic event in some neurodegenerative diseases. The understanding of the mechanism of tau deposition in progressive supranuclear palsy is likely to be of importance in unravelling its aetiology.???Keywords: progressive supranuclear palsy; Steele-Richardson-Olszewski disease; tau protein PMID:10621897

Morris, H.; Wood, N.; Lees, A.

1999-01-01

190

Predisposing factors in Bell's palsy: a case-control study.  

PubMed

The frequency of diabetes mellitus reported in subjects affected by Bell's palsy varies widely. In this investigation, a case-control study, we encountered a frequency of 24.8%. In addition, arterial hypertension and lipid disturbances were found to affect subjects with Bell's palsy more frequently than controls. These findings appear to suggest a primarily ischaemic pathogenesis for most cases of idiopathic peripheral facial paralysis. Furthermore, the finding of significantly lower taste impairment in diabetics than in non-diabetics with Bell's palsy may support the hypothesis of a vascular rather than a metabolic pathogenesis in these cases also. In fact, the vessels supplying the distal portion of the facial nerve, probably more affected in the diabetic patients in order to preserve taste sensation, have such a particular anatomical configuration that this might favour the onset of a diabetic small vessel disease which, in turn, would represent a factor of easier decompensation. PMID:4078602

Paolino, E; Granieri, E; Tola, M R; Panarelli, M A; Carreras, M

1985-01-01

191

The "double wrist flexor" tendon transfer for radial nerve palsy.  

PubMed

In isolated high radial nerve palsy, it is traditionally taught that one should not use both wrist flexors for tendon transfers. Over the last 17 years, the author has encountered 4 unusual cases of high radial nerve palsy with concurrent direct injury to the pronator teres, flexor digitorum superficialis, and the palmaris longus in the proximal forearm. In these cases, the author used both wrist flexors, namely, the flexor carpi radialis to restore wrist extension and the flexor carpi ulnaris to restore finger/thumb extension as well as thumb radial abduction. Despite the major loss of wrist flexion, all patients had a good overall function as per the modified Bincaz scale. It was concluded that this "double wrist flexor" transfer remains to be an acceptable option for high radial nerve palsy when the pronator teres, flexor digitorum superficialis, and the palmaris longus tendons are not available. PMID:23123604

Al-Qattan, Mohammad

2013-07-01

192

Workplace cluster of Bell’s palsy in Lima, Peru  

PubMed Central

Background We report on a workplace cluster of Bell’s palsy that occurred within a four-month period in 2011 among employees of a three-story office building in Lima, Peru and our investigation to determine the etiology and associated risk factors. Findings An outbreak investigation was conducted to identify possible common infectious or environmental exposures and included patient interviews, reviews of medical records, an epidemiologic survey, serological analysis for IgM and IgG antibodies to putative Bell’s palsy-inducing pathogens, and an environmental exposure assessment of the office building. Three cases of Bell’s palsy were reported among 65 at-risk employees, attack rate 4.6%. Although two patients had underlying risk factors, there was no clear association or common identifiable risk factor among all cases. Serologic analysis showed no evidence of recent infections, and air and water sample measures of all known chemical or neurotoxins were below maximum allowable concentrations for exposure. Conclusions An infection spread among workplace employees could not be excluded as a potential cause of this cluster; however, it was unlikely a pathogen commonly associated with individual cases of Bell’s palsy. Although a specific etiology was not identified among all cases, we believe this methodology will aid future outbreak investigations of Bell’s palsy and a better understanding of its etiology. While environmental assessments may be useful in their ability to ascertain the cause of clusters of Bell’s palsy, future investigations should prioritize focus on common infectious etiology. PMID:24885256

2014-01-01

193

An unusual case of Erb's palsy in a neonate: a case report.  

PubMed

Erb's palsy occurs in neonates following traumatic delivery, where excessive traction on the neck stretches these nerve roots. Nonobstetric causes of Erb's palsy are rare in neonates. The authors report the presentation of a female neonate with Erb's palsy following a postero-lateral thoracotomy. The infant underwent surgery on day 3 of life for esophageal atresia and presented with right upper limb weakness on day 21 of life. She demonstrated features of Erb's palsy with normal higher mental functions. An electromyography and nerve conduction study confirmed Erb's palsy. The surgical procedure in the index case did not involve the brachial plexus. However, her right upper limb was positioned hyperabducted during the intraoperative period, which possibly had led to the palsy. The key message of this report is that prolonged stretching of the brachial plexus roots during surgery of the neck and thorax can be an important nonobstetric cause of Erb's palsy in neonates. PMID:20940133

Louis, Deepak; Sundaram, Venkataseshan; Samujh, Ram

2010-10-01

194

Obstetric brachial plexus palsy: a comparison of affected infants delivered vaginally by breech or cephalic presentation.  

PubMed

In this retrospective study we compared obstetric brachial plexus palsy (OBPP) in two non-operated groups of newborn babies delivered vaginally by breech or cephalic presentation. There were 35 cases of OBPP in the breech group and 663 cases in the cephalic group. The former group was more likely to develop upper Erb's palsy while the latter group was more likely to develop total palsy. The breech group also had a significantly lower mean birth weight, a significantly higher percentage of bilateral OBPP palsies and concurrent phrenic nerve palsy. Spontaneous recovery of shoulder abduction and elbow flexion in newborn babies with upper Erb's palsy was significantly worse in the breech compared with the cephalic group. It was concluded that OBPP following vaginal breech delivery has several unique demographic features and breech babies with upper Erb's palsy have a worse prognosis for spontaneous recovery than those in the cephalic group. PMID:20031999

Al-Qattan, M M; El-Sayed, A A F; Al-Zahrani, A Y; Al-Mutairi, S A; Al-Harbi, M S; Al-Mutairi, A M; Al-Kahtani, F S

2010-06-01

195

A case presentation of bilateral simultaneous Bell's palsy.  

PubMed

Bilateral simultaneous facial paralysis is an extremely rare clinical entity. Unlike the unilateral form, bilateral facial paralysis seldom falls into Bell's category. It is most often a special finding in a symptom complex of a systemic disease; many of them are potentially life-threatening, and therefore the condition warrants urgent medical intervention. Lyme disease, Guillian-Barre syndrome, Bell's palsy, leukemia, sarcoidosis, bacterial meningitis, syphilis, leprosy, Moebius syndrome, infectious mononucleosis, and skull fracture are the most common cause of bilateral facial paralysis. Here we present a 16-year-old patient with bilateral simultaneous Bell's palsy. PMID:12884223

Kilic, Rahmi; Ozdek, Ali; Felek, Sevim; Safak, M Asim; Samim, Erdal

2003-01-01

196

Peripheral facial palsy and dysfunction of the oropharynx  

PubMed Central

Forty four patients with unilateral Bell's palsy (acute or chronic stages) and 20 normal control subjects were investigated. In 66% of patients with PFP, oropharyngeal swallowing was disturbed as demonstrated electrophysiologically by the patients' dysphagia limit at or below 20 ml of water. In patients with PFP investigated within the first 2 weeks of the palsy, the dysphagia limit normalised during the period of recovery. Normalisation of the dysphagia limit is highly correlated with the recovery of PFP. Thus, subclinical deglutition is very frequent in patients with PFP. The severity of abnormal deglutition increased with the severity of the PFP, especially with the involvement of the perioral and buccinator muscles. PMID:11861704

Secil, Y; Aydogdu, I; Ertekin, C

2002-01-01

197

Multiple cranial nerve palsies associated with type 2 diabetes mellitus.  

PubMed

Although isolated cranial nerve palsies are common in patients with diabetes mellitus, multiple simultaneous cranial neuropathies are rare. We report a 48-year-old man, a known case of diabetes mellitus, who presented with facial palsy, foot drop and painful ophthalmoplegia of the left eye. The initial differential diagnosis included diabetic polyneuropathy, septic cavernous sinus thrombosis, mucormycosis and the Tolosa Hunt syndrome. Magnetic resonance (MR) imaging findings were consistent with those of the Tolosa Hunt syndrome. The patient had a remarkable complete resolution of his ophthalmoplegia after four weeks of steroid treatment, with repeat MR imaging showing resolution of the initial changes. PMID:16865214

Singh, N P; Garg, S; Kumar, S; Gulati, S

2006-08-01

198

Bilateral facial palsy as a manifestation of Japanese encephalitis.  

PubMed

Japanese encephalitis is a cause of substantial morbidity and mortality, prevalent mainly in South East nations. It is caused by group B arbovirus and transmitted with bite of infected culex mosquitoes. The clinical features described are: headache, vomiting, altered sensorium, convulsions and both hypokinetic and hyperkinetic movement disorders. In this submission, we described a 68-year-old man suffering from Japanese encephalitis, who presented with bilateral facial palsy with encephalitic features. The bilateral facial palsy has not been reported previously in association with Japanese encephalitis. PMID:22814988

Verma, Rajesh; Praharaj, Heramba Narayan

2012-01-01

199

Charcot-Marie-Tooth disease: frequency of genetic subtypes in a Southern Italy population.  

PubMed

The objective of this study is to assess the genetic distribution of Charcot-Marie-Tooth (CMT) disease in Campania, a region of Southern Italy. We analyzed a cohort of 197 index cases and reported the type and frequency of mutations for the whole CMT population and for each electrophysiological group (CMT1, CMT2, and hereditary neuropathy with susceptibility to pressure palsies [HNPP]) and for familial and isolated CMT cases. Genetic diagnosis was achieved in 148 patients (75.1%) with a higher success rate in HNPP and CMT1 than CMT2. Only four genes (PMP22, GJB1, MPZ, and GDAP1) accounted for 92% of all genetically confirmed CMT cases. In CMT1, PMP22 duplication was the most common mutation while the second gene in order of frequency was MPZ in familial and SH3TC2 in isolated cases. In CMT2, GJB1 was the most frequent mutated gene and GJB1 with GDAP1 accounted for almost 3/4 of genetically defined CMT2 patients. The first gene in order of frequency was GJB1 in familial and GDAP1 in isolated cases. In HNPP, the majority of patients harbored the PMP22 gene deletion. The novelty of our data is the relatively high frequency of SH3TC2 and GDAP1 mutations in demyelinating and axonal forms, respectively. These epidemiological data can help in panel design for our patients' population. PMID:25429913

Manganelli, Fiore; Tozza, Stefano; Pisciotta, Chiara; Bellone, Emilia; Iodice, Rosa; Nolano, Maria; Geroldi, Alessandro; Capponi, Simona; Mandich, Paola; Santoro, Lucio

2014-12-01

200

Narrative ability in children with cerebral palsy.  

PubMed

In a previous study a group of children with cerebral palsy (CP) were found to have considerable difficulties with narratives, performing several standard deviations below the criteria for the Information score of the Bus Story Test (BST). To examine in depth the performance of children with CP and a control group with typically developing (TD) children on a narrative task, in order to search for possible underlying causes to the problems in the CP group. The results of the BST for 10 children with CP, mean age 7;11 years, were investigated. The analysis of the BST was supplemented with the use of the Narrative Assessment Profile (NAP) and quantitative analyses of number of words, mazes, propositions, types of conjunctions and story elements. A significant relationship between the explicitness dimension on the Narrative Assessment Profile and the BST Information score in the CP group suggested that the problems could be derived to a limited use of cohesion and a scarcity of essential information. Compared to the CP group, the TD group used significantly more causal conjunctions. The results indicate a general problem with cohesion at the textual level in the CP group. A further finding was the occurrence of a positive correlation between the use of mazes and the BST Information score in the CP group. These results have implications for the design of a more specific intervention for children, where the NAP was found to be a valuable tool in combination with the BST or other assessment materials. Further, it is shown that mazes, mostly regarded as a behaviour that not enhances speech production, for some children can be used as a means to find necessary words and pieces of information. PMID:21041064

Holck, Pernille; Dahlgren Sandberg, Annika; Nettelbladt, Ulrika

2011-01-01

201

Treating cerebral palsy with aculaser therapy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A single, open and non comparative study was conducted at Anwar Shah Trust for C.P. & Paralysis in collaboration with the Departments of Neurology and Neurosurgery, Children Hospital Lahore, Pakistan to evaluate the effects of ACULASER THERAPY in childern suffering from Cerebral Palsy (C.P.) and associated Neurological Disorders like epilepsy, cortical blindness, spasticity, hemiplegia, paraplegia, diplegia, quadriplegia, monoplegia, sensory-neural deafness and speech disorders. In all 250 childern were treated and the data was gathered during a period of 3 years from December 2003 till December 2006. These children were further classified according to the type of C.P. (spastic, athetoid, mixed) they suffered from and associated Neurological Disorders. This article shows results in C.P. childern who were treated with ACULASER THERAPY for minimum 6 weeks and more or had minimum of 15 treatment sessions and more. This article also shows that those childern who were given a break in the treatment for 1 month to 1 year did not show any reversal of the signs and symptoms. Analysis of the data showed that out of 171 children with Spasticity and Stiffness 147 showed marked improvement showing 87% success rate, out of 126 children with Epileptic fits, there was a significant reduction in the intensity, frequency and duration of Epileptic fits in 91 children showing 72% success rate, out of 48 children with Cortical Blindness 30 children showed improvement accounting for 63% efficacy rate, out of 105 children with Hearing Difficulties, 63 showed marked improvement accounting for 60% improvement rate, out of 190 children with Speech Disorders 122 showed improvement reflecting 64% improvement rate, out of 96 children with Hemiplegia 71 showed improvement in movement, tone and power accounting for 74% improvement rate, out of 76 children with Quadriplegia 52 showed improvement in gross and fine motor functions showing 69% success rate and out of 58 children with Paraplegia of lower limbs 44 showed improvement in weight bearing, standing and movement accounting for 76% improvement rate.

Anwar, Shahzad; Nazir Khan, Malik M.; Nadeem Khan, Malik M.; Qazi, Faiza M.; Awan, Abid H.; Dar, Irfan

2008-03-01

202

Rare copy number variation in cerebral palsy  

PubMed Central

Recent studies have established the role of rare copy number variants (CNVs) in several neurological disorders but the contribution of rare CNVs to cerebral palsy (CP) is not known. Fifty Caucasian families having children with CP were studied using two microarray designs. Potentially pathogenic, rare (<1% population frequency) CNVs were identified, and their frequency determined, by comparing the CNVs found in cases with 8329 adult controls with no known neurological disorders. Ten of the 50 cases (20%) had rare CNVs of potential relevance to CP; there were a total of 14 CNVs, which were observed in <0.1% (<8/8329) of the control population. Eight inherited from an unaffected mother: a 751-kb deletion including FSCB, a 1.5-Mb duplication of 7q21.13, a 534-kb duplication of 15q11.2, a 446-kb duplication including CTNND2, a 219-kb duplication including MCPH1, a 169-kb duplication of 22q13.33, a 64-kb duplication of MC2R, and a 135-bp exonic deletion of SLC06A1. Three inherited from an unaffected father: a 386-kb deletion of 12p12.2-p12.1, a 234-kb duplication of 10q26.13, and a 4-kb exonic deletion of COPS3. The inheritance was unknown for three CNVs: a 157-bp exonic deletion of ACOX1, a 693-kb duplication of 17q25.3, and a 265-kb duplication of DAAM1. This is the first systematic study of CNVs in CP, and although it did not identify de novo mutations, has shown inherited, rare CNVs involving potentially pathogenic genes and pathways requiring further investigation. PMID:23695280

McMichael, Gai; Girirajan, Santhosh; Moreno-De-Luca, Andres; Gecz, Jozef; Shard, Chloe; Nguyen, Lam Son; Nicholl, Jillian; Gibson, Catherine; Haan, Eric; Eichler, Evan; Martin, Christa Lese; MacLennan, Alastair

2014-01-01

203

Rare copy number variation in cerebral palsy.  

PubMed

Recent studies have established the role of rare copy number variants (CNVs) in several neurological disorders but the contribution of rare CNVs to cerebral palsy (CP) is not known. Fifty Caucasian families having children with CP were studied using two microarray designs. Potentially pathogenic, rare (<1% population frequency) CNVs were identified, and their frequency determined, by comparing the CNVs found in cases with 8329 adult controls with no known neurological disorders. Ten of the 50 cases (20%) had rare CNVs of potential relevance to CP; there were a total of 14 CNVs, which were observed in <0.1% (<8/8329) of the control population. Eight inherited from an unaffected mother: a 751-kb deletion including FSCB, a 1.5-Mb duplication of 7q21.13, a 534-kb duplication of 15q11.2, a 446-kb duplication including CTNND2, a 219-kb duplication including MCPH1, a 169-kb duplication of 22q13.33, a 64-kb duplication of MC2R, and a 135-bp exonic deletion of SLC06A1. Three inherited from an unaffected father: a 386-kb deletion of 12p12.2-p12.1, a 234-kb duplication of 10q26.13, and a 4-kb exonic deletion of COPS3. The inheritance was unknown for three CNVs: a 157-bp exonic deletion of ACOX1, a 693-kb duplication of 17q25.3, and a 265-kb duplication of DAAM1. This is the first systematic study of CNVs in CP, and although it did not identify de novo mutations, has shown inherited, rare CNVs involving potentially pathogenic genes and pathways requiring further investigation. PMID:23695280

McMichael, Gai; Girirajan, Santhosh; Moreno-De-Luca, Andres; Gecz, Jozef; Shard, Chloe; Nguyen, Lam Son; Nicholl, Jillian; Gibson, Catherine; Haan, Eric; Eichler, Evan; Martin, Christa Lese; MacLennan, Alastair

2014-01-01

204

MRI findings in patients with spastic cerebral palsy. II: Correlation with type of cerebral palsy.  

PubMed

The authors studied MR images of the brain in 152 patients, aged 1 to 19 years (mean 3.3), who had spastic cerebral palsy (CP) and were attending two hospitals in Japan in 1993 and 1994. Eighty-one patients had diplegia, 45 had quadriplegia, and 26 had hemiplegia. Of patients with diplegia, 72 had periventricular leukomalacia (PVL) and very few had other types of lesions. In patients with quadriplegia, three main types of brain lesions were observed: PVL in 12 patients, term-type brain injury in 22, and brain anomaly in 10. In the 26 patients with hemiplegia, 17 had a unilateral lesion (rare in patients with diplegia and quadriplegia), and bilateral lesions were seen in seven others. PMID:9233360

Okumura, A; Kato, T; Kuno, K; Hayakawa, F; Watanabe, K

1997-06-01

205

Dysarthria of adult cerebral palsy: I. Intelligibility and articulatory impairment.  

PubMed

The speech intelligibility and articulatory impairment of 32 spastic and 18 athetoid males, aged 17-55, were examined. Selection was based on a definite diagnosis of cerebral palsy, and adequate intelligence, hearing, and ability to perform the required tasks. Two estimates of speech intelligibility were obtained from naive listeners: single words correctly recognized and prose intelligibility rating. Diadochokinetic (DDK) syllable rates and percent correct articulation of selected phonemes were employed as indices of articulatory impairment. The 50 subjects were, on average, judged to be 50% intelligible on both intelligibility estimates. Group mean DDK rate was 2.9 syllables per second and 78% of phonemes were transcribed as correctly articulated. :The mean scores of the spastic subjects were superior to the athetoids on all speech measures, significantly so for single-word intelligibility and DDK rate even when group inequalities for physical disability and I.Q. were adjusted. In this sample, spastics were less physically disabled and had lower I.Q.'s than athetoids. Specific phonemic features characteristic of the dysarthria in cerebral-palsied subjects were: (1) anterior lingual place inaccuracy; (2) reduced precision of fricative and affricate manners; and (3) inability to achieve the extreme positions in the vowel articulatory space. A comparison of these results with those reported for children with cerebral palsy suggests that the consonantal place and manner problems are fairly stable features of cerebral palsy dysarthria. PMID:7442182

Platt, L J; Andrews, G; Young, M; Quinn, P T

1980-03-01

206

Robot-Assisted Task-Specific Training in Cerebral Palsy  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Our goal was to examine the feasibility of applying therapeutic robotics to children and adults with severe to moderate impairment due to cerebral palsy (CP). Pilot results demonstrated significant gains for both groups. These results suggest that robot-mediated therapy may be an effective tool to ameliorate the debilitating effects of CP and…

Krebs, Hermano I.; Ladenheim, Barbara; Hippolyte, Christopher; Monterroso, Linda; Mast, Joelle

2009-01-01

207

Portrayals of People with Cerebral Palsy in Homicide News  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Through content analysis, employing qualitative and quantitative methods, Canadian media representation of people with cerebral palsy (PWCP) in public life was examined. Canadian NewsDisc, an online biographic database service, was used to examine the use of stigmatizing language such as afflicted by, afflicted with, suffered from, suffers from,…

Lucardie, Richard; Sobsey, Dick

2005-01-01

208

Growth and Nutrition Disorders in Children with Cerebral Palsy  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Growth and nutrition disorders are common secondary health conditions in children with cerebral palsy (CP). Poor growth and malnutrition in CP merit study because of their impact on health, including psychological and physiological function, healthcare utilization, societal participation, motor function, and survival. Understanding the etiology of…

Kuperminc, Michelle N.; Stevenson, Richard D.

2008-01-01

209

[Treatment of Bell's palsy with acyclovir and prednisolone].  

PubMed

Many current studies have suggested that herpes simplex virus is a probable cause of Bell's palsy, and that treatment with antiviral agents such as acyclovir might benefit the patients. In the present study, 69 patients with Bell's palsy were treated with oral administration of acyclovir (2000 mg/day) and prednisolone (60-40 mg/day) at Ehime University Hospital between Oct. 1995 and Dec. 1998. Patients enrolled in this study met the following criteria: 1) severe or complete paralysis with a score lower than 20 by the 40-point Japanese grading system, and 2) treatment started within 7 days of onset. The overall recovery rate was 95.7% (66/69). The rate in patients who started this treatment within 3 days after disease onset was 100%, and this early treatment was highly efficacious in the prevention of nerve degeneration and resulted in a significantly better recovery. By comparison, the recovery rate in patients whose treatment was started 4 days or more after onset was only 84.2%. All patients who were given a diagnosis of zoster sine herpete and treated with acyclovir-prednisolone had a good outcome. These results suggest that early treatment, within 3 days after palsy onset, is necessary for effective acyclovir-prednisolone therapy of Bell's palsy. PMID:10737002

Hato, N; Honda, N; Gyo, K; Aono, H; Murakami, S; Yanagihara, N

2000-02-01

210

The Nonspeaking Cerebral Palsied: A Clinical and Demographic Database Report.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In an effort to obtain data on services delivered by one clinical center (Downey, California) to nonspeaking cerebral palsied persons, demographic and clinical characteristics were obtained on 66 such patients during the assessment, management, and follow-up phases of a service delivery program. (Author/DB)

Lafontaine, Linda M.; DeRuyter, Frank

1987-01-01

211

Tau epitope display in progressive supranuclear palsy and corticobasal degeneration  

Microsoft Academic Search

Filamentous aggregates of the protein tau are a prominent feature of Alzheimer's disease (AD), progressive supranuclear palsy (PSP) and corticobasal degeneration (CBD). However, the extent to which the molecular structure of the tau in these aggregates is similar or differs between these diseases is unclear. We approached this question by examining these disorders with a panel of antibodies that represent

R. W. Berry; A. P. Sweet; F. A. Clark; S. Lagalwar; B. R. Lapin; T. Wang; S. Topgi; A. L. Guillozet-Bongaarts; E. J. Cochran; E. H. Bigio; L. I. Binder

2004-01-01

212

Progressive Supranuclear Palsy: What Do We Know About it?  

PubMed

Progressive supranuclear palsy (PSP) is a progressive tauopathy characterized by supranuclear ophthalmoplegia, pseudobulbar palsy, dysarthria, axial rigidity, frontal lobe dysfunction, and dementia. The typical pathology includes neuronal loss, gliosis and microtubule-associated protein tau (MAPT)-positive inclusions in neurons and glial cells, primarily in basal ganglia, brainstem and cerebellum. The pathogenesis of PSP is not yet completely understood; however, there are several hypotheses. This article reviews the present knowledge about PSP, and the concepts underlying mitochondrial dysfunction, lipoperoxidation, and gene mutations. The clinical features of PSP are also discussed; these include vertical gaze palsy, pseudobulbar palsy, aphasia, dysarthria, axial rigidity, and neuropsychiatric symptoms, such as amnesia, irritability, loss of interest, and dementia. In terms of diagnosis, there is considerable interest in neuroimaging for detecting PSP; therefore, neuroimaging techniques such as magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and [18F]- fluorodeoxyglucose positron-emission tomography (FDG-PET) are reviewed. A definitive diagnosis of PSP depends on pathology, and the introduction of new clinical subtypes challenges presents the widely adopted diagnosis criteria. PSP treatments such as serotonin antagonists, ?2 receptor antagonists, and coenzyme Q10 are also discussed. There is no curative therapy for PSP; all of the available treatments are palliative. PMID:25732053

Long, Ling; Cai, Xiao-Dong; Wei, Xiao-Bo; Liao, Jin-Chi; Xu, Yun-Qi; Gao, Hui-Min; Chen, Xiao-Hong; Wang, Qing

2015-01-01

213

Bimanual Force Coordination in Children with Spastic Unilateral Cerebral Palsy  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In this study bimanual grip-force coordination was quantified using a novel "Gripper" system that records grip forces produced while holding a lower and upper unit, in combination with the lift force necessary to separate these units. Children with unilateral cerebral palsy (CP) (aged 5-14 years, n = 12) were compared to age matched typically…

Smits-Engelsman, B. C. M.; Klingels, K.; Feys, H.

2011-01-01

214

Training Guide to Cerebral Palsy Sports. Third Edition.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This official training manual of the United States Cerebral Palsy Athletic Association includes the latest coaching and training techniques specific to all sports in the national program. The book features guidelines for coaching over a dozen sports, including soccer, swimming, cycling, and track and field. It contains everything coaches,…

Jones, Jeffery A., Ed.

215

Functional Electrical Stimulation in Children and Adolescents with Cerebral Palsy  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In this article, the author talks about functional electrical stimulation in children and adolescents with cerebral palsy. Functional electrical stimulation (FES) is defined as the electrical stimulation of muscles that have impaired motor control, in order to produce a contraction to obtain functionally useful movement. It was first proposed in…

van der Linden, Marietta

2012-01-01

216

Tactile Assessment in Children with Cerebral Palsy: A Clinimetric Review  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This review evaluates the clinimetric properties of tactile assessments for children with cerebral palsy. Assessment of registration was reported using Semmes Weinstein Monofilaments (SWMs) or exteroception. Assessment of two-point discrimination was reported using the Disk-Criminator[R] or paperclip methods; Single point localization and double…

Auld, Megan Louise; Boyd, Roslyn Nancy; Moseley, G. Lorimer; Johnston, Leanne Marie

2011-01-01

217

Cerebral Palsy Symptoms in Children Decreased Following Massage Therapy  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Twenty young children (mean age = 32 months) with cerebral palsy (CP) recruited from early intervention programs received 30 minutes of massage or reading twice weekly for 12 weeks. The children receiving massage therapy showed fewer physical symptoms including reduced spasticity, less rigid muscle tone overall and in the arms, and improved fine…

Hernandez-Reif, Maria; Field, Tiffany; Largie, Shay; Diego, Miguel; Manigat, Natasha; Seoanes, Jacqueline; Bornstein, Joan

2005-01-01

218

Comparing Scanning Modes for Youths with Cerebral Palsy. Final Report.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study of 22 individuals (ages 13-20) with cerebral palsy investigated the use of scanning, an interface technique that allows access to assistive devices such as communication boards, electronic augmentative communication devices, and computers by using a pointer, either a finger or a cursor. This packet of information includes the findings…

Ottenbacher, Kenneth J.; Angelo, Jennifer

219

Modified rotational osteotomy of the humerus for Erb's palsy  

Microsoft Academic Search

A modified derotation humeral osteotomy was carried out in 10 patients with Erb's palsy who all had severe functional limitation from residual deformity of their affected arm. The operation is described. The appearance and function of the arms was improved in every patient.

S. Al Zahrani

1993-01-01

220

Fractured clavicle and Erb's palsy unrelated to birth trauma  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objectives: Our purpose was to determine the perinatal factors associated with clavicular fracture or Erb's palsy in neonates and to document the percentage of cases where no risk factors were involved. Study Design: We reviewed the medical records of all live-born singleton infants admitted to the newborn nurseries between 1992 and 1995. Mothers and infants with clavicular fracture or Erb's

David Peleg; Jamal Hasnin; Eliezer Shalev

1997-01-01

221

Aerobic Capacity in Children and Adolescents with Cerebral Palsy  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study described the aerobic capacity [VO[subscript 2peak] (ml/kg/min)] in contemporary children and adolescents with cerebral palsy (CP) using a maximal exercise test protocol. Twenty-four children and adolescents with CP classified at Gross Motor Functional Classification Scale (GMFCS) level I or level II and 336 typically developing…

Verschuren, Olaf; Takken, Tim

2010-01-01

222

Monocular elevation deficiency ("double elevator" palsy): a cautionary note.  

PubMed

Monocular elevation deficiency (or "double elevator" palsy) is a descriptive term denoting a congenital deficiency of monocular elevation that is equal in abduction and adduction. We describe a child with monocular elevation deficiency who displayed tethering and buckling of the central lower eyelid in downgaze. We caution that this manifestation of inferior rectus contracture can simulate impaired infraduction in the involved eye. PMID:21131851

Brodsky, Michael C; Karlsson, Virginia

2011-03-01

223

Gait classification in children with cerebral palsy: A systematic review  

Microsoft Academic Search

This systematic review of the literature evaluates the validity of existing classifications of gait deviations in children with cerebral palsy (CP). Numerous efforts have been made to develop classification systems for gait in CP to assist in diagnosis, clinical decision-making and communication. The internal and external validity of gait classifications in 18 studies were examined, including their sampling methods, content

Fiona Dobson; Meg E. Morris; Richard Baker; H. Kerr Graham

2007-01-01

224

MRI of patients with cerebral palsy and normal CT scan  

Microsoft Academic Search

Three children with clinical evidence of cerebral palsy (CP) and normal cerebral computed tomography (CT) scans were evaluated by magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) to identify CT-undetectable white matter lesions in the watershed zones of arterial territories. The two patients with spastic diplegia showed bilateral lesions either in the subcortical regions or in the occipital periventricular regions. The patient with congenital

P. van Bogaert; D. Baleriaux; C. Christophe; H. B. Szliwowski

1992-01-01

225

Neuropsychologic Differences Between Bilateral Dyskinetic and Spastic Cerebral Palsy  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study compared the neuropsychologic performance of 30 adolescents and adults with bilateral dyskinetic, mixed, and spastic cerebral palsy aged between 16 and 38 years. The sample was relatively homogeneous in terms of motor severity; no patients were able to walk unaided. In all subjects, we evaluated the general function of nonverbal reasoning and the following specific neuropsychologic areas: language,

Roser Pueyo; Carme Junqué; Pere Vendrell

2003-01-01

226

Self-regulation of spasm and spasticity in cerebral palsy  

Microsoft Academic Search

Four young adult cerebral palsied subjects with a mixture of spasticity and athetosis attended an experimental reflex training program for three one-hour sessions each week over an 18 month period. During each session on-line measures of contraction level and tonic stretch reflex sensitivity from the biceps brachii muscle were shown to the subject on meter displays. Subjects were asked to

P D Neilson; J McCaughey

1982-01-01

227

A 4-year-old Nigerian boy with cerebral palsy?  

PubMed

A four year old with a diagnosis of congenital infection leading to cerebral palsy is presented. The patient instead has a condition called Leukoencephalopathy with bilateral temporal lobe cysts which can be differentiated from congenital CMV by the clinical and MRI findings. PMID:25149944

Bodensteiner, John B

2014-06-01

228

Operative Treatment of the Knee Contractures in Cerebral Palsy Patients  

PubMed Central

Introduction: Knee flexion is one of the main problems of the lower extremities in cerebral palsy patients. Many operative procedures are recommended for contractures of the knee in cerebral palsy patients. We performed simple operation and analyzed the results after operative treatment with nine years follow up. Method: 85 patients with spastic cerebral palsy were treated in period 2001 – 2010. 40 were ambulatory and 45 non ambulatory with ability to stand with support. All of them underwent same surgical procedure with distal hamstrings lengthening. Tenotomies were performed on m. semitendinosus, m. semimembranosus, m. gracillis and biceps femoris. Only m. semitendinosus was tenotomized completely, other muscles were tenotomized only on tendinous part. The patients had a plaster immobilization for five days after the surgery with the knee extended. Results: All 85 patients had improvement of the popliteal angle pre and post operative respectively. Improvement in the crouch gait was noticed in the period of rehabilitation. We had no complication with the wound. Three of the patients had overcorrection and achieved recurvatum of the knees. Conclusion: We consider this procedure very simple with satisfying improvement of standing, walking and sitting abilities in children with spastic cerebral palsy. PMID:25568529

Bozinovski, Zoran; Popovski, Neron

2014-01-01

229

Understanding Participation of Preschool-Age Children with Cerebral Palsy  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Participation in home, school, and community activities is a primary outcome of early intervention services for children with disabilities and their families. The objectives of this study were to (a) describe participation of preschool-age children with cerebral palsy (CP); (b) determine effects of sex, age, and gross motor function on intensity…

Chiarello, Lisa Ann; Palisano, Robert J.; Orlin, Margo N.; Chang, Hui-Ju; Begnoche, Denise; An, Mihee

2012-01-01

230

Behaviour in Children with Cerebral Palsy with and without Epilepsy  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The aim of the study was to describe behavioural problems in children with cerebral palsy (CP) with and without epilepsy. The children were sampled from the Western Sweden CP register and were part of a European Union project. The Strength and Difficulties Questionnaire and questions on epilepsy were answered by one parent of each child. Medical…

Carlsson, Malin; Olsson, Ingrid; Hagberg, Gudrun; Beckung, Eva

2008-01-01

231

Are tendon transfers justified in very old hand radial palsies?  

PubMed

There have been very few reports about results of tendon transfers carried out in very old radial palsies affecting the hand. We present two cases of radial palsy operated 52 and 30 years after the original injury, which also had after-effects in pronosupination due to elbow injuries. In the first patient, with high radial-nerve palsy, we made a triple transfer of the pronator teres to the extensor carpi radialis brevis, the flexor carpi ulnaris to the extensor digitorum communis and the palmaris longus to the extensor pollicis longus. In the second case, which had posterior interosseous nerve palsy, we transferred the flexor carpi radialis to the extensor digitorum communis, and the brachiorradialis to the extensor pollicis longus. The surgical findings showed a 'gelatinous degeneration' in some of the receiving tendons, which did not prevent the sutures from being resistant. The first patient, who had a stiff elbow, with pronosupination blocked since childhood, showed disuse atrophy of the pronator teres, which conditioned a late rupture of the tenomuscular junction and required a second surgery for wrist arthrodesis. Results after postoperative period of 30 months after surgery in the first patient, and 14 months after surgery in the second one, showed functional recovery in finger range of extension, grip and key-pinch strength and a significantly higher QuickDASH score, restoring the natural aesthetical appearance of the limb. This facilitated the return to professional and daily activities, re-establishing a fine ability to grab and release objects. PMID:22771086

Martínez-Villén, G; Muñoz-Marín, J; Pérez-Barrero, P

2012-10-01

232

Language and Motor Speech Skills in Children with Cerebral Palsy  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The aim of the study was to investigate associations between the severity of motor limitations, cognitive difficulties, language and motor speech problems in children with cerebral palsy. Also, the predictive power of neonatal cranial ultrasound findings on later outcome was investigated. For this purpose, 36 children (age range 1 year 10 months…

Pirila, Silja; van der Meere, Jaap; Pentikainen, Taina; Ruusu-Niemi, Pirjo; Korpela, Raija; Kilpinen, Jenni; Nieminen, Pirkko

2007-01-01

233

Rating Scales for Dystonia in Cerebral Palsy: Reliability and Validity  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Aim: This study investigated the reliability and validity of the Barry-Albright Dystonia Scale (BADS), the Burke-Fahn-Marsden Movement Scale (BFMMS), and the Unified Dystonia Rating Scale (UDRS) in patients with bilateral dystonic cerebral palsy (CP). Method: Three raters independently scored videotapes of 10 patients (five males, five females;…

Monbaliu, E.; Ortibus, E.; Roelens, F.; Desloovere, K.; Deklerck, J.; Prinzie, P.; De Cock, P.; Feys, H.

2010-01-01

234

Neuro-ophthalmological approach to facial nerve palsy  

PubMed Central

Facial nerve palsy is associated with significant morbidity and can have different etiologies. The most common causes are Bell’s palsy, Ramsay–Hunt syndrome and trauma, including surgical trauma. Incidence varies between 17 and 35 cases per 100,000. Initial evaluation should include accurate clinical history, followed by a comprehensive investigation of the head and neck, including ophthalmological, otological, oral and neurological examination, to exclude secondary causes. Routine laboratory testing and diagnostic imaging is not indicated in patients with new-onset Bell’s palsy, but should be performed in patients with risk factors, atypical cases or in any case without resolution within 4 months. Many factors are involved in determining the appropriate treatment of these patients: the underlying cause, expected duration of nerve dysfunction, anatomical manifestations, severity of symptoms and objective clinical findings. Systemic steroids should be offered to patients with new-onset Bell’s palsy to increase the chance of facial nerve recovery and reduce synkinesis. Ophthalmologists play a pivotal role in the multidisciplinary team involved in the evaluation and rehabilitation of these patients. In the acute phase, the main priority should be to ensure adequate corneal protection. Treatment depends on the degree of nerve lesion and on the risk of the corneal damage based on the amount of lagophthalmos, the quality of Bell’s phenomenon, the presence or absence of corneal sensitivity and the degree of lid retraction. The main therapy is intensive lubrication. Other treatments include: taping the eyelid overnight, botulinum toxin injection, tarsorrhaphy, eyelid weight implants, scleral contact lenses and palpebral spring. Once the cornea is protected, longer term planning for eyelid and facial rehabilitation may take place. Spontaneous complete recovery of Bell’s palsy occurs in up to 70% of cases. Long-term complications include aberrant regeneration with synkinesis. FNP after acoustic neuroma surgery remains the most common indication for FN rehabilitation.

Portelinha, Joana; Passarinho, Maria Picoto; Costa, João Marques

2014-01-01

235

Operative treatment for spinal deformities in cerebral palsy.  

PubMed

The higher the functional impairment, the more likely patients with cerebral palsy (cP) are to develop a scoliotic deformity. This is usually long-sweeping, C-shaped, and progressive in nature, since the causes of the deformity, such as muscular weakness, imbalance, and osteoporosis, persist through adulthood. In contrast to idiopathic scoliosis, not only is the spine deformed, the patient is also sick. This multimorbidity warrants a multidisciplinary approach with close involvement of the caregivers from the beginning. Brace treatment is usually ineffective or intolerable in light of the mostly stiff and severe deformities and the poor nutritional status. The pros and cons of surgical correction need to weighed up when pelvic obliquity, subsequent loss of sitting balance, pressure sores, and pain due to impingement of the rib cage on the ileum become issues. General risks of, for example, pulmonary or urogenital infections, pulmonary failure, the need for a tracheostoma, permanent home ventilation, and death add to the particular surgery-related hazards, such as excessive bleeding, surgical site infections, pseudarthrosis, implant failure, and dural tears with leakage of cerebrospinal fluid. The overall complication rate averages around 25 %. From an orthopedic perspective, stiffness, marked deformities including sagittal profile disturbances and pelvic obliquity, as well as osteoporosis are the main challenges. In nonambulatory patients, long fusions from T2/T3 with forces distributed over all segments, low-profile anchors in areas of poor soft tissue coverage (sublaminar bands, wires), and strong lumbosacropelvic modern screw fixation in combination with meticulous fusion techniques (facetectomies, laminar decortication, use of local autologous bone) and hemostasis can be employed to keep the rate of surgical and implant-related complications at an acceptably low level. Excessive posterior release techniques, osteotomies, or even vertebrectomies in cases of very severe short-angled deformity mostly prevent anterior one- or two-stage releases. Despite improved operative techniques and implants with predictable and satisfactory deformity corrections, the comorbidities and quality-of-life related issues demand a thorough preoperative, multidisciplinary decision-making process that takes ethical and economic aspects into consideration. PMID:24432105

Hasler, Carol C

2013-11-01

236

The cerebral palsy research registry: development and progress toward national collaboration in the United States.  

PubMed

Cerebral palsy is the most common neurodevelopmental motor disability in children. The condition requires medical, educational, social, and rehabilitative resources throughout the life span. Several countries have developed population-based registries that serve the purpose of prospective longitudinal collection of etiologic, demographic, and functional severity. The United States has not created a comprehensive program to develop such a registry. Barriers have been large population size, poor interinstitution collaboration, and decentralized medical and social systems. The Cerebral Palsy Research Registry was created to fill the gap between population and clinical-based cerebral palsy registries and promote research in the field. This is accomplished by connecting persons with cerebral palsy, as well as their families, to a network of regional researchers. This article describes the development of an expandable cerebral palsy research registry, its current status, and the potential it has to affect families and persons with cerebral palsy in the United States and abroad. PMID:21677201

Hurley, Donna S; Sukal-Moulton, Theresa; Msall, Michael E; Gaebler-Spira, Deborah; Krosschell, Kristin J; Dewald, Julius P

2011-12-01

237

Hypoglossal nerve palsy from cervical spine involvement in rheumatoid arthritis: 3 case reports  

Microsoft Academic Search

Blankenship LD, Basford JR, Strommen JA, Andersen RJ. Hypoglossal nerve palsy from cervical spine involvement in rheumatoid arthritis: 3 case reports. Arch Phys Med Rehabil 2002;83:269-72. Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) involvement of the cervical spine is a well-known but perhaps underappreciated phenomenon. Neurologic complications of this involvement include pain, myelopathy, and cranial nerve (CN) palsies. However, hypoglossal nerve palsy (CN XII)

Lisa D. Blankenship; Jeffrey R. Basford; Jeffrey A. Strommen; Renee J. Andersen

2002-01-01

238

“Waiter’s tip” (Erb’s) palsy: a case report and literature review  

Microsoft Academic Search

As primary health care clinicians, chiropractors are increasingly providing the initial assessment of many diverse musculoskeletal conditions. As a consequence, occasionally chiropractors are consulted to assess rare neuromusculoskeletal disorders. A 12-year-old girl was brought in by her mother for a second opinion on the present status of her daughter’s Erb-Duchenne palsy (Erb’s palsy), a diagnosis given at birth. Erb’s palsy

Richard A Carr-Hyde; Michelle A Wessely

2003-01-01

239

The ultrasound diagnosis of posterior shoulder dislocation associated with Erb's palsy  

Microsoft Academic Search

A case is presented of an infant with Erb's palsy whose posterior dislocation of the humeral head was identified using high-resolution\\u000a ultrasound following non-diagnostic plain radiographs. Posterior dislocation is associated with Erb's palsy but the diagnosis\\u000a can be delayed. We suggest the early use of ultrasound in patients with Erb's palsy, as this technique is a safe, quick and\\u000a reliable

John D. Hunter; Katka Franklin; Philip M. Hughes

1998-01-01

240

The genomic basis of cerebral palsy: a HuGE systematic literature review  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cerebral palsy has been associated with a number of candidate genes. To date, no systematic review has been conducted to synthesise\\u000a genetic polymorphism associations with cerebral palsy. We apply the HuGE NET guidelines to search PubMed and EMBASE databases\\u000a for publications investigating single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) and cerebral palsy outcome. 22 papers were identified\\u000a and are discussed in this review.

M. E. O’Callaghan; A. H. MacLennan; E. A. Haan; G. Dekker

2009-01-01

241

Association between Apolipoprotein E genotype and cerebral palsy is not confirmed in a Caucasian population  

Microsoft Academic Search

Apolipoprotein E (APOE) plays a significant role in lipid metabolism and has been implicated in the growth and repair of injured\\u000a neurons. Two small studies have suggested an association between APOE genotype and cerebral palsy. We investigated if APOE\\u000a genotype is associated with an increased risk for cerebral palsy, influences the type of cerebral palsy or interacts with\\u000a prenatal viral

Gai L. McMichael; Catherine S. Gibson; Paul N. Goldwater; Eric A. Haan; Kevin Priest; Gustaaf A. Dekker; Alastair H. MacLennan

2008-01-01

242

C5 palsy following anterior decompression and spinal fusion for cervical degenerative diseases  

Microsoft Academic Search

Postoperative C5 palsy is a common complication after cervical spine decompression surgery. However, the incidence, prognosis,\\u000a and etiology of C5 palsy after anterior decompression with spinal fusion (ASF) have not yet been fully established. In the\\u000a present study, we analyzed the clinical and radiological characteristics of patients who developed C5 palsy after ASF for\\u000a cervical degenerative diseases. The cases of

Mitsuhiro HashimotoMacondo; Macondo Mochizuki; Atsuomi Aiba; Akihiko Okawa; Koichi Hayashi; Tsuyoshi Sakuma; Hiroshi Takahashi; Masao Koda; Kazuhisa Takahashi; Masashi Yamazaki

2010-01-01

243

Sixth cranial nerve palsy caused by compression from a dolichoectatic vertebral artery.  

PubMed

A 68-year-old man had an unremitting left sixth cranial nerve palsy immediately after completing a long bicycle trip. High-resolution (3 Tesla) magnetic resonance imaging disclosed a dolichoectatic vertebral artery that compressed the left sixth cranial nerve against the belly of the pons at its root exit zone. It was postulated that increased blood flow in the vessel during the unusually prolonged aerobic exercise precipitated the palsy. Compressive palsies of cranial nerves caused by a dolichoectatic basilar artery have often been documented; compressive palsy caused by a dolichoectatic vertebral artery is less well-recognized. PMID:15937439

Zhu, Ying; Thulborn, Keith; Curnyn, Kimberlee; Goodwin, James

2005-06-01

244

Relationship between static postural control and the level of functional abilities in children with cerebral palsy  

PubMed Central

Background: Postural control deficits can impair functional performance in children with cerebral palsy (CP) in daily living activities. Objective: To verify the relationship between standing static postural control and the functional ability level in children with CP. Method: The postural control of 10 children with CP (gross motor function levels I and II) was evaluated during static standing on a force platform for 30 seconds. The analyzed variables were the anteroposterior (AP) and mediolateral (ML) displacement of the center of pressure (CoP) and the area and velocity of the CoP oscillation. The functional abilities were evaluated using the mean Pediatric Evaluation of Disability Inventory (PEDI) scores, which evaluated self-care, mobility and social function in the domains of functional abilities and caregiver assistance. Results: Spearman's correlation test found a relationship between postural control and functional abilities. The results showed a strong negative correlation between the variables of ML displacement of CoP, the area and velocity of the CoP oscillation and the PEDI scores in the self-care and caregiver assistance domains. Additionally, a moderate negative correlation was found between the area of the CoP oscillation and the mobility scores in the caregiver assistance domain. We used a significance level of 5% (p <0.05). Conclusions: We observed that children with cerebral palsy with high CoP oscillation values had lower caregiver assistance scores for activities of daily living (ADL) and consequently higher levels of caregiver dependence. These results demonstrate the repercussions of impairments to the body structure and function in terms of the activity levels of children with CP such that postural control impairments in these children lead to higher requirements for caregiver assistance. PMID:25054383

Pavão, Sílvia L.; Nunes, Gabriela S.; Santos, Adriana N.; Rocha, Nelci A. C. F.

2014-01-01

245

Trends in Communicative Access Solutions for Children With Cerebral Palsy.  

PubMed

Access solutions may facilitate communication in children with limited functional speech and motor control. This study reviews current trends in access solution development for children with cerebral palsy, with particular emphasis on the access technology that harnesses a control signal from the user (eg, movement or physiological change) and the output device (eg, augmentative and alternative communication system) whose behavior is modulated by the user's control signal. Access technologies have advanced from simple mechanical switches to machine vision (eg, eye-gaze trackers), inertial sensing, and emerging physiological interfaces that require minimal physical effort. Similarly, output devices have evolved from bulky, dedicated hardware with limited configurability, to platform-agnostic, highly personalized mobile applications. Emerging case studies encourage the consideration of access technology for all nonverbal children with cerebral palsy with at least nascent contingency awareness. However, establishing robust evidence of the effectiveness of the aforementioned advances will require more expansive studies. PMID:24820337

Myrden, Andrew; Schudlo, Larissa; Weyand, Sabine; Zeyl, Timothy; Chau, Tom

2014-05-11

246

Testicular Torsion in Cerebral Palsy – Resident’s Grey Area  

PubMed Central

The association of testicular torsion and cerebral palsy is a well-known fact. But the infrequent presentation to emergency room makes the clinician sceptical. Such a presentation often puzzles the residents regarding the diagnosis and the treatment. Here we present a case of an adolescent boy aged with cerebral palsy 13 years with incessant crying and not feeding well for last 3days. Right inguinal region showed a tender globular swelling with absence of testis in scrotum along with signs of septicaemia. The inguinal exploration was performed under general anaesthesia which revealed gangrenous right testis. Right orchidectomy and left orchidopexy was performed and the patient recovered well. This case is reported for its complexity due to lack of reliable history, delayed presentation and associated comorbidities posing challenges to the treating surgeons. PMID:25478396

N, Babitha; Maibam, Chetan; Sharma, M Birkumar; Singh, TH Sudhir Chandra

2014-01-01

247

Erb's palsy causation: iatrogenic or resulting from labor forces?  

PubMed

To determine whether there is direct evidence that Erb's palsy is caused by clinician-applied excessive lateral traction on the fetal head and neck, a literature review was performed. Both the medical literature outlining the maternal forces generated from uterine contractions and maternal pushing and limited reports on clinician-applied forces were examined. Research involving clinician-applied force measurements during actual deliveries has the potential for increasing our understanding of the mechanism of the injury. However, studies to date have involved only 29 deliveries and did not include measurement of vertical or maternally generated forces. During the past 15 years, studies have provided considerable indirect evidence that maternal propulsive forces are responsible for the injury leading to Erb's palsy. PMID:16220759

Sandmire, Herbert F; DeMott, Robert K

2005-08-01

248

Medical and functional status of adults with cerebral palsy.  

PubMed

One hundred and one adults (19 to 74 years of age) with cerebral palsy were interviewed and examined. There were 52 subjects with dyskinesia, 28 with spastic quadriparesis, 11 with spastic diplegia, and 10 with spastic hemiplegia. Neuromuscular dysfunction was mild in two cases, moderate in 72 and severe in 27. 76 per cent of the subjects had multiple musculoskeletal problems. In 63 per cent, these occurred under 50 years of age, suggesting that abnormal biomechanical forces and immobility had led to excessive physical stress and strain, overuse syndromes, and possibly early joint degeneration. A number of the patients had urinary complaints due to difficulties with toilet accessibility and possible neurogenic bladder. General health care seemed satisfactory for acute illnesses, but preventive health care was almost totally lacking. Treatment for the musuculoskeletal system and availability of adaptive devices were less adequate than for children with cerebral palsy. PMID:8566465

Murphy, K P; Molnar, G E; Lankasky, K

1995-12-01

249

Bell palsy in lyme disease-endemic regions of canada: a cautionary case of occult bilateral peripheral facial nerve palsy due to Lyme disease.  

PubMed

Lyme disease caused by the spirochete Borrelia burgdorferi is a multisystem disorder characterized by three clinical stages: dermatologic, neurologic, and rheumatologic. The number of known Lyme disease-endemic areas in Canada is increasing as the range of the vector Ixodes scapularis expands into the eastern and central provinces. Southern Ontario, Nova Scotia, southern Manitoba, New Brunswick, and southern Quebec are now considered Lyme disease-endemic regions in Canada. The use of field surveillance to map risk and endemic regions suggests that these geographic areas are growing, in part due to the effects of climate warming. Peripheral facial nerve palsy is the most common neurologic abnormality in the second stage of Lyme borreliosis, with up to 25% of Bell palsy (idiopathic peripheral facial nerve palsy) occurring due to Lyme disease. Here we present a case of occult bilateral facial nerve palsy due to Lyme disease initially diagnosed as Bell palsy. In Lyme disease-endemic regions of Canada, patients presenting with unilateral or bilateral peripheral facial nerve palsy should be evaluated for Lyme disease with serologic testing to avoid misdiagnosis. Serologic testing should not delay initiation of appropriate treatment for presumed Bell palsy. PMID:22967702

Ho, Karen; Melanson, Michel; Desai, Jamsheed A

2012-09-01

250

Cancer mortality in cerebral palsy in California, 1988-2002  

Microsoft Academic Search

Rationale: Exposure to lifestyle, occupational, and environmental risk factors for cancer are undoubtedly different in cerebral palsy (CP) than in the general population, and these and other differences may result in a specific pattern of cancer mortality in CP. Objective: To study the cancer mortality of CP in California. Study group: 40,482 CP cases (contributing 357,928 person- years) among 210,155

Jordan Brooks; David Strauss; Sharon Shumway; Robert M. Shavelle; Scott Kush; Annie J Sasco

2008-01-01

251

Grip Force Coordination during Bimanual Tasks in Unilateral Cerebral Palsy  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Aim: The aim of the study was to investigate coordination of fingertip forces during an asymmetrical bimanual task in children with unilateral cerebral palsy (CP). Method: Twelve participants (six males, six females; mean age 14y 4mo, SD 3.3y; range 9-20y;) with unilateral CP (eight right-sided, four left-sided) and 15 age-matched typically…

Islam, Mominul; Gordon, Andrew M.; Skold, Annika; Forssberg, Hans; Eliasson, Ann-Christin

2011-01-01

252

A case presentation of bilateral simultaneous Bell’s palsy  

Microsoft Academic Search

Bilateral simultaneous facial paralysis is an extremely rare clinical entity. Unlike the unilateral form, bilateral facial paralysis seldom falls into Bell’s category. It is most often a special finding in a symptom complex of a systemic disease; many of them are potentially life-threatening, and therefore the condition warrants urgent medical intervention. Lyme disease, Guillian-Barre syndrome, Bell’s palsy, leukemia, sarcoidosis, bacterial

Rahmi Kilic; Ali Ozdek; Sevim Felek; M. Asim Safak; Erdal Samim

2003-01-01

253

The health status of women with cerebral palsy  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: To determine preliminary associations between collected health status variables of women with cerebral palsy (CP) residing in the community.Design: Cross-sectional study using survey research.Participants: Sixty-three women residing in the community were administered the Telephone Questionnaire when contacted to arrange their visit to the study site located within the medical clinic of a local developmental services office. During the course

Margaret A. Turk; Cynthia A. Geremski; Paula F. Rosenbaum; Robert J. Weber

1997-01-01

254

Subacute Cervical Myelopathy in a Child with Cerebral Palsy  

Microsoft Academic Search

A 12-year-old girl with a spastic dystonic tetraparesis due to cerebral palsy showed a subacute cervical myelopathy. X-ray films of the cervical spine demonstrated a subluxation of C4 on C5. Myelography and computerized tomography of the cervical spine performed under general anesthesia demonstrated only a minimal rotation of C3 with respect to C4 and a rather narrow cervical canal. In

L. Angelini; G. Broggi; N. Nardocci; M. Savoiardo

1982-01-01

255

Gait classification in children with cerebral palsy by Bayesian approach  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cerebral palsy (CP) is a non-progressive neuro-developmental condition that occurs in early childhood and is associated with a motor impairment, usually affecting mobility and posture. Automatic accurate identification of CP gait has many potential applications, for example, assistance in diagnosis, clinical decision-making and communication among the clinical professionals. In previous studies, support vector machine (SVM) and neural networks have been

Bai-ling Zhang; Yanchun Zhang; Rezaul K. Begg

2009-01-01

256

Mutations in gamma adducin are associated with inherited cerebral palsy  

PubMed Central

OBJECTIVE Cerebral palsy is estimated to affect nearly 1 in 500 children, and although prenatal and perinatal contributors have been well-characterized, at least 20% of cases are believed to be inherited. Previous studies have identified mutations in the actin-capping protein KANK1 and the adaptor protein -4 complex in forms of inherited cerebral palsy, suggesting a role for components of the dynamic cytoskeleton in the genesis of the disease. METHODS We studied a multiplex consanguineous Jordanian family by homozygosity mapping and exome sequencing, then used patient-derived fibroblasts to examine functional consequences of the mutation we identified in vitro. We subsequently studied the effects of adducin loss of function in drosophila. RESULTS We identified a homozygous c.1100G>A [p.G367D] mutation in ADD3, encoding gamma adducin in all affected members of the index family. Follow-up experiments in patient fibroblasts found that the p.G367D mutation, which occurs within the putative oligomerization critical region, impairs the ability of gamma adducin to associate with the alpha subunit. This mutation impairs the normal actin capping function of adducin, leading to both abnormal proliferation and migration in cultured patient fibroblasts. Loss of function studies of the Drosophila adducin ortholog hts confirmed a critical role for adducin in locomotion. INTERPRETATION Although likely a rare cause of cerebral palsy, our findings indicate a critical role for adducins in regulating the activity of the actin cytoskeleton, suggesting that impaired adducin function may lead to neuromotor impairment and further implicating abnormalities of the dynamic cytoskeleton as a pathogenic mechanism contributing to cerebral palsy. PMID:23836506

Kruer, Michael C.; Jepperson, Tyler; Dutta, Sudeshna; Steiner, Robert D.; Cottenie, Ellen; Sanford, Lynn; Merkens, Mark; Russman, Barry S.; Blasco, Peter A.; Fan, Guang; Pollock, Jeffrey; Green, Sarah; Woltjer, Randall L.; Mooney, Catherine; Kretzschmar, Doris; Paisán-Ruiz, Coro; Houlden, Henry

2014-01-01

257

Combination of Citicoline and Physiotherapy in Children with Cerebral Palsy  

PubMed Central

Background: The most common cause of physical disability in children is cerebral palsy. This study was aimed to evaluate the effect of citicoline in combination to physiotherapy versus physiotherapy alone, to improve the functional outcome in pediatric cerebral palsy. Methods: The clinical trial was performed on 50 pediatric patients aged 18-75 months with spastic diplegia or quadriplegic cerebral palsy. Patients were assessed in two groups: case group, under treatment, using injection of citicoline (10 mg/kg) every other day for 3 months and physiotherapy. Gross motor function classification system (GMFCS) levels were assessed in all patients before and after treatment. Results: Patient's mean age was 38.7 ± 17.2 months, and 52% were girls. Differences in the frequency of GMFCS levels between groups were not statistically significant, before (P = 0.09) and after (P = 0.47) treatment. In case group improving in GMFCS, level was occurred in 9/11 with level 2 to level 1, 3/5 with level 3 to other levels and 3/7 with level 4 to other levels. In the control group improving in GMFCS, level was occurred in 3/9 with level 2 to level 1, 3/10 with level 3 to other levels, and 2/4 with level 4 other levels. GMFCS level in 64% of cases was improved, whereas in control group, 32% was improved (P = 0.02). Conclusions: Results demonstrated that citicoline in combination to physiotherapy appears to be a promising agent to improve gross motor function in patients with cerebral palsy versus physiotherapy alone. Although, further studies are need to be done. PMID:25400890

Nasiri, Jafar; Kargar, Mehran

2014-01-01

258

Cognitive Profile in Young Icelandic Children with Cerebral Palsy  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

We describe the cognitive profile in a complete national cohort of children with cerebral palsy (CP). One hundred and twenty-seven Icelandic children (67 females, 60 males) with CP, born between 1985 and 2000 and assessed between the ages of 4 and 6 years 6 months (mean age 5y 5mo, SD 6mo), were included in the study. IQ was measured using the…

Sigurdardottir, Solveig; Eiriksdottir, Audur; Gunnarsdottir, Eva; Meintema, Marrit; Arnadottir, Unnur; Vik, Torstein

2008-01-01

259

Functional outcomes of strength training in spastic cerebral palsy  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: To determine clinical effectiveness of strength training in children with spastic cerebral palsy.Design: Prospective before and after trial in which subjects participated in a 6-week strength training program. All received before and after isometric strength evaluation of eight muscle groups in both lower extremities with a hand-held dynamometer, 3-D gait analysis at free and fast speeds, administration of the

Diane L. Damiano; Mark F. Abel

1998-01-01

260

Outcomes after selective dorsal rhizotomy for spastic cerebral palsy  

Microsoft Academic Search

Object: The purpose of this article was to review the published outcomes after selective dorsal rhizotomy (SDR) for treatment of\\u000a spastic cerebral palsy. Methods: A literature search identified all articles related to outcomes after SDR. The outcomes were reviewed according to a paradigm\\u000a developed by the National Center for Medical Rehabilitation Research (NCMRR). The quality of the evidence for each

Paul Steinbok

2001-01-01

261

Postural Control in Sitting Children with Cerebral Palsy  

Microsoft Academic Search

BROGREN, E., M. HADDERS-ALGRA, H. FORSSBERG. Postural control in sitting children with spastic diplegia. NEUROSCI BIOBEHAV REV 22(4) 591–596, 1998.—Children with cerebral palsy (CP) display postural problems, largely interfering with daily life activities. Clarification of neural mechanisms controlling posture in these children could serve as a base for more successful intervention.Studies on postural adjustments following horizontal forward and backward displacements

Eva Brogren; Mijna Hadders-Algra; Hans Forssberg

1998-01-01

262

Cerebral Palsy: Effects of Early Brain Injury on Development  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a The term cerebral palsy (CP) was originally coined more than a century ago and loosely translated as brain paralysis. A precise\\u000a definition has remained elusive because CP is not a single diagnosis but an umbrella term describing nonprogressive brain\\u000a lesions involving motor and postural abnormalities that are noted during early development [1]. Recently, the executive committee\\u000a for the definition of

Silja Pirilä; Jaap J. van der Meere

263

Electroglottography in elderly patients with vocal-fold palsy.  

PubMed

The incidence of dysphonia in healthy elderly people is high. In individuals with iatrogenic vocal-fold paresis following thyroid surgery, serious aggravation of vocal skills contributes to impaired quality of life and requires proper management. Electroglottography is a common method for providing noninvasive measurements of glottal activity, yielding reliable indicators of glottal closing instants. The purpose of the study was to determine how electroglottography measures change with voice recovery in elderly speakers with vocal-fold palsy, compared with healthy elderly individuals, and which coefficient best represents dysphonia. An electroglottograph with Speech Studio 1.04 software was used to record and analyze the data. Electroglottography data were collected from 12 patients aged 65-78 years (mean=71.3, S.D.=3.8, median=71) and 10 healthy speakers aged 65-77 years (mean=70.9, S.D.=3.9, median=72). The findings show that the distribution of values of % irregularity differs between the groups of patients and controls. % Irregularity and closing quotient significantly correlate with the perceptual degree of dysphonia. Electroglottography can objectify dysphonia in elderly patients with vocal-fold palsy and is a suitable noninvasive tool for tracking the elderly patients' long-term progress. % Irregularity best represents the vocal-fold dysfunction in elderly patients with a vocal-fold palsy. PMID:18504110

Zagólski, Olaf

2009-09-01

264

Botulinum toxin treatment of synkinesia and hyperlacrimation after facial palsy  

PubMed Central

OBJECTIVES—To investigate the effects of injection of botulinum toxin type A (BTX A) into the orbicularis oculi muscle and lacrimal gland in patients with aberrant regeneration after facial palsy (facial synkinesias and hyperlacrimation).?METHODS—The effect of the toxin injection (on average 75 mouse units of BTX A) into the orbicularis oculi muscle on facial synkinesias was assessed on a five point (0 to 4) scale in 10 patients with aberrant regeneration of facial nerve fibres after a peripheral facial nerve palsy. Six patients underwent a videographic control, which was assessed by a blinded independent investigator. In two patients with hyperlacrimation an extra dose of botulinum toxin (on average 20 mouse units BTX A) was injected into the lacrimal gland and the effect was assessed using the Schirmer test and on a three point scale.?RESULTS—Botulinum toxin type A had a good to excellent (grades 3 and 4) effect over an average of six months after 91% of injections. In 9% the injections had a moderate (grade 2) effect. Patients with hyperlacrimation showed a nearly complete recovery. There were no systemic side effects but focal side effects due to a temporary weakness of the orbicularis oculi muscle were not uncommon.?CONCLUSIONS—Botulinum toxin type A is the treatment of choice in motor and autonomic effects of aberrant regeneration of facial nerve after a peripheral palsy. The required dose is similar to or slightly lower than the dose usually recommended for hemifacial spasm. ?? PMID:9667571

Boroojerdi, B; Ferbert, A; Schwarz, M; Herath, H; Noth, J

1998-01-01

265

Food pattern and nutritional status of children with cerebral palsy  

PubMed Central

OBJECTIVES To assess the food intake pattern and the nutritional status of children with cerebral palsy. METHODS Cross-sectional study with 90 children from two to 12.8 years with cerebral palsy in the following forms: hemiplegia, diplegia, and tetraplegia. Nutritional status was assessed by weight, height, and age data. Food intake was verified by the 24-hour recall and food frequency questionnaire. The ability to chew and/or swallowing, intestinal habits, and physical activity were also evaluated. RESULTS For 2-3 year-old age group, the mean energy intake followed the recommended range; in 4-6 year-old age group with hemiplegia and tetraplegia, energy intake was below the recommended limits. All children presented low intake of carbohydrates, adequate intake of proteins and high intake of lipids. The tetraplegia group had a higher prevalence of chewing (41%) and swallowing (12.8%) difficulties compared to 14.5 and 6.6% of children with hemiplegia, respectively. Most children of all groups had a daily intestinal habit. All children presented mild physical activity, while moderate activity was not practiced by any child of the tetraplegia group, which had a significantly lower height/age Z score than those with hemiplegia (-2.14 versus -1.05; p=0.003). CONCLUSIONS The children with cerebral palsy presented inadequate dietary pattern and impaired nutritional status, with special compromise of height. Tetraplegia imposes difficulties regarding chewing/swallowing and moderate physical activity practice. PMID:24142317

Lopes, Patrícia Ayrosa C.; Amancio, Olga Maria S.; Araújo, Roberta Faria C.; Vitalle, Maria Sylvia de S.; Braga, Josefina Aparecida P.

2013-01-01

266

Effect of High-frequency, Low-magnitude Vibration on Bone and Muscle in Children With Cerebral Palsy  

E-print Network

with cerebral palsy (CP) have decreased strength, low bone mass, and an increased propensity to fracture. High II, prospective randomized cross-over study. Key Words: cerebral palsy, mechanical loading and osteoporosis later in life.1­3 The children with disabilities, such as cerebral palsy (CP), are particu- larly

Valero-Cuevas, Francisco

267

The Cerebral Palsy Quality of Life for Children (CP QOL-Child): Evidence of Construct Validity  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The Cerebral Palsy Quality of Life for Children (CP QOL-Child) is the first health condition-specific questionnaire designed for measuring QOL in children with cerebral palsy (CP). However, its construct validity has not yet been confirmed by confirmatory factor analysis (CFA). Hence, this study assessed the construct validity of the caregiver…

Chen, Kuan-Lin; Wang, Hui-Yi; Tseng, Mei-Hui; Shieh, Jeng-Yi; Lu, Lu; Yao, Kai-Ping Grace; Huang, Chien-Yu

2013-01-01

268

A prospective, longitudinal study of growth, nutrition and sedentary behaviour in young children with cerebral palsy  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Cerebral palsy is the most common cause of physical disability in childhood, occurring in one in 500 children. It is caused by a static brain lesion in the neonatal period leading to a range of activity limitations. Oral motor and swallowing dysfunction, poor nutritional status and poor growth are reported frequently in young children with cerebral palsy and may

Kristie L Bell; Roslyn N Boyd; Sean M Tweedy; Kelly A Weir; Richard D Stevenson; Peter SW Davies

2010-01-01

269

Intensive Dysarthria Therapy for Older Children with Cerebral Palsy: Findings from Six Cases  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Children with cerebral palsy often have speech, language and communication difficulties that affect their access to social and educational activities. Speech and language therapy to improve the intelligibility of the speech of children with cerebral palsy has long been advocated, but there is a dearth of research investigating therapy…

Pennington, Lindsay; Smallman, Claire; Farrier, Faith

2006-01-01

270

Engaging children in healthcare technology design: developing rehabilitation technology for children with cerebral palsy  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents a case study of users’ involvement in the design and evaluation of two devices for upper limb rehabilitation for children with cerebral palsy to use in their homes. The devices comprise a computer game and a force feedback interface, designed to stimulate children with cerebral palsy to undertake fun arm exercises that are beneficial in terms of

Andrew Patrick Hayes Weightman; Nick Preston; Raymond Holt; Matthew Allsop; Martin Levesley; Bipinchandra Bhakta

2010-01-01

271

AETIOLOGY OF KIENBÖCK'S DISEASE BASED ON A STUDY OF THE CONDITION AMONG PATIENTS WITH CEREBRAL PALSY  

Microsoft Academic Search

Examination of 110 patients with cerebral palsy revealed a diagnosis of Kienböck's disease in six wrists in five cases. All had cerebral palsy of the mixed type with athetosis and high muscle tone. It is considered that the increased prevalence of Kienböck's disease in these cases was attributable to repeated minor trauma to the lunate from childhood due to high

S. JOJI; T. MIZUSEKI; S. KATAYAMA; K. TSUGE; Y. IKUTA

1993-01-01

272

Position as a Cause of Deformity in Children with Cerebral Palsy (1976)  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Deformities in the child with cerebral palsy have been ascribed to muscle imbalance (Sharrard 1961) and increased tone (Pollock 1959) or to the type of cerebral palsy (Bobath and Bobath 1975). As far as we know, the position in which the child is nursed, especially during the first year of life, has not been considered as a cause of deformity. It…

Scrutton, David

2008-01-01

273

Obstetric brachial plexus palsy in newborn babies of diabetic and non-diabetic mothers.  

PubMed

Compared to non-diabetic mothers, diabetic mothers are known to deliver larger babies who are at higher risk for shoulder dystocia and obstetric brachial plexus palsy. The intrapartum forces applied during delivery of larger babies are expected to be higher. Hence, the chances of these babies for good spontaneous recovery are expected to be lower; and this is a generally believed hypothesis. The objective of this retrospective study was to compare obstetric brachial plexus palsy in newborn babies of diabetic and non-diabetic mothers. There were a total of 655 cases of obstetric palsy: 253 cases with diabetic mothers and 402 with non-diabetic mothers. The former were more likely to develop total palsy while the latter were more likely to develop extended Erb's palsy. Newborn babies of diabetic mothers had significantly larger birth weights than those of non-diabetic mothers regardless of the type of palsy. The rate of good spontaneous recovery of the motor power of the limb in the two groups was not significantly different except in total palsy cases for shoulder external rotation and elbow flexion where the recovery was significantly better in the diabetic group. It was concluded that the generally believed hypothesis is not correct if one compares the outcome in the diabetic and non-diabetic groups for each type of palsy. PMID:20181773

Al-Qattan, M M; El-Sayed, A A F; Al-Zahrani, A Y; Al-Mutairi, S A; Al-Harbi, M S; Al-Mutairi, A M; Al-Kahtani, F S

2010-06-01

274

Bell's Palsy in Children: Role of the School Nurse in Early Recognition and Referral  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Bell's palsy is the most common condition affecting facial nerves. It is an acute, rapidly progressing, idiopathic, unilateral facial paralysis that is generally self-limiting and non-life threatening that occurs in all age groups (Okuwobi, Omole, & Griffith, 2003). The school nurse may be the first person to assess facial palsy and muscle…

Gordon, Shirley C.

2008-01-01

275

Changes in Cognitive Performance in Children with Spastic Diplegic Cerebral Palsy following Selective Dorsal Rhizotomy  

Microsoft Academic Search

Children with cerebral palsy who receive selective dorsal rhizotomy (SDR) for treatment of spasticity may show suprasegmental changes in upper limb function and control of speech musculature. Anecdotal reports suggest that suprasegmental effects may extend to cognitive functions such as attention and language. This study examined the performance of 16 children with spastic diplegic cerebral palsy on tests of visual

Suzanne Crafts; T. S. Park; Desiree A. White; Jeffrey Schatz; Michael Noetzel; Susan Arnold

1995-01-01

276

Efficacy of Neuromuscular Electrical Stimulation in Improving Ankle Kinetics During Walking in Children with Cerebral Palsy  

Microsoft Academic Search

Neuromuscular electrical stimulation (NMES) applied to the triceps surae muscle is claimed to be effective in improving gait in children with cerebral palsy. The main aim of this study was to determine the effect of NMES on the triceps surae muscle in improving the gait and function of children with cerebral palsy. Twelve children with spastic diplegia or hemiplegia were

Nerita N. C. Chan; Andrew W. Smith; Sing Kai Lo

2004-01-01

277

Botulinum Toxin for Spasticity in Children With Cerebral Palsy: A Comprehensive Evaluation  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND.Spasticity is a prevalent disabling clinical symptom for children with cerebral palsy. Treatment of spasticity with botulinum toxin in children with cerebral palsy was first reported in 1993. Botulinum toxin provides a focal, controlled muscle weakness with reduction in spasticity. Interpretation of the literature is difficult because of the paucity of reliable measures of spasticity and challenges with measuring meaningful

Kristie Bjornson; Ross Hays; Cathy Graubert; Robert Price; Francine Won; John F. McLaughlin; Morty Cohen

2008-01-01

278

Intrathecal baclofen therapy in children with cerebral palsy: Efficacy and complications  

Microsoft Academic Search

Murphy NA, Nicole Irwin MC, Hoff C. Intrathecal baclofen therapy in children with cerebral palsy: efficacy and complications. Arch Phys Med Rehabil 2002;83:1721-5. Objectives: To describe the efficacy of intrathecal baclofen (ITB) therapy in the management of spasticity in young children with cerebral palsy (CP) and to identify risk factors for complications. Design: Consecutive case series of 25 implanted ITB

Nancy A. Murphy; Melanie C. Nicole Irwin; Charles Hoff

2002-01-01

279

Spinal cord injury secondary to cervical disc herniation in ambulatory patients with cerebral palsy  

Microsoft Academic Search

Early onset of degeneration of the cervical spine and instability due to sustained abnormal tonicity or abnormal movement of the neck are found in patients with cerebral palsy. An unexplained change or deterioration of neurological function in patients with cerebral palsy should merit the consideration of the possibility of cervical myelopathy due to early degeneration or instability of the cervical

Hyun-Yoon Ko; Insun Park-Ko

1998-01-01

280

Musculoskeletal pain in adults with cerebral palsy compared with the general population  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: To examine prevalence and localization of musculo-skeletal pain in adults with cerebral palsy com- pared with the general population and to investigate variables potentially associated with pain. Design: A postal survey. Subjects: Persons with cerebral palsy and no intellectual disabilities, 18 years or more, living in Norway. Methods: A multidimensional questionnaire, including items on musculo-skeletal pain, was sent to

Reidun Jahnsen; Lisbeth Villien; Geir Aamodt; Johan K Stanghelle; Inger Holm

2004-01-01

281

Cerebral palsy in adults: Independent effects of muscle strength and muscle tone  

Microsoft Academic Search

Maruishi M, Mano Y, Sasaki T, Shinmyo N, Sato H, Ogawa T. Cerebral palsy in adults: independent effects of muscle strength and muscle tone. Arch Phys Med Rehabil 2001;82:637-41. Objective: To investigate clinical characteristics and their contribution to activities of daily living (ADLs) in adults with cerebral palsy (CP). Design: Descriptions of the clinical features of medical disorders; survey. Setting:

Masaharu Maruishi; Yukio Mano; Tetsuto Sasaki; Naoki Shinmyo; Humie Sato; Taro Ogawa

2001-01-01

282

Abnormalities of Tactile Sensory Function in Children With Dystonic and Diplegic Cerebral Palsy  

Microsoft Academic Search

Recent studies have shown the presence of sensory dysfunction in adults with focal dystonias. The authors hypothesize that children with secondary dystonia due to cerebral palsy may share a similar sensory dysfunction. To test this hypothesis, they evaluated tactile spatial discrimination threshold using Johnson, Van Boven, Phillips domes in 10 children with cerebral palsy and upper extremity dystonia, 8 children

Terence D. Sanger; Sahana N. Kukke

2007-01-01

283

Spastic cerebral palsy: clinical magnetic resonance imaging correlation of 129 children.  

PubMed

A prospective study was undertaken of 129 children with spastic cerebral palsy to clarify the relationship between magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) findings and clinical features of cerebral palsy. Low birth weight, asphyxia, prematurity, seizures, mental development, Gross Motor Function Classification System, and MRI findings were analyzed. Significant abnormalities relevant to the cerebral palsy were evident on imaging in 123 (95.3%). A similar percentage of MRI abnormalities were detected in the groups, 45 (100%) in patients with tetraplegic cerebral palsy, 37 (92.5%) in children with diplegic cerebral palsy, and 42 (95.4%) with hemiplegic cerebral palsy. Periventricular leukomalacia was detected more frequently in the children with spastic diplegia than in the patients with tetraplegia or hemiplegia. Cerebral atrophy was found more often in the tetraplegic group compared to the diplegic patients. Porencephalic cysts were detected more frequently in children with spastic hemiplegia. Congenital brain anomalies were found in a higher proportion in tetraplegic children. Significant correlations between the MRI findings and Gross Motor Function Classification System in the diplegic and tetraplegic patients were found. No correlations between the MRI results and risk factors for cerebral palsy in the tetraplegic patients were noted. Early detection of brain abnormalities in children with cerebral palsy may help in the prognosis and in the initiation of appropriate therapy PMID:17608298

Ku?ak, Wojciech; Sobaniec, Wojciech; Kubas, Bozena; Walecki, Jerzy; Smigielska-Kuzia, Joanna; Bockowski, Leszek; Artemowicz, Barbara; Sendrowski, Krzysztof

2007-01-01

284

Growth of an NGO: The Indian Institute of Cerebral Palsy from 1974 to 2006  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The Indian Institute for Cerebral Palsy (IICP) has been providing education and other services in Kolkata, Eastern India, for children and young adults with cerebral palsy and related disabilities for over 30 years. IICP started by providing education for just two children, and was highly dependent on western expertise. Described is the history of…

Sen, Reena; Goldbart, Juliet; Kaul, Sudha

2008-01-01

285

European study of frequency of participation of adolescents with and without cerebral palsy  

PubMed Central

Children with cerebral palsy participate less in everyday activities than children in the general populations. During adolescence, rapid physical and psychological changes occur which may be more difficult for adolescents with impairments. Within the European SPARCLE project we measured frequency of participation of adolescents with cerebral palsy by administering the Questionnaire of Young People's Participation to 667 adolescents with cerebral palsy or their parents from nine European regions and to 4666 adolescents from the corresponding general populations. Domains and single items were analysed using respectively linear and logistic regression. Adolescents with cerebral palsy spent less time with friends and had less autonomy in their daily life than adolescents in the general populations. Adolescents with cerebral palsy participated much less in sport but played electronic games at least as often as adolescents in the general populations. Severity of motor and intellectual impairment had a significant impact on frequency of participation, the more severely impaired being more disadvantaged. Adolescents with an only slight impairment participated in some domains as often as adolescents in the general populations. Regional variation existed. For example adolescents with cerebral palsy in central Italy were most disadvantaged according to decisional autonomy, while adolescents with cerebral palsy in east Denmark and northern England played sports as often as their general populations. Participation is an important health outcome. Personal and environmental predictors of participation of adolescents with cerebral palsy need to be identified in order to design interventions directed to such predictors; and in order to inform the content of services. PMID:24412031

Michelsen, Susan I.; Flachs, Esben M.; Damsgaard, Mogens T.; Parkes, Jacqueline; Parkinson, Kathryn; Rapp, Marion; Arnaud, Catherine; Nystrand, Malin; Colver, Allan; Fauconnier, Jerome; Dickinson, Heather O.; Marcelli, Marco; Uldall, Peter

2014-01-01

286

Comparison of motor, cognitive, and behavioral features in progressive supranuclear palsy and Parkinson's disease  

Microsoft Academic Search

Major clinical features and global measures were systematically evaluated and compared in progressive supranu- clear palsy (PSP) and Parkinson's disease (PD). In addition to gaze palsy and early postural instability in PSP, absence of levodopa-induced dyskinesia, frontalis muscle overactivity, primitive reflexes, visuospatial impairment, and substantial frontal behavioral disturbances differentiated almost all pa- tients with this disorder from PD. For PSP,

Nicholas J. Cordato; Glenda M. Halliday; Diana Caine; John G. L. Morris

2006-01-01

287

Communicating About Loss: Experiences of Older Australian Adults With Cerebral Palsy and Complex Communication Needs  

Microsoft Academic Search

Loss and grief is a universal human experience, yet little is known about how older adults with a lifelong disability, such as cerebral palsy, and complex communication needs (CCN) experience loss and manage the grieving process. In-depth interviews were conducted with 20 Australian participants with cerebral palsy and CCN to determine the types of loss experienced by this group in

Leigha Dark; Susan Balandin; Lindy Clemson

2011-01-01

288

Oculomotor Nerve Palsy Caused by Posterior Communicating Artery Aneurysm: Evaluation of Symptoms after Endovascular Treatment  

PubMed Central

Summary We report the outcome of endovascular treatment in a series of patients presenting with posterior communicating artery aneurysm causing ocular motor nerve palsy. A retrospective study was made of ten patients who were treated by coil embolization of posterior communicating artery aneurysm caused by oculomotor nerve palsy. The assessed parameters were as follows: patient’s age, presence of subarachnoid hemorrhage, aneurysm size, preoperative severity of symptoms, and timing of treatment after onset of symptoms. Improvement of oculomotor nerve palsy after treatment was noted in eight patients (80.0%). Complete recovery was noted in seven patients (70.0%), partial recovery in one patient (10.0%), and no recovery in two patients (20%). Clinical presentations with early management (?2 days) were significant in influencing recovery. Complete recovery from ocular motor nerve palsy was significantly higher in patients with initial incomplete palsy compared with initial complete palsy patients (6/6 versus 1/4). Early treatment and initial partial palsy are relevant to improving prognoses. Endovascular treatment is favored method for treating oculomotor palsy. PMID:22192543

Ko, J.H.; Kim, Y-J.

2011-01-01

289

Usability of an adaptable video game platform for children with cerebral palsy  

Microsoft Academic Search

Virtual reality is a recent technology incorporated in upper extremity therapy programs for children with cerebral palsy. However, the systems currently being used cannot be graded to meet the skill level of children with cerebral palsy who have severely impaired upper extremities. These systems are often expensive, making them impractical for the clinical and home settings. ldquoHands-Uprdquo was designed as

Brooke M. Odle; Amanda Irving; Richard Foulds

2009-01-01

290

Trends in the prevalence of cerebral palsy among very preterm infants (<31 weeks’ gestational age)  

PubMed Central

BACKGROUND: The birth prevalence of cerebral palsy varies over time among very preterm infants, and the reasons are poorly understood. OBJECTIVE: To describe the variation in the prevalence of cerebral palsy among very preterm infants over time, and to relate these differences to other maternal or neonatal factors. METHODS: A population-based cohort of very preterm infants was evaluated over a 20-year period (1988 to 2007) divided into four equal epochs. RESULTS: The prevalence of cerebral palsy peaked in the third epoch (1998 to 2002) while mortality rate peaked in the second epoch (1993 to 1997). Maternal anemia, tocolytic use and neonatal need for home oxygen were highest in the third epoch. CONCLUSIONS: Lower mortality rates did not correlate well with the prevalence of cerebral palsy. Maternal risk factors, anemia and tocolytic use, and the newborn need for home oxygen were highest during the same epoch as the peak prevalence of cerebral palsy. PMID:24855414

Vincer, Michael J; Allen, Alexander C; Allen, Victoria M; Baskett, Thomas F; O’Connell, Colleen M

2014-01-01

291

Tourniquet-Related Iatrogenic Femoral Nerve Palsy after Knee Surgery: Case Report and Review of the Literature  

PubMed Central

Purpose. Tourniquet-induced nerve injuries have been reported in the literature, but even if electromyography abnormalities in knee surgery are frequent, only two cases of permanent femoral nerve palsies have been reported, both after prolonged tourniquet time. We report a case of tourniquet-related permanent femoral nerve palsy after knee surgery. Case Report. We report a case of a 58-year-old woman who underwent surgical treatment of a patella fracture. Tourniquet was inflated to 310?mmHg for 45 minutes. After surgery, patient complained about paralysis of the quadriceps femoris with inability to extend the knee. Electromyography and nerve conduction study showed a severe axonal neuropathy of the left femoral nerve, without clinical remission after several months. Discussion. Even if complications are not rare, safe duration and pressure for tourniquet use remain a controversy. Nevertheless, subtle clinical lesions of the femoral nerve or even subclinical lesions only detectable by nerve conduction and EMG activity are frequent, so persistent neurologic dysfunction, even if rare, may be an underreported complication of tourniquet application. Elderly persons with muscle atrophy and flaccid, loose skin might be in risk for iatrogenic nerve injury secondary to tourniquet. PMID:24371536

Mingo-Robinet, Juan; Castañeda-Cabrero, Carlos; Alvarez, Vicente; León Alonso-Cortés, José Miguel; Monge-Casares, Eva

2013-01-01

292

Magnetic resonance imaging lesion pattern in Guadeloupean parkinsonism is distinct from progressive supranuclear palsy.  

PubMed

In the Caribbean island of Guadeloupe, patients with atypical parkinsonism develop a progressive supranuclear palsy-like syndrome, named Guadeloupean parkinsonism. Unlike the classical forms of progressive supranuclear palsy, they develop hallucinations and myoclonus. As lesions associated with Guadeloupean parkinsonism are poorly characterized, it is not known to what extent they differ from progressive supranuclear palsy. The aim of the present study was to determine the structural and metabolic profiles of Guadeloupean parkinsonism compared with progressive supranuclear palsy and controls using combined structural and diffusion magnetic resonance imaging and magnetic resonance spectroscopy. We included 9 patients with Guadeloupean parkinsonism, 10 with progressive supranuclear palsy and 9 age-matched controls. Magnetic resonance imaging examination was performed at 1.5 T and included 3D T(1)-weighted and fluid-attenuated inversion recovery images, diffusion tensor imaging and single voxel magnetic resonance spectroscopy in the lenticular nucleus. Images were analysed using voxel-based morphometry, voxel-based diffusion tensor imaging and brainstem region of interest measurements. In patients with Guadeloupean parkinsonism, structural and diffusion changes predominated in the temporal and occipital lobes, the limbic areas (medial temporal, orbitofrontal and cingulate cortices) and the cerebellum. In contrast to patients with progressive supranuclear palsy, structural changes predominated in the midbrain and the basal ganglia and diffusion abnormalities predominated in the frontocentral white matter, the basal ganglia and the brainstem. Compared with controls, the N-acetylaspartate to creatinine ratio was decreased in patients with progressive supranuclear palsy and to a lesser extent in patients with Guadeloupean parkinsonism. The pattern of structural and diffusion abnormalities differed between progressive supranuclear palsy and Guadeloupean parkinsonism. Widespread cortical atrophy was observed in patients with Guadeloupean parkinsonism who presented marked cognitive changes and hallucinations, whereas midbrain lesions were less severe than in progressive supranuclear palsy. Midbrain (progressive supranuclear palsy) or cortical (Guadeloupean parkinsonism) atrophy was a distinctive neuroimaging feature for differential diagnosis. PMID:20826434

Lehéricy, Stéphane; Hartmann, Andreas; Lannuzel, Annie; Galanaud, Damien; Delmaire, Christine; Bienaimée, Marie-Josée; Jodoin, Nicolas; Roze, Emmanuel; Gaymard, Bertrand; Vidailhet, Marie

2010-08-01

293

The importance of good nutrition in children with cerebral palsy.  

PubMed

Poor nutritional status, which is common in children with cerebral palsy (CP), has generated considerable interest because of its wide-ranging impact on the children's health and well-being. Understanding the causes of poor nutrition, and the appropriate measurements required to interpret the nutritional status in children with CP, are integral to developing appropriate nutritional intervention strategies. Focusing attention on improving nutrition early in the lives of children with CP affords families and care providers with a unique opportunity for intervention, which may result in better outcomes for the children. PMID:25479778

Rempel, Gina

2015-02-01

294

Aided augmentative communication in managing children with cerebral palsy.  

PubMed

The use of an aided augmentative communication system to achieve effective communication between the pediatric dentist and the child with cerebral palsy is described. This type of communication involves symbols placed on a communication board and may be used together with conventional behavior management techniques for successful delivery of dental treatment. A multidisciplinary team caring for the child is necessary to achieve successful outcomes. Aided augmentative communication is a promising adjunct for the care of the child with communication impairment, and may be of particular value in pediatric dental practices where the staff are able to practice and master its use for selected child patients. PMID:11340725

Darwis, W E; Messer, L B

2001-01-01

295

The protective effect of brachial plexus palsy in purpura fulminans.  

PubMed

Acute infectious purpura fulminans is reported in a 16-month-old male with a history of posttraumatic asplenia and complete left brachial plexus palsy. This patient developed peripheral necrosis of both lower extremities and the right upper extremity, whereas the left upper extremity was completely spared from ischemia and tissue damage. Amputation of four digits on the right hand and debridement of both lower extremities were required. This patient demonstrated the protective effect of a traumatic sympathectomy, which suggests the requirement of an intact sympathetic reflex in the development of purpura fulminans. PMID:11516614

Willis, T M; Hopp, R J; Romero, J R; Larsen, P D

2001-05-01

296

Massive psoas haematoma causing lumbar plexus palsy: a case report.  

PubMed

An 84-year-old man who was receiving oral anticoagulation therapy presented with complete lumbar plexus palsy caused by a massive psoas haematoma. Conservative treatment rather than drainage of the haematoma was undertaken, because of the risk of bleeding complications and mortality. At the one-year follow-up, the patient had no clinical signs of neurological recovery. The patient died 2 months later due to his concurrent medical problems. A high degree of suspicion is needed for the diagnosis because of the insidiously developing neurological deficit. PMID:22535820

Conesa, Xavier; Ares, Oscar; Seijas, Roberto

2012-04-01

297

Feeding children with cerebral palsy and swallowing difficulties.  

PubMed

Children with cerebral palsy (CP) are at risk for aspiration with oral feeding with potential pulmonary consequences, and commonly have reduced nutrition/hydration status and prolonged stressful meal times. There is considerable variability in the nature and severity of swallowing problems in these children whose needs change over time. Children with generalized severe motor impairment (for example, spastic quadriplegia) are likely to experience greater swallowing deficits than those with diplegia, but oropharyngeal dysphagia is prevalent even in children with mild CP. This review is focused on dysphagia in children with CP: types of deficits, clinical and instrumental evaluation, management decision making and evidence of effectiveness of interventions. PMID:24301008

Arvedson, J C

2013-12-01

298

Superior Mesenteric Artery Syndrome in a Patient with Cerebral Palsy  

PubMed Central

Superior mesenteric artery syndrome involves compression of the third part of the duodenum due to narrowing of the area between the aorta and the superior mesenteric artery (SMA). We will describe the case of a 34-year-old with cerebral palsy who presented with abdominal pain, nausea, vomiting, and weight loss and was diagnosed with SMA syndrome via CT-imaging. With failure of conservative measures, our patient underwent a duodenojejunostomy after which improvement in her weight as well as relief of her abdominal symptoms was noted. Given the rarity of this syndrome, physicians need to keep a high index of suspicion in order to prevent the damaging consequences. PMID:25053950

Neuman, Adi; Desai, Bhavita; Glass, Daniel; Diab, Wassim

2014-01-01

299

Incidence and management of diaphragmatic palsy in patients after cardiac surgery  

PubMed Central

Background: Diaphragm is the most important part of the respiratory system. Diaphragmatic palsy following cardiac surgery is not uncommon and can cause deterioration of pulmonary functions and attendant pulmonary complications. Objectives: Aim of this study was to observe the incidence of diaphragmatic palsy after off pump coronary artery bypass grafting (OPCAB) as compared to conventional CABG and to assess the efficacy of chest physiotherapy on diaphragmatic palsy in post cardiac surgical patients. Design and Setting: An observational prospective interventional study done at a tertiary care cardiac centre. Patients: 2280 consecutive adult patients who underwent cardiac surgery from February 2005 to august 2005. Results: 30 patients out of 2280 (1.31%) developed diaphragmatic palsy. Patients were divided based on the presence or absence of symptoms viz. breathlessness at rest or exertion or with the change of posture along with hypoxemia and / or hypercapnia. Group I included 14 patients who were symptomatic (CABG n=13, post valve surgery n=1), While Group II included 16 asymptomatic patients (CABG n=12, post valve surgery n=4), 9 patients (64%) from Group I (n=14) and 4 patients (25%) from group II showed complete recovery from diaphragmatic palsy as demonstrated ultrasonographically. Conclusion: The incidence of diaphragmatic palsy was remarkably less in our adult cardiac surgical patients because most of the cardiac surgeries were performed off pump and intensive chest physiotherapy beginning shortly after extubation helped in complete or near complete recovery of diaphragmatic palsy. Chest Physiotherapy led to marked improvement in functional outcome following post cardiac surgery diaphragmatic palsy. We also conclude that ultrasonography is a simple valuable bed-side tool for rapid diagnosis of diaphragmatic palsy PMID:19742255

Mehta, Yatin; Vats, Mayank; Singh, Ajmer; Trehan, Naresh

2008-01-01

300

Chinese scalp acupuncture for cerebral palsy in a child diagnosed with stroke in utero.  

PubMed

A 6-year-old patient with cerebral palsy was treated with Chinese scalp acupuncture. The Speech I, Speech II, Motor, Foot motor and sensory, and Balance areas were stimulated once a week, then every other week for 15 sessions. His dysarthria, ataxia, and weakness of legs, arms, and hands showed significant improvement from each scalp acupuncture treatment, and after 15 sessions, the patient had recovered completely. This case report demonstrates that Chinese scalp acupuncture can satisfactorily treat a child with cerebral palsy. More research and clinical trials are needed so that the potential of scalp acupuncture to treat cerebral palsy can be fully explored and utilized. PMID:24278796

Hao, Jason Jishun; Zhongren, Sun; Xian, Shi; Tiansong, Yang

2012-03-01

301

Iatrogenic Cushing Syndrome to Facial Nerve Palsy: Via Intracranial Tuberculoma-An Interesting Journey  

PubMed Central

Isolated Facial nerve palsy is a less common neurological manifestation of intracranial tuberculoma. Again, tuberculoma can arise following development of Cushing syndrome after prolonged intake of steroids due to origin of immunosuppressed state. Thus exogenous steroid administration leading to iatrogenic Cushing Syndrome which again causing tuberculoma, with facial nerve palsy developing as a manifestation of tuberculoma is not unnatural but definitely a unique scenario. The author reports an interesting case where a patient developed left sided facial palsy following development of intracranial tuberculoma from iatrogenic Cushing syndrome after longterm intake of Dexamethasone as a treatment for low back pain. This situation is rarely reported before. PMID:25653980

2014-01-01

302

Venous anastomotic circle, multiple varices and oculomotor palsy--a rare coincidence.  

PubMed

Oculomotor nerve palsy due to a venous varix arising from flow anomalies caused by a dural arteriovenous fistula (AVF) is a rare phenomenon. We report a case of surgical third nerve palsy with a rare underlying AVF as the cause and discuss in detail the patho-anatomy and its significance. A tentorial dural AVF mimicking the arterial circle was found with multiple varix formation causing compressive oculomotor palsy. This was treated successfully with Onyx™ injection with a satisfactory angiographic result and complete resolution of symptoms. PMID:20927560

Mukerji, Nitin; Cahill, Julian; Tzerakis, Nikolaos; Nath, Fred P; Dervin, James E

2010-12-01

303

Aetiology of Kienböck's disease based on a study of the condition among patients with cerebral palsy.  

PubMed

Examination of 110 patients with cerebral palsy revealed a diagnosis of Kienböck's disease in six wrists in five cases. All had cerebral palsy of the mixed type with athetosis and high muscle tone. It is considered that the increased prevalence of Kienböck's disease in these cases was attributable to repeated minor trauma to the lunate from childhood due to high muscle tone across the wrist joint, together with negative ulnar variance. The high prevalence of Kienböck's disease observed in patients with cerebral palsy strongly suggests that repeated minor trauma together with negative ulnar variance is also the cause of Kienböck's disease in normal individuals. PMID:8345252

Joji, S; Mizuseki, T; Katayama, S; Tsuge, K; Ikuta, Y

1993-06-01

304

Iatrogenic cushing syndrome to facial nerve palsy: via intracranial tuberculoma-an interesting journey.  

PubMed

Isolated Facial nerve palsy is a less common neurological manifestation of intracranial tuberculoma. Again, tuberculoma can arise following development of Cushing syndrome after prolonged intake of steroids due to origin of immunosuppressed state. Thus exogenous steroid administration leading to iatrogenic Cushing Syndrome which again causing tuberculoma, with facial nerve palsy developing as a manifestation of tuberculoma is not unnatural but definitely a unique scenario. The author reports an interesting case where a patient developed left sided facial palsy following development of intracranial tuberculoma from iatrogenic Cushing syndrome after longterm intake of Dexamethasone as a treatment for low back pain. This situation is rarely reported before. PMID:25653980

Chakrabarti, Subrata

2014-12-01

305

Median nerve to biceps nerve transfer to restore elbow flexion in obstetric brachial plexus palsy.  

PubMed

Median nerve to biceps nerve transfer in the arm has been reported only in adults. The following paper reports on 10 cases of this transfer in obstetric brachial plexus palsy. All patients had upper palsy (ERb's or extended ERb's palsy) and presented to the author late (13-19 months of age) with poor or no recovery of elbow flexion. Following the nerve transfer, nine children recovered elbow flexion (a score of 6 in one child and a score of 7 in eight children by the Toronto scale). The remaining child did not recover elbow flexion. PMID:24511548

Al-Qattan, M M; Al-Kharfy, T M

2014-01-01

306

Median Nerve to Biceps Nerve Transfer to Restore Elbow Flexion in Obstetric Brachial Plexus Palsy  

PubMed Central

Median nerve to biceps nerve transfer in the arm has been reported only in adults. The following paper reports on 10 cases of this transfer in obstetric brachial plexus palsy. All patients had upper palsy (ERb's or extended ERb's palsy) and presented to the author late (13–19 months of age) with poor or no recovery of elbow flexion. Following the nerve transfer, nine children recovered elbow flexion (a score of 6 in one child and a score of 7 in eight children by the Toronto scale). The remaining child did not recover elbow flexion. PMID:24511548

Al-Qattan, M. M.; Al-Kharfy, T. M.

2014-01-01

307

Surgical correction of equinus deformity in children with cerebral palsy: a systematic review  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose  Equinus is the most common deformity in cerebral palsy. However, despite the large volume of published studies, there are\\u000a poor levels of evidence to support surgical intervention. This study was undertaken to examine the current evidence base for\\u000a the surgical management of equinus deformity in cerebral palsy.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Methods  A systematic review of the literature using “equinus deformity”, “cerebral palsy” and “orthopaedic

Benjamin J. Shore; Nathan White; H. Kerr Graham

2010-01-01

308

Bell's palsy; prognostic accuracy of case history, sialometry and taste impairment.  

PubMed

A prognostic test in cases of Bell's palsy must be accurate and applicable early in the course of the disease. The case history is examined in 239 patients with Bell's palsy. The prognostic value of the case history, taste impairment and sialometry is investigated in a series of untreated patients who were followed up for 12 months. Sialometry is advocated as a reliable progostic indicator in the individual patient if a strong stimulant is used. None of the other examined parameters discrimates between good and poor outcome with reasonable accuracy. A follow-up time of 12 months is advocated in determining the ultimate outcome of a Bell's palsy. PMID:466842

Ekstrand, T

1979-06-01

309

People With Cerebral Palsy: Effects of and Perspectives for Therapy  

PubMed Central

The movement disorder of cerebral palsy (CP) is expressed in a variety of ways and to varying degrees in each individual. The condition has become more complex over the last 20 years with the increasing survival of children born at less than 28 to 30 weeks gestationai age. Impairments present in children with CP as a direct result of the brain injury or occurring indirectly to compensate for underlying problems include abnormal muscle tone; weakness and lack of fitness; limited variety of muscle synergies; contracture and altered biomechanics, the net result being limited functional ability. Other contributors to the motor disorder include sensory, cognitive and perceptual impairments. In recent years understanding of the motor problem has increased, but less is known about effects of therapy. Evidence suggests that therapy can improve functional possibilities for children with cerebral palsy but is inconclusive as to which approach might be most beneficial. The therapist requires an understanding of the interaction of all systems, cognitive/perceptual, motor, musculoskeletal, sensory and behavioral, in the context of the development and plasticity of the CNS. It is necessary to understand the limitations of the damaged immature nervous system, but important to optimize the child's functional possibilities. PMID:11530888

Mayston, Margaret J.

2001-01-01

310

Occipital condyle fracture with isolated unilateral hypoglossal nerve palsy.  

PubMed

Occipital condyle fractures (OCFs) with selective involvement of the hypoglossal canal are rare. OCFs usually occur after major trauma and combine multiple fractures. We describe a 38-year-old man who presented with neck pain and a tongue deviation to the right side after a traffic accident. Severe limitations were detected during active and passive range of neck motion in all directions. A physical examination revealed a normal gag reflex and normal mobility of the palate, larynx, and shoulder girdle. He had normal taste and general sensation in his tongue. However, he presented with a tongue deviation to the right side on protrusion. A videofluoroscopic swallowing study revealed piecemeal deglutition due to decreased tongue mobility but no aspiration of food. Plain X-ray film findings were negative, but a computed tomography study with coronal reconstruction demonstrated a right OCF involving the hypoglossal canal. An electrodiagnostic study revealed evidence of right hypoglossal nerve palsy. We report a rare case of isolated hypoglossal nerve palsy caused by an OCF. PMID:25379499

Yoon, Jin Won; Lim, Oh Kyung; Park, Ki Deok; Lee, Ju Kang

2014-10-01

311

Bell's Palsy: Symptoms Preceding and Accompanying the Facial Paresis  

PubMed Central

This individual prospective cohort study aims to report and analyze the symptoms preceding and accompanying the facial paresis in Bell's palsy (BP). Two hundred sixty-nine patients affected by BP with a maximum delay of 48 hours from the onset were enrolled in the study. The evolution of the facial paresis expressed as House-Brackmann grade in the first 10 days and its correlation with symptoms were analyzed. At the onset, 136 patients presented postauricular pain, 114 were affected by dry eye, and 94 reported dysgeusia. Dry mouth was present in 54 patients (19.7%), facial pain, hyperlacrimation, aural fullness, and hyperacusis represented a smaller percentage of the reported symptoms. After 10 days, 39.9% of the group had a severe paresis while 10.2% reached a complete recovery. Dry mouth at the onset was correlated with severe grade of palsy and was prognostic for poor recovery in the early period. These outcomes lead to the deduction that the nervus intermedius plays an important role in the presentation of the BP and it might be responsible for most of the accompanying symptomatology of the paresis. Our findings could be of important interest to early address a BP patient to further examinations and subsequent therapy. PMID:25544960

Mancini, Patrizia; Minni, Antonio; Prosperini, Luca; De Seta, Elio; Attanasio, Giuseppe; Covelli, Edoardo; De Carlo, Andrea; Filipo, Roberto

2014-01-01

312

Occipital Condyle Fracture With Isolated Unilateral Hypoglossal Nerve Palsy  

PubMed Central

Occipital condyle fractures (OCFs) with selective involvement of the hypoglossal canal are rare. OCFs usually occur after major trauma and combine multiple fractures. We describe a 38-year-old man who presented with neck pain and a tongue deviation to the right side after a traffic accident. Severe limitations were detected during active and passive range of neck motion in all directions. A physical examination revealed a normal gag reflex and normal mobility of the palate, larynx, and shoulder girdle. He had normal taste and general sensation in his tongue. However, he presented with a tongue deviation to the right side on protrusion. A videofluoroscopic swallowing study revealed piecemeal deglutition due to decreased tongue mobility but no aspiration of food. Plain X-ray film findings were negative, but a computed tomography study with coronal reconstruction demonstrated a right OCF involving the hypoglossal canal. An electrodiagnostic study revealed evidence of right hypoglossal nerve palsy. We report a rare case of isolated hypoglossal nerve palsy caused by an OCF. PMID:25379499

Yoon, Jin Won; Lim, Oh Kyung; Park, Ki Deok

2014-01-01

313

Acute vocal fold palsy after acute disulfiram intoxication.  

PubMed

Acute peripheral neuropathy caused by a disulfiram overdose is very rare and there is no report of it leading to vocal fold palsy. A 49-year-old woman was transferred to our department because of quadriparesis, lancinating pain, sensory loss, and paresthesia of the distal limbs. One month previously, she had taken a single high dose of disulfiram (130 tablets of ALCOHOL STOP TAB, Shin-Poong Pharm. Co., Ansan, Korea) in a suicide attempt. She was not an alcoholic. For the first few days after ingestion, she was in a confused state and had mild to moderate ataxia and giddiness. She noticed hoarseness and distally accentuated motor and sensory dysfunction after she had recovered from this state. A nerve conduction study was consistent with severe sensorimotor axonal polyneuropathy. Laryngeal electromyography (thyroarytenoid muscle) showed ample denervation potentials. Laryngoscopy revealed asymmetric vocal fold movements during phonation. Her vocal change and weakness began to improve spontaneously about 3 weeks after transfer. This was a case of acute palsy of the recurrent laryngeal nerve and superimposed severe acute sensorimotor axonal polyneuropathy caused by high-dose disulfiram intoxication. PMID:18023325

Bae, Jong Seok

2009-01-01

314

Seat surface inclination may affect postural stability during Boccia ball throwing in children with cerebral palsy.  

PubMed

The aim of the study was to examine how seat surface inclination affects Boccia ball throwing movement and postural stability among children with cerebral palsy (CP). Twelve children with bilateral spastic CP (3 with gross motor function classification system Level I, 5 with Level II, and 4 with Level III) participated in this study. All participants underwent pediatric reach tests and ball throwing performance analyses while seated on 15° anterior- or posterior-inclined, and horizontal surfaces. An electromagnetic motion analysis system was synchronized with a force plate to assess throwing motion and postural stability. The results of the pediatric reach test (p = 0.026), the amplitude of elbow movement (p = 0.036), peak vertical ground reaction force (PVGRF) (p < 0.001), and movement range of the center of pressure (COP) (p < 0.020) were significantly affected by seat inclination during throwing. Post hoc comparisons showed that anterior inclination allowed greater amplitude of elbow movement and PVGRF, and less COP movement range compared with the other inclines. Posterior inclination yielded less reaching distance and PVGRF, and greater COP movement range compared with the other inclines. The anterior-inclined seat yielded superior postural stability for throwing Boccia balls among children with bilateral spastic CP, whereas the posterior-inclined seat caused difficulty. PMID:25241116

Tsai, Yung-Shen; Yu, Yi-Chen; Huang, Po-Chang; Cheng, Hsin-Yi Kathy

2014-12-01

315

Identification and description of environmental factors that influence participation of children with cerebral palsy.  

PubMed

Physical, social, and attitudinal environment may restrict participation in children with cerebral palsy (CP). Here we discuss existing/possible approaches in order to identify and describe this environment. We used a critical review of evidence from the World Health Organization Literature Review on Environmental Factors; a search of electronic databases; and talked to specialists in order to find unpublished papers and 'grey' literature. Both children with disabilities and their parents identified a range of barrier and facilitator factors. These included psychosocial pressures (family, school), financial difficulties, and inadequate public services. Observational studies suggest that building structure, loss of income, and provision of specific equipment have a direct impact on levels of child participation. Some available instruments attempt to capture environmental factors by client survey or objective measurement; most relate to adult contexts, but there are a few child-specific instruments for surveying attitudes of children to peers with disabilities and for observation of the school environment. Defining and measuring potential environmental determinants of participation for children with CP needs further development; and here we propose how this might be done. PMID:15132259

Mihaylov, Svetozar I; Jarvis, Stephen N; Colver, Allan F; Beresford, Bryony

2004-05-01

316

Arterial Structure and Function in Ambulatory Adolescents with Cerebral Palsy Are Not Different from Healthy Controls  

PubMed Central

Physical inactivity in youth with cerebral palsy (CP) places them at increased risk of developing cardiovascular disease. The current study assessed indices of arterial health in adolescents with CP, classified as levels I-II of the Gross Motor Function Classification System (GMFCS) (n = 11, age 13.2 ± 2.1?yr), in comparison to age- and sex-matched controls (n = 11, age 12.4 ± 2.3?yr). Groups were similar in anthropometric measurements, resting blood pressures, and heart rates. There were no group differences in brachial flow-mediated dilation (11.1 ± 7.8 versus 6.1 ± 3.6), carotid intima-media thickness (0.42 ± 0.04 versus 0.41 ± 0.03?mm), and distensibility (0.008 ± 0.002 versus 0.008 ± 0.002?mmHg) or central (4.3 ± 0.6 versus 4.1 ± 0.9?m/s) and peripheral pulse wave velocity (7.1 ± 1.7 versus 7.6 ± 1.1?m/s); CP versus healthy controls, respectively. Vigorous intensity physical activity (PA) was lower in the CP group (CP: 38 ± 80?min versus controls: 196 ± 174?min); groups were similar in light and moderate intensity PA levels. Arterial health of ambulatory youth with CP is not different from a control group despite lower vigorous PA levels. Similar studies need to examine individuals with more pronounced mobility limitations (GMFCS level III–V). PMID:22778755

Martin, Audra A.; Cotie, Lisa M.; Timmons, Brian W.; Gorter, Jan Willem; MacDonald, Maureen J.

2012-01-01

317

Perioperative complications of orthopedic surgery for lower extremity in patients with cerebral palsy.  

PubMed

Because complications are more common in patients with cerebral palsy (CP), surgeons and anesthesiologists must be aware of perioperative morbidity and be prepared to recognize and treat perioperative complications. This study aimed to determine the incidence of and risk factors for perioperative complications of orthopedic surgery on the lower extremities in patients with CP. We reviewed the medical records of consecutive CP patients undergoing orthopedic surgery. Medical history, anesthesia emergence time, intraoperative body temperature, heart rate, blood pressure, immediate postoperative complications, Gross Motor Function Classification System (GMFCS) level, Cormack-Lehane classification, and American Society of Anesthesiologists physical status classification were analyzed. A total of 868 patients was included. Mean age at first surgery was 11.8 (7.6) yr. The incidences of intraoperative hypothermia, absolute hypotension, and absolute bradycardia were 26.2%, 4.4%, and 20.0%, respectively. Twenty (2.3%) patients had major complications, and 35 (4.0%) patients had minor complications postoperatively. The incidences of intraoperative hypothermia, absolute hypotension, and major postoperative complications were significantly higher in patients at GMFCS levels IV and V compared with patients at GMFCS levels I to III (P<0.001). History of pneumonia was associated with intraoperative absolute hypotension and major postoperative complications (P<0.001). These results revealed that GMFCS level, patient age, hip reconstructive surgery, and history of pneumonia are associated with adverse effects on intraoperative body temperature, the cardiovascular system, and immediate postoperative complications. PMID:25829819

Lee, Seung Yeol; Sohn, Hye-Min; Chung, Chin Youb; Do, Sang-Hwan; Lee, Kyoung Min; Kwon, Soon-Sun; Sung, Ki Hyuk; Lee, Sun Hyung; Park, Moon Seok

2015-04-01

318

Perioperative Complications of Orthopedic Surgery for Lower Extremity in Patients with Cerebral Palsy  

PubMed Central

Because complications are more common in patients with cerebral palsy (CP), surgeons and anesthesiologists must be aware of perioperative morbidity and be prepared to recognize and treat perioperative complications. This study aimed to determine the incidence of and risk factors for perioperative complications of orthopedic surgery on the lower extremities in patients with CP. We reviewed the medical records of consecutive CP patients undergoing orthopedic surgery. Medical history, anesthesia emergence time, intraoperative body temperature, heart rate, blood pressure, immediate postoperative complications, Gross Motor Function Classification System (GMFCS) level, Cormack-Lehane classification, and American Society of Anesthesiologists physical status classification were analyzed. A total of 868 patients was included. Mean age at first surgery was 11.8 (7.6) yr. The incidences of intraoperative hypothermia, absolute hypotension, and absolute bradycardia were 26.2%, 4.4%, and 20.0%, respectively. Twenty (2.3%) patients had major complications, and 35 (4.0%) patients had minor complications postoperatively. The incidences of intraoperative hypothermia, absolute hypotension, and major postoperative complications were significantly higher in patients at GMFCS levels IV and V compared with patients at GMFCS levels I to III (P<0.001). History of pneumonia was associated with intraoperative absolute hypotension and major postoperative complications (P<0.001). These results revealed that GMFCS level, patient age, hip reconstructive surgery, and history of pneumonia are associated with adverse effects on intraoperative body temperature, the cardiovascular system, and immediate postoperative complications.

2015-01-01

319

Effect of radial shock wave therapy on muscle spasticity in children with cerebral palsy.  

PubMed

Extracorporeal shock wave therapy is a treatment of choice in patients with musculoskeletal disorders. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of radial shock wave therapy (RSWT) on muscle spasticity of plantar flexor muscles in children with cerebral palsy. This was an open, controlled, observational study with one placebo treatment session, followed 4 weeks later by one active treatment session. Procedures and measurements were performed on inpatients of the Physical and Rehabilitation department of the Medical University Hospital, Plovdiv, Bulgaria. Twenty-five children, mean age 4.84±3.11 years, with spastic diplegia and hemiplegia participated in the study. They received a single session of RSWT to the plantar flexors of the foot. The following clinical methods were used for outcome assessment before, after, and 2 and 4 weeks later: passive range of motion, Modified Ashworth Scale. Baropodometric measurements were performed before and after the placebo and active session. After placebo application, no changes measured by clinical or instrumental methods were found. After RSWT, a significant increase in passive range of motion was observed: 47.00±2.29° versus 33.25±2.20° (P<0.001), which persisted at the second (46.87±2.08°, P<0.001) and fourth week (44.12±1.93°, P<0.001) after treatment. The Modified Ashworth Scale score decreased from 2.77 to 2.00 points (P<0.001), which persisted at the second (mean 2.05±0.07 points, P<0.001) and fourth week (2.15±0.76 points, P<0.001) after treatment. Baropodometric measurement showed a significant increase in the contact plantar surface area of the affected foot (from 81.32±6.14 to 101.58±5.41 cm, P<0.001) and in heel pressure (from 50.47±6.61 to 75.17±3.42 N/cm, P<0.001). There is a significant reduction in the spasticity of plantar flexor muscles in children with cerebral palsy after a single session of RSWT and this improvement remains at the 4-week follow-up. PMID:23603803

Gonkova, Mariya I; Ilieva, Elena M; Ferriero, Giorgio; Chavdarov, Ivan

2013-09-01

320

The Evaluation and Cultivation of Spatial and Linguistic Abilities in Individuals with Cerebral Palsy  

E-print Network

The work of the Cerebral Palsy project (members: Seymour Papert, Sylvia Weir, Jose Valente and Gary Drescher) over the past eighteen months is summarized, and the next phase of activity is outlined. The issues to be ...

Weir, Sylvia

1979-10-01

321

The relationship between gross motor function and manual ability in cerebral palsy.  

PubMed

A retrospective cohort study was conducted to describe the relationship between gross motor function and manual ability in children with cerebral palsy and explore differences between cerebral palsy subtypes and associated comorbidities. Children with cerebral palsy born between 1999 and 2008 were included from the Registre de la Paralyse Cérébrale de Québec identifying 332 children. The overall agreement between Gross Motor Function Classification System and Manual Ability Classification Scale Levels was moderate (kappa 0.457, standard error 0.034) with a strong positive correlation (Spearman rho of 0.820, standard error 0.023). This agreement was moderate among children with spastic quadriparesis and dysketic cerebral palsy, fair in children with spastic diplegia, and poor in children with spastic hemiplegia. Children with cognitive impairment showed a higher correlation than those without cognitive impairment. The correlation between gross motor function and manual ability in children with CP varies based on neurologic subtype and cognitive level. PMID:23112248

Oskoui, Maryam; Majnemer, Annette; Dagenais, Lynn; Shevell, Michael I

2013-12-01

322

Spinal cord injury secondary to cervical disc herniation in ambulatory patients with cerebral palsy.  

PubMed

Early onset of degeneration of the cervical spine and instability due to sustained abnormal tonicity or abnormal movement of the neck are found in patients with cerebral palsy. An unexplained change or deterioration of neurological function in patients with cerebral palsy should merit the consideration of the possibility of cervical myelopathy due to early degeneration or instability of the cervical spine. We describe two patients who had a spinal cord injury due to a cervical disc herniation, one patient was athetoid and the second had spastic diplegia, they both had cerebral palsy. It is not easy to determine whether new neurological symptoms are as a result of the cervical spinal cord disorder. These cases suggest that consideration of a cervical spine disorder with myelopathy is required in the evaluation of patients with cerebral palsy who develop deterioration of neurological function or activities over a short period of time. PMID:9589531

Ko, H Y; Park-Ko, I

1998-04-01

323

Reading, 'Righting', and Arithmetic for the Cerebral Palsied Child: A Therapeutic Approach for the Classroom Teacher.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The article offers management strategies to help teachers of elementary students with cerebral palsy. Suggestions address aspects of neuro-developmental and sensorimotor integration and describe such activities as sandbox writing, feel-it boxes, and painting. (CL)

Dupont, Blanche B.; Tucker, Susan L.

1985-01-01

324

Swimming and the physical, social and emotional well-being of youth with cerebral palsy   

E-print Network

Cerebral palsy is the most common motor disability in childhood. The disorders of movement and posture are characterised by abnormal patterns of movement related to defective movement coordination and regulation of muscle ...

Declerck, Marlies Hilde Philip

2014-07-04

325

Management of motor problems in cerebral palsy: A critical update for the clinician  

Microsoft Academic Search

Currently there is no specific treatment for the brain insults leading to motor dysfunction in cerebral palsy. The available symptomatic therapeutic options place cerebral palsy among the costliest chronic childhood conditions. Therefore, it is necessary to make well-informed decisions in an effort to match cost-effectiveness with patient and family needs.This presentation aims to analyze the efficacy of rehabilitation therapy, orthoses,

Antigone S. Papavasiliou

2009-01-01

326

Association of Bell's Palsy with Hepatitis E Virus Infection: A Rare Entity  

PubMed Central

Hepatitis E virus (HEV) infection is a common cause of acute hepatitis in India and other developing countries. The data regarding the neurologic manifestation of HEV infection are limited. The neurologic disorders including Guillain–Barré syndrome, polyradiculopathy, neuralgic amyotrophy, encephalitis, bilateral brachial neuritis, ataxia/proximal myopathy, and acute transverse myelitis have been described. Bell's palsy and other cranial nerve involvement in hepatitis A virus (HAV) and HEV infection are rare. We present the second case of Bell's palsy associated with HEV.

Jha, Ashish K; Nijhawan, Sandeep; Nepalia, Subhash; Suchismita, Arya

2012-01-01

327

Different Tau Pathology Pattern in Two Clinical Phenotypes of Progressive Supranuclear Palsy  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: The clinical and pathological heterogeneity of progressive supranuclear palsy (PSP) is well established. Recent clinicopathological studies showed much more severe and more widespread tau pathology in Richardson’s syndrome (RS), clinically manifest by early onset, falls, supranuclear gaze palsy, dementia and shorter disease duration than in atypical PSP-parkinsonism (PSP-P) often mimicking Parkinson’s disease, in which tau pathology is relatively restricted

Kurt A. Jellinger

2008-01-01

328

A systematic review of the effectiveness of strength-training programs for people with cerebral palsy  

Microsoft Academic Search

Dodd KJ, Taylor NF, Damiano DL. A systematic review of the effectiveness of strength-training programs for people with cerebral palsy. Arch Phys Med Rehabil 2002;83:1157-64. Objective: To determine whether strength training is beneficial for people with cerebral palsy (CP). Data Sources: We used electronic databases to find trials conducted from 1966 though 2000; key words used in our search were

Karen J. Dodd; Nicholas F. Taylor; Diane L. Damiano

2002-01-01

329

Potentially asphyxiating conditions and spastic cerebral palsy in infants of normal birth weight  

Microsoft Academic Search

OBJECTIVE: Our purpose was to examine the association of cerebral palsy with conditions that can interrupt oxygen supply to the fetus as a primary pathogenetic event.STUDY DESIGN: A population-based case-control study was performed in four California counties, 1983 through 1985, comparing birth records of 46 children with disabling spastic cerebral palsy without recognized prenatal brain lesions and 378 randomly selected

Karin B. Nelson; Judith K. Grether

1998-01-01

330

Mechanical work performed by the legs of children with spastic diplegic cerebral palsy  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of this investigation was to evaluate the work performed on the center of mass by the legs of children with cerebral palsy. 10 children that were diagnosed as having cerebral palsy with spastic diplegia (Age=9.1±2 years), and 10 healthy children with no walking disabilities participated (Age=9.4±2 years). We collected individual leg ground reaction forces from four force platforms,

Max J. Kurz; Wayne A. Stuberg; Stacey L. DeJong

2010-01-01

331

Pain, Fatigue, and School Functioning in Children with Cerebral Palsy: A Path-Analytic Model  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective This study tests a model of how pain and fatigue, independently or in combination, relate to school functioning in pediatric cerebral palsy (CP). Methods One hundred eighty-nine parents of children with CP completed the Pediatric Quality of Life Inventory™ (PedsQL™) 4.0 Generic Core Scales and the PedsQL™ 3.0 Cerebral Palsy Module. Seventy-three children with CP completed the PedsQL™. Path-analytic

Susan J. Berrin; Vanessa L. Malcarne; James W. Varni; Tasha M. Burwinkle; Sandra A. Sherman; Kanela Artavia; Henry G. Chambers

2007-01-01

332

Compartment Syndrome After Serial Casting in Spastic Diplegic Cerebral Palsy: A Case Report  

Microsoft Academic Search

Muchow RD, Flannery WD, Miedaner JA, Noonan KJ, McCarthy JJ. Compartment syndrome after serial casting in spastic diplegic cerebral palsy: a case report.We present the case of a 24-year-old woman with spastic diplegic cerebral palsy who developed left lower extremity compartment syndrome after serial casting to treat an equinus contracture. To our knowledge, this represents the first case of compartment

Ryan D. Muchow; Walker D. Flannery; James A. Miedaner; Kenneth J. Noonan; James J. McCarthy

2010-01-01

333

Recurrent isolated sixth nerve palsy after consecutive annual influenza vaccinations in a child.  

PubMed

Recurrent sixth nerve palsy in children in the absence of structural or other neurological abnormality is a rare occurrence. We report the case of recurrent isolated sixth (abducens) nerve palsy after consecutive annual influenza vaccinations in an otherwise-healthy 2-year-old boy. Investigations including magnetic resonance imaging of the brain and orbits after each episode failed to reveal any abnormality. The temporal relation to the immunizations supports but does not prove that the influenza immunization regimen was responsible. PMID:19285888

Leiderman, Yannek I; Lessell, Simmons; Cestari, Dean M

2009-06-01

334

Isolated III cranial nerve palsy: a surprising presentation of an acute on chronic subdural haematoma.  

PubMed

Many aetiologies have been associated with isolated oculomotor nerve palsies. They are ischaemic microangiopathy, posterior communicating artery aneurysm, uncal herniation, neoplasia, traumatic and inflammatory conditions. We report the case of a patient who presented with left oculomotor cranial nerve palsy with an associated large volume left acute on chronic subdural haematoma. Coincidentally, this woman was also found to have a recent history of herpes zoster ophthalmicus. PMID:23784767

Jalil, Muhammad Fahmi Abdul; Tee, Jin Wee; Han, Tiew

2013-01-01

335

Venous anastomotic circle, multiple varices and oculomotor palsy—a rare coincidence  

Microsoft Academic Search

Oculomotor nerve palsy due to a venous varix arising from flow anomalies caused by a dural arteriovenous fistula (AVF) is\\u000a a rare phenomenon. We report a case of surgical third nerve palsy with a rare underlying AVF as the cause and discuss in detail\\u000a the patho-anatomy and its significance. A tentorial dural AVF mimicking the arterial circle was found with

Nitin Mukerji; Julian Cahill; Nikolaos Tzerakis; Fred P. Nath; James E. Dervin

2010-01-01

336

Identifying barriers to occupational and physical therapy services for children with cerebral palsy.  

PubMed

Project Export/Cerebral Palsy Project was a three-year study funded by the National Institute of Health (1R24 MD000509-01) to investigate barriers to adequate and appropriate therapy services for children and adults with Cerebral Palsy who are living in the south metropolitan region of Chicago. This study examined barriers individuals with Cerebral Palsy (CP) and their families encounter when accessing Occupational Therapy (OT) and Physical Therapy (PT) services in the region. The study utilized a 3-tiered investigation system (survey, educational forum, and focus groups) that provided families and community therapists opportunities to identify barriers that impact access to evaluations and ongoing therapy services for individuals with Cerebral Palsy.The findings revealed a multitude of barriers identified by family and therapist participants. These barriers included, but are not limited to, financial resources, availability of therapists, convenient appointment times, and transportation issues. The educational forum and focus groups were effective in identifying knowledge gaps regarding Cerebral Palsy and strategies for accessing therapy in the region. Future plans include continuing collaborative initiatives for families and therapy providers. These include community educational forums that are accessible and provide relevant information, opportunities for networking, and advocacy information. The findings of the study will also be utilized to help occupational and physical therapists develop and implement alternative models of service delivery that provide greater access to therapy services for individuals with Cerebral Palsy. PMID:21791756

Cada, Elizabeth A; O'Shea, Roberta Kuchler

2008-01-01

337

CP or not CP? A review of diagnoses in a cerebral palsy register.  

PubMed

The purpose of this study was to document the inaccuracy rate of diagnosis of cerebral palsy recorded on the South Australian Cerebral Palsy Register. A total of 402 children born in South Australia from 1993 to 2002 and notified to the Register as having cerebral palsy were identified through the Register database, and 21 children (5.2%) were later identified to have a noncerebral palsy diagnosis. Of these, 5 had either a metabolic or a neurodegenerative disorder and 2 had a syndromic disorder (1 Joubert syndrome and 1 Sotos syndrome); the remaining 14 children had one of the following final diagnoses: developmental delay, gross motor delay, perinatal myositis, spinal subdural and subarachnoid arteriovenous malformation, and Erb's palsy. In 16 of 21 children (76%), the diagnosis was changed at 5 years of age or older. Studies based on population registers may need to take into account the possibility of misclassification, estimated to be at least 5.2% in this study. A complete clinical assessment at the time of diagnosis followed by regular reassessment would enable the clinician to exclude children with alternative diagnoses, which has important implications for clinical management and research based on cerebral palsy registers. PMID:20159426

Zarrinkalam, Rosa; Russo, Remo N; Gibson, Catherine S; van Essen, Phillipa; Peek, Ann K; Haan, Eric A

2010-03-01

338

Age Specificity in General and Rehabilitation Medical Services in Children With Cerebral Palsy  

PubMed Central

Objective To review the medical utilization in children with cerebral palsy according to age and discern particularities Methods From January 2007 to December 2007, 10,659 children and adolescents between 1 and 18 years of age who had filed national insurance claims for a diagnosis of cerebral palsy were selected. Age was chosen as an independent variable, and the population was categorized into specific age groups to verify any differences in medical service utilization. Admission duration to rehabilitation, number of visits to rehabilitation outpatient clinics, numbers of admission dates and outpatient clinic visits for general medical services, number of rehabilitation utilizations, and type of rehabilitations treatment were selected as dependent variables. One-way ANOVA was used for statistical evaluation, and analysis was done with SAS software. Results In general medical use, adolescences diagnosed with cerebral palsy had the highest mean admission duration (p<0.001). The mean visit day to outpatient clinics for general medical services was highest for infants (p<0.001). In rehabilitation treatment, infants diagnosed with cerebral palsy had the highest mean admission duration (p<0.001). The mean visit day to outpatient clinics for rehabilitation treatment was highest for infants (p<0.001). Conclusion Significant differences in use of general and rehabilitation medical services among pediatric age groups with cerebral palsy were evident. This implies that particular attention is necessary when setting up a national medical care policy for patient with cerebral palsy. PMID:25566477

Kim, Dong-A; Hong, Hyun-Sook; Lee, Hee-Yeon; Lee, Hye-Sun

2014-01-01

339

A Clinical Study of Autologous Bone Marrow Mononuclear Cells for Cerebral Palsy Patients: A New Frontier  

PubMed Central

Cerebral palsy is a nonprogressive heterogeneous group of neurological disorders with a growing rate of prevalence. Recently, cellular therapy is emerging as a potential novel treatment strategy for cerebral palsy. The various mechanisms by which cellular therapy works include neuroprotection, immunomodulation, neurorestoration, and neurogenesis. We conducted an open label, nonrandomized study on 40 cases of cerebral palsy with an aim of evaluating the benefit of cellular therapy in combination with rehabilitation. These cases were administered autologous bone marrow mononuclear cells intrathecally. The follow-up was carried out at 1 week, 3 months, and 6 months after the intervention. Adverse events of the treatment were also monitored in this duration. Overall, at six months, 95% of patients showed improvements. The study population was further divided into diplegic, quadriplegic, and miscellaneous group of cerebral palsy. On statistical analysis, a significant association was established between the symptomatic improvements and cell therapy in diplegic and quadriplegic cerebral palsy. PET-CT scan done in 6 patients showed metabolic improvements in areas of the brain correlating to clinical improvements. The results of this study demonstrate that cellular therapy may accelerate the development, reduce disability, and improve the quality of life of patients with cerebral palsy. PMID:25788947

Sharma, Alok; Sane, Hemangi; Gokulchandran, Nandini; Kulkarni, Pooja; Sundaram, Jyothi; Paranjape, Amruta; Shetty, Akshata; Bhagwanani, Khushboo; Biju, Hema; Badhe, Prerna

2015-01-01

340

Adolescents with cerebral palsy: transitioning to adult health care services.  

PubMed

Data from the 2009-2010 US National Survey of Children with Special Health Care Needs were examined to determine the health, developmental and behavioral status of adolescents with cerebral palsy (CP) and to assess how well pediatric health care providers were preparing them for transition to adult health care services. Adolescents with CP had no higher rates of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder, depression, anxiety, oppositional or conduct disorders, or autism spectrum than a comparison group. However, those with CP participated less in sports, clubs, or other organized activities (P < .001). Neither group reported much help in coordinating health services or preparing for transition to adult health care services. Inadequate adult health care services have a direct and unsatisfactory impact on the adult life span. Physicians and other health care providers who include adolescents with CP in their practices should begin discussion and planning for transition to adult health care early in adolescence. PMID:24275216

Blackman, James A; Conaway, Mark R

2014-04-01

341

Perceptual analysis of speech disorders in progressive supranuclear palsy.  

PubMed

We used oral motor examinations and quantitative perceptual speech analysis to study deviant speech dimensions in 44 patients with progressive supranuclear palsy (PSP). All patients had dysarthria with variable degrees of spasticity, hypokinesia, and ataxia; 28 patients had all three of these components, and 16 patients had only two components. Twenty-two patients (50%) had predominantly spastic components, 15 (34%) had predominantly hypokinetic components, six (14%) had predominantly ataxic components, and in one (2%) the spastic, hypokinetic, and ataxic components were equal. Stuttering occurred in nine patients (20%) and palilalia in five (11%). The finding of a mixed dysarthria with a combination of spastic, hypokinetic, and ataxic components might assist in diagnosis and is consistent with the widespread neuropathologic changes found in PSP. PMID:8451002

Kluin, K J; Foster, N L; Berent, S; Gilman, S

1993-03-01

342

Strabismus in cerebral palsy: when and why to operate.  

PubMed

Cerebral palsy (CP) is the most common physical disability in children. Orthoptists and ophthalmologists who care for children with CP know that strabismus is a common feature. This paper reviews the literature on strabismus in patients with CP, and then provides summary data and recommendations for management of these patients. The incidence of strabismus in patients with CP, especially in patients with spastic diplegia, is much higher than in neurologically normal children. Esotropia is the most common ocular misalignment. CP patients with strabismus benefit from nonsurgical treatment and should be treated promptly. Strabismus surgery should be considered in CP patients for psychosocial reasons as well as for potential successful ocular realignment and restoration of binocular vision. The literature is lacking in a long-term natural history study, prospective strabismus surgery studies, and long-term outcome studies of strabismus management in patients with CP. PMID:25313106

Collins, Mary Louise Z

2014-01-01

343

Radiographic studies of the wrist and elbow in cerebral palsy.  

PubMed

We retrospectively studied and evaluated radiographs of the bilateral wrists and elbows in 96 patients with cerebral palsy. There were 55 patients (57.3%) with athetospastic quadriplegia, 30 (31.3%) with spastic diplegia, and 11 (11.4%) with spastic hemiplegia. Plain antero-posterior and lateral roentgenograms were taken of both wrists and both elbows. Overall negative ulnar variance was seen in 18.2% of wrists, and, the variance was highest in athetospastic quadriplegia. We could not find any case of Kienböck's disease. The radiolunate angle was negative in the wrists of those with athetospastic quadriplegia. Scapholunate dissociation was found in 2 wrists (1%). Four dislocations of the radial head were found in 2 patients (2%). The humero-radial distance and humero-ulnar distance were both narrowed. The formation of osteophytes was mainly found in the humero-ulnar joint, especially in those with athetospastic quadriplegia. PMID:10982668

Nishioka, E; Yoshida, K; Yamanaka, K; Inoue, A

2000-01-01

344

Lack of trigemino-cervical reflexes in progressive supranuclear palsy.  

PubMed

Trigemino-cervical reflexes (TCRs) are multisynaptic neck muscle withdrawal responses that are clearly identifiable in humans. Mediated by neural circuits at brainstem level, these reflex responses have been found to be significantly impaired in patients with Parkinson's disease (PD), and it has been hypothesized that a degeneration of brainstem neural structures could play a role in these abnormalities. Because extensive neuronal degeneration at brainstem level has been demonstrated in progressive supranuclear palsy (PSP), in this pilot study we evaluated the TCR responses in 12 subjects with PSP, and in 16 healthy controls. The TCRs were absent in 11 out of the 12 PSP patients while clear responses were evoked in all the healthy subjects. These findings indicate that PSP patients are unable to react to the painful stimuli to the face, suggesting a generalized impairment of the brainstem circuits mediating TCRs. PMID:18561341

Bartolo, Michelangelo; Serrao, Mariano; Perrotta, Armando; Tassorelli, Cristina; Sandrini, Giorgio; Pierelli, Francesco

2008-07-30

345

Delayed diagnosed posterior interosseous nerve palsy due to intramuscular myxoma  

PubMed Central

We present a case of posterior interosseous nerve palsy after bowel surgery associated with intramuscular myxoma of the supinator muscle. The initial symptoms of swelling of the forearm made it difficult to distinguish the condition from extravasations after intravenous cannulation. The diagnosis was finally established with nerve conduction studies and MRI 3?months after symptom onset. The patient underwent surgery for removal of the tumour and decompression of the posterior interosseous nerve. The histological examination identified the tumour as intramuscular myxoma and the patient made a full recovery with no recurrence of the lesion until present. Every swelling on the forearm causing neurological disorders is tumour suspected and should be examined clinically as well as electrophysically and radiographically. Early surgery and nerve decompression should follow immediately after the diagnosis. In case of intramuscular myxoma, good recovery of function after surgery with low recurrence risk may be expected. PMID:23576649

Kursumovic, A; Mattiassich, G; Rath, S

2013-01-01

346

Gastrostomy feeding in cerebral palsy: a systematic review  

PubMed Central

Aims: To determine benefits and risks for gastrostomy or jejunostomy feeding compared with oral feeding for children with cerebral palsy. Methods: Systematic review. Search strategy: electronic databases—Cochrane Library, Medline, Embase, Cinahl, Lilacs, databases of theses, grey literature. Included: relevant systematic reviews, randomised controlled trials, observational studies, case reports. Excluded: non-systematic reviews and qualitative research. Participants: children with cerebral palsy. Intervention: use of gastrostomy or jejunostomy tube to provide nutrition. Outcome: evaluated outcome measures included death, growth, gastro-oesophageal reflux, other complications, psychosocial aspects, and caregiver wellbeing. Results: No relevant systematic reviews or randomised controlled trials were found. Two cohort studies, 15 case series, and eight case reports met the inclusion criteria. Eight studies specifically described percutaneous endoscopic gastrostomy as the intervention. Weight gain resulted from gastrostomy feeding in most cases. There was an approximately fourfold increased risk of death reported in one cohort study for the gastrostomy fed children. Many complications were reported, including potential for increased gastro-oesophageal reflux and fluid aspiration into the lungs. Conclusions: Benefits associated with gastrostomy or jejunostomy feeding are difficult to assess from the available evidence. Risks of gastrostomy, particularly in relation to surgical complications, have been described but the size of the risk could not be quantified. The finding of a higher death rate for children fed by gastrostomy may merely reflect the greater disability of these compared with orally fed children. Lack of available evidence and the substantial risk of bias in observational studies suggests that a well conducted randomised controlled trial of sufficient size will be needed to answer these problems. PMID:15155398

Sleigh, G; Brocklehurst, P

2004-01-01

347

Complications of microsurgical reconstruction of obstetrical brachial plexus palsy.  

PubMed

The charts of the 173 consecutive patients who underwent microsurgical reconstruction for obstetrical brachial plexus palsy from 1988 to 1999 (inclusive) in the Division of Plastic Surgery at the Hospital for Sick Children were analyzed. The overall complication rate was 33.5 percent, and there was no mortality in this series. The most significant intraoperative complication was accidental extubation, which occurred five times in the first 84 patients (6 percent of this early group; 2.9 percent of the whole series). This complication was addressed by suturing the endotracheal tube to the membranous septum and by using a transparent drape to allow direct visualization of the tube in all 89 subsequent patients. There have been no further accidental extubations. Postoperative fluid overload occurred in 14 patients (8.1 percent), three (1.7 percent) of whom developed pulmonary edema. Intensive care unit admission was required in two of those patients. Diuretic treatment was required in seven patients. No patient receiving less than or equal to 4 ml/kg/hour developed fluid overload, whereas 50 percent of the patients receiving greater than or equal to 10 ml/kg/hour did. Currently, the authors' policy is to strictly limit intravenous maintenance fluids to 4 ml/kg/hour or less. Despite the long and complex procedure required to reconstruct obstetrical brachial plexus palsy, the incidence of significant complications can be minimized with simple precautions, such as suturing the endotracheal tube to the septum or reducing the amount of fluids administered during the operation. PMID:12618596

La Scala, Giorgio C; Rice, Sean B; Clarke, Howard M

2003-04-01

348

Pain, motor function and health-related quality of life in children with cerebral palsy as reported by their physiotherapists  

PubMed Central

Background Children and adolescents with cerebral palsy suffer from higher levels of pain than their peers without disability. The aim of this study was to explore the impact of pain on health-related quality of life and motor function in individuals with cerebral palsy as reported by health professionals. Methods Cross-sectional study carried out in Associations for Care of Individuals with Cerebral Palsy and Related Disabilities (ASPACE) in Balearic Islands and Castile Leon (Spain). Thirty-five physiotherapists rated pain, health-related quality of life and motor function in 91 children and adolescents with cerebral palsy [8-19y]. A semi-structured interview was used to collect demographic and clinical data according with the Study of Participation of Children with Cerebral Palsy Living in Europe (SPARCLE). Results Physiotherapists reported that 51% of individuals with cerebral palsy suffered from pain. Physiotherapists also perceived that pain in individuals with cerebral palsy was responsible for reductions of psychological but not physical domains of health-related quality of life. According with physiotherapists’ estimations, motor impairment scores were not correlated with pain scores in individuals with cerebral palsy, but they were significantly associated with physical and autonomy domains of health-related quality of life. Conclusions These findings highlighted the importance of assessing and providing interventions for pain relief in persons with cerebral palsy even at an early age. PMID:25066900

2014-01-01

349

Center-of-pressure movements during equine-assisted activities.  

PubMed

We compared anteroposterior and mediolateral range of motion and velocity of the center of pressure (COP) on the horse's back between riders without disabilities and riders with cerebral palsy. An electronic pressure mat was used to track COP movements beneath the saddle in 4 riders without disabilities and 4 riders with cerebral palsy. Comparisons between rider groups were made using the Mann-Whitney test (p < .05). The two rider groups differed significantly in anteroposterior range of COP motion, mediolateral range of COP motion, and mediolateral COP velocity. Anteroposterior COP velocity did not differ between groups. The results suggest that measurements of COP range of motion and velocity are potentially useful for monitoring changes in balance as an indicator of core stability during equine-assisted activities. PMID:21476369

Clayton, Hilary M; Kaiser, Leeann J; de Pue, Bonnie; Kaiser, Lana

2011-01-01

350

Genu recurvatum in cerebral palsy--part B: hamstrings are abnormally long in children with cerebral palsy showing knee recurvatum.  

PubMed

Hyperextension of the knee in stance (knee recurvatum) is a common disorder in patients with spastic cerebral palsy (CP). A group 35 children with CP (47 lower limbs) was divided into two subgroups according to the timing of maximum knee extension during the stance phase of gait. Gait analysis and musculoskeletal modelling data were compared with a control group of 12 normally developing children. We observed no difference in kinematics between the CP groups who showed an equinus position of the foot at initial contact. Both groups showed increased external extensor moments across the knee. The muscle-tendon lengths of the hamstrings were abnormally long at initial contact, and in both recurvatum groups, contracted faster compared with the control group. Surface electromyography revealed prolonged activity of the hamstrings in stance and early activation in swing. Abnormally long hamstrings at initial contact together with equinus position of the foot are the main causes of genu recurvatum in children with CP. PMID:20308923

Zwick, Ernst B; Svehlík, Martin; Steinwender, Gerhard; Saraph, Vinay; Linhart, Wolfgang E

2010-07-01

351

Effect of postural insoles on static and functional balance in children with cerebral palsy: A randomized controlled study  

PubMed Central

BACKGROUND: Improved gait efficiency is one of the goals of therapy for children with cerebral palsy (CP). Postural insoles can allow more efficient gait by improving biomechanical alignment. OBJECTIVE: The aim of the present study was to determine the effect of the combination of postural insoles and ankle-foot orthoses on static and functional balance in children with CP. METHOD: A randomized, controlled, double-blind, clinical trial. After meeting legal requirements and the eligibility criteria, 20 children between four and 12 years of age were randomly allocated either to the control group (CG) (n=10) or the experimental group (EG) (n=10). The CG used placebo insoles and the EG used postural insoles. The Berg Balance Scale, Timed Up-and-Go Test, Six-Minute Walk Test, and Gross Motor Function Measure-88 were used to assess balance as well as the determination of oscillations from the center of pressure in the anteroposterior and mediolateral directions with eyes open and closed. Three evaluations were carried out: 1) immediately following placement of the insoles; 2) after three months of insole use; and 3) one month after suspending insole use. RESULTS: The EG achieved significantly better results in comparison to the CG on the Timed Up-and-Go Test as well as body sway in the anteroposterior and mediolateral directions. CONCLUSION: Postural insoles led to an improvement in static balance among children with cerebral palsy, as demonstrated by the reduction in body sway in the anteroposterior and mediolateral directions. Postural insole use also led to a better performance on the Timed Up-and-Go Test. PMID:25651134

Christovão, Thaluanna C. L.; Pasini, Hugo; Grecco, Luanda A. C.; Ferreira, Luiz A. B.; Duarte, Natália A. C.; Oliveira, Cláudia S.

2015-01-01

352

Description and Psychometric Properties of the CP QOL-Teen: A Quality of Life Questionnaire for Adolescents with Cerebral Palsy  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

To assess the measurement properties of a new QOL instrument, the Cerebral Palsy Quality of Life Questionnaire-Teen (CP QOL-Teen), in adolescents with cerebral palsy (CP) aged 13-18 years, examining domain structure, reliability, validity and adolescent-caregiver concordance. Based on age, 695 eligible families were invited to participate by mail.…

Davis, Elise; Mackinnon, Andrew; Davern, Melanie; Boyd, Roslyn; Bohanna, India; Waters, Elizabeth; Graham, H. Kerr; Reid, Susan; Reddihough, Dinah

2013-01-01

353

The Use of Computers and Augmentative and Alternative Communication Devices by Children and Young with Cerebral Palsy  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The purpose of the study was to determine the use of computers and assistive devices amongst children with cerebral palsy (CP) and establish the satisfaction level of both users and educational staff. The study was carried out with 30 children with cerebral palsy. A questionnaire was designed to characterize the use of new technologies and…

Garcia, Thais Pousada; Loureiro, Javier Pereira; Gonzalez, Betania Groba; Riveiro, Laura Nieto; Sierra, Alejandro Pazos

2011-01-01

354

Abnormalities of horizontal gaze. Clinical, oculographic and magnetic resonance imaging findings. II. Gaze palsy and internuclear ophthalmoplegia  

Microsoft Academic Search

The site of lesions responsible for horizontal gaze palsy and various types of internuclear ophthalmoplegia (INO) was established by identifying the common areas where the abnormal MRI signals from patients with a given ocular-motor disorder overlapped. Patients with unilateral gaze palsy had lesions in the paramedian area of the pons, including the abducens nucleus, the lateral part of the nucleus

A M Bronstein; P Rudge; M A Gresty; G Du Boulay; J Morris

1990-01-01

355

Electrophysiological characteristics of lesions in facial palsies of different etiologies. A study using electrical and magnetic stimulation techniques  

Microsoft Academic Search

Using magnetic stimulation techniques in addition to conventional electrical stimulation, the entire facial motor pathway can be assessed electrophysiologically. To study the diagnostic yield of these examinations, 174 patients with facial palsies of a variety of etiologies were examined (85 Bell's palsies, 24 Guillain-Barré syndrome (GBS), 19 Lyme borreliosis, 17 zoster oticus, 12 meningeal affections, 10 brain-stem disorders and 7

K. M. Rösler; M. R. Magistris; F. X. Glocker; A. Kohler; G. Deuschl; C. W. Hess

1995-01-01

356

Constraint-Induced Movement Therapy for Children with Obstetric Brachial Plexus Palsy: Two Single-Case Series  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The objective of this pilot study was to investigate the feasibility of constraint-induced movement therapy (CIMT) in children with obstetric brachial plexus palsy and receive preliminary information about functional improvements. Two patients (age 12 years) with obstetric brachial plexus palsy were included for a 126-h home-based CIMT…

Buesch, Francisca Eugster

2010-01-01

357

Amniotic fluid inflammatory cytokines (interleukin-6, interleukin-1?, and tumor necrosis factor-?), neonatal brain white matter lesions, and cerebral palsy  

Microsoft Academic Search

OBJECTIVE: Ultrasonographically detectable neonatal brain white matter lesions are the most important identifiable risk factor for cerebral palsy. Inflammatory cytokines released during the course of intrauterine infections have been implicated in the genesis of brain white matter lesions and subsequent cerebral palsy. This study was undertaken to determine whether fetuses who subsequently were diagnosed to have periventricular brain white matter

Bo Hyun Yoon; Jong Kwan Jun; Roberto Romero; Kyo Hoon Park; Ricardo Gomez; Jung-Hwan Choi

1997-01-01

358

Quantitative analysis of the corpus callosum in children with cerebral palsy and developmental delay: correlation with cerebral white matter volume  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: The direct quantitative correlation between thickness of the corpus callosum and volume of cerebral white matter in children with cerebral palsy and developmental delay has not been demonstrated. Objective: This study was conducted to quantitatively correlate the thickness of the corpus callosum with the volume of cerebral white matter in children with cerebral palsy and developmental delay. Material and

Ashok Panigrahy; Patrick D. Barnes; Robert L. Robertson; Lynn A. Sleeper; James W. Sayre

2005-01-01

359

Association of cerebral palsy with Apgar score in low and normal birthweight infants: population based cohort study  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objectives To assess the association of Apgar score 5 minutes after birth with cerebral palsy in both normal weight and low birthweight children, and also the association with the cerebral palsy subdiagnoses of quadriplegia, diplegia, and hemiplegia.Design Population based cohort study.Setting The Medical Birth Registry of Norway was used to identify all babies born between 1986 and 1995. These data

Kari Kveim Lie; Else-Karin Grøholt; Anne Eskild

2010-01-01

360

Do the hamstrings and adductors contribute to excessive internal rotation of the hip in persons with cerebral palsy?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Children with cerebral palsy frequently walk with excessive internal rotation of the hip. Spastic medial hamstrings or adductors are presumed to contribute to the excessive internal rotation in some patients; however, the capacity of these muscles to produce internal rotation during walking in individuals with cerebral palsy has not been adequately investigated. The purpose of this study was to determine

Allison S. Arnold; Deanna J. Asakawa; Scott L. Delp

2000-01-01

361

Use of the ACT3D System to Evaluate Synergies in Children with Spastic Hemiparetic Cerebral Palsy: A Pilot Study  

Microsoft Academic Search

Clinically, the presentation of upper limb movements in children with spastic hemiparetic cerebral palsy is similar to that of adults who have had a stroke. The presence of abnormal synergies following stroke has been described qualitatively in the clinic and quantitatively under static conditions, but this quantitative data is lacking for cerebral palsy. Here, we describe the arm coordination training

Theresa M. Sukal; Kristin J. Krosschell; J. P. A. Dewald

2007-01-01

362

Physical Activity in the Life of a Woman with Cerebral Palsy: Physiotherapy, Social Exclusion, Competence, and Intimacy  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Although physical activity can have substantial mental and physical health benefits, people with cerebral palsy usually lead sedentary lives. To understand, at an individual level, this inactivity, we interviewed a 29-year-old minimally active woman with cerebral palsy (Alana) about the meanings and experiences of physical activity throughout her…

Gaskin, Cadeyrn J.; Andersen, Mark B.; Morris, Tony

2012-01-01

363

Trends in Prevalence and Characteristics of Post-Neonatal Cerebral Palsy Cases: A European Registry-Based Study  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The present paper aims to analyze trends over time in prevalence of cerebral palsy of post-neonatal origin, to investigate whether changes are similar according to severity and to describe the disability profile by etiology. Post-neonatal cases, birth years 1976 to 1998, were identified from the Surveillance of Cerebral Palsy in Europe…

Germany, Laurence; Ehlinger, Virginie; Klapouszczak, Dana; Delobel, Malika; Hollody, Katalin; Sellier, Elodie; De La Cruz, Javier; Alberge, Corine; Genolini, Christophe; Arnaud, Catherine

2013-01-01

364

[Prevention of cerebral palsy using magnesium sulfate in pre-term newborns].  

PubMed

This review concentrates on the best evidence emerging in recent years on cerebral palsy prevention by administration of magnesium sulfate in mothers at risk of pre-term birth before 33-34 weeks' gestation. It was shown in the Cochrane database and in 3 meta-analyses of 5 randomized trials (Magpie Trial [neuroprotection of the pre-eclamptic mother], MagNet [neuroprotection/other intent: tocolysis], ActoMgSO(4) [neuroprotection], PreMag [neuroprotection], and Beam [neuroprotection]) that prenatal low-dose magnesium sulfate given to mothers at risk of pre-term birth has no severe deleterious effects in mothers and does not increase pediatric mortality in very pre-term infants. Moreover, it has significant neuroprotective effects on the occurrence of cerebral palsy at 2 years of age (relative risk, 0.69; 95% confidence interval, 0.54-0.87) and, in the neuroprotection subgroup, on the combined outcome of pediatric mortality or cerebral palsy (relative risk: 0.85; 95% confidence interval: 0.74-0.98). The number needed to treat (NTT) to prevent 1 case of cerebral palsy was 63 (95% CI, 39-172) and the NTT for an extra survivor free of cerebral palsy in the neuroprotection subgroup was 42 (95% CI, 22-357), justifying that magnesium sulfate should be discussed as a stand-alone treatment or as part of a combination treatment. PMID:21257296

Marret, S; Chollat, C; Levèque, C; Marpeau, L

2011-03-01

365

Quantitative Magnetic Resonance Imaging Volumetry of Facial Muscles in Healthy Patients with Facial Palsy  

PubMed Central

Background: Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) has not yet been established systematically to detect structural muscular changes after facial nerve lesion. The purpose of this pilot study was to investigate quantitative assessment of MRI muscle volume data for facial muscles. Methods: Ten healthy subjects and 5 patients with facial palsy were recruited. Using manual or semiautomatic segmentation of 3T MRI, volume measurements were performed for the frontal, procerus, risorius, corrugator supercilii, orbicularis oculi, nasalis, zygomaticus major, zygomaticus minor, levator labii superioris, orbicularis oris, depressor anguli oris, depressor labii inferioris, and mentalis, as well as for the masseter and temporalis as masticatory muscles for control. Results: All muscles except the frontal (identification in 4/10 volunteers), procerus (4/10), risorius (6/10), and zygomaticus minor (8/10) were identified in all volunteers. Sex or age effects were not seen (all P > 0.05). There was no facial asymmetry with exception of the zygomaticus major (larger on the left side; P = 0.012). The exploratory examination of 5 patients revealed considerably smaller muscle volumes on the palsy side 2 months after facial injury. One patient with chronic palsy showed substantial muscle volume decrease, which also occurred in another patient with incomplete chronic palsy restricted to the involved facial area. Facial nerve reconstruction led to mixed results of decreased but also increased muscle volumes on the palsy side compared with the healthy side. Conclusions: First systematic quantitative MRI volume measures of 5 different clinical presentations of facial paralysis are provided. PMID:25289366

Volk, Gerd F.; Karamyan, Inna; Klingner, Carsten M.; Reichenbach, Jürgen R.

2014-01-01

366

Capacity of adolescents with cerebral palsy on paediatric balance scale and Berg balance scale.  

PubMed

The Berg balance scale (BBS) and the paediatric balance scale (PBS) are reliable tools for measuring balance ability. However, reports of BBS and PBS scores in adolescent cerebral palsy have been limited. The objectives of this study were to investigate functional balance capacities, as tested with the BBS and PBS in adolescents with cerebral palsy, to compare the total PBS and BBS scores between Gross Motor Function Classification System-Expanded and Revised (GMFCS-E&R) levels and to compare the static balance PBS and BBS scores within each GMFCS-E&R level. Fifty-eight school-aged adolescents with cerebral palsy between the ages of 12 and 18 years with GMFCS-E&R levels of I to IV were recruited. The Kruskal-Wallis test was utilized to compare the median scores for the PBS and BBS between the different GMFCS-E&R levels. Wilcoxon signed-rank tests were performed to examine the differences in the static balance scores between the PBS and the BBS within the same GMFCS-E&R levels. The results reveal that there were differences in the BBS and PBS scores among the four GMFCS-E&R levels. A significant difference was found between the BBS and PBS scores only among the patients with cerebral palsy and level III GMFCS-E&R. The BBS and PBS are valid and reliable tools for clinical examination and for distinguishing between levels of functional balance in adolescents with cerebral palsy. PMID:25462467

Jantakat, Chanada; Ramrit, Sirinun; Emasithi, Alongkot; Siritaratiwat, Wantana

2014-10-15

367

Effect of Motor Imagery in Children with Unilateral Cerebral Palsy: fMRI Study  

PubMed Central

Background Motor imagery is considered as a promising therapeutic tool for rehabilitation of motor planning problems in patients with cerebral palsy. However motor planning problems may lead to poor motor imagery ability. Aim The aim of this functional magnetic resonance imaging study was to examine and compare brain activation following motor imagery tasks in patients with hemiplegic cerebral palsy with left or right early brain lesions. We tested also the influence of the side of imagined hand movement. Method Twenty patients with clinical hemiplegic cerebral palsy (sixteen males, mean age 12 years and 10 months, aged 6 years 10 months to 20 years 10 months) participated in this study. Using block design, brain activations following motor imagery of a simple opening-closing hand movement performed by either the paretic or nonparetic hand was examined. Results During motor imagery tasks, patients with early right brain damages activated bilateral fronto-parietal network that comprise most of the nodes of the network well described in healthy subjects. Inversely, in patients with left early brain lesion brain activation following motor imagery tasks was reduced, compared to patients with right brain lesions. We found also a weak influence of the side of imagined hand movement. Conclusion Decreased activations following motor imagery in patients with right unilateral cerebral palsy highlight the dominance of the left hemisphere during motor imagery tasks. This study gives neuronal substrate to propose motor imagery tasks in unilateral cerebral palsy rehabilitation at least for patients with right brain lesions. PMID:24718311

Chinier, Eva; N’Guyen, Sylvie; Lignon, Grégoire; Ter Minassian, Aram; Richard, Isabelle; Dinomais, Mickaël

2014-01-01

368

Autologous Cord Blood Therapy for Infantile Cerebral Palsy: From Bench to Bedside  

PubMed Central

About 17 million people worldwide live with cerebral palsy, the most common disability in childhood, with hypoxic-ischemic encephalopathy, preterm birth, and low birth weight being the most important risk factors. This review will focus on recent developments in cell therapy for infantile cerebral palsy by transplantation of autologous umbilical cord blood. There are only 4 publications available at present; however, the observations made along with experimental data in vivo and in vitro may be of utmost importance clinically, so that a review at an early developmental stage of this new therapeutic concept seems justified. Particularly, since the first published double-blind randomized placebo-controlled trial in a paradigm using allogeneic cord blood and erythropoietin to treat cerebral palsy under immunosuppression showed beneficial therapeutic effects in infantile cerebral palsy, long-held doubts about the efficacy of this new cell therapy are dispelled and a revision of therapeutic views upon an ailment, for which there is no cure at present, is warranted. Hence, this review will summarize the available information on autologous cord blood therapy for cerebral palsy and that on the relevant experimental work as far as potential mechanisms and modes of action are concerned. PMID:24695413

Jensen, A.

2014-01-01

369

Resting position of the head and malocclusion in a group of patients with cerebral palsy  

PubMed Central

Cerebral palsy are found as a result of these disorders, along with associated neuromuscular functional alterations that affect the resting position of the head. In this context, the resting position of the head could be responsible for several skeletal and dental occlusal disorders among patients with cerebral palsy. Objective: To assess the presence of malocclusions in patients with cerebral palsy, define the most frequent types of malocclusions, and evaluate how the resting position of the head may be implicated in the development of such malocclusions. Study design: Forty-four patients aged between 12-55 years (18 males and 26 females) were studied. Occlusal conditions, the Dental Aesthetic Index (DAI), changes in the resting position of the head, and breathing and swallowing functions were assessed. Results: Orthodontic treatment was required by 70.8% of the patients, the most frequent malocclusions being molar class II, open bite and high overjet. These individuals showed altered breathing and swallowing functions, as well as habit and postural disorders. The resting position of the head, especially the hyperextended presentation, was significantly correlated to high DAI scores. Conclusions: The results obtained suggest that patients with cerebral palsy are more susceptible to present malocclusions, particularly molar class II malocclusion, increased open bite, and high overjet. Such alterations in turn are more common in patients with a hyperextended position of the head. Key words:Cerebral palsy, malocclusion, head position, disabled patients. PMID:24596627

Martinez-Mihi, Victoria; Orellana, Lorena M.; Silvestre-Rangil, Javier

2014-01-01

370

The effect of total facial nerve decompression in preventing further recurrence of idiopathic recurrent facial palsy.  

PubMed

The objective is to study the role of total facial nerve decompression in preventing further episodes and promoting facial nerve recovery of idiopathic recurrent facial palsy. 24 cases with idiopathic recurrent facial palsy were involved in the study, among which 16 undergoing total facial nerve decompression were classified into the surgery group, and 8 who refused surgery and received prednisolone were included in the control group. The recurrence rate and facial nerve function recovery of the two groups were compared. The mean follow-up of surgery and control group was 4.9 years (range 3-7 years) and 5.0 years (range 3-8 years), respectively. Further attacks of facial palsy affected 1 of 16 cases (6.2 %) among surgery group in comparison to 4 of 8 cases (50 %) among control group, with statistical difference (p < 0.05). 15 of 16 cases (93.8 %) recovered to Grade I or Grade II in surgery group in contrast to 6 of 8 cases (75.0 %) in control group, without statistical difference (p > 0.05). In conclusion, total facial nerve decompression is effective to prevent further episodes of facial palsy in idiopathic recurrent facial palsy, but ineffective to promote facial nerve recovery. PMID:24493560

Li, Yang; Li, Zhi; Yan, Cheng; Hui, Liu

2015-05-01

371

Delivering healthcare services to children with cerebral palsy and their families: a narrative review.  

PubMed

Children with cerebral palsy have complex healthcare needs and often require complex multidisciplinary care. It is important for clinicians to understand which approaches to healthcare service delivery for this population are supported in the literature and how these should be applied in clinical practice. This narrative review aims to identify and review the evidence for current approaches to healthcare service delivery for children with cerebral palsy. Databases were searched using key terms to identify relevant research articles and grey literature from December 2011 to September 2013. Search results were screened and sorted according to inclusion and exclusion criteria. Thirty-two documents were included for evaluation and their content was analysed thematically. Three current approaches to healthcare service delivery for children with cerebral palsy identified in this narrative review were family-centred care, the World Health Organisation's International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health, and collaborative community-based primary care. However, healthcare services for children with cerebral palsy and their families are inconsistently delivered according to these approaches and the identified guidelines or standards of care for children with cerebral palsy have limited incorporation of these approaches. Future research is required to investigate how these approaches to healthcare service delivery can be integrated into clinical practices to enable clinicians to improve services for this population. PMID:25175322

Hayles, Emily; Jones, Anne; Harvey, Desley; Plummer, David; Ruston, Sally

2015-05-01

372

Incidence of pupillary involvement, course of anisocoria and ophthalmoplegia in diabetic oculomotor nerve palsy  

PubMed Central

Aims: To derive a reliable estimate of the frequency of pupillary involvement and to study the patterns and course of anisocoria in conjunction with ophthalmoplegia in diabetes-associated oculomotor nerve palsy. Materials and Methods: In this prospective analytical study, standardized enrolment criteria were employed to identify 35 consecutive patients with diabetes-associated oculomotor nerve palsy who were subjected to a comprehensive ocular examination. Standardized methods were used to evaluate pupil size, shape, and reflexes. The degree of anisocoria, if present and the degree of ophthalmoplegia was recorded at each visit. Results: Pupillary involvement was found to be present in 25.7% of the total number of subjects with diabetic oculomotor nerve palsy. The measure of anisocoria was < 2 mm, and pupil was variably reactive at least to some extent in all cases with pupillary involvement. Majority of patients in both the pupil-involved and pupil-spared group showed a regressive pattern of ophthalmoplegia. Ophthalmoplegia reversed much earlier and more significantly when compared to anisocoria. Conclusions: Pupillary involvement in diabetes-associated oculomotor nerve palsy occurs in about 1/4th of all cases. Certain characteristics of the pupil help us to differentiate an ischemic insult from an aneurysmal injury to the 3rd nerve. Ophthalmoplegia resolves much earlier than anisocoria in diabetic oculomotor nerve palsies. PMID:23275215

Dhume, Kaushik U; Paul, Kiruba E

2013-01-01

373

Impaired visually guided weight-shifting ability in children with cerebral palsy.  

PubMed

The ability to control voluntary weight shifting is crucial in many functional tasks. To our knowledge, weight shifting ability in response to a visual stimulus has never been evaluated in children with cerebral palsy (CP). The aim of the study was (1) to propose a new method to assess visually guided medio-lateral (M/L) weight shifting ability and (2) to compare weight-shifting ability in children with CP and typically developing (TD) children. Ten children with spastic diplegic CP (Gross Motor Function Classification System level I and II; age 7-12 years) and 10 TD age-matched children were tested. Participants played with the skiing game on the Wii Fit game console. Center of pressure (COP) displacements, trunk and lower-limb movements were recorded during the last virtual slalom. Maximal isometric lower limb strength and postural control during quiet standing were also assessed. Lower-limb muscle strength was reduced in children with CP compared to TD children and postural control during quiet standing was impaired in children with CP. As expected, the skiing game mainly resulted in M/L COP displacements. Children with CP showed lower M/L COP range and velocity as compared to TD children but larger trunk movements. Trunk and lower extremity movements were less in phase in children with CP compared to TD children. Commercially available active video games can be used to assess visually guided weight shifting ability. Children with spastic diplegic CP showed impaired visually guided weight shifting which can be explained by non-optimal coordination of postural movement and reduced muscular strength. PMID:24858794

Ballaz, Laurent; Robert, Maxime; Parent, Audrey; Prince, François; Lemay, Martin

2014-09-01

374

Detection of third and sixth cranial nerve palsies with a novel method for eye tracking while watching a short film clip.  

PubMed

OBJECT Automated eye movement tracking may provide clues to nervous system function at many levels. Spatial calibration of the eye tracking device requires the subject to have relatively intact ocular motility that implies function of cranial nerves (CNs) III (oculomotor), IV (trochlear), and VI (abducent) and their associated nuclei, along with the multiple regions of the brain imparting cognition and volition. The authors have developed a technique for eye tracking that uses temporal rather than spatial calibration, enabling detection of impaired ability to move the pupil relative to normal (neurologically healthy) control volunteers. This work was performed to demonstrate that this technique may detect CN palsies related to brain compression and to provide insight into how the technique may be of value for evaluating neuropathological conditions associated with CN palsy, such as hydrocephalus or acute mass effect. METHODS The authors recorded subjects' eye movements by using an Eyelink 1000 eye tracker sampling at 500 Hz over 200 seconds while the subject viewed a music video playing inside an aperture on a computer monitor. The aperture moved in a rectangular pattern over a fixed time period. This technique was used to assess ocular motility in 157 neurologically healthy control subjects and 12 patients with either clinical CN III or VI palsy confirmed by neuro-ophthalmological examination, or surgically treatable pathological conditions potentially impacting these nerves. The authors compared the ratio of vertical to horizontal eye movement (height/width defined as aspect ratio) in normal and test subjects. RESULTS In 157 normal controls, the aspect ratio (height/width) for the left eye had a mean value ± SD of 1.0117 ± 0.0706. For the right eye, the aspect ratio had a mean of 1.0077 ± 0.0679 in these 157 subjects. There was no difference between sexes or ages. A patient with known CN VI palsy had a significantly increased aspect ratio (1.39), whereas 2 patients with known CN III palsy had significantly decreased ratios of 0.19 and 0.06, respectively. Three patients with surgically treatable pathological conditions impacting CN VI, such as infratentorial mass effect or hydrocephalus, had significantly increased ratios (1.84, 1.44, and 1.34, respectively) relative to normal controls, and 6 patients with supratentorial mass effect had significantly decreased ratios (0.27, 0.53, 0.62, 0.45, 0.49, and 0.41, respectively). These alterations in eye tracking all reverted to normal ranges after surgical treatment of underlying pathological conditions in these 9 neurosurgical cases. CONCLUSIONS This proof of concept series of cases suggests that the use of eye tracking to detect CN palsy while the patient watches television or its equivalent represents a new capacity for this technology. It may provide a new tool for the assessment of multiple CNS functions that can potentially be useful in the assessment of awake patients with elevated intracranial pressure from hydrocephalus or trauma. PMID:25495739

Samadani, Uzma; Farooq, Sameer; Ritlop, Robert; Warren, Floyd; Reyes, Marleen; Lamm, Elizabeth; Alex, Anastasia; Nehrbass, Elena; Kolecki, Radek; Jureller, Michael; Schneider, Julia; Chen, Agnes; Shi, Chen; Mendhiratta, Neil; Huang, Jason H; Qian, Meng; Kwak, Roy; Mikheev, Artem; Rusinek, Henry; George, Ajax; Fergus, Robert; Kondziolka, Douglas; Huang, Paul P; Smith, R Theodore

2015-03-01

375

Spasticity and Its Contribution to Hypertonia in Cerebral Palsy  

PubMed Central

Spasticity is considered an important neural contributor to muscle hypertonia in children with cerebral palsy (CP). It is most often treated with antispasticity medication, such as Botulinum Toxin-A. However, treatment response is highly variable. Part of this variability may be due to the inability of clinical tests to differentiate between the neural (e.g., spasticity) and nonneural (e.g., soft tissue properties) contributions to hypertonia, leading to the terms “spasticity” and “hypertonia” often being used interchangeably. Recent advancements in instrumented spasticity assessments offer objective measurement methods for distinction and quantification of hypertonia components. These methods can be applied in clinical settings and their results used to fine-tune and improve treatment. We reviewed current advancements and new insights with respect to quantifying spasticity and its contribution to muscle hypertonia in children with CP. First, we revisit what is known about spasticity in children with CP, including the various definitions and its pathophysiology. Second, we summarize the state of the art on instrumented spasticity assessment in CP and review the parameters developed to quantify the neural and nonneural components of hypertonia. Lastly, the impact these quantitative parameters have on clinical decision-making is considered and recommendations for future clinical and research investigations are discussed. PMID:25649546

Molenaers, Guy; Aertbeliën, Erwin; Van Campenhout, Anja; Feys, Hilde; Desloovere, Kaat

2015-01-01

376

Clinical correlations of microstructural changes in progressive supranuclear palsy.  

PubMed

In patients with progressive supranuclear palsy (PSP), previous reports have shown a severe white matter (WM) damage involving supra and infratentorial regions including cerebellum. In the present study, we investigated potential correlations between WM integrity loss and clinical-cognitive features of patients with PSP. By using magnetic resonance imaging and diffusion tensor imaging with tract based spatial statistic analysis, we analyzed WM volume in 18 patients with PSP and 18 healthy controls (HCs). All patients and HCs underwent a detailed clinical and neuropsychological evaluation. Relative to HCs, patients with PSP showed WM changes encompassing supra and infratentorial areas such as corpus callosum, fornix, midbrain, inferior fronto-occipital fasciculus, anterior thalamic radiation, superior cerebellar peduncle, superior longitudinal fasciculus, uncinate fasciculus, cingulate gyrus, and cortico-spinal tract bilaterally. Among different correlations between motor-cognitive features and WM structural abnormalities, we detected a significant association between fronto-cerebellar WM loss and executive cognitive impairment in patients with PSP. Our findings, therefore, corroborate the hypothesis that cognitive impairment in PSP may result from both "intrinsic" and "extrinsic" frontal lobe dysfunction, likely related to cerebellar disconnection. PMID:24786632

Tessitore, Alessandro; Giordano, Alfonso; Caiazzo, Giuseppina; Corbo, Daniele; De Micco, Rosa; Russo, Antonio; Liguori, Sara; Cirillo, Mario; Esposito, Fabrizio; Tedeschi, Gioacchino

2014-10-01

377

Thermograpic study of upper extremities in patients with cerebral palsy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Trophic disorders like reduced skin blood circulation are well-known epiphenomenon of cerebral palsy (CP). They can influence quality of life and can lead to skin damages and, as a consequence, to decubitus. Therefore, it is important to analyse temperature regulation in patients with CP. Thermal imaging camera FLIR BCAM SD was used to study the dependency of skin blood circulation in upper extremities of patients with CP on hand dominance, hand force and hand volume. The hand force was evaluated using a conventional dynamometer. The hand volume was measured with a volumeter. A cold stress test for hands was applied in 22 patients with CP and 6 healthy subjects. The warming up process after the test was recorded with the thermal camera. It was confirmed that the hands of patients warm up slower comparing to healthy persons. The patients' working hands warm up faster than non-working ones. A slight correlation was established between the hand grip force of the working hands and their warm up time. No correlation was found between the warming up time and the volume of the hand. The results confirm our assumption that there is a connection of peripheral blood circulation to upper limb motor functions.

Lampe, R.; Kawelke, S.; Mitternacht, J.; Turova, V.; Blumenstein, T.; Alves-Pinto, A.

2015-03-01

378

A holistic approach to the management of Erb's palsy  

PubMed Central

A 4.5-month-old female baby, presenting with complete paralysis of right upper limb with typical waiter's tip deformity, diagnosed as Erb's palsy was brought to Sri Ganapati Sachchidananda Hospital. Patient was treated with an integrated approach of physiotherapy and Ayurvedic treatment with an intention of aiding faster recovery of the patient to lead a near normal life. As per Ayurvedic classics, this condition can be correlated to Ekangavata (Vata effecting any one part of the body), which is Apatarpana in nature (diseases with deprived growth of body tissue). Hence, the choice of treatment is Santarpana Chikitsa (nourishing treatment). Santarpana Bahyopakramas (nourishing external treatment modalities) such as Ashwagandhabalalakshadi Taila (Ayurvedic medicated oil) Abhyanga (oleation therapy) and Shastikashali Anna Lepa (application of processed rice paste) were administered along with electrical stimulation (physiotherapy modality), both galvanic and faradic current in three sessions. Appreciable results were observed in the form of reduction of disparity in length and mid-arm circumference of right upper limb compared to unaffected left upper limb and the muscle power too improved from zero to four, facilitating patient to near normal movement. PMID:24459391

Srilakshmi, Dasari; Chaganti, Sreelakshmi

2013-01-01

379

A holistic approach to the management of Erb's palsy.  

PubMed

A 4.5-month-old female baby, presenting with complete paralysis of right upper limb with typical waiter's tip deformity, diagnosed as Erb's palsy was brought to Sri Ganapati Sachchidananda Hospital. Patient was treated with an integrated approach of physiotherapy and Ayurvedic treatment with an intention of aiding faster recovery of the patient to lead a near normal life. As per Ayurvedic classics, this condition can be correlated to Ekangavata (Vata effecting any one part of the body), which is Apatarpana in nature (diseases with deprived growth of body tissue). Hence, the choice of treatment is Santarpana Chikitsa (nourishing treatment). Santarpana Bahyopakramas (nourishing external treatment modalities) such as Ashwagandhabalalakshadi Taila (Ayurvedic medicated oil) Abhyanga (oleation therapy) and Shastikashali Anna Lepa (application of processed rice paste) were administered along with electrical stimulation (physiotherapy modality), both galvanic and faradic current in three sessions. Appreciable results were observed in the form of reduction of disparity in length and mid-arm circumference of right upper limb compared to unaffected left upper limb and the muscle power too improved from zero to four, facilitating patient to near normal movement. PMID:24459391

Srilakshmi, Dasari; Chaganti, Sreelakshmi

2013-10-01

380

Most frequent gait patterns in diplegic spastic cerebral palsy  

PubMed Central

OBJECTIVE: To identify gait patterns in a large group of children with diplegic cerebral palsy and to characterize each group according to age, Gross Motor Function Classification System (GMFCS) level, Gait Deviation Index (GDI) and previous surgical procedures. METHODS: One thousand eight hundred and five patients were divided in seven groups regarding observed gait patterns: jump knee, crouch knee, recurvatum knee, stiff knee, asymmetric, mixed and non-classified. RESULTS: The asymmetric group was the most prevalent (48.8%). The jump knee (9.6 years old) and recurvatum (9.4 years old) groups had mean age lower than the other groups. The lowest GDI (43.58) was found in the crouch group. There were more children classified within GMFCS level III in the crouch and mixed groups. Previous surgical procedures on the triceps surae were more frequent in stiff knee and mixed groups. The jump knee group received less and the stiff-knee group more surgical procedures at hamstrings than others. CONCLUSIONS: The asymmetrical cases were the most frequent within a group of diplegic patients. Individuals with crouch gait pattern were characterized by the lowest GDI and the highest prevalence of GMFCS III, while patients with stiff knee exhibited a higher percentage of previous hamstring lengthening in comparison to the other groups. Level of Evidence III, Retrospective Comparative Study. PMID:25246849

de Morais, Mauro César; Kawamura, Cátia Miyuki; Lopes, José Augusto Fernandes; Neves, Daniella Lins; Cardoso, Michelle de Oliveira; Caiafa, Jordana Brandão

2014-01-01

381

Prevalance of Obesity in Children with Cerebral Palsy  

PubMed Central

Introduction: Obesity are epidemic among children and adolescents. There is worldwide tendency of increasing prevalence of obesity in children. Cerebral palsy (CP) is leading cause of childhood disability.studies have proposed mechanism of children with disability leading towards obesity and related health risks. So this study is aimed at determining whether such trend of obesity exists in children with CP in terms of BMI and WHR. Study Design: Cross -sectional study. Materials and Methods: Participants: 40 children diagnosed as CP age 2-18 years, GMFCS I-IV. Procedure: BMI; kg/m2 was calculated from height and weight. WHR was calculated by measuring waist circumference and hip circumference. BMI percentiles were reported according to sex-specific age group standards for growth set by the WHO growth charts. Results: Out of total CP subjects 40% were found to be underweight, 45%, 7.5% and 7.5% were found to be normal, overweight and obese respectively according to BMI. Whereas 20%, 20% 60% were found to be at high risk, moderate risk and high risk of obesity respectively according to WHR. Conclusion: In our patient population, analysis of BMI and WHR suggests that children with CP have a high rate of overweight and are at risk of overweight, particularly of central obesity. PMID:25302187

Bansal, Ankita; Diwan, Jasmin; Vyas, Neeta

2014-01-01

382

Adults with cerebral palsy: walking ability after progressive strength training.  

PubMed

The purpose of this study was to evaluate effects of a progressive strength training programme on walking ability in adults with cerebral palsy. Ten individuals with spastic diplegia (seven males, three females; mean age 31, range 23-44 years) participated twice a week over 10 weeks. Seven individuals with spastic diplegia (four males, three females; mean age 33, range 25-47 years) who did not receive strength training served as controls. All individuals were ambulatory but motor ability ranged from functional walkers to individuals who always required walking aids and used a wheelchair regularly. Significant improvements were seen in isometric strength (hip extensors p=0.006, hip abductors p=0.01), and in isokinetic concentric work at 30 degrees/s (knee extensors p=0.02) but not in eccentric work. Results also showed significant improvements in Gross Motor Function Measure (GMFM) dimensions D and E (p=0.005), walking velocity (p=0.005), and Timed Up and Go (p=0.01). There was no increase in spasticity for those who underwent strength training. Individuals in the control group did not show any significant improvement in any measured variable. The groups were small, however, and there was no significant difference between the groups in any measured variable. These findings suggest that a 10-week progressive strength training programme improves muscle strength and walking ability without increasing spasticity. PMID:12647922

Andersson, C; Grooten, W; Hellsten, M; Kaping, K; Mattsson, E

2003-04-01

383

Somatosensory-evoked cortical activity in spastic diplegic cerebral palsy.  

PubMed

Somatosensory deficits have been identified in cerebral palsy (CP), but associated cortical brain activity in CP remains poorly understood. Functional MRI was used to measure blood oxygenation level-dependent (BOLD) responses during three tactile tasks in 10 participants with spastic diplegia (mean age: 18.70 years, SD: 7.99 years; 5 females) and 10 age-matched controls (mean age: 18.60 years, SD: 3.86 years; 5 females). Tactile stimulation involved servo-controlled translation of smooth or embossed surfaces across the right index finger pad; the discrimination tasks with embossed surfaces involved judging whether (1) paired shapes were similar or different, and (2) a rougher set of horizontal gratings preceded or followed a smoother one. Velocity and duration of surface translation was identical across all trials. In addition, an event-related design revealed response dynamics per trial in both groups. Compared to controls, individuals with spastic diplegia had significantly reduced spatial extents in activated cortical areas and smaller BOLD response magnitudes in cortical areas for somatosensation, motor, and goal-directed/attention behaviors. These results provide mechanisms for the widespread somatosensory deficits in CP. The reduced activation noted across multiple cortical areas might contribute to motor deficits in CP. PMID:20205249

Wingert, Jason R; Sinclair, Robert J; Dixit, Sachin; Damiano, Diane L; Burton, Harold

2010-11-01

384

Inferior olivary hypertrophy is uncommon in progressive supranuclear palsy.  

PubMed

Inferior olivary hypertrophy (IOH) is an uncommon disorder attributed to transsynaptic degeneration and characterized clinically by palatal myoclonus and histopathologically by swollen, fenestrated neurons and bizarre astrocytic gliosis. IOH is usually associated with the interruption of the dentato-olivary tract, most often from cerebrovascular lesions in the dentate nucleus or red nucleus. In progressive supranuclear palsy (PSP), the dentato-olivary tract is consistently affected, and there are reports suggesting that IOH may be relatively common in PSP. To address this issue, the frequency of IOH was investigated in 264 PSP brains. To determine if there was a relationship between IOH and neurofibrillary degeneration in the dentato-olivary pathway, the severity of neurofibrillary degeneration was assessed in the inferior olivary nucleus, cerebellar dentate nucleus and red nucleus in PSP cases with and without IOH. IOH was uncommon in PSP, being found in only 4 of 264 (1.5%) brains, which was not significantly different from the frequency in non-PSP controls (8 of 862; 0.9%). In all non-PSP cases IOH was associated with cerebrovascular lesions, but not in any of the PSP cases with IOH. The severity of neurofibrillary degeneration in the inferior olivary nucleus was significantly greater in PSP cases with IOH than in PSP cases without IOH, whereas there were no significant differences in the cerebellar dentate nucleus and red nucleus. These findings suggest that direct neurofibrillary degeneration in the inferior olivary nucleus may be related to IOH in PSP rather than transsynaptic degeneration. PMID:15235807

Katsuse, Omi; Dickson, Dennis W

2004-08-01

385

Clinical neurophysiology in the diagnosis of peroneal nerve palsy.  

PubMed

Peroneal neuropathy is one of the common focal mononeuropathies in the lower extremities occurring in both adults and children. Foot drop due to weakness of ankle dorsiflexion is the most common presentation of a peroneal neuropathy. It may also result from other causes involving the upper or lower motor neurons. Disorders that must be distinguished from peroneal neuropathy include sciatic mononeuropathy, lumbosacral plexopathy, motor neuron disease, polyneuropathy, and an L5 radiculopathy. To establish a diagnosis, electrodiagnostic studies have been used to localize the level of the abnormality and to establish prognosis. The most common site of injury is the fibular head, but focal neuropathies have also been reported at the level of the calf, ankle, and foot. In this article, we overviewed the peroneal nerve palsy, and its diagnosis by neurophysiologic evaluation, conduction study and needle EMG. The neurophysiologic information gives us the underlying pathophysiology and its prognosis. Therefore the neurophysiologic evaluation must be performed not only for the differential diagnosis, but also for planning the treatment strategy. PMID:18677088

Masakado, Yoshihisa; Kawakami, Michiyuki; Suzuki, Kanjiro; Abe, Leon; Ota, Tetsuo; Kimura, Akio

2008-06-01

386

JUMP LANDING CHARACTERISTICS IN ELITE SOCCER PLAYERS WITH CEREBRAL PALSY  

PubMed Central

The aim of the present study was to analyse the parameters that characterize the vertical ground reaction force during the landing phase of a jump, and to determine the relationship among these parameters in elite soccer players with cerebral palsy (CP). Thirteen male members of the Spanish national soccer team for people with CP (mean age: 27.1 ± 4.7 years) volunteered for the study. Each participant performed three counter movement jumps. The characteristics of the first peak of the vertical ground reaction force during the landing phase of a jump, which corresponds to the forefoot contact with the ground, were similar to the results obtained in previous studies. However, a higher magnitude of rearfoot contact with the ground (F2) was observed in participants with CP than in participants without CP. Furthermore, a significant correlation between F2 magnitude and the elapsed time until its production (T2) was not observed (r = -0.474 for p = 0.102). This result implies that a landing technique based on a delay in the production of F2 might not be effective to reduce its magnitude, contrary to what has been observed in participants without CP. The absence of a significant correlation between these two parameters in the present study, and the high magnitude of F2, suggest that elite soccer players with CP should use footwear with proper cushioning characteristics. PMID:24744473

Grande, I.; Mejuto, G.; Los Arcos, A.; Yanci, J.

2013-01-01

387

Eye Hand Coordination in Children with Cerebral Palsy  

PubMed Central

Reaching to grasp an object of interest requires complex sensorimotor coordination involving eye, head, hand and trunk. While numerous studies have demonstrated deficits in each of these systems individually, little is known about how children with cerebral palsy (CP) coordinate multiple motor systems for functional tasks. Here we used kinematics, remote eye tracking and a trunk support device to examine the functional coupling of the eye, head and hand and the extent to which it was constrained by trunk postural control in 10 children with CP (6–16 years). Eye movements in children with CP were similar to typically developing (TD) peers, while hand movements were significantly slower. Postural support influenced initiation of hand movements in the youngest children (TD & CP) and execution of hand movements in children with CP differentially depending on diagnosis. Across all diagnostic categories, the most robust distinction between TD children and children with CP was in their ability to isolate eye, head and hand movements. Results of this study suggest that deficits in motor coordination for accurate reaching in children with CP may reflect coupled eye, head, and hand movements. We have previously suggested that coupled activation of effectors may be the default output for the CNS during early development. PMID:18830589

Saavedra, Sandra; Joshi, Aditi; Woollacott, Marjorie; van Donkelaar, Paul

2009-01-01

388

Fourth and sixth nerve palsies due to herpes simplex 1 infection.  

PubMed

: Ocular motor cranial nerve palsies of viral etiology are uncommon and, when accompanied by skin lesions, zoster ophthalmicus is the most frequent diagnosis. We describe the case of a 68-year-old woman who developed fourth and sixth nerve palsies 3 days after appearance of a painful vesicular skin rash on the left side of her forehead. Neuroimaging was normal but polymerase chain reaction (PCR) testing of the cerebrospinal fluid was positive for Herpes Simplex 1 and negative for Varicella Zoster. The patient was treated with intravenous acyclovir, and the cranial nerve palsies resolved over 7 weeks. Although the similarity of the cutaneous vesicular eruption in our patient to that seen with zoster might have led to an incorrect diagnosis, acyclovir seems to be safe and effective for both viral etiologies. PMID:25313788

Anagnostou, Evangelos; Mouka, Vasiliki; Kemanetzoglou, Elisabet; Kararizou, Evangelia

2015-03-01

389

The loneliness experiences of young adults with cerebral palsy who use alternative and augmentative communication.  

PubMed

Young adults with cerebral palsy who use augmentative and alternative communication (AAC) systems may be at increased risk of loneliness due to the additional challenges they experience with communication. Six young adults, aged 24-30 years, who used AAC and had cerebral palsy, participated in in-depth interviews to explore their experiences of loneliness as they made the transition into adulthood. A total of five major themes in the data were identified using the constant comparative method of analysis. Three of these themes were discussed by all participants: (a) Support Networks, (b) AAC System Use, and (c) Technology. The authors concluded that these three themes were most important in understanding the experiences of loneliness of the young adults with cerebral palsy who participated in this study. PMID:19591004

Cooper, Lauren; Balandin, Susan; Trembath, David

2009-01-01

390

Churg-Strauss Syndrome Presented With Hearing Impairment and Facial Palsy  

PubMed Central

Churg-Strauss syndrome (CSS) is a rare systemic necrotizing vasculitis. Cranial nerve involvement is very rare in CSS. A 59-year-old woman had complained of both hearing impairments for eight months and left facial palsy for three months. Left facial and cochlear neuropathies were detected in electrodiagnostic studies. Paranasal sinus computed tomography (CT) showed chronic pansinusitis. Chest CT revealed eosinophilic infiltration in the right upper lobe. Tissue biopsy of the right inferior turbinate displayed necrotizing vasculitis with eosinophilic infiltration. She was diagnosed as CSS, based on the presence of eosinophilia, pulmonary infiltration, paranasal sinusitis, and biopsy containing blood vessels with extravascular eosinophils. She was treated with intravenous and oral steroids and azathioprine, showing relatively good prognosis on facial palsy and hearing impairment. We report a very rare case of CSS presented with hearing impairment and facial palsy. PMID:25566487

Byun, Jeong-Hyun; Lee, Jong-Hoo

2014-01-01

391

Sixth nerve palsy + ipsilateral Horner’s Syndrome = Parkinson’s Syndrome  

PubMed Central

Purpose To present five patients with VIth nerve palsy and ipsilateral Horner’s Syndrome (HS), as a result of cavernous sinus alteration. Study design Consecutive case series. Material and methods Five patients presented abducens palsy with horizontal diplopia (3 in primary position and 2 in lateral gaze only) and ipsilateral HS. Apraclonidine 0.5% drops evidenced sympathetic denervation in all patients 40–60 min after instillation. All 5 cases had neuroimages (MRI in 3 cases, Computerized Tomography – CT in one case and Magnetic Resonance Angiography – MRA in one case) demonstrating cavernous sinus lesions; 2 meningiomas, 1 carotid-cavernous aneurism, 1 foreign body (bullet) and 1 squamous cell carcinoma. Conclusion Lesions on the cavernous sinus need to be considered in cases of abducens nerve palsy and ipsilateral Horner’s Syndrome.

Ebner, Roberto N.; Ayerza, Dolores Ribero; Aghetoni, Fernando

2014-01-01

392

Tendon transfer to reconstruct wrist extension in children with obstetric brachial plexus palsy.  

PubMed

This study reports on 20 children with obstetric brachial plexus palsy who underwent a tendon transfer to reconstruct wrist extension. The mean age at the time of tendon transfer was 8 years. There were seven patients with Erb's palsy and the remaining 13 had total palsy. The flexor carpi ulnaris was utilized 15 times and the flexor carpi radialis five times. The transferred tendon was sutured to the tendon of the extensor carpi radialis brevis. The result of the transfer was assessed according to a modified Medical Research Council (MRC) muscle grading system. A good result was obtained in 18 patients (modified MRC grade of 4) and a fair result (modified MRC grade of 3) in two. The choice of tendon transfer to reconstruct the wrist drop deformity in various conditions including adult traumatic brachial plexus injuries is discussed. PMID:12631488

Al-Qattan, M M

2003-04-01

393

Wilhelm Heinrich Erb, M.D. (1840 to 1921): a historical perspective on Erb's palsy.  

PubMed

Erb's palsy is well known to physicians across medical specialties, and its clinical manifestations present a formidable challenge to reconstructive surgeons. Although the condition is well established, knowledge pertaining to its namesake, Wilhelm Heinrich Erb, is rather obscure in the existing scientific literature. Erb was influential not only through his description of classic brachial plexus palsy involving the superior (or upper) roots, but also by his indelible contributions to our understanding of peripheral nerve physiology, deep tendon reflexes, and the muscular dystrophies. Erb's contributions to medicine transcend specialty boundaries. In this article, the authors seek to convey his scientific achievements and the character of the man through translation of his German manuscripts. These texts, complemented by the existing English literature, provide a unique perspective on Wilhelm Heinrich Erb's contribution to medicine. The authors will also emphasize his role in describing and clarifying the nature of Erb's palsy. PMID:17519716

Watt, Andrew J; Niederbichler, Andreas D; Yang, Lynda J-S; Chung, Kevin C

2007-06-01

394

Stress fracture of the navicular bone in a patient with cerebral palsy: a case report.  

PubMed

A 14-year-old girl with cerebral palsy (spastic diplegia) underwent examination due to a chief complaint of right foot pain, and was diagnosed with a stress fracture of the central one third of the navicular bone. The fracture was considered to have developed due to repeated loading on the navicular bone as a result of an equinus gait.Therefore, she underwent osteosynthesis and Achilles tendon lengthening to correct the equinus deformity. Following our review of the current literature, we did not identify any reports of stress fracture of the navicular bone in cerebral palsy. We believe that in cases where cerebral palsy patients with paralytic equinus complain of foot pain, the possibility of stress fracture of the navicular bone should be considered. PMID:25787097

Yoshikawa, Mari; Nakanishi, Yoshitaka; Kawamura, Yoshika; Matsuo, Keisuke; Saeki, Mitsuru; Wada, Futoshi

2015-03-01

395

A proposed multidisciplinary approach for identifying feeding abnormalities in children with cerebral palsy.  

PubMed

Children with neurodevelopmental disabilities, such as cerebral palsy, frequently have associated oral motor dysfunction, which leads to feeding difficulties, risk of aspiration, prolonged feeding times, and malnutrition with its attendant physical compromise. The authors propose a comprehensive multidisciplinary assessment, including neurological and dysphagia examination and ear, nose, and throat examination, to evaluate clinical indicators and severity of feeding impairment in children affected by neurodevelopmental disorders. A representative sample of 40 children with cerebral palsy (spastic, dyskinetic, or mixed), intellectual disability, and feeding problems was included in the study. A specific multidisciplinary evaluation and standardized mealtime observation in patients with cerebral palsy appear feasible and appropriate to recognize proactive indicators of dysphagia and to establish personalized programs of gastric and rehabilitative interventions. PMID:22019841

Santoro, Amelia; Lang, Maria Bianca Dasso; Moretti, Elena; Sellari-Franceschini, Stefano; Orazini, Laura; Cipriani, Paola; Cioni, Giovanni; Battini, Roberta

2012-06-01

396

Development of a quality-of-movement measure for children with cerebral palsy.  

PubMed

Development of a suitable measure of quality of movement, or gross motor performance, for children with cerebral palsy is a complex undertaking. A variety of conceptual, methodological, and practical issues inherent in such a project are discussed in this article. We report on the methodology used in the planning and construction of the Gross Motor Performance Measure. The measure has been developed by a multicenter, interdisciplinary group of therapists, methodologists, research staff, and international experts. Five attributes of gross motor performance have been defined, scaled, and operationalized. Results of content validity studies demonstrate that the measure has adequate completeness, clarity, and potential for evaluating change in quality of movement in children who have cerebral palsy. The measure is currently undergoing extensive testing to determine the reliability, validity, and responsiveness of the obtained scores. [Boyce WF, Gowland C, Hardy S, et al. Development of a quality-of-movement measure for children with cerebral palsy. PMID:1819256

Boyce, W F; Gowland, C; Hardy, S; Rosenbaum, P L; Lane, M; Plews, N; Goldsmith, C; Russell, D J

1991-11-01

397

Incidence and Risk Factors of C5 Palsy following Posterior Cervical Decompression: A Systematic Review  

PubMed Central

Background C5 palsy is a serious but poorly understood complication after posterior cervical decompression that could lead to muscle weakness, brachialgia and numbness of the upper limbs. The incidence of C5 palsy varies greatly between studies. The risk factors are inconclusive and even conflicting. Object To perform a systematic review on the incidence and risk factors of C5 palsy after posterior cervical decompression. Materials and Methods Four databases, PubMed, Embase, Web of Science and Cochrane CENTRAL, were searched to identify eligible studies. Either a fixed- or a random-effects model was used to calculate the pooled odd ratio (RR) or standardized mean difference (SMD) with its 95% confidence interval (95%CI). Results Of the 589 pre-recruited studies, 25 were included in this study for systematic review. The pooled incidence of C5 palsy after posterior decompression was 5.8% (95%CI: 4.4–7.2%). The incidence after open-door laminoplasty, double-door laminoplasty and laminectomy was 4.5%, 3.1% and 11.3%, respectively. The significant risk factors of C5 palsy were OPLL (OR, 2.188; 95%CI, 1.307–3.665), narrower intervertebral foramen (SMD, ?0.972; 95%CI, ?1.398 to ?0.545), laminectomy (vs. open-door laminoplasty, OR, 2.988; 95%CI, 1.298–6.876), excessive spinal cord drift (SMD, 1.289, 95%CI, 0,197–2.381) and male gender (OR, 1.54; 95%CI, 1.036–2.301). Conclusions The results of this systematic review suggest that patients with excessive spinal cord drift, preexisting intervertebral foramenal stenosis, OPLL, laminectomy and male gender are at high risk for postoperative C5 palsy, and risk-reduction options should be considered for such patients. PMID:25162509

Tian, Ye; Liang, Lei; Wang, Ce; Yang, Lili; Yuan, Wen

2014-01-01

398

Intrathecal baclofen treatment in dystonic cerebral palsy: a randomized clinical trial: the IDYS trial  

PubMed Central

Background Dystonic cerebral palsy is primarily caused by damage to the basal ganglia and central cortex. The daily care of these patients can be difficult due to dystonic movements. Intrathecal baclofen treatment is a potential treatment option for dystonia and has become common practice. Despite this widespread adoption, high quality evidence on the effects of intrathecal baclofen treatment on daily activities is lacking and prospective data are needed to judge the usefulness and indications for dystonic cerebral palsy. The primary aim of this study is to provide level one clinical evidence for the effects of intrathecal baclofen treatment on the level of activities and participation in dystonic cerebral palsy patients. Furthermore, we hope to identify clinical characteristics that will predict a beneficial effect of intrathecal baclofen in an individual patient. Methods/Design A double blind placebo-controlled multi-center randomized clinical trial will be performed in 30 children with dystonic cerebral palsy. Patients aged between 4 and 25 years old with a confirmed diagnosis of dystonic cerebral palsy, Gross Motor Functioning Classification System level IV or V, with lesions in the cerebral white matter, basal ganglia or central cortex and who are eligible for intrathecal baclofen treatment will be included. Group A will receive three months of continuous intrathecal baclofen treatment and group B will receive three months of placebo treatment, both via an implanted pump. After this three month period, all patients will receive intrathecal baclofen treatment, with a follow-up after nine months. The primary outcome measurement will be the effect on activities of and participation in daily life measured by Goal Attainment Scaling. Secondary outcome measurements on the level of body functions include dystonia, spasticity, pain, comfort and sleep-related breathing disorders. Side effects will be monitored and we will study whether patient characteristics influence outcome. Discussion The results of this study will provide data for evidence-based use of intrathecal baclofen in dystonic cerebral palsy. Trial registration Nederlands Trial Register, NTR3642 PMID:24165282

2013-01-01

399

Early diagnosis of zoster sine herpete and antiviral therapy for the treatment of facial palsy.  

PubMed

The effect of antiviral agents on recovery from facial palsy in patients with zoster sine herpete (ZSH; varicella zoster virus reactivation without zoster) has not been evaluated because ZSH is difficult to diagnose early after onset. In this study, all 13 patients who received acyclovir-prednisone treatment within 7 days of onset, as confirmed by a positive PCR result, showed complete recovery. PCR-based early diagnosis of ZSH and antiviral therapy elicited an excellent outcome for recovery from facial palsy due to ZSH. PMID:10980741

Furuta, Y; Ohtani, F; Mesuda, Y; Fukuda, S; Inuyama, Y

2000-09-12

400

A Case of Transient, Isolated Cranial Nerve VI Palsy due to Skull Base Osteomyelitis.  

PubMed

Otitis externa affects both children and adults. It is often treated with topical antibiotics, with good clinical outcomes. When a patient fails to respond to the treatment, otitis externa can progress to malignant otitis externa. The common symptoms of skull bone osteomyelitis include ear ache, facial pain, and cranial nerve palsies. However, an isolated cranial nerve is rare. Herein, we report a case of 54-year-old female who presented with left cranial nerve VI palsy due to skull base osteomyelitis which responded to antibiotic therapy. PMID:25045551

Patel, Brijesh; Souqiyyeh, Anas; Ali, Ammar

2014-01-01

401

Isolated Upgaze Palsy in a Patient with Vertebrobasilar Artery Dolichoectasia; a Case Report  

PubMed Central

Purpose To report isolated upgaze palsy in a patient with a dolichoectatic vertebrobasilar artery. Case Report We report a 48-year-old man who showed upgaze palsy and convergence insufficiency. The left vertebral artery and basilar artery were shown to be greatly expanded, elongated and tortuous in cranial magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). The vertebrobasilar artery runs along the sulcus basilaris superior to the pontomesencephalic junction. Conclusion A dolichoectatic basilar artery may result in compression of midbrain structures related to vertical gaze. PMID:24982741

Ortak, Huseyin; Tas, Ufuk; Aksoy, Durdane Bekar; Ayan, Erdo?an

2014-01-01

402

Cerebral palsy, epilepsy, and severe intellectual disability in a patient with 3q29 microduplication syndrome.  

PubMed

Interstitial microduplication of 3q29 has been recently described. Individuals with this syndrome have widely variable phenotypes. We describe the first clinical case with a 1.607 Mb duplication at 3q29 (chr3: 195,731,956-197,339,329), accompanied by severe intellectual disability, epilepsy, and cerebral palsy. This duplication involves 22 genes; PAK2, DLG1, BDH1, and FBXO45 are implicated in neuronal development and synaptic function and could play an important role in this syndrome. We propose considering genetic studies, particularly array comparative genomic hybridization, in patients with epilepsy and/or cerebral palsy of unknown etiology when dysmorphic features are present. PMID:24838842

Fernández-Jaén, Alberto; Castellanos, María del Carmen; Fernández-Perrone, Ana Laura; Fernández-Mayoralas, Daniel Martín; de la Vega, Alberto González; Calleja-Pérez, Beatriz; Fernández, Ester Corbacho; Albert, Jacobo; Hombre, María Carmen Sánchez

2014-08-01

403

A Case of Transient, Isolated Cranial Nerve VI Palsy due to Skull Base Osteomyelitis  

PubMed Central

Otitis externa affects both children and adults. It is often treated with topical antibiotics, with good clinical outcomes. When a patient fails to respond to the treatment, otitis externa can progress to malignant otitis externa. The common symptoms of skull bone osteomyelitis include ear ache, facial pain, and cranial nerve palsies. However, an isolated cranial nerve is rare. Herein, we report a case of 54-year-old female who presented with left cranial nerve VI palsy due to skull base osteomyelitis which responded to antibiotic therapy. PMID:25045551

Ali, Ammar

2014-01-01

404

Measuring quality of movement in cerebral palsy: a review of instruments.  

PubMed

There is a lack of appropriate evaluation instruments in the area of quality of movement in cerebral palsy. Ten measures of quality of movement, or gross motor performance, published between 1965 and 1990, were reviewed according to established criteria. These criteria include the purpose of the measure, validity, reliability, responsiveness, range of items, and description of qualitative components. These measures provide a foundation for further instrument development in the area of quality of movement. [Boyce WF, Gowland C, Rosenbaum PL, et al. Measuring quality of movement in cerebral palsy: a review of instruments. PMID:1946619

Boyce, W F; Gowland, C; Rosenbaum, P L; Lane, M; Plews, N; Goldsmith, C; Russell, D J; Wright, V; Zdrobov, S

1991-11-01

405

Cerebral Palsy and Growth Failure at 6 to 7 Years  

PubMed Central

OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the association between severity of cerebral palsy (CP) and growth to 6 to 7 years of age among children with moderate to severe (Mod/Sev) hypoxic ischemic encephalopathy (HIE). It was hypothesized that children with Mod/Sev CP would have poorer growth, lower cognitive scores, and increased rehospitalization rates compared with children with no CP (No CP). METHODS: Among 115 of 122 surviving children followed in the hypothermia trial for neonatal HIE, growth parameters and neurodevelopmental status at 18 to 22 months and 6 to 7 years were available. Group comparisons (Mod/Sev CP and No CP) with unadjusted and adjusted analyses for growth <10th percentile and z scores by using Fisher’s exact tests and regression modeling were conducted. RESULTS: Children with Mod/Sev CP had high rates of slow growth and cognitive and motor impairment and rehospitalizations at 18 to 22 months and 6 to 7 years. At 6 to 7 years of age, children with Mod/Sev CP had increased rates of growth parameters <10th percentile compared with those with No CP (weight, 57% vs 3%; height, 70% vs 2%; and head circumference, 82% vs 13%; P < .0001). Increasing severity of slow growth was associated with increasing age (P < .04 for weight, P < .001 for length, and P < .0001 for head circumference). Gastrostomy feeds were associated with better growth. CONCLUSIONS: Term children with HIE who develop Mod/Sev CP have high and increasing rates of growth <10th percentile by 6 to 7 years of age. These findings support the need for close medical and nutrition management of children with HIE who develop CP. PMID:24019415

Stephens, Bonnie E.; McDonald, Scott A.; Ehrenkranz, Richard A.; Laptook, Abbot R.; Pappas, Athina; Hintz, Susan R.; Shankaran, Seetha; Higgins, Rosemary D.; Das, Abhik

2013-01-01

406

Early Diagnosis and Early Intervention in Cerebral Palsy  

PubMed Central

This paper reviews the opportunities and challenges for early diagnosis and early intervention in cerebral palsy (CP). CP describes a group of disorders of the development of movement and posture, causing activity limitation that is attributed to disturbances that occurred in the fetal or infant brain. Therefore, the paper starts with a summary of relevant information from developmental neuroscience. Most lesions underlying CP occur in the second half of gestation, when developmental activity in the brain reaches its summit. Variations in timing of the damage not only result in different lesions but also in different neuroplastic reactions and different associated neuropathologies. This turns CP into a heterogeneous entity. This may mean that the best early diagnostics and the best intervention methods may differ for various subgroups of children with CP. Next, the paper addresses possibilities for early diagnosis. It discusses the predictive value of neuromotor and neurological exams, neuroimaging techniques, and neurophysiological assessments. Prediction is best when complementary techniques are used in longitudinal series. Possibilities for early prediction of CP differ for infants admitted to neonatal intensive care and other infants. In the former group, best prediction is achieved with the combination of neuroimaging and the assessment of general movements, in the latter group, best prediction is based on carefully documented milestones and neurological assessment. The last part reviews early intervention in infants developing CP. Most knowledge on early intervention is based on studies in high-risk infants without CP. In these infants, early intervention programs promote cognitive development until preschool age; motor development profits less. The few studies on early intervention in infants developing CP suggest that programs that stimulate all aspects of infant development by means of family coaching are most promising. More research is urgently needed. PMID:25309506

Hadders-Algra, Mijna

2014-01-01

407

Aculaser therapy for the treatment of cerebral palsy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A single, open and non comparative study was conducted at Anwar Shah Trust for C.P. & Paralysis in collaboration with the Departments of Neurology and Neurosurgery, Children Hospital Lahore, Pakistan to evaluate the effects of ACULASER THERAPY in childern suffering from Cerebral Palsy (C.P.) and associated Neurological Disorders like epilepsy, cortical blindness, spasticity, hemiplegia, paraplegia, diplegia, quadriplegia, monoplegia, sensoryneural deafness and speech disorders. In all 500 children were treated and the data was gathered during a period of 4 years from December 2006 till December 2010. These children were further classified according to the type of C.P. (spastic, athetoid, mixed) they suffered from and associated Neurological Disorders. This article shows results in C.P. childern who were treated with ACULASER THERAPY for a minimum of 08 weeks and more or had minimum of 15 treatment sessions and more. This article also shows that those childern who were given a break in the treatment for 1 month to 1 year did not show any reversal of the signs and symptoms. Analysis of the data showed that out of 342 children with Spasticity and Stiffness 294 showed marked improvement showing 87% success rate, out of 252 children with Epileptic fits, there was a significant reduction in the intensity, frequency and duration of Epileptic fits in 182 children showing 72% success rate, out of 96 children with Cortical Blindness 60 children showed improvement accounting for 63% efficacy rate, out of 210 children with Hearing Difficulties, 126 showed marked improvement accounting for 60% improvement rate, out of 380 children with Speech Disorders 244 showed improvement reflecting 64 % improvement rate, out of 192 children with Hemiplegia 142 showed improvement in movement, tone and power accounting for 74% improvement rate, out of 152 children with Quadriplegia 104 showed improvement in gross and fine motor functions showing 69% success rate and out of 116 children with Paraplegia of lower limbs 88 showed improvement in weight bearing, standing and movement accounting for 76% improvement rate.

Anwar, Shahzad; Nazir Khan, Malik M.; Nadeem Khan, Malik M.; Qazi, Faiza M.; Awan, Abid H.; Ammad, Haseeb U.

2012-03-01

408

Follow-up Study of Patients With Cerebral Palsy  

PubMed Central

Of 319 patients with cerebral palsy recalled for reevaluation 15 years after the initial visit, 10 percent had died. Of the living, 55 percent had spasticity, 32 percent had athetosis, 4 percent had ataxia and 9 percent had mixed spasticity and athetosis; 38 percent had an intelligence quotient (IQ) less than 50, 24 percent between 50 and 79, and 38 percent had IQ above 80. There was a high correlation between overall functional outcome and intellectual level. Severity of physical disability, as measured by hand use, mobility and speech, also correlated with dependence, in part because increased severity of the disability was associated with decreased intellectual capacity generally. Twenty-five years after the initial visit, parental attitudes and personality intactness were evaluated (using the Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory [MMPI]) and were correlated with satisfaction with status in life in 28 persons predicted to be independent on the 15-year study. Twenty (72 percent) of the 28 were satisfied with their status in life and of these, 16 were evaluated (with the MMPI) with 70 percent scoring in the normal range; 13 (65 percent) had parents with a positive attitude. Positive attitude was defined as parental feelings that the handicapped child was a worthy, valuable person, to be encouraged and assisted but not isolated from the world of nonhandicapped people. Careful serial assessment by professional teams combined with repeated long-term counseling of families can result in optimal outcome for the disability level involved, due to the primary role parents play in the development of a child's character and behavior. PMID:154207

Cohen, Peter; Kohn, Jean G.

1979-01-01

409

Characterization of tau oligomeric seeds in progressive supranuclear palsy  

PubMed Central

Background Progressive supranuclear palsy (PSP) is a neurodegenerative tauopathy which is primarily defined by the deposition of tau into globose-type neurofibrillary tangles (NFT). Tau in its native form has important functions for microtubule dynamics. Tau undergoes alternative splicing in exons 2, 3, and 10 which results in six different isoforms. Products of splicing on exon 10 are the most prone to mutations. Three repeat (3R) and four repeat (4R) tau, like other disease-associated amyloids, can form oligomers which may then go on to further aggregate and form fibrils. Recent studies from our laboratory and others have provided evidence that tau oligomers, not NFTs, are the most toxic species in neurodegenerative tauopathies and seed the pathological spread of tau. Results Analysis of PSP brain sections revealed globose-type NFTs, as well as both phosphorylated and unphosphorylated tau oligomers. Analysis of PSP brains via Western blot and ELISA revealed the presence of increased levels of tau oligomers compared to age-matched control brains. Oligomers were immunoprecipitated from PSP brain and were capable of seeding the oligomerization of both 3R and 4R tau isoforms. Conclusions This is the first time tau oligomers have been characterized in PSP. These results indicate that tau oligomers are an important component of PSP pathology, along with NFTs. The ability of PSP brain-derived tau oligomers to seed 3R and 4R tau suggests that these oligomers represent the pathological species responsible for disease propagation and the presence of oligomers in a pure neurodegenerative tauopathy implies a common neuropathological process for tau seen in diseases with other amyloid proteins. PMID:24927818

2014-01-01

410

Ocular disorders in children with spastic subtype of cerebral palsy  

PubMed Central

AIM To document common ocular abnormalities in children with spastic subtype of cerebral palsy (CP) and to find out whether any correlation exists between their occurance and etiologic factors. METHODS Totally 194 patients with the diagnosis of spastic type CP were enrolled in this retrospective study. Detailed ophthalmic examinations were performed. Demographic data and neuroradiological findings were documented. Kruskal-Wallis, Mann Whitney U, Pearson Chi-square tests and Student's t tests were used in the statistical analysis. RESULTS The mean age was 64.7±44.2 months on the first ophthalmic examination. Prevalences of diplegia (47.4%) and tetraplegia (36.1%) were found to be higher than the frequency of hemiplegia (16.5%) in our study population. Etiologic factor was asphyxia in 60.8% of the patients. Abnormal ocular findings were present in 78.9% of the patients. Statistically significant poor vision was detected in tetraplegia group among all the spastic ubtypes of CP (P=0.000). Anisometropia and significant refractive error were found in 14.4% and 70.1% of the patients, respectively. Thirty-six children (18.6%) had nystagmus and 107 children (55.2%) had strabismus. Lower gestational age and birth weight were statistically higher in patients with esotropia than exotropia (P=0.009 and P=0.024, respectively). Abnormal morphology of the optic disc was present in 152 eyes (39.2%). Severe periventricular leukomalacia (PVL) was found in 48 patients and statistically significant poor vision was detected in the presence of PVL (P=0.000). CONCLUSION Spastic diplegic or tetraplegic CP patients with positive neuroradiological symptoms, younger gestational age and lower birth weight ought to have detailed ophthalmic examinations as early as possible to provide best visual rehabilitation. PMID:23638425

Ozturk, A.Taylan; Berk, A.Tulin; Yaman, Aylin

2013-01-01

411

Early Intervention to Improve Hand Function in Hemiplegic Cerebral Palsy  

PubMed Central

Children with hemiplegic cerebral palsy often have marked hand involvement with excessive thumb adduction and flexion and limited active wrist extension from infancy. Post-lesional aberrant plasticity can lead to progressive abnormalities of the developing motor system. Disturbances of somatosensory and visual function and developmental disregard contribute to difficulties with hand use. Progressive soft tissue and bony changes may occur, leading to contractures, which further limit function in a vicious cycle. Early intervention might help to break this cycle, however, the precise nature and appropriateness of the intervention must be carefully considered. Traditional approaches to the hemiplegic upper limb include medications and botulinum toxin injections to manage abnormalities of tone, and surgical interventions. Therapist input, including provision of orthoses, remains a mainstay although many therapies have not been well evaluated. There has been a recent increase in interventions for the hemiplegic upper limb, mostly aimed outside the period of infancy. These include trials of constraint-induced movement therapy (CIMT) and bimanual therapy as well as the use of virtual reality and robot-assisted therapy. In future, non-invasive brain stimulation may be combined with therapy. Interventions under investigation in the infant age group include modified CIMT and action observation therapy. A further approach which may be suited to the infant with thumb-in-palm deformity, but which requires evaluation, is the use of elastic taping. Enhanced cutaneous feedback through mechanical stimulation to the skin provided by the tape during movement has been postulated to modulate ongoing muscle activity. If effective, this would represent a low-cost, safe, widely applicable early intervention. PMID:25610423

Basu, Anna Purna; Pearse, Janice; Kelly, Susan; Wisher, Vicki; Kisler, Jill

2015-01-01

412

Neuroradiological and Neurophysiological Characteristics of Patients With Dyskinetic Cerebral Palsy  

PubMed Central

Objective To investigate neuroradiological and neurophysiological characteristics of patients with dyskinetic cerebral palsy (CP), by using magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), voxel-based morphometry (VBM), diffusion tensor tractography (DTT), and motor evoked potential (MEP). Methods Twenty-three patients with dyskinetic CP (13 males, 10 females; mean age 34 years, range 16-50 years) were participated in this study. Functional evaluation was assessed by the Gross Motor Functional Classification System (GMFCS) and Barry-Albright Dystonia Scale (BADS). Brain imaging was performed on 3.0 Tesla MRI, and volume change of the grey matter was assessed using VBM. The corticospinal tract (CST) and superior longitudinal fasciculus (SLF) were analyzed by DTT. MEPs were recorded in the first dorsal interossei, the biceps brachii and the deltoid muscles. Results Mean BADS was 16.4±5.0 in ambulatory group (GMFCS levels I, II, and III; n=11) and 21.3±3.9 in non-ambulatory group (GMFCS levels IV and V; n=12). Twelve patients showed normal MRI findings, and eleven patients showed abnormal MRI findings (grade I, n=5; grade II, n=2; grade III, n=4). About half of patients with dyskinetic CP showed putamen and thalamus lesions on MRI. Mean BADS was 20.3±5.7 in normal MRI group and 17.5±4.0 in abnormal MRI group. VBM showed reduced volume of the hippocampus and parahippocampal gyrus. In DTT, no abnormality was observed in CST, but not in SLF. In MEPs, most patients showed normal central motor conduction time. Conclusion These results support that extrapyramidal tract, related with basal ganglia circuitry, may be responsible for the pathophysiology of dyskinetic CP rather than CST abnormality. PMID:24855613

Park, Byung-Hyun; Seo, Jeong-Hwan; Ko, Myoung-Hwan; Chung, Gyung-Ho

2014-01-01

413

Risk of Cerebral Palsy among the Offspring of Immigrants  

PubMed Central

Background Cerebral palsy (CP) has a multifactorial etiology, and placental vascular disease may be one major risk factor. The risk of placental vascular disease may be lower among some immigrant groups. We studied the association between immigrant status and the risk of CP. Methods We conducted a population-based retrospective cohort study of all singleton and twin livebirths in Ontario between 2002–2008, and who survived ?28 days after birth. Each child was assessed for CP up to age 4 years, based on either a single inpatient or ?2 outpatient pediatric diagnoses of CP. Relative to non-immigrants (n?=?566,668), the risk of CP was assessed for all immigrants (n?=?177,390), and further evaluated by World region of origin. Cox proportional hazard ratios (aHR) were adjusted for maternal age, income, diabetes mellitus, obesity, tobacco use, Caesarean delivery, year of delivery, physician visits, twin pregnancy, preterm delivery, as well as small- and large-for-gestational age birthweight. Results There were 1346 cases of CP, with a lower rate among immigrants (1.45 per 1000) than non-immigrants (1.92 per 1000) (aHR 0.77, 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.67 to 0.88). Mothers from East Asia and the Pacific (aHR 0.54, 95% CI 0.39 to 0.77) and the Caribbean (aHR 0.58, 95% CI 0.37 to 0.93) were at a significantly lower risk of having a child with CP. Whether further adjusting for preeclampsia, gestational hypertension, placental abruption or placental infraction, or upon using a competing risk analysis that further accounted for stillbirth and neonatal death, these results did not change. Conclusions Immigration and ethnicity appear to attenuate the risk of CP, and this effect is not fully explained by known risk factors. PMID:25019202

Ray, Joel G.; Redelmeier, Donald A.; Urquia, Marcelo L.; Guttmann, Astrid; McDonald, Sarah D.; Vermeulen, Marian J.

2014-01-01

414

Cosmetic appreciation of lateralization of peripheral facial palsy: 'preference for left or right, true or mirror image?'.  

PubMed

There have been several studies in the past depicting asymmetry in 'normal' human faces. Evidence supports the fact that the right hemisphere is superior in the recognition of emotions expressed by the human face and indicates a right hemispheric specialization for processing emotional information. The primary aim of this study is to determine whether there is a difference in cosmetic appreciation of a left peripheral facial palsy compared to a right peripheral facial palsy? Pictures of patients with a facial palsy with House-Brackmann II-VI were reversed as a mirror image and offered as a pair of pictures, together with the true image. Forty-two patients and 24 medical professionals familiar with facial palsy were asked to choose the most attractive photograph. The primary 'end' point was the most attractive side in the pictures chosen by medical professionals and patients. The secondary 'end' points consisted of the preferences for the mirror or true image, and influences of the House-Brackmann score and age. Medical professionals preferred the photographs from patients with a right and left peripheral facial palsy (PFP) in, respectively, a mean of 44 % (41-48 %) and 56 % (52-59 %) of the pictures (p = 0.02). When comparing mirror and true image, patients with a left-sided facial palsy chose their mirror and true image as most attractive in 90 and 10 %, respectively (p < 0.05). Patients with a right-sided facial palsy chose their mirror and true image in 30 and 70 %, respectively (p > 0.05). Subanalysis of patients with a PFP House-Brackmann score V and VI showed that medical professionals did not have a significant preference for a left nor right-sided facial palsy. Patients with a left-sided facial palsy chose their mirror image in all cases and patients with a right-sided palsy chose their mirror and true image in resp. 33 and 67 %. The House-Brackmann score (p = 0.52) and age (p = 0.73) of the patients did not influence preferences. This study, demonstrating that medical professionals find a right-sided facial palsy cosmetically less attractive than a left-sided, has clinical relevance. Patients, especially with a left-sided facial palsy, tend to choose for their mirror image, although this choice seems to be influenced by hemispheric specialization and familiarity. PMID:24173239

Pouwels, Sjaak; Ingels, Koen; van Heerbeek, Niels; Beurskens, Carien

2014-09-01

415

Ocular Rotation Axes during Dynamic Bielschowsky Head-Tilt Testing in Unilateral Trochlear Nerve Palsy  

E-print Network

PURPOSE. To explain the positive Bielschowsky head-tilt (BHT) sign in unilateral trochlear nerve palsy (u (dynamic BHT). Three- dimensional eye movements were recorded with dual search coils. Normal data were of the covered paretic or unaffected eye during dynamic BHT are a direct consequence of the nasal deviation

Haslwanter, Thomas

416

Complications after Selective Posterior Rhizotomy for Spasticity in Children with Cerebral Palsy  

Microsoft Academic Search

Selective dorsal rhizotomy (SDR) has been shown to be an effective treatment for the spasticity of cerebral palsy, but few studies have addressed specifically the side effects of the procedure. A retrospective study was performed to determine the frequency and nature of complications in 158 children who had undergone SDR at British Columbia’s Children’s Hospital from 1987 to 1996. Intraoperative,

Paul Steinbok; Christiaan Schrag

1998-01-01

417

The updated European Consensus 2009 on the use of Botulinum toxin for children with cerebral palsy  

Microsoft Academic Search

An interdisciplinary European group of clinical experts in the field of movement disorders and experienced Botulinum toxin users has updated the consensus for the use of Botulinum toxin in the treatment of children with cerebral palsy (CP). A problem-orientated approach was used focussing on both published and practice-based evidence. In part I of the consensus the authors have tabulated the

Florian Heinen; Kaat Desloovere; A. Sebastian Schroeder; Steffen Berweck; Ingo Borggraefe; Anya van Campenhout; Guro L. Andersen; Resa Aydin; Jules G. Becher; Günther Bernert; Ignacio Martinez Caballero; Lucinda Carr; Emmanuelle Chaleat Valayer; Maria Teresa Desiato; Charlie Fairhurst; Paul Filipetti; Ralph-Ingo Hassink; Ulf Hustedt; Marek Jozwiak; Serdar Ibrahim Kocer; Elisabeth Kolanowski; Ingeborg Krägeloh-Mann; ?ehim Kutlay; Helena Mäenpää; Volker Mall; Paul McArthur; Edith Morel; Antigone Papavassiliou; Ignacio Pascual-Pascual; Søren Anker Pedersen; Frank S. Plasschaert; Irene van der Ploeg; Olivier Remy-Neris; Anne Renders; Guiseppe Di Rosa; Maja Steinlin; Kristina Tedroff; Joan Vidal Valls; Elke Viehweger; Guy Molenaers

2010-01-01

418

European consensus table 2006 on botulinum toxin for children with cerebral palsy  

Microsoft Academic Search

An interdisciplinary group of experienced botulinum toxin users and experts in the field of movement disorders was assembled, to develop a consensus on best practice for the treatment of cerebral palsy using a problem-orientated approach to integrate theories and methods. The authors tabulated the supporting evidence to produce a condensed but comprehensive information base, pooling data and experience from nine

Florian Heinen; Guy Molenaers; Charlie Fairhurst; Lucinda J. Carr; Kaat Desloovere; Emmanuelle Chaleat Valayer; Edith Morel; Antigone S. Papavassiliou; Kristina Tedroff; S. Ignacio Pascual-Pascual; Günther Bernert; Steffen Berweck; Guiseppe Di Rosa; Elisabeth Kolanowski; Ingeborg Krägeloh-Mann

2006-01-01

419

Epitope expression and hyperphosphorylation of tau protein in corticobasal degeneration: differentiation from progressive supranuclear palsy  

Microsoft Academic Search

Corticobasal degeneration (CBD) is a rare, progressive neurological disorder characterized by widespread neuronal and glial accumulation of abnormal tau protein. Using immunohistochemistry we analyzed tau epitope expression and phosphorylation state in CBD and compared them to cytoskeletal changes in Alzheimer's disease (AD) and progressive supranuclear palsy (PSP). Epitopes spanning the entire length of the tau protein were present in CBD

M. B. Feany; H. Ksiezak-Reding; W.-K. Liu; I. Vincent; S.-H. C. Yen; D. W. Dickson

1995-01-01

420

Behavioural and Emotional Symptoms of Preschool Children with Cerebral Palsy: A Population-Based Study  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Aim: To describe behavioural and emotional symptoms among Icelandic preschool children with cerebral palsy (CP). Method: Children with congenital CP, assessed with the Child Behavior Checklist/1 1/2-5 (CBCL/1 1/2-5) and Caregiver-Teacher Report Form (C-TRF), were enrolled in the study. A comparison group was recruited from the general population.…

Sigurdardottir, Solveig; Indredavik, Marit S.; Eiriksdottir, Audur; Einarsdottir, Katrin; Gudmundsson, Halldor S.; Vik, Torstein

2010-01-01

421

Transient Delayed Facial Nerve Palsy After Inferior Alveolar Nerve Block Anesthesia  

PubMed Central

Facial nerve palsy, as a complication of an inferior alveolar nerve block anesthesia, is a rarely reported incident. Based on the time elapsed, from the moment of the injection to the onset of the symptoms, the paralysis could be either immediate or delayed. The purpose of this article is to report a case of delayed facial palsy as a result of inferior alveolar nerve block, which occurred 24 hours after the anesthetic administration and subsided in about 8 weeks. The pathogenesis, treatment, and results of an 8-week follow-up for a 20-year-old patient referred to a private maxillofacial clinic are presented and discussed. The patient's previous medical history was unremarkable. On clinical examination the patient exhibited generalized weakness of the left side of her face with a flat and expressionless appearance, and she was unable to close her left eye. One day before the onset of the symptoms, the patient had visited her dentist for a routine restorative procedure on the lower left first molar and an inferior alveolar block anesthesia was administered. The patient's medical history, clinical appearance, and complete examinations led to the diagnosis of delayed facial nerve palsy. Although neurologic occurrences are rare, dentists should keep in mind that certain dental procedures, such as inferior alveolar block anesthesia, could initiate facial nerve palsy. Attention should be paid during the administration of the anesthetic solution. PMID:22428971

Tzermpos, Fotios H.; Cocos, Alina; Kleftogiannis, Matthaios; Zarakas, Marissa; Iatrou, Ioannis

2012-01-01

422

Rapid diagnosis of varicella zoster virus infection in acute facial palsy.  

PubMed

Patients with zoster sine herpete and Ramsay Hunt syndrome without pathognomonic vesicles at the initial visit are often misdiagnosed with Bell's palsy and treated without antiviral agents. With PCR, we found that varicella zoster virus genomes were frequently detectable in auricular skin exudate from patients with zoster sine herpete or Ramsay Hunt syndrome before the appearance of vesicles. PMID:9781562

Murakami, S; Honda, N; Mizobuchi, M; Nakashiro, Y; Hato, N; Gyo, K

1998-10-01

423

Trends in Prevalence and Characteristics of Cerebral Palsy among Icelandic Children Born 1990 to 2003  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Aim: To describe trends in cerebral palsy (CP) prevalence, severity, and associated impairments among 139 Icelandic children (65 males, 74 females) born from 1990 to 1996 (period one) and 1997 to 2003 (period two). Method: A population-based study using systematically collected data on motor functioning and associated impairments of children with…

Sigurdardottir, Solveig; Thorkelsson, Thordur; Halldorsdottir, Margret; Thorarensen, OLafur; Vik, Torstein

2009-01-01

424

Voluntary muscle activation, contractile properties, and fatigability in children with and without cerebral palsy  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cerebral palsy (CP) may lead to profound weakness in af- fected portions of the extremities and trunk. Knowing the mechanisms underlying muscle weakness will help to better design interventions for increasing force production in children with CP. This study quantified volun- tary muscle activation, contractile properties, and fatigability of the quadri- ceps femoris and triceps surae in children with and

Scott K. Stackhouse; Stuart A. Binder-Macleod; Samuel C. K. Lee

2005-01-01

425

Spinal anaesthesia for orthopaedic surgery in children with cerebral palsy: Analysis of 36 patients  

PubMed Central

Background and Objective: Cerebral palsy is one of the most common childhood neuromuscular diseases in the world. Spinal anaesthesia in children is an evolving technique with many advantages in perioperative management. The aim of this retrospective study was to provide first-hand reports of children with cerebral palsy who underwent orthopaedic surgery under spinal anaesthesia. Methods: Records of the children with cerebral palsy who underwent orthopaedic surgery under spinal anaesthesia between May 2012 and June 2013 at Selcuk University Hospital were investigated. In all patients, lumbar puncture was performed in lateral decubitus position with mask sevoflurane-nitrous oxide anaesthesia. In patients who were calm prior the spinal block, inhalation anaesthesia was terminated. In patients who were restless before the spinal block, anaesthesia was combined with light sevoflurane anaesthesia and a laryngeal mask. From anaesthesia records, the number of attempts required to complete the lumbar puncture, and the success rates of spinal anaesthesia and perioperative complications were noted. Data were expressed as numbers and percentages. Results: The study included 36 patients (20 girls and 16 boys). The mean age was 71 months. The rate of reaching subarachnoid space on first attempt was 86%. In all patients, spinal anaesthesia was considered successful. In 26 patients, laryngeal mask and light sevoflurane anaesthesia were required to maintain ideal surgical conditions. No major perioperative complications were observed. Conclusion: Spinal anaesthesia alone or combined with light sevoflurane anaesthesia is a reliable technique with high success rates in children with cerebral palsy undergoing orthopaedic surgery.

Onal, Ozkan; Apiliogullari, Seza; Gunduz, Ergun; Celik, Jale Bengi; Senaran, Hakan

2015-01-01

426

Communicative Competence as Perceived by Adults with Severe Speech Impediments Associated with Cerebral Palsy.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Twelve nonambulatory adults with severe speech impairments associated with cerebral palsy were studied to examine the effects of aided-message length (single-word vs. phrase-generated messages) and partner feedback on perceptions of communicative competence while using an adult augmentative and alternative communication system. Results indicated…

Bedrosian, Jan L.; Hoag, Linda A.; Johnson, Dallas; Calculator, Stephen N.

1998-01-01

427

Augmentative Communication Modes Taught to Cerebral Palsied Children: Findings from a Longitudinal Study.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The impact of augmentative systems on the communicative abilities of two groups of young cerebral palsied children (total N=40) who were learning either Blissymbols or Makaton Signing was evaluated. Results indicated no significant differences between the systems and slow progress and severe limitations in sign/symbol repertoires of most children.…

Udwin, Orlee; Yule, William

1987-01-01

428

Communication Breakdown at Home and at School in Young Children with Cerebral Palsy and Severe Disabilities  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Data about communication breakdown were gathered through interviews of care providers and mailed surveys of special education teachers and speech and language pathologists of 17 children with cerebral palsy and significant language delay. Most care providers indicated that children used personalized communication systems and that these frequently…

Snell, Martha E.; Chen, Lih-Yuan; Allaire, Janet H.; Park, Eunhye

2008-01-01

429

Positioning Students with Cerebral Palsy to Use Augmentative and Alternative Communication.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The paper provides basic information about positioning for augmentative and alternative communication, by reviewing some of the communication needs of students severely disabled by cerebral palsy. The wheelchair is proposed as the primary position for use of a communication aid, and guidelines are presented for good wheelchair positioning. (JDD)

McEwen, Irene R.; Lloyd, Lyle L.

1990-01-01

430

Digital Games and Assistive Technology: Improvement of Communication of Children with Cerebral Palsy  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper aims to analyze the frequency of occurrence of different forms of communication in nonspeaking children during activities with digital games. The participants in this study were three children with multiple disabilities, whose limitations were due to cerebral palsy. All the children had severe oral communication disabilities. Three…

Ferreira, Maria Inês Jesus; Travassos, Xisto Lucas; Sampaio, Renelson; Pereira-Guizzo, Camila de Sousa

2013-01-01

431

Aided Communication Intervention before Assessment: A Case Study of a Child with Cerebral Palsy.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The case study of a six-year-old nonspeaking girl with severe cerebral palsy demonstrated the effectiveness of intervention with augmentative and alternative communication methods. Both picture symbol communication and functional speech emerged and the child, initially believed to be mentally retarded, was determined to be of normal intelligence.…

Goossens, Carol

1989-01-01

432

Neuromuscular Adaptations to Eccentric Strength Training in Children and Adolescents with Cerebral Palsy  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Aim: To determine the neuromuscular outcomes of an eccentric strength-training programme for children and adolescents with cerebral palsy (CP). Method: In this randomised, parallel-group trial with waiting control, 14 participants with CP (six males, eight females; mean age 11y, SD 2y range 9-15y), diagnosed with upper-limb spasticity were…

Reid, Siobhan; Hamer, Peter; Alderson, Jacqueline; Lloyd, David

2010-01-01

433

Comprehensive Quantification of the Spastic Catch in Children with Cerebral Palsy  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In clinical settings, the spastic catch is judged subjectively. This study assessed the psychometric properties of objective parameters that define and quantify the severity of the spastic catch in children with cerebral palsy (CP). A convenience sample of children with spastic CP (N = 46; age range: 4-16 years) underwent objective spasticity…

Lynn, Bar-On; Erwin, Aertbelien; Guy, Molenaers; Herman, Bruyninckx; Davide, Monari; Ellen, Jaspers; Anne, Cazaerck; Kaat, Desloovere

2013-01-01

434

Children with Spastic Cerebral Palsy, Their Cognitive Functioning, and Social Participation: A Review  

Microsoft Academic Search

White matter lesions are often seen in children with spastic cerebral palsy (CP). Evidence points to specific impairment of attentional, visuospatial, and executive functions; although both attention and executive functions are relatively unexplored in spastic CP. The few recent studies on language functions in mild or moderate CP point to well-functioning language. The presence of specific cognitive impairments may, in

Louise Bottcher

2010-01-01

435

Trends in perinatal mortality and cerebral palsy in Western Australia, 1967 to 1985  

Microsoft Academic Search

OBJECTIVE--To analyse the trends in stillbirths, neonatal deaths, and cerebral palsy in all infants born in Western Australia from 1967 to 1985. To relate these trends to changes in perinatal care, particularly in relation to avoidance of intrapartum asphyxia in term infants and the increased survival of low birthweight infants. DESIGN--Descriptive epidemiological study calculating population rates for perinatal deaths and

F. J. Stanley; L. Watson

1992-01-01

436

Being in Pain: A Phenomenological Study of Young People with Cerebral Palsy  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study explored the experience and impact of chronic pain on the lives of adolescents and young adults with cerebral palsy (CP). Six participants with CP (four males, two females; age range 14-24y) who were known to experience chronic pain participated in individual in-depth interviews. Five participants had quadriplegia and used wheelchairs;…

Castle, Kirstyn; Imms, Christine; Howie, Linsey

2007-01-01

437

Recurrent 6th nerve palsy in a child following different live attenuated vaccines: case report  

PubMed Central

Background Recurrent benign 6th nerve palsy in the paediatric age group is uncommon, but has been described following viral and bacterial infections. It has also been temporally associated with immunization, but has not been previously described following two different live attenuated vaccines. Case presentation A case is presented of a 12 month old Caucasian boy with recurrent benign 6th nerve palsy following measles-mumps-rubella and varicella vaccines, given on separate occasions with complete recovery following each episode. No alternate underlying etiology was identified despite extensive investigations and review. Conclusions The majority of benign 6th nerve palsies do not have a sinister cause and have an excellent prognosis, with recovery expected in most cases. The exact pathophysiology is unknown, although hypotheses including autoimmune mechanisms and direct viral invasion could explain the pathophysiology behind immunization related nerve palsies. It is important to rule out other aetiologies with thorough history, physical examination and investigations. There is limited information in the literature regarding the safety of a repeat dose of a live vaccine in this setting. Future immunizations should be considered on a case-by-case basis. PMID:22545865

2012-01-01

438

Assessment of Postural Control in Children with Cerebral Palsy: A Review  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper aimed to review studies that assessed postural control (PC) in children with cerebral palsy (CP) and describe the methods used to investigate postural control in this population. It also intended to describe the performance of children with CP in postural control. An extensive database search was performed using the keywords: postural…

Pavao, Silvia Leticia; dos Santos, Adriana Neves; Woollacott, Marjorie Hines; Rocha, Nelci Adriana Cicuto Ferreira

2013-01-01

439

Effect of task constraint on reaching performance in children with spastic diplegic cerebral palsy  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purposes of the study were to examine the effect of task constraint on the reaching performance in children with spastic cerebral palsy (CP) and to examine the correlations between the reaching performance and postural control. Eight children with CP and 16 typically developing (TD) children participated in the study. They performed a reach-and-return task with a seated posture on

Yun-Huei Ju; Jia-Yuan You; Rong-Ju Cherng

2010-01-01

440

Effect of Task Constraint on Reaching Performance in Children with Spastic Diplegic Cerebral Palsy  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The purposes of the study were to examine the effect of task constraint on the reaching performance in children with spastic cerebral palsy (CP) and to examine the correlations between the reaching performance and postural control. Eight children with CP and 16 typically developing (TD) children participated in the study. They performed a…

Ju, Yun-Huei; You, Jia-Yuan; Cherng, Rong-Ju

2010-01-01

441

Medical Expenditures Attributable to Cerebral Palsy and Intellectual Disability among Medicaid-Enrolled Children  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study estimated medical expenditures attributable to cerebral palsy (CP) among children enrolled in Medicaid, stratified by the presence of co-occurring intellectual disability (ID), relative to children without CP or ID. The MarketScan[R] Medicaid Multi-State database was used to identify children with CP for 2003-2005 by using the…

Kancherla, Vijaya; Amendah, Djesika D.; Grosse, Scott D.; Yeargin-Allsopp, Marshalyn; Van Naarden Braun, Kim

2012-01-01

442

Assessment of Specific Characteristics of Abnormal General Movements: Does It Enhance the Prediction of Cerebral Palsy?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Aim: Abnormal general movements at around 3 months corrected age indicate a high risk of cerebral palsy (CP). We aimed to determine whether specific movement characteristics can improve the predictive power of definitely abnormal general movements. Method: Video recordings of 46 infants with definitely abnormal general movements at 9 to 13 weeks…

Hamer, Elisa G.; Bos, Arend F.; Hadders-Algra, Mijna

2011-01-01

443

Assessment of Quality of Life Needs of Children With Mild Hemiplegic Cerebral Palsy  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study sought to assess the quality of life and psychosocial needs of children with mild hemiplegic cerebral palsy (CP) as part of improving overall clinical management. Children aged 5 to 17 years old (N = 20), with mild hemiplegic CP, completed the Pediatric Quality of Life (PedsQL™) inventory short form; a subsample of children and their parents also completed

Laura J. Spincola Moore; John P. Allegrante; Michael Palma; Jennifer Lewin; Michelle G. Carlson

2010-01-01

444

Perception-Action and Adaptation in Postural Control of Children and Adolescents with Cerebral Palsy  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The aim of this study was to examine the coupling between visual information and body sway and the adaptation in this coupling of individuals with cerebral palsy (CP). Fifteen children with and 15 without CP, 6-15 years old, were required to stand upright inside of a moving room. All children first performed two trials with no movement of the room…

Barela, Jose A.; Focks, Grietje M. Jaspers; Hilgeholt, Toke; Barela, Ana M. F.; Carvalho, Raquel de P.; Savelsbergh, Geert J. P.

2011-01-01

445

Developing and Validating the Communication Function Classification System for Individuals with Cerebral Palsy  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Aim: The purpose of this study was to create and validate the Communication Function Classification System (CFCS) for children with cerebral palsy (CP), for use by a wide variety of individuals who are interested in CP. This paper reports the content validity, interrater reliability, and test-retest reliability of the CFCS for children with CP.…

Hidecker, Mary Jo Cooley; Paneth, Nigel; Rosenbaum, Peter L.; Kent, Raymond D.; Lillie, Janet; Eulenberg, John B.; Chester, Ken, Jr.; Johnson, Brenda; Michalsen, Lauren; Evatt, Morgan; Taylor, Kara

2011-01-01

446

Functional Seating for School-Age Children with Cerebral Palsy: An Evidence-Based Tutorial  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Purpose: This tutorial is designed to teach speech-language pathologists (SLPs) best practices to support functional seating of children with cerebral palsy (CP) in the classroom and in school-based therapy sessions. This tutorial teaches SLPs to (a) recognize the positive effects of seating intervention, (b) identify the characteristics of…

Costigan, F. Aileen; Light, Janice

2011-01-01

447

Context Therapy: A New Intervention Approach for Children with Cerebral Palsy  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Aim: To describe the development of context therapy, a new intervention approach designed for a randomized controlled trial. Method: Therapists were trained to change task and environmental factors to achieve parent-identified functional goals for children with cerebral palsy. Therapists did not provide any remediation strategies to change the…

Darrah, Johanna; Law, Mary C.; Pollock, Nancy; Wilson, Brenda; Russell, Dianne J.; Walter, Stephen D.; Rosenbaum, Peter; Galuppi, Barb

2011-01-01

448

Intensive Voice Treatment (LSVT LOUD) for Children with Spastic Cerebral Palsy and Dysarthria  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Purpose: The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of an intensive voice treatment (Lee Silverman Voice Treatment, commonly known as LSVT LOUD) for children with spastic cerebral palsy (CP) and dysarthria. Method: A nonconcurrent multiple baseline single-subject design with replication across 5 children with spastic CP was used.…

Fox, Cynthia Marie; Boliek, Carol Ann

2012-01-01

449

Gait Patterns in Hemiplegic Children with Cerebral Palsy: Comparison of Right and Left Hemiplegia  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The aims of this study are to compare quantitatively the gait strategy of the right and left hemiplegic children with Cerebral Palsy (CP) using gait analysis. The gait strategy of 28 right hemiparetic CP (RHG) and 23 left hemiparetic CP (LHG) was compared using gait analysis (spatio-temporal and kinematic parameters) and considering the hemiplegic…

Galli, Manuela; Cimolin, Veronica; Rigoldi, Chiara; Tenore, Nunzio; Albertini, Giorgio

2010-01-01

450

Phrenic nerve palsy associated with birth trauma--case reports and a literature review.  

PubMed

Phrenic nerve palsy is a peripheral nerve disorder caused by excessive cervical extension due to birth trauma or cardiac surgery. We describe two new patients with phrenic nerve palsy associated with birth trauma. Both patients exhibited profound dyspnea and general hypotonia immediately after birth. A chest roentgenogram and fluoroscopy revealed elevation of the diaphragm, leading to a diagnosis of phrenic nerve palsy associated with birth trauma. Since they had intermittently exhibited dyspnea and recurrent infection, we performed video-assisted thoracoscopic surgery (VATS) plication in both cases, at an early and a late stage, respectively. Both patients subsequently exhibited a dramatic improvement in dyspnea and recurrent respiratory infection. Interestingly, the late stage operated infant exhibited spontaneous recovery at 7 months with cessation of mechanical ventilation once. However, this recovery was transient and subsequently led to an increased ventilation volume demand, finally resulting in surgical treatment at 15 months. Histological examination of the diaphragm at this time showed grouped muscle atrophy caused by phrenic nerve degeneration. To our knowledge, this is the first pathologically proven report of grouped muscle atrophy of the diaphragm due to phrenic nerve degeneration, suggesting that partial impairment of phrenic nerves resulted in respiratory dysfunction with incomplete recovery. We conclude that recently developed VATS plication is a safe and effective treatment for infants with phrenic nerve palsy, and should be considered as a surgical treatment at an early period. PMID:22742777

Shiohama, Tadashi; Fujii, Katsunori; Hayashi, Masaharu; Hishiki, Tomoro; Suyama, Maiko; Mizuochi, Hiromi; Uchikawa, Hideki; Yoshida, Shigetoshi; Yoshida, Hideo; Kohno, Yoichi

2013-04-01

451

Obstetric Brachial Plexus Palsy in Newborn Babies of Diabetic and Non-Diabetic Mothers  

Microsoft Academic Search

Compared to non-diabetic mothers, diabetic mothers are known to deliver larger babies who are at higher risk for shoulder dystocia and obstetric brachial plexus palsy. The intrapartum forces applied during delivery of larger babies are expected to be higher. Hence, the chances of these babies for good spontaneous recovery are expected to be lower; and this is a generally believed

M. M. Al-Qattan; A. A. F. El-Sayed; A. Y. Al-Zahrani; S. A. Al-Mutairi; M. S. Al-Harbi; A. M. Al-Mutairi; F. S. Al-Kahtani

2010-01-01

452

Effectiveness of physical therapy interventions for children with cerebral palsy: A systematic review  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: To assess the effectiveness of physical therapy (PT) interventions on functioning in children with cerebral palsy (CP). METHODS: A search was made in Medline, Cinahl, PEDro and the Cochrane library for the period 1990 to February 2007. Only randomized controlled trials (RCTs) on PT interventions in children with diagnosed CP were included. Two reviewers independently assessed the methodological quality

Heidi Anttila; Ilona Autti-Rämö; Jutta Suoranta; Marjukka Mäkelä; Antti Malmivaara

2008-01-01

453

Efficacy of cold therapy on spasticity and hand function in children with cerebral palsy  

Microsoft Academic Search

Spasticity remains a major cause of disability among children with cerebral palsy (CP). Effective management depends on careful assessment and an interdisciplinary treatment approach. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of cold therapy when used in combination with conventional physical and occupational therapy to control upper limbs’ spasticity and to improve hand function in children with

Gehan M. Abd El-Maksoud; Moussa A. Sharaf; Soheir S. Rezk-Allah

2011-01-01

454

Anterior Interosseous Nerve Palsy After Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation in a Resuscitator with Undiagnosed Muscle Anomaly  

Microsoft Academic Search

echniques for cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) are now widely taught, not only to medical staff but also to the general public. At the same time, risks to the administrator of CPR, such as infec- tion, postraumatic disorder, and myocardial ischemia (1-3) have also been reported. We report a case of anterior interosseous nerve (AIN) palsy after admin- istration of CPR in

Ayumi Shimokawa; Shingo Tateyama; Yukio Shimizu; Ikuo Muramatsu; Mayumi Takasaki

2001-01-01

455

Ambulatory Activity of Children with Cerebral Palsy: Which Characteristics Are Important?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Aim: To assess ambulatory activity of children with cerebral palsy (CP), aged 7 to 13 years, and identify associated characteristics. Method: Sixty-two children with spastic CP (39 males, 23 females; mean age 10y 1mo, SD 1y 8mo; age range 7-13y), classified as Gross Motor Function Classification System (GMFCS) levels I to III, participated.…

van Wely, Leontien; Becher, Jules G.; Balemans, Astrid C. J.; Dallmeijer, Annet J.

2012-01-01

456

A Predictive Mathematical Model of Muscle Forces for Children with Cerebral Palsy  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Aim: The purpose of this study was to determine if our previously developed muscle model could be used to predict forces of the quadriceps femoris and triceps surae muscles of children with spastic diplegic cerebral palsy (CP). Method: Twenty-two children with CP (12 males, 10 females; mean age 10y, SD 2y, range 7-13y; Gross Motor Function…

Lee, Samuel C. K.; Ding, Jun; Prosser, Laura A.; Wexler, Anthony S.; Binder-Macleod, Stuart A.

2009-01-01

457

Dance program for physical rehabilitation and participation in children with cerebral palsy  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: This pilot study aimed to examine a classical ballet program created for children with cerebral palsy (CP) as an emerging physical rehabilitation modality. The main program goals were to promote participation and to provide an artistic, physically therapeutic activity. Methods: The study was conducted in collaboration with a tertiary rehabilitation hospital, one outpatient physical therapy clinic, and one community

Citlali López-Ortiz; Kim Gladden; Laura Deon; Jennifer Schmidt; Gay Girolami; Deborah Gaebler-Spira

2011-01-01

458

Dance program for physical rehabilitation and participation in children with cerebral palsy  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: This pilot study aimed to examine a classical ballet program created for children with cerebral palsy (CP) as an emerging physical rehabilitation modality. The main program goals were to promote participation and to provide an artistic, physically therapeutic activity. Methods: The study was conducted in collaboration with a tertiary rehabilitation hospital, one outpatient physical therapy clinic, and one community

Citlali López-Ortiz; Kim Gladden; Laura Deon; Jennifer Schmidt; Gay Girolami; Deborah Gaebler-Spira

2012-01-01

459

Single dose intravenous methyl prednisolone versus oral prednisolone in Bell's palsy: A randomized controlled trial  

PubMed Central

Objectives: Corticosteroids have been used in the treatment of Bell's palsy and several other postinfectious neurological conditions. We hypothesized that administration of a single dose of intravenous (IV) methylprednisolone might be an effective alternative to oral prednisolone. Materials and Methods: In this open label, randomized trial, patients with acute Bell's palsy were randomized into two groups. One group received single dose (500 mg) of IV methylprednisolone while the other group received 10 days of oral prednisone. Outcome was assessed at 1 and 3 months with House–Brackmann scale. Results: At 3 months, 93 (79.48%) patients had completely recovered. IV methylprednisolone and oral prednisolone groups had similar recovery rates (80% vs. 78.33%, P > 0.05). Patients with Grade 2 and 3 recovered completely. In patients with Grade 6, the recovery rate was 20%. A better outcome was observed if corticosteroids were administered within 3 days of onset of palsy. Conclusion: Intravenous methylprednisolone and oral prednisolone showed equivalent benefit in patients with acute Bell's palsy. PMID:25878371

Giri, Prithvi; Garg, Ravindra Kumar; Singh, Maneesh Kumar; Verma, Rajesh; Malhotra, Hardeep Singh; Sharma, Praveen Kumar

2015-01-01

460

A Systematic Review of Common Physiotherapy Interventions in School-Aged Children with Cerebral Palsy  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This systematic review focused on the common conventional physiotherapy interventions used with children with cerebral palsy (CP), aged 4 to 18 years, and critically appraised the recent evidence of each of these interventions using the Oxford Centre for Evidence-Based Medicine Levels of Evidence. The search strategy yielded 34 articles after…

Martin, Liz; Baker, Richard; Harvey, Adrienne

2010-01-01

461

Leisure Activity Preferences for 6- To 12-Year-Old Children with Cerebral Palsy  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Aim: The objective was to describe leisure activity preferences of children with cerebral palsy (CP) and their relationship to participation. Factors associated with greater interest in leisure activities were identified. Method: Fifty-five school-aged children (36 males, 19 females; mean age 9y 11mo; range 6y 1mo-12y 11mo) with CP (Gross Motor…

Majnemer, Annette; Shikako-Thomas, Keiko; Chokron, Nathalie; Law, Mary; Shevell, Michael; Chilingaryan, Gevorg; Poulin, Chantal; Rosenbaum, Peter

2010-01-01

462

Neurotropic viruses and cerebral palsy: population based case-control study  

PubMed Central

Objective To investigate the association between cerebral palsy and direct evidence for perinatal exposure to neurotropic viruses. Design Population based case-control study. Setting Adelaide Women's and Children's Hospital Research Laboratory. Participants and main outcome measures Newborn screening cards of 443 white case patients with cerebral palsy and 883 white controls were tested for viral nucleic acids from enteroviruses and herpes viruses by using polymerase chain reaction. Herpes group A viruses included herpes simplex viruses 1 and 2 (HSV-1 and HSV-2), Epstein-Barr virus (EBV), cytomegalovirus (CMV), and human herpes virus 8 (HHV-8), and herpes group B viruses included varicella zoster virus (VZV) and human herpes viruses 6 and 7 (HHV-6 and HHV-7). Results The prevalence of viral nucleic acids in the control population was high: 39.8% of controls tested positive, and the prevalence was highest in preterm babies. The detection of herpes group B viral nucleic acids increased the risk of developing cerebral palsy (odds ratio 1.68, 95% confidence interval 1.09 to 2.59). Conclusions Perinatal exposure to neurotropic viruses is associated with preterm delivery and cerebral palsy. PMID:16399770

Gibson, Catherine S; MacLennan, Alastair H; Goldwater, Paul N; Haan, Eric A; Priest, Kevin; Dekker, Gustaaf A

2006-01-01

463

Recommendations for the use of botulinum toxin type A in the management of cerebral palsy  

Microsoft Academic Search

Botulinum toxin type A (BTX-A) is increasingly being used for the treatment of childhood spasticity, particularly cerebral palsy. However, until very recently, all such use in this indication has been unapproved with no generally accepted treatment protocols, resulting in considerable uncertainty and variation in its use as a therapeutic agent. In view of the increasing awareness of, and interest in,

H. Kerr Graham; K. Roger Aoki; Ilona Autti-Rämö; Roslyn N Boyd; Mauricio R Delgado; Deborah J Gaebler-Spira; Mark E Gormley; Barry M Guyer; Florian Heinen; Andrew F Holton; Dennis Matthews; Guy Molenaers; Francesco Motta; Pedro J Garc??a Ruiz; Jörg Wissel

2000-01-01

464

Prevalence of feeding problems and oral motor dysfunction in children with cerebral palsy: A community survey  

Microsoft Academic Search

OBJECTIVE: To determine the prevalence and nature of feeding difficulties and oral motor dysfunction among a representative sample of 49 children with cerebral palsy (12 to 72 months of age). STUDY DESIGN: A population survey was undertaken by means of a combination of interview and home observational measures. RESULTS: Sucking (57%) and swallowing (38%) problems in the first 12 months

Sheena Reilly; David Skuse; Ximena Poblete

1996-01-01

465

Enabling the Children with Cerebral Palsy to Interact Seluk ARTUT, PhD  

E-print Network

Enabling the Children with Cerebral Palsy to Interact Selçuk ARTUT, PhD Sabanci University Abstract of children between the ages of 4 to 7 living with Cerebral Palsyn (CP) who are studying at the TSCF (Turkish Spastic Children Foundation - www.tscv.org.tr) institution. Keywords Human Computer Interaction, Cerebral

Yanikoglu, Berrin

466

A Fourth Type of Brachial Plexus Lesion: The Intermediate (C7) Palsy  

Microsoft Academic Search

A new type of brachial plexus lesion has been defined to be added to the classical types, i.e. the upper (Duchenne Erb), the lower (Dejerine Klumpke) and the total type. This new type is the intermediate palsy. The lesion is a partial involvement of the plexus, the predominant lesion of which involves C7 with a variable involvement of the upper

G. A. BRUNELLI; G. R. BRUNELLI

1991-01-01

467

Rotation osteotomy of the humerus for Erb's palsy in children with humeral head deformity  

Microsoft Academic Search

The most common secondary deformity in older children with Erb's birth palsy is internal rotation contracture of the shoulder. The results of external rotation osteotomy of the humerus in a selected series of children with shoulder internal rotation contracture are reported. Fifteen consecutive patients with a mean age of 6.5 years were included. In all children the internal rotation contracture

Mohammad M. Al-Qattan

2002-01-01

468

Brachial plexus palsy associated with cesarean section: An in utero injury?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: Brachial plexus injury may be unrelated to manipulations performed at the time of delivery, occurring in the absence of shoulder dystocia and in the posterior arm of infants with anterior shoulder dystocia. To further support the hypothesis that some of these nerve injuries appear to be of intrauterine origin, we present a series of brachial plexus palsies associated with

Robert B. Gherman; T. Murphy Goodwin; Joseph G. Ouzounian; David A. Miller; Richard H. Paul

1997-01-01

469

Energy Efficiency in Gait, Activity, Participation, and Health Status in Children with Cerebral Palsy  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The aim of the study was to establish if a relationship exists between the energy efficiency of gait, and measures of activity limitation, participation restriction, and health status in a representative sample of children with cerebral palsy (CP). Secondary aims were to investigate potential differences between clinical subtypes and gross motor…

Kerr, Claire; Parkes, Jackie; Stevenson, Mike; Cosgrove, Aidan P.; McDowell, Brona C.

2008-01-01

470

The Influence of Motor Impairment on Autonomic Heart Rate Modulation among Children with Cerebral Palsy  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The study of heart rate variability is an important tool for a noninvasive evaluation of the neurocardiac integrity. The present study aims to evaluate the autonomic heart rate modulation in supine and standing positions in 12 children diagnosed with cerebral palsy and 16 children with typical motor development (control group), as well as to…

Zamuner, Antonio Roberto; Cunha, Andrea Baraldi; da Silva, Ester; Negri, Ana Paola; Tudella, Eloisa; Moreno, Marlene Aparecida

2011-01-01

471

Brain Structure and Executive Functions in Children with Cerebral Palsy: A Systematic Review  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This systematic review aimed to establish the current knowledge about brain structure and executive function (EF) in children with cerebral palsy (CP). Five databases were searched (up till July 2012). Six articles met the inclusion criteria, all included structural brain imaging though no functional brain imaging. Study quality was assessed using…

Weierink, Lonneke; Vermeulen, R. Jeroen; Boyd, Roslyn N.

2013-01-01

472

Quality of Life of Adolescents with Cerebral Palsy: Perspectives of Adolescents and Parents  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Quality of life (QOL) has emerged over the past 20 years as an outcome for measuring the effectiveness of health-improvement interventions. The Cerebral Palsy Quality of Life Questionnaire for Children (CPQOL-Child) is well regarded and now integrated into research internationally. We describe the results of qualitative research, using grounded…

Davis, Elise; Shelly, Amy; Waters, Elizabeth; MacKinnon, Andrew; Reddihough, Dinah; Boyd, Roslyn; Graham, H. Kerr

2009-01-01

473

Physical Activity in a Total Population of Children and Adolescents with Cerebral Palsy  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The aims of this study were to describe the participation in physical activity of children with cerebral palsy (CP) at school and during leisure time and to identify characteristics associated with physical activity. The frequency of receiving physiotherapeutic interventions were described as a variable of interest. A total population of 364…

Lauruschkus, Katarina; Westbom, Lena; Hallstrom, Inger; Wagner, Philippe; Nordmark, Eva

2013-01-01

474

Mirror Visual Feedback Induces Lower Neuromuscular Activity in Children with Spastic Hemiparetic Cerebral Palsy  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The study examined the effects of mirror feedback information on neuromuscular activation during bimanual coordination in eight children with spastic hemiparetic cerebral palsy (SHCP) and a matched control group. The "mirror box" creates a visual illusion, which gives rise to a visual perception of a zero lag, symmetric movement between the two…

Feltham, Max G.; Ledebt, Annick; Deconinck, Frederik J. A.; Savelsbergh, Geert J. P.

2010-01-01

475

Muscle Force and Range of Motion as Predictors of Standing Balance in Children with Cerebral Palsy  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Children with cerebral palsy frequently receive therapeutic intervention to remediate standing balance deficits. Evaluation of the impairments associated with poor balance could facilitate more effective treatment programs. This study evaluated the relationship between lower extremity force production, range of motion and standing balance in…

Lowes, Linda Pax; Westcott, Sarah L.; Palisano, Robert J.; Effgen, Susan K.; Orlin, Margo N.

2004-01-01

476

Characterization of Spasticity in Cerebral Palsy: Dependence of Catch Angle on Velocity  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Aim: To evaluate spasticity under controlled velocities and torques in children with cerebral palsy (CP) using a manual spasticity evaluator. Method: The study involved 10 children with spastic CP (six males, four females; mean age 10y 1mo, SD 2y 9mo, range 7-16y; one with quadriplegia, six with right hemiplegia, three with left hemiplegia; Gross…

Wu, Yi-Ning; Ren, Yupeng; Goldsmith, Ashlee; Gaebler, Deborah; Liu, Shu Q.; Zhang, Li-Qun

2010-01-01

477

Physical therapy with drug treatment in bell palsy: a focused review.  

PubMed

The physical therapy (PT) associated with standard drug treatment (SDT) in Bell palsy has never been investigated. Randomized controlled trials or quasirandomized controlled trials have compared facial PT (except treatments such as acupuncture and osteopathic) combined with SDT against a control group with SDT alone. Participants included those older than 15 yrs with a clinical diagnosis of Bell palsy, and the primary outcome measure was motor function recovery by the House-Brackmann scale. The methodologic quality of each study was also independently assessed by two reviewers using the PEDro scale. Four studies met the inclusion criteria. Three trials indicate that PT in association with SDT supports higher motor function recovery than SDT alone between 15 days and 1 yr of follow-up. On the other hand, one trial showed that electrical stimulation added to conventional PT with SDT did not influence treatment outcomes. The present review suggests that the current practice of Bell palsy treatment by PT associated with SDT seems to have a positive effect on grade and time recovery compared with SDT alone. However, there is very little quality evidence from randomized controlled trials, and such evidence is insufficient to decide whether combined treatment is beneficial in the management of Bell palsy. PMID:25785922

Ferreira, Margarida; Marques, Elisa E; Duarte, José A; Santos, Paula C

2015-04-01

478

Neuro-Ophthalmological Disorders in Cerebral Palsy: Ophthalmological, Oculomotor, and Visual Aspects  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Aim: Cerebral visual impairment (CVI) is a disorder caused by damage to the retrogeniculate visual pathways. Cerebral palsy (CP) and CVI share a common origin: 60 to 70% of children with CP also have CVI. We set out to describe visual dysfunction in children with CP. A further aim was to establish whether different types of CP are associated with…

Fazzi, Elisa; Signorini, Sabrina G.; La Piana, Roberta; Bertone, Chiara; Misefari, Walter; Galli, Jessica; Balottin, Umberto; Bianchi, Paolo Emilio

2012-01-01

479

Epilepsy in Hemiplegic Cerebral Palsy Due to Perinatal Arterial Ischaemic Stroke  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Aim: The aim of this study was to describe the frequency, risk factors, manifestations, and outcome of epilepsy in children with hemiplegic cerebral palsy (CP) due to perinatal arterial ischaemic stroke (AIS). Method: The study group comprised 63 participants (41 males, 22 females) from a population-based CP register whose brain imaging showed…

Wanigasinghe, Jithangi; Reid, Susan M.; Mackay, Mark T.; Reddihough, Dinah S.; Harvey, A. Simon; Freeman, Jeremy L.

2010-01-01

480

Relationships between Respiratory Muscle Strength and Daily Living Function in Children with Cerebral Palsy  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Cerebral palsy (CP) is a common childhood disorder characterized by motor disability. Children with CP are at risk of developing significant respiratory problems associated with insufficient respiratory muscle strength. It is crucial to identify important factors which are associated with the limitations in daily living function in such children.…

Wang, Hui-Yi; Chen, Chien-Chih; Hsiao, Shih-Fen

2012-01-01

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