Sample records for pressure vessel stress

  1. Discontinuity stresses in metallic pressure vessels

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1971-01-01

    The state of the art, criteria, and recommended practices for the theoretical and experimental analyses of discontinuity stresses and their distribution in metallic pressure vessels for space vehicles are outlined. The applicable types of pressure vessels include propellant tanks ranging from main load-carrying integral tank structure to small auxiliary tanks, storage tanks, solid propellant motor cases, high pressure gas bottles, and pressurized cabins. The major sources of discontinuity stresses are discussed, including deviations in geometry, material properties, loads, and temperature. The advantages, limitations, and disadvantages of various theoretical and experimental discontinuity analysis methods are summarized. Guides are presented for evaluating discontinuity stresses so that pressure vessel performance will not fall below acceptable levels.

  2. Stress analysis and evaluation of a rectangular pressure vessel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rezvani, M. A.; Ziada, H. H.; Shurrab, M. S.

    1992-10-01

    This study addresses structural analysis and evaluation of an abnormal rectangular pressure vessel, designed to house equipment for drilling and collecting samples from Hanford radioactive waste storage tanks. It had to be qualified according to ASME boiler and pressure vessel code, section 8; however, it had the cover plate bolted along the long face, a configuration not addressed by the code. Finite element method was used to calculate stresses resulting from internal pressure; these stresses were then used to evaluate and qualify the vessel. Fatigue is not a concern; thus, it can be built according to section 8, division 1 instead of division 2. Stress analysis was checked against the code. A stayed plate was added to stiffen the long side of the vessel.

  3. Strain limit dependence on stress triaxiality for pressure vessel steel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Deng, Y.-C.; Chen, G.; Yang, X.-F.; Xu, T.

    2009-08-01

    In this paper, the failure characteristics of pressure vessel materials were investigated, and measurement and analysis approaches for ductile fracture strains were studied. Based on uniaxial tensile tests of notched round bar specimens, combined with finite element analyses and microscopic observations of fracture surface, the relationships between the stress triaxiality factor and the ductile fracture strain are proposed for three typical Chinese pressure vessel steels, 16MnR, Q235 and 0Cr18Ni9. The comparison of experimental fracture strains with the multiaxial strain limit specified in ASME VIII-2 2007 shows that the strain limit criterion of ASME is suitable for carbon steels but not suitable for austenitic stainless steels for Chinese pressure vessel steels. To improve the calculation accuracy for fracture strain of materials and to develop the strain limit criterion for Chinese pressure vessel materials, more experimental studies and numerical analyses on fracture strain are necessary.

  4. Composite Overwrap Pressure Vessels: Mechanics and Stress Rupture Lifting Philosophy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thesken, John C.; Murthy, Pappu L. N.; Phoenix, S. L.

    2009-01-01

    The NASA Engineering and Safety Center (NESC) has been conducting an independent technical assessment to address safety concerns related to the known stress rupture failure mode of filament wound pressure vessels in use on Shuttle and the International Space Station. The Shuttle s Kevlar-49 (DuPont) fiber overwrapped tanks are of particular concern due to their long usage and the poorly understood stress rupture process in Kevlar-49 filaments. Existing long term data show that the rupture process is a function of stress, temperature and time. However due to the presence of load sharing liners and the complex manufacturing procedures, the state of actual fiber stress in flight hardware and test articles is not clearly known. Indeed nonconservative life predictions have been made where stress rupture data and lifing procedures have ignored the contribution of the liner in favor of applied pressure as the controlling load parameter. With the aid of analytical and finite element results, this paper examines the fundamental mechanical response of composite overwrapped pressure vessels including the influence of elastic plastic liners and degraded/creeping overwrap properties. Graphical methods are presented describing the non-linear relationship of applied pressure to Kevlar-49 fiber stress/strain during manufacturing, operations and burst loadings. These are applied to experimental measurements made on a variety of vessel systems to demonstrate the correct calibration of fiber stress as a function of pressure. Applying this analysis to the actual qualification burst data for Shuttle flight hardware revealed that the nominal fiber stress at burst was in some cases 23 percent lower than what had previously been used to predict stress rupture life. These results motivate a detailed discussion of the appropriate stress rupture lifing philosophy for COPVs including the correct transference of stress rupture life data between dissimilar vessels and test articles.

  5. Composite Overwrap Pressure Vessels: Mechanics and Stress Rupture Lifing Philosophy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thesken, John C.; Murthy, Pappu L. N.; Phoenix, Leigh

    2007-01-01

    The NASA Engineering and Safety Center (NESC) has been conducting an independent technical assessment to address safety concerns related to the known stress rupture failure mode of filament wound pressure vessels in use on Shuttle and the International Space Station. The Shuttle's Kevlar-49 fiber overwrapped tanks are of particular concern due to their long usage and the poorly understood stress rupture process in Kevlar-49 filaments. Existing long term data show that the rupture process is a function of stress, temperature and time. However due to the presence of load sharing liners and the complex manufacturing procedures, the state of actual fiber stress in flight hardware and test articles is not clearly known. Indeed non-conservative life predictions have been made where stress rupture data and lifing procedures have ignored the contribution of the liner in favor of applied pressure as the controlling load parameter. With the aid of analytical and finite element results, this paper examines the fundamental mechanical response of composite overwrapped pressure vessels including the influence of elastic-plastic liners and degraded/creeping overwrap properties. Graphical methods are presented describing the non-linear relationship of applied pressure to Kevlar-49 fiber stress/strain during manufacturing, operations and burst loadings. These are applied to experimental measurements made on a variety of vessel systems to demonstrate the correct calibration of fiber stress as a function of pressure. Applying this analysis to the actual qualification burst data for Shuttle flight hardware revealed that the nominal fiber stress at burst was in some cases 23% lower than what had previously been used to predict stress rupture life. These results motivate a detailed discussion of the appropriate stress rupture lifing philosophy for COPVs including the correct transference of stress rupture life data between dissimilar vessels and test articles.

  6. Residual stresses in weld deposited clad pressure vessels and nozzles

    SciTech Connect

    Jones, D.P.; Mabe, W.R. [Westinghouse Electric Co., West Mifflin, PA (United States); Shadley, J.R.; Rybicki, E.F. [Univ. of Tulsa, OK (United States)

    1998-04-01

    Results of through-thickness residual stress measurements are provided for a variety of samples of weld deposited 308/309L stainless steel and Alloy 600 cladding on low-alloy pressure vessel ferritic steels. Clad thicknesses between 5 and 9mm on samples that vary in thickness from 45 to 200mm were studied. The samples were taken from flat plates, from a spherical head of a pressure vessel, from a ring-segment of a nozzle bore, and from the transition radius between a nozzle and a pressure vessel shell. A layer removal method was used to measure the residual stresses. The effects of uncertainties in elastic constants (Young`s modulus and Poisson`s ratio) as well as experimental error are assessed. All measurements were done at room temperature. The results of this work indicate that curvature plays a significant role in cladding residual stress and that tensile residual stresses as high as the yield stress can be measured in the cladding material. Since the vessel from which the spherical and nozzle corner samples were taken was hydrotested, and the flat plate specimens were taken from specimens used in mechanical fatigue testing, these results suggest that rather high tensile residual stresses can be retained in the cladding material even after some mechanical loading associated with hydrotesting and that higher levels of hydrotest loading would be required to alter the cladding residual stresses.

  7. Residual Stress Measurements of Explosively Clad Cylindrical Pressure Vessels

    SciTech Connect

    Taylor, Douglas J [TPL, Inc; Watkins, Thomas R [ORNL; Hubbard, Camden R [ORNL; Hill, M. R. [Hill Engineering; Meith, W. A. [Hill Engineering

    2012-01-01

    Tantalum refractory liners were explosively clad into cylindrical pressure vessels, some of which had been previously autofrettaged. Using explosive cladding, the refractory liner formed a metallurgical bond with the steel of the pressure vessel at a cost of induced strain. Two techniques were employed to determine the residual stress state of the clad steel cylinders: neutron diffraction and mechanical slitting. Neutron diffraction is typically nondestructive; however, due to attenuation along the beam path, the cylinders had to be sectioned into rings that were nominally 25 mm thick. Slitting is a destructive method, requiring the sectioning of the cylindrical samples. Both techniques provided triaxial stress data and useful information on the effects of explosive cladding. The stress profiles in the hoop and radial directions were similar for an autofrettaged, nonclad vessel and a clad, nonautofrettaged vessel. The stress profiles in the axial direction appeared to be different. Further, the data suggested that residual stresses from the autofrettage and explosive cladding processes were not additive, in part due to evidence of reverse yielding. The residual stress data are presented, compared and discussed.

  8. RESIDUAL STRESS DISTRIBUTIONS FOR MULTI-PASS WELDS IN PRESSURE VESSEL AND PIPING COMPONENTS

    E-print Network

    Michaleris, Panagiotis

    RESIDUAL STRESS DISTRIBUTIONS FOR MULTI-PASS WELDS IN PRESSURE VESSEL AND PIPING COMPONENTS stresses on multi-pass welds. The simulation involves performing thermo-elasto-plastic analyses using a consistent element activation approach in the mechanical analysis. A compendium of residual stress

  9. Stress and Fracture Mechanics Analyses of Boiling Water Reactor and Pressurized Water Reactor Pressure Vessel Nozzles

    SciTech Connect

    Yin, Shengjun [ORNL; Bass, Bennett Richard [ORNL; Stevens, Gary [U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission; Kirk, Mark [NRC

    2011-01-01

    This paper describes stress analysis and fracture mechanics work performed to assess boiling water reactor (BWR) and pressurized water reactor (PWR) nozzles located in the reactor pressure vessel (RPV) adjacent to the core beltline region. Various RPV nozzle geometries were investigated: 1. BWR recirculation outlet nozzle; 2. BWR core spray nozzle3 3. PWR inlet nozzle; ; 4. PWR outlet nozzle; and 5. BWR partial penetration instrument nozzle. The above nozzle designs were selected based on their proximity to the core beltline region, i.e., those nozzle configurations that are located close enough to the core region such that they may receive sufficient fluence prior to end-of-license (EOL) to require evaluation as part of establishing the allowed limits on heatup, cooldown, and hydrotest (leak test) conditions. These nozzles analyzed represent one each of the nozzle types potentially requiring evaluation. The purpose of the analyses performed on these nozzle designs was as follows: To model and understand differences in pressure and thermal stress results using a two-dimensional (2-D) axi-symmetric finite element model (FEM) versus a three-dimensional (3-D) FEM for all nozzle types. In particular, the ovalization (stress concentration) effect of two intersecting cylinders, which is typical of RPV nozzle configurations, was investigated; To verify the accuracy of a selected linear elastic fracture mechanics (LEFM) hand solution for stress intensity factor for a postulated nozzle corner crack for both thermal and pressure loading for all nozzle types; To assess the significance of attached piping loads on the stresses in the nozzle corner region; and To assess the significance of applying pressure on the crack face with respect to the stress intensity factor for a postulated nozzle corner crack.

  10. Stress analysis and evaluation of a rectangular pressure vessel. [For equipment for sampling Hanford tank radwaste

    SciTech Connect

    Rezvani, M.A.; Ziada, H.H. (Westinghouse Hanford Co., Richland, WA (United States)); Shurrab, M.S. (Westinghouse Savannah River Co., Aiken, SC (United States))

    1992-10-01

    This study addresses structural analysis and evaluation of an abnormal rectangular pressure vessel, designed to house equipment for drilling and collecting samples from Hanford radioactive waste storage tanks. It had to be qualified according to ASME boiler and pressure vessel code, Section VIII; however, it had the cover plate bolted along the long face, a configuration not addressed by the code. Finite element method was used to calculate stresses resulting from internal pressure; these stresses were then used to evaluate and qualify the vessel. Fatigue is not a concern; thus, it can be built according to Section VIII, Division I instead of Division 2. Stress analysis was checked against the code. A stayed plate was added to stiffen the long side of the vessel.

  11. Residual stress analysis of autofrettaged thick-walled spherical pressure vessel M. Maleki a,*, G.H. Farrahi a

    E-print Network

    Vaziri, Ashkan

    Residual stress analysis of autofrettaged thick-walled spherical pressure vessel M. Maleki a,*, G stress Extended variable material properties method Optimum autofrettage pressure a b s t r a c t In this study, residual stress distributions in autofrettaged homogenous spherical pressure vessels sub- jected

  12. Residual stresses in weld-deposited clad pressure vessels and nozzles

    SciTech Connect

    Jones, D.P.; Mabe, W.R.; Shadley, J.R.; Rybicki, E.F.

    1999-11-01

    Results of through-thickness residual stress measurements are provided for a variety of samples of weld-deposited 308/309L stainless steel and Alloy 600 cladding on low-alloy pressure vessel ferritic steels. Clad thicknesses between 5 and 9 mm on samples that vary in thickness from 45 to 200 mm were studied. The samples were taken from flat plates, from a spherical head of a pressure vessel, from a ring-segment of a nozzle bore, and from the transition radium between a nozzle and a pressure vessel shell. A layer removal method was used to measure the residual stresses. The effects of uncertainties in elastic constants (Young's modulus and Poisson's ratio) as well as experimental error are assessed. All measurements were done at room temperature. The results of this work indicate that curvature plays a significant role in cladding residual stress and that tensile residual stresses as high as the yield stress can be measured in the cladding material. Since the vessel from which the spherical and nozzle corner samples were taken was hydrotested, and the flat plate specimens were taken from specimens used in mechanical fatigue testing, these results suggest that rather high tensile residual stresses can be retained in the cladding material, even after some mechanical loading associated with hydrotesting.

  13. Composite Overwrapped Pressure Vessels (COPV) Stress Rupture Test: Part 2. Part 2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Russell, Richard; Flynn, Howard; Forth, Scott; Greene, Nathanael; Kezirian, Michael; Varanauski, Don; Leifeste, Mark; Yoder, Tommy; Woodworth, Warren

    2010-01-01

    One of the major concerns for the aging Space Shuttle fleet is the stress rupture life of composite overwrapped pressure vessels (COPVs). Stress rupture life of a COPY has been defined as the minimum time during which the composite maintains structural integrity considering the combined effects of stress levels and time. To assist in the evaluation of the aging COPVs in the Orbiter fleet an analytical reliability model was developed. The actual data used to construct this model was from testing of COPVs constructed of similar, but not exactly same materials and pressure cycles as used on Orbiter vessels. Since no actual Orbiter COPV stress rupture data exists the Space Shuttle Program decided to run a stress rupture test to compare to model predictions. Due to availability of spares, the testing was unfortunately limited to one 40" vessel. The stress rupture test was performed at maximum operating pressure at an elevated temperature to accelerate aging. The test was performed in two phases. The first phase, 130 F, a moderately accelerated test designed to achieve the midpoint of the model predicted point reliability. A more aggressive second phase, performed at 160 F, was designed to determine if the test article will exceed the 95% confidence interval ofthe model. In phase 3, the vessel pressure was increased to above maximum operating pressure while maintaining the phase 2 temperature. After reaching enough effectives hours to reach the 99.99% confidence level of the model phase 4 testing began when the temperature was increased to greater than 170 F. The vessel was maintained at phase 4 conditions until it failed after over 3 million effect hours. This paper will discuss the results of this test, it's implications and possible follow-on testing.

  14. Stress-intensity-factor influence coefficients for surface flaws in pressure vessels

    Microsoft Academic Search

    D. G. Ball; B. R. Bass; J. W. Bryson; R. D. Cheverton; J. B. Drake

    1985-01-01

    In the fracture-mechanics analysis of reactor pressure vessels, stress-intensity-factor influence coefficients are used in conjunction with superposition techniques to reduce the cost of calculating stress-intensity factors. The present study uses a finite-element code, together with a virtual crack extension technique, to obtain influence coefficients for semielliptical surface flaws in a cylinder, and particular emphasis was placed on mesh convergence (less

  15. Stress-intensity-factor influence coefficients for semielliptical inner-surface flaws in clad pressure vessels

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. A. Keeney; J. W. Bryson

    1995-01-01

    A problem of particular interest in pressure vessel technology is the calculation of accurate stress-intensity factors for semielliptical surface cracks in cylinders. Computing costs for direct solution techniques can be prohibitive when applied to three-dimensional (3-D) geometries with time-varying boundary conditions such as those associated with pressurized thermal shock. An alternative superposition technique requires the calculation of a set of

  16. Stress corrosion cracking of low-alloy reactor pressure vessel steels under boiling water reactor conditions

    Microsoft Academic Search

    H. P. Seifert; S. Ritter

    2008-01-01

    The stress corrosion cracking (SCC) behaviour of different reactor pressure vessel (RPV) steels and weld filler\\/heat-affected zone materials was characterized under simulated boiling water reactor (BWR) normal water (NWC) and hydrogen water chemistry (HWC) conditions by periodical partial unloading, constant and ripple load tests with pre-cracked fracture mechanics specimens. The experiments were performed in oxygenated or hydrogenated high-purity or sulphate\\/chloride

  17. Design prediction for long term stress rupture service of composite pressure vessels

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Robinson, Ernest Y.

    1992-01-01

    Extensive stress rupture studies on glass composites and Kevlar composites were conducted by the Lawrence Radiation Laboratory beginning in the late 1960's and extending to about 8 years in some cases. Some of the data from these studies published over the years were incomplete or were tainted by spurious failures, such as grip slippage. Updated data sets were defined for both fiberglass and Kevlar composite stand test specimens. These updated data are analyzed in this report by a convenient form of the bivariate Weibull distribution, to establish a consistent set of design prediction charts that may be used as a conservative basis for predicting the stress rupture life of composite pressure vessels. The updated glass composite data exhibit an invariant Weibull modulus with lifetime. The data are analyzed in terms of homologous service load (referenced to the observed median strength). The equations relating life, homologous load, and probability are given, and corresponding design prediction charts are presented. A similar approach is taken for Kevlar composites, where the updated stand data do show a turndown tendency at long life accompanied by a corresponding change (increase) of the Weibull modulus. The turndown characteristic is not present in stress rupture test data of Kevlar pressure vessels. A modification of the stress rupture equations is presented to incorporate a latent, but limited, strength drop, and design prediction charts are presented that incorporate such behavior. The methods presented utilize Cartesian plots of the probability distributions (which are a more natural display for the design engineer), based on median normalized data that are independent of statistical parameters and are readily defined for any set of test data.

  18. AN IMPROVED TREATMENT OF RESIDUAL STRESSES IN FLAW ASSESSMENT OF PIPES AND PRESSURE VESSELS FABRICATED FROM FERRITIC STEELS

    E-print Network

    Michaleris, Panagiotis

    FABRICATED FROM FERRITIC STEELS William C. Mohr, Panagiotis Michaleris, and Mark T. Kirk Edison Welding for an improved treatment of residual stresses produced by welding in pipes and pressure vessels fabricated from ferritic steels. Information on these residual stresses are drawn from the literature; both measured

  19. Stress Corrosion Cracking and Fatigue Crack Growth Studies Pertinent to Spacecraft and Booster Pressure Vessels

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hall, L. R.; Finger, R. W.

    1972-01-01

    This experimental program was divided into two parts. The first part evaluated stress corrosion cracking in 2219-T87 aluminum and 5Al-2.5Sn (ELI) titanium alloy plate and weld metal. Both uniform height double cantilever beam and surface flawed specimens were tested in environments normally encountered during the fabrication and operation of pressure vessels in spacecraft and booster systems. The second part studied compatibility of material-environment combinations suitable for high energy upper stage propulsion systems. Surface flawed specimens having thicknesses representative of minimum gage fuel and oxidizer tanks were tested. Titanium alloys 5Al-2.5Sn (ELI), 6Al-4V annealed, and 6Al-4V STA were tested in both liquid and gaseous methane. Aluminum alloy 2219 in the T87 and T6E46 condition was tested in fluorine, a fluorine-oxygen mixture, and methane. Results were evaluated using modified linear elastic fracture mechanics parameters.

  20. Hydrogen Cracking and Stress Corrosion of Pressure Vessel Steel ASTM A543

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    AlShawaf, Ali Hamad

    The purpose of conducting this research is to develop fundamental understanding of the weldability of the modern Quenched and Tempered High Strength Low Alloy (Q&T HSLA) steel, regarding the cracking behavior and susceptibility to environmental cracking in the base metal and in the heat affected zone (HAZ) when welded. A number of leaking cracks developed in the girth welds of the pressure vessel after a short time of upgrading the material from plain carbon steel to Q&T HSLA steel. The new vessels were constructed to increase the production of the plant and also to save weight for the larger pressure vessel. The results of this research study will be used to identify safe welding procedure and design more weldable material. A standardized weldability test known as implant test was constructed and used to study the susceptibility of the Q&T HSLA steel to hydrogen cracking. The charged hydrogen content for each weld was recorded against the applied load during weldability testing. The lack of understanding in detail of the interaction between hydrogen and each HAZ subzone in implant testing led to the need of developing the test to obtain more data about the weldability. The HAZ subzones were produced using two techniques: standard furnace and GleebleRTM machine. These produced subzones were pre-charged with hydrogen to different levels of concentration. The hydrogen charging on the samples simulates prior exposure of the material to high humidity environment during welding process. Fractographical and microstructural characterization of the HAZ subzones were conducted using techniques such as SEM (Scanning Electron Microscopy). A modified implant test using the mechanical tensile machine was also used to observe the effects of the hydrogen on the cracking behavior of each HAZ subzone. All the experimental weldability works were simulated and validated using a commercial computational software, SYSWELD. The computational simulation of implant testing of Q&T HSLA with the previously used plain carbon steel and other currently used pressure vessel steels was successfully completed. The experimental and computational results of the Q&T HSLA steel agreed well with each other. The susceptibility of the Q&T A543 steel to stress corrosion cracking was investigated using the slow strain rate testing under different environments and conditions. Also, advanced corrosion study using the electrochemical impedance spectroscopy was done at different conditions. The corrosion study revealed that this A543 steel is prone to form pits in most of the conditions. The model results in the corrosion study were validated with the Gamry Echem Analyst software that A543 steel tends to form pits in the tested environment.

  1. Dual shell pressure balanced vessel

    DOEpatents

    Fassbender, Alexander G. (West Richland, WA)

    1992-01-01

    A dual-wall pressure balanced vessel for processing high viscosity slurries at high temperatures and pressures having an outer pressure vessel and an inner vessel with an annular space between the vessels pressurized at a pressure slightly less than or equivalent to the pressure within the inner vessel.

  2. Sapphire tube pressure vessel

    DOEpatents

    Outwater, John O. (Cambridge, MA)

    2000-01-01

    A pressure vessel is provided for observing corrosive fluids at high temperatures and pressures. A transparent Teflon bag contains the corrosive fluid and provides an inert barrier. The Teflon bag is placed within a sapphire tube, which forms a pressure boundary. The tube is received within a pipe including a viewing window. The combination of the Teflon bag, sapphire tube and pipe provides a strong and inert pressure vessel. In an alternative embodiment, tie rods connect together compression fittings at opposite ends of the sapphire tube.

  3. Filament wound pressure vessels - Effects of using liner tooling of low pressure vessels for high pressure vessels development

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lal, Krishna M.

    High performance pressure vessels have been recently demanded for aerospace and defense applications. Filament wound pressure vessels consist of a metallic thin liner, which also acts as a mandrel, and composite/epoxy overwrap. Graphite/epoxy overwrapped vessels have been developed to obtain the performance ratio, PV/W, as high as one million inches. Under very high pressure the isotropic metallic liner deforms elasto-plastically, and orthotropic composite fibers deform elastically. Sometimes, for the development of ultra high pressure vessels, composite pressure vessels industry uses the existing liner tooling developed for low burst pressure capacity composite vessels. This work presents the effects of various design variables including the low pressure liner tooling for the development of the high burst pressure capacity Brilliant Pebbles helium tanks. Advance stress analysis and development of an ultra high pressure helium tank.

  4. Finite Element Analysis of Pressure Vessels

    Microsoft Academic Search

    David Heckman

    1998-01-01

    Pressure vessels are a commonly used device in marine engineering. Until recently the primary analysis method had been hand calculations and empirical curves. New computer advances have made finite element analysis (FEA) a practical tool in the study of pressure vessels, especially in determining stresses in local areas such as penetrations, O-ring grooves and other areas difficult to analyze by

  5. Reactor pressure vessel nozzle

    SciTech Connect

    Challberg, Roy C. (Livermore, CA); Upton, Hubert A. (Morgan Hill, CA)

    1994-01-01

    A nozzle for joining a pool of water to a nuclear reactor pressure vessel includes a tubular body having a proximal end joinable to the pressure vessel and a distal end joinable in flow communication with the pool. The body includes a flow passage therethrough having in serial flow communication a first port at the distal end, a throat spaced axially from the first port, a conical channel extending axially from the throat, and a second port at the proximal end which is joinable in flow communication with the pressure vessel. The inner diameter of the flow passage decreases from the first port to the throat and then increases along the conical channel to the second port. In this way, the conical channel acts as a diverging channel or diffuser in the forward flow direction from the first port to the second port for recovering pressure due to the flow restriction provided by the throat. In the backflow direction from the second port to the first port, the conical channel is a converging channel and with the abrupt increase in flow area from the throat to the first port collectively increase resistance to flow therethrough.

  6. Reactor pressure vessel nozzle

    DOEpatents

    Challberg, R.C.; Upton, H.A.

    1994-10-04

    A nozzle for joining a pool of water to a nuclear reactor pressure vessel includes a tubular body having a proximal end joinable to the pressure vessel and a distal end joinable in flow communication with the pool. The body includes a flow passage therethrough having in serial flow communication a first port at the distal end, a throat spaced axially from the first port, a conical channel extending axially from the throat, and a second port at the proximal end which is joinable in flow communication with the pressure vessel. The inner diameter of the flow passage decreases from the first port to the throat and then increases along the conical channel to the second port. In this way, the conical channel acts as a diverging channel or diffuser in the forward flow direction from the first port to the second port for recovering pressure due to the flow restriction provided by the throat. In the backflow direction from the second port to the first port, the conical channel is a converging channel and with the abrupt increase in flow area from the throat to the first port collectively increase resistance to flow therethrough. 2 figs.

  7. Hybrid Inflatable Pressure Vessel

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Raboin, Jasen; Valle, Gerard D.; Edeen, Gregg; DeLaFuente, Horacio M.; Schneider, William C.; Spexarth, Gary R.; Johnson, Christopher J.; Pandya, Shalini

    2004-01-01

    Figure 1 shows a prototype of a large pressure vessel under development for eventual use as a habitable module for long spaceflight (e.g., for transporting humans to Mars). The vessel is a hybrid that comprises an inflatable shell attached to a rigid central structural core. The inflatable shell is, itself, a hybrid that comprises (1) a pressure bladder restrained against expansion by (2) a web of straps made from high-strength polymeric fabrics. On Earth, pressure vessels like this could be used, for example, as portable habitats that could be set up quickly in remote locations, portable hyperbaric chambers for treatment of decompression sickness, or flotation devices for offshore platforms. In addition, some aspects of the design of the fabric straps could be adapted to such other items as lifting straps, parachute straps, and automotive safety belts. Figure 2 depicts selected aspects of the design of a vessel of this type with a toroidal configuration. The bladder serves as an impermeable layer to keep air within the pressure vessel and, for this purpose, is sealed to the central structural core. The web includes longitudinal and circumferential straps. To help maintain the proper shape upon inflation after storage, longitudinal and circumferential straps are indexed together at several of their intersections. Because the web is not required to provide a pressure seal and the bladder is not required to sustain structural loads, the bladder and the web can be optimized for their respective functions. Thus, the bladder can be sealed directly to the rigid core without having to include the web in the seal substructure, and the web can be designed for strength. The ends of the longitudinal straps are attached to the ends of the rigid structural core by means of clevises. Each clevis pin is surrounded by a roller, around which a longitudinal strap is wrapped to form a lap seam with itself. The roller is of a large diameter chosen to reduce bending of the fibers in the strap. The roller also serves to equalize the load in the portions of the strap on both sides of the clevis pin. The lap seam is formed near the clevis by use of a tapered diamond stitch: This stitch is designed specifically to allow fibers in the stitch and strap to relax under load in such a manner that the load becomes more nearly evenly distributed among all fibers in the stitch region. Thus, the tapered diamond stitch prevents load concentrations that could cause premature failure of the strap and thereby increases the strength of the strap/structural-core joint. The lap seam can be rated at >90 percent of the strength of the strap material.

  8. Apollo experience report: Pressure vessels

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ecord, G. M.

    1972-01-01

    The Apollo spacecraft pressure vessels, associated problems and resolutions, and related experience in evaluating potential problem areas are discussed. Information is provided that can be used as a guideline in the establishment of baseline criteria for the design and use of lightweight pressure vessels. One of the first practical applications of the use of fracture-mechanics technology to protect against service failures was made on Apollo pressure vessels. Recommendations are made, based on Apollo experience, that are designed to reduce the incidence of failure in pressure-vessel operation and service.

  9. Corrosion fatigue characterization of reactor pressure vessel steels. [PWR; BWR

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Van Der Sluys

    1982-01-01

    During routine operation, light water reactor (LWR) pressure vessels are subjected to a variety of transients that result in time-varying stresses. Consequently, fatigue and environmentally-assisted fatigue are mechanisms of growth relevant to flaws in these pressure vessels. To provide a better understanding of the resistance of nuclear pressure vessel steels to these flaw growth processes, fracture mechanics data were generated

  10. Modeling flow stress constitutive behavior of SA508-3 steel for nuclear reactor pressure vessels

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Mingyue Sun; Luhan Hao; Shijian Li; Dianzhong Li; Yiyi Li

    2011-01-01

    Based on the measured stress–strain curves under different temperatures and strain rates, a series of flow stress constitutive equations for SA508-3 steel were firstly established through the classical theories on work hardening and softening. The comparison between the experimental and modeling results has confirmed that the established constitutive equations can correctly describe the mechanical responses and microstructural evolutions of the

  11. Carbon fiber internal pressure vessels

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Simon, R. A.

    1973-01-01

    Internal pressure vessels were designed; the filament was wound of carbon fibers and epoxy resin and tested to burst. The fibers used were Thornel 400, Thornel 75, and Hercules HTS. Additional vessels with type A fiber were made. Polymeric linears were used, and all burst testing was done at room temperature. The objective was to produce vessels with the highest attainable PbV/W efficiencies. The type A vessels showed the highest average efficiency: 2.56 x 10 to the 6th power cm. Next highest efficiency was with Thornel 400 vessels: 2.21 x 10 to the 6th power cm. These values compare favorably with efficiency values from good quality S-glass vessels, but strains averaged 0.97% or less, which is less than 1/3 the strain of S-glass vessels.

  12. Modeling flow stress constitutive behavior of SA508-3 steel for nuclear reactor pressure vessels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, Mingyue; Hao, Luhan; Li, Shijian; Li, Dianzhong; Li, Yiyi

    2011-11-01

    Based on the measured stress-strain curves under different temperatures and strain rates, a series of flow stress constitutive equations for SA508-3 steel were firstly established through the classical theories on work hardening and softening. The comparison between the experimental and modeling results has confirmed that the established constitutive equations can correctly describe the mechanical responses and microstructural evolutions of the steel under various hot deformation conditions. We further represented a successful industrial application of this model to simulate a forging process for a large conical shell used in a nuclear steam generator, which evidences its practical and promising perspective of our model with an aim of widely promoting the hot plasticity processing for heavy nuclear components of fission reactors.

  13. A test method to evaluate stress corrosion cracking in pressure vessels

    SciTech Connect

    Singbeil, D.; Garner, A.

    1988-02-01

    An accelerated laboratory test method was developed to evaluate the stress corrosion cracking (SCC) of kraft continuous digesters. The method uses circular patch test welds made from 38-mm-thick ASTM A516 Grade 70 steel plate. The specimens were exposed to a 110 C solution containing 40 gLNaOH and 20 gLNa/sub 2/S at a controlled electrochemical potential. Several different welding procedures were evaluated for resistance to SCC, along with stress relief, shotpeening, sealed thermal spray coatings, and weld overlays of Inconel/sup (1)/ 82 and AISI 309L stainless steel (SS). Stress relief, shotpeening, and sealed thermal spray coatings prevented SCC during the test. Compared to a control specimen, SCC was less severe after temper-bead welding and after welding with an E6010 capping pass. Severe SCC occurred in a specimen welded with the worst-case welding procedure. Deep, circumferential SCC occurred in the carbon steel at the edge of the Inconel 82 weld overlay. SCC was also observed at the interface between the AISI 309L SS weld overlay and the base plate.

  14. Level indicator for pressure vessels

    DOEpatents

    Not Available

    1982-04-28

    A liquid-level monitor for tracking the level of a coal slurry in a high-pressure vessel including a toroidal-shaped float with magnetically permeable bands thereon disposed within the vessel, two pairs of magnetic-field generators and detectors disposed outside the vessel adjacent the top and bottom thereof and magnetically coupled to the magnetically permeable bands on the float, and signal-processing circuitry for combining signals from the top and bottom detectors for generating a monotonically increasing analog control signal which is a function of liquid level. The control signal may be utilized to operate high-pressure control valves associated with processes in which the high-pressure vessel is used.

  15. Cuff for Blood-Vessel Pressure Measurements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shimizu, M.

    1982-01-01

    Pressure within blood vessel is measured by new cufflike device without penetration of vessel. Device continuously monitors blood pressure for up to 6 months or longer without harming vessel. Is especially useful for vessels smaller than 4 or 5 millimeters in diameter. Invasive methods damage vessel wall, disturb blood flow, and cause clotting. They do not always give reliable pressure measurements over prolonged periods.

  16. Pressure vessel having continuous sidewall

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Simon, Xavier D. (Inventor); Barackman, Victor J. (Inventor)

    2011-01-01

    A spacecraft pressure vessel has a tub member. A sidewall member is coupled to the tub member so that a bottom section of the sidewall member extends from an attachment intersection with the tub member and away from the tub member. The bottom section of the sidewall member receives and transfers a load through the sidewall member.

  17. Burst failure load of composite pressure vessels

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Aziz Onder; Onur Sayman; Tolga Dogan; Necmettin Tarakcioglu

    2009-01-01

    In this study, optimal angle-ply orientations of symmetric and antisymmetric [?\\/??]s shells designed for maximum burst pressure were examined. Burst pressure of filament wound composite pressure vessels under alternating pure internal pressure was investigated. The study deals with the influences of temperature and winding angle on filament wound composite pressure vessels. Finite element method and experimental approaches were employed to

  18. Quantification of Processing Effects on Filament Wound Pressure Vessels. Revision

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Aiello, Robert A.; Chamis, Christos C.

    2002-01-01

    A computational simulation procedure is described which is designed specifically for the modeling and analysis of filament wound pressure vessels. Cylindrical vessels with spherical or elliptical end caps can be generated automatically. End caps other than spherical or elliptical may be modeled by varying circular sections along the x-axis according to the end cap shape. The finite element model generated is composed of plate type quadrilateral shell elements on the entire vessel surface. This computational procedure can also be used to generate grid, connectivity and material cards (bulk data) for component parts of a larger model. These bulk data are assigned to a user designated file for finite element structural/stress analysis of composite pressure vessels. The procedure accommodates filament wound pressure vessels of all types of shells-of -revolution. It has provisions to readily evaluate initial stresses due to pretension in the winding filaments and residual stresses due to cure temperature.

  19. Failure analysis of a 300M steel pressure vessel

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. L. A. Graça; C. Y. Hoo; O. M. M. Silva; N. J. Lourenço

    2009-01-01

    A failure analysis was made in a 300M steel pressure vessel which has failed during hydrotest. The rupture occurred suddenly at a pressure level lower than what has been expected for the proof pressure. According to the results of various examinations it was concluded that hydrogen assisted stress corrosion cracking was the mechanism responsible for the failure. The root causes

  20. Filament wound pressure vessels - Effects of using liner tooling of low pressure vessels for high pressure vessels development

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Krishna M. Lal

    1992-01-01

    High performance pressure vessels have been recently demanded for aerospace and defense applications. Filament wound pressure vessels consist of a metallic thin liner, which also acts as a mandrel, and composite\\/epoxy overwrap. Graphite\\/epoxy overwrapped vessels have been developed to obtain the performance ratio, PV\\/W, as high as one million inches. Under very high pressure the isotropic metallic liner deforms elasto-plastically,

  1. Stiffness Study of Wound-Filament Pressure Vessels

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Verderaime, V.

    1986-01-01

    Report presents theoretical and experimental study of stiffness of lightweight, jointed pressure vessels made of wound graphite fibers and epoxy. Specimens fabricated from layers of graphite fibers, wet with epoxy, on aluminum mandrel. Segment ends thickened with interspersed layers of axially oriented fibers to reduce pinhole bearing stresses and local deformations. Segments cured at 390 degrees F (199 degrees C). Report presents results of vibrational tests of one-quarter-scale models of wound-filament pressure vessels.

  2. Reactor pressure vessel vented head

    DOEpatents

    Sawabe, J.K.

    1994-01-11

    A head for closing a nuclear reactor pressure vessel shell includes an arcuate dome having an integral head flange which includes a mating surface for sealingly mating with the shell upon assembly therewith. The head flange includes an internal passage extending therethrough with a first port being disposed on the head mating surface. A vent line includes a proximal end disposed in flow communication with the head internal passage, and a distal end disposed in flow communication with the inside of the dome for channeling a fluid therethrough. The vent line is fixedly joined to the dome and is carried therewith when the head is assembled to and disassembled from the shell. 6 figures.

  3. Cyclic crack growth behavior of reactor pressure vessel steels in light water reactor environments

    Microsoft Academic Search

    W. A. Van Der Sluys; R. H. Emanuelson

    1986-01-01

    During normal operation light water reactor (LWR) pressure vessels are subjected to a variety of transients resulting in time varying stresses. Consequently, fatigue and environmentally assisted fatigue are growth mechanisms relevant to flaws in these pressure vessels. In order to provide a better understanding of the resistance of nuclear pressure vessel steels to flaw growth process, a series of fracture

  4. Wrapped Wire Detects Rupture Of Pressure Vessel

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hunt, James B.

    1990-01-01

    Simple, inexpensive technique helps protect against damage caused by continuing operation of equipment after rupture or burnout of pressure vessel. Wire wrapped over area on outside of vessel where breakthrough most likely. If wall breaks or burns, so does wire. Current passing through wire ceases, triggering cutoff mechanism stopping flow in vessel to prevent further damage. Applied in other situations in which pipes or vessels fail due to overpressure, overheating, or corrosion.

  5. Expanded Fermilab pressure vessel directory program

    SciTech Connect

    Tanner, A.

    1983-01-01

    Several procedures have been written to manage the information pertaining to the vacuum tanks and pressure vessels for which the laboratory is responsible. These procedures have been named TANK1 for the vessels belonging to the Accelerator Division, TANK2 and TANK3 for the vessels belonging to the Research Division and to Technical Support respectively, and TANK4 for the vessels belonging to the Business Division. The operating procedures are otherwise identical in every respect.

  6. Thick-wall Kevlar 49/Epoxy pressure vessels

    SciTech Connect

    Guess, T.R.

    1984-01-01

    The feasibility of thick-wall composite vessels for very high pressure applications is demonstrated. Prototype vessels, in both spherical and cylindrical geometries, were designed, fabricated and burst tested. It is shown that experimental burst pressures are in excellent agreement with predicted values for burst pressures up to 60 ksi. Each unit consisted of a thin, seamless, copper liner with stainless steel fill stems and a filament-wound Kevlar 49/epoxy outer shell. Analysis of vessel performance accounted for liner thickness and yield strengths, composite thickness, mechanical properties and fiber volume fraction, and stress concentrations caused by the fill stem. Spherical vessels of three different sizes (inside diameters of 2.15 inches, 4.0 inches and 5.3 inches) with either 30 ksi or 60 ksi design burst pressure are discussed. Also, cylindrical vessels with identical liners but of two different composite thicknesses are described. These vessels achieved 50 ksi and 57 ksi burst pressures, respectively. In addition to the design considerations alluded to throughout the paper, the stress state in a thin metal liner during cyclic loading and the life prediction of composite vessels under sustained loading are discussed.

  7. The paradox of pressure vessel wall thickness calculation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bernard, Marc

    1986-05-01

    The calculation of pressure vessel wall thickness is made with formulae usually imposed by national codes. Although the Lamés formulae give actual stresses and leave the decision on the safety factor to the designer, these codes impose certain safety factors in the calculation of allowable stresses, or even include the safety factor in the wall thickness calculation formula. If we take as an example a pressure vessel made of 316 SS with 125 mm ID, and designed for 400 bar, the methods of calculation which are most commonly used are: -Lamé -Stoomwezen (Dutch Code), -AD Merkblatt (German Code), -CODAP (French Code), -ASME Code Section VIII, Division 1 or 2 (USA) . Obviously, the thicker the wall, the lower the stresses due to the pressure. However, some other factors need to be considered, the most important of them probably being thermal stresses. The thicker the wall, the higher the thermal stresses, all other parameters being equal. When such a vessel is heated from the outside, a temperature gradient is created across the wall and the temperature is higher on the outside than the inside. Consequently, the thermal stresses are in compression on the outside, and in tension on the inside, and come in addition to the pressure stresses. The designer must choose the wall thickness so as to minimize the total of pressure and thermal stresses.

  8. Fatigue behaviour of an autofrettaged high-pressure vessel for the food industry

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. M. Alegre; P. Bravo; M. Preciado

    2007-01-01

    The autofrettage technique is commonly used to produce compressive tangential residual stresses near the bore of high-pressure vessels. These compression stresses improve the fatigue life of the vessel during the loading–unloading high-pressure cycles. The present paper presents the fatigue design of an autofrettaged thick-walled vessel for the food industry, working at an internal pressure of 500MPa. A finite element analysis

  9. Issues in Reactor Pressure Vessel materials

    Microsoft Academic Search

    B. Riou; C. Escaravage; D. Hittner; D. Pierron

    Reactor Pressure Vessel (RPV) is one of the most important structure in a VHTR. The choice of this material is therefore of a prime importance and necessitates significant work of validation. The purpose of this paper is to make the status of knowledge on different vessel material candidates. The paper will be divided as follows: • Definition of RPV material

  10. Summary of Activities for Health Monitoring of Composite Overwrapped Pressure Vessels Updated January 2014

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Skow, Miles G.

    2014-01-01

    This three year project (FY12-14) will design and demonstrate the ability of new Magnetic Stress Gages for the measurement of stresses on the inner diameter of a Composite Overwrapped Pressure Vessel overwrap.

  11. Nickel hydrogen common pressure vessel battery development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jones, Kenneth R.; Zagrodnik, Jeffrey P.

    1992-01-01

    Our present design for a common pressure vessel (CPV) battery, a nickel hydrogen battery system to combine all of the cells into a common pressure vessel, uses an open disk which allows the cell to be set into a shallow cavity; subsequent cells are stacked on each other with the total number based on the battery voltage required. This approach not only eliminates the assembly error threat, but also more readily assures equal contact pressure to the heat fin between each cell, which further assures balanced heat transfer. These heat fin dishes with their appropriate cell stacks are held together with tie bars which in turn are connected to the pressure vessel weld rings at each end of the tube.

  12. Low-Stress Sealing of Pressure Transducers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kroy, R. E.

    1985-01-01

    Compliant washer seals high pressures without excessive compressive stress on transducer. Conformal washer serves as effective seal for transducer passing through walls of pressure vessel. Washer makes it unnecessary to tighten mounting nut to high torque, which could damage transducer or adversely affect accuracy. Washer also used to seal mountings for temperature sensors and other devices.

  13. A Survey of Pressure Vessel Code Compliance for Superconducting RF Cryomodules

    SciTech Connect

    Peterson, Thomas; Klebaner, Arkadiy; Nicol, Tom; Theilacker, Jay; /Fermilab; Hayano, Hitoshi; Kako, Eiji; Nakai, Hirotaka; Yamamoto, Akira; /KEK, Tsukuba; Jensch, Kay; Matheisen, Axel; /DESY; Mammosser, John; /Jefferson Lab

    2011-06-07

    Superconducting radio frequency (SRF) cavities made from niobium and cooled with liquid helium are becoming key components of many particle accelerators. The helium vessels surrounding the RF cavities, portions of the niobium cavities themselves, and also possibly the vacuum vessels containing these assemblies, generally fall under the scope of local and national pressure vessel codes. In the U.S., Department of Energy rules require national laboratories to follow national consensus pressure vessel standards or to show ''a level of safety greater than or equal to'' that of the applicable standard. Thus, while used for its superconducting properties, niobium ends up being treated as a low-temperature pressure vessel material. Niobium material is not a code listed material and therefore requires the designer to understand the mechanical properties for material used in each pressure vessel fabrication; compliance with pressure vessel codes therefore becomes a problem. This report summarizes the approaches that various institutions have taken in order to bring superconducting RF cryomodules into compliance with pressure vessel codes. In Japan, Germany, and the U.S., institutions building superconducting RF cavities integrated in helium vessels or procuring them from vendors have had to deal with pressure vessel requirements being applied to SRF vessels, including the niobium and niobium-titanium components of the vessels. While niobium is not an approved pressure vessel material, data from tests of material samples provide information to set allowable stresses. By means of procedures which include adherence to code welding procedures, maintaining material and fabrication records, and detailed analyses of peak stresses in the vessels, or treatment of the vacuum vessel as the pressure boundary, research laboratories around the world have found methods to demonstrate and document a level of safety equivalent to the applicable pressure vessel codes.

  14. Guidelines for pressure vessel safety assessment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yukawa, S.

    1990-04-01

    A technical overview and information on metallic pressure containment vessels and tanks is given. The intent is to provide Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) personnel and other persons with information to assist in the evaluation of the safety of operating pressure vessels and low pressure storage tanks. The scope is limited to general industrial application vessels and tanks constructed of carbon or low alloy steels and used at temperatures between -75 and 315 C (-100 and 600 F). Information on design codes, materials, fabrication processes, inspection and testing applicable to the vessels and tanks are presented. The majority of the vessels and tanks are made to the rules and requirements of ASME Code Section VIII or API Standard 620. The causes of deterioration and damage in operation are described and methods and capabilities of detecting serious damage and cracking are discussed. Guidelines and recommendations formulated by various groups to inspect for the damages being found and to mitigate the causes and effects of the problems are presented.

  15. Structural design, analysis, and code evaluation of an odd-shaped pressure vessel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rezvani, M. A.; Ziada, H. H.

    1992-12-01

    An effort to design, analyze, and evaluate a rectangular pressure vessel is described. Normally pressure vessels are designed in circular or spherical shapes to prevent stress concentrations. In this case, because of operational limitations, the choice of vessels was limited to a rectangular pressure box with a removable cover plate. The American Society of Mechanical Engineers (ASME) Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code is used as a guideline for pressure containments whose width or depth exceeds 15.24 cm (6.0 in.) and where pressures will exceed 103.4 KPa (15.0 lbf/in(sup 2)). This evaluation used Section 8 of this Code, hereafter referred to as the Code. The dimensions and working pressure of the subject vessel fall within the pressure vessel category of the Code. The Code design guidelines and rules do not directly apply to this vessel. Therefore, finite-element methodology was used to analyze the pressure vessel, and the Code then was used in qualifying the vessel to be stamped to the Code. Section 8, Division 1 of the Code was used for evaluation. This action was justified by selecting a material for which fatigue damage would not be a concern. The stress analysis results were then checked against the Code, and the thicknesses adjusted to satisfy Code requirements. Although not directly applicable, the Code design formulas for rectangular vessels were also considered and presented.

  16. Material Issues in Space Shuttle Composite Overwrapped Pressure Vessels

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sutter, James K.; Jensen, Brian J.; Gates, Thomas S.; Morgan, Roger J.; Thesken, John C.; Phoenix, S. Leigh

    2006-01-01

    Composite Overwrapped Pressure Vessels (COPV) store gases used in four subsystems for NASA's Space Shuttle Fleet. While there are 24 COPV on each Orbiter ranging in size from 19-40", stress rupture failure of a pressurized Orbiter COPV on the ground or in flight is a catastrophic hazard and would likely lead to significant damage/loss of vehicle and/or life and is categorized as a Crit 1 failure. These vessels were manufactured during the late 1970's and into the early 1980's using Titanium liners, Kevlar 49 fiber, epoxy matrix resin, and polyurethane coating. The COPVs are pressurized periodically to 3-5ksi and therefore experience significant strain in the composite overwrap. Similar composite vessels were developed in a variety of DOE Programs (primarily at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratories or LLNL), as well as for NASA Space Shuttle Fleet Leader COPV program. The NASA Engineering Safety Center (NESC) formed an Independent Technical Assessment (ITA) team whose primary focus was to investigate whether or not enough composite life remained in the Shuttle COPV in order to provide a strategic rationale for continued COPV use aboard the Space Shuttle Fleet with the existing 25-year-old vessels. Several material science issues were examined and will be discussed in this presentation including morphological changes to Kevlar 49 fiber under stress, manufacturing changes in Kevlar 49 and their effect on morphology and tensile strength, epoxy resin strain, composite creep, degradation of polyurethane coatings, and Titanium yield characteristics.

  17. Fragmentation characteristics of a welded spherical titanium pressure vessel: Part II — Plastic deformation and fracture prediction

    Microsoft Academic Search

    G. C. Sih; B. L. Webb; Y. S. Pen; D. Sharp; J. Pfefferle

    1995-01-01

    Based on the elastic-plastic stress and energy density results in Part I for a welded spherical titanium pressure vessel, Part II carries out a details analysis of failure where plastic deformation and fragmentation take place. The volume energy density criterion predicts failure to first initiate in the heat affected zone and bottle-neck section of the vessel at an internal pressure

  18. Sealing behavior of the HTR-10 pressure vessel flanges

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Suyuan Yu; Junjie Liu; Weidong Zuo; Shuyan He

    2002-01-01

    The flanges of 10 MW high temperature gas-cooled reactor (HTR-10) pressure vessel play an important role in sealing the primary coolant of Helium. They are bolt-connected with a metallic O-ring and a welded ?-ring. An elastic–plastic nonlinear analysis was performed to evaluate the stress and deformation of the contact flanges with the finite element software of MSC MARC 2000. The

  19. Cryogenic Pressure Vessel workshop, LLNL, February 15, 2011, p. 1 Cryogenic Pressure Vessels

    E-print Network

    of perforated multilayer insulation blankets, Fesmire, Augustynowicz, Darve Thermal performance of cryogenic Source: NASA. Performance characterization of perforated multilayer insulation blankets, Fesmire: electricity, phone line, concrete pad, foundation #12;Cryogenic Pressure Vessel workshop, LLNL, February

  20. Appropriate nominal stresses for use with ASME Code pressure-loading stress indices for nozzles

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Rodabaugh

    1976-01-01

    This program is part of a cooperative effort with industry to develop and verify analytical methods for assessing the safety of nuclear pressure-vessel and piping-system design. The study of nominal stresses and stress indices described is part of a continuing study of design rules for nozzles in pressure vessels being coordinated by the PVRC Subcommittee on Reinforced Openings and External

  1. Corrosion fatigue characterization of reactor pressure vessel steels. [PWR; BWR

    SciTech Connect

    Van Der Sluys, W.A.

    1982-12-01

    During routine operation, light water reactor (LWR) pressure vessels are subjected to a variety of transients that result in time-varying stresses. Consequently, fatigue and environmentally-assisted fatigue are mechanisms of growth relevant to flaws in these pressure vessels. To provide a better understanding of the resistance of nuclear pressure vessel steels to these flaw growth processes, fracture mechanics data were generated on the rates of fatigue crack growth for SA508-2 and SA533B-1 steels in both room temperature air and 288/sup 0/C water. Areas investigated were: the relationship of crack growth rate to prior loading history; the effects of loading frequency and R ratio (K/sub min//K/sub max/) on crack growth rate as a function of the stress intensity factor range (..delta..K); transient aspects of the fatigue crack growth behavior; the effect of material chemistry (sulphur content) on fatigue crack; and growth rate; water chemistry effects (high-purity water versus simulated pressurized water reactotr (PWR) primary coolant).

  2. Pressure vessel safety: the story of the ASME code

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Canonico

    2009-01-01

    This article outlines the development of the American Society for Mechanical Engineers (ASME) code used by manufacturers and users of pressure vessels. The early history of pressure-vessel use was marked by numerous catastrophic explosions. While pressure vessel failures are not infrequent - and catastrophic failures, rare - credit for their reliable service can be attributed, according to the article, to

  3. AN IMPROVED HIGH-PRESSURE VESSEL CONSTRUCTED OF PRESTRESSED CONCRETE

    Microsoft Academic Search

    1963-01-01

    A prestressed-concrete pressure vessel for nuclear reactors or for ; storing gas or liquid it high pressure is patented. The vessel is a monolithic ; concrete cylinder with end slabs. Tensioned cables pass through preformed ; passages in the concrete and are anchored at both ends by anchorages located at ; the ends of the pressure vessel. The passages in

  4. Modeling Scala Media as a Pressure Vessel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lepage, Eric; Olofsson, A.?Ke

    2011-11-01

    The clinical condition known as endolymphatic hydrops is the swelling of scala media and may result in loss in hearing sensitivity consistent with other forms of low-frequency biasing. Because outer hair cells (OHCs) are displacement-sensitive and hearing levels tend to be preserved despite large changes in blood pressure and CSF pressure, it seems unlikely that the OHC respond passively to changes in static pressures in the chambers. This suggests the operation of a major feedback control loop which jointly regulates homeostasis and hearing sensitivity. Therefore the internal forces affecting the cochlear signal processing amplifier cannot be just motile responses. A complete account of the cochlear amplifier must include static pressures. To this end we have added a third, pressure vessel to our 1-D 140-segment, wave-digital filter active model of cochlear mechanics, incorporating the usual nonlinear forward transduction. In each segment the instantaneous pressure is the sum of acoustic pressure and global static pressure. The object of the model is to maintain stable OHC operating point despite any global rise in pressure in the third chamber. Such accumulated pressure is allowed to dissipate exponentially. In this first 3-chamber implementation we explore the possibility that acoustic pressures are rectified. The behavior of the model is critically dependent upon scaling factors and time-constants, yet by initial assumption, the pressure tends to accumulate in proportion to sound level. We further explore setting of the control parameters so that the accumulated pressure either stays within limits or may rise without bound.

  5. Glass Fiber Reinforced Metal Pressure Vessel Design Guide

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Landes, R. E.

    1972-01-01

    The Engineering Guide presents curves and general equations for safelife design of lightweight glass fiber reinforced (GFR) metal pressure vessels operating under anticipated Space Shuttle service conditions. The high composite vessel weight efficiency is shown to be relatively insensitive to shape, providing increased flexibility to designers establishing spacecraft configurations. Spheres, oblate speroids, and cylinders constructed of GFR Inconel X-750, 2219-T62 aluminum, and cryoformed 301 stainless steel are covered; design parameters and performance efficiencies for each configuration are compared at ambient and cryogenic temperature for an operating pressure range of 690 to 2760 N/sq cm (1000 to 4000 psi). Design variables are presented as a function of metal shell operating to sizing (proof) stress ratios for use with fracture mechanics data generated under a separate task of this program.

  6. Weld investigation of nuclear power plant pressure vessels

    Microsoft Academic Search

    G. Itoh

    1987-01-01

    Welds in nuclear power plant pressure vessels, which were in accordance with the ASME Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code, though not with some other codes, were investigated nondestructively over a long period of service. The results indicate that the vessels have been operating for many years, with large slag inclusions that do not extend to the weld surfaces, causing no

  7. Midland reactor pressure vessel flaw distribution

    SciTech Connect

    Foulds, J.R.; Kennedy, E.L. [Failure Analysis Associates, Inc., Menlo Park, CA (United States)] [Failure Analysis Associates, Inc., Menlo Park, CA (United States); Rosinski, S.T. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States)] [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    1993-12-01

    The results of laboratory nondestructive examination (NDE), and destructive cross-sectioning of selected weldment sections of the Midland reactor pressure vessel were analyzed per a previously developed methodology in order to develop a flaw distribution. The flaw distributions developed from the NDE results obtained by two different ultrasonic test (UT) inspections (Electric Power Research Institute NDE Center and Pacific Northwest Laboratories) were not statistically significantly different. However, the distribution developed from the NDE Center`s (destructive) cross-sectioning-based data was found to be significantly different than those obtained through the UT inspections. A fracture mechanics-based comparison of the flaw distributions showed that the cross-sectioning-based data, conservatively interpreted (all defects considered as flaws), gave a significantly lower vessel failure probability when compared with the failure probability values obtained using the UT-based distributions. Given that the cross-sectioning data were reportedly biased toward larger, more significant-appearing (by UT) indications, it is concluded that the nondestructive examinations produced definitively conservative results. In addition to the Midland vessel inspection-related analyses, a set of twenty-seven numerical simulations, designed to provide a preliminary quantitative assessment of the accuracy of the flaw distribution method used here, were conducted. The calculations showed that, in more than half the cases, the analysis produced reasonably accurate predictions.

  8. Plating Repair Of Nickel-Alloy Pressure Vessels

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ricklefs, Steve K.; Chagnon, Kevin M.

    1989-01-01

    Procedure for localized electrodeposition of nickel enables repair of small damaged nickel-based pressure vessels. Electrodeposition restores weakened areas of vessel wall to at least their former strength.

  9. Hydroide Storage Vessel wall stress measurements

    SciTech Connect

    Clark, E.A. [Westinghouse Savannah River Company, AIKEN, SC (United States); Pechersky, M.J.

    1997-07-31

    Holographic Interferometry and strain gauge measurements were used to determine whether a prototype Hydride Storage Vessel (HSV) swelled while it was loaded in eleven stages with hydrogen. Bed swelling is inferred from deformation of the surface of the HSV. No swelling was detected, even after saturating the hydride material inside the HSV. The large chunky morphology of the titanium is likely responsible for the lack of wall stress. This morphology also implies that decay helium that remains in the titanium hydride (that is, helium that is not released as gas to the free volume) should not cause significant wall stresses when the HSV is used for long-term tritium storage. Holographic interferometry proved to be an extremely sensitive technique to measure swelling, having a detection limit of about 3 microns surface displacement.

  10. Stress and Sealing Performance Analysis of Containment Vessel

    SciTech Connect

    WU, TSU-TE

    2005-05-24

    This paper presents a numerical technique for analyzing the containment vessel subjected to the combined loading of closure-bolt torque and internal pressure. The detailed stress distributions in the O-rings generated by both the torque load and the internal pressure can be evaluated by using this method. Consequently, the sealing performance of the O-rings can be determined. The material of the O-rings can be represented by any available constitutive equation for hyperelastic material. In the numerical calculation of this paper, the form of the Mooney-Rivlin strain energy potential is used. The technique treats both the preloading process of bolt tightening and the application of internal pressure as slow dynamic loads. Consequently, the problem can be evaluated using explicit numerical integration scheme.

  11. Irradiation embrittlement of LWR pressure vessel steels: Final report

    Microsoft Academic Search

    G. R. Odette; G. E. Lucas

    1989-01-01

    This program was conducted to generate an extensive bank of irradiated and aged pressure vessel steels, to test them for the effects of irradiation on mechanical properties, and to analyze the data in support of the development of a comprehensive relationship between pressure vessel steel embrittlement and both irradiation and material variables. Over 100 alloys were prepared which had variations

  12. Transient evolution of inter vessel gap pressure due to relative thermal expansion between two vessels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Natesan, K.; Selvaraj, P.; Chellapandi, P.; Chetal, S. C.

    2002-08-01

    In a typical liquid metal cooled fast breeder reactor (LMFBR), a cylindrical sodium filled main vessel, which carries the internals such as reactor core, pumps, intermediate heat exchangers etc. is surrounded by another vessel called safety vessel. The inter vessel gap is filled with nitrogen. During a thermal transient in the pool sodium, because of the relative delay involved in the thermal diffusion between MV and SV, they are subjected to relative thermal expansion or contraction between them. This in turn results in pressurisation and depressurisation of inter vessel gap nitrogen respectively. In order to obtain the external pressurization for the buckling design of MV, transient thermal models for obtaining the evolutions of MV, SV and inter gap nitrogen temperatures and hence their relative thermal expansion and inter vessel gap pressure have been developed. This paper gives the details of the mathematical model, assumptions made in the calculation and the results of the analysis.

  13. Common/Dependent-Pressure-Vessel Nickel-Hydrogen Batteries

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Timmerman, Paul J.

    2003-01-01

    The term "common/dependent pressure vessel" (C/DPV) denotes a proposed alternative configuration for a nickelhydrogen battery. The C/DPV configuration is so named because it is a hybrid of two prior configurations called "common pressure vessel" (CPV) and "dependent pressure vessel" (DPV). The C/DPV configuration has been proposed as a basis for designing highly reliable, long-life Ni/H2-batteries and cells for anticipated special applications in which it is expected that small charge capacities will suffice and sizes and weights must be minimized.

  14. ASME code ductile failure criteria for impulsively loaded pressure vessels

    SciTech Connect

    Nickell, Robert E.; Duffey, T. A. (Thomas A.); Rodriguez, E. A. (Edward A.)

    2003-01-01

    Ductile failure criteria suitable for application to impulsively loaded high pressure vessels that are designed to the rules of the ASME Code Section VI11 Division 3 are described and justified. The criteria are based upon prevention of load instability and the associated global failure mechanisms, and on protection against progressive distortion for multiple-use vessels. The criteria are demonstrated by the design and analysis of vessels that contain high explosive charges.

  15. Feasibility study of prestressed concrete pressure vessels for coal gasifiers

    Microsoft Academic Search

    C. B. Oland; W. L. Greenstreet; J. P. Callahan

    1979-01-01

    The use of prestressed concrete pressure vessels (PCPVs) for gasifiers in coal conversion systems has been examined. Conceptual designs for commercial-sized vessels were developed based on an output of 2.64 x 10⁸ MJ\\/day for the HYGAS process gasifier and 1.32 x 10⁸ MJ\\/day for the Synthane process gasifier. Circular cylindrical configurations were employed for the single-cavity vessels. Geometry of the

  16. Neutron shielding panels for reactor pressure vessels

    DOEpatents

    Singleton, Norman R. (Murrysville, PA)

    2011-11-22

    In a nuclear reactor neutron panels varying in thickness in the circumferential direction are disposed at spaced circumferential locations around the reactor core so that the greatest radial thickness is at the point of highest fluence with lesser thicknesses at adjacent locations where the fluence level is lower. The neutron panels are disposed between the core barrel and the interior of the reactor vessel to maintain radiation exposure to the vessel within acceptable limits.

  17. ASME code ductile failure criteria for impulsively loaded pressure vessels

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Robert E. Nickell; T. A. Duffey; E. A. Rodriguez

    2003-01-01

    Ductile failure criteria suitable for application to impulsively loaded high pressure vessels that are designed to the rules of the ASME Code Section VI11 Division 3 are described and justified. The criteria are based upon prevention of load instability and the associated global failure mechanisms, and on protection against progressive distortion for multiple-use vessels. The criteria are demonstrated by the

  18. Lightweight pressure vessels and unitized regenerative fuel cells

    Microsoft Academic Search

    F. Mitlitsky; B. Myers; A. H. Weisberg

    1996-01-01

    Energy storage systems have been designed using lightweight pressure vessels with unitized regenerative fuel cells (URFCs). The vessels provide a means of storing reactant gases required for URFCs; they use lightweight bladder liners that act as inflatable mandrels for composite overwrap and provide a permeation barrier. URFC systems have been designed for zero emission vehicles (ZEVs); they are cost competitive

  19. Design of Semi-composite Pressure Vessel using Fuzzy and FEM

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sabour, Mohammad H.; Foghani, Mohammad F.

    2010-04-01

    The present study attempts to present a new method to design a semi-composite pressure vessel (known as hoop-wrapped composite cylinder) using fuzzy decision making and finite element method. A metal-composite vessel was designed based on ISO criteria and then the weight of the vessel was optimized for various fibers of carbon, glass and Kevlar in the cylindrical vessel. Failure criteria of von-Mises and Hoffman were respectively employed for the steel liner and the composite reinforcement to characterize the yielding/ buckling of the cylindrical pressure vessel. The fuzzy decision maker was used to estimate the thickness of the steel liner and the number of composite layers. The ratio of stresses on the composite fibers and the working pressure as well as the ratio of stresses on the composite fibers and the burst (failure) pressure were assessed. ANSYS nonlinear finite element solver was used to analyze the residual stress in the steel liner induced due to an auto-frettage process. Result of analysis verified that carbon fibers are the most suitable reinforcement to increase strength of cylinder while the weight stayed appreciably low.

  20. 46 CFR 58.60-3 - Pressure vessel.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ...HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) MARINE ENGINEERING MAIN AND AUXILIARY MACHINERY AND RELATED SYSTEMS Industrial Systems and Components on Mobile Offshore...pressure vessel that is a component in an industrial system under this subpart must...

  1. 46 CFR 58.60-3 - Pressure vessel.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ...HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) MARINE ENGINEERING MAIN AND AUXILIARY MACHINERY AND RELATED SYSTEMS Industrial Systems and Components on Mobile Offshore...pressure vessel that is a component in an industrial system under this subpart must...

  2. Structural Health Monitoring of Composite Wound Pressure Vessels

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Grant, Joseph; Kaul, Raj; Taylor, Scott; Jackson, Kurt; Myers, George; Sharma, A.

    2002-01-01

    The increasing use of advanced composite materials in the wide range of applications including Space Structures is a great impetus to the development of smart materials. Incorporating these FBG sensors for monitoring the integrity of structures during their life cycle will provide valuable information about viability of the usage of such material. The use of these sensors by surface bonding or embedding in this composite will measure internal strain and temperature, and hence the integrity of the assembled engineering structures. This paper focuses on such a structure, called a composite wound pressure vessel. This vessel was fabricated from the composite material: TRH50 (a Mitsubishi carbon fiber with a 710-ksi tensile strength and a 37 Msi modulus) impregnated with an epoxy resin from NEWPORT composites (WDE-3D-1). This epoxy resin in water dispersed system without any solvents and it cures in the 240-310 degrees F range. This is a toughened resin system specifically designed for pressure applications. These materials are a natural fit for fiber sensors since the polyimide outer buffer coating of fiber can be integrated into the polymer matrix of the composite material with negligible residual stress. The tank was wound with two helical patterns and 4 hoop wraps. The order of winding is: two hoops, two helical and two hoops. The wall thickness of the composite should be about 80 mil or less. The tank should burst near 3,000 psi or less. We can measure the actual wall thickness by ultrasonic or we can burst the tank and measure the pieces. Figure 1 shows a cylinder fabricated out of carbon-epoxy composite material. The strain in different directions is measured with a surface bonded fiber Bragg gratings and with embedded fiber Bragg gratings as the cylinder is pressurized to burst pressures. Figure 2 shows the strain as a function of pressure of carbon-epoxy cylinder as it is pressurized with water. Strain is measured in different directions by multiple gratings oriented in both axial and hoops directions.

  3. Adaptive Composite Materials with Shape Memory Alloy Actuators for Cylinders and Pressure Vessels

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jeffrey S. N. Paine; Craig A. Rogers; Randy A. Smith

    1995-01-01

    An investigation of adaptive hybrid composite cylinders utilizing active Shape Memory Alloy (SMA) composite layers for use in high-pressure vessel applications is presented. An analytical analysis using a linear elastic composite cylinder formulation shows that adapative SMA elements in a composite cylinder can be used to actively reduce peak tensile hoop stresses in the composite cylinder inner walls. Lower peak

  4. Low-Cost, Lightweight Pressure Vessel Proof Test

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chanez, Eric

    This experiment seeks to determine the burst strength of the low-cost, lightweight pressure vessel fabricated by the Suborbital Center of Excellence (SCE). Moreover, the test explores the effects of relatively large gage pressures on material strain for ‘pumpkin-shaped' pressure vessels. The SCE team used pressure transducers and analog gauges to measure the gage pressure while a video camera assembly recorded several gores in the shell for strain analysis. The team loaded the vessel in small intervals of pressure until the structure failed. Upon test completion, the pressure readings and video recordings were analyzed to determine the burst strength and material strain in the shell. The analysis yielded a burst pressure of 13.5 psi while the strain analysis reported in the shell. While the results of this proof test are encouraging, the structure's factor of safety must be increased for actual balloon flights. Furthermore, the pressure vessel prototype must be subjected to reliability tests to show the design can sustain gage pressures for the length of a balloon flight.

  5. Time-dependent response of filamentary composite spherical pressure vessels

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dozier, J. D.

    1983-01-01

    A filamentary composite spherical pressure vessel is modeled as a pseudoisotropic (or transversely isotropic) composite shell, with the effects of the liner and fill tubes omitted. Equations of elasticity, macromechanical and micromechanical formulations, and laminate properties are derived for the application of an internally pressured spherical composite vessel. Viscoelastic properties for the composite matrix are used to characterize time-dependent behavior. Using the maximum strain theory of failure, burst pressure and critical strain equations are formulated, solved in the Laplace domain with an associated elastic solution, and inverted back into the time domain using the method of collocation. Viscoelastic properties of HBFR-55 resin are experimentally determined and a Kevlar/HBFR-55 system is evaluated with a FORTRAN program. The computed reduction in burst pressure with respect to time indicates that the analysis employed may be used to predict the time-dependent response of a filamentary composite spherical pressure vessel.

  6. Weld evaluation on spherical pressure vessels using holographic interferometry

    SciTech Connect

    Boyd, D.M.; Wilcox, W.W.

    1980-05-14

    Waist welds on spherical experimental pressure vessels have been evaluated under pressure using holographic interferometry. A coincident viewing and illumination optical configuration coupled with a parabolic mirror was used so that the entire weld region could be examined with a single hologram. Positioning the pressure vessel at the focal point of the parabolic mirror provides a relatively undistorted 360 degree view of the waist weld. Double exposure and real time holography were used to obtain displacement information on the weld region. Results are compared with radiographic and ultrasonic inspections.

  7. FAVOR: A new fracture mechanics code for reactor pressure vessels subjected to pressurized thermal shock

    SciTech Connect

    Dickson, T.L.

    1993-04-01

    This report discusses probabilistic fracture mechanics (PFM) analysis which is a major element of the comprehensive probabilistic methodology endorsed by the NRC for evaluation of the integrity of Pressurized Water Reactor (PWR) pressure vessels subjected to pressurized-thermal-shock (PTS) transients. It is anticipated that there will be an increasing need for an improved and validated PTS PFM code which is accepted by the NRC and utilities, as more plants approach the PTS screening criteria and are required to perform plant-specific analyses. The NRC funded Heavy Section Steel Technology (HSST) Program at Oak Ridge National Laboratories is currently developing the FAVOR (Fracture Analysis of Vessels: Oak Ridge) PTS PFM code, which is intended to meet this need. The FAVOR code incorporates the most important features of both OCA-P and VISA-II and contains some new capabilities such as PFM global modeling methodology, the capability to approximate the effects of thermal streaming on circumferential flaws located inside a plume region created by fluid and thermal stratification, a library of stress intensity factor influence coefficients, generated by the NQA-1 certified ABAQUS computer code, for an adequate range of two and three dimensional inside surface flaws, the flexibility to generate a variety of output reports, and user friendliness.

  8. FAVOR: A new fracture mechanics code for reactor pressure vessels subjected to pressurized thermal shock

    SciTech Connect

    Dickson, T.L.

    1993-01-01

    This report discusses probabilistic fracture mechanics (PFM) analysis which is a major element of the comprehensive probabilistic methodology endorsed by the NRC for evaluation of the integrity of Pressurized Water Reactor (PWR) pressure vessels subjected to pressurized-thermal-shock (PTS) transients. It is anticipated that there will be an increasing need for an improved and validated PTS PFM code which is accepted by the NRC and utilities, as more plants approach the PTS screening criteria and are required to perform plant-specific analyses. The NRC funded Heavy Section Steel Technology (HSST) Program at Oak Ridge National Laboratories is currently developing the FAVOR (Fracture Analysis of Vessels: Oak Ridge) PTS PFM code, which is intended to meet this need. The FAVOR code incorporates the most important features of both OCA-P and VISA-II and contains some new capabilities such as PFM global modeling methodology, the capability to approximate the effects of thermal streaming on circumferential flaws located inside a plume region created by fluid and thermal stratification, a library of stress intensity factor influence coefficients, generated by the NQA-1 certified ABAQUS computer code, for an adequate range of two and three dimensional inside surface flaws, the flexibility to generate a variety of output reports, and user friendliness.

  9. Cyclic crack growth behavior of reactor pressure vessel steels in light water reactor environments

    SciTech Connect

    Van Der Sluys, W.A.; Emanuelson, R.H.

    1986-01-01

    During normal operation light water reactor (LWR) pressure vessels are subjected to a variety of transients resulting in time varying stresses. Consequently, fatigue and environmentally assisted fatigue are growth mechanisms relevant to flaws in these pressure vessels. In order to provide a better understanding of the resistance of nuclear pressure vessel steels to flaw growth process, a series of fracture mechanics experiments were conducted to generate data on the rate of cyclic crack growth in SA508-2 and SA533b-1 steels in simulated 550/sup 0/F boiling water reactor (BWR) and 550/sup 0/F pressurized water reactor (PWR) environments. Areas investigated over the course of the test program included the effects of loading frequency and r ratio (Kmin-Kmax) on crack growth rate as a function of the stress intensity factor (deltaK) range. In addition, the effect of sulfur content of the test material on the cyclic crack growth rate was studied. Cyclic crack growth rates were found to be controlled by deltaK, R ratio, and loading frequency. The sulfur impurity content of the reactor pressure vessel steels studied had a significant effect on the cyclic crack growth rates. The higher growth rates were always associated with materials of higher sulfur content. For a given level of sulfur, growth rates were in a 550/sup 0/F simulated BWR environment than in a 550/sup 0/F simulated PWR environment. In both environments cyclic crack growth rates were a strong function of the loading frequency.

  10. Fractographic study of a thick wall pressure vessel failure

    Microsoft Academic Search

    D. A. Canonico; R. S. Crouse; T. J. Henson

    1979-01-01

    The pressure vessel described in this paper is identified as Intermediate Test Vessel 1 (ITV-1) and was fabricated of SA508, Class 2 Steel. It was tested to failure at 54°C (130°F). The gross failure appeared to be a brittle fracture although accompanied by a measured strain of 0.9%. Seven regions of the fracture were examined in detail and the observed

  11. Nickel hydrogen multicell common pressure vessel battery development update

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zagrodnik, Jeffrey P.; Jones, Kenneth R.

    1992-01-01

    The technology background and design qualification of the multicell common pressure vessel nickel hydrogen battery are described. The results of full flight qualification, including random vibration at 19.5 g for two minutes in each axis, electrical characterization in a thermal vacuum chamber, and mass spectroscopy vessel leak detection are reviewed and 12.7 cm qualification and 25.4 cm design adaptation are discussed.

  12. Experimental studies on bursting pressure of thin-walled flow formed pressure vessels

    Microsoft Academic Search

    K. M Rajan; P. U Deshpande; K Narasimhan

    2002-01-01

    The design of pressure vessels for critical high-pressure applications has to consider two failure modes. The first mode of failure can occur when deformation becomes excessive and permanent deformation might occur. The second type of failure occurs at higher magnitudes of pressure resulting in bursting of tubes and catastrophic failure. Hence predicting the bursting pressure of thrust chambers is an

  13. Technical Appendix to Cryogenic Pressure Vessels

    SciTech Connect

    Mulholland, G.T.; Rucinski, R.A; /Fermilab

    1990-02-22

    The 20,000 gls. Liquid Argon dewar stores up to 15,000 gls. of high purity (<1.0 ppm O{sub 2}, 0.999995) LAr for use in the Liquid Argon calorimeters of E740, the D0 collider detector, at elevation 707-feet. The dewar provides for the total detector volume of 11,000 gls and a 4,000 gls. storage inventory. The large gas volume ({ge}5,000 gls.) serves operational needs and guards against overfill concerns. The LAr dewar functions in two modes: (1) low pressure (16 psi relief) storage, and liquid and gas transfer operations to and from the low pressure (13 psi relief) detector cryostats, and (2) high pressure (65 psi relief) liquid transfer operations to and from a delivery trailer at elevation 743-feet. The storage function is intended to be long term and nonventing. The dewar is equipped with a 40 kW LN{sub 2} condenser that operates to maintain the pressure constant in the storage mode. This service exactly parallels the NeH{sub 2} and D{sub 2} storage dewar services provided at the 15-feet bubble chamber for its operation.

  14. Cleavage Fracture Modeling of Pressure Vessels Under Transient Thermo-Mechanical Loading

    SciTech Connect

    Qian, Xudong [National University of Singapore; Dodds, Robert [University of Illinois; Yin, Shengjun [ORNL; Bass, Bennett Richard [ORNL

    2008-01-01

    Abstract The next generation of fracture assessment procedures for nuclear reactor pressure vessels (RPVs) will combine nonlinear analyses of crack-front response with stochastic treatments of crack size, shape, orientation, location, material properties and thermal-pressure transients. The projected computational demands needed to support stochastic approaches with detailed 3-D, nonlinear stress analyses of vessels containing defects appear well beyond current and near-term capabilities. In the interim, 2-D models be-come appealing to approximate certain classes of critical flaws in RPVs, and have computational demands within reach for stochastic frameworks. The present work focuses on the capability of 2-D models to provide values for the Weibull stress fracture parameter with accuracy comparable to those from very detailed 3-D models. Weibull stress approaches provide one route to connect nonlinear vessel response with fracture toughness values measured using small laboratory specimens. The embedded axial flaw located in the RPV wall near the cladding-vessel interface emerges from current linear-elastic, stochastic investigations as a critical contributor to the conditional probability of initiation. Three different types of 2-D models reflecting this configuration are subjected to a thermal-pressure transient characteristic of a critical pressurized thermal shock event. The plane-strain, 2-D models include: the modified boundary layer (MBL) model, the middle tension (M(T)) model, and the 2-D RPV model. The 2-D MBL model provides a high quality estimate for the Weibull stress but only in crack-front regions with a positive T-stress. For crack-front locations with low constraint (T-stress < 0), the M(T) specimen provides very accurate Weibull stress values but only for pressure load acting alone on the RPV. For RPVs under a combined thermal-pressure transient, Weibull stresses computed from the 2-D RPV model demonstrate close agreement with those computed from the corresponding crack-front locations in the 3-D RPV model having large negative T-stresses. Applications of this family of 2-D models provide Weibull stress values in excellent agreement with very detailed 3-D models while retaining practical levels of computational effort.

  15. A DISLOCATION-BASED CLEAVAGE INITIATION MODEL FOR PRESSURE VESSEL

    SciTech Connect

    Cochran, Kristine B [ORNL] [ORNL; Erickson, Marjorie A [ORNL] [ORNL; Williams, Paul T [ORNL] [ORNL; Klasky, Hilda B [ORNL] [ORNL; Bass, Bennett Richard [ORNL] [ORNL

    2012-01-01

    Efforts are under way to develop a theoretical, multi-scale model for the prediction of fracture toughness of ferritic steels in the ductile-to-brittle transition temperature (DBTT) region that accounts for temperature, irradiation, strain rate, and material condition (chemistry and heat treatment) effects. This new model is intended to address difficulties associated with existing empirically-derived models of the DBTT region that cannot be extrapolated to conditions for which data are unavailable. Dislocation distribution equations, derived from the theories of Yokobori et al., are incorporated to account for the local stress state prior to and following initiation of a microcrack from a second-phase particle. The new model is the basis for the DISlocation-based FRACture (DISFRAC) computer code being developed at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL). The purpose of this code is to permit fracture safety assessments of ferritic structures with only tensile properties required as input. The primary motivation for the code is to assist in the prediction of radiation effects on nuclear reactor pressure vessels, in parallel with the EURATOM PERFORM 60 project.

  16. Neural network/acoustic emission burst pressure prediction for impact damaged composite pressure vessels

    SciTech Connect

    Walker, J.L.; Workman, G.L. [Univ. of Alabama, Huntsville, AL (United States); Russell, S.S. [National Aeronautics and Space Administration, Huntsville, AL (United States). Marshall Space Flight Center; Hill, E.V.K. [Embry-Riddle Aeronautical Univ., Daytona Beach, FL (United States)

    1997-08-01

    Acoustic emission signal analysis has been used to measure the effect impact damage has on the burst pressure of 146 mm (5.75 in.) diameter graphite/epoxy and the organic polymer, Kevlar/epoxy filament wound pressure vessels. Burst pressure prediction models were developed by correlating the differential acoustic emission amplitude distribution collected during low level hydroproof tests to known burst pressures using backpropagation artificial neural networks. Impact damage conditions ranging from barely visible to obvious fiber breakage, matrix cracking, and delamination were included in this work. A simulated (inert) propellant was also cast into a series of the vessels from each material class, before impact loading, to provide boundary conditions during impact that would simulate those found on solid rocket motors. The results of this research effort demonstrate that a quantitative assessment of the effects that impact damage has on burst pressure can be made for both organic polymer/epoxy and graphite/epoxy pressure vessels. Here, an artificial neural network analysis of the acoustic emission parametric data recorded during low pressure hydroproof testing is used to relate burst pressure to the vessel`s acoustic signature. Burst pressure predictions within 6.0% of the actual failure pressure are demonstrated for a series of vessels.

  17. Adaptive composite materials with shape memory alloy actuators for cylinders and pressure vessels

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jeffrey S. Paine; Craig A. Rogers; Randy A. Smith

    1994-01-01

    An important development in future aerospace applications is the use of thick-wall composite material high-pressure vessels. While polymer matrix composite vessels are already widely used in low- pressure applications, because of reliability and fabrication issues, composite materials have not found use in high-pressure applications. Replacing current steel pressure vessel designs with polymer matrix composite pressure vessels for high pressure applications

  18. Individual Pressure Vessel (PV) and Common Pressure Vessel (CPV) Nickel-Hydrogen Battery Performance Under LEO Cycling Conditions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Miller, Thomas B.; Lewis, Harlan L.

    2004-01-01

    LEO life cycle testing of Individual Pressure Vessel (PV) and Common Pressure Vessel (CPV) nickel-hydrogen cell packs have been sponsored by the NASA Aerospace Flight Battery Program. The cell packs have cycled under both 35% and 60% depth-of- discharge and temperature conditions of -5 C and +lO C. The packs have been on test since as early as 1992 and have generated a substantial database. This report will provide insight into performance trends as a function of the specific cell configuration and manufacturer for eight separate nickel-hydrogen battery cell packs.

  19. Multiple cell common pressure vessel nickel hydrogen battery

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zagrodnik, Jeffrey P.; Jones, Kenneth R.

    1991-01-01

    A multiple cell common pressure vessel (CPV) nickel hydrogen battery was developed that offers significant weight, volume, cost, and interfacing advantages over the conventional individual pressure vessel (IPV) nickel hydrogen configuration that is currently used for aerospace applications. The baseline CPV design was successfully demonstrated though the testing of a 26 cell prototype, which completed over 7,000 44 percent depth of discharge LEO cycles. Two-cell boilerplate batteries have now exceeded 12,500 LEO cycles in ongoing laboratory tests. CPV batteries using both nominal 5 and 10 inch diameter vessels are currently available. The flexibility of the design allows these diameters to provide a broad capability for a variety of space applications.

  20. Proceedings of ASME 2008 ASME Pressure Vessel & Piping Division Conference

    E-print Network

    Boyer, Edmond

    propelled ships have even been designed to that purpose. However such propulsion systems have been provedProceedings of ASME 2008 ASME Pressure Vessel & Piping Division Conference Chicago, Illinois, USA applications; MHD propelled ships have even been designed to that purpose: the most famous example

  1. On the thermal hydraulics of Magnox reactor pressure vessel insulation

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. A. Cotton; T. K. Lim; B. P. Axcell

    2007-01-01

    The paper presents a computational study of laminar flow and heat transfer in a layer of the multiple plate insulation used to line the interior surface of ‘Magnox’ reactor pressure vessels. The flow passage consists of a 2mm deep channel, which is plane on its upper surface and has raised ‘dimples’ on its lower surface. Under forced convection conditions strong

  2. Radiation Hardening in Magnox Pressure-Vessel Steels

    Microsoft Academic Search

    S. B. Fisher; J. E. Harbottle; N. Aldridge

    1985-01-01

    The ferritic steels used for reactor pressure vessels undergo a marked transition from ductile to brittle fracture behaviour over a relatively narrow temperature range. For most unirradiated mild steels the ductile to brittle transition temperature (d.b.t.t.) is between -50 degrees and 20 degrees C. The process of irradiation hardening, through the formation of clusters of intersitial or vacancy defects, increases

  3. Creep of A508/533 Pressure Vessel Steel

    SciTech Connect

    Richard Wright

    2014-08-01

    ABSTRACT Evaluation of potential Reactor Pressure Vessel (RPV) steels has been carried out as part of the pre-conceptual Very High Temperature Reactor (VHTR) design studies. These design studies have generally focused on American Society of Mechanical Engineers (ASME) Code status of the steels, temperature limits, and allowable stresses. Initially, three candidate materials were identified by this process: conventional light water reactor (LWR) RPV steels A508 and A533, 2¼Cr-1Mo in the annealed condition, and Grade 91 steel. The low strength of 2¼Cr-1Mo at elevated temperature has eliminated this steel from serious consideration as the VHTR RPV candidate material. Discussions with the very few vendors that can potentially produce large forgings for nuclear pressure vessels indicate a strong preference for conventional LWR steels. This preference is based in part on extensive experience with forging these steels for nuclear components. It is also based on the inability to cast large ingots of the Grade 91 steel due to segregation during ingot solidification, thus restricting the possible mass of forging components and increasing the amount of welding required for completion of the RPV. Grade 91 steel is also prone to weld cracking and must be post-weld heat treated to ensure adequate high-temperature strength. There are also questions about the ability to produce, and very importantly, verify the through thickness properties of thick sections of Grade 91 material. The availability of large components, ease of fabrication, and nuclear service experience with the A508 and A533 steels strongly favor their use in the RPV for the VHTR. Lowering the gas outlet temperature for the VHTR to 750°C from 950 to 1000°C, proposed in early concept studies, further strengthens the justification for this material selection. This steel is allowed in the ASME Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code for nuclear service up to 371°C (700°F); certain excursions above that temperature are allowed by Code Case N-499-2 (now incorporated as an appendix to Section III Division 5 of the Code). This Code Case was developed with a rather sparse data set and focused primarily on rolled plate material (A533 specification). Confirmatory tests of creep behavior of both A508 and A533 are described here that are designed to extend the database in order to build higher confidence in ensuring the structural integrity of the VHTR RPV during off-normal conditions. A number of creep-rupture tests were carried out at temperatures above the 371°C (700°F) Code limit; longer term tests designed to evaluate minimum creep behavior are ongoing. A limited amount of rupture testing was also carried out on welded material. All of the rupture data from the current experiments is compared to historical values from the testing carried out to develop Code Case N-499-2. It is shown that the A508/533 basemetal tested here fits well with the rupture behavior reported from the historical testing. The presence of weldments significantly reduces the time to rupture. The primary purpose of this report is to summarize and record the experimental results in a single document.

  4. Relating surveillance capsule measurements to pressure vessel damage

    SciTech Connect

    Carew, J.F.; Min, D.K.; Aronson, A.L.

    1980-01-01

    As part of the pressure vessel (PV) materials surveillance program, surveillance capsules including material specimens and neutron flux dosimeters are generally required to monitor changes in the fracture toughness properties of the reactor vessel materials. These capsules are withdrawn sequentially according to a predetermined schedule covering the service life of the vessel, and specimen material changes and dosimeter activation measured. The neutron fluence accumulated by the flux dosimeters is determined from the measured dosimeter activation and known reaction cross section (in practice, the /sup 54/Fe(n,p)/sup 54/Mn reaction.) The capsule fluence and material changes are then extrapolated to the pressure vessel using a fluence lead-factor determined from detailed multigroup neutron transport calculations. Typically, in this extrapolation changes in neutron spectrum are neglected. The purpose of this study is twofold; first, to determine the effect of including spectral changes in the extrapolation from capsule to vessel and second, to evaluate the effect of using the latest ENDF/B-V /sup 54/Fe(n,p)/sup 54/Mn cross sections in converting dosimeter activation to fluence.

  5. Dynamic strain aging in SA508-class 3 pressure vessel steel

    Microsoft Academic Search

    I. S. Kim; S. S. Kang

    1995-01-01

    The influence of dynamic strain aging (DSA) on deformation and fracture was investigated on ASME SA508-class 3 pressure vessel steel. Serrated flow in stress-strain curves was observed between about 140 and 340°C, which was varied by the strain rate and microstructural condition. The onset temperature of serration for the pearlite-ferrite microstructural condition was lower than that for the as-received, tempered

  6. WRC bulletin. A review of underclad cracking in pressure-vessel components

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. G. Vinckier; A. W. Pense

    1974-01-01

    This review of cracking underneath the weld cladding is to determine what factors contribute to this condition, and to outline means for alleviating or eliminating this condition. Considerable data on manufacture, heat treatment, and cladding of heavy-section pressure-vessel steels for nuclear service are also included. Three factors in combination that promote underclad cracking are susceptible microstructure, favorable residual-stress pattern, and

  7. Evaluation of Acoustic Emission NDE of Kevlar Composite Over Wrapped Pressure Vessels

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Horne, Michael R.; Madaras, Eric I.

    2008-01-01

    Pressurization and failure tests of small Kevlar/epoxy COPV bottles were conducted during 2006 and 2007 by Texas Research Institute Austin, Inc., at TRI facilities. This is a report of the analysis of the Acoustic Emission (AE) data collected during those tests. Results of some of the tests indicate a possibility that AE can be used to track the stress-rupture degradation of COPV vessels.

  8. 46 CFR 197.462 - Pressure vessels and pressure piping.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ...GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) MARINE OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS GENERAL PROVISIONS Commercial...to allow examination of all joints, connections and high stress areas. [CGD 95-028, 62 FR 51220, Sept. 30,...

  9. 46 CFR 197.462 - Pressure vessels and pressure piping.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ...GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) MARINE OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS GENERAL PROVISIONS Commercial...to allow examination of all joints, connections and high stress areas. [CGD 95-028, 62 FR 51220, Sept. 30,...

  10. 46 CFR 197.462 - Pressure vessels and pressure piping.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ...GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) MARINE OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS GENERAL PROVISIONS Commercial...to allow examination of all joints, connections and high stress areas. [CGD 95-028, 62 FR 51220, Sept. 30,...

  11. 46 CFR 197.462 - Pressure vessels and pressure piping.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ...GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) MARINE OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS GENERAL PROVISIONS Commercial...to allow examination of all joints, connections and high stress areas. [CGD 95-028, 62 FR 51220, Sept. 30,...

  12. 46 CFR 197.462 - Pressure vessels and pressure piping.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ...GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) MARINE OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS GENERAL PROVISIONS Commercial...to allow examination of all joints, connections and high stress areas. [CGD 95-028, 62 FR 51220, Sept. 30,...

  13. Lightweight pressure vessels and unitized regenerative fuel cells

    SciTech Connect

    Mitlitsky, F.; Myers, B.; Weisberg, A.H. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab., CA (United States)

    1996-12-31

    High specific energy (>400 Wh/kg) energy storage systems have been designed using lightweight pressure vessels in conjunction with unitized regenerative fuel cells (URFCs). URFCs produce power and electrolytically regenerate their reactants using a single stack of reversible cells. Although a rechargeable energy storage system with such high specific energy has not yet been fabricated, we have made progress towards this goal. A primary fuel cell (FC) test rig with a single cell (0.05 ft{sup 2} active area) has been modified and operated reversibly as a URFC. This URFC uses bifunctional electrodes (oxidation and reduction electrodes reverse roles when switching from charge to discharge, as with a rechargeable battery) and cathode feed electrolysis (water is fed from the oxygen side of the cell). Lightweight pressure vessels with state-of-the-art performance factors (burst pressure * internal volume/tank weight = Pb V/W) have been designed and fabricated. These vessels provide a lightweight means of storing reactant gases required for fuel cells (FCs) or URFCs. The vessels use lightweight bladder liners that act as inflatable mandrels for composite overwrap and provide the permeation barrier for gas storage. The bladders are fabricated using materials that are compatible with humidified gases which may be created by the electrolysis of water and are compatible with elevated temperatures that occur during fast fills.

  14. Fabrication of toroidal composite pressure vessels. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Dodge, W.G.; Escalona, A.

    1996-11-24

    A method for fabricating composite pressure vessels having toroidal geometry was evaluated. Eight units were fabricated using fibrous graphite material wrapped over a thin-walled aluminum liner. The material was wrapped using a machine designed for wrapping, the graphite material was impregnated with an epoxy resin that was subsequently thermally cured. The units were fabricated using various winding patterns. They were hydrostatically tested to determine their performance. The method of fabrication was demonstrated. However, the improvement in performance to weight ratio over that obtainable by an all metal vessel probably does not justify the extra cost of fabrication.

  15. Stress analysis of hydride bed vessels used for tritium storage

    SciTech Connect

    McKillip, S.T.; Bannister, C.E.; Clark, E.A.

    1991-12-31

    A prototype hydride storage bed, using LaNi{sub 4.25}Al{sub 0.75} as the storage material, was fitted with strain gages to measure strains occurring in the stainless steel bed vessel caused by expansion of the storage powder upon uptake of hydrogen. The strain remained low in the bed as hydrogen was added, up to a bed loading of about 0.5 hydrogen to metal atom ratio (H/M). The strain then increased with increasing hydrogen loading ({approximately} 0.8 H/M). Different locations exhibited greatly different levels of maximum strain. In no case was the design stress of the vessel exceeded.

  16. Stress analysis of hydride bed vessels used for tritium storage

    SciTech Connect

    McKillip, S.T.; Bannister, C.E.; Clark, E.A.

    1991-01-01

    A prototype hydride storage bed, using LaNi{sub 4.25}Al{sub 0.75} as the storage material, was fitted with strain gages to measure strains occurring in the stainless steel bed vessel caused by expansion of the storage powder upon uptake of hydrogen. The strain remained low in the bed as hydrogen was added, up to a bed loading of about 0.5 hydrogen to metal atom ratio (H/M). The strain then increased with increasing hydrogen loading ({approximately} 0.8 H/M). Different locations exhibited greatly different levels of maximum strain. In no case was the design stress of the vessel exceeded.

  17. Design Considerations For Blast Loads In Pressure Vessels.

    SciTech Connect

    Rodriguez, E. A. (Edward A.); Nickell, Robert E.; Pepin, J. E. (Jason E.)

    2007-01-01

    Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL), under the auspices of the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) and the National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA), conducts confined detonation experiments utilizing large, spherical, steel pressure vessels to contain the reaction products and hazardous materials from high-explosive (HE) events. Structural design and analysis considerations include: (a) Blast loading phase (i.e., impulsive loading); (b) Dynamic structural response; (c) Fragment (i.e., shrapnel) generation and penetration; (d) Ductile and non-ductile fracture; and (e) Design Criteria to ASME Code Sec. VIII, Div. 3, Impulsively Loaded Vessels. These vessels are designed for one-time-use only, efficiently utilizing the significant plastic energy absorption capability of ductile vessel materials. Alternatively, vessels may be designed for multiple-detonation events, in which case the material response is restricted to elastic or near-elastic range. Code of Federal Regulations, Title 10 Part 50 provides requirements for commercial nuclear reactor licensing; specifically dealing with accidental combustible gases in containment structures that might cause extreme loadings. The design philosophy contained herein may be applied to extreme loading events postulated to occur in nuclear reactor and non-nuclear systems or containments.

  18. An Acoustic Emission and Acousto-Ultrasonic Analysis of Impact Damaged Composite Pressure Vessels

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Walker, James L.; Workman, Gary L.; Workman, Gary L.

    1996-01-01

    The research presented herein summarizes the development of acoustic emission (AE) and acousto-ultrasonic (AU) techniques for the nondestructive evaluation of filament wound composite pressure vessels. Vessels fabricated from both graphite and kevlar fibers with an epoxy matrix were examined prior to hydroburst using AU and during hydroburst using AE. A dead weight drop apparatus featuring both blunt and sharp impactor tips was utilized to produce a single known energy 'damage' level in each of the vessels so that the degree to which the effects of impact damage could be measured. The damage levels ranged from barely visible to obvious fiber breakage and delamination. Independent neural network burst pressure prediction models were developed from a sample of each fiber/resin material system. Here, the cumulative AE amplitude distribution data collected from low level proof test (25% of the expected burst for undamaged vessels) were used to measure the effects of the impact on the residual burst pressure of the vessels. The results of the AE/neural network model for the inert propellant filled graphite/epoxy vessels 'IM7/3501-6, IM7/977-2 and IM7/8553-45' demonstrated that burst pressures can be predicted from low level AE proof test data, yielding an average error of 5.0%. The trained network for the IM7/977-2 class vessels was also able to predict the expected burst pressure of taller vessels (three times longer hoop region length) constructed of the same material and using the same manufacturing technique, with an average error of 4.9%. To a lesser extent, the burst pressure prediction models could also measure the effects of impact damage to the kevlar/epoxy 'Kevlar 49/ DPL862' vessels. Here though, due to the higher attenuation of the material, an insufficient amount of AE amplitude information was collected to generate robust network models. Although, the worst case trial errors were less than 6%, when additional blind predictions were attempted, errors as high as 50% were produced. An acousto-ultrasonic robotic evaluation system (AURES) was developed for mapping the effects of damage on filament wound pressure vessels prior to hydroproof testing. The AURES injects a single broadband ultrasonic pulse into each vessel at preprogrammed positions and records the effects of the interaction of that pulse on the material volume with a broadband receiver. A stress wave factor in the form of the energy associated with the 750 to 1000 kHz and 1000 to 1250 kHz frequency bands were used to map the potential failure sites for each vessel. The energy map associated with the graphite/epoxy vessels was found to decrease in the region of the impact damage. The kevlar vessels showed the opposite trend, with the energy values increasing around the damage/failure sites.

  19. The coolability limits of a reactor pressure vessel lower head

    SciTech Connect

    Theofanous, T.G.; Syri, S. [Univ. of California, Santa Barbara, CA (United States)

    1995-09-01

    Configuration II of the ULPU experimental facility is described, and from a comprehensive set of experiments are provided. The facility affords full-scale simulations of the boiling crisis phenomenon on the hemispherical lower head of a reactor pressure vessel submerged in water, and heated internally. Whereas Configuration I experiments (published previously) established the lower limits of coolability under low submergence, pool-boiling conditions, with Configuration II we investigate coolability under conditions more appropriate to practical interest in severe accident management; that is, heat flux shapes (as functions of angular position) representative of a core melt contained by the lower head, full submergence of the reactor pressure vessel, and natural circulation. Critical heat fluxes as a function of the angular position on the lower head are reported and related the observed two-phase flow regimes.

  20. Lightweight pressure vessels and unitized regenerative fuel cells

    SciTech Connect

    Mitlitsky, F.; Myers, B.; Weisberg, A.H.

    1996-09-06

    Energy storage systems have been designed using lightweight pressure vessels with unitized regenerative fuel cells (URFCs). The vessels provide a means of storing reactant gases required for URFCs; they use lightweight bladder liners that act as inflatable mandrels for composite overwrap and provide a permeation barrier. URFC systems have been designed for zero emission vehicles (ZEVs); they are cost competitive with primary FC powered vehicles that operate on H/air with capacitors or batteries for power peaking and regenerative braking. URFCs are capable of regenerative braking via electrolysis and power peaking using low volume/low pressure accumulated oxygen for supercharging the power stack. URFC ZEVs can be safely and rapidly (<5 min.) refueled using home electrolysis units. Reversible operation of cell membrane catalyst is feasible without significant degradation. Such systems would have a rechargeable specific energy > 400 Wh/kg.

  1. Lessons Learned From Developing Reactor Pressure Vessel Steel Embrittlement Database

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, Jy-An John [ORNL

    2010-08-01

    Materials behaviors caused by neutron irradiation under fission and/or fusion environments can be little understood without practical examination. Easily accessible material information system with large material database using effective computers is necessary for design of nuclear materials and analyses or simulations of the phenomena. The developed Embrittlement Data Base (EDB) at ORNL is this comprehensive collection of data. EDB database contains power reactor pressure vessel surveillance data, the material test reactor data, foreign reactor data (through bilateral agreements authorized by NRC), and the fracture toughness data. The lessons learned from building EDB program and the associated database management activity regarding Material Database Design Methodology, Architecture and the Embedded QA Protocol are described in this report. The development of IAEA International Database on Reactor Pressure Vessel Materials (IDRPVM) and the comparison of EDB database and IAEA IDRPVM database are provided in the report. The recommended database QA protocol and database infrastructure are also stated in the report.

  2. Concept of Small Sized Integrated PWR with Double Pressure Vessels

    SciTech Connect

    Kinoshita, I.; Ueda, N.; Nishi, Y.; Matsumura, T. [Central Research Institute of Electric Power Industry, 2-11-1, Iwado-kita, Komae-shi, Tokyo, 201-8511 (Japan)

    2002-07-01

    For early deployment of small sized nuclear reactors, it is better to reduce the BOP cost with new ideas than introducing innovative technologies for core, fuel and materials. In this report, a concept of the integrated, forced convective and small PWR with double pressure vessels has been proposed. The electric output of this reactor is 150 MW. Conventional technologies are adopted for core and fuel. Refueling, maintenance and repairing are made in a special ship with complete facilities and skilled experts. The pressure vessel with the core, control rod drive mechanisms (CRDM), main circulating pumps (MCP), steam generators (SG) and other reactor internals are transferred between the reactor building and the ship. Technical feasibility for safety and maintainability has been discussed qualitatively. The construction cost has been roughly estimated. (authors)

  3. Structural integrity assessment of type 201LN stainless steel cryogenic pressure vessels

    SciTech Connect

    Rana, M.D.; Zawierucha, R. [Praxair, Inc., Tonawanda, NY (United States)

    1995-12-01

    The ASME Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code Committee approved the Code Case 2123 in 1992 which allows the use of Type 201LN stainless steel in the construction of ASME Section VIII, Division 1 and Division 2 pressure vessels for -320{degrees}F applications. Type 201LN stainless steel is a nitrogen strengthened modified version of ASTM A240, Type 201 stainless steel with a restricted chemistry. The Code allowable design stresses for Type 201LN for Division 1 vessels are approximately 27% higher than Type 304 stainless steel and equal to that of the 5 Ni and 9 Ni steels. This paper discusses the important features of the Code Case 2123 and the structural integrity assessment of Type 201LN stainless steel cryogenic vessels. Tensile, Charpy-V-notch and fracture properties have been obtained on several heats of this steel including weldments. A linear-elastic fracture mechanics analysis has been conducted to assess the expected fracture mode and the fracture-critical crack sizes. The results have been compared with Type 304 stainless steel, 5 Ni and 9 Ni steel vessels.

  4. Insulated pressure vessels for hydrogen storage on vehicles

    Microsoft Academic Search

    S. M. Aceves; G. D. Berry; G. D. Rambach

    1998-01-01

    Probably the most significant hurdle for hydrogen vehicles is storing sufficient hydrogen onboard. Three viable technologies for storing hydrogen fuel on cars are: compressed gas, metal hydride adsorption, and cryogenic liquid. However, each of these has significant disadvantages: volume, weight, boiling losses, or energy to compress or liquefy the hydrogen.Insulated pressure vessels can reduce these problems for hydrogen-fueled light-duty vehicles.

  5. The design of steels for coal gasification pressure vessels

    Microsoft Academic Search

    R. M. Horn; R. J. Kar; V. F. Zackay; E. R. Parker

    1979-01-01

    The National Energy Plan calls for a doubling of the use of coal in the next decade. Toward the end of the coming decade,\\u000a it is anticipated that a new large scale technology will be developed that will convert much of this coal into oil and gas.\\u000a A key component of the new technology is the thick wall pressure vessel

  6. Differential Global Gene Expression Response Patterns of Human Endothelium Exposed to Shear Stress and Intraluminal Pressure

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Maria Andersson; Lena Karlsson; Per-Arne Svensson; Erik Ulfhammer; Mikael Ekman; Margareta Jernås; Lena M. S. Carlsson; Sverker Jern

    2005-01-01

    We investigated the global gene expression response of endothelium exposed to shear stress and intraluminal pressure and tested the hypothesis that the two biomechanical forces induce a differential gene expression response pattern. Intact living human conduit vessels (umbilical veins) were exposed to normal or high intraluminal pressure, or to low or high shear stress in combination with a physiological level

  7. Slideline verification for multilayer pressure vessel and piping analysis including tangential motion. [LMFBR

    SciTech Connect

    Van Gulick, L.A.

    1984-01-01

    Nonlinear finite element method (FEM) computer codes with slideline algorithm implementations should be useful for the analysis of prestressed multilayer pressure vessels and piping. This paper presents closed form solutions including the effects of tangential motion useful for verifying slideline implementations for this purpose. The solutions describe stresses and displacements of a long internally pressurized elastic-plastic cylinder initially separated from an elastic outer cylinder by a uniform gap. Comparison of closed form and FEM results evaluates the usefulness of the closed form solution and the validity of the sideline implementation used.

  8. Composite Pressure Vessel Variability in Geometry and Filament Winding Model

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Green, Steven J.; Greene, Nathanael J.

    2012-01-01

    Composite pressure vessels (CPVs) are used in a variety of applications ranging from carbon dioxide canisters for paintball guns to life support and pressurant storage on the International Space Station. With widespread use, it is important to be able to evaluate the effect of variability on structural performance. Data analysis was completed on CPVs to determine the amount of variation that occurs among the same type of CPV, and a filament winding routine was developed to facilitate study of the effect of manufacturing variation on structural response.

  9. A new method of nondestructive measurement for assessment of material degradation of aged reactor pressure vessels

    Microsoft Academic Search

    K. Ara; N. Ebine; N. Nakajima

    1996-01-01

    A method, MIM (magnetic interrogation method), is proposed for nondestructive measurement of radiation damage of nuclear reactor pressure vessels. The method relies on good correlation between the levels of radiation-induced hardness change and magnetic coercivity change in pressure vessel steel. A part of the pressure vessel to be inspected is magnetized with two-pole magnetic yokes through the overlay clad of

  10. Investigation of postweld heat treatment of quenched and tempered pressure vessel steels

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Zoran Sterjovski

    2003-01-01

    Longitudinal and circumferential welds in transportable pressure vessels are produced by submerged-arc welding using a single vee preparation and multiple weld runs. Quenched and tempered (QT) steels, which are commonly used for transportable pressure vessels, require mandatory postweld heat treatment (PWHT) regardless of the plate thickness. During their life transportable pressure vessels may have up to four PWHT cycles, and

  11. Dual shell reactor vessel: A pressure-balanced system for high pressure and temperature reactions

    Microsoft Academic Search

    R. J. Robertus; A. G. Fassbender; G. S. Deverman

    1995-01-01

    The main purpose of this work was to demonstrate the Dual Shell Pressure Balanced Vessel (DSPBV) as a safe and economical reactor for the hydrothermal water oxidation of hazardous wastes. Experimental tests proved that the pressure balancing piston and the leak detection concept designed for this project will work. The DSPBV was sized to process 10 gal\\/hr of hazardous waste

  12. Dual shell pressure balanced reactor vessel. Final project report

    SciTech Connect

    Robertus, R.J.; Fassbender, A.G.

    1994-10-01

    The Department of Energy`s Office of Energy Research (OER) has previously provided support for the development of several chemical processes, including supercritical water oxidation, liquefaction, and aqueous hazardous waste destruction, where chemical and phase transformations are conducted at high pressure and temperature. These and many other commercial processes require a pressure vessel capable of operating in a corrosive environment where safety and economy are important requirements. Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) engineers have recently developed and patented (U.S. patent 5,167,930 December 1, 1992) a concept for a novel Dual Shell Pressure Balanced Vessel (DSPBV) which could solve a number of these problems. The technology could be immediately useful in continuing commercialization of an R&D 100 award-winning technology, Sludge-to-oil Reactor System (STORS), originally developed through funding by OER. Innotek Corporation is a small business that would be one logical end-user of the DSPBV reactor technology. Innotek is working with several major U.S. engineering firms to evaluate the potential of this technology in the disposal of wastes from sewage treatment plants. PNL entered into a CRADA with Innotek to build a bench-scale demonstration reactor and test the system to advance the economic feasibility of a variety of high pressure chemical processes. Hydrothermal processing of corrosive substances on a large scale can now be made significantly safer and more economical through use of the DSPBV. Hydrothermal chemical reactions such as wet-air oxidation and supercritical water oxidation occur in a highly corrosive environment inside a pressure vessel. Average corrosion rates from 23 to 80 miles per year have been reported by Rice (1994) and Latanision (1993).

  13. Evaluation of Data-Logging Transducer to Passively Collect Pressure Vessel p/T History

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wnuk, Stephen P.; Le, Son; Loew, Raymond A.

    2013-01-01

    Pressure vessels owned and operated by NASA are required to be regularly certified per agency policy. Certification requires an assessment of damage mechanisms and an estimation of vessel remaining life. Since detail service histories are not typically available for most pressure vessels, a conservative estimate of vessel pressure/temperature excursions is typically used in assessing fatigue life. This paper details trial use of a data-logging transducer to passively obtain actual pressure and temperature service histories of pressure vessels. The approach was found to have some potential for cost savings and other benefits in certain cases.

  14. DEVELOPMENT OF ASME SECTION X CODE RULES FOR HIGH PRESSURE COMPOSITE HYDROGEN PRESSURE VESSELS WITH NON-LOAD SHARING LINERS

    Microsoft Academic Search

    G. Rawls; N. Newhouse; M. Rana; B. Shelley; M. Gorman

    2010-01-01

    The Boiler and Pressure Vessel Project Team on Hydrogen Tanks was formed in 2004 to develop Code rules to address the various needs that had been identified for the design and construction of up to 15000 psi hydrogen storage vessel. One of these needs was the development of Code rules for high pressure composite vessels with non-load sharing liners for

  15. PRESSURIZATION OF CONTAINMENT VESSELS FROM PLUTONIUM OXIDE CONTENTS

    SciTech Connect

    Hensel, S.

    2012-03-27

    Transportation and storage of plutonium oxide is typically done using a convenience container to hold the oxide powder which is then placed inside a containment vessel. Intermediate containers which act as uncredited confinement barriers may also be used. The containment vessel is subject to an internal pressure due to several sources including; (1) plutonium oxide provides a heat source which raises the temperature of the gas space, (2) helium generation due to alpha decay of the plutonium, (3) hydrogen generation due to radiolysis of the water which has been adsorbed onto the plutonium oxide, and (4) degradation of plastic bags which may be used to bag out the convenience can from a glove box. The contributions of these sources are evaluated in a reasonably conservative manner.

  16. Monitoring of prestressed concrete pressure vessels. II. performance of selected concrete embedment strain meters under normal and extreme environmental conditions

    Microsoft Academic Search

    D. J. Naus; C. C. Hurtt

    1978-01-01

    Unique types of instrumentation are used in prestressed concrete pressure vessels (PCPVs) to measure strains, stresses, deflections, prestressing forces, moisture content, temperatures, and possibly cracking. Their primary purpose is to monitor these complex structures throughout their 20- to 30-year operating lifetime in order to provide continuing assurance of their reliability and safety. Numerous concrete embedment instrumentation systems are available commercially.

  17. Testing of Full Scale Flight Qualified Kevlar Composite Overwrapped Pressure Vessels

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Greene, Nathanael; Saulsberry, Regor; Yoder, Tommy; Forsyth, Brad; Thesken, John; Phoenix, Leigh

    2007-01-01

    Many decades ago NASA identified a need for low-mass pressure vessels for carrying various fluids aboard rockets, spacecraft, and satellites. A pressure vessel design known as the composite overwrapped pressure vessel (COPV) was identified to provide a weight savings over traditional single-material pressure vessels typically made of metal and this technology has been in use for space flight applications since the 1970's. A typical vessel design consisted of a thin liner material, typically a metal, overwrapped with a continuous fiber yarn impregnated with epoxy. Most designs were such that the overwrapped fiber would carry a majority of load at normal operating pressures. The weight advantage for a COPV versus a traditional singlematerial pressure vessel contributed to widespread use of COPVs by NASA, the military, and industry. This technology is currently used for personal breathing supply storage, fuel storage for auto and mass transport vehicles and for various space flight and aircraft applications. The NASA Engineering and Safety Center (NESC) was recently asked to review the operation of Kevlar 2 and carbon COPVs to ensure they are safely operated on NASA space flight vehicles. A request was made to evaluate the life remaining on the Kevlar COPVs used on the Space Shuttle for helium and nitrogen storage. This paper provides a review of Kevlar COPV testing relevant to the NESC assessment. Also discussed are some key findings, observations, and recommendations that may be applicable to the COPV user community. Questions raised during the investigations have revealed the need for testing to better understand the stress rupture life and age life of COPVs. The focus of this paper is to describe burst testing of Kevlar COPVs that has been completed as a part of an the effort to evaluate the effects of ageing and shelf life on full scale COPVs. The test articles evaluated in this discussion had a diameter of 22 inches for S/N 014 and 40 inches for S/N 011. The time between manufacture and burst was 28 and 22 years. Visual inspection, shearography, heat soak thermography and borescope inspection were performed on vessel S/N 011 and all but shearography was performed on S/N 014 before they were tested and details of this work can be found in a companion paper titled, "Nondestructive Methods and Special Test Instrumentation Supporting NASA Composite Overwrapped Pressure Vessel Assessments." The vessels were instrumented so that measurements could be made to aid in the understanding of vessel response. Measurements made on the test articles included girth, boss displacement, internal volume, multiple point strain, full field strain, eddy current, acoustic emission (AE) pressure and temperature. The test article before and during burst is shown with the pattern used for digital image correlation full field strain measurement blurring as the vessel fails.

  18. Treating asphericity in fuel particle pressure vessel modeling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miller, Gregory K.; Wadsworth, Derek C.

    1994-07-01

    The prototypical nuclear fuel of the New Production Modular High Temperature Gas-Cooled Reactor (NP-MHTGR) consists of spherical TRISO-coated particles suspended in graphite cylinders. The coating layers surrounding the fuel kernels in these particles consist of pyrolytic carbon layers and a silicon carbide layer. These coating layers act as a pressure vessel which retains fission product gases. In the operating conditions of the NP-MHTGR, a small percentage of these particles (pressure vessels) are expected to fail due to the pressure loading. The fuel particles of the NP-MHTGR deviate to some degree from a true spherical shape, which may have some effect on the failure percentages. A method is presented that treats the asphericity of the particles in predicting failure probabilities for particle samples. It utilizes a combination of finite element analysis and Monte Carlo sampling and is based on the Weibull statistical theory. The method is used here to assess the effects of asphericity in particles of two common geometric shapes, i.e. faceted particles and ellipsoidal particles. The method presented could be used to treat particle anomalies other than asphericity.

  19. Elevated temperature mechanical properties of a reactor pressure vessel steel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McCoy, H. E.; Rittenhouse, P. L.

    1990-04-01

    A testing program is in progress to define the tensile and creep properties of SA533 Grade B Class 1 steel at temperatures from 371 to 538 °C. The overall objective is to provide the data necessary to obtain ASME Code approval for use of this material for the Modular High-Temperature Gas-Cooled Reactor (MHTGR) vessel during short-term temperature excursions above 371 °C. Testing and evaluation involve three heats of base metal, two submerged arc welds, and a shielded metal arc weld. The creep strengths of the base metal heats and the weldments were found to be equivalent; the weld metal itself is slightly stronger. The data obtained indicate that stress to produce 1% strain will likely be the controlling factor in setting the allowable stresses for design.

  20. A Theoretical Investigation of Composite Overwrapped Pressure Vessel (COPV) Mechanics Applied to NASA Full Scale Tests

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Greene, N.; Thesken, J. C.; Murthy, P. L. N.; Phoenix, S. L.; Palko, J.; Eldridge, J.; Sutter, J.; Saulsberry, R.; Beeson, H.

    2006-01-01

    A theoretical investigation of the factors controlling the stress rupture life of the National Aeronautics and Space Agency's (NASA) composite overwrapped pressure vessels (COPVs) continues. Kevlar(TradeMark) fiber overwrapped tanks are of particular concern due to their long usage and the poorly understood stress rupture process in Kevlar(TradeMark) filaments. Existing long term data show that the rupture process is a function of stress, temperature and time. However, due to the presence of a load sharing liner, the manufacturing induced residual stresses and the complex mechanical response, the state of actual fiber stress in flight hardware and test articles is not clearly known. This paper is a companion to the experimental investigation reported in [1] and develops a theoretical framework necessary to design full-scale pathfinder experiments and accurately interpret the experimentally observed deformation and failure mechanisms leading up to static burst in COPVs. The fundamental mechanical response of COPVs is described using linear elasticity and thin shell theory and discussed in comparison to existing experimental observations. These comparisons reveal discrepancies between physical data and the current analytical results and suggest that the vessel's residual stress state and the spatial stress distribution as a function of pressure may be completely different from predictions based upon existing linear elastic analyses. The 3D elasticity of transversely isotropic spherical shells demonstrates that an overly compliant transverse stiffness relative to membrane stiffness can account for some of this by shifting a thin shell problem well into the realm of thick shell response. The use of calibration procedures are demonstrated as calibrated thin shell model results and finite element results are shown to be in good agreement with the experimental results. The successes reported here have lead to continuing work with full scale testing of larger NASA COPV hardware.

  1. A Theoretical Investigation of Composite Overwrapped Pressure Vessel (COPV) Mechanics Applied to NASA Full Scale Tests

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thesken, John C.; Murthy, Pappu L. N.; Phoenix, S. L.; Greene, N.; Palko, Joseph L.; Eldridge, Jeffrey; Sutter, James; Saulsberry, R.; Beeson, H.

    2009-01-01

    A theoretical investigation of the factors controlling the stress rupture life of the National Aeronautics and Space Administration's (NASA) composite overwrapped pressure vessels (COPVs) continues. Kevlar (DuPont) fiber overwrapped tanks are of particular concern due to their long usage and the poorly understood stress rupture process in Kevlar filaments. Existing long term data show that the rupture process is a function of stress, temperature and time. However due to the presence of a load sharing liner, the manufacturing induced residual stresses and the complex mechanical response, the state of actual fiber stress in flight hardware and test articles is not clearly known. This paper is a companion to a previously reported experimental investigation and develops a theoretical framework necessary to design full-scale pathfinder experiments and accurately interpret the experimentally observed deformation and failure mechanisms leading up to static burst in COPVs. The fundamental mechanical response of COPVs is described using linear elasticity and thin shell theory and discussed in comparison to existing experimental observations. These comparisons reveal discrepancies between physical data and the current analytical results and suggest that the vessel s residual stress state and the spatial stress distribution as a function of pressure may be completely different from predictions based upon existing linear elastic analyses. The 3D elasticity of transversely isotropic spherical shells demonstrates that an overly compliant transverse stiffness relative to membrane stiffness can account for some of this by shifting a thin shell problem well into the realm of thick shell response. The use of calibration procedures are demonstrated as calibrated thin shell model results and finite element results are shown to be in good agreement with the experimental results. The successes reported here have lead to continuing work with full scale testing of larger NASA COPV hardware.

  2. Flux effect analysis in WWER-440 reactor pressure vessel steels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kryukov, A.; Blagoeva, D.; Debarberis, L.

    2013-11-01

    The results of long term research programme concerning the determination of irradiation embrittlement dependence on fast neutron flux for WWER-440 reactor pressure vessel steels before and after annealing are presented in this paper. The study of flux effect was carried out on commercial WWER-440 steels which differ significantly in phosphorous (0.013-0.036 wt%) and copper (0.08-0.20 wt%) contents. All specimens were irradiated in surveillance channel positions under similar conditions at high ˜4 × 1012 ?m-2 s-1 and low ˜6 × 1011 ?m-2 s-1 fluxes (E > 0.5 MeV) at a temperature of 270 °?. The radiation embrittlement was evaluated by transition temperature shift on the basis of Charpy specimens test results. In case of low flux, the measured Tk shifts could be 25-50 °C bigger than the Tk shifts obtained from high flux data. A significant flux effect is observed in WWER-440 reactor pressure vessel steels with higher copper content (>0.13 wt%).

  3. OVERVIEW OF PRESSURE VESSEL DESIGN CRITERIA FOR INTERNAL DETONATION (BLAST) LOADING

    Microsoft Academic Search

    T. A. DUFFEY; E. A. RODRIGUEZ

    2001-01-01

    Spherical and cylindrical pressure vessels are often used to completely contain the effects of high explosions. These vessels generally fall into two categories. The first includes vessels designed for multiple use ([1]-[6]). Applications of such multiple-use vessels include testing of explosive components and bomb disposal. Because of the multiple-use requirement, response of the vessel is restricted to the elastic range.

  4. Burst prediction by acoustic emission in filament-wound pressure vessels

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gorman, Michael R.

    1990-01-01

    Acoustic emission in 51-cm diameter graphite/epoxy pressure vessels was monitored during pressurization (hydrotesting). Several vessels were subjected to impact by a blunt impactor, but only after the vessels had been proofed; that is, pressurized to 80 percent of nominal burst pressure as determined from control (unimpacted) vessels. AE activity was then monitored throughout a series of successively higher pressure cycles ranging from 10 to 60 percent of ultimate. Each cycle included a ramp up to pressure followed by a 4-min hold period and then pressure unload. The event rate was high, and especially modified AE analyzers had to be used to acquire the data. This paper presents the AE event count versus pressure history of these tests and demonstrates the ability of the AE technique to monitor the growth of damage and to estimate the effect on ultimate strength. The number of events that occurred during pressure holds proved to be a reasonable estimator of vessel performance.

  5. Transmitted ultrasound pressure variation in micro blood vessel phantoms.

    PubMed

    Qin, Shengping; Kruse, Dustin E; Ferrara, Katherine W

    2008-06-01

    Silica, cellulose and polymethylmethacrylate tubes with inner diameters of ten to a few hundred microns are commonly used as blood vessel phantoms in in vitro studies of microbubble or nanodroplet behavior during insonation. However, a detailed investigation of the ultrasonic fields within these micro-tubes has not yet been performed. This work provides a theoretical analysis of the ultrasonic fields within micro-tubes. Numerical results show that for the same tube material, the interaction between the micro-tube and megaHertz-frequency ultrasound may vary drastically with incident frequency, tube diameter and wall thickness. For 10 MHz ultrasonic insonation of a polymethylmethacrylate (PMMA) tube with an inner diameter of 195 microm and an outer diameter of 260 microm, the peak pressure within the tube can be up to 300% of incident pressure amplitude. However, using 1 MHz ultrasound and a silica tube with an inner diameter of 12 microm and an outer diameter of 50 microm, the peak pressure within the tube is only 12% of the incident pressure amplitude and correspondingly, the spatial-average-time-average intensity within the tube is only 1% of the incident intensity. PMID:18395962

  6. Recent advances in lightweight, filament-wound composite pressure vessel technology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lark, R. F.

    1977-01-01

    A review of recent advances is presented for lightweight, high performance composite pressure vessel technology that covers the areas of design concepts, fabrication procedures, applications, and performance of vessels subjected to single cycle burst and cyclic fatigue loading. Filament wound fiber/epoxy composite vessels were made from S glass, graphite, and Kevlar 49 fibers and were equipped with both structural and nonstructural liners. Pressure vessels structural efficiencies were attained which represented weight savings, using different liners, of 40 to 60 percent over all titanium pressure vessels. Significant findings in each area are summarized.

  7. Common root causes of recent failures of flanges in pressure vessels subjected to dynamic loads

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. L. Otegui; P. G. Fazzini; A. Márquez

    2009-01-01

    Present rules in fabrication codes are aimed to reduce the probability of fatigue cracks in flanges welded to pressure vessels subjected to cyclic pressure or vibrations. Yet, several leaks and ruptures have recently occurred at flanges in pressure vessels and pipes. A review of three cases is presented, which involved five failures; their common root causes are discussed, and the

  8. DOE H2 Program Annual Review, 5-20-2003 Insulated Pressure Vessels for

    E-print Network

    · A. Low cost, due to lower need for fiber. B. Low volume. C. Efficient, due to the dual mode range. J. We are generating tank performance data. K. Testing BOP components. L. Low venting losses gasoline, equivalent energy liquid hydrogen insulated pressure vessel pressure vessel, 0.5 Minch pressure

  9. Pressurized thermal shock probabilistic fracture mechanics sensitivity analysis for Yankee Rowe reactor pressure vessel

    SciTech Connect

    Dickson, T.L.; Cheverton, R.D.; Bryson, J.W.; Bass, B.R.; Shum, D.K.M.; Keeney, J.A. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States)

    1993-08-01

    The Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) requested Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) to perform a pressurized-thermal-shock (PTS) probabilistic fracture mechanics (PFM) sensitivity analysis for the Yankee Rowe reactor pressure vessel, for the fluences corresponding to the end of operating cycle 22, using a specific small-break-loss- of-coolant transient as the loading condition. Regions of the vessel with distinguishing features were to be treated individually -- upper axial weld, lower axial weld, circumferential weld, upper plate spot welds, upper plate regions between the spot welds, lower plate spot welds, and the lower plate regions between the spot welds. The fracture analysis methods used in the analysis of through-clad surface flaws were those contained in the established OCA-P computer code, which was developed during the Integrated Pressurized Thermal Shock (IPTS) Program. The NRC request specified that the OCA-P code be enhanced for this study to also calculate the conditional probabilities of failure for subclad flaws and embedded flaws. The results of this sensitivity analysis provide the NRC with (1) data that could be used to assess the relative influence of a number of key input parameters in the Yankee Rowe PTS analysis and (2) data that can be used for readily determining the probability of vessel failure once a more accurate indication of vessel embrittlement becomes available. This report is designated as HSST report No. 117.

  10. Techniques for Embedding Instrumentation in Pressure Vessel Test Articles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cornelius, Michael

    2006-01-01

    Many interesting structural and thermal events occur in materials that are housed within a surrounding pressure vessel. In order to measure the environment during these events and explore their causes instrumentation must be installed on or in the material. Transducers can be selected that are small enough to be embedded within the test material but these instruments must interface with an external system in order to apply excitation voltages and output the desired data. The methods for installing the instrumentation and creating an interface are complicated when the material is located in a case or housing containing high pressures and hot gases. Installation techniques for overcoming some of these difficulties were developed while testing a series of small-scale solid propellant and hybrid rocket motors at Marshall Space Flight Center. These techniques have potential applications in other test articles where data are acquired from materials that require containment due to the severe environment encountered during the test process. This severe environment could include high pressure, hot gases, or ionized atmospheres. The development of these techniques, problems encountered, and the lessons learned from the ongoing testing process are summarized.

  11. Structural considerations in design of lightweight glass-fiber composite pressure vessels

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Faddoul, J. R.

    1973-01-01

    The development of structurally efficient, metal-lined, glass-fiber composite pressure vessels. Both the current state-of-the-art and current problems are discussed along with fracture mechanics considerations for the metal liner. The design concepts used for metal-lined, glass-fiber, composite pressure vessels are described and the structural characteristics of the composite designs are compared with each other and with homogeneous metal pressure vessels. Specific design techniques and available design data are identified. Results of a current program to evaluate flaw growth and fracture characteristics of the metal liners are reviewed and the impact of these results on composite pressure vessel designs is discussed.

  12. Macrosegregation and Microstructural Evolution in a Pressure-Vessel Steel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pickering, E. J.; Bhadeshia, H. K. D. H.

    2014-06-01

    This work assesses the consequences of macrosegregation on microstructural evolution during solid-state transformations in a continuously cooled pressure-vessel steel (SA508 Grade 3). Stark spatial variations in microstructure are observed following a simulated quench from the austenitization temperature, which are found to deliver significant variations in hardness. Partial-transformation experiments are used to show the development of microstructure in segregated material. Evidence is presented which indicates the bulk microstructure is not one of upper bainite, as it has been described in the past, but one comprised of Widmanstätten ferrite and pockets of lower bainite. Segregation is observed on three different length scales, and the origins of each type are proposed. Suggestions are put forward for how the segregation might be minimized, and its detrimental effects suppressed by heat treatments.

  13. Predicting burst pressures in filament-wound composite pressure vessels by using acoustic emission data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hill, Eric V. K.

    1992-12-01

    Multivariate statistical analysis was used to generate equations for predicting burst pressures in 14.6 cm dia. fiberglass-epoxy and 45.7 cm dia. graphite-epoxy pressure vessels from acoustic emission (AE) data taken during hydroproof. Using the AE energy and amplitude measurements as the primary independent variables, the less accurate of the two linear equations was able to predict burst pressures to within +/- 0.841 MPa of the value given by the 95 percent prediction interval. Moreover, this equation included the effects of two bottles that contained simulated manufacturing defects. Because the AE data used to generate the burst-pressure equations were both taken at or below 25 percent of the expected burst pressures, it is anticipated that by using this approach, it would be possible to lower proof pressures in larger filament-wound composite pressure vessels such as rocket motor cases. This would minimize hydroproof damage to the composite structure and the accompanying potential for premature failure in service.

  14. Blood Pressure, Vessel Caliber, and Retinal Thickness in Diabetes

    PubMed Central

    Harrison, Wendy W.; Chang, Ann; Cardenas, Maria; Bearse, Marcus A.; Schneck, Marilyn E.; Barez, Shirin; Adams, Anthony J.

    2012-01-01

    Purpose In this study we examine the association of blood pressure (BP), retinal thickness (RT), and vessel caliber in patients with type 2 diabetes and high HbA1c (elevated long-term blood glucose), either with or without mild or moderate non-proliferative diabetic retinopathy (NPDR). Methods Forty-three type 2 diabetes patients with high HbA1c measures (23 without NPDR and 20 with mild to moderate NPDR) and 22 age-matched, non-diabetic controls participated. BP, RT (Stratus OCT3), fundus photography, and HbA1c were measured. Correlations between BP, HbA1c, vessel caliber, and RT were evaluated. Results 1) Diastolic BP is positively and significantly associated with RT in patients with NPDR (p <0.02). BP was not associated with retinal thickness in patients without NPDR (p = 0.83). 2) There is an association between higher HbA1c and higher diastolic BP within the NPDR group (p<0.02). Furthermore, HbA1c modifies the slope of the relationship between diastolic BP and RT in NPDR patients. 3) Greater venule diameters and a loss of the correlation between decreased arteriole size and increased systolic blood pressure, seen in controls, were observed in patients with and without NPDR. Conclusions The results of this study show that HbA1c and BP together have an impact on the retinal thickness measures of patients with diabetic retinopathy. These measures should be considered when evaluating retinal thickness in patients with diabetic retinopathy, both clinically and in future OCT studies on this population. PMID:23160442

  15. The behavior of shallow flaws in reactor pressure vessels

    SciTech Connect

    Rolfe, S.T. (Kansas Univ., Lawrence, KS (United States))

    1991-11-01

    Both analytical and experimental studies have shown that the effect of crack length, a, on the elastic-plastic toughness of structural steels is significant. The objective of this report is to recommend those research investigations that are necessary to understand the phenomenon of shallow behavior as it affects fracture toughness so that the results can be used properly in the structural margin assessment of reactor pressure vessels (RPVs) with flaws. Preliminary test results of A 533 B steel show an elevated crack-tip-opening displacement (CTOD) toughness similar to that observed for structural steels tested at the University of Kansas. Thus, the inherent resistance to fracture initiation of A 533 B steel with shallow flaws appears to be higher than that used in the current American Society of Mechanical Engineers (ASME) design curves based on testing fracture mechanics specimens with deep flaws. If this higher toughness of laboratory specimens with shallow flaws can be transferred to a higher resistance to failure in RPV design or analysis, then the actual margin of safety in nuclear vessels with shallow flaws would be greater than is currently assumed on the basis of deep-flaw test results. This elevation in toughness and greater resistance to fracture would be a very desirable situation, particularly for the pressurized-thermal shock (PTS) analysis in which shallow flaws are assumed to exist. Before any advantage can be taken of this possible increase in initiation toughness, numerous factors must be analyzed to ensure the transferability of the data. This report reviews those factors and makes recommendations of studies that are needed to assess the transferability of shallow-flaw toughness test results to the structural margin assessment of RPV with shallow flaws. 14 refs., 8 figs.

  16. Deformation behavior in reactor pressure vessel steels as a clue to understanding irradiation hardening.

    SciTech Connect

    DiMelfi, R. J.; Alexander, D. E.; Rehn, L. E.

    1999-10-25

    In this paper, we examine the post-yield true stress vs true strain behavior of irradiated pressure vessel steels and iron-based alloys to reveal differences in strain-hardening behavior associated with different irradiating particles (neutrons and electrons) and different alloy chernky. It is important to understand the effects on mechanical properties caused by displacement producing radiation of nuclear reactor pressure steels. Critical embrittling effects, e.g. increases in the ductile-to-brittle-transition-temperature, are associated with irradiation-induced increases in yield strength. In addition, fatigue-life and loading-rate effects on fracture can be related to the post-irradiation strain-hardening behavior of the steels. All of these properties affect the expected service life of nuclear reactor pressure vessels. We address the characteristics of two general strengthening effects that we believe are relevant to the differing defect cluster characters produced by neutrons and electrons in four different alloys: two pressure vessel steels, A212B and A350, and two binary alloys, Fe-0.28 wt%Cu and Fe-0.74 wt%Ni. Our results show that there are differences in the post-irradiation mechanical behavior for the two kinds of irradiation and that the differences are related both to differences in damage produced and alloy chemistry. We find that while electron and neutron irradiations (at T {le} 60 C) of pressure vessel steels and binary iron-based model alloys produce similar increases in yield strength for the same dose level, they do not result in the same post-yield hardening behavior. For neutron irradiation, the true stress flow curves of the irradiated material can be made to superimpose on that of the unirradiated material, when the former are shifted appropriately along the strain axis. This behavior suggests that neutron irradiation hardening has the same effect as strain hardening for all of the materials analyzed. For electron irradiated steels, the post-yield hardening rate is clearly greater than that of the unirradiated material, and the flow curves cannot be made to superimpose. The binary iron-base model alloys studied here show a less pronounced difference in flow behavior for neutrons and electrons than exhibited by the steels, implicating the effect of alloy chemistry. Our results are analyzed in the context of classical theories dealing with the interaction between the deformation microstructure, i.e. glide dislocations, and irradiation-produced defects. Our findings provide clues about the way different alloy constituents interact with the different kinds of irradiation damage to strengthen the material differently.

  17. D-Zero Central Calorimeter Pressure Vessel and Vacuum Vessel Safety Notes

    SciTech Connect

    Rucinski, R.; Luther, R.; /Fermilab

    1990-10-25

    The relief valve and relief piping capacity was calculated to be 908 sefm air. This exceeds all relieving conditions. The vessel also has a rupture disc with a 2640 scfm air stamped capacity. In order to significantly decrease the amount of time required to fill the cryostats, it is desired to raise the setpoint of the 'operating' relief valve on the argon storage dewar to 20 psig from its existing 16 psig setting. This additional pressure increases the flow to the cryostats and will overwhelm the relief capacity if the temperature of the modules within these vessels is warm enough. Using some conservative assumptions and simple calculations within this note, the maximum average temperature that the modules within each cryostat can be at prior to filling from the storage dewar with liquid argon is at least 290 K. The average temperature of the module mass for any of the three cryostats can be as high as 290 K prior to filling that particular cryostat. This should not be confused with the average temperature of a single type or location which is useful in protecting the modules-not necessarily the vessel itself. A few modules of each type and at different elevations should be used in an average which would account for the different weights of each module. Note that at 290 K, the actual flow of argon through the relief valve and the rupture disk was under the maximum theoretical flows for each relief device. This means that the bulk temperature could actually have been raised to flow argon through the reliefs at their maximum capacity. Therefore, the temperature of 290 K is a conservative value for the calculated flow rate of 12.3 gpm. Safeguards in addition to and used in conjunction with operating procedures shall be implemented in such a way so that the above temperature limitation is not exceeded and such that it is exclusive of the programmable logic controller (PLC). One suggestion is using a toggle switch for each cryostat mounted in the PLC I/O box which would maintain control of the signals to open the cold fill valves of each cryostat. With the safeguards in place while carefully monitoring the temperatures during a cooldown cycle in each cryostat, the set pressure in the argon storage dewar can safely be increased to 20 psig.

  18. Dual shell reactor vessel: A pressure-balanced system for high pressure and temperature reactions

    SciTech Connect

    Robertus, R.J.; Fassbender, A.G.; Deverman, G.S.

    1995-03-01

    The main purpose of this work was to demonstrate the Dual Shell Pressure Balanced Vessel (DSPBV) as a safe and economical reactor for the hydrothermal water oxidation of hazardous wastes. Experimental tests proved that the pressure balancing piston and the leak detection concept designed for this project will work. The DSPBV was sized to process 10 gal/hr of hazardous waste at up to 399{degree}C (750{degree}F) and 5000 psia (34.5 MPa) with a residence time of 10 min. The first prototype reactor is a certified ASME pressure vessel. It was purchased by Innotek Corporation (licensee) and shipped to Pacific Northwest Laboratory for testing. Supporting equipment and instrumentation were, to a large extent, transported here from Battelle Columbus Division. A special air feed system and liquid pump were purchased to complete the package. The entire integrated demonstration system was assembled at PNL. During the activities conducted for this report, the leak detector design was tested on bench top equipment. Response to low levels of water in oil was considered adequate to ensure safety of the pressure vessel. Shakedown tests with water only were completed to prove the system could operate at 350{degree}C at pressures up to 3300 psia. Two demonstration tests with industrial waste streams were conducted, which showed that the DSPBV could be used for hydrothermal oxidation. In the first test with a metal plating waste, chemical oxygen demand, total organic carbon, and cyanide concentrations were reduced over 90%. In the second test with a munitions waste, the organics were reduced over 90% using H{sub 2}O{sub 2} as the oxidant.

  19. Distributed sensing of Composite Over-wrapped Pressure Vessels using Fiber-Bragg Gratings

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Grant, Joseph

    2005-01-01

    The increasing use of advanced composite materials in the wide range of applications including Space Structures is a great impetus to the development of smart materials. These materials offer a wide range of possibilities within the space program. But before they can be reliably incorporated into space flight applications, additional understanding is required in the area of damage tolerance of these materials. Efforts to enhance our understanding of failure modes, mechanical properties, long and short term environmental effects, cyclic damage accumulation and residual strength are needed. Thus we have employed the use of fiber optical sensors which offers an excellent opportunity exploit these materials through monitoring and characterizing their mechanical properties and thus the integrity of structures made from such materials during their life cycle. Use of these optical innovations provides an insight into structures that have not been available in the past, as well as the technology available to provide real time health monitoring throughout its life cycle. The embedded fiber optical sensor shows a clearly detectable sensitivity to changes in the near strain and stress fields of the host structure promoted by mechanical or thermal loading or, in certain conditions, structural damage. The last ten years have seen a large increase in the use of FBG based monitoring systems in a broad range of applications. Fiber Bragg gratings are use to monitor the structural properties of composite pressure vessels. These gratings optically inscribed into the core of a single mode fiber are used as a tool to monitor the stress strain relation in composite structures. The fiber Bragg sensors are both embedded within the composite laminates and bonded to the surface of the vessel with varying orientations with respect to the carbon fiber in the epoxy matrix. The response of these fiber-optic sensors is investigated by pressurizing the cylinder up to its burst pressure of around 4400 psi. This is done at both ambient and cryogenic temperatures using water and liquid nitrogen. The recorded response is compared with the response from conventional strain gauge also present on the vessel. Additionally, several vessels were tested that had been damaged to simulate different type of events, such as cut tow, delimitation and impact damage.

  20. Is pressure stressful? The impact of pressure on the stress response and category learning.

    PubMed

    McCoy, Shannon K; Hutchinson, Steven; Hawthorne, Lauren; Cosley, Brandon J; Ell, Shawn W

    2014-06-01

    We examined the basic question of whether pressure is stressful. We proposed that when examining the role of stress or pressure in cognitive performance, it is important to consider the type of pressure, the stress response, and the aspect of cognition assessed. In Experiment 1, outcome pressure was not experienced as stressful but did lead to impaired performance on a rule-based (RB) category-learning task, but not on a more procedural information-integration (II) task. In Experiment 2, the addition of monitoring pressure resulted in a modest stress response to combined pressure and impairment on both tasks. Across experiments, higher stress appraisals were associated with decreased performance on the RB, but not on the II, task. In turn, higher stress reactivity (i.e., heart rate) was associated with enhanced performance on the II, but not on the RB, task. This work represents an initial step toward integrating the stress cognition and pressure cognition literatures and suggests that integrating these fields may require consideration of the type of pressure, the stress response, and the cognitive system mediating performance. PMID:24129964

  1. Advances in crack-arrest technology for reactor pressure vessels

    SciTech Connect

    Bass, B.R.; Pugh, C.E.

    1988-01-01

    The Heavy-Section Steel Technology (HSST) Program at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) under the sponsorship of the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission is continuing to improve the understanding of conditions that govern the initiation, rapid propagation, arrest, and ductile tearing of cracks in reactor pressure vessel (RPV) steels. This paper describes recent advances in a coordinated effort being conducted under the HSST Program by ORNL and several subcontracting groups to develop the crack-arrest data base and the analytical tools required to construct inelastic dynamic fracture models for RPV steels. Large-scale tests are being carried out to generate crack-arrest toughness data at temperatures approaching and above the onset of Charpy upper-shelf behavior. Small- and intermediate-size specimens subjected to static and dynamic loading are being developed and tested to provide additional fracture data for RPV steels. Viscoplastic effects are being included in dynamic fracture models and computer programs and their utility validated through analyses of data from carefully controlled experiments. Recent studies are described that examine convergence problems associated with energy-based fracture parameters in viscoplastic-dynamic fracture applications. Alternative techniques that have potential for achieving convergent solutions for fracture parameters in the context of viscoplastic-dynamic models are discussed. 46 refs., 15 figs., 3 tabs.

  2. Composite Overwrapped Pressure Vessels (COPV): Developing Flight Rationale for the Space Shuttle Program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kezirian, Michael T.

    2010-01-01

    Introducing composite vessels into the Space Shuttle Program represented a significant technical achievement. Each Orbiter vehicle contains 24 (nominally) Kevlar tanks for storage of pressurized helium (for propulsion) and nitrogen (for life support). The use of composite cylinders saved 752 pounds per Orbiter vehicle compared with all-metal tanks. The weight savings is significant considering each Shuttle flight can deliver 54,000 pounds of payload to the International Space Station. In the wake of the Columbia accident and the ensuing Return to Flight activities, the Space Shuttle Program, in 2005, re-examined COPV hardware certification. Incorporating COPV data that had been generated over the last 30 years and recognizing differences between initial Shuttle Program requirements and current operation, a new failure mode was identified, as composite stress rupture was deemed credible. The Orbiter Project undertook a comprehensive investigation to quantify and mitigate this risk. First, the engineering team considered and later deemed as unfeasible the option to replace existing all flight tanks. Second, operational improvements to flight procedures were instituted to reduce the flight risk and the danger to personnel. Third, an Orbiter reliability model was developed to quantify flight risk. Laser profilometry inspection of several flight COPVs identified deep (up to 20 mil) depressions on the tank interior. A comprehensive analysis was performed and it confirmed that these observed depressions were far less than the criterion which was established as necessary to lead to liner buckling. Existing fleet vessels were exonerated from this failure mechanism. Because full validation of the Orbiter Reliability Model was not possible given limited hardware resources, an Accelerated Stress Rupture Test of a flown flight vessel was performed to provide increased confidence. A Bayesian statistical approach was developed to evaluate possible test results with respect to the model credibility and thus flight rationale for continued operation of the Space Shuttle with existing flight hardware. A non-destructive evaluation (NDE) technique utilizing Raman Spectroscopy was developed to directly measure the overwrap residual stress state. Preliminary results provide optimistic results that patterns of fluctuation in fiber elastic strains over the outside vessel surface could be directly correlated with increased fiber stress ratios and thus reduced reliability.

  3. Strain monitoring of composite pressure vessel with thin metal liner using fiber Bragg grating

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Jun-qing; Wang, Rong-guo; He, Xiao-dong; Liu, Wen-bo

    2009-07-01

    Composite pressure vessel with thin metal liner has the advantage of both composite and metal. Due to the difference of elastic strain limits of composite and metal, there is problem of the compatibility of deformation. Nine fiber Bragg gratings were bonded to the surface of longitudinal and hoop directions of pressure vessel to monitor the strain status during 4.5MPa service pressure condition. The measured strain by the Bragg sensor is perfectly linear with the applied force. However, the hoop strain decreased as loading process and increased as unloading process, it is also negative value on middle part of the dome. The phenomena had been discussed in this investigation. As a smart structure Bragg sensor can detect the real strain state of composite pressure vessel and is suitable for damage monitoring in service. Analyzing result shows the pressure vessel can work safely with the applied hydrostatic pressure.

  4. Full-field deformation measurement of fiber composite pressure vessel using digital speckle correlation method

    Microsoft Academic Search

    X. F. Yao; L. B. Meng; J. C. Jin; H. Y. Yeh

    2005-01-01

    Applications of the digital speckle correlation method (DSCM) for the full-field deformation measurement of carbon fiber\\/epoxy composite pressure vessel were investigated and the basic principles of displacement measurement by the DSCM are briefly given. The full-field displacement and strain distribution of a composite pressure vessel were evaluated under internal pressure. The results of the average strain value show a good

  5. Lifetime analysis of wwer reactor pressure vessel internals concerning material degradation

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ju. Dudra; Sz. Szávai

    2010-01-01

    Reactor internals are subjected to three principal operation effects: neutron and gamma irradiation, static and dynamic mechanical\\u000a stresses and coolant chemistry. In this study, we investigate the effect of these mechanisms on WWER 440 reactor vessel internals\\u000a and present lifetime analysis, in order to extend the operational lifetime of reactor vessel internals.

  6. DEVELOPMENT OF ASME SECTION X CODE RULES FOR HIGH PRESSURE COMPOSITE HYDROGEN PRESSURE VESSELS WITH NON-LOAD SHARING LINERS

    SciTech Connect

    Rawls, G.; Newhouse, N.; Rana, M.; Shelley, B.; Gorman, M.

    2010-04-13

    The Boiler and Pressure Vessel Project Team on Hydrogen Tanks was formed in 2004 to develop Code rules to address the various needs that had been identified for the design and construction of up to 15000 psi hydrogen storage vessel. One of these needs was the development of Code rules for high pressure composite vessels with non-load sharing liners for stationary applications. In 2009, ASME approved new Appendix 8, for Section X Code which contains the rules for these vessels. These vessels are designated as Class III vessels with design pressure ranging from 20.7 MPa (3,000 ps)i to 103.4 MPa (15,000 psi) and maximum allowable outside liner diameter of 2.54 m (100 inches). The maximum design life of these vessels is limited to 20 years. Design, fabrication, and examination requirements have been specified, included Acoustic Emission testing at time of manufacture. The Code rules include the design qualification testing of prototype vessels. Qualification includes proof, expansion, burst, cyclic fatigue, creep, flaw, permeability, torque, penetration, and environmental testing.

  7. Photoacoustic sample vessel and method of elevated pressure operation

    DOEpatents

    Autrey, Tom; Yonker, Clement R.

    2004-05-04

    An improved photoacoustic vessel and method of photoacoustic analysis. The photoacoustic sample vessel comprises an acoustic detector, an acoustic couplant, and an acoustic coupler having a chamber for holding the acoustic couplant and a sample. The acoustic couplant is selected from the group consisting of liquid, solid, and combinations thereof. Passing electromagnetic energy through the sample generates an acoustic signal within the sample, whereby the acoustic signal propagates through the sample to and through the acoustic couplant to the acoustic detector.

  8. REACTOR PRESSURE VESSEL TEMPERATURE ANALYSIS OF CANDIDATE VERY HIGH TEMPERATURE REACTOR DESIGNS

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Hans D. Gougar; Cliff B. Davis; George Hayner; Kevan Weaver

    Analyses were performed to determine maximum temperatures in the reactor pressure vessel for two potential Very-High Temperature Reactor (VHTR) designs during normal operation and during a depressurized conduction cooldown accident. The purpose of the analyses was to aid in the determination of appropriate reactor vessel materials for the VHTR. The designs evaluated utilized both prismatic and pebble-bed cores that generated

  9. Heavy-Section Steel Technology Program intermediate-scale pressure vessel tests

    Microsoft Academic Search

    R. H. Bryan; J. G. Merkle; G. C. Smith; G. D. Whitman

    1977-01-01

    The tests of intermediate-size vessels with sharp flaws permitted the comparison of experimentally observed behavior with analytical predictions of the behavior of flawed pressure vessels. Fracture strains estimated by linear elastic fracture mechanics (LEFM) were accurate in the cases in which the flaws resided in regions of high transverse restraint and the fracture toughness was sufficiently low for unstable fracture

  10. Southwest Research Institute (SwRI) designs, analyzes, and fabricates pressure vessels

    E-print Network

    Chapman, Clark R.

    vessels using: n ASME B&PV Code, Section VIII, Division 1 n ASME B&PV Code, Section VIII, Division 2 n ASME B&PV Code, Section VIII, Division 3 n ASME Pressure Vessels for Human Occupancy n American Bureau for the Design, Fabrication, and Erection of Structural Steel for Buildings" n Fabrication n ASME B&PV Code

  11. Use of multidimensional fiber grating strain sensors for damage detection in composite pressure vessels

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Marley Kunzler; Eric Udd; Mont Johnson; Kurt Mildenhall

    2005-01-01

    Arrays of multi-axis fiber grating strain sensors have been integrated into a composite pressure vessel test article, and are used to monitor changes in the transverse and axial strain fields during curing and pressure cycling near cut tow and Teflon tape defects. These changes in the multi-axis strain due to four pressure cycles and repeated impacts are measured and compared

  12. Evaluation of polyimide/glass fiber composites for construction of light weight pressure vessels for cryogenic propellants

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Petker, I.; Segimoto, M.

    1973-01-01

    The application of polyimide resin as a matrix for glass filament-wound thin metal-lined pressure vessels was studied over a temperature range of (minus) 320 to 600 F. Keramid 601 polyimide was found to perform quite well over the entire range of temperature. Hoop stress values of 425 ksi were determined at 75 F which is equivalent to epoxy resin in similar structures. At -320 and 600 F, 125 and 80% of this strength was retained. Thermal ageing at 500 F for up to 50 hours was studied with severe reduction in strength, but there is evidence that this reduction could be improved. Another polyimide resin studied was P10PA which was found to have processing characteristics inappropriate for filament-winding. NOL ring tensile and shear data was determined from both resins with S-glass. Pressure vessel design, fabrication and test procedures are described in detail.

  13. Filament-reinforced metal composite pressure vessel evaluation and performance demonstration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Landes, R. E.

    1976-01-01

    Two different Kevlar-49 filament-reinforced metal sphere designs were developed, and six vessels of each type were fabricated and subjected to fatigue cycling, sustained loading, and hydrostatic burst. The 61 cm (24 inch) diameter Kevlar-49/cryoformed 301 stainless steel pressure vessels demonstrated the required pressure cycle capability, burst factor of safety, and a maximum pressure times volume divided by weight (pV/W) performance of 210 J/g (834 000 in-lb/lbm) at burst; this represented a 25 to 30% weight saving over the lightest weight comparable, 6A1-4V Ti, homogeneous pressure vessel. Both the Kevlar/stainless steel design and the 97 cm (38 inch) diameter Kevlar-49/2219-T62 aluminum sphere design demonstrated nonfragmentation and controlled failure mode features when pressure cycled to failure at operating pressure. When failure occurred during pressure cycling, the mode was localized leakage and not catastrophic. Kevlar/stainless steel vessels utilized a unique conical boss design, and Kevlar/aluminum vessels incorporated a tie-rod to carry port loads; both styles of polar fittings performed as designed during operational testing of the vessels.

  14. Proceedings of PVP2007 2007 ASME Pressure Vessels and Piping Division Conference

    E-print Network

    Cambridge, University of

    Proceedings of PVP2007 2007 ASME Pressure Vessels and Piping Division Conference July 22-26, 2007 in the context of designing better welding consumables. INTRODUCTION Many major engineering failures occur due

  15. Workbook for predicting pressure wave and fragment effects of exploding propellant tanks and gas storage vessels

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Baker, W. E.; Kulesz, J. J.; Ricker, R. E.; Bessey, R. L.; Westine, P. S.; Parr, V. B.; Oldham, G. A.

    1975-01-01

    Technology needed to predict damage and hazards from explosions of propellant tanks and bursts of pressure vessels, both near and far from these explosions is introduced. Data are summarized in graphs, tables, and nomographs.

  16. Positron Annihilation Spectroscopy of Nanostructural Features in Model Reactor Pressure Vessel Steels

    Microsoft Academic Search

    S C Glade; B D Wirth; P Asoka-Kumar; P A Sterne; G R Odette

    2003-01-01

    Irradiation embrittlement in nuclear reactor pressure vessel steels results from the formation of a high number density of nanometer sized copper rich precipitates and sub-nanometer defect-solute clusters. We present positron annihilation spectroscopy (PAS) results to characterize the compositions and magnetic character of these defects in model A533B reactor pressure vessel steels. The results confirm the presence of copper-rich precipitates after

  17. Positron Annihilation Spectroscopy of Nanostructural Features in Model Reactor Pressure Vessel Steels

    Microsoft Academic Search

    S. C. Glade; Brian D. Wirth; P. Asoka-Kumar; P. A. Sterne; G. R. Odette

    2004-01-01

    Irradiation embrittlement in nuclear reactor pressure vessel steels results from the formation of a high number density of nanometer sized copper rich precipitates and sub-nanometer defect-solute clusters. We present positron annihilation spectroscopy (PAS) results to characterize the compositions and magnetic character of these defects in model A533B reactor pressure vessel steels. The results confirm the presence of copper-rich precipitates after

  18. Analysis and Design of Cryogenic Pressure Vessels for Automotive Hydrogen Storage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Espinosa-Loza, Francisco Javier

    Cryogenic pressure vessels maximize hydrogen storage density by combining the high pressure (350-700 bar) typical of today's composite pressure vessels with the cryogenic temperature (as low as 25 K) typical of low pressure liquid hydrogen vessels. Cryogenic pressure vessels comprise a high-pressure inner vessel made of carbon fiber-coated metal (similar to those used for storage of compressed gas), a vacuum space filled with numerous sheets of highly reflective metalized plastic (for high performance thermal insulation), and a metallic outer jacket. High density of hydrogen storage is key to practical hydrogen-fueled transportation by enabling (1) long-range (500+ km) transportation with high capacity vessels that fit within available spaces in the vehicle, and (2) reduced cost per kilogram of hydrogen stored through reduced need for expensive structural material (carbon fiber composite) necessary to make the vessel. Low temperature of storage also leads to reduced expansion energy (by an order of magnitude or more vs. ambient temperature compressed gas storage), potentially providing important safety advantages. All this is accomplished while simultaneously avoiding fuel venting typical of cryogenic vessels for all practical use scenarios. This dissertation describes the work necessary for developing and demonstrating successive generations of cryogenic pressure vessels demonstrated at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory. The work included (1) conceptual design, (2) detailed system design (3) structural analysis of cryogenic pressure vessels, (4) thermal analysis of heat transfer through cryogenic supports and vacuum multilayer insulation, and (5) experimental demonstration. Aside from succeeding in demonstrating a hydrogen storage approach that has established all the world records for hydrogen storage on vehicles (longest driving range, maximum hydrogen storage density, and maximum containment of cryogenic hydrogen without venting), the work also demonstrated a methodology for computationally efficient detailed modeling of cryogenic pressure vessels. The work continues with support of the US Department of Energy to demonstrate a new generation of cryogenic vessels anticipated to improve on the hydrogen storage performance figures previously imposed in this project. The author looks forward to further contributing to a future of long-range, inexpensive, and safe zero emissions transportation.

  19. Pressure Vessel with Impact and Fire Resistant Coating and Method of Making Same

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    DeLay, Thomas K. (Inventor)

    2005-01-01

    An impact and fire resistant coating laminate is provided which serves as an outer protective coating for a pressure vessel such as a composite overwrapped vessel with a metal lining. The laminate comprises a plurality of fibers (e.g., jute twine or other, stronger fibers) which are wound around the pressure vessel and an epoxy matrix resin for the fibers. The epoxy matrix resin including a plurality of microspheres containing a temperature responsive phase change material which changes phase in response to exposure thereof to a predetermined temperature increase so as to afford increased insulation and hear absorption.

  20. Pressure vessel with impact and fire resistant coating and method of making same

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    DeLay, Thomas K. (Inventor)

    2005-01-01

    An impact and fire resistant coating laminate is provided which serves as an outer protective coating for a pressure vessel such as a composite overwrapped vessel with a metal lining. The laminate comprises a plurality of fibers (e.g., jute twine or other, stronger fibers) which are wound around the pressure vessel and an epoxy matrix resin for the fibers. The epoxy matrix resin including a plurality of microspheres containing a temperature responsive phase change material which changes phase in response to exposure thereof to a predetermined temperature increase so as to afford increased insulation and heat absorption.

  1. HFIR Vessel Pressure/Temperature Limits Corresponding to the Upgrade Design

    SciTech Connect

    Cheverton, R.D.; Bryson, J.W.

    2000-03-01

    Pressure/temperature limits were calculated for the HFIR pressure vessel for a temperature range of 40 to 120 F. New values were necessary for the upgrade design of the reactor and were calculated using a probabilistic fracture mechanics approach that accounts for the success of periodic hydrostatic proof testing. The range of calculated pressure corresponding to the specific range of temperatures is 634 to 987 psi for ''pressure safety limit'' and 564 to 895 psi for the ''limiting conditions for operation.''

  2. Dynamic Strain Aging in New Generation Cr-Mo-V Steel for Reactor Pressure Vessel Applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gupta, C.; Chakravartty, J. K.; Banerjee, S.

    2010-12-01

    A new generation nuclear reactor pressure vessel steel (CrMoV type) having compositional similarities with thick section 3Cr-Mo class of low alloy steels and adapted for nuclear applications was investigated for various manifestations of dynamic strain aging (DSA) using uniaxial tests. The steel investigated herein has undergone quenched and tempered treatment such that a tempered bainite microstructure with Cr-rich carbides was formed. The scope of the uniaxial experiments included tensile tests over a temperature range of 298 K to 873 K (25 °C to 600 °C) at two strain rates (10-3 and 10-4 s-1), as well as suitably designed transient strain rate change tests. The flow behavior displayed serrated flow, negative strain rate sensitivity, plateau behavior of yield, negative temperature ( T), and strain rate left( {dot{\\varepsilon }} right) dependence of flow stress over the temperature range of 523 K to 673 K (250 °C to 400 °C) and strain rate range of 5 × 10-3 s-1 to 3 × 10-6 s-1, respectively. While these trends attested to the presence of DSA, a lack of work hardening and near negligible impairment of ductility point to the fact that manifestations of embrittling features of DSA were significantly enervated in the new generation pressure vessel steel. In order to provide a mechanistic understanding of these unique combinations of manifestations of DSA in the steel, a new approach for evaluation of responsible solutes from strain rate change tests was adopted. From these experiments and calculation of activation energy by application of vacancy-based models, the solutes responsible for DSA were identified as carbon/nitrogen. The lack of embrittling features of DSA in the steel was rationalized as being due to the beneficial effects arising from the presence of dynamic recovery effects, presence of alloy carbides in the tempered bainitic structure, and formation of solute clusters, all of which hinder the possibilities for strong aging of dislocations.

  3. Stress modeling of microdiaphragm pressure sensors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tack, P. C.; Busta, H. H.

    1986-01-01

    A finite element program analysis was used to model the stress distribution of two monocrystalline silicon diaphragm pressure sensors. One configuration consists of an anisotropically backside etched diaphragm into a 250 micron thick, (100) oriented, silicon wafer. The diaphragm and total chip dimensions are given. The device is rigidly clamped on the back to a support substrate. Another configuration consists of a monocrystalline, (100), microdiaphragm which is formed on top of the wafer and whose area is reduced by a factor of 25 over the first configuration. The diaphragm is rigidly clamped to the silicon wafer. The stresses were calculated at a gauge pressure of 300 mm Hg and used to estimate the piezoresistive responses of resistor elements which were placed parallel and perpendicular near the diaphragm edges.

  4. The influence of long-time stress relief treatments on the dynamic fracture toughness properties of ASME SA508 C1 2a and ASME SA533 Gr B C1 2 pressure vessel steels

    Microsoft Academic Search

    W. A. Logsdon

    1982-01-01

    Dynamic fracture toughness tests were performed on SA508 Cl 2a and SA533 Gr B Cl 2 parent base materials which had been subjected\\u000a to one of three longtime post weld type stress relief heat treatments: 48 hours at 1000 °F (538 °C), 24 hours at 1125 °F (607\\u000a °C), and 48 hours at 1125 °F (607 °C). Linear elastic Kld

  5. Fatigue crack growth behavior of pressure vessel steels and submerged arc weldments in a high-temperature pressurized water environment

    Microsoft Academic Search

    P. K. Liaw; W. A. Logsdon; J. A. Begley

    1989-01-01

    The fatigue crack growth rate (FCGR) properties of SA508 C1 2a and SA533 Gr A C1 2 pressure vessel steels and the corresponding\\u000a automatic submerged are weldments were developed in a high-temperature pressurized water (HPW) environment at 288 °C (550°F)\\u000a and 7.2 MPa (1044 psi) at load ratios of 0.02 and 0.50. The HPW enviromment FCGR properties of these pressure

  6. Fatigue crack growth behavior of pressure vessel steels and submerged arc weldments in a high-temperature pressurized water environment

    Microsoft Academic Search

    P. K. Liaw; W. A. Logsdon; J. A. Begley

    1989-01-01

    The fatigue crack growth rate (FCGR) properties of SA508 C1 2a and SA533 Gr A C1 2 pressure vessel steels and the corresponding automatic submerged are weldments were developed in a high-temperature pressurized water (HPW) environment at 288 °C (550°F) and 7.2 MPa (1044 psi) at load ratios of 0.02 and 0.50. The HPW enviromment FCGR properties of these pressure

  7. OVERVIEW OF PRESSURE VESSEL DESIGN CRITERIA FOR INTERNAL DETONATION (BLAST) LOADING

    SciTech Connect

    T. A. DUFFEY; E. A. RODRIGUEZ

    2001-05-01

    Spherical and cylindrical pressure vessels are often used to completely contain the effects of high explosions. These vessels generally fall into two categories. The first includes vessels designed for multiple use ([1]-[6]). Applications of such multiple-use vessels include testing of explosive components and bomb disposal. Because of the multiple-use requirement, response of the vessel is restricted to the elastic range. The second category consists of vessels designed for one-time use only ([7]-[9]). Vessels in this category are typically used to contain accidental explosions and are designed to efficiently utilize the significant plastic energy absorption capacity of ductile materials. Because these vessels may undergo large permanent plastic deformations, they may not be reusable. Ideally one would design a Containment Vessel according to some National or International Consensus Standard, such as the ASME Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code. Unfortunately, however, a number of issues preclude direct use of the ASME Code in its present form to the design of Containment Vessels. These issues are described in Section 2, along with a request for guidance from the PVRC as to a suitable path forward for developing appropriate ASME B&PV design guidance for Containment Vessels. Next, a discussion of the nature of impulsive loading as a result of an internal detonation of the high explosive within a Containment Vessel is described in Section 3. Ductile failure criteria utilized for LANL Containment Vessels are described in Section 4. Finally, brittle fracture criteria currently utilized by LANL are presented in Section 5. This memo is concluded with a brief summary of results and an appeal to PVRC to recommend and develop an appropriate path forward (Section 6). This path forward could be of a short-term specialized nature (e.g., Code Case) for specific guidance regarding design of the LANL Containment Vessels; a long-term development of a general design approach applicable to all Containment Vessels, including those at LANL; or a combination of the two. This memo supplements information provided in the viewgraphs of the Presentation by E.A. Rodriguez to be given to the PVRC at the May Meeting. The Presentation is entitled, ''Design Criteria for Internal Detonation (Blast) Loading''.

  8. HFIR Vessel Maximum Permissible Pressures for Operating Period 26 to 50 EFPY (100 MW)

    SciTech Connect

    Cheverton, R.D.; Inger, J.R.

    1999-01-01

    Extending the life of the HFIR pressure vessel from 26 to 50 EFPY (100 MW) requires an updated calculation of the maximum permissible pressure for a range in vessel operating temperatures (40-120 F). The maximum permissible pressure is calculated using the equal-potential method, which takes advantage of knowledge gained from periodic hydrostatic proof tests and uses the test conditions (pressure, temperature, and frequency) as input. The maximum permissible pressure decreases with increasing time between hydro tests but is increased each time a test is conducted. The minimum values that occur just prior to a test either increase or decrease with time, depending on the vessel temperature. The minimum value of these minimums is presently specified as the maximum permissible pressure. For three vessel temperatures of particular interest (80, 88, and 110 F) and a nominal time of 3.0 EFPY(100 MVV)between hydro tests, these pressures are 677, 753, and 850 psi. For the lowest temperature of interest (40 F), the maximum permissible pressure is 295 psi.

  9. THE DEVELOPMENT OF RADIATION EMBRITTLEMENT MODELS FOR U.S. POWER REACTOR PRESSURE VESSEL STEELS

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jy-An John Wang; Nageswara S Rao

    2006-01-01

    The information fusion technique is used to develop radiation embrittlement prediction models for reactor pressure vessel (RPV) steels from U.S. power reactors, including boiling water reactors and pressurized water reactors. The Charpy transition temperature-shift data is used as the primary index of RPV radiation embrittlement in this study. Six parameters Cu, Ni, P, neutron fluence, irradiation time, and irradiation temperature

  10. Metallic Pressure Vessels Failures M. Mosnier, B. Daudonnet, J. Renard and G. Mavrothalassitis

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    vessels are of common use in thé industrial field: they can be operated at very différent pressure levels to store or to transport gas or pressurized liquid (such as LPG or LNG), to dry, or as steam boiler... etc under control some 4 hours later. Nobody has been injured. A car wash, a dépôt, offices and som

  11. Bobbin-Tool Friction-Stir Welding of Thick-Walled Aluminum Alloy Pressure Vessels

    SciTech Connect

    Dalder, E C; Pastrnak, J W; Engel, J; Forrest, R S; Kokko, E; Ternan, K M; Waldron, D

    2007-06-06

    It was desired to assemble thick-walled Al alloy 2219 pressure vessels by bobbin-tool friction-stir welding. To develop the welding-process, mechanical-property, and fitness-for-service information to support this effort, extensive friction-stir welding-parameter studies were conducted on 2.5 cm. and 3.8 cm. thick 2219 Al alloy plate. Starting conditions of the plate were the fully-heat-treated (-T62) and in the annealed (-O) conditions. The former condition was chosen with the intent of using the welds in either the 'as welded' condition or after a simple low-temperature aging treatment. Since preliminary stress-analyses showed that stresses in and near the welds would probably exceed the yield-strength of both 'as welded' and welded and aged weld-joints, a post-weld solution-treatment, quenching, and aging treatment was also examined. Once a suitable set of welding and post-weld heat-treatment parameters was established, the project divided into two parts. The first part concentrated on developing the necessary process information to be able to make defect-free friction-stir welds in 3.8 cm. thick Al alloy 2219 in the form of circumferential welds that would join two hemispherical forgings with a 102 cm. inside diameter. This necessitated going to a bobbin-tool welding-technique to simplify the tooling needed to react the large forces generated in friction-stir welding. The bobbin-tool technique was demonstrated on both flat-plates and plates that were bent to the curvature of the actual vessel. An additional issue was termination of the weld, i.e. closing out the hole left at the end of the weld by withdrawal of the friction-stir welding tool. This was accomplished by friction-plug welding a slightly-oversized Al alloy 2219 plug into the termination-hole, followed by machining the plug flush with both the inside and outside surfaces of the vessel. The second part of the project involved demonstrating that the welds were fit for the intended service. This involved determining the room-temperature tensile and elastic-plastic fracture-toughness properties of the bobbin-tool friction-stir welds after a post-weld solution-treatment, quenching, and aging heat-treatment. These mechanical properties were used to conduct fracture-mechanics analyses to determine critical flaw sizes. Phased-array and conventional ultrasonic non-destructive examination was used to demonstrate that no flaws that match or exceed the calculated critical flaw-sizes exist in or near the friction-stir welds.

  12. Evaluation of hydrogen pressure vessels using slow strain rate testing and fracture mechanics analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Murray, S.H. [National Aeronautics and Space Administration, Kennedy Space Center, FL (United States). Materials Science Div.; Desai, V.H. [Univ. of Central Florida, Orlando, FL (United States)

    1998-12-31

    A total of 108 seamless, forged pressure vessels, fabricated from ASTM A372 type IV (UNS K14508) and type V low alloy steel, are currently in 4,200 psi (29 MPa) gaseous hydrogen (GH{sub 2}) service at the Kennedy Space Center`s (KSC) Space Shuttle Launch Complex 39 (LC-39). The vessels were originally used in 6,000 psi (41 MPa) GH{sub 2} service during the Apollo program. NASA recently received a letter of warning from the manufacturer of the vessels stating that the subject vessels should be now be removed from GH{sub 2} service due to the fact that the ultimate tensile strength (UTS) of many of the vessels exceeds the maximum limit of 126 ksi (869 MPa) now imposed on A372 steel intended for GH{sub 2} service, and therefore are susceptible to hydrogen environment embrittlement. Due to the expense associated with vessel replacement, it was decided to determine by testing and analysis whether or not the vessels needed to be removed from GH{sub 2} service. Slow strain rate testing was performed under hydrogen charging conditions to determine the value of the threshold fracture toughness for sustained loading crack growth in GH{sub 2}, (K{sub H}) for the vessel material, this value was then used in a fracture mechanics safe-life analysis (a 20-year service life was modeled) that indicated the vessels are safe for continued use.

  13. Feasibility for development of a nuclear reactor pressure vessel flaw distribution: Sensitivity analyses and NDE (nondestructive evaluation) capability

    SciTech Connect

    Rosinski, S.T. (Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (USA)); Kennedy, E.L.; Foulds, J.R. (Failure Analysis Associates, Inc., Menlo Park, CA (USA))

    1990-01-01

    Pressurized water reactor pressure vessels operate under US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) rules and regulatory guides that are intended to maintain a low probability of vessel failure. The NRC has also addressed neutron embrittlement of pressurized water reactor pressure vessels by imposing regulations on plant operation. Plants failing to meet the operating criteria specified by these rules and regulations are required, among other things, to analytically demonstrate fitness for service in order to continue safe operation. The initial flaw size or distribution of initial vessel flaws is a key input to the required vessel integrity analyses. A fracture mechanics sensitivity study was performed to quantify the effect of the assumed flaw distribution on the predicted vessel performance under a specified pressurized thermal shock transient and to determine the critical crack size. Results of the analysis indicate that vessel performance in terms of the estimated probability of failure is very sensitive to the assumed flaw distribution. 20 refs., 3 figs., 2 tabs.

  14. Influence of long-time stress relief treatments on the dynamic fracture toughness properties of ASME SA508 C1 2a and ASME SA533 GR B C12 pressure vessel steels

    SciTech Connect

    Logsdon, W.A.

    1982-03-01

    Dynamic fracture toughness tests were performed on materials which had been subjected to one of three long-time post weld type stress relief heat treatments: 48 hours at 1000/degree/F (538/degree/C), 24 hours at 1125/degree/F (607/degree/C), and 48 hours at 1125/degree/F (607/degree/C). Linear elastic K/sub Id/ results were obtained at low temperatures while J-integral techniques were utilized to evaluate dynamic fracture toughness over the transition and upper shelf temperature ranges. Tensile, Charpy impact, and drop weight nil-ductility transition tests as well as room temperature, air environment fatigue crack growth rate tests (SA508 Cl 2a only) were also performed. The fracture toughness of both materials exceeded the ASME specified minimum reference toughness K/sub IR/ curve. 17 refs.

  15. J-integral patch for finite element analysis of dynamic fracture due to impact of pressure vessels

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kunin, Boris I.

    1993-01-01

    Prediction of whether a pressurized cylinder will fail catastrophically when impacted by a projectile has important applications ranging from perforation of an airplane's skin by a failed turbine blade to meteorite impact of a space station habitation module. This report summarizes the accomplishment of one task for a project whose aim is to simulate numerically the outcome of a high velocity impact of pressure vessels. A finite element patch covering the vicinity of a growing crack has been constructed to estimate the J-integral (crack driving force) during the impact. Explicit expressions for the J-integral through the nodal values of displacement, strain, and stress have been written. The patch is to be used repeatedly to estimate the amount of crack growth during the time of the impact. The resulting crack size is to be compared to an estimated critical crack size for the pressurized cylinder.

  16. A novel high pressure, high temperature vessel used to conduct long-term stability measurements of silicon MEMS pressure transducers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wisniewiski, David

    2014-03-01

    The need to quantify and to improve long-term stability of pressure transducers is a persistent requirement from the aerospace sector. Specifically, the incorporation of real-time pressure monitoring in aircraft landing gear, as exemplified in Tire Pressure Monitoring Systems (TPMS), has placed greater demand on the pressure transducer for improved performance and increased reliability which is manifested in low lifecycle cost and minimal maintenance downtime through fuel savings and increased life of the tire. Piezoresistive (PR) silicon MEMS pressure transducers are the primary choice as a transduction method for this measurement owing to their ability to be designed for the harsh environment seen in aircraft landing gear. However, these pressure transducers are only as valuable as the long-term stability they possess to ensure reliable, real-time monitoring over tens of years. The "heart" of the pressure transducer is the silicon MEMS element, and it is at this basic level where the long-term stability is established and needs to be quantified. A novel High Pressure, High Temperature (HPHT) vessel has been designed and constructed to facilitate this critical measurement of the silicon MEMS element directly through a process of mechanically "floating" the silicon MEMS element while being subjected to the extreme environments of pressure and temperature, simultaneously. Furthermore, the HPHT vessel is scalable to permit up to fifty specimens to be tested at one time to provide a statistically significant data population on which to draw reasonable conclusions on long-term stability. With the knowledge gained on the silicon MEMS element, higher level assembly to the pressure transducer envelope package can also be quantified as to the build-effects contribution to long-term stability in the same HPHT vessel due to its accommodating size. Accordingly, a HPHT vessel offering multiple levels of configurability and robustness in data measurement is presented, along with 10 year long-term stability results.

  17. Relation of vessel wall shear stress to atherosclerosis progression in human coronary arteries.

    PubMed

    Gibson, C M; Diaz, L; Kandarpa, K; Sacks, F M; Pasternak, R C; Sandor, T; Feldman, C; Stone, P H

    1993-02-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the relation between vessel wall shear stress and the rate of atherosclerosis progression. Quantitative angiography was used to calculate the change in coronary arterial diameter over 3.0 years in patients enrolled in the Harvard Atherosclerosis Reversibility Project pilot study (n = 20 arterial segments). Vessel wall shear stress was calculated by means of a validated finite-difference model of the Navier-Stokes' equation that assumes a coronary flow rate of 8 ml/sec. The correlation between vessel wall shear stress and the change in arterial diameter at multiple points (mean, 70) along the length of the artery was then calculated for each of the 20 segments with a focal stenosis. In 15 of the 20 arterial segments there was a significant correlation (p < 0.05) between low shear stress and an increased rate of atherosclerosis progression. A Fisher's z transformation was then used to combine the correlation coefficients from all 20 segments. Low shear stress was significantly correlated (z = 0.37 +/- 0.00074, p < 0.0001) with an increased rate of atherosclerosis progression. This serial quantitative evaluation of human coronary arteries is consistent with previous data that have suggested that low shear stress promotes atherosclerosis progression. Variations in local vessel wall shear stress may explain the previously reported near-independent rate of atherosclerosis progression in multiple lesions within the same patient despite exposure to the same circulating lipoprotein values and systemic hemodynamics. PMID:8427866

  18. Effect of gravitation stress and hypokinesia on blood vessels of the testicle

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Palazhchenko, E. F.

    1979-01-01

    Rabbits were exposed to single maximum endurable stresses of cranio-caudal direction, hypokinesia for periods of one to eight weeks, and hypokinesia followed by gravitation stresses. The stresses caused dilatation of vessels, greater sinuosity, and occasional ruptures of the walls and extravasation. The greater part of the capillaries were dilated; the greatest part constricted. In hypokinesia there was an increasing atrophy of the testes. Significant results are reported.

  19. Reduction of pressure in arterial vessels as an antitumoral effect

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rudenko, F. V.; Rutskii, A. V.; Kovalenko, Yu. D.

    1996-05-01

    It was found experimentally that reduction of arterial pressure causes changes in hemodynamics in tumoral tissue, and retardation of growth and death of malignant cells is a secondary effect resulting from the violation of microcirculation and transcapillary transfer.

  20. Considerations for acoustic emission monitoring of spherical Kevlar/epoxy composite pressure vessels

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hamstad, M. A.; Patterson, R. G.

    1977-01-01

    We are continuing to research the applications of acoustic emission testing for predicting burst pressure of filament-wound Kevlar 49/epoxy pressure vessels. This study has focused on three specific areas. The first area involves development of an experimental technique and the proper instrumentation to measure the energy given off by the acoustic emission transducer per acoustic emission burst. The second area concerns the design of a test fixture in which to mount the composite vessel so that the acoustic emission transducers are held against the outer surface of the composite. Included in this study area is the calibration of the entire test setup including couplant, transducer, electronics, and the instrument measuring the energy per burst. In the third and final area of this study, we consider the number, location, and sensitivity of the acoustic emission transducers used for proof testing composite pressure vessels.

  1. Aging results for PRD 49 III/epoxy and Kevlar 49/epoxy composite pressure vessels

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hamstad, M. A.

    1983-01-01

    Kevlar 49/epoxy composite is growing in use as a structural material because of its high strength-to-weight ratio. Currently, it is used for the Trident rocket motor case and for various pressure vessels on the Space Shuttle. In 1979, the initial results for aging of filament-wound cylindrical pressure vessels which were manufactured with preproduction Kevlar 49 (Hamstad, 1979) were published. This preproduction fiber was called PRD 49 III. This report updates the continuing study to 10-year data and also presents 7.5-year data for spherical pressure vessels wound with production Kevlar 49. For completeness, this report will again describe the specimens of the original study with PRD 49 as well as specimens for the new study with Kevlar 49.

  2. Reactor pressure vessel structural integrity research in the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission HSST and HSSI Programs

    SciTech Connect

    Pennell, W.E.; Corwin, W.R.

    1994-02-01

    This report discusses development on the technology used to assess the safety of irradiation-embrittled nuclear reactor pressure vessels containing flaws. Fracture mechanics tests on reactor pressure vessel steel have shown that local brittle zones do not significantly degrade the material fracture toughness, constraint relaxation at the crack tip of shallow surface flaws results in increased fracture toughness, and biaxial loading reduces but does not eliminate the shallow-flaw fracture toughness elevation. Experimental irradiation investigations have shown that the irradiation-induced shift in Charpy V-notch versus temperature behavior may not be adequate to conservatively assess fracture toughness shifts due to embrittlement and the wide global variations of initial chemistry and fracture properties of a nominally uniform material within a pressure vessel may confound accurate integrity assessments that require baseline properties.

  3. Progress in understanding the mechanical behavior of pressure-vessel materials at elevated temperatures

    SciTech Connect

    Swindeman, R.W.; Brinkman, C.R.

    1981-01-01

    Progress during the 1970's on the production of high-temperature mechanical properties data for pressure vessel materials was reviewed. The direction of the research was toward satisfying new data requirements to implement advances in high-temperature inelastic design methods. To meet these needs, servo-controlled testing machines and high-resolution extensometry were developed to gain more information on the essential behavioral features of high-temperature alloys. The similarities and differences in the mechanical response of various pressure vessel materials were identified. High-temperature pressure vessel materials that have received the most attention included Type 304 stainless steel, Type 316 stainless steel, 2 1/4 Cr-1 Mo steel, alloy 800H, and Hastelloy X.

  4. Pressure vessel with improved impact resistance and method of making the same

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    DeLay, Thomas K. (Inventor); Patterson, James E. (Inventor); Olson, Michael A. (Inventor)

    2010-01-01

    A composite overwrapped pressure vessel is provided which includes a composite overwrapping material including fibers disposed in a resin matrix. At least first and second kinds of fibers are used. These fibers typically have characteristics of high strength and high toughness to provide impact resistance with increased pressure handling capability and low weight. The fibers are applied to form a pressure vessel using wrapping or winding techniques with winding angles varied for specific performance characteristics. The fibers of different kinds are dispersed in a single layer of winding or wound in distinct separate layers. Layers of fabric comprised of such fibers are interspersed between windings for added strength or impact resistance. The weight percentages of the high toughness and high strength materials are varied to provide specified impact resistance characteristics. The resin matrix is formed with prepregnated fibers or through wet winding. The vessels are formed with or without liners.

  5. Instrumented sphere method for measuring thermal pressure in fluids and isotropic stresses and reaction kinetics in thermosetting resins

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Merzlyakov, Mikhail; Meng, Yan; Simon, Sindee L.; McKenna, Gregory B.

    2004-10-01

    A novel technique is described for measuring thermal pressure in fluids and for measuring isotropic stress development and reaction kinetics in thermosetting resins during cure and thermal cycling. The method uses a 12.7-mm-diam sealed stainless steel spherical pressure vessel to impose three-dimensional isotropic constraints. The vessel is instrumented with strain gauges and thermocouples. Both isotropic stresses and reaction kinetics during cure at cure temperatures as high as 300 °C can be measured. In addition, measurement of the isotropic stress as a function of temperature yields the thermal pressure coefficient in both the glassy and rubbery (or liquid) states. Experimental results are presented for sucrose benzoate, a pressure-transmitting oil di-2-ethylhexylsebacate and an epoxy resin. The method provides reproducible estimates for the thermal pressure coefficient and the stresses are highly isotropic. A suggestion for improved versions of the device is: thicker walled vessels can be used to increase the upper stress limit (currently at 30 MPa). Also if a lower temperature range is to be studied, then aluminum can be used as a vessel material. Since epoxy resins have better adhesion to aluminum than to stainless steel, there may be an advantage to this.

  6. VISA: a computer code for predicting the probability of reactor pressure-vessel failure. [PWR

    SciTech Connect

    Stevens, D.L.; Simonen, F.A.; Strosnider, J. Jr.; Klecker, R.W.; Engel, D.W.; Johnson, K.I.

    1983-09-01

    The VISA (Vessel Integrity Simulation Analysis) code was developed as part of the NRC staff evaluation of pressurized thermal shock. VISA uses Monte Carlo simulation to evaluate the failure probability of a pressurized water reactor (PWR) pressure vessel subjected to a pressure and thermal transient specified by the user. Linear elastic fracture mechanics are used to model crack initiation and propagation. parameters for initial crack size, copper content, initial RT/sub NDT/, fluence, crack-initiation fracture toughness, and arrest fracture toughness are treated as random variables. This report documents the version of VISA used in the NRC staff report (Policy Issue from J.W. Dircks to NRC Commissioners, Enclosure A: NRC Staff Evaluation of Pressurized Thermal Shock, November 1982, SECY-82-465) and includes a user's guide for the code.

  7. Reliability-based design of externally pressurized vessels

    SciTech Connect

    Morandi, A.C.; Das, P.K.; Faulkner, D. [Univ. of Glasgow (United Kingdom). Dept. of Naval Architecture and Ocean Engineering

    1995-12-31

    A reliability based Level 1 design procedure is proposed for ring-stiffened cylindrical shells under external pressure. The main collapse modes and the present safety factor approach are reviewed. The major aspects involved in code development, such as the statistical properties of the basic variables, reliability methods, sensitivity studies, code format, target reliability, partial safety factor optimization and comparison with the present practice are described. Safety margins for design are proposed which depend on the design pressure, maximum expected overdive and shell slenderness. Some suggestions for future work are also given.

  8. Performance features of 22-cell, 19Ah single pressure vessel nickel hydrogen battery

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rao, Gopalakrishna M.; Vaidyanathan, Hari

    1996-01-01

    Two 22-cells 19Ah Nickel-Hydrogen (Ni-H2) Single Pressure Vessel (SPV) Qual batteries, one each from EPI/Joplin and EPI/Butler, were designed and procured. The two batteries differ in the cell encapsulation technology, stack preload, and activation procedure. Both the Butler and Joplin batteries met the specified requirements when subjected to qualification testing and completed 2100 and 1300 LEO cycles respectively, with nominal performance. This paper discusses advantages, design features, testing procedures, and results of the two single pressure vessel Ni-H2 batteries.

  9. 2005 ASME Pressure Vessels and Piping Conference Denver, Colorado, USA

    E-print Network

    Özer, Mutlu

    Paper No. PVP2005-71043 TITLE THE FORMULATIONS OF SHEAR FORCE AND OVERTURNING MOMENT OF THE LARGE OZER SUMMARY The dynamic response analysis is performed for the formulations of shear force, the distribution of hydrodynamic pressures and its center are directly correlated to formulate shear force

  10. Failure Analysis of Weld Cracking in a Thick-Walled 2.25Cr-1Mo Steel Pressure Vessel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lei, Xiaowei; Niu, Jing; Zhang, Jianxun; Fu, Anqing; Feng, Yaorong

    2014-04-01

    A crack in thick-walled 2.25Cr-1Mo steel pressure vessel girth weld was found during manufacturing. To investigate the cause of failure, optical microscopy, scanning electron microscopy, energy dispersive spectrometer, transmission electron microscopy, and microhardness tester were used in this study. According to test results, the fracture is classified as reheat cracking with multiple origins. The cracking occurred during surfacing or final post-weld heat treatment process. Coarse-grains in the weld and bulk-carbides precipitated along grain boundaries induced by multiple heating are main causes of the fracture from material aspect, while high level of the hoop stress component and excess localized deformation in stress relief procedure are mechanical aspect causes of the cracking. The fracture surfaces present major intergranular feature with a small fraction of transgranular morphologies. Large numbers of M3C and M23C6 carbides particles were found on the fracture surface, these carbides mainly precipitated on prior austenite-grain boundaries, columnar-grain boundaries, and sub-grain boundaries. Additionally, several proposals were also offered to reduce weld cracking of 2.25Cr-1Mo steel pressure vessels.

  11. Teaching evolutionary biology: Pressures, stress, and coping

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Griffith, Joyce A.; Brem, Sarah K.

    2004-10-01

    Understanding what teachers need to be more comfortable and confident in their profession is crucial to the future of effective teachers and scientific literacy in public schools. This study focuses on the experiences of Arizona biology teachers in teaching evolution, using a clinical model of stress to identify sources of pressure, the resulting stresses, and coping strategies they employ to alleviate these stresses. We conducted focus groups, one-on-one interviews, and written surveys with 15 biology teachers from the Phoenix area. On the basis of their responses, teachers were clustered into three categories: Conflicted, who struggle with their own beliefs and the possible impact of their teaching, Selective, who carefully avoid difficult topics and situations, and Scientists, who see no place for controversial social issues in their science classroom. Teachers from each group felt that they could be more effective in teaching evolution if they possessed the most up-to-date information about evolution and genomics, a safe space in which to reflect on the possible social and personal implications with their peers, and access to richer lesson plans for teaching evolution that include not only science but personal stories regarding how the lessons arose, and what problems and opportunities they created.

  12. Analysis of pressurized resistance vessel diameter changes with a low cost digital image processing device.

    PubMed

    Fischer, J G; Mewes, H; Hopp, H H; Schubert, R

    1996-06-01

    A low cost digital image processing device (frame grabber) together with a program running under MS_WINDOWS for automatic on-line analysis of diameter changes of in vitro pressurized blood vessels with an inner diameter of 80-400 microns is presented. The frame grabber is designed to receive light microscopic images either from a video camera or from a VCR and to present the digitized image on the computer monitor. The special software allows to manipulate the image, e.g. filtering, calibrating, storing of vessel images, and detects the outer and inner border of the two vessel walls with a new, simple algorithm. The inner diameter and the vessel wall thickness are calculated and the diameter is presented in a diameter versus time diagram on the monitor screen. Further, these data are stored in an ASCII-file for later import into calculation and presentation programs like MS-EXCEL. PMID:8835837

  13. Multi-scale finite element analyses for stress and strain evaluations of braid fibril artificial blood vessel and smooth muscle cell.

    PubMed

    Nakamachi, Eiji; Uchida, Takahiro; Kuramae, Hiroyuki; Morita, Yusuke

    2014-08-01

    In this study, we developed a multi-scale finite element (FE) analysis code to obtain the stress and strain that occurred in the smooth muscle cell (SMC) at micro-scale, which was seeded in the real fabricated braid fibril artificial blood vessel. This FE code can predict the dynamic response of stress under the blood pressure loading. We try to establish a computer-aided engineering (CAE)-driven scaffold design technique for the blood vessel regeneration. Until now, there occurred the great progresses for the endothelial cell activation and intima layer regeneration in the blood vessel regeneration study. However, there remains the difficulty of the SMC activation and media layer regeneration. Therefore, many researchers are now studying to elucidate the fundamental mechanism of SMC activation and media layer regeneration by using the biomechanical technique. As the numerical tool, we used the dynamic-explicit FE code PAM-CRASH, ESI Ltd. For the material models, the nonlinear viscoelastic constitutive law was adapted for the human blood vessel, SMC and the extra-cellular matrix, and the elastic law for the polyglycolic acid (PGA) fiber. Through macro-FE and micro-FE analyses of fabricated braid fibril tubes by using PGA fiber under the combined conditions of the orientation angle and the pitch of fiber, we searched an appropriate structure for the stress stimulation for SMC functionalization. Objectives of this study are indicated as follows: 1. to analyze the stress and strain of the human blood vessel and SMC, and 2. to calculate stress and strain of the real fabricated braid fibril artificial blood vessel and SMC to search an appropriate PGA fiber structure under combined conditions of PGA fiber numbers, 12 and 24, and the helical orientation angles of fiber, 15, 30, 45, 60, and 75 degrees. Finally, we found a braid fibril tube, which has an angle of 15 degree and 12 PGA fibers, as a most appropriate artificial blood vessel for SMC functionalization. PMID:24599892

  14. Reactor Pressure Vessel Temperature Analysis for Prismatic and Pebble-Bed VHTR Designs

    SciTech Connect

    H. D. Gougar; C. B. Davis

    2006-04-01

    Analyses were performed to determine maximum temperatures in the reactor pressure vessel for two potential Very-High Temperature Reactor (VHTR) designs during normal operation and during a depressurized conduction cooldown accident. The purpose of the analyses was to aid in the determination of appropriate reactor vessel materials for the VHTR. The designs evaluated utilized both prismatic and pebble-bed cores that generated 600 MW of thermal power. Calculations were performed for fluid outlet temperatures of 900 and 950 °C, corresponding to the expected range for the VHTR. The analyses were performed using the RELAP5-3D and PEBBED-THERMIX computer codes. Results of the calculations were compared with preliminary temperature limits derived from the ASME pressure vessel code.

  15. A study of fatigue crack propagation in prior hydrogen attacked pressure vessel steels

    Microsoft Academic Search

    R. D. Pendse; R. O. Ritchie

    1985-01-01

    A study has been made of the effects of prior hydrogen attack damage on fatigue crack propagation behavior in commercial pressure\\u000a vessel steels. Quenched and tempered Mn-Mo-Ni steel (ASTM A533B Class 2) and normalized and tempered 2.25Cr-1Mo steel (ASTM\\u000a A387 Class 2 Grade 22) were exposed to gaseous hydrogen atmospheres for up to 1480 hours at hydrogen pressures of 12.4

  16. A study of fatigue crack propagation in prior hydrogen attacked pressure vessel steels

    Microsoft Academic Search

    R. D. Pendse; R. O. Ritchie

    1985-01-01

    A study has been made of the effects of prior hydrogen attack damage on fatigue crack propagation behavior in commercial pressure vessel steels. Quenched and tempered Mn-Mo-Ni steel (ASTM A533B Class 2) and normalized and tempered 2.25Cr-1Mo steel (ASTM A387 Class 2 Grade 22) were exposed to gaseous hydrogen atmospheres for up to 1480 hours at hydrogen pressures of 12.4

  17. Boric acid corrosion of light water reactor pressure vessel head materials

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J.-H. Park; O. K. Chopra; K. Natesan; W. J. Shack; Jr. Cullen

    2005-01-01

    This work presents experimental data on electrochemical potential and corrosion rates for the materials found in the reactor pressure vessel head and control rod drive mechanism (CRDM) nozzles in boric acid solutions of varying concentrations at temperatures of 95-316 C. Tests were conducted in (a) high-temperature, high-pressure aqueous solutions with a range of boric acid concentrations, (b) high-temperature (150-316 C)H-B-Osolutions

  18. Pipeline and Pressure Vessel R&D under the Hydrogen Regional Infrastructure

    E-print Network

    Pipeline and Pressure Vessel R&D under the Hydrogen Regional Infrastructure Program In Pennsylvania Kevin L. Klug, Ph.D. 25 September 2007 DOE Hydrogen Pipeline Working Group Meeting, Aiken, SCPerComp Engineering Inc. (HEI) ­ American Society Of Mechanical Engineers (ASME) ­ Pipeline Working Group (PWG) #12

  19. Kinetics of irradiation-induced Cu precipitation in nuclear reactor pressure vessel steels

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Y. Nagai; T. Toyama; Y. Nishiyama; M. Suzuki; Z. Tang; M. Hasegawa

    2005-01-01

    The followup of the embrittlement of nuclear power reactor pressure vessels (RPVs) is of critical importance for the safety assessment in the nuclear industry. The prediction of their future degradation is based on the extrapolation of the past testing of surveillance materials irradiated in the power reactor and in material testing reactors with accelerated dose rates. Using positron annihilation spectroscopy,

  20. Irradiation Induced Defect Characterization in Reactor Pressure Vessel Steel by Small Angle Neutron Scattering

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Yougn-Soo Han; Eun-Joo Shin; Chang-Hee Lee; Duck-Gun Park

    2008-01-01

    The degradation of the mechanical properties of the RPV (Reactor Pressure Vessel) steel during an irradiation in a nuclear power plant is closely related to the irradiation induced defects. The size of these defects is known to be a few nanometer, and the small angle neutron scattering technique is regarded as the best non destructive technique to characterize the nano

  1. Underclad cracking of pressure vessel steels for light-water reactors

    Microsoft Academic Search

    H LOPEZ

    1987-01-01

    Although fracture mechanics analyses have shown that underclad cracks have no detrimental effect on the integrity of thick walled pressure vessels (40 year service), in order to avoid unexpected failures the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission has issued Regulatory Guide 1.43 which sets limits on the extent of fissures permitted and describes acceptable means of controlling the weld cladding processes. Cavitation

  2. Applicability of the ferromagnetic resonance for the neutron irradiated degradation in the reactor pressure vessel

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Seung Sik Park; Y. H. Cho; D. G. Park; W. S. Park; C. O. Kim

    2003-01-01

    In this paper, to explore the applicability of nondestructive test to detect radiation embrittlement in reactor pressure vessel, we investigate ferromagnetic resonance supplemented by vibrating sample magnetometer. Specimens used in this investigation were SA508-3 low alloy steels with different refining process. Magnetization as a function of the applied field was measured.

  3. Applicability of the ferromagnetic resonance for neutron irradiated degradation in the reactor pressure vessel

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Seung Sik Park; Y. H. Cho; D. G. Park; W. S. Park; C. O. Kim

    2003-01-01

    The change of the neutron irradiation effect has been investigated in the nuclear reactor pressure vessel (RPV) steels which differ in steel refining process. We were employing the ferromagnetic resonance (FMR) technique and hysteresis loop to study the magnetic properties. Both resonance fields and line widths increased but its FMR intensity decreased with the irradiated specimens. The present work shows

  4. Test Results Using a Bell Jar to Measure Containment Vessel Pressurization

    SciTech Connect

    Hensel, S.J.

    2002-05-10

    A bell jar is used to determine containment vessel pressurization due to outgassing of plutonium materials. Fifteen food cans containing plutonium bearing materials, including plutonium packaged in direct contact with plastic and plutonium contaminated enriched oxide have been tested to date.

  5. Proceedings of PVP2006-ICPVT-11 2006 ASME Pressure Vessels and Piping Division Conference

    E-print Network

    Barr, Al

    Proceedings of PVP2006-ICPVT-11 2006 ASME Pressure Vessels and Piping Division Conference July 23-27, 2006, Vancouver BC, CANADA PVP2006-ICPVT11-93670 STRUCTURAL RESPONSE OF PIPING TO INTERNAL GAS, CA 91125 Email: jeshep@galcit.caltech.edu ABSTRACT Detonation waves in gas-filled piping or tubing

  6. Walking and Climbing Service Robots for Safety Inspection of Nuclear Reactor Pressure Vessels

    E-print Network

    Chen, Sheng

    Walking and Climbing Service Robots for Safety Inspection of Nuclear Reactor Pressure Vessels B of Electronics and Computer Science, University of Southampton, Southampton, UK Abstract: Nuclear reactor and the usefulness of these robots for improving safety inspection of nuclear reactors in general are discussed

  7. THEORETICAL ASPECTS OF RADIATION DAMAGE AND BRITTLE FRACTURE IN STEEL PRESSURE VESSELS

    Microsoft Academic Search

    1962-01-01

    The problem of the radiation embrittlement of structural steel and its ; relation to reactor pressure vessels is discussed. Clustered lattice defects ; produced by knock-on collisions from fast neutrons harden steel by a process ; analogous to precipitation hardening. It is shown that for the amount of ; hardening produced, the increase of the ductile-brittle transition temperature by ;

  8. Magnetic measurements to evaluate irradiation effects on Reactor Pressure Vessel high nickel steel

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Luigi Debarberis; Soraia Pirfo; Ferenc Gillemot

    With the aim to characterise material changes due to irradiation exposure, the possibility of using magnetic measurements have been continuously studied. In this work, a further study is described dealing with a reactor pressure vessel (RPV) shell of a Russian WWER-1000 nuclear power plant type. The shell has been cut into blocks and finally several sets of Charpy specimens were

  9. LOW CYCLE FATIGUE OF PRESSURE VESSEL MATERIALS. Interim Technical Report No. 5

    Microsoft Academic Search

    G. Sachs; W. W. Gerberich; V. Weiss

    1960-01-01

    Low-cycle strain-controlled fatigue tests in tensioncompression and in ; bending were conducted on two pressure vessel materials (A-302 steel and 5454-0 ; aluminurn) and one additional aluminum alloy (2024-T4). It was found that for ; tension compression cycling the experimental data are well approximated by the ; equation N = STA( epsilon \\/sub F\\/- epsilon â)\\/ epsilon \\/sub TR\\/!\\/ sup

  10. Study of spray cooling of a pressure vessel head of a boiling water reactor

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Henryk Anglart; Farid Alavyoon; Rémi Novarini

    2010-01-01

    The present paper deals with a theoretical analysis of the spray cooling of a Reactor Pressure Vessel (RPV) head in a Boiling Water Reactor (BWR). To this end a detailed computational model has been developed. The model predicts the trajectories, diameters and temperatures of subcooled droplets moving in saturated vapor. The model has been validated through comparison with experimental data,

  11. An improved correlation of the pressure drop in stenotic vessels using Lorentz's reciprocal theorem

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ji, Chang-Jin; Sugiyama, Kazuyasu; Noda, Shigeho; He, Ying; Himeno, Ryutaro

    2015-02-01

    A mathematical model of the human cardiovascular system in conjunction with an accurate lumped model for a stenosis can provide better insights into the pressure wave propagation at pathological conditions. In this study, a theoretical relation between pressure drop and flow rate based on Lorentz's reciprocal theorem is derived, which offers an identity to describe the relevance of the geometry and the convective momentum transport to the drag force. A voxel-based simulator V-FLOW VOF3D, where the vessel geometry is expressed by using volume of fluid (VOF) functions, is employed to find the flow distribution in an idealized stenosis vessel and the identity was validated numerically. It is revealed from the correlation that the pressure drop of NS flow in a stenosis vessel can be decomposed into a linear term caused by Stokes flow with the same boundary conditions, and two nonlinear terms. Furthermore, the linear term for the pressure drop of Stokes flow can be summarized as a correlation by using a modified equation of lubrication theory, which gives favorable results compared to the numerical ones. The contribution of the nonlinear terms to the pressure drop was analyzed numerically, and it is found that geometric shape and momentum transport are the primary factors for the enhancement of drag force. This work paves a way to simulate the blood flow and pressure propagation under different stenosis conditions by using 1D mathematical model.

  12. Coronary stent implantation changes 3-D vessel geometry and 3-D shear stress distribution

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jolanda J. Wentzel; Deirdre M. Whelan; Willem J. van der Giessen; Heleen M. M. van Beusekom; Ivan Andhyiswara; Patrick W. Serruys; Cornelis J. Slager; Rob Krams

    2000-01-01

    Mechanisms of in-stent restenosis are not fully understood. Shear stress is known to play a role in plaque and thrombus formation and is sensitive to changes in regional vessel geometry. Hence, we evaluated the regional changes in 3-D geometry and shear stress induced by stent placement in coronary arteries of pigs.Methods. 3-D reconstruction was performed, applying a combined angiographic and

  13. Measurement and interpretation of threshold stress intensity factors for steels in high-pressure hydrogen gas.

    SciTech Connect

    Dadfarnia, Mohsen (University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, Urbana, IL); Nibur, Kevin A.; San Marchi, Christopher W.; Sofronis, Petros (University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, Urbana, IL); Somerday, Brian P.; Foulk, James W., III; Hayden, Gary A. (CP Industries, McKeesport, PA)

    2010-07-01

    Threshold stress intensity factors were measured in high-pressure hydrogen gas for a variety of low alloy ferritic steels using both constant crack opening displacement and rising crack opening displacement procedures. The sustained load cracking procedures are generally consistent with those in ASME Article KD-10 of Section VIII Division 3 of the Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code, which was recently published to guide design of high-pressure hydrogen vessels. Three definitions of threshold were established for the two test methods: K{sub THi}* is the maximum applied stress intensity factor for which no crack extension was observed under constant displacement; K{sub THa} is the stress intensity factor at the arrest position for a crack that extended under constant displacement; and K{sub JH} is the stress intensity factor at the onset of crack extension under rising displacement. The apparent crack initiation threshold under constant displacement, K{sub THi}*, and the crack arrest threshold, K{sub THa}, were both found to be non-conservative due to the hydrogen exposure and crack-tip deformation histories associated with typical procedures for sustained-load cracking tests under constant displacement. In contrast, K{sub JH}, which is measured under concurrent rising displacement and hydrogen gas exposure, provides a more conservative hydrogen-assisted fracture threshold that is relevant to structural components in which sub-critical crack extension is driven by internal hydrogen gas pressure.

  14. Pressure vessel safety research for advanced reactors. Semiannual progress report for December 1991March 1992: Volume 1, No. 1

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Huddleston

    1992-01-01

    The NRC sponsored ``Pressure Vessel Safety Research for Advanced Reactor`` project was initiated at Oak Ridge National Laboratory in December 1992. The objective of the project is to identify and assist NRC in resolving any outstanding safety issues in the materials, fabrication, design, or environmental effects areas for the reactor pressure vessel for the advanced reactors such that these issues

  15. International pressure vessels and piping codes and standards. Volume 2: Current perspectives; PVP-Volume 313-2

    Microsoft Academic Search

    K. R. Rao; Yasuhide Asada; T. M. Adams

    1995-01-01

    The topics in this volume include: (1) Recent or imminent changes to Section 3 design sections; (2) Select perspectives of ASME Codes -- Section 3; (3) Select perspectives of Boiler and Pressure Vessel Codes -- an international outlook; (4) Select perspectives of Boiler and Pressure Vessel Codes -- ASME Code Sections 3, 8 and 11; (5) Codes and Standards Perspectives

  16. Mechanisms of microbubble–vessel interactions and induced stresses: A numerical study

    PubMed Central

    Hosseinkhah, N.; Chen, H.; Matula, T. J.; Burns, P. N.; Hynynen, K.

    2013-01-01

    Oscillating microbubbles within microvessels could induce stresses that lead to bioeffects or vascular damage. Previous work has attributed vascular damage to the vessel expansion or bubble jet. However, ultra-high speed images of recent studies suggest that it could happen due to the vascular invagination. Numerical simulations of confined bubbles could provide insight into understanding the mechanism behind bubble–vessel interactions. In this study, a finite element model of a coupled bubble/fluid/vessel system was developed and validated with experimental data. Also, for a more realistic study viscoelastic properties of microvessels were assessed and incorporated into this comprehensive numerical model. The wall shear stress (WSS) and circumferential stress (CS), metrics of vascular damage, were calculated from these simulations. Resultant amplitudes of oscillation were within 15% of those measured in experiments (four cases). Among the experimental cases, it was numerically found that maximum WSS values were between 1.1–18.3?kPa during bubble expansion and 1.5–74?kPa during bubble collapse. CS was between 0.43–2.2?MPa during expansion and 0.44–6?MPa while invaginated. This finding confirmed that vascular damage could occur during vascular invaginations. Predicted thresholds in which these stresses are higher during vessel invagination were calculated from simulations. PMID:23967921

  17. 2 1\\/4 chrome1 molybdenum steel in pressure vessels and piping. Symposium held at Denver, Colorado, September 16--17, 1970

    Microsoft Academic Search

    1971-01-01

    The publication presents eight papers that were assembled from the 21st ; Annual Petroleum- Mechanical Engineering Conference of ASME and the Second Annual ; Pressure Vessels and Piping Conference. The papers were entitled: The Strength ; of 21\\/4 Cr-- 1 Mo Steel at Elevated Temperatures; Notched Stress-Rupture Data for ; Quenched-and-Tempered 21\\/4 Cr- 1 Mo Steel; Welding of Heavy Wall

  18. Dual Shell Pressure Balanced Reactor Vessel cooperative research and development agreement with Innotek, Inc., Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Robertus, R.J.; Fassbender, A.G.; Deverman, G.S.

    1995-04-01

    The Department of Energy`s Office of Energy Research (OER) has provided support for the development of several chemical processes, including supercritical water oxidation, liquefaction, and aqueous hazardous waste destruction, where chemical and phase transformations are conducted at high pressure and temperature. These and many other commercial processes require a pressure vessel capable of operating in a corrosive environment where safety and economy are important requirements. This document details a cooperative research and development agreement for a novel Dual Shell Pressure Balanced Vessel (DSPBV) which could solve a number of these problems. The Technology could be immediately useful in continuing commercialization of an R&D 100 award-winning technology, Sludge-to-oil Reactor System (STORS), originally developed through funding by OER.

  19. Dosimetry analyses of the Ringhals 3 and 4 reactor pressure vessels

    SciTech Connect

    Kulesza, J.A.; Fero, A.H. [Westinghouse Electric Company, Cranberry Township, PA 16066 (United States); Rouden, J.; Green, E.L. [Vattenfall/Ringhals AB, 432 85 Vaeroebacka (Sweden)

    2011-07-01

    A comprehensive series of neutron dosimetry measurements consisting of surveillance capsules, reactor pressure vessel cladding samples, and ex-vessel neutron dosimetry has been analyzed and compared to the results of three-dimensional, cycle-specific neutron transport calculations for the Ringhals Unit 3 and Unit 4 reactors in Sweden. The comparisons show excellent agreement between calculations and measurements. The measurements also demonstrate that it is possible to perform retrospective dosimetry measurements using the {sup 93}Nb (n,n') {sup 93m}Nb reaction on samples of 18-8 austenitic stainless steel with only trace amounts of elemental niobium. (authors)

  20. Calculation of the pressure vessel failure fraction of fuel particle of gas turbine high temperature reactor 300 C

    SciTech Connect

    Aihara, J.; Ueta, S.; Mozumi, Y.; Sato, H.; Sawa, K. [Japan Atomic Energy Agency: Oara-machi, Higashi-ibaraki-gun, Ibaraki-ken, 311-1393 (Japan); Motohashi, Y. [Ibaraki University: Nakanarisawa-cho, Hitachi-shi, Ibaraki-ken, 316-8511 (Japan)

    2007-07-01

    In high temperature gas-cooled reactors (HTGRs), coated particles are used as fuels. For upgrading HTGR technologies, present SiC coating layer which is used as the 3. layer could be replaced with ZrC coating layer which have much higher temperature stability in addition to higher resistance to chemical attack by fission product palladium than the SiC coating layer. The ZrC layer could deform plastically at high temperatures. Therefore, the Japan Atomic Energy Agency modified an existing pressure vessel failure fraction calculation code to treat the plastic deformation of the 3. layer in order to predict failure fraction of ZrC coated particle under irradiation. Finite element method is employed to calculate the stress in each coating layer. The pressure vessel failure fraction of the coated fuel particles under normal operating condition of GTHTR300C is calculated by the modified code. The failure fraction is evaluated as low as 3.5 x 10{sup -6}. (authors)

  1. Biaxial loading effects on fracture toughness of reactor pressure vessel steel

    SciTech Connect

    McAfee, W.J.; Bass, B.R.; Bryson, J.W. Jr.; Pennell, W.E. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States)

    1995-03-01

    The preliminary phases of a program to develop and evaluate fracture methodologies for assessing crack-tip constraint effects on fracture toughness of reactor pressure vessel (RPV) steels have been completed by the Heavy-Section Steel Technology (HSST) Program. Objectives were to investigate effect of biaxial loading on fracture toughness, quantify this effect through existing stress-based, dual-parameter, fracture-toughness correlations, or propose and verify alternate correlations. A cruciform beam specimen with 2-D, shallow, through-thickness flaw and a special loading fixture was designed and fabricated. Tests were performed using biaxial loading ratios of 0:1 (uniaxial), 0.6:1, and 1:1 (equi-biaxial). Critical fracture-toughness values were calculated for each test. Biaxial loading of 0.6:1 resulted in a reduction in the lower bound fracture toughness of {approximately}12% as compared to that from the uniaxial tests. The biaxial loading of 1:1 yielded two subsets of toughness values; one agreed well with the uniaxial data, while one was reduced by {approximately}43% when compared to the uniaxial data. Results were evaluated using J-Q theory and Dodds-Anderson (D-A) micromechanical scaling model. The D-A model predicted no biaxial effect, while the J-Q method gave inconclusive results. When applied to the 1:1 biaxial data, these constraint methodologies failed to predict the observed reduction in fracture toughness obtained in one experiment. A strain-based constraint methodology that considers the relationship between applied biaxial load, the plastic zone width in the crack plane, and fracture toughness was formulated and applied successfully to the data. Evaluation of this dual-parameter strain-based model led to the conclusion that it has the capability of representing fracture behavior of RPV steels in the transition region, including the effects of out-of-plane loading on fracture toughness. This report is designated as HSST Report No. 150.

  2. A Multiscale Modeling Approach to Analyze Filament-Wound Composite Pressure Vessels

    SciTech Connect

    Nguyen, Ba Nghiep; Simmons, Kevin L.

    2013-07-22

    A multiscale modeling approach to analyze filament-wound composite pressure vessels is developed in this article. The approach, which extends the Nguyen et al. model [J. Comp. Mater. 43 (2009) 217] developed for discontinuous fiber composites to continuous fiber ones, spans three modeling scales. The microscale considers the unidirectional elastic fibers embedded in an elastic-plastic matrix obeying the Ramberg-Osgood relation and J2 deformation theory of plasticity. The mesoscale behavior representing the composite lamina is obtained through an incremental Mori-Tanaka type model and the Eshelby equivalent inclusion method [Proc. Roy. Soc. Lond. A241 (1957) 376]. The implementation of the micro-meso constitutive relations in the ABAQUS® finite element package (via user subroutines) allows the analysis of a filament-wound composite pressure vessel (macroscale) to be performed. Failure of the composite lamina is predicted by a criterion that accounts for the strengths of the fibers and of the matrix as well as of their interface. The developed approach is demonstrated in the analysis of a filament-wound pressure vessel to study the effect of the lamina thickness on the burst pressure. The predictions are favorably compared to the numerical and experimental results by Lifshitz and Dayan [Comp. Struct. 32 (1995) 313].

  3. Overall evaluation light-weight composite pressure vessel with alloy liner by acoustic emission and Bragg grating

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Jun-qing; He, Xiao-dong; Wang, Rong-guo; Liu, Wen-bo

    2013-04-01

    Light-weight carbon fiber composite pressure vessel with inner thin-wall aluminum alloy liner has main problem of local buckling during manufacture and working process. The approach of acoustic emission and Bragg grating are adapted to monitoring the light-weight composite vessel under water pressure. Two channels of acoustic emission (AE) were bonded to front dome and cylinder to monitoring the performance of the vessel withstanding maximum 4.5MPa water pressure during loading, maintaining and unloading. Meantime six fiber Bragg sensors (FBG)were attached to front dome and cylinder of the outer surface by hoop and meridian direction respectively in order to monitor the vessel behavior. Analysis indicated Bragg sensors can evaluate outer surface behavior of the vessel with pressure. AE character parameters analysis illustrated the local buckling of inner thin-wall liner.

  4. Fatigue life simulation and estimation of an autofrettaged thick-walled pressure vessel with an external groove

    Microsoft Academic Search

    S. K. Koh

    1996-01-01

    Fatigue tests that simulate an autofrettaged thick-walled pressure vessel with an external groove under pulsating internal pressure loading conditions were performed using specimens taken from an autofrettaged thick-walled pressure vessel. Load-controlled simulation fatigue tests using rectangular, elliptical, and shot-peened elliptical grooved specimens were performed for three different autofrettage levels of 50, 75, and 100% overstrains. In order to estimate the

  5. An Improved Method for Postulating Fabrication Flaws in Reactor Pressure Vessels for Structural Integrity Evaluation

    SciTech Connect

    Simonen, F.A. [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, P.O. Box 999 Richland, WA 99352 (United States); Dickson, T.L. [Oak Ridge National Laboratory, P.O. Box 2008, Oak Ridge, TN 37831 (United States)

    2002-07-01

    This paper presents an improved model for postulating fabrication flaws in reactor pressure vessels (RPVs) and for the treatment of measured flaw data by probabilistic fracture mechanics (PFM) codes that are used for structural integrity evaluations. The model used to develop the current pressurized thermal shock (PTS) regulations conservatively postulated that all fabrication flaws were inner-surface breaking flaws. To reduce conservatisms and uncertainties in flaw-related inputs, the United States Nuclear Regulatory Commission (USNRC) has supported research at Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) that has resulted in data on fabrication flaws from non-destructive and destructive examinations of actual RPV material. Statistical distributions have been developed to characterize the number and sizes of flaws in the various material regions of a vessel. The regions include the main seam welds, repair welds, base metal of plates and forgings, and the cladding that is applied to the inner surface of the vessel. Flaws are also characterized as being located within the interior of these regions or along the weld fusion lines that join the regions. Flaws are taken that occur at random locations relative to the embrittled inner region of the vessel. The probabilistic fracture mechanics model associates each of the simulated flaw types with the fracture properties of the region being addressed. (authors)

  6. Measuring occupational stress: Development of the Pressure Management Indicator

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Stephen Williams; Cary L. Cooper

    1998-01-01

    The study of occupational stress is hindered by the lack of compact and comprehensive standardized measurement tools. The Pressure Management Indicator (PMI) is a 120-item self-report questionnaire developed from the Occupational Stress Indicator (OSI). The PMI is more reliable, more comprehensive, and shorter than the OSI. It provides an integrated measure of the major dimensions of occupational stress. The outcome

  7. Measuring Occupational Stress: Development of the Pressure Management Indicator

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Stephen Williams; Cary L. Cooper

    1998-01-01

    The study of occupational stress is hindered by the lack of compact and comprehensive standardized measurement tools. The Pressure Management Indicator (PMI) is a 120-item self-report questionnaire developed from the Occupational Stress Indicator (OSI). The PMI is more reliable, more comprehensive, and shorter than the OSI. It provides an integrated measure of the major dimensions of occupational stress. The outcome

  8. Positron Annihilation Spectroscopy of Nanostructural Features in Model Reactor Pressure Vessel Steels

    SciTech Connect

    Glade, S C; Wirth, B D; Asoka-Kumar, P; Sterne, P A; Odette, G R

    2003-07-16

    Irradiation embrittlement in nuclear reactor pressure vessel steels results from the formation of a high number density of nanometer sized copper rich precipitates and sub-nanometer defect-solute clusters. We present positron annihilation spectroscopy (PAS) results to characterize the compositions and magnetic character of these defects in model A533B reactor pressure vessel steels. The results confirm the presence of copper-rich precipitates after irradiation. The measured orbital electron momentum spectra indicate the precipitates are alloyed with Mn and Ni. The copper precipitates larger than R {approx} 1.2 nm (from SANS measurements) are non-magnetic, which limits the possible Fe content of the precipitates to at most a few %. Notably, large vacancy clusters observed in neutron irradiated Fe-Cu alloys were not observed in the steels after irradiation.

  9. Ultrasonic NDE of Kevlar-epoxy filament wound spherical pressure vessels

    SciTech Connect

    Blake, R.A.; Steiner, K.V.

    1985-10-01

    The nondestructive evaluation of Kevlar-epoxy filament wound spherical composite pressure vessels is performed through the use of a six axis rotatorially articulated robotic manipulator. Ultrasonic pulse-echo techniques are employed to form C-scan images based upon amplitude and attenuation data gathered by a 68000 based microcomputer system. The data are imaged in planar and three dimensional forms and are further enhanced and analyzed through image processing techniques specifically developed for the analysis of complex composite structures. 25 figs.

  10. Application of Small Punch Test to Evaluate Sigma-Phase Embrittlement of Pressure Vessel Cladding Material

    Microsoft Academic Search

    JooSuk LEE; InSup KIM; Akihiko KIMURA

    2003-01-01

    The influence of ? -phase on mechanical properties in type ER309L stainless steel has been investigated by small punch test. The SA508 cl.3 reactor pressure vessel steel plates were overlay-cladded with the type ER309L welding consumable with different heat input rates. The microstructure of the clad was composed of fcc ? -austenite, a few percent of bcc ?-ferrite and bct

  11. Application of Small Punch Test to Evaluate Sigma-Phase Embrittlement of Pressure Vessel Cladding Material

    Microsoft Academic Search

    JooSuk LEE; InSup KIM; Akihiko KIMURA

    2003-01-01

    The influence of ?phase on mechanical properties in type ER309L stainless steel has been investigated by small punch test. The SA508 cl.3 reactor pressure vessel steel plates were overlay-cladded with the type ER309L welding consumable with different heat input rates. The microstructure of the clad was composed of fcc ?-austenite, a few percent of bcc ?-ferrite and bct ?-phase. Area

  12. Characterization of Nanostructural Features in Irradiated Reactor Pressure Vessel Model Alloys

    Microsoft Academic Search

    B D Wirth; G R Odette; P Asoka-Kumar; R H Howell; P A Sterne

    2001-01-01

    Irradiation embrittlement in nuclear reactor pressure vessel steels results from the formation of a high number density of nanometer-sized copper rich precipitates and sub-nanometer defect-solute clusters. We present results of small angle neutron scattering (SANS) and positron annihilation spectroscopy (PAS) characterization of the nanostructural features formed in binary and ternary Fe-Cu-Mn alloys irradiated at 290 C. These complementary techniques provide

  13. Brittle fracture local criterion and radiation embrittlement of reactor pressure vessel steels

    Microsoft Academic Search

    B. Z. Margolin; V. A. Shvetsova; A. G. Gulenko; E. V. Nesterova

    2010-01-01

    The application of local criteria for predicting brittle fracture of reactor pressure vessel steels is discussed with an emphasis\\u000a on radiation embrittlement. An association of the radiation-induced damages and the processes of initiation and propagation\\u000a of cleavage microcracks is analyzed from the standpoint of the local criterion for fracture. Physical-mechanical models are\\u000a put forward to describe the influence of radiation

  14. Pressure vessel sliding support unit and system using the sliding support unit

    DOEpatents

    Breach, Michael R.; Keck, David J.; Deaver, Gerald A.

    2013-01-15

    Provided is a sliding support and a system using the sliding support unit. The sliding support unit may include a fulcrum capture configured to attach to a support flange, a fulcrum support configured to attach to the fulcrum capture, and a baseplate block configured to support the fulcrum support. The system using the sliding support unit may include a pressure vessel, a pedestal bracket, and a plurality of sliding support units.

  15. Environmental crack-growth behavior of high strength pressure vessel alloys

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Forman, R. G.

    1975-01-01

    Results of sustained-load environmental crack growth threshold tests performed on six spacecraft pressure vessel alloys are presented. The alloys were Inconel 718, 6Al-4V titanium, A-286 steel, AM-350 stainless steel, cryoformed AISI 301 stainless steel; and cryoformed AISI 304L steel. The test environments for the program were air, pressurized gases of hydrogen, oxygen, nitrogen, and carbon dioxide, and liquid environments of distilled water, sea water, nitrogen tetroxide, hydrazine, aerozine 50, monomethyl hydrazine, and hydrogen peroxide. Surface flaw type specimens were used with flaws located in both base metal and weld metal.

  16. REACTOR PRESSURE VESSEL TEMPERATURE ANALYSIS OF CANDIDATE VERY HIGH TEMPERATURE REACTOR DESIGNS

    SciTech Connect

    Hans D. Gougar; Cliff B. Davis; George Hayner; Kevan Weaver

    2006-10-01

    Analyses were performed to determine maximum temperatures in the reactor pressure vessel for two potential Very-High Temperature Reactor (VHTR) designs during normal operation and during a depressurized conduction cooldown accident. The purpose of the analyses was to aid in the determination of appropriate reactor vessel materials for the VHTR. The designs evaluated utilized both prismatic and pebble-bed cores that generated 600 MW of thermal power. Calculations were performed for fluid outlet temperatures of 900 and 950 °C, corresponding to the expected range for the VHTR. The analyses were performed using the RELAP5-3D and PEBBED-THERMIX computer codes. Results of the calculations were compared with preliminary temperature limits derived from the ASME pressure vessel code. Because PEBBED-THERMIX has not been extensively validated, confirmatory calculations were also performed with RELAP5-3D for the pebble-bed design. During normal operation, the predicted axial profiles in reactor vessel temperature were similar with both codes and the predicted maximum values were within 2 °C. The trends of the calculated vessel temperatures were similar during the depressurized conduction cooldown accident. The maximum value predicted with RELAP5-3D during the depressurized conduction cooldown accident was about 40 °C higher than that predicted with PEBBED. This agreement is considered reasonable based on the expected uncertainty in either calculation. The differences between the PEBBED and RELAP5-3D calculations were not large enough to affect conclusions concerning comparisons between calculated and allowed maximum temperatures during normal operation and the depressurized conduction cooldown accident.

  17. Fatigue crack growth behavior of pressure vessel steels and submerged arc weldments in a high-temperature pressurized water environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liaw, P. K.; Logsdon, W. A.; Begley, J. A.

    1989-10-01

    The fatigue crack growth rate (FCGR) properties of SA508 C1 2a and SA533 Gr A C1 2 pressure vessel steels and the corresponding automatic submerged are weldments were developed in a high-temperature pressurized water (HPW) environment at 288 °C (550°F) and 7.2 MPa (1044 psi) at load ratios of 0.02 and 0.50. The HPW enviromment FCGR properties of these pressure vessel steels and submerged arc weldments were generally conservative, compared with the approrpriate American Society of Mechanical Engineers (ASME) Section XI water environmental reference curve. The growth rate of fatigue cracks in the base materials, however, was considerably faster in the HPW environment than in a corresponding 288°C (550°F) base line air environment. The growth rate of fatigue cracks in the two submerged are weldments was also accelerated in the HPW environment but to a significantly lesser degree than that demonstrated by the corresponding base materials. In the air environment, fatigue striations were observed, independent of material and load ratio, while in the HPW environment, some intergranular facets were present. The greater environmental effect on crack growth rates displayed by the base materials, as compared with the weldments, was attributed to a different sulfide composition and morphology.

  18. Definition of mutually optimum NDI and proof test criteria for 2219 aluminum pressure vessels. Volume 1: Methods

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schwartzberg, F. R.; King, R. G.; Todd, P. H., Jr.

    1979-01-01

    The requirements for proof testing and nondestructive inspection of aluminum pressure vessels were discussed. The following conclusions are (1) lack-of-fusion weld defects are sufficiently tight in the as-welded condition to be considered undetectable; (2) proof-level loads are required to fully open lack-of-fusion weld defects; (3) significant crack opening occurs at subproof levels so that an inspection enhancement loading treatment designed to avoid catastrophic failure is feasible; (4) currently used proof levels for 2219 pressure vessels are adequate for postproof inspection; (5) quantification of defect size and location using collimated ultrasonic pitch-catch techniques appears sufficiently feasible for tankage to warrant developmental work; (6) for short-time single-cycle pressure-vessel applications, postproof inspection is desirable; and (7) for long-term multiple-cycle pressure-vessel applications, postproof inspection is essential for life assurance.

  19. Monitoring Composite Material Pressure Vessels with a Fiber-Optic/Microelectronic Sensor System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Klimcak, C.; Jaduszliwer, B.

    1995-01-01

    We discuss the concept of an integrated, fiber-optic/microelectronic distributed sensor system that can monitor composite material pressure vessels for Air Force space systems to provide assessments of the overall health and integrity of the vessel throughout its entire operating history from birth to end of life. The fiber optic component would include either a semiconductor light emitting diode or diode laser and a multiplexed fiber optic sensing network incorporating Bragg grating sensors capable of detecting internal temperature and strain. The microelectronic components include a power source, a pulsed laser driver, time domain data acquisition hardware, a microprocessor, a data storage device, and a communication interface. The sensing system would be incorporated within the composite during its manufacture. The microelectronic data acquisition and logging system would record the environmental conditions to which the vessel has been subjected to during its storage and transit, e.g., the history of thermal excursions, pressure loading data, the occurrence of mechanical impacts, the presence of changing internal strain due to aging, delamination, material decomposition, etc. Data would be maintained din non-volatile memory for subsequent readout through a microcomputer interface.

  20. Fabrication Flaw Density and Distribution In Repairs to Reactor Pressure Vessel and Piping Welds

    SciTech Connect

    GJ Schuster, FA Simonen, SR Doctor

    2008-04-01

    The Pacific Northwest National Laboratory is developing a generalized fabrication flaw distribution for the population of nuclear reactor pressure vessels and for piping welds in U.S. operating reactors. The purpose of the generalized flaw distribution is to predict component-specific flaw densities. The estimates of fabrication flaws are intended for use in fracture mechanics structural integrity assessments. Structural integrity assessments, such as estimating the frequency of loss-of-coolant accidents, are performed by computer codes that require, as input, accurate estimates of flaw densities. Welds from four different reactor pressure vessels and a collection of archived pipes have been studied to develop empirical estimates of fabrication flaw densities. This report describes the fabrication flaw distribution and characterization in the repair weld metal of vessels and piping. This work indicates that large flaws occur in these repairs. These results show that repair flaws are complex in composition and sometimes include cracks on the ends of the repair cavities. Parametric analysis using an exponential fit is performed on the data. The relevance of construction records is established for describing fabrication processes and product forms. An analysis of these records shows there was a significant change in repair frequency over the years when these components were fabricated. A description of repair flaw morphology is provided with a discussion of fracture mechanics significance. Fabrication flaws in repairs are characterized using optimized-access, high-sensitivity nondestructive ultrasonic testing. Flaw characterizations are then validated by other nondestructive evaluation techniques and complemented by destructive testing.

  1. Estimation of mechanical properties of irradiated nuclear pressure vessel steel by use of subsized CT specimen and small punch specimen

    Microsoft Academic Search

    X. Mao; H. Takahashi; T. Kodaira

    1991-01-01

    This paper reports on the 2-1\\/4 Cr-1Mâ steel that has been selected as the material for the reactor pressure vessel (RPV) of a multipurpose experimental high temperature gas cooled reactor designed by JAERI. The 2-1\\/4 Cr-1Mâ steel has successful records for high temperature pressure vessels in the petrochemical industries and the ASME Code Case authorizes the use of the steel

  2. D-Zero Central Calorimeter Technical Appendix to Cryogenic Pressure Vessels

    SciTech Connect

    Mulholland, G.T.; Rucinski, R.A.; /Fermilab

    1990-11-19

    DO (D Zero) is a large Liquid Argon (LAr) HEP Calorimeter designed to function in the laboratories P-Pbar collider at the DO section of the Tevatron accelerator. It contains 5,000 gls. of LAr in the CC cryostat, and 3,000 gls. in each of two, a north and south, EC cryostats. These low pressure vessels are filled with detector modules built of stainless steel, copper and depleted uranium. The LAr functions as the ionization medium, and the spatial and temporal of the collection of the charge of the electrons produced signals the passsage of charged particles. The collection of these charges in 4 pi is related to the energy of the particles, and their measurement is called calorimetry. The contained LAr (T=90K) is isolated from the ambient temperatures in specially designed, vacuum and superinsulated, vessels (cryostats) provided with liquid nitrogen, heat of vaporization, cooling.

  3. Weld Repair of a Stamped Pressure Vessel in a Radiologically Controlled Zone

    SciTech Connect

    Cannell, Gary L. [Fluor Enterprises, Inc.; Huth, Ralph J. [CH2MHill Plateau Remediation Company; Hallum, Randall T. [Fluor Government Group

    2013-08-26

    In September 2012 an ASME B&PVC Section VIII stamped pressure vessel located at the DOE Hanford Site Effluent Treatment Facility (ETF) developed a through-wall leak. The vessel, a steam/brine heat exchanger, operated in a radiologically controlled zone (by the CH2MHill PRC or CHPRC), had been in service for approximately 17 years. The heat exchanger is part of a single train evaporator process and its failure caused the entire system to be shut down, significantly impacting facility operations. This paper describes the activities associated with failure characterization, technical decision making/planning for repair by welding, logistical challenges associated with performing work in a radiologically controlled zone, performing the repair, and administrative considerations related to ASME code requirements.

  4. Damage Control Plan for International Space Station Recharge Tank Assembly Composite Overwrapped Pressure Vessel

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cook, Anthony J.

    2011-01-01

    As NASA has retired the Space Shuttle Program, a new method of transporting compressed gaseous nitrogen and oxygen needed to be created for delivery of these crucial life support resources to the International Space Station (ISS). One of the methods selected by NASA includes the use of highly pressurized, unprotected Recharge Tank Assemblies (RTAs) utilizing Composite Overwrapped Pressure Vessels (COPVs). A COPV consists of a thin liner wrapped with a fiber composite and resin or epoxy. It is typically lighter weight than an all metal pressure vessel of similar volume and therefore provides a higher-efficiency means for gas storage. However COPVs are known to be susceptible to damage resulting from handling, tool drop impacts, or impacts from other objects. As a result, a comprehensive Damage Control Plan has been established to mitigate damage to the RTA COPV throughout its life cycle. The DCP is intended to evaluate and mitigate defined threats during manufacturing, shipping and handling, test, assembly level integration, shipment while pressurized, launch vehicle integration and mission operations by defining credible threats and methods for preventing potential damage while still maintaining the primary goal of resupplying ISS gas resources. A comprehensive threat assessment is performed to identify all threats posed to the COPV during the different phases of its lifecycle. The threat assessment is then used as the basis for creating a series of general inspection, surveillance and reporting requirements which apply across all phases of the COPV's life, targeted requirements only applicable to specific work phases and a series of training courses for both ground personnel and crew aboard the ISS. A particularly important area of emphasis deals with creating DCP requirements for a highly pressurized, large and unprotected RTA COPV for use during Inter Vehicular Activities (IVA) operations in the micro gravity environment while supplying pressurized gas to the ISS for crew life support.

  5. Stress and Thermal Analysis of the In-Vessel RMP Coils in HL-2M

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cen, Yishun; Li, Qiang; Ding, Yonghua; Cai, Lijun; Jiang, Jiaming; Li, Guangsheng; Liu, Yi

    2013-09-01

    A set of in-vessel resonant magnetic perturbation (RMP) coils for MHD instability suppression is proposed for the design of a HL-2M tokamak. Each coil is to be fed with a current of up to 5 kA, operated in a frequency range from DC to about 1 kHz. Stainless steel (SS) jacketed mineral insulated cables are proposed for the conductor of the coils. In-vessel coils must withstand large electromagnetic (EM) and thermal loads. The support, insulation and vacuum sealing in a very limited space are crucial issues for engineering design. Hence finite element calculations are performed to verify the design, optimize the support by minimizing stress caused by EM forces on the coil conductors and work out the temperature rise occurring on the coil in different working conditions, the corresponding thermal stress caused by the thermal expansion of materials is evaluated to be allowable. The techniques to develop the in-vessel RMP coils, such as support, insulation and cooling, are discussed.

  6. Mechanical forces simulation and stress analysis of the TEXTOR vacuum vessel during plasma disruption under 3D eddy current load

    SciTech Connect

    Bohn, H.; Giesen, B. [Forschungszentrum Juelich GmbH (Germany)] [Forschungszentrum Juelich GmbH (Germany); Belov, A. [D.V. Efremov Research Inst., St. Petersburg (Russian Federation)] [and others] [D.V. Efremov Research Inst., St. Petersburg (Russian Federation); and others

    1996-07-01

    The TEXTOR vacuum vessel represents a steel torus shell with numerous radial and vertical ports. The induced eddy currents as well as electromagnetic forces in the vessel during plasma disruption have been calculated using the TYPHOON code. For the purposes of the stress analysis the vessel shells are modeled with shell elements. The bellows and flanges are built with 3D anisotropic solid elements. To apply the calculated electromagnetic forces to this model a special interface code has been developed. Stress analysis has been performed in two steps of loading in reference to symmetry and antisymmetry boundary conditions and the results have been superimposed.

  7. Blood Pressure Variability and Stress Management Training for Essential Hypertension

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Garcia-Vera, Maria Paz; Sanz, Jesus; Labrador, Francisco J.

    2004-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine whether stress management training reduces blood pressure (BP) variability in hypertensive patients. Previous literature suggests that cardiovascular risk is not only a function of BP levels, but also of BP variability, and this partially depends on changes induced by the stress of everyday life. The…

  8. Fiber/epoxy filament-wound vessels. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Chiao, T.T.; Moore, R.L.

    1986-08-14

    The present investigation has provided a valuable insight into the design, fabrication and performance of filament-wound pressure vessels. The long-term stress rupture data generated under the contract is perhaps the only available lifetime data of its kind for Kevlar 49/epoxy pressure vessels. Now, it is clear that Kevlar 49/epoxy pressure vessels can be made to last at least 9 years at 50% of the static burst pressure.

  9. In-situ stress, pore pressure and stress-dependent permeability in the Southern Qinshui Basin

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Zhaoping Meng; Jincai Zhang; Rui Wang

    2011-01-01

    This study focuses on the in-situ stress, pore pressure and permeability in the Southern Qinshui Basin, one of largest coalbed methane basins in China. Well tests show that permeability in this basin is higher than other coalbed methane reservoirs. This is because it is located in an extensional basin, where the normal faulting stress regime is dominated. This in-situ stress

  10. Pressure-vessel surveillance dosimetry using solid-state track recorders

    SciTech Connect

    Ruddy, F.H.; Gold, R.; Roberts, J.H.

    1981-09-04

    In addition to radiometric and SSTR dosimetry sets, helium accumulation fluence monitors, damage monitors, and temperature monitors are being studied. The ideal dosimetry set would monitor neutron fluence, damage, and temperature with as few materials as possible in order to reduce costs and required space. It is hoped that materials such as quartz SSTR and sapphire damage monitors can be developed as multipurpose materials. Sapphire for instance, might be used as a combined fluence and damage monitor (for example, analyzed for helium accumulation, Np/sup 237/ fissions, and direct neutron damage). Continuing research will result in the optimization of dosimetry packages for use in long term surveillance of LWR Pressure Vessels.

  11. Novel ceramic-matrix composites for deep-submergence pressure-vessel applications. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Stachiw, J.D.; Henderson, T.J.; Anderson, C.A.

    1991-10-01

    Novel ceramic matrix composite tubes for deep submergence pressure vessel applications have been fabricated by the DIMOX directed metal oxidation process. These silicon carbides/aluminum oxides composite tubes have an eight percent lower weight to displacement ratio, approximately five times greater thermal conductivity, and more than 50% higher fracture toughness than a tube fabricated from alumina ceramics. Additionally, the SiC/Al2O3 composite tubes have a sixty percent lower weight to displacement ratio and a 12 times greater thermal conductivity than titanium--gallium--4 vanadium alloy tubes. Processing information, hydrostatic implosion test results, and mechanical test data will be discussed.

  12. Viscoelastic/damage modeling of filament-wound spherical pressure vessels

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hackett, Robert M.; Dozier, Jan D.

    1987-01-01

    A model of the viscoelastic/damage response of a filament-wound spherical vessel used for long-term pressure containment is developed. The matrix material of the composite system is assumed to be linearly viscoelastic. Internal accumulated damage based upon a quadratic relationship between transverse modulus and maximum circumferential strain is postulated. The resulting nonlinear problem is solved by an iterative routine. The elastic-viscoelastic correspondence is employed to produce, in the Laplace domain, the associated elastic solution for the maximum circumferential strain which is inverted by the method of collocation to yield the time-dependent solution. Results obtained with the model are compared to experimental observations.

  13. Mechanical properties and examination of cracking in TMI-2 pressure vessel lower head material

    SciTech Connect

    Diercks, D.R.; Neimark, L.A.

    1993-09-01

    Mechanical tests have been conducted on material from 15 samples removed from the lower head of the Three Mile Island unit 2 nuclear reactor pressure vessel. Measured properties include tensile properties and hardness profiles at room temperature, tensile and creep properties at temperatures of 600 to 1200{degrees}C, and Charpy V-notch impact properties at {minus}20 to +300{degrees}C. These data, which were used in the subsequent analyses of the margin-to-failure of the lower head during the accident, are presented here. In addition, the results of metallographic and scanning electron microscope examinations of cladding cracking in three of the lower head samples are discussed.

  14. Thermal mathematical modeling of a multicell common pressure vessel nickel-hydrogen battery

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kim, Junbom; Nguyen, T. V.; White, R. E.

    1992-01-01

    A two-dimensional and time-dependent thermal model of a multicell common pressure vessel (CPV) nickel-hydrogen battery was developed. A finite element solver called PDE/Protran was used to solve this model. The model was used to investigate the effects of various design parameters on the temperature profile within the cell. The results were used to help find a design that will yield an acceptable temperature gradient inside a multicell CPV nickel-hydrogen battery. Steady-state and unsteady-state cases with a constant heat generation rate and a time-dependent heat generation rate were solved.

  15. Overview of NASA White Sands Test Facility Composite Overwrapped Pressure Vessel Testing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Greene, Nathanael; Saulsberry, Regor; Thesken, John; Phoenix, Leigh

    2006-01-01

    This viewgraph presentation examines the White Sands Test Facility testing of Composite overwrapped pressure vessel (COPV). A COPV is typically a metallic liner overwrapped with a fiber epoxy matrix. There is a weight advantage over the traditional all metal design. The presentation shows pictures of the facilities at White Sands, and then examines some of the testing performed. The tests include fluids compatibility, and Kevlar COPV. Data for the Kevlar tests are given, and an analysis is reviewed. There is also a comparison between Carbon COPVs and the Kevlar COPVs.

  16. HTGR Base Technology Program. Task 2: concrete properties in nuclear environment. A review of concrete material systems for application to prestressed concrete pressure vessels

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Naus

    1981-01-01

    Prestressed concrete pressure vessels (PCPVs) are designed to serve as primary pressure containment structures. The safety of these structures depends on a correct assessment of the loadings and proper design of the vessels to accept these loadings. Proper vessel design requires a knowledge of the component (material) properties. Because concrete is one of the primary constituents of PCPVs, knowledge of

  17. The effect of compression on individual pressure vessel nickel/hydrogen components

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Manzo, Michelle A.; Perez-Davis, Marla E.

    1988-01-01

    Compression tests were performed on representative Individual Pressure Vessel (IPV) Nickel/Hydrogen cell components in an effort to better understand the effects of force on component compression and the interactions of components under compression. It appears that the separator is the most easily compressed of all of the stack components. It will typically partially compress before any of the other components begin to compress. The compression characteristics of the cell components in assembly differed considerably from what would be predicted based on individual compression characteristics. Component interactions played a significant role in the stack response to compression. The results of the compression tests were factored into the design and selection of Belleville washers added to the cell stack to accommodate nickel electrode expansion while keeping the pressure on the stack within a reasonable range of the original preset.

  18. The development of radiation embrittlement models for US power reactor pressure vessel steels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, J. A.; Rao, N. S. V.; Konduri, S.

    2007-05-01

    A new approach of utilizing information fusion technique is developed to predict the radiation embrittlement of reactor pressure vessel steels. The Charpy transition temperature shift data contained in the Power Reactor Embrittlement Database is used in this study. Six parameters-Cu, Ni, P, neutron fluence, irradiation time, and irradiation temperature - are used in the embrittlement prediction models. The results indicate that this new embrittlement predictor achieved reductions of about 49.5% and 52% in the uncertainties for plate and weld data, respectively, for pressurized water reactor and boiling water reactor data, compared with the Nuclear Regulatory Commission Regulatory Guide 1.99, Rev. 2. The implications of dose-rate effect and irradiation temperature effects for the development of radiation embrittlement models are also discussed.

  19. Damage dosimetry and embrittlement monitoring of nuclear pressure vessels in real time by magnetic properties measurement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ougouag, A. M.; Stubbins, J. F.; Williams, J. F.; Shong, Wei-Ja

    1995-04-01

    This program developed a nondestructive technique for gauging the progress of embrittlement of nuclear pressure vessel steels (PVS) by means of monitoring radiation-induced changes in magnetic properties. The technique was developed by running a series of experiments in reactor on typical nuclear pressure vessel steels and weldment material. Following irradiation, changes in magnetic properties were measured and correlated with irradiation dose and with mechanical properties changes, where possible. The changes in magnetic properties were unique to the irradiation environment, and were much larger than those produce by thermal aging in the absence of irradiation. Special techniques for magnetic properties change measurement were developed and complimented by more standard magnetic properties measurement techniques including SQUID measurements. The results of the experiments revealed that magnetic properties were very sensitive to irradiation. Changes in microstructurally-related magnetic properties of as much as 40% were noted after irradiation exposure of as little as 10(exp 17) n/sq cm (E greater than 0.1 MeV). The magnetic properties changes plateaued out after doses of around as 10(exp 18) n/cm(sup 2) (E greater than 0.1 MeV). It is unclear whether further changes would be noted at higher doses which would also be useful for tracking the embrittlement phenomenon. This is recommended for further study. The work supported here resulted in several publications in the open scientific literature.

  20. Improved mechanical properties of A 508 class 3 steel for nuclear pressure vessel through steelmaking

    SciTech Connect

    Kim, J.T.; Kwon, H.K.; Kim, K.C.; Kim, J.M. [Korea Heavy Industries and Construction Co., Ltd., Changwon (Korea, Republic of)

    1997-12-31

    The present work is concerned with the steelmaking practices which improve the mechanical properties of the A 508 class 3 steel for reactor pressure vessel. Three kinds of steelmaking practices were applied to manufacture the forged heavy wall shell for reactor pressure vessel, that is, the vacuum carbon deoxidation (VCD), modified VCD containing aluminum and silicon-killing. The segregation of the chemical elements through the thickness was quite small so that the variations of the tensile properties at room temperature were small and the anisotropy of the impact properties was hardly observed regardless of the steelmaking practices. The Charpy V-notch impact properties and the reference nil-ductile transition temperature by drop weight test were significantly improved by the modified VCD and silicon-killing as compared with those of the steel by VCD. Moreover, the plane strain fracture toughness values of the materials by modified VCD and silicon-killing practices was much higher than those of the steel by VCD. These were resulted from the fining of austenite grain size. It was observed that the grain size was below 20 {micro}m (ASTM No. 8.5) when using the modified VCD and silicon-killing, compared to 50 {micro}m (ASTM No. 7.0) when using VCD.

  1. Recovering strain readings from chirping fiber Bragg gratings in composite overwrapped pressure vessels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Strutner, Scott M.; Pena, Frank; Piazza, Anthony; Parker, Allen R.; Richards, W. Lance; Carman, Gregory P.

    2014-04-01

    This study reports on signal recovery of optical fiber Bragg gratings embedded in a carbon fiber composite overwrapped pressure vessel's (COPV) structure which have become chirped due to microcracks. COPVs are commonly used for the storage of high pressure liquids and gases. They utilize a thin metal liner to seal in contents, with a composite overwrap to strengthen the vessel with minimal additional mass. A COPV was instrumented with an array of surface mounted and embedded fiber Bragg gratings (FBGs) for structural health monitoring (SHM) via strain sensing of the material. FBGs have been studied as strain sensors for the last couple decades. Many of the embedded FBGs reflected a multi-peak, chirped response which was not able to be interpreted well by the current monitoring algorithm. Literature and this study found that the chirping correlated with microcracks. As loading increases, so does the number of chirped FBGs and microcracks. This study uses optical frequency domain reflectometry (OFDR) to demultiplex the array of FBGs, and then sub- divide individual FBGs. When a FBG is sub-divided using OFDR, the gratings' strain along its length is recovered. The sub-divided chirped FBGs have strain gradients along their length from microcracks. Applying this to all chirped gratings, nearly the entirety of the embedded sensors' readings can be recovered into a series of single peak responses, which show very large local strains throughout the structure. This study reports on this success in recovering embedded FBGs signal, and the strain gradient from microcracks.

  2. Pressure-proof your life: creative ways to reduce stress.

    PubMed

    Parachin, V M

    1991-12-01

    1. Stress causes a person to feel anxious and exhausted, and it may cause mood swings. A person under stress is unable to experience much pleasure or joy in life. 2. Effective ways to deal with stress include talking about pressure, taking time off, using music to alter your mood, looking at a negative experience in a positive light, exercising, and reciting affirmations. 3. Stress can build if you allow your life to center on work and production. Remember to take time to play and to experience the lighter side of life. PMID:1771668

  3. A dual output pressure, high reliability, long storage life gas delivery vessel assembly

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Maya, Isaac; Mckee, Joe; Rajpurkar, Rajiv

    1993-01-01

    A Gas Vessel Assembly has been developed that delivers purified, very low moisture content gas at two different output pressures. High pressure gas is delivered at up to 6,700 psi, and low pressure gas regulated to 130 psi is also delivered via a second outlet over a wide range of flow rates. The device is extremely lightweight (less than 1 lb) and compact, affords maximum mechanical integrity, high reliability (0.9999 at 95 percent confidence level), and offers extremely long storage life. Specialized design and fabrication techniques are employed that guarantee gas purity and negligible leakage for more than 20 years, in widely varying conditions of storage temperature, humidity, altitude, and vibration environments. The technology offers unique advantages in fast, high pressure discharge applications. For example, when combined with a cryostat, cryogenic temperatures can be achieved such as those used in missile seeker technology. The technology has many additional applications such as: emergency power sources for safety devices such as those needed in nuclear power plants, refineries, collision cushioning devices, superconductor cooling devices, emergency egress systems, miniature mechanical devices that employ gas bearings, and other areas where long storage, extremely high reliability and/or high energy density sources are required.

  4. Quantification of Wall Shear Stress in Large Blood Vessels Using Lagrangian Interpolation Functions with Cine Phase-Contrast Magnetic Resonance Imaging

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Christopher P. Cheng; David Parker; Charles A. Taylor

    2002-01-01

    Arterial wall shear stress is hypothesized to be an important factor in the localization of atherosclerosis. Current methods to compute wall shear stress from magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) data do not account for flow profiles characteristic of pulsatile flow in noncircular vessel lumens. We describe a method to quantify wall shear stress in large blood vessels by differentiating velocity interpolation

  5. Prediction of failure behavior of a welded pressure vessel containing flaws during a hydrogen-charged burst test

    Microsoft Academic Search

    G. S. Bhuyan; E. J. Sperling; G. Shen; H. Yin; M. D. Rana

    1999-01-01

    An industry-government collaborative program was carried out with an aim to promoting the acceptance of fracture mechanics-based fitness-for-service assessment methodology for a service-damaged pressure vessel. A collaborative round robin exercise was carried out to predict the fracture behavior of a vessel containing hydrogen damage, fabrication-related lack-of-fusion defects, an artificially induced fatigue crack, and a localized thinned area. The fracture assessment

  6. Manufacturing Cost Analysis of Novel Steel/Concrete Composite Vessel for Stationary Storage of High-Pressure Hydrogen

    SciTech Connect

    Feng, Zhili [ORNL; Zhang, Wei [ORNL; Wang, Jy-An John [ORNL; Ren, Fei [ORNL

    2012-09-01

    A novel, low-cost, high-pressure, steel/concrete composite vessel (SCCV) technology for stationary storage of compressed gaseous hydrogen (CGH2) is currently under development at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) sponsored by DOE s Fuel Cell Technologies (FCT) Program. The SCCV technology uses commodity materials including structural steels and concretes for achieving cost, durability and safety requirements. In particular, the hydrogen embrittlement of high-strength low-alloy steels, a major safety and durability issue for current industry-standard pressure vessel technology, is mitigated through the use of a unique layered steel shell structure. This report presents the cost analysis results of the novel SCCV technology. A high-fidelity cost analysis tool is developed, based on a detailed, bottom-up approach which takes into account the material and labor costs involved in each of the vessel manufacturing steps. A thorough cost study is performed to understand the SCCV cost as a function of the key vessel design parameters, including hydrogen pressure, vessel dimensions, and load-carrying ratio. The major conclusions include: The SCCV technology can meet the technical/cost targets set forth by DOE s FCT Program for FY2015 and FY2020 for all three pressure levels (i.e., 160, 430 and 860 bar) relevant to the hydrogen production and delivery infrastructure. Further vessel cost reduction can benefit from the development of advanced vessel fabrication technologies such as the highly automated friction stir welding (FSW). The ORNL-patented multi-layer, multi-pass FSW can not only reduce the amount of labor needed for assembling and welding the layered steel vessel, but also make it possible to use even higher strength steels for further cost reductions and improvement of vessel structural integrity. It is noted the cost analysis results demonstrate the significant cost advantage attainable by the SCCV technology for different pressure levels when compared to the industry-standard pressure vessel technology. The real-world performance data of SCCV under actual operating conditions is imperative for this new technology to be adopted by the hydrogen industry for stationary storage of CGH2. Therefore, the key technology development effort in FY13 and subsequent years will be focused on the fabrication and testing of SCCV mock-ups. The static loading and fatigue data will be generated in rigorous testing of these mock-ups. Successful tests are crucial to enabling the near-term impact of the developed storage technology on the CGH2 storage market, a critical component of the hydrogen production and delivery infrastructure. In particular, the SCCV has high potential for widespread deployment in hydrogen fueling stations.

  7. Neural Network Prediction of Failure of Damaged Composite Pressure Vessels from Strain Field Data Acquired by a Computer Vision Method

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Russell, Samuel S.; Lansing, Matthew D.

    1997-01-01

    This effort used a new and novel method of acquiring strains called Sub-pixel Digital Video Image Correlation (SDVIC) on impact damaged Kevlar/epoxy filament wound pressure vessels during a proof test. To predict the burst pressure, the hoop strain field distribution around the impact location from three vessels was used to train a neural network. The network was then tested on additional pressure vessels. Several variations on the network were tried. The best results were obtained using a single hidden layer. SDVIC is a fill-field non-contact computer vision technique which provides in-plane deformation and strain data over a load differential. This method was used to determine hoop and axial displacements, hoop and axial linear strains, the in-plane shear strains and rotations in the regions surrounding impact sites in filament wound pressure vessels (FWPV) during proof loading by internal pressurization. The relationship between these deformation measurement values and the remaining life of the pressure vessels, however, requires a complex theoretical model or numerical simulation. Both of these techniques are time consuming and complicated. Previous results using neural network methods had been successful in predicting the burst pressure for graphite/epoxy pressure vessels based upon acoustic emission (AE) measurements in similar tests. The neural network associates the character of the AE amplitude distribution, which depends upon the extent of impact damage, with the burst pressure. Similarly, higher amounts of impact damage are theorized to cause a higher amount of strain concentration in the damage effected zone at a given pressure and result in lower burst pressures. This relationship suggests that a neural network might be able to find an empirical relationship between the SDVIC strain field data and the burst pressure, analogous to the AE method, with greater speed and simplicity than theoretical or finite element modeling. The process of testing SDVIC neural network analysis and some encouraging preliminary results are presented in this paper. Details are given concerning the processing of SDVIC output data such that it may be used as back propagation neural network (BPNN) input data. The software written to perform this processing and the BPNN algorithm are also discussed. It will be shown that, with limited training, test results indicate an average error in burst pressure prediction of approximately six percent,

  8. Fatigue crack growth behavior of pressure vessel steels and submerged arc weldments in a high-temperature pressurized water environment

    SciTech Connect

    Liaw, P.K.; Logsdon, W.A.; Begley, J.A. (Westinghouse Electric Corp., Pittsburgh, PA (USA). Research and Development Center)

    1989-10-01

    The fatigue crack growth rate (FCGR) properties of SA508 Cl 2a and SA533 Gr A Cl 2 pressure vessel steels and the corresponding automatic submerged arc weldments were developed in a high-temperature pressurized water (HPW) environment at 288{degrees} C (550{degrees} F) and 7.2 MPa (1044 psi) at load ratios of 0.20 and 0.50. The properties were generally conservative compared to American Society of Mechanical Engineers Section XI water environment reference curve. The growth rate of fatigue cracks in the base materials, however, was faster in the HPW environment than in a 288{degrees} C (550{degrees} F) base line air environment. The growth rate of fatigue cracks in the two submerged arc weldments was also accelerated in the HPW environment but to a lesser degree than that demonstrated by the base materials. In the air environment, fatigue striations were observed, independent of material and load ratio, while in the HPW environment, some intergranular facets were present. The greater environmental effect on crack growth rates displayed by the base materials compared the weldments attributed to a different sulfide composition and morphology.

  9. Evaluation of Carbon Composite Overwrap Pressure Vessels Fabricated Using Ionic Liquid Epoxies Project

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Grugel, Richard

    2015-01-01

    The intent of the work proposed here is to ascertain the viability of ionic liquid (IL) epoxy based carbon fiber composites for use as storage tanks at cryogenic temperatures. This IL epoxy has been specifically developed to address composite cryogenic tank challenges associated with achieving NASA's in-space propulsion and exploration goals. Our initial work showed that an unadulterated ionic liquid (IL) carbon-fiber composite exhibited improved properties over an optimized commercial product at cryogenic temperatures. Subsequent investigative work has significantly improved the IL epoxy and our first carbon-fiber Composite Overwrap Pressure Vessel (COPV) was successfully fabricated. Here additional COPVs, using a further improved IL epoxy, will be fabricated and pressure tested at cryogenic temperatures with the results rigorously analyzed. Investigation of the IL composite for lower pressure liner-less cryogenic tank applications will also be initiated. It is expected that the current Technology Readiness Level (TRL) will be raised from about TRL 3 to TRL 5 where unambiguous predictions for subsequent development/testing can be made.

  10. Boric acid corrosion of light water reactor pressure vessel head materials.

    SciTech Connect

    Park, J.-H.; Chopra, O. K.; Natesan, K.; Shack, W. J.; Cullen, Jr.; W. H.; Energy Technology; USNRC

    2005-01-01

    This work presents experimental data on electrochemical potential and corrosion rates for the materials found in the reactor pressure vessel head and control rod drive mechanism (CRDM) nozzles in boric acid solutions of varying concentrations at temperatures of 95-316 C. Tests were conducted in (a) high-temperature, high-pressure aqueous solutions with a range of boric acid concentrations, (b) high-temperature (150-316 C)H-B-Osolutions at ambient pressure, in wet and dry conditions, and (c) low-temperature (95 C) saturated, aqueous, boric acid solutions. These correspond to the following situations: (a) low leakage through the nozzle and nozzle/head annulus plugged, (b) low leakage through the nozzle and nozzle/head annulus open, and (c) significant cooling due to high leakage and nozzle/head annulus open. The results showed significant corrosion only for the low-alloy steel and no corrosion for Alloy 600 or 308 stainless steel cladding. Also, corrosion rates were significant in saturated boric acid solutions, and no material loss was observed in H-B-O solution in the absence of moisture. The results are compared with the existing corrosion/wastage data in the literature.

  11. Reactor pressure vessel integrity research at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory

    SciTech Connect

    Corwin, W.R.; Pennell, W.E.; Pace, J.V.

    1995-12-31

    Maintaining the integrity of the reactor pressure vessel (RPV) in a light-water-cooled nuclear power plant is crucial in preventing and controlling severe accidents that have the potential for major contamination release. The RPV is the only key safety-related component of the plant for which a duplicate or redundant backup system does not exist. It is therefore imperative to understand and be able to predict the integrity inherent in the RPV. For this reason, the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission has established the related research programs at ORNL described herein to provide for the development and confirmation of the methods used for: (1) establishing the irradiation exposure conditions within the RPV in the Embrittlement Data Base and Dosimetry Evaluation Program, (2) assessing the effects of irradiation on the RPV materials in the Heavy-Section Steel Irradiation Program, and (3) developing overall structural and fracture analyses of RPVs in the Heavy-Section Steel Technology Program.

  12. Assemblies and methods for mitigating effects of reactor pressure vessel expansion

    DOEpatents

    Challberg, R.C.; Gou, P.F.; Chu, C.L.; Oliver, R.P.

    1999-07-27

    Support assemblies for allowing RPV radial expansion while simultaneously limiting horizontal, vertical, and azimuthal movement of the RPV within a nuclear reactor are described. In one embodiment, the support assembly includes a support block and a guide block. The support block includes a first portion and a second portion, and the first portion is rigidly coupled to the RPV adjacent the first portion. The guide block is rigidly coupled to a reactor pressure vessel support structure and includes a channel sized to receive the second portion of the support block. The second portion of the support block is positioned in the guide block channel to movably couple the guide block to the support block. 6 figs.

  13. Underclad cracking of pressure vessel steels for light-water reactors

    SciTech Connect

    Lopez, H.F.

    1987-06-01

    Although fracture mechanics analyses have shown that underclad cracks have no detrimental effect on the integrity of thick walled pressure vessels (40 year service), in order to avoid unexpected failures the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission has issued Regulatory Guide 1.43 which sets limits on the extent of fissures permitted and describes acceptable means of controlling the weld cladding processes. Cavitation and intergranular fissuring in SA508-2 and 22NiMoCr37 steels can occur in the presence or absence of intergranular particles. The observations of intergranular fissuring and cavitation in those HAZ free from overlapping effects are attributed to grain boundary segregation. Other probable void nucleation sites are the grain boundary-lath interface intersections which facilitate the formation of grain boundary discontinuities.

  14. Development of a shallow-flaw fracture assessment methodology for nuclear reactor pressure vessels

    SciTech Connect

    Bass, B.R.; Bryson, J.W.; Dickson, T.L.; McAfee, W.J.; Pennell, W.E.

    1996-06-01

    Shallow-flaw fracture technology is being developed within the Heavy-Section Steel Technology (HSST) Program for application to the safety assessment of radiation-embrittled nuclear reactor pressure vessels (RPVs) containing postulated shallow flaws. Cleavage fracture in shallow-flaw cruciform beam specimens tested under biaxial loading at temperatures in the lower transition temperature range was shown to be strain-controlled. A strain-based dual-parameter fracture toughness correlation was developed and shown to be capable of predicting the effect of crack-tip constraint on fracture toughness for strain-controlled fracture. A probabilistic fracture mechanics (PFM) model that includes both the properties of the inner-surface stainless-steel cladding and a biaxial shallow-flaw fracture toughness correlation gave a reduction in probability of cleavage initiation of more than two orders of magnitude from an ASME-based reference case.

  15. Research and Development Roadmaps for Nondestructive Evaluation of Cables, Concrete, Reactor Pressure Vessels, and Piping Fatique

    SciTech Connect

    Clayton, Dwight A [ORNL] [ORNL; Bakhtiari, Sasan [Argonne National Laboratory (ANL)] [Argonne National Laboratory (ANL); Smith, Cyrus M [ORNL] [ORNL; Simmons, Kevin [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL)] [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL); Ramuhalli, Pradeep [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL)] [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL); Coble, Jamie [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL)] [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL); Brenchley, David [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL)] [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL); Meyer, Ryan [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL)] [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL)

    2013-01-01

    To address these research needs, the MAaD Pathway supported a series of workshops in the summer of 2012 for the purpose of developing R&D roadmaps for enhancing the use of Nondestructive Evaluation (NDE) technologies and methodologies for detecting aging and degradation of materials and predicting the remaining useful life. The workshops were conducted to assess requirements and technical gaps related to applications of NDE for cables, concrete, reactor pressure vessels (RPV), and piping fatigue for extended reactor life. An overview of the outcomes of the workshops is presented here. Details of the workshop outcomes and proposed R&D also are available in the R&D roadmap documents cited in the bibliography and are available on the LWRS Program website (http://www.inl.gov/lwrs).

  16. On the Effect of Apex Geometry on Wall Shear Stress and Pressure in a 2-D Arterial Bifurcation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Robertson, Anne; Haljasmaa, Igor; Galdi, Giovanni

    2000-11-01

    There is strong evidence to support the hypothesis that vascular geometry plays an important role in the initiation and development of cerebral aneurysms as well as other vascular diseases through its influence on hemodynamics. Cerebral aneurysms are nearly always found at arterial bifurcations in and near the Circle of Willis. It is commonly believed that the cause of initiation and development of cerebral aneurysms is at least indirectly related to the effect of hemodynamic wall pressure and shear stress on the arterial tissue at arterial bifurcations. In this work, we use analytical and numerical approaches to investigate the hypothesis that local geometric factors can have a significant impact on the magnitude and spatial gradients of wall pressure and shear stress at the apex of arterial bifurcations. We find that sharp corners such as those at arterial bifurcations and the juncture between grafted vessels can be a source of localized high wall pressure and shear stress. In fact, it can be shown analytically that perfectly sharp corners (zero radius of curvature) will lead to unbounded magnitudes of shear stress and pressure . As the radius of curvature is increased (the corner is rounded), the maximum in magnitude in wall shear stress shifts away from the apex to the lateral sides of the bifurcation. Significantly, the unbounded pressure and shear stress at perfectly sharp corners are unrelated to the fluid inertia. As shown here, the large values of pressure and shear stress which have previously been reported in studies in sharp corner models (zero radius of curvature) are grid dependent approximations for unbounded pressure and shear stress.

  17. Spin Forming Aluminum Crew Module (CM) Metallic Aft Pressure Vessel Bulkhead (APVBH) - Phase II

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hoffman, Eric K.; Domack, Marcia S.; Torres, Pablo D.; McGill, Preston B.; Tayon, Wesley A.; Bennett, Jay E.; Murphy, Joseph T.

    2015-01-01

    The principal focus of this project was to assist the Multi-Purpose Crew Vehicle (MPCV) program in developing a spin forming fabrication process for manufacture of the Orion crew module (CM) aft pressure vessel bulkhead. The spin forming process will enable a single piece aluminum (Al) alloy 2219 aft bulkhead resulting in the elimination of the current multiple piece welded construction, simplify CM fabrication, and lead to an enhanced design. Phase I (NASA TM-2014-218163, (1)) of this assessment explored spin forming the single-piece CM forward pressure vessel bulkhead. The MPCV Program and Lockheed Martin (LM) recently made two critical decisions relative to the NESC Phase I work scope: (1) LM selected the spin forming process to manufacture a singlepiece aft bulkhead for the Orion CM, and (2) the aft bulkhead will be manufactured from Al 2219. Based on the Program's new emphasis related to the spin forming process, the NESC was asked to conduct a Phase II assessment to assist in the LM manufacture of the aft bulkhead and to conduct a feasibility study into spin forming the Orion CM cone. This activity was approved on June 19, 2013. Dr. Robert Piascik, NASA Technical Fellow for Materials at the Langley Research Center (LaRC), was selected to lead this assessment. The project plan was approved by the NASA Engineering and Safety Center (NESC) Review Board (NRB) on July 18, 2013. The primary stakeholders for this assessment are the NASA and LM MPCV Program offices. Additional benefactors are commercial launch providers developing CM concepts.

  18. A review of the state-of-the-art of the non-destructive testing of flight pressure vessels

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Noronha, P. J.; Mckannan, E. C.

    1975-01-01

    The design of flight vessels is based on a nominal stress requirement and a fracture mechanics approach, and optimization of the weight of the vessel is based on the smallest size defect that can be detected with a high degree of confidence. The wide variety of metals used for fabrication, and the different defects that may be present in them at every stage, up to completion of the vessel, is described. Techniques currently being used for NDT are described along with their advantages, limitations and limits of detectability at high levels of confidence. Techniques considered for use in the future to improve the limits of the minimum flaw size that can currently be detected include the Delta Scan and Acoustic Emission techniques. The construction of space vessels for use in the future has been modified to reduce the presence of critical defects and so to improve the cost effectiveness of projected NDT requirements.

  19. Studies on the tempo of bubble formation in recently cavitated vessels: a model to predict the pressure of air bubbles.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yujie; Pan, Ruihua; Tyree, Melvin T

    2015-06-01

    A cavitation event in a vessel replaces water with a mixture of water vapor and air. A quantitative theory is presented to argue that the tempo of filling of vessels with air has two phases: a fast process that extracts air from stem tissue adjacent to the cavitated vessels (less than 10 s) and a slow phase that extracts air from the atmosphere outside the stem (more than 10 h). A model was designed to estimate how water tension (T) near recently cavitated vessels causes bubbles in embolized vessels to expand or contract as T increases or decreases, respectively. The model also predicts that the hydraulic conductivity of a stem will increase as bubbles collapse. The pressure of air bubbles trapped in vessels of a stem can be predicted from the model based on fitting curves of hydraulic conductivity versus T. The model was validated using data from six stem segments each of Acer mono and the clonal hybrid Populus 84K (Populus alba × Populus glandulosa). The model was fitted to results with root mean square error less than 3%. The model provided new insight into the study of embolism formation in stem tissue and helped quantify the bubble pressure immediately after the fast process referred to above. PMID:25907963

  20. Carbon Resistor Pressure Gauge Calibration at Low Stresses

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Bruce Cunningham; Angela M. Niles; Kevin S. Vandersall; Daniel W. Greenwood; Frank Garcia; Jerry W. Forbes

    2001-01-01

    The carbon resistor gauge has been used in the stress range up to approximately 4-5 GPa for highly heterogeneous materials and\\/or divergent flow experiments. The attractiveness of the gauge is due to its rugged nature, simple construction, low cost, reproducibility, and survivability in dynamic events. The associated drawbacks are a long time response to pressure equilibration and gauge resistance hysteresis.

  1. Meningothelial Cells React to Elevated Pressure and Oxidative Stress

    PubMed Central

    Flammer, Josef; Miller, Neil R.; Jaggi, Gregor P.; Killer, Hanspeter E.; Meyer, Peter; Neutzner, Albert

    2011-01-01

    Background Meningothelial cells (MECs) are the cellular components of the meninges enveloping the brain. Although MECs are not fully understood, several functions of these cells have been described. The presence of desmosomes and tight junctions between MECs hints towards a barrier function protecting the brain. In addition, MECs perform endocytosis and, by the secretion of cytokines, are involved in immunological processes in the brain. However, little is known about the influence of pathological conditions on MEC function; e.g., during diseases associated with elevated intracranial pressure, hypoxia or increased oxidative stress. Methods We studied the effect of elevated pressure, hypoxia, and oxidative stress on immortalized human as well as primary porcine MECs. We used MTS (3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-5-(3-carboxymethoxyphenyl)-2-(4-sulfophenyl)-2H-tetrazolium) bioreduction assays to assess the proliferation of MECs in response to treatment and compared to untreated control cells. To assess endocytotic activity, the uptake of fluorescently labeled latex beads was analyzed by fluorescence microscopy. Results We found that exposure of MECs to elevated pressure caused significant cellular proliferation and a dramatic decrease in endocytotic activity. In addition, mild oxidative stress severely inhibited endocytosis. Conclusion Elevated pressure and oxidative stress impact MEC physiology and might therefore influence the microenvironment of the subarachnoid space and thus the cerebrospinal fluid within this compartment with potential negative impact on neuronal function. PMID:21611150

  2. Effects of Hyperbaric Pressure on a Deep-Sea Archaebacterium in Stainless Steel and Glass-Lined Vessels

    PubMed Central

    Nelson, Chad M.; Schuppenhauer, Michael R.; Clark, Douglas S.

    1991-01-01

    The effects of hyperbaric helium pressures on the growth and metabolism of the deep-sea isolate ES4 were investigated. In a stainless steel reactor, cell growth was completely inhibited but metabolic gas production was observed. From 85 to 100°C, CO2 production proceeded two to three times faster at 500 atm (1 atm = 101.29 kPa) than at 8 atm. At 105°C, no CO2 was produced until the pressure was increased to 500 atm. Hydrogen and H2S were also produced biotically but were not quantifiable at pressures above 8 atm because of the high concentration of helium. In a glass-lined vessel, growth occurred but the growth rate was not accelerated by pressure. In most cases at temperatures below 100°C, the growth rate was lower at elevated pressures; at 100°C, the growth rates at 8, 250, and 500 atm were nearly identical. Unlike in the stainless steel vessel, CO2 production was exponential during growth and continued for only a short time after growth. In addition, relatively little H2 was produced in the glass-lined vessel, and there was no growth or gas production at 105°C at any pressure. The behavior of ES4 as a function of temperature and pressure was thus very sensitive to the experimental conditions. PMID:16348606

  3. In-Situ Nondestructive Evaluation of Kevlar(Registered Trademark)and Carbon Fiber Reinforced Composite Micromechanics for Improved Composite Overwrapped Pressure Vessel Health Monitoring

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Waller, Jess; Saulsberry, Regor

    2012-01-01

    NASA has been faced with recertification and life extension issues for epoxy-impregnated Kevlar 49 (K/Ep) and carbon (C/Ep) composite overwrapped pressure vessels (COPVs) used in various systems on the Space Shuttle and International Space Station, respectively. Each COPV has varying criticality, damage and repair histories, time at pressure, and pressure cycles. COPVs are of particular concern due to the insidious and catastrophic burst-before-leak failure mode caused by stress rupture (SR) of the composite overwrap. SR life has been defined [1] as the minimum time during which the composite maintains structural integrity considering the combined effects of stress level(s), time at stress level(s), and associated environment. SR has none of the features of predictability associated with metal pressure vessels, such as crack geometry, growth rate and size, or other features that lend themselves to nondestructive evaluation (NDE). In essence, the variability or surprise factor associated with SR cannot be eliminated. C/Ep COPVs are also susceptible to impact damage that can lead to reduced burst pressure even when the amount of damage to the COPV is below the visual detection threshold [2], thus necessitating implementation of a mechanical damage control plan [1]. Last, COPVs can also fail prematurely due to material or design noncompliance. In each case (SR, impact or noncompliance), out-of-family behavior is expected leading to a higher probability of failure at a given stress, hence, greater uncertainty in performance. For these reasons, NASA has been actively engaged in research to develop NDE methods that can be used during post-manufacture qualification, in-service inspection, and in-situ structural health monitoring. Acoustic emission (AE) is one of the more promising NDE techniques for detecting and monitoring, in real-time, the strain energy release and corresponding stress-wave propagation produced by actively growing flaws and defects in composite materials [3,4,5,6,7,8]. To gain further insight into the mechanisms responsible for composite rupture, broadband modal acoustic emission analysis was used. Also, since AE data reduction proved to be very time consuming, specialized data reduction software was written to automate the process.

  4. An integrated CAD\\/CAM system for CNG pressure vessel manufactured by deep drawing and ironing operation

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Joon-Hong Park; Chul Kim; Jae-Chan Choi

    2004-01-01

    The Tiber reinforced composite material is widely used in the multi-industrial field because of their high specific modulus\\u000a and specific strength. It has two main merits which are to cut down energy by reducing weight and to prevent explosive damage\\u000a proceeding to the sudden bursting which is generated by the pressure leakage condition. Therefore, Pressure vessels using\\u000a this composite material

  5. J-integral elastic plastic fracture mechanics evaluation of the stability of cracks in nuclear reactor pressure vessels

    SciTech Connect

    Gomez, M. P.; McMeeking, R. M.; Parks, D. M.

    1980-06-01

    Contributions were made toward developing a new methodology to assess the stability of cracks in pressure vessels made from materials that exhibit a significant increase in toughness during the early increments of crack growth. It has a wide range of validity from linear elastic to fully plastic behavior.

  6. 1 Copyright 2010 by ASME Proceedings of the ASME 2010 Pressure Vessels & Piping Division / K-PVP Conference

    E-print Network

    Tijsseling, A.S.

    caused failure of pipe supports and leakage at pipe joints. The incident was caused by a fault1 Copyright © 2010 by ASME Proceedings of the ASME 2010 Pressure Vessels & Piping Division / K experiments. Tests have been conducted in a horizontal 250 mm diameter PVC pipe of 258 m length with control

  7. Influences of welding processes on fatigue life of cruciform joints of pressure vessel grade steels containing LOP defects

    Microsoft Academic Search

    V Balasubramanian; B Guha

    2000-01-01

    The influences of two welding processes, namely, shielded metal arc welding (SMAW) and flux cored arc welding (FCAW), on fatigue life of cruciform joints, containing lack of penetration (LOP) defects, have been studied. Load carrying cruciform joints were fabricated from high strength, quenched and tempered steels of pressure vessel (ASTM 517 ‘F’) grade. Fatigue crack growth experiments were carried out

  8. Reaction Rates Measurement across the Pressure Vessel of Chooz-A Pwr by Self-Dosimetry Technique

    Microsoft Academic Search

    D. Beretz; C. Destouches; A. Bache

    2003-01-01

    CHOOZ-A, a French-Belgian power plant was the first PWR in operation in France; it was definitively shut down in 1991. A large feedback program has been realized during the decommissioning. In this framework, several core samples have been machined from the pressure vessel. They have been used for the determination of the attenuation of the cobalt and iron reaction rates

  9. Fragmentation characteristics of a welded spherical titanium pressure vessel: Part I — inhomogeneity of local strains and strain rates

    Microsoft Academic Search

    G. C. Sih; B. L. Webb; Y. S. Pen; D. Sharp; J. Pfefferle

    1995-01-01

    Developed in this work is a methodology for assessing the fragmentation characteristics of a welded spherical titanium pressure vessel. The presentation is divided into two parts. Part I makes use of the incremental theory of plasticity such that the nonlinear constitutive behavior for each material element can be determined individually in accordance with the local strain and strain rate. This

  10. Fracture toughness of light-water reactor pressure vessel materials: progress report ending 28 Feb 1975. Interim report

    Microsoft Academic Search

    F. J. Loss; J. R. Hawthorne; C. A. Griffis

    1975-01-01

    The principal objectives are: (a) to characterize the dynamic fracture toughness of three heats of nuclear pressure vessel steel, namely, 6-in. A302-B plate, 8-in. A533-B Class 1 plate, and 9-in. A508 Class 2 forging; and (b) to develop techniques for the interpretation and analysis of notched, three-point bend specimens tested under impact loading.

  11. Development of automated welding process for field fabrication of thick walled pressure vessels. Fourth quarter, FY 1980

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1980-12-19

    Progress is reported in research on the automated welding of heavy steel plate for the fabrication of pressure vessels. Information is included on: torch and shield adaptation; mechanical control of the welding process; welding parameters; joint design; filler wire optimizaton; nondestructive testing of welds; and weld repair. (LCL)

  12. Surface spectroscopy of pressure vessel steel fatigue fracture surface films formed in PWR (pressurized water reactor) environments

    SciTech Connect

    Hanninen, H.E.; Vulli, M.; Cullen, W.H.

    1987-07-01

    The composition and structure of corrosion products formed on corrosion fatigue fracture surfaces of pressure vessel steels tested in PWR-water conditions have been analyzed by using X-Ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy (XPS) and Auger Electron Spectroscopy (AES) techniques. This was the first time these electron spectroscopic techniques have been applied to corrosion fatigue fracture surface studies. The oxide phase on the corrosion fatigue fracture surfaces was Fe/sub 3/O/sub 4/ (magnetite) in all the specimens. Small amounts of sulfur (typically about 3 atomic percent) were present in the oxide film mainly as FeS/sub 2/. In specimens showing the highest crack growth rates, the amount of sulfur was about doubled near the crack tip as compared to the value obtained further behind the crack tip in the middle of the fracture surface. It was possible to locate the crack-tip condition on the high-temperature Pourbaix diagram in the area where both magnetite and FeS/sub 2/ are stable phases. The anticipated crack-tip conditions are that the corrosion potential is about -500 mV(SHE) or less and the pH value is neutral or slightly acid. XPS and AES analyses of the corrosion fatigue fracture surfaces were found to reveal the possible water chemistry impurities during the corrosion fatigue tests, like Cl, Na, Ca, etc.

  13. Fracture resistance of welded thick-walled high-pressure vessels in power plants. Report No. 2. Approach to evaluating static strength

    Microsoft Academic Search

    I. V. Gorynin; V. M. Filatov; V. A. Ignatov; B. T. Timofeev; Yu. I. Zvezdin

    1986-01-01

    The authors examine data on the effect of defects on the fracture resistance of high-pressure vessels and their models obtained within the framework of the HSST program. Results of internal-pressure tests of two types of vessels with a wall thickness of 152 mm made from forgings of steels SA508 and SA533, as well as small vessels with a wall thickness

  14. Role of endothelium sensitivity to shear stress in noradrenaline-induced constriction of feline femoral arterial bed under constant flow and constant pressure perfusions.

    PubMed

    Kartamyshev, Sergey P; Balashov, Sergey A; Melkumyants, Arthur M

    2007-01-01

    The effect of shear stress at the endothelium in the attenuation of the noradrenaline-induced constriction of the femoral vascular bed perfused at a constant blood flow was investigated in 16 anesthetized cats. It is known that the adrenergic vasoconstriction of the femoral vascular bed is considerably greater at a constant pressure perfusion than at a constant blood flow. This difference may depend on the ability of the endothelium to relax smooth muscle in response to an increase in wall shear stress. Since the shear stress is directly related to the blood flow and inversely related to the third power of vessel diameter, vasoconstriction at a constant blood flow increases the wall shear stress that is the stimulus for smooth muscle relaxation opposing constriction. On the other hand, at a constant perfusion pressure, vasoconstriction is accompanied by a decrease in flow rate, which prevents a wall shear stress increase. To reveal the effect of endothelial sensitivity to shear stress, we compared noradrenaline-induced changes in total and proximal arterial resistances during perfusion of the hind limb at a constant blood flow and at a constant pressure in vessels with intact and injured endothelium. We found that in the endothelium-intact bed the same concentration of noradrenaline at a constant flow caused an increase in overall vascular peripheral resistance that was half as large as at a constant perfusion pressure. This difference is mainly confined to the proximal arterial vessels (arteries and large arterioles) whose resistance at a constant flow increased only 0.19 +/- 0.03 times compared to that at a constant pressure. The removal of the endothelium only slightly increased constrictor responses at the perfusion under a constant pressure (noradrenaline-induced increases of both overall and proximal arterial resistance augmented by 12%), while the responses of the proximal vessels at a constant flow became 4.7 +/- 0.4 times greater than in the endothelium-intact bed. A selective blockage of endothelium sensitivity to shear stress using a glutaraldehyde dimer augmented the constrictor responses of the proximal vessels at a constant flow 4.6-fold (+/-0.3), but had no significant effect on the responses at a constant pressure. These results are consistent with the conclusion that the difference in constrictor responses at constant flow and pressure perfusions depends mainly on the smooth muscle relaxation caused by increased wall shear stress. PMID:17148940

  15. Dual-pump CARS of Air in a Heated Pressure Vessel up to 55 Bar and 1300 K

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cantu, Luca; Gallo, Emanuela; Cutler, Andrew D.; Danehy, Paul M.

    2014-01-01

    Dual-pump Coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering (CARS) measurements have been performed in a heated pressure vessel at NASA Langley Research Center. Each measurement, consisting of 500 single shot spectra, was recorded at a fixed location in dry air at various pressures and temperatures, in a range of 0.03-55×10(exp 5) Pa and 300-1373 K, where the temperature was varied using an electric heater. The maximum output power of the electric heater limited the combinations of pressures and temperatures that could be obtained. Charts of CARS signal versus temperature (at constant pressure) and signal versus pressure (at constant temperature) are presented and fit with an empirical model to validate the range of capability of the dual-pump CARS technique; averaged spectra at different conditions of pressure and temperature are also shown.

  16. Vessel failure time for a low-pressure short-term station blackout in a BWR-4

    SciTech Connect

    Carbajo, J.J. (Martin Marietta Energy System, Oak Ridge, TN (United States))

    1993-01-01

    A low-pressure, short-term station blackout severe accident sequence has been analyzed using the MELCOR code, version 1.8.1, in a boiling water reactor (BWR)-4. This paper presents a sensitivity study evaluating the effect of several MELCOR input parameters on vessel failure time. Results using the MELCOR/CORBH package and the BWRSAR code are also presented and compared to the MELCOR results. These calculated vessel failure times are discussed, and a judgment is offered as to which is the most realistic.

  17. Stress concentration, stress intensity, and fatigue crack growth along evacuators of pressurized, autofrettaged tubes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Parker, A. P.; Underwood, J. H.

    1994-12-01

    A stress analysis has been conducted on a pressurized, fully or partially autofrettaged cylinder with a small diameter evacuator hole penetrating radially through the wall. Pressure was applied on the inside diameter (ID) of the tube, and all or part of this pressure was applied on the evacuator hole surfaces. Total hoop stress concentrations have been determined for a range of radial locations along the evacuator and stress intensity factors have been determined along a crack emanating from the evacuator hole. Fatigue crack growth rates. and hence crack profiles, were predicted at each of the radial locations. These predictions indicate that the critical location for the crack in a non-autofrettaged tube is at the ID, whereas in a fully autofrettaged tube, it is located approximately halfway through the wall thickness. Stress ratio has a significant influence on crack shape in autofrettaged tubes, however, it has a limited effect upon lifetime. The effect of axial residual stresses upon fatigue lifetime due to the autofrettage process has been described and an insignificant reduction in lifetime was a result of such stresses. Finally, the predicted profiles are compared with experimental observations of fatigue crack evacuators, and a limited comparison of predicted and actual lifetimes is presented. Good agreement has been observed in both comparisons.

  18. Chronic stress influences ambulatory blood pressure in adolescents

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Sonya S. Brady; Karen A. Matthews

    2006-01-01

    Background: High ambulatory blood pressure (ABP) predicts cardiovascular events, even after controlling for clinic BP and other established\\u000a risk factors.Purpose: This study examined whether chronic or discrete stress in the past year was associated with greater ABP in adolescents.Method: Participants were 217 male and female Black and White adolescents who wore ABP monitors on 2 consecutive school days and\\u000a completed

  19. Prediction of failure pressure and leak rate of stress corrosion

    Microsoft Academic Search

    S. Majumdar; K. Kasza; J. Y. Park; S. Bakhtiari

    2002-01-01

    An ''equivalent rectangular crack'' approach was employed to predict rupture pressures and leak rates through laboratory generated stress corrosion cracks and steam generator tubes removed from the McGuire Nuclear Station. Specimen flaws were sized by post-test fractography in addition to a pre-test advanced eddy current technique. The predicted and observed test data on rupture and leak rate are compared. In

  20. Influence of fluence rate on radiation-induced mechanical property changes in reactor pressure vessel steels

    SciTech Connect

    Hawthorne, J.R.; Hiser, A.L. (Materials Engineering Associates, Inc., Lanham, MD (USA))

    1990-03-01

    This report describes a set of experiments undertaken using a 2 MW test reactor, the UBR, to qualify the significance of fluence rate to the extent of embrittlement produced in reactor pressure vessel steels at their service temperature. The test materials included two reference plates (A 302-B, A 533-B steel) and two submerged arc weld deposits (Linde 80, Linde 0091 welding fluxes). Charpy-V (C{sub v}), tension and 0.5T-CT compact specimens were employed for notch ductility, strength and fracture toughness (J-R curve) determinations, respectively. Target fluence rates were 8 {times} 10{sup 10}, 6 {times} 10{sup 11} and 9 {times} 10{sup 12} n/cm{sup 2} {minus}s{sup {minus}1}. Specimen fluences ranged from 0.5 to 3.8 {times} 10{sup 19} n/cm{sup 2}, E > 1 MeV. The data describe a fluence-rate effect which may extend to power reactor surveillance as well as test reactor facilities now in use. The dependence of embrittlement sensitivity on fluence rate appears to differ for plate and weld deposit materials. Relatively good agreement in fluence-rate effects definition was observed among the three test methods. 52 figs., 4 tabs.

  1. Nondestructive Magnetic Adaptive Testing of nuclear reactor pressure vessel steel degradation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tomáš, I.; Vértesy, G.; Gillemot, F.; Székely, R.

    2013-01-01

    Inspection of neutron-irradiation-generated degradation of nuclear reactor pressure vessel steel (RPVS) is a very important task. In ferromagnetic materials, such as RPVS, the structural degradation is connected with a change of their magnetic properties. In this work, applicability of a novel magnetic nondestructive method (Magnetic Adaptive Testing, MAT), based on systematic measurement and evaluation of minor magnetic hysteresis loops, is shown for inspection of neutron irradiation embrittlement in RPVS. Three series of samples, made of JRQ, 15CH2MFA and 10ChMFT type steels were measured by MAT. The samples were irradiated by E > 1 MeV energy neutrons with total neutron fluence of 1.58 × 1019-11.9 × 1019 n/cm2. Regular correlation was found between the optimally chosen MAT degradation functions and the neutron fluence in all three types of the materials. Shift of the ductile-brittle transition temperature, ?DBTT, independently determined as a function of the neutron fluence for the 15CH2MFA material, was also evaluated. A sensitive, linear correlation was found between the ?DBTT and values of the relevant MAT degradation function. Based on these results, MAT is shown to be a promising (at least) complimentary tool of the destructive tests within the surveillance programs, which are presently used for inspection of neutron-irradiation-generated embrittlement of RPVS.

  2. Results of examinations of pressure vessel samples and instrument nozzles from the TMI-2 lower head

    SciTech Connect

    Korth, G.E. [EG and G Idaho, Inc., Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Diercks, D.R.; Neimark, L.A. [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States)

    1993-10-01

    Fifteen prism-shaped steel samples were removed from the lower head of the damaged TMI-2 reactor pressure vessel to assess the effects of approximately 19 metric tons of molten core debris that had relocated there during the 1979 loss-of-coolant accident. Metallographic examinations of the samples revealed that inside surface temperatures of 800 to 1,100{degree}C were attained during the accident in an elliptical shaped ``hot spot`` {approx}1 {times} 0.7 m. Tensile, creep, and Charpy V-notch specimens were also cut from the samples to assess the mechanical properties of the lower head material at temperatures up to the peak accident temperature. These properties were used in a margin to failure analysis of the lower head. Examinations of instrument nozzles removed from the lower head region assisted in defining the relocation scenario of the molten core debris and showed that the lower head was largely protected from catastrophic failure by a solidified layer around the molten core debris that acted as a partial thermal insulator.

  3. Characterization of Nanostructural Features in Irradiated Reactor Pressure Vessel Model Alloys

    SciTech Connect

    Wirth, B D; Odette, G R; Asoka-Kumar, P; Howell, R H; Sterne, P A

    2001-08-01

    Irradiation embrittlement in nuclear reactor pressure vessel steels results from the formation of a high number density of nanometer-sized copper rich precipitates and sub-nanometer defect-solute clusters. We present results of small angle neutron scattering (SANS) and positron annihilation spectroscopy (PAS) characterization of the nanostructural features formed in binary and ternary Fe-Cu-Mn alloys irradiated at {approx}290 C. These complementary techniques provide insight into the composition and character of both types of nanoscale features. The SANS measurements indicate populations of copper-manganese precipitates and smaller vacancy-copper-manganese clusters. The PAS characterization, including both Doppler broadening and positron lifetime measurements, indicates the presence of essentially defect-free Cu precipitates in the Fe-Cu-Mn alloy and vacancy-copper clusters in the Fe-Cu alloy. Thus the SANS and PAS provide a self-consistent picture of nanostructures composed of copper-rich precipitates and vacancy solute cluster complexes and tend to discount high Fe concentrations in the CRPs.

  4. On the thermal stability of late blooming phases in reactor pressure vessel steels: An atomistic study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bonny, G.; Terentyev, D.; Bakaev, A.; Zhurkin, E. E.; Hou, M.; Van Neck, D.; Malerba, L.

    2013-11-01

    Radiation-induced embrittlement of bainitic steels is the lifetime limiting factor of reactor pressure vessels in existing nuclear light water reactors. The primary mechanism of embrittlement is the obstruction of dislocation motion produced by nanometric defect structures that develop in the bulk of the material due to irradiation. In view of improving the predictive capability of existing models it is necessary to understand better the mechanisms leading to the formation of these defects, amongst which the so-called "late blooming phases". In this work we study the stability of the latter by means of density functional theory (DFT) calculations and Monte Carlo simulations based on a here developed quaternary FeCuNiMn interatomic potential. The potential is based on extensive DFT and experimental data. The reference DFT data on solute-solute interaction reveal that, while Mn-Ni pairs and triplets are unstable, larger clusters are kept together by attractive binding energy. The NiMnCu synergy is found to increase the temperature range of stability of solute atom precipitates in Fe significantly as compared to binary FeNi and FeMn alloys. This allows for thermodynamically stable phases close to reactor temperature, the range of stability being, however, very sensitive to composition.

  5. Comparing Peak and Residual Soil Pressures Measured by Pressure Bulbs and Stress-State Tranducers

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Measurement of soil pressures caused by vehicle loading is difficult and often subject to extreme variability. Two types of soil transducers were compared in an experiment conducted in a Norfolk sandy loam soil in the USDA-ARS National Soil Dynamics Laboratory’s (NSDL) soil bin facilities. Stress...

  6. Design, Analysis, Manufacture, and Test of Shallow Water Pressure Vessels Using E-Glass\\/Epoxy Woven Composite Material for a SemiAutonomous Underwater Vehicle

    Microsoft Academic Search

    R. K. H. Ng; Ali Yousefpour; M. Uyema; Mehrdad N Ghasemi Nejhad

    2002-01-01

    Six E-glass\\/Epoxy shallow water composite pressure vessels with effective length of 45.72 cm and inner diameter of 33.02 cm were designed, analyzed, manufactured, and tested for an external hydrostatic design pressure of 1.14 MPa that corresponds to a depth of 91m in ocean. Composite pressure vessels were designed as composite cylinders fabricated by roll-wrapping and enclosed by two flat plug-supported

  7. Early life stress and blood pressure levels in late adulthood.

    PubMed

    Alastalo, H; Räikkönen, K; Pesonen, A-K; Osmond, C; Barker, D J P; Heinonen, K; Kajantie, E; Eriksson, J G

    2013-02-01

    Severe stress experienced in early life may have long-term consequences on adult physiological functions. We studied the long-term effects of separation on blood pressure levels in non-obese subjects who were separated temporarily in childhood from their parents during World War II (WWII). The original clinical study cohort consists of people born during 1934-1944 in Helsinki, Finland. This substudy includes 1361 non-obese subjects (body mass index <30 kg m(-2)). Of these, 192 (14.1%) had been evacuated abroad during WWII. The remaining subjects served as controls. Blood pressure levels and use of blood pressure medication were studied. The separated subjects had significantly higher systolic blood pressure values than the non-separated (148.6+21.5 vs 142.2+19.6 mm Hg, P<0.0001) in adult life. Those subjects separated in early childhood had markedly higher systolic and diastolic blood pressure values in adult life compared with the non-separated (154.6 vs 142.5 mm Hg; 95% confidence interval (CI) 2.6-14.7; P<0.005 and 90.8 vs 87.7 mm Hg; 95% CI 1.0-7.3; P<0.02, respectively). Systolic blood pressure was also higher in the group separated for a duration of <1 year (151.7 vs 142.2 mm Hg; 95% CI 0.0-12.4; P<0.05) compared with the non-separated. Besides being separated, age at separation and duration of separation also influenced blood pressure levels in adult life. This could be due to early hormonal and metabolic programming, during plastic periods in early life, influencing blood pressure levels in adult life. PMID:22336905

  8. Rigorous Simulation of Accidental Leaks from High-Pressure Storage Vessels 

    E-print Network

    Alisha, -

    2014-07-07

    internal energy (U), volume (V), and mole numbers of each component (N); (2) track phase appearance and disappearance in the vessel; (3) find the state of fluid as it exits the vessel, assuming the leaking point is the throat of an adiabatic, converging...

  9. D0 Silicon Upgrade: Gas Helium Storage Tank Pressure Vessel Engineering Note

    SciTech Connect

    Rucinski, Russ; /Fermilab

    1996-11-11

    This is to certify that Beaird Industries, Inc. has done a white metal blast per SSPC-SP5 as required per specifications on the vessel internal. Following the blast, a black light inspection was performed by Beaird Quality Control personnel to assure that all debris, grease, etc. was removed and interior was clean prior to closing vessel for helium test.

  10. Fracture-mechanics data deduced from thermal-shock and related experiments with LWR pressure-vessel material

    SciTech Connect

    Cheverton, R.D.; Canonico, D.A.; Iskander, S.K.; Bolt, S.E.; Holz, P.P.; Nanstad, R.K.; Stelzman, W.J.

    1982-01-01

    Pressurized water reactors (PWRs) are susceptible to certain types of hypothetical accidents that can subject the reactor pressure vessel to severe thermal shock, that is, a rapid cooling of the inner surface of the vessel wall. The thermal-shock loading, coupled with the radiation-induced reduction in the material fracture toughness, introduces the possibility of propagation of preexistent flaws and what at one time were regarded as somewhat unique fracture-oriented conditions. Several postulated reactor accidents have been analyzed to discover flaw behavior trends; seven intermediate-scale thermal-shock experiments with steel cylinders have been conducted; and corresponding materials characterization studies have been performed. Flaw behavior trends and related fracture-mechanics data deduced from these studies are discussed.

  11. Instrumented thick-walled tube method for measuring thermal pressure in fluids and isotropic stresses in thermosetting resins

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Merzlyakov, Mikhail; Simon, Sindee L.; McKenna, Gregory B.

    2005-06-01

    We have developed a method for measuring the thermal pressure coefficient and cure-induced and thermally induced stresses based on an instrumented thick-walled tube vessel. The device has been demonstrated at pressures up to 330 MPa and temperatures to 300 °C. The method uses a sealed stainless steel thick-walled tube to impose three-dimensional isotropic constraints. The tube is instrumented with strain gauges in hoop and in axial directions and can be used in open or closed configurations. By making measurements of the isotropic stresses as a function of temperature, the method allows determination of the thermal pressure coefficient in both the glassy and rubbery (or liquid) states. The method also can be used to measure isotropic stress development in thermosetting resins during cure and subsequent thermal cycling. Experimental results are presented for sucrose benzoate, di-2-ethylhexylsebacate, and an epoxy resin. The current report shows that the method provides reliable estimates for the thermal pressure coefficient. The thermal pressure coefficient is determined with resolution on the order of 10kPa/K. Among advantages of the method is that the tubes are reusable, even when measurements are made for cure response of thermosetting resins.

  12. Weldability and toughness evaluation of pressure vessel quality steel using the shielded metal arc welding (SMAW) process

    Microsoft Academic Search

    R. Datta; D. Mukerjee; S. Mishra

    1998-01-01

    The present study was carried out to assess the weldability properties of ASTM A 537 Cl. 1 pressure-vessel quality steel using\\u000a the shielded metal arc welding (SMAW) process. Implant and elastic restraint cracking (ERC) tests were conducted under different\\u000a welding conditions to determine the cold cracking susceptibility of the steel. The static fatigue limit values determined\\u000a for the implant test

  13. Effects of strain rate and temperature on tensile behavior of hydrogen-charged SA508 Cl.3 pressure vessel steel

    Microsoft Academic Search

    X. Q. Wu; I. S. Kim

    2003-01-01

    The tensile behavior of hydrogen-charged SA508 Cl.3 pressure vessel steel and the dependence of strain rate at both room and high temperatures (473–623 K) was investigated. It was found that charged hydrogen induced a slight hardening and a decrease in ductility at room temperature. There was an abrupt decrease in ductility at the low strain rate of 10?5 s?1. Distinct

  14. Fatigue crack growth rates in a pressure vessel steel under various conditions of loading and the environment

    Microsoft Academic Search

    P. D. Hicks; F. P. A. Robinson

    1986-01-01

    Corrosion fatigue (CF) tests have been carried out on SA508 Cl 3 pressure vessel steel, in simulated P.W.R. environments.\\u000a The test variables investigated included air and P.W.R. water environments, frequency variation over the range 1 Hz to 10\\u000a Hz, transverse and longitudinal crack growth directions, temperatures of 20 °C and 50 °C, andR-ratios of 0.2 and 0.7. It was found

  15. Fatigue crack growth rates in a pressure vessel steel under various conditions of loading and the environment

    Microsoft Academic Search

    P. D. Hicks; F. P. A. Robinson

    1986-01-01

    Corrosion fatigue (CF) tests have been carried out on SA508 Cl 3 pressure vessel steel, in simulated P.W.R. environments. The test variables investigated included air and P.W.R. water environments, frequency variation over the range 1 Hz to 10 Hz, transverse and longitudinal crack growth directions, temperatures of 20 °C and 50 °C, and R-ratios of 0.2 and 0.7. It was

  16. Reactor moderator, pressure vessel, and heat rejection system of an open-cycle gas core nuclear rocket concept

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Taylor, M. F.; Whitmarsh, C. L., Jr.; Sirocky, P. J., Jr.; Iwanczyke, L. C.

    1973-01-01

    A preliminary design study of a conceptual 6000-megawatt open-cycle gas-core nuclear rocket engine system was made. The engine has a thrust of 196,600 newtons (44,200 lb) and a specific impulse of 4400 seconds. The nuclear fuel is uranium-235 and the propellant is hydrogen. Critical fuel mass was calculated for several reactor configurations. Major components of the reactor (reflector, pressure vessel, and waste heat rejection system) were considered conceptually and were sized.

  17. Effects of neutron-irradiation-induced intergranular phosphorus segregation and hardening on embrittlement in reactor pressure vessel steels

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Y. Nishiyama; K. Onizawa; M. Suzuki; J. W. Anderegg; Y. Nagai; T. Toyama; M. Hasegawa; J. Kameda

    2008-01-01

    The effects of intergranular P segregation and hardening on the ductile-to-brittle transition temperature (DBTT) in several neutron-irradiated reactor pressure vessel steels with different bulk contents of P and Cu have been investigated using a scanning Auger microbe, a local electrode atom probe and positron annihilation spectroscopy. Increasing the neutron fluence at 563K promotes intergranular P segregation, particularly in steels with

  18. Corrosion fatigue crack growth behaviour of low-alloy reactor pressure vessel steels under boiling water reactor conditions

    Microsoft Academic Search

    H. P. Seifert; S. Ritter

    2008-01-01

    The corrosion fatigue crack growth behaviour of different low-alloy reactor pressure vessel (RPV) steels and weld filler\\/heat-affected zone materials was systematically characterized under simulated boiling water reactor normal water and hydrogen water chemistry conditions by low-frequency fatigue tests with pre-cracked fracture mechanics specimens. The experiments were performed in oxygenated or hydrogenated high-purity or sulphate\\/chloride containing water at temperatures from 150

  19. Influence of long-term thermal aging on the microstructural evolution of nuclear reactor pressure vessel materials: An atom probe study

    SciTech Connect

    Pareige, P.; Russell, K.F.; Stoller, R.E.; Miller, M.K. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States)

    1998-03-01

    Atom probe field ion microscopy (APFIM) investigations of the microstructure of unaged (as-fabricated) and long-term thermally aged ({approximately} 100,000 h at 280 C) surveillance materials from commercial reactor pressure vessel steels were performed. This combination of materials and conditions permitted the investigation of potential thermal-aging effects. This microstructural study focused on the quantification of the compositions of the matrix and carbides. The APFIM results indicate that there was no significant microstructural evolution after a long-term thermal exposure in weld, plate, or forging materials. The matrix depletion of copper that was observed in weld materials was consistent with the copper concentration in the matrix after the stress-relief heat treatment. The compositions of cementite carbides aged for 100,000 h were compared with the Thermocalc{trademark} prediction. The APFIM comparisons of materials under these conditions are consistent with the measured change in mechanical properties such as the Charpy transition temperature.

  20. Validation test of advanced technology for IPV nickel-hydrogen flight cells: Update. [Individual Pressure Vessel

    SciTech Connect

    Smithrick, J.J.; Hall, S.W.

    1992-01-01

    Individual pressure vessel (IPV) nickel-hydrogen technology was advanced at NASA Lewis and under Lewis contracts with the intention of improving cycle life and performance. One advancement was to use 26 percent potassium hydroxide (KOH) electrolyte to improve cycle life. Another advancement was to modify the state-of-the-art cell design to eliminate identified failure modes. The modified design is referred to as the advanced design. A breakthrough in the low-earth-orbit (LEO) cycle life of IPV nickel-hydrogen cells has been previously reported. The cycle life of boiler plate cells containing 26 percent KOH electrolyte was about 40,000 LEO cycles compared to 3,500 cycles for cells containing 31 percent KOH. The boiler plate test results are in the process of being validated using flight hardware and real time LEO testing at the Naval Weapons Support Center (NWSC), Crane, Indiana under a NASA Lewis Contract. An advanced 125 Ah IPV nickel-hydrogen cell was designed. The primary function of the advanced cell is to store and deliver energy for long-term, LEO spacecraft missions. The new features of this design are: (1) use of 26 percent rather than 31 percent KOH electrolyte; (2) use of a patented catalyzed wall wick; (3) use of serrated-edge separators to facilitate gaseous oxygen and hydrogen flow within the cell, while still maintaining physical contact with the wall wick for electrolyte management; and (4) use of a floating rather than a fixed stack (state-of-the-art) to accommodate nickel electrode expansion due to charge/discharge cycling. The significant improvements resulting from these innovations are: extended cycle life; enhanced thermal, electrolyte, and oxygen management; and accommodation of nickel electrode expansion. The advanced cell design is in the process of being validated using real time LEO cycle life testing of NWSC, Crane, Indiana. An update of validation test results confirming this technology is presented.

  1. An investigation of temperature measurement methods in nuclear power plant reactor pressure vessel annealing

    SciTech Connect

    Acton, R.U.; Gill, W.; Sais, D.J.; Schulze, D.H.; Nakos, J.T. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    1996-05-01

    The objective of this project was to provide an assessment of several methods by which the temperature of a commercial nuclear power plant reactor pressure vessel (RPV) could be measured during an annealing process. This project was a coordinated effort between DOE`s Office of Nuclear Energy, Science and Technology; DOE`s Light Water Reactor Technology Center at Sandia National Laboratories; and the Electric Power Research Institute`s Non- Destructive Evaluation Center. Ball- thermocouple probes similar to those described in NUREG/CR-5760, spring-loaded, metal- sheathed thermocouple probes, and 1778 air- suspended thermocouples were investigated in experiments that heated a section of an RPV wall to simulate a thermal annealing treatment. A parametric study of ball material, emissivity, thermal conductivity, and thermocouple function locations was conducted. Also investigated was a sheathed thermocouple failure mode known as shunting (electrical breakdown of insulation separating the thermocouple wires). Large errors were found between the temperature as measured by the probes and the true RPV wall temperature during heat-up and cool-down. At the annealing soak temperature, in this case 454{degrees}C [850`F], all sensors measured the same temperature within about {plus_minus}5% (23.6{degrees}C [42.5{degrees}F]). Because of these errors, actual RPV wall heating and cooling rates differed from those prescribed (by up to 29%). Shunting does not appear to be a problem under these conditions. The large temperature measurement errors led to the development of a thermal model that predicts the RPV wall temperature from the temperature of a ball- probe. Comparisons between the model and the experimental data for ball-probes indicate that the model could be a useful tool in predicting the actual RPV temperature based on the indicated ball- probe temperature. The model does not predict the temperature as well for the spring-loaded and air suspended probes.

  2. Spin-rolling, welding, and heat treatment of aluminium 2219 for Ariane 5 GAM high pressure vessel liners

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Radtke, W.

    1992-10-01

    Cylindrical liners made of Al 2219 may be spinrolled if both recrystallization and metastable precipitates can be avoided during forging or preparatory heat treatment. So welding is to be limited to circumferential joints. Pore-free welds are attainable immediately after hydroxide layer removal by diamond cutting without grease application. The EB vacuum is favorable to porosity suppression. A complete heat treatment of the liner incorporating solutionizing, water quenching and ageing leads to 100 percent weld efficiency. Pressure stabilization avoids buckling. Subsequent carbon fiber winding, curing and plastic prestressing of the liner results in an efficient high pressure vessel for hydrogen service.

  3. Diminished pulse pressure under mental stress characterizes normotensive adolescents with parental high blood pressure.

    PubMed

    Ewart, C K; Harris, W L; Zeger, S; Russell, G A

    1986-01-01

    An exaggerated blood pressure response to mental stress is believed to characterize young adults with genetic risk of essential hypertension, suggesting that stress-induced changes might provide a useful index of pathogenetic processes. We explored this by studying pressor responsivity to competitive tasks in adolescents drawn from a large urban population. Individuals with systolic or diastolic pressures persistently between the 85th and 95th percentiles were evaluated on basal blood pressure, parental history of hypertension, and pressor and heart rate response to a challenging video game. Basal pressure was measured again at 6, 10, and 14 months. A persistently diminished pulse pressure was the cardiovascular characteristic that most reliably typified normotensive subjects with familial hypertension. Response to the video game was the best indicator of risk status. Contrary to expectations derived from research with convenience samples, epidemiologic investigation points to an increased peripheral resistance and lower cardiac output as the cardiovascular pattern more prominently associated with genetic risk in the normotensive adolescent. PMID:3763788

  4. Structural Analysis of the NCSX Vacuum Vessel

    SciTech Connect

    Dahlgren, Fred [Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory (United States); Brooks, Art [Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory (United States); Goranson, Paul [Oak Ridge National Laboratory (United States); Cole, Mike [Oak Ridge National Laboratory (United States); Titus, Peter [MIT Plasma Science and Fusion Center (United States)

    2005-05-15

    The NCSX vacuum vessel has a rather unique shape being very closely coupled topologically to the three-fold stellerator symmetry of the plasma it contains. This shape does not permit the use of the common forms of pressure vessel analysis and necessitates the reliance on finite element analysis. The current paper describes the NCSX vacuum vessel stress analysis including external pressure, thermal, and electro-magnetic loading from internal plasma disruptions and bakeout temperatures of up to 400 deg. centigrade. Buckling and dynamic loading conditions are also considered.

  5. Peripheral Microvascular Responses to Whole-Body Tilting, G(z) Centrifugation, and Lower Body Negative Pressure Stresses in Humans

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Breit, G. A.; Watenpaugh, D. E.; Buckley, T. M.; Ballard, R. E.; Murthy, G.; Hargens, A. R.

    1994-01-01

    The response of the cutaneous microcirculation to orthostatic stress varies along the length of the body due to the interaction of central controls with regional responses to local blood pressure. We hypothesize that artificial orthostatic stresses such as Gz centrifugation and LBNP differ from whole-body tilting in terms of the distribution of microvascular blood flow. Cutaneous microvascular flows were measured by laser Doppler flowmetry at the neck, thigh, and leg of 15 normal subjects. Volunteers underwent stepwise head-up tilt (HUT) and short- and long-arm centrifugation protocols from supine control (0 Gz) to 0.2, 0.4, 0.6, 0.8, 1.0, 0.8, 0.6, 0.4, 0.2, and 0 Gz at the feet, for 30-s periods with 10-s transitions between levels. The same subjects underwent a corresponding supine LBNP protocol, up to 100 mmHg (in 20 mmHg increments) and back to zero pressure, which produced transmural pressure across blood vessels in the foot approximately equal to the HUT protocol. In general, application of all orthostatic stresses produced significant flow reductions in the lower body (p less than 0.05) and inconsistent changes in the neck. At low levels of each stress (0.4 Gz, 40 mmHg), LBNP generated the greatest relative reduction in flow in the lower body (-66.9+/-5.7%, thigh; -60.6 +/-5.7%, leg, mean +/- SE). HUT caused a less severe flow reduction than LBNP at the thigh and leg (-39.9 +/- 8.1% and -55.9+/-4.8%), while the effects induced by both forms of centrifugation were the least profound. Higher levels of each stress generally resulted in similar responses. These responses exhibit a consistent relationship to hypothesized changes in local microvascular transmural pressure, suggesting that myogenic and veno-arteriolar reflexes play a significant role in determining microvascular perfusion during orthostatic stress.

  6. Analog experiments on magma-filled cracks: Competition between external stresses and internal pressure

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Tohru Watanabe; Takayuki Masuyama; Kazuhiro Nagaoka; T. Tahara

    2002-01-01

    We have performed two series of analog experiments using gelatin to study the propagation of liquid-filled cracks in stressed medium. The first series was designed to study the competition between the external stress and the liquid excess pressure in controlling the propagation direction. We systematically controlled the external stress and the liquid excess pressure by changing the surface load and

  7. The use of the fracture reopening pressure in hydraulic fracturing stress measurements

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. L. Ratigan

    1992-01-01

    Summary Practitioners of the hydraulic fracture stress measurement technique commonly estimate the hydraulic fracture tensile strength as the difference between the initial formation breakdown pressure and the fracture reopening pressure. This method, first suggested by Bredehoeft et al. (1976), was developed with the assumption that the stress state in the cracked formation is identical to the stress state in the

  8. Subjective Stress and Coping Resources Interact To Predict Blood Pressure Reactivity in Black College Students.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clark, Rodney

    2003-01-01

    Examined the effects of subjective stress and coping resources on blood pressure reactivity among black college students. The interactive effects of subjective stress and coping resources predicted diastolic blood pressure reactivity. Higher levels of problem-focused coping related to more marked diastolic blood pressure changes under conditions…

  9. Composite Overwrapped Pressure Vessels: Database Extension Task 3.0 and Impact Damage Effects Control Task 8.0

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Beeson, Harold D.; Davis, Dennis D.; Ross, William L., Sr.; Tapphorn, Ralph M.

    2002-01-01

    This document represents efforts accomplished at the NASA Johnson Space Center White Sands Test Facility (WSTF) in support of the Enhanced Technology for Composite Overwrapped Pressure Vessels (COPV) Program, a joint research and technology effort among the U.S. Air Force, NASA, and the Aerospace Corporation. WSTF performed testing for several facets of the program. Testing that contributed to the Task 3.0 COPV database extension objective included baseline structural strength, failure mode and safe-life, impact damage tolerance, sustained load/impact effect, and materials compatibility. WSTF was also responsible for establishing impact protection and control requirements under Task 8.0 of the program. This included developing a methodology for establishing an impact control plan. Seven test reports detail the work done at WSTF. As such, this document contributes to the database of information regarding COPV behavior that will ensure performance benefits and safety are maintained throughout vessel service life.

  10. Proof test criteria for thin-walled 2219 aluminum pressure vessels. Volume 1: Program summary and data analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Finger, R. W.

    1976-01-01

    This experimental program was undertaken to investigate the crack growth behavior of deep surface flaws in 2219 aluminum. The program included tests of uniaxially loaded surface flaw and center crack panels at temperatures ranging from 20K (-423 F) to ambient. The tests were conducted on both the base metal and as-welded weld metal material. The program was designed to provide data on the mechanisms of failure by ligament penetration, and the residual cyclic life, after proof-testing, of a vessel which has been subjected to incipient penetration by the proof test. The results were compared and analyzed with previously developed data to develop guidelines for the proof testing of thin walled 2219 pressure vessels.

  11. Static and dynamic fatigue behavior of glass filament-wound pressure vessels at ambient and cryogenic temperatures.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hanson, M. P.

    1972-01-01

    Investigation of the pressure load carrying capacity and fatigue strength of filament-wound glass-reinforced plastic pressure vessels subjected to static and cyclic loading at ambient and cryogenic (liquid nitrogen) temperature environments. The results indicate that the static fatigue problem is not critical at cryogenic temperatures. Under static loading at liquid nitrogen temperature, a reinforced plastic cylinder sustained pressurization for 88 days without failure at about 90% of the single cycle burst strength. At ambient temperature, the static life at 90% of the burst strength was about 7 min. Under cyclic loading in liquid nitrogen, no failure resulted after 1509 cycles at 55% of the single cycle burst strength. Under the same cyclic loading at ambient temperature, the test results would predict failure in the reinforced plastic. The results of similar tests upon adhesively bonded polyimide aluminum-foil lined cylinders are also reviewed.-

  12. In vivo quantification of lymph viscosity and pressure in lymphatic vessels and draining lymph nodes of arthritic joints in mice

    PubMed Central

    Bouta, Echoe M; Wood, Ronald W; Brown, Edward B; Rahimi, Homaira; Ritchlin, Christopher T; Schwarz, Edward M

    2014-01-01

    Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is a chronic inflammatory joint disease with episodic flares. In TNF-Tg mice, a model of inflammatory–erosive arthritis, the popliteal lymph node (PLN) enlarges during the pre-arthritic ‘expanding’ phase, and then ‘collapses’ with adjacent knee flare associated with the loss of the intrinsic lymphatic pulse. As the mechanisms responsible are unknown, we developed in vivo methods to quantify lymph viscosity and pressure in mice with wild-type (WT), expanding and collapsed PLN. While no differences in viscosity were detected via multiphoton fluorescence recovery after photobleaching (MP-FRAP) of injected FITC-BSA, a 32.6% decrease in lymph speed was observed in vessels afferent to collapsed PLN (P?pressure (LNP) demonstrated a decrease in expanding PLN versus WT pressure (3.41?±?0.43 vs. 6.86?±?0.56?cmH2O; P?pressure (LPP), measured indirectly by slowly releasing a pressurized cuff occluding indocyanine green (ICG), demonstrated an increase in vessels afferent to expanding PLN versus WT (18.76?±?2.34 vs. 11.04?±?1.47?cmH2O; P?pressure, and provide evidence to support the hypothesis that lymphangiogenesis and lymphatic transport are compensatory mechanisms to prevent synovitis via increased drainage of inflamed joints. Furthermore, the decrease in lymphatic flow and loss of LPP during PLN collapse are consistent with decreased drainage from the joint during arthritic flare, and validate these biomarkers of RA progression and possibly other chronic inflammatory conditions. PMID:24421350

  13. 77 FR 59408 - Finding of Equivalence; Alternate Pressure Relief Valve Settings on Certain Vessels Carrying...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-09-27

    ...Guard regulations regarding the allowable stress factors for type B and type C independent...first promulgated regulations on allowable stress factors on May 3, 1979. CG-ENG Policy...techniques, the IMO standards for allowable stress factors provide a level of safety...

  14. TECHNICAL BASIS AND APPLICATION OF NEW RULES ON FRACTURE CONTROL OF HIGH PRESSURE HYDROGEN VESSEL IN ASME SECTION VIII, DIVISION 3 CODE

    SciTech Connect

    Rawls, G

    2007-04-30

    As a part of an ongoing activity to develop ASME Code rules for the hydrogen infrastructure, the ASME Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code Committee approved new fracture control rules for Section VIII, Division 3 vessels in 2006. These rules have been incorporated into new Article KD-10 in Division 3. The new rules require determining fatigue crack growth rate and fracture resistance properties of materials in high pressure hydrogen gas. Test methods have been specified to measure these fracture properties, which are required to be used in establishing the vessel fatigue life. An example has been given to demonstrate the application of these new rules.

  15. Test results on direct containment heating by high-pressure melt ejection into the Surtsey vessel: The TDS test series

    SciTech Connect

    Allen, M.D.; Blanchat, T.K.; Pilch, M.M. [Sandia National Lab., Albuquerque, NM (United States). Severe Accident Phenomenology

    1994-08-01

    The Technology Development and Scoping (TDS) test series was conducted to test and develop instrumentation and procedures for performing steam-driven, high-pressure melt ejection (HPME) experiments at the Surtsey Test Facility to investigate direct containment heating (DCH). Seven experiments, designated TDS-1 through TDS-7, were performed in this test series. These experiments were conducted using similar initial conditions; the primary variable was the initial pressure in the Surtsey vessel. All experiments in this test series were performed with a steam driving gas pressure of {approx_equal} 4 MPa, 80 kg of lumina/iron/chromium thermite melt simulant, an initial hole diameter of 4.8 cm (which ablated to a final hole diameter of {approx_equal} 6 cm), and a 1/10th linear scale model of the Surry reactor cavity. The Surtsey vessel was purged with argon (<0.25 mol% O{sub 2}) to limit the recombination of hydrogen and oxygen, and gas grab samples were taken to measure the amount of hydrogen produced.

  16. 46 CFR 54.30-10 - Method of performing mechanical stress relief.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ...false Method of performing mechanical stress relief. 54.30-10 Section 54...ENGINEERING PRESSURE VESSELS Mechanical Stress Relief § 54.30-10 Method of performing mechanical stress relief. (a) The mechanical...

  17. 46 CFR 54.30-10 - Method of performing mechanical stress relief.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ...false Method of performing mechanical stress relief. 54.30-10 Section 54...ENGINEERING PRESSURE VESSELS Mechanical Stress Relief § 54.30-10 Method of performing mechanical stress relief. (a) The mechanical...

  18. 46 CFR 54.30-10 - Method of performing mechanical stress relief.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ...false Method of performing mechanical stress relief. 54.30-10 Section 54...ENGINEERING PRESSURE VESSELS Mechanical Stress Relief § 54.30-10 Method of performing mechanical stress relief. (a) The mechanical...

  19. Pore pressure and poroelasticity effects in Coulomb stress analysis of earthquake interactions

    E-print Network

    Pore pressure and poroelasticity effects in Coulomb stress analysis of earthquake interactions Massimo Cocco Istituto Nazionale di Geofisica e Vulcanologia, Rome, Italy James R. Rice Engineering determined by mean stress changes in those surroundings. INDEX TERMS: 7209 Seismology: Earthquake dynamics

  20. Effects of dynamic strain aging on mechanical properties of SA508 class 3 reactor pressure vessel steel

    Microsoft Academic Search

    S. Xu; X. Q. Wu; E. H. Han; W. Ke

    2009-01-01

    An as-received reactor pressure vessel (RPV) steel SA508 class 3 (SA508 Cl.3) has been subjected to uniaxial tension tests\\u000a in the strain-rate range of 6.67 × 10?5 s?1 to 1.2 × 10?2 s?1 and the temperature range of 298 K to 673 K to investigate the effects of temperature and strain rate on its mechanical properties.\\u000a It was found that the region of dynamic strain aging (DSA) was

  1. Minimum weight design for toroidal pressure vessels using Differential Evolution and Particle Swarm Optimization

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Vu Truong Vu

    2010-01-01

    In this paper, Differential Evolution and Particle Swarm Optimization methods have been applied to the design of minimum weight\\u000a toroidal shells subject to internal pressure. Constraints are first yield pressure, plastic pressures, plastic instability\\u000a pressure and volume contained by the toroid. Optimality includes geometry and wall thickness, which is constant or variable.\\u000a The optimization process is performed by FORTRAN routines

  2. Analysis of the effects of non-supine sleeping positions on the stress, strain, deformation and intraocular pressure of the human eye

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Volpe, Peter A.

    This thesis presents analytical models, finite element models and experimental data to investigate the response of the human eye to loads that can be experienced when in a non-supine sleeping position. The hypothesis being investigated is that non-supine sleeping positions can lead to stress, strain and deformation of the eye as well as changes in intraocular pressure (IOP) that may exacerbate vision loss in individuals who have glaucoma. To investigate the quasi-static changes in stress and internal pressure, a Fluid-Structure Interaction simulation was performed on an axisymmetrical model of an eye. Common Aerospace Engineering methods for analyzing pressure vessels and hyperelastic structural walls are applied to developing a suitable model. The quasi-static pressure increase was used in an iterative code to analyze changes in IOP over time.

  3. Contact Pressure and Shear Stress Analysis on Conforming Contact Problem

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nagatani, Haruo; Imou, Akitoshi

    Two methods to solve a conforming contact problem are proposed. First method is general and can be applicable to the contact case between elastic arbitrary shape bodies. For verification FEA is performed on the convex-concave sphere contact, and the result of this method is well corresponding to the FEA result. However, the accuracy deteriorates when the mesh aspect ratio is extremely large. This phenomenon is caused by the usage of numerical integration for the calculation of influence coefficient. The second method is devised to avoid this problem, while this improved method is applicable only to the case when the contact area can be considered to be on a cylinder surface. By using this method, the contact pressure can be obtained without the deterioration even in the case of edge load occurring between ball bearing race shoulder and ball. The results of the contact pressure and the shear stress that is necessary for bearing life estimation are compared with the FEA result, which showed well correspondence.

  4. Thrombospondin-1 and CD47 regulate blood pressure and cardiac responses to vasoactive stress

    E-print Network

    Frazier, William A.

    Thrombospondin-1 and CD47 regulate blood pressure and cardiac responses to vasoactive stress Jeff S pressure Cardiac output Nitric oxide (NO) locally regulates vascular resistance and blood pressure-associated increases in heart rate, central diastolic and mean arterial blood pressure and a constant decrease in pulse

  5. Fracture resistance of welded thick-walled high-pressure vessels in power plants. Report No. 2. Approach to evaluating static strength

    SciTech Connect

    Gorynin, I.V.; Filatov, V.M.; Ignatov, V.A.; Timofeev, B.T.; Zvezdin, Yu. I.

    1986-07-01

    The authors examine data on the effect of defects on the fracture resistance of high-pressure vessels and their models obtained within the framework of the HSST program. Results of internal-pressure tests of two types of vessels with a wall thickness of 152 mm made from forgings of steels SA508 and SA533, as well as small vessels with a wall thickness of 11.5 and 23mm made of steel SA533 are shown. The authors state that testing thick-walled welded high-pressure vessels and thin-walled vessels with surface defects of different sizes has demonstrated that there are substantial static-strength reserves in structures designed by existing domestic and foreign standards on the strength of power-plant equipment. A correction was proposed for the presently used method of calculating the resistance of highpressure vessels to brittle fracture that allows for the dimensions of the defects in relation to the type of vessel, the manufacturing technology, and the method of inspection.

  6. Estimation of Inelastic Behavior for a Tapered Nozzle in Vessel due to Thermal Transient Load using Stress Redistribution Locus Method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kobayashi, Ken-Ichi; Yamada, Jun-Ichi

    Simplified inelastic design procedures have been required to reduce simulation cost and to shorten the development period for the modern high temperature machines and structures. Stress redistribution locus (SRL) method has been proposed to provide a reasonable solution employing both the elastic Finite Element (FE) analysis and a unique hyperbolic curve. In the SRL method, dimensionless stress and strain that were normalized using the inelastic stress/strain and the corresponding elastic stress/strain were introduced. This methodology is based on the fact that the stress distribution in well deformed or in high temperature components changes with deformation or time and that the dimensionless stress-strain relation traces a kind of the elastic follow-up locus in spite of the constitutive equation of the material. In this paper, FE analyses incorporating plasticity and creep were performed for a tapered nozzle of a reactor vessel under some thermal transient loads. The dimensionless stress-strain relation was compared with a conventional and newly proposed SRL curves. FE analysis results showed there to be a critical point in the tapered nozzle due to the thermal transient load dependant on a descending rate of temperature from the higher temperature in the operation cycle. Whenever a certain amount of inelastic strain in the nozzle is produced in a restricted area, the dimensionless stress-strain relation is depicted inside the presently proposed SRL curve. Thus the appropriate coefficient in the SRL method is found to be greater than the proposed one, and the present criterion guarantees robust structures for complicated components involving inelastic deformation.

  7. Use of miniature and standard specimens to evaluate effects of irradiation temperature on pressure vessel steels

    SciTech Connect

    Haggag, F.M.; Nanstad, R.K. (Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States)); Byrne, S.T. (ABB/Combustion Engineering, Inc., Windsor, CT (United States))

    1991-01-01

    The effects of neutron irradiation on the steel reactor vessel for the modular high-temperature gas-cooled reactor (MHTGR) are being investigated, primarily because the operating temperatures are low (121 to 210{degrees}C (250--410{degrees}F)) compared to those for commercial light-water reactors (LWRs) ({approximately}288{degrees}C (550{degrees}F)). The need for design data on the reference temperature shift necessitated the irradiation at different temperatures of A 533 grade B class 1 plate. A 508 class 3 forging, and welds used for the vessel shell, vessel closure head, the vessel flange. This paper presents results from the first four irradiation capsules of this program. The four capsules were irradiated in the University of Buffalo Reactor to an effective fast fluence of 1 {times}10{sup 18} neutron/cm{sup 2} (0.68 {times} 10{sup 18} neutron/cm{sup 2} (>1 MeV)) at temperatures of 288, 204, 163, and 121{degrees}C (550, 400, 325, and 250{degrees}F), respectively. The yield and ultimate strengths of both steel plate materials of the MHTGR Program increased with decreasing irradiation temperature. Similarly, the 41-J Charpy V-notch (CVN) transition temperature shift increased with decreasing irradiation temperature (in agreement with the increase in yield strength). The miniature tensile and automated ball indentation (ABI) test results (yield strength and flow properties) were in good agreement with those from standard tensile specimens. The miniature tensile and ABI test results were also used in a model that utilizes the changes in yield strength to estimate the CVN ductile-to-brittle transition temperature shift due to irradiation. The model predictions were compared with CVN test results obtained here and in earlier work. 5 refs., 11 figs., 6 tabs.

  8. Continued Development of Meandering Winding Magnetometer (MWM (Register Trademark)) Eddy Current Sensors for the Health Monitoring, Modeling and Damage Detection of Composite Overwrapped Pressure Vessels

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Russell, Richard; Wincheski, Russell; Jablonski, David; Washabaugh, Andy; Sheiretov, Yanko; Martin, Christopher; Goldfine, Neil

    2011-01-01

    Composite Overwrapped Pressure Vessels (COPVs) are used in essentially all NASA spacecraft, launch. vehicles and payloads to contain high-pressure fluids for propulsion, life support systems and science experiments. Failure of any COPV either in flight or during ground processing would result in catastrophic damage to the spacecraft or payload, and could lead to loss of life. Therefore, NASA continues to investigate new methods to non-destructively inspect (NDE) COPVs for structural anomalies and to provide a means for in-situ structural health monitoring (SHM) during operational service. Partnering with JENTEK Sensors, engineers at NASA, Kennedy Space Center have successfully conducted a proof-of-concept study to develop Meandering Winding Magnetometer (MWM) eddy current sensors designed to make direct measurements of the stresses of the internal layers of a carbon fiber composite wrapped COPV. During this study three different MWM sensors were tested at three orientations to demonstrate the ability of the technology to measure stresses at various fiber orientations and depths. These results showed good correlation with actual surface strain gage measurements. MWM-Array technology for scanning COPVs can reliably be used to image and detect mechanical damage. To validate this conclusion, several COPVs were scanned to obtain a baseline, and then each COPV was impacted at varying energy levels and then rescanned. The baseline subtracted images were used to demonstrate damage detection. These scans were performed with two different MWM-Arrays. with different geometries for near-surface and deeper penetration imaging at multiple frequencies and in multiple orientations of the linear MWM drive. This presentation will include a review of micromechanical models that relate measured sensor responses to composite material constituent properties, validated by the proof of concept study, as the basis for SHM and NDE data analysis as well as potential improvements including design changes to miniaturize and make the sensors durable in the vacuum of space

  9. Determination of allowable stresses in designing vessels for low-cycle fatigue

    SciTech Connect

    Kheifets, A.I.

    1987-01-01

    The author studies the practical introduction of allowable stresses for computation of low-cycle fatigue. This is useful in view of the consideration that the computation becomes identical to the static-strength computation after determination of allowable stress, and also the possibility arises for the development of an algorithm for the design computation. The allowable stress in low-cycle-fatigue computations depends not only on the characteristics of the material, but also on the loading regime.

  10. 77 FR 16270 - Updated Aging Management Criteria for Reactor Vessel Internal Components of Pressurized Water...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-03-20

    ...Components of Pressurized Water Reactors AGENCY: Nuclear Regulatory Commission. ACTION...License Renewal, Office of Nuclear Reactor Regulation, U.S. Nuclear...License Renewal, Office of Nuclear Reactor Regulation. [FR Doc....

  11. 77 FR 23513 - Updated Aging Management Criteria for Reactor Vessel Internal Components of Pressurized Water...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-04-19

    ...Components of Pressurized Water Reactors AGENCY: Nuclear Regulatory Commission. ACTION...License Renewal, Office of Nuclear Reactor Regulation, U.S. Nuclear...License Renewal, Office of Nuclear Reactor Regulation. [FR Doc....

  12. Determination of flow stress for sheet metal forming using the viscous pressure bulge (VPB) test

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Gerhard Gutscher; Hsien-Chih Wu; Gracious Ngaile; Taylan Altan

    2004-01-01

    In sheet metal forming operations the mechanical properties of the sheet material (i.e. flow stress or stress–strain curve) greatly influence metal flow and product quality. Therefore, accurate determination of the flow stress is of paramount importance in process simulation via finite element method (FEM). In this paper the use of the viscous pressure bulge (VPB) test for determination of flow

  13. Damage patterns, stress rotations and pore fluid pressures in strike-slip fault zones

    Microsoft Academic Search

    David Healy

    2008-01-01

    Active faults unfavorably oriented with respect to the regional maximum compressive stress have been labeled as “weak.” The seismic hazards posed by these faults make understanding this apparent weakness a priority. Stress rotations in these fault zones, together with an increase in mean stress, could enable high pore fluid pressures to weaken a fault zone. Such a model requires a

  14. The effect of complex exercise rehabilitation program on body composition, blood pressure, blood sugar, and vessel elasticity in elderly women with obesity

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Eun-Ok; Lee, Kwon-Ho; Kozyreva, Olga

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to identify what kind of effects complex exercise rehabilitation program has on body composition of female, blood pressure, blood sugar, blood vessel elasticity and find more effective complex exercise program for elderly females. The subjects are selected 30 females applicants in exercise program in City of G and not restricted in mobility to perform the exercise without any particular disorders. Exercise program is a combination of aerobic and strength training with different ratio, for the first 6 months focused on strength training complex exercise, and for next 6 months focused on aerobic exercise. Except for strength training and aerobic exercise, durations for strength, rest, and wrapping-up are equal. The frequency of experiments is 90 min each, 2 times per a week. Body composition, blood pressure, and blood vessel elasticity are tested pre and post experiment to compare the effectiveness of both complex exercises. As results, in the complex exercise program focused on strength training, weight, percent body fat, fat mass, waist hip ratio, systolic blood pressure, and diastolic pressure increased. Blood vessel elasticity maintained its level or slightly decreased. In the complex exercise focused on aerobic exercise, weight, percent body fat, fat mass, waist hip ratio, systolic pressure, and diastolic pressure decreased. Blood vessel elasticity on left foot and right foot are slightly different. Therefore, aerobic exercise is more effective than strength training for old obese females. PMID:24409428

  15. Relationship of Early Life Stress and Psychological Functioning to Blood Pressure in the CARDIA Study

    E-print Network

    Lehman, Barbara J.

    Relationship of Early Life Stress and Psychological Functioning to Blood Pressure in the CARDIA explain these links and relate the model to blood pressure change over a 10-year period in the Coronary Outcome Measures: These variables were used to predict initial systolic and diastolic blood pressure (SBP

  16. Correlation of Valsalva Leak Point Pressure with Subjective Degree of Stress Urinary Incontinence in Women

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Victor W. Nitti; Andrew J. Combs

    1996-01-01

    PurposeWe correlated symptoms of stress urinary incontinence in women with intrinsic urethral function, as measured by Valsalva leak point pressure. In addition, we assessed the effects of urethral hypermobility, baseline resting abdominal pressure, patient age and menopausal status on Valsalva leak point pressure.

  17. Effect of temperature on the fracture toughness in the nuclear reactor pressure vessel steel (SA508-3)

    SciTech Connect

    Oh, S.W.; Lim, M.B. [Dong-A Univ., Pusan (Korea, Republic of); Yoon, H.K. [Dong-Eui Univ., Pusan (Korea, Republic of)

    1994-12-31

    The elastic-plastic fracture toughness J{sub IC} of the Nuclear Reactor Pressure Vessel Steel (SA508-3) which has high toughness was obtained at three temperatures (room temperature, {minus}20 C, 200 C) using a 1/2 CT specimen. Especially the two methods recommended in ASTM and JSME were compared. It was found that difficulty exists in obtaining J{sub IC} by ASTM R-curve method, while JSME R-curve method yielded good results. The stretched zone width method gave slightly larger J{sub IC} values than those by the R-curve method for SA508-3 steel and the blunting line was not affected by the test temperatures. The relation between SZW and J, SZW and J/E and SZW and J/{sigma}{sub ys} before initiation of a stable crack growth in the fracture toughness test at three temperatures is described.

  18. Preparation of reconstituted Charpy V-notch impact specimens for generating pressure vessel steel fracture toughness data

    SciTech Connect

    Perrin, J.S. (Fracture Control Corp., Goleta, CA); Fromm, E.O.; Server, W.L.; McConnell, P.E.

    1982-01-01

    The arc stud welding process has been adapted for use in producing reconstituted Charpy V-notch impact specimens. In this process, each half of a tested and fractured Charpy specimen is used as the central region of a reconstituted specimen. End tabs are joined to one half of a fractured specimen by a specially designed stud welding apparatus. SA533B-1 and SA508-2 unirradiated and irradiated pressure vessel steel specimens have been produced. Both conventional and precracked reconstituted specimen data have been produced. Both types of data have been shown to be in excellent agreement with original specimen data. The arc stud welding process can therefore be used to increase the amount of data obtainable from a limited number of specimens or to obtain Charpy data when full size specimens cannot otherwise be obtained.

  19. APFIM (atom probe field-ion microscope) investigations of solute clustering and precipitation in irradiated RPV (reactor pressure vessel) steels

    SciTech Connect

    Burke, M.G.; Grant, S.P.; Miller, M.K.

    1989-01-01

    After exposure to low and intermediate fluence neutron irradiation, a variety of reactor pressure vessel (RPV) steels, including A533B-type surveillance specimens, Gundremmigen KRB-A ex-service plate, and test reactor irradiated materials, have been analyzed in the atom probe field-ion microscope (APFIM). With this instrument, it is possible to characterize the ultrafine microstructural features associated with irradiation embrittlement. The statistical significance of the solute clustering has been evaluated with the mean separation technique of Hetherington and Miller. Atom probe analysis has provided direct evidence of very diffuse phosphorus-enriched and copper-enriched atmospheres. Phosphorus appears to play a more dominant role than copper in these low fluence irradiations. 14 refs., 5 figs., 5 tabs.

  20. Student Stress in High-Pressure College Preparatory Schools

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Lauren Deborah Feld

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: To enhance understanding of academic stress in the lives of high-achieving students enrolled in college-preparatory high schools. The three main goals of this study were to explore: 1) the effects of stress, 2) student coping behaviors and support network, and 3) sources of stress in these high-achieving environments.

  1. Shear stress and the endothelium

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Barbara J. Ballermann; Alan Dardik; Eudora Eng; Ailian Liu

    1998-01-01

    Shear stress and the endothelium. Vascular endothelial cells (ECs) in vivo are influenced by two distinct hemodynamic forces: cyclical strain due to vessel wall distention by transmural pressure, and shear stress, the frictional force generated by blood flow. Shear stress acts at the apical cell surface to deform cells in the direction of blood flow; wall distention tends to deform

  2. Deformation analysis of glass vessel of high pressure mercury lamp for LCD projector

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Makoto Kai; Makoto Horiuchi; Tsuyoshi Ichibakase

    2003-01-01

    A high pressure mercury discharge lamp is used for a light source of liquid crystal display (LCD) projector spread widely as an equipment for electric presentation. Along with this spreading, the light source of this kind is required to get more long life performance than ever. The point to get a long life performance on this lamp which characterized by

  3. Wall Shear Stress, Wall Pressure and Near Wall Velocity Field Relationships in a Whirling Annular Seal

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Morrison, Gerald L.; Winslow, Robert B.; Thames, H. Davis, III

    1996-01-01

    The mean and phase averaged pressure and wall shear stress distributions were measured on the stator wall of a 50% eccentric annular seal which was whirling in a circular orbit at the same speed as the shaft rotation. The shear stresses were measured using flush mounted hot-film probes. Four different operating conditions were considered consisting of Reynolds numbers of 12,000 and 24,000 and Taylor numbers of 3,300 and 6,600. At each of the operating conditions the axial distribution (from Z/L = -0.2 to 1.2) of the mean pressure, shear stress magnitude, and shear stress direction on the stator wall were measured. Also measured were the phase averaged pressure and shear stress. These data were combined to calculate the force distributions along the seal length. Integration of the force distributions result in the net forces and moments generated by the pressure and shear stresses. The flow field inside the seal operating at a Reynolds number of 24,000 and a Taylor number of 6,600 has been measured using a 3-D laser Doppler anemometer system. Phase averaged wall pressure and wall shear stress are presented along with phase averaged mean velocity and turbulence kinetic energy distributions located 0.16c from the stator wall where c is the seal clearance. The relationships between the velocity, turbulence, wall pressure and wall shear stress are very complex and do not follow simple bulk flow predictions.

  4. Synchronized Stress-strain Measurements in Dynamic Loading at High Pressure using D-DIA

    SciTech Connect

    L Li; D Weidner

    2011-12-31

    A new data collection protocol for forced oscillation experiments using a multianvil high pressure device is reported. We derive the stress of the sample at high pressure and temperature from synchrotron x-ray diffraction that is synchronized with sample strain measurements from x-ray radiographs. This method yields stress directly from the sample rather than a stress proxy. Furthermore, the diffraction pattern yields useful information concerning time evolution of structurally related phenomena. Here we illustrate some of these possibilities with high pressure experimental data.

  5. BIOASSAY VESSEL FAILURE ANALYSIS

    SciTech Connect

    Vormelker, P

    2008-09-22

    Two high-pressure bioassay vessels failed at the Savannah River Site during a microwave heating process for biosample testing. Improper installation of the thermal shield in the first failure caused the vessel to burst during microwave heating. The second vessel failure is attributed to overpressurization during a test run. Vessel failure appeared to initiate in the mold parting line, the thinnest cross-section of the octagonal vessel. No material flaws were found in the vessel that would impair its structural performance. Content weight should be minimized to reduce operating temperature and pressure. Outer vessel life is dependent on actual temperature exposure. Since thermal aging of the vessels can be detrimental to their performance, it was recommended that the vessels be used for a limited number of cycles to be determined by additional testing.

  6. A reassessment of PWR pressure vessel integrity during overcooling accidents, considering 3-D flaws

    Microsoft Academic Search

    R. D. Cheverton; D. G. Ball

    1984-01-01

    A continuing analysis of the pressurized-thermal-shock problem associated with PWR postulated overcooling accidents indicates that the previously accepted degree of conservatism in the fracture-mechanics model needs to be more closely evaluated, and, if excessive, reduced. One feature that was believed to be conservative was the use of two-dimensional as opposed to finite-length (threedimensional) flaws. The degree of conservatism could not

  7. Effects of commercial cladding on the fracture behavior of pressure vessel steel plates

    SciTech Connect

    Iskander, S.K.; Alexander, D.J.; Bolt, S.E.; Cook, K.V.; Corwin, W.R.; Oland, B.C.; Nanstad, R.K.; Robinson, G.C.

    1987-01-01

    The objective of this program is to determine the effect, if any, of stainless steel cladding upon the propagation of small surface cracks subjected to stress states similar to those produced by thermal shock conditions. Preliminary results from testing at temperatures 10/sup 0/ and 60/sup 0/C below NDT have shown that (1) a tough surface layer (cladding and/or HAZ) has arrested running flaws under conditions where unclad plates have ruptured, and (2) the residual load-bearing capacity of clad plates with large subclad flaws significantly exceeded that of an unclad plate.

  8. Changes in magnetic parameters of neutron irradiated SA 508 Cl. 3 reactor pressure vessel forging and weld surveillance specimens

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chi, Se-Hwan; Chang, Kee-Ok; Hong, Jun-Hwa; Kuk, Il-Hiun; Kim, Chong-Oh

    1999-04-01

    Irradiation-induced changes in the magnetic parameters and mechanical properties were measured and compared to explore possible correlations for reactor pressure vessel (RPV) forging and weld surveillance Charpy specimens which were irradiated to the neutron fluence of 2.3×1019n/cm2 (E>1.0 MeV) in a typical pressurized water reactor environment at 290 °C. For mechanical property parameters, Vickers microhardness, tensile and Charpy impact tests were performed and saturation magnetization (Ms), remanence (Mr), coercivity (Hc), and Barkhausen noise amplitude (BNA) were measured for magnetic parameters for both unirradiated and irradiated specimens, respectively. Results of mechanical property measurements showed an increase in yield and tensile strength, Vickers microhardness, 30 ft. lb indexed RTNDT and a decrease in Charpy upper-shelf energy irrespective of forging and weld metals. Hysteresis loops appeared to turn clockwise, resulting in an increase in Hc, and BNA appeared to decrease after irradiation. Both magnetic parameters showed viable correlations to the changes in mechanical parameters (Vickers microhardness, Charpy upper shelf energy) due to irradiation. Even limited, the present study seems to show additional possibilities for the application of this magnetic method in monitoring the mechanical parameter changes due to neutron irradiation.

  9. Deformation studies from in situ SEM experiments of a reactor pressure vessel steel at room and low temperatures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Latourte, F.; Salez, T.; Guery, A.; Rupin, N.; Mahé, M.

    2014-11-01

    This paper presents the strain fields acquired at micro-structural scale for a pressure vessel steel, used in the French pressurized water reactors (PWR) and designated as 16MND5 or ASTM A508cl3. The experimental observations rely on specific specimen preparation, prior crystallographic orientation characterization by means of electron backscatter diffraction (EBSD), surface patterning using lithography and chemical etching. The specimens are loaded using a miniaturized tensile stage fitted within a scanning electron microscope (SEM) chamber, and images acquired of a small area are used to measure displacement and strain fields using a Digital Image Correlation (DIC) technique. In addition, a specific setup allowed to cool down to -100 °C the specimen during the whole tensile test and the image acquisition. The experimental apparatus and the kinematic field measurements are introduced in two first sections of the paper. Then the results will be presented for two experiments, one conducted at room temperature and the other at -100 °C, including a comparison of strain localization features and a preliminary comparison of plasticity mechanisms.

  10. Pressure and concentration dependences of the autoignition temperature for normal butane + air mixtures in a closed vessel

    SciTech Connect

    Chandraratna, M.R.; Griffiths, J.F. (Univ. of Leeds (United Kingdom). School of Chemistry)

    1994-12-01

    The condition at which autoignition occurs in lean premixed n-butane + air mixtures over the composition range 0.2%--2.5% n-butane by volume (0.06 < [phi] < 0.66) were investigated experimentally. Total reactant pressure from 0.1 to 0.6 MPa (1--6 atm) were studied in a spherical, stainless-steel, closed vessel (0.5 dm[sup 3]). There is a critical transition from nonignition to ignition, at pressures above 0.1 MPa, as the mixture is enriched in the vicinity of 1% fuel vapor by volume. There is also a region of multiplicity, which exhibits three critical temperatures at a given composition. Chemical analyses show that partially oxygenated components,including many o-heterocyclic compounds, are important products of the lean combustion of butane at temperatures up to 800 K. The critical conditions for autoignition are discussed with regard to industrial ignition hazards, especially in the context of the autoignition temperature of alkanes given by ASTM or BS tests. The differences between the behavior of n-butane and the higher n-alkanes are explained. The experimental results are also used as a basis for testing a reduced kinetic model to represent the oxidation and autoignition of n-butane or other alkanes.

  11. Time Varying Stress in Ligaments of Perforated Plates with Reference to Prestressed Concrete Reactor Vessels

    Microsoft Academic Search

    G. D. STEFANOU

    1978-01-01

    The work described herein relates to the prediction of stresses in materials which exhibit time varying strains with particular reference to the ligaments of perforated circular concrete slabs, subjected to long-term radial prestress and uniform elevated temperature. The perforations are reinforced with steel liners and arranged in a square central lattice symmetrical about two orthogonal axes.Special reference is made to

  12. The assessment of reactor pressure vessel defects allowing for crack tip constraint and its effect on the calculation of the onset of the upper shelf

    Microsoft Academic Search

    D. W. Beardsmore; A. R. Dowling; D. P. G. Lidbury; A. H. Sherry

    2003-01-01

    The paper shows how a specialised application of the R6 method could be used to calculate a pressure–temperature failure envelope for postulated defects in a reactor pressure vessel (RPV), making due allowance for the distribution of constraint around the crack front. As such, the technique provides a means of estimating a defect-specific onset of upper shelf temperature (OUST).A material's constraint-based

  13. Residual stresses due to weld repairs, cladding and electron beam welds and effect of residual stresses on fracture behavior. Annual report, September 1, 1977November 30, 1978

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Rybicki

    1978-01-01

    The study is divided into three tasks. Task I is concerned with predicting and understanding the effects of residual stresses due to weld repairs of pressure vessels. Task II examines residual stresses due to an electron beam weld. Task III addresses the problem of residual stresses produced by weld cladding at a nozzle vessel intersection. The objective of Task I

  14. Correlation between Systemic Oxidative Stress and Intraocular Pressure Level

    PubMed Central

    Tanito, Masaki; Kaidzu, Sachiko; Takai, Yasuyuki; Ohira, Akihiro

    2015-01-01

    Background The involvement of local and systemic oxidative stress in intraocular pressure (IOP) elevation and optic nerve damage has been hypothesized in the pathogenesis of glaucoma. We reported previously that the level of systemic antioxidative capacity is lower in patients with open-angle glaucoma than controls without glaucoma. Here, we assessed the correlation between IOP and systemic levels of prooxidants and antioxidants by analyzing the blood biochemistry in patients with glaucoma. Methods Peripheral blood samples were collected from Japanese patients with primary open-angle glaucoma (n = 206), exfoliation syndrome (n = 199), and controls (n = 126). Serum levels of lipid peroxides, ferric-reducing activity, and thiol antioxidant activity were measured by diacron reactive oxygen metabolite (dROM), biological antioxidant potential (BAP), and sulfhydryl (SH) tests, respectively, using a free radical analyzer. To test the possible effect of oxidative stress on IOP levels, the patients were classified into one of four groups (Q1, Q2, Q3, and Q4, with Q1 having the lowest IOP) based on the quartile value of IOP. For this classification, the known highest IOP value in both the right and left eyes was regarded as each subject’s IOP. For comparisons among the IOP groups, the differences were calculated using one-way analysis of variance followed by post-hoc unpaired t-tests. To adjust for differences in demographic characteristic distributions, the dROM, BAP, and SH test values were compared among the IOP groups using multiple logistic regression analysis; the odds ratio (OR) of each variable was calculated with the Q1 group as the reference. Results The dROM and the SH levels did not differ significantly (p = 0.6704 and p = 0.6376, respectively) among the four IOP groups. The BAP levels differed significantly (p = 0.0115) among the four IOP groups; the value was significantly lower in the Q4 group (1,932 ?mol/L) compared with the Q1 (2,023 ?mol/L, p = 0.0042) and Q2 (2,003 ?mol/L, p = 0.0302) groups and significantly lower in the Q3 group (1,948 ?mol/L) than the Q1 (p = 0.0174) group. After adjustment for differences in various demographic characteristics, lower BAP values were significantly associated with the classification into higher IOP groups (Q3 group, p = 0.0261 and OR = 0.06/range; Q4 group, p = 0.0018 and OR = 0.04/range). The dROM and SH values did not reach significance in any comparisons. Conclusions Lower systemic antioxidant capacity measured by ferric-reducing activity is involved in the pathogenesis of open-angle glaucoma via its roles in IOP elevation. PMID:26186651

  15. Development of automated welding process for field fabrication of thick walled pressure vessels. Fourth quarter technical progress report for period ending September 28, 1980

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1980-01-01

    Progress is reported in research aimed at optimizing an automated welding process for the field fabrication of thick-walled pressure vessels and for evaluating the welded joints. Information is included on the welding equipment, mechanical control of the process, joint design, filler wire optimization, in-process nondestructive testing of welds, and repair techniques. (LCL)

  16. On the utilization of the instrumented Charpy impact test for characterizing the flow and fracture behavior of reactor pressure vessel steels

    Microsoft Academic Search

    R. Chaouadi; A. Fabry

    2002-01-01

    The Charpy impact test is extensively used in the surveillance programs to monitor neutron reactor pressure vessel degradation induced by neutron irradiation. The energy absorbed during the test is the main parameter used for engineering characterization of thematerials. At SCK·CEN, a large effort was put into taking advantage of the test instrumentation allowing for load versus time recording during the

  17. Proceedings of the ASME 2010 Pressure Vessels & Piping Division / K-PVP Conference July 18-22, 2010, Bellevue, Washington, USA

    E-print Network

    Giurgiutiu, Victor

    Proceedings of the ASME 2010 Pressure Vessels & Piping Division / K-PVP Conference PVP2010 July 18 sensors and assessing the remaining useful life and the need for structural actions. Built-in SHM system, ships, and civil engineering structures. PIEZOELECTRIC WAFER ACTIVE SENSORS Piezoelectric wafer active

  18. Proceedings of the ASME 2011 Pressure Vessels & Piping Division / K-PVP Conference July 17-221, 2011, Baltimore, Maryland, USA

    E-print Network

    Giurgiutiu, Victor

    1 Proceedings of the ASME 2011 Pressure Vessels & Piping Division / K-PVP Conference PVP2011 July. Built-in SHM system capable of detecting and quantifying damage would increase the operational safety, land vehicles, ships, and civil engineering structures. It offers the data needed to perform risk

  19. Associate Editor of the ASME Journal of Pressure Vessels Technology, since Jan 2006 Associate Editor of the Structural Health Monitoring: An International Journal , since May

    E-print Network

    Wong, Pak Kin

    Associate Editor of the ASME Journal of Pressure Vessels Technology, since Jan 2006 Associate Editor of the Structural Health Monitoring: An International Journal , since May 2008 Advisory Editor of Structural Longevity Journal, since 2009 Advisory Board Member of the International Journal of Geomechanics

  20. Fracture toughness data for ferritic nuclear pressure vessel materials. Task A: volume II. Part 2: appendices 5--8. Final report

    Microsoft Academic Search

    K. Stahlkopf; R. A. Wullaert; W. Oldfield; W. L. Server

    1976-01-01

    The Appendices presented in Volume II, Parts I and II of 'Fracture Toughness Data for Ferritic Nuclear Pressure Vessel Materials,' represent the detailed analysis of approximately 20,000 experimental test results. Due to the large quantity of data, Volume I was written to familiarize the reader with the overall program and objectives, to present the analytical tools developed for statistically analyzing

  1. Heavy-Section Steel Irradiation Program on irradiation effects in light-water reactor pressure vessel materials

    SciTech Connect

    Nanstad, R.K.; Corwin, W.R.; Alexander, D.J.; Haggag, F.M.; Iskander, S.K.; McCabe, D.E.; Sokolov, M.A.; Stoller, R.E. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States). Metals and Ceramics Div.

    1995-07-01

    The safety of commercial light-water nuclear plants is highly dependent on the structural integrity of the reactor pressure vessel (RPV). In the absence of radiation damage to the RPV, fracture of the vessel is difficult to postulate. Exposure to high energy neutrons can result in embrittlement of radiation-sensitive RPV materials. The Heavy-Section Steel Irradiation (HSSI) Program at Oak Ridge National Laboratory, sponsored by the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (USNRC), is assessing the effects of neutron irradiation on RPV material behavior, especially fracture toughness. The results of these and other studies are used by the USNRC in the evaluation of RPV integrity and regulation of overall nuclear plant safety. In assessing the effects of irradiation, prototypic RPV materials are characterized in the unirradiated condition and exposed to radiation under varying conditions. Mechanical property tests are conducted to provide data which can be used in the development of guidelines for structural integrity evaluations, while metallurgical examinations and mechanistic modeling are performed to improve understanding of the mechanisms responsible for embrittlement. The results of these investigations, in conjunction with results from commercial reactor surveillance programs, are used to develop a methodology for the prediction of radiation effects on RPV materials. This irradiation-induced degradation of the materials can be mitigated by thermal annealing, i.e., heating the RPV to a temperature above that of normal operation. Thus, thermal annealing and evaluation of reirradiation behavior are major tasks of the HSSI Program. This paper describes the HSSI Program activities by summarizing some past and recent results, as well as current and planned studies. 30 refs., 8 figs., 1 tab.

  2. The frequency response of magnetoelastic sensors to stress and atmospheric pressure

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Dimitris Kouzoudis; Craig A. Grimes

    2000-01-01

    Earlier work demonstrated that the characteristic resonant frequency of magnetoelastic thick-film sensors shifts linearly downwards in response to increasing atmospheric pressure. In this paper, the response mechanism is detailed and shown to be a function of both pressure and the way that the sensor is mechanically stressed. Stressing the sensor, in either the elastic or plastic regime, induces out-of-plane vibrations

  3. Role of Oxidative Stress in Mediating Elevated Blood Pressure with Aging

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Julio Sartori Valinotti; Licy Yanes; Jane F. Reckelhoff

    \\u000a Blood pressure increases with age in men and women. Whether and how oxidative stress plays a role in mediating hypertension\\u000a has been under intense study for the past 10 years. Although most animal studies have shown that oxidative stress will increase\\u000a blood pressure, the clinical trials using antioxidants to treat hypertension in humans have not been successful. One theory\\u000a for

  4. Estimating Stresses, Fault Friction and Fluid Pressure from Topography and Coseismic Slip Models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Styron, R. H.; Hetland, E. A.

    2014-12-01

    Stress is a first-order control on the deformation state of the earth. However, stress is notoriously hard to measure, and researchers typically only estimate the directions and relative magnitudes of principal stresses, with little quantification of the uncertainties or absolute magnitude. To improve upon this, we have developed methods to constrain the full stress tensor field in a region surrounding a fault, including tectonic, topographic, and lithostatic components, as well as static friction and pore fluid pressure on the fault. Our methods are based on elastic halfspace techniques for estimating topographic stresses from a DEM, and we use a Bayesian approach to estimate accumulated tectonic stress, fluid pressure, and friction from fault geometry and slip rake, assuming Mohr-Coulomb fault mechanics. The nature of the tectonic stress inversion is such that either the stress maximum or minimum is better constrained, depending on the topography and fault deformation style. Our results from the 2008 Wenchuan event yield shear stresses from topography up to 20 MPa (normal-sinistral shear sense) and topographic normal stresses up to 80 MPa on the faults; tectonic stress had to be large enough to overcome topography to produce the observed reverse-dextral slip. Maximum tectonic stress is constrained to be >0.3 * lithostatic stress (depth-increasing), with a most likely value around 0.8, trending 90-110°E. Minimum tectonic stress is about half of maximum. Static fault friction is constrained at 0.1-0.4, and fluid pressure at 0-0.6 * total pressure on the fault. Additionally, the patterns of topographic stress and slip suggest that topographic normal stress may limit fault slip once failure has occurred. Preliminary results from the 2013 Balochistan earthquake are similar, but yield stronger constraints on the upper limits of maximum tectonic stress, as well as tight constraints on the magnitude of minimum tectonic stress and stress orientation. Work in progress on the Wasatch fault suggests that maximum tectonic stress may also be able to be constrained, and that some of the shallow rupture segmentation may be due in part to localized topographic loading. Future directions of this work include regions where high relief influences fault kinematics (such as Tibet).

  5. An Integrated Silicon Based Wall Pressure-Shear Stress Sensor for Measurements in Turbulent Flows

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Löfdahl, L.; Kälvesten, E.; Hadzianagnostakis, T.; Stemme, G.

    1996-11-01

    An integrated silicon pressure-shear stress sensor has been designed, fabricated and tested in turbulent wall-boundary layers. The piezoresistive pressure sensor is based on polysilicon diaphragm technology and the thermal shear stress sensor on the gas cooling of a polyimide insulated heated chip. The pressure sensor diaphragm area is 100×100 ?m, the top-area of the shear stress sensor hot chip is 300×60 ?m and the edge-to-edge distance between the two areas is 100 ?m. The measured steady-state power dissipation of the shear stress sensor in a turbulent wall-boundary layer at an over-temperature of 100^oC was P=42 + 1.1 ?_0^0.50 mW where ?0 is the time-average wall shear stress. The new integrated sensor has been applied for the simultaneous measurement of fluctuating pressure and shear stress in a flat plate boundary layer at 4.9×10^3 < Re_? < 1.0×10^4. This has produced pressure-shear stress correlation coefficients between 0.40 and 0.50 for the parallel, and between 0.20 and 0.25 for the perpendicular configuration to the mean flow.

  6. Tectonic stress and pressure fields in and out of elliptical inclusions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moulas, Evangelos; Burg, Jean-Pierre; Podladchikov, Yuri

    2014-05-01

    Shear zones and competent layers and boudins represent viscosity heterogeneities in the rock mass. Differences in viscosity impel differences in strain rates between such heterogeneities and their surroundings. Under mechanical equilibrium, normal and shear forces must be equal across any interface. The Kolosov-Muskhelishvili equations solve this equilibrium for viscous inclusions in a viscous medium. Mohr-circle diagrams further illustrate the state-of-stress of viscous heterogeneities. Systematic investigation of the stress equilibrium at such interfaces shows that the mean stress, equivalent to pressure, is not continuous across viscosity boundaries. The results predict that pressure and stress perturbations depend strongly on the orientation of the long axis of the elliptical heterogeneity with respect to the far-field stresses. A viscosity ratio of 10 between the inclusion and the surrounding material is sufficient to produce pressure discontinuities virtually equal to the magnitude of the strength of the strongest rock under the considered physical conditions. Comparison of the analytical solutions with thermo-mechanical models confirms pressure incongruity and suggests that dynamic parameters such as pressure and temperature vary spatially and temporally within deforming, two-viscosity rock systems. As a corollary, the dependence of metamorphic phase equilibria on thermodynamic pressure and temperature implies that shear zones, taken as weak inclusions, and boudins taken as hard inclusions may not record lithostatic pressure during deformation.

  7. Stress analysis and failure of an internally pressurized composite-jacketed steel cylinder

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chen, Peter C. T.

    1992-01-01

    This paper presents a nonlinear stress analysis of a thick-walled compound tube subjected to internal pressure. The compound tube is constructed of a steel liner and a graphite-bismaleimide outer shell. Analytical expressions for the stresses, strains, and displacements are derived for all loading ranges up to failure. Numerical results for the stresses and the maximum value that the compound tube can contain without failure are presented.

  8. Soil stresses under a tractor tire at various loads and inflation pressures

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. C. Bailey; R. L. Raper; E. C. Burt; C. E. Johnson

    1996-01-01

    Soil stresses were measured under a 18.4R38 R-1 radial-ply tractor tire, operated at two levels each of dynamic load and inflation pressure. Stress state transducers were placed at two depths beneath the centerline of the path of the tractor tire in two different compaction profiles in each of two soils. Peak soil stresses and soil bulk density increased with increases

  9. Stress reduction programs in patients with elevated blood pressure: A systematic review and meta-analysis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Maxwell V. Rainforth; Robert H. Schneider; Sanford I. Nidich; Carolyn Gaylord-King; John W. Salerno; James W. Anderson

    2007-01-01

    Substantial evidence indicates that psychosocial stress contributes to hypertension and cardiovascular disease (CVD). Previous\\u000a meta-analyses of stress reduction and high blood pressure (BP) were outdated and\\/or methodologically limited. Therefore, we\\u000a conducted an updated systematic review of the published literature and identified 107 studies on stress reduction and BP.\\u000a Seventeen trials with 23 treatment comparisons and 960 participants with elevated BP

  10. Wind Stress Variability Directly Measured at a Tidal Inlet from a Mobile Vessel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ortiz-Suslow, D. G.; Haus, B. K.; Laxague, N.; Williams, N. J.; Graber, H. C.

    2014-12-01

    Tidal inlets are characterized by a dynamic coupling of waves, currents, wind, and topography and to better understand these processes the Riverine and Estuarine Transport (RIVET) experiment was conducted during the month of May 2012 at New River Inlet, North Carolina. As a part of that effort, the Surface Physics Experimental Catamaran (SPEC) was outfitted with a suite of concurrently sampled atmospheric and oceanographic sensors. These included a meteorological mast capable of measuring the air-sea momentum flux, paired subsurface ADV's, a downward looking ADCP, and a bow-mounted wave-staff array. Using a mobile platform enabled capturing the fine-scale dynamical features across this highly sheared zone, without compromising spatial or temporal resolution. The SPEC was deployed, in part, to make direct wind stress measurements and the eddy covariance method was used to calculate the 10 m neutral drag coefficients from the observed wind shear velocities. In general, for any given wind speed, measured drag coefficients were about 2.5 times greater than those derived from bulk relations (e.g. Smith, 1988). Observations of the wind stress angle show significant wind stress steering, up to about 70o off the mean wind direction, within 2 km off-shore of the inlet mouth. The causes for the departure of these observations from conventional open ocean results remains under investigation, although it is highly likely that these findings highlight processes unique to coastal waters that are not regarded in the well-established algorithms (e.g. depth-limited wave breaking and wave-current interactions). Preliminary results from the second installment in the RIVET campaign, which took place at the Mouth of the Columbia River during the spring of 2013, will also be shown.

  11. Evaluation of the Stress Adjustment and Adaptation Model among Families Reporting Economic Pressure

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vandsburger, Etty; Biggerstaff, Marilyn A.

    2004-01-01

    This research evaluates the Stress Adjustment and Adaptation Model (double ABCX model) examining the effects resiliency resources on family functioning when families experience economic pressure. Families (N = 128) with incomes at or below the poverty line from a rural area of a southern state completed measures of perceived economic pressure

  12. The use of pressurized bladders for stress control of superconducting magnets

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Shlomo Caspi; Steve Gourlay; Ray Hafalia; Alan Lietzke; Jim ONeill; Clyde Taylor; A. Jackson

    2001-01-01

    LBNL is using pressurized bladders in its high field superconducting magnet program Magnet RD3; a 14 T race track dipole, has been assembled and pre-stressed using such a system. The bladder, placed between the coil pack and the iron yoke, can provide 70 MPa of pressure while compressing the coil pack and tensioning a 40 mm thick structural aluminum shell.

  13. Impact of Mental and Physical Stress on Blood Pressure and Pulse Pressure under Normobaric versus Hypoxic Conditions

    PubMed Central

    Trapp, Michael; Trapp, Eva-Maria; Egger, Josef W.; Domej, Wolfgang; Schillaci, Giuseppe; Avian, Alexander; Rohrer, Peter M.; Hörlesberger, Nina; Magometschnigg, Dieter; Cervar-Zivkovic, Mila; Komericki, Peter; Velik, Rosemarie; Baulmann, Johannes

    2014-01-01

    Objective Hypobaric hypoxia, physical and psychosocial stress may influence key cardiovascular parameters including blood pressure (BP) and pulse pressure (PP). We investigated the effects of mild hypobaric hypoxia exposure on BP and PP reactivity to mental and physical stress and to passive elevation by cable car. Methods 36 healthy volunteers participated in a defined test procedure consisting of a period of rest 1, mental stress task (KLT-R), period of rest 2, combined mental (KLT-R) and physical task (bicycle ergometry) and a last period of rest both at Graz, Austria (353 m asl) and at the top station Dachstein (2700 m asl). Beat-to-beat heart rate and BP were analysed both during the test procedures at Graz and at Dachstein and during passive 1000 m elevation by cable car (from 1702 m to 2700 m). Results A significant interaction of kind of stress (mental vs. combined mental and physical) and study location (Graz vs. Dachstein) was found in the systolic BP (p?=?.007) and PP (p?=?.002) changes indicating that during the combined mental and physical stress task sBP was significantly higher under hypoxic conditions whereas sBP and PP were similar during mental stress both under normobaric normoxia (Graz) and under hypobaric hypoxia (Dachstein). During the passive ascent in cable car less trivialization (psychological coping strategy) was associated with an increase in PP (p?=?.004). Conclusion Our data show that combined mental and physical stress causes a significant higher raise in sBP and PP under hypoxic conditions whereas isolated mental stress did not affect sBP and PP under hypoxic conditions. PP-reaction to ascent in healthy subjects is not uniform. BP reactions to ascent that represents an accumulation of physical (mild hypobaric hypoxia) and psychological stressors depend on predetermined psychological traits (stress coping strategies). Thus divergent cardiovascular reactions can be explained by applying the multidimensional aspects of the biopsychosocial concept. PMID:24817135

  14. Minimize nozzle stress from piping loads

    SciTech Connect

    Chao, Y.J.

    1984-01-01

    Design of nozzles in pressure vessels is guided by considering pressure loading using techniques such as the area-replacement method. Consideration is not normally given to the external loadings imposed by the connected piping system. One of the reasons is that the configuration of the piping system is not yet established at the design stage of the pressure vessel, hence forces from the piping cannot be determined. However, as experienced by stress analysis, in many cases the stresses due to external loads can be more critical than those due to internal pressure. The nozzle should be designed in such a way to withstand both the pressure and external loadings as required by the ASME Pressure Vessel Code. Therefore, it will be useful if some thought of the stress due to unforeseen external loads can be considered in the early design stage of the nozzle. This idea is accomplished in this article by employing an appropriate theory. Design graphs that give minimum stresses at a flush or protruding type nozzle in a spherical pressure vessel or a pressure vessel head for moment and thrust loadings are presented. They are based on the well-known Leckie-Penny's analysis of radial nozzles in spherical vessels. These charts may be used as a design guide in addition to the common pressure design criterion, and have the advantage of taking into account the external loadings from the attached piping system in the early design stage of the nozzle.

  15. The effect of stainless steel overlay cladding on corrosion fatigue crack propagation in pressure vessel steel in PWR primary coolant

    SciTech Connect

    Bramwell, I.L.; Tice, D.R.; Worswick, D. [AEA Technology, Risley (United Kingdom); Heys, G.B. [HM Nuclear Installations Inspectorate, Bootle (United Kingdom)

    1995-12-31

    The growth of sub-critical cracks in pressure boundary materials in light water reactors is assessed using codified procedures, but the presence of the overlay-welded stainless steel cladding on the pressure vessel is not normally taken into consideration because of the difficulty in demonstrating clad integrity for the lifetime of the plant. In order to investigate any possible effect of the cladding layer on crack propagation, tests have been performed using two types of specimen. The first was sputter ion plated with a thin layer of austenitic stainless steel to simulate the electrochemical and oxide effects due to the cladding, whilst the second used an overlay clad specimen to investigate the behavior of a crack propagating from the austenitic into the ferritic material. Testing was carried out under cyclic loading conditions in well controlled simulated PWR primary water. At 288 C, the presence of stainless steel in contact with the low alloy steel did not enhance crack propagation in PWR primary coolant compared to unclad or unplated specimens. There was limited evidence that at 288 C under certain loading conditions, in both air and PWR water, there may be an effect of the cladding which reduces crack growth rates, at least for a short distance of crack propagation into the low alloy steel. Crack growth rates in the ferritic steel at 130 C were higher for both the plated and clad specimens than found in previous tests under similar conditions on the unclad material. However, the crack growth rates were bounded by current ASME 11 Appendix A recommendations for defects exposed to water and at low R ratio. There was no evidence of environmental enhancement of crack propagation in the stainless steel in clad specimens. The results indicate that the current approach of ignoring the cladding for assessment purposes is conservative at plant operating temperature.

  16. Differences between eastern and western-type nuclear reactor pressure vessel steels as probed by Mössbauer spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Bakker, P. M. A.; Slugen, V.; de Grave, E.; van Walle, E.; Fabry, A.

    1997-09-01

    Mössbauer spectra (MS) at room temperature have been collected for non-irradiated Eastern- and Western-type nuclear reactor pressure vessel (RPV) steels. All samples showed a typical Mössbauer spectrum for steels with a low alloy-element concentration. Analysis with distributed hyperfine parameters revealed that the spectra consist of two magnetically split subspectra and that only for the Western-type RPV steels a small doublet is present. The analysis of the resulting Hhf-distribution profiles showed that for the Eastern-type steels the relative area for the ''perturbed'' component is more pronounced, and that it has a more complex structure than the corresponding profile for the Western-type steels. The additional doublet present in the MS of the Western-type steels could be assigned to Mn and/or Cr-substituted cementite, while no carbide doublet was observed for the Eastern-type RPV steel, Cr23C6, Cr7C3 and VC being the principal carbides. The distinctions between the two types of steel are due to compositional differences. The results further show that Mössbauer spectroscopy is sensitive to small changes in composition and hence is capable of distinguishing between different types of steel.

  17. Fatigue crack growth rates in a pressure vessel steel under various conditions of loading and the environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hicks, P. D.; Robinson, F. P. A.

    1986-10-01

    Corrosion fatigue (CF) tests have been carried out on SA508 Cl 3 pressure vessel steel, in simulated P.W.R. environments. The test variables investigated included air and P.W.R. water environments, frequency variation over the range 1 Hz to 10 Hz, transverse and longitudinal crack growth directions, temperatures of 20 °C and 50 °C, and R-ratios of 0.2 and 0.7. It was found that decreasing the test frequency increased fatigue crack growth rates (FCGR) in P.W.R. environments, P.W.R. environment testing gave enhanced crack growth (vs air tests), FCGRs were greater for cracks growing in the longitudinal direction, slight increases in temperature gave noticeable accelerations in FCGR, and several air tests gave FCGR greater than those predicted by the existing ASME codes. Fractographic evidence indicates that FCGRs were accelerated by a hydrogen embrittlement mechanism. The presence of elongated MnS inclusions aided both mechanical fatigue and hydrogen embrittlement processes, thus producing synergistically fast FCGRs. Both anodic dissolution and hydrogen embrittlement mechanisms have been proposed for the environmental enhancement of crack growth rates. Electrochemical potential measurements and potentiostatic tests have shown that sample isolation of the test specimens from the clevises in the apparatus is not essential during low temperature corrosion fatigue testing.

  18. The cryogenic bonding evaluation at the metallic-composite interface of a composite overwrapped pressure vessel with additional impact investigation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Clark, Eric A.

    A bonding evaluation that investigated the cryogenic tensile strength of several different adhesives/resins was performed. The test materials consisted of 606 aluminum test pieces adhered to a wet-wound graphite laminate in order to simulate the bond created at the liner-composite interface of an aluminum-lined composite overwrapped pressure vessel. It was found that for cryogenic applications, a flexible, low modulus resin system must be used. Additionally, the samples prepared with a thin layer of cured resin -- or prebond -- performed significantly better than those without. It was found that it is critical that the prebond surface must have sufficient surface roughness prior to the bonding application. Also, the aluminum test pieces that were prepared using a surface etchant slightly outperformed those that were prepared with a grit blast surface finish and performed significantly better than those that had been scored using sand paper to achieve the desired surface finish. An additional impact investigation studied the post impact tensile strength of composite rings in a cryogenic environment. The composite rings were filament wound with several combinations of graphite and aramid fibers and were prepared with different resin systems. The rings were subjected to varying levels of Charpy impact damage and then pulled to failure in tension. It was found that the addition of elastic aramid fibers with the carbon fibers mitigates the overall impact damage and drastically improves the post-impact strength of the structure in a cryogenic environment.

  19. Microstructural behavior of VVER-440 reactor pressure vessel steels under irradiation to neutron fluences beyond the design operation period

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kuleshova, E. A.; Gurovich, B. A.; Shtrombakh, Ya. I.; Nikolaev, Yu. A.; Pechenkin, V. A.

    2005-06-01

    Electron-microscopy and fractographic studies of the surveillance specimens from base and weld metals of VVER-440/213 reactor pressure vessel (RPV) in the original state and after irradiations to different fast neutron fluences from ˜5 × 10 23 n m -2 ( E > 0.5 MeV) up to over design values have been carried out. The maximum specimens irradiation time was 84 480 h. It is shown that there is an evolution in radiation-induced structural behavior with radiation dose increase, which causes a change in relative contribution of the mechanisms responsible for radiation embrittlement of RPV materials. Particularly, radiation coalescence of copper-enriched precipitates and extensive density increase of dislocation loops was observed. Increase in dislocation loop density was shown to provide the dominant contribution to radiation hardening at the late irradiation stages (after reaching double the design end-of-life neutron fluence of ˜4 × 10 24 n m -2). The fracture mechanism of the base metal at those stages was observed to change from transcrystalline to intercrystalline.

  20. Roadmap for Nondestructive Evaluation of Reactor Pressure Vessel Research and Development by the Light Water Reactor Sustainability Program

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, Cyrus M [ORNL; Nanstad, Randy K [ORNL; Clayton, Dwight A [ORNL; Matlack, Katie [Georgia Institute of Technology; Ramuhalli, Pradeep [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL); Light, Glenn [Southwest Research Institute, San Antonio

    2012-09-01

    The Department of Energy s (DOE) Light Water Reactor Sustainability (LWRS) Program is a five year effort which works to develop the fundamental scientific basis to understand, predict, and measure changes in materials and systems, structure, and components as they age in environments associated with continued long-term operations of existing commercial nuclear power reactors. This year, the Materials Aging and Degradation (MAaD) Pathway of this program has placed emphasis on emerging Non-Destructive Evaluation (NDE) methods which support these objectives. DOE funded Research and Development (R&D) on emerging NDE techniques to support commercial nuclear reactor sustainability is expected to begin next year. This summer, the MAaD Pathway invited subject matter experts to participate in a series of workshops which developed the basis for the research plan of these DOE R&D NDE activities. This document presents the results of one of these workshops which are the DOE LWRS NDE R&D Roadmap for Reactor Pressure Vessels (RPV). These workshops made a substantial effort to coordinate the DOE NDE R&D with that already underway or planned by the Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI) and the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) through their representation at these workshops.

  1. Principal stress pore pressure prediction: utilizing drilling measurements to predict pore pressure

    E-print Network

    Richardson, Kyle Wade

    2009-05-15

    A novel method of predicting pore pressure has been invented. The method utilizes currently recorded drilling measurements to predict the pore pressure of the formation through which the bit is drilling. The method applies Mohr’s Theory to describe...

  2. New series of advanced 3Cr-Mo-Ni steels for thick section pressure vessels in high temperature and pressure hydrogen service. Topical report, February 1, 1982January 31, 1984

    Microsoft Academic Search

    R. O. Ritchie; E. R. Parker; P. N. Spencer; J. A. Todd

    1984-01-01

    A new series of 3Cr-Mo-Ni steels has been developed for use in thick section pressure vessels, specifically for coal conversion (high temperature and high pressure hydrogen) service. The new steels rely on minor alloy modifications to commercial 2-1\\/4Cr-1Mo (ASTM A387 Grade 22 Class 2) steel. Based on evaluations in relatively small heats (55 kg), the experimental alloys, which employ additions

  3. Blood pressure responses to stress: Relation to left ventricular structure and function.

    PubMed

    Hinderliter, A L; Light, K C; Girdler, S S; Willis, P W; Sherwood, A

    1996-03-01

    The relations of resting blood pressure, blood pressure during standardized stressors, and workplace blood pressure to left ventricular structure and diastoKc filling were evaluated in 133 healthy young adults (mean age = 30 + 7 years) without hypertension. Each subject underwent the following." (a) measurement of basal blood pressure at the end of 15 minutes of rest; (b) measurement of blood pressure during a competitive reaction time task (a laboratory stressor which elicits a beta-adrenergically mediated increase in cardiac output); (c) measurement of blood pressure during a forehead compressor test, which results primarily in an increase in total peripheral resistance due to alpha-adrenergic stimulation; and (d) ambulatory blood pressure monitoring during a typical workday. Left ventricular structure (indexed left ventricular mass and relative wall thickness) and diastolic filling (peak filling velocity) were evaluated by echocardiography.All four measures of systolic blood pressure were significantly correlated with indexed left ventricular mass. The best predictor of indexed left ventricular mass was the systolic blood pressure during the compressor test (r = 0.32, p < O. 001), and this relation was significant after correcting for resting systolic blood pressure (p < 0.05). Relative wall thickness was most closely related to the average ambulatory workplace systolic pressure (r = 0.23, p < 0.01), and this relation was also independent of resting systolic blood pressure (p < 0.05). Peak filling velocity was inversely related to the systolic pressure in response to each stressor, but the correlations with stress-induced pressures were not significant after correcting for resting levels of blood pressure.These results demonstrate an association of structural characteristics of the left ventricle with blood pressure responses to stress. PMID:24203645

  4. Topographic stresses and slip heterogeneity in the 2008 Wenchuan earthquake: Constraints on regional stress, fault friction, and pore pressure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hetland, E. A.; Styron, R. H.; Medina Luna, L.

    2014-12-01

    Coseismic slip in the 2008 Wenchuan, China earthquake was highly heterogeneous in both magnitude and rake. The slip was predominantly thrust slip on shallow dipping fault segments near the epicenter, rotating to strike-slip on more steeply dipping fault segments to the northeast. The earthquake ruptured along the front of the Longmenshan, one of the steepest and highest mountain ranges on Earth. Fault segments that slipped in a reverse sense roughly correspond to regions of larger topographic gradients than segments that slipped in strike-slip. The weight of the mountains result in highly variable fault shear stresses on order of 10 MPa and normal stresses up to 80 MPa. The heterogeneity of coseismic slip might indicate a heterogeneity in pre-earthquake stresses, possibly influenced by the heterogeneity of topographic relief. We constrain the accumulated stress that led to the Wenchuan earthquake in a probabilistic manner using geodetically and seismically constrained coseismic slip models, aftershock focal mechanisms, and topographic stresses. We find that coseismic slip models are consistent with a homogeneous pre-earthquake stress orientation along the Longmenshan, although those models are unable to constrain the stress magnitude. We also find that the majority of the aftershocks are broadly consistent with the stress inferred from the mainshock, and that significant rotation of the stress during the Wenchuan earthquake is not required to explain the disparate mechanisms of the aftershocks. More importantly, we find that topographic shear stresses are generally opposed to the direction of fault slip, and thus that the Wenchuan earthquake worked against topographic loading. Given that tectonic stresses needed to overcome topographic stresses for the Wenchuan earthquake to have occurred, allows us to determine a minimum bound on the magnitude of accumulated tectonic stress, in addition to fault friction and pore-pressure. While we find that heterogeneities in topographic fault shear stresses likely did not lead to heterogeneities in the earthquake slip, a negative correlation between slip magnitude and topographic normal stress magnitude suggests that normal stresses may influence fault arrest.

  5. Effects of estrogen and opioid blockade on blood pressure reactivity to stress in postmenopausal women.

    PubMed

    Allen, Allyssa J; McCubbin, James A; Loveless, James P; Helfer, Suzanne G

    2014-02-01

    Estrogen may influence coronary heart disease risk in women through the effects of endogenous opioids on autonomic control of blood pressure. In a randomized, placebo-controlled trial, we examined the combined effects of estrogen and the opioid antagonist, naltrexone, on blood pressure responses to psychological stress in 42 postmenopausal women. After 3 months of estrogen or estrogen plus progestin (hormone replacement therapy; n = 27) or placebo replacement, participants completed a mental arithmetic task after administration of .7 mg/kg oral naltrexone or placebo. Systolic blood pressure (SBP), diastolic blood pressure, mean arterial pressure and heart rate (HR) were measured at rest and during the arithmetic stressor. Stress produced significant increases in circulatory measures regardless of estrogen condition or opioid blockade (p's < .001). Interestingly, there was an estrogen by naltrexone interaction on SBP reactivity scores [F(1,38) = 4.36, p < .05], where women on estrogen with intact opioid receptors showed the largest SBP responses to stress, compared with all other conditions. This is consistent with some studies of premenopausal women, suggesting that estrogens may alter opioid function during stress. The interaction between estrogen and endogenous opioids may explain sex differences in opioid effects on stress reactivity in younger premenopausal women. PMID:23135529

  6. Heat stress attenuates the increase in arterial blood pressure during the cold pressor test.

    PubMed

    Cui, Jian; Shibasaki, Manabu; Low, David A; Keller, David M; Davis, Scott L; Crandall, Craig G

    2010-11-01

    The mechanisms by which heat stress impairs the control of blood pressure leading to compromised orthostatic tolerance are not thoroughly understood. A possible mechanism may be an attenuated blood pressure response to a given increase in sympathetic activity. This study tested the hypothesis that whole body heating attenuates the blood pressure response to a non-baroreflex-mediated sympathoexcitatory stimulus. Ten healthy subjects were instrumented for the measurement of integrated muscle sympathetic nerve activity (MSNA), mean arterial blood pressure (MAP), heart rate, sweat rate, and forearm skin blood flow. Subjects were exposed to a cold pressor test (CPT) by immersing a hand in an ice water slurry for 3 min while otherwise normothermic and while heat stressed (i.e., increase core temperature ~0.7°C via water-perfused suit). Mean responses from the final minute of the CPT were evaluated. In both thermal conditions CPT induced significant increases in MSNA and MAP without altering heart rate. Although the increase in MSNA to the CPT was similar between thermal conditions (normothermia: ?14.0 ± 2.6; heat stress: ?19.1 ± 2.6 bursts/min; P = 0.09), the accompanying increase in MAP was attenuated when subjects were heat stressed (normothermia: ?25.6 ± 2.3, heat stress: ?13.4 ± 3.0 mmHg; P < 0.001). The results demonstrate that heat stress can attenuate the pressor response to a sympathoexcitatory stimulus. PMID:20798269

  7. Cyclically-Induced Pore Pressure at High Confining Stress

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Michael K. Sharp; R. Scott Steedman

    Experiments were conducted by the ERDC Centrifuge Research Team to investigate effective confining stress effects on liquefaction potential of fine, clean, Nevada sand, under the boundary and loading conditions of a centrifuge model. For this test series, twenty-six level ground models with either a dense layer over a loose layer or homogeneous profile were tested in an equivalent-shear-beam box. Some

  8. Cyclic Crack Growth Testing of an A.O. Smith Multilayer Pressure Vessel with Modal Acoustic Emission Monitoring and Data Assessment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ziola, Steven M.

    2014-01-01

    Digital Wave Corp. (DWC) was retained by Jacobs ATOM at NASA Ames Research Center to perform cyclic pressure crack growth sensitivity testing on a multilayer pressure vessel instrumented with DWC's Modal Acoustic Emission (MAE) system, with captured wave analysis to be performed using DWCs WaveExplorerTM software, which has been used at Ames since 2001. The objectives were to document the ability to detect and characterize a known growing crack in such a vessel using only MAE, to establish the sensitivity of the equipment vs. crack size and / or relevance in a realistic field environment, and to obtain fracture toughness materials properties in follow up testing to enable accurate crack growth analysis. This report contains the results of the testing.

  9. Generic analyses for evaluation of low Charpy upper-shelf energy effects on safety margins against fracture of reactor pressure vessel materials

    SciTech Connect

    Dickson, T.L. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States)

    1993-07-01

    Appendix G to 10 CFR Part 50 requires that reactor pressure vessel beltline material maintain Charpy upper-shelf energies of no less than 50 ft-lb during the plant operating life, unless it is demonstrated in a manner approved by the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC), that lower values of Charpy upper-shelf energy provide margins of safety against fracture equivalent to those in Appendix G to Section XI of the ASME Code. Analyses based on acceptance criteria and analysis methods adopted in the ASME Code Case N-512 are described herein. Additional information on material properties was provided by the NRC, Office of Nuclear Regulatory Research, Materials Engineering Branch. These cases, specified by the NRC, represent generic applications to boiling water reactor and pressurized water reactor vessels. This report is designated as HSST Report No. 140.

  10. Toward a reference ultrasonic cavitation vessel: Part 2-investigating the spatial variation and acoustic pressure threshold of inertial cavitation in a 25 kHz ultrasound field

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Mark Hodnett; Bajram Zeqiri

    2008-01-01

    As part of an ongoing project to establish a reference facility for acoustic cavitation at the National Physical Laboratory (NPL), carefully controlled studies on a 25 kHz, 1.8 kW cylindrical vessel are described. Using a patented high-frequency acoustic emission detection method and a sonar hydrophone, results are presented of the spatial variation of inertial acoustic cavitation with increasing peak-negative pressure.

  11. Measurement of through-the-thickness variations of mechanical properties in SA508 Gr.3 pressure vessel steels using ball indentation test technique

    Microsoft Academic Search

    T. S. Byun; J. H. Hong; F. M. Haggag; K. Farrell; E. H. Lee

    1997-01-01

    The through-the-thickness variations of mechanical properties in SA508 Gr.3 pressure vessel steels were measured using the automated ball indentation (ABI) test technique. Key mechanical properties, such as the yield strength, ultimate strength, flow curve and hardness, were evaluated from indentation load-depth curves. The mechanical properties measured were location-dependent and the steepest gradients in the distributions of the mechanical properties appeared

  12. Analysis of the master curve approach on the fracture toughness properties of SA508 Gr.4N Ni–Mo–Cr low alloy steels for reactor pressure vessels

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ki-Hyoung Lee; Min-Chul Kim; Bong-Sang Lee; Dang-Moon Wee

    2010-01-01

    This study aims at assessing the fracture toughness behavior of tempered martensitic Ni–Mo–Cr low alloy steels for reactor pressure vessels in a transition temperature region using a master curve approach. The fracture toughness tests for model alloys with various chemical compositions were carried out following ASTM E1921-08. The microstructures, tensile properties, and Charpy impact toughness were also evaluated. Alloying elements

  13. Critical experiments, measurements, and analyses to establish a crack arrest methodology for nuclear pressure vessel steels. Third annual progress report, October 1976September 1977

    Microsoft Academic Search

    G. T. Hahn; H. T. Corten; C. P. Debel

    1978-01-01

    Results of a program aimed at dynamic analyses of crack arrest in test pieces and thermally shocked nuclear pressure vessels, a practical laboratory test method for measuring the crack arrest toughness, and a crack arrest data base for nuclear steels and weldments are described. Dynamic, two-dimensional finite difference analyses of run-arrest events in single-edge notch and compact tension specimens have

  14. Human Physical Stresses at Normal and Abnormal Cabin Pressures

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Neal W. Pollock

    Atmospheric pressure is reduced as a function of altitude, thus making hypoxia, the condition\\u000a of oxygen deficiency, a concern for aviation. The effects of low grade hypoxia are often subtle\\u000a and may be missed by both flight crews and passengers. The most severe effects are widely appreciated\\u000a when high profile incidents occur. The international collective was stirred after October 25, 1999\\u000a when

  15. Select de novo Gene and Protein Expression During Renal Epithelial Cell Culture in Rotating Wall Vessels is Shear Stress Dependent

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. H. Kaysen; W. C. Campbell; R. R. Majewski; F. O. Goda; G. L. Navar; F. C. Lewis; T. J. Goodwin; T. G. Hammond

    1999-01-01

    .   The rotating wall vessel has gained popularity as a clinical cell culture tool to produce hormonal implants. It is desirable\\u000a to understand the mechanisms by which the rotating wall vessel induces genetic changes, if we are to prolong the useful life\\u000a of implants. During rotating wall vessel culture gravity is balanced by equal and opposite hydrodynamic forces including shear

  16. Phenylephrine-induced elevations in arterial blood pressure are attenuated in heat-stressed humans

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cui, Jian; Wilson, Thad E.; Crandall, Craig G.

    2002-01-01

    To test the hypothesis that phenylephrine-induced elevations in blood pressure are attenuated in heat-stressed humans, blood pressure was elevated via steady-state infusion of three doses of phenylephrine HCl in 10 healthy subjects in both normothermic and heat stress conditions. Whole body heating significantly increased sublingual temperature by 0.5 degrees C, muscle sympathetic nerve activity (MSNA), heart rate, and cardiac output and decreased total peripheral vascular resistance (TPR; all P < 0.005) but did not change mean arterial blood pressure (MAP; P > 0.05). At the highest dose of phenylephrine, the increase in MAP and TPR from predrug baselines was significantly attenuated during the heat stress [DeltaMAP 8.4 +/- 1.2 mmHg; DeltaTPR 0.96 +/- 0.85 peripheral resistance units (PRU)] compared with normothermia (DeltaMAP 15.4 +/- 1.4 mmHg, DeltaTPR 7.13 +/- 1.18 PRU; all P < 0.001). The sensitivity of baroreflex control of MSNA and heart rate, expressed as the slope of the relationship between MSNA and diastolic blood pressure, as well as the slope of the relationship between heart rate and systolic blood pressure, respectively, was similar between thermal conditions (each P > 0.05). These data suggest that phenylephrine-induced elevations in MAP are attenuated in heat-stressed humans without affecting baroreflex control of MSNA or heart rate.

  17. Heat transfer and stress evolution behaviours of an aluminium alloy low pressure shell casting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, D. Q.; Zhou, J. X.; Chen, T.

    2015-06-01

    Considering the solidification, demoulding and heat treatment processes in low pressure casting, relatively complete processes of an aluminium alloy shell casting are simulated to investigate the heat transfer feature and stress behaviours variation of casting in each multi-processes stage. FDM is used to discrete thermal conduction model when studying the heat transfer process, while FEM is adopted to solve the elastic-plastic model when studying the stress behaviour variation. When matching the two models, we map the finite difference mesh to finite element mesh. Three different temperature conditions, namely 300 °C, 400 °C and 500 °C, are simulated when we research the influence of demoulding temperature on stress behaviour. The simulation results demonstrate that the higher demoulding temperature is, the greater casting deformation and the smaller stress value are. The final casting stress status and the initial heat treatment temperature have a different relationship as for different parts of casting.

  18. 1-Dimensional simulation of thermal annealing in a commercial nuclear power plant reactor pressure vessel wall section

    SciTech Connect

    Nakos, J.T.; Rosinski, S.T.; Acton, R.U.

    1994-11-01

    The objective of this work was to provide experimental heat transfer boundary condition and reactor pressure vessel (RPV) section thermal response data that can be used to benchmark computer codes that simulate thermal annealing of RPVS. This specific protect was designed to provide the Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI) with experimental data that could be used to support the development of a thermal annealing model. A secondary benefit is to provide additional experimental data (e.g., thermal response of concrete reactor cavity wall) that could be of use in an annealing demonstration project. The setup comprised a heater assembly, a 1.2 in {times} 1.2 m {times} 17.1 cm thick [4 ft {times} 4 ft {times} 6.75 in] section of an RPV (A533B ferritic steel with stainless steel cladding), a mockup of the {open_quotes}mirror{close_quotes} insulation between the RPV and the concrete reactor cavity wall, and a 25.4 cm [10 in] thick concrete wall, 2.1 in {times} 2.1 in [10 ft {times} 10 ft] square. Experiments were performed at temperature heat-up/cooldown rates of 7, 14, and 28{degrees}C/hr [12.5, 25, and 50{degrees}F/hr] as measured on the heated face. A peak temperature of 454{degrees}C [850{degrees}F] was maintained on the heated face until the concrete wall temperature reached equilibrium. Results are most representative of those RPV locations where the heat transfer would be 1-dimensional. Temperature was measured at multiple locations on the heated and unheated faces of the RPV section and the concrete wall. Incident heat flux was measured on the heated face, and absorbed heat flux estimates were generated from temperature measurements and an inverse heat conduction code. Through-wall temperature differences, concrete wall temperature response, heat flux absorbed into the RPV surface and incident on the surface are presented. All of these data are useful to modelers developing codes to simulate RPV annealing.

  19. Confinement Vessel Dynamic Analysis

    SciTech Connect

    R. Robert Stevens; Stephen P. Rojas

    1999-08-01

    A series of hydrodynamic and structural analyses of a spherical confinement vessel has been performed. The analyses used a hydrodynamic code to estimate the dynamic blast pressures at the vessel's internal surfaces caused by the detonation of a mass of high explosive, then used those blast pressures as applied loads in an explicit finite element model to simulate the vessel's structural response. Numerous load cases were considered. Particular attention was paid to the bolted port connections and the O-ring pressure seals. The analysis methods and results are discussed, and comparisons to experimental results are made.

  20. Stress-strain state of multiwall carbon nanotube under internal pressure

    Microsoft Academic Search

    B. A. Galanov; S. B. Galanov; Y. Gogotsi

    2002-01-01

    A considered application of carbon nanotubes is nanopiping in nanofluidic devices. The use of nanotubes for fluid transport requires large-diameter tubes that can sustain prescribed loading without failure. Two models of the stress- strain state of long multiwall carbon nanotubes, subjected to internal pressure, are described. Cylindrical nanotubes having a Russian doll structure have been considered. It is assumed that

  1. Stress–strain State of Multiwall Carbon Nanotube Under Internal Pressure

    Microsoft Academic Search

    B. A. Galanov; S. B. Galanov; Y. Gogotsi

    2002-01-01

    A considered application of carbon nanotubes is nanopiping in nanofluidic devices. The use of nanotubes for fluid transport requires large-diameter tubes that can sustain prescribed loading without failure. Two models of the stress–strain state of long multiwall carbon nanotubes, subjected to internal pressure, are described. Cylindrical nanotubes having a Russian doll structure have been considered. It is assumed that the

  2. Stress intensity factors for cracked holes and rings loaded with polynomial crack face pressure distributions

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. F. Grandt; Wright-Patterson AFB

    1978-01-01

    The purpose of this report is to present some recent stress intensity factor solutions for cracked rings and holes which may be of general interest to other investigators. The present results are based on mode I solutions reported previously for radially cracked holes in large plates [I] and for radially cracked rings [2] loaded with an arbitrary crack face pressure.

  3. Bending stresses at longitudinal weld joints of pressurized cylindrical shells due to angular distortion

    Microsoft Academic Search

    L. S. Ong; K. H. Hoon

    1996-01-01

    This article presents a simple second-order theory for the determination of bending stresses which arise at the longitudinal welded joint of a pressurized, cylindrical shell subject to peaking, i.e., angular misalignment. Although this problem has been studied quite extensively over the years by a few authors and a few versions of simple formulas are available for the calculations of bending

  4. Family Economic Pressure and Adolescent Suicidal Ideation: Application of the Family Stress Model

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yoder, Kevin A.; Hoyt, Dan R.

    2005-01-01

    This study used a sample of 501 families from the Mississippi Delta region to examine the feasibility of the Family Stress Model for understanding adolescent suicidal ideation. The results indicated that family economic pressure was related to parental depressive symptoms, which, in turn, was related to parental hostile behavior and physical…

  5. Systolic blood pressure reactivity during submaximal exercise and acute psychological stress in youth

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Background: Studies in youth show an association between systolic blood-pressure (SBP) reactivity to acute psychological stress and carotid artery intima-media thickness (CIMT). However, it has not yet been determined whether SBP reactivity during submaximal exercise is also associated with CIMT i...

  6. Analysis of Residual Stresses in High-Pressure Sheet Metal Forming

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. Kleiner; R. Krux; W. Homberg

    2004-01-01

    The further development of innovative forming processes like sheet metal hydroforming is only possible with the help of detailed knowledge about the workpiece properties and their formation depending on the particular process strategy. Up to now, the detailed understanding regarding the formation of residual stresses in hydroforming processes like the high-pressure sheet metal forming (HBU) is insufficient. Therefore, numerical (FEM)

  7. Blood pressure and response to "stress" in 11-16 year old children.

    PubMed

    Svensson, A; Hansson, L

    1985-01-01

    Blood pressure at rest and cardiovascular response to "stress" were studied in 27 girls and 33 boys 11-16 years old. One group (HT, n = 23) had hypertensive mothers with a previous hypertensive pregnancy, another group (NT, n = 20) had normotensive mothers with a previous hypertensive pregnancy and the control group (C, n = 17) had normotensive mothers with normotensive pregnancies. Resting blood pressure was 124/71 mmHg (HT), 117/67 mmHg (NT) and 112/65 mmHg in the 3 groups. Systolic pressure was significantly different in all 3 groups (p less than 0.05 - p less than 0.001). Responses to noise stimulation (100 dBA) were identical in all groups with increases in diastolic and mean arterial blood pressure and cardiac output. During a video game session increases in blood pressure and heart rate were equal in the groups but during physical exercise a slight decrease in diastolic blood pressure was seen in the NT and C groups only. Differences in blood pressure in children with varying maternal history of hypertension do not seem to reflect alterations in the cardiovascular response pattern to "stress". PMID:3857846

  8. Stresses, strains, and surface pressures in the lung caused by its weight.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    West, J. B.; Matthews, F. L.

    1972-01-01

    In an effort to understand how the lung is deformed by its own weight, we have analyzed the distribution of regional expansion, stresses, and surface pressures in a theoretical elastic lung-shaped model using the technique of finite elements. In the upright position, the parenchyma was most expanded at the apex and least at the base. Stresses in both the vertical and lateral directions were maximal at the apex. As the lung was inflated from very low volumes to total lung capacity, parenchymal expansion and stress at the apex first decreased, then increased. This behavior can be explained by the increasing rigidity of the expanded lung which enabled it to resist distortion by its own weight. At functional residual capacity, the stress at the apex was near its minimum. The differences in intrapleural pressure down the lung were volume dependent, increasing at very low volumes. In the inverted lung, the regional differences in stress, strain, and surface pressures were less marked because of the shape of the chest.

  9. Comparison of leak point pressure methods in an animal model of stress urinary incontinence.

    PubMed

    Conway, Deirdre A; Kamo, Izumi; Yoshimura, Naoki; Chancellor, Michael B; Cannon, Tracy W

    2005-01-01

    We compared three different methods of testing leak point pressure (LPP) in rats with or without the pudendal nerves and nerves to the iliococcygeus/pubococcygeus muscles transected: (1) sneeze induced with a whisker in the nostril (sneeze LPP), (2) manually increased abdominal pressure (Crede LPP), and (3) increased intravesical pressure using the vertical tilt table method (vertical tilt table LPP). In sham rats, passive intravesical pressure rises in Crede and vertical tilt table methods induced active urethral closure mechanisms that contributed to high LPPs (41.4 and 35.5 cm H2O, respectively), which were significantly reduced by nerve transection. During sneezing, leakage was observed in nerve-transected rats, but not in sham rats, indicating that sneezing can activate an additional urethral closure mechanism. Measuring LPP during sneezing or passive intravesical pressure rises in the vertical tilt table and Crede method seems to be useful for assessing the continence mechanisms under different stress conditions in rats. PMID:16132162

  10. Deformation and stress response of composite laminated shells under internal pressure

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yuan, F. G.

    1991-01-01

    This paper presents a theoretical study of the response of filament wound composite shells under internal pressure. Each layer of the material is generally cylindrically anisotropic. By using cylindrically anisotropic elasticity field equations and Lekhnitskii's stress functions, a system of sixth-order ordinary differential equations is obtained. The general expressions for the stresses and displacements in the laminated composite shells under internal pressure are discussed. Two composite systems, graphite/epoxy and glass/epoxy, are selected to demonstrate the influence of degree of material anisotropy and fiber orientations on the axial and induced twisting deformation. Stress distributions of (45/-45)s symmetric angle-ply fiber-reinforced laminated shells are shown to illustrate the effect of radius-to-thickness ratio.

  11. Analysis of dosimetry from the H.B. Robinson unit 2 pressure vessel benchmark using RAPTOR-M3G and ALPAN

    SciTech Connect

    Fischer, G.A. [Westinghouse Electric Company, LLC, 1000 Westinghouse Dr., Cranberry Township, PA 16066 (United States)

    2011-07-01

    Document available in abstract form only, full text of document follows: The dosimetry from the H. B. Robinson Unit 2 Pressure Vessel Benchmark is analyzed with a suite of Westinghouse-developed codes and data libraries. The radiation transport from the reactor core to the surveillance capsule and ex-vessel locations is performed by RAPTOR-M3G, a parallel deterministic radiation transport code that calculates high-resolution neutron flux information in three dimensions. The cross-section library used in this analysis is the ALPAN library, an Evaluated Nuclear Data File (ENDF)/B-VII.0-based library designed for reactor dosimetry and fluence analysis applications. Dosimetry is evaluated with the industry-standard SNLRML reactor dosimetry cross-section data library. (authors)

  12. Carbon Resistor Pressure Gauge Calibration at Stresses up to 1 GPa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vandersall, Kevin S.; Niles, Angela M.; Greenwood, Daniel W.; Cunningham, Bruce; Garcia, Frank; Forbes, Jerry W.

    2002-04-01

    Calibration of the 470-Ohm carbon resistor gauge is desired in the low stress region up to 1 GPa. A split-Hopkinson pressure bar, drop tower apparatus, gas pressure chamber, and gas gun have been used to perform the calibration experiments. The gauge behavior at elevated temperature was also investigated by heating the resistors to 200 C at atmospheric pressure while observing the resistance change. The motivation for this calibration work arises from the desire to increase the number of data points in the low stress regime to better establish the accuracy and precision of the gauge. Details of the various calibration arrangements and the results are discussed and compared to calibration curves fit to previously published calibration data. It was found that in most cases, the data from this work fit the calibration curves rather well.

  13. Turbulence characterization of a high-pressure high-temperature fan-stirred combustion vessel using LDV, PIV and TR-PIV measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Galmiche, Bénédicte; Mazellier, Nicolas; Halter, Fabien; Foucher, Fabrice

    2014-01-01

    Standard particle imaging velocimetry (PIV), time-resolved particle imaging velocimetry (TR-PIV) and laser Doppler velocimetry (LDV) are complementary techniques used to measure the turbulence statistics in a fan-stirred combustion vessel. Since a solid knowledge of the aerodynamic characteristics of the turbulent flow will enable better analysis of the flame-turbulence interactions, the objective of this paper is to provide an accurate characterization of the turbulent flow inside the combustion vessel. This paper aims at becoming a reference for further work on turbulent premixed flames using this fan-stirred combustion vessel. Close approximations of homogeneous and isotropic turbulence are achieved using this setup. The integral length scales L, Taylor microscales ? and Kolmogorov length scales ?, the rms velocity fluctuations and the energy spectra are investigated using PIV, TR-PIV and LDV techniques. The difficulty to reach an accurate estimation of the integral length scale is particularly examined. The strengths and limitations of these three techniques are highlighted. High temporally resolved and high spatially resolved PIV appears as an interesting alternative to LDV in so far as close attention is paid to the measurements resolution. Indeed, the largest scales of the flow are limited by the field size and the smallest ones may be not caught with high accuracy due to the limited spatial resolution. A low spatial resolution of the PIV measurements can also lead to an underestimation of the rms velocity fluctuations. As the vessel was designed to study turbulent combustion at high initial pressure and high initial temperature, the effects of the gas temperature and pressure on the energy spectra and the turbulent parameters are finally investigated in the last part of the paper.

  14. Residual stress evaluation in martensitic stainless steel as a function of gas quenching pressure using thermal neutrons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Doyle, Edward D.; Wong, Yat Choy; Ripley, Maurice I.

    2006-11-01

    The distribution of bulk residual stress was evaluated for two modified grades of martensitic stainless steels. Residual stress levels generated in the two steels were evaluated as a function of quenching gas pressure in vacuum heat treatment using neutron diffraction. It was observed that the levels of residual stress increased with increasing gas pressure, with the high hardenability grade showing the greater increase. However, quenching at 6 bar gas pressure resulted in a significant drop in the levels of residual stress, an observation that is interpreted in terms of the accommodation of high levels of strain by the presence of high levels of interlath retained austenite.

  15. Impaired stress-induced pressure natriuresis is related to left ventricle structure in blacks.

    PubMed

    Harshfield, Gregory A; Treiber, Frank A; Davis, Harry; Kapuku, Gaston K

    2002-04-01

    The mechanisms through which stress may contribute to the racial difference in the prevalence of essential hypertension and associated target organ damage remain unclear. This study examined differences in stress-induced pressure natriuresis in 69 black and 52 white normotensives age 14 to 27 years, all with a positive family history of hypertension. Urine samples for sodium excretion were collected before and after a series of tasks (video game challenge, forehead cold stimulation). The average blood pressure across the 2 tasks and the average increase in blood pressure to the 2 tasks were calculated. Blacks had higher mean systolic (131+/-12 versus 126+/-12 mm Hg, P<0.02) and diastolic (77+/-8 versus 72+/-9 mm Hg, P<0.001) blood pressure and a greater average change in systolic blood pressure (15+/-9 versus 11+/-7 mm Hg, P<0.04). This was associated with a smaller change in sodium excretion (2+/-6 versus 7+/-10 mEq/h, P<0.002). The change in sodium excretion was related to the change in systolic (r=0.31, P<0.03) and diastolic (r=0.27, P<0.05) blood pressure in whites but not in blacks. Relative wall thickness was greater in blacks (0.31+/-0.04 versus 0.29+/-0.03, P<0.002). In conclusion, impaired stress-induced pressure natriuresis in blacks may contribute to racial differences in essential hypertension and its sequelae. PMID:11967237

  16. Calculation of Local Stress and Fatigue Resistance due to Thermal Stratification on Pressurized Surge Line Pipe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bandriyana, B.; Utaja

    2010-06-01

    Thermal stratification introduces thermal shock effect which results in local stress and fatique problems that must be considered in the design of nuclear power plant components. Local stress and fatique calculation were performed on the Pressurize Surge Line piping system of the Pressurize Water Reactor of the Nuclear Power Plant. Analysis was done on the operating temperature between 177 to 343° C and the operating pressure of 16 MPa (160 Bar). The stagnant and transient condition with two kinds of stratification model has been evaluated by the two dimensional finite elements method using the ANSYS program. Evaluation of fatigue resistance is developed based on the maximum local stress using the ASME standard Code formula. Maximum stress of 427 MPa occurred at the upper side of the top half of hot fluid pipe stratification model in the transient case condition. The evaluation of the fatigue resistance is performed on 500 operating cycles in the life time of 40 years and giving the usage value of 0,64 which met to the design requirement for class 1 of nuclear component. The out surge transient were the most significant case in the localized effects due to thermal stratification.

  17. Investigations to determine whether Section XI of the ASME (American Society of Mechanical Engineers) Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code should include PLEX (plant life extension) baseline inspection guidance

    SciTech Connect

    Bustard, L.D.

    1988-01-01

    A plant life extension (PLEX) issue repeatedly mentioned is whether special PLEX supplemental inspection requirements should be added to Section XI of the ASME Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code. To assist the ASME answer this question, the DOE Technology Management Center performed an industry survey to assess whether there was a technical consensus regarding the desirability and scope of a supplemental PLEX baseline inspection. This survey demonstrated the lack of an initial industry consensus. In response to the survey results, ASME has formed a task group to investigate various PLEX supplemental inspection strategies and to assess their value and liabilities. The results of the survey and initial task group activities are reviewed.

  18. Oxidative Stress is Associated with Increased Pulmonary Artery Systolic Pressure in Humans

    PubMed Central

    Ghasemzadeh, Nima; Patel, Riyaz S.; Eapen, Danny J.; Veledar, Emir; Kassem, Hatem Al; Manocha, Pankaj; Khayata, Mohamed; Zafari, A. Maziar; Sperling, Laurence; Jones, Dean P; Quyyumi, Arshed A.

    2014-01-01

    Oxidative stress contributes to the development of pulmonary hypertension in experimental models, but this association in humans is unknown. We investigated the relationship between pulmonary artery systolic pressure measured by echocardiography and plasma aminothiol oxidative stress markers, with the hypothesis that oxidative stress will be higher in those with pulmonary hypertension. A group of 347 patients aged 65±12 years from the Emory Cardiovascular Biobank underwent echocardiographic assessment of left ventricular ejection fraction and pulmonary artery systolic pressure. Plasma aminothiols, cysteine, its oxidized form, cystine; glutathione, and its oxidized disulphide (GSSG) were measured and the redox potentials (Eh) of cysteine/cystine and glutathione/GSSG couples were calculated. Non-normally distributed variables were log transformed (Ln). Univariate predictors of pulmonary artery systolic pressure included age (p<0.001), gender (p=0.002), mitral regurgitation (p<0.001), left ventricular ejection fraction (p<0.001), left atrial size (p< 0.001), diabetes (p=0.03), Plasma Ln cystine (?=9.53, p<0.001), Ln glutathione (? =-5.4, p=0.002), and Eh glutathione (? =0.21, p=0.001). A multivariate linear regression model adjusting for all confounding variables demonstrated that Ln cystine (?=6.56, p=0.007), mitral regurgitation (?= 4.52, P<0.001), statin use (? =-3.39, p=0.03), left ventricular ejection fraction (?=-0.26, p=0.003), and age (?=0.17, p=0.003) were independent predictors of pulmonary artery systolic pressure. For each 1% increase in plasma cystine, pulmonary artery systolic pressure increased by 16%. This association persisted in the subgroup with preserved left ventricular ejection fraction (?50%) and no significant mitral regurgitation. Whether treatment of oxidative stress will improve pulmonary hypertension requires further study. PMID:24614216

  19. 46 CFR 38.05-3 - Design and construction of pressure vessel type cargo tanks-TB/ALL.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ...of not less than the vapor pressure of the gas at 105 °F. The...based on the minimum internal pressure (maximum vacuum) plus the...maintained below the normal atmospheric temperature by refrigeration...means shall be designed for a pressure of not less than 110...

  20. 46 CFR 38.05-3 - Design and construction of pressure vessel type cargo tanks-TB/ALL.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ...of not less than the vapor pressure of the gas at 105 °F. The...based on the minimum internal pressure (maximum vacuum) plus the...maintained below the normal atmospheric temperature by refrigeration...means shall be designed for a pressure of not less than 110...

  1. 46 CFR 38.05-3 - Design and construction of pressure vessel type cargo tanks-TB/ALL.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ...of not less than the vapor pressure of the gas at 105 °F. The...based on the minimum internal pressure (maximum vacuum) plus the...maintained below the normal atmospheric temperature by refrigeration...means shall be designed for a pressure of not less than 110...

  2. 46 CFR 38.05-3 - Design and construction of pressure vessel type cargo tanks-TB/ALL.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ...of not less than the vapor pressure of the gas at 105 °F. The...based on the minimum internal pressure (maximum vacuum) plus the...maintained below the normal atmospheric temperature by refrigeration...means shall be designed for a pressure of not less than 110...

  3. Validation of leak before break cases applied to reactor pressure vessels by large scale experiments and the R6 fracture assessment method

    SciTech Connect

    Sharples, J.K.; Sherry, A.H. [AEA Technology, Risley (United Kingdom); Stewart, G. [British Nuclear Fuels plc, Sellafield (United Kingdom)

    1996-12-01

    Leak-before-break (LBB) arguments are often relied upon when making plant life extension safety cases for primary pressure vessels in some UK Magnox stations. The calculation of critical crack length of through-wall defects is a central feature to LBB arguments. Within the UK, such calculations are performed by the R6 fracture assessment method. In order to underwrite the integrity of specific Magnox reactor vessels in terms of LBB, a series of large scale fracture experiments were carried out. These were undertaken on wide plate specimens containing a through-wall crack situated in appropriate weld material. Applying R6 methodology to the experiments in the same way that it was applied to the plant vessels enabled margins on the critical crack length calculations to be determined. Data obtained from the experiments, together with calculations based on the higher order (Option 3) R6 failure assessment diagram, also enabled structural J-resistance fracture curves to be obtained. These curves were compared with those obtained from conventional small-scale specimens of the same weld material.

  4. Stress-reorientation of hydrides and hydride embrittlement of Zr-2.5 wt% Nb pressure tube alloy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Singh, R. N.; Kishore, R.; Singh, S. S.; Sinha, T. K.; Kashyap, B. P.

    2004-02-01

    Hydrogen in excess of the terminal solid solubility precipitates out as a brittle hydride phase in zirconium alloys. The hydrides acquire platelet shaped morphology due to their accommodation in the matrix and can cause severe embrittlement, especially when these are oriented normal to the tensile stress axis. The precipitation of hydride platelets normal to the tensile stress when cooled under stress from a solution-annealing temperature is commonly referred to as 'stress-reorientation'. The stress-reorientation is associated with a threshold stress below which no reorientation is observed. In this work, stress-reorientation of hydrides was investigated for unirradiated, cold worked and stress-relieved Zr-2.5 wt% Nb pressure tube material for a reorientation temperature of 423-723 K. The effect of the reoriented hydrides on the tensile properties of the Zr-2.5 wt% Nb pressure tube alloy was evaluated in the temperature range of 298-573 K.

  5. Studies on Contraction Flows and Pressure-Drops—Extensional Viscosity and Dissipative Stress Effects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tamaddon-Jahromi, H. R.; Syed, F. S.; Webster, M. F.

    2008-07-01

    In this paper, we explore the ability of network-type models (Phan-Thien/Tanner PTT) to reflect enhanced pressure drops in contraction/expansion flows (ratio 4:1:4). Severe strain hardening is captured through suitable parametric control, whilst ensuring strong suppression of shear-thinning properties, to approximate those of typical solvent-dominated Boger fluids. This advances upon our prior work with Oldroyd models. The position is further contrasted against that for dissipative stress models, where both inelastic and viscoelastic models are introduced with some interesting consequences. The numerical techniques adopted follow a hybrid finite element/volume algorithm of incremental pressure-correction time-stepping structure.

  6. Non-Euclidean stress-free configuration of arteries accounting for curl of axial strips sectioned from vessels.

    PubMed

    Takamizawa, Keiichi; Nakayama, Yasuhide

    2013-11-01

    It is well known that arteries are subject to residual stress. In earlier studies, the residual stress in the arterial ring relieved by a radial cut was considered in stress analysis. However, it has been found that axial strips sectioned from arteries also curled into arcs, showing that the axial residual stresses were relieved from the arterial walls. The combined relief of circumferential and axial residual stresses must be considered to accurately analyze stress and strain distributions under physiological loading conditions. In the present study, a mathematical model of a stress-free configuration of artery was proposed using Riemannian geometry. Stress analysis for arterial walls under unloaded and physiologically loaded conditions was performed using exponential strain energy functions for porcine and human common carotid arteries. In the porcine artery, the circumferential stress distribution under physiological loading became uniform compared with that without axial residual strain, whereas a gradient of axial stress distribution increased through the wall thickness. This behavior showed almost the same pattern that was observed in a recent study in which approximate analysis accounting for circumferential and axial residual strains was performed, whereas the circumferential and axial stresses increased from the inner surface to the outer surface under a physiological condition in the human common carotid artery of a two-layer model based on data of other recent studies. In both analyses, Riemannian geometry was appropriate to define the stress-free configurations of the arterial walls with both circumferential and axial residual strains. PMID:24008313

  7. Analysis of radiation-induced embrittlement gradients on fracture characteristics of thick-walled pressure vessel steels

    Microsoft Academic Search

    F. J. Loss; J. R. Hawthorne; C. Z. Jr. Serpan; P. P. Puzak

    1971-01-01

    The fracture behavior of thick-walled nuclear vessels is considered for the case of a radiation-induced toughness gradient through the wall which characteristically results from neutron attenuation by the wall material itself. Fracture-safe design analyses based on linear elastic formulations or extrapolations of these formulations to the elastic-plastic regime are not sufficiently developed to characterize the integrated behavior of a wall

  8. Effect of supplementation of water-soluble vitamins on oxidative stress and blood pressure in prehypertensives.

    PubMed

    Talikoti, Prashanth; Bobby, Zachariah; Hamide, Abdoul

    2015-01-01

    The objective of the study was to evaluate the effect of water-soluble vitamins on oxidative stress and blood pressure in prehypertensives. Sixty prehypertensives were recruited and randomized into 2 groups of 30 each. One group received water-soluble vitamins and the other placebo for 4 months. Further increase in blood pressure was not observed in the vitamin group which increased significantly in the placebo group at the end of 4 months. Malonedialdehyde and protein carbonylation were reduced during the course of treatment with vitamins whereas in the placebo group there was an increase in the level of malondialdehyde. In conclusion, supplementation of water-soluble vitamins in prehypertension reduces oxidative stress and its progression to hypertension. PMID:25588130

  9. Hydrogen sulfide treatment reduces blood pressure and oxidative stress in angiotensin II-induced hypertensive mice.

    PubMed

    Al-Magableh, Mohammad R; Kemp-Harper, Barbara K; Hart, Joanne L

    2015-01-01

    Hydrogen sulfide (H2S) is increasingly recognized as a gasotransmitter with protective effects in the cardiovascular system. The aim of the study was to examine the effects of chronic NaHS treatment on blood pressure, vascular function and oxidative stress in an in vivo model of hypertension and oxidative stress. Male C57Bl6/J mice were rendered hypertensive with 0.7 mg kg(-1) per day angiotensin II (AngII) for 14 days administered via implanted mini-pumps. The mice were treated with NaHS (10 ?mol kg(-1) per day) to deliver H2S or an inhibitor of cystathionine-?-lyase, DL-propargylglycine (PPG 30 mg kg(-1) per day) via intraperitoneal (i.p.) injection. Systolic blood pressure was measured and vascular function examined by myography. Vascular superoxide production was measured by lucigenin-enhanced chemiluminescence. AngII infusion significantly increased systolic blood pressure (P < 0.001). This increase was significantly attenuated by treatment with NaHS (P < 0.001). Both aortic endothelial function and NO bioavailability were significantly attenuated in the AngII group (P < 0.01) but this attenuation was reversed by NaHS treatment. Similarly, aortic superoxide anion production was significantly enhanced by AngII (P < 0.01), and this was reversed by NaHS treatment, and also exacerbated by PPG treatment (P < 0.001). These data show that in a mouse model of hypertension and oxidative stress induced by AngII, exogenous H2S treatment in vivo reduces blood pressure, endothelial dysfunction and vascular oxidative stress, while inhibiting endogenous H2S production in vivo is deleterious. This furthers the evidence that H2S is a vasoprotective molecule that may be a useful treatment target in cardiovascular disease. PMID:25099489

  10. Suburethral sling procedure for genuine stress incontinence and low urethral closure pressure. A continued experience

    Microsoft Academic Search

    R. L. Summitt; A. E. Bent; D. R. Ostergard; Toni A. Harris

    1992-01-01

    Forty-eight patients with genuine stress incontinence and low urethral closure pressure have undergone a suburethral sling procedure using polytetrafluoroethylene. Forty-five of the 48 patients have been followed up beyond 3 months, allowing assessment of postoperative complications. Ten patients required intermittent self-catheterization, 6 continuing beyond 3 months secondary to obstructed voiding or vesical dysfunction. Six slings were removed due to graft

  11. Comparison of MELCOR modeling techniques and effects of vessel water injection on a low-pressure, short-term, station blackout at the Grand Gulf Nuclear Station

    SciTech Connect

    Carbajo, J.J.

    1995-06-01

    A fully qualified, best-estimate MELCOR deck has been prepared for the Grand Gulf Nuclear Station and has been run using MELCOR 1.8.3 (1.8 PN) for a low-pressure, short-term, station blackout severe accident. The same severe accident sequence has been run with the same MELCOR version for the same plant using the deck prepared during the NUREG-1150 study. A third run was also completed with the best-estimate deck but without the Lower Plenum Debris Bed (BH) Package to model the lower plenum. The results from the three runs have been compared, and substantial differences have been found. The timing of important events is shorter, and the calculated source terms are in most cases larger for the NUREG-1150 deck results. However, some of the source terms calculated by the NUREG-1150 deck are not conservative when compared to the best-estimate deck results. These results identified some deficiencies in the NUREG-1150 model of the Grand Gulf Nuclear Station. Injection recovery sequences have also been simulated by injecting water into the vessel after core relocation started. This marks the first use of the new BH Package of MELCOR to investigate the effects of water addition to a lower plenum debris bed. The calculated results indicate that vessel failure can be prevented by injecting water at a sufficiently early stage. No pressure spikes in the vessel were predicted during the water injection. The MELCOR code has proven to be a useful tool for severe accident management strategies.

  12. Accelerated crack growth, residual stress, and a cracked zinc coated pressure shell

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dittman, Daniel L.; Hampton, Roy W.; Nelson, Howard G.

    1987-01-01

    During a partial inspection of a 42 year old, operating, pressurized wind tunnel at NASA-Ames Research Center, a surface connected defect 114 in. long having an indicated depth of a 0.7 in. was detected. The pressure shell, constructed of a medium carbon steel, contains approximately 10 miles of welds and is cooled by flowing water over its zinc coated external surface. Metallurgical and fractographic analysis showed that the actual detect was 1.7 in. deep, and originated from an area of lack of weld penetration. Crack growth studies were performed on the shell material in the laboratory under various loading rates, hold times, and R-ratios with a simulated shell environment. The combination of zinc, water with electrolyte, and steel formed an electrolytic cell which resulted in an increase in cyclic crack growth rate by as much as 500 times over that observed in air. It was concluded that slow crack growth occurred in the pressure shell by a combination of stress corrosion cracking due to the welding residual stress and corrosion fatigue due to the cyclic operating stress.

  13. The determinants of fishing vessel accident severity.

    PubMed

    Jin, Di

    2014-05-01

    The study examines the determinants of fishing vessel accident severity in the Northeastern United States using vessel accident data from the U.S. Coast Guard for 2001-2008. Vessel damage and crew injury severity equations were estimated separately utilizing the ordered probit model. The results suggest that fishing vessel accident severity is significantly affected by several types of accidents. Vessel damage severity is positively associated with loss of stability, sinking, daytime wind speed, vessel age, and distance to shore. Vessel damage severity is negatively associated with vessel size and daytime sea level pressure. Crew injury severity is also positively related to the loss of vessel stability and sinking. PMID:24473412

  14. Preparation and residual stress characterization of polycrystalline silicon germanium films grown by atmospheric pressure chemical vapor deposition

    SciTech Connect

    Fiorini, P.; Sedky, S.; Caymax, M.; Baert, C.

    1997-07-01

    Polycrystalline silicon-germanium alloys (poly-SiGe) are deposited by chemical vapor deposition at atmospheric and reduced pressure. The stress, as well as its profile along the growth direction, are measured. Depending on the deposition pressure the stress can be compressive or tensile, the profile of the stress is in both cases rather uniform. The behavior of the stress as a function of annealing temperature is also investigated. Films which are compressive as grown can be made tensile by annealing, films which are tensile as grown remains tensile even after high temperature annealing.

  15. 49 CFR 192.557 - Uprating: Steel pipelines to a pressure that will produce a hoop stress less than 30 percent of...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ...to a pressure that will produce a hoop stress less than 30 percent of SMYS: plastic...to a pressure that will produce a hoop stress less than 30 percent of SMYS: plastic...operating pressure that will produce a hoop stress less than 30 percent of SMYS and...

  16. 49 CFR 192.555 - Uprating to a pressure that will produce a hoop stress of 30 percent or more of SMYS in steel...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ...Uprating to a pressure that will produce a hoop stress of 30 percent or more of SMYS in steel...to a pressure that will produce a hoop stress of 30 percent or more of SMYS in steel...operating pressure that will produce a hoop stress of 30 percent or more of SMYS and...

  17. 49 CFR 192.557 - Uprating: Steel pipelines to a pressure that will produce a hoop stress less than 30 percent of...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ...to a pressure that will produce a hoop stress less than 30 percent of SMYS: plastic...to a pressure that will produce a hoop stress less than 30 percent of SMYS: plastic...operating pressure that will produce a hoop stress less than 30 percent of SMYS and...

  18. 49 CFR 192.557 - Uprating: Steel pipelines to a pressure that will produce a hoop stress less than 30 percent of...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ...to a pressure that will produce a hoop stress less than 30 percent of SMYS: plastic...to a pressure that will produce a hoop stress less than 30 percent of SMYS: plastic...operating pressure that will produce a hoop stress less than 30 percent of SMYS and...

  19. 49 CFR 192.555 - Uprating to a pressure that will produce a hoop stress of 30 percent or more of SMYS in steel...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ...Uprating to a pressure that will produce a hoop stress of 30 percent or more of SMYS in steel...to a pressure that will produce a hoop stress of 30 percent or more of SMYS in steel...operating pressure that will produce a hoop stress of 30 percent or more of SMYS and...

  20. 49 CFR 192.555 - Uprating to a pressure that will produce a hoop stress of 30 percent or more of SMYS in steel...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ...Uprating to a pressure that will produce a hoop stress of 30 percent or more of SMYS in steel...to a pressure that will produce a hoop stress of 30 percent or more of SMYS in steel...operating pressure that will produce a hoop stress of 30 percent or more of SMYS and...

  1. 49 CFR 192.555 - Uprating to a pressure that will produce a hoop stress of 30 percent or more of SMYS in steel...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ...Uprating to a pressure that will produce a hoop stress of 30 percent or more of SMYS in steel...to a pressure that will produce a hoop stress of 30 percent or more of SMYS in steel...operating pressure that will produce a hoop stress of 30 percent or more of SMYS and...

  2. 49 CFR 192.557 - Uprating: Steel pipelines to a pressure that will produce a hoop stress less than 30 percent of...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ...to a pressure that will produce a hoop stress less than 30 percent of SMYS: plastic...to a pressure that will produce a hoop stress less than 30 percent of SMYS: plastic...operating pressure that will produce a hoop stress less than 30 percent of SMYS and...

  3. Relationship of demographic, life-style, and stress variables to blood pressure in adolescents.

    PubMed

    Thomas, S P; Gröer, M W

    1986-01-01

    The relationship of selected predictor variables to blood pressures of freshman students (N = 323) attending rural, urban, and suburban high schools was examined. Independent variables included 7 anthropometric and demographic factors, 10 life-style factors, and 38 stress factors. Significant predictors of higher systolic pressure in the regression analysis were age, gender, body mass index, and urban residence. Urban subjects also had poorer health habits. Significant predictors of diastolic pressure were body mass index, smoking, and lack of regular exercise. Gender differences in amount and types of stressors were independent of geographic location. Males and females exhibited different dietary and exercise patterns; males exercised more, but had less healthy eating habits. PMID:3635053

  4. Development of wireless compressive\\/relaxation-stress measurement system integrated with pressure-sensitive carbon black-filled silicone rubber-based sensors

    Microsoft Academic Search

    S. L. Wang; P. Wang; T. H. Ding

    2010-01-01

    In order to detect the installation compressive stress and monitor the stress relaxation between two bending surfaces on a defensive furnishment, a wireless compressive-stress\\/relaxation-stress measurement system based on pressure-sensitive sensors is developed. The flexible pressure-sensitive stress sensor array is fabricated by using carbon black-filled silicone rubber-based composite. The wireless stress measurement system integrated with this sensor array is tested with

  5. Stress reduction programs in patients with elevated blood pressure: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Rainforth, Maxwell V; Schneider, Robert H; Nidich, Sanford I; Gaylord-King, Carolyn; Salerno, John W; Anderson, James W

    2007-12-01

    Substantial evidence indicates that psychosocial stress contributes to hypertension and cardiovascular disease (CVD). Previous meta-analyses of stress reduction and high blood pressure (BP) were outdated and/or methodologically limited. Therefore, we conducted an updated systematic review of the published literature and identified 107 studies on stress reduction and BP. Seventeen trials with 23 treatment comparisons and 960 participants with elevated BP met criteria for well-designed randomized controlled trials and were replicated within intervention categories. Meta-analysis was used to calculate BP changes for biofeedback, -0.8/-2.0 mm Hg (P = NS); relaxation-assisted biofeedback, +4.3/+2.4 mm Hg (P = NS); progressive muscle relaxation, -1.9/-1.4 mm Hg (P = NS); stress management training, -2.3/-1.3 mm (P = NS); and the Transcendental Meditation program, -5.0/-2.8 mm Hg (P = 0.002/0.02). Available evidence indicates that among stress reduction approaches, the Transcendental Meditation program is associated with significant reductions in BP. Related data suggest improvements in other CVD risk factors and clinical outcomes. PMID:18350109

  6. Transient pore pressure response to confining stress excursions in Berea sandstone flooded with an aqueous solution of CO2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Crews, Jackson B.; Cooper, Clay A.

    2014-06-01

    We measured the pore pressure response due to carbon dioxide (CO2) gas bubble nucleation and growth in a Berea sandstone core flooded with an initially subsaturated aqueous solution of CO2, in response to a rapid drop in confining stress, under conditions representative of a confined aquifer. A portion of the CO2 in the Earth's crust, derived from volcanic, magmatic, and biogenic sources, dissolves in groundwater. Sudden reductions in confining stress in the Earth's crust occur due to dilational strain generated by the propagation of seismic Rayleigh and P waves, or aseismic slip in the near field of earthquakes. A drop in confining stress produces a proportional drop in pore fluid pressure. When the pore fluid contains dissolved CO2, the pore pressure responds to a drop in confining stress like it does in the dissolved gas-free case, until the pore pressure falls below the bubble pressure. Gas bubble nucleation and diffusive growth in the pore space trigger spontaneous, transient buildup of the pore fluid pressure, and reduction of effective stress. We measured the rate of pore fluid pressure buildup in the 100 s immediately following the confining stress drop, as a function of the saturation with respect to CO2 at the lowest pore pressure realized during the confining stress drop, using five different CO2 partial pressures. The rate scales with the saturation with respect to dissolved CO2, from 10 kPa/min at 1.25 to 166 kPa/min at 1.8. The net pore pressure rise was as large as 0.7 MPa (100 psi) over 5 h.

  7. Asymmetric Yield Function Based on the Stress Invariants for Pressure Sensitive Metals

    SciTech Connect

    Jeong Wahn Yoon; Yanshan Lou; Jong Hun Yoon; Michael V. Glazoff

    2014-05-01

    A general asymmetric yield function is proposed with dependence on the stress invariants for pressure sensitive metals. The pressure sensitivity of the proposed yield function is consistent with the experimental result of Spitzig and Richmond (1984) for steel and aluminum alloys while the asymmetry of the third invariant is preserved to model strength differential (SD) effect of pressure insensitive materials. The proposed yield function is transformed in the space of the stress triaxaility, the von Mises stress and the normalized invariant to theoretically investigate the possible reason of the SD effect. The proposed plasticity model is further extended to characterize the anisotropic behavior of metals both in tension and compression. The extension of the yield function is realized by introducing two distinct fourth-order linear transformation tensors of the stress tensor for the second and third invariants, respectively. The extended yield function reasonably models the evolution of yield surfaces for a zirconium clock-rolled plate during in-plane and through-thickness compression reported by Plunkett et al. (2007). The extended yield function is also applied to describe the orthotropic behavior of a face-centered cubic metal of AA 2008-T4 and two hexagonal close-packed metals of high-purity-titanium and AZ31 magnesium alloy. The orthotropic behavior predicted by the generalized model is compared with experimental results of these metals. The comparison validates that the proposed yield function provides sufficient predictability on SD effect and anisotropic behavior both in tension and compression. When it is necessary to consider r-value anisotropy, the proposed function is efficient to be used with nonassociated flow plasticity by introducing a separate plastic potential for the consideration of r-values as shown in Stoughton & Yoon (2004, 2009).

  8. Providing Pressurized Gasses to the International Space Station (ISS): Developing a Composite Overwrapped Pressure Vessel (COPV) for the Safe Transport of Oxygen and Nitrogen

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kezirian, Michael; Cook, Anthony; Dick, Brandon; Phoenix, S. Leigh

    2012-01-01

    To supply oxygen and nitrogen to the International Space Station, a COPV tank is being developed to meet requirements beyond that which have been flown. In order to "Ship Full' and support compatibility with a range of launch site operations, the vessel was designed for certification to International Standards (ISO) that have a different approach than current NASA certification approaches. These requirements were in addition to existing NASA certification standards had to be met. Initial risk-reduction development tests have been successful. Qualification is in progress.

  9. Do Cardiovascular Responses to Laboratory Stress Relate to Ambulatory Blood Pressure Levels?: Yes, In Some of the People, Some of the Time

    Microsoft Academic Search

    KAREN A. MATTHEWS; JANE F. OWENS; MICHAEL T. ALLEN; CATHERINE M. STONEY

    Because the correspondence between laboratory measures of blood pressure and heart rate responses to slress and ambulatory measures is less than optimal, this study tested two hypotheses: Are ambulatory measures of blood pressure elevated during periods of perceived stress, relative lo no stress? Are ambulatory blood pressures elevated during perceived slress among those individuals who exhibit elevated blood pressure and

  10. Parametric study of PWR pressure vessel integrity during overcooling accidents, considering both 2-D and 3-D flaws

    Microsoft Academic Search

    R. D. Cheverton; D. G. Ball

    1985-01-01

    A continuing analysis of the pressurized water reactor pressurized thermal-shock problem indicates that the previously accepted degree of conservatism in the fracture-mechanics model needs to be more closely evaluated and, if excessive, reduced. One feature that was believed to be conservative was the use of two-dimensional as opposed to finite-length flaws. The degree of conservatism could not be adequately investigated

  11. Tumor Blood Vessel Dynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Munn, Lance

    2009-11-01

    ``Normalization'' of tumor blood vessels has shown promise to improve the efficacy of chemotherapeutics. In theory, anti-angiogenic drugs targeting endothelial VEGF signaling can improve vessel network structure and function, enhancing the transport of subsequent cytotoxic drugs to cancer cells. In practice, the effects are unpredictable, with varying levels of success. The predominant effects of anti-VEGF therapies are decreased vessel leakiness (hydraulic conductivity), decreased vessel diameters and pruning of the immature vessel network. It is thought that each of these can influence perfusion of the vessel network, inducing flow in regions that were previously sluggish or stagnant. Unfortunately, when anti-VEGF therapies affect vessel structure and function, the changes are dynamic and overlapping in time, and it has been difficult to identify a consistent and predictable normalization ``window'' during which perfusion and subsequent drug delivery is optimal. This is largely due to the non-linearity in the system, and the inability to distinguish the effects of decreased vessel leakiness from those due to network structural changes in clinical trials or animal studies. We have developed a mathematical model to calculate blood flow in complex tumor networks imaged by two-photon microscopy. The model incorporates the necessary and sufficient components for addressing the problem of normalization of tumor vasculature: i) lattice-Boltzmann calculations of the full flow field within the vasculature and within the tissue, ii) diffusion and convection of soluble species such as oxygen or drugs within vessels and the tissue domain, iii) distinct and spatially-resolved vessel hydraulic conductivities and permeabilities for each species, iv) erythrocyte particles advecting in the flow and delivering oxygen with real oxygen release kinetics, v) shear stress-mediated vascular remodeling. This model, guided by multi-parameter intravital imaging of tumor vessel structure and function, provides a tool for identifying the structural and functional determinants of tumor vessel normalization.

  12. Statistical analysis of Kevlar 49/epoxy composite stress-rupture data

    SciTech Connect

    Glaser, R.E.

    1983-09-01

    Statistical analyses are presented for LLNL stress-rupture data sets involving kevlar 49/epoxy strands and NASA Kevlar 49/epoxy spherical pressure vessels subjected to sustained loading. Raw data, summarized inferences, and figures are included.

  13. Recovery of the Shear Modulus and Residual Stress of Hyperelastic Soft Tissues by Inverse Spectral Techniques

    E-print Network

    Gou, Kun 1981-

    2012-11-15

    frequencies of the vessel wall material. As the IVUS is interrogating inside the artery, it produces small amplitude, high frequency time harmonic vibrations superimposed on the quasistatic deformation of the blood pressure pre-stressed and residually...

  14. Clinical investigation of the pressure and shear stress on the trans-tibial stump with a prosthesis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M Zhang; A. R Turner-Smith; A Tanner; V. C Roberts

    1998-01-01

    A system for measuring pressures and bi-axial shear stresses at the body support interfaces has been developed. This system has been used, in five unilateral trans-tibial amputees, to investigate the stresses at multiple points on the residual limb and prosthetic socket interface during standing and walking. The subjects investigated regularly used a patellar-tendon-bearing socket. The maximum peak pressure at the

  15. Nocturnal blood pressure non-dipping, posttraumatic stress disorder, and sleep quality in women.

    PubMed

    Ulmer, Christi S; Calhoun, Patrick S; Bosworth, Hayden B; Dennis, Michelle F; Beckham, Jean C

    2013-01-01

    Women with posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) have poor sleep quality and increased risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD). Non-dipping of nocturnal blood pressure may be an explanatory factor for the relationship between sleep and CVD found in previous research. The current study was designed to determine if non-dipping nocturnal blood pressure was associated with trauma exposure, PTSD diagnosis, PTSD symptoms, and sleep quality in a sample of women. Participants completed 24 hours of ABPM and self-report questionnaires. Non-dipping was defined as less than 10% reduction in blood pressure during sleep. The frequency of non-dippers did not differ by diagnostic status (d = .15). However, non-dippers endorsed more traumatic event categories (d = .53), more PTSD hyperarousal symptoms (d = .53), poorer overall sleep quality (d = .59), more frequent use of sleep medication (d = .62), greater sleep-related daytime dysfunction (d = .58), and longer sleep onset latencies (d = .55) than dippers. Increased attention to nocturnal blood pressure variation may be needed to improve blood pressure control in trauma-exposed women. PMID:24236808

  16. Impact of Wall Shear Stress and Pressure Variation on the Stability of Atherosclerotic Plaque

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Taviani, V.; Li, Z. Y.; Sutcliffe, M.; Gillard, J.

    Rupture of vulnerable atheromatous plaque in the carotid and coronary arteries often leads to stroke and heart attack respectively. The mechanism of blood flow and plaque rupture in stenotic arteries is still not fully understood. A three dimensional rigid wall model was solved under steady and unsteady conditions assuming a time-varying inlet velocity profile to investigate the relative importance of axial forces and pressure drops in arteries with asymmetric stenosis. Flow-structure interactions were investigated for the same geometry and the results were compared with those retrieved with the corresponding one dimensional models. The Navier-Stokes equations were used as the governing equations for the fluid. The tube wall was assumed linearly elastic, homogeneous isotropic. The analysis showed that wall shear stress is small (less than 3.5%) with respect to pressure drop throughout the cycle even for severe stenosis. On the contrary, the three dimensional behavior of velocity, pressure and wall shear stress is in general very different from that predicted by one dimensional models. This suggests that the primary source of mistakes in one dimensional studies comes from neglecting the three dimensional geometry of the plaque. Neglecting axial forces only involves minor errors.

  17. Lattice strain of osmium diboride under high pressure and nonhydrostatic stress

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kavner, Abby; Weinberger, Michelle B.; Shahar, Anat; Cumberland, Robert W.; Levine, Jonathan B.; Kaner, Richard B.; Tolbert, Sarah H.

    2012-07-01

    The lattice strain behavior of osmium diboride—a member of a group of third-row transition metal borides associated with hard/superhard behavior—has been studied using radial diffraction in a diamond anvil cell under high pressure and non-hydrostatic stress. We interpret the average values of the measured lattice strains as a lower-bound to the lattice-plane dependent yield strengths using existing estimates for the elastic constants of OsB2, with a yield strength of 11 GPa at 27.5 GPa of hydrostatic pressure. The measured differential lattice strains show significant plane-dependent anisotropy, with the (101) lattice plane showing the largest differential strain and the (001) lattice plane showing the least strain. At the highest pressure, the a-axis develops a larger compressive strain and supports a larger differential strain than either the b or c axes. This causes an increase in the c/a ratio and a decrease in the a/b ratio especially in the maximum stress direction. The large strength anisotropy of this material points to possible ways to modulate directional mechanical properties by taking advantage of the interplay between aggregate polycrystalline texture with directional mechanical properties.

  18. Stress evolution during and after sputter deposition of Cu thin films onto Si (100) substrates under various sputtering pressures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pletea, M.; Brückner, W.; Wendrock, H.; Kaltofen, R.

    2005-03-01

    The stress evolution during and after dc magnetron sputter deposition of Cu thin films with thicknesses of 20 and 300 nm and deposited with a constant rate of 0.1nm/s onto Si (100) substrates is studied for various sputtering pressures (0.05-6 Pa). The stress was determined by means of in situ wafer curvature measurements using an optical two-beam deflection method. To correlate the stress evolution with the microstructure development, microstructure investigations were performed by scanning electron microscopy, atomic force microscopy, and electron backscatter diffraction. The results show the transition from tensile to compressive stress with decreasing sputtering pressure at different stages of the deposition. The features of the stress evolution during the early stage of deposition can be ascribed to the Volmer-Weber mechanism. For thicker films, three regions of the sputtering pressure can be distinguished concerning their effect on the stress evolution. The transition from compressive to tensile stress was correlated with the evolution from a dense to an open microstructure and with increasing surface roughness by increasing sputtering pressure. The results of the stress and microstructure evolution are interpreted in the context of the mechanisms being discussed in the literature.

  19. Application of hydrogen water chemistry to moderate corrosive circumstances around the reactor pressure vessel bottom of boiling water reactors

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Shunsuke Uchida; Eishi Ibe; Kiyatomo Nakata; Motomasa Fuse; Katsumi Ohsumi; Yoshie Takashima

    1995-01-01

    Many efforts to preserve the structural integrity of major piping, components, and structures in a boiling water reactor (BWR) primary cooling system have been directed toward avoiding intergranular stress corrosion cracking (IGSCC). Application of hydrogen water chemistry (HWC) to moderate corrosive circumstances is a promising approach to preserve the structural integrity during extended lifetimes of BWRs. The benefits of HWC

  20. Development of a methodology for the assessment of shallow-flaw fracture in nuclear reactor pressure vessels: Generation of biaxial shallow-flaw fracture toughness data

    SciTech Connect

    McAfee, W.J.; Bass, B.R.; Bryson, J.W.

    1998-07-01

    A technology to determine shallow-flaw fracture toughness of reactor pressure vessel (RPV) steels is being developed for application to the safety assessment of RPVs containing postulated shallow-surface flaws. Shallow-flaw fracture toughness of RPV material has been shown to be higher than that for deep flaws, because of the relaxation of crack-tip constraint. This report describes the preliminary test results for a series of cruciform specimens with a uniform depth surface flaw. These specimens are all of the same size with the same depth flaw. Temperature and biaxial load ratio are the independent variables. These tests demonstrated that biaxial loading could have a pronounced effect on shallow-flaw fracture toughness in the lower transition temperature region for RPV materials. Through that temperature range, the effect of full biaxial (1:1) loading on uniaxial, shallow-flaw toughness varied from no effect near the lower shelf to a reduction of approximately 58% at higher temperatures.