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1

Volume-controlled versus pressure-controlled ventilation-volume guaranteed mode during one-lung ventilation  

PubMed Central

Background The purpose of this study was to investigate the changes in airway pressure and arterial oxygenation between ventilation modes during one-lung ventilation (OLV) in patients undergoing thoracic surgery. Methods We enrolled 27 patients for thoracic surgery with OLV in the lateral decubitus position. The subjects received various modes of ventilation in random sequences during surgery, including volume-controlled ventilation (VCV) and pressure-controlled ventilation-volume guaranteed (PCV-VG) with a tidal volume (TV) of 8 ml/kg of actual body weight. Target-controlled infusion (TCI) with propofol and remifentanil was used for anesthesia induction and maintenance. After double-lumen endobronchial tube (DLT) insertion, the proper positioning of the DLT was assessed using a fiberoptic bronchoscope. Peak inspiratory pressure (Ppeak), exhaled TV, and arterial blood gas were measured 30 min after each ventilation mode. Results Ppeak was significantly reduced with the PCV-VG mode (19.6 ± 2.5 cmH2O) compared with the VCV mode (23.2 ± 3.1 cmH2O) (P < 0.000). However, no difference in arterial oxygen tension was noted between the groups (PCV-VG, 375.8 ± 145.1 mmHg; VCV, 328.1 ± 123.7 mmHg) (P = 0.063). The exhaled TV was also significantly increased in PCV-VG compared with VCV (451.4 ± 85.4 vs. 443.9 ± 85.9 ml; P = 0.035). Conclusions During OLV in patients with normal lung function, although PCV-VG did not provide significantly improved arterial oxygen tension compared with VCV, PCV-VG provided significantly attenuated airway pressure despite significantly increased exhaled TV compared with VCV. PMID:25368784

Song, Seok Young; Cho, Min-Su; Kim, Jong Hae; Ryu, Tae Ha; Kim, Bong IL

2014-01-01

2

Pressure-controlled versus volume-controlled ventilation during one-lung ventilation in elderly patients with poor pulmonary function  

PubMed Central

OBJECTIVE: The aim was to investigate the effects of two different ventilatory strategies: Pressure-controlled ventilation (PCV) versus volume-controlled ventilation (VCV) in elderly patients with poor pulmonary function during one-lung ventilation (OLV). PATIENTS AND METHODS: The patients were enrolled into the study having poor pulmonary function (forced expiratory volume in 1 s <1.5 L) and undergoing radical resection of pulmonary carcinoma requiring at least 2 h of OLV. Patients were respectively allocated to VCV group and PCV group. The intraoperative data, arterial, and mixed venous blood gases were obtained at baseline, 20, 40, 60, 80, 100 and 120 min after OLV and end of surgery. The postoperative data had been recorded and arterial gas measurements were performed at 6, 12 and 24 h after surgery in Intensive Care Unit. RESULTS: Comparison of the VCV group and PCV group, PaO2 and P(A-a)O2 were higher and dead space to tidal volume was lower in the PCV group (P < 0.05) after the point of OLV +60, Ppeak was higher in the VCV group (P < 0.05). There were significant advantages in PCV groups with regard to the PaO2 of three points in postoperation, the duration of postoperative ventilation duration, intensive care duration of stay and the days stay in hospital after surgery. CONCLUSIONS: The use of PCV compared with VCV during OLV in elderly patients with poor pulmonary function has significant advantages of intraoperative and postoperative oxygenation and it might be a factor, which can beneficial to postoperative recovery.

Lin, Fei; Pan, Linghui; Huang, Bin; Ruan, Lin; Liang, Rui; Qian, Wei; Ge, Wanyun

2014-01-01

3

Gas distribution in a two-compartment model ventilated in high-frequency percussive and pressure-controlled modes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose  To demonstrate in a two-compartment heterogeneous mechanical model of the lung how different loads applied to one compartment,\\u000a while the other is kept constant, would modify gas distribution between the two pathways under high-frequency percussive ventilation\\u000a (HFPV). Additionally, these results were compared with those generated in the same model by pressure-controlled ventilation\\u000a (PCV).\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Methods  Analysis was based on a Siemens lung

Umberto Lucangelo; Agostino Accardo; Alessandro Bernardi; Massimo Ferluga; Massimo Borelli; Vittorio Antonaglia; Fabio Riscica; Walter A. Zin

2010-01-01

4

Hepatic effects of lung-protective pressure-controlled ventilation and a combination of high-frequency oscillatory ventilation and extracorporeal lung assist in experimental lung injury  

PubMed Central

Summary Background Ventilation with high positive end-expiratory pressure (PEEP) can lead to hepatic dysfunction. The aim of this study was to investigate the hepatic effects of strategies using high airway pressures either in pressure-controlled ventilation (PCV) or in high-frequency oscillatory ventilation (HFOV) combined with an arteriovenous extracorporeal lung assist (ECLA). Material/Methods Pietrain pigs underwent induction of lung injury by saline lavage. Ventilation was continued for 24 hours either as PCV with tidal volumes of 6 ml/kg and PEEP 3 cmH2O above the lower inflection point of the pressure-volume curve or as HFOV (?12 Hz) with a mean tracheal airway pressure 3 cmH2O above the lower inflection point combined with arteriovenous ECLA (HFOV+ECLA). Fluids and norepinephrine stabilized the circulation. The indocyanine green plasma disappearance rate, serum bilirubin, aspartate aminotransferase, alanine aminotransferase, ?-glutamyltransferase, alkaline phosphatase, glutamate dehydrogenase, lactate dehydrogenase and creatine kinase were determined repeatedly. Finally, liver neutrophils were counted and liver cell apoptosis was assessed by terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase nick end labeling (TUNEL). Results Aspartate aminotransferase increased in the PCV group about three-fold and in the HFOV+ECLA group five-fold (p<0.001). Correspondingly, creatine kinase increased about two-fold and four-fold, respectively (p<0.001). Lactate dehydrogenase was increased in the HFOV+ECLA group (p<0.028). The number of neutrophils infiltrating the liver tissue and the apoptotic index were low. Conclusions High airway pressure PCV and HFOV with ECLA in the treatment of lavage-induced lung injury in pigs did not cause liver dysfunction or damage. The detected elevation of enzymes might be of extrahepatic origin. PMID:21959601

Kredel, Markus; Muellenbach, Ralf M.; Johannes, Amelie; Brederlau, Joerg; Roewer, Norbert; Wunder, Christian

2011-01-01

5

Are tidal volume measurements in neonatal pressure-controlled ventilation accurate?  

PubMed

Bedside pulmonary mechanics monitors (PMM) have become useful in ventilatory management in neonates. These monitors are used more frequently due to recent improvements in data-processing capabilities. PMM devices are often part of the ventilator or are separate units. The accuracy and reliability of these systems have not been carefully evaluated. We compared a single ventilatory parameter, tidal volume (V(t)), as measured by several systems. We looked at two freestanding PMMs: the Ventrak Respiratory Monitoring System (Novametrix, Wallingford, CT) and the Bicore CP-100 Neonatal Pulmonary Monitor (Allied Health Care Products, Riverside, CA), and three ventilators with built-in PMM: the VIP Bird Ventilator (Bird Products Corp., Palm Springs, CA), Siemens Servo 300A (Siemens-Elema AB, Solna, Sweden), and Drager Babylog 8000 (Drager, Inc., Chantilly, VA). A calibrated syringe (Hans Rudolph, Inc., Kansas City, MO) was used to deliver tidal volumes of 4, 10, and 20 mL to each ventilator system coupled with a freestanding PMM. After achieving steady state, six consecutive V(t) readings were taken simultaneously from the freestanding PMM and each ventilator. In a second portion of the bench study, we used pressure-control ventilation and measured exhaled tidal volume (V(te)) while ventilating a Bear Test Lung with the same three ventilators. We adjusted peak inspiratory pressure (PIP) under controlled conditions to achieve the three different targeted tidal volumes on the paired freestanding PMM. Again, six V(te) measurements were recorded for each tidal volume. Means and standard deviations were calculated.The percentage difference in measurement of V(t) delivered by calibrated syringe varied greatly, with the greatest discrepancy seen in the smallest tidal volumes, by up to 28%. In pressure control mode, V(te) as measured by the Siemens was significantly overestimated by 20-95%, with the biggest discrepancy at the smallest V(te), particularly when paired with the Bicore PMM. V(te), as measured by the VIP Bird and Drager paired with the Ventrak PMM, had a tendency to underestimate V(t) by up to 25% at the smallest V(te). However, when paired with the Bicore PMM, these same two ventilators read over target by up to 18%. Under controlled laboratory conditions, we demonstrated that true delivered V(te), as measured by the three ventilators and two freestanding PMM, differed markedly. In general, decreasing dynamic compliance of the tubing was not associated with greater inaccuracy in V(te) measurements. PMID:12203848

Chow, Lily C; Vanderhal, Andre; Raber, Jorge; Sola, Augusto

2002-09-01

6

The open lung concept: pressure controlled ventilation is as effective as high frequency oscillatory ventilation in improving gas exchange and lung mechanics in surfactant-deficient animals  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: To demonstrate in experimental animals with respiratory insufficiency that under well-defined conditions, commercially available\\u000a ventilators allow settings which are as effective as high frequency oscillatory ventilators (HFOV), with respect to the levels\\u000a of gas exchange, protein infiltration, and lung stability. Design: Prospective, randomized, animal study. Setting: Experimental laboratory of a university. Subjects: 18 adult male Sprague-Dawley rats. Interventions: Lung

G. F. Vazquez de Anda; A. Hartog; S. J. C. Verbrugge; D. Gommers; B. Lachmann

1999-01-01

7

Measurement of functional residual capacity by helium dilution during partial support ventilation: in vitro accuracy and in vivo precision of the method  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective  Measurement of functional residual capacity (FRC) during controlled and especially during assisted ventilation remains a challenge\\u000a in the physiological evaluation of ventilated patients. To validate a bag-in-box closed helium dilution technique allowing\\u000a measurements both during pressure-controlled (PCV) and pressure-support ventilation (PSV).\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Design and setting  Experimental study on lung models containing different volumes, and measurements in patients in the intensive care unit of\\u000a a university

Fabiano Di Marco; Lidia Rota Sperti; Barbara Milan; Riccardo Stucchi; Stefano Centanni; Laurent Brochard; Roberto Fumagalli

2007-01-01

8

A Chimeric Porcine Circovirus (PCV) with the Immunogenic Capsid Gene of the Pathogenic PCV Type 2 (PCV2) Cloned into the Genomic Backbone of the Nonpathogenic PCV1 Induces Protective Immunity against PCV2 Infection in Pigs  

Microsoft Academic Search

Porcine circovirus type 2 (PCV2) is associated with postweaning multisystemic wasting syndrome in pigs, whereas PCV1 is nonpathogenic. We previously demonstrated that a chimeric PCV1-2 virus (with the immu- nogenic capsid gene of PCV2 cloned into the backbone of PCV1) induces an antibody response to the PCV2 capsid protein and is attenuated in pigs. Here, we report that the attenuated

M. Fenaux; T. Opriessnig; P. G. Halbur; F. Elvinger; X. J. Meng

2004-01-01

9

Tracheostomy and mechanical ventilation weaning in children affected by respiratory virus according to a weaning protocol in a pediatric intensive care unit in Argentina: an observational restrospective trial  

PubMed Central

We describe difficult weaning after prolonged mechanical ventilation in three tracheostomized children affected by respiratory virus infection. Although the spontaneous breathing trials were successful, the patients failed all extubations. Therefore a tracheostomy was performed and the weaning plan was begun. The strategy for weaning was the decrease of ventilation support combining pressure control ventilation (PCV) with increasing periods of continuous positive airway pressure + pressure support ventilation (CPAP + PSV) and then CPAP + PSV with increasing intervals of T-piece. They presented acute respiratory distress syndrome on admission with high requirements of mechanical ventilation (MV). Intervening factors in the capabilities and loads of the respiratory system were considered and optimized. The average MV time was 69 days and weaning time 31 days. We report satisfactory results within the context of a directed weaning protocol. PMID:21244710

2011-01-01

10

Blood Pressure Control  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Engineering Development Laboratory developed a system for the cardiovascular study of weightless astronauts. This was designed to aid people with congestive heart failure and diabetes. While in space, astronauts' blood pressure rises, heart rate becomes unstable, and there are sometimes postflight lightheadedness or blackouts. The Baro-Cuff studies the resetting of blood pressure. When a silicone rubber chamber is strapped to the neck, the Baro-Cuff stimulates the carotid arteries by electronically controlled pressure application. Blood pressure controls in patients may be studied.

1986-01-01

11

Reproduction in porcine circovirus type 2 (PCV2) seropositive gilts inseminated with PCV2b spiked semen  

PubMed Central

Background Since 1999, field evidence of transplacental infection by porcine circovirus type 2 (PCV2) and reproductive failure has been reported in pigs. The objective of this study was to evaluate the clinical and pathological consequences of PCV2 infection in conventional PCV2-seropositive gilts by insemination with PCV2b-spiked semen. Results Six PCV2 seropositive gilts were inseminated with PCV2b-supplemented semen (infected) and three animals with semen and cell culture medium (controls). Only three out of the six infected animals were pregnant by ultrasonography on day 29 after insemination, while two out of the three controls were pregnant. One control gilt aborted on day 23 after insemination but not due to PVC2. Viraemia was demonstrated in four out of six infected and in one control gilt that became infected with PCV2a. Anti-PCV2 antibody titres showed dynamic variations in the infected group throughout the study. Among infected gilts, the animal with the lowest anti-PCV2 titre (1/100) at the beginning of the experiment and another that reached a similar low value during the experiment showed evident seroconversion over time and had also PCV2 positive foetuses. One placenta displayed mild focal necrosis of the chorionic epithelium positively stained by immunohistochemistry for PCV2 antigen. Conclusions PCV2-seropositive gilts can be infected with PCV2 after intrauterine exposure and low maternal antibody titre may increase the probability of a foetal infection. PMID:22935352

2012-01-01

12

Tank Pressure Control Experiment (TPCE)  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Tank Pressure Control Experiment (TPCE) is a small self-contained STS payload designed to test a jet mixer for cryogenic fluid pressure control. Viewgraphs are presented that describe project organization, experiment objectives and approach, risk management, payload concept and mission plan, and initial test data.

Bentz, Mike

1992-01-01

13

Mutant USA strain of porcine circovirus type 2 (mPCV2) exhibits similar virulence to the classical PCV2a and PCV2b strains in caesarean-derived, colostrum-deprived pigs  

PubMed Central

In 2012, a mutant porcine circovirus type 2 (mPCV2) strain was identified in cases of PCV-associated disease (PCVAD) in the USA. The mPCV2 had an additional amino acid, lysine (K), in the capsid at position 234. The objectives of this study were to compare the pathogenicity of mPCV2, PCV2a and PCV2b in pigs using biologically pure infectious virus stocks derived from respective infectious DNA clones, and to investigate the importance of genotype-specific ORF2 and the presence of lysine at position 234 of the capsid. A total of 47, 2-week-old, caesarean-derived, colostrum-deprived (CDCD) pigs were assigned to one of seven groups. At 3 weeks of age, the pigs were experimentally inoculated with saline, PCV2a, PCV2b, mPCV2, PCV2b-234-K (lysine addition in ORF2), chimeric PCV2b-ORF1/mPCV2-ORF2 or reciprocal chimeric mPCV2-ORF1/PCV2b-ORF2. All pigs were necropsied 21 days post-infection (p.i.). Gross lesions were limited to visible icterus and loss of body condition in a portion of the mPCV2 pigs. The amount of PCV2 DNA was significantly higher in pigs inoculated with mPCV2 compared with PCV2b in sera at 7 days p.i. and faecal swabs at 14 days p.i. Based on lymphoid lesions, a higher prevalence of PCVAD was seen in pigs infected with PCV2s containing the additional 234-K (64.3?%) compared with those infected with a PCV2 with the regular 233 bp ORF2 (40?%). Results indicated that all PCV2 isolates were capable of inducing severe lesions and disease in the CDCD pig model, and there was no significant difference in virulence. PMID:25053562

Xiao, Chao-Ting; Gerber, Priscilla F.; Halbur, Patrick G.; Matzinger, Shannon R.; Meng, Xiang-Jin

2014-01-01

14

Porcine Circovirus (PCV) Removal by Q Sepharose Fast Flow Chromatography  

PubMed Central

The recently discovered contamination of oral rotavirus vaccines led to exposure of millions of infants to porcine circovirus (PCV). PCV was not detected by conventional virus screening tests. Regulatory agencies expect exclusion of adventitious viruses from biological products. Therefore, methods for inactivation/removal of viruses have to be implemented as an additional safety barrier whenever feasible. However, inactivation or removal of PCV is difficult. PCV is highly resistant to widely used physicochemical inactivation procedures. Circoviruses such as PCV are the smallest viruses known and are not expected to be effectively removed by currently-used virus filters due to the small size of the circovirus particles. Anion exchange chromatography such as Q Sepharose® Fast Flow (QSFF) has been shown to effectively remove a range of viruses including parvoviruses. In this study, we investigated PCV1 removal by virus filtration and by QSFF chromatography. As expected, PCV1 could not be effectively removed by virus filtration. However, PCV1 could be effectively removed by QSFF as used during the purification of monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) and a log10 reduction value (LRV) of 4.12 was obtained. © 2013 American Institute of Chemical Engineers Biotechnol. Prog., 29:1464–1471, 2013 PMID:24039195

Yang, Bin; Wang, Hua; Ho, Cintia; Lester, Philip; Chen, Qi; Neske, Florian; Baylis, Sally A; Blumel, Johannes

2013-01-01

15

Controller modeling and evaluation for PCV electro-mechanical actuator  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Hydraulic actuators are currently used to operate the propellant control valves (PCV) for the space shuttle main engine (SSME) and other rocket engines. These actuators are characterized by large power to weight ratios, large force capabilities, and rapid accelerations, which favor their use in control valve applications. However, hydraulic systems are also characterized by susceptibility to contamination, which leads to frequent maintenance requirements. The Control Mechanisms Branch (EP34) of the Component Development Division of the Propulsion Laboratory at the Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) has been investigating the application of electromechanical actuators as replacements for the hydraulic units in PCV's over the last few years. This report deals with some testing and analysis of a PCV electromechanical actuator (EMA) designed and fabricated by HR Textron, Inc. This prototype actuator has undergone extensive testing by EP34 personnel since early 1993. At this time, the performance of the HR Textron PCV EMA does not meet requirements for position tracking.

Parker, Joey K.

1993-01-01

16

Pigs naturally exposed to porcine circovirus type 2 (PCV2) generate antibody responses capable to neutralise PCV2 isolates of different genotypes and geographic origins  

PubMed Central

Porcine circovirus type 2 (PCV2) is the essential infectious agent for PCV2-systemic disease (PCV2-SD, formerly known as postweaning multisystemic wasting syndrome) and other pathological conditions. Recent studies indicated antigenic variability amongst different PCV2 isolates and suggested that single amino acid changes within the capsid protein determine differences in the level of neutralization by specific monoclonal antibodies. The objective of the present study was to examine the cross-reactivity of PCV2 antibodies induced in the context of a natural infection against different PCV2 isolates belonging to genotypes PCV2a and PCV2b. Sera taken from several farms from animals of varying health status (PCV2-SD and age-matched healthy pigs and a set of slaughter-aged animals) were assayed for neutralizing activity against four PCV2 isolates from both predominant genotypes (PCV2a and PCV2b) and of differing geographic origins (Europe and North-America). Results showed that most of studied pigs (79 out of 82) contained neutralizing antibodies (NA) able to neutralize all four studied viral strains. Overall, pigs had significantly higher NA titres against PCV2a than against PCV2b (P?PCV2a) than L-33-Sp-10-54 and MO/S-06 strains (PCV2b) (P?PCV2 isolates translate to functional antigenic differences in viral neutralization in vivo. PMID:24602200

2014-01-01

17

Towards the 13-valent pneumococcal conjugate universal vaccination: effectiveness in the transition era between PCV7 and PCV13 in Italy, 2010-2013.  

PubMed

Pneumococcal disease epidemiology has changed after introduction of pneumococcal conjugate vaccines. Seven-valent vaccine (PCV7) has been effective in reducing invasive pneumococcal disease (IPD). In Europe, PCV13 effectiveness was estimated at 78% (95% CI: -18-96%) for 2-priming doses. In Italy, PCV7 was introduced in 2006 in the childhood immunization schedule and replaced with PCV13 in 2010. In Apulia, vaccination coverage has reached 95.1% (birth-cohort 2010). We estimated PCV program effectiveness and its impact on S. pneumoniae diseases. PCV EFFECTIVENESS: We used the screening method. We calculated the Proportion of Population Vaccinated from immunization registries and detected cases through a laboratory-confirmed surveillance among hospitalized children?60 months. A confirmed IPD case was a child with PCR positive for S. pneumoniae. Differences among children were assessed with the Chi-square or the Fisher exact test (P value<0.05). PCV IMPACT: We constructed time series using outcome-specific Poisson regression models: hospitalization rate in pre-PCV era and hospitalization risk ratios (RRs) with 95% CIs for both PCV7 and PCV7/PCV13 shifting era. We calculated hospitalization RR with 95% CIs comparing pre-PCV years with vaccination period. The PCV effectiveness was 84.3% (95% CI: 84.0-84.6%). In May 2010-January 2013, we enrolled 159 suspected IPD of whom 4 were confirmed. Two (fully vaccinated) were caused by serotype 9V, 1 (not vaccinated) by serotype 3, 1 (vaccinated with 2 PCV13 doses) by 15B/C. The most important reduction was for pneumococcal pneumonia (RR: 0.43, 95% CI: 0.21-0.90). The PCV program show promising results in terms of both PCV13 effectiveness and its impact in reducing IPD in children<5 years. PMID:24096297

Martinelli, Domenico; Pedalino, Biagio; Cappelli, Maria Giovanna; Caputi, Giovanni; Sallustio, Anna; Fortunato, Francesca; Tafuri, Silvio; Cozza, Vanessa; Germinario, Cinzia; Chironna, Maria; Prato, Rosa

2014-01-01

18

Ventilation and ventilators.  

PubMed

The history of ventilation is reviewed briefly and recent developments in techniques of ventilation are discussed. Operating features of ventilators have changed in the past few years, partly as the result of clinical progress; yet, technology appears to have outstripped the clinician's ability to harness it most effectively. Clinical discipline and training of medical staff in the use of ventilators could be improved. The future is promising if clinician and designer can work together closely. Ergonomics of ventilators and their controls and the provision of alarms need special attention. Microprocessors are likely to feature prominently in the next generation of designs. PMID:6754938

Hayes, B

1982-01-01

19

Bench performance of ventilators during simulated paediatric ventilation.  

PubMed

This study compares the accuracy and capabilities of various ventilators using a paediatric acute respiratory distress syndrome lung model. Various compliance settings and respiratory rate settings were used. The study was done in three parts: tidal volume and FiO2 accuracy; pressure control accuracy and positive end-expiratory pressure (PEEP) accuracy. The parameters set on the ventilator were compared with either or both of the measured parameters by the test lung and the ventilator. The results revealed that none of the ventilators could consistently deliver tidal volumes within 1 ml/kg of the set tidal volume, and the discrepancy between the delivered volume and the volume measured by the ventilator varied greatly. The target tidal volume was 8 ml/kg, but delivered tidal volumes ranged from 3.6-11.4 ml/kg and the volumes measured by the ventilator ranged from 4.1-20.6 ml/kg. All the ventilators maintained pressure within 20% of the set pressure, except one ventilator which delivered pressures of up to 27% higher than the set pressure. Two ventilators maintained PEEP within 10% of the prescribed PEEP. The majority of the readings were also within 10%. However, three ventilators delivered, at times, PEEPs over 20% higher. In conclusion, as lung compliance decreases, especially in paediatric patients, some ventilators perform better than others. This study highlights situations where ventilators may not be able to deliver, nor adequately measure, set tidal volumes, pressure, PEEP or FiO2. PMID:23659397

Park, M A J; Freebairn, R C; Gomersall, C D

2013-05-01

20

Controller modeling and evaluation for PCV electro-mechanical actuator  

Microsoft Academic Search

Hydraulic actuators are currently used to operate the propellant control valves (PCV) for the space shuttle main engine (SSME) and other rocket engines. These actuators are characterized by large power to weight ratios, large force capabilities, and rapid accelerations, which favor their use in control valve applications. However, hydraulic systems are also characterized by susceptibility to contamination, which leads to

Joey K. Parker

1993-01-01

21

Detection of Genetic characterization of Porcine circovirus 2 (PCV2) in Brazilian wildlife boars  

PubMed Central

A semi-intensive wildlife boars farm presented a clinical history of high mortality in 70 – 90 days-old pigs (> 50 %). Two 90 days-old animals with weight loss and wasting were necropsied and the samples tested for PCV2 by polymerase chain reaction (PCR). The genetic material of PCV2 was sequenced and classified into the PCV2a genotype together with PCV2 sequences obtained from samples of Poland, Brazil, Slovenia and Greece wild boars. PMID:24031922

Castro, A.M.M.G.; Castro, F.G.; Budino, F.E.L.; Baldin, C.M.; Silva, S.O.S.; Brandao, P.E.; Richtzenhain, L.J.

2012-01-01

22

Porcine Circovirus type 2 (PCV2) causes apoptosis in experimentally inoculated BALB/c mice  

PubMed Central

Background We have previously described microscopic and electron microscopic alterations in lymphoid organs of PCV2 inoculated mice as apoptosis. In this study we wanted to investigate the molecular pathogenetic mechanism of PCV2-induced apoptosis. Eight-week old BALB/c mice were either sham inoculated (control mice) or inoculated intraperitoneally (ip) and intranasally (in) with a single (sPCV mice) or multiple (mPCV mice) doses of PCV2. Four control mice and 4 sPCV mice were sacrificed 7, 14, 28 and 42 days post inoculation (PI). All 4 mPCV mice were sacrificed 42 days PI. Following necropsy, immunohistochemistry for caspase 3 and in-situ TUNEL assay were performed on sections of spleen, lymph nodes, thymus and ileum from control, sPCV and mPCV mice. In addition, total RNA was extracted from spleens of control, sPCV and mPCV mice for simultaneous detection and semiquantitation of bcl-2 homologues and various caspase mRNAs using a multiprobe RNase protection assay system. Results PCV2 replicated and was associated with apoptosis in spleens, lymph nodes and Peyer's patches of infected BALB/c mice. Upregulation of caspase 1, 2, 3, 6, 7, 8, 11 and 12 and upregulation for the transcripts of apoptosis inhibitors bcl-2, bcl-w and bcl-X and apoptosis promoters' bax, bak and bad was detected in spleens of sPCV and mPCV mice, but not control mice. Apoptosis was further confirmed by light and electron microscopic morphology as well as by positive TUNEL assay and detection of activated caspase 3. PCV2 nucleic acid was detected by in-situ hybridization in the nuclei and cytoplasm of such apoptotic cells. Conclusion The data presented here support the hypothesis that PCV2 induces apoptosis mediated through the activation of caspases 8 and 3 in the spleens of infected mice. PMID:16259631

Kiupel, Matti; Stevenson, Gregory W; Galbreath, Elizabeth J; North, Adam; HogenEsch, Harm; Mittal, Suresh K

2005-01-01

23

Experimental infection of colostrum deprived piglets with porcine circovirus 2 (PCV2) and porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) potentiates PCV2 replication  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary.  ?Experimental infection of colostrum-deprived (CD) pigs with a combined inoculum of porcine circovirus 2 (PCV2) and porcine\\u000a reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) potentiated the replication and distribution of PCV2 virus, when compared\\u000a with pigs inoculated with PCV2 alone. The replication and distribution of PRRSV in dually infected pigs was not enhanced,\\u000a when compared to pigs inoculated with PRRSV alone.

G. M. Allan; F. McNeilly; J. Ellis; S. Krakowka; B. Meehan; I. McNair; I. Walker; S. Kennedy

2000-01-01

24

A live-attenuated and an inactivated chimeric porcine circovirus (PCV)1-2 vaccine are both effective at inducing a humoral immune response and reducing PCV2 viremia and intrauterine infection in female swine of breeding age  

PubMed Central

The objective of this pilot study was to determine the efficacy of inactivated (1 or 2 dose) and live-attenuated chimeric porcine circovirus (PCV)1-2 vaccines in sows using the PCV2-spiked semen model. Thirty-five sows were randomly divided into 6 groups: negative and positive controls, 1 dose inactivated PCV1-2 vaccine challenged (1-VAC-PCV2), 2 dose inactivated PCV1-2 vaccine challenged (2-VAC-PCV2), 1 dose live-attenuated PCV1-2 vaccine unchallenged (1-LIVE-VAC), and 1 dose live-attenuated PCV1-2 vaccine challenged (1-LIVE-VAC-PCV2). The inactivated PCV1-2 vaccine induced higher levels of PCV2-specific antibodies in dams. All vaccination strategies provided good protection against PCV2 viremia in dams, whereas the majority of the unvaccinated sows were viremic. Four of the 35 dams became pregnant: a negative control, a positive control, a 2-VAC-PCV2 sow, and a 1-LIVE-VAC-PCV2 sow. The PCV2 DNA was detected in 100%, 67%, and 29% of the fetuses obtained from the positive control, inactivated vaccinated, or live-attenuated vaccinated dams, respectively. The PCV2 antigen in hearts was only detectable in the positive control litter (23% of the fetuses). The PCV1-2 DNA was detected in 29% of the fetuses in the litter from the 1-LIVE-VAC-PCV2 dam. Under the conditions of this pilot study, both vaccines protected against PCV2 viremia in breeding age animals; however, vertical transmission was not prevented. PMID:24396175

Hemann, Michelle; Beach, Nathan M.; Meng, Xiang-Jin; Wang, Chong; Halbur, Patrick G.; Opriessnig, Tanja

2014-01-01

25

Development of an adaptive neuro-fuzzy method for supply air pressure control in HVAC system  

Microsoft Academic Search

An adaptive neuro-fuzzy (ANF) method is developed for the supply air pressure control loop of a heating, ventilation and air-conditioning (HVAC) system. Although a well-tuned PID controller performs well around normal working points, its tolerance to process parameter variations is severely affected due to the nature of PID controllers. The ANF controller developed overcomes this weakness. The controller design involves

Wu Jian; Cai Wenjian

2000-01-01

26

Ventilative cooling  

E-print Network

This thesis evaluates the performance of daytime and nighttime passive ventilation cooling strategies for Beijing, Shanghai and Tokyo. A new simulation method for cross-ventilated wind driven airflow is presented . This ...

Graça, Guilherme Carrilho da, 1972-

1999-01-01

27

Preventing the entry of outdoor particles with the indoor positive pressure control method: Analysis of influencing factors and cost  

Microsoft Academic Search

Maintaining positive pressure indoors with a mechanical ventilation system is a popular control method for preventing the entry of outdoor airborne particles. This paper analyzes the factors which affect the satisfied superfluous airflow rates of positive pressure control. Through modeling a large amount of cases with a validated model, the factors, e.g. temperature difference, outdoor wind velocity, effective air leakage

Chun Chen; Bin Zhao; Xudong Yang

2011-01-01

28

Null Steering Approach With Minimized PCV and GD for Large Aperture Vertical Antenna Arrays  

Microsoft Academic Search

A novel null-steering method that minimizes the effect of radio frequency interference (RFI) and the effect of antenna phase center variation (PCV) and group delay (GD) is proposed. PCV and GD are important to characterize for global navigation satellite system (GNSS) antenna arrays used in satellite based landing architectures, since they directly affect the pseudo-range and accumulated Doppler observables. The

Mohammad S. Sharawi; Daniel N. Aloi

2007-01-01

29

Chimeric Porcine Circoviruses (PCV) Containing Amino Acid Epitope Tags in the C Terminus of the Capsid Gene Are Infectious and Elicit both Anti-Epitope Tag Antibodies and Anti-PCV Type 2 Neutralizing Antibodies in Pigs?  

PubMed Central

A chimeric porcine circovirus (PCV1-2) with the capsid gene of pathogenic PCV2 cloned into the genomic backbone of nonpathogenic PCV1 is attenuated in pigs but elicits protective immunity against PCV2. In this study, short epitope tags were inserted into the C terminus of the capsid protein of the chimeric PCV1-2 vaccine virus, resulting in a tractable marker virus that is infectious both in vitro and in vivo. Pigs experimentally infected with the epitope-tagged PCV1-2 vaccine viruses produced tag-specific antibodies, as well as anti-PCV2 neutralizing antibodies, indicating that the epitope-tagged viruses could potentially serve as a positive-marker modified live-attenuated vaccine. PMID:21307200

Beach, Nathan M.; Smith, Sara M.; Ramamoorthy, Sheela; Meng, Xiang-Jin

2011-01-01

30

Evaluation of cell-mediated immune responses against porcine circovirus type 2 (PCV2) Cap and Rep proteins after vaccination with a commercial PCV2 sub-unit vaccine.  

PubMed

This study investigated the development of cellular immunity to Porcine circovirus type 2 (PCV2) Cap and Rep proteins in pigs vaccinated with a commercial PCV2 genotype a (PCV2a) based sub-unit vaccine, before and after a heterologous challenge with a PCV2b isolate. At three weeks of age, 20 pigs were inoculated intramuscularly with either the vaccine product (V group, n=9) or phosphate buffered saline solution (PBS) (NV group, n=11). Three weeks after vaccination, pigs were challenged intranasally with PCV2b (V-C and NV-C groups) or PBS (V-NC and NV-NC groups). None of the pigs developed clinical signs during the whole experiment, but all NV-C and 3/5 V-C pigs developed viraemia. Vaccination induced the development IFN-?-secreting cells in response to the Cap protein of PCV2, which appeared three weeks post-vaccination and increased after challenge. By that time, no significant differences were detected on PCV2 antibody titres between vaccinated and non-vaccinated pigs, although there were significant differences on day 7 post-challenge. PCV2-inoculation induced a cellular response against the Rep protein. Such response was significantly reduced or even absent in PCV2-inoculated pigs that were previously vaccinated (V-C group), presumably as a result of a lower PCV2 replication in vaccinated animals compared to non-vaccinated ones. PMID:23010221

Fort, Maria; Sibila, Marina; Nofrarías, Miquel; Pérez-Martín, Eva; Olvera, Alex; Mateu, Enric; Segalés, Joaquim

2012-11-15

31

A Porcine Circovirus Type 2 (PCV2) Mutant with 234 Amino Acids in Capsid Protein Showed More Virulence In Vivo, Compared with Classical PCV2a/b Strain  

PubMed Central

Background Porcine circovirus type 2 (PCV2) is considered to be the primary causative agent of postweaning multisystemic wasting syndrome (PMWS), which has become a serious economic problem for the swine industry worldwide. The major genotypes, PCV2a and PCV2b, are highly prevalent in the pig population and are present worldwide. However, another newly emerging PCV2b genotype mutant, which has a mutation in its ORF2-encoded capsid protein, has been sporadically present in China, as well as in other countries. It is therefore important to determine the relative virulence of the newly emerging PCV2b genotype mutant, compared with the existing PCV2a and PCV2b genotypes, and to investigate whether the newly emerging mutant virus induces more severe illness. Methodology/Principal Findings Twenty healthy, 30-day-old, commercial piglets served as controls or were challenged with PCV2a, PCV2b and the newly emerging mutant virus. A series of indexes representing different parameters were adopted to evaluate virulence, including clinical signs, serological detection, viral load and distribution, changes in immune cell subsets in the peripheral blood, and evaluation of pathological lesions. The newly emerging PCV2 mutant demonstrated more severe signs compatible with PMWS, characterized by wasting, coughing, dyspnea, diarrhea, rough hair-coat and depression. Moreover, the pathological lesions and viremia, as well as the viral loads in lymph nodes, tonsils and spleen, were significantly more severe (P<0.05) for piglets challenged with the newly emerging mutant compared with those in the groups challenged with PCV2a and PCV2b. In addition, a significantly lower average daily weight gain (P<0.05) was recorded in the group challenged with the newly emerging PCV2 mutant than in the groups challenged with the prevailing PCV2a and PCV2b. Conclusions This is believed to be the first report to confirm the enhanced virulence of the newly emerging PCV2 mutant in vivo. PMID:22829951

Guo, Longjun; Fu, Yujie; Wang, Yiping; Lu, Yuehua; Wei, Yanwu; Tang, Qinghai; Fan, Peihu; Liu, Jianbo; Zhang, Long; Zhang, Feiyan; Huang, Liping; Liu, Dan; Li, Shengbin; Wu, Hongli; Liu, Changming

2012-01-01

32

Comparison of Four Commercial One-Dose Porcine Circovirus Type 2 (PCV2) Vaccines Administered to Pigs Challenged with PCV2 and Porcine Reproductive and Respiratory Syndrome Virus at 17 Weeks Postvaccination To Control Porcine Respiratory Disease Complex under Korean Field Conditions  

PubMed Central

Under Korean field conditions, coinfection with porcine circovirus type 2 (PCV2) and porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) is most commonly observed in porcine respiratory disease complex (PRDC). Despite the wide use of PCV2 vaccination, PRDC remains a serious respiratory problem. Thus, the objective of this study was to determine and compare the efficacy of 4 one-dose PCV2 vaccines on 3-week-old pigs with an experimental PCV2-PRRSV challenge at 17 weeks postvaccination. Regardless of which commercial PCV2 vaccine was used, the vaccination of piglets at 3 weeks of age was efficacious against cochallenge of PCV2 and PRRSV, on the basis of growth performance and PCV2-associated lesions. However, the inactivated chimeric PCV1-2 and the PCV2 vaccines induced higher PCV2-specific neutralizing antibody (NA) titers and PCV2-specific gamma interferon-secreting cells and lower PCV2 viremia levels than the two PCV2 subunit vaccines. The vaccination of piglets against PCV2 at 3 weeks of age was effective in reducing PCV2 viremia and PCV2-associated lesions during the finishing period, which is an age at which pigs are frequently affected by PRDC caused by coinfection with PCV2 and PRRSV under Korean field conditions. PMID:24403524

Park, Changhoon; Seo, Hwi Won; Han, Kiwon

2014-01-01

33

Clonal evolution leading to maintenance of antibiotic resistance rates among colonizing Pneumococci in the PCV7 era in Portugal.  

PubMed

The introduction of the seven-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV7) in Portugal led to extensive serotype replacement among carriers of pneumococci, with a marked decrease of PCV7 types. Although antimicrobial resistance was traditionally associated with PCV7 types, no significant changes in the rates of nonsusceptibility to penicillin, resistance to macrolides, or multidrug resistance were observed. This study aimed to investigate the mechanisms leading to maintenance of antimicrobial resistance, despite marked serotype replacement. We compared, through molecular typing, 252 antibiotic-resistant pneumococci recovered from young carriers in 2006 and 2007 (era of high PCV7 uptake) with collections of isolates from 2002 and 2003 (n=374; low-PCV7-uptake era) and 1996 to 2001 (n=805; pre-PCV7 era). We observed that the group of clones that has accounted for antimicrobial resistance since 1996 is essentially the same as the one identified in the PCV7 era. The relative proportions of such clones have, however, evolved substantially overtime. Notably, widespread use of PCV7 led to an expansion of two Pneumococcal Molecular Epidemiology Network (PMEN) clones expressing non-PCV7 capsular variants of the original strains: Sweden(15A)ST63 (serotypes 15A and 19A) and Denmark(14)ST230 (serotypes 19A and 24F). These variants were already in circulation in the pre-PCV7 era, although they have now become increasingly abundant. Emergence of novel clones and de novo acquisition of resistance contributed little to the observed scenario. No evidence of capsular switch events occurring after PCV7 introduction was found. In the era of PCVs, antimicrobial resistance remains a problem among the carried pneumococci. Continuous surveillance is warranted to evaluate serotype and clonal shifts leading to maintenance of antimicrobial resistance. PMID:21632898

Simões, Alexandra S; Pereira, Liliana; Nunes, Sónia; Brito-Avô, António; de Lencastre, Hermínia; Sá-Leão, Raquel

2011-08-01

34

112. REFRIGERANT CONDENSER TANKS AND PRESSURE CONTROLS IN NORTHEAST CORNER ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

112. REFRIGERANT CONDENSER TANKS AND PRESSURE CONTROLS IN NORTHEAST CORNER OF MECHANICAL EQUIPMENT ROOM (201), LSB (BLDG. 751) - Vandenberg Air Force Base, Space Launch Complex 3, Launch Pad 3 East, Napa & Alden Roads, Lompoc, Santa Barbara County, CA

35

Serotypes and Genotypes of Invasive Streptococcus pneumoniae Before and After PCV10 Implementation in Southern Brazil  

PubMed Central

To reduce the burden of pneumococcal diseases, different formulations of pneumococcal conjugate vaccines (PCV) have been introduced in many countries. In Brazil, PCV10 has been available since 2010. We aimed to analyze the serotype and genetic composition of invasive pneumococci from Brazil in pre- and post- vaccination periods (2007–2012). Antibiotic susceptibility was determined and genotypes of macrolide and fluoroquinolone resistance were characterized. The genotypes of isolates of the most frequent serotypes were determined by multilocus sequence typing. The study included 325 isolates, which were primarily recovered from blood. The most common serotypes recovered were 14, 3, 4, 23F, 7F, 9V, 12F, 20, 19F, 8, 19A, and 5. Thirty-eight pneumococci (11.7%) were from children ?5 years old. Considering the overall population, PCV10 and PCV13 serotype coverage was 50.1% and 64.9%, respectively. During the pre-vaccine period, isolates with serotypes belonging to the PVC10 represented 51.5% (100/194), whereas in the post vaccine they represented 48.0% (63/131). PCV13 serotypes represented 67.5% (131/194) and 59.2% (77/131) of total for pre- and post-vaccination periods, respectively. Seventy different sequence types [STs] were found, accounting for 9 clonal complexes [CCs] and 45 singletons. Eight STs (156, 180, 218, 8889, 53, 191, 770, and 4967) represented the majority (51.5%) of isolates. Fifty STs were associated with the pre-vaccination period (27 exclusive) and 43 (20 exclusive) with the post-vaccination period; 23 STs were identified in both periods. Some serotypes were particularly clonal (7F, 8, 12F, 20). Non-susceptibility to penicillin was associated with serotype 19A, CC320. Erythromycin resistance was heterogeneous when considering serotype and ST. A single serotype 23F (ST4967) isolate was resistant to levofloxacin. Continued surveillance is required to determine vaccine impact and to monitor changes in pneumococcal population biology post-PCV10 introduction in Brazil. PMID:25356595

Caierão, Juliana; Hawkins, Paulina; Sant’anna, Fernando Hayashi; da Cunha, Gabriela Rosa; d’Azevedo, Pedro Alves; McGee, Lesley; Dias, Cícero

2014-01-01

36

Memory T cell proliferative responses and IFN-? productivity sustain long-lasting efficacy of a Cap-based PCV2 vaccine upon PCV2 natural infection and associated disease  

PubMed Central

Porcine circovirus type 2 (PCV2) vaccination represents an important measure to cope with PCV2 infection; however, data regarding the modulation of the immune cell compartment are still limited, especially under field conditions. This study is aimed at investigating the features of the cellular immune response in conventional piglets induced by vaccination using a capsid (Cap) protein-based PCV2 vaccine compared to unvaccinated animals when exposed to PCV2 natural infection. Immune reactivity was evaluated by quantifying peripheral cell subsets involved in the anti-viral response and characterizing the interferon-gamma (IFN-?) secreting cell (SC) responsiveness both in vivo and upon in vitro whole PCV2 recall. The vaccination triggered an early and intense IFN-? secreting cell response and induced the activation of peripheral lymphocytes. The early increase of IFN-? SC frequencies resulted in a remarkable and transient tendency to increased IFN-? productivity in vaccinated pigs. In vaccinated animals, soon before the onset of infection occurred 15-16 weeks post-vaccination, the recalled PCV2-specific immune response was characterized by moderate PCV2-specific IFN-? secreting cell frequencies and augmented productivity together with reactive CD4+CD8+ memory T cells. Conversely, upon infection, unvaccinated animals showed very high frequencies of IFN-? secreting cells and a tendency to lower productivity, which paralleled with effector CD4–CD8+ cytotoxic cell responsiveness. The study shows that PCV2 vaccination induces a long-lasting immunity sustained by memory T cells and IFN-? secreting cells that potentially played a role in preventing the onset of infection; the extent and duration of this reactivity can be an important feature for evaluating the protective immunity induced by vaccination. PMID:24735253

2014-01-01

37

Mechanical Versus Manual Ventilation via a Face Mask During the Induction of Anesthesia: A Prospective, Randomized, Crossover Study  

Microsoft Academic Search

One approach to make ventilation safer in an unpro- tected airway has been to limit tidal volumes; another one might be to limit peak airway pressure, although it is unknown whether adequate tidal volumes can be de- livered. Accordingly, the purpose of this study was to evaluate the quality of automatic pressure-controlled ventilation versus manual circle system face-mask ven- tilation

Achim von Goedecke; Wolfgang G. Voelckel; Volker Wenzel; Horst G. Wagner-Berger; Karl H. Lindner; Christian Keller

2004-01-01

38

Postweaning multisystemic wasting syndrome (PMWS) in the Philippines: porcine circovirus type 2 (PCV2) detection and characterization.  

PubMed

Four swine facilities located in Northern Luzon, in the Philippines, showed lesions and clinical signs similar to those described in post weaning multisystemic wasting syndrome (PMWS). Post-mortem and histopathological examination revealed the presence of typical lymphoid lesions caused by porcine circovirus type 2 (PCV2). An in situ hybridization (ISH) technique allowed the detection of PCV2 nucleic acid associated with the lesions in target tissues. PCV2 DNA from paraffin embedded tissues was extracted, purified and sequenced. The phylogenetic analysis of the sequences obtained confirmed their identity, and grouped them into a PCV2 subgroup, together with some Canadian, French and Dutch isolates. This report is the first description of the presence of PMWS in the Philippines. PMID:15187364

Maldonado, Jaime; Ségales, Joaquim; Calsamiglia, Maria; Llopart, David; Sibila, Marina; Lapus, Zoilo; Riera, Pere; Artigas, Carlos

2004-05-01

39

Meeting Residential Ventilation Standards  

E-print Network

LBNL 4591E Meeting Residential Ventilation Standards Through Dynamic Control of Ventilation Systems Orlando Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory is an equal opportunity employer. #12;ABSTRACT Existing of whole-house ventilation systems to meet the intent of ventilation standards and demonstrates the dynamic

40

VENTILATION NEEDS DURING CONSTRUCTION  

SciTech Connect

The purpose of this analysis is to determine ventilation needs during construction and development of the subsurface repository and develop systems to satisfy those needs. For this analysis, construction is defined as pre-emplacement excavation and development is excavation that takes place simultaneously with emplacement. The three options presented in the ''Overall Development and Emplacement Ventilation Systems'' analysis (Reference 5.5) for development ventilation will be applied to construction ventilation in this analysis as well as adding new and updated ventilation factors to each option for both construction and development. The objective of this analysis is to develop a preferred ventilation system to support License Application Design. The scope of this analysis includes: (1) Description of ventilation conditions; (2) Ventilation factors (fire hazards, dust control, construction logistics, and monitoring and control systems); (3) Local ventilation alternatives; (4) Global ventilation options; and (5) Evaluation of options.

C.R. Gorrell

1998-07-23

41

A cardiovascular model for blood pressure control systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

A cardiovascular model for blood pressure control system is developed in this paper. This model is used to simulate hypertensive patients in order to design control systems for regulation of blood pressure. The stability of the model is also investigated. The model can accurately represent human arterial blood pressure and therefore, the control system designed and simulated based on the

P. C. A. Ang; B. W. Ang; K. Y. Zhu

2009-01-01

42

Initial Effects of the National PCV7 Childhood Immunization Program on Adult Invasive Pneumococcal Disease in Israel  

PubMed Central

Background PCV7 was introduced as universal childhood vaccination in Israel in July 2009 and PCV13 in November 2010. Here we report data on adult invasive pneumococcal disease (IPD), two years post PCV7 implementation and before an expected effect of PCV13. Methods An ongoing nationwide active-surveillance (all 27 laboratories performing blood cultures in Israel), providing all blood & CSF S. pneumoniae isolates from persons >18 y was initiated in July 2009. Capture-recapture method assured reporting of >95% cases. All isolates were serotyped in one central laboratory. IPD outcome and medical history were recorded in 90%. Second year post PCV implementation is compared to the first year. Results During July 2009 to June 2011, 970 IPD cases were reported (annual incidence [/100,000] of 9.17 and 10.16 in the two consecutive years, respectively). Respective case fatality rates (CFRs) were 20% and 19.1%. Incidence of IPD and CFR increased with age and number of comorbidities. Incidence rate was significantly greater during the second winter, 7.79/100,000 vs. 6.14/100,000 in first winter, p?=?0.004, with a non-significant decrease during summer months (3.02 to 2.48/100,000). The proportion of IPD cases due to PCV7-serotypes decreased from 27.5% to 13.1% (first to second year) (p<0.001). Yet, non-PCV13-strains increased from 32.7% to 40.2% (p?=?0.017). The increase in non-PCV13-strains was highly significant in immunocompromised patients and to a lesser degree in non-immunocompromised at risk or in older patients (>64 y). Among younger/healthier patients serotype 5 was the major increasing serotype. Penicillin and ceftriaxone resistance decreased significantly in the second year. Conclusions While overall annual incidence of IPD did not change, the indirect effect of PCV7 vaccination was evident by the significant decrease in PCV7 serotypes across all age groups. Increase in non-VT13 strains was significant in immunocompromised patients. A longer follow-up is required to appreciate the full effect of infant vaccination on annual IPD. PMID:24516649

Regev-Yochay, Gili; Rahav, Galia; Riesenberg, Klaris; Wiener-Well, Yonit; Strahilevitz, Jacob; Stein, Michal; Glikman, Daniel; Weber, Gabriel; Potasman, Israel; Dagan, Ron

2014-01-01

43

PRESSURE CONTROL CHARACTERISTICS OF ELECTRO-PNEUMATIC REGULATOR WITH TWO MULTILAYERED PZT VALVES  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents pressure control method using the electro-pneumatic regulator with two multilayered PZT valves. An electro-pneumatic regulator is a type of pressure control valve that is a combination of a poppet valve for main pressure control, two multilayered PZT valves for pilot pressure control, a microprocessor with a feedback controller and a pressure sensor. The benefits of bender type

So-Nam Yun; Young-Bog Ham; Jung-Ho Park; Deok-Yong Ham; Il-Young Lee

2008-01-01

44

A novel vaccine against Porcine circovirus type 2 (PCV2) and Streptococcus equi ssp. zooepidemicus (SEZ) co-infection.  

PubMed

To develop a vaccine against Porcine circovirus type 2 (PCV2) and Streptococcus equi ssp. zooepidemicus (SEZ) co-infection, the genes of porcine IL-18, capsid protein (Cap) of PCV2 and M-like protein (SzP) of SEZ were inserted into the swinepox virus (SPV) genome by homologous recombination. The recombinant swinepox virus rSPV-ICS was verified by PCR and indirect immunofluorescence assays. To evaluate the immunogenicity of rSPV-ICS, 28 PCV2 and SEZ seronegative Bama minipigs were immunized with rSPV-ICS (n=8), commercial PCV2 vaccine and SEZ vaccine (n=8) or wild type SPV (n=8). The results showed that SzP-specific antibody and PCV2 neutralizing antibody of the rSPV-ICS immunized group increased significantly compared to the wild type SPV treated group after vaccination and increased continuously over time. The levels of IL-4 and IFN-? in the rSPV-ICS immunized group were significantly higher than the other three groups, respectively. After been co-challenged with PCV2 and SEZ, 87.5% piglets in rSPV-ICS immunized group were survived. Significant reductions in gross lung lesion score, histopathological lung lesion score, and lymph node lesion score were noticed in the rSPV-ICS immunized group compared with the wtSPV treated group. The results suggested that the recombinant rSPV-ICS provided piglets with significant protection against PCV2-SEZ co-infection; thus, it offers proof-of-principle for the development of a vaccine for the prevention of these swine diseases. PMID:24726504

Lin, Hui-xing; Ma, Zhe; Yang, Xu-qiu; Fan, Hong-jie; Lu, Cheng-ping

2014-06-25

45

Tank Pressure Control Experiment - A low-g mixing investigation  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Tank Pressure Control Experiment (TPCE) was conceived to meet the need for an aspect of cryogenic fluid management technology that is critical to several future national space missions: control of cryogenic storage tank pressures by active mixing. In-space testing is the only means of obtaining the fluid dynamic data necessary to develop and test predictive models of mixing. These models, when validated, will allow future cryogenic systems to be designed with more efficient and reliable pressure control systems. The objectives of the TPCE project are to characterize the fluid dynamics of jet-induced mixing in low gravity, evaluate the validity of empirical models and correlations, and provide data for use in developing and validating computational fluid dynamic models. This paper discusses prior studies of low-g mixing, the objectives and benefits of TPCE, the design and status of the payload, and preliminary results obtained from low-g aircraft testing.

Bentz, M. D.; Meserole, J. S.; Knoll, R. L.

1990-01-01

46

JAMA Patient Page: Mechanical Ventilation  

MedlinePLUS

... of the American Medical Association JAMA PATIENT PAGE Mechanical Ventilation T he support of respiration (breathing) with devices is known as mechanical ventilation . Mechanical ventilation, provided by ventilators , is used ...

47

Pressure control of hydraulic servo system using proportional control valve  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of this study is to develope a control scheme for the hydraulic servo system which can rapidly control the pressure\\u000a in a hydraulic cylinder with very short stroke. Compared with the negligible stroke of the cylinder in the system, the flow\\u000a gain of the proportional pressure control valve constituting the hydraulic servo system is relatively large and the

Kyong-Uk Yang; In-Ho Oh; Ill-Yeong Lee

1999-01-01

48

Cryogenic Pressure Control Modeling for Ellipsoidal Space Tanks  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A computational fluid dynamics (CFD) model is developed to simulate pressure control of an ellipsoidal-shaped liquid hydrogen tank under external heating in normal gravity. Pressure control is provided by an axial jet thermodynamic vent system (TVS) centered within the vessel that injects cooler liquid into the tank, mixing the contents and reducing tank pressure. The two-phase cryogenic tank model considers liquid hydrogen in its own vapor with liquid density varying with temperature only and a fully compressible ullage. The axisymmetric model is developed using a custom version of the commercially available FLOW-31) software. Quantitative model validation is ,provided by engineering checkout tests performed at Marshall Space Flight Center in 1999 in support of the Solar Thermal Upper Stage_ Technology Demonstrator (STUSTD) program. The engineering checkout tests provide cryogenic tank self-pressurization test data at various heat leaks and tank fill levels. The predicted self-pressurization rates, ullage and liquid temperatures at discrete locations within the STUSTD tank are in good agreement with test data. The work presented here advances current CFD modeling capabilities for cryogenic pressure control and helps develop a low cost CFD-based design process for space hardware.

Lopez, Alfredo; Grayson, Gary D.; Chandler, Frank O.; Hastings, Leon J.; Heyadat, Ali

2007-01-01

49

VENTILATION TECHNOLOGY SYSTEMS ANALYSIS  

EPA Science Inventory

The report gives results of a project to develop a systems analysis of ventilation technology and provide a state-of-the-art assessment of ventilation and indoor air quality (IAQ) research needs. (NOTE: Ventilation technology is defined as the hardware necessary to bring outdoor ...

50

The Edgecombe County High Blood Pressure Control Program: the process of medical care and blood pressure control.  

PubMed

As part of the Edgecombe County High Blood Pressure Control Program, a medical record review was conducted within a multispecialty private group practice in the county. The purposes of the review were to assess the relationship between the process of medical care and blood pressure control and to explore the variation in level and impact of medical care by race and sex. At the end of a three-year period, 41 percent of 628 hypertensive patients from the practice had uncontrolled diastolic blood pressure (DBP), as defined by Hypertension Detection and Follow-up Program criteria. The percentage of uncontrolled hypertensives ranged from 53 percent for black men to 34 percent for white women. Hypertensive patients whose physicians were more aggressive in their use of antihypertensive drug therapy were more likely to be controlled. The effect of the level of physician drug aggressiveness tended to be more pronounced for blacks than for whites. Differences by race in exposure to and efficacy of aggressive drug treatment may influence racial variation in blood pressure control. PMID:3453192

Ballard, D J; Strogatz, D S; Wagner, E H; Siscovick, D S; James, S A; Kleinbaum, D G; Williams, C A; Cutchin, L M; Ibrahim, M A

1986-01-01

51

Patient-ventilator asynchrony during assisted mechanical ventilation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective  The incidence, pathophysiology, and consequences of patient-ventilator asynchrony are poorly known. We assessed the incidence of patient-ventilator asynchrony during assisted mechanical ventilation and we identified associated factors.Methods  Sixty-two consecutive patients requiring mechanical ventilation for more than 24?h were included prospectively as soon as they triggered all ventilator breaths: assist-control ventilation (ACV) in 11 and pressure-support ventilation (PSV) in 51.Measurements  Gross asynchrony detected

Arnaud W. Thille; Pablo Rodriguez; Belen Cabello; François Lellouche; Laurent Brochard

2006-01-01

52

Building Pressure Control in VAV System with Relief Air Fan  

E-print Network

properly in response to the supply fan. In this paper, a motor power based fan air flow station was developed in a real case to obtain better building pressure control by supply and relief fan-tracking. The detail of the motor power based fan air flow..., which is determined by air balance testing to allow full required exhaust air flow to exit the building. The mixed air damper is controlled to maintain a constant pressure D 2 , which is setting according to air balance measurement that provides...

Pang, X.; Liu, M.; Zheng, B.

2005-01-01

53

A Concept on Dual Control of Mechanical Ventilation Based on the Extension Strategy  

Microsoft Academic Search

Though volume control and pressure control modes are both commonly used in mechanical ventilation, they have their shortcomings that the former may generate high peak pressures and the latter may be prone to unstable gas exchange. Therefore, a dual control mode, which attempts to deliver a constant tidal volume while limiting peak pressure or attempts to limit peak pressure but

Hui Zhu; Knut Möller

2010-01-01

54

Ventilation Model Report  

SciTech Connect

The purpose of the Ventilation Model is to simulate the heat transfer processes in and around waste emplacement drifts during periods of forced ventilation. The model evaluates the effects of emplacement drift ventilation on the thermal conditions in the emplacement drifts and surrounding rock mass, and calculates the heat removal by ventilation as a measure of the viability of ventilation to delay the onset of peak repository temperature and reduce its magnitude. The heat removal by ventilation is temporally and spatially dependent, and is expressed as the fraction of heat carried away by the ventilation air compared to the fraction of heat produced by radionuclide decay. One minus the heat removal is called the wall heat fraction, or the remaining amount of heat that is transferred via conduction to the surrounding rock mass. Downstream models, such as the ''Multiscale Thermohydrologic Model'' (BSC 2001), use the wall heat fractions as outputted from the Ventilation Model to initialize their post-closure analyses. The Ventilation Model report was initially developed to analyze the effects of preclosure continuous ventilation in the Engineered Barrier System (EBS) emplacement drifts, and to provide heat removal data to support EBS design. Revision 00 of the Ventilation Model included documentation of the modeling results from the ANSYS-based heat transfer model. Revision 01 ICN 01 included the results of the unqualified software code MULTIFLUX to assess the influence of moisture on the ventilation efficiency. The purposes of Revision 02 of the Ventilation Model are: (1) To validate the conceptual model for preclosure ventilation of emplacement drifts and verify its numerical application in accordance with new procedural requirements as outlined in AP-SIII-10Q, Models (Section 7.0). (2) To satisfy technical issues posed in KTI agreement RDTME 3.14 (Reamer and Williams 2001a). Specifically to demonstrate, with respect to the ANSYS ventilation model, the adequacy of the discretization (Section 6.2.3.1), and the downstream applicability of the model results (i.e. wall heat fractions) to initialize post-closure thermal models (Section 6.6). (3) To satisfy the remainder of KTI agreement TEF 2.07 (Reamer and Williams 2001b). Specifically to provide the results of post-test ANSYS modeling of the Atlas Facility forced convection tests (Section 7.1.2). This portion of the model report also serves as a validation exercise per AP-SIII.10Q, Models, for the ANSYS ventilation model. (4) To asses the impacts of moisture on the ventilation efficiency.

V. Chipman; J. Case

2002-12-20

55

Protective garment ventilation system  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A method and apparatus for ventilating a protective garment, space suit system, and/or pressure suits to maintain a comfortable and nontoxic atmosphere within is described. The direction of flow of a ventilating and purging gas in portions of the garment may be reversed in order to compensate for changes in environment and activity of the wearer. The entire flow of the ventilating gas can also be directed first to the helmet associated with the garment.

Lang, R. (inventor)

1970-01-01

56

The comparison of manual and LabVIEW-based fuzzy control on mechanical ventilation.  

PubMed

The aim of this article is to develop a knowledge-based therapy for management of rats with respiratory distress. A mechanical ventilator was designed to achieve this aim. The designed ventilator is called an intelligent mechanical ventilator since fuzzy logic was used to control the pneumatic equipment according to the rat's status. LabVIEW software was used to control all equipments in the ventilator prototype and to monitor respiratory variables in the experiment. The designed ventilator can be controlled both manually and by fuzzy logic. Eight female Wistar-Albino rats were used to test the designed ventilator and to show the effectiveness of fuzzy control over manual control on pressure control ventilation mode. The anesthetized rats were first ventilated for 20 min manually. After that time, they were ventilated for 20 min by fuzzy logic. Student's t-test for p?ventilator and developed knowledge-based therapy support artificial respiration of living things successfully. PMID:25205667

Guler, Hasan; Ata, Fikret

2014-09-01

57

Influence of age on the effectiveness of PCV2 vaccination in piglets with high levels of maternally derived antibodies.  

PubMed

Two field studies were conducted to investigate the influence of age on the efficacy of vaccination against Porcine Circovirus Diseases (PCVD) in animals with high levels of maternally derived antibodies (MDA). A total of 416 piglets (Study 1) and 600 piglets (Study 2) were randomly allocated to one of three groups. Two groups in each study received a single dose of a PCV2 subunit vaccine, one group at 1 week old and the other at 3 weeks of age. The third group was left untreated. Animals vaccinated at 3 weeks of age showed a significantly higher average daily weight gain and significantly reduced viraemia following PCV2 infection than the respective control groups. This difference was not observed in pigs vaccinated at 1 week of age. Furthermore, only animals vaccinated at 3 weeks of age showed an increased serological response and a higher frequency of IgM-positive animals compared with controls. The data indicated that PCV2 vaccination in the presence of high MDA levels is efficacious when used in 3-week old but not in 1-week old pigs. As the range of MDA titres of pigs vaccinated at both 1 and 3 weeks of age were comparable, the data suggest that PCV2 vaccine efficacy was independent of the level of MDA. It appears that other age-related factors affecting the active and passive transfer of immunity may perhaps have interfered with the efficacy of the vaccine in 1-week old piglets. These findings have implications for future PCV2 vaccine testing and administration strategies. PMID:24315042

Haake, Michael; Palzer, Andreas; Rist, Beate; Weissenbacher-Lang, Christiane; Fachinger, Vicky; Eggen, Alex; Ritzmann, Mathias; Eddicks, Matthias

2014-01-31

58

Impact of porcine circovirus type 2 (PCV2) vaccination on boar semen quality and quantity using two different vaccines.  

PubMed

Porcine circovirus type-2 (PCV2) is widespread in domestic pig populations. It can be shed with boar semen, but the role boars have in epidemiology is still unclear. Vaccinating boars against PCV2 can reduce disease and virus load in semen, but may have unwanted side effects, that is, impairment of spermatogenesis. Therefore, the aim of this study was to investigate the effect and impact of two different PCV2 vaccines on boar semen quality and quantity. Healthy normospermic Large White boars in three groups of 12 each were vaccinated with either Circovac, Ingelvac CircoFLEX, or received NaCl. Eight ejaculates were collected starting 1 week after vaccination and assessed for quantitative traits. In general, sperm quantity and quality parameters did not change due to the vaccination (P > 0.05). Only DNA integrity between the Circovac and control group was P < 0.05 but remained at a low level (<2%). One boar showed clinical signs with body temperature up to 39.9 °C and went off feed. For this animal, a clear relation between vaccination, fever period, and impaired sperm quality could be observed. The results indicate that both vaccines did not have a major impact on sperm quality or quantity. Therefore, vaccination of boars against PCV2 seems to be feasible. However, one boar treated with the oil-based vaccine showed a temporarily impaired semen quality after elevated body temperature after vaccination. Thus, possible systemic reactions and the subsequent impact on sperm quality should be taken into account when choosing a PCV2 vaccine for boars. PMID:24954420

Caspari, K; Henning, H; Schreiber, F; Maass, P; Gössl, R; Schaller, C; Waberski, D

2014-09-01

59

The Relationship of Diet to Blood Pressure Control  

PubMed Central

Sodium restriction has become an integral part of the medical management of hypertension. In general the degree of sodium restriction recommended by physicians depends upon the severity of the disease. The commonly prescribed sodium restricted diets are classified as mild and moderate. Mild sodium restriction refers to a diet in which 3.0-4.0 gm of sodium are allowed per day. Moderate sodium restriction is indicated when hypertension is more severe; 1-2 gm of sodium are allowed daily. Sodium added in the processing of foods contributes significantly to the sodium content of the diet. “Convenience” and “fast” foods are high in sodium and are not allowed the hypertensive patients. Significant advances have occurred in the past decade in the medical management of hypertension. The sodium-restricted diet remains the cornerstone of effective blood pressure control. Therefore, nutrition must become an integral part of the hypertensive treatment program. PMID:529319

Jones, Walretta O.; Brown, Jay

1979-01-01

60

Contaminants in Naturally Ventilated  

E-print Network

a natural ventilation/flushing Volcanic Magma Chambers Deep Ocean Recirculation Basins Lakes Buildings (My? Passive (Gaseous) Particulate Radon Paint Fumes Gas Odours CO2 This is a very short, very incomplete list;Displacement Ventilation An air distribution system in which incoming air originates at floor level and rises

Politècnica de Catalunya, Universitat

61

Multifamily Ventilation Retrofit Strategies  

SciTech Connect

In multifamily buildings, central ventilation systems often have poor performance, overventilating some portions of the building (causing excess energy use), while simultaneously underventilating other portions (causing diminished indoor air quality). BSC and Innova Services Corporation performed a series of field tests at a mid-rise test building undergoing a major energy audit and retrofit, which included ventilation system upgrades.

Ueno, K.; Lstiburek, J.; Bergey, D.

2012-12-01

62

Pulmonary perfusion ''without ventilation''  

SciTech Connect

An 88-yr-old man, with prior left upper lobectomy and phrenic nerve injury, had a ventilation/perfusion lung image. Both wash-in and equilibrium ventilation images showed no radioactive gas in the left lung. Nevertheless, the left lung was perfused. A similar result was obtained on a repeat study 8 days later. Delayed images, during washout, showed some radioactive gas in the left lung. Nearly absent ventilation (but continued perfusion) of that lung might have been related to altered gas dynamics brought about by the prior lobectomy, a submucosal bronchial lesion, phrenic nerve damage, and limited motion of the left part of the diaphragm. This case raises the issue of the degree of ventilation (and the phase relationship between the lungs) required for the entry of radioactive gas into a diseased lung, and the production of a ''reversed ventilation/perfusion mismatch.''

Chapman, C.N.; Sziklas, J.J.; Spencer, R.P.; Rosenberg, R.J.

1983-12-01

63

The preparation of porcine circovirus type 2 (PCV2) virus-like particles using a recombinant pseudorabies virus and its application to vaccine development.  

PubMed

Porcine circovirus type 2 (PCV2) is the primary causative agent of an economically important swine disease, now known as porcine-associated disease (PCVAD). The only structural protein of viral capsid, Cap has become the major target for development of PCV2 subunit vaccines. The purpose of this study is to express Cap of PCV2 using a recombinant pseudorabies virus (PRV) that is gE gene deficient, which is a widely used PRV marker vaccine. The recombinant PRV, gE(-)/PCV2cap(+)PRV, was constructed using homologous recombination techniques, in order to replace the upstream of the gE gene with the PCV2 cap gene. The expression of Cap during virus replication was confirmed using immunofluorescence and Western blotting analysis. The expressed Cap protein self-assembled into virus-like particles (VLPs), which was demonstrated using electromicrography. The immunization of mice or guinea pigs with purified VLPs could induce significant, specific antibody responses to PCV2 Cap. These results demonstrate an alternative to PCV2 for the development of a VLP-based subunit vaccine. PMID:24739460

Chi, Jyun-Ni; Wu, Ching-Ying; Chien, Maw-Sheng; Wu, Pei-Ching; Wu, Chi-Ming; Huang, Chienjin

2014-07-10

64

Tank Pressure Control Experiment: Thermal Phenomena in Microgravity  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The report presents the results of the flight experiment Tank Pressure Control Experiment/Thermal Phenomena (TPCE/TP) performed in the microgravity environment of the space shuttle. TPCE/TP, flown on the Space Transportation System STS-52, was a second flight of the Tank Pressure Control Experiment (TPCE). The experiment used Freon 113 at near saturation conditions. The test tank was filled with liquid to about 83% by volume. The experiment consisted of 21 tests. Each test generally started with a heating phase to increase the tank pressure and to develop temperature stratification in the fluid, followed by a fluid mixing phase for the tank pressure reduction and fluid temperature equilibration. The heating phase provided pool boiling data from large (relative to bubble sizes) heating surfaces (0.1046 m by 0.0742 m) at low heat fluxes (0.23 to 1.16 kW/sq m). The system pressure and the bulk liquid subcooling varied from 39 to 78 kPa and 1 to 3 C, respectively. The boiling process during the entire heating period, as well as the jet-induced mixing process for the first 2 min of the mixing period, was also recorded on video. The unique features of the experimental results are the sustainability of high liquid superheats for long periods and the occurrence of explosive boiling at low heat fluxes (0.86 to 1.1 kW/sq m). For a heat flux of 0.97 kW/sq m, a wall superheat of 17.9 C was attained in 10 min of heating. This superheat was followed by an explosive boiling accompanied by a pressure spike of about 38% of the tank pressure at the inception of boiling. However, at this heat flux the vapor blanketing the heating surface could not be sustained. Steady nucleate boiling continued after the explosive boiling. The jet-induced fluid mixing results were obtained for jet Reynolds numbers of 1900 to 8000 and Weber numbers of 0.2 to 6.5. Analyses of data from the two flight experiments (TPCE and TPCE/TP) and their comparison with the results obtained in drop tower experiments suggest that as Bond number approaches zero the flow pattern produced by an axial jet and the mixing time can be predicted by the Weber number.

Hasan, Mohammad M.; Lin, Chin S.; Knoll, Richard H.; Bentz, Michael D.

1996-01-01

65

Impact of 13-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV13) in a pandemic similar to the 2009 H1N1 in the United States  

PubMed Central

Background High rates of bacterial coinfection in autopsy data from the 2009 H1N1 influenza (“flu”) pandemic suggest synergies between flu and pneumococcal disease (PD) during pandemic conditions, and highlight the importance of interventions like the 13-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV13) that may mitigate the impact of a pandemic. Methods We used a decision-analytic model, estimated from published sources, to assess the impact of pediatric vaccination with PCV13 versus the 7-valent vaccine (PCV7) on PD incidence and mortality in a normal flu season (10% flu incidence) and in a pandemic similar to 2009-2010 H1N1 (20% flu incidence, mild virulence, high impact in children). Both direct and indirect (herd) effects against PD were considered. Effectiveness of PCV13 was extrapolated from observed PCV7 data, using assumptions of serotype prevalence and PCV13 protection against the 6 serotypes not in PCV7. To simulate 2009–2010 H1N1, autopsy data were used to estimate the overall proportion of flu deaths with bacterial coinfections. By assuming that increased risk of death during the pandemic occurred among those with comorbidity (using obesity as proxy) and bacterial coinfections primarily due to S. pneumoniae or S. aureus, we estimated the proportion co-infected among all (fatal and non-fatal) flu cases (7.6% co-infected with any organism; 2.2% with S. pneumoniae). PD incidence, mortality, and total healthcare costs were evaluated over a 1-year horizon. Results In a normal flu season, compared to PCV7, PCV13 is expected to prevent an additional 13,400 invasive PD (IPD) cases, 399,000 pneumonia cases, and 2,900 deaths, leading to cost savings of $472 M. In a pandemic similar to 2009–2010 H1N1, PCV13 would prevent 22,800 IPD cases, 872,000 pneumonia cases, and 3,700 deaths, resulting in cost savings of $1.0 B compared to PCV7. Conclusions In a flu pandemic similar to the 2009–2010 H1N1, protection against the 6 additional serotypes in PCV13 would likely be effective in preventing pandemic-related PD cases, mortality, and associated costs. PMID:23687999

2013-01-01

66

Tank pressure control in low gravity by jet mixing  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Tank Pressure Control Experiment (TPCE) is a space experiment developed to help meet the need for a critical aspect of cryogenic fluid management technology: control of storage tank pressures in the absence of gravity by forced convective mixing. The experiment used a 13.7-liter tank filled to a constant 83 percent level with refrigerant 113 at near saturation conditions to simulate the fluid dynamics and thermodynamics of cryogenic fluids in space applications. The objectives of TPCE were to characterize the fluid dynamics of axial jet-induced mixing in low gravity, to evaluate the validity of empirical mixing models, and to provide data for use in developing and validating computational fluid dynamic models of mixing processes. TPCE accomplished all of its objectives in flight on Space Shuttle Mission STS-3 in August of 1991. The range of flow patterns photographed generally confirmed a prior correlation based on drop tower tests. A closed-form equation derived from a simple thermodynamic model was found to provide a first-order prediction of the pressure reduction time as a function of mixer parameters, tank size, and fluid thermophysical properties. Low energy mixing jets were found to be effective and reliable at reducing thermal non-uniformities, promoting heat and mass transfer between the phases, and reducing tank pressure.

Bentz, Michael D.

1993-01-01

67

Ventilating Air-Conditioner  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Air-conditioner provides ventilation designed to be used alone or incorporated into cooling or heating system operates efficiently only by recirculating stale air within building. Energy needed to operate overall ventilating cooling or heating system slightly greater than operating nonventilating cooling or heating system. Helps to preserve energy efficiency while satisfying need for increased forced ventilation to prevent accumulation of undesired gases like radon and formaldehyde. Provides fresh treated air to variety of confined spaces: hospital surgeries, laboratories, clean rooms, and printing shops and other places where solvents used. In mobile homes and portable classrooms, eliminates irritant chemicals exuded by carpets, panels, and other materials, ensuring healthy indoor environment for occupants.

Dinh, Khanh

1994-01-01

68

[High frequency jet ventilation].  

PubMed

High frequency jet ventilation (HFJV) is a new ventilation technique which ensures satisfactory gas exchanges with tidal volumes of about 2 ml . kg-1. A gas mixture under high pressure is "chopped up" by an electrically-controlled solenoid valve and delivered to the patient by an injection system. A specific heater-humidifier is required for optimal humidity and warmth of the gas mixture. HFJV creates a positive end-expiratory pressure effect in the alveoles, and the increase of mean intratracheal pressure observed accurately reflects the increase of mean alveolar pressure. Convection by direct alveolar ventilation plays a determinant role in CO2 clearance under HFJV, the other gas transport mechanisms being accessory. In respiratory failure with shock HFJV is better tolerated haemodynamically than conventional ventilation. The main indications of the new technique are ENT surgery, thoracic and tracheal surgery, lithotripsy, broncho-pleural and oesophago-tracheal fistulae and circulatory shock. PMID:2958820

Rouby, J J; Viars, P

1987-09-26

69

Ventilation Air Preconditioning Systems  

E-print Network

dedicated to preconditioning the outside air. This paper discusses two such systems for cooling and dehumidification applications: one with a separate preconditioning unit and one with separate ventilation and return air paths in a single unit. Both deep...

Khattar, M.; Brandemuehl, M. J.

1996-01-01

70

Why We Ventilate  

SciTech Connect

It is widely accepted that ventilation is critical for providing good indoor air quality (IAQ) in homes. However, the definition of"good" IAQ, and the most effective, energy efficient methods for delivering it are still matters of research and debate. This paper presents the results of work done at the Lawrence Berkeley National Lab to identify the air pollutants that drive the need for ventilation as part of a larger effort to develop a health-based ventilation standard. First, we present results of a hazard analysis that identified the pollutants that most commonly reach concentrations in homes that exceed health-based standards or guidelines for chronic or acute exposures. Second, we present results of an impact assessment that identified the air pollutants that cause the most harm to the U.S. population from chronic inhalation in residences. Lastly, we describe the implications of our findings for developing effective ventilation standards.

Logue, Jennifer M.; Sherman, Max H.; Price, Phil N.; Singer, Brett C.

2011-09-01

71

Conventional mechanical ventilation  

PubMed Central

The provision of mechanical ventilation for the support of infants and children with respiratory failure or insufficiency is one of the most common techniques that are performed in the Pediatric Intensive Care Unit (PICU). Despite its widespread application in the PICUs of the 21st century, before the 1930s, respiratory failure was uniformly fatal due to the lack of equipment and techniques for airway management and ventilatory support. The operating rooms of the 1950s and 1960s provided the arena for the development of the manual skills and the refinement of the equipment needed for airway management, which subsequently led to the more widespread use of endotracheal intubation thereby ushering in the era of positive pressure ventilation. Although there seems to be an ever increasing complexity in the techniques of mechanical ventilation, its successful use in the PICU should be guided by the basic principles of gas exchange and the physiology of respiratory function. With an understanding of these key concepts and the use of basic concepts of mechanical ventilation, this technique can be successfully applied in both the PICU and the operating room. This article reviews the basic physiology of gas exchange, principles of pulmonary physiology, and the concepts of mechanical ventilation to provide an overview of the knowledge required for the provision of conventional mechanical ventilation in various clinical arenas. PMID:20927268

Tobias, Joseph D.

2010-01-01

72

Production of inflammatory cytokines in response to diphtheria-pertussis-tetanus (DPT), haemophilus influenzae type b (Hib), and 7-valent pneumococcal (PCV7) vaccines.  

PubMed

Haemophilus influenzae type b (Hib) and 7-valent pneumococcal (PCV7) vaccines both became recommended in Japan in 2010. In this study, cytokine production was investigated in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) cultures stimulated with diphtheria and tetanus toxoids combined with acellular pertussis vaccine (DPT), Hib, and PCV7 separately or concurrent different combinations, all as final off-the-shelf vaccines without the individual vaccine components as controls. Higher IL-1? levels were produced when cultures were stimulated with PCV than with DPT or Hib, and the concurrent stimulation including PCV7 enhanced the production of IL-1?. Although Hib induced higher levels of IL-6, no significant difference was observed in IL-6 production with the concurrent stimulation. The concurrent stimulation with Hib/PCV7 and DPT/Hib/PCV7 produced higher levels of TNF-? and human G-CSF. Cytokine profiles were examined in serum samples obtained from 61 vaccine recipients with febrile reactions and 18 recipients without febrile illness within 24 h of vaccination. No significant difference was observed in cytokine levels of IL-1?, IL-4, IL-6, IL-10, IL-12, IFN-?, MIP-1, TNF-?, and prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) in sera between the two groups. However, significantly higher levels of human G-CSF were observed in recipients with febrile illness than in those without febrile reactions. Further investigations of the significance of elevated serum G-CSF levels are required in vaccine recipients with febrile illness. PMID:24589970

Kashiwagi, Yasuyo; Miyata, Akiko; Kumagai, Takuji; Maehara, Kouji; Suzuki, Eitarou; Nagai, Takao; Ozaki, Takao; Nishimura, Naoko; Okada, Kenji; Kawashima, Hisashi; Nakayama, Tetsuo

2014-03-01

73

Pressure Control System Design for a Closed Crop Growth Chamber  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Controlled Ecological Life Support System (CELSS) is an area of active research at NASA. CELSS is a plant-based bioregenerative life support system for long term manned space flights where resupply is costly or impractical. The plants in a CELSS will function to convert the carbon dioxide (exhaled by the crew) into oxygen, purify non-potable water into potable quality water, and provide food for the crew. Prior to implementing a CELSS life support system, one must have knowledge on growing plants in a closed chamber under low gravity. This information will come from research to be conducted on the CELSS Test Facility that will operate on the Space Station Freedom. Currently a ground-based CELSS Test Facility is being built at NASA Ames Research Center. It is called the EDU (Engineering Development Unit). This system will allow researchers to identify issues that may cause difficulties in the development of the CELSS Test Facility and aid in the development of new needed technologies. The EDU consists of a 1 m2 crop growth chamber that is surrounded by a containment enclosure. The containment enclosure isolates the system so there is very little mass and thermal exchange with the ambient. The leakage rate is on the order of 1 % of the enclosure's volume per day (with 0.2S psi pressure difference). The thermal leakage is less than 0.5% of the electrical power supplied to the system per degree Celsius difference from the surrounding. The pressure in the containment enclosure is regulated at 62.5 Pa below the ambient by an active controller. The goal is to maintain this set point for a variety of conditions, such as a range of operating temperatures, heat load variations that occur when the lights are turned on and off, and fluctuations in ambient pressure. In addition certain transition tracking performance is required. This paper illustrates the application of some advanced systems control methods to the task of synthesizing the EDU's pressure control system.

Tsai, K.; Blackwell, C.; Harper, Lynn D. (Technical Monitor)

1994-01-01

74

PREMIER—A Trial of Lifestyle Interventions for Blood Pressure Control: Intervention Design and Rationale  

Microsoft Academic Search

Interventions encouraging adoption of healthy diets and increased physical activity are needed to achieve national goals for preventing and treating hypertension, cardiovascular disease, diabetes, and other chronic diseases. PREMIER was a multicenter clinical trial testing the effects of two lifestyle interventions on blood pressure control, compared with advice only. Both interventions implemented established national guidelines for blood pressure control (weight

Kristine L. Funk; Patricia J. Elmer; Victor J. Stevens; David W. Harsha; Shirley R. Craddick; Pao-Hwa Lin; Deborah Rohm Young; Catherine M. Champagne; Phillip J. Brantley; Phyllis B. McCarron; Denise G. Simons-Morton; Lawrence J. Appel

2008-01-01

75

Application of PC\\/104 Embedded Computer to Air Pressure Control Device  

Microsoft Academic Search

Air pressure control device is presented for continuous control on air pressure, to make which varying from vacuum to low pressure with high accuracy and fast response. The study on the device is aimed to implement semi-physical flight height simulation technology of aircraft. With the development of air pressure control technology, the embedded computer technology has now become an integral

Jinyun Li; Baoren Li; Zeshang Gao

2008-01-01

76

Robust Positioning Control of Pneumatic Servo System with Pressure Control Loop  

Microsoft Academic Search

The goal of this paper is to attain a robust positioning control of a pneumatic driving system. A positioning control system positively focusing on the pressure control is investigated from the view that the pressure control is indispensable for improvement of control performances. A disturbance observer is employed to improve the pressure response and compensate the influence of friction force

Toshiro Noritsugu; Masahiro Takaiwa

1995-01-01

77

A recombinant porcine circovirus type 2 expressing the VP1 epitope of the type O foot-and-mouth disease virus is infectious and induce both PCV2 and VP1 epitope antibodies.  

PubMed

Porcine circovirus type 2 (PCV2) is the etiological agent of postweaning multisystemic wasting syndrome, a disease that causes huge economic damage in swine industry. A recombinant PCV2 expressing the neutralizing VP1 epitope (aa 141-160) of the foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV) was rescued using an infectious cloning technique. The PCV2 antigen and FMDV-VP1 antigenic epitope of the cloned strain recPCV2-CL-VP1 were confirmed by an immunoperoxidase monolayer assay (IPMA) and a capture enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). The morphological features of the recPCV2-CL-VP1 were not discernibly different from those of its parental strain (PCV2-CL). However, the recombinant virus could be differentiated from its parental virus by PCR and capture ELISA. The recPCV2-CL-VP1 was demonstrated to replicate stably in PK-15 cells through ten passages. An infection experiment using BALB/c mice showed that both recPCV2-CL-VP1 and PCV2-CL could replicate in the mice, cause various pathological changes, and induce a high level of anti-Cap antibodies. The recombinant virus emulsified with Freund's adjuvant was used to immunize BALB/c mice and induced antibodies against the FMDV-VP1 epitope. Hence, the recombinant PCV2 strain, which expressed the neutralizing FMDV-VP1 epitope, provides a valuable platform to develop novel genetic vaccines. PMID:25117547

Huang, Liping; Zhang, Feiyan; Tang, Qinghai; Wei, Yanwu; Wu, Hongli; Guo, Longjun; Fu, Yujie; Liu, Changming

2014-11-01

78

EIGHTH INTERIM STATUS REPORT: MODEL 9975 PCV O-RING FIXTURE LONG-TERM LEAK PERFORMANCE  

SciTech Connect

A series of experiments to monitor the aging performance of Viton® GLT O-rings used in the Model 9975 package has been ongoing since 2004 at the Savannah River National Laboratory. Seventy tests using mock-ups of 9975 Primary Containment Vessels (PCVs) were assembled and heated to temperatures ranging from 200 to 450 ºF. They were leak-tested initially and have been tested periodically to determine if they meet the criterion of leak-tightness defined in ANSI standard N14.5-97. Fourteen additional tests were initiated in 2008 with GLT-S O-rings heated to temperatures ranging from 200 to 400 ºF. High temperature aging continues for 23 GLT O-ring fixtures at 200 – 270 ºF. Room temperature leak test failures have been experienced in all of the GLT O-ring fixtures aging at 350 ºF and higher temperatures, and in 8 fixtures aging at 300 ºF. The remaining GLT O-ring fixtures aging at 300 ºF have been retired from testing following more than 5 years at temperature without failure. No failures have yet been observed in GLT O-ring fixtures aging at 200 ºF for 61 - 85 months, which is still bounding to O-ring temperatures during storage in KArea Complex (KAC). Based on expectations that the fixtures aging at 200 ºF will remain leaktight for a significant period yet to come, 2 additional fixtures began aging in 2011 at an intermediate temperature of 270 ºF, with hopes that they may reach a failure condition before the 200 ºF fixtures. High temperature aging continues for 6 GLT-S O-ring fixtures at 200 – 300 ºF. Room temperature leak test failures have been experienced in all 8 of the GLT-S O-ring fixtures aging at 350 and 400 ºF. No failures have yet been observed in GLT-S O-ring fixtures aging at 200 - 300 ºF for 41 - 45 months. Aging and periodic leak testing will continue for the remaining PCV fixtures.

Daugherty, W. L.

2013-09-03

79

Ventilation technologies scoping study  

SciTech Connect

This document presents the findings of a scoping study commissioned by the Public Interest Energy Research (PIER) program of the California Energy Commission to determine what research is necessary to develop new residential ventilation requirements for California. This study is one of three companion efforts needed to complete the job of determining the needs of California, determining residential ventilation requirements, and determining appropriate ventilation technologies to meet these needs and requirements in an energy efficient manner. Rather than providing research results, this scoping study identifies important research questions along with the level of effort necessary to address these questions and the costs, risks, and benefits of pursuing alternative research questions. In approaching these questions and level of effort, feasibility and timing were important considerations. The Commission has specified Summer 2005 as the latest date for completing this research in time to update the 2008 version of California's Energy Code (Title 24).

Walker, Iain S.; Sherman, Max H.

2003-09-30

80

Ventilation flow: Submerged  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The ventilation system on a submarine is discussed. When the submarine is submerged. The ventilation system provides a conditioned atmosphere in the ship with complete isolation from the outside. A conditioned atmosphere includes not only filtration and temperature and humidity control, but also air purification (removal of potentially harmful quantities of impurities and comtaminants) and revitalization (addition of vital life support oxygen). Carbon dioxide removal, the oxygen system, air conditioning, carbon monoxide removal, hydrogen removal, and atmosphere monitoring systems are among the topics discussed.

Hutchinson, D.

1985-01-01

81

Meeting Residential Ventilation Standards Through Dynamic Control of Ventilation Systems  

SciTech Connect

Existing ventilation standards, including American Society of Heating, Refrigerating, and Air-conditioning Engineers (ASHRAE) Standard 62.2, specify continuous operation of a defined mechanical ventilation system to provide minimum ventilation, with time-based intermittent operation as an option. This requirement ignores several factors and concerns including: other equipment such as household exhaust fans that might incidentally provide ventilation, negative impacts of ventilation when outdoor pollutant levels are high, the importance of minimizing energy use particularly during times of peak electricity demand, and how the energy used to condition air as part of ventilation system operation changes with outdoor conditions. Dynamic control of ventilation systems can provide ventilation equivalent to or better than what is required by standards while minimizing energy costs and can also add value by shifting load during peak times and reducing intake of outdoor air contaminants. This article describes the logic that enables dynamic control of whole-house ventilation systems to meet the intent of ventilation standards and demonstrates the dynamic ventilation system control concept through simulations and field tests of the Residential Integrated Ventilation-Energy Controller (RIVEC).

Sherman, Max H.; Walker, Iain S.

2011-04-01

82

A nationwide surveillance of invasive pneumococcal disease in adults in Israel before an expected effect of PCV7.  

PubMed

Pneumococcal infections in adults vary in severity and incidence is affected by childhood vaccination policy. Here, we try to define the host determinants and the interaction with specific serotypes that result in invasive pneumococcal disease (IPD) before an expected effect of pneumococcal conjugate vaccines. A nationwide active surveillance was initiated on July 2009, at the time of national implementation of PCV7 in Israel. The surveillance included all 27 laboratories and medical centers performing blood cultures in Israel, providing all blood and CSF pneumococcal isolates from persons ?18y. Capture-recapture method assured that >95% of all cases were reported. IPD outcome and medical history were recorded and isolates were serotyped. Four hundred and sixty IPD cases were reported (annual incidence [/100,000] of 9.25). Incidence increased with age, from 2.6 among 18-34y to 66.8 among ?85y. The most common diagnosis was pneumonia (72.4%), followed by bacteremia with no apparent focus (20.2%). Case fatality rate increased with age and number of comorbidities (34.5% for ?75y or those with ?3 comorbidities vs. 9.2-11.2% among <65y or those with no comorbidities; p=0.015). Variables independently associated with mortality were: age ?75, chronic renal failure, malignancy, neurosurgery, alcohol abuse, multi-lobar pneumonia and sepsis with no apparent focus. The predominant serotypes in patients 18-49y were 1, 5, 8, 7F and 9V (constituting 56.3% in this age-group vs. 11.9% in ?75y; p<0.01). The predominant serotypes among patients ?75y were 3, 19A, 23F and 14 (40.3% of this age-group vs. 12.9% of 18-49y; p<0.01). Overall, PCV7 and PCV13 covered 25.6% and 63.7% of isolates, respectively, and 30.9% and 67.9% of isolates in mortality cases respectively. This nationwide active surveillance provides the baseline incidence, mortality rates and risk group distributions of IPD in adults before expected PCV effect. PMID:23518404

Regev-Yochay, Gili; Rahav, Galia; Strahilevitz, Jacob; Bishara, Jihad; Katzir, Michal; Chowers, Michal; Finkelstein, Renato; Chazan, Bibiana; Zimhony, Oren; Dagan, Ron

2013-05-01

83

Lung Ventilation/Perfusion Scan  

MedlinePLUS

... ventilation and perfusion. The ventilation scan shows where air flows in your lungs. The perfusion scan shows where ... body use the energy to create images of air and blood flow patterns in your lungs. Outlook VQ scans involve ...

84

Innovative Energy Efficient Industrial Ventilation  

E-print Network

This paper was written to describe an innovative “on-demand” industrial ventilation system for woodworking, metalworking, food processing, pharmaceutical, chemical, and other industries. Having analyzed existing industrial ventilation in 130...

Litomisky, A.

2005-01-01

85

Natural ventilation generates building form  

E-print Network

Natural ventilation is an efficient design strategy for thermal comfort in hot and humid climates. The building forms can generate different pressures and temperatures to induce natural ventilation. This thesis develops a ...

Chen, Shaw-Bing

1996-01-01

86

Literature Review of Displacement Ventilation  

E-print Network

of Ventilated Rooms, Oslo, Norway. Nielsen, P.V., Hoff, L., Pedersen, L.G. 1988. Displacement Ventilation by Different Types of Diffusers. Proceedings of the 9 th AIVC Conference, Warwick. Niu, J. 1994. Modeling of Cooled-Ceiling Air-Conditioning Systems Ph... slender cylinder in a ventilated room. Proceedings of ROOMVENT ?90: International Conference on Engineergin Aero- and Thermodynamics of Ventilated Rooms, Oslo, Norway. This paper deals with some of the effects of persons present in a displacement...

Cho, S.; Im, P.; Haberl, J. S.

87

[Non-invasive ventilation].  

PubMed

The advent of non-invasive mechanical ventilation (NIMV) has radically changed the management of acute and chronic respiratory failure. Over the last few years, the number of possible applications of NIMV has progressively increased, both in the hospital and extrahospital setting. NIMV is now used in all hospitals and resident physicians currently receive specific training -nonexistent until a few years ago- in this modality. It falls to all of us to push forward the clinical and scientific advances represented by the development of NIMV, by promoting the events that accompany better knowledge of the physiopathological bases of ventilation and of its continuous applications in daily clinical practice and by perfecting the elements required for the correct application of this technique. The present review aims to provide a broad overview of NIMV, from the most theoretical knowledge (the physiopathology of NIMV) to the most practical skills (recognition of patient-ventilator asynchrony). Through this progression from the complex to the most basic, or from the basics to the most complex, depending on the perspective taken, we aim to provide deeper knowledge of the concepts required to understand the technical functioning of the ventilator, describing its distinct modes and parameters and the abilities that must be developed for the correct indication, use and monitoring of the technique. We provide a final reflection on other forms of respiratory support that can be offered to patients with ventilatory failure. PMID:21316544

Gallardo Romero, Jose Manuel; García, Teresa Gómez; Sancho Chust, José Norberto; González Martínez, Mónica

2010-10-01

88

Laboratory Ventilation and Safety.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In order to meet the needs of both safety and economy, laboratory ventilation systems must effectively remove air-borne toxic and flammable materials and at the same time exhaust a minimum volume of air. Laboratory hoods are the most commonly used means of removing gases, dusts, mists, vapors, and fumed from laboratory operations. To be effective,…

Steere, Norman V.

1965-01-01

89

Measure Guideline: Ventilation Cooling  

SciTech Connect

The purpose of this measure guideline on ventilation cooling is to provide information on a cost-effective solution for reducing cooling system energy and demand in homes located in hot-dry and cold-dry climates. This guideline provides a prescriptive approach that outlines qualification criteria, selection considerations, and design and installation procedures.

Springer, D.; Dakin, B.; German, A.

2012-04-01

90

RESIDENTIAL VENTILATION STUDY  

EPA Science Inventory

This project evaluated the effectiveness, first costs and operational costs of various types of residential ventilation systems in three different climates in the U.S. The Agency, through its Energy Star Program, recommends that builders construct homes that are energy efficient ...

91

Heating and ventilation system  

Microsoft Academic Search

A system is described for controlling the temperature, ventilation, illumination, and humidity within an enclosed building having at least one wall exposed to solar radiation comprising: a double glazed window mounted on the wall; means for measuring the net heat energy flow through the window; means for automatically adjusting the heat energy flow; means provided for absorbing at least a

1974-01-01

92

A knowledge- and model-based system for automated weaning from mechanical ventilation: technical description and first clinical application.  

PubMed

To describe the principles and the first clinical application of a novel prototype automated weaning system called Evita Weaning System (EWS). EWS allows an automated control of all ventilator settings in pressure controlled and pressure support mode with the aim of decreasing the respiratory load of mechanical ventilation. Respiratory load takes inspired fraction of oxygen, positive end-expiratory pressure, pressure amplitude and spontaneous breathing activity into account. Spontaneous breathing activity is assessed by the number of controlled breaths needed to maintain a predefined respiratory rate. EWS was implemented as a knowledge- and model-based system that autonomously and remotely controlled a mechanical ventilator (Evita 4, Dräger Medical, Lübeck, Germany). In a selected case study (n = 19 patients), ventilator settings chosen by the responsible physician were compared with the settings 10 min after the start of EWS and at the end of the study session. Neither unsafe ventilator settings nor failure of the system occurred. All patients were successfully transferred from controlled ventilation to assisted spontaneous breathing in a mean time of 37 ± 17 min (± SD). Early settings applied by the EWS did not significantly differ from the initial settings, except for the fraction of oxygen in inspired gas. During the later course, EWS significantly modified most of the ventilator settings and reduced the imposed respiratory load. A novel prototype automated weaning system was successfully developed. The first clinical application of EWS revealed that its operation was stable, safe ventilator settings were defined and the respiratory load of mechanical ventilation was decreased. PMID:23892513

Schädler, Dirk; Mersmann, Stefan; Frerichs, Inéz; Elke, Gunnar; Semmel-Griebeler, Thomas; Noll, Oliver; Pulletz, Sven; Zick, Günther; David, Matthias; Heinrichs, Wolfgang; Scholz, Jens; Weiler, Norbert

2014-10-01

93

Variable versus conventional lung protective mechanical ventilation during open abdominal surgery: study protocol for a randomized controlled trial  

PubMed Central

Background General anesthesia usually requires mechanical ventilation, which is traditionally accomplished with constant tidal volumes in volume- or pressure-controlled modes. Experimental studies suggest that the use of variable tidal volumes (variable ventilation) recruits lung tissue, improves pulmonary function and reduces systemic inflammatory response. However, it is currently not known whether patients undergoing open abdominal surgery might benefit from intraoperative variable ventilation. Methods/Design The PROtective VARiable ventilation trial (‘PROVAR’) is a single center, randomized controlled trial enrolling 50 patients who are planning for open abdominal surgery expected to last longer than 3 hours. PROVAR compares conventional (non-variable) lung protective ventilation (CV) with variable lung protective ventilation (VV) regarding pulmonary function and inflammatory response. The primary endpoint of the study is the forced vital capacity on the first postoperative day. Secondary endpoints include further lung function tests, plasma cytokine levels, spatial distribution of ventilation assessed by means of electrical impedance tomography and postoperative pulmonary complications. Discussion We hypothesize that VV improves lung function and reduces systemic inflammatory response compared to CV in patients receiving mechanical ventilation during general anesthesia for open abdominal surgery longer than 3 hours. PROVAR is the first randomized controlled trial aiming at intra- and postoperative effects of VV on lung function. This study may help to define the role of VV during general anesthesia requiring mechanical ventilation. Trial registration Clinicaltrials.gov NCT01683578 (registered on September 3 3012). PMID:24885921

2014-01-01

94

Nursing Education in High Blood Pressure Control. Report of the Task Force on the Role of Nursing in High Blood Pressure Control.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This curriculum guide on high blood pressure (hypertension) for nursing educators has five sections: (1) Introduction and Objectives provides information regarding the establishment and objectives of the National Task Force on the Role of Nursing in High Blood Pressure Control and briefly discusses nursing's role in hypertension control; (2) Goals…

National Institutes of Health (DHEW), Bethesda, MD. High Blood Pressure Information Center.

95

A model of psychosocial and cultural antecedents of blood pressure control.  

PubMed Central

Hypertension is a major modifiable risk factor for stroke, congestive heart failure, and end-stage renal disease. Hypertension is particularly prevalent and deadly among African Americans. Effective treatment for hypertension has been available for decades, yet only one fourth of all individuals have their blood pressure under control. Despite the potential impact of hypertension, interventions to improve control have had limited success. We present a model of how to understand antecedents of blood pressure control according to three interrelated categories: patient characteristics, social and cultural environment, and medical environment. This theoretical paper was conducted using a literature review and a model to explain psychosocial antecedents of blood pressure control is presented. We conclude that improved understanding of important antecedents of blood pressure control coupled with technological advances, such as tailored interventions, provide clinicians with a tool that may lead to improved blood pressure control. These interventions will require the involvement of clinicians and consideration of sociocultural factors to be successful. PMID:11991336

Bosworth, Hayden B.; Oddone, Eugene Z.

2002-01-01

96

Tight Blood Pressure Control Doesn't Raise Risk of Falls, Study Says  

MedlinePLUS

... please enable JavaScript. Tight Blood Pressure Control Doesn't Raise Risk of Falls, Study Says Findings counter ... years, patients in the intensive-treatment group didn't fall more or suffer more broken bones than ...

97

Ventilator-associated pneumonia.  

PubMed

Ventilator-associated pneumonia is a pneumonia that develops initially more than 48 h from the start of tracheal intubation and mechanical ventilation. The route of infection is almost always through the respiratory tract. Intake of contaminants from outside the tracheal tube (silent aspiration) is considered a key route, and suctioning of secretions that have accumulated above the cuff of the endotracheal tubes is effective in preventing infection. The circuit is managed and heated-wire humidifiers and suction are manipulated based on appropriate infection control measures. To diagnose pathogens, efforts should be made to collect specimens from the pneumonia focus. Realistically, however, diagnosis can also be achieved based on the clinical course and from the results of culture of samples from tracheal aspirate. Use of prophylactic antimicrobials is not recommended, but once a diagnosis is made, antimicrobials are administered that combat the causative microorganism. PMID:19857223

2009-11-01

98

Difficult mask ventilation.  

PubMed

Mask ventilation is the most fundamental skill in airway management. In this review, we summarize the current knowledge about difficult mask ventilation (DMV) situations. Various definitions for DMV have been used in the literature. The lack of a precise standard definition creates a problem for studies on DMV and causes confusion in data communication and comparisons. DMV develops because of multiple factors that are technique related and/or airway related. Frequently, the pathogenesis involves a combination of these factors interacting to cause the final clinical picture. The reported incidence of DMV varies widely (from 0.08% to 15%) depending on the criteria used for its definition. Obesity, age older than 55 yr, history of snoring, lack of teeth, the presence of a beard, Mallampati Class III or IV, and abnormal mandibular protrusion test are all independent predictors of DMV. These signs should, therefore, be recognized and documented during the preoperative evaluation. DMV can be even more challenging in infants and children, because they develop hypoxemia much faster than adults. Finally, difficult tracheal intubation is more frequent in patients who experience DMV, and thus, clinicians should be familiar with the corrective measures and management options when faced with a challenging, difficult, or impossible mask ventilation situation. PMID:19923516

El-Orbany, Mohammad; Woehlck, Harvey J

2009-12-01

99

Laboratory and Industrial Ventilation  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This handbook supplements the Facilities Engineering Handbook (NHB 7320.1) and provides additional policies and criteria for uniform application to ventilation systems. It expands basic requirements, provides additional design and construction guidance, and places emphasis on those design considerations which will provide for greater effectiveness in the use of these systems. The provisions of this handbook are applicable to all NASA field installations and the Jet Propulsion Laboratory. Since supply of this handbook is limited, abstracts of the portion or portions applicable to a given requirement will be made for the individual specific needs encountered rather than supplying copies of the handbook as has been past practice.

1972-01-01

100

Ventilation in chest trauma  

PubMed Central

Chest trauma is one important factor for total morbidity and mortality in traumatized emergency patients. The complexity of injury in trauma patients makes it challenging to provide an optimal oxygenation while protecting the lung from further ventilator-induced injury to it. On the other hand, lung trauma needs to be treated on an individual basis, depending on the magnitude, location and type of lung or chest injury. Several aspects of ventilatory management in emergency patients are summarized herein and may give the clinician an overview of the treatment possibilities for chest trauma victims. PMID:21769213

Richter, Torsten; Ragaller, Maximilian

2011-01-01

101

30 CFR 57.8520 - Ventilation plan.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...Ventilation plan. A plan of the mine ventilation...annually. The ventilation plan or revisions thereto...written request. The plan shall, where applicable...of internal combustion engine units used underground, including make and model of unit, type of...

2013-07-01

102

30 CFR 57.8520 - Ventilation plan.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...Ventilation plan. A plan of the mine ventilation...annually. The ventilation plan or revisions thereto...written request. The plan shall, where applicable...of internal combustion engine units used underground, including make and model of unit, type of...

2011-07-01

103

30 CFR 57.8520 - Ventilation plan.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...Ventilation plan. A plan of the mine ventilation...annually. The ventilation plan or revisions thereto...written request. The plan shall, where applicable...of internal combustion engine units used underground, including make and model of unit, type of...

2012-07-01

104

30 CFR 57.8520 - Ventilation plan.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...Ventilation plan. A plan of the mine ventilation...annually. The ventilation plan or revisions thereto...written request. The plan shall, where applicable...of internal combustion engine units used underground, including make and model of unit, type of...

2010-07-01

105

30 CFR 57.8520 - Ventilation plan.  

...Ventilation plan. A plan of the mine ventilation...annually. The ventilation plan or revisions thereto...written request. The plan shall, where applicable...of internal combustion engine units used underground, including make and model of unit, type of...

2014-07-01

106

The comparative profile of lymphoid cells and the T and B cell spectratype of germ-free piglets infected with viruses SIV, PRRSV or PCV2.  

PubMed

Lymphocyte subsets isolated from germ-free piglets experimentally infected with swine influenza virus (SIV), porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) or porcine circovirus type 2 (PCV2) were studied and the profile of these subsets among these three infections was monitored. Germ-free piglets were used since their response could be directly correlated to the viral infection. Because SIV infections are resolved even by colostrum-deprived neonates whereas PRRSV and PCV2 infections are not, SIV was used as a benchmark for an effectively resolved viral infection. PRRSV caused a large increase in the proportion of lymphocytes at the site of infection and rapid differentiation of B cells leading to a high level of Ig-producing cells but a severe reduction in CD2-CD21+ primed B cells. Unlike SIV and PCV2, PRRSV also caused an increase in terminally differentiated subset of CD2+CD8?+ ?? cells and polyclonal expansion of major V? families suggesting that non-specific helper T cells drive swift B cell activation. Distinct from infections with SIV and PRRSV, PCV2 infection led to the: (a) prevalence of MHC-II+ T cytotoxic cells, (b) restriction of the T helper compartment in the respiratory tract, (c) generation of a high proportion of FoxP3+ T cells in the blood and (d) selective expansion of IgA and IgE suggesting this virus elicits a mucosal immune response. Our findings suggest that PRRSV and PCV2 may negatively modulate the host immune system by different mechanisms which may explain their persistence. PMID:25186625

Sinkora, Marek; Butler, John E; Lager, Kelly M; Potockova, Hana; Sinkorova, Jana

2014-01-01

107

Simulation and experiment research on the proportional pressure control of water-assisted injection molding  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Water-assisted injection molding (WAIM), a newly developed fluid-assisted injection molding technology has drawn more and more attentions for the energy saving, short cooling circle time and high quality of products. Existing research for the process of WAIM has shown that the pressure control of the injecting water is mostly important for the WAIM. However, the proportional pressure control for the WAIM system is quite complex due to the existence of nonlinearities in the water hydraulic system. In order to achieve better pressure control performance of the injecting water to meet the requirements of the WAIM, the proportional pressure control of the WAIM system is investigated both numerically and experimentally. A newly designed water hydraulic system for WAIM is first modeled in AMEsim environment, the load characteristics and the nonlinearities of water hydraulic system are both considered, then the main factors affecting the injecting pressure and load flow rate are extensively studied. Meanwhile, an open-loop model-based compensation control strategy is employed to regulate the water injection pressure and a feedback proportional integrator controller is further adopted to achieve better control performance. In order to verify the AMEsim simulation results WAIM experiment for particular Acrylonitrile Butadiene Styrene (ABS) parts is implemented and the measured experimental data including injecting pressure and flow rate results are compared with the simulation. The good coincidence between experiment and simulation shows that the AMEsim model is accurate, and the tracking performance of the load pressure indicates that the proposed control strategy is effective for the proportional pressure control of the nonlinear WAIM system. The proposed proportional pressure control strategy and the conclusions drawn from simulation and experiment contribute to the application of water hydraulic proportional control and WAIM technology.

Zhou, Hua; Chen, Yinglong; Zhang, Zengmeng; Yang, Huayong

2012-05-01

108

The Association between Medication Adherence and Treatment Intensification with Blood Pressure Control in Resistant Hypertension  

PubMed Central

Patients with resistant hypertension are at risk for poor outcomes. Medication adherence and intensification improve blood pressure control; however, little is known about these processes or their association with outcomes in resistant hypertension. This retrospective study included patients from 2002-2006 with incident hypertension from two health systems who developed resistant hypertension, or uncontrolled blood pressure despite adherence to ?3 antihypertensive medications. Patterns of hypertension treatment, medication adherence (percentage of days covered) and treatment intensification (increase in medication class or dose) were described in the year after resistant hypertension identification. Then, the association between medication adherence and intensification with 1-year blood pressure control was assessed controlling for patient characteristics. Of the 3,550 patients with resistant hypertension, 49% were male and mean age 60. One year after resistance hypertension determination, fewer patients were taking diuretics (77.7% vs. 92.2%, p<0.01), beta blockers (71.2% vs. 79.4%, p<0.01) and ACE/ARB (64.8% vs. 70.1%, p<0.01) compared to baseline. Rates of blood pressure control improved over 1-year (22% vs. 55%, p=<0.01). During this year, adherence was not associated with 1-year blood pressure control (adjusted OR 1.18, 0.94-1.47). Treatment was intensified in 21.6% of visits with elevated blood pressure. Increasing treatment intensity was associated with 1-year blood pressure control (adjusted OR 1.64; 95% CI 1.58-1.71). In this cohort of patients with resistant hypertension, treatment intensification but not medication adherence was significantly associated with 1-year blood pressure control. These findings highlight the need to investigate why patients with uncontrolled blood pressure do not receive treatment intensification. PMID:22733464

Daugherty, Stacie L.; Powers, J. David; Magid, David J.; Masoudi, Frederick A.; Margolis, Karen L.; O'Connor, Patrick J; Schmittdiel, Julie; Ho, P. Michael

2012-01-01

109

New ventilated isolation cage.  

PubMed

A multifunction lid has been developed for a commercially available transparent animal cage which permits feeding, watering, viewing, long-term holding, and local transport of laboratory rodents on experiment while isolating the surrounding environment. The cage is airtight except for its inlet and exhaust high-efficiency particulate air filters, and it is completely steam-sterilizable. Opening of the cage's feed and water ports causes an inrush of high velocity air which prevents back-migration of aerosols and permits feeding and watering while eliminating need for chemical vapor decontamination. Ventilation system design permits the holding in adjacent cages of animals infected with different organisms without danger of cross-contamination; leaves the animal room odor-free; reduces required bedding changes to twice a month or less, and provides investigators with capability to control precisely individual cage ventilation rates. Forty-eight cages can be conveniently placed on a standard NIH "shoebox" cage rack (60 inches wide x 28 inches deep x 74 inches high) fitted with a simple manifold exhaust system. The entire system is mobile, requiring only an electrical power outlet. Principal application of the caging system is in the area of preventing exposure of animal caretakers to pathogenic substances associated with the animal host, and in reducing handling of animals and their exposure to extraneous contamination. PMID:5659368

Cook, R O

1968-05-01

110

Mechanical ventilation in abdominal surgery.  

PubMed

One of the key challenges in perioperative care is to reduce postoperative morbidity and mortality. Patients who develop postoperative morbidity but survive to leave hospital have often reduced functional independence and long-term survival. Mechanical ventilation provides a specific example that may help us to shift thinking from treatment to prevention of postoperative complications. Mechanical ventilation in patients undergoing surgery has long been considered only as a modality to ensure gas exchange while allowing maintenance of anesthesia with delivery of inhaled anesthetics. Evidence is accumulating, however, suggesting an association between intraoperative mechanical ventilation strategy and postoperative pulmonary function and clinical outcome in patients undergoing abdominal surgery. Non-protective ventilator settings, especially high tidal volume (VT) (>10-12mL/kg) and the use of very low level of positive end-expiratory pressure (PEEP) (PEEP<5cmH2O) or no PEEP, may cause alveolar overdistension and repetitive tidal recruitment leading to ventilator-associated lung injury in patients with healthy lungs. Stimulated by previous findings in patients with acute respiratory distress syndrome, the use of lower tidal volume ventilation is becoming increasingly more common in the operating room. However, lowering tidal volume, though important, is only part of the overall multifaceted approach of lung protective mechanical ventilation. In this review, we aimed at providing the most recent and relevant clinical evidence regarding the use of mechanical ventilation in patients undergoing abdominal surgery. PMID:25153670

Futier, E; Godet, T; Millot, A; Constantin, J-M; Jaber, S

2014-01-01

111

Transpired Air Collectors - Ventilation Preheating  

SciTech Connect

Many commercial and industrial buildings have high ventilation rates. Although all that fresh air is great for indoor air quality, heating it can be very expensive. This short (2-page) fact sheet describes a technology available to use solar energy to preheat ventilation air and dramatically reduce utility bills.

Christensen, C.

2006-06-22

112

RESIDENTIAL VENTILATION AND ENERGY CHARACTERISTICS*  

E-print Network

Berkeley, California The role of ventilation in the housing stock is to provide fresh air and to dilute the outdoor air for thermal comfort. Different kinds of ventilation systems have different energy requirements and to estimate the energy savings or penalties associated with tightening or loosening the building envelope

113

Blood Pressure Control and Hemodynamic Changes in Patients on Long Time Dialysis Treatment  

Microsoft Academic Search

In dialysis patients blood pressure can be well controlled with long dialysis (3 times a week for 8 h) in contrast to a more common short dialysis regime (3 times a week for 4 h). We studied whether the good blood pressure control in patients on long dialysis as compared to patients on short dialysis was associated with a decrease

Antinus J. Luik; Bernard Charra; Krassimir Katzarski; Jos Habets; Emile C. Cheriex; Paul P. C. A. Menheere; Guy Laurent; Jonas Bergström; Karel M. L. Leunissen

1998-01-01

114

Laser-Excited Atomic Fluorescence Spectrometry in a Pressure-Controlled Electrothermal Atomizer  

E-print Network

Laser-Excited Atomic Fluorescence Spectrometry in a Pressure-Controlled Electrothermal Atomizer was developed to describe the loss of analyte atoms in graphite furnaces during atomization. The model was based between these two processes. Optimal atomization efficiency was predicted to occur at a pressure where

Michel, Robert G.

115

Cryogenic Pressure Control Modeling for Ellipsoidal Space Tanks in Reduced Gravity  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A computational fluid dynamics (CFD) model is developed to simulate pressure control of an ellipsoidal-shaped liquid hydrogen tank under external heating in low gravity. Pressure control is provided by an axial jet thermodynamic vent system (TVS) centered within the vessel that injects cooler liquid into the tank, mixing the contents and reducing tank pressure. The two-phase cryogenic tank model considers liquid hydrogen in its own vapor with liquid density varying with temperature only and a fully compressible ullage. The axisymmetric model is developed using a custom version of the commercially available FLOW-3D software and simulates low gravity extrapolations of engineering checkout tests performed at Marshall Space Flight Center in 1999 in support of the Solar Thermal Upper Stage Technology Demonstrator (STUSTD) program. Model results illustrate that stable low gravity liquid-gas interfaces are maintained during all phases of the pressure control cycle. Steady and relatively smooth ullage pressurization rates are predicted. This work advances current low gravity CFD modeling capabilities for cryogenic pressure control and aids the development of a low cost CFD-based design process for space hardware.

Hedayat, Ali; Lopez, Alfredo; Grayson, Gary D.; Chandler, Frank O.; Hastings, Leon J.

2008-01-01

116

Factors predictive of attendance at clinic and blood pressure control in hypertensive patients  

Microsoft Academic Search

Poor compliance with appointments and drug treatment is one of the recognised factors preventing effective management of hypertension. Factors predictive of poor attendance and inadequate blood pressure control in patients attending a hypertension clinic were therefore determined using univariate analyses and a multivariate logistic model. Out of 1346 patients with blood pressure exceeding 160\\/95 mm Hg followed up for three

P Degoulet; J Menard; H A Vu; J L Golmard; C Devries; G Chatellier; P F Plouin

1983-01-01

117

Space Station Environment Control and Life Support System Pressure Control Pump Assembly Modeling and Analysis  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This paper presents the Modeling and Analysis of the Space Station Environment Control and Life Support System Pressure Control Pump Assembly (PCPA). The contents include: 1) Integrated PCPA/Manifold Analyses; 2) Manifold Performance Analysis; 3) PCPA Motor Heat Leak Study; and 4) Future Plans. This paper is presented in viewgraph form.

Schunk, R. Gregory

2002-01-01

118

Cardiac gated ventilation  

SciTech Connect

There are several theoretic advantages to synchronizing positive pressure breaths with the cardiac cycle, including the potential for improving distribution of pulmonary and myocardial blood flow and enhancing cardiac output. The authors evaluated the effects of synchronizing respiration to the cardiac cycle using a programmable ventilator and electron beam CT (EBCT) scanning. The hearts of anesthetized dogs were imaged during cardiac gated respiration with a 50 msec scan aperture. Multi slice, short axis, dynamic image data sets spanning the apex to base of the left ventricle were evaluated to determine the volume of the left ventricular chamber at end-diastole and end-systole during apnea, systolic and diastolic cardiac gating. The authors observed an increase in cardiac output of up to 30% with inspiration gated to the systolic phase of the cardiac cycle in a non-failing model of the heart.

Hanson, C.W. III [Hospital of the Univ. of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, PA (United States). Dept. Anesthesia; Hoffman, E.A. [Univ. of Iowa College of Medicine, Iowa City, IA (United States). Div. of Physiologic Imaging

1995-12-31

119

Cardiac gated ventilation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

There are several theoretic advantages to synchronizing positive pressure breaths with the cardiac cycle, including the potential for improving distribution of pulmonary and myocardial blood flow and enhancing cardiac output. We evaluated the effects of synchronizing respiration to the cardiac cycle using a programmable ventilator and electron beam CT (EBCT) scanning. The hearts of anesthetized dogs were imaged during cardiac gated respiration with a 50msec scan aperture. Multislice, short axis, dynamic image data sets spanning the apex to base of the left ventricle were evaluated to determine the volume of the left ventricular chamber at end-diastole and end-systole during apnea, systolic and diastolic cardiac gating. We observed an increase in cardiac output of up to 30% with inspiration gated to the systolic phase of the cardiac cycle in a nonfailing model of the heart.

Hanson, C. William, III; Hoffman, Eric A.

1995-05-01

120

Estimation of Lung Ventilation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Since the primary function of the lung is gas exchange, ventilation can be interpreted as an index of lung function in addition to perfusion. Injury and disease processes can alter lung function on a global and/or a local level. MDCT can be used to acquire multiple static breath-hold CT images of the lung taken at different lung volumes, or with proper respiratory control, 4DCT images of the lung reconstructed at different respiratory phases. Image registration can be applied to this data to estimate a deformation field that transforms the lung from one volume configuration to the other. This deformation field can be analyzed to estimate local lung tissue expansion, calculate voxel-by-voxel intensity change, and make biomechanical measurements. The physiologic significance of the registration-based measures of respiratory function can be established by comparing to more conventional measurements, such as nuclear medicine or contrast wash-in/wash-out studies with CT or MR. An important emerging application of these methods is the detection of pulmonary function change in subjects undergoing radiation therapy (RT) for lung cancer. During RT, treatment is commonly limited to sub-therapeutic doses due to unintended toxicity to normal lung tissue. Measurement of pulmonary function may be useful as a planning tool during RT planning, may be useful for tracking the progression of toxicity to nearby normal tissue during RT, and can be used to evaluate the effectiveness of a treatment post-therapy. This chapter reviews the basic measures to estimate regional ventilation from image registration of CT images, the comparison of them to the existing golden standard and the application in radiation therapy.

Ding, Kai; Cao, Kunlin; Du, Kaifang; Amelon, Ryan; Christensen, Gary E.; Raghavan, Madhavan; Reinhardt, Joseph M.

121

Subsurface Ventilation System Description Document  

SciTech Connect

The Subsurface Ventilation System supports the construction and operation of the subsurface repository by providing air for personnel and equipment and temperature control for the underground areas. Although the system is located underground, some equipment and features may be housed or located above ground. The system ventilates the underground by providing ambient air from the surface throughout the subsurface development and emplacement areas. The system provides fresh air for a safe work environment and supports potential retrieval operations by ventilating and cooling emplacement drifts. The system maintains compliance within the limits established for approved air quality standards. The system maintains separate ventilation between the development and waste emplacement areas. The system shall remove a portion of the heat generated by the waste packages during preclosure to support thermal goals. The system provides temperature control by reducing drift temperature to support potential retrieval operations. The ventilation system has the capability to ventilate selected drifts during emplacement and retrieval operations. The Subsurface Facility System is the main interface with the Subsurface Ventilation System. The location of the ducting, seals, filters, fans, emplacement doors, regulators, and electronic controls are within the envelope created by the Ground Control System in the Subsurface Facility System. The Subsurface Ventilation System also interfaces with the Subsurface Electrical System for power, the Monitored Geologic Repository Operations Monitoring and Control System to ensure proper and safe operation, the Safeguards and Security System for access to the emplacement drifts, the Subsurface Fire Protection System for fire safety, the Emplacement Drift System for repository performance, and the Backfill Emplacement and Subsurface Excavation Systems to support ventilation needs.

Eric Loros

2001-07-25

122

Subsurface Ventilation System Description Document  

SciTech Connect

The Subsurface Ventilation System supports the construction and operation of the subsurface repository by providing air for personnel and equipment and temperature control for the underground areas. Although the system is located underground, some equipment and features may be housed or located above ground. The system ventilates the underground by providing ambient air from the surface throughout the subsurface development and emplacement areas. The system provides fresh air for a safe work environment and supports potential retrieval operations by ventilating and cooling emplacement drifts. The system maintains compliance within the limits established for approved air quality standards. The system maintains separate ventilation between the development and waste emplacement areas. The system shall remove a portion of the heat generated by the waste packages during preclosure to support thermal goals. The system provides temperature control by reducing drift temperature to support potential retrieval operations. The ventilation system has the capability to ventilate selected drifts during emplacement and retrieval operations. The Subsurface Facility System is the main interface with the Subsurface Ventilation System. The location of the ducting, seals, filters, fans, emplacement doors, regulators, and electronic controls are within the envelope created by the Ground Control System in the Subsurface Facility System. The Subsurface Ventilation System also interfaces with the Subsurface Electrical System for power, the Monitored Geologic Repository Operations Monitoring and Control System to ensure proper and safe operation, the Safeguards and Security System for access to the emplacement drifts, the Subsurface Fire Protection System for fire safety, the Emplacement Drift System for repository performance, and the Backfill Emplacement and Subsurface Excavation Systems to support ventilation needs.

NONE

2000-10-12

123

Performance of ventilators for noninvasive positive pressure ventilation in children  

E-print Network

in children with neuromuscular disease [2, 3], upper airway obstruction and sleep apnea [4], and lung diseases the preset and measured airway pressure and between the tidal volume measured by the ventilator

Boyer, Edmond

124

6. VIEW LOOKING SOUTHEAST AT VENTILATION EQUIPMENT IN SOUTH VENTILATION ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

6. VIEW LOOKING SOUTHEAST AT VENTILATION EQUIPMENT IN SOUTH VENTILATION HOUSE. THIS AIR CONDITIONING SYSTEM WAS INSTALLED BY PARKS-CRAMER COMPANY OF FITCHBURG, MASSACHUSETTS WHEN THE MILL WAS CONSTRUCTED IN 1923-24. ONE AIR WASHER AND FAN ROOM EXTERIOR IS VISIBLE ON THE RIGHT. THE DUCTS FROM BOTH FAN ROOMS (CURVED METAL STRUCTURES AT CENTER AND LEFT OF PHOTO) ARE CONNECTED TO A COMMON AIR SHAFT. - Stark Mill, 117 Corinth Road, Hogansville, Troup County, GA

125

Changes in Capsule and Drug Resistance of Pneumococci after Introduction of PCV7, Japan, 2010-2013  

PubMed Central

We aimed to clarify changes in serotypes and genotypes mediating ?-lactam and macrolide resistance in Streptococcus pneumoniae isolates from Japanese children who had invasive pneumococcal disease (IPD) after the 7-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV7) was introduced into Japan; 341 participating general hospitals conducted IPD surveillance during April 2010–March 2013. A total of 300 pneumococcal isolates were collected in 2010, 146 in 2011, and 156 in 2012. The proportion of vaccine serotypes in infectious isolates decreased from 73.3% to 54.8% to 14.7% during the 3 years. Among vaccine serotype strains, genotypic penicillin-resistant S. pneumoniae strains also declined each year. Among nonvaccine serotype strains, 19A, 15A, 15B, 15C, and 24 increased in 2012. Increases were noted especially in genotypic penicillin-resistant S. pneumoniae isolates of serotypes 15A and 35B, as well as macrolide resistance mediated by the erm(B) gene in 15A, 15B, 15C, and 24. PMID:24960150

Chiba, Naoko; Morozumi, Miyuki; Shouji, Michi; Wajima, Takeaki; Iwata, Satoshi

2014-01-01

126

Humidity as a Control Parameter for Ventilation  

Microsoft Academic Search

The objective of this study was to develop energy efficient ventilation strategies that will provide both a healthy and comfortable indoor climate and reduce energy consumption compared to present ventilation standards. Humidity was used as a control parameter for the ventilation. Four different ventilation strategies were tested in a test apartment. The results of the experiments indicated that humidity can

Alireza Afshari; Niels C. Bergsøe

2003-01-01

127

Noninvasive Positive Pressure Ventilation in the Emergency  

E-print Network

an Electrolux or Hoover vacuum cleaner to supply air at positive pressure to treat patients with ``cardiacNoninvasive Positive Pressure Ventilation in the Emergency Department Mei-Ean Yeow, MDa , Jairo I ventilators consist of both negative and positive pressure ventilators. Because negative pressure ventilation

128

Preoperational test report, vent building ventilation system  

SciTech Connect

This represents a preoperational test report for Vent Building Ventilation Systems, Project W-030. Project W-030 provides a ventilation upgrade for the four Aging Waste Facility tanks. The system provides Heating, Ventilation, and Air Conditioning (HVAC) for the W-030 Ventilation Building. The tests verify correct system operation and correct indications displayed by the central Monitor and Control System.

Clifton, F.T.

1997-11-04

129

Equivalence in Ventilation and Indoor Air Quality  

SciTech Connect

We ventilate buildings to provide acceptable indoor air quality (IAQ). Ventilation standards (such as American Society of Heating, Refrigerating, and Air-Conditioning Enginners [ASHRAE] Standard 62) specify minimum ventilation rates without taking into account the impact of those rates on IAQ. Innovative ventilation management is often a desirable element of reducing energy consumption or improving IAQ or comfort. Variable ventilation is one innovative strategy. To use variable ventilation in a way that meets standards, it is necessary to have a method for determining equivalence in terms of either ventilation or indoor air quality. This study develops methods to calculate either equivalent ventilation or equivalent IAQ. We demonstrate that equivalent ventilation can be used as the basis for dynamic ventilation control, reducing peak load and infiltration of outdoor contaminants. We also show that equivalent IAQ could allow some contaminants to exceed current standards if other contaminants are more stringently controlled.

Sherman, Max; Walker, Iain; Logue, Jennifer

2011-08-01

130

Ventilation Model and Analysis Report  

SciTech Connect

This model and analysis report develops, validates, and implements a conceptual model for heat transfer in and around a ventilated emplacement drift. This conceptual model includes thermal radiation between the waste package and the drift wall, convection from the waste package and drift wall surfaces into the flowing air, and conduction in the surrounding host rock. These heat transfer processes are coupled and vary both temporally and spatially, so numerical and analytical methods are used to implement the mathematical equations which describe the conceptual model. These numerical and analytical methods predict the transient response of the system, at the drift scale, in terms of spatially varying temperatures and ventilation efficiencies. The ventilation efficiency describes the effectiveness of the ventilation process in removing radionuclide decay heat from the drift environment. An alternative conceptual model is also developed which evaluates the influence of water and water vapor mass transport on the ventilation efficiency. These effects are described using analytical methods which bound the contribution of latent heat to the system, quantify the effects of varying degrees of host rock saturation (and hence host rock thermal conductivity) on the ventilation efficiency, and evaluate the effects of vapor and enhanced vapor diffusion on the host rock thermal conductivity.

V. Chipman

2003-07-18

131

Hospitalization for Invasive Pneumococcal Disease in a National Sample of Children with Sickle Cell Disease Before and After PCV7 Licensure  

PubMed Central

Objective To estimate national hospitalization rates for invasive pneumococcal disease (IPD) in children with sickle cell disease (SCD) before and after the 2000 licensure of the heptavalent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV7). Procedure We performed a retrospective trend analysis of the 1994-2007 Nationwide Inpatient Sample databases. Hospitalizations involving children with SCD and IPD were identified by ICD-9CM code. The primary outcomes, the annual hospitalization rate for IPD in children with SCD and the proportion of hospitalizations for IPD per 100 total SCD hospitalizations, were analyzed using multivariable linear regression and contingency analysis, respectively. Results A total of 1,242 hospitalizations for IPD in SCD patients were identified from 1994-2007, with a mortality rate of 2.4%. The national mean annual rate of IPD hospitalization decreased by 65%, from 131.8 cases/year from 1994-2000 to 45.5 cases/year from 2001-2007 (p=0.001). The national proportion of hospitalizations for IPD per 100 total SCD hospitalizations decreased from 0.4 to 0.15 (p<0.0001) over the same interval. Following PCV7 licensure, the mean annual cumulative hospital days and cumulative hospital charges decreased nationally by 53% and 36%, respectively. Conclusion In a national sample, PCV7 licensure is temporally associated with a nearly three fold reduction in IPD hospitalizations in children with SCD. PMID:21793185

McCavit, Timothy L.; Xuan, Lei; Zhang, Song; Flores, Glenn; Quinn, Charles T.

2012-01-01

132

Genetic Characterisation of Malawian Pneumococci Prior to the Roll-Out of the PCV13 Vaccine Using a High-Throughput Whole Genome Sequencing Approach  

PubMed Central

Background Malawi commenced the introduction of the 13-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV13) into the routine infant immunisation schedule in November 2011. Here we have tested the utility of high throughput whole genome sequencing to provide a high-resolution view of pre-vaccine pneumococcal epidemiology and population evolutionary trends to predict potential future change in population structure post introduction. Methods One hundred and twenty seven (127) archived pneumococcal isolates from randomly selected adults and children presenting to the Queen Elizabeth Central Hospital, Blantyre, Malawi underwent whole genome sequencing. Results The pneumococcal population was dominated by serotype 1 (20.5% of invasive isolates) prior to vaccine introduction. PCV13 is likely to protect against 62.9% of all circulating invasive pneumococci (78.3% in under-5-year-olds). Several Pneumococcal Molecular Epidemiology Network (PMEN) clones are now in circulation in Malawi which were previously undetected but the pandemic multidrug resistant PMEN1 lineage was not identified. Genome analysis identified a number of novel sequence types and serotype switching. Conclusions High throughput genome sequencing is now feasible and has the capacity to simultaneously elucidate serotype, sequence type and as well as detailed genetic information. It enables population level characterization, providing a detailed picture of population structure and genome evolution relevant to disease control. Post-vaccine introduction surveillance supported by genome sequencing is essential to providing a comprehensive picture of the impact of PCV13 on pneumococcal population structure and informing future public health interventions. PMID:22970189

Everett, Dean B.; Cornick, Jennifer; Denis, Brigitte; Chewapreecha, Claire; Croucher, Nicholas; Harris, Simon; Parkhill, Julian; Gordon, Stephen; Carrol, Enitan D.; French, Neil; Heyderman, Robert S.; Bentley, Stephen D.

2012-01-01

133

Verifying ventilation flows  

SciTech Connect

An innovative technique using a hot-film anemometer has been developed for measuring the flow distribution through generator rotors. When designing large air-cooled generators with the highest efficiency, engineers need to know the total flow rate to the rotor as well as the flow distribution to ensure there are no local hot spots. However, gaining an understanding of generator ventilation has been hampered by a lack of experimental data on rotating machines. Furthermore, while the axial flow distribution along the rotor body can be estimated using standard techniques, such methods average the flow in the circumferential direction. To overcome these limitations, engineers at Westinghouse Electric Corp.`s Power Generation Technology Division in Orlando, Fla., have developed a novel technique for measuring airflow through each vent hole. The technique uses a hot-film anemometer--a velocity-measurement device with a very-high-frequency response--to measure such flows separately while the rotor is spinning at a rated speed of 3,600 rpm.

Laster, W.R. [Westinghouse Electric Corp., Orlando, FL (United States). Power Generation Technology Div.; Sanford, G.W. [Westinghouse Electric Corp., Charlotte, NC (United States)

1996-10-01

134

Low-g fluid mixing - Further results from the Tank Pressure Control Experiment  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Tank Pressure Control Experiment (TPCE) made its first space flight on STS-43 in 1991. Its objective was to test the effectiveness of low-energy axial jet mixing at controlling pressures in low gravity. The experiment used refrigerant 113 at near-saturation conditions, at an 83 percent fill level, to simulate the fluid dynamics and thermodynamics of cryogenic fluids in future space applications. Results from this flight were reported previously. TPCE was again flown in space on STS-52 in 1992, this time primarily to study boiling and related thermal phenomena which will be reported elsewhere. However additional mixing and pressure control data were obtained from the reflight that supplement the data from the first flight.

Bentz, M. D.; Knoll, R. H.; Hasan, M. M.; Lin, C. S.

1993-01-01

135

Patient exposition and provider explanation in routine interviews and hypertensive patients' blood pressure control.  

PubMed

Hypertensive patients' expressing themselves in their own words (Exposition) and providers' giving information (Explanation) during medical interviews were hypothesized to be associated with subsequent blood pressure control. Transcripts of routine return visits to clinics in low-income areas of Houston, TX, were coded using the Verbal Response Modes (VRM) system. VRM indexes of Patient Exposition and Provider Explanation were tested in relation to systolic and diastolic blood pressure obtained during home interviews 2 weeks after the clinic visits. Patient Exposition was significantly correlated with reductions in systolic and diastolic blood pressure from clinic visit to home interview, and Provider Explanation was significantly correlated with lower diastolic blood pressure at home interview. The results suggest that patients' and providers' verbal behavior in medical interviews should be included in predictive models of blood pressure control. PMID:3816743

Orth, J E; Stiles, W B; Scherwitz, L; Hennrikus, D; Vallbona, C

1987-01-01

136

PREMIER--a trial of lifestyle interventions for blood pressure control: intervention design and rationale.  

PubMed

Interventions encouraging adoption of healthy diets and increased physical activity are needed to achieve national goals for preventing and treating hypertension, cardiovascular disease, diabetes, and other chronic diseases. PREMIER was a multicenter clinical trial testing the effects of two lifestyle interventions on blood pressure control, compared with advice only. Both interventions implemented established national guidelines for blood pressure control (weight loss, reduced sodium and alcohol intake, and increased physical activity), and one intervention also included the Dietary Approaches to Stop Hypertension (DASH) diet. Both interventions focused on behavioral self-management, motivational enhancement, and personalized feedback. This article describes the design and evaluation approaches for these interventions. Evaluation of multicomponent lifestyle change interventions can help us understand the benefits and difficulties of making multiple lifestyle changes concurrently and the effects such changes can have on blood pressure, particularly in minorities at higher risk for hypertension. PMID:16803935

Funk, Kristine L; Elmer, Patricia J; Stevens, Victor J; Harsha, David W; Craddick, Shirley R; Lin, Pao-Hwa; Young, Deborah Rohm; Champagne, Catherine M; Brantley, Phillip J; McCarron, Phyllis B; Simons-Morton, Denise G; Appel, Lawrence J

2008-07-01

137

Application of adaptive fuzzy control technology to pressure control of a pressurizer  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A pressurizer is one of important equipment in a pressurized water reactor plant. It is used to maintain the pressure of primary coolant within allowed range because the sharp change of coolant pressure affects the security of reactor, therefor, the study of pressurizer’s pressure control methods is very important. In this paper, an adaptive fuzzy controller is presented for pressure control of a presurizer in a nuclear power plant. The controller can on-line tune fuzzy control rules and parameters by self-learning in the actual control process, which possesses the way of thinking like human to make a decision. The simulation results for a pressurized water reactor plant show that the adaptive fuzzy controller has optimum and intelligent characteristics, which prove the controller is effective.

Yang, Ben-Kun; Bian, Xin-Qian; Guo, Wei-Lai

2005-03-01

138

Experimental research on charging characteristics of a solar photovoltaic system by the pressure-control method  

Microsoft Academic Search

The charging characteristics of the valve-regulated lead acid (VRLA) battery driven by solar energy were experimentally studied\\u000a through the pressure-control method in this paper. The aims of the research were to increase charging efficiency to make the\\u000a most of solar energy and to improve charging quality to prolong life of battery. The charging process of a 12 V 12 A·h

Hua Zhu; Zhang-lu Xu; Zi-juan Cao

2011-01-01

139

Effectiveness and side effects of closed and open suctioning: an experimental evaluation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective To compare the effectiveness of closed system suctioning (CSS) and open system suctioning (OSS) and the side effects on gas exchange and haemodynamics, during pressure-controlled ventilation (PCV) or continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP). Design Bench test and porcine lung injury model. Participants Twelve bronchoalveolar saline-lavaged pigs. Setting Research laboratory in a university hospital. Interventions In a mechanical lung, the

Sophie Lindgren; Birgitta Almgren; Marieann Högman; Sven Lethvall; Erik Houltz; Stefan Lundin; Ola Stenqvist

2004-01-01

140

Contaminants in ventilated filling boxes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

While energy efficiency is important, the adoption of energy-efficient ventilation systems still requires the provision of acceptable indoor air quality. Many low-energy systems, such as displacement or natural ventilation, rely on temperature stratification within the interior environment, always extracting the warmest air from the top of the room. Understanding buoyancy-driven convection in a confined ventilated space is key to understanding the flow that develops with many of these modern low-energy ventilation schemes. In this work we study the transport of an initially uniformly distributed passive contaminant in a displacement-ventilated space. Representing a heat source as an ideal sourced of buoyancy, analytical and numerical models are developed that allow us to compare the average efficiency of contaminant removal between traditional mixing and modern low-energy systems. A set of small-scale analogue laboratory experiments was also conducted to further validate our analytical and numerical solutions.We find that on average traditional and low-energy ventilation methods are similar with regard to pollutant flushing efficiency. This is because the concentration being extracted from the system at any given time is approximately the same for both systems. However, very different vertical concentration gradients exist. For the low-energy system, a peak in contaminant concentration occurs at the temperature interface that is established within the space. This interface is typically designed to sit at some intermediate height in the space. Since this peak does not coincide with the extraction point, displacement ventilation does not offer the same benefits for pollutant flushing as it does for buoyancy removal.

Bolster, D. T.; Linden, P. F.

141

Carbon dioxide rebreathing during non-invasive ventilation delivered by helmet: a bench study  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective  To define how to monitor and limit CO2 rebreathing during helmet ventilation.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Design  Physical model study.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Setting  Laboratory in a university teaching hospital.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Interventions  We applied pressure-control ventilation to a helmet mounted on a physical model. In series 1 we increased CO2 production (V'CO2) from 100 to 550?ml\\/min and compared mean inhaled CO2 (iCO2,mean) with end-inspiratory CO2 at airway opening (eiCO2), end-tidal CO2 at Y-piece (yCO2)

Francesco Mojoli; Giorgio A. Iotti; Maddalena Gerletti; Carlo Lucarini; Antonio Braschi

2008-01-01

142

Residential ventilation standards scoping study  

SciTech Connect

The goals of this scoping study are to identify research needed to develop improved ventilation standards for California's Title 24 Building Energy Efficiency Standards. The 2008 Title 24 Standards are the primary target for the outcome of this research, but this scoping study is not limited to that timeframe. We prepared this scoping study to provide the California Energy Commission with broad and flexible options for developing a research plan to advance the standards. This document presents the findings of a scoping study commissioned by the Public Interest Energy Research (PIER) program of the California Energy Commission to determine what research is necessary to develop new residential ventilation requirements for California. This study is one of three companion efforts needed to complete the job of determining the ventilation needs of California residences, determining the bases for setting residential ventilation requirements, and determining appropriate ventilation technologies to meet these needs and requirements in an energy efficient manner. Rather than providing research results, this scoping study identifies important research questions along with the level of effort necessary to address these questions and the costs, risks, and benefits of pursuing alternative research questions. In approaching these questions and corresponding levels of effort, feasibility and timing were important considerations. The Commission has specified Summer 2005 as the latest date for completing this research in time to update the 2008 version of California's Energy Code (Title 24).

McKone, Thomas E.; Sherman, Max H.

2003-10-01

143

14 CFR 252.9 - Ventilation systems.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (AVIATION PROCEEDINGS) ECONOMIC REGULATIONS SMOKING ABOARD AIRCRAFT § 252.9 Ventilation systems. Air carriers shall prohibit smoking whenever the ventilation system is not fully functioning. Fully...

2010-01-01

144

14 CFR 252.9 - Ventilation systems.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (AVIATION PROCEEDINGS) ECONOMIC REGULATIONS SMOKING ABOARD AIRCRAFT § 252.9 Ventilation systems. Air carriers shall prohibit smoking whenever the ventilation system is not fully functioning. Fully...

2011-01-01

145

14 CFR 252.9 - Ventilation systems.  

...DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (AVIATION PROCEEDINGS) ECONOMIC REGULATIONS SMOKING ABOARD AIRCRAFT § 252.9 Ventilation systems. Air carriers shall prohibit smoking whenever the ventilation system is not fully functioning. Fully...

2014-01-01

146

14 CFR 252.9 - Ventilation systems.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (AVIATION PROCEEDINGS) ECONOMIC REGULATIONS SMOKING ABOARD AIRCRAFT § 252.9 Ventilation systems. Air carriers shall prohibit smoking whenever the ventilation system is not fully functioning. Fully...

2012-01-01

147

14 CFR 252.9 - Ventilation systems.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (AVIATION PROCEEDINGS) ECONOMIC REGULATIONS SMOKING ABOARD AIRCRAFT § 252.9 Ventilation systems. Air carriers shall prohibit smoking whenever the ventilation system is not fully functioning. Fully...

2013-01-01

148

46 CFR 194.15-5 - Ventilation.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...The terminals shall be equipped with acceptable flame screens. (b) Chemical laboratories shall be equipped with power ventilation...Ventilation of air conditioning systems serving the chemical laboratory shall be designed so that air...

2010-10-01

149

46 CFR 194.15-5 - Ventilation.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...The terminals shall be equipped with acceptable flame screens. (b) Chemical laboratories shall be equipped with power ventilation...Ventilation of air conditioning systems serving the chemical laboratory shall be designed so that air...

2013-10-01

150

46 CFR 194.15-5 - Ventilation.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...The terminals shall be equipped with acceptable flame screens. (b) Chemical laboratories shall be equipped with power ventilation...Ventilation of air conditioning systems serving the chemical laboratory shall be designed so that air...

2011-10-01

151

Predictors to parental knowledge about childhood immunisation/EPI vaccines in two health districts in Cameroon prior to the introduction of 13-valent Pneumococcal Conjugate Vaccines (PCV-13)  

PubMed Central

Introduction Pneumonia is vaccine-preventable, but the increasing death toll resulting from the disease in Sub-Saharan Africa is alarming. Several factors account for vaccine failing to reach every child, besides incomplete vaccine coverage. Most of these include the perceptions of parents/guardians and healthcare providers. Previous studies on the introduction of new vaccines have focused on experimental trials, coverage figures and vaccine efficacy in developed countries. Little is known on the factors which may hinder the implementation process despite the huge challenges this may encounter in developing countries. This study described the knowledge, attitude and practices (KAP) of parents/guardians on pneumonia and immunisations/EPI vaccines; identify predictive parental socio-economic/demographic characteristics that of good knowledge on pneumonia infections, routine EPI vaccines and the PCV-13. Finally, the study described health center personnel perceptions about immunisations. Methods The WHO's immunisation coverage cluster survey design was used, involving parents/guardians (n = 205) of children aged 0-59 months and health centre personnel (n = 13) directly concerned with vaccination activities between July-September 2010 in two health districts in Yaounde, Cameroon. Descriptive statistics and multivariate logistic models were used to analyse the parental/guardian data while the health personnel data was only analysed descriptively using SPSS version 17.0. Results Only 19% of the parents/guardians were aware of the availability of the PCV-13. Logistic modelling identified important associations between parental socio-economic/demographic factors and good knowledge on pneumonia disease burden and prevention. Conclusion According to parents/guardians a short and clear message on the dangers of pneumonia and the need for prevention provided to parents/guardians during sensitisation/out-reach campaigns and use of social network avenues would be primordial, if the PCV-13 is to reach every child.

Libwea, John Njuma; Kobela, Marie; Ollgren, Jukka; Emah, Irene; Tchio, Robert; Nohynek, Hanna

2014-01-01

152

WASTE HANDLING BUILDING VENTILATION SYSTEM DESCRIPTION DOCUMENT  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Waste Handling Building Ventilation System provides heating, ventilation, and air conditioning (HVAC) for the contaminated, potentially contaminated, and uncontaminated areas of the Monitored Geologic Repository's (MGR) Waste Handling Building (WHB). In the uncontaminated areas, the non-confinement area ventilation system maintains the proper environmental conditions for equipment operation and personnel comfort. In the contaminated and potentially contaminated areas, in addition

P. A. Kumar

2000-01-01

153

WASTE TREATMENT BUILDING VENTILATION SYSTEM DESCRIPTION DOCUMENT  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Waste Treatment Building Ventilation System provides heating, ventilation, and air conditioning (HVAC) for the contaminated, potentially contaminated, and uncontaminated areas of the Monitored Geologic Repository's (MGR) Waste Treatment Building (WTB). In the uncontaminated areas, the non-confinement area ventilation system maintains the proper environmental conditions for equipment operation and personnel comfort. In the contaminated and potentially contaminated areas, in addition

P. A. Kumar

2000-01-01

154

Humidity Implications for Meeting Residential Ventilation Requirements  

E-print Network

for Meeting Residential Ventilation Requirements ABSTRACT In 2003 ASHRAE approved the nation's first1 LBNL-62182 Humidity Implications for Meeting Residential Ventilation Requirements Iain S. Walker residential ventilation standard, ASHRAE Standard 62.2. Because meeting this standard can significantly change

155

Quality control of mechanical ventilation at the patient's home  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective. During home mechanical ventilation the prescribed settings are applied without permanent supervision of health professionals. After a long-time period of unattended operation at home the ventilator may not apply the ventilation parameters prescribed. This quality control study of home mechanical ventilation assessed whether tidal volume (VT), frequency (f), and minute ventilation (V' E) actually applied by the ventilator coincide

Ramon Farré; Esther Giró; Vinyet Casolivé; Daniel Navajas; Joan Escarrabill

2003-01-01

156

46 CFR 153.312 - Ventilation system standards.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...must be operable from outside the space it ventilates. (e) A ventilation...change the air in the ventilated space at least 30 times per hour. (f) A ventilation...stagnate in any part of a ventilated space. (g) A ventilation...

2010-10-01

157

46 CFR 153.312 - Ventilation system standards.  

...must be operable from outside the space it ventilates. (e) A ventilation...change the air in the ventilated space at least 30 times per hour. (f) A ventilation...stagnate in any part of a ventilated space. (g) A ventilation...

2014-10-01

158

Unilateral high frequency jet ventilation  

Microsoft Academic Search

A young alcoholic presented with severe bilateral bronchopneumonia, which required prolonged treatment with intermittent positive pressure ventilation. High airway pressures were necessary for effective gas exchange. A recurrent tension pneumothorax led to a persistent bronchopleural fistula which resulted in hypercarbia and hypoxaemia despite the use of large minute volumes. Surgical resection was not considered feasible because of extensive local infection.

A. J. Mortimer; P. S. Laurie; H. Garrett; J. H. Kerr

1984-01-01

159

Nasopharyngeal Carriage of Pneumococci Four Years after Community-Wide Vaccination with PCV-7 in The Gambia: Long-Term Evaluation of a Cluster Randomized Trial  

PubMed Central

Background A village-randomized trial of a seven-valent pneumococcal-conjugate-vaccine (PCV-7) conducted in rural Gambia showed a decrease of vaccine-type (VT) and a non-significant increase in non-vaccine-type (NVT) nasopharyngeal carriage of pneumococci two years after vaccination. Here, we report findings four years after vaccination. Methods PCV-7 was given to all children below 30 months of age enrolled in the trial and to those born during its course in all study villages. Villages were randomized (older children and adults) to receive PCV-7 (wholly vaccinated villages) or serogroup-C-meningococcal-conjugate-vaccine (partly vaccinated villages). Cross-sectional surveys (CSS) to collect nasopharyngeal swabs were conducted before and at various intervals after vaccination. Sixteen of these randomized villages (8 wholly vaccinated and 8 partly vaccinated) participated in a CSS conducted four years after vaccination started. Results Four years after vaccination, the prevalence of VT pneumococcal carriage was slightly higher in partly than in wholly vaccinated villages [6.4% versus 3.9% (p?=?0.120)] compared to 24.4% in the pre-vaccination CSS (p<0.001). Prevalence of NVT four years after vaccination was similar between study groups [32.7% versus 29.8% (p?=?0.392), respectively] compared to 51.1% in the pre-vaccination CSS (p<0.001). Four years after vaccination started, lower prevalence of serotype 6A was detected in wholly vaccinated than in partly vaccinated villages (1.6% versus 3.5%, p?=?0.093) whilst the prevalence of serotype 19A was similar between groups (2.9% versus 2.5%, p?=?0.779). The most prevalent serotype 19A clone was ST 847. The most prevalent serotype 6A clone before vaccination was ST3324 whilst after vaccination ST913 and ST1737 predominated. Fourteen out of 26 STs detected among the serotype 6A isolates were new while no new 19A serotype ST was found. Conclusions The decline in prevalence of VT pneumococci seen shortly after PCV-7 vaccination was sustained four years later with only a small difference between study arms. No significant serotype replacement was detected. Trial Registration ClinicalTrials.gov ISRCTN51695599 PMID:24086259

Roca, Anna; Dione, Michel M.; Bojang, Abdoulie; Townend, John; Egere, Uzochukwu; Darboe, Ousainou; Howie, Stephen R. C.; Hill, Philip C.; Adegbola, Richard A.; Greenwood, Brian M.; Antonio, Martin

2013-01-01

160

Blood Pressure Control in a Japanese Population With Chronic Kidney Disease: A Baseline Survey of a Nationwide Cohort  

Microsoft Academic Search

BackgroundHypertension is a key risk factor for adverse renal outcomes in chronic kidney disease (CKD), and strict blood pressure control is recommended to halt its progression. This study assessed blood pressure control in the Japanese CKD population.MethodsWe used a nationwide database of 250,130 subjects (aged 20–88), including 45,845 CKD subjects (18.3%), participated in an annual health check, “The Specific Health

Tsuneo Konta; Ami Ikeda; Kazunobu Ichikawa; Shouichi Fujimoto; Kunitoshi Iseki; Toshiki Moriyama; Kunihiro Yamagata; Kazuhiko Tsuruya; Hideaki Yoshida; Koichi Asahi; Issei Kurahashi; Yasuo Ohashi; Tsuyoshi Watanabe

2012-01-01

161

Blood pressure control, risk factors and cardiovascular prognosis in patients with diabetes: 30 years of progress.  

PubMed

Hypertension is a major co-morbidity for type 2 diabetes, and an important modifiable risk factor for vascular events. Therefore, treatment of diabetes and its risk factors is important to minimize complications, and much progress has been made over the past 30 years. The UKPDS trial showed that intensive glycaemic and blood pressure control reduced the risk of vascular events. In the HOT study, the addition of aspirin to patients with diabetes and controlled hypertension decreased the risk of myocardial infarction. Blood pressure control with angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors in MICRO-HOPE also showed significant reductions in the risk of vascular complications, and blockers of the renin-angiotensin system produced substantial renal protective effects in patients with hypertension and diabetes. Statin therapy in the HPS and CARDS studies was effective in the primary prevention of cardiovascular disorders. Finally, an intensive multifactorial intervention achieved sustained reduction in the risk of vascular complications and death in patients with type 2 diabetes in the Steno-2 study. Nevertheless, the major coronary event risk remains high in type 2 diabetes patients, and the results of the ADVANCE trial provided a step forward in treatment. PMID:19363847

Mourad, Jean-Jacques; Le Jeune, Sylvain

2008-09-01

162

Sex dependent effects of perinatal taurine exposure on the arterial pressure control in adult offspring  

PubMed Central

The present study tests the sex-dependent effect of perinatal taurine exposure on arterial pressure control in adults. Female Sprague-Dawley rats were fed normal rat chow with 3% beta-alanine (taurine depletion, TD), 3% taurine (taurine supplementation, TS) or water alone (C) from conception to weaning. Their male and female offspring were then fed normal rat chow and tap water with 5% glucose (C with glucose, CG; TD with glucose, TDG; TS with glucose, TSG) or water alone (CW, TDW or TSW). At 7–8 weeks of age, they were studied in a conscious condition. Body weights were lower in male and female TDG and male TDW rats. Kidney to body weights increased in female TSW but not TSG. Plasma sodium and potassium were not significantly different among males. In the females, plasma sodium levels were lower in all glucose treated groups while plasma potassium levels were lower only in TDG. Hematocrit, fasting blood glucose, and glucose tolerance were not significantly different among sexes. Mean arterial pressures increased in male TDG, TSW, and TSG while in the females, mean arterial pressures increased in TDW, TDG, and TSG. Heart rates were not significantly different among sexes. The present data indicate that perinatal exposure alters arterial pressure control of adult rats and this effect is gender specific. PMID:19239144

Roysommuti, Sanya; Suwanich, Atchariya; Lerdweeraphon, Wichaporn; Thaeomor, Atcharaporn; Jirakulsomchok, Dusit; Wyss, J. Michael

2009-01-01

163

Summary of human responses to ventilation  

SciTech Connect

The effects of ventilation on indoor air quality and health is a complex issue. It is known that ventilation is necessary to remove indoor generated pollutants from indoor air or dilute their concentration to acceptable levels. But, as the limit values of all pollutants are not known, the exact determination of required ventilation rates based on pollutant concentrations and associated risks is seldom possible. The selection of ventilation rates has to be based also on epidemiological research (e.g. Seppanen et al., 1999), laboratory and field experiments (e.g. CEN 1996, Wargocki et al., 2002a) and experience (e.g. ECA 2003). Ventilation may also have harmful effects on indoor air quality and climate if not properly designed, installed, maintained and operated as summarized by Seppdnen (2003). Ventilation may bring indoors harmful substances that deteriorate the indoor environment. Ventilation also affects air and moisture flow through the building envelope and may lead to moisture problems that deteriorate the structures of the building. Ventilation changes the pressure differences over the structures of building and may cause or prevent the infiltration of pollutants from structures or adjacent spaces. Ventilation is also in many cases used to control the thermal environment or humidity in buildings. Ventilation can be implemented with various methods which may also affect health (e.g. Seppdnen and Fisk, 2002, Wargocki et al., 2002a). In non residential buildings and hot climates, ventilation is often integrated with air-conditioning which makes the operation of ventilation system more complex. As ventilation is used for many purposes its health effects are also various and complex. This paper summarizes the current knowledge on positive and negative effects of ventilation on health and other human responses. The focus of the paper is on office-type working environment and residential buildings. In the industrial premises the problems of air quality are usually more complex and case specific. They are subject to occupational safety legislation and not discussed here.

Seppanen, Olli A.; Fisk, William J.

2004-06-01

164

Models for prediction of temperature difference and ventilation effectiveness with displacement ventilation  

SciTech Connect

Displacement ventilation may provide better indoor air quality than mixing ventilation. Proper design of displacement ventilation requires information concerning the air temperature difference between the head and foot level of a sedentary person and the ventilation effectiveness at the breathing level. This paper presents models to predict the air temperature difference and the ventilation effectiveness, based on a database of 56 cases with displacement ventilation. The database was generated by using a validated CFD program and covers four different types of US buildings: small offices, large offices with partitions, classrooms, and industrial workshops under different thermal and flow boundary conditions. Both the maximum cooling load that can be removed by displacement ventilation and the ventilation effectiveness are shown to depend on the heat source type and ventilation rate in a room.

Yuan, X.; Chen, Q.; Glicksman, L.R.

1999-07-01

165

Independent Orbiter Assessment (IOA): Assessment of the atmospheric revitalization pressure control subsystem FMEA/CIL  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The results of the Independent Orbiter Assessment (IOA) of the Failure Modes and Effects Analysis (FMEA) and Critical Items List (CIL) are presented. The IOA effort first completed an analysis of the atmospheric Revitalization Pressure Control Subsystem (ARPCS) hardware, generating draft failure modes and potential critical items. To preserve independence, this analysis was accomplished without reliance upon the results contained within the NASA FMEA/CIL documentation. The IOA results were then compared to the NASA FMEA/CIL proposed Post 51-L updates based upon the CCB/PRCB presentations and an informal criticality summary listing. A discussion of each discrepancy from the comparison is provided through additional analysis as required. These discrepancies were flagged as issues, and recommendations were made based on the FMEA data available at the time. This report documents the results of that comparison for the Orbiter ARPCS hardware.

Saiidi, M. J.

1988-01-01

166

Role of olmesartan in combination therapy in blood pressure control and vascular function  

PubMed Central

Angiotensin receptor blockers have emerged as a first-line therapy in the management of hypertension and hypertension-related comorbidities. Since national and international guidelines have stressed the need to control blood pressure to <140/90 mmHg in uncomplicated hypertension and <130/80 mmHg in those with associated comorbidities such as diabetes or chronic kidney disease, these goal blood pressures can only be achieved through combination therapy. Of several drugs that can be effectively combined to attain the recommended blood pressure goals, fixed-dose combinations of angiotensin receptor blockers and the calcium channel blocker amlodipine provide additive antihypertensive effects associated with a safe profile and increased adherence to therapy. In this article, we review the evidence regarding the beneficial effects of renin–angiotensin system blockade with olmesartan medoxomil and amlodipine in terms of blood pressure control and improvement of vascular function and target organ damage. PMID:20859541

Ferrario, Carlos M; Smith, Ronald D

2010-01-01

167

A comparison of fuzzy logic-PID control strategies for PWR pressurizer control  

SciTech Connect

This paper describes the results obtained from a comparison performed between classical proportional-integral-derivative (PID) and fuzzy logic (FL) controlling the pressure in a pressurized water reactor (PWR). The two methodologies have been tested under various transient scenarios, and their performances are evaluated with respect to robustness and on-time response to external stimuli. One of the main concerns in the safe operation of PWR is the pressure control in the primary side of the system. In order to maintain the pressure in a PWR at the desired level, the pressurizer component equipped with sprayers, heaters, and safety relief valves is used. The control strategy in a Westinghouse PWR is implemented with a PID controller that initiates either the electric heaters or the sprayers, depending on the direction of the coolant pressure deviation from the setpoint.

Kavaklioglu, K.; Ikonomopoulos, A. (Univ. of Tennessee, Knoxville (United States))

1993-01-01

168

Sex differences in blood pressure control during 6? head-down tilt bed rest  

PubMed Central

Spaceflight-induced orthostatic intolerance has been studied for decades. Although ?22% of the astronaut corps are women, most mechanistic studies use mostly male subjects, despite known sex differences in autonomic control and postflight orthostatic intolerance. We studied adrenergic, baroreflex, and autonomic indexes during continuous infusions of vasoactive drugs in men and women during a 60-day head-down bed rest. Volunteers were tested before bed rest (20 men and 10 women) and around day 30 (20 men and 10 women) and day 60 (16 men and 8 women) of bed rest. Three increasing doses of phenylephrine (PE) and sodium nitroprusside were infused for 10 min after an infusion of normal saline. A 20-min rest period separated the phenylephrine and sodium nitroprusside infusions. Autonomic activity was approximated by spectral indexes of heart rate and blood pressure variability, and baroreflex sensitivity was measured by the spontaneous baroreflex slope. Parasympathetic modulation and baroreflex sensitivity decreased with bed rest, with women experiencing a larger decrease in baroreflex sensitivity by day 30 than men. The sympathetic activation of men and parasympathetic responsiveness of women in blood pressure control during physiological stress were preserved throughout bed rest. During PE infusions, women experienced saturation of the R-R interval at high frequency, whereas men did not, revealing a sex difference in the parabolic relationship between high-frequency R-R interval, a measurement of respiratory sinus arrhythmia, and R-R interval. These sex differences in blood pressure control during simulated microgravity reveal the need to study sex differences in long-duration spaceflight to ensure the health and safety of the entire astronaut corps. PMID:23396455

Arzeno, Natalia M.; Lee, Stuart M. C.; Ploutz-Snyder, Robert; Platts, Steven H.

2013-01-01

169

Development of a Residential Integrated Ventilation Controller  

SciTech Connect

The goal of this study was to develop a Residential Integrated Ventilation Controller (RIVEC) to reduce the energy impact of required mechanical ventilation by 20percent, maintain or improve indoor air quality and provide demand response benefits. This represents potential energy savings of about 140 GWh of electricity and 83 million therms of natural gas as well as proportional peak savings in California. The RIVEC controller is intended to meet the 2008 Title 24 requirements for residential ventilation as well as taking into account the issues of outdoor conditions, other ventilation devices (including economizers), peak demand concerns and occupant preferences. The controller is designed to manage all the residential ventilation systems that are currently available. A key innovation in this controller is the ability to implement the concept of efficacy and intermittent ventilation which allows time shifting of ventilation. Using this approach ventilation can be shifted away from times of high cost or high outdoor pollution towards times when it is cheaper and more effective. Simulations, based on the ones used to develop the new residential ventilation requirements for the California Buildings Energy code, were used to further define the specific criteria and strategies needed for the controller. These simulations provide estimates of the energy, peak power and contaminant improvement possible for different California climates for the various ventilation systems. Results from a field test of the prototype controller corroborate the predicted performance.

Staff Scientist; Walker, Iain; Sherman, Max; Dickerhoff, Darryl

2011-12-01

170

Effect of Residual Noncondensables on Pressurization and Pressure Control of a Zero-Boil-Off Tank in Microgravity  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Zero-Boil-Off Tank (ZBOT) Experiment is a small-scale experiment that uses a transparent ventless Dewar and a transparent simulant phase-change fluid to study sealed tank pressurization and pressure control with applications to on-surface and in-orbit storage of propellant cryogens. The experiment will be carried out under microgravity conditions aboard the International Space Station in the 2014 timeframe. This paper presents preliminary results from ZBOT's ground-based research that focuses on the effects of residual noncondensable gases in the ullage on both pressurization and pressure reduction trends in the sealed Dewar. Tank pressurization is accomplished through heating of the test cell wall in the wetted and un-wetted regions simultaneously or separately. Pressure control is established through mixing and destratification of the bulk liquid using a temperature controlled forced jet flow with different degrees of liquid jet subcooling. A Two-Dimensional axisymmetric two-phase CFD model for tank pressurization and pressure control is also presented. Numerical prediction of the model are compared to experimental 1g results to both validate the model and also indicate the effect of the noncondensable gas on evolution of pressure and temperature distributions in the ullage during pressurization and pressure control. Microgravity simulations case studies are also performed using the validated model to underscore and delineate the profound effect of the noncondensables on condensation rates and interfacial temperature distributions with serious implications for tank pressure control in reduced gravity.

Kassemi, Mohammad; Hylton, Sonya; Kartizova, Olga

2013-01-01

171

CFD applications in tunnel ventilation analysis  

SciTech Connect

Longitudinal ventilation systems in transit and rail tunnels are typically analyzed by one dimensional ventilation network simulation models, such as the Subway Environment Simulation (SES) program. However, in recent years computational fluid dynamics (CFD) modeling has been utilized in conjunction with one-dimensional ventilation network programs to study ventilation systems for large volume spaces such as transit stations and rail overbuilds, as well as for vehicular tunnels. CFD uses numerical methods to simulate complex fluid flow phenomena in three dimensions to predict the distribution of velocity, pressure, temperature, concentration, and other relevant variables throughout the volume. This paper presents an overview of CFD study results from emergency ventilation analysis for a transit station and both emergency ventilation and diesel emissions analysis for a rail overbuild.

Ray, R.E. Jr.; Zigh, A.

1999-07-01

172

Passive ventilation for residential air quality control  

Microsoft Academic Search

Infiltration has long served the residential ventilation needs in North America. In Northern Europe it has been augmented by purpose-provided natural ventilation systems--so-called passive ventilation systems--to better control moisture problems in dwellings smaller than their North American counterparts and in a generally wetter climate. The growing concern for energy consumption, and the environmental impacts associated with it, has however led

Axley

1999-01-01

173

Improved OCT imaging of lung tissue using a prototype for total liquid ventilation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Optical coherence tomography (OCT) is used for imaging subpleural alveoli in animal models to gain information about dynamic and morphological changes of lung tissue during mechanical ventilation. The quality of OCT images can be increased if the refraction index inside the alveoli is matched to the one of tissue via liquid-filling. Thereby, scattering loss can be decreased and higher penetration depth and tissue contrast can be achieved. Until now, images of liquid-filled lungs were acquired in isolated and fixated lungs only, so that an in vivo measurement situation is not present. To use the advantages of liquid-filling for in vivo imaging of small rodent lungs, it was necessary to develop a liquid ventilator. Perfluorodecalin, a perfluorocarbon, was selected as breathing fluid because of its refraction index being similar to the one of water and the high transport capacity for carbon dioxide and oxygen. The setup is characterized by two independent syringe pumps to insert and withdraw the fluid into and from the lung and a custom-made control program for volume- or pressure-controlled ventilation modes. The presented results demonstrate the liquid-filling verified by optical coherence tomography and intravital microscopy (IVM) and the advantages of liquid-filling to OCT imaging of subpleural alveoli.

Schnabel, Christian; Meissner, Sven; Koch, Edmund

2011-06-01

174

Efficacy of intermittent ventilation for providing acceptable indoor air quality  

Microsoft Academic Search

Ventilation standards and guidelines typically treat ventilation as a constant and specify its value. In many circumstances a designer wishes to use intermittent ventilation, rather than constant ventilation, but there are no easy equivalencies available. This report develops a model of efficacy that allows one to calculate how much intermittent ventilation one needs to get the same indoor air quality

M. H. Sherman

2004-01-01

175

Experimental research on charging characteristics of a pressure-controlled VRLA battery in high-temperature environments  

Microsoft Academic Search

Valve-regulated-lead-acid (VRLA) battery charging performed in high-temperature environments is extremely risky under overcharge\\u000a conditions, and may lead to a subsequent thermal runaway. A new pressure-controlled charging method was adopted and the charging\\u000a characteristics of the pressure-controlled VRLA battery in high-temperature environments were experimentally studied. The\\u000a concept was tested in a large temperature gradient to obtain more details about the effects

Hua Zhu; Jin-jun Tan; Zhang-lu Xu; Ji-sen Xu

2009-01-01

176

High-frequency ventilation and conventional mechanical ventilation in newborn babies with respiratory distress syndrome: A prospective, randomized trial  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective. Morbidity and mortality remain high amongst babies ventilated for a respiratory distress syndrome (RDS). Whether newly developed ventilators allowing high frequency ventilation such as high frequen- cy flow interrupted ventilation (HFFIV) could decrease the morbidity and the mortality was investigated in a ran- domized study. Design: Preterm babies weighing < 1800 g suffering from RDS and ventilated by conventional

A. Pardou; D. Vermeylen; M. F. Muller; D. Detemmerman

1993-01-01

177

Multi-bottle, no compressor, mean pressure control system for a Stirling engine  

DOEpatents

The invention relates to an apparatus for mean pressure control of a Stirling engine without the need for a compressor. The invention includes a multi-tank system in which there is at least one high pressure level tank and one low pressure level tank wherein gas flows through a maximum pressure and supply line from the engine to the high pressure tank when a first valve is opened until the maximum pressure of the engine drops below that of the high pressure tank opening an inlet regulator to permit gas flow from the engine to the low pressure tank. When gas flows toward the engine it flows through the minimum pressure supply line 2 when a second valve is opened from the low pressure tank until the tank reaches the engine's minimum pressure level at which time the outlet regulator opens permitting gas to be supplied from the high pressure tank to the engine. Check valves between the two tanks prevent any backflow of gas from occurring.

Corey, John A. (Melrose, NY)

1990-01-01

178

Independent Orbiter Assessment (IOA): Analysis of the atmospheric revitalization pressure control subsystem  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The results of the Independent Orbiter Assessment (IOA) of the Failure Modes and Effects Analysis/Critical Items List (FMEA/CIL) are presented. The IOA approach features a top-down analysis of the hardware to determine failure modes, criticality, and potential critical items. To preserve independence, this analysis was accomplished without reliance upon the results contained within the NASA FMEA/CIL documentation. The independent analysis results corresponding to the Orbiter Atmospheric Revitalization and Pressure Control Subsystem (ARPCS) are documented. The ARPCS hardware was categorized into the following subdivisions: (1) Atmospheric Make-up and Control (including the Auxiliary Oxygen Assembly, Oxygen Assembly, and Nitrogen Assembly); and (2) Atmospheric Vent and Control (including the Positive Relief Vent Assembly, Negative Relief Vent Assembly, and Cabin Vent Assembly). The IOA analysis process utilized available ARPCS hardware drawings and schematics for defining hardware assemblies, components, and hardware items. Each level of hardware was evaluated and analyzed for possible failure modes and effects. Criticality was assigned based upon the severity of the effect for each failure mode.

Saiidi, M. J.; Duffy, R. E.; Mclaughlin, T. D.

1986-01-01

179

Ventless pressure control of two-phase propellant tanks in microgravity  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This work studies pressurization and pressure control of a large liquid hydrogen storage tank. A finite element model is developed that couples a lumped thermodynamic formulation for the vapor region with a complete solution of the Navier-Stokes and energy equations for the flow and temperature fields in the liquid. Numerical results show that buoyancy effects are strong, even in microgravity, and can reposition a vapor bubble that is initially at the center of the tank to a region near the tank wall in a relatively short time. Long-term tank pressurization with the vapor bubble at the tank wall shows that after an initial transient lasting about a week, the final rate of pressure increase agrees with a purely thermodynamic analysis of the entire tank. However, the final pressure levels are quite different from thermodynamic predictions. Numerical results also show that there is significant thermal stratification in the liquid due to the effects of natural convection. A subcooled jet is used to provide simultaneous cooling and mixing in order to bring the tank pressure back down to its initial value. Three different jet speeds are examined. Although the lowest jet speed is ineffective at controlling the pressure because of insufficient penetration into the liquid region, the highest jet speed is shown to be quite effective at disrupting thermal stratification and reducing the tank pressure in reasonable time.

Kassemi, Mohammad; Panzarella, Charles H.

2004-01-01

180

Managing blood pressure control in Asian patients: safety and efficacy of losartan  

PubMed Central

Hypertension is common in Asian populations and is a major cause of cardiovascular diseases. The prevalence of hypertension is increasing in many Asian countries. The overall prevalence of hypertension in India and the People’s Republic of China has been estimated to be 20.6% in men and 22.6% in women. However, the rates of detection, treatment, and control of hypertension remain low in Asia. This reflects a low level of literacy and education, as well as a low level of access to medical care. To overcome these obstacles, strategies targeted at education, promotion, and optimization of medical care, are crucial to achieve target blood pressure control. Angiotensin receptor blockers are one of the first-line treatments for essential hypertension because they confer better cardiovascular outcomes. Losartan has been widely evaluated for the management of hypertension. Although some studies suggested that the blood pressure-lowering effect of losartan is perhaps lower than for other angiotensin receptor blockers, losartan has been demonstrated to be beneficial in terms of renal protection in patients with diabetes, heart failure resulting from either systolic or diastolic dysfunction, and diuretic-induced hyperuricemia. However, most of these data were obtained from Caucasian populations. The efficacy and safety of losartan in Asian populations may be different because of genetic and ethnic variations. Therefore, the efficacy and safety of losartan in Asian patients with hypertension warrant further study. PMID:24672231

Cheung, Tommy Tsang; Cheung, Bernard Man Yung

2014-01-01

181

46 CFR 154.1205 - Mechanical ventilation system: Standards.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Mechanical ventilation system: Standards. 154...Construction and Equipment Cargo Area: Mechanical Ventilation System § 154.1205 Mechanical ventilation system: Standards....

2013-10-01

182

46 CFR 154.1205 - Mechanical ventilation system: Standards.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Mechanical ventilation system: Standards. 154...Construction and Equipment Cargo Area: Mechanical Ventilation System § 154.1205 Mechanical ventilation system: Standards....

2012-10-01

183

46 CFR 154.1205 - Mechanical ventilation system: Standards.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Mechanical ventilation system: Standards. 154...Construction and Equipment Cargo Area: Mechanical Ventilation System § 154.1205 Mechanical ventilation system: Standards....

2010-10-01

184

46 CFR 154.1205 - Mechanical ventilation system: Standards.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Mechanical ventilation system: Standards. 154...Construction and Equipment Cargo Area: Mechanical Ventilation System § 154.1205 Mechanical ventilation system: Standards....

2011-10-01

185

46 CFR 108.181 - Ventilation for enclosed spaces.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-10-01 false Ventilation for enclosed spaces. 108.181 Section 108.181 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND...EQUIPMENT Construction and Arrangement Ventilation § 108.181 Ventilation for enclosed spaces....

2010-10-01

186

21 CFR 868.5935 - External negative pressure ventilator.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false External negative pressure ventilator. 868...Therapeutic Devices § 868.5935 External negative pressure ventilator. (a) Identification. An external negative pressure ventilator...

2010-04-01

187

14 CFR 27.1187 - Ventilation and drainage.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-01-01 false Ventilation and drainage. 27.1187 Section 27.1187 ...Protection § 27.1187 Ventilation and drainage. Each compartment containing any...must have provision for ventilation and drainage of flammable fluids. The drainage...

2010-01-01

188

14 CFR 27.1187 - Ventilation and drainage.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-01-01 false Ventilation and drainage. 27.1187 Section 27.1187 ...Protection § 27.1187 Ventilation and drainage. Each compartment containing any...must have provision for ventilation and drainage of flammable fluids. The drainage...

2011-01-01

189

14 CFR 27.1187 - Ventilation and drainage.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-01-01 false Ventilation and drainage. 27.1187 Section 27.1187 ...Protection § 27.1187 Ventilation and drainage. Each compartment containing any...must have provision for ventilation and drainage of flammable fluids. The drainage...

2013-01-01

190

14 CFR 27.1187 - Ventilation and drainage.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-01-01 false Ventilation and drainage. 27.1187 Section 27.1187 ...Protection § 27.1187 Ventilation and drainage. Each compartment containing any...must have provision for ventilation and drainage of flammable fluids. The drainage...

2012-01-01

191

14 CFR 27.1187 - Ventilation and drainage.  

...2014-01-01 false Ventilation and drainage. 27.1187 Section 27.1187 ...Protection § 27.1187 Ventilation and drainage. Each compartment containing any...must have provision for ventilation and drainage of flammable fluids. The drainage...

2014-01-01

192

Mechanical ventilation in cancer patients.  

PubMed

Acute respiratory failure (ARF) in cancer patients remains a frequent and severe complication, despite the general improved outcome over the last decade. The survival of cancer patients requiring ventilatory support in Intensive Care Unit (ICU) has dramatically improved over the last years. The diagnostic approach, including an invasive strategy using fiber optic bronchoscopy or a non-invasive strategy, must be effective to identify a diagnostic, as it is a crucial prognostic factor. The use of non-invasive ventilation (NIV) instead of invasive mechanical ventilation (IMV), has contributed to decrease mortality, but NIV has to be used in appropriate situations. Indeed, NIV failure (i.e., need for IMV) is deleterious. Classical prognostic factors are not relevant anymore. The number of organ failure at admission and over the first 7 ICU days governs outcomes. Ventilatory support can thus be included in different management contexts: full code management with unlimited use of life sustaining therapies, full code management for a limited period, no-intubation decision, or the use of palliative NIV. The objectives of this review article are to summarize the modified ARF diagnostic and therapeutic management, induced by improvements in both intensive care and onco-hematologic management and recent literature data. PMID:24280820

Saillard, C; Mokart, D; Lemiale, V; Azoulay, E

2014-06-01

193

Barriers to blood pressure control and angiotensin enzyme inhibitor use in Canadian patients with chronic renal insufficiencyy  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background. Current recommendations for the man- agement of chronic renal insufficiency (CRI) include the use of angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors (ACEI) and achieving target blood pressure control. We designed this study to describe the use of these therapeutic strategies, and to investigate barriers to their implementation. Methods. This was a prospective study of 304 con- secutive CRI patients, seen at follow-up

Marcello Tonelli; John Gill; Sanjaya Pandeya; Clara Bohm; Adeera Levin; Bryce A. Kiberd

2002-01-01

194

JOURNAL OF LATEX CLASS FILES, VOL. 1, NO. 11, NOVEMBER 2002 1 Design of a pressure control system with dead  

E-print Network

-perfect time delay estimation is studied and a condition for the effect of uncertainties on the dead zone. The control law is tested in practice. Index Terms-- Dead zone, time varying delay, pressure control, stability, LMI I. INTRODUCTION In applications, many systems exist with dead zones. The same applies

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

195

Balking blood pressure "control" by older persons of Bambuí, Minas Gerais State, Brazil: an ethno-epidemiological inquiry.  

PubMed

This ethno-epidemiological inquiry aims to comprehend hypertension-related experiences in the elderly population of Bambuí, in the State of Minas Gerais, Brazil. It combines ethnographic descriptions with statistical data. The subjective significance of factors associated with adequate arterial pressure control is explored. A baseline cohort of 26 people with hypertension, randomly selected from a total number of 1,494 residents over the age of 60, was interviewed utilizing signs, meanings and actions methodology. Multivariate analysis shows an association (p < 0.001) between female gender and monthly household income and treatment of hypertension and adequate blood pressure control. The number of doctor visits is associated with treatment but not with adequate blood pressure control. Conflicting cultural construction of "blood pressure problems" contributes to "non-adherence" to treatment. There is a fine line between blood pressure "control" and what is perceived as health professionals "controlling" patients' lives. Doctor-prescribed regimes are perceived as "prohibiting life's pleasures" and "controlling" personal liberty and free choice. Giving elderly people a voice regarding their social context can promote autonomy, well-being and happiness in later life. PMID:21952859

Nations, Marilyn; Firmo, Josélia O A; Lima-Costa, Maria Fernanda; Uchôa, Elizabeth

2011-01-01

196

Ventilating activity at the hornet nest entrance  

Microsoft Academic Search

The aim of this paper is to provide the first complete description of ventilating activity undertaken by the Oriental hornet. At the portal of each nest of the Oriental hornet ( Vespa orientalis, Hymenoptera, Vespinae) there are worker hornets that beat their wings in synchrony with one another, during summer months and at the onset of daylight. These ventilating hornets

Ksenia Riabinin; Maria Kozhevnikov; Jacob S. Ishay

2004-01-01

197

Non-invasive ventilation and sleep  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper, we review the effects of nocturnal mechanical ventilation on sleep. Indeed, although non-invasive assisted ventilation during sleep has been applied extensively, the exact effects of this treatment on sleep quality have not been thoroughly studied. In patients with severe chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and severe restrictive ventilatory defects, the resulting respiratory failure is aggravated by the specific

Mónica M. González; Veronica F. Parreira; Daniel O. Rodenstein

2002-01-01

198

Infiltration in ASHRAE's Residential Ventilation Standards  

SciTech Connect

The purpose of ventilation is to dilute or remove indoor contaminants that an occupant could be exposed to. It can be provided by mechanical or natural means. ASHRAE Standards including standards 62, 119, and 136 have all considered the contribution of infiltration in various ways, using methods and data from 20 years ago. The vast majority of homes in the United States and indeed the world are ventilated through natural means such as infiltration caused by air leakage. Newer homes in the western world are tight and require mechanical ventilation. As we seek to provide acceptable indoor air quality at minimum energy cost, it is important to neither over-ventilate norunder-ventilate. Thus, it becomes critically important to correctly evaluate the contribution infiltration makes to both energy consumption and equivalent ventilation. ASHRAE Standard 62.2 specifies how much mechanical ventilation is considered necessary to provide acceptable indoor air quality, but that standard is weak on how infiltration can contribute towards meeting the total requirement. In the past ASHRAE Standard 136 was used to do this, but new theoretical approaches and expanded weather data have made that standard out of date. This article will describe how to properly treat infiltration as an equivalent ventilation approach and then use new data and these new approaches to demonstrate how these calculations might be done both in general and to update Standard 136.

Sherman, Max

2008-10-01

199

May 1999 LBNL -42975 ASHRAE'S RESIDENTIAL VENTILATION  

E-print Network

Committee on "Ventilation and Acceptable Indoor Air Quality in Low-Rise Residential Buildings", SPC 62.2P indoor air quality in dwellings and to set minimum standards that would allow for energy efficiency on Residential Ventilation and Acceptable Indoor Air Quality. 2 This work was supported by the Assistant

200

YMP Engineered Barrier Systems Scaled Ventilation Testing  

SciTech Connect

Yucca Mountain, approximately 100 miles northwest of Las Vegas, Nevada, has been selected as the site for the nation's first geologic repository for high level nuclear waste. The Yucca Mountain Project (YMP) is currently developing the design for the underground facilities. Ventilation is a key component of the design as a way to maintain the desired thermal conditions in the emplacement drifts prior to closure. As a means of determining the effects of continuous ventilation on heat removal from the emplacement drifts two series of scaled ventilation tests have been performed. Both test series were performed in the DOE/North Las Vegas Atlas facility. The tests provided scaled (nominally 25% of the full scale emplacement drift design) thermal and flow process data that will be used to validate YMP heat and mass transport codes. The Phase I Ventilation Test series evaluated the ability of ambient ventilation air to remove energy under varying flow and input power conditions. The Phase II Ventilation Test series evaluated the ability of pre-conditioned ventilation air to remove energy under varying flow, input temperature and moisture content, and simulated waste package input power conditions. Twenty-two distinct ventilation tests were run.

S.D. Dunn; B. Lowry; B. Walsh; J.D. Mar; C. Howard; R. Johnston; T. Williams

2002-11-22

201

New modes of assisted mechanical ventilation.  

PubMed

Recent major advances in mechanical ventilation have resulted in new exciting modes of assisted ventilation. Compared to traditional ventilation modes such as assisted-controlled ventilation or pressure support ventilation, these new modes offer a number of physiological advantages derived from the improved patient control over the ventilator. By implementing advanced closed-loop control systems and using information on lung mechanics, respiratory muscle function and respiratory drive, these modes are specifically designed to improve patient-ventilator synchrony and reduce the work of breathing. Depending on their specific operational characteristics, these modes can assist spontaneous breathing efforts synchronically in time and magnitude, adapt to changing patient demands, implement automated weaning protocols, and introduce a more physiological variability in the breathing pattern. Clinicians have now the possibility to individualize and optimize ventilatory assistance during the complex transition from fully controlled to spontaneous assisted ventilation. The growing evidence of the physiological and clinical benefits of these new modes is favoring their progressive introduction into clinical practice. Future clinical trials should improve our understanding of these modes and help determine whether the claimed benefits result in better outcomes. PMID:24507472

Suarez-Sipmann, F

2014-05-01

202

Commissioning Ventilated Containment Systems in the Laboratory  

SciTech Connect

This Best Practices Guide focuses on the specialized approaches required for ventilated containment systems, understood to be all components that drive and control ventilated enclosures and local exhaust systems within the laboratory. Geared toward architects, engineers, and facility managers, this guide provides information about technologies and practices to use in designing, constructing, and operating operating safe, sustainable, high-performance laboratories.

Not Available

2008-08-01

203

Tracheobronchomegaly in preterm infants on mechanical ventilation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Tracheobronchomegaly (TBM) was diagnosed on chest radiographs as an apparent dilatation of the trachea and main bronchi in four premature infants on prolonged mechanical ventilation for respiratory distress syndrome. In a retrospective study, the parameters of assisted ventilation, the Apgar score, the presence of conatal or later infection, and hypotension were reviewed and analyzed as factors possibly contributing to the

Ž. Zupan?i?; J. Primoži?

1995-01-01

204

The basics of industrial ventilation design  

SciTech Connect

HVAC in the industrial environment assumes many roles from general ventilation to process related applications. Because of the variety of applications and the documentation available for the design of each, it is not the intent of this article to review each one. However, industrial clients often have misconceptions that lead to misapplications of ventilation design and equipment. One of the more common misconceptions is that ventilation equipment should be sized based on volumetric air changes, regardless of the application. This article will review a generalized approach to ventilation calculations, the fallacy of air changes, and the role of HVAC engineers to provide the industrial client a properly applied ventilation design and thorough knowledge of its operational parameters.

Parks, R.L. [McKim and Creed, Raleigh, NC (United States)

1996-11-01

205

An intelligent control system for ventilators.  

PubMed

This study reports on a ventilator system that consists of several intelligent modules for controlling ventilator operation. These modules are software programs in two controllers. One controller is a personal computer used for diagnoses, determining settings and checking the effects of settings. The other controller is a single-chip microprocessor in a ventilator that controls the ventilator's settings in accordance with the computer settings. After setting up the system, an artificial lung model simulating a patient's lung is used to test the system. The result of test run indicated that it always responds to a patient's lung condition in a stable manner. Thus, the proposed system with its intelligent modules may assist clinicians in caring for patients and managing ventilator operation. PMID:9832029

Wang, C S; Shaw, D; Jih, K S

1998-10-01

206

Pandemic Ventilator Rationing and Appeals Processes  

PubMed Central

In a severe influenza pandemic, hospitals will likely experience serious and widespread shortages of patient pulmonary ventilators and of staff qualified to operate them. Deciding who will receive access to mechanical ventilation will often determine who lives and who dies. This prospect raises an important question whether pandemic preparedness plans should include some process by which individuals affected by ventilator rationing would have the opportunity to appeal adverse decisions. However, the issue of appeals processes to ventilator rationing decisions has been largely neglected in state pandemic planning efforts. If we are to devise just and effective plans for coping with a severe influenza pandemic, more attention to the issue of appeals processes for pandemic ventilator rationing decisions is needed. Arguments for and against appeals processes are considered, and some suggestions are offered to help efforts at devising more rational pandemic preparedness plans. PMID:20354793

Patrone, Daniel; Resnik, David

2014-01-01

207

Experimental Investigation on the Basic Law of Hydraulic Fracturing After Water Pressure Control Blasting  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Because of the advantages of integrating water pressure blasting and hydraulic fracturing, the use of hydraulic fracturing after water pressure control blasting is a method that is used to fully transform the structure of a coal-rock mass by increasing the number and range of hydraulic cracks. An experiment to study hydraulic fracturing after water pressure blasting on cement mortar samples (300 × 300 × 300 mm3) was conducted using a large-sized true triaxial hydraulic fracturing experimental system. A traditional hydraulic fracturing experiment was also performed for comparison. The experimental results show that water pressure blasting produces many blasting cracks, and follow-up hydraulic fracturing forces blasting cracks to propagate further and to form numerous multidirectional hydraulic cracks. Four macroscopic main hydraulic cracks in total were noted along the borehole axial and radial directions on the sample surfaces. Axial and radial main failure planes induced by macroscopic main hydraulic cracks split the sample into three big parts. Meanwhile, numerous local hydraulic cracks were formed on the main failure planes, in different directions and of different types. Local hydraulic cracks are mainly of three types: local hydraulic crack bands, local branched hydraulic cracks, and axial layered cracks. Because local hydraulic cracks produce multiple local layered failure planes and lamellar ruptures inside the sample, the integrity of the sample decreases greatly. The formation and propagation process of many multidirectional hydraulic cracks is affected by a combination of water pressure blasting, water pressure of fracturing, and the stress field of the surrounding rock. To a certain degree, the stress field of surrounding rock guides the formation and propagation process of the blasting crack and the follow-up hydraulic crack. Following hydraulic fracturing that has been conducted after water pressure blasting, the integrity of the sample is found to be far lower than after traditional hydraulic fracturing; moreover, both the water injection volume and water injection pressure for hydraulic fracturing after water pressure blasting are much higher than they are for traditional hydraulic fracturing.

Huang, Bingxiang; Li, Pengfeng; Ma, Jian; Chen, Shuliang

2014-07-01

208

A new pressure-controlled colon delivery capsule for chronotherapeutic treatment of nocturnal asthma.  

PubMed

The purpose of this study was to prepare a pressure-controlled colon delivery capsule (PCDC) containing theophylline (TPH) dispersion in a lipid matrix as a chronotherapeutic drug delivery system for the treatment of nocturnal asthma. The system was made by film coating using Eudragit S100- based formula over the sealed-hard gelatin capsules containing the drug-lipid dispersion. The lipid formula was composed mainly of Gelucire 33/01 (G33) with different ratios of surfactants (1-10%). The efficiency of the prepared system was evaluated in vitro for its ability to withstand both the gastric and intestinal medium. In addition, the drug plasma concentrations were monitored after single administration to Beagle dogs and compared to that obtained after administration of a reference marketed, generic, sustained-release TPH tablets, Avolen(®) SR. It was found that the optimum lipid formula was GL2 containing 90% G33 and 10% Labrasol. The film-coated capsules showed complete resistance to both the acidic environment (pH 1.2) for 2 hours and phosphate buffer pH 6.8 for 3 hours at 37°C. In vivo evaluation of the TPH-based PCDCs showed longer lag time compared TO the marketed formula followed by sudden increase in TPH blood levels, which recommends the high potential of this system as a chronotherapeutic drug delivery for nocturnal asthma. The prepared PCDCs exhibited a significantly higher C(max) and T(max) and a nonsignificantly different AUC compared with Avolen(®) SR. Higher TPH blood levels from 1 to 8 hours postadministration was detected in the case of the prepared PCDCs. PMID:20681754

Barakat, Nahla S; Al-Suwayeh, Saleh A; Taha, Ehab I; Bakry Yassin, Alaa Eldeen

2011-06-01

209

Implementation of a Hybrid Controller for Ventilation Control Using Soft Computing  

SciTech Connect

Many industrial facilities utilize pressure control gradients to prevent migration of hazardous species from containment areas to occupied zones, often using Proportional-Integral-Derivative (PID) control systems. When operators rebalance the facility, variation from the desired gradients can occur and the operating conditions can change enough that the PID parameters are no longer adequate to maintain a stable system. As the goal of the ventilation control system is to optimize the pressure gradients and associated flows for the facility, Linear Quadratic Tracking (LQT) is a method that provides a time-based approach to guiding facility interactions. However, LQT methods are susceptible to modeling and measurement errors, and therefore the additional use of Soft Computing methods are proposed for implementation to account for these errors and nonlinearities.

Craig G. Rieger; D. Subbaram Naidu

2005-06-01

210

[Recommendations for invasive home mechanical ventilation].  

PubMed

Due to chronic respiratory failure, a proportion of patients require long-term home ventilation therapy. The treating doctors, nurses and therapists, as well as employees of the health insurance provider, all require specialized knowledge in order to establish and monitor home ventilation. The following document represents a consensus formed by the participating specialist societies, the health insurers and their medical advisory services. The recommendations for accomplishing home mechanical ventilation are based on the "S2 Guidelines for Non-Invasive and Invasive Mechanical Ventilation for Treatment of Chronic Respiratory Failure", and provide advice about the necessary qualifications of medical and nursing practitioners working in specialised ventilation centres or in the home setting. Management of transfer, which comprises the medical, technical and organisational requirements for releasing the patient from hospital care, is of paramount importance. In outpatient care, the requirements for the recruitment of resources, monitoring of procedures, adjustment of ventilation, and frequency of check-ups are each addressed. The recommendations are supplemented by appendices which include patient transfer forms, checklists for the supply of basic resources for home ventilation, as well as a template for the letter of discharge from hospital. PMID:21294061

Randerath, W J; Kamps, N; Brambring, J; Gerhard, F; Lorenz, J; Rudolf, F; Rosseau, S; Scheumann, A; Vollmer, V; Windisch, W

2011-02-01

211

How to choose an anesthesia ventilator?  

PubMed

During the past few years, many manufacturers have developed a new generation anesthesia ventilators or anesthesia workstations with innovative technology and introduced so-called new ventilatory modes in the operating room. The aim of this article is to briefly explain how an anesthesia ventilator works, to describe the main differences between the technologies used, to describe the main criteria for evaluating technical and pneumatic performances and to list key elements not to be forgotten during the process of acquiring an anesthesia ventilator. PMID:25138358

Coisel, Y; Millot, A; Carr, J; Castagnoli, A; Pouzeratte, Y; Verzilli, D; Futier, E; Jaber, S

2014-01-01

212

Can heterogeneity in ventilation be good?  

PubMed Central

Selection of the optimal positive end-expiratory pressure (PEEP) to avoid ventilator-induced lung injury in patients under mechanical ventilation is still a matter of debate. Many methods are available, but none is considered the gold standard. In the previous issue of Critical Care, Zhao and colleagues applied a method based on electrical impedance tomography to help select the PEEP that minimized ventilation inhomogeneities. Though promising when alveolar collapse and overdistension are present, this method might be misleading in patients with normal lungs. PMID:20359315

2010-01-01

213

Preoperational test report, primary ventilation condensate system  

SciTech Connect

Preoperational test report for Primary Ventilation Condensate System, Project W-030. Project W-030 provides a ventilation upgrade for the four Aging Waste Facility tanks. The system provides a collection point for condensate generated by the W-030 primary vent offgas cooling system serving tanks AYIOI, AY102, AZIOI, AZI02. The system is located inside a shielded ventilation equipment cell and consists of a condensate seal pot, sampling features, a drain line to existing Catch Tank 241-AZ-151, and a cell sump jet pump. The tests verify correct system operation and correct indications displayed by the central Monitor and Control System.

Clifton, F.T.

1997-01-29

214

Diagnosis of ventilator-associated pneumonia.  

PubMed

Ventilator-associated pneumonia is a frequent complication of mechanical ventilation, and it carries a significant added mortality. Proper recognition and treatment of pneumonia are associated with improved outcome. Clinical manifestations of pneumonia, chest radiograph findings, and routine analysis of the tracheal aspirate are inadequate, alone or in combination, in diagnosing pneumonia. This article discusses the methodologies that are presently available for diagnosing pneumonia in ventilated patients. Correct use of these techniques helps the clinician to establish a diagnosis with a high degree of reliability and facilitates the rational use of antibiotic treatment. PMID:8345171

Meduri, G U

1993-06-01

215

DISCRETE-TIME SIMULATION OF AIR-FLOW CUT-OFF IN PRESSURE-CONTROLLED Tamara Smyth, Jonathan Abel, Julius Smith  

E-print Network

DISCRETE-TIME SIMULATION OF AIR-FLOW CUT-OFF IN PRESSURE-CONTROLLED VALVES Tamara Smyth, Jonathan controlled valve. During voiced song, the membrane is set into motion by air flow, vibrating at a frequency d of the differential equation govern- ing volume flow through a pressure-controlled valve is examined with particular

Smyth, Tamara

216

Serotype Distribution and Susceptibility to Penicillin and Erythromycin Among Noninvasive or Colonization Isolates of Streptococcus pneumoniae in Northern Japan: A Cross-Sectional Study in the Pre-PCV7 Routine Immunization Period.  

PubMed

Distribution of serotypes, prevalence of resistance to penicillin and/or erythromycin (EM), and its genetic traits were analyzed for a total of 1,061 noninvasive or colonization isolates of Streptococcus pneumoniae (998 and 61 isolates from children and adults, respectively) in Hokkaido, northern main island of Japan, in the year 2011, the pre-PCV7 routine immunization period. Serotype deduction was performed by sequential multiplex polymerase chain reaction (PCR), employing mutagenic PCR-restriction fragment length polymorphism for discrimination of 6A/C and 6B/D. Unaltered three PBP genes and macrolide resistance genes erm(B) and mef(A/E) were detected by multiplex PCR. Among isolates from children, 25 serotypes, including the prevalent types 6B (17.5%), 19F (15.6%), 23F (12.2%), and 6C (11.6%), were identified, revealing the PCV7 and PCV13 coverage rates as 48.2% and 60.3%, respectively, while serotype 3 was the most frequent (19.0%) among isolates from adults. Most of the pediatric isolates (96.8%) exhibited resistance to EM (minimum inhibitory concentration [MIC], ?1??g/ml), with a higher prevalence of erm(B) (67.2%) than mef(A/E) (39.7%). erm(B) was associated with high-level EM resistance (MIC, ?128??g/ml) and distributed at high detection rates to major serotypes 23F (85.2%) and 6B (85.1%), as well as minor serotypes 3, 10A, 14, 15B, 15C, 19A, and 23A (>90%). While penicillin-resistant S. pneumoniae (PRSP) (penicillin G-MIC, 2-3??g/ml) was detected in 7.8% of isolates from children, the most common PBP gene genotype was gPRSP (three altered genes pbp1a, 2x, and 2b; 38.3%), which was detected at higher rates (>60%) in the dominant serotypes 23F, 6B, and 19F, and minor serotypes 6D and 15A. Dominant serotypes in the S. pneumoniae isolates were generally similar to those reported for invasive strains, despite lower coverage rates by PCV7/13. The importance of further surveillance on incidence and drug resistance in the post-PCV7 period was suggested for non-PCV7/13 serotypes 6C, 6D, 10A, 15A, 15B, 15C, 23A, and 35B. PMID:24766085

Kawaguchiya, Mitsuyo; Urushibara, Noriko; Ghosh, Souvik; Kuwahara, Osamu; Morimoto, Shigeo; Ito, Masahiko; Kudo, Kenji; Kobayashi, Nobumichi

2014-10-01

217

CONFIDENTIAL: DO NOT QUOTE 1 Equivalence in Ventilation and  

E-print Network

CONFIDENTIAL: DO NOT QUOTE 1 Equivalence in Ventilation and Indoor Air Quality M. H. Sherman, I ventilate buildings to provide acceptable indoor air quality (IAQ). Ventilation standards (such as American, it is necessary to have a method for determining equivalence in terms of either ventilation or indoor air quality

218

Application of Information Technology: Enhanced Notification of Critical Ventilator Events  

Microsoft Academic Search

Mechanical ventilators are designed to generate alarms when patients become disconnected or experience other critical ventilator events. However, these alarms can blend in with other accustomed sounds of the intensive care unit. Ventilator alarms that go unnoticed for extended periods of time often result in permanent patient harm or death. We developed a system to monitor critical ventilator events through

R. Scott Evans; Kyle V. Johnson; Vrena B. Flint; Tupper Kinder; Charles R. Lyon; William L. Hawley; David K. Vawdrey; George E. Thomsen

2005-01-01

219

A Dual Closed-Loop Control System for Mechanical Ventilation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective. Closed-loop mechanical ventilation has the potential to provide more effective ventilatory support to patients with less complexity than conventional ventilation. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effectiveness of an automatic technique for mechanical ventilation. Methods. Two closed-loop control systems for mechanical ventilation are combined in this study. In one of the control systems several physiological data

Fleur Tehrani; Mark Rogers; Takkin Lo; Thomas Malinowski; Samuel Afuwape; Michael Lum; Brett Grundl; Michael Terry

2004-01-01

220

Physician Perception of Blood Pressure Control and Treatment Behavior in High-Risk Hypertensive Patients: A Cross-Sectional Study  

Microsoft Academic Search

ObjectiveWe examined physician perception of blood pressure control and treatment behavior in patients with previous cardiovascular disease and uncontrolled hypertension as defined by European Guidelines.MethodsA cross-sectional study was conducted in which 321 primary care physicians throughout Spain consecutively studied 1,614 patients aged ?18 years who had been diagnosed and treated for hypertension (blood pressure ?140\\/90 mmHg), and had suffered a

José R. Banegas; Krista Lundelin; Mariano de La Figuera; Juan J. de La Cruz; Auxiliadora Graciani; Fernando Rodríguez-Artalejo; Juan García Puig; James M. Wright

2011-01-01

221

Evaluation of anticipatory signal to steam generator pressure control program for 700 MWe Indian pressurized heavy water reactor  

SciTech Connect

700 MWe Indian Pressurized Heavy Water Reactor (IPHWR) is horizontal channel type reactor with partial boiling at channel outlet. Due to boiling, it has a large volume of vapor present in the primary loops. It has two primary loops connected with the help of pressurizer surge line. The pressurizer has a large capacity and is partly filled by liquid and partly by vapor. Large vapor volume improves compressibility of the system. During turbine trip or load rejection, pressure builds up in Steam Generator (SG). This leads to pressurization of Primary Heat Transport System (PHTS). To control pressurization of SG and PHTS, around 70% of the steam generated in SG is dumped into the condenser by opening Condenser Steam Dump Valves (CSDVs) and rest of the steam is released to the atmosphere by opening Atmospheric Steam Discharge Valves (ASDVs) immediately after sensing the event. This is accomplished by adding anticipatory signal to the output of SG pressure controller. Anticipatory signal is proportional to the thermal power of reactor and the proportionality constant is set so that SG pressure controller's output jacks up to ASDV opening range when operating at 100% FP. To simulate this behavior for 700 MWe IPHWR, Primary and secondary heat transport system is modeled. SG pressure control and other process control program have also been modeled to capture overall plant dynamics. Analysis has been carried out with 3-D neutron kinetics coupled thermal hydraulic computer code ATMIKA.T to evaluate the effect of the anticipatory signal on PHT pressure and over all plant dynamics during turbine trip in 700 MWe IPHWR. This paper brings out the results of the analysis with and without considering anticipatory signal in SG pressure control program during turbine trip. (authors)

Pahari, S.; Hajela, S.; Rammohan, H. P.; Malhotra, P. K.; Ghadge, S. G. [Nuclear Power Corporation of India Limited, Nabhikiya Urja Bhavan, Anushakti Nagar, Mumbai, PIN-400094 (India)

2012-07-01

222

HEALTH BEHAVIORS AND RACIAL DISPARITY IN BLOOD PRESSURE CONTROL IN THE NATIONAL HEALTH AND NUTRITION EXAMINATION SURVEY  

PubMed Central

Minorities have a higher prevalence of hypertension, a major risk factor for cardiovascular disease, which contributes to racial/ethnic disparities in morbidity and mortality in the US. Many modifiable health behaviors have been associated with improved blood pressure control, but it is unclear how racial/ethnic differences in these behaviors are related to the observed disparities in blood pressure control. Cross-sectional analyses were conducted among 21,489 US adults aged >20 years participating in the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey from 2001–2006. Secondary analyses were conducted among those with a self-reported diagnosis of hypertension. Blood pressure control was defined as systolic values <140 mmHg and diastolic values <90 mmHg (or <130 mmHg and <80 mmHg among diabetics, respectively). In primary analyses, Non-Hispanic Blacks had 90% higher odds of poorly controlled blood pressure compared to non-Hispanic Whites after adjustment for sociodemographic and clinical characteristics (p <0.001). In secondary analyses among hypertensive subjects, non-Hispanic Blacks and Mexican-Americans had 40% higher odds of uncontrolled blood pressure compared to non-Hispanic Whites after adjustment for sociodemographic and clinical characteristics (p <0.001). For both analyses, the racial/ethnic differences in blood pressure control persisted even after further adjustment for modifiable health behaviors, which included medication adherence in secondary analyses (p <0.001 for both analyses). Although population-level adoption of healthy behaviors may contribute to reduction of the societal burden of cardiovascular disease in general, these findings suggest that racial/ethnic differences in some health behaviors do not explain the disparities in hypertension prevalence and control. PMID:21300667

Redmond, Nicole; Baer, Heather J.; Hicks, LeRoi S.

2011-01-01

223

46 CFR 111.15-10 - Ventilation.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...ELECTRIC SYSTEMS-GENERAL REQUIREMENTS Storage Batteries and Battery Chargers: Construction and Installation § 111...General. Each room, locker, and box for storage batteries must be arranged or ventilated to prevent...

2013-10-01

224

46 CFR 111.15-10 - Ventilation.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...ELECTRIC SYSTEMS-GENERAL REQUIREMENTS Storage Batteries and Battery Chargers: Construction and Installation § 111...General. Each room, locker, and box for storage batteries must be arranged or ventilated to prevent...

2012-10-01

225

46 CFR 111.15-10 - Ventilation.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...ELECTRIC SYSTEMS-GENERAL REQUIREMENTS Storage Batteries and Battery Chargers: Construction and Installation § 111...General. Each room, locker, and box for storage batteries must be arranged or ventilated to prevent...

2010-10-01

226

46 CFR 111.15-10 - Ventilation.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...ELECTRIC SYSTEMS-GENERAL REQUIREMENTS Storage Batteries and Battery Chargers: Construction and Installation § 111...General. Each room, locker, and box for storage batteries must be arranged or ventilated to prevent...

2011-10-01

227

[The choice of a pediatric anesthesia ventilator].  

PubMed

The technology of anesthesia ventilators has substantially progressed during last years. The choice of a pediatric anesthesia ventilator needs to be led by multiple parameters: requirement, technical (pneumatic performance, velocity of halogenated or oxygen delivery), cost (purchase, in operation, preventive and curative maintenance), reliability, ergonomy, upgradability, and compatibility. The demonstration of the interest of pressure support mode during maintenance of spontaneous ventilation anesthesia makes this mode essential in pediatrics. In contrast, the financial impact of target controlled inhalation of halogenated has not be studied in pediatrics. Paradoxically, complex and various available technologies had not been much prospectively studied. Anesthesia ventilators performances in pediatrics need to be clarified in further clinical and bench test studies. PMID:24209991

Kern, D; Larcher, C; Cottron, N; Ait Aissa, D; Fesseau, R; Alacoque, X; Delort, F; Masquère, P; Agnès, E; Visnadi, G; Fourcade, O

2013-12-01

228

46 CFR 111.105-21 - Ventilation.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...105-21 Section 111.105-21 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING ELECTRIC SYSTEMS-GENERAL REQUIREMENTS Hazardous Locations § 111.105-21 Ventilation. A...

2012-10-01

229

Midlevel ventilation's constraint on tropical cyclone intensity  

E-print Network

Midlevel ventilation, or the flux of low-entropy air into the inner core of a tropical cyclone (TC), is a hypothesized mechanism by which environmental vertical wind shear can constrain a TC's intensity. An idealized ...

Tang, Brian Hong-An

2010-01-01

230

14 CFR 23.831 - Ventilation.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...sufficient amount of uncontaminated air to enable the flight crew members to perform their duties without undue discomfort or fatigue. For normal operating conditions, the ventilation system must be designed to provide each occupant with at least...

2012-01-01

231

Floor-supply displacement ventilation system  

E-print Network

Research on indoor environments has received more attention recently because reports of symptoms and other health complaints related to indoor environments have been increasing. Heating, ventilating, and air-conditioning ...

Kobayashi, Nobukazu, 1967-

2001-01-01

232

14 CFR 25.831 - Ventilation.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...occupant with an airflow containing...areas to control the temperature and quantity...flight crew to control the temperature and quantity...compartments are not required if all of...compartment temperatures within 5...ventilation controls are...

2013-01-01

233

14 CFR 25.831 - Ventilation.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...occupant with an airflow containing...areas to control the temperature and quantity...flight crew to control the temperature and quantity...compartments are not required if all of...compartment temperatures within 5...ventilation controls are...

2012-01-01

234

Scale model studies of displacement ventilation  

E-print Network

Displacement ventilation is an air conditioning method that provides conditioned air to indoor environments with the goal to improve air quality while reducing energy consumption. This study investigates the performance ...

Okutan, Galip Mehmet

1995-01-01

235

EVALUATION OF VENTILATION PERFORMANCE FOR INDOOR SPACE  

EPA Science Inventory

The paper discusses a personal-computer-based application of computational fluid dynamics that can be used to determine the turbulent flow field and time-dependent/steady-state contaminant concentration distributions within isothermal indoor space. (NOTE: Ventilation performance ...

236

Dallas Ebola Patient on Ventilator, Getting Dialysis  

MedlinePLUS

... features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Dallas Ebola Patient on Ventilator, Getting Dialysis Health officials report ... Tuesday, October 7, 2014 Related MedlinePlus Pages Dialysis Ebola TUESDAY, Oct. 7, 2014 (HealthDay News) -- The first ...

237

Bedside measurement of changes in lung impedance to monitor alveolar ventilation in dependent and non-dependent parts by electrical impedance tomography during a positive end-expiratory pressure trial in mechanically ventilated intensive care unit patients  

PubMed Central

Introduction As it becomes clear that mechanical ventilation can exaggerate lung injury, individual titration of ventilator settings is of special interest. Electrical impedance tomography (EIT) has been proposed as a bedside, regional monitoring tool to guide these settings. In the present study we evaluate the use of ventilation distribution change maps (?fEIT maps) in intensive care unit (ICU) patients with or without lung disorders during a standardized decremental positive end-expiratory pressure (PEEP) trial. Methods Functional EIT (fEIT) images and PaO2/FiO2 ratios were obtained at four PEEP levels (15 to 10 to 5 to 0 cm H2O) in 14 ICU patients with or without lung disorders. Patients were pressure-controlled ventilated with constant driving pressure. fEIT images made before each reduction in PEEP were subtracted from those recorded after each PEEP step to evaluate regional increase/decrease in tidal impedance in each EIT pixel (?fEIT maps). Results The response of regional tidal impedance to PEEP showed a significant difference from 15 to 10 (P = 0.002) and from 10 to 5 (P = 0.001) between patients with and without lung disorders. Tidal impedance increased only in the non-dependent parts in patients without lung disorders after decreasing PEEP from 15 to 10 cm H2O, whereas it decreased at the other PEEP steps in both groups. Conclusions During a decremental PEEP trial in ICU patients, EIT measurements performed just above the diaphragm clearly visualize improvement and loss of ventilation in dependent and non-dependent parts, at the bedside in the individual patient. PMID:20509966

2010-01-01

238

Demand Controlled Ventilation for Improved Humidity Control  

E-print Network

Demand Controlled Ventilation for Improved Humidity Control James K. Rogers, P.E. One Blacksmith Road Chelmsford, Massachusetts ABSTRACT Recently introduced technology makes it possible to continuously monitor for humidity in numerous...Demand Controlled Ventilation for Improved Humidity Control James K. Rogers, P.E. One Blacksmith Road Chelmsford, Massachusetts ABSTRACT Recently introduced technology makes it possible to continuously monitor for humidity in numerous...

Rogers, J. K.

1996-01-01

239

Weaning of infants from non invasive ventilation.  

PubMed

Non invasive ventilation (NIV) is commonly used to treat RDS in preterm infants. Although less risky than invasive ventilation, NIV has some potential side effects and appropriate weaning is therefore desirable. However, criteria for the definition of stability prior to attempting NIV weaning as well as the best weaning strategies need to be more investigated. The aim of this review is to identify criteria and interventions that can facilitate correct weaning from NIV. PMID:24957341

Gizzi, C; Massenzi, L; Pattumelli, M G; Moretti, C; Agostino, R

2014-01-01

240

Iatrogenic pneumothorax related to mechanical ventilation  

PubMed Central

Pneumothorax is a potentially lethal complication associated with mechanical ventilation. Most of the patients with pneumothorax from mechanical ventilation have underlying lung diseases; pneumothorax is rare in intubated patients with normal lungs. Tension pneumothorax is more common in ventilated patients with prompt recognition and treatment of pneumothorax being important to minimize morbidity and mortality. Underlying lung diseases are associated with ventilator-related pneumothorax with pneumothoraces occurring most commonly during the early phase of mechanical ventilation. The diagnosis of pneumothorax in critical illness is established from the patients’ history, physical examination and radiological investigation, although the appearances of a pneumothorax on a supine radiograph may be different from the classic appearance on an erect radiograph. For this reason, ultrasonography is beneficial for excluding the diagnosis of pneumothorax. Respiration-dependent movement of the visceral pleura and lung surface with respect to the parietal pleura and chest wall can be easily visualized with transthoracic sonography given that the presence of air in the pleural space prevents sonographic visualization of visceral pleura movements. Mechanically ventilated patients with a pneumothorax require tube thoracostomy placement because of the high risk of tension pneumothorax. Small-bore catheters are now preferred in the majority of ventilated patients. Furthermore, if there are clinical signs of a tension pneumothorax, emergency needle decompression followed by tube thoracostomy is widely advocated. Patients with pneumothorax related to mechanical ventilation who have tension pneumothorax, a higher acute physiology and chronic health evaluation?II?score or PaO2/FiO2 < 200 mmHg were found to have higher mortality. PMID:24834397

Hsu, Chien-Wei; Sun, Shu-Fen

2014-01-01

241

Recovering Energy From Ventilation and Process Airstreams  

E-print Network

RECOVERING ENERGY FROM VENTILATION AND PROCESS AIRSTREAMS Heat Exchangers and contaminant Recovery William A. Cheney united Air Specialists, Inc. Cincinnati, Ohio The high cost of energy has prompted industry to look for new ways to reduce... operating expenses. Often ignored are the large amounts of recoverable energy present in the ventilation and process airstreams discharged from the plant. The recovery methods available range from fairly simple, well-known devices that have been around...

Cheney, W. A.

242

[Neurally adjusted ventilator assist in paediatric intensive care].  

PubMed

The adaptation of the patient's breathing to the ventilator is a constant challenge in intensive care units. The use of a neurally adjusted ventilator assist (NAVA) system is growing. This system has shown an improvement in patient-ventilator synchronisation and the comfort of patients undergoing invasive or non-invasive ventilation in paediatric intensive care units. Its benefit in reducing the duration of mechanical ventilation and the length of stayin paediatric intensive care units remains however to be proven. PMID:25174176

Didier, Capucine

2014-01-01

243

Injurious mechanical ventilation affects neuronal activation in ventilated rats  

PubMed Central

Introduction Survivors of critical illness often have significant long-term brain dysfunction, and routine clinical procedures like mechanical ventilation (MV) may affect long-term brain outcome. We aimed to investigate the effect of the increase of tidal volume (Vt) on brain activation in a rat model. Methods Male Sprague Dawley rats were randomized to three groups: 1) Basal: anesthetized unventilated animals, 2) low Vt (LVt): MV for three hours with Vt 8 ml/kg and zero positive end-expiratory pressure (ZEEP), and 3) high Vt (HVt) MV for three hours with Vt 30 ml/kg and ZEEP. We measured lung mechanics, mean arterial pressure (MAP), arterial blood gases, and plasma and lung levels of cytokines. We used immunohistochemistry to examine c-fos as a marker of neuronal activation. An additional group of spontaneously breathing rats was added to discriminate the effect of surgical procedure and anesthesia in the brain. Results After three hours on LVt, PaO2 decreased and PaCO2 increased significantly. MAP and compliance remained stable in MV groups. Systemic and pulmonary inflammation was higher in MV rats than in unventilated rats. Plasma TNF? was significantly higher in HVt than in LVt. Immunopositive cells to c-fos in the retrosplenial cortex and thalamus increased significantly in HVt rats but not in LVt or unventilated rats. Conclusions MV promoted brain activation. The intensity of the response was higher in HVt animals, suggesting an iatrogenic effect of MV on the brain. These findings suggest that this novel cross-talking mechanism between the lung and the brain should be explored in patients undergoing MV. PMID:21569477

2011-01-01

244

Dependence of ventilation image derived from 4D CT on deformable image registration and ventilation algorithms.  

PubMed

Ventilation imaging using 4D CT is a convenient and low-cost functional imaging methodology which might be of value in radiotherapy treatment planning to spare functional lung volumes. Deformable image registration (DIR) is needed to calculate ventilation imaging from 4D CT. This study investigates the dependence of calculated ventilation on DIR methods and ventilation algorithms. DIR of the normal end expiration and normal end inspiration phases of the 4D CT images was used to correlate the voxels between the two respiratory phases. Three different DIR algorithms, optical flow (OF), diffeomorphic demons (DD), and diffeomorphic morphons (DM) were retrospectively applied to ten esophagus and ten lung cancer cases with 4D CT image sets that encompassed the entire lung volume. The three ventilation extraction methods were used based on either the Jacobian, the change in volume of the voxel, or directly calculated from Hounsfield units. The ventilation calculation algorithms used are the Jacobian, ?V, and HU method. They were compared using the Dice similarity coefficient (DSC) index and Bland-Altman plots. Dependence of ventilation images on the DIR was greater for the ?V and the Jacobian methods than for the HU method. The DSC index for 20% of low-ventilation volume for ?V was 0.33 ± 0.03 (1 SD) between OF and DM, 0.44 ± 0.05 between OF and DD, and 0.51 ± 0.04 between DM and DD. The similarity comparisons for Jacobian were 0.32 ± 0.03, 0.44 ± 0.05, and 0.51 ± 0.04, respectively, and for HU they were 0.53 ± 0.03, 0.56 ± 0.03, and 0.76 ± 0.04, respectively. Dependence of extracted ventilation on the ventilation algorithm used showed good agreement between the ?V and Jacobian methods, but differed significantly for the HU method. DSC index for using OF as DIR was 0.86 ± 0.01 between ?V and Jacobian, 0.28 ± 0.04 between ?V and HU, and 0.28 ± 0.04 between Jacobian and HU, respectively. When using DM or DD as DIR, similar values were obtained when comparing the different ventilation calculation methods. The similarity values for the 20% high-ventilation volume were close to those found for the 20% low-ventilation volume. The results obtained with DSC index were confirmed when using the Bland-Altman plots for comparing the ventilation images. Our data suggest that ventilation calculated from 4D CT depends on the DIR algorithm employed. Similarities between ?V and Jacobian are higher than between ?V and HU, and Jacobian and HU. PMID:23835389

Latifi, Kujtim; Forster, Kenneth M; Hoffe, Sarah E; Dilling, Thomas J; van Elmpt, Wouter; Dekker, Andre; Zhang, Geoffrey G

2013-01-01

245

Design and Selection of a Camelid Single-Chain Antibody Yeast Two-Hybrid Library Produced De Novo for the Cap Protein of Porcine Circovirus Type 2 (PCV2)  

PubMed Central

Nanobodies (or variable domain of the heavy chain of the heavy-chain antibodies, VHHs) are single-domain antigen-binding fragments derived from camelid heavy chain antibodies. Their comparatively small size, monomeric behavior, high stability, high solubility, and ability to bind epitopes inaccessible to conventional antibodies make them especially suitable for many therapeutic and biotechnological applications. In this paper, for the first time, we created the immunized Camelus Bactrianus VHH yeast two-hybrid (Y2H) library according to the Clontech Mate & Plate library construction system. The transformation efficiency and titer of the VHH Y2H library were 7.26×106 cfu/3 µg and 2×109 cfu/ml, which met the demand for Y2H library screening. Using as an example the porcine circovirus type 2 (PCV2) Cap protein as bait, we screened 21 positive Cap-specific VHH sequences. Among these sequences, 7 of 9 randomly selected clones were strongly positive as indicated by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, either using PCV2 viral lysis or purified Cap protein as coated antigen. Additionally, the immunocytochemistry results further indicated that the screened VHHs could specifically detected PCV2 in the infected cells. All this suggests the feasibility of in vivo VHH throughput screening based on Y2H strategy. PMID:23469171

Fu, Xiangjing; Gao, Xiaolong; He, Shengfang; Huang, Di; Zhang, Peng; Wang, Xinglong; Zhang, Shuxia; Dang, Ruyi; Yin, Shuanghui; Du, Enqi; Yang, Zengqi

2013-01-01

246

Modeling study of ventilation, IAQ and energy impacts of residential mechanical ventilation  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper reports on a simulation study of indoor air quality, ventilation and energy impacts of several mechanical ventilation approaches in a single-family residential building. The study focused on a fictitious two-story house in Spokane, Washington and employed the multizone airflow and contaminant dispersal model CONTAM. The model of the house included a number of factors related to airflow including

Persily

1998-01-01

247

Prevention of ventilator-associated pneumonia or ventilator-associated complications: a worthy, yet challenging, goal.  

PubMed

Ventilator-associated pneumonia is a difficult diagnosis to establish in the critically ill patient because of the presence of underlying cardiopulmonary disorders (e.g., pulmonary contusion, acute respiratory distress syndrome, atelectasis) and the nonspecific radiographic and clinical signs associated with this infection. However, the escalating antimicrobial resistance of the bacterial pathogens associated with ventilator-associated pneumonia, as well as with other nosocomial infections, has created an imperative to reduce their occurrence and the unnecessary use of antibiotics. Hospital-based process improvement initiatives aimed at the prevention of ventilator-associated pneumonia, and other ventilator-associated complications, have been successfully used despite the limitations of clinical criteria for establishing the diagnosis of ventilator-associated pneumonia. Given current restrictions in hospital resources, absence of available new antimicrobial agents, and potential lack of reimbursement for patients with development of ventilator-associated pneumonia, hospitals need to develop and successfully implement programs aimed at reducing ventilator-associated pneumonia. The use of evidence-based bundles targeting ventilator-associated pneumonia seems to be a reasonable first step in addressing this important clinical problem. PMID:21946659

Kollef, Marin H

2012-01-01

248

Hydrostatic Hyperbaric Chamber Ventilation System  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The hydrostatic hyperbaric chamber (HHC) represents the merger of several technologies in development for NASA aerospace applications, harnessed to directly benefit global health. NASA has significant experience developing composite hyperbaric chambers for a variety of applications. NASA also has researched the application of water-filled vessels to increase tolerance of acceleration forces. The combination of these two applications has resulted in the hydrostatic chamber, which has been conceived as a safe, affordable means of making hyperbaric oxygen therapy (HBOT) available in the developing world for the treatment of a variety of medical conditions. Specifically, HBOT is highly-desired as a possibly curative treatment for Buruli Ulcer, an infectious condition that afflicts children in sub-Saharan Africa. HBOT is simply too expensive and too dangerous to implement in the developing world using standard equipment. The HHC technology changes the paradigm. The HHC differs from standard hyperbaric chambers in that the majority of its volume is filled with water which is pressurized by oxygen being supplied in the portion of the chamber containing the patient s head. This greatly reduces the amount of oxygen required to sustain a hyperbaric atmosphere, thereby making the system more safe and economical to operate. An effort was taken to develop an HHC system to apply HBOT to children that is simple and robust enough to support transport, assembly, maintenance and operation in developing countries. This paper details the concept for an HHC ventilation and pressurization system to provide controlled pressurization and adequate washout of carbon dioxide while the subject is enclosed in the confined space during the administration of the medical treatment. The concept took into consideration operational complexity, safety to the patient and operating personnel, and physiological considerations. The simple schematic, comprised of easily acquired commercial hardware, supports sustainability.

Sarguisingh, Miriam J.

2012-01-01

249

Hydrostatic Hyperbaric Chamber Ventilation System  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The hydrostatic hyperbaric chamber (HHC) represents the merger of several technologies in development for NASA aerospace applications, harnessed to directly benefit global health. NASA has significant experience developing composite hyperbaric chambers for a variety of applications, including the treatment of medical conditions. NASA also has researched the application of water-filled vessels to increase tolerance of acceleration forces. The combination of these two applications has resulted in the hydrostatic chamber, which has been conceived as a safe, affordable means of making hyperbaric oxygen therapy available in the developing world for the treatment of a variety of medical conditions. Specifically, hyperbaric oxygen therapy is highly-desired as a possibly curative treatment for Buruli Ulcer, an infectious condition that afflicts children in sub-Saharan Africa. Hyperbaric oxygen therapy is simply too expensive and too dangerous to implement in the developing world using standard equipment. The hydrostatic hyperbaric chamber technology changes the paradigm. The HHC differs from standard hyperbaric chambers in that the majority of its volume is filled with water which is pressurized by oxygen being supplied in the portion of the chamber containing the patient s head. This greatly reduces the amount of oxygen required to sustain a hyperbaric atmosphere, thereby making the system more safe and economical to operate. An effort was taken to develop an HHC system to apply HBOT to children that is simple and robust enough to support transport, assembly, maintenance and operation in developing countries. This paper details the concept for an HHC ventilation and pressurization system that will provide controlled pressurization of the system, and provide adequate washout of carbon dioxide while the subject is enclosed in the confined space during the administration of the medical treatment. The concept took into consideration operational complexity, safety to the patient and operating personnel, and physiological considerations. The simple schematic, comprised of easily acquired commercial hardware, supports sustainability.

Sargusingh, Miriam M.

2011-01-01

250

Ventilation efficiencies of a desk-edge-mounted task ventilation system  

SciTech Connect

In chamber experiments, we investigated the effectiveness of a task ventilation system with an air supply nozzle located underneath the front edge of a desk and directing air toward a heated mannequin seated at the desk. The task ventilation system provided outside air, while another ventilation system provided additional space cooling but no outside air. Test variables included the vertical angle of air supply (-15{sup o} to 45{sup o} from horizontal), and the supply flow rate of (3.5 to 6.5 L s{sup -1}). Using the tracer gas step-up and step-down procedures, the measured air change effectiveness (i.e., exhaust air age divided by age of air at the mannequin's face) ranged from 1.4 to 2.7, which is higher than typically reported for commercially available task ventilation or displacement ventilation systems.

Faulkner, David; Fisk, William J.; Sullivan, Douglas P.; Lee, Seung Min

2002-03-01

251

Episodic ventilation lowers the efficiency of pulmonary CO2 excretion.  

PubMed

The ventilation pattern of many ectothermic vertebrates, as well as hibernating and diving endotherms, is episodic where breaths are clustered in bouts interspersed among apneas of varying duration. Using mechanically ventilated, anesthetized freshwater turtles (Trachemys scripta), a species that normally exhibits this episodic ventilation pattern, we investigated whether episodic ventilation affects pulmonary gas exchange compared with evenly spaced breaths. In two separate series of experiments (a noninvasive and an invasive), ventilation pattern was switched from a steady state, with evenly spaced breaths, to episodic ventilation while maintaining overall minute ventilation (30 ml·min(-1)·kg(-1)). On switching to an episodic ventilation pattern of 10 clustered breaths, mean CO2 excretion rate was reduced by 6 ± 5% (noninvasive protocol) or 20 ± 8% (invasive protocol) in the first ventilation pattern cycle, along with a reduction in the respiratory exchange ratio. O2 uptake was either not affected or increased in the first ventilation pattern cycle, while neither heart rate nor overall pulmonary blood flow was significantly affected by the ventilation patterns. The results confirm that, for a given minute ventilation, episodic ventilation is intrinsically less efficient for CO2 excretion, thereby indicating an increase in the total bodily CO2 store in the protocol. Despite the apparent CO2 retention, mean arterial Pco2 only increased 1 Torr during the episodic ventilation pattern, which was concomitant with a possible reduction of respiratory quotient. This would indicate a shift in metabolism such that less CO2 is produced when the efficiency of excretion is reduced. PMID:23970538

Malte, Christian Lind; Malte, Hans; Wang, Tobias

2013-11-01

252

Blood pressure control in Hispanics in the antihypertensive and lipid-lowering treatment to prevent heart attack trial.  

PubMed

Historically, blood pressure control in Hispanics has been considerably less than that of non-Hispanic whites and blacks. We compared determinants of blood pressure control among Hispanic white, Hispanic black, non-Hispanic white, and non-Hispanic black participants (N=32 642) during follow-up in a randomized, practice-based, active-controlled trial. Hispanic blacks and whites represented 3% and 16% of the cohort, respectively; 33% were non-Hispanic black and 48% were non-Hispanic white. Hispanics were less likely to be controlled (<140/90 mm Hg) at enrollment, but within 6 to 12 months of follow-up, Hispanics had a greater proportion <140/90 mm Hg compared with non-Hispanics. At 4 years of follow-up, blood pressure was controlled in 72% of Hispanic whites, 69% of Hispanic blacks, 67% of non-Hispanic whites, and 59% of non-Hispanic blacks. Compared with non-Hispanic whites, Hispanic whites had a 20% greater odds of achieving BP control by 2 years of follow-up (odds ratio: 1.20; 95% CI: 1.10 to 1.31) after controlling for demographic variables and comorbidities, Hispanic blacks had a similar odds of achieving BP control (odds ratio: 1.04; 95% CI: 0.86 to 1.25), and non-Hispanic blacks had a 27% lower odds (odds ratio: 0.73; 95% CI: 0.69 to 0.78). We conclude that in all patients high levels of blood pressure control can be achieved with commonly available medications and that Hispanic ethnicity is not associated with inferior control in the setting of a clinical trial in which hypertensive patients had equal access to medical care, and medication was provided at no cost. PMID:17846352

Margolis, Karen L; Piller, Linda B; Ford, Charles E; Henriquez, Mario A; Cushman, William C; Einhorn, Paula T; Colon, Pedro J; Vidt, Donald G; Christian, Rudell; Wong, Nathan D; Wright, Jackson T; Goff, David C

2007-11-01

253

WASTE TREATMENT BUILDING VENTILATION SYSTEM DESCRIPTION DOCUMENT  

SciTech Connect

The Waste Treatment Building Ventilation System provides heating, ventilation, and air conditioning (HVAC) for the contaminated, potentially contaminated, and uncontaminated areas of the Monitored Geologic Repository's (MGR) Waste Treatment Building (WTB). In the uncontaminated areas, the non-confinement area ventilation system maintains the proper environmental conditions for equipment operation and personnel comfort. In the contaminated and potentially contaminated areas, in addition to maintaining the proper environmental conditions for personnel comfort and equipment operation, the contamination confinement area ventilation system directs potentially contaminated air away from personnel in the WTB and confines the contamination within high-efficiency particulate air (HEPA) filtration units. The contamination confinement area ventilation system creates airflow paths and pressure zones to minimize the potential for spreading contamination with the building. The contamination confinement ventilation system also protects the environment and the public by limiting airborne releases of radioactive or other hazardous contaminants from the WTB. The Waste Treatment Building Ventilation System confines the radioactive and hazardous material within the building such that the release rates comply with regulatory limits, The system design, operations, and maintenance activities incorporate ALARA (as low as is reasonably achievable) principles to maintain personnel radiation doses to all occupational workers below regulatory limits and as low as is reasonably achievable. The system provides status of important system parameters and equipment operation, and provides audible and/or visual indication of off-normal conditions and equipment failures. The Waste Treatment Building Ventilation System interfaces with the Waste Treatment Building System by being located in the WTB, and by maintaining specific pressure, temperature, and humidity environments within the building. The system also depends on the WTB for normal electric power supply and the required supply of water for heating, cooling, and humidification. Interface with the Waste Treatment Building System includes the WTB fire protection subsystem for detection of fire and smoke. The Waste Treatment Building Ventilation System interfaces with the Site Radiological Monitoring System for continuous monitoring of the exhaust air and key areas within the WTB, the Monitored Geologic Repository Operations Monitoring and Control System for monitoring and control of system operations, and the Site Generated Radiological Waste Handling System and Site Generated Hazardous, Non-Hazardous & Sanitary Waste Disposal System for routing of pretreated toxic, corrosive, and radiologically contaminated effluent from process equipment to the HEPA filter exhaust ductwork and air-cleaning unit.

P.A. Kumar

2000-06-22

254

Comparison of different mechanical ventilators for patients with poliomyelitis.  

PubMed

Poliomyelitis can affect patients with severe hypoxia and hypercapnia. Historically, most of these patients were supported by mechanical ventilation via tracheostomy. However, this procedure can lead to serious complications. Subsequently, non-invasive alternative procedures have been introduced that provide mechanical respiratory support; these include negative pressure ventilators and positive pressure ventilation via a nasal, oral, and oronasal interface. Although these ventilators are effective, various limitations have been noted. The strapless oronasal interface positive pressure ventilator appears to have the fewest limitations, and through the use of advanced dental techniques and improved dental materials, this ventilator is easily fabricated and has been noted by patients to be more comfortable. PMID:7659227

Choi, J W; Saunders, T R; Tebrock, O; Hansen, N A

1995-06-01

255

Pulmonary ventilation teaching aid: part 2  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Since writing the article titled "Pulmonary ventilation teaching aid" (Stockert B, Adv Physiol Educ 27: 41ÃÂ42, 2003), we have continued to use the salad tongs and rubber band model to teach ventilation mechanics and several clinical correlates. The original article dealt primarily with normal ventilation mechanics and changes in the lungs, i.e., the rubber bands, that occur with common pulmonary disorders, e.g., pulmonary fibrosis and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. We have developed several additional clinical correlates related to changes in the chest wall, i.e., the salad tongs. Those clinical examples are presented here. The materials needed for this demonstration are several rubber bands and a pair of metal salad tongs with a hinge.

PhD Brad Stockert (University of the Pacific Department of Physical Therapy)

2003-06-01

256

Home Mechanical Ventilation in South Korea  

PubMed Central

Purpose To survey the use of invasive and noninvasive home mechanical ventilation (HMV) methods in South Korea from the perspective of physical medicine and rehabilitation (PM&R). Materials and Methods For 413 users of HMV, retrospective reviews of PM&R interventions and survey of HMV methods employed from Mar 2000 to Dec 2009. Results Of the 413 users, the majority of whom with progressive neuromuscular disorders (NMDs) (n=358), 284 patients initially used noninvasive mechanical ventilation (NIV), while 63 others who were using tracheostomy mechanical ventilation switched to NIV as part of their rehabilitation. The NMD patients began HMV at an earlier age (34.9±20.3 yrs), and used for longer (14.7±7.5) hours than patients with non-neuromuscular causes of respiratory impairment. Conclusion Noninvasive management was preferred over invasive ones, and transition to the former was a result of PM&R interventions. PMID:25323913

Kim, Dong Hyun; Choi, Won Ah

2014-01-01

257

Elective ventilation of potential organ donors.  

PubMed

Elective ventilation describes the procedure of transferring selected patients dying from rapidly progressive intracranial haemorrhage from general medical wards to intensive care units for a brief period of ventilation before confirmation of brain stem death and harvesting of organs. This approach in Exeter has led to a rate of kidney retrieval and transplant higher than has been achieved elsewhere in the United Kingdom, with a stabilisation of numbers on patients on dialysis. Recently doubt has been cast on the legality of our practice of elective ventilation on the grounds that relatives are not permitted to consent to treatment of an incompetent person when that treatment is not in the patient's best interests. We are thus faced with the dilemma of a protocol that is ethical, practical, and operates for the greater good but which may be illegal. This article explores various objections to the protocol and calls for public, medical, and legal debate on the issues. PMID:7711541

Riad, H; Nicholls, A; Neuberger, J; Willatts, S M; Sells, R A; Jones, M A; Francis, R

1995-03-18

258

Elective ventilation of potential organ donors.  

PubMed Central

Elective ventilation describes the procedure of transferring selected patients dying from rapidly progressive intracranial haemorrhage from general medical wards to intensive care units for a brief period of ventilation before confirmation of brain stem death and harvesting of organs. This approach in Exeter has led to a rate of kidney retrieval and transplant higher than has been achieved elsewhere in the United Kingdom, with a stabilisation of numbers on patients on dialysis. Recently doubt has been cast on the legality of our practice of elective ventilation on the grounds that relatives are not permitted to consent to treatment of an incompetent person when that treatment is not in the patient's best interests. We are thus faced with the dilemma of a protocol that is ethical, practical, and operates for the greater good but which may be illegal. This article explores various objections to the protocol and calls for public, medical, and legal debate on the issues. PMID:7711541

Riad, H.; Nicholls, A.; Neuberger, J.; Willatts, S. M.; Sells, R. A.; Jones, M. A.; Francis, R.

1995-01-01

259

Efficacy of intermittent ventilation for providing acceptable indoor air quality  

SciTech Connect

Ventilation standards and guidelines typically treat ventilation as a constant and specify its value. In many circumstances a designer wishes to use intermittent ventilation, rather than constant ventilation, but there are no easy equivalencies available. This report develops a model of efficacy that allows one to calculate how much intermittent ventilation one needs to get the same indoor air quality as a the continuous value specified. We have found that there is a simple relationship between three dimensionless quantities: the temporal ventilation effectiveness (which we call the efficacy), the nominal turn-over and the under-ventilation fraction. This relationship allows the calculation of intermittent ventilation for a wide variety of parameters and conditions. We can use the relationship to define a critical time that separates the regime in which ventilation variations can be averaged over from the regime in which variable ventilation is of low effectiveness. We have found that ventilation load-shifting, temporary protection against poor outdoor air quality and dynamic ventilation strategies can be quite effective in low-density buildings such as single-family houses or office spaces. The results of this work enable ventilation standards and guidelines to allow this extra flexibility and still provide acceptable indoor air quality.

Sherman, M.H.

2004-10-01

260

Factors Predicting Ventilator Dependence in Patients with Ventilator-Associated Pneumonia  

PubMed Central

Objectives. To determine risk factors associated with ventilator dependence in patients with ventilator-associated pneumonia (VAP). Study Design. A retrospective study was conducted at Chang Gung Memorial Hospital, Kaohsiung, from January 1, 2007 to January 31, 2008. Methods. This study evaluated 163 adult patients (aged ?18 years). Eligibility was evaluated according to the criterion for VAP, Sequential Organ Failure Assessment (SOFA) score, Acute Physiological Assessment and Chronic Health Evaluation II (APACHE II) score. Oxygenation index, underlying comorbidities, septic shock status, previous tracheostomy status, and factors related to pneumonia were collected for analysis. Results. Of the 163 VAP patients in the study, 90 patients survived, yielding a mortality rate of 44.8%. Among the 90 surviving patients, only 36 (40%) had been weaned off ventilators at the time of discharge. Multivariate logistic regression analysis was used to identify underlying factors such as congestive cardiac failure (P = 0.009), initial high oxygenation index value (P = 0.04), increased SOFA scores (P = 0.01), and increased APACHE II scores (P = 0.02) as independent predictors of ventilator dependence. Results from the Kaplan-Meier method indicate that initial therapy with antibiotics could increase the ventilator weaning rate (log Rank test, P < 0.001). Conclusions. Preexisting cardiopulmonary function, high APACHE II and SOFA scores, and high oxygenation index were the strongest predictors of ventilator dependence. Initial empiric antibiotic treatment can improve ventilator weaning rates at the time of discharge. PMID:22919335

Tseng, Chia-Cheng; Huang, Kuo-Tung; Chen, Yung-Che; Wang, Chin-Chou; Liu, Shih-Feng; Tu, Mei-Lien; Chung, Yu-Hsiu; Fang, Wen-Feng; Lin, Meng-Chih

2012-01-01

261

Open circuit mouthpiece ventilation: Concise clinical review.  

PubMed

In 2013 new "mouthpiece ventilation" modes are being introduced to commercially available portable ventilators. Despite this, there is little knowledge of how to use noninvasive intermittent positive pressure ventilation (NIV) as opposed to bi-level positive airway pressure (PAP) and both have almost exclusively been reported to have been used via nasal or oro-nasal interfaces rather than via a simple mouthpiece. Non-invasive ventilation is often reported as failing because of airway secretion encumbrance, because of hypercapnia due to inadequate bi-level PAP settings, or poor interface tolerance. The latter can be caused by factors such as excessive pressure on the face from poor fit, excessive oral air leak, anxiety, claustrophobia, and patient-ventilator dys-synchrony. Thus, the interface plays a crucial role in tolerance and effectiveness. Interfaces that cover the nose and/or nose and mouth (oro-nasal) are the most commonly used but are more likely to cause skin breakdown and claustrophobia. Most associated drawbacks can be avoided by using mouthpiece NIV. Open-circuit mouthpiece NIV is being used by large populations in some centers for daytime ventilatory support and complements nocturnal NIV via "mask" interfaces for nocturnal ventilatory support. Mouthpiece NIV is also being used for sleep with the mouthpiece fixed in place by a lip-covering flange. Small 15 and 22mm angled mouthpieces and straw-type mouthpieces are the most commonly used. NIV via mouthpiece is being used as an effective alternative to ventilatory support via tracheostomy tube (TMV) and is associated with a reduced risk of pneumonias and other respiratory complications. Its use facilitates "air-stacking" to improve cough, speech, and pulmonary compliance, all of which better maintain quality of life for patients with neuromuscular diseases (NMDs) than the invasive alternatives. Considering these benefits and the new availability of mouthpiece ventilator modes, wider knowledge of this technique is now warranted. This review highlights the indications, techniques, advantages and disadvantages of mouthpiece NIV. PMID:24841239

Garuti, G; Nicolini, A; Grecchi, B; Lusuardi, M; Winck, J C; Bach, J R

2014-01-01

262

A novel osmotic pressure control fed-batch fermentation strategy for improvement of erythritol production by Yarrowia lipolytica from glycerol.  

PubMed

The effect of osmotic pressure on erythritol and mannitol production by an osmophilic yeast strain of Yarrowia lipolytica CICC 1675 using glycerol as the sole carbon source was investigated. Appropriately high osmotic pressure was found to enhance erythritol production and inhibit mannitol formation. A novel two-stage osmotic pressure control fed-batch strategy based on the kinetic analysis was developed for higher erythritol yield and productivity. During the first 96 h, the osmotic pressure was maintained at 4.25 osmol/kg by feeding glycerol to reduce the inhibition of cell growth. After 132 h, the osmotic pressure was controlled at 4.94 osmol/kg to maintain a high dp(ery)/dt. Maximum erythritol yield of 194.3g/L was obtained with 0.95 g/L/h productivity, which were 25.7% and 2.2%, respectively, improvement over the best results in one-stage fed-batch fermentation. This is the first report that a novel osmotic pressure control fed-batch strategy significantly enhanced erythritol production. PMID:24215768

Yang, Li-Bo; Zhan, Xiao-Bei; Zheng, Zhi-Yong; Wu, Jian-Rong; Gao, Min-Jie; Lin, Chi-Chung

2014-01-01

263

Bronchiolectasis-a complication of artificial ventilation.  

PubMed Central

Pulmonary barotrauma associated with artificial ventilation is recognised clinically as pneumothorax, pneumo-mediastinum, or subcutaneous emphysema. Eleven patients who died in the intensive therapy unit after artificial ventilation were found at necropsy to have pronounced bronchiolectasis, which was associated with a greatly increased physiological dead space during life. The condition was best predicted by the maximum level of positive end expiratory pressure and the duration of application of positive end expiratory pressure. The clinical course of the lesion in survivors is not known. Further detailed studies are needed, but it is suggested that high levels of positive end expiratory pressure should be used with caution. Images FIG 1 FIG 2 PMID:6811071

Slavin, G; Nunn, J F; Crow, J; Dore, C J

1982-01-01

264

Ventilation-perfusion imaging in pulmonary papillomatosis  

SciTech Connect

Three children with laryngeal papillomas involving the lungs had serial ventilation-perfusion scintigrams to assess results of therapy designed to reduce the bronchial involvement. Different imaging patterns were observed depending on size, number, and location of lesions. In early parenchymal involvement a ventilation-perfusion mismatch was seen. The initial and follow-up studies correlated well with clinical and radiographic findings. This noninvasive procedure is helpful in evaluating ventilatory and perfusion impairment in these patients as well as their response to treatment.

Espinola, D.; Rupani, H.; Camargo, E.E.; Wagner, H.N. Jr.

1981-11-01

265

Subject–ventilator synchrony during neural versus pneumatically triggered non-invasive helmet ventilation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective  Patient–ventilator synchrony during non-invasive pressure support ventilation with the helmet device is often compromised\\u000a when conventional pneumatic triggering and cycling-off were used. A possible solution to this shortcoming is to replace the\\u000a pneumatic triggering with neural triggering and cycling-off—using the diaphragm electrical activity (EAdi). This signal is insensitive to leaks and to the compliance of the ventilator circuit.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Design  Randomized, single-blinded,

Onnen Moerer; Jennifer Beck; Lukas Brander; Roberta Costa; Michael Quintel; Arthur S. Slutsky; Fabrice Brunet; Christer Sinderby

2008-01-01

266

Modeling buoyancy-driven airflow in ventilation shafts  

E-print Network

Naturally ventilated buildings can significantly reduce the required energy for cooling and ventilating buildings by drawing in outdoor air using non-mechanical forces. Buoyancy-driven systems are common in naturally ...

Ray, Stephen D. (Stephen Douglas)

2012-01-01

267

24 CFR 3280.103 - Light and ventilation.  

...ventilation capacity must be provided by a mechanical system or a combination passive and mechanical system. The ventilation system or provisions...pressure condition in Uo Value Zone 1. Mechanical systems must be balanced....

2014-04-01

268

30 CFR 77.1106 - Battery-charging stations; ventilation.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

... 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Battery-charging stations; ventilation. 77...COAL MINES Fire Protection § 77.1106 Battery-charging stations; ventilation. Battery-charging stations shall be located in...

2010-07-01

269

30 CFR 77.1106 - Battery-charging stations; ventilation.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

... 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Battery-charging stations; ventilation. 77...COAL MINES Fire Protection § 77.1106 Battery-charging stations; ventilation. Battery-charging stations shall be located in...

2011-07-01

270

30 CFR 77.1106 - Battery-charging stations; ventilation.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

... 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Battery-charging stations; ventilation. 77...COAL MINES Fire Protection § 77.1106 Battery-charging stations; ventilation. Battery-charging stations shall be located in...

2012-07-01

271

30 CFR 77.1106 - Battery-charging stations; ventilation.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

... 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Battery-charging stations; ventilation. 77...COAL MINES Fire Protection § 77.1106 Battery-charging stations; ventilation. Battery-charging stations shall be located in...

2013-07-01

272

12. NEW YORK SIDE, HUDSON RIVER VENTILATION BUILDING IN FOREGROUND; ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

12. NEW YORK SIDE, HUDSON RIVER VENTILATION BUILDING IN FOREGROUND; NEW JERSEY SIDE, HUDSON RIVEN VENTILATION BUILDING IN BACKGROUND - Holland Tunnel, Beneath Hudson River between New York & Jersey City, New York, New York County, NY

273

VENTILATION RESEARCH: A REVIEW OF RECENT INDOOR AIR QUALITY LITERATURE  

EPA Science Inventory

The report gives results of a literature review, conducted to survey and summarize recent and ongoing engineering research into building ventilation, air exchange rate, pollutant distribution and dispersion, and other effects of heating, ventilation, and air-conditioning (HVAC) s...

274

Indoor Air Quality: Is Increased Ventilation the Answer?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Explains how indoor air quality is affected by pollutants in the air and also by temperature, humidity, and ventilation. Increased ventilation alone seldom solves the "sick building syndrome." Lists ways to improve indoor air quality and optimize energy efficiency. (MLF)

Hansen, Shirley

1989-01-01

275

46 CFR 169.315 - Ventilation (other than machinery spaces).  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...manner suitable for the purpose of the space. (b) A means must be provided...vents and ventilators. (c) Living spaces must be ventilated by a mechanical...vessel's design waterline length times its maximum beam. Living...

2011-10-01

276

46 CFR 169.315 - Ventilation (other than machinery spaces).  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...manner suitable for the purpose of the space. (b) A means must be provided...vents and ventilators. (c) Living spaces must be ventilated by a mechanical...vessel's design waterline length times its maximum beam. Living...

2012-10-01

277

46 CFR 169.315 - Ventilation (other than machinery spaces).  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...manner suitable for the purpose of the space. (b) A means must be provided...vents and ventilators. (c) Living spaces must be ventilated by a mechanical...vessel's design waterline length times its maximum beam. Living...

2013-10-01

278

46 CFR 169.315 - Ventilation (other than machinery spaces).  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...manner suitable for the purpose of the space. (b) A means must be provided...vents and ventilators. (c) Living spaces must be ventilated by a mechanical...vessel's design waterline length times its maximum beam. Living...

2010-10-01

279

Study on Influencing Factors of Night Ventilation in Office Rooms  

E-print Network

A mathematical and physical model on night ventilation is set up. The fields of indoor air temperature, air velocity and thermal comfort are simulated using Airpak software. Some main influencing factors of night ventilation in office rooms...

Wang, Z.; Sun, X.

2006-01-01

280

Natural ventilation : design for suburban houses in Thailand  

E-print Network

Natural Ventilation is the most effective passive cooling design strategy for architecture in hot and humid climates. In Thailand, natural ventilation has been the most essential element in the vernacular architecture such ...

Tantasavasdi, Chalermwat, 1971-

1998-01-01

281

Study of natural ventilation in buildings with large eddy simulation  

E-print Network

With the discovery of many economic, environmental, and health problems in sealed and mechanically ventilated buildings, the concept of natural ventilation has been revived. "Buildings that breathe" have become more and ...

Jiang, Yi, 1972-

2002-01-01

282

A scale model study of displacement ventilation with chilled ceilings  

E-print Network

Displacement ventilation is a form of air-conditioning which provides good air quality and some energy savings. The air quality is better than for a conventional mixed ventilation system. The maximum amount of cooling that ...

Holden, Katherine J. A. (Katherine Joan Adrienne)

1995-01-01

283

2. BRICK END ELEVATION WITH X VENTILATORS, REDPAINTED GABLE WITH ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

2. BRICK END ELEVATION WITH X VENTILATORS, RED-PAINTED GABLE WITH WHITE STARS AND A DOORWAY HOOD. ALSO SHOWS PORTION OF REAR ELEVATION WITH X VENTILATORS - Decorated Red Barn (1852), State Route 100 vicinity, Pottstown, Montgomery County, PA

284

Clinical review: Independent lung ventilation in critical care  

Microsoft Academic Search

Independent lung ventilation (ILV) can be classified into anatomical and physiological lung separation. It requires either endobronchial blockade or double-lumen endotracheal tube intubation. Endobronchial blockade or selective double-lumen tube ventilation may necessitate temporary one lung ventilation. Anatomical lung separation isolates a diseased lung from contaminating the non-diseased lung. Physiological lung separation ventilates each lung as an independent unit. There are

Devanand Anantham; Raghuram Jagadesan; Philip Eng Cher Tiew

2005-01-01

285

Automated analysis of Xe-133 pulmonary ventilation (AAPV) in children  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this study, an automated analysis of pulmonary ventilation (AAPV) was developed to visualize the ventilation in pediatric lungs using dynamic Xe-133 scintigraphy. AAPV is a software algorithm that converts a dynamic series of Xe- 133 images into four functional images: equilibrium, washout halftime, residual, and clearance rate by analyzing pixelbased activity. Compared to conventional methods of calculating global or regional ventilation parameters, AAPV provides a visual representation of pulmonary ventilation functions.

Cao, Xinhua; Treves, S. Ted

2011-03-01

286

A practical guide to neonatal volume guarantee ventilation  

Microsoft Academic Search

A recent systematic review and meta-analysis shows that volume-targeted ventilation (VTV) compared with pressure-limited ventilation (PLV) reduce death and bronchopulmonary dysplasia, pneumothorax, hypocarbia and severe cranial ultrasound abnormalities. In this paper, we present published research and our experience with volume guarantee (VG) ventilation, a VTV mode available on the Dräger Babylog 8000plus and VN500 ventilators. The VG algorithm measures the

C Klingenberg; K I Wheeler; P G Davis; C J Morley

2011-01-01

287

Patient Safety: Reduce the Risk of Ventilator-Associated Pneumonia  

Microsoft Academic Search

ISSUE: Ventilator-associated pneumonia (VAP) is a common complication in the intensive care unit (ICU) in ventilated patients.PROJECT: To reduce the risk of healthcare-acquired, ventilator-associated pneumonia with nursing practice improvements and a comprehensive oral care program. A multidisciplinary team reviewed infection rates and current patient-care practices of ventilated patients in the ICU. Actions were taken and evaluated during a 6-month period.

R. Hall; N. Simpson

2004-01-01

288

Care of a cardiac pt on mechanical ventilation  

E-print Network

. Synchronized or not #12;Volume vs Pressure Volume control Pressure control Cycle Vol Time or flow Trigger Child: inspiratory or expiratory 3. Tidal volume: volume of air inspired in 1 normal breathnormal breath #12 or pressure control 2. Volume support or volume control 3. PRVC (SIMV): pressure regulated volume control

Kay, Mark A.

289

A special compressor used in portable mechanical ventilators  

Microsoft Academic Search

Portable mechanical ventilators currently used on the battlefield are designed to maintain life support. But it's still difficult to design an appropriate compressor for portable mechanical ventilators. A new type of compressor with small size, high output pressure, and high flow-rate is designed to satisfy the demands of portable mechanical ventilators. The special compressor has a new structure which is

Shilin Wu; Qi Zhang; Zhiping Huang; Jiulong Xiong

2009-01-01

290

Implementation of a Respiratory Drive Monitor on a Servo Ventilator  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective. To design and evaluate a clinical monitor of respiratory drive (P0.1) and other respiratory variables in a simple way, using a commercial ventilator. Methods. Nine healthy males were studied as they were breathing spontaneously in a Servo 900C Ventilator, at rest and during light exercise (50 W). The ventilator was slightly modified to improve its mechanical performance during spontaneous

Lars Gösta Hellström; Hans Larsson; Dag Linnarsson

1999-01-01

291

Position paper -- Tank ventilation system design air flow rates  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of this paper is to document a project position on required ventilation system design air flow rates for the waste storage tanks currently being designed by project W-236A, the Multi-Function Waste Tank Facility (MWTF). The Title 1 design primary tank heat removal system consists of two systems: a primary tank vapor space ventilation system; and an annulus ventilation

Goolsby

1995-01-01

292

Ventilation planning at Energy West's Deer Creek mine  

SciTech Connect

In 2004 ventilation planning was initiated to exploit a remote area of Deer Creek mine's reserve (near Huntington, Utah), the Mill Fork Area, located under a mountain. A push-pull ventilation system was selected. This article details the design process of the ventilation system upgrade, the procurement process for the new fans, and the new fan startup testing. 5 figs., 1 photo.

Tonc, L.; Prosser, B.; Gamble, G. [Pacific Corp., Huntington, UT (United States)

2009-08-15

293

[Monitorization of respiratory mechanics in the ventilated patient].  

PubMed

Monitoring during mechanical ventilation allows the measurement of different parameters of respiratory mechanics. Accurate interpretation of these data can be useful for characterizing the situation of the different components of the respiratory system, and for guiding ventilator settings. In this review, we describe the basic concepts of respiratory mechanics, their interpretation, and their potential use in fine-tuning mechanical ventilation. PMID:24199991

García-Prieto, E; Amado-Rodríguez, L; Albaiceta, G M

2014-01-01

294

Energy use for ventilation systems in underground car parks  

Microsoft Academic Search

The use of energy for operating ventilation systems in underground car parks in Hong Kong is considered. A site survey has been carried out in 22 underground car parks. The physical size, configurations, and electrical rating of ventilation fans were the main matters of interest. The indoor thermal environments, carbon monoxide concentrations, and operation of ventilation systems were examined. Mathematical

M. Y. Chan; J. Burnett; W. K. Chow

1998-01-01

295

Numerical studies on performance evaluation of tunnel ventilation safety systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

The performance of tunnel safety systems for fire protection and ventilation provision is evaluated using Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD). Ventilation safety systems commonly used in tunnels are reviewed first. The safety aspects related to tunnel fire and ventilation are then discussed. Air flow induced by an accidental vehicular fire in a tunnel is simulated using CFD. Based on the results,

Jojo S. M Li; W. K Chow

2003-01-01

296

Experimental simulation of wind driven cross-ventilation in a naturally ventilated building  

E-print Network

A device was designed and constructed to simulate cross-ventilation through a building due to natural wind. The wind driver device was designed for use with a one tenth scale model of an open floor plan office building in ...

Hult, Erin L. (Erin Luelle), 1982-

2004-01-01

297

46 CFR 111.103-1 - Power ventilation systems except machinery space ventilation systems.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...103-1 Section 111.103-1 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING ELECTRIC SYSTEMS-GENERAL REQUIREMENTS Remote Stopping Systems § 111.103-1 Power ventilation...

2013-10-01

298

46 CFR 111.103-1 - Power ventilation systems except machinery space ventilation systems.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...103-1 Section 111.103-1 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING ELECTRIC SYSTEMS-GENERAL REQUIREMENTS Remote Stopping Systems § 111.103-1 Power ventilation...

2010-10-01

299

46 CFR 111.103-1 - Power ventilation systems except machinery space ventilation systems.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...103-1 Section 111.103-1 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING ELECTRIC SYSTEMS-GENERAL REQUIREMENTS Remote Stopping Systems § 111.103-1 Power ventilation...

2011-10-01

300

VENTILATING HORNETS DISPLAY DIFFERENTIAL BODY TEMPERATURE  

Microsoft Academic Search

abdomen bent downward at a 90? angle to the thorax, their antennae vibrating, and their wings beating rapidly for minutes at a time. Eventually these hornets leave their position, either to retreat into the nest or else to fly off to the field, and are replaced by new hornets that assume the ventilation task. Infra-red (IR) photography reveals that in

Jacob S. Ishay; Marian Plotkin; Natalya Ermakov; Alon Goren; David J. Bergman

2006-01-01

301

Glacial Ventilation of the North Pacific  

Microsoft Academic Search

Previous work on sediment cores from the North Pacific showed that above ~2 km d13C on the benthic foram Cibicidoides was higher during glacial time than it is today, after correcting for secular change of ~0.3 permil. This led to the suggestion that the ocean was better ventilated either through greater transport of a paleo North Pacific Intermediate Water, or

L. D. Keigwin; O. Marchal

2004-01-01

302

Ventilation Based on ASHRAE 62.2  

E-print Network

in this report. #12;1 2008 Building Energy Efficiency Standards Residential Indoor Air Quality and Mechanical/ASHRAE Standard 62.2-2007, Ventilation and Acceptable Indoor Air Quality in Low-Rise Residential Buildings (ASHRAE Indoor Air Quality in Low-Rise Residential Buildings (ASHRAE 62.2). In California, the requirements

303

Reduceret energiforbrug til ventilation af bygninger  

E-print Network

the ventilation required for acceptable indoor air quality is reduced by selecting low­polluting building materials, without compromising the indoor air quality. List of publications: Present report is based on perceived indoor air quality", Proceedings of CLIMA 2007, Helsinki, Finland, on CD-ROM. · P. Wargocki, H

304

Performance Assessment of Photovoltaic Attic Ventilator Fans  

E-print Network

Controlling summer attic heat gain is important to reducing air conditioning energy use in homes in hot-humid climates. Both heat transfer through ceilings and t attic duct systems can make up a large part of peak cooling demand, Attic ventilation...

Parker, D. S.; Sherwin, J. R.

2000-01-01

305

Hysteresis effects in hybrid building ventilation  

E-print Network

-intensive HVAC systems · For example, in USA alone, 250 TWh/yr. are consumed in cooling commercial space Ghiaus Indoor air quality #12;Engineering dilemma: · Developed world relies for ventilation on expensive radiation, external wind forcing and internal heat gains e.g. due to electrical equipment or building

Flynn, Morris R.

306

Model `680', `681' & `683' Animal Ventilator  

E-print Network

Model `680', `681' & `683' Animal Ventilator Repair Manual #12;1 HarvardApparatusModels'680 as to workmanship or material. This warranty does not extend to damage resulting from misuse,neglect or abuse unless an RMA (returned materials authorization) number has been issued by our customer service

Kleinfeld, David

307

Anxiety and Agitation in Mechanically Ventilated Patients  

PubMed Central

During an ethnography conducted in an intensive care unit (ICU), we found that anxiety and agitation occurred frequently, and were important considerations in the care of 30 patients weaning from prolonged mechanical ventilation. We conducted a secondary analysis to (a) describe characteristics of anxiety and agitation experienced by mechanically ventilated patients; (b) explore how clinicians recognize and interpret anxiety and agitation and (c) describe strategies and interventions used to manage anxiety and agitation with mechanically ventilated patients. We constructed the Anxiety-Agitation in Mechanical Ventilation Model to illustrate the multidimensional features of symptom recognition and management. Patients’ ability to interact with the environment served as a basis for identification and management of anxiety or agitation. Clinicians’ attributions about anxiety or agitation and “knowing the patient” contributed to their assessment of patient responses. Clinicians chose strategies to overcome either the stimulus or patient’s appraisal of risk of the stimulus. This article contributes to the body of knowledge about symptom recognition and management in the ICU by providing a comprehensive model to guide future research and practice. PMID:21908706

Tate, Judith Ann; Dabbs, Annette Devito; Hoffman, Leslie; Milbrandt, Eric; Happ, Mary Beth

2013-01-01

308

Ozonolysis of monoterpenes in mechanical ventilation systems  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this investigation the ozonolysis of of three monoterpenes ( ?-pinene, ?3-carene and limonene) was studied was studied in authentic mechanical ventilation systems, that included either a cross flow or a rotary heat exchanger. The effects of varying three experimental parameters were investigated: the level of ozone (25 and 75 ppb), the reaction time (25 and 75 s), and the surface area in the ventilation duct (14.8 and 29.5 m 2). The initial concentration of each of the monoterpenes was 20 ppb in every experiment, and 1-16% of the ?-pinene, <0.5-13% of the ?3-carene, and <0.5-16% of the limonene reacted. The effects of humidity (g m -3) and temperature of the outdoor and supply air, and water losses in the ventilation duct, were also evaluated. Experiments were based on a chemometric statistical design. Comparison of the results to theoretically calculated values showed that theoretical calculations underestimated the amounts that reacted in the ventilation systems by factors of 2-13, depending on the monoterpene and experimental settings.

Fick, Jerker; Pommer, Linda; Åstrand, Anders; Östin, Ronny; Nilsson, Calle; Andersson, Barbro

309

Metrics for Air Conditioning & Refrigeration, Heating, Ventilating.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Designed to meet the job-related metric measurement needs of the air conditioning and refrigeration, heating and ventilating student, this instructional package is one of three for the construction occupations cluster, part of a set of 55 packages for metric instruction in different occupations. The package is intended for students who already…

Cooper, Gloria S., Ed.; Magisos, Joel H., Ed.

310

Buoyancy-Affected Flows in Ventilated Rooms  

Microsoft Academic Search

Calculations of velocity and temperature distributions in rooms with ventilation arrangements are reported. The method involves the solution, in finite-difference form, of two-dimensional equations for the conservation of mass, momentum, energy, turbulence energy, and dissipation rate, with algebraic expressions for the turbulent viscosity and heat diffusivity. The results are shown to be in reasonable agreement with available experimental data and

P. V. Nielsen; A. Restivo; J. H. Whitelaw

1979-01-01

311

Ventilation index of helicopter pilot suits  

Microsoft Academic Search

The main function of helicopter pilot suits used in offshore flights is to provide thermal protection in the event of cold water immersion and to allow maintenance of thermal comfort during normal use. As part of a larger study to assess the thermal characteristics of helicopter pilot suits, the ventilation index of four suits was determined using the methods outlined

PATRICK J. SULLIVAN; IGOR B. MEKJAVIC; NAOSHI KAKITSUBA

1987-01-01

312

46 CFR 194.20-5 - Ventilation.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...OTHER HAZARDOUS MATERIALS Chemical Stores and/or Storerooms...20-5 Ventilation. (a) Chemical storerooms shall be equipped...shall be fitted with acceptable flame screens. (4) The control...Provisions shall be made so that the chemical storeroom will be...

2010-10-01

313

46 CFR 194.20-5 - Ventilation.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...OTHER HAZARDOUS MATERIALS Chemical Stores and/or Storerooms...20-5 Ventilation. (a) Chemical storerooms shall be equipped...shall be fitted with acceptable flame screens. (4) The control...Provisions shall be made so that the chemical storeroom will be...

2013-10-01

314

46 CFR 194.20-5 - Ventilation.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...OTHER HAZARDOUS MATERIALS Chemical Stores and/or Storerooms...20-5 Ventilation. (a) Chemical storerooms shall be equipped...shall be fitted with acceptable flame screens. (4) The control...Provisions shall be made so that the chemical storeroom will be...

2011-10-01

315

46 CFR 194.20-5 - Ventilation.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...OTHER HAZARDOUS MATERIALS Chemical Stores and/or Storerooms...20-5 Ventilation. (a) Chemical storerooms shall be equipped...shall be fitted with acceptable flame screens. (4) The control...Provisions shall be made so that the chemical storeroom will be...

2012-10-01

316

[Percutaneous tracheostomy in the ventilated patient].  

PubMed

The medical indications of tracheostomy comprise the alleviation of upper airway obstruction; the prevention of laryngeal and upper airway damage due to prolonged translaryngeal intubation in patients subjected to prolonged mechanical ventilation; and the facilitation of airway access for the removal of secretions. Since 1985, percutaneous tracheostomy (PT) has gained widespread acceptance as a method for creating a surgical airway in patients requiring long-term mechanical ventilation. Since then, several comparative trials of PT and surgical tracheostomy have been conducted, and new techniques for PT have been developed. The use of percutaneous dilatation techniques under bronchoscopic control are now increasingly popular throughout the world. Tracheostomy should be performed as soon as the need for prolonged intubation is identified. However a validated model for the prediction of prolonged mechanical ventilation is not available, and the timing of tracheostomy should be individualized. The present review analyzes the state of the art of PT in mechanically ventilated patients--this being regarded by many as the technique of choice in performing tracheostomy in critically ill patients. PMID:23347906

Añón, J M; Araujo, J B; Escuela, M P; González-Higueras, E

2014-04-01

317

Collateral ventilation and gas exchange in emphysema.  

PubMed

Resistance to collateral flow of gas is high in the normal human lung but may be lower in emphysema. However, the contribution of collateral ventilation to gas exchange in emphysema remains unclear. This study evaluates the role and magnitude of collateral ventilation between bronchopulmonary segments in six patients with clinical, functional, and computed tomographic evidence of emphysema, compared with our previous findings in 12 normal subjects. To assess collateral flow, a balloon-tipped catheter with a lumen that opened distal to the balloon was inflated in segmental bronchi during fiberoptic bronchoscopy. Respiratory gas tensions were sampled by mass spectrometer from beyond the occlusion via the catheter lumen. Subjects breathed air until occlusion was established and then switched to 79% helium/21% oxygen. The rate of rise of helium concentration was measured within occluded segments and used as an index of collateral ventilation. The mean (+/- SEM) rate of rise of helium concentration was ten times greater in emphysema patients (9.5 +/- 2.7%/min) compared with normal subjects (0.8 +/- 0.3%/min) (p = 0.009). The mean PO2 within occluded segments was similar in normal subjects and emphysema patients: 45.4 +/- 1.8 mm Hg and 44.8 +/- 3.6 mm Hg, respectively. Mean PCO2 within occluded segments was lower in patients (40.1 +/- 1.9 mm Hg) than in normal subjects (46.4 +/- 1.3 mm Hg), probably due to higher regional ventilation-perfusion ratios in emphysema patients rather than collateral ventilation. In emphysema patients there was a positive correlation between rate of rise of helium concentration and final PO2 within an occluded segment (r = 0.73; p = 0.02).(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:8087331

Morrell, N W; Wignall, B K; Biggs, T; Seed, W A

1994-09-01

318

Improving Blood Pressure Control in a Large Multiethnic California Population Through Changes in Health Care Delivery, 2004–2012  

PubMed Central

The Kaiser Permanente Southern California (Kaiser) health care system succeeded in improving hypertension control in a multiethnic population by adopting a series of changes in health care delivery. Data from the Healthcare Effectiveness Data and Information Set (HEDIS) was used to assess blood pressure control from 2004 through 2012. Hypertension control increased overall from 54% to 86% during that period, and 80% or more in every subgroup, regardless of race/ethnicity, preferred language, or type of health insurance plan. Health care delivery changes improved hypertension control across a large multiethnic population, which indicates that health care systems can achieve a clinical target goal of 70% for hypertension control in their populations. PMID:25357259

Handler, Joel; Wall, Hilary K.; Kanter, Michael H.

2014-01-01

319

Impact of two-way air flow due to temperature difference on preventing the entry of outdoor particles using indoor positive pressure control method  

Microsoft Academic Search

Maintaining positive pressure indoors using mechanical ventilation system is a popular control method for preventing the entry of outdoor airborne particles. The idea is, as long as the supply air flow rate is larger than return air flow rate, the pressure inside the ventilated room should be positive since the superfluous air flow must exfiltrate from air leakages or other

Chun Chen; Bin Zhao; Xudong Yang

2011-01-01

320

On The Valuation of Infiltration towards Meeting Residential Ventilation Needs  

SciTech Connect

The purpose of ventilation is dilute or remove indoor contaminants that an occupant is exposed to. It can be provided by mechanical or natural means. In most homes, especially existing homes, infiltration provides the dominant fraction of the ventilation. As we seek to provide acceptable indoor air quality at minimum energy cost, it is important to neither over-ventilate nor under-ventilate. Thus, it becomes critically important to correctly evaluate the contribution infiltration makes to both energy consumption and equivalent ventilation. ASHRAE Standards including standards 62, 119, and 136 have all considered the contribution of infiltration in various ways, using methods and data from 20 years ago.

Sherman, Max H.

2008-09-01

321

Ventilation via Cut Nasotracheal Tube During General Anesthesia  

PubMed Central

Many patients with disabilities need recurrent dental treatment under general anesthesia because of high caries prevalence and the nature of dental treatment. We evaluated the use of a nasal device as a possible substitute for flexible laryngeal mask airway to reduce the risk of unexpected failure accompanying intubation; we succeeded in ventilating the lungs with a cut nasotracheal tube (CNT) with its tip placed in the pharynx. We hypothesized that this technique would be useful during dental treatment under general anesthesia and investigated its usefulness as part of a minimally invasive technique. A prospective study was designed using general anesthesia in 37 dental patients with disabilities such as intellectual impairment, autism, and cerebral palsy. CNT ventilation was compared with mask ventilation with the patient in 3 positions: the neck in flexion, horizontal position, and in extension. The effect of mouth gags was also recorded during CNT ventilation. The percentages of cases with effective ventilation were similar for the 2 techniques in the neck extension and horizontal positions (89.2–97.3%). However, CNT ventilation was significantly more effective than mask ventilation in the neck flexion position (94.6 vs 45.9%; P < .0001). Mouth gags slightly reduced the rate of effective ventilation in the neck flexion position. Most dental treatments involving minor oral surgeries were performed using mouth gags during CNT ventilation. CNT ventilation was shown to be superior to mask ventilation and is useful during dental treatment under general anesthesia. PMID:23506278

Asahi, Yoshinao; Omichi, Shiro; Adachi, Seita; Kagamiuchi, Hajime; Kotani, Junichiro

2013-01-01

322

Continuous distributions of specific ventilation recovered from inert gas washout  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A new technique is described for recovering continuous distributions of ventilation as a function of tidal ventilation/volume ratio from the nitrogen washout. The analysis yields a continuous distribution of ventilation as a function of tidal ventilation/volume ratio represented as fractional ventilations of 50 compartments plus dead space. The procedure was verified by recovering known distributions from data to which noise had been added. Using an apparatus to control the subject's tidal volume and FRC, mixed expired N2 data gave the following results: (a) the distributions of young, normal subjects were narrow and unimodal; (b) those of subjects over age 40 were broader with more poorly ventilated units; (c) patients with pulmonary disease of all descriptions showed enlarged dead space; (d) patients with cystic fibrosis showed multimodal distributions with the bulk of the ventilation going to overventilated units; and (e) patients with obstructive lung disease fell into several classes, three of which are illustrated.

Lewis, S. M.; Evans, J. W.; Jalowayski, A. A.

1978-01-01

323

Ventilation efficiencies and thermal comfort results of a desk-edge-mounted task ventilation system  

SciTech Connect

In chamber experiments, we investigated the ventilation effectiveness and thermal comfort of a task ventilation system with an air supply nozzle located underneath the front edge of a desk and directing air toward a heated mannequin or a human volunteer seated at the desk. The task ventilation system provided outside air, while another ventilation system provided additional space cooling but no outside air. Test variables included the vertical angle of air supply (-15{sup o} to 45{sup o} from horizontal), and the supply flow rate of (3.5 to 6.5 L s{sup -1}). Using the tracer gas step-up and step-down procedures, the measured air change effectiveness (i.e., exhaust air age divided by age of air in the breathing zone) in experiments with the mannequin ranged from 1.4 to 2.7 (median, 1.8), whereas with human subjects the air change effectiveness ranged from 1.3 to 2.3 (median, 1.6). The majority of the air change effectiveness values with the human subjects were less than values with the mannequin at comparable tests. Similarly, the tests run with supply air temperature equal to the room air temperature had lower air change effectiveness values than comparable tests with the supply air temperature lower ({approx}5 C) than the room air temperature. The air change effectiveness values are higher than typically reported for commercially available task ventilation or displacement ventilation systems. Based on surveys completed by the subjects, operation of the task ventilation system did not cause thermal discomfort.

Faulkner, D.; Fisk, W.J.; Sullivan, D.P.; Lee, S.M.

2003-09-01

324

Respiratory infections in patients undergoing mechanical ventilation.  

PubMed

Lower respiratory tract infections in mechanically ventilated patients are a frequent cause of antibiotic treatment in intensive-care units. These infections present as severe sepsis or septic shock with respiratory dysfunction in intubated patients. Purulent respiratory secretions are needed for diagnosis, but distinguishing between pneumonia and tracheobronchitis is not easy. Both presentations are associated with longlasting mechanical ventilation and extended intensive-care unit stay, providing a rationale for antibiotic treatment initiation. Differentiation of colonisers from true pathogens is difficult, and microbiological data show Staphylococcus aureus and Pseudomonas aeruginosa to be of great concern because of clinical outcomes and therapeutic challenges. Key management issues include identification of the pathogen, choice of initial empirical antibiotic, and decisions with regard to the resolution pattern. PMID:25151022

Rello, Jordi; Lisboa, Thiago; Koulenti, Despoina

2014-09-01

325

Relationship of Blood Pressure Self-Monitoring, Medication Adherence, Self-Efficacy, Stage of Change, and Blood Pressure Control Among Municipal Workers With Hypertension  

PubMed Central

Uncontrolled blood pressure remains a major public health issue. Medication adherence is a key factor in blood pressure management; however, adherence behavior is not clearly understood and the most significant factors contributing to poor medication adherence and blood pressure control are unknown. The purpose of this study was to determine the relationship of self-monitoring of blood pressure, medication adherence, self-efficacy, stage of change, and blood pressure control among municipal workers with access to health insurance. Stage of change was a significant independent predictor of self-monitoring of blood pressure, but not blood pressure control. A strong relationship was found between medication adherence and medication adherence self-efficacy (r = .549, p < .05). PMID:22767462

Breaux-Shropshire, Tonya L; Brown, Kathleen C.; Pryor, Erica R.; Maples, Elizabeth H.

2013-01-01

326

Reaerosolization of Fluidized Spores in Ventilation Systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

This project examined dry, fluidized spore reaerosolization in a heating, ventilating, and air conditioning duct system. Experiments using spores of Bacillus atrophaeus, a nonpathogenic surrogate for Bacillus anthracis, were conducted to delineate the extent of spore reaerosolization behavior under normal indoor airflow conditions. Short-term (five air-volume exchanges), long-term (up to 21,000 air-volume exchanges), and cycled (on-off) reaerosolization tests were conducted

Paula Krauter; Arthur Biermann

2007-01-01

327

268: Ventilation Performance in a Funneling Window  

Microsoft Academic Search

Colima, (latitude 19º15'; longitude 103º44', altitude 450m) is a small city in the mid-western coast of Mexico with a warm sub-humid climate. Under these weather conditions, one of the main strategies of bioclimatic adaptation is natural ventilation. However, in some seasons the wind speed is not enough to generate relative thermal comfort, primarily during the summer months. Summers in Colima

Adolfo Gómez Amador; Francisco Armendáriz López

328

Time of non-invasive ventilation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Non-invasive ventilation (NIV) is a safe, versatile and effective technique that can avert side effects and complications\\u000a associated with endotracheal intubation. The success of NIV relies on several factors, including the type and severity of\\u000a acute respiratory failure, the underlying disease, the location of treatment, and the experience of the team. The time factor\\u000a is also important. NIV is primarily used

Stefano Nava; Paolo Navalesi; Giorgio Conti

2006-01-01

329

Association of compliance of ventilator bundle with incidence of ventilator-associated pneumonia and ventilator utilization among critical patients over 4 years  

PubMed Central

BACKGROUND: Several studies showed that the implementation of the Institute for Healthcare Improvement (IHI) ventilator bundle alone or with other preventive measures are associated with reducing Ventilator-Associated Pneumonia (VAP) rates. However, the association with ventilator utilization was rarely examined and the findings were conflicting. The objectives were to validate the bundle association with VAP rate in a traditionally high VAP environment and to examine its association with ventilator utilization. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The study was conducted at the adult medical-surgical intensive care unit (ICU) at King Abdulaziz Medical City, Saudi Arabia, between 2010 and 2013. VAP data were collected by a prospective targeted surveillance as per Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC)/National Healthcare Safety Network (NHSN) methodology while bundle data were collected by a cross-sectional design as per IHI methodology. RESULTS: Ventilator bundle compliance significantly increased from 90% in 2010 to 97% in 2013 (P for trend < 0.001). On the other hand, VAP rate decreased from 3.6 (per 1000 ventilator days) in 2010 to 1.0 in 2013 (P for trend = 0.054) and ventilator utilization ratio decreased from 0.73 in 2010 to 0.59 in 2013 (P for trend < 0.001). There were negative significant correlations between the trends of ventilator bundle compliance and VAP rate (cross-correlation coefficients ?0.63 to 0.07) and ventilator utilization (cross-correlation coefficients ?0.18 to ?0.63). CONCLUSION: More than 70% improvement of VAP rates and approximately 20% improvement of ventilator utilization were observed during IHI ventilator bundle implementation among adult critical patients in a tertiary care center in Saudi Arabia. Replicating the current finding in multicenter randomized trials is required before establishing any causal link.

Al-Thaqafy, Majid S.; El-Saed, Aiman; Arabi, Yaseen M.; Balkhy, Hanan H.

2014-01-01

330

Eddy impact on the Southern Ocean ventilation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This study examines the specific role of mesoscale eddies and coherent structures in the ventilation of the Southern Ocean through the analysis of Lagrangian particle trajectories in a suite of idealized numerical simulations. Being the biggest potential reservoir for heat and atmospheric gases, the Southern Ocean is of great importance in the Earth's climate system. Therefore, the understanding of ventilation, the process establishing communication between the surface mixed layer and the ocean interior, is crucial to quantify the storage of CO2 by the ocean and to improve climate change projections. Idealized numerical simulations of the Southern Ocean at 1/8o resolution are carried out using the NEMO Ocean General Circulation Model. Twin simulations with and without eddies having the same stratification and mean circulation, are considered using several definitions of eddies. The analysis of the differences between such simulations allows examination of the direct effect of eddies on ventilation of the Southern Ocean. The role played by coherent structures is also discussed by looking at the trajectories of particles specifically injected inside individual vortices.

Pennel, R. L.; Kamenkovich, I. V.; Fine, R. A.

2012-12-01

331

Noninvasive ventilation in adult liver transplantation.  

PubMed

Noninvasive ventilation (NIV) has proven to be a safe and effective technique in the treatment of respiratory failure complicating various medical and surgical diseases. In recent years, a growing interest has emerged in its adoption for ventilatory assistance in immunocompromised patients, such as those undergoing bone marrow, liver, lung, cardiac, and kidney transplantation. Weaning from the ventilator after liver transplantation can take longer because of unsatisfactory gas exchange during various attempts of T-piece trials. Rapid extubation followed by an immediate NIV application should be considered in this setting to shorten and accelerate the weaning process in those recipients who do not completely fulfill the criteria for safe extubation. By adding the pressure support (PS) mode with a continuous positive end expiratory pressure (PEEP), NIV could prevent the loss of vital capacity and impede severe lung derecruitment following extubation. Clinical experience has shown that properly delivered NIV mostly benefits moderately dyspneic recipients in acute respiratory failure, while it appears less promising and efficient in patients ventilated for extended periods of time. It has proven safe and efficient mainly as (1) a tool to promote an early ventilatory discontinuation and extubation; (2) a prophylactic strategy for preventing postoperative pulmonary complications; and (3) a simple method to start with in cases of acute hypoxic and/or hypercapnic respiratory failure. The improvements in arterial hypoxemia, the decreased ventilatory demand provided with an inspiratory support, as well as the scarcity of hemodynamic repercussions are among the major benefits of this method. PMID:18675106

Feltracco, P; Serra, E; Barbieri, S; Milevoj, M; Salvaterra, F; Marulli, G; Ori, C

2008-01-01

332

The performance of Dräger Oxylog ventilators at simulated altitude.  

PubMed

Ventilated patients frequently require transport by air in a hypobaric environment. Previous studies have demonstrated significant changes in the performance of ventilators with changes in cabin pressure (altitude) but no studies have been published on the function of modem ventilators at altitude. This experiment set out to evaluate ventilatory parameters (tidal volume and respiratory rate) of three commonly used transport ventilators (the Dräger Oxylog 1000, 2000 and 3000) in a simulated hypobaric environment. Ventilators were assessed using either air-mix (60% oxygen) or 100% oxygen and tested against models simulating a normal lung, a low compliance (Acute Respiratory Distress Syndrome) lung and a high-resistance (asthma) lung. Ventilators were tested at a range of simulated altitudes between sea level and 3048 m. Over this range, tidal volume delivered by the Oxylog 1000 increased by 68% and respiratory rate decreased by 28%. Tidal volume delivered by the Oxylog 2000 ventilator increased by 29% over the same range of altitudes but there was no significant change in respiratory rate. Tidal volume and respiratory rate remained constant with the Oxylog 3000 over the same range of altitudes. Changes were consistent with each ventilator regardless of oxygen content or lung model. It is important that clinicians involved in critical care transport in a hypobaric environment are aware that individual ventilators perform differently at altitude and that they are aware of the characteristics of the particular ventilator that they are using. PMID:18714624

Flynn, J G; Singh, B

2008-07-01

333

Ventilator-induced lung injury in preterm infants  

PubMed Central

In preterm infants, the need for intubation and mechanical ventilation is associated with ventilator-induced lung injuries and subsequent bronchopulmonary dysplasia. The aim of the present review was to improve the understanding of the mechanisms of injury that involve cytokine-mediated inflammation to contribute to the development of new preventive strategies. Relevant articles were retrieved from the PubMed database using the search terms "ventilator-induced lung injury preterm", "continuous positive airway pressure", "preterm", and "bronchopulmonary dysplasia". The resulting data and other relevant information were divided into several topics to ensure a thorough, critical view of ventilation-induced lung injury and its consequences in preterm infants. The role of pro-inflammatory cytokines (particularly interleukins 6 and 8 and tumor necrosis factor alpha) as mediators of lung injury was assessed. Evidence from studies conducted with animals and human newborns is described. This evidence shows that brief periods of mechanical ventilation is sufficient to induce the release of pro-inflammatory cytokines. Other forms of mechanical and non-invasive ventilation were also analyzed as protective alternatives to conventional mechanical ventilation. It was concluded that non-invasive ventilation, intubation followed by early surfactant administration and quick extubation for nasal continuous positive airway pressure, and strategies that regulate tidal volume and avoid volutrauma (such as volume guarantee ventilation) protect against ventilator-induced lung injury in preterm infants. PMID:24553514

Carvalho, Clarissa Gutierrez; Silveira, Rita C; Procianoy, Renato Soibelmann

2013-01-01

334

Uneven distribution of ventilation in acute respiratory distress syndrome  

PubMed Central

Introduction The aim of this study was to assess the volume of gas being poorly ventilated or non-ventilated within the lungs of patients treated with mechanical ventilation and suffering from acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS). Methods A prospective, descriptive study was performed of 25 sedated and paralysed ARDS patients, mechanically ventilated with a positive end-expiratory pressure (PEEP) of 5 cmH2O in a multidisciplinary intensive care unit of a tertiary university hospital. The volume of poorly ventilated or non-ventilated gas was assumed to correspond to a difference between the ventilated gas volume, determined as the end-expiratory lung volume by rebreathing of sulphur hexafluoride (EELVSF6), and the total gas volume, calculated from computed tomography images in the end-expiratory position (EELVCT). The methods used were validated by similar measurements in 20 healthy subjects in whom no poorly ventilated or non-ventilated gas is expected to be found. Results EELVSF6 was 66% of EELVCT, corresponding to a mean difference of 0.71 litre. EELVSF6 and EELVCT were significantly correlated (r2 = 0.72; P < 0.001). In the healthy subjects, the two methods yielded almost identical results. Conclusion About one-third of the total pulmonary gas volume seems poorly ventilated or non-ventilated in sedated and paralysed ARDS patients when mechanically ventilated with a PEEP of 5 cmH2O. Uneven distribution of ventilation due to airway closure and/or obstruction is likely to be involved. PMID:15774050

Rylander, Christian; Tylen, Ulf; Rossi-Norrlund, Rauni; Herrmann, Peter; Quintel, Michael; Bake, Bjorn

2005-01-01

335

Pulmonary ventilation defects in older never-smokers.  

PubMed

Hyperpolarized (3)He MRI previously revealed spatially persistent ventilation defects in healthy, older compared with healthy, younger never-smokers. To understand better the physiological consequences and potential relevance of (3)He MRI ventilation defects, we evaluated (3)He-MRI ventilation-defect percent (VDP) and the effect of deep inspiration (DI) and salbutamol on VDP in older never-smokers. To identify the potential determinants of ventilation defects in these subjects, we evaluated dyspnea, pulmonary function, and cardiopulmonary exercise test (CPET) measurements, as well as occupational and second-hand smoke exposure. Fifty-two never-smokers (71 ± 6 yr) with no history of chronic respiratory disease were evaluated. During a single visit, pulmonary function tests, CPET, and (3)He MRI were performed and the Burden of Obstructive Lung Disease questionnaire administered. For eight of 52 subjects, there was spirometry evidence of airflow limitation (Global Initiative for Chronic Obstructive Lung Disease-Unclassified, I, and II), and occupational exposure was reported in 13 of 52 subjects. In 13 of 52 (25%) subjects, there were no ventilation defects and in 39 of 52 (75%) subjects, ventilation defects were observed. For those subjects with ventilation defects, six of 39 showed a VDP response to DI/salbutamol. Ventilation heterogeneity and VDP were significantly greater, and forced expiratory volume in 1 s (FEV1)/forced vital capacity was significantly lower (P < 0.05) for subjects with ventilation defects with a response to DI/salbutamol than subjects with ventilation defects without a response to DI/salbutamol and subjects without ventilation defects. In a step-wise, forward multivariate model, FEV1, inspiratory capacity, and airway resistance significantly predicted VDP (R(2) = 0.45, P < 0.001). In conclusion, most never-smokers had normal spirometry and peripheral ventilation defects not reversed by DI/salbutamol; such ventilation defects were likely related to irreversible airway narrowing/collapse but not to dyspnea and decreased exercise capacity. PMID:24903918

Sheikh, Khadija; Paulin, Gregory A; Svenningsen, Sarah; Kirby, Miranda; Paterson, Nigel A M; McCormack, David G; Parraga, Grace

2014-08-01

336

A telecommunications system for monitoring and counseling patients with hypertension. Impact on medication adherence and blood pressure control.  

PubMed

This study was conducted to evaluate the effect of automated telephone patient monitoring and counseling on patient adherence to antihypertensive medications and on blood pressure control. A randomized controlled trial was conducted in 29 greater Boston communities. The study subjects were 267 patients recruited from community sites who were >or= 60 years of age, on antihypertensive medication, with a systolic blood pressure (SBP) of >or= 160 mm Hg and/or a diastolic blood pressure (DBP) of >or= 90 mm Hg. The study compared subjects who received usual medical care with those who used a computer-controlled telephone system in addition to their usual medical care during a period of 6 months. Weekly, subjects in the telephone group reported self-measured blood pressures, knowledge and adherence to antihypertensive medication regimens, and medication side-effects. This information was sent to their physicians regularly. The main study outcome measures were change in antihypertensive medication adherence, SBP and DBP during 6 months, satisfaction of patient users, perceived utility for physicians, and cost-effectiveness. The mean age of the study population was 76.0 years; 77% were women; 11% were black. Mean antihypertensive medication adherence improved 17.7% for telephone system users and 11.7% for controls (P = .03). Mean DBP decreased 5.2 mm Hg in users compared to 0.8 mm Hg in controls (P = .02). Among nonadherent subjects, mean DBP decreased 6.0 mm Hg for telephone users, but increased 2.8 mm Hg for controls (P = .01). For telephone system users, mean DBP decreased more if their medication adherence improved (P = .03). The majority of telephone system users were satisfied with the system. Most physicians integrated it into their practices. The system was cost-effective, especially for nonadherent patient users. Therefore, weekly use of an automated telephone system improved medication adherence and blood pressure control in hypertension patients. This system can be used to monitor patients with hypertension or with other chronic diseases, and is likely to improve health outcomes and reduce health services utilization and costs. PMID:8722429

Friedman, R H; Kazis, L E; Jette, A; Smith, M B; Stollerman, J; Torgerson, J; Carey, K

1996-04-01

337

Blood Pressure Control  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Engineering Development Lab., Inc.'s E-2000 Neck Baro Reflex System was developed for cardiovascular studies of astronauts. It is regularly used on Space Shuttle Missions, and a parallel version has been developed as a research tool to facilitate studies of blood pressure reflex controls in patients with congestive heart failure, diabetes, etc. An advanced version, the PPC-1000, was developed in 1991, and the technology has been refined substantially. The PPC provides an accurate means of generating pressure for a broad array of laboratory applications. An improved version, the E2010 Barosystem, is anticipated.

1992-01-01

338

Computational fluid dynamics in ventilation. 4: Commercial application of CFD in ventilation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In considering the commercial applications of Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) in ventilation, the following are addressed: typical markets (airport centers, large theaters, atria, shopping malls, etc.); typical problems to be solved (energy flow, draft, ventilation effectiveness, pressure distribution, etc.); and high priority areas, activities and quantities (fast preprocessing, effective visualization software, etc.). It is stated that the commercial application of CFD may be looked upon as an advanced 'zonal' model. The 'zonal' model concept is outlined and CFD with large control volumes is considered. An illustrated example of air flow simulation in a theater is given.

Nielsen, Peter V.

339

The Edgecombe County (NC) High Blood Pressure Control Program: II. Barriers to the use of medical care among hypertensives.  

PubMed

As the initial step in a five-year project to improve control of high blood pressure in Edgecombe County, North Carolina, a survey was conducted in 1980 to determine the prevalence of hypertension and to identify factors which might constitute barriers to the use of medical care by hypertensives. This report summarizes the findings for the 539 hypertensives identified through the baseline survey. In general, Black hypertensives reported more access problems than Whites. Within race, however, males and females differed very little on selected measures of potential access to medical care. Among women, lower scores on potential access were strongly associated with being untreated, whereas for men, concerns about the safety of anti-hypertensive drug therapy were associated with being unaware. On a summary measure of the actual use of medical care in response to symptoms, both male and female treated hypertensives scored higher than their untreated counterparts. The implications of these and other findings for community-based blood pressure control activities are discussed. PMID:6711721

James, S A; Wagner, E H; Strogatz, D S; Beresford, S A; Kleinbaum, D G; Williams, C A; Cutchin, L M; Ibrahim, M A

1984-05-01

340

The Edgecombe County (NC) High Blood Pressure Control Program: II. Barriers to the use of medical care among hypertensives.  

PubMed Central

As the initial step in a five-year project to improve control of high blood pressure in Edgecombe County, North Carolina, a survey was conducted in 1980 to determine the prevalence of hypertension and to identify factors which might constitute barriers to the use of medical care by hypertensives. This report summarizes the findings for the 539 hypertensives identified through the baseline survey. In general, Black hypertensives reported more access problems than Whites. Within race, however, males and females differed very little on selected measures of potential access to medical care. Among women, lower scores on potential access were strongly associated with being untreated, whereas for men, concerns about the safety of anti-hypertensive drug therapy were associated with being unaware. On a summary measure of the actual use of medical care in response to symptoms, both male and female treated hypertensives scored higher than their untreated counterparts. The implications of these and other findings for community-based blood pressure control activities are discussed. PMID:6711721

James, S A; Wagner, E H; Strogatz, D S; Beresford, S A; Kleinbaum, D G; Williams, C A; Cutchin, L M; Ibrahim, M A

1984-01-01

341

Prediction of permeate flux during osmotic pressure-controlled electric field-enhanced cross-flow ultrafiltration.  

PubMed

Electric field-enhanced cross-flow ultrafiltration has been carried out to separate protein, bovine serum albumin, from aqueous solution using a 30,000 molecular weight cutoff membrane. A theoretical model is developed to predict permeate flux under a laminar flow regime including the effects of external d.c. electric field and suction through the membrane for osmotic pressure-controlled ultrafiltration. The governing equations of the concentration profile in the developing mass transfer boundary layer in a rectangular channel are solved using a similarity solution method. The effect of d.c. electric field on the variation of membrane surface concentration and permeate flux along the length of the channel is quantified using this model. The expression of Sherwood number relation for estimation of mass transfer coefficient is derived. The analysis revealed that there is a significant effect of electric field on the mass transfer coefficient. A detailed parametric study has been carried out to observe the effect of feed concentration, electric field, cross-flow velocity, and pressure on the permeate flux. For 1 kg/m3 BSA solution, by applying a d.c. electric field of 1000 V/m, the permeate flux increases from 42 to 98 L/m2 h compared to that with zero electric field. The experimental results are successfully compared with the model predicted results. PMID:18068719

Sarkar, Biswajit; DasGupta, Sunando; De, Sirshendu

2008-03-01

342

Single-shell tank ventilation upgrades needs analysis report  

SciTech Connect

This report was written to comply with the objectives of the Hanford Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order, Tri-Party Agreement Milestone M-43-03 Provide to the Washington State Department of Ecology and Department of Health the Results of the Single-Shell Tank Ventilation Upgrades Needs Analysis. The needs analysis consists of identifying the current type and status of each single-shell tank ventilation system, identifying current and projected authorization basis requirements, and identifying ventilation system compliance deficiencies.

Kriskovich, J.R., Fluor Daniel Hanford

1997-02-03

343

12th US/North American mine ventilation symposium  

SciTech Connect

Topics covered include: ventilation planning for metal/non-metal and coal mines, spontaneous combustion, heat and humidity, miner's act and mine seals, numerical modeling, coal mine methane, mine dust, tunnel ventilation, mine fans, diesel emissions control, mine fires, and general ventilation design and monitoring. The papers, talks and presentations are available for free download from the www.smenet.org site; printed copies of the proceedings are no longer available.

Wallace, K.G. (ed.)

2008-07-01

344

Towards an intuitive expert system for weaning from artificial ventilation  

Microsoft Academic Search

The procedure for weaning a patient with respiratory insufficiency from mechanical ventilation is complex and requires expertise obtained from long clinical practice. Fuzzy knowledge-based weaning (FuzzyKBWean) is a fuzzy knowledge-based control system that proposes stepwise changes in ventilator settings during the entire period of artificial ventilation at the bedside in real time. Information is obtained from a patient data management

Ch. Schuh; M. Hiesmayr; M. Kaipel; K.-P. Adlassnig

2004-01-01

345

Recommended Ventilation Strategies for Energy-Efficient Production Homes  

SciTech Connect

This report evaluates residential ventilation systems for the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's (EPA's) ENERGY STAR{reg_sign} Homes program and recommends mechanical ventilation strategies for new, low-infiltration, energy-efficient, single-family, ENERGY STAR production (site-built tract) homes in four climates: cold, mixed (cold and hot), hot humid, and hot arid. Our group in the Energy Analysis Department at Lawrence Berkeley National Lab compared residential ventilation strategies in four climates according to three criteria: total annualized costs (the sum of annualized capital cost and annual operating cost), predominant indoor pressure induced by the ventilation system, and distribution of ventilation air within the home. The mechanical ventilation systems modeled deliver 0.35 air changes per hour continuously, regardless of actual infiltration or occupant window-opening behavior. Based on the assumptions and analysis described in this report, we recommend independently ducted multi-port supply ventilation in all climates except cold because this strategy provides the safety and health benefits of positive indoor pressure as well as the ability to dehumidify and filter ventilation air. In cold climates, we recommend that multi-port supply ventilation be balanced by a single-port exhaust ventilation fan, and that builders offer balanced heat-recovery ventilation to buyers as an optional upgrade. For builders who continue to install forced-air integrated supply ventilation, we recommend ensuring ducts are airtight or in conditioned space, installing a control that automatically operates the forced-air fan 15-20 minutes during each hour that the fan does not operate for heating or cooling, and offering ICM forced-air fans to home buyers as an upgrade.

Roberson, J.; Brown, R.; Koomey, J.; Warner, J.; Greenberg, S.

1998-12-01

346

Ammonia emissions from two mechanically ventilated UK livestock buildings  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Ammonia emission rates from livestock buildings are required to construct an accurate emission inventory for the UK. Ventilation and ammonia emission rates from a fattening pig unit and a broiler house, both mechanically ventilated, were estimated using fan wheel anemometers and thermal converters with a chemiluminescence NO x-analyser to measure the ventilation rate and the ammonia concentration, respectively. The estimated ammonia emission factors were 46.9 and 16.6 kg lu -1 a -1 for the fattening pig unit and the broiler house, respectively. Both emission factors were within the range reported in the literature. A tracer gas (CO) method, based on a constant tracer release rate, was validated for measuring ventilation rates from naturally ventilated livestock buildings. Air inlets and outlets were identified using the air temperature or tracer concentration in the opening. Tracer concentration was found to be a more suitable criterion than temperature. In both houses, a significant correlation between the estimated ventilation rate using the tracer method and the measured ventilation rate using fan wheel anemometers was found. The ventilation rate was underestimated by 12 and 6% for the piggery and broiler house, respectively. The instantaneous ammonia emission derived from the tracer gas method was lower than the ammonia emission derived from the fan wheel anemometer method by 14 and 16% for the piggery and broiler house, respectively. The ventilation and ammonia emission estimates using the tracer method were within acceptable range from the ventilation and emission rates measured using measuring fans, but because of its accuracy and simplicity the fan wheel anemometer method is preferred for long-term measurements of ventilation rate in mechanically ventilated buildings.

Demmers, T. G. M.; Burgess, L. R.; Short, J. L.; Phillips, V. R.; Clark, J. A.; Wathes, C. M.

347

Energy saving in buildings by control of ventilation as a function of indoor carbon dioxide concentration  

Microsoft Academic Search

Many mechanically ventilated and air conditioned buildings are over-ventilated since ventilation rates are usually based on a fixed number of people which is often considerably in excess of the average occupancy. Over-ventilation also occurs because no allowance can usually be made for infiltration. If ventilation rates could be modulated so as never to exceed the requirements of the actual number

B. F. Warren

1982-01-01

348

The critical airway, rescue ventilation, and the combitube: Part 1.  

PubMed

Emergency and unexpected difficult airway management can rapidly deteriorate into a critical airway event such as "cannot ventilate, cannot intubate" (CVCI). A critical airway event (i.e., inadequate mask ventilation, failed intubation, and CVCI) can be resolved by rescue ventilation, thus avoiding potential neurological disability or death. Recommended options include use of the larygeal mask airway, the esophageal-tracheal Combitube (ETC; Tyco-Healthcare-Nellcor, Pleasanton, Calif), transtracheal jet ventilation, or a surgical airway. This article reviews proper use of the ETC in combination with the self-inflating bulb (SIB) and/or portable carbon dioxide detector to resolve critical airway situations. The combined use of these 3 devices provides on ideal integrated system for airway control and ventilation. In addition, critical airway events and rescue ventilation options; ETC design, technical aspects, training, insertion, and ventilation; determining ETC location (i.e., esophagus vs trachea); and monitoring ETC lung ventilation are reviewed. The SIB primarily assesses ETC location within the esophagus or the trachea; the carbon dioxide detector also permits monitoring lung ventilation. Use of the ETC in prehospital, emergency medicine, and anesthesia settings, including ETC advantages, contraindications, and reported complications will be reviewed in Part 2. How to safely exchange the ETC for a definitive airway also will be reviewed. PMID:15098515

Rich, James M; Mason, Andrew M; Bey, Tareg A; Krafft, Peter; Frass, Michael

2004-02-01

349

A request for hospice admission from hospital to withdraw ventilation  

PubMed Central

A request to admit a hospital inpatient with motor neurone disease to the hospice generated unusual unease. Significantly, withdrawal of ventilation had already been planned. The presumption that ventilation would be withdrawn after transfer presented a dilemma. Should the hospice accept the admission? If so, should the hospice staff stop the ventilation, and then when and how? Debate centred on the continuity of best interests and the logistics of withdrawing ventilation. The factors making the request contentious identified competing interests within hospice admission decision making that could detrimentally impact on patient care. PMID:15994355

Gannon, C

2005-01-01

350

Position paper -- Tank ventilation system design air flow rates  

SciTech Connect

The purpose of this paper is to document a project position on required ventilation system design air flow rates for the waste storage tanks currently being designed by project W-236A, the Multi-Function Waste Tank Facility (MWTF). The Title 1 design primary tank heat removal system consists of two systems: a primary tank vapor space ventilation system; and an annulus ventilation system. At the conclusion of Title 1 design, air flow rates for the primary and annulus ventilation systems were 960 scfm and 4,400 scfm, respectively, per tank. These design flow rates were capable of removing 1,250,000 Btu/hr from each tank. However, recently completed and ongoing studies have resulted in a design change to reduce the extreme case heat load to 700,000 Btu/hr. This revision of the extreme case heat load, coupled with results of scale model evaporative testing performed by WHC Thermal Hydraulics, allow for a reduction of the design air flow rates for both primary and annulus ventilation systems. Based on the preceding discussion, ICF Kaiser Hanford Co. concludes that the design should incorporate the following design air flow rates: Primary ventilation system--500 scfm maximum and Annulus ventilation system--1,100 scfm maximum. In addition, the minimum air flow rates in the primary and annulus ventilation systems will be investigated during Title 2 design. The results of the Title 2 investigation will determine the range of available temperature control using variable air flows to both ventilation systems.

Goolsby, G.K.

1995-01-04

351

LBNL REPORT NUMBER 53776; OCTOBER 2003 ASHRAE &Residential Ventilation  

E-print Network

.......................................................................................................3 Historical Perspective .......................................................................................3 A More Modern Perspective suggest that residential ventilation ought to have a large emphasis in ASHRAE. Viewed in a historical

352

Ventilation-perfusion matching during exercise  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

In normal subjects, exercise widens the alveolar-arterial PO2 difference (P[A-a]O2) despite a more uniform topographic distribution of ventilation-perfusion (VA/Q) ratios. While part of the increase in P(A-a)O2 (especially during heavy exercise) is due to diffusion limitation, a considerable amount is caused by an increase in VA/Q mismatch as detected by the multiple inert gas elimination technique. Why this occurs is unknown, but circumstantial evidence suggests it may be related to interstitial pulmonary edema rather than to factors dependent on ventilation, airway gas mixing, airway muscle tone, or pulmonary vascular tone. In patients with lung disease, the gas exchange consequences of exercise are variable. Thus, arterial PO2 may increase, remain the same, or fall. In general, patients with advanced chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) or interstitial fibrosis who exercise show a fall in PO2. This is usually not due to worsening VA/Q relationships but mostly to the well-known fall in mixed venous PO2, which itself results from a relatively smaller increase in cardiac output than VO2. However, in interstitial fibrosis (but not COPD), there is good evidence that a part of the fall in PO2 on exercise is caused by alveolar-capillary diffusion limitation of O2 transport; in COPD (but not interstitial fibrosis), a frequent additional contributing factor to the hypoxemia of exercise is an inadequate ventilatory response, such that minute ventilation does not rise as much as does CO2 production or O2 uptake, causing arterial PCO2 to increase and PO2 to fall.

Wagner, P. D.

1992-01-01

353

Protective Ventilation of Preterm Lambs Exposed to Acute Chorioamnionitis Does Not Reduce Ventilation-Induced Lung or Brain Injury  

PubMed Central

Background The onset of mechanical ventilation is a critical time for the initiation of cerebral white matter (WM) injury in preterm neonates, particularly if they are inadvertently exposed to high tidal volumes (VT) in the delivery room. Protective ventilation strategies at birth reduce ventilation-induced lung and brain inflammation and injury, however its efficacy in a compromised newborn is not known. Chorioamnionitis is a common antecedent of preterm birth, and increases the risk and severity of WM injury. We investigated the effects of high VT ventilation, after chorioamnionitis, on preterm lung and WM inflammation and injury, and whether a protective ventilation strategy could mitigate the response. Methods Pregnant ewes (n?=?18) received intra-amniotic lipopolysaccharide (LPS) 2 days before delivery, instrumentation and ventilation at 127±1 days gestation. Lambs were either immediately euthanased and used as unventilated controls (LPSUVC; n?=?6), or were ventilated using an injurious high VT strategy (LPSINJ; n?=?5) or a protective ventilation strategy (LPSPROT; n?=?7) for a total of 90 min. Mean arterial pressure, heart rate and cerebral haemodynamics and oxygenation were measured continuously. Lungs and brains underwent molecular and histological assessment of inflammation and injury. Results LPSINJ lambs had poorer oxygenation than LPSPROT lambs. Ventilation requirements and cardiopulmonary and systemic haemodynamics were not different between ventilation strategies. Compared to unventilated lambs, LPSINJ and LPSPROT lambs had increases in pro-inflammatory cytokine expression within the lungs and brain, and increased astrogliosis (p<0.02) and cell death (p<0.05) in the WM, which were equivalent in magnitude between groups. Conclusions Ventilation after acute chorioamnionitis, irrespective of strategy used, increases haemodynamic instability and lung and cerebral inflammation and injury. Mechanical ventilation is a potential contributor to WM injury in infants exposed to chorioamnionitis. PMID:25379714

Barton, Samantha K.; Moss, Timothy J. M.; Hooper, Stuart B.; Crossley, Kelly J.; Gill, Andrew W.; Kluckow, Martin; Zahra, Valerie; Wong, Flora Y.; Pichler, Gerhard; Galinsky, Robert; Miller, Suzanne L.

2014-01-01

354

Technical Review Report for the Mound 1KW Package Safety Analysis Report for Packaging Waiver for the Use of Modified Primary Containment Vessel (PCV)  

SciTech Connect

This Technical Review Report (TRR) documents the review, performed by the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) staff, at the request of the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), on the Waiver for the Use of Modified Primary Containment Vessels (PCV). The waiver is to be used to support a limited number of shipments of fuel for the Multi-Mission Radioisotope Thermoelectric Generator (MMRTG) Project in support of the National Aeronautics and Space Administration's (NASA's) Mars Science Laboratory (MSL) mission. Under the waiver, an inventory of existing national security PCVs will be converted to standard PCVs. Both types of PCVs are currently approved for use by the Office of Nuclear Energy. LLNL has previously reviewed the national security PCVs under Mound 1KW Package Safety Analysis Report for Packaging, Addendum No. 1, Revision c, dated June 2007 (Addendum 1). The safety analysis of the package is documented in the Safety Analysis Report for Packaging (SARP) for the Mound 1KW Package (i.e., the Mound 1KW SARP, or the SARP) where the standard PCVs have been reviewed by LLNL. The Mound 1KW Package is certified by DOE Certificate of Compliance (CoC) number USA/9516/B(U)F-85 for the transportation of Type B quantities of plutonium heat source material. The waiver requests an exemption, claiming safety equivalent to the requirements specified in 10 CFR 71.12, Specific Exemptions, and will lead to a letter amendment to the CoC. Under the waiver, the Office of Radioisotope Power Systems, NE-34, is seeking an exemption from 10 CFR 71.19(d)(1), Previously Approved Package,[5] which states: '(d) NRC will approve modifications to the design and authorized contents of a Type B package, or a fissile material package, previously approved by NRC, provided--(1) The modifications of a Type B package are not significant with respect to the design, operating characteristics, or safe performance of the containment system, when the package is subjected to the tests specified in {section}71.71 and 71.73.' The LLNL staff had previously reviewed a request from Idaho National Laboratory (INL) to reconfigure national security PCVs to standard PCVs. With a nominal 50% reduction in both the height and the volume, the LLNL staff initially deemed the modifications to be significant, which would not be allowed under the provisions of 10 CFR 71.19(d)(1)--see above. As a follow-up, the DOE requested additional clarification from the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC). The NRC concluded that the reconfiguration would be a new fabrication, and that an exemption to the regulations would be required to allow its use, as per the requirements specified in 10 CFR 71.19(c)(1), Previously Approved Package: '(c) A Type B(U) package, a Type B(M) package, or a fissile material package previously approved by the NRC with the designation '-85' in the identification number of the NRC CoC, may be used under the general license of {section}71.17 with the following additional conditions: (1) Fabrication of the package must be satisfactorily completed by December 31, 2006, as demonstrated by application of its model number in accordance with 71.85(c).' Although the preferred approach toward the resolution of this issue would be for the applicant to submit an updated SARP, the applicant has stated that the process of updating the Model Mound 1KW Package SARP is a work that is in progress, but that the updated SARP is not yet ready for submittal. The applicant has to provide a submittal, proving that the package meets the '-96' requirements of International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) Safety Standards Series No. TS-R-1, in order to fabricate approved packagings after December 31, 2006. The applicant has further stated that all other packaging features, as described in the currently approved Model Mound 1KW Package SARP, remain unchanged. This report documents the LLNL review of the waiver request. The specific review for each SARP Chapter is documented.

West, M; Hafner, R

2008-05-05

355

Comparison of Conventional Ventilation and Demand Control Ventilation on Energy Usage and Quality of Air  

Microsoft Academic Search

Indoor air quality (IAQ)1 is a significant factor in student performance. The general guideline of regulating the IAQ is to draw outside air at the rate of 15 cubic feet per minute for each occupant. For many schools the conventional method is to engineer for the worst case scenario and operate the ventilation system at that rate. This method does

Charles Velasquez

356

Lightweight ventilated facade prototype: acoustic performance evaluation when the ventilation surface of  

E-print Network

to acoustics has not been considered in building projects to date. The question that orients this contribution with an intermediate ventilated air cavity is added to a conventional façade, the acoustic insulation of the resulting to determine its potential contribution to the acoustic insulation of existing facades. We designed and built

Boyer, Edmond

357

We compared the efficacy of positive pressure ventilation (PPV) vs negative pressure ventilation (NPV) in providing  

E-print Network

. Furthermore, it is now well documented that NPV may cause upper airway obstruction with apnea and oxygen, positive pressure ventilation (PPV) pre vents upper airway obstruction during assisted venti lation and can obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). All participants underwent measurement of trans diaphragmatic pressure

Shadmehr, Reza

358

C-106 tank process ventilation test  

SciTech Connect

Project W-320 Acceptance Test Report for tank 241-C-106, 296-C-006 Ventilation System Acceptance Test Procedure (ATP) HNF-SD-W320-012, C-106 Tank Process Ventilation Test, was an in depth test of the 296-C-006 ventilation system and ventilation support systems required to perform the sluicing of tank C-106. Systems involved included electrical, instrumentation, chiller and HVAC. Tests began at component level, moved to loop level, up to system level and finally to an integrated systems level test. One criteria was to perform the test with the least amount of risk from a radioactive contamination potential stand point. To accomplish this a temporary configuration was designed that would simulate operation of the systems, without being connected directly to the waste tank air space. This was done by blanking off ducting to the tank and connecting temporary ducting and an inlet air filter and housing to the recirculation system. This configuration would eventually become the possible cause of exceptions. During the performance of the test, there were points where the equipment did not function per the directions listed in the ATP. These events fell into several different categories. The first and easiest problems were field configurations that did not match the design documentation. This was corrected by modifying the field configuration to meet design documentation and reperforming the applicable sections of the ATP. A second type of problem encountered was associated with equipment which did not operate correctly, at which point an exception was written against the ATP, to be resolved later. A third type of problem was with equipment that actually operated correctly but the directions in the ATP were in error. These were corrected by generating an Engineering Change Notice (ECN) against the ATP. The ATP with corrected directions was then re-performed. A fourth type of problem was where the directions in the ATP were as the equipment should operate, but the design of the equipment was not correct for that type of operation. To correct this problem an ECN was generated against the design documents, the equipment modified accordingly, and the ATP re-performed. The last type of problem was where the equipment operated per the direct ions in the ATP, agreed with the design documents, yet violated requirements of the Basis of Interim Operation (BIO). In this instance a Non Conformance Report (NCR) was generated. To correct problems documented on an NCR, an ECN was generated to modify the design and field work performed, followed by retesting to verify modifications corrected noted deficiencies. To expedite the completion of testing and maintain project schedules, testing was performed concurrent with construct on, calibrations and the performance of other ATP`s.

Bailey, J.W.

1998-07-20

359

PUREX exhaust ventilation system installation test report  

SciTech Connect

This Acceptance Test Report validates the testing performed, the exceptions logged and resolved and certifies this portion of the SAMCONS has met all design and test criteria to perform as an operational system. The proper installation of the PUREX exhaust ventilation system components and wiring was systematically evaluated by performance of this procedure. Proper operation of PUREX exhaust fan inlet, outlet, and vortex damper actuators and limit switches were verified, using special test equipment, to be correct and installed wiring connections were verified by operation of this equipment.

Blackaby, W.B.

1997-10-07

360

Overall and minority-focused recruitment strategies in the PREMIER multicenter trial of lifestyle interventions for blood pressure control.  

PubMed

Recruitment strategies employed by four clinical centers across the US and a coordinating center were examined to identify successful overall and minority-focused recruitment strategies for the PREMIER multicenter trial of lifestyle changes for blood pressure control. The goal was to recruit 800 adults (40% African Americans) with systolic blood pressure of 120-159 mm Hg and diastolic of 80-95 mm Hg, not taking antihypertensive medication. Clinical centers used combinations of mass distribution of brochures, mass media, email distribution lists, screening events, and a national website. Culturally appropriate strategies for African Americans were designed by a Minority Implementation (MI) committee. Diversity training was provided for study staff, and African Americans were included in the study design process. Main recruitment outcomes were number overall and number of African Americans recruited by each strategy. Of the 810 randomized PREMIER participants, 279 (34%) were African American with site-specific percentages of 56%, 46%, 27%, and 8%. Of African Americans recruited, 151 (54%) were from mass distribution of brochures (mailed letter, flyer included in Val-Pak coupons, or other), 66 (24%) from mass media (printed article, radio, TV story or ads, 52 (19%) from word of mouth, and 10 (3%) from email/website and screening events combined. Yields for Non-Hispanic Whites were 364 (69%) from brochures, 71 (13%) from mass media, 49 (9%) from word of mouth and 47 (9%) from email/website and screening events. Mass distribution of brochures was relatively more effective with Non-Hispanic Whites, while African Americans responded relatively better to other recruitment strategies. PMID:19879377

Kennedy, Betty M; Kumanyika, Shiriki; Ard, Jamy D; Reams, Patrice; Johnson, Cheryl A; Karanja, Njeri; Charleston, Jeanne B; Appel, Lawrence J; Maurice, Vallerie; Harsha, David W

2010-01-01

361

Acinetobacter baumannii nosocomial pneumonia: is the outcome more favorable in non-ventilated than ventilated patients?  

PubMed Central

Background Acinetobacter baumannii hospital-acquired pneumonia (HAP) is associated with a high mortality worldwide. Non-ventilated patients with HAP (NVHAP) caused by nosocomial pathogens are reported to have a more favorable outcome than those with ventilator-associated pneumonia (VAP). The current study was designed to determine whether bacteremic patients with A. baumannii NVHAP also have a lower mortality than those receiving assisted ventilation. Methods This retrospective 10-year study was conducted at a 2900-bed teaching hospital located in Northern Taiwan. The population consisted of 144 patients with A. baumannii bacteremia and HAP. Of these 96 had VAP and 48 had NVHAP. Charts were reviewed for demographic characteristics, comorbidities, clinical manifestations, antimicrobial susceptibility, and 14-day mortality. Clonal relationships were determined by molecular typing. Results There were no significant differences between the two groups in comorbidities (Charlson scores). Patients with NVHAP were more likely to have developed bacteremia earlier, outside the ICU and undergone fewer invasive procedures. They had significantly lower APACHE II scores, fewer bilateral pneumonias and lower rates of antimicrobial resistance. No specific clones were identified in either group. The unadjusted (crude) 14-day mortality rates were not significantly different between the groups (NVHAP 43.8% vs. VAP 31.3%, p = 0.196). The adjusted 14-day mortality risk was significantly lower in ventilator-assisted patients (odds ratio = 0.201; 95% confidence interval = 0.075-0.538; p = 0.001). Conclusions Patients with bacteremic NVHAP and VAP caused by A. baumannii had similar crude mortality rates, but on logistic regression analysis those receiving ventilator assistance had a significantly lower mortality. This may have been due to better airway protection, more intensive monitoring with earlier diagnosis and treatment in patients with VAP, greater innate susceptibility to infection in those with NVHAP and differences in the virulence of A. baumannii. PMID:23509931

2013-01-01

362

LBNL-XXXXX | Logue et al., Evaluation of an Incremental Ventilation Energy Model for Estimating Impacts of Air Sealing and Mechanical Ventilation  

E-print Network

Impacts of Air Sealing and Mechanical Ventilation 1 Evaluation of an Incremental Ventilation EnergyLBNL-XXXXX | Logue et al., Evaluation of an Incremental Ventilation Energy Model for Estimating Model for Estimating Impacts of Air Sealing and Mechanical Ventilation Jennifer M. Logue, William J. N

363

30 CFR 18.28 - Devices for pressure relief, ventilation, or drainage.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...for pressure relief, ventilation, or drainage. 18.28 Section 18.28 Mineral...for pressure relief, ventilation, or drainage. (a) Devices for installation...for pressure relief, ventilation, or drainage shall be constructed of materials...

2011-07-01

364

30 CFR 18.28 - Devices for pressure relief, ventilation, or drainage.  

...for pressure relief, ventilation, or drainage. 18.28 Section 18.28 Mineral...for pressure relief, ventilation, or drainage. (a) Devices for installation...for pressure relief, ventilation, or drainage shall be constructed of materials...

2014-07-01

365

30 CFR 18.28 - Devices for pressure relief, ventilation, or drainage.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...for pressure relief, ventilation, or drainage. 18.28 Section 18.28 Mineral...for pressure relief, ventilation, or drainage. (a) Devices for installation...for pressure relief, ventilation, or drainage shall be constructed of materials...

2010-07-01

366

30 CFR 18.28 - Devices for pressure relief, ventilation, or drainage.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...for pressure relief, ventilation, or drainage. 18.28 Section 18.28 Mineral...for pressure relief, ventilation, or drainage. (a) Devices for installation...for pressure relief, ventilation, or drainage shall be constructed of materials...

2013-07-01

367

30 CFR 18.28 - Devices for pressure relief, ventilation, or drainage.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...for pressure relief, ventilation, or drainage. 18.28 Section 18.28 Mineral...for pressure relief, ventilation, or drainage. (a) Devices for installation...for pressure relief, ventilation, or drainage shall be constructed of materials...

2012-07-01

368

46 CFR 153.314 - Ventilation of spaces not usually occupied.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

... 2010-10-01 false Ventilation of spaces not usually occupied. 153.314 Section...MATERIALS Design and Equipment Cargo Handling Space Ventilation § 153.314 Ventilation of spaces not usually occupied. (a) Each...

2010-10-01

369

46 CFR 153.314 - Ventilation of spaces not usually occupied.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

... 2013-10-01 false Ventilation of spaces not usually occupied. 153.314 Section...MATERIALS Design and Equipment Cargo Handling Space Ventilation § 153.314 Ventilation of spaces not usually occupied. (a) Each...

2013-10-01

370

46 CFR 153.314 - Ventilation of spaces not usually occupied.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

... 2012-10-01 false Ventilation of spaces not usually occupied. 153.314 Section...MATERIALS Design and Equipment Cargo Handling Space Ventilation § 153.314 Ventilation of spaces not usually occupied. (a) Each...

2012-10-01

371

46 CFR 153.314 - Ventilation of spaces not usually occupied.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

... 2011-10-01 false Ventilation of spaces not usually occupied. 153.314 Section...MATERIALS Design and Equipment Cargo Handling Space Ventilation § 153.314 Ventilation of spaces not usually occupied. (a) Each...

2011-10-01

372

Inhaled antibiotics in mechanically ventilated patients.  

PubMed

During the last decade, inhaled antibiotics, especially colistin, has been widely used worldwide as a therapeutic option, supplementary to conventional intravenous antibiotics, for the treatment of multidrug-resistant (MDR) Gram-negative nosocomial and ventilator-associated pneumonia (VAP). Antimicrobial aerosols are commonly used in mechanically ventilated patients with VAP, although information regarding their efficacy and optimal technique of administration has been limited. Recent studies showed that the administration of inhaled antibiotics in addition to systemic antibiotics provided encouraging results associated with low toxicity for the management of VAP mainly due to MDR Gram negative bacteria. Although the theory behind aerosolized administration of antibiotics seems to be sound, there are limited data available to support the routine use of this modality since very few randomized controlled trials (RCTs) have still examined the efficacy of this approach in patients with VAP. Additionally, this route of antibiotic delivery has not been approved until now neither by the FDA nor by the European Medicines Agency (EMEA) in patients with VAP. However, since the problem of VAP due to MDR bacteria has been increased worldwide RCTs are urgently needed in order to prove the safety, efficiency and efficacy of inhaled antimicrobial agents administered alone or in conjunction with parenteral antibiotics for the management of VAP in critically ill patients. Indeed, more data are needed to establish the appropriate role of inhaled antibiotics for the treatment of VAP. PMID:24107830

Michalopoulos, A S; Falagas, M E

2014-02-01

373

Active noise attenuation in ventilation windows.  

PubMed

The feasibility of applying active noise control techniques to attenuate low frequency noise transmission through a natural ventilation window into a room is investigated analytically and experimentally. The window system is constructed by staggering the opening sashes of a spaced double glazing window to allow ventilation and natural light. An analytical model based on the modal expansion method is developed to calculate the low frequency sound field inside the window and the room and to be used in the active noise control simulations. The effectiveness of the proposed analytical model is validated by using the finite element method. The performance of the active control system for a window with different source and receiver configurations are compared, and it is found that the numerical and experimental results are in good agreement and the best result is achieved when the secondary sources are placed in the center at the bottom of the staggered window. The extra attenuation at the observation points in the optimized window system is almost equivalent to the noise reduction at the error sensor and the frequency range of effective control is up to 390 Hz in the case of a single channel active noise control system. PMID:21786888

Huang, Huahua; Qiu, Xiaojun; Kang, Jian

2011-07-01

374

Flow above natural and ventilated cavities  

SciTech Connect

This paper presents an experimental study of velocities and turbulent fluctuations, around two-dimensional vapor cavities in water. A Laser-Doppler Velocimeter was used above and in the wake of natural or ventilated cavities, attached to a ridge of the water tunnel. On the first half of the cavity, the boundary layer developing before the cavity, is convected above the interface and diffused. On the second half and in the wake, a large velocity defect and high level of fluctuations, created by the cavity itself, are observed. The effect of velocity and cavity length are investigated, whereas the suppression of mass transfer (ventilated cavity) only influence the results in the wake. The cavity deduced from an image processing technique show that the lowest measurement points are located in a two-phase flow medium, so that streamlines deduced from the velocities are not representative of the mass flow rate distribution. Further measurements are expected to give the mass flow rate towards the cavity.

Merle, L. [Institute National Polytechnique de Grenoble, St. Martin d`Heres (France). Centre de Recherches et d`Essais de Machines Hydrauliques de Grenoble; Delannoy, Y. [Societe Europeenne de Propulsion, Vernon (France)

1994-12-31

375

Optimizing Communication in Mechanically Ventilated Patients  

PubMed Central

Purpose To describe the types of talking tracheostomy tubes available, present four case studies of critically ill patients who used a specialized tracheostomy tube to improve speech, discuss their advantages and disadvantages, propose patient selection criteria, and provide practical recommendations for medical care providers. Methods Retrospective chart review of patients who underwent tracheostomy in 2010. Results Of the 220 patients who received a tracheostomy in 2010, 164 (74.55%) received a percutaneous tracheostomy and 56 (25.45%) received an open tracheostomy. Among the percutaneous tracheostomy patients, speech-language pathologists were consulted on 113 patients, 74 of whom were on a ventilator. Four of these 74 patients received a talking tracheostomy tube, and all four were able to speak successfully while on the mechanical ventilator even though they were unable to tolerate cuff deflation. Conclusions Talking tracheostomy tubes allow patients who are unable to tolerate-cuff deflation to achieve phonation. Our experience with talking tracheostomy tubes suggests that clinicians should consider their use for patients who cannot tolerate cuff deflation.

Pandian, Vinciya; Smith, Christine P.; Cole, Therese Kling; Bhatti, Nasir I.; Mirski, Marek A.; Yarmus, Lonny B.; Feller-Kopman, David J.

2014-01-01

376

[CO2 laser tympanostomy without ventilation tubes].  

PubMed

A new tympanostomy procedure, by CO2 laser and without ventilation tubes, which is known as tympanolaserostomy or laser-assisted tympanostomy (LAT), was compared with traditional tympanostomy with tubes. Since 1990, we have operated on 168 ears using a CO2 laser fitted with an adapter to an operative microscope. Multiple low-power impacts (0.8-1.0 W in 0.1 s) focused on a minimal spot (0. 18 mm) were preferred. This intervention did not require anesthesia and produced circular orifices 2.0 to 2.5 mm in diameter that closed in 30-40 days. Compared with 168 ears operated by tympanostomy with tubes, laser tympanostomy produced similar rates of auditive recovery by one month and only 15% of recurrence by 6 months. Recurrences were treated with laser or with tubes if prolonged ventilation was planned. After 1 to 4 years, does not require anesthesia, tubes, or hospitalization, it reduces risk and complications, and consequently decreases costs. PMID:10217682

Coma i Aragón, J; Rodríguez Adrados, F

1999-03-01

377

Teaching alveolar ventilation with simple, inexpensive models  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

When teaching and learning about alveolar ventilation with our class of 300 first-year medical students, we use four simple, inexpensive "models." The models, which encourage research-oriented learning and help our students to understand complex ideas, are distributed to the students before class. The students anticipate something new every day, and the models provide elements of surprise and physical examples and are designed to help students to understand 1) cohesive forces of the intrapleural space, 2) chest wall and lung dynamics, 3) alveolar volumes, and 4) regional differences in ventilation. Students are drawn into discussion by the power of learning that is associated with manipulating and thinking about objects. Specifically, the models encourage thinking about complex interactions, and the students appreciate manipulating objects and actually understanding how they work. Using models also allows us to show students how we think as well as what we know. Finally, students enjoy taking the models home to demonstrate to friends and family "how the body works" as well as use the models as future study aids.

PhD Stephen M. DiCarlo (Wayne State Univ Sch Med Dept of Physiology)

2008-08-07

378

Prolonged mechanical ventilation: review of care settings and an update on professional reimbursement.  

PubMed

The goal of this article is to provide an update on recent changes to current procedural terminology codes used for billing physician services for mechanical ventilation in chronic care facilities. In addition to billing information, background data relevant to prolonged mechanical ventilation are reviewed. Topics covered include a description of the settings in which patients receive prolonged mechanical ventilation; home mechanical ventilation; the role of physician extenders; documentation of ventilator services; and reporting and coding ventilator management. PMID:18252920

White, Alexander C; O'Connor, Heidi H; Kirby, Kelly

2008-02-01

379

Classroom HVAC: Improving ventilation and saving energy -- field study plan  

Microsoft Academic Search

The primary goals of this research effort are to develop, evaluate, and demonstrate a very practical HVAC system for classrooms that consistently provides classrooms (CRs) with the quantity of ventilation in current minimum standards, while saving energy, and reducing HVAC-related noise levels. This research is motivated by the public benefits of energy efficiency, evidence that many CRs are under-ventilated, and

Michael G. Apte; David Faulkner; Alfred T. Hodgson; Douglas P. Sullivan

2004-01-01

380

Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis Patients' Perspectives on Use of Mechanical Ventilation.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Interviewed 13 amyotrophic lateral sclerosis patients. All believed that they alone should make decision regarding use of mechanical ventilation. Factors they considered important were quality of life, severity of disability, availability of ventilation by means of nasal mask, possible admission to long-term care facility, ability to discontinue…

Young, Jenny M.; And Others

1994-01-01

381

RESEARCH ARTICLE Open Access Noninvasive ventilation reduces energy  

E-print Network

RESEARCH ARTICLE Open Access Noninvasive ventilation reduces energy expenditure in amyotrophic,2,3 and Jesus Gonzalez-Bermejo1,2,3* Abstract Background: Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) leads to chronic the corresponding reduction in energy expenditure. Keywords: Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, Noninvasive ventilation

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

382

Should Title 24 Ventilation Requirements Be Amended to  

E-print Network

Should Title 24 Ventilation Requirements Be Amended to include an Indoor Air Quality Procedure Ventilation Requirements Be Amended to include an Indoor Air Quality Procedure? William J. Fisk, Spencer M) that specifies minimum VRs that vary among occupancy classes, and a performance-based indoor air quality

383

STATE OF CALIFORNIA INDOOR AIR QUALITY AND MECHANICAL VENTILATION  

E-print Network

STATE OF CALIFORNIA INDOOR AIR QUALITY AND MECHANICAL VENTILATION CEC- CF-6R-MECH-05 (Revised 08/09) CALIFORNIA ENERGY COMMISSION INSTALLATION CERTIFICATE CF-6R-MECH-05 Indoor Air Quality and Mechanical August 2009 Ventilation for Indoor Air Quality (IAQ): All dwelling units shall meet the requirements

384

Waste tank ventilation rates measured with a tracer gas method  

Microsoft Academic Search

Passive ventilation with the atmosphere is used to prevent accumulation of waste gases and vapors in the headspaces of 132 of the 177 high-level radioactive waste Tanks at the Hanford Site in Southeastern Washington State. Measurements of the passive ventilation rates are needed for the resolution of two key safety issues associated with the rates of flammable gas production and

J. L. Huckaby; J. C. Evans; D. S. Sklarew; A. V. Mitroshkov

1998-01-01

385

Numerical Stimulation of Radiant Floor Heating with Displacement Ventilation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Radiant floor heating has received the increasing attention due to the wide advantages, especially the energy saving as compared to the conventional air-conditioning system. This study presents a numerical investigation of radiant floor heating with the displacement ventilation in the room. The air isotherms and flow patterns with and without displacement ventilation, as well as the heat fluxes along the

Liu Xianglong; Gong Guangcai

2010-01-01

386

13. NEW YORK SIDE, HUDSON RIVER VENTILATION BUILDING ACROSS HUDSON ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

13. NEW YORK SIDE, HUDSON RIVER VENTILATION BUILDING ACROSS HUDSON RIVER IN BACKGROUND, WITH SOUTH WALL OF NEW JERSEY SIDE OF VENTILATION BUILDING IN FOREGROUND - Holland Tunnel, Beneath Hudson River between New York & Jersey City, New York, New York County, NY

387

Ventilating and heating apparatus and heat-sensitive unit  

Microsoft Academic Search

The invention relates to a ventilating and heating apparatus for rooms of particularly high headrooms. It comprises one or more air-heating units and one or more room heating units. A feature of the apparatus is that the room is equipped with ventilating openings directed to the sojourn space of the room, injecting in summer and drawing in winter as well

Makara

1984-01-01

388

Energy Efficiency for Heating, Ventilating, Air-Conditioning Instructors.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Intended primarily but not solely for use at the postsecondary level, this curriculum guide contains five units on energy efficiency that were designed to be incorporated into an existing program in heating, ventilating, and air-conditioning. The following topics are examined: how energy conservation pays, heating, ventilation, air-conditioning,…

Scharmann, Larry, Ed.; Lay, Gary, Ed.

389

Analysis of mine ventilation networks using nonlinear programming techniques  

Microsoft Academic Search

Solving ventilation networks of natural air splitting is a classical problem in mine ventilation. A common approach to this problem is to formulate it based on Kirchhoff's voltage and current laws and obtain the solution by an iterative technique known as the Hardy Cross method. In this paper, it is shown that the problem can be formulated and analysed as

T. H. Ueng; Y. J. Wang

1984-01-01

390

Chest physiotherapy for the prevention of ventilator-associated pneumonia  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective. Pneumonia is an important complication in patients who are intubated and mechanically ventilated, when it is commonly referred to as ventilator-associated pneumonia (VAP). Since VAP may be contributed to by impaired sputum clearance, we studied whether chest physiotherapy designed to enhance sputum clearance decreases the occurrence of VAP. Design. Prospective controlled systematic allocation trial. Setting. Tertiary teaching hospital ICU.

G. Ntoumenopoulos; J. J. Presneill; M. McElholum; J. F. Cade

2002-01-01

391

Lung Development and Susceptibility to Ventilator-induced Lung Injury  

Microsoft Academic Search

Rationale: Ventilator-induced lung injury has been predominantly studied in adults. Objectives: To explore the effects of age and lung development on susceptibility to such injury. Methods: Ex vivo iso- lated nonperfused rat lungs (infant, juvenile, and adult) were me- chanically ventilated where VT was based on milliliters per kilogram of body weight or as a percentage of the measured total

Alik Kornecki; Shinya Tsuchida; Hari Kumar Ondiveeran; Doreen Engelberts; Helena Frndova; A. Keith Tanswell; Martin Post; Colin McKerlie; Jaques Belik; Alison Fox-Robichaud; Brian P. Kavanagh

2005-01-01

392

Ventilation and circulation during exercise in Octopus vulgaris  

Microsoft Academic Search

Ventilation frequency, volume, oxygen uptake, and oxygen transport by the blood have been studied in unrestrained octopus,Octopus vulgaris before, during and after recovery from 20 min of enforced activity. Exercise increased oxygen consumption 2.8 fold. The percentage utilisation of oxygen from the branchial water is maintained or increased at around 35% during activity and the calculated ventilation volume increases by

D. F. Houlihan; G. Duthie; P. J. Smith; M. J. Wells; J. Wells

1986-01-01

393

46 CFR 190.15-10 - Ventilation for closed spaces.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

... 190.15-10 Section 190.15-10 Shipping COAST GUARD...ARRANGEMENT Ventilation § 190.15-10 Ventilation for closed spaces...from outside these spaces, in case of fire. (c) See §§ 194.15-5 and 194.20-5 of this...

2013-10-01

394

46 CFR 190.15-10 - Ventilation for closed spaces.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

... 190.15-10 Section 190.15-10 Shipping COAST GUARD...ARRANGEMENT Ventilation § 190.15-10 Ventilation for closed spaces...from outside these spaces, in case of fire. (c) See §§ 194.15-5 and 194.20-5 of this...

2011-10-01

395

46 CFR 190.15-10 - Ventilation for closed spaces.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

... 190.15-10 Section 190.15-10 Shipping COAST GUARD...ARRANGEMENT Ventilation § 190.15-10 Ventilation for closed spaces...from outside these spaces, in case of fire. (c) See §§ 194.15-5 and 194.20-5 of this...

2010-10-01

396

46 CFR 190.15-10 - Ventilation for closed spaces.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

... 190.15-10 Section 190.15-10 Shipping COAST GUARD...ARRANGEMENT Ventilation § 190.15-10 Ventilation for closed spaces...from outside these spaces, in case of fire. (c) See §§ 194.15-5 and 194.20-5 of this...

2012-10-01

397

Automatic verification of wireless control in a mining ventilation system  

Microsoft Academic Search

We address a wireless networked control problem for a mine ventilation system. Ventilation control is essential for the control of the operation of a mine for safety and energy optimization. The main control objective is to guarantee safety of the closed loop system. This test-case is simple enough to be computationally tractable, and yet it exposes the main difficulties encountered

Maria D. Di Benedetto; Alessandro D'Innocenzo; Emmanuele Serra; Emmanuel Witrant

2008-01-01

398

Positive-Pressure Ventilation Equipment for Mass Casualty Respiratory Failure  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the event of an influenza pandemic, patients with severe acute respiratory failure (ARF) due to in- fluenza will require positive-pressure ventilation (PPV) in order to survive. In countries with widely available critical care services, PPV is delivered almost exclusively through use of full-feature me- chanical ventilators in intensive care units (ICUs) or specialized hospital wards. But the supply of

Lewis Rubinson; Richard D. Branson; Nicki Pesik; Daniel Talmor

2006-01-01

399

Ventilation Control Strategy Using the Supply CO2 Concentration Setpoint  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper proposes a new ventilation control strategy applied to multiple spaces subject to variable occupancy. The strategy specified for real-time, online ventilation control takes advantage of uninitiated air from some overventilated spaces to be used as fresh outdoor air in order to reduce system energy use while maintaining the indoor air quality (IAQ) in each space. This proposed strategy

Nabil Nassif; Stanislaw Kajl; Robert Sabourin

2005-01-01

400

Ventilation to control the smoke from a fireproof structure  

Microsoft Academic Search

Tests were performed to measure the ventilation parameters, under practical circumstances, required to prevent smoke from a fire within an enclosure (ventilated to the mine return) from reversing through the intake air opening and contaminating the intake air course. The tests were made in a structure simulating an underground fireproof enclosure formed between two masonry stoppings in a crosscut between

J. D. Hadden; R. L. Smith; S. J. Luzik; E. C. Seiler

1977-01-01

401

Ventilator Associated Pneumonia in Critically Ill Patients: Prevention and Treatment  

Microsoft Academic Search

Ventilator associated pneumonia (VAP) represents a major threat to the recovery of patients receiving mechanical ventilation, and is a difficult diagnostic and therapeutic challenge for critical care physicians. VAP occurs in 5-25% of all patients with different varieties of respiratory failure, and its incidence exceeds 70% in patients who die of adult respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS). The microaspiration of bacteria

Argyris MICHALOPOULOS; Stefanos GEROULANOS

402

Quantitative relationship of sick building syndrome symptoms with ventilation rates  

SciTech Connect

Data from published studies were combined and analyzed to develop best-fit equations and curves quantifying the change in sick building syndrome (SBS) symptom prevalence in office workers with ventilation rate. For each study, slopes were calculated, representing the fractional change in SBS symptom prevalence per unit change in ventilation rate per person. Values of ventilation rate, associated with each value of slope, were also calculated. Linear regression equations were fitted to the resulting data points, after weighting by study size. Integration of the slope-ventilation rate equations yielded curves of relative SBS symptom prevalence versus ventilation rate. Based on these analyses, as the ventilation rate drops from 10 to 5 L/s-person, relative SBS symptom prevalence increases approximately 23percent (12percent to 32percent), and as ventilation rate increases from 10 to 25 L/s-person, relative prevalence decreases approximately 29percent (15percent to 42percent). Variations in SBS symptom types, building features, and outdoor air quality may cause the relationship ofSBS symptom prevalence with ventilation rate in specific situations to differ from the average relationship predicted in this paper.

Fisk, William J.; Mirer, Anna G.; Mendell, Mark J.

2009-01-01

403

Commissioning Residential Ventilation Systems: A Combined Assessment of  

E-print Network

to assess the impact on occupant health and building energy use of malfunctioning whole-house ventilationCommissioning Residential Ventilation Systems: A Combined Assessment of Energy and Air Quality systems. Energy and IAQ impacts were quantified and then compared by using the Time Dependent Valuation

404

Pulmonary deposition of a nebulised aerosol during mechanical ventilation  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: There is increasing use of therapeutic aerosols in patients undergoing mechanical ventilation. Few studies have measured aerosol delivery to the lungs under these conditions with adequate experimental methods. Hence this study was performed to measure pulmonary aerosol deposition and to determine the reproducibility of the method of measurement during mechanical ventilation. METHODS: Nine male patients were studied during mechanical

S H Thomas; M J ODoherty; H M Fidler; C J Page; D F Treacher; T O Nunan

1993-01-01

405

NATURAL BASEMENT VENTILATION AS A RADON MITIGATION TECHNIQUE  

EPA Science Inventory

The report documents a study of natural basement ventilation in two research houses during both the summer cooling season and the winter heating season. NOTE: Natural basement ventilation has always been recommended as a way to reduce radon levels in houses. However, its efficacy...

406

The Ventilator-Assisted Child: A Practical Resource Guide.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The 16 chapters comprising this manual are intended to provide a practical guide for meeting the needs of ventilator-assisted children. Chapters have the following titles and authors: (1)"Spectrum of Care" (Virginia Simson Nelson and Lynn E. Driver); (2) "Long-Term Airway Management for the Ventilator-Assisted Child" (Ann Marie Ramsey and…

Driver, Lynn E.; Nelson, Virginia Simson; Warschausky, Seth A.

407

Does Mixing Make Residential Ventilation More Effective? Max Sherman, Iain Walker  

E-print Network

Does Mixing Make Residential Ventilation More Effective? Max Sherman, Iain Walker Environmental Effective? Max Sherman and Iain Walker, Lawrence Berkeley Lab ABSTRACT Ventilation dilutes or removes indoor

408

Clinical review: Independent lung ventilation in critical care  

PubMed Central

Independent lung ventilation (ILV) can be classified into anatomical and physiological lung separation. It requires either endobronchial blockade or double-lumen endotracheal tube intubation. Endobronchial blockade or selective double-lumen tube ventilation may necessitate temporary one lung ventilation. Anatomical lung separation isolates a diseased lung from contaminating the non-diseased lung. Physiological lung separation ventilates each lung as an independent unit. There are some clear indications for ILV as a primary intervention and as a rescue ventilator strategy in both anatomical and physiological lung separation. Potential pitfalls are related to establishing and maintaining lung isolation. Nevertheless, ILV can be used in the intensive care setting safely with a good understanding of its limitations and potential complications. PMID:16356244

Anantham, Devanand; Jagadesan, Raghuram; Tiew, Philip Eng Cher

2005-01-01

409

Ventilation Systems Operating Experience Review for Fusion Applications  

SciTech Connect

This report is a collection and review of system operation and failure experiences for air ventilation systems in nuclear facilities. These experiences are applicable for magnetic and inertial fusion facilities since air ventilation systems are support systems that can be considered generic to nuclear facilities. The report contains descriptions of ventilation system components, operating experiences with these systems, component failure rates, and component repair times. Since ventilation systems have a role in mitigating accident releases in nuclear facilities, these data are useful in safety analysis and risk assessment of public safety. An effort has also been given to identifying any safety issues with personnel operating or maintaining ventilation systems. Finally, the recommended failure data were compared to an independent data set to determine the accuracy of individual values. This comparison is useful for the International Energy Agency task on fusion component failure rate data collection.

L. C. Cadwallader

1999-12-01

410

Assessment of heart rate as a predictor of ventilation.  

PubMed

The rate of ventilation and route of breathing (i.e., nasal versus oronasal) are potential determinants of pollutant doses to target sites in the lung. However, the lack of accurate methods for ambulatory measurement of ventilation has hindered estimation of exposure and dose in freely ranging individuals, complicating the interpretation of the relationships among exposure, dose, and response in epidemiological studies. The goal of this project was to develop and validate a method of monitoring ventilation for large-scale epidemiologic investigations. We estimated ventilation for individual subjects from ambulatory heart rate monitoring, using the relationship between ventilation and heart rate that had been obtained during exercise testing. Fifty-eight subjects participated in the study, which included healthy adults and children, and subjects with lung and heart disease. Subjects performed cycle exercise and tasks involving lifting and vacuuming. Work loads of progressive and variable order were used in the testing. Conventional methods were used to measure heart rate and total ventilation, and a sampling mask was developed to measure the partitioning of breathing between oral and nasal routes. The minute ventilation-heart rate relation was evaluated under steady-state and varying work loads. In a second phase, subjects wore wristwatch monitors that recorded their heart rates, minute by minute, throughout the day. Subjects recorded activities, locations, and levels of exertion. Two 16-hour monitoring periods were obtained from each subject. The laboratory findings documented considerable intersubject variability in the minute ventilation-heart rate relation with a two- to five-fold range in the coefficients describing the change in ventilation relative to heart rate. This variation implies that individual testing is required to derive accurate predictive equations. Minute ventilation-heart rate regressions for the maximal progressive exercise test and for the test with a nonprogressive submaximal work load sequence were comparable, indicating that varying the sequence of work loads does not substantially affect the minute ventilation-to-heart rate ratio. During upper body work (e.g., lifting), the minute ventilation-to-heart rate ratio was one-third greater than during lower body exercise. Diverse patterns of partitioning breathing between oral and nasal routes were observed with increasing oral ventilation in most subjects as work load increased. In the field, heart rate and activity patterns were monitored successfully in adults and children with low rates of instrument failure and noncompliance.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 400 WORDS) PMID:8216970

Samet, J M; Lambert, W E; James, D S; Mermier, C M; Chick, T W

1993-05-01

411

Automatic sleep staging from ventilator signals in non-invasive ventilation.  

PubMed

Non-invasive ventilation (NIV), a recognized treatment for chronic hypercapnic respiratory failure, is predominantly applied at night. Nevertheless, the quality of sleep is rarely evaluated due to the required technological complexity. A new technique for automatic sleep staging is here proposed for patients treated by NIV. This new technique only requires signals (airflow and hemoglobin oxygen saturation) available in domiciliary ventilators plus a photo-plethysmogram, a signal already managed by some ventilators. Consequently, electroencephalogram, electrooculogram, electromyogram, and electrocardiogram recordings are not needed. Cardiorespiratory features are extracted from the three selected signals and used as input to a Support Vector Machine (SVM) multi-class classifier. Two different types of sleep scoring were investigated: the first type was used to distinguish three stages (wake, REM sleep and nonREM sleep), and the second type was used to evaluate five stages (wake, REM sleep, N1, N2 and N3 stages). Patient-dependent and patient-independent classifiers were tested comparing the resulting hypnograms with those obtained from visual/manual scoring by a sleep specialist. An average accuracy of 91% (84%) was obtained with three-stage (five-stage) patient-dependent classifiers. With patient-independent classifiers, an average accuracy of 78% (62%) was obtained when three (five) sleep stages were scored. Also if the PPG-based and flow features are left out, a reduction of 4.5% (resp. 5%) in accuracy is observed for the three-stage (resp. five-stage) cases. Our results suggest that long-term sleep evaluation and nocturnal monitoring at home is feasible in patients treated by NIV. Our technique could even be integrated into ventilators. PMID:23746724

Sady, Cristina C R; Freitas, Ubiratan S; Portmann, Adriana; Muir, Jean-François; Letellier, Christophe; Aguirre, Luis A

2013-08-01

412

Growth of semi-insulating GaAs crystals in low temperature gradients by using the Vapour Pressure Controlled Czochralski Method (VCz)  

Microsoft Academic Search

The present paper gives a review on fundamentals, modelling, growth, structural and electrical properties of semi-insulating GaAs single crystals, grown in low temperature gradients by the Vapour Pressure Controlled Czochralski Method (VCz), with diameters from 75 up to 150 mm. Special attention is drawn to the investigation of the temperature-fields inside the growing crystals (and thus thermoelastic stress). Additionally, the

M. Neubert; P. Rudolph

2001-01-01

413

Fire protection countermeasures for containment ventilation systems  

SciTech Connect

The goal of this project is to find countermeasures to protect High Efficiency Particulate Air (HEPA) filters, in exit ventilation ducts, from the heat and smoke generated by fire. Initially, methods were developed to cool fire-heated air by fine water spray upstream of the filters. It was recognized that smoke aerosol exposure to HEPA filters could also cause disruption of the containment system. Through testing and analysis, several methods to partially mitigate the smoke exposure to the HEPA filters were identified. A continuous, movable, high-efficiency prefilter using modified commercial equipment was designed. The technique is capable of protecting HEPA filters over the total time duration of the test fires. The reason for success involved the modification of the prefiltration media. Commercially available filter media has particle sorption efficiency that is inversely proportional to media strength. To achieve properties of both efficiency and strength, rolling filter media were laminated with the desired properties. The approach was Edisonian, but truncation in short order to a combination of prefilters was effective. The application of this technique was qualified, since it is of use only to protect HEPA filters from fire-generated smoke aerosols. It is not believed that this technique is cost effective in the total spectrum of containment systems, especially if standard fire protection systems are available in the space. But in areas of high-fire risk, where the potential fuel load is large and ignition sources are plentiful, the complication of a rolling prefilter in exit ventilation ducts to protect HEPA filters from smoke aerosols is definitely justified.

Alvares, N.; Beason, D.; Bergman, V.; Creighton, J.; Ford, H.; Lipska, A.

1980-08-25

414

Fire protection countermeasures for containment ventilation systems  

SciTech Connect

The goal of this project is to find countermeasures to protect HEPA filters in exit ventilation ducts from the heat and smoke generated by fire. Several methods for partially mitigating the smoke exposure to the HEPA filters were identified through testing and analysis. These independently involve controlling the fuel, controlling the fire, and intercepting the smoke aerosol prior to its sorption on the HEPA filter. Exit duct treatment of aerosols is not unusual in industrial applications and involves the use of scrubbers, prefilters, and inertial impaction, depending on the size, distribution, and concentration of the subject aerosol. However, when these unmodified techniques were applied to smoke aerosols from fires on materials, common to experimental laboratories of LLNL, it was found they offered minimal protection to the HEPA filters. Ultimately, a continuous, movable, high-efficiency prefilter using modified commercial equipment was designed. This technique is capable of protecting HEPA filters over the total duration of the test fires. The reason for success involved the modificaton of the prefiltration media. Commercially available filter media has a particle sorption efficiency that is inversely proportional to media strength. To achieve properties of both efficiency and strength, we laminated rolling filter media with the desired properties. It is not true that the use of rolling prefilters solely to protect HEPA filters from fire-generated smoke aerosols is cost effective in every type of containment system, especially if standard fire-protection systems are available in the space. But in areas of high fire risk, where the potential fuel load is large and ignition sources are plentiful, the complication of a rolling prefilter in exit ventilation ducts to protect HEPA filters from smoke aerosols is definitely justified.

Alvares, N.J.; Beason, D.G.; Bergman, W.; Ford, H.W.; Lipska, A.E.

1980-01-01

415

Modeling study of ventilation, IAQ and energy impacts of residential mechanical ventilation  

SciTech Connect

This paper reports on a simulation study of indoor air quality, ventilation and energy impacts of several mechanical ventilation approaches in a single-family residential building. The study focused on a fictitious two-story house in Spokane, Washington and employed the multizone airflow and contaminant dispersal model CONTAM. The model of the house included a number of factors related to airflow including exhaust fan and forced-air system operation, duct leakage and weather effects, as well as factors related to contaminant dispersal including adsorption/desorption of water vapor and volatile organic compounds, surface losses of particles and nitrogen dioxide, outdoor contaminant concentrations, and occupant activities. The contaminants studied include carbon monoxide, carbon dioxide, nitrogen dioxide, water vapor, fine and coarse particles, and volatile organic compounds. One-year simulations were performed for four different ventilation approaches: a base case of envelope infiltration only, passive inlet vents in combination with exhaust fan operation, an outdoor intake duct connected to the forced-air system return balanced by exhaust fan operation, and a continuously-operated exhaust fan. Results discussed include whole building air change rates, air distribution within the house, heating and cooling loads, contaminants concentrations, and occupant exposure to contaminants.

Persily, A.K.

1998-05-01

416

Characterizing workers participating in a worksite wellness health screening program using blood pressure control, self-monitoring, medication adherence, depression, and exercise.  

PubMed

Blood pressure control remains a serious public health issue because hypertension is the most common risk factor for cardiovascular disease. Effective management of hypertension often requires lifestyle modification and medication adherence. The objective of this study was to identify the prevalence of blood pressure control, medication adherence, self-monitoring of blood pressure, depression, and exercise among workers with access to health resources. Faculty and staff (N = 484) from a university and health care institution in the southeastern United States participated in biometric and questionnaire screening. The researchers used initial screening data from this worksite wellness program to describe baseline blood pressure control (< 140/90 mm Hg), self-monitoring of blood pressure, medication adherence, depression, and exercise. Overall, 63% of the workers' blood pressure was controlled; however, 23% of the sample had been prescribed antihypertensive medication to control their blood pressure. Thirty percent of the sample reported practicing blood pressure self-monitoring, 72.2% reported that they exercised, and 22% reported feeling down and depressed. More than half (64.9%) who used prescribed antihypertensive medication reported adherence to these medications. PMID:25000548

Breaux-Shropshire, Tonya Lynn; Whitt, Lauren; Griffin, Russell L; Shropshire, Angele Trenese; Calhoun, David A

2014-07-01

417

Optimization of Occupancy Based Demand Controlled Ventilation in Residences  

SciTech Connect

Although it has been used for many years in commercial buildings, the application of demand controlled ventilation in residences is limited. In this study we used occupant exposure to pollutants integrated over time (referred to as 'dose') as the metric to evaluate the effectiveness and air quality implications of demand controlled ventilation in residences. We looked at air quality for two situations. The first is that typically used in ventilation standards: the exposure over a long term. The second is to look at peak exposures that are associated with time variations in ventilation rates and pollutant generation. The pollutant generation had two components: a background rate associated with the building materials and furnishings and a second component related to occupants. The demand controlled ventilation system operated at a low airflow rate when the residence was unoccupied and at a high airflow rate when occupied. We used analytical solutions to the continuity equation to determine the ventilation effectiveness and the long-term chronic dose and peak acute exposure for a representative range of occupancy periods, pollutant generation rates and airflow rates. The results of the study showed that we can optimize the demand controlled airflow rates to reduce the quantity of air used for ventilation without introducing problematic acute conditions.

Mortensen, Dorthe K.; Walker, Iain S.; Sherman, Max H.

2011-05-01

418

Characterization of natural ventilation in wastewater collection systems.  

PubMed

The purpose of the study was to characterize natural ventilation in full-scale gravity collection system components while measuring other parameters related to ventilation. Experiments were completed at four different locations in the wastewater collection systems of Los Angeles County Sanitation Districts, Los Angeles, California, and the King County Wastewater Treatment District, Seattle, Washington. The subject components were concrete gravity pipes ranging in diameter from 0.8 to 2.4 m (33 to 96 in.). Air velocity was measured in each pipe using a carbon-monoxide pulse tracer method. Air velocity was measured entering or exiting the components at vents using a standpipe and hotwire anemometer arrangement. Ambient wind speed, temperature, and relative humidity; headspace temperature and relative humidity; and wastewater flow and temperature were measured. The field experiments resulted in a large database of measured ventilation and related parameters characterizing ventilation in full-scale gravity sewers. Measured ventilation rates ranged from 23 to 840 L/s. The experimental data was used to evaluate existing ventilation models. Three models that were based upon empirical extrapolation, computational fluid dynamics, and thermodynamics, respectively, were evaluated based on predictive accuracy compared to the measured data. Strengths and weaknesses in each model were found and these observations were used to propose a concept for an improved ventilation model. PMID:21466074

Ward, Matthew; Corsi, Richard; Morton, Robert; Knapp, Tom; Apgar, Dirk; Quigley, Chris; Easter, Chris; Witherspoon, Jay; Pramanik, Amit; Parker, Wayne

2011-03-01

419

Aerosol therapy in patients receiving noninvasive positive pressure ventilation.  

PubMed

In selected patients, noninvasive positive pressure ventilation (NIPPV) with a facemask is now commonly employed as the first choice for providing mechanical ventilation in the intensive care unit (ICU). Aerosol therapy for treatment of acute or acute-on-chronic respiratory failure in this setting may be delivered by pressurized metered-dose inhaler (pMDI) with a chamber spacer and facemask or nebulizer and facemask. This article reviews the host of factors influencing aerosol delivery with these devices during NIPPV. These factors include (1) the type of ventilator, (2) mode of ventilation, (3) circuit conditions, (4) type of interface, (5) type of aerosol generator, (6) drug-related factors, (7) breathing parameters, and (8) patient-related factors. Despite the impediments to efficient aerosol delivery because of continuous gas flow, high inspiratory flow rates, air leaks, circuit humidity, and patient-ventilator asynchrony, significant therapeutic effects are achieved after inhaled bronchodilator administration to patients with asthma and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. Similarly to invasive mechanical ventilation, careful attention to the technique of drug administration is required to optimize therapeutic effects of inhaled therapies during NIPPV. Assessment of the patient's ability to tolerate a facemask, the level of respiratory distress, hemodynamic status, and synchronization of aerosol generation with inspiratory airflow are important factors contributing to the success of aerosol delivery during NIPPV. Further research into novel delivery methods, such as the use of NIPPV with nasal cannulae, could enhance the efficiency, ease of use, and reproducibility of inhalation therapy during noninvasive ventilation. PMID:22191396

Dhand, Rajiv

2012-04-01

420

Formaldehyde as a basis for residential ventilation rates  

SciTech Connect

Traditionally, houses in the U.S. have been ventilated by passive infiltration in combination with active window opening. However in recent years, the construction quality of residential building envelopes has been improved to reduce infiltration, and the use of windows for ventilation also may have decreased due to a number of factors. Thus, there has been increased interest in engineered ventilation systems for residences. The amount of ventilation provided by an engineered system should be set to protect occupants from unhealthy or objectionable exposures to indoor pollutants, while minimizing energy costs for conditioning incoming air. Determining the correct ventilation rate is a complex task, as there are numerous pollutants of potential concern, each having poorly characterized emission rates, and poorly defined acceptable levels of exposure. One ubiquitous pollutant in residences is formaldehyde. The sources of formaldehyde in new houses are reasonably understood, and there is a large body of literature on human health effects. This report examines the use of formaldehyde as a means of determining ventilation rates and uses existing data on emission rates of formaldehyde in new houses to derive recommended levels. Based on current, widely accepted concentration guidelines for formaldehyde, the minimum and guideline ventilation rates for most new houses are 0.28 and 0.5 air changes per hour, respectively.

Sherman, M.H.; Hodgson, A.T.

2002-04-28

421

Recent innovations in total liquid ventilation system and component design.  

PubMed

In addition to partial liquid ventilation (PLV), total liquid ventilation (TLV) is being explored as a potential therapy to mitigate ventilator-associated lung injury and acute lung failure. TLV is ventilation of the completely liquid-filled lung using tidal flow of oxygenated perfluorochemical (PFC) liquid delivered by a "liquid ventilator." Most TLV research to date has focused on "small" lung (animals < 20 kg; vast majority < 5 kg), with primary relevance to its use in children. Recent investigations regarding TLV in larger lungs have helped define new design challenges for liquid ventilator systems to succeed as clinical products. Adult TLV requires the delivery of significantly higher liquid tidal volumes, with proportionately greater O2 and CO2 exchange. Although a simple scale-up of liquid ventilator components such as pumps, tubing, fittings, and gas and heat exchangers might be considered the most straightforward way to compensate for the increased demand, there are a number of practical problems with this approach. These include requirements to: 1) minimize priming volume, 2) minimize PFC evaporative loss, 3) suppress flow-induced cavitation in fittings and components, 4) monitor and control ventilation based on pressure signals exhibiting noise, 5) maintain ability and accuracy of delivered breaths in a fluid mechanical environment having higher inertial forces and pressure losses than for small lung systems, 6) use disposable or sterilizable fluid-contacting components, and 7) maintain PFC materials compatibility. TLV system and component innovations implemented on a new large-animal liquid ventilator prototype are presented. The advantages of new pumps, gas exchangers, and temperature-control components are discussed. PMID:10360218

Sekins, K M; Nugent, L; Mazzoni, M; Flanagan, C; Neer, L; Rozenberg, A; Hoffman, J

1999-01-01

422

Mobile Health Medication Adherence and Blood Pressure Control in Renal Transplant Recipients: A Proof-of-Concept Randomized Controlled Trial  

PubMed Central

Background Mobile phone based programs for kidney transplant recipients are promising tools for improving long-term graft outcomes and better managing comorbidities (eg, hypertension, diabetes). These tools provide an easy to use self-management framework allowing optimal medication adherence that is guided by the patients’ physiological data. This technology is also relatively inexpensive, has an intuitive interface, and provides the capability for real-time personalized feedback to help motivate patient self-efficacy. Automated summary reports of patients’ adherence and blood pressure can easily be uploaded to providers’ networks helping reduce clinical inertia by reducing regimen alteration time. Objective The aim of this study was to assess the feasibility, acceptability, and preliminary outcomes of a prototype mobile health (mHealth) medication and blood pressure (BP) self-management system for kidney transplant patients with uncontrolled hypertension. Methods A smartphone enabled medication adherence and BP self-management system was developed using a patient and provider centered design. The development framework utilized self-determination theory with iterative stages that were guided and refined based on patient/provider feedback. A 3-month proof-of-concept randomized controlled trial was conducted in 20 hypertensive kidney transplant patients identified as non-adherent to their current medication regimen based on a month long screening using an electronic medication tray. Participants randomized to the mHealth intervention had the reminder functions of their electronic medication tray enabled and received a bluetooth capable BP monitor and a smartphone that received and transmitted encrypted physiological data and delivered reminders to measure BP using text messaging. Controls received standard of care and their adherence continued to be monitored with the medication tray reminders turned off. Providers received weekly summary reports of patient medication adherence and BP readings. Results Participation and retention rates were 41/55 (75%) and 31/34 (91%), respectively. The prototype system appears to be safe, highly acceptable, and useful to patients and providers. Compared to the standard care control group (SC), the mHealth intervention group exhibited significant improvements in medication adherence and significant reductions in clinic-measured systolic blood pressures across the monthly evaluations. Physicians made more anti-hypertensive medication adjustments in the mHealth group versus the standard care group (7 adjustments in 5 patients versus 3 adjustments in 3 patients) during the 3-month trial based on the information provided in the weekly reports. Conclusions These data support the acceptability and feasibility of the prototype mHealth system. Further trials with larger sample sizes and additional biomarkers (eg, whole blood medication levels) are needed to examine efficacy and effectiveness of the system for improving medication adherence and blood pressure control after kidney transplantation over longer time periods. Trial Registration Clinicaltrials.gov NCT01859273; http://clinicaltrials.gov/ct2/show/NCT01859273 (Archived by WebCite at http://www.webcitation.org/6IqfCa3A3). PMID:24004517

Gregoski, Mathew J; Weiland, Anna K; Rock, Rebecca A; Brunner-Jackson, Brenda M; Patel, Sachin K; Thomas, Beje S; Taber, David J; Chavin, Kenneth D; Baliga, Prabhakar K; Treiber, Frank A

2013-01-01

423

High frequency jet ventilation in experimental pulmonary emphysema  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effects of high frequency jet ventilation (HFJV, f=2 Hz and 8 Hz, I:E=0.43, FiO2=0.4) were studied and compared with intermittent positive pressure ventilation (IPPV, f=10–14 breaths\\/min, VT=15 ml\\/kg, I:E=0.5, FiO2=0.4) in 8 dogs before and after induction of panlobular emphysema (PLE). PLE increased alveolar-arterial PO2 difference (PA-aO2) during all modes of ventilation, whereas PaCO2 did not change significantly. In

J. Meyer; Th. Hachenberg; G. Lippert; Th. Möllhoff; M. Wendt

1991-01-01

424

Krypton-81m ventilation scanning: acute respiratory disease  

SciTech Connect

From experience with 700 patients undergoing ventilation and perfusion lung scanning with krypton-81m/technetium-99m technique, 34 patients suffering from nonembolic acute respiratory disease were selected for review. In 16 patients with pneumonia, all had defects of ventilation corresponding to, or larger than, the radiologic consolidation. In 13 patients there was some preservation of perfusion in the consolidated region. In two of the three patients with matched defects, the pneumonia was of long standing. In seven patients with collapse or atelectasis and in 11 patients with acute reversible bronchial obstruction and normal volume lungs, a similar pattern or ventillation and perfusion was observed.

Lavender, J.P. (Royal Postgraduate Medical School, London, England); Irving, H.; Armstrong, J.D. II

1981-02-01

425

Simulated Performance of Natural and Hybrid Ventilation Systems in an Office Building  

Microsoft Academic Search

Past research on natural ventilation has revealed that the application of pure natural ventilation systems may be limited in the United States by issues such as climate suitability, humidity control, and reliability. However, hybrid (or mixed-mode) ventilation systems offer the possibility of attaining energy savings in a greater number of buildings and climates through the combination of natural ventilation systems

Steven J. Emmerich

2006-01-01

426

International randomised controlled trial of patient triggered ventilation in neonatal respiratory distress syndrome  

Microsoft Academic Search

AIMTo compare the effects of patient triggered ventilation (PTV) with conventional ventilation (IMV) in preterm infants ventilated for respiratory distress syndrome (RDS).METHODSNine hundred and twenty four babies from 22 neonatal intensive care units were assessed. They were under 32 weeks of gestation and had been ventilated for respiratory distress syndrome (RDS) for less than 6 hours within 72 hours of

J H Baumer

2000-01-01

427

Effect of inclined roof on the airflow associated with a wind driven turbine ventilator  

Microsoft Academic Search

Rotating wind driven turbine ventilator has been used as cost-effective environmental friendly natural ventilation device. Rotating wind driven turbine ventilator type of device is usually installed on the rooftop to extract air extract air flow from a building to improve air quality and comfort. Performance investigations carried thus far on turbine ventilator have ignored the effect of the inclination on

Shao Ting J. Lien; Noor A. Ahmed

2011-01-01

428

46 CFR 190.15-15 - Ventilation for living spaces and quarters.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Ventilation for living spaces and quarters. 190.15-15 Section...Ventilation § 190.15-15 Ventilation for living spaces and quarters. (a) All living spaces shall be adequately ventilated in...

2010-10-01

429

Ventilator modes and settings during non-invasive ventilation: effects on respiratory events and implications for their identification.  

PubMed

Compared with invasive ventilation, non-invasive ventilation (NIV) has two unique characteristics: the non-hermetic nature of the system and the fact that the ventilator-lung assembly cannot be considered as a single-compartment model because of the presence of variable resistance represented by the upper airway. When NIV is initiated, the ventilator settings are determined empirically based on a clinical evaluation and diurnal blood gas variations. However, NIV is predominantly applied during sleep. Consequently, to assess overnight patient-machine 'agreement' and efficacy of ventilation, more specific and sophisticated monitoring is needed. The effectiveness of NIV might therefore be more correctly assessed by sleep studies than by daytime assessment. The most available and simple monitoring can be done from flow and pressure curves from the mask or the ventilator circuit. Examination of these tracings can give useful information to evaluate if the settings chosen by the operator were the right ones for that patient. However, as NIV allows a large range of ventilatory parameters and settings, it is mandatory to have information about this to better understand patient-ventilator interaction. Ventilatory modality, mode of triggering, pressurisation slope, use or not of positive end expiratory pressure and type of exhalation as well as ventilator performances may all have physiological consequences. Leaks and upper airway resistance variations may, in turn, modify these patterns. This article discusses the equipment available for NIV, analyses the effect of different ventilator modes and settings and of exhalation and connecting circuits on ventilatory traces and gives the background necessary to understand their impact on nocturnal monitoring of NIV. PMID:20947891

Rabec, Claudio; Rodenstein, Daniel; Leger, Patrick; Rouault, Sylvie; Perrin, Christophe; Gonzalez-Bermejo, Jésus

2011-02-01

430

Preconditioning Outside Air: Cooling Loads from Building Ventilation  

E-print Network

conditions using the extreme humidity ratios/dew points presented in the ASHRAE Handbook of Fundamentals Chapter 26 "Climatic Design Information". This paper presents an annual index called the Ventilation Load Index (VLI), recently developed by the Gas...

Kosar, D.

1998-01-01

431

SUBSURFACE VOLATIZATION AND VENTILATION SYSTEM (SVVS) - INNOVATIVE TECHNOLOGY REPORT  

EPA Science Inventory

This report summarizes the findings associated with a Demonstration Test of Environmental Improvement Technologies? (EIT) Subsurface Volatilization and Ventilation System (SVVS) process. The technology was evaluated under the EPA Superfund Innovative Technology Evaluation (SITE) ...

432

Natural ventilation possibilities for buildings in the United States  

E-print Network

In the United States, many of the commercial buildings built in the last few decades are completely mechanically air conditioned, without the capability to use natural ventilation. This habit has occurred in building designs ...

Dean, Brian N. (Brian Nathan), 1974-

2001-01-01

433

14. NEW YORK SIDE, HUDSON RIVER VENTILATION BUILDING, SECOND FLOOR, ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

14. NEW YORK SIDE, HUDSON RIVER VENTILATION BUILDING, SECOND FLOOR, NEW MOTOR IN FOREGROUND AND OLDER MOTOR AND BLOWER IN BACKGROUND - Holland Tunnel, Beneath Hudson River between New York & Jersey City, New York, New York County, NY

434

7. UNIT VENTILATOR, DETAIL OF MOTOR AND FANS. Hot ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

7. UNIT VENTILATOR, DETAIL OF MOTOR AND FANS. - Hot Springs National Park, Bathhouse Row, Ozark Bathhouse: Mechanical & Piping Systems, State Highway 7, 1 mile north of U.S. Highway 70, Hot Springs, Garland County, AR

435

4. VENTILATION FAN SHOWING RELATIVE POSITION IN THE AIR TUNNEL. ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

4. VENTILATION FAN SHOWING RELATIVE POSITION IN THE AIR TUNNEL. - Hot Springs National Park, Bathhouse Row, Ozark Bathhouse: Mechanical & Piping Systems, State Highway 7, 1 mile north of U.S. Highway 70, Hot Springs, Garland County, AR

436

6. UNIT VENTILATOR, WOMEN'S COOLING ROOM. Hot Springs National ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

6. UNIT VENTILATOR, WOMEN'S COOLING ROOM. - Hot Springs National Park, Bathhouse Row, Ozark Bathhouse: Mechanical & Piping Systems, State Highway 7, 1 mile north of U.S. Highway 70, Hot Springs, Garland County, AR

437

Key Factors in Displacement Ventilation Systems for Better IAQ  

E-print Network

This paper sets up a mathematical model of three-dimensional steady turbulence heat transfer in an air-conditioned room of multi-polluting heat sources. Numerical simulation helps identify key factors in displacement ventilation systems that affect...

Wang, X.; Chen, J.; Li, Y.; Wang, Z.

2006-01-01

438

46 CFR 111.33-9 - Ventilation exhaust.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...ENGINEERING ELECTRIC SYSTEMS-GENERAL REQUIREMENTS Power Semiconductor Rectifier Systems § 111.33-9 Ventilation exhaust. The exhaust of each forced-air semiconductor rectifier system must: (a) Terminate in a location...

2012-10-01

439

46 CFR 111.33-9 - Ventilation exhaust.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...ENGINEERING ELECTRIC SYSTEMS-GENERAL REQUIREMENTS Power Semiconductor Rectifier Systems § 111.33-9 Ventilation exhaust. The exhaust of each forced-air semiconductor rectifier system must: (a) Terminate in a location...

2013-10-01

440

30 CFR 75.372 - Mine ventilation map.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...Resources 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Mine ventilation map. 75.372 Section 75.372 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR COAL MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH MANDATORY SAFETY...

2011-07-01

441

30 CFR 75.372 - Mine ventilation map.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...Resources 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Mine ventilation map. 75.372 Section 75.372 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR COAL MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH MANDATORY SAFETY...

2012-07-01

442

30 CFR 75.372 - Mine ventilation map.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Mine ventilation map. 75.372 Section 75.372 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR COAL MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH MANDATORY SAFETY...

2010-07-01

443

30 CFR 75.372 - Mine ventilation map.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...Resources 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Mine ventilation map. 75.372 Section 75.372 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR COAL MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH MANDATORY SAFETY...

2013-07-01

444

1. SCAFFOLD, LEPLEY VENTILATOR, AND AEROVANE FAN (LEFT TO RIGHT) ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

1. SCAFFOLD, LEPLEY VENTILATOR, AND AEROVANE FAN (LEFT TO RIGHT) FROM EAST. AEROVANE FAN HOOD AT REAR OF AEROVANE FAN. - Consolidation Coal Company Mine No. 11, East side of State Route 936, Midlothian, Allegany County, MD

445

Detail of heating coil for Machine Shop (Bldg. 163) ventilation ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

Detail of heating coil for Machine Shop (Bldg. 163) ventilation system Note portion of fan visible behind coil - Atchison, Topeka, Santa Fe Railroad, Albuquerque Shops, Machine Shop, 908 Second Street, Southwest, Albuquerque, Bernalillo County, NM

446

30 CFR 75.350 - Belt air course ventilation.  

...not be used to provide air to working sections...removed. (1) The belt air course must be separated with permanent ventilation controls from return air courses and from other...entry when the belt air flows over the loading...

2014-07-01

447

Simulations for Mechanical Ventilation in Children: Review and Future Prospects  

PubMed Central

Mechanical ventilation is a very effective therapy, but with many complications. Simulators are used in many fields, including medicine, to enhance safety issues. In the intensive care unit, they are used for teaching cardiorespiratory physiology and ventilation, for testing ventilator performance, for forecasting the effect of ventilatory support, and to determine optimal ventilatory management. They are also used in research and development of clinical decision support systems (CDSSs) and explicit computerized protocols in closed loop. For all those reasons, cardiorespiratory simulators are one of the tools that help to decrease mechanical ventilation duration and complications. This paper describes the different types of simulators described in the literature for physiologic simulation and modeling of the respiratory system, including a new simulator (SimulResp), and proposes a validation process for these simulators. PMID:23533735

Flechelles, Olivier; Ho, Annie; Hernert, Patrice; Emeriaud, Guillaume; Zaglam, Nesrine; Cheriet, Farida; Jouvet, Philippe A.

2013-01-01

448

Analysis of Energy Recovery Ventilator Savings for Texas Buildings  

E-print Network

This analysis was conducted to identify the energy cost savings from retrofitting Texas buildings with air-to-air ERV (Energy Recovery Ventilator) systems. This analysis applied ERV and psychrometric equations in a bin-type procedure to determine...

Christman, K. D.; Haberl, J. S.; Claridge, D. E.

449

PASSIVE VENTILATION DETAIL (CORRESPONDS WITH METAL GRATE IN CENTER OF ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

PASSIVE VENTILATION DETAIL (CORRESPONDS WITH METAL GRATE IN CENTER OF BATTERY STREET). LOOKING SOUTH AT GRATE IN SOUTHBOUND TUNNEL BORE. - Alaskan Way Viaduct and Battery Street Tunnel, Seattle, King County, WA

450

46 CFR 111.33-9 - Ventilation exhaust.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING ELECTRIC SYSTEMS-GENERAL REQUIREMENTS Power Semiconductor Rectifier Systems § 111.33-9 Ventilation...semiconductor rectifier system must: (a) Terminate...impinge upon any other electric...

2010-10-01

451

MEASUREMENT OF FRICTIONAL PRESSURE DIFFERENTIALS DURING A VENTILATION SURVEY  

SciTech Connect

During the course of a ventilation survey, both airflow quantity and frictional pressure losses are measured and quantified. The measurement of airflow has been extensively studied as the vast majority of ventilation standards/regulations are tied to airflow quantity or velocity. However, during the conduct of a ventilation survey, measurement of airflow only represents half of the necessary parameters required to directly calculate the airway resistance. The measurement of frictional pressure loss is an often misunderstood and misapplied part of the ventilation survey. This paper compares the two basic methods of frictional pressure drop measurements; the barometer and the gauge and tube. Personal experiences with each method will be detailed along with the authors' opinions regarding the applicability and conditions favoring each method.

B.S. Prosser, PE; I.M. Loomis, PE, PhD

2003-11-03

452

1. VIEW OF BUILDING 883 EXTERIOR, LOOKING SOUTHEAST. VENTILATION EQUIPMENT ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

1. VIEW OF BUILDING 883 EXTERIOR, LOOKING SOUTHEAST. VENTILATION EQUIPMENT IS VISIBLE. (11/27/56) - Rocky Flats Plant, Uranium Rolling & Forming Operations, Southeast section of plant, southeast quadrant of intersection of Central Avenue & Eighth Street, Golden, Jefferson County, CO

453

Study of airflow and thermal stratification in naturally ventilated rooms  

E-print Network

Natural ventilation (NV) can considerably contribute to reducing the cooling energy consumption of a building and increase occupant productivity, if correctly implemented. Such energy savings depend on the number of hours ...

Menchaca Brandan, María Alejandra

2012-01-01

454

Experiment on Residential Ventilation System In Actual House  

E-print Network

Traced-gas was used in the experiment in order to evaluate the ventilation effect in different conditions in actual house. The influence of interior doors which opened or closed and vents position were considered in the experiment....

Tiecheng, L.

2006-01-01

455

EARTHCOVERED REAR (SOUTH END) AND EASTERN SIDE WITH VENTILATOR REMINANT ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

EARTH-COVERED REAR (SOUTH END) AND EASTERN SIDE WITH VENTILATOR REMINANT ON TOP, VIEW FACING NORTHWEST. - Naval Air Station Barbers Point, ARMCO Hut, Hamilton Road between Moffett & Harrison Streets, Ewa, Honolulu County, HI

456

Section A, general interior view of blowers used to ventilate ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

Section A, general interior view of blowers used to ventilate garages, looking southeast from level B2. (BH) - World Trade Center Site, Bounded by Vesey, Church, Liberty Streets, & Route 9A, New York, New York County, NY

457

Section A, detail view of single garage ventilation blower, looking ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

Section A, detail view of single garage ventilation blower, looking northwest from level B2. (BH) - World Trade Center Site, Bounded by Vesey, Church, Liberty Streets, & Route 9A, New York, New York County, NY

458

30 CFR 75.350 - Belt air course ventilation.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...Effective December 31, 2009, the air velocity in the belt entry must be at least...district manager may approve lower velocities in the ventilation plan based on specific mine conditions. Air velocities must be compatible with all...

2011-07-01

459

30 CFR 75.350 - Belt air course ventilation.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...Effective December 31, 2009, the air velocity in the belt entry must be at least...district manager may approve lower velocities in the ventilation plan based on specific mine conditions. Air velocities must be compatible with all...

2012-07-01

460

30 CFR 75.350 - Belt air course ventilation.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...Effective December 31, 2009, the air velocity in the belt entry must be at least...district manager may approve lower velocities in the ventilation plan based on specific mine conditions. Air velocities must be compatible with all...

2013-07-01